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MINUTES OF CONFERENCES, HELD WITH THE INDIANS, At HARRIS'S FERRY, and at LANCASTER, In March, April, and May, 1757.

PHILADELPHIA: Printed and Sold by B. FRANKLIN, and D. HALL, at the New-Printing-Office, near the Market. MDCCLVII.

[Page 3]

MINUTES OF CONFERENCES, &c.

From GEORGE CROGHAN, Esq to the Honourable Sir WIL­LIAM JOHNSON, Baronet, His MAJESTY's sole Agent, and Superintendent of the Affairs of the Six Nations, their Allies and Dependents.

May it please your HONOUR,

IN Pursuance of your Instructions, as soon as I was informed of the Indians being come to John Harris's, I set off from Philadelphia to meet them, and arrived at John Harris's the 29th of March, 1757, where I met about One Hundred and Sixty Indians, Men, Women and Children, Part of eight Tribes.

The Thirtieth, I examined Joseph Peepy, and Lewis Montour, in regard to the Messages I had sent by them to the Sasquchannah Indians.

They informed me, that Teedyuscung was gone to the Seneca Country, to get a Number of the Senecas to come down with him; and they delivered me a Belt of Wampum sent me by Teedyuscung, in Return of mine sent him by them; by which Belt he informs me, that he will be down as soon as possible, with Two Hundred Indians, but could not tell, whether he would come in at Easton or at John Harris's.

The remaining Part of this Day I spent in getting what Intelligence I could of the Strength of the French on Ohio, and the Disposition of the Delawares and Shawanese; and by the best Accounts I can get, I find the French have not had above Three Hundred Men in Garrison at Ohio this Winter, and that the Delawares and Shawanese on Ohio were divided amongst themselves, one Half of each Tribe going down Ohio to where the Lower Shawa­nese are settled, and the other Half were determined to go off to the Six Nations.

I am informed, that all the Sasquehanna Indians are disposed for Peace, except the Munseys, or Minisink Indians; yet I understand that a Number of them will be down with Teedyuscung.

I am informed, by a Six Nation Indian, one of Reputation amongst them, that resided at Diahago, that as soon as Joseph Peepy and Lewis Montour had delivered their Message there, the Council, that Night, dispatched two Men to the Ohio, to inform the Delawares and Shawanese, living there, of this Meeting, desiring some of them to come to it; but if none of them should chuse to come, these Messengers were then to insist that none of the Dela­wares and Shawanese, living on the Ohio, should come to War against the English till this Meeting was over, and they have Time, after returning Home, to let them know how it ended:

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At a MEETING of the Six Nations and their Allies, and George Crog­han, Esq Deputy Agent to the Honourable Sir WILLIAM JOHNSON, Baro­net, His Majesty's sole Agent and Superintendent of the Affairs of the Six Nations, their Allies and Dependents, and by his special Order, at John Harris's, the First Day of April, 1757.

PRESENT,

  • The Reverend Mr. John Elder.
  • Captain Thomas Mc Kee,
  • Mr. James Armstrong,
  • Mr. Hugh Crawford,
  • Mr. John Harris.
  • William Prentup, Interpreter.
  • Mohawks.
    • Tiahansorea,
    • Connadagaughia,
    • Sogehoanna,
    • Peter,
    • With 31 others, Men, Women and Children.
  • Oneidoes.
    • Thomas King,
    • Scarroyady,
    • Tawnaquanagis,
    • With Thirteen others, Men, Women and Children.
  • Tuscaroras.
    • Rut King,
    • With Twenty-six others, Men, Women and Children.
  • Onondagoes.
    • Ossaratonqua, and his two Brothers, with Eigh­teen others, Men, Wo­men and Children.
  • Cayugas.
    • Ogaratawrea,
    • Orarroquare,
    • Jenkasarone,
    • With 20 others, Men, Women and Children.
  • Senecas.
    • George,
    • With Eight more, Men, Women and Chil­dren.
  • Nanticokes.
    • Robert White,
    • Joshua,
    • With Eleven more, Men, Women and Chil­dren.
  • Delawares.
    • Samuel,
    • Joseph Peepy,
    • Thomas Evans,
    • Jonathan, with 20 more, Men, Women and Children.
  • Connestogoes.
    • Sabays,
    • Captain John,
    • With Twenty-nine more, Men, Women and Children.

Brethren,

I AM sent here by the Honourable Sir WILLIAM JOHNSON, to represent him at this Meeting; and I desire you all to give Attention to what I am going to say to you in Be­half of your Brother Onas and the wise Men of this Government, who are truly sensible of your Afflictions, occasioned by the Death of many of your Counsellors and Warriors, since they had the Pleasure of seeing you in this Government; and as they have ever looked upon your Misfortunes as their own, they mix their Tears with yours, and have desired me to condole with you, agreeable to the antient Custom of our Forefathers.

Gave a Belt.

Brethren,

With this Belt of Wampum I wipe the Blood off the Seats round your Council Fire, that your old Men at this critical Juncture, when convened in Council, may sit with Comfort, and direct their Warriors with Wisdom.

Gave a Belt.

Brethren,

As I have wiped the Blood off the Seats round your Council Fire, I, with these Strouds, wrap up the Bodies of your deceased Friends, and bury them decently, covering their Graves with these Blankets and Halfthicks.

Gave the Goods.

Brethren,

As the Blood is wiped off the Seats of your Counsellors, the Dead decently buried, and their Graves covered, I, with this Belt of Wampum, wipe the Tears from your Eyes, and desire you may mourn no more.

Gave a Belt.

Brethren,

As you are now out of Mourning, I with this Belt of Wampum disperse the dark Clouds which are gathered over your Heads, that you may see the Sun clear, and shake Hands with your Brethren when you meet in Council.

Gave a Belt.

[Page 5] Brethren,

As we have now gone through the antient Customs used by our Forefathers upon their Meeting, I with this Belt of Wampum heal your Hearts, and free your Minds from Trou­ble, that we may meet each other in Council, and brighten the Chain of Friendship.

Gave a Belt.

Brethren,

I now wipe the Sweat off your Bodies after your long Journey, and bid you a hearty Wel­come to this Government in the Name of your Brother Onas.

Gave a String.

Sachems and Warriors of the Six United Nations, our Friends and Brethren,

I embrace this Opportunity of acquainting you, that last Year your Brother Onas held two Conferences at Easton with your Nephews the Delawares, and your Brethren the Shawanese, that live on Sasquehannah, in order to settle the Differences subsisting between them and us; but as that good Work could not be accomplished at that Time, they agreed to have a Meet­ing this Spring to finally settle all Differences subsisting between them and us their Brethren: And that this Meeting might be the more general, I dispatched Messengers up Sasquehannah, and to Ohio, and I wrote to your Brother, Sir William Johnson, desiring him to request a Number of you our Brethren, the Six United Nations, to be present at this Meeting, who I am heartily glad to see here; and when your Nephews and Brothers arrive, I am in great Hopes, by your Assistance, to be able to accommodate Matters to the mutual Satisfaction of both them and us their Brethren the English in the several Governments.

And by this Belt of Wampum, I request you to make use of all your Interest with your Nephews the Delawares, and Brothers the Shawanese, to bring about an Accommodation between them and us, that the Sun may once more shine upon us in Peace, and that the Peace may last as long as the Sun, the Moon and the Stars give Light.

Gave a Belt.

At a MEETING with the Indians, at John Harris's, April 2, 1757.

PRESENT,

  • The Reverend Mr. Elder,
  • Captain Thomas Mc Kee,
  • Mr. James Armstrong,
  • Mr. Hugh Crawford,
  • Mr. John Harris.
  • The Deputies of the Six United Nations,
  • The Delawares, and Nanticokes.
  • Scarroyady, Speaker for the Indians.
  • William Prentup, Interpreter.

Brother,

YOU and our Brother Onas wisely considered the antient Custom of our Forefathers, in condoling with us, and mixing your Grief with ours: And as we make no Doubt but some of your wise Counsellors are dead since we were here, and many of our Brethren have been killed by the evil Spirit, we wipe the Blood off your Council Seats, and put them in Order with this Belt of Wampum.

Gave a Belt,

Brother,

After wiping the Blood off your Council-Seats, we, with these few Skins, wrap up the Bones of our Brethren that died or were killed by the evil Spirit, and cover their Graves.

