MR. ALEXANDER's SERMON, ON THE Death of General Washington.



Who departed this life, December 14, 1799, AET. 68.

(Published by desire.)

BY CALEB ALEXANDER, A. M. Pastor of the Church in Mendon.

Know ye not? that there is a prince and a great man fallen, this day, in Israel. DAVID.

Printed by SAMUEL HALL, No. 53, Cornhill, BOSTON.




THIS sermon was composed and delivered, before any official intelligence was received of the death of our ILLUSTRIOUS CHIEF. The event, however, had obtained a general credibility. This circumstance must apologize for the insertion of the extracts from Mr. Marshall's speech, the notes in the Appendix, and the imperfections of the dis­course; as a very short time was allowed for its composition.




DEATH makes no distinction between the high and the low, the rich and the poor, princes and people. Men of high character and exalted stations, in life, are as much exposed to the infirmities of human nature, and the stroke of death, as the common class of men. They are equal­ly the posterity of Adam. They are equally under, the sentence, "Dust thou art, and unto dust shalt thou return." To them it is, equally, appointed, "Once to die." In reflecting on the common mortality of man, the wise king of Israel said, "There is no man, that hath power over the spirit, to retain the spirit; neither hath he power in the day of death: And there is no dis­charge, in that war." For, in this respect, "All things come alike to all; there is one event to the righteous and to the wicked; to the good and to the clean, and to the unclean; to him, that sacrificeth and to him, that sacrificeth not; as is the good, so is the sinner; and he, that sweareth; as he, that feareth an oath."

[Page 6] In describing the common fatality of all men, and their equal exposure to 'The king of terrors,' a certain elegant poet says,

With equal foot, impartial fate
Knocks at the palace, as the cottage gate.

The same appears to be the sentiment contained in the words of our text: "I have said, ye are gods.—But ye shall die, like men; and fall, like one of the princes." Your station is exalted. You are raised to high power and authority among your fellow creatures. In point of interest, character, and influence, you are raised above the common level, and have obtained the title of gods on earth. But these high distinctions shall not exempt you from disease, pain, and death.

To the rulers, in the Jewish church, were the words of our text, first, addressed. The government of this church was theocratic. The Most High God was their particular king. He formed their mode of government. He made their laws, and ordained all their rules of discipline. In the first, distinct, forma­tion of their government, he appointed Moses and Aaron to be the chief rulers over his people, and gave directions, in what manner, their successors should be introduced into office, and invested with power over the people.

As the government of the Jews was theocratic, as God was their particular king, so all the officers chosen to govern this people, and introduced accord­ing to divine appointment, were the legal representa­tives of the Most High. They represented his per­son, majesty, and power, by requiring obedience to his commands, and by punishing disobedience with exemplary punishment. Their high power and au­thority, their exalted character and respectability they [Page 7] received, by special delegation, from God. They were his judicial and executive officers, to judge in matters of controversy between man and man, and to inflict the penalties of his kingdom. Referring, if we mistake not, to the delegated power of the of­ficers, in God's holy kingdom, Paul commands the followers of Christ, in these words: "Let every soul be subject unto the higher powers: For there is no power but of God; the powers, that be, are ordained of God." (Rom. 13. 1.) And because of this delegated power, the rulers in Israel were called gods. In the context, it is observed, "God standeth in the congregation of the mighty: He judgeth among the gods." The judges, in Is­rael, you see, were stiled gods, as being the legal re­presentatives of Jehovah, acting in his kingdom, vest­ed with his authority, and carrying into execution the laws of his house. And being God's representa­tives, they were under the most solemn obligation "To defend the poor and fatherless, to do justice to the af­flicted and needy; to deliver the poor and needy, and rid them out of the hand of the wicked."

Sustaining this high character, and being under these solemn obligations, they were amenable to God for all their conduct, in their judicial and execu­tive departments. On God they were dependent for their being, their high distinction among men, and their continuance in office. He put them into office; he had a sovereign right to continue them in office, and to remove them from office, when and in what manner, he saw fit. And, that they might not be elated with pride, he reminds them of their frailty and mortality. "I have said, ye are gods.—But ye shall die, like men; and fall, like one of the princes."

These remarks apply, in a special manner, to the rulers in God's ancient church. They were his sub­jects, [Page 8] his peculiar people, and treasure. For wise and holy purposes, he selected them from among the na­tions of the earth, gave them a code of laws, appoint­ed their rulers, gave them their charge, and invested them with all their power.

