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Geographical, Historical, Political, Philosophical and Mechanical ESSAYS. THE FIRST, CONTAINING AN ANALYSIS Of a GENERAL MAP of the MIDDLE BRITISH COLONIES IN AMERICA; And of the COUNTRY of the Confederate Indians: A DESCRIPTION of the Face of the Country; The BOUNDARIES of the CONFEDERATES; AND THE Maritime and Inland NAVIGATIONS of the several RIVERS and LAKES contained therein.

By LEWIS EVANS.

PHILADELPHIA: Printed by B. FRANKLIN, and D. HALL. MDCCLV.

[Page iii]

THE PREFACE.

THE Map, that these Sheets accompany, and that they are intended to explain and supply, is presented to the Public, when a longer Time was indeed necessary to have given it the Degree of Correctness that was intended it. But the present Conjuncture of Af­fairs in America, and the generous Assistance of the Assembly of Pensilvania, have brought it to Light, when the Public will, it is hoped, receive Advantages from it, that will render an Apology for its premature Publication needless; and think it wortby the Encouragement of a BODY who devote the Public Money to the Public Service.

IT comprizes such an Extent, as is connected with that very valuable Country on the OHIO, which is now the Object of the British and French Policy, and the different Routes of both Nations thither. The Lake Ontario is equally open to both; to the one by the River St. Laurence; to the other by the Rivers Hudson, Mohocks and Seneca. But the French hav­ing, thirty Years ago, fixed themselves on the Streights of Niagara, by building Fortresses on Lands confessedly British, secured the Key on that Side to all the Country Westward. Those in Power see at last its Consequence, and are projecting the Recovery of it; and with great Judgment, for that Purpose, are establishing a naval Force on Lake Ontario, as very neces­sary in the Recovery and Securing of it. The Issue of this Enterprize will have great In­fluence on our Affairs, and of all Things it becomes the Colonies to push it on with Vigour. If they succeed here, the Remainder of the Work will be easy; and Nothing so, without it. The English have several Ways to Ohio; but far the best is by Potomack.

BY Reason of the little Acquaintance the Public has with these remoter Parts, where the Country is yet a Wilderness, and the Necessity of knowing the Ways of Travelling there, espe­cially by Water: In the Map is pointed out the Nature of the several Streams; as where rapid, gentle or obstructed with Falls, and consequently more or less fitted for Inland Navi­tion with Canoes, Boats or larger Vessels; and where the Portages are made at the Falls, or from one River, Creek or Lake to another. And for distinguishing the Extent of the Marine Navigation, the Places, that the Tide reaches, in the several Rivers, are pointed out. And in these Sheets, both the Marine and Inland Navigation are treated of at Length.

[Page iv] AS the Natures of the Soil and Streams depend upon the Elevation and Depression of the Land; I have particularly explained here the different Stages that it is divided into. It were to be wisht, that we had like Accounts of all Countries; as such would discover to us great Regularity, where an unattentive Observer would imagine there was Nothing but Confusion; and at the same Time explain the Climates, the Healthiness, the Produce and Conveniencies for Habitations, Commerce and Military Expeditions, to a judicious Reader in a few Pages, better than Volumes of Remarks on Places, drawn without these Distinctions.

TO render this Map useful in Commerce, and the Ascertaining the Boundaries of Lands, the Time of High-Water, at the Full and Change of the Moon, and the Variation of the Magnetical Needle are laid down. But as these deserve particular Explanations, I have, for want of Room, concluded to treat of them at large in a separate Essay.

ALONG the Western Margin of the Map is drawn a Line representing the greatest Lengths of Days and Nights (without Allowance for the Refraction) which will assist Tra­vellers, in forming some Judgment of the Latitude of Places, by the Help of their Watches only.

THOUGH many of these Articles are almost peculiar to the Author's Maps, they are of no less Importance than any Thing, that has yet had a Place amongst Geographers. But Want of Room in the Plate, has obliged me to leave out, what would have very much assisted my Explanation of the Face of the Country, I mean a Section of it in several Directions; such would have exhibited the Rising and Falling of the Ground, and how elevated above the Surface of the Sea; what Parts are level, what rugged; where the Mountains rise, and how far they spread. Nor is this all that a perpendicular Section might be made to repre­sent; for, as on the upper Side, the Elevations, Depressions, outer Appearances and Names of Places may be laid down; on the lower, the Nature of the Soil, Substrata and particu­lar Fossils may be exprest. It was with Regret I was obliged to omit it. But in some future Maps of separate Colonies, I hope to be furnished with more Room.

THE present, late, and antient Seats of the original Inhabitants are expressed in the Map; and though it might be imagined that several Nations are omitted, which are mentioned by Authors, it may be remarked, that Authors, for Want of Knowledge in Indian Affairs, have taken every little Society for a separate Nation; whereas they are not truly more in Number than I have laid down. I have been something particular in these Sheets in representing the Extent of the Country of the Confederates or Five Nations; because, whatever is such, is expresly acceded to the English by Treaty with the French.

[Page 1]

AN ANALYSIS OF A GENERAL MAP of the MIDDLE BRITISH COLONIES, The Country of the Confederate Indians, &c.

As different Parts of this Map are done with very different Propor­tion of Exactness, Justice to the Public, requires my distinguishing the Degree of Credit every Part deserves; and to make some recompense for the Defects of those Places, where no actual Surveys have been yet made, by giving such a Description as the Nature of the Sub­ject will admit; which may, at this Time, be of as much Consequence as the nicest Surveys destitute of this Advantage.

THE British Settlements are done, for the greater Part, from actual Sur­veys. Latitudes. Longitude of Boston and Philadelphia agree. The Latitudes of many Places taken with good Instruments, and the Longitudes of Philadelphia and Boston, observed by different Persons, and well agreeing, give a Foundation for the Projection of the Map. And as Philadelphia is a fine City, situate near the Center of the British Dominions on this Continent, and whether inferior to others in Wealth, or Number of Houses, or not, it far excels in the Progress of Letters, mechanic Arts, and the public Spirit of its Inhabitants; Reasons sufficient for paying it the parti­cular Distinction of making it the first Meridian of America. Philadelphia made the first Meridian. And a Meridian here I thought the more necessary, that we may determine the Difference of the Longitude of Places by Mensuration; a Method far excelling the best astronomical Observations; and as we may be led into several Errors by al­ways reckoning from remote Meridians. Those who have only seen the Plans and Maps of this City, must be cautioned not to give any of them Credit, for it extends only on the West Side of Delaware, about a Mile and a Half in Length, and about Half a Mile in the greatest Breadth. Near the Western Extremity is the Statehouse, the Spot proposed for my Meridian to be drawn through.

[Page 2] The Extent of the British Settlements. THE Settlements made by the English are bounded on one Side by the Ocean, and on the other by no certain Line or Distance; for in some Places they are not above 30 or 40 Miles from the Heads of Tide, and in others 150 or 200. In general, they may be considered as extended to No. 4 C b * on Connecticut River, and thence to Saretoga C c on Hudson's River, and to Case's C d on the Mohock's River; thence back, by the Lakes D d, at the Head of Susquehanna, to the Head of Delaware, and thence down the last mention­ed River to the Mouth of Legheiwacksein E d ; from whence to include those of Pensilvania, you cross over to Susquehanna River F f by the Pur­chase Line laid down in the Map; and further along Westward, so as to in­clude the Southern Branches of Juniata, Frank's Town F h, and Ray's Town G h. The scattered Settlements thence to Ohio along Yoghiogani F j & G j and Monaungahela F j & G j are lately broke up by the Incroachments of the French in that Quarter. Those on Green Briar H k and its Branches, and downward to the Fork, and thence Southward by Stahlmakers K l, at the Head Fork of Holston River, to the Line dividing Virginia and Carolina, complete the Line, and yet remain undisturbed. This may be supposed to include our re­motest Settlements; but for many Miles in Breadth, they are very widely scattered; not so much for want of People to improve and plant, but Schemes in almost every Colony to prevent them.

THERE have been British Subjects scattered over many Places, besides those above-mentioned, Trade much farther set­tled. especially on Ohio, Wawyaghtas, and the Branches of Chè­rokee River to the West; and the Lake Ontario Northward; but they can­not with any Propriety be said to be Settlers, because they have not acquired Titles to the Soil under their King, nor cultivated the Land by Husbandry; two Things absolutely necessary to denominate a Settlement.

AT the Wawyághtas G q, the English Tawíghtawi Town G p, Lower Shàwane Town H o, and many Places on Ohio and Lake Erie, our Traders have occa­sionally settled a Trade, and purchased Ground for their Houses; and tho' they might not be deemed Settlers as Planters or Colonets, they may with the greatest Propriety be such as Traders.

THE Longitude at the Top is computed from Philadelphia; Longitude computed from Phila­delphia and London. at Bottom from London, according to the late Mr. THOMAS GODFREY's Observations and my own at Philadelphia. And I was induced to give these the Preference [Page 3]to that made at New-York by Mr. BURNET, because of their Agreement with Mr. TH. ROBIE's Observations at Boston. The Distance from Phila­delphia to Conohasset, at the Mouth of Bound Brook, on Massachuset Bay, has, the far greater Part, been measured in long Lines, on public Occasions, and the rest is supplied by Surveys * of particular Tracts of Land and Roads. And if Bound Brook is 19 or 20 Miles Eastward of the Meridian of Boston, as I imagine it is, there is no sensible Difference between the Observations, but what arises from the Difference of 4° between the two Places, as laid down.

THE principal Observations of Latitude are these, Latitudes ob­served.

Boston,42:25 
N. Boundary of Con­necticut,42:2By Governor BURNET.
New-York,40:42By Governor BURNET.
N. Station Point,41:40By the Jersey and N. York Commission­ers, 1719.
Philadelphia,39:57By L. EVANS.
Shamokin,40:40By L. EVANS.
Owege,41:55By L. EVANS.
Onondaga,42:55By L. EVANS.
Oswego,42:17By L. EVANS.
Sandy-Hook,40:28By L. EVANS.
Ray's Town,39:59By Col. FRY.
Shanoppen's Town,40:26By Col. FRY.
S. Side of S. St. Louis,45:18By CHAMPLAIN, in 1603.
Ville Marie,45:27 

THO' there have been many other Observations made in several Places, in the Settlements, I have always chosen to adjust their Situations by the actual Mensurations; because many of the Instruments yet used, are not sufficiently accurate to determine the Latitude of Places with Nicety.

A MAP I published of PENSILVANIA, NEW-JERSEY, NEW-YORK, The Author's former Map. and DELAW ARE , in 1749, is reduced to a smaller Scale in this, and forms those four Colonies. The Errors are recti­fied, Its Errors now rectified. the principal of which were, Albany placed too far North, Shamokin too far West, and all the Route thence to Oswego five Miles altogether too much North; besides several Imperfections, in Places where later Observa­tions and Discoveries have given us Knowledge of. In the first Impression of my former Map I committed some Mistakes in the Names of Places, near [Page 4]the Entrance of Delaware Bay on the West Side H d, Capes of De­laware. and in my Attempt to rectify them, in the second Edition, did but add to the Confusion. I have since had an Opportunity of making a thorough Enquiry into this Affair, and conclude, that the Names that the Places thereabouts are now called by, and are the same as laid down in my General Map, are the only Names they ever had, and still retain amongst those acquainted with them; as Lewes, Whore­kill Road, Cape Hinlopen, False Cape, and Fenwick's Island: Excepting, that Mr. WILLIAM PENN called Cape Hinlopen by the Name of Cape James; and Whorekill Lewes, on his first Arrival in 1682; the former is scarce known at this Day, and the Name Lewes is confined to the Town, while the Creek still retains the Name of the Whorekill.

ALL must admit that the present Names are rightly laid down; but what is related in regard to the antient Names must be understood as only my Opi­nion. There are others, who think, on no less Opportunity of forming a Judgment, that Cape Hinlopen was formerly called Cape Cornelius; and that Fenwick's Island was the False Cape, or Cape Hinlopen, of the Dutch, and others, till the Arrival of the English in those Parts under Mr. PENN.

To complete what was left imperfect in my former Map, especially in New-York, Mr. William Alexander's Assistance., I have been in a particular Manner assisted by Mr. WILLIAM ALEXANDER, whose numerous Observations and Collections add greatly to the Merit of this Part of the present One, as it will Authority with all who know him.