Gave a small Bundle of Skins.

Brother,

We, by this Belt of Wampum, wipe the Tears from your Eyes, and desire you may mourn no more.

Gave a Belt.

Brother,

We, with this Belt of Wampum, disperse the dark Clouds, that the Sun may always shine upon us in Friendship; we heal your Heart, and free your Mind from Trouble, that we may meet each other in Council, and brighten the Chain of Friendship made by our Fore­fathers; and that the Council Fire may burn clear, we throw a few Chips on it.

Gave a Belt.

[Page 6] This Evening I had a Meeting of the Sachems, and proposed the Going to Philadelphia, to hold the Treaty; but I could prevail on none of them, except the Mohawks, to go there; the rest were afraid of Sickness.

When I found they were not to be prevailed on to go there, I called a Council, and, with a Belt of Wampum, I removed the Council Fire to Lancaster; to which Place they all agreed to go, and wait the Arrival of Teedyuscung, with the Senecas, Delawares, and Shawanese.

Gave a Belt, to remove the Council Fire to Lancaster.

April the 7th, I arrived at Lancaster from John Harris's; from whence Mr. Shippen, Mr. Thompson, Mr. Boude, and Captain Cane, with a Number of other Gentlemen, Inhabitants of that Borough, went out with me to meet the Indians (who I had left a few Miles behind) to bid them welcome to Lancaster.

As soon as the Indians were settled at the Place taken for them by James Wright, Esq I then kindled a small Fire for them to sit by till they should hear from their Brother Onas of the Arrival of Teedyuscung.

April the 10th, I received a Letter from his Honour the Governor, acquainting me of the Arrival of Fifty Delawares and Shawanese at Fort-Allen, and that they were ordered to wait there the Arrival of Teedyuscung, with the rest of the Indians who were coming with him.

I immediately ordered a Meeting of the Indians, and acquainted them with what the Go­vernor had wrote me about the Arrival of the Delawares and Shawanese at Fort-Allen, which was very agreeable to them.

I then acquainted them, by a Belt of Wampum, that their Brother Onas had prepared a very convenient Place for them within a Mile of Philadelphia, and that he proposed to hold the Conference at Philadelphia, as Teedyuscung had, at the last Treaty at Easton, given his Ho­nour the Governor a Promise to come to Philadelphia this Spring.

The Indians, after considering what had been said to them, returned the following Answer.

Brother,

We have considered what you said to us from our Brother Onas; when you proposed to us, at John Harris's, to go to Philadelphia, we refused for the Reasons we then gave you. By the Message you sent us by [...] and [...], we understood that the De­lawares and Shawanese were to fix the Place of Meeting where they thought proper.

Brother,

We tell you we will sit where we are till they arrive and fix the Place of Meeting with our Brother Onas.

Returned the Belt of Wampum.

April the 11th, I delivered the Goods purchased by James Wright, Esq for the Indians, in the Presence of Mr. James Webb, which was well received by them.

After the Goods were divided, the Chiefs of the several Tribes came in a Body, and return­ed Thanks to the Government for the Cloathing they had received.

The 13th, the several Chiefs came to me, and told me, they observed that I gave no Cloathing to our Brothers the Connestogoes, and desired that I would give them some, else they should be obliged to give them Part of what had been given them.

Gave a String.

The 17th, I called a Meeting of all the Indians, and returned them Thanks for condoling with me at John Harris's for the Loss we their Brethren the English had sustained by Death and the evil Spirit.

Brethren,

I return you Thanks for mixing your Grief with ours, and wiping the Blood off our Coun­cil Seats.

Gave a Belt.

Brethren,

I give you Thanks for wrapping up the Bones of our deceased Brothers, and covering the Graves, and wiping the Tears from our Eyes.

Gave a Belt.

[Page 7] Brethren,

I return you Thanks for dispersing the dark Clouds from over our Heads, for healing our Hearts, and freeing our Minds from Trouble, and for brightening the Chain of Friendship made by our Forefathers.

Gave a Belt.

April the 20th, I received a Letter from his Honour Governor Denny, inclosing two Messages from Teedyuscung to the Governor, which were delivered to Major Parsons in Easton, and forwarded by him.

As soon as I received his Honour's Letter, I called a Meeting of the Indians, and repeated over to them the Messages, and let them know, that Teedyuscung's being so long detained on the Way was the Scarcity of Provisions; and then acquainted them, that his Honour the Gover­nor had ordered a Supply to be sent to meet them, for which the Indians returned his Ho­nour the Governor their hearty Thanks, and said, their Brother Onas's sending Provisions to meet their Cousins on the Road, was giving them the strongest Assurances of his Regard and Esteem for them.

Gave a String of Wampum.

April the 23d, Six Onondago Warriors applied to me for Liberty to go to Fort Cumberland, to join the Southward Indians, who they understood were going to War against His Majesty's Enemies at Ohio; I granted their Request, and fitted them out for their Journey.

April the 26th, Scarroyady, with a Party of Mohawk Warriors, came and told me that they were apprehensive the French would make some Attempt against Fort-Augusta, and desired I would fit them out to go there; to which I agreed, giving them Orders to reconnoitre the adjacent Woods, for a few Days, then to proceed towards the Ohio, and to reconnoitre the Country well as they went, and if they discovered any Body of French, or Parties of Indians, coming towards Fort-Augusta, or any Part of this or the neighbouring Governments, they were immediately to return and give Notice to the Commanding Officer at Fort-Augusta, or to the Commanding Officer of the Fort nighest to that Part of the Country where they should come into.

The 26th of April, P. M. the Chiefs of the several Tribes called a Meeting, and sent for me, and desired to know what Time they might expect their Brother Onas up, and their Nephews the Delawares, and Brothers the Shawanese, to hold the Conference.

To which I answered, I had not yet received any certain Account of the Arrival of the Delawares and Shawanese; and until the Governor had fixed the Place and Time of Meet­ing with Teedyuscung, I could not give them a full Answer.

To which Little Abraham, a Mohaw [...] Sachem, spoke as follows, in Behalf of the Whole.

Brother,

We have been here a great while, and the Spring is coming on fast: It is Time for us to think of going Home to plant. We have heard what you have said to us from our Brother Onas, both at John Harris's and here, that our Brother Onas proposed to hold the Treaty at Philadelphia. Every Time you spoke to us upon that Head, we gave you our Objections against going so far down, which we expected would have been considered before now; but as our Brother Onas has not yet agreed to come here, we have determined in our own Minds to treat with our Brother Onas here, and go no further down the Country.

Brother,

We have appointed three Men to go to Philadelphia to speak with our Brother Onas, and request of him to come up, and we desire you will find Horses for them to ride down, and a Man to go with them to the Governor.

And we have appointed three more to go and meet our Nephews the Delawares, and Bro­thers the Shawanese, and bring them here, and we desire you will find them Horses, and a Man to go and take Care of them, and provide Necessaries for them on the Road.

Gave a String.

May the 5th, P. M. Captain Trent returned from Bethlehem, with the Deputies that went from here to meet the Delawares and Shawanese, and brought with them four Delaware Men, and one Woman.

[Page 8] About two Hours afterwards, Captain M'Kee returned from Philadelphia, with the Depu­ties who were sent down to the Governor to invite him here to hold the Conference.

May the 6th, I called a Meeting of the Chiefs of the several Tribes, when William Logan, Esq a Member of his Honour the Governor's Council, returned the Governor's Answer to the Message sent him by Thomas King, and Rut King.

Brethren, the Deputies of the Six United Nations, and your Cousins and Brethren the Delawares.

I am sent to you by your Brother Onas, from Philadelphia, as a Member of his Council, and your very good Friend, and I desire you will attend to what I am now going to say to you, and consider my Words as if they were spoken by Onas himself.

Gave a String.

Brethren,

A few Days since, Thomas King, and Rut King, accompanied by Thomas M'Kee, as their Guide, came to me in Philadelphia, and informed me, by this Belt of Wampum, that you held a Council Fire at Lancaster, and had sent for our Friend George Croghan to it, and had made a Speech to him; in which you acquainted him, that on his Invitation you came to John Harris's, understanding the Council Fire was to be kindled there; that after you had staid there some Time, you were desired to accompany him to Lancaster, and that I would meet you there; that therefore you had appointed these two Indians to wait on me, and to take me by the Hand, and invite me to your Council; that you had determined among your­selves to come no further, and would be glad to see me, and that my coming would rejoice your Hearts.