As among the Israelites, their rulers were subject to the misfortunes of life; and to the last, the solemn scene of leaving this stage of action; so it is equally the case among other nations of the world. The greatest riches, the highest office, and respectability do not exempt men from the shafts of death. As in Israel, their rulers were called gods, from their being invested with power over the people; so this charac­ter, in some measure, may be applied to the kings, princes, and great men of other nations.

In whatsoever government a man may be a ruler, a chief man, he may, in this respect, be called a god; and yet he is subject to die, like men; and fall, like one of the princes. Whether a man become a ruler, by the special appointment and delegation of God, as among the Israelites; or by hereditary succession, as in a monarchy; or by a combination of certain great men, as in an aristocracy; or by the free election of the people, as in a republic; yet his exaltation to of­fice and dignity does not liberate him from the com­mon evils of life, nor from death, "the last debt of na­ture." Power and authority are no preservatives from sickness and mortality. Consumptions, severs, inflammations, and other mortal disorders will, as soon, seize the constitution of a ruler as a subject. The sceptre of government, the robe of state, and the sword of power will be no protection, whenever death comes with hasty strides, apprehends the pris­oner, and is conveying him to the land of silence. When the summons of death arrives, nothing can [Page 9] withstand its execution. Neither the cries nor wishes of the people, nor the aid of physicians, nor riches, nor power, nor usefulness, will defend, in this awful, trying, moment.

This affecting truth has, lately, been exemplified, in the death of LIEUTENANT GENERAL GEORGE WASHINGTON.(A) Although born to give liberty and independence to a nation, to rule and protect a nation, he has died, like a man; and fallen, like one of the princes. In his death, America has lost her first char­acter and her best friend. For more than forty years, his life and talents were devoted to the good of his country, both in the cabinet and field. When a young man, he gave striking evidence of his future greatness and usefulness. At this period his wisdom and bravery were eminently displayed, in saving the remnant of the American and British army, when General Braddock was defeated by the French and Indians. Endowed with a strong mind, with shining talents, with an astonishing command over his own passions, he early distinguished himself, in the list of same, and gained the attention and love of America.

That nature produces but one extraordinary man, in an age, is the common remark of historians. This age has seen George Washington appear, on the the­atre of life, and perform wonders, which have aston­ished the world. Our affection for him, our admi­ration of his person, abilities, and usefulness may, perhaps, be carried too far. But should we say, he is the most dignified character, that has appeared, in this century, we should speak the general voice of America, (B) and of Europe. In comparison with him the crowned heads, princes, and generals of Eu­rope appear to lose their lustre and dignity. Of the last king of Prussia it has been said, he sent to Gene­ral [Page 10] Washington, in the late war, his own likeness, with this note, "FROM THE OLDEST GENERAL IN EUROPE TO THE GREATEST GENERAL, IN THE WORLD."

The character, whose death we are lamenting, was, principally, formed, in the late American revolution. When America was, cruelly, oppressed by her mother country, when the British Parliament assumed the right of making laws to bind us, in all cases whatever, and sent her fleets and armies to enforce those laws, our eyes were turned to this Great Man. With a brave, intrepid heart, and humble reliance, as we conceive, on the God of armies, he stepped forth to defend his country, and guide her to victory and in­dependence.

As the friction of a diamond will make it shine the brighter; so difficulties and dangers will rouse the heroic soul, and make it appear, in all its native strength. This was the case of Washington. Taking the command of a weak, undisciplined, army, he risqued his life and reputation, in opposing a mighty foe. Through unseen dangers and difficulties, he led, with a skilful, unerring hand, his little band of heroes, and humbled the pride of an imperious, haughty, nation. (C) Calm and unruffled as the smooth ocean, he could see, without perplexity, (D) one danger rising after another, and yet not deviate from the grand object in pursuit. Conscious of his own integrity, and depending on the justice of his cause, he persevered with fortitude and constancy, till he drove the oppressors from this land of liberty, and gave peace to his country. And, then, with the love of his citizens and applause of the world, he re­tired to the private walks of life, and the repose of domestic happiness.

