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A PLAN of the several Villages in the ILLINOIS COUNTRY, with Part of the River Mississippi &c. by Tho. Hutchins.
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A TOPOGRAPHICAL DESCRIPTION OF VIRGINIA, PENNSYLVANIA. MARYLAND, AND NORTH CAROLINA, COMPREHENDING THE RIVERS OHIO, KENHAWA, SIOTO, CHEROKEE, WABASH, ILLINOIS, MISSISIPPI, &c.

THE CLIMATE, SOIL and PRODUCE, WHETHER ANIMAL, VEGETABLE, OR MINERAL; THE Mountains, Creeks, Roads, Distances, Latitudes, &c. and of every Part, laid down in the annexed MAP. Published by THOMAS HUTCHINS, CAPTAIN in the 60th Regiment of Foot.

WITH A PLAN of the RAPIDS of the OHIO, a PLAN of the several VILLAGES in the ILLINOIS COUNTRY, a TABLE of the DISTANCES between FORT PITT and the Mouth of the OHIO, all Engraved upon Copper.

AND An APPENDIX, containing Mr. PATRICK KENNEDY'S JOURNAL up the ILLINOIS RIVER, and a correct List of the different NATIONS and TRIBES of IN­DIANS, with the Number of FIGHTING MEN, &c.

BOSTON: Printed and Sold by JOHN NORMAN, in Marshall's Lane near the Boston Stone. MDCCLXXXVII.

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THE PREFACE.

THE Map, which the following sheets are intended to explain, comprehends almost the whole of the country, lying between the 34th and 44th degrees of lati­tude, and the 79th and 93d degrees of longitude, and de­scribes an extent of territory, of about 850 miles in length, and 700 miles in breadth; and one, which, for health­fulness, fertility of soil, and variety of productions, is not, prehaps, surpassed by any on the habitable globe.

Those parts of the country lying westward of the Al­legheny mountain, and upon the rivers Ohio and Missisippi, and upon most of the other rivers; and the lakes (laid down in my Map) were done from my own surveys, and corrected by my own Observations of latitudes, made at different periods preceding, and during all the campaigns of the last war (in several of which I acted as an Engineer) and since in many reconnoitring tours. which I made through various parts of the country, between the years 1764 and 1775.

I have compared my own Observations, and Surveys, respecting the lakes, with those made by Captain Brehm, of the 60th Regiment of Foot (who was for many years employed as an Engineer in North America) and I find, that they correspond with more exactness than Surveys usually do, which are made by different persons, at dif­ferent times;—and I am happy in this opportunity, of expressing my obligations to this Gentleman, for the cheerfulness with which he furnished me with his Surveys and Remarks.

It is fit also, that I should take notice, that in the ac­count which I have given of several of the branches of the Ohio, and Alleghany rivers, I have adopted the words of the late ingenious Mr. Lewis Evans, as I found he had properly described them in the Analysis to his Map of the Middle Colonies.—And as to that portion of my Map, which represents the country lying on the eastern side of the Alleghony mountain,—I take the liberty of informing my [Page ii] Readers, that my reason for inserting it, was to shew the several communications that are now made, and others which may be hereafter, easily, made, between the navi­gable branches of the Ohio and Allegheny rivers, and the rivers in Virginia and Pennsylvania, which fall into the At­lantic ocean, from the west and north-west.

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A TOPOGRAPHICAL DESCRIPTION, &c.

THE lands lying on the westerdly line, between the Laurel Mountain and the Allegheny River, and thence northerly up that River for 150 miles, on both sides of the same, tho' not much broken with high mountains, are not of the same excellent quality with the lands to the southward of Fort Pitt. They consist chiefly of White Oak, and Chesnut ridges; and in many places of poor Pitch Pines, inte [...]persed with tracts of good land; and low mea­dow grounds.

The lands comprehended between the River Ohio, at Fort Pitt, and the Laurel mountain, and thence continu­ing the same breadth from Fort Pitt to the Great Kan­hawa River, may, according to my own observations, and those of the late Mr. Gist, of Virginia, be generally, and justly described as follows.

The vallies adjoining to the branches of springs of the middle forks of Youghiogeny, are narrow towards its source, but there is a considerable quantity of good farming grounds on the hills, near the largest branch of that River. The lands within a small distance of the Laurel Mountain (through which the Youghiogeny runs) are in many places broken and stony, but rich and well timbered; and in some places, and particularly on Laurel Creek, they are rocky and mountainous.

From the Laurel Mountain, to Monongahela, the first seven miles are good, level farming grounds, with fine meadows; the timber, white Oak, Chesnut, Hickory, &c. The same kind of land continues southerly (12 miles) to the upper branches or forks of this River, and about 15 miles notherly to the place where the Youghiogeny falls into the Monongahela —The lands, for about 18 miles in the same Course of the last mentioned River, on each side of it▪ tho' hilly, are rich and well timbered —The trees are Walnut, L [...]cust▪ Chesnut, Poplar, and Sugar or sweet Maple.—The low lands, near the River, are about a mile, [Page 2] and in several places two miles wide.—For a considerable way down the River, on the eastern side of it, the intervals are extremely rich, and about a mile wide. The Upland for about 12 miles eastwardly, are uncommonly fertile, and well timbered;—the low lands, on the western side, a [...] narrow; but the Uplands, on the eastern side of the River, both up and down, are excellent, and covered with Sugar trees, &c.

Such parts of the country which lie on some of the branches of the Monongabela, and across the heads of seve­ral Rivers, that run into the Ohio, tho' in general hilly, are exceedingly fruitful and well watered —The timber is Walnut, Chesnut, Ash, Oak, Sugar trees, &c.—and the interval or meadow lands are from 250 yards to a quarter of a mile wide.

The lands lying nearly in a north-westerdly direction from the Great Kanbawa River to the Ohio, and thence north-easterdly, and also upon Le Tort's Creek, Little Kanhawa River, Buffaloe, Fishing, Weeling, and the two upper and two lower, and several other very considerable Creeks (or what, in Europe would be called large Rivers,) and thence east, and south east to the River Monongabela, are, in point of quality, as follows.

The borders or meadow lands, are a mile, and in some places near two miles wide; and the Uplands are in com­mon of a most fertil soil, capable of abundantly producing Wheat, Hemp, F [...]ax, &c.

The lands which lie upon the Ohio, at the mouths of, and between the above Creeks, also consist of rich intervals and very fine farming grounds.—The whole country a­bounds in Bears, Elks, Buffaloe, Deer, Turkies, &c.—An unquestionable proof of the extraordinary goodness of its soil! *

Fort Pitt stands at the confluence of the Allegheny and Monóngabela Rivers; in latitude 40 31 44; and about five degrees westward of Philadelphia. In the year 1760, a small town, called Pittsburgh, was b [...]ilt near Fort Pitt, [Page 3] and about 200 families resided in it; but upon the Indian war breaking out (in the month of May 1763.) They abandoned their houses, and retired into the fort.

In the year 1765 the present town of Pittsburgh was laid out. It is built on the eastern bank of the River Mononga­hela, about 200 yards from Fort Pitt.

The junction of the Allegheny and Monongahela rivers, form [...] the River Ohio, and this discharges itself into the Missisippi, (in latitude 36 43) about 1188 computed miles from Fort Pitt. The Ohio in its passage to the Missisippi, glides thro' a pleasant, fruitful and healthy country;— and carries a great uniformity of breadth, from 400 to 600 yards, except at its confluence with the Missisippi, and for 100 miles above it, where it is 1000 yards wide. The Ohi [...] for the greater part of the way to the Missisippi, has many meanders, or windings, and rising grounds upon both sides of it.