Brethren,

You must be very sensible, that in the transacting Publick Affairs, in these troublesome Times, many Difficulties and unforeseen Accidents happen which require my particular At­tendance in Philadelphia; this is my present Case. And as Teedyuscung, the Chief of the Delawares, our Countryman, and your Cousin, with some other Chiefs and Head Men of that Nation, has sent me lately a Message, acquainting me, that he was on his Way, with a great Number of Indians, coming to meet me, in order to finish the Treaty of Peace begun last Year by our late Governor and myself with the said Chiefs, and desired me to be ready with my Counsellors to assist in finishing the said Treaty which was so happily begun, and that I would be so kind as to send for Moses Tatamy, and John Pumpshire (two Delaware In­dian Interpreters) from the Jerseys, to be present; and that as there was so great a Number of Indians who were coming with him, they would want Provisions on their Way, and desired I would send some to Wyoming for them, which I immediately complied with. These, Brethren, have been the Reasons for my delaying my Journey to meet you at Lancaster, and for my desiring George Croghan would endeavour to prevail on you our Brethren to come to the Council Fire at Philadelphia, where the old wise People, who are your hearty Friends, would have been exceeding glad to see you; and as I have heard nothing from Teedyuscung very lately, I am uneasy left some Accident has happened to him. I thank you very kindly for your affectionate Invitation: I accept of it, and will, with great Pleasure, come and con­sult with you at your Council Fire at Lancaster.

Gave a Belt of eight Rows.

May the 9th, three of the Messengers I sent to the Ohio returned, and make the following Report.

That on their Arrival at Venango (an old Indian Town) on Ohio, they found several of the Delawares there, one, named Castalago, their Chief. They immediately called a Meet­ing, and delivered the Speeches sent by them, which were very well received by the Dela­wares; who told them, in Answer, That they would accept of the Invitation, and come down with them; but that they must first go and consult their Uncles the Senecas, who lived further up the River. The next Day they set off to a little Town further up the River Ohio, where they summoned a Number of the Delawares and Senecas together. After repeating the Messages over, one of the Senecas, named Garistagee, one of the Chiefs, said to the De­lawares; Nephews, You must not accept of that Call, for the Belts which are sent you are not proper Belts on this Occasion. I know George Croghan very well, and would be very glad to see him; and if he will send a proper Belt, with Men wrought in it, for the several Tribes he wants to meet with (himself taking us by the Hand) made of old Council Wam­pum, which is the Custom of the Six Nations on these Occasions, I will go down with you and see him: To which the Delawares agreed, and then returned the Belts.

They say that one of the Messengers proceeded further, to where the Delawares, that lived formerly at Kittanning, were now settled, on Beaver-Creek, with a View of finding out the Dis­positions [Page 9]of them; and they expect he will be soon down, if not killed. These Messengers say, that there were but fifteen Frenchmen at Venango, and that the Fort there is very weak; and that the Indians in them Parts are very much distressed for Provisions.

They say that the Ohio Indians are much afraid of the Southern Indians, having been struck three Times by them this Spring, twice near Fort Du Quesne, and once at the Logs-Town; and that the Indians are moving fast up the Ohio towards the Senecas.

They heard from the Indians there, that the French were defeated at Fort William-Henry, and that there was another Party defeated by Sir William Johnson, at the German-Flats; and the French were determined yet to make another Trial against the English, but that they could not tell where they intended to strike next.

They say the two Men killed at Fort Augusta, were killed by the Delawares and French, which was the only Party of Delawares or Shawanese that has come against us this Spring; that the other Parties that have been on the Frontiers of this and the neighbouring Provinces, were Indians from over the Lakes; that the Delawares made great Game of the Lake In­dians, and told those Messengers, that one Party of them, who had been down, had, on their Return, killed and eat three of the English Prisoners, for want of Food; that there was an Account came there whilst they were at Venango, that the French Conewagas had differed with the French, because the French would not supply them with Provisions; the Difference rose so high at last, that they came to Blows; that Sixty of the Conewagas were killed, and a great Number of the French.

I quere the Truth of this News, as the French undoubtedly know their Interest too well to differ with the Conewagas at this Time.

These Messengers, on their Return, touched at Diabogo, where they met with Teedyus­cung, who enquired of them what they had been doing at Ohio; they repeated over to him the Messages that had been sent by them from this Government, and the Answer they had received from the Ohio Indians; on which Teedyuscung sent the following Message by them to their Brother Onas and me.

Brothers,

YOU have been at a great deal of Trouble in sending Messages to us, your Brothers the Delawares and Shawanese; but the Persons you employed are young Warriors, and not Counsellors, theresore unsit for such Business; likewise the Belts you have sent, in Com­parison, are no more than Strings; but if you will send to call us together, and send proper Belts, and wise Men to take us by the Hand, we will come down with them, and give you a Meeting. In which Meeting I hope we shall settle all Differences subsisting between us; and I assure you, by this Belt of Wampum, that our Minds are well disposed, and that our Hearts are warm and true towards you our Brothers the English; and we desire that you, as Messengers from our Brothers, may take this Belt to Capt. Thomas M'Kee, and let him deliver it in our Name to our Brother Onas and George Croghan.

Gave the Belt.

Brothers

There is one Thing that gives us a great deal of Concern, which is, our Flesh and Blood that lives among you at Bethlehem, and in the Jerseys, being kept as if they were Prisoners. We formerly applied to the Minister at Bethlehem, to let our People come back at Times and hunt, which is the chief Industry we follow to maintain our Families; but that Minister has not listened to what we have said to him, and it is very hard that our People have not the Liberty of coming back to the Woods, where Game is plenty, and to see their Friends.

They have complained to us, that they cannot hunt where they are; and if they go into the Woods, and cut down a Tree, they are abused for it, notwithstanding that very Land we look upon to be our own; and we hope, Brothers, that you will consider this Matter, and let our People come into the Woods, and visit their Friends, and pass and repass, as Brothers ought to do.

Gave a String.

Lancaster, Monday, May the 9th, This Evening the Honourable WILLIAM DENNY, Esq Governor of this Province, attended by a Number of his Council, a Number of the House of Representatives, the Commissioners for the Province, with a great Number of other Gen­tlemen, arrived here.

[Page 10] May the 10th, The Sachems of the several Tribes, with a Number of their chief Warriors, waited on the Governor at Mr. George Gibson's, in Lancaster; when the Governor, with the Gentlemen that attended him, took them by the Hands, bid them welcome, and his Honour made them the following Speech.

Brethren,

I give you a very hearty Welcome, agreeable to my Message by Mr. Logan. I have wait­ed all this Time at Philadelphia, expecting the Arrival of Teedyuscung, as the principal Business to be transacted at this Meeting is between this Government and your Cousins the Delawares and Shawanese; but receiving your kind Invitation, I have hastened here, and am glad to see you.

At a MEETING in the Court-House, in the Town of Lancaster, on Thursday, the 12th of May, 1757, P. M.

PRESENT,

  • The Honourable WILLIAM DENNY, Esq Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of Pennsylvania, and Counties of New-Castle, Kent and Sussex, on Delaware.
  • James Hamilton, Esquire, Mem­ber of the Go­vernor's Coun­cil.
  • William Logan, Esquire, Mem­ber of the Go­vernor's Coun­cil.
  • Richard Peters, Esquire, Mem­ber of the Go­vernor's Coun­cil.
  • Lyn-Ford Lardner, Esquire, Mem­ber of the Go­vernor's Coun­cil.
  • John Mifflin, Esquire, Mem­ber of the Go­vernor's Coun­cil.
  • Benjamin Chew, Esquire, Mem­ber of the Go­vernor's Coun­cil.
  • Isaac Norris, Esquire, the Speak­er, and Commit­tee of the House of Representatives.
  • William Masters, Esquire, the Speak­er, and Commit­tee of the House of Representatives.
  • Joseph Galloway, Esquire, the Speak­er, and Commit­tee of the House of Representatives.
  • John Baynton, Esquire, the Speak­er, and Commit­tee of the House of Representatives.
  • George Ashbridge, Esquire, the Speak­er, and Commit­tee of the House of Representatives.
  • William West, Esquire, the Speak­er, and Commit­tee of the House of Representatives.
  • The Magistrates of the Borough, with a great Number of other Gentlemen.
  • The Deputies of the Mohawks, Oneidoes, Tuscaroras, Onondagoes, Cayugas, with some Sene­cas, Nanticokes, and Delawares.
  • William Prentup, Interpreter for the Crown.
  • Conrad Weiser, Esq Interpreter for the Province.