BESIDES a general Map of Connecticut, which the Rev. Mr. CLAP fa­voured me with, Authorities for the East­ern Colonies. I have been assisted in drawing the EASTERN CO­LONIES by Memorials preserved in DOUGLAS'S Summary of the Co­lony Lines, as actually run round three Sides of CONNECTICUT and RHODE-ISLAND, and between NEW-HAMPSHIRE and MASSACHUSET; and the Extension of these Lines in two Places to Hudson's River. As for that, said to be run from Deerfield to this River, there is certainly a Mistake of several Miles in the Length of it. These, with several Surveys by Messieurs HELM, KELLOG, and CHANDLER, amongst which is an entire One of Connecticut River from No. 4 C b to the North Side of Connecticut Colony D b, given me by Mr. POWNALL, together with his own itinerary Observations on the Face of the Country, the Ranges and Bearings of the Hills, and Distances of Places, contribute to give these Parts a great Degree of Exactness. Nor am I obliged, in these Parts alone, to this Gen­tleman, but for the Corrections of many Articles, which had escaped me in the former Map, and some other valuable Papers he procured me.

THE greatest Part of VIRGINIA is composed with the Assistance of Messieurs FRY and JEFFERSON'S Map of it; Fry and Jef­ferson's Map of Virginia. and as this had the Assistance of actual Surveys of the Division Line with Carolina, and of the Rivers Ra­pahannock and Potomack, from their Entrances to their Heads, joined to the Experience of two skilful Persons, it would have been Affectation to have [Page 5]omitted the Advantage of it. But however, an actual Survey from Phila­delphia to the Mountains, near the great Bent of Potomack, by the Pensilvania Surveyors in 1739, enabled me to give the just Longitude of that Place from Philadelphia, which they mistook by 10 or 12 Miles; and this obliges me to give Potomack, and the whole Country, a Position something different. As that Performance is very valuable, I contrived mine to interfere as little as Possible with it; and omitted the Counties and numerous Gentlemens Seats that it contains, to give Room for the Roads, Inspection-houses, Court-houses, and the Seats of some Half a Dozen Gentlemen, noted in the literary Way.

I AM obliged to the same Map, Mariland but imperfect. and Capt. HOXTON'S Chart of Chesopeak Bay, for MARILAND. But this Colony is the worst done of all the Settlements in mine, yet the Bay from Annapolis to the Head I have lately had an Opportunity of adjusting; as well as to measure the Isthmus across from the Head of Elk to Delaware River, about three Miles below New­Castle. There is a considerable Error in my General Map, which came Time enough to my Knowledge to be mentioned here, tho' not to be recti­fied; and that is, the Breadth of the Peninsula from Fenwick's Island to the South Side of Little Choptank, which I make 65 Miles, whereas Mr. PAR­SONS, one of the Surveyors, who ran the Line across, informs me, that it should have been 70.

THE DELAWARE Colony is adjusted by Part of a Circle of 12 Miles Radius, Delaware Colony. run round New-Castle as a Center, and an actual Mensuration of the whole Length of the Colony, by the late Mr. THOMAS NOXON.

To recount all the Surveys of Roads, Tracts of Land and general Lines, The Author's Acknow­ledgment of Assistance given him. that I have been favoured with, in the Composition of my former Map, which makes so considerable a Part of this, would be endless: But I must not omit here to repeat, with Gratitude, my Thanks, not only for the Fa­vours many Gentlemen did me, but the Chearfulness they shewed in assist­ing in a Design intended for public Service. It would have been almost im­possible to have succeeded in the Composition, Such Assist­ance particu­larly necessary in America; and why. notwithstanding all these Helps, without my personal Knowledge also of almost all the Country it contained. One of the greatest Mistakes in it arose, from my going from Kinderhook to Albany by Night, where the Skipper deceived me in the Distance. An Eu­ropean may be at a Loss to know, why there is a Necessity for these Sorts of Helps in making a Map of a Country; for that Reason it must be observed, that all America, East of Missisippi, low Lands, Hills and Mountains, is every where covered with Woods, except some interval Spots of no great Extent, cleared by the European Colonets. Here are no Churches, Towers, Houses or peaked Mountains to be seen from afar, no Means of obtaining the Bear­ings or Distances of Places, but by the Compass, and actual Mensuration with the Chain. All the Mountains alike. The Mountains are almost all so many Ridges with even Tops, and nearly of a Height. To look from these Hills into the lower Lands, is but, as it were, into an Ocean of Woods, swelled and deprest [Page 6]here and there by little Inequalities, not to be distinguished, one Part from another, any more than the Waves of the real Ocean.

THE Uniformity of these Mountains, Their Uni­formity use­ful. tho' debarring us of an Advantage in this Respect, makes some Amends in another. They are very regular in their Courses, and confine the Creeks and Rivers that run between; and if we know where the Gaps are, that let through these Streams, we are not at a Loss to lay down their most considerable Inflections.

FOR the better understanding the Authorities whereon the rest of the Map is founded, The Land is divided into different Stages. it must be previously observed, that the Land, in the Parts of America included in this Map, is divided into different Stages; and that Hudson's River divides the whole into two Series, both running parallel to the Sea. Hudson's Ri­ver divides the whole in­to two Series. That to the Eastward is so to the Massachusets Bay; at first its Direction is nearly North, The Eastern Series. and then it trends more and more Easterly, accord­ing to the Shape of the Shore. This Series consists of two Stages; and (supposing you travel across it Westward from Boston) the first begins about Water Town D a, Its first Stage. and continues a rough hilly Ground till you are past West­ern * D b; thence to within twenty Miles of Hudson's River, the second Stage is for a great Part covered with small Mountains, running here in long Chains and Ridges; Second Stage. which extend Southerly to the Sound dividing Long Island from the Main, and form those Cliffs, Ridges and broken stony Ground, which you observe in travelling along the Connecticut Colony Shore E b, and prevent the Possibility of making a better Road in that Direction further within Land. The greater Part of Connecticut is of this second Stage, and is enriched by the fine interval Lands between the Chains, the greatest being along the Con­necticut River, and near 20 Miles wide. 'Tis the Courses of these Chains of Mountains and Hills that give Direction to the several Creeks and Rivers. Gathered Land. To the Eastward of the first Stage, some Land is made by an Accumulation of Sand from the Ocean, heaped together by the Meeting of the Recoil of the Flood Tide from the North Eastward with another from the South Eastward; and forms near all the Land of Cape Cod to the Eastward of the Bottom of Massa­chusets Bay. Cape Cod. There are in this Series some few other Gatherings of Sand, but scarce worth the mentioning here. Long-Island. As for the outer Part of Long-Island, it con­consists of both Sand from the Ocean and Soil washt from the Continent, thrown into this Shape by the Direction given the Tides and Cunents by the adjacent Coasts.

THE Land, The Western Series. South Westward of Hudson's River, is more regularly divided, and into a greater Number of Stages than the other. The first Object worthy Regard, in this Part, is a Rief or Vein of Rocks, of the Talky or Isinglassy Kind, some two or throe, or Half a Dozen Miles broad; rising generally some small Matter higher than the adjoining Land; and extending from New-York City South Westerly by the Lower Falls of Delaware, Schuylkill, Susque­hanna, Gun-Powder, Patapsco, Potomack, Rapahannock, James River and Ronoak. This was the antient maritime Boundary of America, and forms a [Page 7]very regular Curve. The Land between this Rief and the Sea, and from the Nàvesink Hills South Westward as far as this Map extends, and probably to the Extremity of Georgia, may be denominated the Lower Plains, and con­sists of Soil washt down from above, First Stage, or Lower Plains. and Sand accumulated from the Ocean. Where these Plains are not penetrated by Rivers, they are a white Sea-Sand, about twenty Feet deep, and perfectly barren, as no Mixture of Soil helps to enrich them. But the Borders of the Rivers, which descend from the Up­lands, are rendered fertile by the Soil washt down with the Floods, and mixt with the Sand gathered from the Sea. The Substratum of Sea Mud, Shells and other foreign Subjects, is a perfect Confirmation of this Supposition. And hence it is, that for 40 or 50 Miles inland, and all the Way from the Nave­finks to Cape Florida, all is a perfect Barren, where the Wash from the Up­land has not enriched the Borders of the Rivers; or some Ponds and Defiles have not furnished proper Support for the Growth of White Cedars. There is commonly a Vein of Clay seaward of the Isinglassy Rief, some three or four Miles wide; which is a coarse Fullers Earth, and excellently fitted, with a proper Portion of Loam, to make Bricks of.

FROM this Rief of Rocks, Second Stage, or the Up­land. over which all the Rivers fall, to that Chain of broken Hills, called the South Mountain, there is the Distance of 50, 60 or 70 Miles of very uneven Ground, rising sensibly as you advance further in­land; and may be denominated the Upland. This consists of Veins of dif­ferent Kinds of Soil and Substrata, some Scores of Miles in Length; and in some Places overlaid with little Ridges and Chains of Hills. The Declivity of the whole gives great Rapidity to the Streams; and our violent Gusts of Rain have washt it all into Gullies, and carried down the Soil to [...] the Borders of the Rivers in the Lower Plains. These Inequalities render half the Country not easily capable of Culture; and impoverishes it, where torne up with the Plough, by daily washing away the richer Mould that co­vers the Surface.

THE South Mountain is not in Ridges like the Endless Mountains, Third Stage, or Piemont. but in small, broken, steep, stony Hills; nor does it run with so much Regularity. In some Places it gradually degenerates to Nothing, not to appear again for some Miles, and in others spreads several Miles in Breadth. Between the South Mountain and the hither Chain of the Endless Mountains, (often for Distinction called the North Mountain, H k and in some Places the Kittatinni, F f and Pequílin, F e) there is a Valley of pretty even, good Land, some 8, 10 or 20 Miles wide, and is the most considerable Quantity of valuable Land that the English are possest of; and runs through New-Jersey, Pensilvania, Ma­riland and Virginia. It has yet obtained no general Name, but may properly enough be called Piemont, from its Situation. Besides Conveniencies always attending good Land, this Valley is every where enriched with Limestone.

THE Endless Mountains, Fourth Stage, or the Endless Mountains. so called from a Translation of the Indian Name, bearing that Signification, come next in Order. They are not confusedly [Page 8]scattered, and in lofty Peaks overtopping one another, but stretch in long uniform Ridges, scarce Half a Mile perpendicular in any Place above the in­termediate Vallies. Their Name is expressive of their Extent, though no Doubt, not in a literal Sense. In some Places, as towards the Kaats Kill, D e and the Head of Ronoak, J k one would be induced to imagine he had found their End, but let him look a little on either Side, and he will find them again spread in new Branches, of no less Extent than what first presented themselves. The further Chain, Allegeny Mountains. or Allegeny Ridge of Mountains, F h keeps mostly on a Pa­rallel with the Isinglassy Rief, and terminates in a rough stony Piece of Ground at the Head of Ronoak and New River. D c The more Easterly Chains, as they run further Southward, trend also more and more Westerly; which is the Reason that the Upland and Piemont Valley are so much wider in Virginia than farther Northward. This South Westerly trending of the Hither Chains brings them to meet the Allegeny Mountain, and in several Places to intersect it and form new Series of Mountains; as is the Case, I believe, of the Oua­sioto. J n Where the several Chains cross one another, or some small Spurs * spring out from the main Ridges, the Mountains are broken and spread in de­tached Hills, and generally afford proper Places to conduct Roads through, but not very strait. A Caution in laying out Roads a­mongstMoun­tains. It may be observed, that in laying out Roads amongst Mountains, 'tis best to chuse the stony, and not the rocky Ground; though from the Fewness of the apparent Rocks, the latter, to an unexperienced Per­son, would be more promising; because, where a great Deal of loose Stones lie upon the Edges of Hills, and have not fallen from the impending Rocks, 'tis a sure Sign, that, on the Removal of them, loose Earth lies underneath; for the Rains washing away such, has been the Cause of leaving so many Stones bare.

