A GENERAL IDEA OF THE COLLEGE OF MIRANIA; WITH A Sketch of the Method of teaching Science and Religion, in the several Classes: AND Some Account of its Rise, Establishment and Buildings.

Address'd more immediately to the Consideration of the Trustees nominated, by the Legislature, to receive Proposals, &c. relating to the Establishment of a COLLEGE in the Province of NEW-YORK.

Quid Leges sine Moribus vanae proficiunt? Hor.
Nullum Animal morosius est; nullum majore Arte tractandum quam Home. Natura sequitur melius quam ducitur. Seneca.

NEW-YORK: Printed and Sold by J. PARKER and W. WEYMAN, at the New Printing-Office in Beaver-Street, 1753.

[Price One Shilling and Six Pence.]



VERSES spoken at the opening of the College of [...].p. 5
Introduction.p. 7
Object of Education, and Design of our Creation,p. 10, 11, 12
A grand Division of Mankind into two Classes.p. 13, 14
Mechanic's School,p. 14, 15
Latin-School,p. 16, 17
College; or five learn'd Classes; 
1st, or Greek Class,p. 17
2d, or Mathematical Class,ibid
3d, or Philosophical Class,p. 18
4th Class.— 
Rhetoric, 19, 20. Poetry,p. [...]
Criticism, 16. Composition, 22. Taste, 24, 25.p. 16
5th Class.p. 26
Animal Anatomy; Agriculture,p. 16, 27
History, Politics, &c.p. 27, 28, 29
Oeconomy of the Classes,p. 31. 32. &c
Public Exercises,p. 34, 35
Dramatic Performances,p. 36
English Language,ibid, p. 37
Modern Languages,ibid
Masters in athletic Exercises,ib. p. 38
Natural Religion and good Morals,p. 38, 39
as enforc'd in the 
1st Class in the Study of Homer,p. 40
2d Class, especially in the Study of Astronomy,p. 41
3d Class; chiefly in the Study of Micrography,p. 42
4th Class.p. 46
5th Class, In the Study of Agriculture, 47. By a Land­skip,ibid. p.48
Taste of true Greatness form'd, By Historical Facts,p. 49, 50, 51, 52. 53
Love of the British Constitution,p. 55, 56
Good Effects of such an Education,p. 56, 57, 58, 59, &c
Of the Edifice,p. 61, 62, 63
Method of filling up the Classes, and carrying the whole into Execution in five Years.p. 69
A Provincial annual Lottery,p. 70
An English Lottery,ibid
An English School in each Township,p. 71
And one Latin School in the most con­venient Place in each County,ibid
Conclusion, touching the Imitation of this Institution of M [...]rania, in the Province of New-York,p. 75
Postscript, containing part of a Letter from the West-Indies, with some Remarks upon it, and upon the Religion to be established in our College.p. 51, &c.

The Reader is desired to correct with his P [...], the following ERRATA:

PAGE 17, line 17, read Euclid's. p. 21, l. 12, r. Aristotle's Poetics. p. 24, l. 22, after Time place a Cemma, p. ibid, in the Note, l, 10, r. majestic, p. 29, l. 31, for third, r. said. p. 32, l. 1. for two, r. too. p. 33, l. 1. r. videretur. p. 45, l. 21, r. God. p. 47, l. 1, r. to admire, p. 48; l. 4, r. odenterous.



THE following Sheets were plan'd at the same Time with the Pam­phlet on the Situation, &c. of our intended College, publish'd last October; and design'd to follow it whenever the Public, by a more ge­neral Attention to the Concerns of Education, shou'd seem prepar'd to receive it. For, however necessary and seasonable an Enquiry, concerning the proper Situation and Advantages of a College in this Province, was in itself, as a first Step, to settle a Point that had been long disputed, and to unite all Parties in a speedy Execution; yet I was always convinced, that this is but the least Part of what ought to be settled previous to our propos'd Establishment, and Nothing more than a mere Trifle in Comparison of the Constitution, Government, and Discipline of a College; with which indeed Nothing can be compared; and concerning which no Person, I be­lieve, has more frequently employ'd his Thoughts than I have done. This will fully appear to those who can form a just Idea of the Study and Labor it must have cost to bring all the Parts of the following Work into their present Order in such a small Compass: A Labor, nothing cou'd have induc'd me, at present, to undergo, but an unfeign'd Zeal for the Advance­ment of useful Literature in this uncultivated Corner of the Globe, and a fond Desire to make some Amends to the Public, on the main Subject, for their kind and unmerited Reception of the former Essay.

This Work is address'd more immediately to the Consideration of the Trustees, tho' I am sensible that, by the Design of their Nomination, they are not empower'd to give any absolute Decision on the Expediency of Proposals of this Nature. However, as they are the only standing Body, upon whom this great Work rests, so far as it is yet advanc'd, it was proper to send these Papers abroad under their Protection. The Manuscript wou'd have been presented to them at their first public Meeting, had I not been advis'd by some of them, to whom I shew'd it, as private Friends, that such a Scheme cou'd be best judg'd of in Print; when every Person might have the calm Perusal of a Copy; and that the sooner it appear'd, of the greater Service might it become.—As it was written with this very Intention, to give Men of Sense and Learning an Opportunity of blaming, altering, or improving it, before the Meeting of the General Assembly, I immediately committed it to the Press, without consulting Reputation, by advising, as usual, with some of my very condescending and learn'd City Friends, by which Means it might have appear'd to greater Advantage. —But as I have still a better Aim than any Reputation to be gain'd by the best executed Thing of this Nature, I shall not even envy my very Enemies the Pleasure they may find in detecting some Imperfections which, on more Thought, I cou'd have remov'd; or others which, perhaps, I never intended to remove: Let them only shew they can do so with good Manners; then every Error they discover, or Improvement they propose, on the fol­lowing Scheme, will be of some Service to the Public, and Matter of great Joy to the Author.

[Page 5]

Verses spoken at the Opening of The COLLEGE of MIRANIA.

IT comes! at last, the promis'd AERA comes!
Now Gospel-Truth shall dissipate the Glooms
Of Pagan-Error; and, in copious Streams,
O'er this dark Hemisphere, shed saving Beams!
For, lo! her azure Wing bright SCIENCE spreads,
And soft-approaches to these new-found-Shades;
Exultant, stretching forth her hallow'd Hands
To plant her Laurels in serener Lands!
Each Muse around Her strikes the warbling String;
And, mid Her Train, Peace, Justice, Freedom sing—
—A GODDESS comes!—they sing and rend the Air—
A GODDESS comes! to welcome Her prepare!
Woods, Brooks, Gales, Fountains, long unknown to Fame,
At length, as conscious of your future Claim,
Prepare to nurse the Philosophic-Thought;
To swell the serious, or the sportive Note!
Prepare, ye Woods! to yield the Sage your Shade;
And wave ambrosial Verdures o'er his Head!
Ye Brooks! prepare to prompt the Poet's Strains;
And softly murmur back his amorous Pains!
Haste, O ye Gales! your spicy Sweets impart;
In Music breathe Them to th' exulting Heart!
Ye Fountains! haste, th' inspiring Wave to roll;
And give Castalian Draughts to lave the Soul.
'Tis done!—Woods, Brooks, Gales, Fountains, all, obey;
And say with general Voice—or seem to say—
[Page 6] —Hail, Heaven-descended! holy SCIENCE, hail!
Thrice-welcome to these Climes; here ever dwell,
With Shade and Silence, far from dire Alarms;
The Trumpet's horrid Clang, and Din of Arms!
To Thee we offer every softer Seat;
Each sunny Lawn; or sylvan sweet Retreat;
Each Flower-verg'd Stream; each Amber-dropping Grove;
Each Vale of Pleasure; and each Bower o [...] Love:
Where youthful Nature, with stupendous Scenes,
Lifts all the Powers; and all the Frame serenes.
O then! here fix,—(Earth, Water, Air invite!)
And bid a NEW-BRITANNIA spring to Light!—
Smit-deep, I antedate the Golden Days;
And strive to paint them in sublimer Lays!
Behold! on Periods, Periods brightening rise!
On Worthies, Worthies croud before mine Eyes;
See! other BACONS, NEWTONS, LOCKES appear;
And to the Skies our Laureat-Honors rear.
See! mid undying Greens, they lie inspir'd,
On mossy Beds, by heavenly Visions fir'd;
Aloft they soar, on Contemplation's Wing,
O'er Worlds and Worlds—and reach th' ETERNAL KING.
Awak'd by other Suns, and kindling strong
With purest Ardors for celestial Song,
Lo! other POPES and SPENCERS glad-resound
The rural Lay to Shepherds dancing round;
Find other Twit'nams in each bowery Wood;
And other Mullas in each sylvan Flood.
Lo! the wild INDIAN, soften'd by their Song,
Emerging from his Arbors, bounds along
The green Savannah patient of the Lore
Of Dove-ey'd Wisdom—and is rude no more.
[Page 7] Hark! even his Babes MESSIAH's Praise proclaim;
Or fondly learn to lisp JEHOVAH's Name!
O SCIENCE! onward thus thy Reign extend
O'er Realms yet unexplor'd till Time shall end;
Till Death-like Ignorance forsake the Ball,
And Life-endearing Knowlege cover all;
Till wounded Slavery seek her native Hell,
In triple Bonds eternally to dwell!
Not trackless Desarts shall thy Progress stay;
Rocks, Mountains, Floods, before Thee must give Way:
Sequester'd Vales, at thy Approach, shall sing;
And with the Voice of cheerful Labor ring.
Where Wolves now howl, shall polish'd Villas rise;
And towery Cities grow into the Skies.—
* "Earth's distant Ends our Glory shall behold;
"And the NEW-World launch forth to seek the OLD."



TO every One that has the Interest and Reputation of this Province at Heart, particularly to You, it must give a very sensible Satisfaction to behold, at length, the general At­tention drawn towards the Establishing a public Seminary in it, under the Patronage of the Government, for the Institution of Youth in the liberal Arts and Sciences. The Spirit now seems to burn so much the stronger in Proportion to its Slowness in Catching; and gives sure Presage that we shall not only re­trieve our Honor, by rivaling the foremost of our Neighbors in this truly pious Work, but as far out-do them as they [Page 8]have got the Start of Us, and as our superior Abilities have put it in our Power.

The Day, on which it is expected the General Assembly will meet, draws near; when, in Consequence of a V [...]e of last Sessions, this important Affair will be the Subject of their De­liberations. And, as the Plan or Idea of the whole Institution ought, first of all, to be fix'd, that every Step they take may tend uniformly to the Execution of the same, it is the indispen­sable Duty of every Person of Learning and Leisure, to assist with his unbyass'd Thoughts on this Head. I, therefore, thought it incumbent on me to contribute my Mite for this good Pur­pose, as well to exonerate myself of what I owe the State, as to satisfy the Expectations of some Gentlemen who have a Right at all Times to command me.

While I was ruminating upon the Constitutions of the several Colleges, I had either personally visited or read of, without be­ing able to fix on any Thing, I durst recommend as a Model worthy our Imitation, I chanc'd to fall into the Company of a valuable young Gentleman, named Evander, who is a Per­son of some Distinction of the Province of Mirania, After some Conversation on learn'd Topics, he was led to give me an Account of a Seminary establish'd about twelve Years ago in that Province, in which I thought I perceiv'd all that seems excellent in the ancient and modern Institutions reduc'd to the greatest Method and Simplicity. This I have pre [...]m'd to pro­pose to your Consideration; which, as it may be further improv'd by you, and other learn'd Men among us, seems extremely well adapted to the Circumstances of this Province of New-York, as we are now entirely such as the Miranians were when they founded their College, with Regard to Riches, Trade and [...]he Number of People.

Mirania, Gentlemen, is one of the Provinces of the New-World first settled by our Country-Men, the English, above a Century ago. In what Degrees of Lat. &c. it lies, is of no Importance; I am not to write its History, but only to give a general Account of its College and the Method of Education practis'd in it; which, as nearly as I can remember, I shall do [...]n E [...]ander's own Words, as I am sensible that every Deviation from them would be a Blemish.—After a modest Apology, with which I shall not trouble You, he began as follows,—

[Page 9]

EVANDER's Account of the College of MIRANIA, &c.

"IT had been the peculiar Happiness of my Countrymen, ever since their first Settlement, to enjoy an uninterrupted Tranquillity; at Peace with their Neighbours, unrival'd in their Trade, and blest in one Administration of a Succession of mild and just Governors, who had the real Interest of the Province at Heart. These favorable Circumstances had, from time to time, besides constant Supplies from the Mother-Country, invited over vast Numbers of Foreigners, who, quitting their native Land, sought a calm Retreat in Mirania; where under the Protection of wise and equal Laws, and far beyond the Reach of Priestly Domination, and the rapacious Minions of scep­tred Robbers, they might dare to think for themselves, dare to challenge and enjoy the Fruits of their own Industry.

THUS, about twelve Years ago, the Miranians saw themselves a mighty and florishing People, in Possession of an extensive Country, capable of producing all the Necessaries, and many of the Superfluities of Life. They reflected that the only Method of making these natural Advantages of lasting Use to themselves and Posterity,— the only infallible Source of Tranquillity, Happiness and Glory,—was to contrive and execute a proper Scheme for forming a Succession of sober, virtuous, industrious Citizens, and checking the Course of growing Luxury. They were sensible, that tho' a Combination of lucky Circumstances, almost wholly independent on them, had rais'd them so high, they shou'd be wanting to themselves if they depended longer on blind Chance for any Thing which was now in their Power to command. They were convinced that, without a previous good Education, the best Laws are little better than Verba minantia, and, con­sider'd as such, will be dup'd and broke thro' with Im­punity [Page 10]by illustrious Villains;—That the Magistrate can at best but fright Vice into a Corner, and that 'tis Edu­cation alone can mend and rectify the Heart;—That no Government can subsist long on Violence and brute Force; and that Nature follows easily when treated rationally, but will not bear to be led, or driven. They saw also, that among the Foreigners, who were as numerous as the English, many Distinctions were forming upon their different Customs, Languages and Extractions, which, by creating separate Interests, might in the Issue prove fatal to the Government. They wisely judg'd, therefore, that Nothing cou'd so much contribute to make such a Mixture of People coalesce and unite in one common Interest, as the common Education of all the Youth at the same public Schools under the Eye of the civil Autho­rity. Thus, said [...]y, indissoluble Connexions and Friendships will be form'd; Prejudices worn off; and the Youth will in Time either forget their very Extrac­tion, or from a more liberal Education, and manly Turn of Thought, learn to contemn those little ridiculous Distinctions that arise among the Vulgar, because their Fathers first spoke a different Language, or drew Air in a different Clime.

With these Views the Miranians applied themselves to project a Plan of Education; every Person of Genius, Learning and Experience offering their impartial Thoughts on this Subject, whether they were in a private or public Capacity; as sensible that an Undertaking of such lasting Consequences demanded the united Councils,—the Heads and Hearts of a whole country.

The Object they kept always in Sight, was the easiest, simplest and most natural Method of forming Youth to the Knowlege and Exercise of private and public Virtue; and therefore they did not scruple to reject some Things commonly taught at Colleges; to add others; and shorten or invert the Order of others, as best suited their Circumstances. They often had this Sentence in their Mouth, which I think, in other Words, I have read in [Page 11]TILLOTSON,—That the Knowledge of what tends neither directly nor indirectly to make better Men and better Citizens, is but a Knowlege of Trifles; it is not Learn­ing, but a specious and ingenious sort of Idleness.—We must not then, said they, wilder ourselves in the Search of Truth, among the Rubbish contain'd in the vast Tomes of ancient Rabbies, Commentators and School­men; nor in the more refin'd Speculations of modern Metaphysicians concerning Spirit, Matter, &c. nor yet in the polemic Writings about Grace, Predestination, mo [...]l Agency, the Trinity, &c. &c. which so enflame the World at this Day, to the Disgrace of Christian Meekness and Charity. The Years of Methusalem would be far too short to attain any Proficiency in all the Disputes and Researches of this Kind, which have so long puzzled the learn'd World, and are still as much undecided as at first. Almighty God seems to have set the Knowledge of many Things beyond our present Ken, on purpose to confound our Pride, and whisper to us continually the Degeneracy and Imper­fection of our Nature, and when we consider such Things in this Light, we make the only proper Use of them: For, suppose we could live long enough to become as well vers'd in all these Points, as the most subtle Doctor that ever breath'd, what would it con­tribute to the main Point, the making better Men and Citizens? Why, just nothing at all! We ought then, continued they, rejecting Things superfluous and hypo­thetical, to mount directly up to fundamental Principles, and endeavour to ascertain the Relations we stand in to GOD and universal Intelligence, that we may sustain, with Dignity, the Rank assign'd us among intellectual Natures, and move in Concert, with the rest of Creation in accomplishing the great End of all Things.