On opening the Meeting, his Honour the Governor asked me, as I represented the Honour­able Sir WILLIAM JOHNSON at this Treaty, if I was provided with a Secretary: Upon answering I was provided with one, his Honour then gave Orders that no Person else should take any Notes.

Then the Governor made the following Speech.

Brethren of the United Nations,

YOU are sensible of the unhappy Differences that have subsisted for some Time past be­tween us, the People of Pennsylvania, the English in the several Colonies, and our Brethren and Countrymen, the Delawares and Shawanese, your Nephews and Brothers.

By the Mediation of Sir William Johnson, His Majesty's sole Agent and Superintendent of Indian Affairs for the Northern District of America, a Cessation of Arms was agreed upon, and they, at a Conference held in Otsaningo, promised to lay down their Hatchet; which A­greement they since ratified and confirmed in another Conference with that Gentleman in your Presence; at which Time Sir William desired to know what was the Cause of their com­mitting Hostilities on their Brethren the English, which Question they did not then give a full Answer to. But at a subsequent Treaty with me at Easton, in November last, the same Que­stion being put to Teedyuscung, he frankly acknowledged that their foolish young Men, being deluded by our Enemy, the false hearted French King, were perswaded to take up the Hatchet against us. This, he said, was the first and principal Cause; but that one Reason why the Blow fell the heavier on us was, that their Brother Onas had fraudulently possessed himself of some of their Lands, without having first purchased, or given any Consideration for them.

Gave a Belt of nine Rows.

Being very desirous that all Causes of Discontent should be removed, I proposed that the Matter should then be finally accommodated; but Teedyuscung declaring, that he was not suf­ficienty [Page 11]impowered to finish that Business, declined it, and desired another Meeting this Spring, when he engaged to bring with him those Indians to whom the said Lands belonged, at which Time this Complaint might be fully heard, and amicably adjusted.

Gave a Belt of nine Rows.

Having the greatest Confidence in the Friendship and Justice of our Brethren the Six Na­tions, I immediately acquainted Sir William Johnson with these Proceedings, and requested that he would be pleased to send some of the wise Men of those Nations to be present and assist at the proposed Meeting. I expected Teedyuscung would have been here before this Time, and am greatly concerned at his Stay.

It would afford me great Satisfaction, if it had suited your Conveniency to wait his Arrival; but as you have informed me your Business will not admit of being longer absent from your Country, if you can now think of any Measure that may be likely to promote the good Work in which we are engaged, and establish a firm and lasting Friendship between us and your Nephews, you shall find me sincerely disposed to join with you in doing every Thing in my Power conducive to so desirable an End. In Confirmation whereof, I give you this Belt of thirteen Rows.

Gave the Belt.

At a MEETING in the Court-House, Friday, May 13, 1757, P. M.

PRESENT,

  • The Honourable WILLIAM DENNY, Esq Lieutenant-Governor.
  • The Council.
  • The Committee of the Assembly.
  • The Magistrates of the Borough, and a great Number of other Gentlemen.
  • The same Indians.
  • Thomas King, an Oneido Sachem, Speaker for the Indians.
  • Little Abrabam, a Mohawk Sachem, Speaker for the Indians.
  • William Prentup, Interpreter for the Crown.
  • Conrad Weiser, Esq Interpreter for the Province.

Little Abraham opened the Meeting, addressing himself to the Governor as follows.

Brother,

AFTER you had done speaking to us Yesterday, you left the Appointing the Time for the next Meeting to us. We are now met in Council, and I desire you to listen to what we are going to say.

Thomas King then got up, and repeated over the two first Speeches made to them by the Governor Yesterday, and returned his Honour Thanks, for acquainting them with the par­ticular Circumstances that happened during the Course of the Conference at Easton last Fall, between his Honour and the Delawares and Shawanese; and expressed the great Satisfaction it gave them to hear that their Brother Onas was to fortunate as to find out the true Causes from whence the Difference arose between their Brethren the English, and their Nephews the Delawares, and their Brothers the Shawanese, for that they had taken a great Deal of Pains to find it out without Success.

Gave a Belt.

Thomas then addressed himself to the Governor, and said, he hoped, that if they should make any Blunders, or have forgot any Part of the Speech, he would excuse them, as they could not write; therefore were obliged to keep every Thing in their Memory.

Gave a Belt.

Little Abraham then desired the Governor to give Attention, as they were going to return an Answer to his Honour's last Speech; and after he had repeated over the last Speech deli­vered them by the Governor Yesterday, he spoke as follows.

Brother,

You desired our Advice in Regard to the Differences that arose between you and our Ne­phews the Delawares, and Brothers the Shawanese; and you desired us to give you our Opi­nion [Page 12]which would be the best Method now to pursue to bring about an Accommodation: We have considered what you required of us. Brothers, We are disappointed, by the Heads of our Relations not coming to this Meeting; it was on their Account that we met our Brothers at this Time.—If they had come here at this Time, we should have sat still, and heard the Complaints on each Side, then we should have been the better able to judge who was in the Fault, and would have given our Opinion freely: However, as Things now stand, we must inform you, our Brothers, That in the Time of our Great-Grand-Fathers, and when the Six Nations first united, it was agreed that the Seneca Country should be the Door to the Six Nations, into which all Messengers should pass in Time of War, and there deliver their Messages, and the Senecas, our Brothers, were to forward the Messages to all the United Nations.

But in the Differences subsisting at present between you and our Nephews and Brothers, we have heard nothing from that Quarter, though we are sensible that Messengers arrived there upon this Affair. And as we, the Mohawks, are a Door to the Eastward of the Six Nation Country, established at the same time with that to the Westward, finding that they neglected their Offices, we took the Affair in Hand, and sent Messengers to Otsaningo, and there a Council was held, and the Deputies we sent charged them to get sober, as we looked upon their Actions as the Actions of drunken Men: This was the Substance of the Speeches sent to them.—They returned for answer, That they looked upon themselves as Men, and would acknowledge no Superiority that any other Nation had over them.—We are Men, and are determined not to be ruled any longer by you as Women; and we are determined to cut off all the English, except those that may make their Escape from us in Ships; so say no more to us on that Head, lest we cut off your private Parts, and make Women of you, as you have done of us. In the mean time, though they did not any longer acknowledge the Six Nations as their Uncles, yet they would listen to what Anugh Kary Tany Tionen Holo­rowy should say to them.—Him only they acknowledged for their Uncle.—Notwithstanding this rash Speech, they afterwards, at the Instance of Sir William Johnson, agreed to a Ces­sation of Arms, to come to an Interview with him and their Brother Onas.

Now, Brother, our Advice is to you, that you send proper Messengers immediately to the Senecas, to invite them, with our Nephews the Delawares, and Brothers the Shawanese, to a Meeting with you here; and when they come, be very careful in your Proceedings with them, and do not be rash, and it will be in your Power to settle all the Differences subsisting betwen you and them: And we assure you, Brethren, by this Belt of Wampum, that we will continue our good Offices till this Affair is brought to a happy Conclusion.

Gave a Belt, marked G. R.

At a MEETING at the Court-House, Monday, May 16, 1757, A. M.

PRESENT,

  • The Honourable WILLIAM DENNY, Esq Lieutenant-Governor.
  • The Honourable Colonel JOHN STANWIX.
  • The Council. The Committee of Assembly.
  • The Magistrates of the Borough, with a great Number of other Gentlemen.
  • The same Indians.
  • William Prentup, Interpreter for the Crown.
  • Conrad Weiser, Esq Interpreter for the Province.
  • Little Abraham, a Mohawk Sachem, Speaker for the Indians.
  • Thomas King, an Oneido Sachem, Speaker for the Indians.

The Governor spoke as follows.

Brethren of the United Nations,

I HAVE duly considered what you were so kind to say to me the other Day, in Answer to my peech to you; and I return you my hearty Thanks for your Information and Advice as to what you judge proper to be done for the Restoration of Peace between us, your Cousins the Delawares, and Brethren the Shawanese.