THERE are several Chains of the Endless Mountains which have not come to my Knowledge, and had they been so, might have filled several Places which lie vacant in the Map. But so far as we are acquainted with them, we observe that each Chain consists of a particular Kind of Stone, and each dif­ferent from the rest; and these Differences continue for their whole Extent, as far as I can learn. When I croft them I was not apprehensive of this, and omitted enumerating their Species. Some of the Chains are single narrow Ridges, as the Kittatinni; some spread two or three Miles broad on the Top; some steep on one Side and extending with a long Slope on the other; and the steeper they are, the more rocky; but they are every where woody where there is Soil proper and sufficient to support the Trees. Towards the further Ridges North Eastward the Mountains consist of rich Land, and in some Places are but as large broad Banks, which take three or four Miles to cross. In the Way to Ohio by Franks Town, after you are past the Allegeny Mountain, the Ground is rough in many Places, and continues so to the River. Hereabouts the Lawrel Hill springs from the Mountain, and continues, though not large, in a very regular Chain, I believe, to the [Page 9]Ouasioto Mountain. For though the Allegeny Mountain is the most Westerly, on the West Branch of Susquehanna F h, it is far from being so, back of Virginia.

EXCEPT the further Ridges, as just now mentioned, Land amongst the Moun­tains. there is but little good Land in the Mountains; to be sure not one tenth Part is capable of Culture, and what small Matter there is, consists of extream rich Soil, in Lawns, on the River Edges, being so much rich Mud subsided there; and commonly ga­thered above Falls, formerly in drowned Land, and now drained, by the Ri­vers wearing Channels through the Rocks.

To the North Westward of the Endless Mountains is a Country of vast Extent, Fifth Stage, or the Upper Plains. and in a Manner as high as the Mountains themselves. To look at the abrupt Termination of it, near the Sea Level, as is the Case on the West Side of Hudson's River, below Albany, it looks as a vast high Mountain; for the Kaats Kills D c, though of more lofty Stature than any other Mountains in these Parts of America, are but the Continuation of the Plains on the Top; and the Cliffs of them, in the Front they present towards Kinderhook. These UPPER PLAINS are of extraordinary rich level Land, and extend from the Mohocks River C d, through the Country of the Confederates. Their Termination Northward is at a little Distance from Lake Ontario C e f g h j; but what it is Westward is not known, for those most extensive Plains of Ohio are Part of them; which continue to widen as they extend further Westward, even far beyond the Missisippi; and its Boundary Southward is a little Chain of broken Hills, about 10 or 15 Miles South of the Ohio River. 'Tis an odd Phaenomenon to observe how near the Tide comes up Hudson's River D c to the Heads of Delaware and Susquehanna D d; when these two Rivers are obliged to go so far to meet it in their own Channels. The Reason is, Dela­ware and Susquehanna have their Heads in the Plains, and Hudson's River the Tide at the Foot of them. The English are no where yet settled in these Plains, but towards the Head of Susquehanna D d, and on the Mohocks River C d.

THE Country between the Mohocks and St. Laurence Rivers is entirely im­passable by Reason of Ridges of Hills, Cooughsagh­rage. not being yet broken, to drain the vast drowned Land and Swamps.

THE Country round Lake Champlain is a Mixture of broken, rocky, Lake Cham­plain. moun­tainous Land, with very rich fine Bottoms. I have not been able to learn the Order of the Hills, and how they run in Chains; but one, I am told, which is the Continuation of the vast high Mountains on Lake St. Sacrament C b, af­ter crossing Wood Creek and Otter Creek, extends North East, till it falls on St. Laurence, about 15 Miles below Quebec.

LAKE Champlain, and the Parts round, are done from an actual Survey. The Island of Montreal is done from a Draught of M. BELLIN; but I have, on good Authority, differed from him, in the Distance from la Praire to Chamle and St. Jean A c.

[Page 10] THE Map, Parts execut­ed without actual Sur­veys appear less accurate in the Map. in the Ohio, and its Branches, as well as the Passes through the Mountains Westward, is laid down by the Information of Traders and others, who have resided there, and travelled them for many Years together. Hitherto there have not been any Surveys made of them, except the Road which goes from Shippensburg round Parnel's Knob and by Ray's Town, over the Allegeny Mountains. For this Reason I have particularly endea­voured to give these Parts, which are done from Computations, another Ap­pearance than those among the Settlements, where I had actual Surveys to assist me; lest the Reader be deceived by an Appearance of Accuracy, where it was impossible to attain it.

THE Pass through the Mountains from Pensilvania, The Author's Route to Oswego. by Shamokin to Onon­daga and Oswego, is from my own Observations, and well deserves Regard; because I had a pretty good Instrument for observing the Latitude, and mi­nutely noted all our Courses, and am well accustomed to form a Judgment of travelling Distances. Mr. WILLIAM FRANKLIN'S Journal to Ohio has been my principal Help in ascertaining the Longitude of the Fork of Ohio and Monaungáahela; Latitude of Fort du Quesne. but however I must not omit mentioning, that the La­titude of this Fork is laid down from the Observation of Colonel FRY, and is at least ten Miles more Northerly than I would otherwise have thought it was. Ohio not very crooked. The River from hence downward, is agreed by all who have gone down it, to be in general pretty strait, nor can its Curves be indeed consider­able where it is confined in a Manner by a Chain of little Hills, from the last mentioned Fork, to ten Miles below the Falls. Mr. JOSEPH DOBSON gave me an Account of the Distances from Creek to Creek, as they fall in, and of the Islands, Rifts and Falls, all the Way from the Fork to Sioto; and Mr. ALEXANDER MAGINTY and Mr. ALEXANDER LOWRY, gave me the rest to the Falls, as well as confirmed the others. The River from the Fork upwards, is mostly from Mr. JOHN DAVISON; but that Part from Canawagy to the Head is entirely by Guess, for I have no other Information of it, than that it heads with the Cayúga Branch of Susquehanna. General Si­tuations. The Routs across the Country, as well as the Situation of Indian Villages, trading Places, the Creeks that fall into Lake Erie, and other Affairs relating to Ohio and its Branches, are from a great Number of Informations of Traders and others, and especially of a very intelligent Indian called The Eagle, who had a good Notion of Distances, Detroit. Bearings and delineating. The Situation of Detroit is chiefly determined by the Computation of its Distance from Fort Niagara by Mr. MAGINTY, and its Bearing and Distance from the Mouth of Sandusky.

I MUST not omit my Acknowledgment to Mr. WILLIAM WEST, Assistance given the Author. for several valuable Notes about Potomack, the Forks of Ohio, and Parts ad­jacent; nor to RICHARD PETERS, Esq for the great Chearfulness he assisted me with in this Composition. As for the Branches of Ohio, which head in the New Virginia *, I am particularly obliged to Mr. THOMAS WALKER, for the Intelligence of what Names they bear, and what Rivers they fall into Northward and Westward; but this Gentleman being on a Journey when I [Page 11]happened to see him, had not his Notes, whereby he might otherwise have rendered those Parts more perfect. But the Particulars of these and many other Articles relating to the Situation of Places, I must defer, till I deliver an Account of the several Rivers and Creeks, their Navigation, Portages and Lands thereon.

IN Regard to the Boundaries of the Colonies, Boundaries of Colonies. I have inserted those esta­blished by Authority, and left the rest undetermined. But I must not omit observing, Between New-York & New-Jersey. that though the Line between the upper Part of New-Jersey and New-York, is not settled, the Station Point in Latitude 41 : 40, on the only Branch of Delaware in that Latitude, was settled by Commissioners and Ma­thematicians, appointed by Acts of Assembly of both Provinces, and certified under their Hands and Seals, in 1719. But the Determination of the other End, on Hudson's River, in Latitude 40, by Reason of a Difference of four Minutes in some Observations made with the Instrument, was suspended till a more accurate One could be procured. of Pensilva­nia and Dela­ware. The Southern Boundaries of Pensil­vania, and those of Delaware Colony, are according to a late Decree in Chancery; but how far Pensilvania extends Northward is not yet settled, but I am convinced the Patent intended it at Latitude 43, though it calls it the Beginning of the 43d Degree. But the Disputes about Plantation Bounda­ries I have determined to reserve for another Place.

I HAVE not Room here to enlarge on the State of the INDIANS, Indian Af­fairs. nor de­scribe their several Boundaries. But it must be observed, that they do not generally bound their Countries by Lines, but by considerable Extents of Land. For as their Numbers are not considerable in Proportion of the Lands they possess, they fix their Towns commonly on the Edges of great Rivers for the Sake of the rich Lawns to sow their Corn in. The intermediate Ground they reserve for their Hunting, which equally serves for that Purpose and a Fron­tier: For Example; The Bounds of the Coun­try of the Confederates. towards Ca­nada. The Confederates * actual Settlements were bounded Northward by the Cloven Rock and Regioghne Point, on Lake Champlain; the Raarondacks were bounded by the further Side of St. Laurence River; and all the intermediate Ground reserved for a Frontier between them.

THE Bounds of the Confederates Land on that Side is still the same. And as it may be Matter of Enquiry at this Time, I shall, as well as I am able, in a little Compass, give the same on the other Sides, as far as can be learnt with Certainty; towards Al­bany. but shall not regard the Purchases made by the Eng­lish, but their old Boundaries only on this Side. They formerly included the Branches of Otter Creek and Wood Creek C b, and thence across to Hudson's River, They con­quered the Mohiccons and Dela­wares. and down the same on the West Side to the Kaats Kill D c; for the Mohiccons then occupied the East Side of Hudson's River, but as the Con­federates have since conquered them, they claim a Dominion East ward to Connecticut River. The Lenne Lenoppes F d Ed they entirely subdued, whom we usually call the Delaware and Minnesink Indians; they have therefore a Right to their Country as far as was not sold by the Conquered, Bounds in Pensilvania. before their Sub­jection; which was from the Sea to the Falls of Delaware at Trenton F d, to [Page 12]PETER MENEVET, Commandant under CHRISTINA, Queen of Sweden. Their Boundary extended thence Westward to the great Falls of Susque­hanna F f, near the Mouth of Conewâga Creek: For though they gave the finishing Stroke to the Extermination of the Susquehannocks, They finisht the Extirpa­tion of the Susquehan­nocks. BELL, in the Service of Mariland, at the Fort, whose Remains are still standing on the East Side of Susquehanna, about three Miles below Wright's Ferry G d, by the De­feat of many Hundreds, had given them a Blow that they never recovered of; and for that Reason the Confederates never claimed but to the Conewaga Falls. And as the Susquehannocks had abandoned the Western Shore of Mariland, before their Conquest, and the English found it mostly derelict, the Confede­rates confine their Claim to the Northward of a Line drawn from Cone­waga Falls to the North Mountain, where it crosses Potomack G g, and thence, by that Chain of Mountains, Boundary with Virginia. to the Branches of James River. The Indians between this Chain and Potomack were the Sachdagughs H g, whom the English called Powatans, after a noted Chief of that Name, on their first Arrival in James River, and were of as many Tribes and Societies, and of as many Names, as there were Creeks and Rivers from James Town I f, to the Great Bent of Potomack G g; and as these were subdued by the English, the Confe­derates claim no Right to that Part of Virginia. The Monacans or Tusca­róras I j, divided also into many Tribes, occupied the Branches of James Ri­ver from the Falls upwards, and the Country thence Southward. Some of these the Virginians obliged to desert their Country, and retire further South­ward; and took away some Lands, confirmed by solemn Treaties, from others, who are since received into the Country of the Confederates for Pro­tection. And tho' the Confederates lay no Claim to these Parts in Right of the Tuscaroras, who form one Nation of the Confederacy, because they have been obliged by the Force of Arms to abandon it; they are not so well satis­fied in Regard to the Lands of the Tuteloes and Meherins, who are other Tribes, and received into their Protection; from whence the Boundary here is not so certain.

THEIR Boundaries, To the South­ward. from hence Westward, is not so exactly ascertained, as with the English; because they have generally maintained a doubtful War with the Cherokees and Cuttawas * on this Side; and tho' these have in ge­neral been compelled to retire more Southerly than they were formerly seated; yet the positive Right of the Confederates does not extend beyond the Latitude 36° on the Branches of Holston or Cherokee River. Though the English have lately settled thereabouts, and the Country had not any Indian Settlers, the Confederates claim a Right there in Virtue of having acquired it by Arms from the former Inhabitants.

