PROCEEDINGS AND TREATY WITH The Shawanese, Nanticokes, and Mohikander INDIANS, LIVING At Otsiningo, on one of the West Branches of the Susquehanna River.

NEGOTIATED At Fort-Johnson, in the County of Albany, in the Province of NEW-YORK; BY The Honourable Sir William Johnson, Bart. &c.

PUBLISHED By Order of his Excellency the Right Honourable JOHN Earl of LOUDOUN, Commander in Chief of all His Majesty's Forces in [...].

NEW-YORK: Printed and Sold by J. PARKER and W. WEYMAN, at the New Printing-Office in Beaver-Street, MDCCLVII

[Page iii]

FORT-JOHNSON, 14th April 1757, P. M.

PETER SPELIMAN, a German, who has lived these Seven Years past among the Indians, and whose Indian Name i [...] Owiligas [...]h [...] ▪ Son-in-Law to one of the Chiefs of the Shawanese Indians, living on one of the [...] Branches of the Susquehanna River, arrived here; after taking some Refreshment, spoke to Sir WILLIAM JOHNSON, as follo [...]s:


The King of the Shawanese hath sent me forward wi [...] these two Strings of Wampum, to acquaint you, that he is on the Road, and [...] be here To-morrow with near Two Hundred Indians, Shawanese, Nantico [...], and Moh [...]ck [...]n­de [...]s. They are coming to sm [...]ke a friendly Pipe with you, after the Ma [...]r of our Fore-fathers, and to offer their Assistance to you in the present [...] Times. The Aughguages and Tuscaroros told him, that [...] up to come and see you, they would also rise and accompany [...]. He [...] wa [...] ­ed on the Road expecting them, but as they are not yet [...], he will make no further Delay, but proceed hither. Gave two Str [...]ng [...] of Wampum.

Sir William told him to acquaint the King of the Shawanese, and the [...] of the Indians, that he should be glad to see them, and would prepare for their R [...] ­ception. Gave two Strings of Wampum.

15th April, P. M.

The aforesaid Indians arrived on the opposite Side of the River, and [...] sa­luting the Fort with a Discharge of their Guns, [...] Side. Sir William sent the Secretary over to them to tell them▪ that [...] glad to see and smoak a Pipe with two or three of their [...] ac­ [...]ordingly came over the River. They acquainted Sir William that there were [...] Nations of them, to wit, Shawanese, Nanticokes and Mohickanders, [...] at Ostiningo, on one of the West Branches of the Susqu [...]hanna River.

Sir William treated them with Pipes, Tobacco and R [...]m; and after staying [...] Time, they took their Leave for that Evening.

16th April.

There being such a Fresh in the River, as render [...]d [...] Pas [...]ge over diffic [...]lt [...]nd tedious; the Indians removed, came on this Side, and encamped behind the House.

17th April, P. M.

The Chief Men of the aforesaid Indians, with several of their P [...]ple▪ [...]me into the Meeting-Room, and sent Word to Sir William, that the [...] desired to speak a few Words to him▪ but he being indisposed, sent the Secretary [...] to te [...] them, that if they had any Thing of Moment to say now, they might speak it to him, and which he would take down in Writing.

Whereupon a young Mohickander, named Jonathan, Son of the King or Chief of that Nation, and who spoke very good Low-Dutch, said as follows;

AR [...]NT STEVENS, the Interpreter, being present.

[Page iv]

[...] Belt (holding a Belt in his Hand) which you sent to invite our People [...]ither §.


[...] received your Belt of Invitation, our Hearts rejoiced within us, and [...] imm [...]diately r [...]se up, regardless of the Severity of the Season, and through Snow, Ice, and Water, c [...]me to see you.


We are now come to this Council Fire, and we are rejoiced to find Ourselves sitting over it.


Wh [...]n we have finis [...]d our present Meeting, we propose to rise up and return to our Habitati [...]ns; and when we get there, we shall communicate to the rest of our People we have left at Home, all that may pass between Us here; and not only to the People of our Towns, but also to the Shawanese, on the Ohio, and to all the scattered Delawares and Mohickanders; and we shall acquaint them all that we have made a Covenant of Peace, Friendship, and Alliance with you, in Behalf of all our People, and our Brethren the English.