To satisfy ourselves of this,—Quid sumus, et quid­nam victuri gignimur—requires no such Depth of Un­derstanding, no such subtle Reasonings and tedious Researches, as some would persuade us. For, besides [Page 12]his reveal'd Will, God has given Intimations of his Will to us, by appealing to our Senses in the Constitu­tion of our Nature, and the Constitution and Harmony of the material Universe. We have only to reason by Analogy, and chastise our Reasonings by these holy Oracles. Then the least Attention will convince us, that what God chiefly expects of us here, is to love Him, and all his Creatures, for his sake;—to view thro' the Medium of Benevolence and Charity, those inconsiderable Differences which, in a State of Imper­fection, must subsist among free Agents, and which God himself, perhaps, views with Pleasure;—to do always the greatest Good in our Power, whether to our­selves or Fellow Creatures, of whatever Country, Sect or Denomination they may be;—to act a just and honest Part in our social Capacity;—and lastly, as much as possible, to repair the Ruins of our Nature, by impro­ving and enlarging our Faculties, and confirming our­selves in Habits of Virtue, that thus we may in some sort, be qualified to be replac'd in our original high Rank, to which, thro' the Redeemer's Merit, we may yet aspire to rise, and be advanc'd from Stage to Stage of Perfection and Bliss, thro' all the endless Periods of our Being.—

To say, or even think, our present Span is too short for these Purposes, is Presumption, is shocking Impiety; it is to arraign the Councils of the most HIGH, and charge him with Injustice. We have, in reality, not only Time enough to obey the Dictates of our serious Affections, by learning and discharging the Duties we owe to God and Man, but sufficient left for Recreation, and innocent Amusement; unless we will make Life too short by creating Business for ourselves which no Way concerns us, and turning our Attention to Subjects which, after all our Searches and Researches, will make us neither wiser nor better than when we first set out.

Hence it appears, continued they, of what lasting Importance it is, to accustom Youth early to distinguish [Page 13]the True from the False, by directing their Studies to such Things as come more immediately home to their Business and Bosoms. Were Men as generally agreed what these Things are, as they soon would be, cou'd they lay Passion and Prejudice wholly aside, then indeed the Business of Education wou'd be short, easy and pleasant; and the Government of Mirania would have found no Difficulty in fixing on a proper and unexcep­tionable Plan for this Purpose. But they saw with Concern, that while there were Passion, Prejudice, Custom, Malice, Pride, Ignorance and different Opi­nions in the Province to struggle with, the best Scheme they could concert would not be alike acceptable to all, and would be liable to many Exceptions and Miscon­structions.—No matter: That did not deter them from their Duty. They had the noble Resolution to follow the unbiass'd Dictates of their own Good Sense, conscious that, tho' they could not project an inexceptionable, far less a perfect, Plan, they should acquit themselves to GOD, and the uncorrupted Judgment of Posterity, by rendering it as perfect as they cou'd, and delivering it down in a Condition of being improved as often as Circumstances might alter, and Experience discover De­fects in it.—But it would be needless to trouble you with all the Difficulties and Toils they encountered, be­fore they brought the Scheme to the Point of Perfection aim'd at:—I shall give an Account of the several Classes, and Method of Study, as they are at present: after that I shall give an Account of the Building, and conclude with taking Notice of the chief Steps taken by them in carrying the whole into Execution. This is what is most material for your Purpose. You must not, how­ever expect, I can be very particular in this Account: A full Detail of every Thing worth Notice in such an Institution, would furnish Matter for a Volume; which would be an useful Book, if done by an able Pen.

With Regard to Learning, the Miranians divide the whole Body of People into two grand Classes. The [Page 14]First consists of those designed for the learn'd Profes­sions; by which they understand Divinity, Law, Physic, Agriculture, and the chief Offices of the State. The Second Class of those design'd for Mechanic Professions, and all the remaining People of the Country. Such a Division is absolutely necessary: For, if the shortest Way of forming Youth to act in their proper Spheres, as good Men and good Citizens ought always to be the Object of Education, these two Classes should be edu­cated on a very different Plan. The Knowlege of the learned Languages, as the Means of acquiring other use­ful Knowlege, is indispensibly necessary to the first Class. To the Second, the Time thus spent is entirely thrown away, as they never have any Occasion to make use of those Languages. A more general Tincture of the Sciences, except Arithmetic and Mathematics, will also serve their Purpose.

Any Scheme then, that either proposes to teach both these grand Classes after the same Manner, or is wholly calculated for one of them, without regarding the other, must be very defective. And yet so it is, that Colleges are almost unversally calculated for the First Class; while a collegiate School for breeding Mechanics, is rarely to be met with. This Class of People, by far the most numerous, and also the Hands and Strength of every Government, are overlook'd, and have No­thing but this wretched Alternative left them; either to glean what Scraps of Science they can at private Schools, (often under no Regulations as to Morals or Method) or to go thro' a Course of Learning at Colleges, for which they have neither Time nor Use.

These Considerations gave Rise to what is call'd the Mechanic's School in this Seminary. It might, how­ever, as well have been call'd a distinct College; for it is no Way connected with what is call'd the College, (by Way of Distinction) than by being under the Inspection of the same Trustees, and the Government of the same Head, whom they call Provost or Principal. Most of [Page 15]the Branches of Science, taught in the College, are taught in this School; but then they are taught without Lan­guages, and in a more compendious Manner, as the Circumstances and Business of the Mechanic require. This School is so much like the English School in Phi­ladelphia, first sketch'd out by the very ing [...]us and worthy Mr. Franklin, that a particular Account of it here is needless. The Miranians only differ in this, that they teach every Thing necessary for the Mec [...]anic, in this School, without suffering the Youth of it to have Recourse to the mathematical, or any other Professor in the College, or learn'd Classes; which 'tis thought wou'd be inconvenient, as they must be taught at a dif­ferent Hour, and by a different Method from what these Professors teach the said learn'd Classes.—They took Care at first to put a Master, and Ushers, in the Me­chanics School, capable to teach all the Branches of Sci­ence necessary for the Mechanic, in all the Perfection requisite. The Expence * is the same that it would be by the Pennsylvanian Method; because the Number of Instructors in every School, can always be proportioned to the Number of Scholars.—In this School, nine Years compleat the Mechanic's Education; proportionable to which there are nine Forms or Classes. In the Three lowest, English is taught grammatically, and as a Lan­guage, with Writing. In the six higher Classes, English and Writing are continued, at the same Time that [Page 16]Accompts, Mathematics, Ethics, Oratory, Chronology, History, the most plain and useful Parts of natural and mechanic Philosophy, are taught; to which is added, something of Husbandry and Chymistry, which, as im­prov'd of late, they esteem of great Use to every Mechanic. Thus, at about fifteen Years of Age, the Mechanic's Education is finish'd; and he comes out well qualified to make a good Figure in every Profession wherein Lan­guages are not required. All these Classes are taught at present by one Master and two Ushers, but more must soon be wanted. The Master, whose Place is of very great Consequence, and next in Trust to the Head of the Seminary, is Vice-Principal, and governs the Whole in the Absence, or during the Indisposition of the Principal. The Miranians value themselves highly on the Newness and Peculiarity of this School; and often tell Strangers that, as a trading People, it is of as great Importance to them, as the College for breeding Men for the learn'd Professions. Indeed they speak of erecting it soon into a separate College, and calling it Barnard-College, in Honour of a famous Alderman of Mirania, who has left a very considerable Sum for en­dowing it as a College. Then the two Colleges will be call'd the University of Mirania, a Name the Seminary is already intitled to. I proceed now to speak of the five learned Classes, at present call'd the College, pre­paratory to which is


This School is divided into five Classes, proportiona­ble to the five Years the Youth continue in it; which is long enough, as the Latin Tongue is here taught in the most samiliar and approved Method, without bur­dening the Memory too much with Rules. Such of the Youth as discover Genius, and are intended for the learn'd Professions, are remov'd from the third Class of the Mechanic's School, to be entered into this, provided [Page 17]they be nine Years of Age, can write tolerably, and read and articulate the English Tongue. The first four Years are wholly given to the Latin Tongue, and im­proving the Boys in English and Writing at leisure Hours. The fifth Year, the highest Class divide the Day between Latin and Greek,; proceeding thro' the Declensions, Conjugations, St. Luke's Gospel, Lucian's Dialogues, &c. Thus at 14 Years of Age, well vers'd in the Latin-Tongue, with some Tincture of the Greek, the Youth are enter'd into—

The Greek Class, being the first, or lowest of what is call'd the College.—In this, as in every other Class, the Youth remain one Year. In the Forenoon, they read Theocritus' Idyllia, with some select Pieces of Hes­siod, Homer, and Xenophon: In the Afternon, they learn Arithmetic, vulgar and decimal; Merchants Accompts, some Parts of Algebra, and the first six Books of Eucild's Elements.—The Master of this Class is styled Professor of Greek: His Place is of very great Importance, for giving the Youth an Opportunity of acquiring the Greek in all its Elegance and Purity, from a Master whose par­ticular Profession that Language is. Without this Know­lege of Greek, which is not to be acquir'd at Latin-Schools, especially in the Country, (from which the Country Youth must, however, be immediately admitted into the learn'd Classes or College) it will appear, as we go along, impossible for them to bear their Part right in the remaining Studies; nothing being read but the ori­ginal Authors.


The next Year is spent in this Class; the Master of which is styled Professor of Mathematics. He carries the Youth forward in Algebra; teaches the eleventh and twelfth Books of Euclid, Geometry, Astronomy, Chro­nology, Navigation, and the other most useful Branches of the Mathematics. So much of Logics and Metaphysics as is useful, is join'd with Mathematics: But a small Space of Time serves for these Studies; Logics, in particular, [Page 18]as commonly understood, being in great Disrepute among them. They, therefore, [...]nd their chief Attention this Year, to the more advantageous Study of Mathematics, which, by the Bye, they esteem the best System of Logics that can be given to Youth. The Evolution of ma­thematical Truths, thro' a Chain of Propositions, con­tributes more, in one Year, say they, to expand the Fa­culties of the Mind, and accustom it, by a just Atten­tion to intricate Subjects, to reason closely, and in Train, than a Life spent in the sophistical Distinctions and idle Jargon of School-Logic. At proper Seasons, when the Weather permits, this Class is exercis'd in practical Geometry; in surveying Lands, Waters; and in plot­ting and ornamenting the Maps of such Surveys. There is a weekly Exercise for their further Improvement in Greek and Latin.


The Master of this Class is call'd Professor of Philoso­phy. The Day is divided between the Studies of Ethics and Physics: Under the latter, the Miranians compre­hend Natural History; Mechanic, or corpuscular Phi­losophy, and experimental Philosophy; for the Illustra­tion of which, they are provided with a complete Appara­tus. With Regard to Ethics, they seem to think that a full, yet compendious, System, calculated by some sound Philosopher, for Youth at Colleges, is a Book still wanted. They own, that the English excell in de­tach'd Pieces on all moral Subjects; but these, say they, are only the—disjecta membra Ethices.—No one Author has handled the Subject of Ethics, in all its Ramifications, with a View to the Information of Youth: And 'tis dangerous as well as difficult, to learn Morals from dif­ferent Authors, most of whom clash with one another; or had their peculiar Notions to propagate, and favorite Systems to erect.—In this Class, at present, they read the Philosoph. Books of Plato and Cicero, in their Ori­ginals, with Locke, Hutchinson, &c. the Professor, taking Care to guard the Youth against every Thing in [Page 19]which these Authors stand singular.—But they have a Method peculiar almost to themselves, of teaching Morals, upon which they lay the greatest Stress, and that is by historical Facts; of which I shall speak by and by.—The private Reading of such Books as Derham, Nettleton, on Virtue and Happiness, &c. are recom­mended for the greater Improvement of the Youth in the Studies of this Class; the Professor, from Time to Time, satisfying himself, by proper Questions, what Advantage they reap from such Books: I do not mention Keil, Gravesand, Newton's Princip. &c. because classical Books; and suppos'd in the Study of natural Philosophy.—


The Master of this Class is styled Professor of Rhetoric and Poetry. As it is in this and the following Class, con­tinued Evander, that my Countrymen bring all that has been before taught, home to the Business of Life, and are more singular in their Method; I must beg to be something more particular in the Account of them. A great Stock of Learning, without knowing how to make it useful in the Conduct of Life, is of little Significancy. You may observe, that what has chiefly been aim'd at, in the foregoing Classes, is to teach Youth to think well, that is, closely and justly. When this is attain'd, it is a noble Basis; but wou'd, however, be useless without its Superstructure, without teaching them to call forth, and avail themselves of, their Thoughts, in writing, speaking, acting and living well. To make Youth Masters of the first two, viz. writing and speaking well, which are the Business of this Class, nothing con­tributes so much as being capable to [...]h what has been well written or spoken by others: Hence the proper Studies of this Class, are Rhetoric and Poetry, from which arise Criticism and Composition.

I shall speak first of Rhetoric, as it is the first Study. The Professor begins with giving the Students a general Notion of the Precepts and different Kinds of Rhetoric, [Page 20]from Tully and Quintilian; then proceeds to make them read Tully's Cration for Milo, leisurely in its Original; applying, as they go along, the Precepts of Oratory; and making them apprehend its Plan, Series, Delicacy of Address; the Strength and Disposition of the Proofs; the Justness of the Tropes and Figures; the Beauty of the Imagery and Painting; the Harmony and Fullness of the Periods; the Pomp and Purity of the Diction; and, in fine, that Grandeur of Thought; that astonish­ing Sublime; that Torrent of Eloquence, which, mov­ing, warming, seizing the Soul, sweeps all irresistably down before it.—After this, Demosthenes's Harangue for C [...]esiphon, which Tully calls the Model of perfect Elo­quence, is read in its Original, and explain'd in the same Manner.

These two celebrated Orations, thus explain'd and ap­prehended, are judged sufficient to give Youth a right Idea of Oratory, and fix its Precepts in their Mind, which is not to be done so much by reading many Ora­tions, as by studying a Few thoroughly: And therefore, only three more Orations, one in Greek, one in Latin, and one in English, are read in the School through the whole Year. These are successively handled thus: In the Evening the Professor prescribes a certain Portion of the Oration, and appoints the Students to write out their Observations upon its Conformity to the Laws of Rhe­toric; the Plan, Thoughts, &c. by Way of Criticism; this they bring with them next Day to the Class or School, when the Part prescrib'd is read over, and this Criticism of theirs examin'd and corrected. A new Portion, as before, is prescrib'd against next Meeting, till in this Manner they have finish'd the whole three Orations.

In the same Manner is Poetry study'd, which is, in­deed, rather the same than a different Study; Poetry being nothing else but the eldest Daughter of Eloquence. The Arrangement of the Fable in the One corresponds to the Plan and Series of the Other. Tropes and Fi­gures they have in common: And where, in the Pecu­liarity [Page 21]of her Dress, and the more frequent Use of Epi­thets, &c. Poetry affects to differ, the Youth are not unacquainted with it; as they have been made to observe it in reading the Classic-Poets. The Rules, Nature and Design of the several Kinds of Poetry, are, in the first Place explain'd; then, as in the Study of Rhetoric, they privately write a Piece of Criticism upon them, beginning with the lesser Kinds, as the Ode, Elegy, Satyr, &c. proceeding to the Drama, Pastoral and Epopaea. All these Criticisms are carefully revis'd and corrected by the Professor, which is all the public Business of the Class. The Reading of Aristotle's Poetry, and the best French and English Critics is allow'd, and even recommended, to assist and direct the Judgment of Youth in this Ex­ercise.

Here I interrupted Evander, by telling him, that I thought this Study alone, might require half the Year. No, replied he; They don't spend above eight Weeks on the Study of all the Kinds of Poetry. This is owing chiefly to the placing the Study of Poetry after Philoso­phy and Rhetoric, which makes it extreme easy: And partly to the Age of the Youth, they being now, at least, in their 18th Year, and capable of greater Application; partly to the Delight they take in the Study, and partly to their having read most of the different Kinds of Poems, when learning Languages, which renders the Review of them pleasant, in order to apply the Rules of Criticism.—About a Fortnight is enough for all the lesser Poems; the same Space of Time serves for the Drama and Pastoral, (which all but the English Critics examine by the Laws of the Drama) and lastly, about a Month serves for the Epopaea.—

The Remainder of the Year, which is about six Months, is spent in composing and delivering Orations; and 'tis no Wonder, that this Exercise is attended with great Success, when defer'd to this its proper Season. Philosophy, Rhetoric and Poetry, being sufficiently tasted and admir'd; the Youth must be animated, in [Page 22]their Compositions, to imitate those bright Models that gave them so much Pleasure in the Reading. The Study of Poetry, in particular, teaches them a certain Elevation of Thought; makes them give lively Descriptions, with Strength, Variety, Copiousness and Harmony of Style; and diffuse a Delicacy over every Thing they compose.—They begin first with smaller Essays on proper Subjects; thence proceed to frame Orations according to the Pre­cepts, and on the Models, of perfect Eloquence: These the Professor corrects, carefully pointing out where the Subject wou'd have requir'd more Conciseness; where more Copiousness; where the figurative Style, and Gra­ces of Speech; where the Plain and Simple; where they ought to have ris'n; where fallen; where they have given Conceit instead of Wit; the forc'd and far-fetch'd, instead of the easy and natural; Bombast and Swelling, instead of the Sublime and Florid. Thus to correct one Oration and hear another (that has been corrected before) deliver'd, with proper Grace and Action, is all the Busi­ness of the Class at one Meeting or Diet. Of this the Youth have their Turns, so that when the Class consists of twenty Students, each of them, in their Turns, com­pose and deliver an Oration once in ten Days. And as they must all be present at the correcting and deliver­ing two Orations each Day, they profit as much by the Faults or Beauties found in the Compositions of their School-Fellows, as by their own.—

In correcting the Compositions of Youth, however, the Professor is sensible, that great Judgment and Art is requir'd: Always remembring that they are Youth, he is greatly careful not to discourage them by too much Severity. If ever he seems displeas'd at any Thing, it is when he discovers a Sort of Stiffness, Precision and Judgment in their Pieces above their Years, which he considers as a certain Sign of Coldness and Sterility; [Page 23]while, on the other Hand, Redundancy of Thought, and sprightly Sallies of Imagination, share his distinguish'd Indulgence. These he calls the blooming Shoots of Genius; and, tho' exuberant, thinks they are no more to be lopp'd off at an improper Season, or in an un­skilful Manner, than the luxuriant Growth of a thriving young Tree. It is dangerous for any Hand, but that of Time, to reduce these wholly within their proper Bounds.