THE Shiwanese, Shawanese conquered. who were formerly one of the most considerable Nations of these Parts of America, whose Seat extended from Kentucke I p, South Westward to Missisippi, have been subdued by the Confederates, and the Country since become their Property. No Nation held out with greater Re­solution and Bravery; and though they have been scattered into all Parts for a while, they are again collected on Ohio Go, under the Dominion of the Con­federates, [Page 13]which they bear with great Reluctance; though all that is required of them is to acknowledge the others as braver Men, and partake of their Protection.

THE Erîgas G g, who were of the same original Stock with the Confederates themselves, Erigas de­stroyed. and partook also of the Tuscarora Language, were seated on Ohio and its Branches, from Beaver Creek E j to the Mouth of the Quiaághtena River G s. The far greater Part have been extirpated, some incorporated into the Senecas, and the rest have retired beyond the woodless Plains over the Missisippi, and left the Confederates entire Masters of all the Country. From the Ruins of the Eriga Towns and Fortresses we suppose they were the most numerous of any in these Parts of America.

THE Welinis, Welinis con­quered. called by the French Ilinois, had their Seat on a fine River, which bears their Name In the Sketch., and thence North East by the South End of Lake Ilinois, along Mineami River to Lake Erie. They had many Years War with the Confederates, and were compelled to acknowledge their Superiority, but however without being Subjects. They are now in close Friendship; and for the Sake of their having the Advantage of Trade with the English, the Confederates allotted them the Land on Quiaághtena G o p q r and Rocky Rivers G o p q r, which is still the Property of the Confederates; but the Land of the Wellnis, where they were formerly seated, still remains their own. As for the Land from the West End of Lake Erie to the South End of Lake Ilinois E o p q r s, which, in the Course of the War, the Confederates gained with the Sword, they have allotted Part to the Wiandóts.

THE Wiandóts, Wiandóts conquered. or Junúndats, had Tiiughsogbrúntie for their Seat, but by the superior Force of the Confederates were compelled to abandon it, and at last obliged to sue for Peace, after they had many Years wandered beyond the Lakes. Upon this Account all that Peninsula between the Lakes Michigan, Huron and Erie, is become the Property of the Confederates, and the Wian­dóts their Subjects; and to preserve their Fidelity, and to afford them Pro­tection, their present Seat was allotted them. United with the Dela­wares. The Delawares and these en­tered into an entire League of Association in 1751. I think the Wiandóts the same as the Foxes or Outagamis. Their Language discovers them of the original Stock of the Erigas and Confederates.

THE Outagamis and some other Nations on the further Side of the Lakes are subdued by the Confederates; but I am not enabled to relate the Particu­lars with any Certainty, and so cannot specify what Lands they have a Right to beyond the Western Side of Lake Michigan. And though they have of ten carried their Arms far beyond the Missisippi, and compelled the Nation seated there to retire further Westward, I have not been able to learn how far their Dominion extends on that Side, though they say it is considerably.

THE Peninsula of SKANIADARADE, Skaniadaráde conquered. which lies on the North Side of Lake Erie, has long been subjected to the superior Arms of the Confederates; its antient Inhabitants, called by the French, Hurons, from the beastly Shapes of their Heads, and nearly related to the Raaróndacks, who do not trim their Hair in the sprightly Form of the other Savages, as almost extinct. But the Country all along the South Side of the Outawa River, for a considerable Extent, belongs to those Remains of Algonkins, the [Page 14]Outawais, Algonkins not subdued. Nipissings, &c. who by the Assistance of the French have escaped the Fate of most other Nations, who have had Occasion to contend with the Confederates.

THE French being in Possession of Fort Frontenac at the Peace of Rys­wick, French Rights from F. Fron­tenac to Montreal., which they attained during their War with the Confederates, gives them an undoubted Title to the Acquisition of the North West Side of St. Laurence River from thence to their Settlement at Montreal. But the Confederates still preserved their Right to the other Side, sully to Lake St. Francis A d, leaving the rest to Montreal A c as a Boundary.

THE Acquisitions of the Confederates were very considerable along the Banks of St. Laurence, Other Acqui­sitions of the Confederates. especially on the South Side, as far as Tadousac, but as in Treaties of Peace, the Bounds of Countries are not often insisted upon by the Americans, they are entirely at a Loss, what their Rights are in those Parts.

I HAVE not Room to enlarge on these Articles, nor to give the Authorities whereon they are founded; nor likewise to enumerate the several Tribes of Nations who occupy the Country included in this Map. But however, I must not omit mentioning, Vulgar Er­rots. that the Number of Nations is far less than is commonly imagined. The Notions that every little Society is a separate Na­tion; that the Chief of a Village is a King, or that there is any such Thing as coercive Power amongst the American Natives of these Parts, so generally maintained by the English, are without the least Foundation. All their States being Republic in the strictest Sense; and the Chiefs, as we call them, are only such in Virtue of their Credit, not their Power.

THE Indians of Rhode-Island, Eastern In­dians. Connecticut and Parts adjacent, have been mostly destroyed by the English, except a Part of the Naregansets, who maintained a Neutrality during the Indian War of 1675, and some few who fled to Canada, and make a considerable Part of those called the Abnaquis, seated round Lake St. Pierre.

THE Mohiccons, Mohiccons, or River In­dians. who extended themselves along the East Side of Hud­son's River, against Albany, on the first Settlement of the Dutch there in 1614, and thence to Connecticut River and Long-Island, and also along the Esopus River towards Delaware, are nearly allied to those of New-England, and still more so to the Lenne Lenappes, whose Habitations were along Dela­ware, and for that Reason called by us Delawares and Minnesink Indians, have been, as well as these, subdued by the Confederates.

THE Sasquehannacks, The present Indians on Susquehanna. after a great Defeat by the Marilanders, were easily exterminated by the Confederates. So, those Nations who are now on Sus­quehanna, are only such as the Confederates have allotted that River for; as the Nanticokes, from the Eastern Shore of Marilanda Tuteloes from the Me­herin River in Virginia, and the Delawares, under which we include the Minnesinks, and the Mandes, or Salem Indians.

THE Indians on Ohio consist of the Hunters of the several Nations round, Ohio, a hunt­ing Ground. under the Protection or Subjection of the Confederates; as the Delawares, Shàwanese, Wiándots, Welînis, and their own several Nations. The Outa­wais, [Page 15]or Tawas, as our Traders and some of the Confederates call them, un­der Pretence of Leave from the Confederates to hunt on the South Side of Lake Erie, and instigated by the French, have, in 1752, fallen upon the English Tawìghtawi Town, where they killed Twenty-two Tawìghtawi Warriors and one Englishman, and carried away six English Prisoners, with all their Effects, to the French. This Insult of the French on British Rights, and other Captures made of our Allies and Traders in those Parts, which soon followed, and no Measures taken to repel them, gave the French a reasonable Pretension for establishing themselves in Junundat I n, Presquisle Ej, Mad Creek G q, Winingo Ej, and Fort du Quesne F j, as Places not worth our Regard or At­tention. But it is to be hoped, that notwithstanding the Industry so lately used, not by the French alone, for the Establishment of the French Power in America, his Majesty of Great-Britain is no longer to be kept unacquainted with the Consequence of the Country between the British Settlements and Missisippi; which must one Day determine, whether the Southern Colonies shall remain the Property of the British Crown; or the Inhabitants, to pre­vent the entire Defection of their Slaves, which the French will encourage, as the Spaniards now do at St. Augustine, be obliged to fall under the Domi­nion of France. Let not the Public think this a remote Contingence: If the French settle back of us, the English must either submit to them, or have their Throats cut, and lose all their Slaves. As bad as French Govern­ment and Religion is to those who have any Remains of British Spirit, it is easy to guess what Alternative the most zealous of us would chuse.

I MUST not omit giving one Caution to those in Power, A Caution to secure the Country back of Carolina in Time. in this public Manner, for I find from Experience, that few are to be benefited by private Information. Hitherto we have apprehended no greater Scheme of the French than making a Chain of Communication between Canada and the Mouth of Missisippi. As this was remote, we thought ourselves but little interested in it. Now they attempt it nigher to us, by the Way of Ohio, where they have begun an Establishment; if this succeed, it is not Ohio only must fall under their Dominion, but the Country thence Southward to the Bay of Mexico. For that Reason, it becomes the English immediately to establish Forts on the Cherokee River, and other Passes in the Way from Ohio to Moville, before the French attempt to settle there, or draw off the Cherokees, Chicasaws or Creeks from their Friendship to the English. And supposing the French should be beaten off from the Ohio, 'tis ten to one but they will turn their Forces, in Hopes of better Fortune, to the Back of Caro­lina. We charge the Indians with Fickleness, Mistakes in Indian Af­fairs. but with greater Propriety we should charge ourselves with great Want of Sense or Experience, in supposing any Nation is to be tied to another, by any Thing than Interest. The We­linis cultivated a Friendship with the English for the Sake of Trade, and got Leave of the Confederates to remove nigher them. They shewed both Af­fection and Resolution in the Defence of the English at the Tawìghtawi Town G p, where they lost out of 70, not less than 22 Warriors on the Spot: And though the French afterwards offered them very advantageous Terms, they still persisted in their Affection to us; and in their War with the French, [Page 16]amused with Expectation of Relief, they were basely abandoned, without Arms and without Ammunition, to the Resentment of an enraged Enemy. 'Tis a Custom, established with the English, to purchase the Friendship of wa­vering Nations at a great Expence, and to abandon their Friends. Hence those who know this Mixture of Weakness and Baseness that possesses us, keep Members of Council in the French Interest as well as ours, as the Confede­rates do, to keep us under a perpetual Contribution; while those Nations who are truly in our Interest are entirely slighted.

IF we secure the Country back of Carolina in Time, we shall yet defeat the very Point that it is the French Interest to pursue, I mean a Communi­tion between the Ohio and Moville. Whatever we may surmise in Regard to the great River Missisippi being the only Channel fitted for the inland Com­merce of Florida, 'The bad Na­vigation of Missisippi. and no other would suit the French, we shall find ourselves extremely mistaken. Even now the French scarce ever come up that River by Water, by Reason of its great and uniform Rapidity, scarce to be stemm'd in a Canoe and six Oars in Mid-channel. This obliges the French, in coming up, to take to the River Rouge, notwithstanding they are obliged to make one or two very long Portages. The Edges are less rapid in the Missisippi, but them the Enmity of the Indians on its Banks prevents their keeping so near the Shore. Therefore, to make what Use this River is capable of, the French must secure the Country of the Chicasaws and Cherokees; and then Moville, and not New Orleans, will be the Center of the French Trade of Florida; since the latter, though scarce forty Leagues up the Missisippi, by Reason of the Rapidity of the River, is not reached with Ships in less than thirty or forty Days from the Mouth; and Moville is upon Tide Water. If, in Pursuit of our present Point on Ohio, we shew any Remisness in our At­tachment to the Safety of those Indians, who are our Friends, or we neglect to secure the Country back of Carolina, the Defection of the Indians there is inevitable; since the French have long known the Consequence of it, though much to their Cost. The Public may be amused with a Notion that we have Forts and Settlements there already, as represented in some Maps, published with great Authority—I can only say, That I wish either were true. Itinerant Trading is not a Settlement, in the Sense the English use the Word; nor a House built of Logs of Wood, without Order or Artillery, or Garrison, a Fort in any Sense.

A brief Description of the most considerable RIVERS.

THE Face of the Country, All the Rivers and Creeks navigable in the Lower Plains. as already represented, determines the Nature of the Rivers. The Flat Country (or Lower Plains) which lies between the Falls and the Sea, is every where interwoven with the most beautiful Bays, Rivers and Creeks, navigable for all Sorts of Vessels; and is the Reason of so many fine Creeks spreading on every Side, from the Bays of Chesopeak and Delaware. For, as the Land has no Declivity, the Flux and Reflux of the Sea contributes to so wide extended Navigation. All the Creeks on Delaware, the Verges of the Sounds, which extend along the Sea-coast, and some [Page 17]Creeks in Virginia, Salt Marshes. and towards the Head of Chesopeak on the West Side, are bordered with Salt Marshes, some a Mile or two wide. The first Settlers of America, for the Sake of the Grass for the Winter Support of their Cat­tle, fixing their Habitations along these Places, were infested with Muskitoes and Intermitting Fevers, gave the Foundation for supposing America un­healthy. The rest of Chesopeak Bay, and its Branches, is almost all a clean, gravelly, steep, dry Bank; and, were it not for the Scarcity of Fresh Wa­ter in some Parts of the Eastern Shore, would be as pleasant a Country as Imagination could well represent.