The reaches in the Ohio are in some parts from two to four miles in length, and one of them, above the Muskingum River, called the Long Reach, is sixteen miles and a half long. The Ohio, about 100 miles above, or notherly of the Rapids, (formerly called the Falls) is in many places 700 yards wide; and as it approaches them, the high grounds on its borders gradually diminish, and the coun­try becomes more level. Some of the banks, or heights of this River, are at times overflowed by great freshes, yet there is scarce a place between Fort Pitt and the Rapids (a distance of 705 computed miles) where a good road may not be made; and horses employed in drawing up large barges (as is done on the margin of the River Thames in England, and the Seine in France) against a stream remark­ably gentle, except in high freshes. The heights of the banks of the Ohio admit them every where to be settled, as they are not liable to crumble away. And to these Re­marks, it may be proper to add the following observations of the ingenio [...]s Mr. Lewis Evans, as published in the Analysis to his Map of the Middle Colonies of North Ame­ [...]ica, in the year 1755.—He says, that the Ohio River, as the winter snows are thawed, by the warmth or rains in the spring, rises in vast floods, in some places. exceed­ing 20 feet in height, but scarce any where overflowing [Page 4] its high and upright banks. These floods, Mr. Evans adds, continue of some heigh [...] for at least a month or two, according to the [...]ate or early breaking up of the winter. —Vessels from 100 to 200 tons burthen, by taking the advantage of these floods, may go from Pittsburg to the Sea with safety, as then the Falls, Rifts, and Shoals are covered to an equality with the rest of the River;’ —and tho' the distance is upwards of 2000 miles from Fort Pitt to [...]he sea, yet as there are no obstruc­tions, to prevent vessels from proceeding both day and night,— I am persuaded, that this extraordinary [...] Voyage may be performed, during the season of the floods, by [...]owing, in sixteen or seventeen days.

The Navigation of the Ohio in a dry season, is rather troublesome from Fort Pitt to the Mingo town, (about seven­ty five miles) but from thence to the Missisippi, there is al­ways a sufficient depth of water for barges, carrying from 100 to 200 tons burthen, built in the manner as those are which are used on the River Thames, between London and Oxford;—to wit, from 100 to 120 feet in keel, sixteen to eighteen feet in breadth, and four feet in depth, and when loaded, drawing about three feet water.

The Rapids in a dry season, are difficult to descend with loaded boats or b [...]rges, without a good Pilot;—it would be adviseable therefore for the Bargemen, in such season, ra­ther than run any risk in passing them, to unload part of their cargoes, and reship it when the barges have got through the Rapids. It may, however▪ be proper to observe, that loaded boats in freshes, have been easily rowed against the stream, (up the Rapids) and that others, by means, only, of a large sail, have ascended them.

In a dry season, the descent of the Rapids, in the distance of a mile, is about 12, or 15 feet, and the passage down, would not be difficult, except, prehaps, for the following reasons. Two miles above them, the River is deep, and three quarters of a mile broad;—but the channel is much contracted, and does not exceed 250 yards in breadth; (near three-fourths of the bed of the River, on the south eastern side of it—being filled with a flat Limestone rock, so that in a dry season, there is seldom more than 6 or 8 inches water) it is upon the [...]thern side of the River and [Page 5] being confined, as above mentioned; the descending wa­ters tumble over the Rapids with a considerable degree of celerity and force. The channel is of different depths, but no where, I think, less than 5 feet;—It is clear, and upon each side of it are large broken rocks, a few inches under water*. The Rapids are nearly in Latitude 38 8;—and the only Indian village (1766) on the banks of the Ohio River between them and Fort Pitt, was on the north-west side, 75 miles below Pittsburgh, called the Mingo town; it contained 60 families.

Most of the Hills on both sides of the Ohio are filled with excellent coal, and a coal mine was in the year 1760 open­ed opposite to Fort Pitt on the River Monongahela, for the use of that Garrison. Salt springs, as well as Iron Ore, and rich Lead Mines, are found bordering upon the River Ohio. One of the latter, is opened upon a branch of the Sioto, River, and there, the Indian natives supply themselves with a considerable part of the lead, which they use in their wars, and hunting.

About 584 miles below Fort Pitt, and on the eastern side of the Ohio River, about three miles from it, at the head of a small Creek or Run, where are several large and miry Salt Springs, are found numbers of large bones, teeth and tusk [...], commonly supposed to be those of Elephants:— but the celebrated Doctor Hunter of London, in his inge­nious and curious Observations on these bones, &c. has supposed them to belong to some Carnivorous animal, larg­er than an ordinary Elephant*.

[Page 6]On the North-Western side of Ohio, about 11 miles below the Cherokee River, on a high bank, are the remains of Fort Massac, built by the French, and intended as a check to the Southern Indians. It was destroyed by them in the year 1763. This is a high, healthy and delightful situa­tion. A great variety of Game;—Buf [...]loe. Bear, Deer, &c. as well as Ducks, Geese, Swans, Turkies, Pheasants, Partriges, &c. abounds in every part of this country.

The Ohio, and the Rivers emptying into it, afford green, and other Turtle, and fish of various sorts;—particularly Carp, Sturgeon, Perch, and Cats; the two latter of an un­common size, viz. Perch, from 8 to 12 pounds weight, and Cats from 50 to 100 pounds weight.

The lands upon the Ohio, and its branches, are differ­ently timbered according to their quality and situation. The high, and dry lands, are covered with Red, White and Black Oak, Hickory, Walnut, Red and White Mulberry and Ash Trees.—Grape Vines, &c. The low and meadow lands are filled with Sycamore, Poplar, Red and White Mulberry, Cherry, Beech, Elm, Asp [...]n, Maple, or Sugar Trees, Grape Vines, &c. And below, or southwardly of the Rapids, are several large Cedar and Cypress swamps, where the Cedar and Cypress trees grow to a remarkable size, and where also is a great abundance of Canes, such as grow in South Carolina, The country on both sides of the Ohio, extend­ing South-easterdly, and South-westerdly from Fort Pitt to the Missisippi, and watered by the Ohio River, and its branches, contains at least a million of square miles, and it may, with truth, be affirmed, that no part of the globe is blessed with a more healthful air, or climate;—* watered [Page 7] with more navigable rivers and branches communicating with the Atlantic Ocean, by the rivers Potowmack, Jamas, Rappahannock, Missisippi, and St. Lawrence, or capable of producing with less labour and expence Wheat, Indian Corn, Buck-wheat, Rye, Oats, Barley, Flax, Hemp, Tobacco, Rice, Silk, Pot-ash, &c. than the country under consideration. And although there are considerable quantities of high lands for about 250 miles (on both sides of the river Ohio) southwardly from Fort Pitt, yet even the summits of most of the Hills are covered with a deep rich soil, fit for the culture of Flax and Hemp, and it may also be added, that no soil can possibly yield larger crops of red and white Clover, and other useful grass, than this does.

On the North-west and South-east sides of the Ohio, be­low the Great Kanhawa River, at a little distance from it, are extensive natural meadows, or Savannahs. These meadows are from 20 to 50 miles in circuit. They have many beautiful groves of trees interspersed, as if by art in them, and which serve as a shelter for the innumerable [...]erds of Buffaloe, Deer, &c. with which they abound*.

[Page 8]Having made these Observations,—I proceed to give a brief Account of the several Rivers and Creeks which fall into the River Ohio.

Canawagy, when raised by freshes, is passable with small Battoes, to a little Lake at its head;—from thence there is a portage of 20 miles to Lake Erie, at the mouth of Ja­dághque. This portage is seldom used, because Canawagy has scarcely any water in it in a dry season.

Bughaloons, is not navigable; but is remarkable for ex­tensive meadows bordering upon it.

Frecnh Creek affords the nearest passage to Lake Erie. It is navigable with small boats to Le Beuf, by a very crooked Channel; the portage thence to Presquile, from an adjoining peninsula, is 15 miles. This is the usual Route from Quebec to Ohio.

Licking and Lacomic Creeks do not afford any Navigation; but there is plenty of coals, and stones for building in the Hills, which adjoin them.

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A PLAN of the RAPIDS, in the River Ohio, by Thos. Hutchins.

From A to B is the Carrying Place on the Nothern Side of the Ohio. From C to D is the safest and shortest Carrying Place. The dotted line represents the Channel of the River.

[Page 9] Toby's Creek is deep enough for Battoes for a considera­ble way up, thence by a short portage to the West branch of Susquehannah, a good communication is carried on be­tween Ohio and the eastern parts of Pennsylvania.

M [...]ghulbug [...]tum, is passable also by flat bottom boats in the same manner as Toby's Creek is to Susquehannah, and from thence to all the Settlements in Northumberland county, &c. in Pennsylvania.