The Arrival of these I [...]ians, was wholly unexpected by Sir William [...], and upon Enqui [...]y, he f [...]nd the Case to be as follow [...]

Last [...], the before mentioned P [...]ter Spel [...]man, or, [...], came to Fort [...], and said he was sent b [...] the [...] Chief with a [...] of Intelligence, which he then delivered.

Sir [...] sent by him two large [...] of Wampum▪ one for the [...], remind­ing them of the Engagements they had entered into at th [...] Hou [...] [...]ast Summer▪ The [...], to [...] the [...] Chief for his Intelligence, and [...]oping He and his People would be ready to come and [...] Majesty [...]s Arms, whenever he might [...] to them.

The said Messenger made a Mistake in delivering these Belts, and told the Shawanese and Mohickan [...]rs, that Sir [...] desired to see them as soon as possible, upon which the [...]e [...] set off and came hither.

18th April.

Sir William sent for the Heads of the aforesaid Indians, who came into his Room, when he told them, that he was s [...]rry his Indisp [...]tion prevented his meet­ing them Yesterday—that he was to Day something better, and a [...] there were se­veral of the Six Nations, who had been here some Days, he propos [...]d to finish Business with them to Day, and would To-morrow speak to them and their People.

[Page 5]

[...], April the 10 [...] 1757 ▪ P. M PRESENT, • Sir WILLIAM JOHNSON, Baronet, &c. , • Lieutenant [...], of the Royal-Americans. , • Lieutenant [...], of the Royal-Americans. , • Capt. PETER WRAXALL▪ Secretary. , • Mr. [...] S [...]VIN [...], Interpreter. , • PAXI [...], King of the [...]. , • [...], King or Chief o [...] the Nanticokes. , • ABRAHAM, alia [...] [...], King or Chief of the Mohickanders , • Above One Hundred and [...] INDIANS of said Nations. , and • Sundry INDIANS of the Six-Nations. 



I AM glad to see you at this House,—here a Council Fire is alway [...] burn­ing▪—here a Tree of Shelter is planted, not only for the Six-Nati [...]s, but for all Indians who are, or desire to be in Peace and Friendship with the English, and will acknowledge the Great King of England, my Master, for their Father. He hath ordered and impowered me to take care of all his dutiful and good Children the Indians, in these Parts. I do on my Side, keep this Council Room free from all Defilement. There is nothing allowed to come here which will hurt any good and honest Indian.

WHEN I consider the Distance you are come, the severe Season of the Year, and the extream Badness of the Roads, and also, that there is a great Meeting of the Susquehanna Indians now holding under my Direction, with Mr. Creghan, my Deputy, at Harris's-Ferry, on the Susqu [...]hanna River, so much nearer than this to your Habitations; I could, from Brotherly Ten­derness, have wished you had deferred your Journey here, till that Meeting had been over. You would then have had a more pleasant Time, and com­fortable Roads for travelling—Besides, the Result of that Meeting would have afforded you more Matter for this: However, I take your coming now, as a strong Proof of your Brotherly Love and Friendly Dispositions towards your Brethren the English. To this Council Room, I now heartily bid you welcome. Gave three Strings of Wampum.


Last Summer I held a Meeting, and entered into a Treaty in this Coun­cil Room, with the Shawanese King, now present; and with the King of the Delawares, settled at Tia [...]go. This Treaty I sent Home to the Great King, your Father; here it is printed, that all your Brethren, the English, on this Continent, may know what past; and what Agreements we have [Page 6] entered into. The Great GOD above is a Lover of Truth and Sincerity, he will send his Vengeance down on that People or Nation who deceive each other with Words of Peace and Friendship, when their Hearts speak War, and their Tongues utter Lies. You will find that the English will faithfully observe their Parts of this Treaty; and I hope, and doubt not, but your People will strictly observe the Engagements they solemnly bound themselves to. By this Belt I expect all you who are now present, will do the same on your Parts. Gave a Belt.


Some of you Mohickanders were present at this Treaty, and as I make no Doubt but all of you are acquainted with the Particulars of it, I shall therefore only put you in Mind, that it was their promised to send and invite all the Shawanese who live on the Ohio, and all the Delawares and Mohickan­ders who are scattered round about Fort Du Quesne, and those Parts, to come and put their Hands into the same Covenant Chain.

I desire to know what has been done in this Affair.

Gave three Strings of Wampum.