THE Isinglass Vein already described, though broken at New-York, to let the Tide through into Hudson's River, to a far greater Distance than any other River on this Coast, continues still North Eastward, but with less Uni­formity, over the West End of Long-Island and the Connecticut Shore, ap­pearing but here and there, by Reason of its being overlaid with the Ridges which terminate here.

THAT Part of New-England laid down in this Map, as well as those Parts of New Jersey, The Upland has great De­clivity, and the Rivers ra­pid. Pensilvania, Mariland and Virginia, between the Isinglass Vein and the North Mountain, slopes toward the Sea with a great Decli­vity, and by that Means the Rivers and Rivulets have great Rapidity, and are excellently fitted for all Sorts of Mills; a great Advantage to Colo­nies like ours, In the Moun­tains the Ri­vers stcay and rapid. where Bread and Flour is the Staple of Commerce. In the Endless Mountains, the Rivers are generally stony and rapid; and in some Places, where interrupted with Riefs of Rocks, not yet worn to the Level, they fall in great Cataracts; and above such Places are generally dead and slow, or spread in Ponds, to drown the surrounding Land.

IN the elevated Flats, In the Upper Plains, the Rivers gentle, and well fit­ted for Inland Navigation. which form the Country of the Confederates and Ohio, the Rivers are generally easy in their Currents; and as that Country is of vast Extent, they are large and excellently accommodated for Inland Na­vigation. This may suffice in general, but it is worth while to specify some of the most considerable Rivers contained in this Map.

ST. LAURENCE is navigable with Shipping, St. Laurence. Its Naviga­tion to Que­beck. by a very difficult Channel, and much Fog, to Quebec. The Navigation thence to Montreal A c is in Shallops; and though there is Depth of Water, and a good Flood to assist as far as Trois Rivieres, To Montreal. which is half Way; the Passage is commonly five or six Days with a fair Wind, by Reason of sunken Rocks in the Tide Way, and the Shallowness of Lake St. Pierre, compelling them to lie by a Nights; and the Rapidity of the Current thence to Montreal. From this to the Anse of la Galette B e, To the Ga­lette. the River is full of Falls and Rifts for forty Leagues, where the Canoe Men are often obliged to carry over Land, and to wade in several Places. To Fronte­nac The River thence to Fort Frontenac [...] c, is very gentle and easily passed with Boats or Canoes. Though it bears the Name of St. Laurence no further, I shall proceed with the Water that supplies it.

ONTARIO or Cataraqui is a beautiful Lake of fresh Water, Lake Ontario. very deep, and has a moderate steep Bank and gravelly Shore along the South Side: C f g h j The Rivers which fall into it are apt to be sometimes barred at the Entrances. This, Its Tides. like the Mediterrancan, the Caspian and other large invasated Waters, [Page 18]has a small Rising and Falling of the Water like Tides, some 12 or 18 Inches perpendicular, occasioned by the Changes in the State of the Atmosphere; rising higher, as the Weight of the incumbent Air is less, and falling, as it becomes greater. This Lake is best fitted for the Passage of Batteaux and Canoes, along the South Side, the other having several Rocks near the Sur­face of the Water; but the Middle is every where safe for Shipping. The Snow is deeper on the South Side of this Lake, than any other Place in these Parts; but the Lake does not freeze, in the severest Winter, out of Sight of Land. The Streight of Niágara. The Streight of Oghniágara C D j, between the Lake Ontario and Erie, is easily passable some five or six Miles with any Ships, or ten Miles in all with Canoes; Portage. then you are obliged to make a Portage up three pretty sharp Hills about eight Miles, where there is now cut a pretty good Cart-way. This Portage is made to avoid that stupendous Fall of Oghniágara, Falls. which in one Place precipitates headlong five or six and twenty Fathoms, and continues for six or seven Miles more to tumble in little Falls, and run with inconceiv­able Rapidity. And indeed the Streight for a Mile or two is so rapid, above the Fall, that it is not safe venturing near it. They embark again at the Fishing Battery, and thence to Lake Erie it is eighteen Miles, and the Stream so swift, that the stiffest Gale is scarce sufficient to stem it in a Ship; but it is easily passed in Canoes, where the Current here, as in all other Places, is less rapid along the Shore.

LAKE Erie DEjklmno has a fine sandy Shore on the North Side; Lake Erie. and in many Places such, on the other, especially towards the South East Part. The Wea­ther and Climate of this is far more moderate than that of Ontario.

THE Streight St. Clair, Streight of St. Clair. as far as Fort Pontchartrain, is passable in a Ship with a pretty moderate Gale, but from the upper Side of the Little Lake to Lake Huron, C D o the Channel is intricate, but deep enough, and the Stream to be stemm'd with a stiff Gale.

THE Lake Huron communicates with Lake Michigan or Illinois by a Streight Missilima­kinack., Lake Huron. that is wide, and the Current running sometimes in, and sometimes out; by Reason of the small Runs which fall into this latter Lake, scarce sup­plying what is dissipated in Exhalations.

MINEAMI River E n, Sandusky E m, Cayahóga E l, and Cherâge E k, fine Rivers, navigable a good Way with Shallops, fall into the South Side of Lake Erie. Though the Bank on this Side is about eight or ten Feet high, Rivers on the South Side of Lake Erie. and dry enough in most Places, the Land, a little Way back, is generally wet and swampy, by Reason of these Rivers wanting sufficient Descent, or better Channels made to drain it.

THE great and little Sèneca Rivers C e C g are the most considerable Waters that fall into the South Side of Lake Ontario, On the South of Lake On­tario. but neither navigable with Shallops, save about Half a Mile in the former, and two or three Miles in the latter. Their Falls, over the Edge of the elevated Plains, are the Causes of these Obstructions. But after you are gone up the Little Seneca River above the three Falls, and the great Seneca River, about Half a Mile above the Mouth of Onondaga River, they are both very slow and deep. The latter is best laid down in the Map, for I have had an Opportunity of viewing it myself [Page 19]from Onondaga downwards, and thence upwards I have been favoured with the Observations of Mr. BLEECHER.

THE River Sorêl, Sorel River. falls into St. Lawrence, at the upper End of Lake St. Pierre, and drains the Lake Champlain. The Stream is pretty moderate from the Mouth to the Bason at Chamle; from thence to St. Jean are three Falls, impassable for any Craft, and for that Reason they make a Portage of six Miles. The Commu­nication be­tween Canada and Albany. But this is little frequented. The Communication between the French and English Colonies is extreamly difficult by any Way than this to Hud­son's River; which makes Lake Champlain and its Branches one of the most important Waters in North-America; insomuch, that whether the French or English remain Masters of it, the Colonies of the other must lie at their Mercy.

THE Route from Montreal A c to Albany D c is begun by ferrying over to la Praire A c, and thence a Land Carriage, over low wet Ground, fifteen Miles to St. Jean. From this Post, which is truly but a Magazine, they go in a Schooner to Grown Point, Crown Point. a very considerable Fortress, at the Head of Lake Champlain, and the Mouth of Wood Creek. Two Ways lead from hence to­wards Hudson's River; Passage by Lake St. Sa­crament. the one by Lake St. Sacrament, in which there is a Mile Portage, in the Streight between the Lake and Wood Creek. 'Tis very dangerous passing this Lake at the Change of Weather, by Reason of the great Waves arising without much Wind, and the inaccessible Cliffs of vast high Mountains on the East Side. At the Head, the Lake divides into two Bays, from the Eastermost of which is a Portage twelve Miles, or more, to Hudson's River C c. And from this Portage to Albany, you go down Hud­son's River, without any other Interruption than two little Portages C c of about Half a Mile each. The other Way from Crown Point towards Hudson's River, By Wood Creek. is altogether by Wood Creek, and you are only interrupted with a Portage C b of a Stone's Throw or two in Length, at a Place, called Kingia­quaghtenec. The Portage from Wood Creek to Hudson's River C c is twelve Miles also; and the Passage thence to Albany is by the same River, and with the same. Interruption. The whole performed in five or six Days.

I HAVE not Room to enlarge on all the Rivers that fall into the Ocean in the British Colonies; nor do I think it necessary, since many are so well known; but for particular Reasons it is worth describing some Half a Do­zen of the most considerable.

CONNECTICUT River D b E b is laid down from an actual Survey from No. 4, Connecticut River. to the Connecticut Line; and the Parts thence downward is by Computation, joined to some loose Surveys. This River has several Falls, but not many impassable with flat-bottom'd Boats. At the Great Falls C b, after falling with great Rapidity, the River shoots between two Rocks, scarce thirty Feet asun­der. Between Miller's River and Deerfield are two Falls, the lowermost impassable. Between Mount Tom and the Hollyhocks is a very bad Rift; and five or six Miles lower are the Hampton and Fishing Falls, both passable. The Gulf Bar is a passable Rift, just above Enfield Meeting-house. These are all the Falls that have come to my Knowledge; the River elsewhere is [Page 20]moderately swift, and may be improved to a fine Inland Navigation. For though I have extended it no higher than No. 4, It continues a very fine Ri­ver, in much the same Direction; [...] having, above the Chain of Hills which [...] the Falls of Wood Creek, and the great Falls of Otter Creek, a great Quantity of fine Upland as well as interval Lands on the River Side, yet un­inhabited. And between some Branches of this and Otter Creek, and River Francois, [...] are some good Portages. The Tide does not run up this River quite to Hartford, but it is remarkable, that the River in the Tide Way grows shallower by the Accretion of the Soil brought continually down from above.

HUDSON'S River, at whose Entrance stands the City of New-York F e, having good Depth of Water for Sloops, and the Tide extended to Albany D c, near 150 Miles into the Upland; Hudson's Ri­ver navigable with Sloops to Albany. while all the Rivers, from thence South Westward, are navigable with Sea Vessels in the Lower Flats only, opens Communications with the Inland Parts of the Continent, of the utmost Im­portance to the British Interest. I have already mentioned the Communica­tion between Albany and Montreal Page 19.. A Route of no less Importance in the immediate Affairs of the English, Island Navi­gation from Albany to Oswego. opens from Albany Westward into the Heart of the Continent, and is performed commonly in light flat-bottomed Boats. To avoid a great Cataract of 75 Feet, in the Mohocks River D c, they carry all the Goods, destined for the Inland Trade, 16 Miles over Land to [...] D c in Waggons. There they imbark on the Mohocks River, which in general is pretty rapid and shallow, and proceed to the Long Fall C d, where they are obliged to carry their Boats and Goods a Mile over Land. The same River conducts them again to the great Carrying-place The Drag Plate C d, where, according as the Season is wet or dry, they are obliged to carry over Land four or eight Miles, to Wood Creek. This Creek is very gentle and crooked, and, together with Onoyda Lake and Onondaga River C e, furnish an easy Passage to the Seneca River; which at twelve Miles above Oswego C e has a Fall, where they carry their Boats about 100 Feet, and Goods liable to Da­mage by wet, near a Mile and a Half; besides three very bad Rifts, and seve­ral small Ones in other Places. The whole is performed in a Week—

BUT if you intend to go to the Onondágas or Cayúgas Country, The Passage up Seneca Ri­ver. you turn up the Seneca River, and in Half a Mile come to a little gentle Rippling, where the River may be forded on Horseback A Ford C e: From hence upwards it is very deep, and so gentle as scarce to discover which Way it runs.

HUDSON'S River has no Branches navigable with Ships or Shallops; for it is truly but a single Channel extended into the Land, where the Country East and West of it afford those two Series already described Page 6..