Kishkeminetas, is navigable in like manner as the preced­ing Creeks, for between 40 and 50 mile [...], and good por­tages are found b [...]tween Kishkeminetas, Juniatta, and Po­tom [...] Rivers.—Coal and Salt are discovered in the neigh­bourhood of these Rivers.

M [...]n [...]ngahela is a large River. and at its junction with the All [...]g [...]ny River stands Fort Pitt. It is deep, and gen­tle, and naviga [...]le with Battoes and Barges, beyond Red Stone Creek, and still farther with lighter craft. At six­teen miles from its mouth, is Y [...]ughiog [...]y; This River is n [...]vigable with Bat [...]eaux or Ba [...]ges to the foot of Laurel Hill.

B [...]aver Cre [...]k has water sufficient for flat bottom boats. At Kishkuskes (about 16 miles up) are two branches of this Creek, which spread opposite ways; one interlocks with French Creek and C [...]erâge, [...]he other with Muskingum and Cayahoga; on this branch, about thirty-five miles above [Page 10] the Forks, are many Salt springs.—It is practicable with Canoes about twenty miles farther.

Muskingum is a fine gentle River, confined by high banks, which prevent its floods from overflowing the surrounding Land. It is 250 yards wide at its confluence with the Ohio, and navigable, without any obstr [...]ctions, by large Battoes or Barges, to the three L [...]g's and by small ones to a little Lake at its head.

From thence to Cayahoga, (the Creek that leads to Lak [...] Erie). The Cayahoga is muddy, and not very swift, but no where obstructed with falls or Rifts. Here are fine Up­lands, extensive meadows, oak and mulberry trees fit for Ship building, and Walnut, Chesnut, and P [...]plar trees suit­able for domestick services.—Cayahoga furnishes the be [...] portage between Ohio and Lake Erie; at its mouth it is wide and deep enough to receive large Sloops from the Lake. It will hereafter be a place of great importance.

Muskingum in all its wide extended branches, is sur­rounded by most excellent land, and abounds in Springs, and conveniences particularly adapted to settlements re­mote from Sea Navigation;—such as Salt springs, Coal, Clay and Free stone.—In 1748 a Coal mine opposite to La­me [...]shicola mouth took fire, and continued burning above twelve months, but great quantities of coal still remain in it. Near the same place are excellent Wh [...]tst [...]nes, and a­bout 8 miles higher up the River, is plenty of White and Blue Clay for Glass works and Pottery.

Hock [...]ocking is navigable with large flat bottom boats be­tween seventy and eighty miles; it has fine meadows with high banks, which seldom overflow, and rich Uplands [...] its borders. Coal, and quarries of Freestone are found a­bout 15 miles up this Creek.

Big K [...]hawa falls into the Ohio upon its south ea [...]ters side, and is so considerable a branch of this River, that it may be mistaken for the Ohio itself by persons ascending it. It is slow for ten miles, to little broken Hills,—the low land is very rich, and of about the same breadth (from the Pipe Hills to the Falls) as upon the Ohio. After going 10 miles up Ka [...]hawa the land is hilly, and the water a little rapid for [...]0 or 60 miles further to the Falls, yet Batteau [...] or Bar­ges may be easily rowed thither. These Falls were for­merly [Page 11] thought impassible,; but late discoveries have prov­ed, that a waggon road may be made through the moun­tain, which occasions the Falls, and that by a portage of a few miles only, a communication may be had between the waters of Great Kanhawa and Ohio, and those of James River in Virginia.

Tottery lies upon the south-eastern side of the Ohio, and is navigable with Batteaux to the Ouasioto mountains. It is a long River, has few branches, and interlocks with Red Creek, or Clinche' [...] River (a branch of the Cherokee) —And has below the mountains, especially for 15 miles from its mouth, very good land. Here is a preceptible difference of Climate between the upper and this part of the Ohio. Here the large Red or Carolina Cane grows in plenty, even upon the Upland, and the winter is so moderate as not to destroy it. The same moderation of climate continues down Ohio, especially on the south-east side to the Rapids, and thence on both sides of that River to the Missisippi.

Great Salt Lick Creek, is remarkable for fine land, plenty of Buffaloes, Salt springs, White Clay, and Limestone. Small boats may go to the crossing of the war Path without any impediment. The Salt Springs render the waters [...]nfit for drinking, but the plenty of fresh springs in their vicinity, make sufficient amends for this inconvenience.

Kentucke is larger than the preceding Creek; it is sur­rounded with high clay banks, fertile lands, and large salt springs. Its Navigation is interrupted by shoals, but pas­ [...]ble with small boats to the gap, where the war Path goes through the Ouasio [...]o mountains.

Sioto, is a large gentle River bordered with rich [...], or Meadows. It overflows in the spring, and then spread [...] about half a mile, tho' when confined within its banks it is scarce a furlong wide.

If it floods early, it seldom retires within its banks in less than a month, and is not fordable frequently in les [...] than two months,

The Sioto, besides having a great extent of most excel­lent land on both sides of the River, is furnished with Salt on an eastern branch, and Red Bole on Necunsia Skeintat.

The Stream of Sioto is gentle and passable with large [...]attoes or Barges for a considerable way, and with smaller [Page 12] boats, near 200 miles to a portage, of only four miles to Sandusky.

Sandusky is a considerable River abounding in level land its Stream gentle all the way to the mouth, where it is large enough to receive Sloops. The Northern Indians cross Lake Erie here from Island to Island, land at Sandusky and go by a direct path to the lower Shawanoe town, and thence to the gap of the Ousaoto Mountain, in their way to the Cuttawa country,

Little Mineami River is too small to navigate with Bat­teaux. It has much fine land and several Salt Springs, its high banks and gentle current prevent its much over­flowing the surrounding lands in freshes.

Great Mineami, Assenereniet or rocky River, has a very stony channel; a swift Stream, but no Falls. It has seve­ral large branches, passable with boats a great way; one extending westward towards the Wabash River, another towards a branch of Mineami River (which runs into Lake Erie) to which there is a portage, and a third has a portage to the west branch of Sandusky, besides Mad Creek where the French formerly established themselves. Rising ground here and there a little story, which begins in the northern part of the Peninsula, between the Lakes Erie Huron and Michigan, and extend across little Mineami River below the Forks, and southwardly along the rocky River, to Ohio.

Buffalo [...] River falls into the Ohio on the eastern side of it, at the distance of 925 computed miles from Fort Pitt. It is a very considerable branch of the Ohio; is 200 yards wide, navigable upwards of 150 miles for Battoes or Bar­ges, of 30 feet long, 5 feet broad, and 3 feet deep, carry­ing about 7 tons, and can be navigated much farther, with [...] canoes. The Stream is moderate. The Lands on both sides of this River are of a most luxuriant quality, for the production of Hemp, Flax, Wheat, Tobacco, &c. They are covered with a great variety of lofty and useful timber; as Oak, Hick [...]ry, Mulberry, Elm, &c. Several persons who have ascended this River, say, that salt springs, Coal, Lime and Freestone, &c. are to be found in a variety of places.

The Wabash, is a beautiful River, with high and up­right banks, less subject to overflow▪ than any other River (the Ohio excepted) in this part of America. It discharges [Page 13] itself into the Ohio, one thousand and twenty two miles below Fort Pitt, in latitude 37° 41l.—at its mouth, it is 270 yards wide; is navigable to Ouitanon (412 miles) in the Spring, Summer, and Autumn, with Battoes or Barges, drawing about three feet wa [...] From thence, on account of a rocky bottom, and shoal water, large canoes are chief­ly employed, except when the River is swelled with rains, at which time it may be ascended with boats, such as I have just described, (197 miles further to the Miami carrying-place, which is nine miles from the Miami vil­lage, and this is situated on a River of the same name, that runs into the south-south-west part of Lake Erie. The Stream of the Wabash, is generally gentle to Fort O [...]iatan­on, and no where obstructed with Falls, but is by several Rapids ▪ both above and below that Fort, some of which are pretty considerable. There is also a part of the River for about three miles, and 30 miles from the carrying-place, where the Channel is so narrow, that it is necessary to make use of setting poles, instead of oars. The land on this River is remarkably fe [...]tile, and several parts of it are natural meadows, of great extent, covered with fine long grass.—The timber is large and high, and in such va­riety, that almost all the different kinds growing upon the Ohio, and its branches (but with a greater proportion of black and white mulberry-trees) may be found here. A silver mine has been discovered about 28 miles above Ouitanon, on the nothorn side of the Wabash, and probably others may be found hereafter. The Wabash abounds with Salt Springs, and any quantity of salt may be made from them, in the manner now done at the S [...]li [...]e in the Illinois country:—the hills are replenished with the b [...]st coal, and there is plenty of Lime and Free Stone, Blu [...] Ye­loe and White Clay, for Glass Works and Pottery. Two French settlement [...] are established on the Wabash, called Post Vincient and Ouiatànon; the first is 150 miles, and the other 262 miles from its mouth. The former is on the eastern side of the River, and consists of 60 settlers and their families. They raise Indian Corn,—Wheat; and Tobacco of an extraordinary good quality;—superior, it is said, to that produced in Virginia. They have a fine breed of horses (brought originally by the Indians from the [Page 14] Spanish settlements on the western side of the River Missi­sippi) and large stocks of Swine, and Black Cattle.

