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<uCHAPTER 1 BRITAIN IN 1914>u A. <uTHE BRITISH ECONOMY>u (1) <uThe Ending of Dominance>u In the first half of the nineteenth century Britain could reasonably claim to be the workshop of the world. In 1830, for instance, she produced over three-quarters of Europe's mined coal, half of Europe's cotton and iron, and most of Europe's steam engines. But such a situation could not be expected to last. The industrial revolution in Britain, which gave her such predominance, was followed by similar economic developments in France, Germany, Russia and the United States. In 1914 Britain still held more than half the world's trade in cotton goods; British shipbuilders were still producing over half the world's new tonnage; and Britain still had the largest share (31%) of world trade in manufactures (P. Thompson, <uThe Edwardians>u, p. 185). But though she produced 287 million tons of coal in 1913, more than she would ever do again, . . .