I'm persuaded, you will think it no Objection against the Study of Rhetoric, that it has often been prostituted to the vilest Purposes. What is there that may not be abus'd by bad Men? But in the Possession of a good Man (and such my Countrymen are careful to form all their Youth) Eloquence is the most glorious Gift of Nature. It makes Him the Sanctuary of the Unfortunate; the Protector of the Weak; the Support and Praise of the Good; and the eternal Terror and Controul of the Bad. We must often address to the Passions wou'd we reach the Heart. And till we can lay Body aside, and re­solve ourselves into pure Spirit, 'tis proud unmeaning Jargon, to say we can relish naked unornamented Truth; or be ravish'd with the plain unaffected Beauties of Virtue.—The Miranians don't, however, propose to make Orators and Poets of their Youth, by these Studies. They are sensible both the Orator and Poet must be born, not made. But, say they, those to whom Nature has given a Genius for Composition, either in Poetry or Prose, will be thus put in the Method of im­proving that Genius to the greatest Advantage; and those who have no such Genius, will, however, be en­abled, by these Studies to write elegantly, or at least cor­rectly, in the epistolary Way, and on the common and most important Concerns in Life.

Unless the Taste is thus form'd, and Youth taught to be sound Critics, on the Beauties of those celebrated Pieces that have challeng'd the Admiration of all Mankind, and stood the Test of Time; unless they can discover wherein those Beauties consist;—what is Lear­ning? [Page 24]—Nay, without this 3 Taste, or Relish for the Pleasures of Imagination; what is Life itself? Nature has given the Rudiments of it to every Man: But if we compare the Man who has perfectly cultivated it, with him who has not, they seem almost of a different Species. To the latter are entirely lost, the Gay, the Tender, the Easy, the Natural, the Sublime, the Marvellous, and all the nameless Graces of a finish'd Piece!—Shou'd So­litude, shou'd Want of Business, shou'd Misfortunes of any Kind, force such a Man to seek Relief from Books, alas! he finds them— "But formal Dullness, tedious Friends!"—He may read; but he will be as unconscious of the masterly and delicate Strokes of what he reads, as the Mountain is of the Ore lodg'd in its cavern'd Side. A stupid Sort of Admiration is the highest Pleasure he is capable of receiving.—While, on the Contrary, the Man who has been taught to take the full Gust of the generous Pleasures arising from the Contemplation of Beauty, Order, Harmony, Design, Symmetry of Parts, and Conformity to Truth and Nature, finds, within Himself, an unexhaustable Fund of the most noble and rational Amusement. No Moment of Time.— [Page 25]I speak it feelingly, said Evander,—No Moment of Time needs hang heavy on his Hands. No Situation, no Circumstances, neither at home or abroad; neither in Youth nor old Age; neither in Prosperity nor Adver­sity; but can be render'd more agreeable, while he can taste the intellectual Joys of his darling Studies. Suppose then Youth shou'd reap no other Advantage from the Studies in this Class, but the Power of filling up those vacant Hours to Advantage, which those, who want such a Taste, usually spend in trifling Visits, Cards, Hunting or Drinking-Matches, and other hurtful Plea­sures; we have Reason to think a few Months properly spent in forming this Taste, a very essential Part of Edu­cation; and the Master that neglects this in Education, may well expect to earn the bitterest Curses of those he deprives of such a solid Joy, in all Conditions of Life. But further, the Miranians say, that this Taste for po­lite Letters, not only teaches us to write well, and renders Life comfortable to ourselves, but also contributes highly to the Cement of Society, and the Tranquility of the State. They don't hesitate to affirm, that they think it almost impossible for a Man that has a Taste for the imitative Arts, and can feel the noble Charms of Rhe­toric, Poetry, Painting, Music, Sculpture, &c.—to be a boisterous Subject, an undutiful Son, a rough Husband, an unnatural Parent, a cruel Master, a treacherous Friend, or in any Shape a bad Man. These Studies enlarge the Mind, refine and exalt the Understanding, improve the Temper, soften the Manners, serene the Passions, che­rish Reflection, and lead on that charming Langour of Soul, that philosophic Melancholy, which, most of all, disposes to Love, Friendship, and every tender Emo­tion.—To conclude this Article, (which, as it treated my favorite Studies, I have, perhaps, tired you with) [Page 26]it appears to me that the Studies, in this and the next Class, are those we must chiefly cultivate, wou'd we be good Men and good Citizens.—Si Patri [...]e v [...]umus, si No [...]is vivere chari.—And all the Studies in the for­mer Classes seem of little other Value but as they pre­pare for these.

FIFTH or highest CLASS.

The Principal, whose Name is Aratus, instructs this Class in the Study of Agriculture and History. The Knowlege of Nature acquir'd in the third Class, con­tributes greatly to make the Study of Agriculture easy at this Time. In some previous Lectures Aratus re­sumes this Subject; and particularly gives the Youth a good Tincture of Physic and animal Anatomy, which is not only of great Use to teach them the proper Care of their own Health and Bodies; but highly necessary to explain the Oeconomy and Mechanism of Plants, the Structure of their Vessels, their Generation, Manner of Life and Accretion, Perspiration, Circulation of Sap, &c. Of all which, the surest Way of giving any Idea, is by observing and tracing the Analogy between Plants and Animals.—After this he examines, with the Youth, the mineral Strata of the Earth; enquires into the Nature of those saline and aqueous Juices that constitute the nutri­tious Matter or Food of Vegetables; and of those other Fossils which, being either heterogeneous to the vege­table Substance, or too gross and scabrous to enter into the Roots of Plants, serve however to soften and sepa­rate the concreted Parts of the Earth, and prepare it for the Ends of Vegetation. The Whole [...] illustrated by a Course of chymical and statical Experiments.

The Theory of Vegetation once explain'd, and toler­ably understood; what remains in the Study of Hus­bandry is not very difficult. For after obtaining a good Insight into the vegetable Oeconomy, the Quality of Soils, &c. by the Analysis of Plants, Fossils and Air, the Youth are enabled to judge what Effect every Manure will have on every Soil; what is the proper Manner of [Page 27]preparing the Ground for the Seed; and what Seed or Plant shou'd be assign'd each natural Earth. In this chiefly consists the Husbandman's Art. After this Foundation is laid, they proceed to read the best Geo­ponic Writers, such as Varro, Columella, Tull, Bradley, &c. assigning, as they go along, the rationale, for the natural Phenomena and Rules of Tillage, recorded in these Authors, upon the Principles and Philosophy of modern Naturalists.

One Part of the Day is given thro' the Year, to the Study of Agriculture, as laid down above: The Re­mainder to the Study of History; by which, it is plain I do not mean the Reading of History to satisfy the Cu­riosity for a Moment, with the Knowlege of single un­relative Facts; which, to their great Loss is all that Youth generally profit by History, at the Age, and ac­cording to the Method, it is handled at Colleges.—In the Course of the above-mentioned Studies, and from their private Reading for Amusement, the Miranian-Youth, I need not tell you, must by this Time have a pretty full Knowlege of the principal Events that hap­pened in the World before they were born. The Busi­ness of this Class is of a far more noble and extensive Nature. It is to review those Events in the calm Light of Philosophy, when related in their full Extent, attended with a Deduction of their immediate and remote Causes and Consequences, in order to make them a Lesson of Ethics and Politics,— an useful Rule of Conduct and Manners thro' Life. It is dangerous to send raw un­practis'd Virtue abroad into a World where Right and Wrong are too often confounded; and nothing can ob­ [...]e this Danger but the giving Youth a previous Ac­quaintance with the World, and making them behold Virtue and Vice with all their Consequences painted in genuine Colors by the Historian. Numerous are the Evils that arise in Society when Youth are sent into it, especially in any high Station without this Knowlege. In this Case neither Logics, Mathematics, Physics, Rhe­toric, [Page 28]nor all the Branches of speculative Knowlege they are capable of attaining can direct their Conduct, nor prevent their falling a Prey to designing Men. These [...]ciences, however, if we do not stop at them, are high­ly useful, and render the Studies of this Class, pleasant and profitable. As the Study of Agriculture was made easy by the previous Knowlege in natural Philosophy; so is the previous Knowlege of the fundamental Princi­ples of Ethics, a fine Introduction to the Philosophical Study of History. This Subject Aratus resumes before entring upon History. He considers Man in the solitary State of Nature, surrounded with Wants and Dangers, the whole Species at Enmity with one another, the stron­ger lording it over the weaker, and nothing secure to any Man, but what he can either acquire or maintain by Violence: From thence he takes Occasion to shew the Necessity Mankind lay under, of entering into Society, and voluntarily resigning some Share of their natural Freedom and Property to secure the Rest. Then he explains the different Forms of Government with the Advantages, and Inconveniencies in the Administration of each.

This being pren [...]s'd, the Youth enter upon the Study of the Grecian History in this Manner, viz. the Principal prescribes a Portion of it, which against next Day they must read in their Chambers, and abrige the Substance of it into Writing, about twice or thrice as large as a copious Argument of any Chapter. This fixes the Facts deeply in their Minds; teaches them moreover to express themselves in a short laconic Man­ner when Occasion requires it; and when the History is finish'd, serves as a Recapitulation of the Whole, to which they may always have Recourse thro' Life, and bring the Facts fresh into their Memory. These Sum­maries are revis'd in the Class by the Principal, who is careful to make them apprehend the Blameable and Praise-worthy in the Constitution of the several Grecian States; and, in the familiar Way of Dialogue, to make [Page 29]them give their Opinion upon [...]e Facts mentioned, the Manners and Customs of the People, &c. drawing pro­per Morals from the Whole. In [...]his Manner a Portion is abrig'd, and descanted upon, every Day, till they have gone over the History of the florishing Ages of Greece; which they perform in about the Space of a Month. The History of Rome (Mr. Hooke's judicious Collection of it) is studied in the next Place down to the Days of Augustus: This requires about two Months more,

* All between this Period and the Beginning of the 16th Century is past over, the Remainder of the Year being spent in the Study of modern History; from Puffendorf's Introduction to which, they first take a general View of the principal States and Kingdoms in Europe, that now divide that Power among them, upon which depends the whole System of Police operating at present. After that they descend to study the History of England, from the Beginning of the said 16th Cen­tury, after the same Manner they before studied the History of Greece and Rome; the Principal taking Care, as they go along, to note the Rise, Interests, Dependen­cies and Constitutions of the several Nations and States, whose Histories are interwoven with that of England; and where a fuller Account than Puffendorf's is necessary of these States, in order to understand their Reasons and Motives of Action on any Occasion, referring the Youth to that Period of their particular Histories. From the Beginning of Henry VIIths Reign, to the End of Queen Ann's, is what they study; and that Part of Rapin, with the Continuation to the End of the Third Queen Ann takes up about five Months. They conclude the whole with a View of our Colonies in this Hemisphere; their State, Produce, Interests, Government, taking some Notice as they go along, of the French and Spa­nish Settlements we are chiefly concern'd with in Trade. Every Sunday Night about an Hour is spent in the Study of the Bible History.

[Page 30] Tho' this is but a small Part of the History of Man­kind, yet it is as much as can conveniently be brought, and much more than generally is brought, into a Scheme of collegiate Education. The Youth are thus sent into the World well acquainted with the History of those Nations they are likely to be most concerned with in Life; and also with the History of Greece and Rome, which may be justly call'd the History of Heroism, Virtue and Patriotism. This is enough to prepare them for Society, and put them in the Method of studying the History of any other Nations they think proper, in a philosophical Manner, whenever their Inclination and Leisure shall prompt them to it.

This, continued Evander, is a Sketch of the Studies of the several Classes; which I could with Pleasure, in this Account, pursue thro' all their different Ramificati­ons. But as this is inconsistent with my design'd Bre­vity, I have only mention'd the general Heads of Science, wholly neglecting such Branches as are either included in, or necessary to, the Knowledge of those I have men­tion'd.—In the Second Class, you will observe I have not spoke a Word of plain Trigonometry, because it is suppos'd in the Study of Geometry. Neither have I mention'd Perspective, Painting, &c. because included in the beautiful Sciences of Optics; nor even Optics themselves, nor spherical Trigonometry, as they are all suppos'd in the general Study of Astronomy. In like Manner, I have not mention'd Dialing, because after being taught Astronomy, and the Use of the Globes, the whole Theory of Dialing is learn'd in a few Hours: And so of all the other Classes, which I take Notice of expressly, that you may not judge the Studies of any one Class unproportion'd to those of another, without taking into the Account all their Branches, Praecognita, &c.—Here I told Evander, that I was well enough sa­tisfy'd the Studies of the Classes were very well pro­portion'd, as they become still more extensive the far­ther the Youth advance in Years; but that I thought [Page 31]the Studies of every Class were more than Youth could probably become sufficiently acquainted with in the Time allotted them.

He reply'd, that if the Miranian Youth did not at­tend the Duties of the College longer than the ordinary Terms, my Observation would be just. But, continued he, my Countrymen are entirely against long Vacancies, and interrupting the Studies of Youth for half the Year. They can't see any Advantage in such a Practice; and are certain that it is attended with many Inconveniencies. Vacations and holy Days in this College, don't exceed two Months. Besides, they don't propose any Thing more than to give the Youth a general Knowlege and Tincture of these Studies. This is all that can be done at College: For as Bent of Genius will not carry all the Youth of a Class the same Lengths in every Study; that Scheme of Education is humanly perfect, by which all the Students may become ordinary Proficients in all the Studies; and are put in a Method of excelling in those particular Sciences to which Nature has bent their Ge­nius. The * Age of the Youth, contributes highly to aid the Execution of such a Scheme; and I can assure you, from Experience, that by attending even eight or nine Months in the Year, all that is narrated above may be done by Youth of ordinary Genius; without making it any Burden to them.—You will, no doubt, take No­tice that the Number of Masters are fewer than ordinary by this Scheme; and the Oeconomy different from the most Part of Colleges; which have a distinct Professor for every Branch of Science; as a Professor of Anatomy, Botany, Chymistry, Civil Law, &c. while the Students attend a great many different Masters and Studies at different Hours. But, tho' my Countrymen could af­ford Salaries for such a Number of Pofessors, they would never give into this Method; for they think it a great [Page 32]Disadvantage to Youth, to be concern'd with two many Masters and Studies at the same Time. They judge it a much better Method, that such Branches of Science as are related to one another, should be thoro'ly studied under one and the same Master, before the Youth pro­ceed farther; and that the whole Studies or Branches of Science, shou'd be rang'd in their natural Order; that those of each lower Class may be an Introduction to the Class above it, and the Youth thus rais'd by a Chain of easy Steps to the Summit of their Education. Hence a Professor serves, by the above Scheme, for all the Branches of Knowlege that can be acquir'd in one Year; which resolves the Classes and Masters into a Number proportion'd to the Number of Years; and renders the whole Plan plain and regular.

That the Studies laid down for the five foregoing Classes, are rang'd in their natural Order, will best ap­pear to those who are best acquainted with the Nature and Object of them. I shall not trouble you, then, with any Defence of what may appear an Innovation of the Method of Study in these Classes; since you will allow, when you consider the whole attentively, that to change this Order ever so little wou'd greatly confound and retard the Execution. With Regard to the three lower Classes, there can be no Objection; as Mathema­tics go before Philosophy in every Seminary; and are so necessary to it, that Mr. Locke, I think, advises the Study of Mathematics suppose we should propose no other Advantage by them than to strengthen the reaso­ning Faculty, and prepare the Mind for the Study of Philosophy, by accustoming it to think closely, and call forth those Thoughts in a syst [...]matical Manner.

That Rhetoric, Poetry, Criticism and Composition, should be learn'd after Philosophy, seems decided by the Authority of the greatest Orators and Poets.—ThusHorace—Scribendi recte, sapere est & Principium & Fons.—Thus Tul'y blames the Orators of his Time for neglecting the Study of Philosophy and polite Literature, [Page 33]Nemo vederetur exquisitius quam Vulgus Hominium studuisse Literis, quibus Fons perfec [...] Eloquentiae conti­netur; Nemo qui Philosophiam complexus esset, Matrem O [...]ium bene Factorum, beneque Dictorum. Quintilian every Way is of the same Opinion. And Pliny advises it in express Terms.—Mor [...] primum, mox Eloquentiam discat, (Puer) quae male si [...]e Moribus discitur. But without any Authorities, the Thing is self-evident. Eloquence is generally the sublimest Philosophy; now it is absurd to speak of writing or composing philosophi­cally till we are Philosophers; or of writing elegantly without a Taste for polite Letters. In Reality, no Man but he who can distinguish philosophically between Right and Wrong, (the Honestum & Turpe) and who is pos­sess'd of all the moral Virtues, can be a good Orator, for this Reason that no Man can move others, unless he himself is mov'd with what he speaks. A bad Man may, to give his Words Force, seem mov'd when he reasons of Virtue; but whenever his Character [...]s fully detected, all his most artful Pretences this Way will only, so much the more, shock his Audience.