[Page 13] We look upon your informing us of that close Connection, at present subsisting between your Cousins and the Seneca Nations, of which we were till now ignorant, as the greatest Mark of your Regard and Esteem for us.—Brothers, Your Advice is good and whole­some, and I shall, in Pursuance of it, send an Invitation to Teedyuscung to come down, and leave it entirely to his Choice to bring with him such and so many of his Uncles, and others his Friends, as he thinks proper, and will then cautiously and carefully pursue your Advice in treating with them.

In the mean time, if, on your Return, you should meet with Teedyuscung, I desire you will let him know what has been done between us at this Meeting, and advise him of the Continuance of the good Disposition of the People of this Province towards him and his People; and that we are ready to fulfil the Engagements we entered into with him at Easton, and shall be glad to see him and his Friends, as soon as they can conveniently come.

Gave a Belt.

Little Abraham then stood up, with the Belt delivered them by the Governor in his Hand, and repeated over the Speech made them on it; then addressing himself to the Gover­nor, he spoke as follows.

Brother Onas,

We return you Thanks for accepting of our Advice; and we make no Doubt, if you pursue the Measures we have recommended, but that your Endeavours will be crowned with Success.—We have come a great Journey, in order to see the Differences subsisting between you and our Cousins amicably fettled, and could wish they had met here at this Time. On our Return, we assure you we will recommend it to our Nephews and Brothers, in the strongest Manner we can, to come down and meet you, in order to have all Differences subsisting between you settled in an amicable Manner.

Gave a Belt.

At the Court-House in Lancaster, Tuesday, May 17, 1757.

PRESENT,

  • The Honourable WILLIAM DENNY, Esq Lieutenant-Governor.
  • The Honourable Colonel JOHN STANWIX.
  • The Council.
  • The Committee of the Assembly.
  • The Magistrates of the Borough, with a great Number of other Gentlemen.
  • The same Indians.
  • William Prentup, Interpreter for the Crown.
  • Conrad Weiser, Esq Interpreter for the Province.
  • Little Abraham, a Mohawk Sachem, Speaker for the Indians.
  • Thomas King, an Oneido Sachem, Speaker for the Indians.

After the Minutes of the Treaty were read, and the Indians acquainted by the Interpreter with what had been doing, the Governor spoke as follows.

Brethren of the Six United Nations,

I DESIRE to be informed if you have any Complaints against this Province, with Re­gard to Purchases of Land, or for any other Cause whatsoever: In Expectation that you would freely open your Hearts to me on these Heads, I give you this Belt.

Gave a Belt.

I then acquainted the Indians by the Interpreter, that I was going to speak to them in Behalf of the Honourable Sir William Johnson, Baronet, His Majesty's sole Agent and Su­perintendent of the Affairs of the Six Nations, and their Allies and Dependents, and desired them to consider my Words as if spoken by himself.

Sachems and Warriors of the Six United Nations, our Friends and Brethren,

When Teedyuscung, at the Treaty held at Easton, complained that the Indians had been de­frauded of some of their Lands, this Government agreed to meet him upon his own Appoint­ment this Spring; to which Meeting you were invited, that you might see and hear every [Page 14]Thing to be then transacted with your Nephews the Delawares, and Brothers the Shawanese. You are now here on that Invitation, and are Witnesses how ready this Government is to re­dress any Injuries or Injustice done to the Indians whenever they can make that appear, and that they, your Brethren of Pennsylvania, are now attending for that Purpose, and you must be convinced, from their Conduct towards you, that they are not come empty handed.

Gave a Belt.

Brethren,

His Majesty's Subjects that have settled this and the neighbouring Provinces by Law, are not allowed to buy any of your Lands, and accordingly they have never done it; and if those who only have a Right from the Crown to purchase your Lands have done you any Injustice, or injured the Indians on this Account, the Governor of this Province, with a Number of the chief Men of this Government, are here, and appear hearty and willing to make Satisfaction; but if they, or the People of these Provinces, should refuse doing you Justice, when you make it appear that you are injured, I will then carefully represent your Case to the King of Eng­land, my Master, and your Father, in order to procure you ample and immediate Satisfaction.

Gave a Belt.

Brethren,

As Deputies from most of the Tribes of the Six Nations are now here, who may not be present when Teedyuscung comes down, and as I am ordered and required by the Honour­able Sir William Johnson, Baronet, His Majesty's chief Agent and Superintendent of the Affairs of the Six Nations, their Allies and Dependents, to enquire into and hear the Com­plaints made by the Indians, and, if justly grounded, to use my utmost Endeavours to get them redressed, I do insist upon it, that you open your Hearts to me without Reserve, and inform me of every Thing you know concerning Frauds complained of by Teedyuscung, or any other Injuries or Injustice done to you, or any of the Tribes of the Six Nations, or other In­dians in Alliance with His Majesty King GEORGE, in this or the neighbouring Colonies, that I may be thereby enabled to represent the true State of your Grievances to His Majesty.—Bre­thren, after this candid Conduct towards you, and my thus pressing you to open your Minds to me, I do expect that you will hide nothing from me, but speak from the Bottom of your Hearts: And I expect that you will recommend it to your Nephews the Delawares, and Bro­thers the Shawanese, to come down and give your Brother Onas a Meeting, to make their Complaints appear, and have them adjusted, else I shall take it for granted that they have no just Cause of Complaint: To inforce what I have said, I give you this Belt of Wampum.

Gave a Belt.

Brethren of the United Nations,

You remember that your Nephews the Delawares, and Brothers the Shawanese, in a Coun­cil with you at Otsaningo, promised to lay down their Hatchet, and in a subsequent Meeting with Sir William Johnson, at his House, in July last, ratified and confirmed it in the most so­lemn Manner in your Presence; then promising to deliver up all the English Prisoners that were by any Means brought to their Country, or in their Possession; and I desire that on your Return to your Country, you will remind your Nephews and Brothers of their Promises to Sir William Johnson, and recommend it strongly to them to bring down what English Pri­soners they have amongst them, and deliver them up, as that is the only Proof they can give us of their Sincerity and good Disposition towards us.

Gave a Belt.

Sachems and Warriors of the United Nations,

In that Meeting with your Brother Warraigheyagey, your Nephews the Delawares, and Brothers the Shawanese, renewed and brightened the Chain of Friendship between them and us, and promised to fix their Eyes on you their Uncles, and regulate their Conduct by yours; and at the same time declared, in a publick Manner, by dancing, and singing the War Song, that they would turn the Edge of their Hatchet, in Conjunction with you their Uncles the Six Nations, against the French, the treacherous and faithless Invaders of the Property of Mankind. And I must now desire that you will insist upon their being ready, when called upon, to join His Majesty's Troops, in Conjunction with you our Friends and Allies, against our common Enemy.—That this Speech may have its full Force upon your Minds, I pre­sent you with this Belt of Wampum.

Gave a War Belt.

Little Abraham then spoke as follows.

Brothers,

The Speeches you have just made are of great Consequence both to you and us.—We shall duly consider them, and, as soon as possibly we can, we will return you an Answer.

May 18, 1757. This Day four Persons that were killed on the Frontiers, in the Settlement of Swetara, by the Enemy Indians, were brought to this Town.—In the Afternoon the chief Sachems, with a Number of their Warriors, called a Meeting in the Indian Camp, and spoke to us as follows.

[Page 15] Brethren,

We have called this Meeting with Tears in our Eyes, on Account of seeing so many of our Brethren killed by the evil Spirit; and we take this Opportunity, as we have a good deal of Business yet to do, to wipe the Tears from your Eyes, so that To-morrow, when we meet in Council, we may see each other with the same Good-will we have hitherto done.

Gave a String.

Brethren,

Now we have wiped the Tears from your Eyes, agreeable to the antient Custom of our Forefathers, we clean the Blood off your Council Seats, that you may sit with Comfort, and hear what we have to say to you. No Doubt but the French King, who takes delight in Mis­chief, has taken this Opportunity to send his Children down to commit these Murders, with Expectation of breeding a difference between you our Brethren and us; but we desire you will hold fast by the Chain of Friendship subsisting between us, and disappoint him in his Designs.

Gave a Belt.

At a MEETING in the Court-House in Lancaster, Thursday, May 19, 1757, P. M.