[Page 11] "When the debility of our Federal system had become manifest, and the bonds, which connected the parts of this vast Continent, were dissolving, we saw him the Chief of those patriots, who formed for us a Constitution, which, by preserving the Union, will, I trust, substantiate and perpetuate those bless­ings our revolution had promised to bestow. In obedience to the general voice of his country, calling on him to preside over a great people, we saw him, once more, quit the retirement he loved, and in a season more stormy and tempestuous than war itself, with calm and wise determination, pursue the inter­est of the nation, and contribute, more than any other could contribute, to the establishment of that system of policy, which will, I trust, yet preserve our peace, our honor, and our independence."*

Rejoicing in the happiness of America, and willing to exert his talents for her safety, he forsook, the sec­ond time, the sweets of private life, ascended the chair of state, and steered the helm of government, with the same impartial hand, and the same impar­tial love, that induced him to wield the sword, in her defence. Amidst jarring interests and different politics, he appeared to have been influenced, by the highest good of his fellow citizens. His administra­tion was happy and benign. And, abating some in­stances, the people were contented and prosperous, under his government. For one man to please all classes and descriptions of men, especially when their sentiments and interests are in opposition, is, perhaps, impossible. But, amidst the different views and feel­ings of America, no man, it is presumed, has, so generally, had the love and confidence of the great [Page 12] body, as the MAN, whom they have, so often, de­lighted to honor.

"Having been twice unanimously chosen the Chief Magistrate of a free people, we saw him, at a time, when his re-election, with the universal suf­frage, could not have been doubted, affording the world a rare instance of moderation, by withdrawing from his high station to the peaceful walks of private life. However the public confidence may change, and the public affections fluctuate with respect to others, yet with respect to him, they have, in war and in peace, in public and in private life, been as steady as his own firm mind, and as constant as his own exalted virtues."*

After having retired, the second time, to the en­dearing scenes of private life, and taken an affection­ate farewel of a grateful people, in an address, (E) that honored his genius and his heart, he was, for the third time, called, by the general government, to take the command of the army, they thought proper to raise for the public safety. In the opinion of can­did and impartial men, this was esteemed an addi­tional lustre to his glory; as he had been, once be­fore, Commander in Chief of the American Army, and twice chosen to the Supreme Magistracy of the United States. His accepting a General Lieuten­ancy, under these circumstances, was clear proof of the goodness of his heart, and that he preferred the weal of his country to the etiquette of honor.

In private life, he was social, courteous, and con­descending; a tender husband, a kind friend, and [Page 13] pleasant companion. In public life, he was affable, grave, prudent, and energetic. His eye was piercing, his aspect commanding, (F) and his morals unblem­ished. (G) Although born and educated in the midst of pleasures and gaiety, he shone in the morals of a Seneca, the philosophy of a Socrates, and pat­riotism of a Cato. In his character were happily blended all the endearing and illustrious qualities of a husband, a friend, a citizen, a general, and states­man. With equal facility and grace, he could command the pen, the sceptre, and sword. Such were the sweetness of his mind and happy talents, in doing business, he could refuse, without disobliging; and punish, without offending. (H) Like Virgil's man of gravity, "At his presence the maddening crowd would stand, with listening ears, and sedition hide its head." With a little variation, we may say of him, as Cicero said of the celebrated Roscius, "Though he died in advanced age, yet such was the excellence and inimitable beauty of his art, that we thought him worthy of living forever."

But he has gone from "The busy scenes of life" to the world of spirits. He has bidden a farewel, a long, eternal, farewel to his dear and amiable con­sort, to his friends, to his country, to his greatness, and dignity below the sun. "Our Washington is no more! The hero, the sage, and the patriot of America—The man, on whom, in times of danger, every eye was turned, and all hopes were placed, lives now only in his own great actions, and in the hearts of an affectionate and afflicted people." As David said of Abner, "That a prince and a great man is fallen, this day, in Israel;" so we may say of the illustrious Washington, that a prince and a great man has fallen, in our nation. To say, he was, in all respects, [Page 14] the most dignified character in America, is no re­proach to the living. "I receive," said the President of the United States, in his answer to the House, "I receive with great respect and affection the condo­lence of the House of Representatives on the melan­choly and afflicting event, in the death of the most illustrious and beloved personage, which this country has ever produced."

In him the officers and soldiers of the late conti­nental army, have lost a man, whom they loved, feared, and respected. In him America has lost her best general, her wisest counsellor, and truest friend. At his death, every heart must grieve, and every eye stand big, with the tear of mourning. In this great hero and statesman are strictly verified the words of our text, "I have said, ye are gods.—But ye shall die, like men; and fall, like one of the princes." Raised to eminent stations of honor and trust, by the unani­mous and repeated voice of America, he discharged his duty with fidelity and punctuality. By unshak­en perseverance in righteousness, he gained a charac­ter of renown, which has eclipsed the greatest heroes of ancient and modern times. Born to a great for­tune, and endowed with brilliant talents, he devoted his interest, and time, and abilities, to the good of his country, and deeply fixed his memory in their affections.