The settlers deal with the natives for Furrs and Deer skins, to the amount of about 5000 l. annually. Hemp of a good texture grows spontaneously in the low lands of the Wabash, as do Grapes in the greatest abundance, having a black, thin skin and of which the inhabitants in the Au­tumn, make a sufficient quantity (for their own consump­tion) of well-tasted Red Wine. Hops large and good, are found in many places, and the lands are particularly adapt­ed to the culture of Rice. All European fruits:—Apples, Peaches, Pears, Cherries, Currants, Goosberrys, Melons, &c. thrive well, both here, and in the country bordering on the River Ohio

Ouiatanon, is a small stockaded sort on the western side of the Wabash, in which about a dozen families reside. The neighbouring Indians are the Kickapoo [...], Musquitons, Pya [...] ­kis [...]aws, and a principle part of the Ouiatanons, The whole of these tribes consists, it is supposed, of about one thousand warriors. The fertility of soil, and diversity of timber in this country, are the same as in the vicinity of Post Vin­cient. The annual amount of Skins and Furrs, obtained at Ouiatanon is about 8000 l. By the River Wabash, the in­habitants of Detroit move to the so [...]thern parts of Ohio, and the Illinois country, Their rout is by the Miami River to a carrying-place, which, as before [...]ated, is nine miles to the Wabash, when this River is raised with Freshes; but at other seasons, the distance is from 1 [...] to 30 miles includ­ing the portage. The whole of the latter is through a level country. Carts are usually employed in transport­ing boats and merchandise, from the Miami to the Wabash River.

The Shawanoe River empties itself on the eastern side of Ohio, about 95 miles southwardly of the Wabash River. It is 250 yards wide at its mouth, has been navigated [...]180 miles in Battoes of the construction of those mentioned in the preceding article, and from the depth of water, at that distance from its mouth▪ it is presumed, it may be navigated much further. The soil and timber of the lands, upon this River, are exactly the same as those upon Buffaloe River.

The Cherokee River discharges itself into the Ohio on the [Page 15] same side, that the Shawanoe River does, that is,—1 [...] miles below or southerly of it, and 11 miles above, or northerly of the place where Fort Massac formerly stood, and 57 miles from the confluence of the Ohio with the Ri­ver Missippi.—The Cherokee River has been navigated 900 miles from its mouth. At the distance of 220 miles from thence, it widens from 400 yards (its general width) to between two or three miles, and continues this breadth for near thirty miles, farther. The whole of this distance, is called the Muscle Shoals. Here the Channel is obstruct­ed with a number of Islands, formed by trees and drifted wood, brought hither, at different seasons of the year, in freshes and floods. In passing these islands, the middle of the widest intermediate water, is to be navigated, as there it is deepest. From the mouth of the Cherokee River to Muscle Shoals the current is moderate, and both the high and low land [...] are rich, and abundantly covered with Oaks, Walnut, Sugartrees, Hickory, &c.—About 200 miles above these shoals, is, what is called, the Whirl, or Suck, occasioned, I imagine, by the high mountain, which there confines the River (supposed to be the Laurel mountain,) The Whirl, or Suck continues rapid for about three miles. Its width about 50 yards. Ascending the Cherokee River, and at about 100 miles from the Suck, and upon the south eastern side of that River, is Highwasee River. Vast tracts of level and rich land border on this River; but at a small distance from it, the country is much broken, and some part of it produce only Pine Trees. Forty miles higher up the Cherokee River on the north western side, is Clinche's River. It is 150 yards wide, and about 50 miles up it several families are settled. From Clinche's to Tenesee Ri­ver is 100 miles. It comes in on the eastern side, and is 250 yards wide. About 10 miles up thi [...] River is a Chee­rokee town called Cho [...]a, and further up this branch, are se­veral other Indian towns, possessed by Indians, called, the [...]ver hill Cherokees. The navigation of this branch▪ is much interrupted by rocks, as is also the River, called, French Br [...]ad, which comes into the Cherokee River 50 miles [...]bove the Tene [...] and on the same side. 150 miles above [...]rench Br [...]ad is Long Island (three miles in length) and [...]rom thence to the source of the Cherokee River is 60 miles▪ [Page 16] and the whole distance is so rocky, as to be scarcely navi­gable with a canoe.

By the Cherokee River, the emigrants from the frontier counties of Virginia and North Carolina, pass to the settle­ments in West Florida upon the River Missisippi. They embark at Long Island.

I now proceed to give a Description of that part of my Map called the Illinois country, lying between the Mssisippi westerly, the Illinois River northerly, the Wabash easter [...]y, and the Ohio southerly.

The land at the confluence, or Fork of the Rivers M [...]ssi­sippi and Ohio, is above 20 feet higher than the common surface of these Rivers; yet so considerable are the Spring floods, that it is generally overflowed for about a week, as are the lands for several miles back in the country.—The soil at the Fork is composed of Mud, Earth and Sand, ac­cumulated from the Ohio and Missisippi Rivers. It is ex­ceedingly fertile, and in its natural state, yields Hemp, Pea-Vines, Grass, &c. and a great variety of trees, and in particular, the Aspen Tree of an unusual height and thickness.

For 25 miles up the Missisippi (from the Ohio) the coun­try is rich, level and well timbered;—and then several gentle rising grounds appear, which gradually diminish at the distance of between four or five miles eastward from the River. From thence to the Kaskaskias River is 65 miles. The country is a mixture of hills and vallies; some of the former are rocky and steep;—but they, as well as the vallies, are shaded with fine Oaks, Hickory, Walnut, Ash and Mulberry trees, &c. Some of the high grounds afford the most pleasant situations for settlements. Their elevated, and airy positions, together with the great luxuriance of the Soil, every where yielding plenty of Grass, and useful plants, promise health, and ample re­turns to industrious settlers.

Many quarries of Lime, Freestone, and Marble have been discovered in this part of the country.

Several Creeks, and Riv [...]rs fall into the Missisippi, in the above distance (of 65 mi [...]es) but no remarkable ones, ex­cept the Rivers a V [...]se and K [...]skaskias;—the former is navigable for Battoes of about 60, and the latter for about [Page 17] 130 miles;—both these Rivers run through a rich country [...] abounding in extensive, natural m [...]adows, and numberless herds of Buffaloe, Deer, &c.

The high grounds, just mentioned, continue along the eastern side of the Kaskaskias River at a small distance from it, for the space of five miles and a half, to the K [...]skaskias village; then they incline more towards that river, and run nearly parallel with the eastern bank of the M [...]ssisippi, at the distance of about three miles in some parts, and four miles in other parts from it. These principally composed of Lime and Free stone, and are from 100 to 130 feet high, divided in several places by deep cavities, through which many small rivulets pass before they fall into the Missisippi. The sides of these hills fronting this River, are in many places perpendicular,—and appear like solid pieces of stone Masonry, of various colours, figures and sizes.

The low land between the Hills and the Missisippi, be­gins on the north side of the Kaskaskias River, and con­tinues for three miles above the River, Misouri, where a high ridge terminates it, and forms the eastern bank of the Missisippi.—This interval land is level, has few trees, and is of a very rich soil, yielding shrubs and most fragrant flowers, which added to the number and extent of meadows and ponds dispersed thro' this charming valey, render it exceedingly beautiful and agreeable.