Here I ask'd Evander, why foreign Universities, &c. plac'd Rhetoric before Philosophy, if the latter was so necessary to it? He answer'd, that as far as he could learn, the Difference between the Method of his Coun­trymen, and that of the best model'd Colleges, was not material. 'Tis true, said he, these Colleges begin the Study of Rhetoric in the lower Classes, but they continue it thro' the higher Ones. Thus the first Year perhaps the Youth learn no more than the Figures of Speech, and the Precepts; the Knowelege of Logic and Gram­mar is enough for this Purpose. Composition, Criti­cism, and that Part of Rhetoric to which Philosophy and polite Letters are necessary, fall of Course after the Study of Philosophy, &c. which is the same Thing upon the Whole; unless that it is inconsistent with this Maxim of my Countrymen, never to engage Youth in more than one or two Studies till they are fully Masters [Page 34]of them; and to render their Plan as simple as possible, that they may stand in need of no more Professors and Tutors than their Circumstances enable them to employ; the sole Consideration that ever makes them depart from the Practice of Nations more learn'd than themselves.

I presume, I need offer no Reasons for placing the Studies of Agriculture, History and Politics in the high­est Class. As these Studies seldom enter into the Scheme of Education, but are left for every Man's private read­ing after his Education at the University is finished, it is plain they should be last. They are indeed the Studies of Men, and require a ripe Judgment. But moreover all the former Studies, as I have observ'd already, are necessary and subservient to them. Even Rhetoric her­self is of great Use in reading a well-wrote History, as the Beauties of the Diction and Speeches must otherwise be in some Degree lost and untasted. And if this was not the Case, yet still, methinks, History and Agriculture should be plac'd last, in order to send Youth abroad into the World, warm (if I may so express it) from those Studies which their own Interests, and the Service of their Country will require them chiefly to cultivate till Death.

The next Thing to be spoken of is the public Exer­cises of these five Classes; for the Miranians are fully convinc'd of the great Advantages consequent upon bringing Youth early to speak in Public; and therefore have set all the Saturdays of the Year wholly apart for this Purpose.

Upon these Days, the Masters, Scholars, and as ma­ny of the Citizens as please to attend, being assembled in the Chapel after Morning Prayers; one of the Stu­dents in the First or Greek Class appears as Respondent with an Opponent or Interrogator from the Third Class; the latter pitches upon any Greek Author, the Respon­dent has read during the Course of the Year in his Class, and prescribes a Passage in it to be render'd into English [...]empore; this the Respondent does, pointing out the [Page 35]Author's Beauties, Spirit and Sentiments; clearing up his Obscurities and Difficulties; and giving an Account of the Case, Tense, Mood, Derivation, Construction, &c. of every Word. The Opponent takes Care to set him right where he errs; and gives him an Opportunity, by proper Interrogations, to display his Skill and Improve­ments to the best Advantage. The Master of that Class to which the Opponent belongs, superintends these Exer­cises, and may interfere with his Assistance if there shou'd be Occasion. But this seldom happens.—

After these, one of the 2d Class appears as Respondent [...] with an Opponent from the 4th, the Opponent endeavors to impugn a Thesis given out and defended by the Re­spondent. Then he changes the Subject and interrogates him concerning his Skill in such Branches of the Mathe­matics as he (the Respondent) has learn'd in his Class.

In the next Place, a Respondent appears from the 3d Class with an Opponent from the 5th. The Method of Exercise the same as above. The Subject Ethics and Physics.—

Besides bearing a Part, as Interrogators, in the fore­going Exercises, the 4th and 5th Classes have an Exercise of Declamation peculiar to themselves. First one of the Youth in the Class of Rhetoric delivers a Speech with proper Grace and Action on any philosophical Subject, or on the Nature, Rules and Advantages of Eloquence and Poetry, which are their present Studies.

Lastly, one of the 5th or highest Class delivers an Oration, fram'd according to the exact Rules of Rhetoric, upon any civil Topic that is, or may be, disputed with Regard to the Interest of their Country. And such Ha­rangues I have often known to be of very public Service, not only when deliver'd, but when thought worthy of appearing in Print. Sometimes too their Subject is the Usefulness of History and Agriculture; the Pleasures of Retirement, or any moral Subject. Thus when there are not above twenty Boys in each Class, every Boy in the three lower Classes appears in public twice a Year, and [Page 36]those of the two higher Classes four Times.—There are Exercises of the same Kind in the higher Classes of the Mechanic's School: And in the Latin School, instead of Exercises or public Acts, there are quarterly Ex­aminations; and proper Rewards distributed to ex­cite Emulation.

Under this Article it may be proper to observe that the fourth, or Class of Rhetoric, on the King's Birth-Night, entertain the Town with some of our best dramatic Per­formances. And at their Commencement, the fifth Class do the same. On these Occasions, they are honor'd with the Presence of the Governor and all the Ladies and Gentlemen of Distinction. But the three lower Classes, as they have not been taught Rhetoric, &c. are not per­m [...]ed a Share in this; nor are these two higher Classes [...]llow'd to exhibit any more, but this one Performance a-piece; as it wou'd interfere with the Duties of the Class to prepare themselves for more: And this is suf­ficient to teach Them this sort of Exercise.

There is one Thing peculiar to the Miranians in these Exercises, which I had almost forgot to mention; and that is that all their public Acts, Declamations, &c [...] are [...]n the English Tongue. No People are more careful than they to teach Youth to translate Latin readily, as may appear in the Course of the foremention'd Studies, where every Author is read in the Original: But, when this is [...]ttain'd, they aim at nothing more. They are sensible, there is a great Difference between being able to explain a Classic Author extempore, and the Writing as good Language as that Author. Almost any Person may at­tain to the first:— But only an Erasmus, a Casimir, a Buchanan, and a few more, have wrote pure classic La­ [...]in, unmixt with Barbarisms and foreign Idioms, since it became a dead Language. They don't however, deny, but learned Men, to render their Works more universally useful, may write in the Latin-Tongue, tho' they [...]annot write with classic Elegance and Purity. But they greatly condemn the Practice of neglecting the Mo­ther-Tongue, [Page 37]and embarassing a young Student, by obliging him to speak or compose in a dead Language. While he is hunting after Words to explain Himself by, he must be continually on the Rack; one Half of his Sentiments, one Half of his sprightly Sallies of Fancy, which wou'd otherwise shine thro' his Compositions, must escape his Memory ere he can find Words to ex­press them. The Consciousness of speaking improperly, often barbarously, must damp his Ardor, and restrain him from delivering himself with that becoming Ease and Confidence, that Grace of Voice and Action, that Pro­priety and Harmony, which he cou'd not fail of, did he apply that Time and Pains to the English-Tongue, which is often without Success given to the Latin.—Besides, my Countrymen seem to think it below their Dignity, to declaim in a foreign Tongue, before an English Au­dience. In particular, my Friend, continued Evander, very gaily; to speak in Latin, we think, wou'd be an Insult on our Ladies, who often honor us with their Pre­sence on those Occasions; and, by their brilliant Ap­pearance, add new Grace to the Action, new Music to the Tongues, new Sprightliness to the Imagination, and new Fire to the Bosoms of the Youth.—

There are likewise Masters in the College for teaching the French, Italian, Spanish and German Tongues, at private Hours; and a Fencing-Master, who, besides the Use of the Sword, teaches the military Exercise. There is, lastly, a Dancing-Master; whom I shou'd have mention'd first; as this Art is learn'd by the Boys when very young; viz. in the lowest Classes of the Latin and Mechanic's School. None of the Youth, how­ever, are oblig'd by the Statutes of the College to attend these Masters; and if they do attend them, it must be before they are enter'd into the fourth or rhetorical Class, because it wou'd interfere with the Duties of the two higher Classes, which, as you'll remember, consists chie­fly in Reading and Writing in private. The Students in these two Classes are esteem'd Men; and it is reckon'd [Page 38]shameful for them to be ignorant of Dancing, Fencing and modern Languages till that Time.—None of these Masters are included in the Institution, in any other Thing, but that the Governors or Trustees upon any Complaint that their Characters are bad and their Ex­ample dangerous, may deprive them of the Benefit of teaching the Youth; A Punishment great enough: For, tho' they have no Salaries from the Public, yet as each of them has generally thrice the Number of Boys that are in any of the Classes, their Income is nothing inferior to the Income of the Masters that are upon the Establish­ment. And the College also gives each of them, that behave well, a handsom Gratuity yearly; as a Testi­mony of their being willing to encourage the Learning of all polite Arts and manly Exercises among the Youth.

Here Evander paus'd, as if in Expectation of some Remarks from me upon the Excellency of the Institution he had given me an Account of. I told him that as far as he had yet proceeded I mightily approv'd [...] But that I thought the Study of Religion, without which no Scheme of Education cou'd be of Advantage to the State or private Persons, did not sufficiently enter into his Account; and that if the Miranians did nothing more this Way than he had spoken of, I judg'd their Scheme deficient in the most interesting Article.

He resum'd, that my Observation was just; and that it was for this very Reason he had left the Account of their Method of studying Religion and Morals to a se­parate Article; as well, because of their Importance, as because they are the chief Object of the Studies of every Class, and consequently cou'd not be brought into the Account of any particular Class.

My Countrymen, proceeded he, are fully persuaded that those who are entrusted with the Education of Youth can do more lasting Service to the Interests of Religion and Virtue, at a Time when the Heart is susceptible of every Impression, than all the good Men, all the Philo­sophers, all the Magistrates, arm'd with all the Power, of [Page 39]a Country, can do, if, for Want of Education, the Heart is suffer'd to become callous, as it were, and obstinate in the Habits of Vice. They were, therefore, extreme careful to look for something still better than Learning in all the Masters they chose into the Seminary; admit­ting none but Men of irreproachable Characters; MEN whose Lives shou'd be a daily Comment on their Precepts, and their genuine Goodness of Heart a constant Pledge for the Morals of the Youth committed to their Care; Men indefatigable in the Discharge of their Duty from a Consciousness of the weighty Trust repos'd in them, and an unfeign'd Zeal for the present and future Interests of their Pupils; Men, in a Word form'd to command Love and Reverence; and from their Sweetness of Temper dispos'd to strew the Path to Science with Roses. They prudently foresaw, that upon their meeting with Men of this Character at first, not only depended the Reputation of the College, but in a great Measure, the Morals and Genius, of the Country to latest Generations.

Such Men they had the Happiness to meet with: And it will, I hope, prove a pleasing and useful Specu­lation, to take a more particular View of the Method of inculcating good Morals, or natural Religion, practis'd by Them; and which may be practis'd by every Good Master in the Course of these Studies. Some may be ready to imagine they bestow a great deal of Time and Labor this Way; but, on the Contrary, tho' Virtue and Goodness is always in their Eye, it is but seldom in their Mouth. They know too much of human Nature, to propose teaching Morals, &c. by formal Discourses and tedious Lectures. At the very Thought of this, Youth take the Alarm and seem to put themselves on their Guard against all that can be said: While a Word dropt, as it were, casually by a skillful Master in a pro­per Season, shall strike so much the deeper as it was now expected, and make an Impression never to be eras'd. His great Business then, who wou'd train up Youth to Religion, consists in the first Place, in getting the en­tire [Page 40]Possession of their Hearts; in keeping a jealous Eye over them; in preventing the Approach of every Thing that is of a noxious Quality; in making every Thing around them breathe Innocence, Purity and Truth; and lastly, in watching the proper Opportunities of drop­ping the Seeds of Goodness into the Heart, while it re­mains in this healthful State, which will not fail to bring forth 8 an hundred Fold, provided he adds to the Whole his own Example, and seems fully persuaded of the Truths he wou'd impress upon them; never men­tioning Religion and Virtue without the utmost Devo­tion and Fervor of Soul.

Opportunities of this Kind will never be wanting to the Master who has himself a good Heart. I shall take Notice of a few of them; and tho' every classic Author furnishes noble Lessons of Morality, I shall confine my­self to the five learned Classes last-mention'd because I wou'd be brief. I shall take Care to ascribe Nothing more to the Scholar than I myself have felt; nor can I ascribe half so much to the Master, as I have known the good Aratus to put in Practice: For under him I had the Happiness to pass thro' these five Classes; as I was one of the Youth with whom he open'd the College which cou'd not be open'd higher than the Greek Class, as will be shewn in the Sequel.—In this Class, under such a Master, the Reading of Home [...] was like travelling thro' a delightful Country; richly variegated with all that is beautiful and grand in Nature; where every Thing conspir'd— "To raise the Genius and to mend the Heart;"—conspir'd to entice us forward thro' Meads of Pleasure, in a flowry Path to Virtue!—How strong­ly wou'd the good Man take Occasion from the Senti­ments even of this Heathen-Author, to inculcate the [Page 41]Belief of One Supreme GOD, Father and Disposer of all Things; as also the Immortality of the Soul; future Rewards and Punishments, &c. How zealously would he press Home upon us Respect for Kings, Magistrates, Parents and all Superiors? How beautifully wou'd he make us mark the Decorum and Honestum of Life painted in the Characters; and every Thing little and mean expos'd? In what affecting Language and noble Images would he shew us Hospitality, Gene­rosity, Benevolence, Justice, Honor, Piety, Inte­grity, Prudence, Friendship, Fidelity, Sincerity, Intre­pidity, Patience and Resignation recommended? In a Word there was no Virtue, no Duty of civil Life, but he would enforce from Homer; in so much that I was almost ready to subscribe to the Opinion of those who say (however hyperbolically) that was all that ever was written on Morals, nay were all the Arts and Sciences, lost, the Stamina of the Whole might be gather'd again from Homer. And while Aratus taught us to gather the Roses of such an Author, he not only made us shun the Thorns; but, as Bees from poisonous Herbs ex­tract healing Liquids, he taught us even to reap Ad­vantages from those very Absurdities, those monstrous Fictions about the Nature of the Gods, their Jars, Thefts, Robberies, Rapes, Adulteries, Incests, Drunken­ness, &c. which were the Faults of the Age not of the Poet. From hence he took Occasion to teach us the just Value of those sacred Volumes which have rescu'd us from such Superstition and Blindness.

In the next Class what fresh Opportunities did he find of leading us from Worder to Wonder, and bringing the DEITY before our Eyes in the Study of His stupen­dous Works? How were our Minds dilated and exalted when, in the Study of Astronomy, he led us to consider the heavenly Bodies? And how little did every Thing we were wont to fancy great then appear to us? Even the terraqueous Globe on which we dwell, with all its Kingdoms and boasted Grandeur seem'd in our Eye but [Page 42]a small Point in the Solar-System? The Solar-System itself dwindled into Naught when compar'd with the nu­merous Systems of those Stars that in a clear Night stud the Cerulean! All these Systems again were lost in the vast Expanse when compared with that Infinity of Systems which Philosophy's purer Eye can descry be­yond the Reach of all Optics! And thus, while he taught us to rise from System to System, beyond all definite Space, 'till we were lost in the Imagination, and at the same Time convinc'd us, that so far from being nearer the Limits, we were still but on the Frontiers of of the CREATOR's Kingdom;—how wou'd we stand astonish'd at our own Littleness, and the Grandeur of that * GOD whose Hand fram'd all those Clusters of Systems; kindled all their Suns; and feeds their im­mense Fires from Age to Age? How ridiculous and absurd wou'd we then esteem it for Man,—the Atom-Lord of this Atom-World,—swol'n with Pride, to strut about and boast that all these were made for him; or to exalt himself against the great SOVEREIGN of such an incomprehensible Domain?—What a Thirst of Know­lege did the Contemplation of these Wonders kindle within us? And how did we seem to spurn this "evanescent Speck of Earth", and ardently affect that Period when, shaking off this cumbrous Vehicle of Flesh, we shall perhaps scar thro' the wide Realms of Nature, see Things as they are, and be indulg'd in a free Cor­respondence with all those Systems and all their Inhabi­tants?—While our Minds were in this State, then, then was the Time the good Aratus wou'd sow, and sow deep, the Seeds of Piety and Goodness. Then was the Time he wou'd press Home upon us the Worth and Immortality of our Souls. For, wou'd he say, if a God, that does nothing in vain, and that shews such [Page 43]Wisdom and Design in all Things that come under our Comprehensions, has endow'd you with Desires and Passions so superior to your present Objects, and with a Capacity of soaring so far beyond them; if he has given such a restless Curiosity of prying farther and farther into the beautiful Scheme of Nature;—be assured this Curiosity will not be frustrated; you will not drop into Nought before this Scheme is unfolded to you! No: all those noble Passions and Desires will be fully satisfied! There are in Reserve for you superior Displays to be eternally open'd upon you, at proper Periods, as your Powers and Capacities are for ever enlarg'd! Mean Time, steddily practise what Right-Reason injoins; and wait patiently till your Change come.