Listen, and I will tell you the Difference between the English and the French. The English desire and labour to unite all Indians into one general Bond of brotherly Love, and national Interest. The French endeavour to divide the Indians, and stir up War and Contention amongst them. Those who intend to destroy or enslave any People or Nation, will first endeavour to divide them.—This you and all the Indians upon this Continent, know, has always been, and continues to be, the Endeavours of the French. But thoug this is a Fact which I think all the Indians must certainly see, yet the French have found Means some how or other, so to bewitch their Un­derstandings, as to make many of them believe they love the Indians, and mean well towards them. 'Tis very strange, Brethren, that any one Man, much more any Number of Men, who are not either mad or drunk, can be­lieve that stirring up Brethren to spill each others Blood, dividing them from one another, and making Parties amongst them, are Proofs of Love, and Marks of friendly Designs towards them.

Not less unaccountable is it, Brethren, that the French should be able to persuade the Indians, that building Forts in the Middle of their Country and Hunting Grounds, is for their Interest and Protection. I tell you, Brethren, and I warn you, that whatever good Words the French may give you— how much soever they may now smile on you—whatever Presents they may now make you, your Chains are in their Pockets, and when their De­signs are ripe for Execution, they will take the Axe out of their Bosom and strike it into your Heads—But this they know they cannot do until you have broken the Covenant Chain with your Brethren the English, and taken up the Axe against them. 'Tis for this Reason the French are always endea­vouring, by Lies, by Presents, by Promises, to stir up all Indians to fall upon the English Settlements, to destroy their best Friends and faithful Bre­thren; and many Indians have been so wicked and foolish, as in Spight of Treaties and ancient Friendship, to become the Dogs of the French, and come and go as they commanded them.


If the Indians do not return to their Senses, they will see and feel when it is too late, that they have ruined themselves, enslaved their Posterity, and lost their Country▪

[Page 7]They will find their Country fortified by the French, not against the English, but against the Indians themselves.


What I have said, and am going to say, I say not to you only, but to all Indians; and I desire you will with this Belt, make it known amongst all the Nations you have any Acquaintance or Connections with. Tell them from me, to look at the French Forts built and building through the Middle of their Country, and on their best hunting Lands—Let them look at the [...] F [...]ags flying in their Forts at all the great Lakes, along all the g [...]eat Rivers, in order to ob [...]ge them to trade with the French only, sell their Skins, and take Goods for them at what Prices the French please to put on them—And it is a Thing well known to all Indians, that the French cannot sell them Goods near as cheap as the English can, nor in such Assort­ments and Plenty. Gave a large Belt.


Let a [...] Nations of Indians know, that the Great King of England, my Master, is their Friend; that he desires all Nations of Indians may unite to­gether, be as one Body and one Blood—He offers them his Alliance and Protection, which all Princes and People over the great Lake, are proud and glad of. He is ready to forgiv [...] all that has past, and receive them with the open and tender Arms of a forgiving Father, and a sincere Friend —He exho [...]ts them by me, to take off the Bandage from their Eyes, where­with the French hath blindfolded them, that they may see the true State of their Country, and avoid the C [...]ins which the French are preparing for them and their Posterity—Let them rise up as one Man, and assist His Majesty's Arms, in driving the French out of their Country.—

The Great King of England will then take Care that His People shall not invade your Lands, that His Traders shall supply you with Goods, and deal honestly by you.—

If the Indians will do their Parts herein, they and the English will be as one Flesh and one Blood, and every Indian on this Continent may then fit under his Tree in Peace, praise him that ruleth above,—smoke his Pipe, and dread no Enemy.


Let what I have now said to you, sink into your Hearts—publish it Word for Word to all your People at Home, and through all the Nations; make no Delay, for now is the Time for the Indians to chuse, whether they and their Children after them, will o [...] will not be, a Free, a Great, and a Happy People.

By this Belt I fasten all the Words I have said to you on your Hearts. Gave a great Belt of Wampum.


I would be glad to have the Opinion of you who are present, upon what I have said with these two Belts, and the Proposal I have made of its being published through the Nations.