In this vale stand the following villages, viz. Kaskaskias, which, as already mentioned, is five miles and a half up a River of the same name, running northerly and southerly. This village contains 80 houses, many of them well built; several of stone, with gardens, and large lots adjoining. It consists of about 500 white inhabitants, and between four and five hundred negroes. The former have large [...]ocks of Black Cattle, Swine, &c.

Three miles northerly of Kaskaskias, is a village of Illi­nois Indians, (of the Kaskaskias tribe) containing about 210 persons and 60 warriors. They were formerly brave and warlike, but are degenerated into a drunken, and de­bauched tribe, and so indolent, as scarcely to procure a suf­ficiency of Skins and Furrs to barter for cloathing.

Nine miles further northward, than the last mentioned [Page 18] village, is another, called La prairie du Rocher, or (the Rock meadows.) It consists of 100 white inhabitants and 80 negroes.

Three miles northerly of this place, on the banks of the Missisippi stood Fort Chartres. It was abandoned in the year 1772, as it was rendered untenable by the constant wash­ings of the River Missisippi in high floods.—The village of Fort Chartres, a little southward of the Fort,—contained so few inhabitants, as not to deserve my notice.

One mile higher up the Missisippi than Fort Chartres, is a village settled by 170 warriors of the Piorias and Mitchi­gamias (two other tribes of the Illinois Indians.) They are as idle and debauched, as the tribe of Kaskaskias, which I have just described.

Four miles higher than the preceding village, is St. Philips. It was formerly inhabited by about a dozen fa­milies, but at present, is possessed only by two or three.—The others have retired to the western side of the Missisippi.— Forty-five miles further northward, than St. Philips (and one mile up a small River, on the southern side of it) stands the village of Cahokia. It has 50 houses▪ many of them well built, and 300 inhabitants, possessing 80 negroes, and large stocks of black Cattle, Swine, &c.

Four miles above Cahokia, on the western, or Spanish side of the Missisippi, stands the village of St. Louis on a high piece of ground. It is the most healthy and pleasur­able situation of any known in this part of the country. Here the Spanish Commandant, and the principal Indian Traders reside; who by concilating the affections of the natives, have drawn all the Indian trade of the Misouri, part of that of the Missisippi, and of the tribes of Indians residing near the Ouisconsing, and Illinoi [...] Rivers, to this village. In St. Louis are 120 houses, mostly built of stone. They are large and commodious. This village has 800 inhabitants, chiefly French; some of them have had a liberal educa­tion, are polite and hospitable. They have about 150 ne­groes, and large stocks of black cattle, &c.

Twelve miles below, or southerly of Fort Chartres on the Western bank of the Missisippi, and nearly opposite to the village of Kaskaskias, is the village St Genevieve or Miss [...]re. It contains upwards of 100 houses, and 460 inhabitants, [Page 19] besides Negroes. This and St. Louis are all the villages that are upon the western, or Spanish side of the Missisippi.

Four miles below St. Genevieve (on the western bank of Missisippi) at the mouth of a Creek, is a Hamlet, called the Saline. Here all the sal [...] is made, which is used in the Illinois country, from a salt spring, that is at this place.* The Ridge which form, the eastern bank of the Missisippi, above the Misouri River, continues northerly to the Illinois River, and then directs its course along the eastern side of that River, for about 220 miles, when it declines, in gentle slopes, and ends in extensive rich savannahs. On the top of this Ridge, at the mouth of the Illinois River, is an a­greeable and commanding situation, for a fo [...]t, and tho' the Ridge is high and steep (about 130 feet high) and ra­ther difficult to ascend; yet when ascended, it affords a most delightful prospect. The Missisippi is distinctly seen from its summit for more than twenty miles, as are the beautiful meanderings of the Illinois River, for many leagues; next a level, fruitful meadow presents itself, of at least one hundred miles in circuit on the western side of the M [...]ssisippi, watered by several lakes, and shaded by small groves of copses of trees, scattered in different parts of it, and then the eye, with rapture, surveys, as well the high lands bordering upon the River Misouri, as those at a great­er distance up the Missisippi,—In fine, this charming ridge is covered with excellent Grass, large Oak, Walnut trees, &c. and at the distance of about nine miles from the Missisippi, up the Illinois River, are seen many large savan­nahs, or meadows abounding in Buffaloe, Deer, &c.

[Page 20]In ascending the Missisippi, Cape au Gres, particularly attracted my attention. It is about 8 leagues above the Illinois River, on the eastern side of the Missisippi, and con­tinues above five leagues on that River. There is a grad­ual descent back to delightful meadows, and to beautiful and frrtile uplands water'd by several Rivule [...]s, which fall into the Illinois River between 30 and 40 miles from its en­trance into the Missisippi, and into the latter at Cape au G [...]es. The distance from the Missisippi, to the River Illi­nois across the country, is lessened or increased, according to the windings of the former River; the smallest distance is at Cape au Gres, and there it is between four and five miles. The lands in this intermediate space between the above two Rivers are rich, almost beyond parallel, cover­ed with large Oaks, Walnut &c. and not a stone is [...]o be seen, except upon the sides of the River. It is even ac­knowle [...]ged by the French inhabitants, that if settlements were only begun at Gape au Gres, those upon the Spanish side of the Missisippi, would be abandoned, as the former would excite a constant succession of settlers, and intercept all the trade of the upper M [...]ssisippi.

The Illinois River furnishes a communication with Lake Michigan, by the Chicago River, and by two portages be­tween the latter and the Illinois River; the longest of which does not exceed four miles.

The Illinois country is in general of a superior soil to any other part of North America that I have seen. It pro­duces fine Oak, Hickory, Cedar, Mulberry trees, &c. some Dying roots and medecinal Plants; Hops, and ex­cellent wild grapes, and in the year 1769, one hundred and ten hogsheads of well tasted and strong Wine, were made by the French settlers, from these Grapes.

A large quantity of Sugar is also annually made from the juce of the Maple tree; and as the Mulberry trees are large and numerous, I presume the making of Silk will employ the attention and industry of the settlers, when the country is more fully inhabited than at present, and especially [...] the winters are much more moderate, and favourable for the breed of Silk Worms, than they are in many of the sea coast provinces. Indigo may likewise be successfully cultivated, (but not more than two cuttings in [Page 21] Wheat, Peas, and Indian Corn thrive well, as does every sort of Grain and Pulse, that is produced in any of the old Colonies. Great quantities of Tobacco are also yearly raised by the inhabitants of the Illinois, both for their own consumption, and that of the Indians;—but little has hitherto been exported to Europe. Hemp grows sponta­neously, and is of a good texture;—Its common height i [...] 10 feet, and its thickness three inches (the latter reckoned within about a foot of the root) and with little labour any quantity may be cultivated. Flax seed has hitherto been only raised in small quantities. There has however been enough produced to shew, that it may be sown to the great­est advantage. Apples, Pears, Peaches, and all other Eu­ropean fruits succeed admirably. Iron, Copper, and Lead Mines, as also Salt Springs, have been discovered in dif­ferent parts of this territory. The two latter are worked on the Spanish side of the Missisippi, with considerable ad­vantage to their owners. There is plenty of fish in the Rivers, particularly Cat, Carp, and Perch, of an uncom­mon size.—Savannahs, or natural meadows, are both nu­merous and extensive; yielding excellent grass, and feed­ing great herds of Buffaloe, Deer, &c. Ducks, Teal, Geese, Swans, Cranes, Pelicans, Turkies, Pheasants, Partridges, &c. such as are seen in the Sea coast Colonies, are in the greatest variety and abundance.—In short, every thing, that a reason [...] mind can desire, is to be found, or may, with little pains, be produced here*.