Nor was it alone, by ascending in the Scale of Nature that Aratus taught us to admire the Almighty Author's Greatness. We were forc'd to acknowlege Him still greater, if possible, in the smallest than the greatest Things; when in the third Class we descended in the Study of Nature to its other Limit (if Nature can be said to have Limits).—To confine myself to that single Branch of Physics call'd Micrography, how did it sur­prize us to discover living Creatures, Thousands of which wou'd be imperceptible to the unassisted Sense, swarming by Legions in each Leaf and Grain; heaving and animating our choicest Cates; mantling our purest Liquors; and crouding even the transparent Atmos­phere. But when we were convinc'd that these Animal­cules are so far from being the last Degree of Smallness, that there are others as much smaller than them, as they are smaller than us; then were we as much lost in the Divisibility of Matter, as we were formerly in its Mul­tiplicity. As in the one Case we cou'd conceive no End of the Magnitude and Addition of heavenly Bodies, so in the other, we cou'd conceive no End of Divisibility and Smallness. On each Side of us the Gradation is endless. Astonish'd at ourselves, we now saw Man in a different Light. He that but a little before seem'd [Page 44]only an Atom of an Atom-World almost imperceptible in the Bosom of the Universe, seem'd now distended into a World, even into [...]n Universe, when compar'd but with the last Degree of perceptible Smallness. He now appear'd in his proper Place as—the Nexus utriusque Mundi—the middle Link of Creation; not only as his Soul seems the mean Perfection between the highest De­gree of created Intelligence, and absolute Insensibility; but as his Body seems the mean Bulk between the greatest Aggregate of Matter, and the last Particle of possible Smallness.—But how was our Astonishment encreas'd, when we were convinc'd that every the Minutest of these Animals are form'd with as exact Proportion, Nicety, and Design, as Man himself;— * that they have their distinct Joints, Limbs and Muscles, all dispos'd in Num­ber, Weight and Measure; that they have their proper Vessels, and Liquids circulating in those Vessels, caused also by the Systole and Diastole of a Heart, or something analogous which expels the Blood or Liquids into those Vessels, and receives its refluent Stream; that they have not only all the Parts necessary to perform the animal Functions, but are sensible of Pain and Pleasure; and know how to shun Danger and pursue their proper Happiness: and lastly, that tho' these are so extremely small that Thousands of them would not be so big as a Grain of Sand, yet they contain others within them form'd with the same Exactness as them­selves! Speculations of this Kind did not fail to impress us with just and noble Apprehensions of the Deity: But oh! when our artful and pious Tutor reminded us, on these Occasions, that GOD perform'd all these minute Operations, that he made the small Heart, Arteries [Page 45]Valves, and pour'd the vastly subtile Liquids into the Vessels, of these diminutive Animals,—all with the very same Right Hand, with which he rounded those im­mense Orbs, and hung all those Systems of Worlds, (whose inconceivable Numbers lately confounded us) at his Footstool like a little sparkling Signet of various Gems—Cou'd we, O cou'd we then, do you think, forbear to fall down in the deepest Abasement and Ado­ration, crying out.—How wonderful, how incomprehen­sible, how Great, how Good is the LORD?

Forgive me, my Friend, proceeded Evander, if, in this Part of my Narrative, I should be tedious, or dis­cover any unbeseeming Raptures. The Time spent in these Studies was the happiest Period of my Life, and which I have often wish'd I cou'd begin again: A Period, I can never reflect upon, without feeling my Bosom burn, and thinking I hear the good Aratus, with Hands outstretched, and Eyes glowing Affection and Devotion pouring important Truths from his fervent Tongue, and leading us imperceptibly from the visible to the invisible Things of Gods. 'Tis impossible to express what a Fund of Piety and natural Religion may be laid in, by a few Words dropt on these Occasions, by a good and fervent Man, whose Person and Character we love, and whom we suspect of no Design upon us but our own Welfare. I should therefore have thought myself as in­excusable, had I neglected to take some Notice of these Opportunities of instilling Goodness, as the Master must be who, in the Study of Nature, can neglect to make the right Use of them. Such a One, indeed, neglects the most essential Part of Education; inasmuch as a good Heart is infinitely preferable to all speculative Knowledge:—He neglects to form a Relish for that de­vout Contemplation of the Works of GOD, which is not only capable to give Joy and Satisfaction in all Times and Conditions of Life, but will no doubt constitute a great Part of our Pleasure, and be the Subject of our Contemplation and Wonder for ever and ever!—On the other Hand, the Master who embraces these Oppor­tunities, [Page 46]with Judgment and Discretion, will have no Reason to join in the vulgar Complaint, that Youth will not learn Religion; and that Philosophy rather tends to make them Freethinkers. 'Tis true, when a gloomy Temper and starch Behaviour is put for Religion, Youth will spurn it; and when they get but a small Tincture of Philosophy they may be Free-thinkers in the modern Sense. But, let them once taste the manly, noble and generous Pleasures, which true Philosophy and true Religion impart;—never, never can they forsake them, for the mean Satisfactions of the narrow-soul'd Deist or Atheist, according to a fine Thought of the great Bacon: A superficial Taste of Philosophy, says he, may perchance incline the Mind to Atheism; but a full Draught thereof brings it back again to Religion:—The weighty Sense of which, Pope has happily transferr'd into the following beautiful Lines.—

A little Learning is a dangerous Thing;
Drink deep, or taste not the Piërian Spring:
There shallow Draughts intoxicate the Brain;
And drinking largely sobers us again.
Essay on Crit.

I have already hinted how much the Studies of the fourth Class, Rhetoric and Poetry, tend to better the Heart and improve the Temper. I shall therefore pass to the Study of Agriculture, which Tully and Colu­mella call the Study of Wisdom, and the Life of a wise Man:—A Study, which has given that Happiness to the most renown'd Names in Story which the World cou'd not give; and in their declining Age afforded them solid Pleasures after being cloy'd with all that Mankind call Great.

It wou'd be needless and endless to enumerate all the Opportunities a Master of Aratus's Character found to [Page 47]lead us admire and adore the Deity in this Study. He cou'd not explain the Theory of Vegetation without ex­hibiting whole Worlds of Wonders. He cou'd not ex­amine the Structure of the most indifferent Plant with­out making us perceive in it the same Wisdom and De­sign that appear in the Structure of the most perfect Animal. He cou'd not explore the mineral Kingdom without shewing us the same Agreement and Fitness in the Disposition of Things, even amid the dark Recesses and secret Bowels of the Earth, as on her beautiful Sur­face. Her beautiful Surface he cou'd not survey with us, without swelling our Hearts with Wonder, Love and Gratitude.—In this Point, Aratus, ever zealous to teach us every Thing that can either improve or rationally amuse, was singularly industrious.—It is a Disgrace, he wou'd say, for Man to live like a Stranger in a World made chie [...] for Himself; neither tracing the Wisdom, nor adoring the Beneficence, of its Disposition.—It is a Shame for a reasonable Being to wander, as if deaf and blind, in the Midst of Nature; neither attending her Voice. nor [...]iving any higher Emotions than the un­conscious Brute from gazing the awful lovely Spectacles she presents, with a Design to entertain and ennoble our best Faculties.—

To form the Taste, therefore, aright in this Respect, our worthy Tutor (who us'd us in this highest Class more as Men and his bosom'd Friends, than his Pupils) wou'd, when the Season and Study of Agriculture invited us to the Fields, entice us onward to some romantic Eminence, as if to shew us some curious Herb; and there, seating Himself, wou'd artfully turn our Attention and Con­versation upon the wildly-beautiful Landskips that every where rush upon the Sight in this new World, where Nature yet wantons in Virgin-Prime, fresh as it were from the Maker's Hand, and unprofan'd by little Works of Art.—Before us, we wou'd survey mighty Rivers, whose distant [...] among Nations and Regions yet unknown, rolling their [...] Floods in silent Ma­jesty [Page 48]towards the Main; bank'd with vast Woods and Forests, whose venerable Trees, planted by GOD himself, and almost coevel with the World, wave their gracef [...]l Verdure to every odoriferious Gale. Turning to [...] other Side, we wou'd behold vast Lawns opening [...]n­terminable, between these Woods; enamel'd with [...] the Colors, Wealth and Fragrance of Nature; and affording a finely diversify'd Prospect,—here gentle Brooks, me­andring along their peebly Channels, to pour their tribu­tary Urns into these larger Rivers; there a wild Profu­sion of rich Hillocks tufted with various Trees, whose uncultivated Beauties, and embowering Shades, inviting Repose, seem'd form'd to be the gay Abodes of Peace and Love; and here again Groups of tame Animals feeding, in mingled Peace and Happiness, with their wild Brothers of the Woods, yet unapprehensive of the barbarous Huntsman's Toils;—the whole rural Prospect clos'd by vast Mountains pil'd into the Clouds, whose enormous Height even [...]ake the distant Sight, and chill the Frame with delightful Horrors.—And while these beautiful Sights wou'd hold our Eyes and Hearts captive; Aratus, ever watching the Time to moralize, wou'd remind us how inseparably Beauty and Utility, Magni­ficence and Frugality, are always connected in the Works of GOD. These Inequalities and Varieties on the Surface of the Earth, he wou'd suggest, not only serve to form enchanting Prospects, but also to fructify the Soil. These Hillocks and little Vallies form Rivulets, and drain off the supervacaneous Moisture, these Rivulets form Rivers; these Rivers supply the Expence of Evaporations from the Ocean; these Evaporations form Magazines of Dews and Rains; and lastly these Magazines of Dews and Rains are condens'd and call'd down upon the Earth by the Help of the high Mountains. Thus the Globe is ever supply'd with fresh Recruits of Moisture, and saline Juices. And thus, tho' all T [...]m [...]gs di [...]ler, all agree to promote the same wise End [...] Order walks Hand in Hand with Variety. The [Page 49]Mountains but stand the lofty Ministers of the Vales. Unless they thus rear'd their gelid Crests into the Skies to arrest and condense the fluctuating Vapors, the hotter Countries wou'd be left destitute of Rain; and the whole Moisture of the Globe, might by Degrees evagate to­wards the Poles, and be congeal'd round them. The Mountains also produce many curious Vegetables and Minerals of sovereign Use, which are not to be found elsewhere.—But I should never have done, should I take Notice of all the Opportunities the good Man found in the Study of Nature, both to refine and exalt the Understanding.—I shall next pass to the Study of History, which as he manag'd it, is nothing else but Religion and Philosophy taught by Examples. And indeed he was of the same Opinion with the great * Fenelon, that the surest and most successful Method of teaching Religion is by historical Facts: a Truth, which from the Feelings of myself and School-Fellows in this Class, I am sufficiently convinc'd of. For,

When the Mirror of Ages was held up to us, and all the c [...]ebrated Names of Antiquity made to pass in bright Review before us;—when we beheld the Train of private and public Miseries, which has always been the Consequence of Vice, with the glorious Effects of Virtue; —when we saw the public Villain branded with eternal Infamy, and deliver'd down as a Malefactor to all Pos­terity, while the Patriot's Name is embalm'd and ren­der'd for ever illustrious by the concurring Shouts of Mankind;—cou'd we forbear, in our own Imaginations and Resolutions, to enlist ourselves for Life under the Banner of Virtue? Cou'd we forbear to glow with a generous Emulation of earning the fair Esteem of good Men, and sharing some Part of the Fame of those vene­rable Worthies we read of? Or could we once think of committing a base and dishonest Action, without shrink­ing from it with Horror, at the Apprehensions of the eternal Reproaches of the World?

[Page 50] The Study of History, and the Knowlege of the Greatness, illustrious Atchievments, and Manners of other Nations, may supply the Place of travelling, and make Youth shake off that ridiculous Littleness of Thought, that contemptible Vanity, of making the Customs, Manners and Actions of the small Spot where­in they were born, the Standard of Right and Wrong; —the Model of every Thing great and noble. This begets a more manly and generous Turn of Thought; extends their Views; and teaches them, as Citizens of the World, to do Justice to the Virtues of every Nation and People, unbiass'd by a weak Attachment to any particular Corner of the Earth. And indeed there is some Danger that History, with all it's Advantages, shou'd have the same Effect that travelling too often has; I mean, to cure this Vanity too much, and make them too much in Love with the false Magnificence and Greatness of other Nations.—Youth are apt to be dazzled when they read of a mighty Thunderbolt of War, returning Victorious over vast Nations and King­doms; his native City moving as it were from its Foundations to meet him and usher him home, thron'd like a God on a triumphal Car; crown'd with Gold; buskin'd with Pearl; clad in Purple stiff with Embroi­dery; bearing Laurels in his Hand; famous Kings and Generals, loaden with Chains, led Captive before him; white-rob'd Senators following after him; solemn Mu­sic sounding his Praises; ten thousand Hands strewing his Way with Flowers; and ten times ten thousand Tongues swelling the loud, Iö Triumphe to the Skies! —On these Occasions I have known the sagacious Aratus stedfactly examine our Looks and Countenances; and if he had any Reason to judge, such pompous Descrip­tions were likely to pervert the Taste of solid Glory, he would observe to us that all this Apparatus of the Triumph was only Externals, only the Trappings of the Conqueror, and no Part of the intrinsic Worth of the Man; nor of any V [...]lue, but as the Testimony of a [Page 51]grateful People for some great and good Action. He wou'd remind us that there is something still greater than Victories and Triumphs, even in a good Cause, to which the chief Applause of Ages has been paid: That it is the Heart alone which denominates Men good and great; and that they who, obeying the Dictates of a good Heart, do all the good in their Power, are truly and equally great, whether their Lot be the private Shade, and the Command of a Family; or the public Theatre of the World, and the Command of Armies and Provinces.—

To illustrate this, he wou'd ask us, whether in our Sense and the Sense of all Ages and Men, Timeleon, when he declin'd all the Dignities offer'd him by the grateful Syracusans, and retir'd to practise in Silence the Virtues of a private Life, only saving to himself the Pleasure of seeing Millions happy by his Means, did not appear even as venerably great, as when he came at the Head of an Army, resolv'd either to die or rescue the same Syracusans from Slavery and Oppression? Whether Curius, when he refus'd the vast Sums offer'd him by the Samnite Ambassadors, tho' they found him so poor as to be cooking his own Supper in the Chimney-Corner, did not shew still as much Magnanimity as when in the Front of dreadful War he conquer'd wherever he came? And whether he was not still as great when serving up a Share of the same Supper to the same Ambassadors with that terrible Arm from which they so often had sled trembling, as when twice carried in Triumph to the Capitol? Whether Fabricius and the same Curius, when they refus'd (notwithstanding their private Estates were but a few Acres) to accept of any more than * seven Acres of the Lands they had conquer'd (the Share of a common Soldier) did not acquire more Glory than in adding whole Kingdoms to the Commonwealth? Whe­ther all Ages have not more applauded Fabius for [Page 52]saving from certain Destruction, his Rival and Adver­sary Minucius, who by the basest Means had supplanted him in the Esteem of the People, than for defeating the great Hannibal and saving the Republic? Whether Cincinnatus has not receiv'd more Renown for abdicating the Dictatorship on the sixteenth Day, which he might have held six Months; and, when he cou'd be of no further public Use, stealing away from the Praises and Acclamations of his fellow Citizens, to manure his little Farm, and cheer his lovely-lonsom Racilia, to whom in his Absence he had committed the Care of it;—whether I say, he has not receiv'd more Renown for this In­stance of Moderation, than even for deserving those Praises by saving the State from the Aequi? Whether he did not appear as illustrious at the Plough-Tail as on the triumphal Car? Whether he did not appear as great and venerable in the Sight of all Men, (perhaps more so in the Sight of God) when seated on a humble Turf he decided the Differences of his Neighbour-Peasants, and restor'd Peace to a poor Family; than when seated on the high Tribunal of Rome, and vested with uncon­troulable Authority, he gave Law and Peace to half the World?—

These renown'd Worthies, wou'd Aratus continue, when they conquer'd Nations; when they sav'd their Country; when they triumph'd over its Enemies,— did what was great indeed; but that which many have done: But when they conquer'd themselves; when they sav'd their bitterest Adversaries; when they triumph'd over Poverty, and would not stoop to gather Gold, Diadems and Kingdoms for their own private Use, they did Deeds in which they stand singular;—

Deeds far above Ambition's vulgar Flight,
That rais'd their Names to more than Mortal-Height!
Deeds that draw Wonder when but simply told;
That still can charm us—as they charm'd of old,
And shall to latest Times their Lustre hold.

[Page 53]By Contrasts of this Kind I have known him labour, to preserve and improve our Taste of solid Glory; till unable to resist their Impression, we wou'd, like true Philosophers, pronounce with our own Mouths, that if there are other Actions as great and heroic as Triumphs and Victories even in the Cause of Religion and Liberty; surely, one single Deed of Love where we can, or one single Sigh for Distress where we cannot relieve, as cor­responding more with the Scheme of Heaven, is ten thousand Times more great and brave than, thro' the Lust of Rule, to carry Violence and Conquest round the whole Globe. In this Sense, the greatest Conqueror is but the greatest Brute, and the greatest Coward.— Charm'd by such illustrious Models of all human Virtue, who manag'd the Treasures, and fill'd the most eminent Posts, of their Country, without fouling their Fingers with a Bribe; who conquered the most opulent King­doms, without adding one Drachma to their private Fortune; and, whenever their Country's Service did not require their immediate Presence, descended volun­ [...]arily from the Command of Mankind to manure a few private Acres, and trace the Wonders of divine Power in the Works of Nature;—charm'd I say, at these Re­lations, we wou'd in these Moments receive a lasting Conviction,—That Nothing can be honorable but Inte­grity and the Plaudit of good Men; nothing shameful but Vice and Communion with the Bad; nothing ne­cessary but our Duty; nothing great and comfortable but the conscientious Discharge of it: And that true Glory does not consist in breathing the fiery Spirit of War, and thirsting eagerly after Dominion; but in delighting to see the World happy and unalarm'd; in fervently striving to promote this Happiness; in culti­vating the Arts of Peace; encouraging Agriculture and Manufactures; educating Children aright as the rising Hopes of the State; and serving God in Tranquility of Mind and Purity of Heart.—History will inform us that none, but those who thus liv'd, have either been happy in their Life, or esteem'd after their Death.

[Page 54] I shall only mention one Advantage more in the Phi­losophical Study of History; namely, that to behold the dreadful Effects of Tyranny and religious Imposture in other Countries; and all the Scenes of great and real Distress to be met with, especially in more modern History; teaches Youth to set a just Value on our ex­cellent Constitution, and tends more to soften the Breast, to purge and regulate the Passions, than all the imaginary Distress of the best conducted Drama.

