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% % Holmes' commentary on Caesar's De Bello Gallico. % Preface (0). % % Contributor: Konrad Schroder <perseant@u.washington.edu> % % Original publication data: % Holmes, T. Rice. _C._Iuli_Caesaris_Comantarii_Rerum_in_ % _Gallia_Gestarum_VII_A._Hirti_Commentarius_VIII._ % Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1914. % % Version: 0.01 (Alpha), 7 April 1993 % % This file is in the Public Domain. % \input ks_macros.tex \centerline{PREFACE} T{\sc HIS} edition is intended not only for teachers and pupils, but also for general readers who may wish to become acquainted with Caesar's masterpiece and for scholars who have not time or inclination to read my larger books. The critical notes are printed along with the others at the foot of the text, where they will be more easily understood than if they were relegated to a critical appendix; and the references which they contain will enable any one who may wish to specialize to pu . . .
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% % Holmes' commentary on Caesar's De Bello Gallico. % How and When Caesar Wrote the Commentaries (preface 1). % % Contributor: Konrad Schroder <perseant@u.washington.edu> % % Original publication data: % Holmes, T. Rice. _C._Iuli_Caesaris_Comantarii_Rerum_in_ % _Gallia_Gestarum_VII_A._Hirti_Commentarius_VIII._ % Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1914. % % Version: 0.01 (Alpha), 7 April 1993 % % This file is in the Public Domain. % \input ks_macros.tex \centerline{LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS} \bigskip {\it A.~B.} = Rice Holmes's {\it Ancient Britain and the Invasions of Julius Caesar,} 1907. {\it A.~C.~S.} = A. Holder's {\it Alt-celtischer Sprachschatz.} {\it A.~J.} = {\it Archaeological Journal.} {\it B.~ph.~W.} = {\it Berliner Philologische Wochenschrift.} {\it C.~G.} = Rice Holmes's {\it Caesar's Conquest of Gaul} 2nd ed., 1911. {\it C.~I.~L.} = {\it Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum.} {\it C.~J.} = {\it Classica . . .
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% % Holmes' commentary on Caesar's De Bello Gallico. % The Text of the Commentaries (preface 2). % % Contributor: Konrad Schroder <perseant@u.washington.edu> % % Original publication data: % Holmes, T. Rice. _C._Iuli_Caesaris_Comantarii_Rerum_in_ % _Gallia_Gestarum_VII_A._Hirti_Commentarius_VIII._ % Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1914. % % Version: 0.01 (Alpha), 7 April 1993 % % This file is in the Public Domain. % \input ks_macros.tex \centerline{THE TEXT OF THE COMMENTARIES} \bigskip E{\sc VERY} one who can read the Commentaries with interest will want to know how far the manuscripts in which they have been handed down to us correspond with what Caesar wrote; for if he will think, he will see that none of them correspond with it exactly, and that although scholars have been trying ever since 1469, when the first printed edition was published, to remove the errors, many must still and always will remain. The o . . .
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% % Holmes' commentary on Caesar's De Bello Gallico. % The Credibility of Caesar's Narrative (preface 3). % % Contributor: Konrad Schroder <perseant@u.washington.edu> % % Original publication data: % Holmes, T. Rice. _C._Iuli_Caesaris_Comantarii_Rerum_in_ % _Gallia_Gestarum_VII_A._Hirti_Commentarius_VIII._ % Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1914. % % Version: 0.01 (Alpha), 7 April 1993 % % This file is in the Public Domain. % \input ks_macros.tex \centerline{THE CREDIBILITY OF CAESAR'S} \centerline{NARRATIVE} \bigskip F{\sc OR} the history of the first seven years of Caesar's conquest of Gaul our principal authority is Caesar himself. It is, indeed, impossible to grasp the full meaning of his narrative without the help of the modern scholars who have contributed so much to the task of solving the problems which the Commentaries present. It is true, moreover, that Cicero's writings illustrate certain phases of . . .
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% % Holmes' commentary on Caesar's De Bello Gallico. % The Ethnology of Gaul (preface 4). % % Contributor: Konrad Schroder <perseant@u.washington.edu> % % Original publication data: % Holmes, T. Rice. _C._Iuli_Caesaris_Comantarii_Rerum_in_ % _Gallia_Gestarum_VII_A._Hirti_Commentarius_VIII._ % Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1914. % % Version: 0.01 (Alpha), 7 April 1993 % % This file is in the Public Domain. % \input ks_macros.tex \centerline{THE ETHNOLOGY OF GAUL} \bigskip E{\sc VERYBODY} knows the three sentences with which Caesar's narrative of the Gallic war begins: Gaul, taken as a whole, is divided into three parts, one of which is inhabited by the Belgae, another by the Aquitani, and the third by a people who call themselves Celts and whom we call Gauls. These peoples differ from one another in language, institutions, and laws. The Gauls are separated from the Aquitani by the Garonne, from the Belgae by . . .