Niagara Fort is a most important post, It secures a greater number of communications, through a large coun­try, than probably any other pass in interior America;— it stands at the entrance of a straight, by which Lake Onta­rio, is joined to Lake Erie, and the latter is connected with the three great Lakes Huron, Michegan, and Superior. About nine miles above Fort Niagara, the carrying place begins. It is occasioned by the stupendous cataract of that name. The quantity of water which tumbles over this Fall is unparralleled in America;—its heighth, is not less than 137 feet This Fall would interrupt the commu­nication [Page 22] between the Lakes Ontario and Erie; if a road was not made up the hilly country; that borders upon the straight. This road extend [...] to [...] small post eighteen miles from the Fort Niagara He [...] the traveller embarks in a battoe or canoe, and proceeds eighteen miles to a small fort at Lake Erie. [...] may be proper also to add, that [...] the end of the first two miles, in the last mentioned dis­tance of 18 miles, the Stream of the River is divided by a large Island, above nine miles in length,; and at the up­per end of it, about a [...] from Lake Erie, are three or four islands, not far from [...]ch o [...]her; these islands by in­terrupting and con [...]ining the waters discharged from the Lake, greatly increase the rapidity of the stream; which indeed is so violent, that the stiffest gale is scarcely suffici­ent to enable a large vessel to stem it, but it is successfully resisted in small battoes or canoes, that are rowed near the shore.

Lake Erie, is about 225 miles in length, and upon a medium about 40 miles in breadth. It affords a good na­vigation for shipping of any burthen. The coast on both sides of the Lake is generally favourable for the passage of battoes and canoes. Its banks in many places have a flat sandy shore, particularly to the eastward of the Peninsula, called Long Point, which extends into the Lake, in a south eastern direction for upwards of 18 miles, and is not more than five miles wide in the broadest part, but the Isthmus, by which it joins the continent, is scarcely 200 yards wide. The Peninsula is composed of Sand, and is very convenient to haul boats out of the su [...]f upon, (as is also almost every other part of the shore) when the Lake is too rough for [...]owing or sailing; yet there are some places, where, in [...]oisterous weather (on account of their great perpendicular height) it would be dangerous to approach, and impossible to land: most of these places are marked in my Map with the letter X.

Lake Erie has a great varety of fine fish, such as Stur­geon, Eel, White Fish, Trout, Perch▪ &c.

The country northward of this Lake, is in many parts [...]elled with moderate hills, but no high mountains. The climate is temperate, and the air healthful. The lands are well timbered, (but not generally so rich, as those upon [Page 23] the southern side of the lake) and for a considerable distance from it, and for several miles eastward of Cayahoga River, they appear quite level, and e [...]remely fertile; and except where extensive savannahs, or natural meadows intervene, are covered with large Oaks, Walnut, Ash, Hickory, Mulberry, Sassafras, &c. &c. and produce a great variety of Shrubs and Medic [...]nal roots.—Here also is great plen­ty of Buffaloe Deer Turkies Partriges, &c.

Fort Detroit is of an oblong figure, built with stockades, and advantageously situated, with one entire side com­manding the river, called Detroit. This fort is near [...] mile in circumference, and encloses about one hundred houses, built in a regular manner, with parallel street [...], crossing each other at right angles. Its situation is de­lightful, and in the centre of a pleasant fruitful, country.

The strait St. Clair (commonly called the Detroit River) is at its entrance more than three miles wide, but in ascending it, it [...] width perceptibly diminishes, so that op­posite to the Fort, (which is 18 miles from Lake Erie) it does not exceed half a mile in width. From thence to Lake St. Clair, it widens more than a mile. The chan­nel of the straight is gentle and wide, and deep enough for shipping of great burthen, although it is incommoded by several islands; one of which is more than seven miles in length. These Islands are of a fertile soil, and from their situation afford a very agreeable appearance. For eight miles below, and the same distance above Fort Detr [...]it, on both sides of the River, the country is divided into well cultivated plantations, and from the contiguity of the far­mers houses to each other, they appear as two long extend­ed villages. The inhabitants, who are mostly French, are about 2000 in number: 500 of whom are as good marks­men, and as well accustomed to the woods, as the Indian natives themselves. They raise large stocks of black cat­tle, and great quantities of corn, which they grind by wind mills, and manufacture into excellent Flour. The chief trade of Detroit consists in a barter of course European goods with the natives for Furrs, Deer-s [...]ins, Tallow, &c.

The rout from Lake St. Clair to Lake Huron, is up a straight or River, about 400 yards wide. This river de­ [...]ives itself from Lake Huron, and at the distance of 33 [Page 24] miles [...]oses itself in Lake St. Clair. It is in general rapid but particularly so near its source;—its channel, and also that of Lake St Clair, are sufficiently deep for shipping of very considerable burthen. This strait has several mouths, and the lands lying between them are fine meadows. The country on both sides of it, for 15 miles, has a very level appearance, but from thence to Lake Huron, it is in many places broken, and covered with white Pines, Oaks, Maple, Birch and Beech.

APPENDIX, No. I. Mr. PATRICK KENNEDY'S Journal of an Expedition un­dertaken by himself and several Coureurs de Bois in the year 1773,—from Kaskaskias Village in the Illinois Coun­ty to the Head W [...]ters of the Illinois River *.

JULY 23, 1773. We set out form Kaskaskias in search of a Copper mine, and on the 31st reached the Illi­nois River; it is 84 miles from Kaskáskias. The same day we entered the Illinois River which is 18 miles a­bove that of the Missouri. The water was so low, and the sides of the river so full of weeds, that our progress was much interrupted, being obliged to row our boat in the deep water, and strong current. The chain of rocks, and high hills which begin at the Piasas about three miles above the Missouri, extend to the mouth of the Illinois River, and continue along the south-eastern side of the same in an east-north-east course. About eigh­teen miles up this river, on the eastern side, is a little river called by the natives Macopin or White Potato Riv­er; it is 20 yards wide, and navigable nine miles to the hills. The shore is low on both sides; the timber, Bois connu, or Paccan, Maple, Ash, Button wood, &c. The course of the Illinois River here, is N. N, E; the land is well timbered, and covered with high weeds. There are fine meadows at a little distance from the riv­er; the banks of which do not crumble away as those of the Missisippi do: we passed numbers of Islands, some [Page 25] of them between nine and twelve miles in length, and three miles in bre [...]dth.—The general width of the Riv­er in this day's journey, was about 400 yards.

August 1, about 12 o'clock, we stopped at the Piorias wintering ground. About a quarter of a mile from the River, on the eastern side of it, is a meadow of many miles long, and five or six miles broad. In this meadow are many small lakes, communicating with each other, and by which there are passages for small boats or canoes and one in particular, leads to the Illinois River. The [...]mber in general very tall Oaks. We met with some beautiful islands in this part of the River (48 miles from the Missisippi) and great plenty of Buffaloe and Deer.

August 2, At [...]ne o'clock we passed an island called Piere. A Fleech [...], or arrow stone is gotten by the In­dians from a high [...]ill on the western side of the Ri­ver, near the above island; with this stone, the natives make their gun flints, and point their arrows. Half a league above this [...]sland, on the eastern side of it, the meadows border on the river, and continue several miles; the land is remarkably rich, and well watered with small Rivulets from the neighbouring hills. The banks of the River are high, the water clear, and at the bottom of the River are whi [...]e Marl and Sand.

August 3, Passed the Mine River. It comes into the Illinois River on the northwestern side of it, 120 miles from the Missisippi. It is 50 yards wide and very rapid.

August 4, Here the land on both sides of the Illinois River is low, but rises gradually. The Prairie ▪ or meadow ground on the eastern side, is at least twenty miles wide; it is fine land for tillage, or for grazing cattle, and is well watered with a number of springs. About 12 o'clock we passed the River Sag [...]mond, 13 [...] miles from the Missisippi. It is a River 100 ya [...]ds wide, and navigable for small boats or canoes upwards of 180 miles, and about sunset, we passed the River Demi-Quian It comes in on the western side of the Illinos, River; (165 miles from the M [...]ssisippi;) is 50 yards wide, and navigable 120 miles. We encamped on the south eastern side of the Illinois river, opposite to a very large savannah, belonging to and called, the [Page 26] Demi-Quian swamp. The lands on the south-eastern side are high and thinly timbered; but at the place of our encampment are fine meadows, extending farthe [...] than the eye can reach, and affording a delightful pro­spect. The low lands on the western side of the Illinois River, extend so far back from it that no high grounds can be seen. Here is plenty of Buffaloe, Deer, Elk, Turkies, &c.