PRESENT,

  • The Honourable WILLIAM DENNY, Esq Lieutenant-Governor
  • The Honourable Colonel JOHN STANWIX.
  • The Council.
  • The Committee of the Assembly.
  • The Magistrates of the Borough, with a great Number of other Gentlemen.
  • The same Indians.
  • William Prentup, Interpreter for the Crown.
  • Conrad Weiser, Esq Interpreter for the Province.
  • Little Abraham, a Mohawk Sachem, Speaker for the Indians.
  • Thomas King, an Oneido Sachem, Speaker for the Indians.

After reading over the Condolance Speeches made Yesterday by the Indians, on Account of our People that were killed by the Enemy, Little Abraham, addressing himself to the Honour­able Sir William Johnson, Baronet, and the Governor, spoke as follows.

Brethren,

EACH of you made us a Speech Yesterday on the same Subject; both which Speeches I now propose to answer at once, and then spoke as follows.

Brothers,

Some Years ago, in the Jerseys, one of the Head Men of the Delawares had been out a Hunting.—On his Return, he called to see a Gentleman, a great Friend of his, one of your People, who he found in his Field: When the Gentleman saw him he came to meet him. It was rainy Weather, and the Delaware Chief had his Gun under his Arm.—They met at a Fence, and as they reached out their Hands to each other, the Delaware's Gun went off by Accident, and shot him dead. He was very much grieved at the Accident, and went to the House, and told the Gentleman's Wife what had happened, and said he was willing to die, and did not choose to live after his Friend. She immediately sent for a Number of the Inha­bitants.—When they were gathered, some said it was an Accident, and could not be helped; but the greatest Number were for hanging him, and he was taken by the Sheriff, and carried to Amboy, where he was tried, and hanged.—There was another Misfortune that happen­ed.—A Party of Shawanese, who were going to War against their Enemies, in their Way through Carolina, called at a House, not suspecting any Harm, as they were amongst their Friends, a Number of the Inhabitants rose and took them Prisoners, on Account of some Mischief that was done there about that Time, suspecting them to be the People that had done the Mischief, and carried them to Charles-Town, and put them in Prison, where the chief Man, called The Pride, died.—The Relations of these People were much exasperated against you our Brethren, the English, on Account of the ill Treatment you gave their Friends, and have been continually spiriting up their Nations to take Revenge—Brothers, you desired us to open our Hearts, and inform you of every Thing we knew that might give [Page 16]Rise to the Quarrel between you and our Nephews and Brothers.—We must now inform you, that in former Times our Forefathers conquered the Delawares, and put Petticoats on them.—A long Time after that they lived among you our Brothers, but upon some Diffe­rence between you and them, we thought proper to remove them, giving them Lands to plant and hunt on at Wyoming and Juniata, on Sasquehannah.—But you, covetous of Land, made Plantations there, and spoiled their hunting Grounds; they then complained to us, and we looked over those Lands, and found their Complaints to be true. At this Time they carried on a Correspondence with the French, by which Means the French became acquaint­ed with all the Causes of Complaint they had against you; and as your People were daily en­creasing their Settlements, by this Means you drove them back into the Arms of the French, and they took the Advantage of spiriting them up against you, by telling them; "Children, you see, and we have often told you, how the English, your Brethren, would serve you; they plant all the Country, and drive you back; so that in a little Time you will have no Land: It is not so with us; though we build Trading-Houses on your Land, we do not plant it; we have our Provisions from over the great Water."—We have opened our Hearts, and told you what Complaints we have heard that they had against you; and our Advice to you is, that you send for the Senecas and them; treat them kindly, and rather give them some Part of their Fields back again than differ with them.—It is in your Power to settle all the Differences with them if you please.

Gave two Belts, one for Sir William Johnson, and one for the Governor

Little Abraham spoke again as follows.

Brothers,

As to what passed between you and Teedyuscung last Fall, respecting the Purchase of Lands we know nothing of;—they are not here, and if we enquire, we can only hear what you say on that Head.—We should have been glad our Nephews the Delawares, and Brothers the Shawanese, had been here at this Time, that we might have heard the Complaints on both Sides; then we should have been able to judge who was in the Fault, and we are determined to see Justice done to the Party aggrieved.—As they are not here, we can say nothing about it; but you yourselves, between whom the Business was transacted, must be the best Judges.

Gave a String.

Brothers,

You acquaint us there are certain Persons empowered by the King to purchase Lands here from the Indians:—We are unacquainted with that, neither do we know how our Fa­ther, the King of England, has divided his Provinces.—You say, if you have done the Indians any Injustice, you are willing to make them Satisfaction. We are glad to hear it; and as you have Writings to refresh your Memories about every Transaction that has happened be­tween you and our Nephews and Brothers, the Delawares and Shawanese, we recommend it heartily to you to do Justice.—We are much concerned to see how you are used by them and the French, every Day having your People killed, and you sitting with your Heads between your Legs, and receiving the Blow, without resenting it, as if you could not, or would not, fight to defend yourselves.

Brother Onas,

We desire that you may not think of great Expeditions far off.—Use your best Endeavours to defend your Frontiers, and protect the Lives of your People.—It is better for you to give up some Points to them, than to contend, provided they should be in the Wrong, and set­tle all Differences subsisting between you as soon as possible.

Gave a Belt,

He added, Brother Onas, take Pattern by Sir William Johnson; he always keeps large Par­ties patrolling across the Frontiers where he lives, and you do not hear of any Murders being committed there.—That is the Way to defend yourselves.—The Enemy is afraid to enter the Settlements there; and if you pursue the same Measures, they will be afraid to come into your Settlements.

Thomas King then spoke as follows.

Brethren,

We have considered what you said to us, about our requesting the Delawares and Shawa­nese to bring down and deliver up all the English Prisoners they have, agreeable to their Pro­mises to Sir William Johnson.—We will do every Thing in our Power that may induce them to do it; but perhaps it will not be in our Power to prevail on them to give them up.— Once more we desire that you would send for the Senecas and them, and endeavour to settle all those Differences.—It is in your Power to do it. When it is done, you will certainly see some of your own Flesh and Blood again.

Gave a Belt.

[Page 17] Brethren,

It is true, we were present when the Delawares and Shawanese brightened the Chain of Friendship with Sir William Johnson, and promised to turn the Edge of their Hatchet against the French.—But you must know that last Fall, tho' they went out to War with us, they always turned back, and did not perform what they had promised; so that we cannot ac­count for what they will do now.—But for our Parts, the Six Nations, we have been engaged in the War with you, and are always ready, when we see an English Flag, to join our Bro­thers, and to go with them, and share the same Fate.

Gave a Belt.

At a MEETING in the Court-House, at Lancaster, Friday, May 20, 1757, P. M.

PRESENT,

  • The Honourable WILLIAM DENNY, Esq Lieutenant-Governor.
  • The Honourable Colonel JOHN STANWIX.
  • The Council.
  • The Committee of the Assembly.
  • The Magistrates of the Borough, with a great Number of other Gentlemen
  • The same Indians.
  • William Prentup, Interpreter for the Crown.
  • Conrad Weiser, Esq Interpreter for the Province.
  • Little Abraham, a Mohawk Sachem, Speaker for the Indians.
  • Thomas King, an Oneido Sachem, Speaker for the Indians.

After reading over the Speeches made the Day before, and the Interpreter acquainting the Indians with what had been doing, the Governor spoke as follows.

Brethren of the Six United Nations,

I RETURN you my hearty Thanks for the kind and open Manner in which you have informed us of the Causes from whence the Dissatisfaction of our Brethren the Delawares and Shawanese first arose; but, as you have observed, they are not present, it must be de­ferred until we have the Pleasure of seeing them.—I shall only assure you that I think your Advice good, and shall, with great Satisfaction, conform to it, by sending for the People you have so earnestly recommended to be sent for.—I think with you, that our Fron­tiers should be carefully and strongly guarded; and it shall be my particular Care to endea­vour to have this done, in which I shall take kind any Assistance you will give me.

Gave a Belt.

Brethren,

Soon after the present Troubles first broke out between us and the French, some of the Six Nation Indians requested of this Government to build a strong House at Shamokin, and a Store-house, with Indian Goods, and to give an Invitation to Indians, as well of the United Na­tions as Delawares, to come and live there; I must now inform you, that in Compliance with their Request this Government has built a strong House, where Goods will soon be sent, and sold as cheap as any where on this Continent.—To this Place I have appointed Mr. Tho­mas M'Kee to conduct as many of you as shall chuse to return that Way, and shall leave it to you to settle as many Families as shall incline to live there; promising you, that Care shall be taken by this Government, that as many as stay shall be furnished with such Necessaries as they may want till they can support themselves.