DELAWARE River, Delaware Ri­ver. from the Head to Cushiëtunk D d E d, though not obstructed with Falls, has not been improved to any Inland Navigation, by Reason of the Thinness of the Settlements that Way. From Cushietunk to Trenton Falls E d F d, are fourteen considerable Rifts, yet all passable in the long flat [Page 21]Boats * used in the Navigation of these Parts, some carrying 500 or 600 Bu­shels of Wheat. The greatest Number of the Rifts are from Easton F e downward. And those fourteen Miles above Easton, another just below Wells's Ferry, and that at Trenton, are the worst. The Boats seldom come down but with Freshes, especially from the Minnesinks E d. The Freight thence to Philadelphia is 8 d. a Bushel for Wheat, and 3 s. a Barrel for Flour. From the Forks, and other Places below, 20 s. a Ton for Pig Iron, 7 d. a Bushel for Wheat, 2 s. 6 d. a Barrel for Flour. This River, above Trenton, has no Branches worth mentioning for Conveniency of Navigation, Legheiwacsein Legheiwae­sein. E d has not the Hundredth Part so much Water as Delaware has at the Mouth of it. This Creek takes the general Course laid down in the Map. But as Mr. EDWARD SCULL, to whom I am obliged for many Observations in the Course of my Map has lately laid out some great Tracts of Land on this Creek, and given me an Account of it, since the Engraving of that Part, I shall here deliver a few Particulars, to avert some public Disputes that have been about it. From the Mouth to the Fork the Course is S. 70° W about Its Fork. twelve Miles in a strait Line, the Creek crooked and rapid. There the two Branches are nearly of a Bigness, the Southern one rather the largest. Half a Mile above the Fork, the South Branch, or Wallanpaupack, The Southern Branch. rumbles about thirty Feet perpendicularly; and a little Way higher are two other Falls, not quite so large. From the Fork to the Proprietaries Tract, Three great Falls. it is S. 60 W. four or five Miles, the Channel pretty strait. Thence for ten Miles taken in a strait Line, the Course is S. 56 W. by Compass, the Stream crooked and very gentle. By the Range of the Hills, this Branch continues much the same Direction to its Source. The Northern Branch of Legheiwacsein, The North­ern Branch forks again. divides again into two Branches, at about a Mile and a Quarter above the Mouth, where each is about large enough to turn an under-shot Grist Mill. Three Quarters of a Mile higher is a great Pine Swamp, through which both Branches come. Mr. SCULL thinks that these Branches, whose general Course is about N. W. do not at most extend above 15 Miles; and that all the Waters this Way are confined to the lower Side of the great Chains of Mountains, which extend from about the Station Point to Susquehanna about Whiôming.

THE West Branch The West Branch. F e of Delaware is but inconsiderable, compared with the North-Eastern Branch, into which it falls at Easton. Above the Tuscarora Hills at Gnadenhutten, it is divided into little Creeks, and no Part goes North-Westward of the Cushietunk Mountains. Delaware has no other Branches on the West Side between the Station Point and Easton, worth the mentioning; the Country being drained by little Runs and Creeks.

SCHUYLKILL is a fine Branch, Schuylkill. up which the Tide runs about five Miles above Philadelphia, where there is an impassable Fall; and three Miles higher another not much better. Thence to Reading is a fine gliding Current easy [Page 22]set against, as the Bottom is gravelly and even; and at Seasons not very dry, would furnish 15 or 16 Inches Water all the Way.

Susquehanna River, its up­per Parts na­vigable. SUSQUEHANNA River is navigable with Canoes quite from the Lakes at the Head D d to the Falls at Conewaga F f; nor is there any Fall till that three Miles below Whioming F f. A Quarter of a Mile below Nescopeki F f is ano­ther; both passable up or down with Safety; the Water thence to Shamó­kin F f Conewaga the only im­passable Falls. is generally pretty gentle. Thence to Conewaga are several trouble­some Falls, but all passable downward with Safety in Freshes. Conewaga is the only Falls which tumbles headlong in this River. Be [...] this are three or four others which are passable only with Freshes. By Reason of so many bad Falls this River has not yet any Inland Navigation; nor is it indeed capa­ble of any from Conewaga downwards. Its considera­ble Branches Its considerable Branches are, Owége E e, Tohiccon or Cayúga, Senâghse or West Branch, Juniáta, Swâtara, Conewaga, Tohiccon. E f Codórus, and Conestóga. Tohiccon promises well for a good Navigation with Canoes to the Head of Ohio River, as it is a fine large Branch, and the Stream pretty moderate. The West Branch West Branch F f is shallow and rapid, and has scarce a Fall worth the mentioning, and not one impassa­ble. It is passable only when the Rains raise it; and then to the Path F h leading from Franks Town to Ohio, where a Portage of forty Miles makes this Way a Communication with the River. Juniata Juniata. F f, as it is obstructed with short Falls, is gentle and pretty deep in the intermediate Places, and may be improved for the Carriage of Goods almost to Frank's Town. Swa­tara Swatara, &c. F f, Conewaga Swatara, &c. F f, Codorus Swatara, &c. F f and Conestoga Swatara, &c. F f, some Centuries hence will no doubt be improved to good Account.

Chesopeak Bay. CHESOPEAK may be justly esteemed the Bay of Susquehanna; and as such we may reckon all the Creeks and Rivers from Potomack upwards, as so many Branches of it. Many Port­ages between its Creeks and those of Delaware. The many Portages from the Creeks of this Bay to those of Delaware are become already very useful, and in future Ages will be more so. Several are pointed out in the Map: And it may also be observed here, that the Road at each is extreamly level and good; and Vessels of dif­ferent Magnitudes come up to the Portages.

LARGE Sloops can come up to Snow Hill on Pokomoke Portages from Poko­moke. H e, the Portage is five Miles from thence to Senepuxen Sound, where Ships may come to. If Mariland ever intends a direct Passage through their own Colony to the Sea, here an Attempt would be most likely to succeed.

SHALLOPS may go up Nanticoke River, near twenty Miles into Delaware Colony From Nan­ticoke. H e; the Portage from this River to Indian River is thirteen Miles, and to Broad Creek twelve.

CHOPTANK FromChop­tank. G e is navigable with Shallops to the Bridge, about six or seven Miles within Delaware Colony; and the Portage thence to Motherkill is fif­teen Miles.

FROM Chester River From Che­ster and Sasse­fras Rivers. G e. to Salisbury on Duck Creek the Portage is thirteen Miles. And from Sassefras there is another Portage to the same Place thir­teen Miles also.

[Page 23] FROM Frederick, on Sassefras, where good Ships can come, From Frede­rick & Bohe­mia to Apo­quinimy. G e there is a Portage to Cantwell's Bridge on Apoquìnimy fourteen Miles.

FROM Bohemia, where large Flats or small Shallops can come, there is a Portage of eight Miles to Cantwell's Bridge. This is the most frequented of any between the Waters of Delaware and Chesopeak. All these Creeks which lead into Delaware will receive large Shallops, but no larger Vessels.

FROM the Head of Elk, where Shallops can come, From Elk to Christeen Bridge. G e the Portage is twelve Miles to Christeen Bridge. And it is about the same Distance to Omelanden Point, a fast Landing on Delaware River, three or four Miles below New­Castle. This latter Portage has not been occupied since these Parts came last under the Dominion of the English.

POTOMACK is navigable with large Shipping to Alexandria H f Potomack.; there is a Portage thence of sixteen or eighteen Miles, to avoid the great Falls, which are not passable. Boats shaped like those of Delaware, and of something less Dimensions, may go up to the North Mountain without Obstruction, save at the Rift, or Falls, in the South Mountain G g, which however is passa­ble. The River runs through the North Mountain without any Fall; and from thence to Wills's Creek G h, there are three or four Rifts passable with Canoes or Batteaux, when the Water is not very low. The Inland Naviga­tion by this River is scarce begun; but one may foresee that it will become in Time the most important in America, as it is likely to be the sole Passage from Ohio to the Ocean. The North Branch is scarce passable with Canoes beyond the Shawane Fields, some three or four Miles above Wills's Creek. The Portage from this Branch to Ohio is yet unsettled, Portage from Wills's Creek to Youghio­gani. by Reason of the bad Roads and Hills. But as at this Time it may be an Object of Enquiry, some Account of the Ground will not be unacceptable. From Wills's Creek the Ground is very stony for the greater Part of the Way to the Allegeny Mountain G h; but not so much so from the Shawane Fields. The Mountain, though pretty stony, may have a good Waggon Road made over it. On the North West Side of this Chain of Hills, there is all along a great Deal of Swampy Ground, which is a considerable Obstruction to a direct Passage; but yet manageable by taking some little Compass round. From this West­ward you cross two Branches of Youghiogani; the greater, which is the most Westerly, at three Miles above the Joining of the three Forks, or Turkey Foot G j Ohiopyle Falls. And the three Forks are three Miles above the Lawrel Hill, thro' which Youghiogani precipitates by a great Fall of near thirty Feet, and con­tinues to run with great Rapidity for two or three Miles further. At this Time to go from the great Crossing to Youghiogani below the Falls, they are obliged to go by the Meadows, there cross Lawrel Hill, and return again Northward, and by that Means take near thirty Miles to reach the navigable Water of this River: Whereas if a Road could be made near the Fall, 15 or 20 Miles might be saved in the Way to Fort du Quesne. There is a good Ford through Youghiogani, and the Ground all the Way good and sound; and a Road easily made along it. Lawrel Hill, though small, Lawrel Hill G j is a Ridge very hard to cross, by Reason of its Steepness; but at the Meadows is the [Page 24]best Pass we know of yet towards Virginia; there a Waggon, which would require four Horses to travel with, may be drawn up by Six. Probably a Pass may also be found for Wheel Carriages to the North of the Falls; and if there should, it would much improve the Portage between Potomack and Youghiogani, and reduce it to fifty Miles, whereas it is now but little short of Seventy. If we have the good Fortune of being Masters of Ohio the Navigation of Youghiogani will be of Importance, Youghiogani navigable to the Falls. since it is passable with flat-bottomed Boats, capable of carrying four or five Tons, from the Mouth to the Foot of the Rift below the Falls. A Horse Path may be conducted in six or seven Miles without much Expence from the great Crossing to the Head of navigable Water. From this to Fort du Quesne you may go down in a Day, but it requires at least Three to return up the Stream.

THOUGH in Search of the Head of Potcmack, South Branch of Potomack. the KING'S and Lord FAIR­FAX'S Commissioners determined the North to be the main Branch; yet it is very well known, that the South Branch is navigable forty Miles up, with Batteaux. And as it was not clear to me that the true Head of Potomack was at the Place those Gentlemen determined it, I have not laid down the Western Side of Mariland, which should be a Meridian drawn from the Head of Potomack to the Pensilvania Line. If the Affair is candidly ex­amined, it will probably be determined, that the South Branch is the most considerable. If so, the Head of the North Branch will not be the Western Extremity of Mariland, though it now is of Lord FAIRFAX'S Grant. No Search has been yet made, if there is any Portage by a good Road from the South Branch to Monaungáhela Monaunga­hela. G j. As this latter River is fine and gentle, some Use may in future Times be made of it, either in a Communication with Green Briar or Potomack; for it is passable with Flats a great Way above Red Stone Creek.

SHANEDORE is a fine Branch of Potomack; Shanedore, G g. but its Inland Navigation is yet inconsiderable; but, in future Time, it will no doubt be improved to a good Account.

RAPAHANNOCK Rapahan­nock, York River, Mata­pany and Pa­munky. I f I g, York River Rapahan­nock, York River, Mata­pany and Pa­munky. I f I g, Matapany Rapahan­nock, York River, Mata­pany and Pa­munky. I f I g and Pamúnky Rapahan­nock, York River, Mata­pany and Pa­munky. I f I g, though of excellent Marine Navigation, are but inconsiderable above the Lower Plains; their Branches being confined below the South Mountain, and impassable with the slightest Inland Craft.

JAMES RIVER is scarce inferior to any, in excellent Navigation for Marine as well as Inland Craft. Its lower Falls being near six Miles long, and tumbling in little short Cascades, are intirely impassable. The River thence upward to the North Mountain is excellently fitted for large Boats like those already de­scribed in Delaware. And it is passable with lighter Craft still further; and would not require above forty or fifty Miles Portage to the Branches of Kan­hawa River. Kanhawa River. But this however is not improveable to Ohio; for Kanhawa has an impassable Fall in a Ridge, which is impassable for Man or Beast by Land. But its opening a Passage to the New-Virginia is a very great Ad­vantage.