How have I felt the Passions of Terror, Pity and Joy to rise alternately in my Breast, while Aratus has moralized on some historical Passages?—When animad­verting on the Conduct of inhuman Tyrants, he wou'd represent them, marking the Godlike Patriot's Body with inglorious Stripes; frowning the holy Sage to Dun­geons, Racks or Flames; spurning the Good and Brave to the most abandon'd Places of the Earth, or by Thou­sands to the Gallies, Bonds and Gibbets;—and for what Crime? What Cause?—No Cause; no Crime, alledged! A Debauch; troubled Rest; or some Acci­dent, had sour'd the arbitrary Monsters' Tempers! or perhaps some contemptible Priest, Harlot or Minion was to be gratified thereby!—Again he wou'd represent them (when instigated by such unrelenting Councillors, or by false Glory) brandishing the ruthless Sword of Op­pression from Country to Country; tearing the tatter'd Weed from wintry Limbs; snatching the lean Morsel from the starving Peasant's Mouth, and (O more pierc­ing Thought!) from the Mouth of his weeping Spouse and clamant Babes; rending—(O brutal! O cowardly!) rending the untasted Virgin from her faithful Bride­groom's longing Arms; razing Cities; spoiling Houses and Fanes; dragging Priests from the Altar, with Mo­ther's and Children, into Slavery; and forcing hoary Age in its last Period to become a Minister to the Vices of luxurious Youth:—In short, wherever they come, Destruction reveling around them and turning the Earth into a human Shambles; Terror flying wildly-frantic [Page 55]before them; meagre Famine, shivering Nakedness, pale Despair, and every great Distress, in unfrequented Places, stalking horribly-ghastful behind them. Thus would the humane Aratus describe, in the most moving Terms, the Woes attending civil and religious Tyranny, till he observ'd his Descriptions to have their full Effect upon us;—till he saw—

Each tender Bosom heave the social Sigh;
The social Tear start from each tender Eye.

Then would he contrast to these, more joyous Pros­pects.—A Land of Liberty; Life and Property secure; hence, a People busy to improve their unprecarious For­tune; Cities teeming with Wealth; Commerce extended as far as Winds blow and Waters roll; every Gale and Tide wafting Riches into Port, and bearing forth the Fruits of Industry in fair Exchange; Arts and Letters florishing; the lowest Sons of Labor glad; luxuriant Harvests nodding the heavy Head along the golden Plain; Pastures green with copious Herbage; flowering Vales lowing Joy; consenting Hills bleating it; the very * Sun himself seeming to dart his choicest Beams on the favor'd Land:—and above all, a KING who is the common Father of his People, and as such reigning in their Hearts, watching over the happy Constitution of such a Country, even with a Subject's Zeal; and using every generous Effort to rescue the Wretched of other Climes from Slavery, and place them also in the Lap of Freedom, to taste the same invaluable Blessings!—

While the good Man wou'd dwell on these pleasing Themes, his Eyes wou'd sparkle with Joy; and we, all Ear and Attention, wou'd hang upon his Tongue, lost in a Train of mingled Passions hard to be described; till a conscious Preference to the British Constitution, [Page 56]rising gradually o'er the rest, and swell'd at last to Transport too big to be restrain'd, wou'd force, from the cogenial Souls of Master and Scholars, this trium­phant Exclamation—

O Nomen dulce Libertatis!
O Jus eximium nostrae Civitatis!

And oh!—continued Evander, elevating his Voice; (as this was the concluding Study of our Education) O! with what an Extasy of Joy, do you think, we reflected, that in a few Weeks we were going to be enroll'd active Members of that same happy Society we so much ad­mire; that same happy Society, in which, had it been left to our Choice, we would have chosen to live and die, above all those we had read of in the Volumes of History down to this present Day? What a mighty Influence must this single Reflexion have on all our future Con­duct? And what may not be expected from young Men initiated into Society in this Disposition of Mind; thus conscious of the inestimable Privileges they are call'd to; thus prepar'd, thus resolv'd to act a great and good Part?—Is it not reasonable to hope, that Nothing will ever be able to deter or allure them from their Duty; but that they will continue firm, inexorably firm as Fate, to maintain and, if need be, to revenge such a glorious Constitution, whenever, or howsoever infring'd; whe­ther by secret or open Villainy? May it not be expected that their genuine Goodness of Heart, impregn'd and fertiliz'd as it were by such an Education, will be a living Spring of great and generous Actions; ‘not spou [...]ing forth a little frothy Water on some gaudy Day, and then remaining dry the rest of the Year,’—but gli­ding ever gently along with a pure and even Current, neither mudded with sinister Views, nor o'erflowing its Banks with an ungovern'd and ill-judg'd Zeal even for what is Right? May it not be hop'd that whatever is their Lot they will sustain it with Dignity? If Poverty; with that Magnanimity and Integrity which render'd [Page 57] * Epaminondas, Curius, Circi [...]atu [...], &c. so venerable in their Sight, and that of all the World:—If Riches; (which is more hard, with that Moderation and Benevo­lence of Heart, which render'd Cimon, Pelopidas, Atti­cus, &c. the Delight of all that knew them:—That they will not squander them away according to the mo­dern Custom, in pampering the Luxury of a Scoundrel-Train of Debauchees, who in return (detested Inter­course [...]) feed the Lord of the Table with the Oil of Flattery; but that they will bid the helpless Heart sing for Joy, and cheer those gloomy Retreats where, thro' an ingenuous Delicacy and mistaken Shame, Poverty and modest Merit shroud themselves from the fastidious Scoff of giddy Pride and an undiscerning World.—In short may it not be hop'd they will entirely devote them­selves to the Service of their fellow Creatures, and their Country? And should the prevailing Power of Calumny and Faction hinder them from doing the Good they meditate, or force them from the Scene of public Action, and perhaps into Exile; may it not be hop'd, that, even in these difficult Moments, the Love of their Country and Mankind will prevail over every other Consideration; [Page 58]and that they will not with a headstrong Opposition shock the Constitution, nor retire, like Camillus, uttering Curses against their native Soil; nor, like Coriolanus, meditating great Revenge; but, like Milo, praying for the everlasting Prosperity even of their ungrateful Citizens, in these moving and divine Words,—Valeant, valeant Cives mei; sint incolumes, sint florentes, sint beati; stet h [...]c urbs pr [...]clara, mi [...]ique Patria carissima, quoqu [...] modo de me merita erit: tranquilla Republica Cives mei, quoniam mihi cum illis non licei, sine me ipsi, sed per me tamen, perfruantur. Ego cedam atque abibo. Thus fore'd from the Service of their Country, then is the Time they will reap the choicest Fruits of such an Edu­cation. Their Minds now vacant from all worldly Cares, and honorably dismiss'd from Business and civil Duties, they can elevate themselves so high, as to look down with calm Contempt on all they fell from. Instead of being the Citizens of one Kingdom, they will now see themselves the Citizens of the World, and in the Society of universal Nature. Into whatever Clime they rove, there they will find themselves at home; there they will be honor'd; there esteem'd. If driven into the most abandon'd Parts of the Globe, yet even there they will not be alone; they will find themselves in the Midst of Nature, and in the Presence of Nature's GOD; with whom such an Education has taught them to hold high Converse. Every the minutest Object around them will be capable of giving Amusement and Instruction. So far from regre [...]ting the Loss of Power and earthly Gran­ [...]eur, the whole Earth itself will appear, in their philo­sophic Eye, but a Speck of Dirt, no bigger than the Roman Empire appear'd to the younger Scipio in his Dream.—Shou'd, however, their relenting Country again demand their Service, sacrificing all Resentment to their Duty, they will return with no other Reluctance but that of exchanging the peaceful Amusements o [...] Ease for a Scene of Cares, Watchings and Toils.—In a Word, it may justly be expected that those who are [Page 59]thus educated will, in all Circumstances, and in all their Conduct and Dealings, do Honor to human Nature and wipe off that Reproach from the Christian Religion, which many of its unworthy Professors have brought upon it, in the Eyes of the Infidels around us. When an Education of this Kind has taught all Christians that deal and converse with these Nations of Infidels around us, to practise strict Justice, Integrity, Honor, and all the other Precepts enjoin'd by our Religion, then these Nations will not fail to admire such shining Vertues; and when once they admire, they will not be far from imita­ting.—That glorious Aera, and those happy Conse­quences, foretold and fondly anticipated, in the Verses spoken at the first opening of this Seminary, will not then be far distant. But till such an Education has made the idolatrous People around us in Love with our Man­ners and Actions; it is in vain to think all the pious Endeavours of single Men, or the Tongue of an An­gel, or any Thing less than a Miracle can spread the Gospel over these Parts among a sagacious People that daily see us belye its Precepts.

Thus have I, as briefly as I could, given you a Sketch of the Method of teaching Science and natural Religion in these five higher Classes. The same is to be under­stood of the higher Classes in the Mechanics School, where the same Opportunities of inculcating natural Goodness offer in the Study of Physics and History, tho' in a Method somewhat different. To this I have added a few of the Advantages my Country-Men have in Part reap'd, and must more and more reap from such an Institution. There is only one Thing wanting to im­prove and perfect the whole; and that is the Study of ceveal'd Religion, by which I mean the general uncon­troverted Principles of Christianity, which is all they teach at College. For this Purpose the Sunday Evenings are set apart; when about an Hour is spent, in all the Classes, in the Study of the Old and New Testament; the Law and historical Parts being chiefly left for the [Page 60]higher Classes.—This is sufficient, if any human Care can be so, to make Youth good Christians. For when every proper Opportunity is embraced throughout the Week, to lay in such a Fund of natural Religion and Goodness, as I have shewn above; the great Truths of Christianity cannot fail of a favorable Reception on the Sundays, whether they come from the Masters in the Evening Classes; or from the Pulpit in the Time of di­vine Service.—Easy and delightful must the Task of the Clergy be, when by the Constitution of a Country the whole Instructors of Youth go Hand in Hand with them in advancing the Interests of Vertue and Piety!— Happy, said Evander (his Face brightening with a lau­dable Excess of Fondness for his Country) Happy are the People that are in such a Case!—Is it possible to figure aught more venerable and august than the whole Wisdom and Experience of a Community thus using every human Effort, to train up, and secure to the State, a Succession of good Men and good Citizens to the latest Generations? Is it possible to conceive aught more lovely, than the Youth of a Country thus collected in one School of Vertue; and striving, in the Presence of the Public, with a noble Emulation, and divine He­roism, to excel each other in every Thing that does Honor to their Nature?—Can there be a Constitution more Praise-worthy than that which has contriv'd the Means of fanning and encouraging this * divine Contest concerning Vertue among Youth? Is there aught in the whole Sphere of Nature which GOD himself surveys with greater Pleasure, than a People thus employ'd? Nay, perhaps it is not too bold to think, that, if all the Ranks of Being, between Man and the Seraph that burns by the Throne of GOD, have stood firm in their Duty, and co-operated with HIM from the first of Time in accom­plishing his eternal Scheme, yet he does not receive so much Joy from beholding the Whole, as from seeing [Page 61]a Society of fall'n Adam's Race, thus assiduous to re­pair the Ruins of their Nature; thus ardently wrestling to render themselves acceptable in his Sight, that they may be restor'd to his Favor, and correspond for ever with the general Ha [...]mony.—Can we then doubt but he will shower down his choicest Blessings on such a People; and delight to make them long a distinguish'd Nation on the Earth? Consider'd in this Light, well might Tully call Education a divine Work! well might Plato call it a God-like One!—


I come next to give you a rude Sketch of the Edifice; for I am not Architect enough to describe its whole Or­donnance in Terms of art. It consists of four Buildings which form an oblong Square, enclosing an Area of 120 Feet by 100 f. I shall speak of each separately.—

First, or North Building. The lower or Ground-Floor, the full Length of 120 f. is the public Chapel, where all the Scholars in the Se [...]inary, assemble every Morning to public Prayers. Here also all public Exa­minations, public Acts and Orations on the Saturdays; Commencements, &c. are held.—The Floor over this, of the same Length, is the public Hall, where the Youth eat in public; and where all public Entertain­ments, Balls, Plays, &c. are given. The Cielings of these two Floors being very high, this Building is of the same Height with the other Sides of the Square, where the Buildings consist of three Floors or Stories each. This Chapel and public Hall are capable of re­ceiving several Hundreds of People, besides all the Youth of the Seminary. They are each of them well seated along the Walls, leaving a large Space in the Middle empty. The Chapel has a very beautiful Rostrum.—

Second, or East Building. Length 100 f. The First or lower Floor is the Latin School, divided into five Classes, 18 f. square each. But the Building being 26 f. wide, 8 f. is left towards the Area which constitutes a Piazza or Portico, 100 f. long, supported by a deli­cate [Page 62]Row of Columns whose Members are in Ionic Proportion, and their Intercolumination of Consequence 4 Modules or 2 Diam.—This Portico is of great Use as an Ambulatory for the Youth to exercise themselves in, when thro' Rain, Snow, &c. the Area wou'd not be convenient. There is no Partition but a Curtain be­tween these Classes; and each Class has a Door for itself from the Portico, with a Chimney and two Windows in the opposite Wall; but there are no Windows in the Wall towards the Portico, because the Light wou'd not be good. This Method of making a Door for every Class, will be found of great Service to let the particular Classes go out and come in without disturbing one ano­ther, when the Curtains are shut; and when the Scho­lars become so numerous as to require a Master for every Class. The Curtains are far preferable to Partition Walls, because when one Master is to teach two, three, or whatever Number of Classes, by removing the Cur­tains, he brings them all as it were into one School.—

The second Floor of this Building is likewise divided, by Curtains, into the five learned Classes, of the same Dimensions, with the five on the Floor below them. They have likewise a Door, Chimney and two Windows each. Before these Classes, and over the Portico is a Gallery, of the same Breadth of 8 f. and Length of 100. This Gallery, as their Circumstances permit, is to be adorn'd with all curious History-Painting for the Im­provement of Taste. The Pictures of the Benefactors of the College are hung in it, with the Statutes of the Seminary; and the Names of all the Youth that take the Degrees; and those that win the yearly Prizes in the Latin School.

[Page 63] The highest or third Floor in this Building constitutes the public Library which is 60 f. long; and the Experi­mental-Room, where the Apparatus is kept and all Experiments perform'd: this takes up the remaining 30 f. of the Length of the House. There is a stately Steeple to this Building, in which is a small but handsom Observatory.—

Third or South-Building. Length 120 f. The lower Floor consists of the six lower Classes of Mechanics, which require the * full Length. The Dimensions and Disposition of these Classes the same as above; conse­quently there is another Portico before them, which com­municates with that before the Latin School. The three higher Classes of Mechanics are on the 2d Floor of this Building, the Remainder of this Floor, and all the third Floor being Apartments for the Youth to lodge in.

The fourth or West-Building, is divided in the Centre by the public Entrance to the Area, which is an Arch 10 f. wide; and has a strong Gate which is shut every Night. One half of this Building on that Side of the public-Gate next the mechanic Classes is laid out in more Apartments to accommodate the Youth. The other half, or lot of it, is set apart for the Principal and his Family. But the Entrance is on the Out [...]ide of the College-Gate, that none of his Family may have any Communication with the College after the said Gate is shut. The Principal has, however, a Door to the Area of the College from his House, but he always keeps the Key of it himself.

There is a very large Garden belonging to the College; fertil of every Thing fit for the Kitchen; and stor'd with all rare and curious Vegetables for the Advancement of natural Knowledge and Husbandry. I shall say No­thing of the Government of the College, which differs [Page 64]little from any other good Institution; nor cou'd I explain it to you without repeating the Statutes which would be tedious. In every Thing strict Decorum and Oeconomy are observ'd. The Meals are plain, neat and plentiful. Every Scholar pays his Proportion of the monthly Bill. 'Tis the Principal's Business to see that this Bill be just; and that the Victuals be well-drest, good and healthful according to the Statutes.— The College has the Privi­lege to send a Member to the General Assembly; and I, continued Evander, have the Honor at present to repre­sent them.

This is a rude Sketch of the whole Institution as it is at present: It remains to take Notice, according to my Promise, of the chief Steps taken in the Establishment of it.—The foregoing Plans of Education and Building being sketch'd out and agreed upon, a Charter was obtain'd incorporating a certain Number of Gentlemen by the Name of Trustees, with Powers to carry the said Plans into Execution, as far as they should be enabled by public or private Contributions; and make such Improvements of them as shou'd seem necessary, keeping always up to the original Intent of the Institution. To enable Them to open the Seminary, a Law was made applying the Interest of a Sum that had formerly been rais'd, as Sala­ries for Instructors, in such Proportions as they shou'd judge proper. But this Sum being insufficient to employ any more Instructors than would be necessary for the first Year; about an hundred public-spirited Gentlemen sub­scribed to pay, for the Space of five Years, such Propor­tions of any Sum not exceeding 600 l. per An. as the encreasing Number of Instructors, shou'd render necessary; hoping before the Expiration of that Term a sufficient Sum might be rais'd for Endowment.