But neither his fortune, nor talents, nor character, nor the affections of his citizens, have been able to defend him against the awful messenger of death. Like a man he has died. Like a prince he has fall­en; and he is, now, slumbering in the silent tomb, "not to rise again, till the heavens be no more." Though removed, by death, from his friends and country, yet his name will, forever, remain impressed on their [Page 15] hearts, as on pillars of marble. By the page of his­tory, his memory will be transmitted to the remotest generations. And, whenever, in future times, the infancy and rising glory of America shall be the sub­ject of conversation, the name of Washington will be mentioned, with wonder and delight.

In the present crisis of human affairs; when such important and astonishing events are rising to view, on the great theatre of Europe; when "nation is ris­ing against nation, and kingdom against kingdom, and men's hearts are failing them for fear, and for looking for those things, that are coming on the earth, and the calamities of war are raging through cities and towns, and ef­fecting such awful destruction of men, the death of our illustrious General must be sensibly affecting to every true American. Removed as we are from these dreadful scenes of carnage and desolation; we are, however, in a great measure, connected with the politics and revolutions of Europe. And the present times, especially in America, demand men of firmness, of cool tempers, of dispassionate hearts, and impartial love to guide the people in the path of righteousness and safety. Although we are not destitute of distinguish­ed characters, both in the cabinet and field, yet the name of Washington was alone worth a host of vete­ran troops. In the courts of Europe, his reputation had risen to the highest grade of same. And, while they viewed him as firmly attached to the constitu­tions and best good of his country, the prospect would, naturally, give a check to their intrigues and manoeuvres to draw us, with themselves, into the same vortex of ruin.

In the late glorious struggle for our rights and lib­erties, when oppressed by a domineering nation, we saw him at the head of our armies, directing all his [Page 16] plans, with the greatest wisdom, secrecy, (I) and ex­pedition. When raised to the head of civil govern­ment, he appeared in all the sagacity and dignity of the most profound statesman. And we hoped to have enjoyed, in his last acceptance of office, his counsel and arm to defend our neutrality and pre­serve peace, in our borders. But America was not destined to enjoy, any longer, his presence, the good of his counsels, nor strength of his arm. At no time, could his departure from this vale of tears have been more interesting to this land, and to the world. By a sudden, unexpected, malady, the sov­ereign disposer of men has taken him from this to the unseen world. His sun has set forever.—"No; the name of WASHINGTON—the American President and General, will triumph over death; the uncloud­ed brightness of his glory will illuminate future ages."

To the rulers in America, his death affords a most solemn, affecting, admonition. Could greatness of mind, could dignity of person, could usefulness, and the love of his country have preserved him, he "would not have died." But neither greatness of mind, nor dignity of person, nor usefulness, nor the love of one's country is able to retain the spirit, in the hour of death, in whose 'war there is no discharge.' Al­though exalted to the high station of gods, yet rulers must "die, like men; and fall, like one of the princes." To them the grim 'king of terrors' will pay no more respect, than to the lowest of the peo­ple. From their seats of renown and power, they will be taken down, by the hand of death, and laid in the dust, on a level with their fellow worms.—From the active scenes of life, of power, and glory, they will, ere long, be summoned to the bar of that [Page 17] holy, impartial God, who shows no respect to per­sons; but judgeth and rewardeth every one accord­ing to his conduct in this life. In the presence of the omniscient and holy God, kings, and princes, and presidents, and governors, and generals, and ma­gistrates, and people will appear on equal footing, and each receive, in the final judgment, according to the deeds done in the body. In the final day of re­tribution, the virtuous, upright, and faithful magis­trate will receive the approbation of his Judge and be seated on a throne of unfading glory. But the ty­rants and oppressors of mankind; "who have caused their terror, in the land of the living," will be frowned from the presence of Jehovah, and filled, with eter­nal shame. "Be wise, therefore, O ye kings: Be in­structed, ye judges of the earth. Serve the Lord with fear, and rejoice with trembling."