I must inform you of an Accident which happened some Days ago, be­tween Albany and Schen [...]ctady. A River, or Mo [...]ckander Indian, was shot by a Soldier; who says the Indian first laid hold of him, abused and threatened him. The Soldier is in Confinement, will be tried, and if found guilty, will suffer. I am very sorry for this Misfortune, but there is no re­calling the Dead. All therefore that I can do, is to condole with you on [Page 8] this Occasion according to your Customs, and cover his Grave with these Blankets, Strouds and Stockings; and with these Handkerchiefs to dry up the Tears of his Friends and Relations. And I hope, that after this, as the Soldier is confined, you will rest easy and satisfied in your Minds, as no­thing more could be done if the same Accident had happened to me.

Here the above Goods were delivered; and after a Glass of Rum round, to drink the King's Health, the Meeting broke up.

Eod. Die, P. M. A Cayouga Sachem, named Tianoga, came into Sir William's Room, with old Aquiotta, an Oneida Sachem, and spoke to him as follows: • PETER WRAXA [...]L, Secretary. , and • ARENT STEVENS, Interpreter. 


As I was co [...]ing this Way, I called at Aughguaga. The Indians of that Place understanding I was to pass by your House, told me that they had a M [...]ssage to send by me to you, which was this: That the Shawanese and Mohickander Indians now here, called upon the Aughguages, and invited them to accom­pany them down hither, which the Aughguages agreed to, and were pack­ing up in order to follow those Indians, but the Weather grew so bad, and raised the Creeks so high, that they became impassable; besides which, a Sickness came among their People These Accidents put a Stop to their Intentions They desired me to tell you, Brother, that howsoever these Indians may be disposed, the Aughguages are steady and firm in their At­tachments towards their Brethren the English—they added further, that though they have not yet given you an Answer upon several Belts you have sent them, they desire you will not be displeased or uneasy on this Account, for they will take Care, that their Actions shall always prove they are worthy of your Friendship and Confidence.

The Aughguages gave me another Reason for their not coming to this Meeting—that they have lately received a Message from two of the Oneida Chiefs, named Conoghguiesa, and Teughsaniunt, acquainting them that their Country was now in Danger, as the French threatened to come that Way as soon as the Lakes were navigable; wherefore they desired all their Friends living at Aughguaga, to be ready to come to their Assistance when called upon. This they say they are ready to do, and after that is over, they will be ready to come to the Council Fire here.

Thus, Brother, I have acquitted myself of the Message delivered to me, for you.

FORT-JOHNSON, 21st April, 1757, P. M. PRESENT, • Sir WILLIAM JOHNSON, Baronet, &c. , • Lieutenant CLAUS. , • Mr. GUY JOHNSON. , and • Secretary, and Interpreter, as before. 

The Shawanese, Nanticoke and Mohikander Indians, being assembled in the Meeting Room, sent Sir William Word they were come to give their An­swer to his Speech to them the Nineteenth Instant. Upon his taking his Seat, Jonathan, the Mohickander, spoke in Low-Dutch, as follows:


If you are prepared to hear us, please to listen to what we have to say:

[Page 9]Sir William said he was ready, and would be attentive.


We are very much obliged to you for your kind Reception of us, and your Concern for the bad Journey we have had; we were not discouraged thereby, having our Hearts cheared with the Peace and Friendship our People made here with you last Summer. Gave three Strings of Wampum.


You asked us what was done about sending your Belt to the Ohio, and the Delaware Indians about Fort Du Quesne. We acknowledge that Belt was received, and it was given to Teediuscunt, the Chief Man at Tiaogo, (who is acquainted with all our Friends and Allies) what he hath done there­in, we do not really know. Gave three Strings.


You put us in Mind of the Treaty of Peace and Friendship entered into in this Council Room last Summer, between you and our Brothers th [...] Shawanese and Delawares, at Tiaogo.


All the Nations here present for themselves, and all belonging to them, lay hold of the said Covenant Chain, and are determined to keep fast the same as long as the Sun Shines, and GOD gives us Breath.

You have told us, Brother, that GOD knows all Things, and the Heart of every one of US. Brother, 'tis true, and we call GOD to Witness the Sincerity of our Resolutions, to keep unbroken, the Covenant Chain, with our Brethren the English: We will not tell you any Lies, and we assure you, that when our People at Home, shall hear of our entering into this Agree­ment of Peace and Friendship, they will, we are sure, be exceedingly re­joiced; and we will not only faithfully observe it ourselves, but teach the same to our Children yet unborn. Gave a Belt.