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% % Holmes' commentary on Caesar's De Bello Gallico. % Discovery of Earthworks (preface 5). % % Contributor: Konrad Schroder <perseant@u.washington.edu> % % Original publication data: % Holmes, T. Rice. _C._Iuli_Caesaris_Comantarii_Rerum_in_ % _Gallia_Gestarum_VII_A._Hirti_Commentarius_VIII._ % Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1914. % % Version: 0.01 (Alpha), 7 April 1993 % % This file is in the Public Domain. % \input ks_macros.tex \centerline{HOW SOME OF CAESAR'S CAMPS AND} \centerline{OTHER EARTHWORKS HAVE} \centerline{BEEN DISCOVERED} \bigskip T{\sc HE} late Colonel Stoffel contributed much to our knowledge of the history of the Gallic war by excavations, which he carried out on behalf of Napoleon~III. In 1899 he described to me his method in a letter which I have printed in {\it Caesar's Conquest of Gaul} (1899, pages xvi--xxx; 1911, pages xxiv--xxvii), and of part of which I here give a free translation. . . .
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% % Holmes' commentary on Caesar's De Bello Gallico. % Introduction (preface 6). % % Contributor: Konrad Schroder <perseant@u.washington.edu> % % Original publication data: % Holmes, T. Rice. _C._Iuli_Caesaris_Comantarii_Rerum_in_ % _Gallia_Gestarum_VII_A._Hirti_Commentarius_VIII._ % Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1914. % % Version: 0.01 (Alpha), 9 April 1993 % % This file is in the Public Domain. % \input ks_macros.tex \centerline{INTRODUCTION} \bigskip T{\sc HREE} centuries before the birth of Caesar, while patrician was still struggling with plebeian, while both were still contending with rival peoples for supremacy, the Gauls first encountered their destined conquerors. For a generation or more, the Celtic wanderers, whose kinsmen had already overflowed Gaul, crossed the Pyrenees, and passed into Britain and into Ireland, had been pouring, in a resistless stream, down the passes of the Alps. They spread ove . . .
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20, \S 5. tanti .~.~. co1ldonet. Caesar could not yet afford to punish Dumnori2l: (he found an opportunity of doing so four years later [v, 6-7]) for fear of offending the patriotic larty � la8mo\S n3g) thes Aedui, with whom Dumnori~ was popular (3, \S 5; 21, \S l. sub mo11te. This hill must be identified with Sanvigne, ~bout 6 miles east of the river Arroux: for, as we shall see in the note on 24, ~ 1, Caesar's ne2~t camp was hard by Toulon-sur- Arrou~; the march by which he reached it was very short, a~ we may infer from the fact that the ~elvetii, whom he followed took a fortnight or more to advance with their unwieldy wagon- train from the point where they crossed the Saone to the neighbourhood of Toulon (15, \S 5); and Sanvigne is the only hill east of the Arrou~ and within a short march of it which answel~ to the descliption in 21, \S 1 and 22, \S 3. See Stoffel's Hist. de Jules C~sa1;--Gue17e Civile, ii, 1887, p. 445. \S 2. Iegatum pro praeto1e. Labienus was not only the able . . .
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% tex2asc-version: 1.0 % % T. Rice Holmes' commentary on Caesar's De Bello Gallico. % Book I. % % Contributor: Konrad Schroder <perseant@u.washington.edu> % % Original publication data: % Holmes, T. Rice. _C._Iuli_Caesaris_Commentarii_/_ % _Rerum_in_Gallia_Gestarum_VII_/_A._Hirti_Commentarius_VIII._ % Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1914. % % Version: 0.00 (Alpha), 18 Apr 93 % % This file is in the Public Domain. % \input ks_macros.tex \greekfollows \centerline{C.~IULI CAESARIS} \centerline{DE BELLO GALLICO} \centerline{COMMENTARIUS PRIMUS} \bigskip % 1, \S 1. {\bf Gallia .~.~. divisa.} Notice the order of the words. They must not be translated by All Gaul is divided', which is not only hideous, but wrong. The meaning is `Gaul, taken as a whole, is divided'. The plural--{\it Galliae} and {\it Galliarum}--used of the several divisions of Gaul, occurs in Cicero ({\it Fam.,} viii, 5, \S 2; 9, \S 2; \&c.); and Caesar wished to make it cle . . .