Our subject may remind all classes not to trust in health, nor in power, nor in "uncertain riches; but in the living God." While in health and usefulness, "the rich man's wealth is his strong city." But experience has, often, taught, that "riches profit not in the day of wrath." Of what avail are fine houses, beautiful gardens, fertile fields, bags of gold, and a numerous train of servants, in the hour of death. Agonizing with pain, and expecting, every moment, to launch into eternity, the trembling soul can receive no com­fort from its popularity and hoards of wealth. Re­ligion is the only comfort of a dying man. The re­flection of having commanded armies and gained victories, of having swayed the sceptre of govern­ment and obtained the applause of nations, will not soften the pains of a dying man, nor give ease to an accusing conscience. When earthly wealth and gran­deur are failing, and nature sinking under a load of [Page 18] distress, the "rejoicing" of a good man is, "the testi­mony of his conscience, that in simplicity and godly sincerity, not with fleshly wisdom; but, by the grace of God, he has had his conversation, in the world.

May God grant, that all the rulers, in America, may feel, though they are gods, they must die, like men; and fall, like one of the princes. Impressed with this solemn thought, may they realize the importance of religion, the necessity of being influenced, by the principles of righteousness and fidelity, in the making of laws, and carrying them into execution. In all their conduct, in the legislative, judicial, and execu­tive departments, may they feel their accountability to God, the force of religion in their own hearts, and their own mortality. Acting under the impres­sion of these sentiments, may their lives be long, their administration happy, and may they "come to their graves, in full age, like as a shock of corn cometh in, in his season."


[Page 19]

To pay a tribute of respect to the memory of the AMERICAN HERO, it is thought proper to add a few explanatory notes.


GENERAL WASHINGTON departed this life, on the 14th December, 1799, of an inflammation in his throat, as appears by a letter from his private Secretary, Mr. Lear, to the President of the United States. "It is with inexpressible grief, that I have to announce to you the death of the great and good General Washington; he died, last evening, between 10 and 11 o'clock, after a short illness of about twen­ty four hours. His disorder was an inflammatory sore throat, which proceeded from a cold, of which he made but little complaint, on Friday. On Saturday morning, about 3 o'clock he became ill.—Every med­ical assistance was afforded, but without the desired effect. His last scene corresponded with the whose tenor of his life. Not a groan, nor a complaint, es­caped him, though in extreme distress. With perfect resignation and full possession of his reason, he closed his well spent life."


The voice of America, respecting the eminent quali­ties and worth of General Washington, is happily ex­pressed in the communications and doings of the Fed­eral Government, in consequence of receiving the melancholy news of his death.

In his MESSAGE to both houses of Congress, the President says, "It has pleased Divine Providence to remove from this life, our excellent fellow citizen GEORGE WASHINGTON, by the purity of his character and a long series of services to his country, rendered illustrious through the world. It remains for an affec­tionate and grateful people, IN WHOSE HEARTS HE [Page 20] CAN NEVER DIE," to pay suitable honor to his memory."

In waiting on the President, "The House of Re­presentatives" unanimously say, "Penetrated with a sense of the irreparable loss, sustained by the nation, by the death of that great and good man, the ILLUS­TRIOUS AND BELOVED WASHINGTON," We "wait on you, Sir, to express" our "condolence on this melan­choly and distressing event."

To which the President made the following reply, "I receive, with great respect and affection, the con­dolence of the House of Representatives, on the me­lancholy and afflicting event in the death of THE MOST ILLUSTRIOUS AND BELOVED PERSONAGE, WHICH THIS COUNTRY EVER PRODUCED. I sympathize with you—with the nation, and with good men, through the world, on this irreparable loss sustained by us all."

To honor this worthy chief, directions have been given to the Navy of the United States, in these words, "Desirous, that the Navy and Marines should express, in common with every other description of American citizens, the high sense which all feel of the loss our country has sustained, in the death of this good and great man, the President directs, that the vessels of the Navy, in our own, and foreign ports, be put in mourning for one week, by wearing their colors half mast high, and that the officers of the Na­vy and the Marines, wear crape, on the left arm, be­low the elbow, for six months."

To the Army of the United States, the orders are given, in these words, "The President, with deep re­gret, announces to the Army the death of its beloved Chief, Gen. George Washington. Sharing in the grief, which every heart must feel for so heavy and afflicting a public loss and desirous to express his high sense of the vast debt of gratitude, which is due to the virtues, talents, and ever memorable services of the ILLUSTRIOUS deceased, he directs, that funeral honors be paid to him, at all the military stations, and that the officers of the army and of the several [Page 21] corps of volunteers wear crape on the left arm, by way of mourning, for six months."