All you said to us concerning the Difference of Conduct between the Eng­lish and the French, and every Thing you desired us to publish amongst our People, and all the Nations, gave us great Satisfaction; and we think it to be the Truth. Be assured, we will not do as was done last Year, refer it to another, but we will deliver your Words, and send your Belt, with our own Mouths and Hands; and when we have done this, we will not fail to let you know what Effects it has had, and what Nations you can depend upon as Brethren; and what are your Enemies. Gave a Belt.


You told us the Day before Yesterday, that the French had put a Bandage over our Eyes, which you told us to remove, that we might look about and see clearly the State of our Country, and our true Interest

All you said to us on this Subject, was extreamly agreeable, and we thank you for it from the Bottom of our Hearts; it was acting like a Friend and Brother: But for our Parts, we have cast off the Bandage, and can see clearly round us, and which Way soever we look, we can see no Friends so true, no Brothers so affectionate to us as the English; they have ever been so to us, and our Fore-fathers also.


You have also told us, that the Great King, our Father, over the Sea, offered us, by you, his Hand of Favour and Protection; we lay fast hold of it, and will not quit it so long as the World endures.

[Page 10] Brother,

You [...] made us very joyful, by assuring us, that our Father, the Great King, is ready to forgive and forget all past Faults and Misdoing [...]— this makes our Hearts happy and easy, for there have been some Indians who have done am [...]s, and w [...]o thought He would never forgive them. The King, our Father's Goodness, will be great Matter of Joy to them, and give us the most un [...]eigned Satisfaction—Brother, we shall publish all this good News amongst all Nations of Indians with whom we have any Acquaintance. Gave a Belt.


We beg Leave to add a few Words; we have not perhaps been so particu­lar as we ought,—but we assure you, that what we have said, comes from the Bottom of our Hearts; and that we mean more and better than we are capable of expressing—In these Matters we are but as Children to you white People.


We have forgot something, that is, to tell you where we now live; it is at O [...]i [...]ingo; and if you have at any Time, Occasion for us, o [...] Messages to send us, there you will always find us. At O [...]i [...]ing [...] live Three Principal Nations, viz. The Shawanese, Nanticoke [...] and M [...]hickanders, who are all Brethren.


We have now concluded our Answer to your Speech to us▪ and must beg Leave to say something to you from ourselves, and which is of great Im­portance to Us.—


[...]lea [...]e to send us your Attention a little: 'Tis now Nine Years ago that a Misfortune happened near Rein [...]e [...]k, in this Province: A white Ma [...] there, shot a young Man an Indian—there was a Meeting held thereon, and Mar­t [...]ra [...] [...]ffman, said, Brothers, There are two Methods of settling this Accident, one according to the white People's Customs, the other acc [...]d­ing to the Indians—which of them will you chuse? If you wi [...]l go according to the Indian Manner, the Man who shot the Indian, may yet live: If this Man's Life is spared, and at any Time, hereafter an Indian should kill a white Man, and you desire it, his Life shall be also spared.’


You told us two Days ago, that when a Man is dead, there is no bring­ing him to Life again. Brother, We understand there are two Indians in jail at Albany, accused of killing a Man; they are alive, and may live to be of Service, and we beg you, in the Name of the Great King, our Fa­ther, that they may be released. All we that are present, amongst whom are some of their Relations, are all much dejected and uneasy upon this Af­fair, and do intreat that these People may be let free; which will give us All the highest Satisfaction. Gave a great B [...]ch of Wampum.

We have now finished, and have no more to say.

Sir William told them, that as it was now late, he proposed To-morrow to say something more to them; and give an Answer upon some Things they had now said.

The Meeting then broke up.

[Page 11]

FORT-JOHNSON, 22d April, 1757. PRESENT, as Yesterday. Sir WILLIAM JOHNSON's Second SPEECH to the aforesaid INDIANS.


WHAT you said to me Yesterday, in Answer to my former Speech to you, was very agreeable and pleasing to me; I look upon your Words as a Tree in full Blossom, which I hope and expect will produce Fruit suitable to its Appearance.