Gave a Belt.

Brethren,

I shall immediately report the whole that has passed at these Conferences to Sir William Johnson, who is glad of all Occasions to shew his Attachment to our Friends the Indians, and promote His Majesty's Service.—It is that Gentleman's peculiar Province to treat and finish all Treaties with the Indians.—Let me add, my Brethren of the United Nations, that you shall find no Deceit in me, and I shall be happy if my Conduct deserves your Esteem and Approbation.

Gave a Belt.

[Page 18] Brethren,

I have ordered the Presents provided by the good People of this Province to be carried to the Indian Camp early in the Morning; and inform you, that a Part of these Presents is given by those who are the Descendents of the Inhabitants that first came over to this Country with your old Friend William Penn, as a particular Testimony of their Regard and Affection for the Indians.

I then spoke in Behalf of Sir WILLIAM JOHNSON.

Sachems and Warriors of the United Nations,

You see how the French, the Enemies of Mankind, set on their Children to murder, in a barbarous Manner, your Brethren that are settled on the Frontiers of this and the neighbour­ing Provinces.—Brethren, I must now desire you, in the Name of the Great King of Eng­land, your Father, and my Master, that on your Return to your own Country, you will be active, and not suffer any of the French, or their Children, to pass over your Lands to murder your Brethren; and that you will let Teedyuscung and his People know, I expect he will do the same.—Tell them it is not, nor will not be, their Interest to carry on the War against their Brethren the English.—Their Father, the French King, makes Fools of them, and will, in the End, make Slaves of them: But you, Brethren, are convinced, that the English have always treated you as their Brethren, and I expect a due Regard and Performance to this Request on your Side.

Gave a Belt.

Little Abraham made the following Answer to the Governor.

Brother Onas,

We return you our hearty Thanks for accepting of our Advice in sending for the Delawares, Shawanese and Senecas, and we hope, when you meet them, you will be able to settle all Differences to your Satisfaction.

Brother Onas,

We likewise return you our hearty Thanks for your kind Invitation to us to settle at Genos­sa, and your Promise to supply those that will stay, or come and settle there, with Provisions and Goods.—We accept of the Invitation, and will take it into Consideration as we go Home, how many of us will stay there, or come back from our Towns to settle there; and we re­turn you Thanks for appointing our Brother Thomas M'Kee to take Care of us, as he is a Per­son very agreeable to us.

He spoke again as follows.

Brother Warraighiyagey,

We have all given Attention to what you have said to us by Anaquarunda; and you may depend upon our being on the Active, and doing every Thing in our Power to prevent the French or their Chidren coming to murder our Brethren; and we will recommend it strongly to Teedyuscung, and his People, to do the same.—Brother, we must desire you will assist our Brother Onas in settling the Differences between him and our Nephews and Brothers, the De­lawares and Shawanese, which will be the only Method to prevent these cruel Murders daily committed on our Brethren.

May the 21st. The Presents were delivered to the Indians in their own Camp; after which I condoled with them on account of some of their People who died of the Small-pox since they came here, and gave them a Piece of Stroud to cover the Graves of the De­ceased, agreeable to the antient Custom of the Six Nations.

The several Chiefs returned their hearty thanks for our condoling with them, and cover­ing the Graves of their deceased Friends, agreeable to the antient Custom used by their Fore­fathers, and expressed great Satisfaction with the Treatment they met with in this Govern­ment, and returned Thanks for the Presents they had received.

May 22. I called a Meeting of the Chiefs of the several Tribes, and I repeated over to them the Messages going to be sent to Teedyuscung by this Government, agreeable to their Request; and at the same time I acquainted them, that there was a small Present provided by this Government for their Brethren the Cherokees, who had come into this Government, and was now waiting in Expectation of its being sent them, agreeable to their Request.—I then desired them to give their Opinion about the Message to be sent to Teedyuscung, and whether it was agreeable to them.

To which they made me the following Answer.

Brother,

We have considered every Part of your Message to Teedyuscung, and we approve much of it, and think it will be acceptable to our Nephews and Brothers; and we likewise approve of [Page 19]our Brother Onas's sending a Present to our Brothers the Cherekees.—You, our Brothers the English, took some Pains to bring about a Peace between them and us, and we embrace this Opportunity of brightening the Chain of Friendship between us in your Presence.—We have appointed three Men to go with you to see them, and hope you will provide for them on the Road.

Gave a String.

The Speech sent by the Governor to Teedyuscung.

Brother Teedyuscung,

AT the Treaty held at Easton last Fall, you complained unto me that the Indians had been defrauded of their Lands.—This you told me was one of the Causes that had alienated the Minds of our Brethren, the Delawares and Shawanese, from us your Brethren; —upon which I told you, if you could make it appear that you had received any Injustice or Injuries from this Province, I was ready to hear it, and promised to make you Satisfaction.

Brother,

You then informed me, that the People who claimed those Lands, as they did not expect that Affair would come under Consideration at that Treaty, were not present, and had not impowered you to transact that Business for them, and therefore you could not finish it at that Time, but that you would come down again in the Spring, and would bring with you as many of those Indians as could be got together, in order to a full Settlement of all Diffe­rences between us, that a firm and lasting Peace might be established for ever.

Brother,

As you had thus promised to be down in the Spring, we were pleased to find a conside­rable Number of your Uncles, the Six Nations, were come amongst us, to be present and hear all your Complaints.—They staid a considerable Time for that Purpose, in Expecta­tion of seeing you here; but as some Accident may have prevented your coming, your Uncles grew very uneasy at being detained here so long, and desired me to meet them at Lancaster, whither I went, and opened my Heart to them, giving them a full Account of all that pas­sed between us at Easton, promising your Uncles, that I would take Care to see you redressed, either on account of your Lands, or any other Injuries you may have received from your Brethren of this Province.

Brother,

Your Uncles, the Six Nations, at this Treaty, shewed a great deal of Kindness for you, and would have been extremely pleased to have seen you here, being resolved to see Justice done to you; but as you were not come in, they advised us to treat you very tenderly, and to advise you to bring with you some of your Uncles, the Senecas, that we might open our Hearts to one another freely, by which Means all Causes of Jealousies, or Misunderstandings between us, might be settled and taken away for ever, and that they would join their best Endeavours to bring about a firm and lasting Peace between you and your Brethren.

Brother,

I gave your Uncles my hearty Thanks for their good Advice; and told them, that as I highly approved it, as good and sound Advice, I would act as they had so earnestly desired me to do, being sincerely disposed to hear all your Complaints, and to do you Justice, as I had formerly promised you at Easton.

Brother,

As I have now informed you of the earnest Request of your Uncles, the Six Nations, and of my own Opinion, which is the same with theirs, I do by this Belt of Wampum invite you to come down as soon as it will suit your Convenience, and leave it to you to bring with you your Uncles, the Senecas, or such of them as will be most agreeable to you, to open your Hearts to us your Brethren; and if it shall appear that you have been defrauded of your Lands, or received any other Injuries from this Province, I do promise you shall receive Satisfaction.

Brother,

By some late Letters received from your Brother Onas, in England, in Answer to my Representation of the late Conferences, and your Complaints at Easton, he acquaints me he is willing to have the Injuries complained of fully heard and settled as soon as possible.—If you rather chuse Sir William Johnson should determine these unhappy Differences, I most warmly recommend it to you to apply to that Gentleman, as he has the Honour to be ap­pointed sole Agent and Superintendent of Indian Affairs in the Northern District.

Gave a Belt.

[Page 20] After this Speech was delivered to the Messengers, the Sachems of the several Tribes made the following Speech.

Brother,

As we have finished the Business for this Time, and we design to part To-morrow, you must be sensible that we have a long Journey, and a hilly Country to pass over, and several of our old Men very weak, we hope that you will not send us from your Frontiers without a Walking-stick *.—In answer, I acquainted them, that the good People of this Province had provided some Cags for them on the Frontiers, which would be given them by the Per­sons employed to conduct them through the Settlements.

A true Copy, taken by CHARLES MOORE, Clerk of Assembly.