The resolutions of Congress, on this mournful event, reflect the highest honor on our nation, and on its late illustrious Chief, now in the mansions of the dead. They are thus expressed, "Resolved, that a Marble Monument be erected, by the United States, in the Capitol, in the city of Washington, and that the family of Gen. Washington be requested, to per­mit his body to be deposited under it; and that the monument be so designed as to commemorate the great events of his military and political life.—That it be recommended to the people of the United States to wear crape, on the left arm, as mourning, for thirty days.—That there be a funeral proces­sion from Congress Hall to the German Lutheran Church, in honor of the memory of Gen. George Washington, on Thursday the 26 instant, and that an oration be prepared, at the request of Congress, to be delivered before both Houses, on that day."

If we look through the annals of all nations, we shall find no evidence, that similar tribute of respect was ever paid to the memory of any man. When the great heroes of antiquity died, the world, instead of being clad in mourning, rejoiced, and felt, not that great, good, and virtuous men had departed from their affections; but that monsters, in human shape, had made their exit. As to the greater part of those heroes, they were the mere scourges of na­tions, and butchers of the innocent. But the Ameri­can Hero was humane and benevolent, virtuous and brave, the friend of the people, the defender of his country, the scourge of oppressors, and a shining ex­ample worthy of the imitation of every succeeding General and President. At his death all hearts are grieved, and the mourning [...] tear stands big in its transparent sluice." BENNET.


The taking of two British Armies, commanded by the celebrated Generals, Burgoyne and Cornwallis, [Page 22] the acknowledging of American independence, and the separating of these flourishing Colonies from the British crown, events, that took place, under the di­rection of our Hero, and to which he contributed more than any man, were very humbling to the pride of that great nation. In losing America, the king of England lost the brightest jewel, in his crown.


His intrepidity and command over his own pas­sions were truly astonishing. The history of his re­treat from New-York, his winter's campaign of '77 in the Jersies, his undaunted bravery in the battles of Brandywyne, Germantown, and Yorktown, are complete illustrations of his character. When sur­rounded by the greatest dangers, he never discovered to those near his person, by a look nor change of voice, nor rash action, his own apprehensions. At these times, what he did, he did with greater dis­patch, than was common, without the least change of voice, or countenance; and this dispatch was the only evidence they had, that he apprehended any dan­ger. A rare instance of bravery and self command.


This address will forever remain a monument of his abilities and attachment to the constitution and prosperity of his country. Although not surrounded by a king and a queen, and a splendid retinue of princes and dukes, as was Charles V. when he sur­rendered to his son Philip his extensive dominions in Spain, Germany, and South America, yet, in declin­ing to be a candidate in the third election to the Presidential chair, he discovered a mind, not less no­ble; and a dignity, not less splendid.


Of the late General Lee it was a frequent remark, "that he had often, in Europe, been in the presence of kings and princes; but he was, never, in the pres­ence of any man, who commanded so much attention and respect as Washington."

[Page 23]


By his looks and silent gravity, the officers of the late Continental Army knew, their General disap­proved gambling, profanity, and every action border­ing on immorality. To a company, rowing him over Hudson River, in a hazardous time, he said, "My lads, cease from your swearing. It will avail nothing. You will have to give account to your Maker for ev­ery idle word you speak."


His approving the sentence of death, passed against Major Andre, and his selecting, by lot, Captain Asgill to suffer for the murder of Captain Huddy, met the unanimous, the affecting, consent of America and Europe.


To illustrate this quality of a consummate general, and how it shone conspicuously in our departed Chief, we may, just, call to the reader's memory, the profound secrecy and martial deception, by which was formed the expedition against Earl Cornwallis, at Yorktown. To effect this, in the best manner, fas­cines, boats, and other costly preparations were made, with manifest intent of invading New York, then un­der the command of Sir Henry Clinton. Letters were written, intercepted, and conveyed to the British General, which strengthened his apprehensions of be­ing invaded. Washington's suddenly crossing the Hudson, encamping before Staten Island, building ovens, and his other military parade, perplexed the enemy, distracted their counsels, and they never knew their danger, till they heard, the American Army was at the head of the Elk, in full march against the troops under Cornwallis. The expedition was crown­ed with success, gave the finishing stroke to the war, and confirmed our independence.

"Surge ad judicium;" Rise to judgment: "Gloria Deo;" Glory to God, are inscriptions on his coffin.


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