August 5, It rained all day, which detained us till the evening, when we embarked, and rowed till dark; in our way we passed the Lake Demi-Quian, 200 yards west from the river of that name, it is a circular figure, six miles across, and discharges itself by a small passage, four feet deep into the Illinois River. This Lake is 171 miles from the Missisippi. The general course of the Illinois River varies very little; it rather however inclines to the eastward. The lands are much the same as before described, only the Prairies (Meadows) ex­tend further from the river by our reckoning, we are 177 miles from the M [...]ssisippi.

August 6. Set out early, and at 11 o'Clock we pas­sed the Seseme Quian river, it is on the western si [...]e of the Illinois river; is 40 yards wide, and navigable 60 miles; the land bordering on this river is very good. About four o'clock we passed the river De la March, (on the western side also of the Illinois river;) it is 30 yards wide, and navigable about eight or nine miles only. Though the De la March is not so long as the Seseme Quian, yet it is much hansomer. These rivers are about nine miles distant from each other. Here the land begins to rise gradually on the western bank. At sun set we passed a river called Michilimackinac. It is on the south-eastern side of the Illinois River; is 50 yards wide, navigable for about 90 miles, and has betw [...]n 30 and 40 small islands at its mouth; which at a distance ap­pear like a small v [...]llage. On the banks of this river is plenty of good timber, viz. Red and white Cedar, Pine, Maple, Walnut, &c. and finding some pieces of coal, I was induced to walk up the river a few miles, tho' not far enough to reach a coal mine. In ma [...] places I [...] fo [...]nd cli [...]kers, [...]ich inclined me to thi [...]k that [Page 27] a coal mine, not far distant, was on fire, and I have since heard, there was.—The land is high on the eastern bank of the river, but on the western are large plains or meadows, extending as far as can be seen, covered with fine grass. This river is 195 [...] from the Missippi.

August 7, The morning being very foggy, and the River overgrown with weeds along its sides, we could make but little way. About 12 o'clock we got to the old Pioria Fort and village on the western shore of the Riv­er, and at the southern end of the lake called the Illinois Lake; which is 19 miles and a half in length, and three miles in breadth. It has no Rocks, Shoals or per­ceivable Current. We found the stockades of this Pioria Fort destroyed by fire, but the houses standing. The summit on which the Fort stood, commands a fine prospect of the country to the eastward, and up the lake to the point, where the River comes in at the north end; to the westward are large meadows. In the lake is great plenty of fish, and in particular, Sturgeon, and Picannau. On the eastern side of the lake, about the middle of it, the chain of Rocks, that extends from the back of Kaskaskias, to Cahokia Piasa, the mouth of the Illinois River, &c. terminates. The Country to the westward, is low and very level, covered with Grass, Weeds, Flags, &c. Here is abundance of Cherry, P [...]umb and other fruit trees. This lake is 210 miles from the Missisippi.

August 8, The wind being fair we made a sail of our tent, and reached the upper end of the lake by sun set; and the wind continuing fair we ascended the River, and about 4 o'clock passed Crows Meadows River, which comes from the eastward, and over against it, on the west side, are the meadows just mentioned, 240 miles from the Missisippi. This River is twenty yards wide, and navigable between 15 and 18 miles. The land on both sides of the Illinois River, for 27 or 30 miles above the lake, is generally low and full of Swamps, some a mile wide, bordered with fine meadows, and in some places, the high land comes to the River in points, or narrow necks.

[Page 28] August 9, At 10 [...], we passed the Riviere de l' Isle de Pl [...]ye [...]r [...] Island River, on the south-east side it is [...]5 [...]rds w [...]de, and navigable nine miles to the rocks. After passing this River, which is 255 miles from the Missisippi, we found the water very shallow, and it was with difficulty that we got forward, though we employed seven oars, and our boat drew only three feet water. The grass which grows in the interval or mea­dow ground, between the Illinois River and the Rocks, is finer than any we have seen, and is thicker and higher and more clear from weeds, than in any of the meadows about Kaskaskias or Fort Chartres. The timber is gene­rally Birch, Button, and Paccan. —The wind continuing fair, about 10 o'clock we passed the Vermillion River, 267 miles from the Missisippi. It is 30 yards wide, but so rocky as not to be navigable. At the distance of a mile further, we arrived at the little rocks, which are 60 miles from the [...] 270 miles from the Missisippi. The water being very low, we could get no further with our boat, and therefore we proceeded by land to the Forks. We set out about two o'clock on the western side of the River, but the grass and weeds were so high, that we could make but little way.

August 10, We crossed the high land, at ten o'clock we came to the Fox River (or a branch of it) after walking twenty-four miles. It falls into the Illinois River, thirty miles beyond the place where we left our boat. The Fox River is 25 yards wide, and has about five feet water; its course is from the westward by many windings through large meadows. At three miles dis­tance, after crossing this river, we fell in with the Illinois River again, and kept along its bank; here we found a path. About six o'clock we arrived, after walking about 12 miles, at an old encampment, fifteen miles from the Fork. The land is stoney, and the meadows not so good as some which we formerly passed;—from hence we went to an island, where several French traders were e [...]camp'd, but we could get no intelligence from them about the copper mine which we had set out in search of. At this island we hired one of the French hunters to cond [...]ct us in a canoe to our boat.

[Page 29] August 11, We set off about three o'clock, and at night got within nine miles of our boat. We computed it to be 45 miles from the island we last departed from, to the place where we left our boat.

August 12, We embarked early, and proceeded three miles down the Illinois River. On the north-wes­tern side of this river is a coal mine, that extends for half a mile along the middle of the bank of the river, which is high. On the eastern side, about half a mile from it, and about the same distance below the coal mine, are two salt ponds, 100 yards in circumference, and several feet in depth; the water is stagnant, and of a yellowish colour; but the French, and natives make good salt from it. We tasted the water, and though [...] it salter than that which the French make salt from at the saline near St. Genevie [...]. At nine o'clock we arrived at our boat. From the island, where we found the French traders, and from whence we embarked in a canoe to go to our boat, there is a considerable de­scent and Rapid all the way. Here it is, that the French settlers cut their mill stones. The land along the banks of the river is much better than what we meet with, when we crossed the country on the 10th of this month. On the high lands, and particularly those on the south-eastern side, there is abundance of red and white Cedar, Pine trees, &c. We embarked about two o'clock, and proceeded till nine at night.

August 13, We lay by half this day, on account of wet weather.

August 14, Embarked early, and after crossing the Illinois lake arrived late in the evening, at the Pi [...]ri [...] Fort.

August 15, Rowed very constantly all day, and ar­rived at the Mine River in the evening. Here I met with Mr. Janiste a French gentleman, and prevailed on him to accompany me, in an attempt up this River, to discover the Copper-Mine.

August 16, Embarked early, and ascended the Mine River in a small canoe, about 6 miles, but could get no further, as the river was quite dry a little higher up. It runs the above distance, through very high grounds, is [Page 30] rocky and very crooked; the banks of the river are much broken, and the passage choaked with timber; — Mr. Janiste says, that the current is so strong in flood [...], no­thing can resist it. The bottom is sand, green in some places, and red in others; it is said, that there is an allum hill on this river; —As I thought it was impos­sible to get to the mine by land at this season of the year, on account of the rocky mountains, weeds, briars, &c. I determined to return to Kaskaskias, and accordingly we went back to our boat, embarked about one o'clock, and continued rowing day and night until 12 o'clock the 18th, when we entered the river Missisippi on our way to Kaskaskias village.