Let me again put you in Mind of the Belt I have given you, and which you have promised to show to all those Nations of Indians with whom you have any Acquaintance or Friendship; and to repeat what I have told you. As I think those Things are of great Consequence to the Welfare of all In­dians, I will again mention the Heads of what I said upon my second and third Belts, in my former Speech. [Which he did, and then added three particular Instances, in which their Friendship and Alliance with the English, was greatly more for their Interest, than with the French. 1st. That in Case their Crops [...]ailed, and they were destitute of Provisions, that they could be easily relieved by their Neighbourhood to the English; whereas they were at such a Distance from Canada, that they might starve before they could get Relief from the French. 2dly. That in Case they were in w [...]nt of Ammunition or Assistance against an Enemy, they might be all de­stroyed before they could obtain the needful Assistance from the French. 3 [...]ly. the same Consequences with Regard to Trade.]

With this Bunch of Wampum I fix firmer upon your Hearts and Memories, my Talk and Advice to you. Gave a large Bunch of Wampum.


Last Night I wrote to the Earl of LO [...]DOUN, who commands all the King's Soldiers in this Country, and to Sir CHARLES HARDY, Governor of this Province, concerning the Request you made of having your People discharged, who are now in Alba [...] Jail: It is not in my Power to give them free, but I dare say those great Men will comply with your Desire, if the Circumstances of the Affair appear to be such, as Reason and Justice will permit it to be done. Gave a Bunch of Wampum.


As you have now, in Behalf of yourselves and all your People, laid hold of the Covenant Chain of Peace and Friendship with the Great King of England, my Master, and called the Great GOD above to witness, that you do sincerely intend, and firmly resolve▪ that you will hereafter behave to all his Subjects as fast Friends and loving Brethren; into which Covenant Chain I have taken you all, your Wives and Children—Therefore, lest you may have forgot what was meant by the Covenant Chain, in old Times, I will briefly remind you of its Obligations.

When the Indians, your Fore-fathers, first made this Covenant Chain with the English—both Parties engaged to keep the Ends of it fast in their Hands—that they would take great Care to keep it from breaking, or from getting any Rust or Filth upon it—that they would be as one Flesh and one Blood, so that if any Enemy should intend to hurt or strike one Party, [Page 12] the other should immediately give him Notice, rise up and help him; and that a good Road should always be kept open between their Habitations, that when they might call for each other's Assistance, they could easily and speedily come.


As the Road between us hath been open last Year, by which Means all Logs and Stones which were in the Way, hath been removed, and made broad, safe and pleasant: We shall on our Parts keep it so, and I expect you'll do the same on yours.


You have informed me, that you three Nations are settled at Otsiningo, and that there I may always find you. You have lived in too dispersed a Manner; which must naturally weaken a People, and make them of little Consequence; whereas if you keep together in one Body, you may be strong and respectable.


With this Belt I girt your Loins round, after the Manner of Warriors, that whenever you are called upon, you may be ready to run along this good Road, to assist us your Brethren, if any Enemy may be coming to hurt them; and we shall do the same by you, when you have any Occasion to call upon us: By this Means we shall become a strong Body, and nothing will be able to hurt us. Gave a very large Belt.


I have but a few Words more to say to you, and then I shall conclude: If you hear of any News, which concerns the Safety or Welfare of us your Brethren, I expect you will give us immediate Notice; and we shall do the same by you. Gave three Strings of Wampum.


The Time of the Year, the Severity of the Season, and my having of late been obliged to be so much from Home, and that I did not expect you so soon, has prevented my having as great a Plenty of Goods as I usually have; however, I shall look about, and when all Business is finished, I hope to find a small Present for you. So ended this Meeting.

FORT-JOHNSON, 23d April, 1757. A. M. The REPLY of the aforesaid Indians, to Sir WILLIAM JOHNSON'S SPEECH to them Yesterday. PRESENT, as before.


If you are ready to hear us, we shall make some Reply to what you Yesterday said to us.

Sir WILLIAM answered, he was ready; when the Speaker proceeded:


YOU told us Yesterday, that you looked on what we had said, and the Assurances we had given you, as a Tree in Blossom, and that you hoped it would yield good Fruit.


We like the Comparison—we have spoke to you from our Hearts, and [Page 13] we hope good Fruit will come from thence. On our Parts, we truly mean what our Tongue hath spoken, and we doubt not, but you will, on your Side, be as a fruitful Tree to us. Gave two Strings of Wampum.