[Page 25] ROANOAK, which falls into Albemarle Sound, Roanoak Ri­ver. beyond the Bounds of this Map, is barred at the Entrance, so as not to receive such large Ships, as it would otherwise bear. It is passable with Shallops to the Falls K k. From thence upwards it is generally placid and wide, and in some Places interrupted with little Rifts and Falls; none of which, that I have heard of, impassable. It is liable to very great Freshes; and has not been yet improved to any In­land Navigation; for the People on its Branches, Holston River K l, Yadkin K g, and New River I k, turn hitherto all their Commerce into James River. There is no River more likely to be of Importance in the future Navigation of the Inland Parts this Way, than Roanoak, because it has good Depth of Water, and extends right into the Country.

THERE are many other Creeks and Rivers in the Settlements, which would well deserve Description, if I were to give a Detail of any particular Colony, that are obscured by the superior Excellence of these already described.

THE little Acquaintance that the Public has had with the River O H I O, Ohio. will be a sufficient Apology for my entering into a more minute Detail of it and its Branches, than of any other already described.

FROM the Head E j From the Head to Ca nawagúng, which interlocks with the Cayuga Branch of Susque­hanna, to Canawagy E g, I have little Knowledge, but suppose, from the Even­ness of the Land, that it may afford good Inland Navigation in future Ages. From Canawagy to Chartier's Old Town F j, Thence to Chartier's., the River is all along sufficiently moderate, and always deep enough for Canoes and Batteaux, which do not draw above 15 Inches Water; nor is it obstructed with any remarkable Rifts or Falls, save at a sharp Bent, some Miles below Licking Creek, A Sharp be­low Licking­Creek. where the Water rushes on a Rock with great Violence Ej; and at Toby's Falls Fj, which is a Rift passable with Safety on the West Side. In this Part of the River are several Fording-places; Fords. but they are the more rare as you come lower down. That at Chartier's Old Town At Char­tier's Old Town. Fj is the best; which, as soon as the Rock appears above Water, is passable close above it. At Shanoppens At Shanop­pens. F. is another in very dry Times, and the lowest down the River. This Part, which is very crooked, has seldom been navigated by our People; because the great Number of Horses necessary to carry their Goods to Ohio, serve them also to carry them there from Place to Place, and the little Game that Way makes it but little frequented.

THE Navigation from Chartier's Old Town Fj, Navigation from Char­tier's Old Town to the Falls., all the Way down to the Falls J r, has been hitherto performed in very large wooden Canoes *, which they make of great Length, as better fitted to steer against a rapid Stream; they are navigated down by two Men, and upwards by four at least. From Chartier's to the Lower Shawane Town, they are in the Spring about four Days in going down with the Freshes; for then they let the Cahoe drive in the Night; but towards the End of Summer, when the Water is low, and less swift, they usually spend ten or twelve Days; but at moderate Seasons the Passage is performed in six or eight. In returning, they take often thirty [Page 26]or forty Days, Small Rifts. though double handed, and seldom less than twenty. Sup­posing we go down the River from Chartier's, the Water is pretty moderate, till you come to Sweep Chimneys Island, between Dicks's and Pine Creek, where it is very rapid. It generally happens, that where the River is con­fined to narrower Bounds by Islands, 'tis more rapid, yet not so but Canoes may be easily set against it. At Fort du Quesne, at Paul's Island * five Miles lower, and at a Flat between that and Logs Town, the Water is pretty ra­pid; as it is also at a small Island between that and Beaver Creek. These are, however, inconsiderable; no are those Places just below Beaver Creek, and at a Flat a little above the apper End of the Pipe Hills much more worthy Regard. At Hart's Rock Hart's Rock. F k, the River makes a quick Bend round a rocky Point, and a very sharp Rippling, where the Boatmen are obliged to wade and hawl up near the Rock, the South East Side being full of Quicksands. At Weeling Island F k, Muskingum Island G l, a little Way above a fine Branch of that Name, and at Beaty's Island, the Current is pretty rapid. At three or four Miles above the big Bent is a considerable Rift, le Tart's Falls. called le Tart's Falls H m, where the Water is so rapid that they are obliged to hawl the Canoes with Ropes in coming up, for near a Furlong along the South East Side. From this to the Lower Shawane Town, at the Mouth of Sioto, is no Obstruction worth mentioning. And the Stream thence downward to the Falls is still more gentle, and better fitted for Vessels drawing greater Depth of Water. The Fall is about half a Mile rapid Water, The Falls of Ohio. Jr which however is passable, by wading and dragging the Canoe against the Stream, when lowest; and with still greater Ease, when the Water is raised a little.

OHIO, as the Winter Snows are thawed, by the Warmth or Rains in the Spring, Great Floods. rises in vast Floods; in some Places exceeding twenty Feet in Height, but scarce any where overflowing its high and upright Banks. These Floods continue of some Height for at least a Month or two, being guided in the Time by the late or early Breaking up of the Winter, The Stream is then too rapid to be stemmed upwards, by sailing or rowing, and too deep for setting ; but excellently fitted for large Vessels going down. Then Ships of 100 or 200 Tons may go from Fort du Quesne to the Sea with Safety. These Floods reducing the Falls, Rifts and Shallows, to an entire Equality with the Rest of the River.

OHIO carries a great Uniformity of Breadth, gradually increasing from two or three Furlongs, at the Forks [...], to near a Mile, as you go lower down; and spreading to two Miles or more, where damm'd by the Rief of Rocks, which make the Falls [...] [...] Navigation below the Falls.. Thence to Missisippi its Breadth, Depth and ealy Current, equalling any River in Europe, except the Danube, afford­ing there the finest Navigation for large sailing Vessels; but however in great Freshes, it is full rapid to stem, without a good Breeze. And there is scarce any Gale stiff enough to stem the Falls, when deep enough to pass in Freshes. [Page 27]Upon the whole, Navigation to Chartier's. Fj the Navigation of this River may be divided into four Parts. 1. From Canawagy to Chartier's Old Town, in Battoes, capable of carrying about three or four Tons, and drawing twelve Inches Water. 2. From Chartier's to the Big Bent, in Flats, like those used in Delaware To the Big Bent. H m Page 21., or larger; bearing eighteen or twenty Tons. These two Parts must be per­formed in long flat-bottomed Boats, as better fitted for setting in shallow Wa­ter and rapid Streams. 3. From the Big Bent to the Falls, in Shallops or Schooners, of ten or fifteen Tons. As these are made for sailing and work­ing to Windward, they must have sharp Bottoms, and deep Keels; and though made broader than the Flats, they will not admit such great Lengths, and therefore not capable of so large Burdens. 4. From the Falls to Missi­sippi, in good Sloops or large Schooners. The Navigation of Missisippi thence to the Sea is only fitted for light Canoes or Battoes against the Stream; but for any Vessels downwards, when the Floods are not so high, as to over­flow the adjoining wide extended Flats. Hence, in Process of Time, large Ships may be built upon Ohio, and sent off to Sea with the heavy Produce of the Country, and sold with the Cargoes.

OHIO has a great many Branches, which furnish good Navigation to the adjacent Parts; the most remarkable I intend to enumerate.

CANAWAGY Canawagy. E j Portage to Lake Erie., when raised with Freshes, is passable with Bark Canoes, or light Battoes, to a little Lake at its Head; from which there is a Portage of twenty Miles to Lake Erie, at the Mouth of a little Creek called Jadáphque. This Portage is but little frequented, because Canawagy is too shallow in Summer, for the lightest Craft.

BUGHALOONS Bughaloons E j is not navigable; and noted only for large Meadows, as the Word signifies in the Delaware Indian Language.

TORANADAGHKOA, French Creek, or Riviere le Bieuf Riviere le Bieuf. E j, is noted for its furnishing the nearest Passage to Lake Erie. It is navigable with Canoes to the French Fort, by a very crooked Channel; the Portage thence to another Fort on Lake Erie, called Presqu' Isle, from an adjoining Peninsula, Portage to Lake Erie. Licking­Creek, &c. Ej is fifteen Miles; this Way the French come from Canada to Ohio. Licking Creek and Lacomick have no Navigation; but the former has Plenty of Coals.

TOBY'S Creek, is passable with Bark Canoes a good Way up, Toby's Creek E j towards the West Branch of Susquehanna; and a pretty short Portage may probably be found between them.

MOGHULBUGHKITUM is passable also a good Way towards the same Branch, Moghulbugh­kitúm. F j and will probably furnish a good Portage also.

KISHKEMINETAS is passable with Canoes forty or fifty Miles; Kishkemìne­tas. F j and good Portages will probably be found between it and Juniata and Potomack. It has Coal and Salt.

MONAUNGAHELA is a very large Branch, Monäungá­hela. F j at whose Junction with Ohio stands Fort du Quesne. It is deep and gentle, and passable with large Bat­toes beyond Redstone Creek, and still farther with lighter Craft. At six Miles from the Mouth it divides into two Branches; Youghigani. F j the Northermost Youghio­gani, passable with good Battoes to the Foot of the Rift at Lawrel Hill. The Portage from this to Potomack has been already mentioned Page 23.

[Page 28] THE Soil along these Parts of Ohio and its Eastern Branches, Sorts of Land on Ohio a­bove Fort du Quesne. though but little broken with high Mountains, is none of the best; consisting in general of low dry Ridges of White-Oak and Chestnut Land, with very rich inter­val low Meadow Ground. Here and there are Spots of fine White-Pines, and in many Places great Extents of poor Pitch Pines. The Land from the Back-part of the Endless Mountains, Westward to Ohio, and from Fort du Quesne upward, is of these Sorts. The same little broken Chain of Hills, which borders it here, near the River Side, continues South Westerly, till it ends at ten Miles below the Falls; keeping at some ten or fifteen Miles from the general Course of the River all the Way down.

BEAVER CREEK Beaver Creek. F k is navigable with Canoes only. At Kishkuskes, about 16 Miles up, two Branches spread opposite Ways; one interlocks with French Creek and Cherâge; the other westward with Muskíngum and Cayahóga; on this are many Salt Springs, about Thirty-five Miles above the Forks; it is canoable about twenty Miles farther. The Eastern Branch is less considerable; and both are very slow, spreading through a very rich level Country, full of Swamps and Ponds; which prevent a good Portage, that might otherwise be made to Cayahóga; but will, no doubt, in future Ages, be fit to open a Canal between the Waters of Ohio and Lake Erie.

MUSKINGUM Muskíngum G l is a fine, gentle River, confined within high Banks, that orevent its Floods from damaging the surrounding Land. It is passable with large Battoes to the Three Legs, and with small Ones to a little Lake at its Head, without any Obstruction from Falls or Rifts. From hence to Cayahóga is a Portage Portage to Cayahóga. F l Cayahóga. E m Its Conse­quence. Muskingum. a Mile long. Cayahóga, the Creek, that leads from this Port­age to Lake Erie is muddy and middling swift, but no where obstructed with Falls or Rifts. As this has fine Land, wide extended Meadows, lofty Timber; Oak and Mulberry fitted for Ship-building, Walp Chestnut and Poplar for domestic Services, and furnishes the shortest and best Portage between the Ohio and Lake Erie; and its Mouth is sufficient to receive good Sloops from the Lake; it will in Time become a Place of Consequence Muskingum, though so wide extended in its Branches, spreads all in most excellent Land, abounding in good Springs, and Conveniencies, particularly adapted for Settlements re­mote from mature Navigation, as Coal, Clay and Freestone. In 1748 a Coal Mine, opposite Lamenshìkola Mouth, took Fire, and kept burning above a Twelve-month, where great Quantities are still left. Near the same Place is excellent Whetstone; and about eight Miles, higher up the River, is Plenty of White and blue Clay for Glass Works and Pottery. Though the Quantity of good Land on Ohio, and its Branches, is vastly great, and the Conve­niencies attending it so likewise; we may esteem that on Muskingum the Flower of it all.

HOCKHOCKING Hockhóck­ing. G m is passable with Battoes seventy or eighty Miles up; it has sine rich Land, and vast grassy Meadows, high Banks, and seldom overslows. It has Coals about fifteen Miles up, and some Knowls of Freestone.