Thus authoris'd, and enabled, the Trustees apply'd themselves with all possible Diligence, Prudence and Unanimity to the Execution of their weighty Trust; and in the first Place to engage three proper Persons to open the Mechanic's and Latin School, and the Greek or [Page 65]lowest Class of what they call the College. This was the most difficult Part of their Work. Men duly qualified were not easily to be met with; and those who were best quality'd were most backward to engage; as having an adequate Idea of the Importance and Difficulty of the Work they were invited to. They foresaw that even the greatest Prudence, with the most indefatigable Labor and Vigilance, cou'd not command Success in the Beginning of such a Work, unless they further laid their Account to bear patiently Reproaches, Slanders and the very Mar­tyrdom of their Characters from a Few.—(shall I disgrace my Country by naming Them!)—a few lurking Traitors, who did not blush to throw Dirt at every Proposal for establishing such an useful Institution in Mirania; either because they Themselves cou'd not model it to their own Minds, or that they might favor the Interests of those that were already so model'd in other Places. This and every other Obstacle, however, the laudable Zeal of the Trustees surmounted. They prevail'd upon the three Men, who are now, Principal, Vice-Principal, or Mas­ter of the Mechanic's School, and Master of the Latin-School, to open their respective Parts of the Seminary in a House of the City set aside for this Use, till the Edi­fice shou'd be finish'd; assuring these Men, that they, as Trustees, wou'd not only support them in the Dis­charge of their Office, but that they might depend on being also supported by the concurring Interest and Countenance of every Man of Worth in the Province. Happy was it for the Province, that Men of such dis­tinguish'd Zeal were pitch'd upon as Trustees; and hap­py was it for the Trustees that Heaven directed them, in the first Instance, to the Choice of such Masters! To these concurring Circumstances, under GOD, may be ascrib'd all that Reputation, the Seminary has acquir'd. The Masters as elsewhere observ'd, are truly affable, indefatigable and patient; which renders their Method of Communication familiar and secure. If at any Time the Youth shou'd not seem to comprehend their Meaning [Page 66]thoroughly, they vary their Method, and expose what they wou'd communicate in every possible Light, being apt, always, rather to suspect their own Want of Method and Perspicuity of Address, than any Defect of Genius or Atten­tention in the Youth. Learning in them, tho' universal, is but a secondary Qualification. Their amiable Tem­per, mild Behaviour, Forbearance and Placability, have long since struck Envy and Calumny dumb. Supported by the Testimony of a good Conscience, and the Coun­tenance of the better Part of their Citizens, the Slanders of their Enemies had no other Effect upon them, but to quicken their Toils, make them redouble their Di­ligence, in their Country's Service; and, with the Phi­losopher of old, live and act so, that no Person shou'd believe any Thing to their Prejudice. On the Model of their Virtues, the other Masters, admitted from Time to Time into the Seminary, thought it their Honor and Duty to form Themselves, and secure general Esteem. The Principal is a Clergyman of the establish'd Religion of the Country, which was deem'd a reasonable Com­pliment, to the Constitution; but, by an express Act of the Corporation, he forfeits his Place by accepting any pastoral Cure, or following any other Profession. The Government of such a Seminary, and teaching the high­est Class, was deem'd sufficient Business for one Man; and Business too of such a Nature, as to entitle the Man, who discharges it conscientiously, to handsome Encourage­ment from his Country, without uniting inconsistent Offices to patch up a Living for Him.— There are, however, some of the other Professors that are allow'd to encrease their Income, by serving as Clergymen, Phy­sicians, &c. in the City. This was not thought incon­sistent, as they have little other Care of the College up­on them, but attending their respective Classes duly at proper Hours; which Hours they must keep sacred; and upon no Pretence whatever break in upon them.—

The Seminary being thus opened, every private School, in or near the City, was supprest. For such [Page 67]Schools there was now no Use, the Province having, as it were, taken the Business of Education out of pri­vate into public Hands, and open'd one general School, calculated for training up all Ranks and Conditions of People, in the surest and least expensive Method, to be good Men and good Citizens in their proper Spheres. Without this Step, the Classes cou'd never have been fill'd; and the whole Intention of the Institutors wou'd have been defeated, had private Persons been suffer'd to teach on a different Plan, and draw off the Youth by their Interest with particular Families, Sects and Parties; or, which is oftner the Case by a mean Attention to the Foibles and Weakness of Parents. In this Case, we shou'd never have beheld such a divine Sight as all the Miranian-Youth assembled, as before said, in One School of Virtue, fir'd with the noble Emulation of distinguish­ing themselves by all that is Good, in the Eye of the Public. We shou'd never have seen that Mixture of People, of which Mirania consists, coalesc'd in the ri­sing Generation. As, therefore, it is the Business of Go­vernment to see that Youth, who are the Property of the State, shou'd be educated according to the Intention of the State, they thought it incumbent on Them to take Care, that Nothing shou'd retard the Execution of that Plan for which they had toil'd so much, and re­solv'd to be at so much Expence. Those, they thought, who cou'd be Enemies to such a generous Undertaking, and wou'd not avail Themselves of such an Institution, were certainly Enemies to the Well-Being of their Country; and, as such, ought to be depriv'd of every other Means of public Instruction. Tho' this Precaution was commen­dable, and seem'd absolutely necessary to the Success of the Underaking; yet the Consequence and Disposition of the People, render'd it needless.—In a short Time, there was scarce a Person so blind, as not to see how far such a public Institution must be superior to any other Education, and to prefer it accordingly. They saw, Nothing was propos'd but to train up their Children to [Page 68] Science and natural Goodness; and to keep them free of all Prejudices, with Relation to idle Disputes, Distinc­tions, and Opinions, till a liberal Education and ripe Judgment, shou'd make them capable of thinking for themselves.—Such an Education, say they, is what we owe to our Children; to educate them otherwise, is an unjust Imposition on their reasonable Faculties—What cou'd we wish more? On Sundays they go with our­selves to divine Service; and all the Week, we are satisfy'd, they are in the Hands of Men of Piety, Mo­deration, Learning and Honor.—Nothing can be more catholic, nor more advantageous to Society, than such an Institution, as appears from this, that there is scarce an Instance of a religious Dispute between those educated in it. Men blest with such an Education will, in all Probability, be good Men of any Protestant Church; nor will they think the different Modes of pro [...]essing the same FAITH, and paying the same HOMAGE to the DEITY, of Consequence enough to occasion the least Dispute, or Breach of Charity, between Fellow-Citizens. There is scarce a Protestant Sect on Earth, that does not sub­sist in Mirania, and yet, I do not know a single Person that, in Consequence of such a manly Education, has left the Sect or Community in which he was born. What, say they, suppose we communicate with our respective Congregations! let us all live quiet moral Lives, cha­ritably sympathising with one another's Wants and In­firmities, then are we all of one Religion in the funda­mental and most important Articles.—The only Hard­ship in Suppressing these Schools, wou'd have been against those Schoolmasters that had come to Mirania in Hopes of Subsistence, and had serv'd the Citizens when they cou'd not be serv'd otherwise. In Consideration of this, the Trustees prefer'd every one of them, that were found qualify'd, before any other Persons even of equal Merit, that offer'd as Professors, Ushers, &c. in the Schools of the Seminary.—

[Page 69] I shall now shew you how the Classes were fill'd up, and Instance it in the five learned Classes; leaving you to apply it to the Classes in the Mechanic's School, as it wou'd be tedious to mention the Whole: You will be pleas'd only to remember, that the three Parts of the Seminary were open'd the same Day.

1st Year. Aratus open'd and taught the Greek or first Class, consisting of as many of the Youth of City and Country as had a good Knowlege of Latin and some Tincture of the Greek; there being no Youth fit to be advanced higher.

2d Year. With this same Set of Youth, he open'd the second or mathematical Class. A Professor of Greek was chosen in his stead to teach the Greek Class, which was fill'd up with the highest Class from the Latin-School; and some Youth from the Country.—This Year the Number of Scholars required one Usher to assist the Master of the Latin-School; and two to assist the Master of the Mechanic's School. Thus four new Masters were added, and the Gentlemen-Subscribers assess'd propor­tionably.

3d Year. Aratus advanc'd with his Scholars to the third Class. A Professor of Mathematics was chosen to supply his Place in the second Class, which was now fill'd up by those that had been in the Greek Class the fore­going Year; the highest Class in the Latin School being advanc'd into the Greek Class as before.

4th Year. He advanc'd with his Scholars into the fourth Class. A Professor of Philosophy was chosen to supply his Room in the third Class, which was fill'd up by advancing all the inferior Classes as before.

5th Year. Aratus open'd the Fifth, or highest Class. A Professor of Rhetoric and Poetry was chosen for the fourth Class, which was fill'd up by the Youth that had made the third Class the former Year; all the inferior Classes being advanced one Class higher as usual. Thus, the fifth Year, the Seminary was brought to that State in which I have above described it; all the Classes being full.—

[Page 70] During these five Years, the Trustees had been car­rying on the Edifice according to the Plan laid down; which they had been enabled to do by an yearly Lottery. But as they saw that a great Sum would be wanting be­sides what might remain of the [...] Lotteries, after the Erection of the Buildings; they empower'd certain Gen­tlemen to sollicit and manage a Scheme of a Lottery for them in London, in order to raise £. 8000 Sterling to be added to their own Funds for compleating the Reve­nues of the College. These Gentlemen having previ­ously published the whole Plan of the Miranian Institu­tion, the generous Design of it was so much approv'd and countenanc'd by the pious and learned of all Deno­minations in that great City, that the Managers no [...]oner advertis'd the Scheme of a Lottery to enable the Miranians to carry their Project into Execution, than all the Tickets were sold. And tho' it was propos'd to raise only eight Thousand Pounds, yet as a great many of the smaller Prizes were generously given to the Managers for the Use of the College, about £. 12000 Ster. came clear to the Miranians. A famous Bishop also gave a large Sum to be laid out in purchasing a Library; and a Layman, a great Promoter of natural Knowlege, complimented them, at his Death, with his whole mathematical and philosophical Apparatus. Thus at the Conclusion of the 5th Year, my Countrymen, by a Concurrence of happy Circumstances, found their Edifice finish'd, and themselves enabled to endow it in a Manner far superior to their warmest Hopes.—Then it was that the fifth Class, of which I was one, com­menc'd * Masters of Arts, in the Presence of a vast Concourse of People from all Parts. On this Occasion the new Edifice was open'd with prodigious Eclat. The Orations and Ceremony of Commencement were held in the Chapel; after this a magnificent Entertainment was [Page 71]serv'd up in the public Hall; and in the Evening, we who had commenc'd Masters of Arts, entertain'd the Company with the Tragedy of Cato.

The Day following, all the Classes in the Seminary were publickly examined: That which was the 4th now becoming the 5th, in Lieu of those who had proceeded Master of Arts; and all the lower Classes being ad­vanc'd one Class higher, to the lowest in the Latin-School, which being thus left empty, was fill'd up from the English Classes in the Mechanic's School, by such of the Youth as were design'd for the learn'd Professi­ons. It was further appointed that this Custom should be observ'd yearly, on the Day after the Commence­ment; and that for the more Regularity in the Classes of the Latin-School, upon which depends the Regularity of the Rest, it was appointed that no Boys should, for the future, be admitted into it but once each Year, and that always on the said Day. There is no Inconveni­ency in this Method; because every Person, being ap­priz'd of it, can take his Measures accordingly.—

It was now at last, continued Evander, that the Mi­ranians, encourag'd by their Success in this great Un­dertaking, propos'd to render it still more extensive, by erecting Schools throughout the Province. You may be ready to imagine this shou'd have been the first Step, in order to supply the College with Students. But they consider'd, that it would be impossible to find pro­per Masters for these Country Schools, unless they first bred them at their own College; by which Means one uniform Scheme of Education might be carried on in every Part of the Province.—

In every Township, they erected an English School; and one Latin School in the most convenient Town of each County. As Masters to the English Schools, they sent young Men of Genius that had been educated gratis in the Mechanic's School. To the Latin-Schools, in the several Counties, they sent fit Persons, chiefly educated gratis in the Latin School and learned Classes [Page 72]of the College [...] And these Masters now send Youth from the Country, to be enter'd into the Greek Class, as well accomplish'd as those that are taught in the Latin School of the College. In the Generality of the Towns where these Schools are [...] there was formerly a small Sum paid to a Schoolma [...]er by the Society: This Sum is encreas'd by an Addition of something more, paid by the respective Townships. In every County there are Gentlemen appointed Visitors of these Schools.

This is all that need be done in the Province for the Education of Youth at present. And it redounds greatly to the Glory of the Projectors, that little more need be done for many Generations. The College and the two Schools, if quite full, are capable of educating thirty Boys in each Class, (570 in the whole) and of sending abroad yearly 30 well tutor'd Mechanics, and the same Number of Gentlemen for the learn'd Pro­fessions and the Offices of the State. How many more are educated at the Country Schools I cannot ascertain. The whole annual Expence of this Institution, for Sala­ries to the Masters, is but £. 1200 Miranian Currency: Cou'd it be possible to educate such a Number of Youth with so little Expence by any other Method? Before the public Establishment of it, the Education of Youth (if it then might be call'd Education) cost the Province, and perhaps the City, a Sum equal to this: There was at least as much more drawn out of the Province for the Want of such an Institution; and if we take into the Consideration, that there is more than the Revenue of the College brought into the Province from other Coun­tries that prefer it to any other Seminary; and lastly, that the Capital of this £. 1200 was for the most Part rais'd in England; it will appear how much we are Gainers by such an Institution even in Money Matters. What we have gain'd, and still hope to gain, in other Respects, I have partly taken Notice of in the Course of this Nar­rative; and shall only add that some of our Country-Men, who have return'd, after being absent for the [Page 73]Space of these last twelve Years can scarcely be persuaded, that we are the same People;—our whole Genius;—the whole Face of the Country, seem so much chang'd and improv'd."—


This is the Account, Gentlemen, my Friend gave of the Seminary of Mirania. How far it may be still im­prov'd, and imitated by us, is entirely submitted to your Wisdom. It is no romantic Scheme, but such as I am certain may be easily put in Execution. Nothing that I can think of can be more simple, if the Extensiveness of the Scheme is consider'd. It is also well adapted, I conceive, to our Circumstances: And as I have already said that Mirania was such as this Province is now, when its College was opened twelve Years ago; so it is not unreasonable to add, that by following, and perhaps im­proving, their Plan, we may, twelve Years hence, be all that Mirania is now represented to be. The Mechanic's School is an Institution as necessary, in this trading Country, as in Mirania. To the Latin School, and the five learned Classes, there can be no Objection. Ten Years is the least Time that can be allow'd for finishing the Studies laid down above for those intended for the learned Professions. A Class for each Year is the Stan­dard generally agreed upon, unless where the Numbers of Scholars render more necessary: But this is the greatest Interval that can conveniently be between the Classes; con­sequently the Number of Classes, in the foregoing Scheme, cannot be reduc'd. But as these Classes may perhaps be * thin at first, we can do what is equivalent [Page 74]to a Diminution of their Number; I mean, to appoint but one Instructor for two or three Classes: And when the Numbers of Students shall render more Instructors necessary, our Abilities to employ more must be pro­portionably greater; for to me it seems inconsistent to say a thriving Country cannot always subsist a Number of Instructors proportion'd to the encreasing Numbers of its Youth.

In this Province one Master and two Assistants may for many Years be sufficient for the Mechanic's School: A Master and one Assistant for the Latin-School: And the Head of the Seminary with two Assistants for the five learned Classes. But for the two or three first Years even one half of this Number may be enough. Now, as no other School will be wanted in the City, is the Expence of employing this Number of Instructors for the whole Youth of the City, and as many as shall be sent from the Country, too much for this Province without any foreign Assistance? Let those, who think it is, enquire whether the Education of Youth does not, at this very Day, cost the Province more within and * without itself, than it would cost us by the Establish­ment [Page 75]propos'd. But if we are really unable to carry such a Scheme into Execution, yet still let us begin it: There is no Danger such a noble Undertaking should fail of Success. Why may we not expect the same good Fortune which the Miranians had in an English Lottery? If we shou'd be disappointed in our Expectations from every Quarter; yet still it will be glorious to have at­tempted an extensive and great Work. As we are about the Establishment of a Seminary, we shou'd have an extensive and universal Institution, such as is laid down above, always in our Eye. If we cannot do the Whole, in the foremention'd Space of Time, let us begin to do what is most necessary; and do it in such a Manner, that our Posterity shall have nothing to do but finish, in an uniform Manner, the Scheme at first projected.

With Regard to the Edifice; what is call'd, in the foregoing Plan, the Second or East Building, might ac­commodate all the Classes of a College in this Province for some Time. The Rest of the Buildings of the Square may be added as Occasion serves—

A single Province has a vast Advantage, in the Exe­cution of a Scheme of this Nature, above an extensive Monarchy. In large and populous Countries, Educa­tion cannot be immediately the Care of the Legislature; they can only enact good Laws for Education, and de­volve the Execution of them upon fit Persons, in every particular Seminary: But in a single Province, where all the Youth may be collected into one general Semina­ry, the Legislature, or those commission'd by them, may, and should, be the immediate Superintendants of Education; than which nothing can be more worthy their Care. The Practice of ancient States, in this re­spect, is truly surprizing and worthy our Regard. In their Infancy they did not busy themselves so much in [Page 76]making Laws for the Punishment of Criminals, as for hindering there being any Criminals among them, by stopping up the great Inlets of Vice, and training up Youth to be, as it were, constitutionally Good. Hence a mighty Republic subsisted many Generations without a Law to punish Parricide; because, as the first Legis­lators wisely foresaw, no Person would be guilty of such a Crime, while the Laws for educating Youth in the just Reverence of Magistrates, Parents and all Superiors remain'd in full Force. Hence it was that the Infancy of States generally exhibited all those bright Models of Virtue mention'd above; whose happy Effects had taken such deep Root as to support them for some Time after all real Virtue was expired among them. We should always keep those Ages of Simplicity in our View, and form our Conduct upon the bright Patterns they present us with; remembring always, that as this is our Infant-Condition, we must follow those Patterns, would we transmit to our Posterity, a healthful and thriving State.