You have repeated to us, and we shall not forget it, the different Behavi­our of the English and French, towards the I [...]ians; and you gave us Instan­ces, to prove, that it was greatly mo [...]e our Interest to keep Friends with the Former than the Latter. Brother, what you have said hereon, we are convinced is the Truth; and we thank you heartily for pointing out to us our true Interest and Welfare: What you have said, has made our Hearts light within us, and we will not forget it. Gave three Strings of Wampum.


You told us that last Year you had opened the Road between our Habi­tations and the English, and that you believed we had found nothing bad in this Road. (The Speaker here repeated what Sir William had said to th [...]m Yesterday with the large Belt.)


We have now renewed the Covenant Chain, with all its Obligations agreed on between our respective Fore-fathers.

We are extreamly glad that you have made the Road open between us, and it is a very pleasant one.

We are thankful to you for tying up our Blankets, and whenever you call upon us, we shall be ready to stand up and come without Delay; and we shall from this Day forward, consider the English and Ourselves as one Body, one Head, and one Mind. Gave a belt.


You have desired, that whenever we hear any Thing which may concern the Interest or Welfare of our Brethren the English, we should without Delay communicate it. You may depend that we will do this; and if we get any Intelligence, though it should be in the Middle of the Night, we will send off an Express to you. Some of our young People are generally on the Hunt, and are very likely to make Discoveries.


We are very thankful for your Promise to do the same by us, and to be ready to come to our Assistance in Case of Need. Gave three Strings of Wampum.


What you have told us concerning your writing to the Great Men about our Friends in Albany Jail, we have put into our Hearts, and when we see our said Brothers safe in Freedom, it will be a convincing Proof to us, that we are indeed Brethren and one People with the English.


This is all we have to say, and from this Time forth, we are as one Body.

Then the Sachems and Chiefs of the three Nations, with the Speaker, came and shook Hands with Sir William, and the several Gentlemen present, with great Appearance of Joy and Sincerity.

The Speaker rose up again, and said,


We have forgot something of Consequence, which we desire may be wrote down.

[Page 14] Brother,

We are now become, as was said, One-People: Whenever, therefore, your People and ours may meet in the Woods or elsewhere, we expect they shall shake Hands and smoke together as loving Brethren: And as we shall on our Parts, publish all that hath past here, to all our absent People and Friends, we hope, and desire you will do the same to yours, that none may be ignorant, that from this Day forward, and forever, we are Brothers, Friends and Allies; and engaged on all Occasions, to love and assist each other.

A few Words more we beg Leave to say, and then we have done.

Brother, (holding up a Belt)

Last Spring with this Belt, the Nanticokes took us by the Hand, and bid us set down by them; They said to us, ‘You Mohickanders and we Nanti­cokes will be one People, and take you Mohickanders by the Hand as Bre­thren, and fix you here at Otsiningo, where the Six-Nations have lighted a Council Fire, and the Se [...]ecas appointed Land for you to cultivate; call all your dispersed Brethren together, and sit down here with them as their Habitation; and we Nanticokes assure you, that whoever shall pinch or hurt you, we will feel it, and the Six-Nations will do the same.’


This Belt we propose to send amongst all our dispersed People. We have acquainted you herewith, that whenever you see any of our scattered People passing up the River, you may know that they are removing to Otsiningo.

Sir William said, Brethren,

I am quite pleased with the Conduct of the Nanticokes, an [...] think it a very prudent Measure; it will strengthen them: And you three Nations together, may be a considerable and flourishing People.


As I expect all that has past here between us, will be printed; by that Means it will be known throughout this, and the neighbouring Govern­ments.

After Sir William had done, the Kings or Chiefs of each Nation, rose up and made a strong Exhortation to all their People present, to remember every Thing which had past at this Meeting; and to consider it as done in the Presence of Him who sitteth above, and seeth all Things.

Sir William recommended it to them, to make such an equal and upright Division of the Presents intended for them, (which he proposed to deliver to them in the Afternoon) as none might have just Cause to murmur, or be dis­satisfied.

The Number of Indians present at Fort-Johnson, during the above Meet­ing, were given in by the Interpreter, as follows:

Of Shawanese,
Of Nanticokes,
Of Mohickanders,
Of the Six-Nations,
280. Men, Women, and Children.
A true Copy from the Records,
compared and examined, PETER WRAXALL, Secry.

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