[Page]
APPENDIX No. III. A List of the different Nations and Tribes of Indians in the Northern District of North America, with the number of their fighting Men, &c. &c.
Names.Numb [...]Their dwelling grounds.Their hunting ground [...]
Mohocks1 [...]0Mohock riverBetween the Mohock ri­ver and lake George.
Oneida [...]300East side of Onida lake, & on the head waters of the east branch of Susque­hannah.In the country where they live.
Tuscaror [...]200Between the Onidas and Onandagoes.Between Oneida Lake and Lake Ontario.
[...]nondagoes260Near the Onondago Lake.Between the Onondago Lake, and the mouth of the Seneca river, near Oswego.
Cayugas.200On two small lakes called Cayugas near the north branch of [...]usquehannahNear the north bran [...]h of Susquehannah.
Senecas1000 [...]eneca country, on the waters of Susquehan­nah, the waters of lake Ontario, and on the heads of O­hio River.Their chief hunting country, where they live.
Aughquaga [...]150East branch of Susquehannah River, and on AughquagaOn the east branch of Susquehannah, and on Aughquaga.
  • Manticokes
  • Mohickons
  • Conoya
  • 100
  • 100
  • 30
Utsanango, Chagh net. Oswego, and on the east branch of SusquehannahWhere they respective­ly reside.
  • Munsay [...]
  • [...]apoon [...]
  • Delawares
  • 150
  • 30
  • 1 [...]0
At Dia [...]ago and other villages up the north branch of Susque­hannah.Where they respective­ly reside▪
Delawares600Between the Ohio and Lake Erie and on the Branches of Beaver Creek, Muskingum, and Guyehago.Between the Ohio Ri­ver and Lake Erie.
[...]hawanoes300On Sioto and a branch of Muskingum.Between the Ohio Ri­ver and Lake Erie.
  • [...]ayondott [...]
  • Mohickons
  • Coghuawagas
300 [...]n villages near San­duskyOn the head branche [...] of Sioto.
Twightwees250Miami River near [...] Mi [...]i.On the ground where [...]hey reside
  • Kickap [...]os
  • Pyankeshaws
  • Musquitons
  • Ouiatanons
1000On the Wabash and its branc [...]es.Between the mouth of the W [...]bash and the Miami Rivers.
  • Kask [...]kias
  • [...]iorias
  • Mitchigamas
300Near the settlements in Illinois country. [...]n the Illinois country.
  • Wayondott [...]
  • Ottaw [...]s
  • Put [...]watimes
  • 250
  • 400
  • 1 [...]0
Near Fort Detroit.About Lake Erie.
Chepawas & Ottawas100On Sagurnam bay, a part of Lake Huron [...]n Saguinan, bay, and Lake Huron.
Kickapoos400Near the entrance of Lake Superior, and not far from—St Mary's. [...]bout Lake Superior.
  • Chepawas
  • Mynomanies
  • Saukeys
550Near bay Puan, a part of Lake Michigan. [...]bout bay Puan, and Lake Michigan.
  • Putawatimes
  • Ottawas
  • 200
  • 1 [...]0
Near Fort St. Josephs.The country between Lake Michigan and the Miami Fort.
  • Kickapooses
  • O [...]ttagomies
  • Musquatons
  • Miscotins
  • Outtamacks
  • Musquakeys
[...],000On Lake Michigan an [...] be [...]w [...]en it, and the M [...]ssisippi.Where they respective­ [...]y reside.
Oswegatches100At Swagatchey in Ca­nada & on the Ri­ver St. LawrenceNear where they live
  • Connesedagoes
  • Coghnawagoes
300Near Mont [...]e [...]l.Near where they live.
  • Orondocks
  • Abonakies
  • Alagonkins
  • 100
  • [...]50
  • 100
Near Trois Reviers.Near where they live.
La Sue1000 [...]Westward of Lake Superior and the Missisippi.In the country where they reside.
Ottawas200On the east side of Lake Michig [...]n, 2 [...] miles from Michili­mackinac. [...]n the country betwee [...] the Lak [...]s Michiga [...] and Huron.
Ch [...]pawas1000On Lake Superior, and the Islands in that Lake.Round Lake Superior.
[Page]
A TABLE OF DISTANCES, between FORT PITT, and the Mouth of the RIVER OHIO.
Fort Pitt
Logs Town18 ½
Big Beaver Creek10 ¼29 1/ [...]
Little Beaver Creek13 ½24 ¼42 [...]/4
Yellow Creek11 ¾25 ¼3654 1/ [...]
Two Creeks21 ¾33 ½4757 ¾76 ¼
Long Reach53 ¾75 ½87 ¼100 ¾111 ½130
End Long Reach16 ½70 ¼92103 ¾117 ¼128146 ½
Muskingum25 ½4295 ¾117 [...]/2129 ¼142 ¾153 [...]/2;172
Little Kanhawa12 [...]/23854 ½108 ¼130141 ¾155 ¼166184 ¼
Hockhocking1628 ½5470 ½124 ¼146157 ¾171 ¼182200 ½
Big Kanhaw [...]82 ½98 ½111136 ½153206 ¾228 ½240 ¼253 ¾264 ½283
Guyunda43 ¾126 ¼142 ¼154 ¾180 ¼196 ¾250 ½2 [...]2 ¼284297 ½308 ¼ [...]26 ¼
Sandy Creek14 ½58 ¼140 ¾156 ¾169 ¼194 [...]/4211 ¼265286 ¾298 ½312322 ¾341 ¼
Sioto48 ¾63 ¼107189 ½205 ½218243 ½260313 ¾335 ½347 ¼360 ¾371 1/ [...]390
[...] Miam [...]126 ¼175189 ½233 ¼315 ¾ [...]31 ¾344 ¼369 ¾386 ¼440461 ¾ [...]73 ½487497 [...]/4 [...]16 ¼
[...] [...]reek8 [...]34 ¼183197 1/ [...]241 ¼323 ¾33 [...] ¾352 ¼377 ¾394 ¼448469 ¾481 ½495505 ¾524 ¼
[...]26 ¾34 ¾161209 ¾224 ¼268350 ½366 ½379404 ½421474 [...]/4496 ½508 ¼521 [...]/4532 ½551
[...] [...]59 ¼67 ¼193 ½242 ¼256 [...]/4300 ½383399411 ½437453 1/ [...]507 ¼529540 ¼ [...]54 ¼565583 ½
Ke [...]ts [...] [...] [...]03 ½111 ½237 ¼286 ½301344 ¾427 ¼443 ¼455 ¾481 ¼497 ¾551 ½573 ¼585 [...]98 ½609 ¼627 ¾
Rapids [...] [...] [...]181189315 ¼364378 ½422 ¼504 ¾520 ¾533 ¼558 [...]/4575 ¼629 [...]50 ¾662 ½676686 ¾ [...]05 ¼
Low Country [...]55 ¾ [...] [...] [...] [...]36 [...]/4344 ¾471519 [...]/4 [...]34 ¼578660 ½676 ½689714 ½731784 [...]/ [...]806 ½818 ¼ [...]31 ¾842 ½861
Buffaloe River64 ¼220 ¼ [...] [...] [...] [...]01 ¼409 ¼535 ½584 ¼598 ¾642 ½725741753 ½779795 ½849 ¼871882 ¾ [...]96 ¼90 [...]925 ½
Wabash97 ¼161 [...]/4317 ½ [...] [...] [...] [...]98 [...]/2 [...]06 ½632 [...]/4681 ½696739 ¾822 ¼838 ¼850 ¾876 ¼892 ¼946 ½ [...]68 ¼980 [...]93 ½1004 [...]/ [...]1022 3/ [...]
Big Cave42 ¼140204 ½360 ¼ [...] [...] [...] [...]41 ¼549 ¼675 1/ [...]724 ¼738 [...]/4782 ½865881893 ½919935 ½989 ¾10111022 ¾1036 ¼104 [...]1065 [...]/2
Shawano [...] River52 [...]/ [...]95 ¼ [...]92 ½25 [...]412 ¼ [...] [...] [...] [...]93 [...]/4601 [...]/4728776 1/ [...]791 ¼835 [...]17 ½933 ½946971 ½9881041 [...]/ [...]1063 [...]1075 [...]/ [...]1088 ¾1099 1/ [...]1118
Cherokee River1365 ½108 [...]/420 [...] ½2 [...]425 [...]/4 [...] [...] [...] [...]06 ¼614 ¼741789 ¼804 ¼848930 ½946 ½959984 ½10011054 [...]/ [...]1076 ½1088 [...]/ [...]1101 ¼1112 [...]/ [...]1231
Massac112476 ½119 ¼216 ¼281 [...]36 [...]/4 [...] [...] [...] [...]17 4/ [...]625 [...]/ [...]752800 [...]/481 [...] [...]/48 [...] [...]41 1/ [...] [...]57 ½970995 ½10121065 [...]/ [...]1087 ½1099 [...]/ [...]1112 ¾1123 1/ [...]1142
Missisippi4 [...]5 [...] [...] [...] [...] [...] [...] [...] [...] [...] [...] [...] [...] [...] [...] [...] [...] [...] [...] [...]10 [...]10 [...] [...] [...] [...] [...] [...] [...]

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