BIG CANHAWA falls into Ohio on the South East Side, Big Canha­wa. H m and is so consi­derable a Branch, that it may, by Persons coming up Ohio on that Side, be mistaken for the main River. It is slow for ten Miles to the little broken [Page 29]Hills, and the Land very rich; as it is for about the same Breadth along Ohio, all the Way from the Pipe Hills to the Falls. After ten Miles up Canhawa, the Land is hilly, the Water pretty rapid, for fifty or sixty Miles further to the Falls, to which Boats may go. This is a very remarkable Fall, Its Falls, H m not for its great Height, but for coming through a Mountain now thought im­passable for Man or Beast, and is itself impassable. But no doubt Foot or Horse Paths will be found, when a greater Number of People make the Search, and under less Inconveniencies than our Travellers at present. By Reason of the Difficulty of passing the Ouafioto Mountains, I thought them a very na­tural Boundary between Virginia and Ohio in these Parts; and for that Rea­son made them the Bounds of the Colours (in the coloured Maps) not, that there is any Difference of Right between one Side and the other. Louisa, Its Branches. New River, and Green Briar, are fine large Branches of Canhawa; which in future Times will be of Service for the Inland Navigation of New Virginia, as they interlock with Monaungáhela, Potomack, James River, Ronoak and the Cuttawa River.

TOTTEROY Totteroy. H n falls into Ohio on the same Side, and is passable with Boats to the Mountains. It is long, and has not many Branches, interlocks with Red Creek, or Clinch's River J n (a Branch of Cuttawa). It has below the Mountains, especially for fifteen Miles from the Mouth, very good Land. And here is a visible Effect of the Difference of Climate from the upper Parts of Ohio. Here the large Reed, or Carolina Cane, grows in Plenty, even up­on the Upland, and the Severity of the Winter does not kill them; so that Travellers this Way are not obliged to provide any Winter Support for their Horses. And the same holds all the Way down Ohio, especially on the South East Side to the Falls J r, and thence on both Sides.

GREAT SALT LICK CREEK Great Salt Lick Creek. H p is remarkable for fine Land, Plenty of Buffa­loes, Salt Springs, White Clay and Limestone. Canoes may come up to the Crossing of the War Path, or something higher, without a Fall. The Salt Springs hurt its Water for Drinking, but the Number of fresh Springs near it make sufficient Amends.

KENTUCKE Kentúcke. J p is larger than the foregoing, has high Clay Banks, abounds in Cane and Bussaloes, and has also some very large Salt Springs. It has no Limestone yet discovered, but some other fit for building. Its Navigation is interrupted with some Shoals, but passable with Canoes to the Gap, where the War Path goes through the Ouasioto Mountain. This Gap An import­ant Pass thro' Ouasioto Mountain. J o I point out in the Map, as a very important Pass; and it is truly so, by Reason of its being the only Way passable with Horses from Ohio Southward for 3 or 400 Miles Extent. And if the Government has a Mind to preserve the Coun­try back of Carolina, it should be looked to in Time.

As we go farther down Ohio, the Distance from the Ouasioto Mountains to the River becomes more considerable. The Land, from the little broken Hills to the Mountains, is of a middling Kind, and consists of different Veins and Stratas; and though every where as good as any Part of the English Settlements, falls far short of that on the other Side of Ohio, or between the little Hills and the River. These Hills The little Hills South of Ohio. J q to F j are small, and seem only the Brink of a rising Stage of Land, and dividing the rich Plains of Ohio from [Page 30]the Upland, bordering on the Ouasioto Mountains. They terminate at ten Miles below the Falls; indeed a little Spur extended from their Side is that Limestone Rief that Ohio ripples over at the Falls.

Now to return to the other Side of Ohio. Sioto. H o Sióto is a large gentle River, bordered with rich Flats, which it overflows in the Spring; spreading then above Half a Mile in Breadth, though when consined to its Banks it is scarce a Furlong wide. If it floods early, it scarce retires within its Banks in a Month, or is fordable in a Month or two more. The Land is so level, that in the Freshes of Ohio the Back-water runs eight Miles up. Opposite the Mouth of this River is the Lower Shawane Town Lower Sha­wane Town. H o, removed from the other Side, it was one of the most noted Places of English Trade with the Indians. This River, besides vast Extents of good Land, is furnished with Salt on an Eastern Branch, and Red Bole, on Necunsia Skeintat. The Stream is very gentle, and passable with large Battoes a great Way up, and with Canoes near 200 Miles to a Portage near the Head, where you carry over good Ground four Miles to Sanduski. Sanduski Sanduski, F n, an im­portant Place. is a considerable River, abounding in level rich Land, its Stream gentle all the Way to the Mouth, where it will receive considerable Sloops. This River is an important Pass, and the French have secured it as such; the Northern Indians cross the Lake here from Island to Island E n, land at San­duski, and go by a direct Path to the Lower Shawane Town, and thence to the Gap of Ouasioto, in their Way to the Cuttawas Country. This will no Doubt be the Way that the French will take from Detroit to Moville, unless the English will be advised to secure it, now that it is in their Power.

LITTLE MINEAMI River Little Mi­neami River. H p is too small to be gone far with Canoes. It has much fine Land, and some Salt Springs; its high Banks, and middling Current, prevent its overflowing much the surrounding Land.

GREAT MINEAMI River, Afferenîët, or Rocky River Rocky Ri­ver. G p, has a very stony Channel, a swift Stream, but no Falls. It has several large Branches, passa­ble with Canoes a great Way; one H q extending Westward towards the Quia­aghtena River; another towards a Branch of Mineami River (which runs into Lake Erie) to which there is a Portage, and a third has a Portage to the West Branch of Sanduski; besides Mad Creek, where the French have lately established themselves. A Vein of elevated Land, here and there a little stony, which begins in the Northern Part of the Peninsula, between the Lakes Erie, Huron and Michigan, extends across the Lake Mineami Ri­ver, below the Fork, and Southward along the Rocky River, to Ohio; and is the Reason of this River's being stony, and the Grounds rising a little higher than the adjacent Plains. It is, like all the Land on this River, very rich, and would scarce have been perceived, had not the River worn the Channel down to the Rocks which lie beneath.

QUIAAGHTENA River, Quiaaghtena River. G r called by the French Ouabach, though that is truly the Name of its South-Eastern Branch; is very large, and furnishes a sine Navigation; but whether interrupted with Rifts or Falls, I am not informed, but probably it is not, as the Lands round are fine level Flats of vast Ex­tent. The Western League of Indians, known to themselves by the general [Page 31]Name of WELINIS, corruptly called by the French Ilincis; Present Seat of the We­linis. frequently distinguished by us, according to the several Tribes or Nations that it consists of; as the Pláncashaws, Wawïághtas, Piques, Tawíghtawis and Mïneâmis, are seated from this River to Sioto; and were permitted about sixteen Years ago to settle there by the express Leave of the Confederates.

INTO the Western End of Lake Erie falls Mineami River, Mineami Ri­ver. E o a considerable Stream, navigable with Canoes to the Portages, which lead to the Quiaaghtena and Rocky River, interrupted with three considerable Rifts below the Forks: But however it is an important River, because of the Portages it furnishes South-Westward.

WERE there nothing at Stake between the Crowns of Britain and France, but the Lands on that Part of Ohio included in this Map, we may reckon it as great a Prize, as has ever yet been contended for, between two Nations; but if we further observe, that this is scarce a Quarter of the valuable Land, that is contained in one continued Extent, and the Influence that a State, vested with all the Wealth and Power that will naturally arise from the Cul­ture of so great an Extent of good Land, in a happy Climate, it will make so great an Addition to that Nation which wins it, where there is no third State to hold the Ballance of Power, that the Loser must inevitably sink un­der his Rival. It is not as two Nations at War, contending the one for the other's Habitations; where the Conquered, on Submission, would be admit­ted to partake of the Privileges of the Conquerors; but for a vast Country, exceeding in Extent and good Land all the European Dominions of Britain, France and Spain, almost destitute of Inhabitants, and will as fast as the Eu­ropeans settle become more to of its former Inhabitants. It is impossible to conceive, that had his Majesty been made acquainted with its Value, the large Strides the French have been making, for several Years past, in their Incroach­ments on his Dominions; and the Measures still taken to keep the Colonies disunited, and of impeding the generous Attempts of his most zealous Sub­jects; his Majesty would have sacrificed, to the Spleen of a few bitter Spirits, the best Gem in his Crown. It is not yet too late to retrieve the whole, pro­vided the British Plantations are not thought to be grown already too large— if such an Opinion prevails, an Opportunity now offers of soon making them less. The Planta­tions less con­siderable than commonly supposed. We may reckon the Representation of the Extent and Power of the Plantations being great, and that such Power may be dangerous to their Mo­ther Country, amongst the greatest of vulgar Errors. Any Person, who knows the Nature of the Soil, and the Extent of our Settlements, will con­fess, that all the Land, worth the Culture, from New Hampshire to Caro­lina, and extended as far back as there are Planters settled within three or four Miles of one another, though including nine Colonies, is not equal in Quan­tity to Half the arable Land in England. All the Whites in the Remainder of the British Colonies on the Continent, scarce amount to 120000 Souls. How different this from the Conceits of those who would represent some sin­gle Colonies as equal to all England. The Massachusets, Massichusets not so large as Yorkshire. though made such a Bugbear, as if its Inhabitants were so rich and numerous, as that they might [Page 32]one Day be able to dispute Dominion with England, is not as large as York­shire, The Interest and Disposi­tion of the Colonies to be attached to England. or has Half so much arable Land. Supposing the Colonies were grown rich and powerful, what Inducement have they to throw off their In­dependency? National Ties of Blood and Friendship; mutual Dependencies for Support and Assistance, in their civil and military Interests, with England; each Colony having a particular Form of Government of its own, and the Jealousy of either's having the Superiority over the rest, are unsurmountable Obstacles to their ever uniting, to the Prejudice of England, upon any am­bitious Views of their own. But, that repeated and continued ill Usage, In­fringements of their dear-bought Privileges, sacrificing them to the Ambition and Intrigues of domestic and foreign Enemies, may not provoke them to do their utmost, for their own Preservation, I would not pretend to say; as weak as they are. But while they are treated as Members of one Body, and allowed their natural Rights, it would be the Height of Madness for them to propose an Independency, were they ever so strong. If they had any ambitious Views, A strong Co­lony of the Enemy near, dangerous. a strong Colony, of a natural Enemy to England, on their Borders, would be the only Article that would render any Attempt of Independency truly dangerous; and for that Reason it becomes those who would regard the future Interest of Britain and its Colonies, to suppress the Growth of the French Power, and not the English, in America.

IF his Majesty would be pleased to appoint a Colony to be made in Ohio, An advan­tageous Colo­ny may be made on O­hio. with a separate Governor, and an equitable Form of Government, a full Li­berty of Conscience, and the same secured by Charter; not all that the French could project would give it any Impediment after a few Years. The Im­portance of such a Colony to Britain would be vastly great, since the Climate, and its Remoteness from the Sea, A proper Place for Raw Silk. would turn it immediately to Raising Raw Silk, an Article of vast Expence to our Nation, and that we are at continual Difficulties and Disappointments in procuring. The Charge of Car­riage of this Article from the remotest Parts to the Sea, is too inconsiderable to affect its Value. Its natural Advantages. Ohio is naturally furnished with Salt, Coal, Limestone, Grindstone, Millstone, Clay for Glass-houses and Pottery, which are of vast Advantage to an Inland Country, and well deserving the Notice I take of them in the Map.

IN settling a Colony there, The Land should not be engrossed. let Care be taken against the scandalous En­grossing the Land by private Persons or public Companies—and for that Pur­pole, lot any Piece of Land left unimproved three Years, after surveying, and containing more than 500 Acres to Family, be free for any Person to settle on; and the first Owner be obliged to go further for Land, when disposed to settle—And that all Lands appropriated and lying unimproved or unsettled be liable to threefold Taxes, compared with the adjacent improved Lands of like Goodness, for supposing one Part be allotted for its true Value, the remaining two Thirds will be far short, at a Mean, from making up the Deficiency of the Excise, Duties, Watching, civil and military Services of those who truly settle and improve.

THE END.
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