The REPORT of CONRAD WEISER, the Indian Interpreter, of his Journey to Shamokin on the Affairs of Virginia and Maryland; his Me­diation for accommodating the Differences between the Indians of the Six Na­tions and the said Provinces, delivered to the Governor in Council the 21st Day of April, 1743.

THE Ninth of April, 1743, I arrived at Shamokin, by Order of the Governor of Penn­sylvania, to acquaint the neighbouring Indians, and those on Wyoming, that the Go­vernor of Virginia was well pleased with his Mediation, and was willing to come to an Agreement with the Six Nations about the Land his People were settled upon, if it was that they contended for, and to make up the Matter of the late unhappy Skirmish in an amicable Way. The same Day Shickallemo, his Son, and Suchsed [...]wa, who were sent to the Six Na­tions, returned from Onondago; and the next Day they, in open Council, delivered the fol­lowing Message, directing their Speech, in Behalf of the Six Nations, to the Governor of Pennsylvania, according to what was agreed upon by the Council of the said Indians in Onondago.

Brother Onas,

At this critical Time we received a kind Message from you, the Result of the good Friend­ship subsisting between you and us. For such Purposes a Road was cleared from our Coun­try to yours, in which, at any Time, Conrad Weiser and Shickallemo may travel; we open our Doors with Chearfulness to your Messengers, and are glad to hear from you.

He laid down two Strings of Wampum.

Brother Onas,

We thank you for the Concern you shew for the Misfortune that besel our Warriors in Virginia. We take it as a particular Mark of Friendship. We assure you, that notwith­standing the unjust Treatment our Warriors met with in Virginia, we did not allow our Heads to be giddy, nor to resent it as it deserved, which might have occasioned a Violation of Treaties, and the Destruction of many.

He laid down four Strings of Wampum.

Brother Onas,

We thank you very kindly for the early Steps you made in calling your old and wise Men together to consult with them. It was a very prudent and good Advice they gave you to be­come Mediator betwixt us your Brethren, and the Virginians your Neighbours. We thank them for such good Advice: And we assure you, we will accordingly come to an amicable Accommodation with the Governor of Virginia, if he will come to reasonable Terms. And if a War should break out betwixt us and him, you will be convinced of his being the Au­thor of it: For when in former Times we received a deadly Blow, we never returned it, if it was ever so dangerous; we always judged it to be given by disorderly People, and we used always peaceable Means to make it up; but when we received the second Blow, we judged that War was intended against us, and then we rose and knocked down our Enemies with one Blow, and we are still able to do the same, but we leave now our Case to you. We have ordered our Warriors, with the strongest Words, to sit down, and not revenge them­selves: Therefore, Brother Onas, go on with Courage in your Mediation; we assure you we will not violate or do any Thing contrary to your Mediation. We desire you, and the old [Page 21]and wise Men of Pennsylvania, not to believe any Thing to the contrary, let it come from whom it will, till you receive Messages from us: We will do the same on our Side. In Confirmation of what we say, we lay down this Belt of Wampum before you.

Then the Speech was directed to the Governor of Maryland.

Brother, the Governor of Maryland,

You have invited us to come to your Town; and you offered to treat with us concerning the Messages we sent to you by our Brother the Governor of Pennsylvania, and to establish good Friendship with us: We are very glad you did so; and we thank you for your kind Invitation.

Brother,

We have a great deal of Business and Things of Moment under our Deliberation, and it will take us the best of the Day That is, this Summer., before we can finish them: We therefore desire you will set your Heart at Ease, and think on nothing but what is good. We will come and treat with you at Canataquanny, on Sasquebannab, To-morrow Morning That is, next Spring, since you live so near the Sea, and at such a great Distance from us. We accept kindly of your Invitation; our Brother, the Governor of Pennsylvania, recommended your Message to us, which he would not have done, if he had not been satisfied your Intention was good: We therefore promise you, by these Strings of Wampum, to come and treat with you at the aforesaid Place.

The Speaker laid down four Strings of Wampum.

Then the Speaker directed his Speech to the Governor of Pennsylvania again, and said;

Brother Onas,

The Dutchman on Scohooniady (Juniata) claims a Right to the Land, merely because he gave a Little Victuals to our Warriors, who stand very often in Need of it. This String of Wampum serves (the Speaker then took two Strings of Wampum in his Hands) to take the Dutchman by the Arm, and throw him over the big Mountains within your Borders. WE HAVE GIVEN THE RIVER SCOHOONIADY (JUNIATA) FOR A HUNTING-PLACE TO OUR COUSINS THE DELAWARE INDIANS, AND OUR BRETHREN THE SHAWANESE; and we ourselves hunt there sometimes. We therefore desire you will immediately, by Force, remove all those that live on the said River of Scohooniady.

Here be laid down two Strings of Wampum.

Brother, the Governor of Pennsylvania;

I live upon this River of Ohio harmless like a little Child: I can do nothing; I am but weak; and I do not so much as intend Mischief. I have nothing to say, and do therefore send these Strings of Wampum to Catchcawatsiky, the Chief Man, again; he will answer your Message, as he is the older, and greater, Man.

Then Sachsidora took up the four Strings of Wampum, and spoke in Behalf of Catchcawatsiky, as follows.

Brother, the Governor of Pennsylvania,

The Place where I live, and the neighbouring Country, has been overshadowed of late by a very dark Cloud. I looked with a pitiful Eye upon the poor Women and Children, and then looked upon the Ground all along for Sorrow, in a miserable Condition, because of the poor Women and Children. In all that dark Time, a Message from you found the Way to Shamakin; and when it was delivered to us, the dark Cloud was dispersed, and the Sun im­mediately began to shine; and I could see at a great Distance, and saw your Good-will and kind Love to the Indians and the white People: I thank you, therefore, Brother Onas, for your kind Message; I am now able to comfort the poor Women and Children.

Here the Speaker laid down four Strings of Wampum.

Then the Speaker took up two Strings of Wampum, and directed his Discourse to the Delaware In­dians, the Shawanese, and to Onas.

Cousins the Delawares,

We are informed that you can talk a little English, by which you have heard many Things amongst the white People; and you frequently bring Lies amongst the Indians; and you have very little Knowledge and Regard for Treaties of Friendship; you give your Tongue too much Liberty. This String of Wampum serves to tie your Tongue, and to forewarn you from Lies.

Brethren, the Shawanese,

You believe too many Lies, and are too forward in Action. You shall not pretend to re­venge our People that have been killed in Virginia: We are the Chief of all the Indians; let [Page 22]your Ears and Eyes be open towards us; and order your Warriors to stay at Home as we did ours.

Brother Onas,

Your Back Inhabitants are People given to Lies, and raising of false Stories; stop up their Mouths; you can do it with one Word; let no false Stories be told; it is dangerours to the Chain of Friendship.

The Strings of Wampum were delivered to the Delawares.

After the Speaker had finished, an handsome Indian Dinner was given to all that were pre­sent by Shickallemo's People.

After Dinner I delivered my Message to them, and presented the Company with two Rolls of Tobacco, about three Pound each Roll, to smoak whilst they were in Company together, to talk about the good News they had heard that Day, according to the Custom of the In­dians.

Shickallemo told me, by Way of Discourse, that they (the Council of Onondago) had sent Strings of Wampum by him to all the Indians upon the River Sasquehannah, to tell them to use their Endeavours to stop all their Warriors, and not permit them to go to fight with the People of Virginia; and to acquaint them of what was agreed upon in Onondago, which was accepted of in every Town.—I enquired what Business of Moment the Six Nations had under Deliberation that prevented their coming down to treat with the Governor of Maryland. Shickallemo asked whether I could not guess at it. I told him no. Then he said, How should they come down with a Hatchet struck in their Head? The Governor of Virginia must wash off the Blood first, and take the Hatchet out of their Head, and dress the Wound (according to Custom, he that struck first must do it) and the Council of the Six Nations will speak to him, and be reconciled to him, and bury that Affair in the Ground, that it never may be seen nor heard of any more so long as the World stands.—But if the Virginians would not come to do that, he (Shickallemo) believed there would be a War; but I might assure the Governor of Pennsylvania, the Warriors would not come then within the inhabited Part of Pennsylvania, but direct their Course directly to Virginia. over the Big Island, in the North-West Branch of Sasquehannah.

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