Hence it appears how necessary it is to give History, Agriculture and Religion, the chief Place in a Plan of Education calculated for an Infant-Country. It is History that, by presenting those bright Patterns to the Eyes of Youth, awakens Emulation, and calls them forth steady Patriots to fill the Offices of the State. It is not by forming them mere Scholars the State can be­come flourishing; but by forming them Patriots, and putting them in the Method of becoming Politicians and good Lawgivers. 'Tis but a few that have either Lei­sure or Genius to be benefited by the Labors of a mere learn'd Man; but a whole Country, may be made hap­py by the successful Toils of the Patriot; and happy not for one, but many Generations. Those that are educa­ted to be true Patriots, are like so many Suns in Society. Possessing a larger Share of etherial Spirit, they infuse Life, Spirit and Joy into all around them.

'Tis shameful for any Man to be entirely ignorant of what happen'd in the World before he was born; but [Page 77]for a Man to be call'd to the Service of his Country, or to worm himself into high Offices, and even the Councils of his Prince, not only without knowing the Causes assigned for the Rise, Glory and Fall of the chief Nations of the World, but even without knowing the History and Constitution of his own Country, it is not only shameful, but the blackest Treachery; and worse, methinks, than an open Conspiracy against his Prince and Country.

The Advantages of training up skilful Husbandmen, are so manifestly great to us, as an Infant-Colony settled in the most fertil Soil, that it is needless to insist on them. Did Gentlemen of Distinction understand the rational Part of Husbandry, as they must by this Scheme, and set the Example to the Countrymen around them; were there some proper Laws made for encouraging an Ac­cession of Hands, and better settling this Province, it might be made the Granary of half the European Set­tlements in America.—Who, that considers this, but must be surprized at the general Complaint, that this Country must be ruin'd unless a new War happens soon? Good Heaven! It is those very Riches acquir'd in Time of War that impoverish us, and must in the Issue prove our Ruin if not prevented by proper Measures. In Time of War Riches pour in upon us all at once, and seem even to deluge our Streets: This turns our Atten­tion from the Improvement of our slower, but surer, natural Wealth; introduces Luxury; multiplies our Wants; and turns the Balance of Trade against us with the Mother-Country, which in a Moment drains us of all our Money, and leaves us dependent on the Chance of War for a fresh Recruit. What a precarious Situa­tion is this? Whereas, let us set our ourselves to im­prove our Manufactures, and chiefly to call forth, from the teeming Womb of a grateful Soil of Earth, that luxuriant Wealth it is capable to produce, then have we in our Power an unprecarious Source of never-failing Plenty. In that Case the Balance of Trade can never be against us. In the longest Peace we cannot be poor; [Page 78]and in War, the Returns of our Bravery, in Defence of the true British Cause, Religion, Liberty and Commerce, must infallibly make us rich! We shall then no more, like the Waggoneer in the Fable, be seen idly praying Jupiter to do that for us, which, by applying our Shoulders to the Wheel, we may do for ourselves.

As for the Study of Religion, in the above Scheme, it is the Soul of the Whole. It teaches us not only to enjoy aright what Science, History and Agriculture enable us to acquire in Life; but consecrates us for Eter­nity, and makes this Life, what it should be, an Intro­duction to all the future Stages of the Consummation of our Virtue and Happiness!—

All I have to add, Gentlemen, is to beg your kind Acceptance, and candid Perusal of this Work; remem­bring always that it comes from a single Person, of small Experience, unassisted with proper Books, and at a Distance from the Conversation of some of you, whose Sentiments I should otherwise have often taken the Free­dom to enquire into, relating to many Parts of it. Conscious of these Disadvantages, I shou'd never have attempted such a tedious and difficult Work, had I not seen it absolutely necessary, and been apprehensive that no other Person wou'd bestow their Leisure upon it. As to the Faults that may be found in it, I shall never be asham'd of them, because none but a Person that has an universal Knowledge of all the Branches of Science treated of, which I do not pretend to, cou'd avoid Faults. Whoever looks for a perfect Scheme, looks for what the Author never dream'd of, in a Work that might employ all the learn'd Men of the Province, and still leave Room to find Faults and propose Improvements. —You, Gentlemen, whose superior Stations and Abilities have recommended you as the First and more immediate Patrons of this great Work, will not, I hope, think the rudest Hints below your Notice; since even from these you are capable to reap Advantage. My very Errors may be render'd useful; since those who can best disco­ver [Page 79]will be least liable to fall into, them. I shall not be sorry to see the foregoing Scheme set wholly aside, if Persons of more Abilities can thereby be excited to plan a Better. Would every Person offer his Sentiments with the same Frankness that I have offer'd mine; a good Scheme might certainly be extracted from the Whole. Shou'd this Scheme of Mirania deserve any Notice, no Person shall be more ready than I to ac­knowlege what is deficient in it; and assist in improving what is commendable, when I am enabled so to do by the Observations of those who sincerely wish Prosperity to this Undertaking. As for those Writers who delight to give frequent Specimens of their Knack at Wrangling and Chicane; or who are determin'd to think Nothing right in this Affair, but what comes from themselves, my Time is too precious to follow them thro' the Maze of Perplexity. They may, if they please, ascribe every Thing I have done to a selfish Motive; I shall leave it to Time and the Issue of the Thing to convince them how much they have injur'd me. It will then be sufficient Punishment for them to reflect on their Usage of One who never offended them, but by a Zeal for the Happiness of that Province, which they ought to love more, than one, who is a Stranger in it. There was no other Way I cou'd manifest that Zeal but on the Subject of Education, as all the Time I have liv'd in the World has been spent in my own Education and that of others. As this Sub­ject then happens to be very interesting to this Province at present, I shou'd never have forgiven Myself, had I neglected the sole Opportunity I can ever have of being in the least Degree useful to it.—Sorry shou'd I be, however, if, after all my Partiality in treating this Mat­ter, I shou'd fall under the Displeasure of any Sect or Party, who may claim an exclusive Right of modeling this Institution to their Mind. Every Person is at Li­berty, and I think ought, to offer his Sentiments. You, Gentlemen, and the Legislature are the only proper Judges of the Whole; and I make no Doubt you will, [Page 80]prefer that Scheme which you think best calculated to promote the Peace and Happiness of the Province with­out regarding the Heats and Disputes that may arise at first on this Head; or be started on purpose, to retard the Execution of a Work, far too long delay'd already.

But, Gentlemen, I will not embarass You, nor my­self, at the End of a Work of this Nature, by descen­ding farther into Particulars: Neither shall I once ad­dress You to exert yourselves in this great Undertaking, for the same Reason that I did not once address You, nor an honorable Branch of the Legislature on a former Occasion. If You consider my Design at that Time, such an Address as forc'd and foreign to it, wou'd have been Censure. My Business, then, was with those who are the Masters of the Purse, and the chief Projectors of new Laws. This I shou'd never have mention'd in this Place, as being sensible that no Address of mine can be of Importance enough to give or diminish Fame, had it not been made a Handle of, for want of a better, to create Jealousies and Distrusts.—

An Apology for the Method of conveying the fore­going Proposals wou'd, I hope, be needless to those who consider the Dryness of the Subject. When hand­ling the Article of Religion, I designedly scatter'd a few Flowers, that I might help to remove the vulgar Preju­dice; and shew that, by proper Conduct, this might be made the most agreeable and amusing Part of Educa­tion. What I have said on this Subject stands as it flow'd at first upon my Thoughts; which has made some of the Periods perhaps too long. But this I cou'd not help, unless I cou'd have spar'd Time to divide such Periods, and add something for Connexion; which wou'd, however, have made the particular Paragraphs much longer. The Verses prefix'd, are part of an unfinish'd Pastoral in Imitation of Virgil's Silenus, entitled Science, and therefore a-kin to my Subject.—

To conclude, Gentlemen, I have spar'd no Pains, and left none of the few Books, I have on Education, [Page 81]unconsulted: that I might render it useful, it being the last Service I am capable of offering to promote this great Undertaking. All I can do more, is to pray GOD that the Success may be answerable.—Under GOD, it greatly depends on You to make it so: And no one can doubt, but you will zealously exert yourselves for this Purpose, who reflects, that whatever Degree of Glory this Province shall acquire from such an Institution, your immediate Descendents will reap the chief Advantage of it, since the large Share of Property you will leave them possess'd of, must make them nearly concern'd in the Interest of the Province; and point them out for the chief Offices of the Government, which you now deser­vedly fill.—

I am, Gentlemen, Your most obedient humble Servant, W. SMITH.


LAST Lost, after most of the foregoing Sheets were printed off, I had the Honor to receive, by the Way of Philadel­phia, a Letter from a Gentleman of the West-Indies, distin­guish'd for his Rank and Fortune, but more so, in the learn'd World, as a Patriot Writer. It came in Return to one sent Him with my former Pamphlet, in November last; and as it contains some new Arguments for fixing the College in our Metropolis, which did not occur to me, and also confirms in the strongest Manner what I have hinted in the * Note, Page 74, of this present Work, viz. that the West-Indian Gentle­men, wou'd certainly give this Province the Preference in the Education of their Children, I shall presume upon the worthy [Page 82]Author's Forgiveness, and transcribe a Part of it; being per­suaded, that what he has said in two Pages, must have more Weight than any Thing I cou'd say in twenty, to hasten such an Establishment here, as he, and all his Countrymen, seem more ardently to desire, than many of our thoughtless Selves. Some, I am well aware, will misconstrue what I do into Vanity. Be it so; 'tis a Vanity the most commendable of all others; and such as the Latin-Philosopher has taught me not to disown. Contemptu Famae, Virtus contemnitur.—But to return to the Let­ter, my learn'd Correspondent writes thus;

—Your Thoughts on Education are very just, and your Arguments in Favor of establishing of a College rather in the City of New-York than elsewhere are convincing: But I wish you had been more copious on the latter Subject, and much more explicit and precise on the former. I wish you had fully describ'd the Plan of Glasgow-College, as improv'd by that great Philosopher, Mr. Hutchinse [...], together with your own, or other People's Improvements upon the proper Discipline of a College, which, perhaps, is the most material Part of such a Plan; as it is the only strong Barrier against the Admission of Vice: For, I conceive, by proper Discipline, the Vices of a populous City, might be excluded from a College built in the very Suburbs; from whence the Youth might be per­mitted, twice a Week, at seasonable Hours, to visit Coffee-Houses, the Exchange, and all the Resorts of Business, except Taverns. Thus their Minds might be form'd to what the French call Police; as also to Comme [...]ce, and to a strict Observation of Mechanic Arts, which are the main Springs of Commerce. For want of Skill in those Points of greatest Importance to our Mother-Country it is, that Trade is so little understood by our Members of Parliament, and so much neglected at this very Time, when all other Nations are trying every Art to extend their Commerce. Is not this Ig­norance of our learn'd Men imputable chiefly to the Situa­tion of our Universities, so remote from every Theatre of Action, and of real and useful Life? And to what is the aukward Rusticity of our Book-Worms to be ascrib'd, but to an absolute Recess from all practical Politeness?

I wish also you had carry'd your Argument one Step farther, and hinted to the Legislature that a * Fund shou'd be estab­lish'd [Page 83]out of some public Tax, sufficient not only to raise a convenient and elegant Structure, but to be an ample En­dowment also, to encourage able Professors in all the Scien­ces, and the best Masters in athletic Exercises, to accept, nay to seek for a Station at the College of New-York; to which all our young Islanders wou'd then certainly go for Education, to the great Advantage of that City.—I am sure, Sir, if you will but revolve these Points in your Thoughts for one Hour, you might offer such a System, grounded up­on such clear Evidence, as would open the Eyes of Party, and Purblindness itself to a speedy Establishment of such a College as you wish for; and such as would gratify even the Wishes of Patriotism. But, I fear, if it rests upon cold and slow Donations, the next, perhaps the tenth, Generation will not see the Completion of it. The Subject, I perceive, glows in your Bosom, and has exalted your Fancy to several sublime Flights in the Poem at the End of your Treatise. I fear, your Apprehensions of our Mother-Country's falling at last into the Way of other Nations, are but too well groun­ded. I hope I am too old to be a Spectator of that sad Event: But when Corruption has taken hold of the main Roots, the best-grown Oak must soon—very soon—fall, even by the least Breath of the most Christian Tyrant! Where then can the People of a free State, fallen into Destruction, take Sanc­tuary, but among their own Kindred, in a well-order'd and free Government, such as those of NORTH-AMERICA might be?—I had the Honor, to think as you do on this Subject, many Years ago; and have, therefore, advis'd all my Friends to secure a * Retreat there, as my Brother has wisely done; and as I intend to do whenever he will point out an handsom Purchase to be made at a reasonable Price; more especially, if a proper Seminary for Learning is soon establish'd among you! For it is owing solely to this Want of Education for our Children, that our Gentlemen here are not fond of pur­chasing in North-America.—But to return from this De­gression, &c. &c.

Thus far this valuable Personage, whose Name, was I at Liberty to mention it, wou'd add new Fo [...]ce to his important [Page 84]Observations: And how great a Satisfaction is it to me, that I am not only prepar'd to answer his Letter, by sending him some Copies of such a Plan of a College as he seems to desire, and such as I know must be agreeable to the manly Genius of those Islanders, when dispers'd among them; but that I can, moreover, on the best Foundation, assure them that every Thing good in the said Plan, will, with all possible Speed, be carried into Execution in this Province? I have heard it said, that we have no Reason to expect the West-Indians wou'd send their Children here, as they have been long accustom'd to send them to England: But they who say so, know little what our English Universities are at present: For, to use the Words of the Authors of the Revie [...], for November, 1750,— ‘That even both our Universities (not forgetting that in the Metropo [...]is of a neighbouring Kingdom) are render'd of little Use to the Public, or to the Welfare of Religion, by the idle Doctrines and corrupt Manners which prevail in them, is a Truth equally notorious and melancholy: and any effectual Scheme for a thoro' Reformation, or (if this is impossible, thro' the Perverseness of their Members) a total A [...]lition of them, wou'd merit the Attention of every Lover of his Country, every Well-wisher to true Christianity, and to civil and religious Liberty.’—Besides this, the Risque and Expence of sending Children from the West-Indies to this Place, are not so great as to send them to England. It is not to be question'd then, but these young Islanders, as my Corre­spondent hints, wou'd infallibly come for their Education to these Provinces, and that of New-York above all others, wou'd we go into some such generous and liberal Institution as that propos'd above. And what a noble Prospect of Wealth and Glory does this open to Us, unless we will [...]ar the Whole by some unprecedented religious Establishment, that may be disagreeable to the Persuasion of these Islanders? I always foresaw the Disputes that would arise on this Head, and there­fore, in the foregoing Work steer'd quite clear of every Thing that might kindle them among a People that, till a few Months ago, seem'd remarkable for that Christian Peace and Charity which reign'd among all religious Sects in the Province. But as these Disputes have now taken their Rise from another Quarter, I should as freely give my Sentiments on them, as I have on every other Point relating to our intended Seminary, did not the Printer wait for this Postscript, to enable him to perform his Promise of publishing these Papers to-morrow.— Tho' I have every where given it as my Opinion that, in a [Page 85]well-constituted Seminary, all Protestant Youth shou'd be ad­mitted on a perfect Parity, and indulg'd in the free Exercise of the Religion of their Parents on Sundays &c.—tho' I have call'd every Attempt to draw them off from this Religion, be­fore they can judge for themselves, a manifest Imposition on their tender Reason; and tho' I believe there is no Person among Us so bigotted, as to dream of refusing that general Toleration to our young Students, which our wise Laws have granted to all other Persons; yet certain it is, that to establish a College, without establishing some Form of public Prayer and Worship in it, would be a Thing wholly unheard of before; and would effectually defeat the Design of such an Institution. In this Establishment then, the Preference must be given to some one of the Modes of Worship, or let me call them Churches, sub­fisting at present; unless we delay the Founding a College for twenty, perhaps a hundred, Years more, till all Sides can agree to patch up some new sort of religious Worship for it, out of all those we have at present; which, however strange it ap­pears, seems to be contended for. That such a Preference will be productive of none of those dreadful Consequences denounc'd against it, might easily be made manifest. And it might as easily be made manifest, to which of our Churches (supposing them all equally orthodox, which is all that can be ask'd) the Compliment of this * Preference is due. Is there any one of them that has already a Preference by the Constitution of the Province? Is there any one of them that is known to have su­perior Ability and Intention to bestow large Donations on our Infant-College? Is there any Religion that wou'd in a superior Degree, recommend our College to the Beneficence and Pro­tection [Page 86]of the pi [...]s Great, and perhaps the Legislature, in our Mother-Country? Or any Religion which, when [...]stablish'd, wou'd draw the Youth of the American-Isan [...]s, (I mean the British Antilles) rather to ours, than any of the neighbouring Colleges?—Those who know the Answer to these Questions, will be at no Loss to decide in this present Dispute concerning the Religion to be established in our future College.—I said the American-Islands; it being chiefly from thence we are to ex­pect Students, as well as large Subscriptions or Donations to aid us in this Work; and not from the neighbouring Provin­ces that have Colleges of their own. For let the Constitutions of those Colleges be as narrow and partial as they are represen­ted, can any one imagine that, when they are like to lose the Advantage of educating their own Youth, on this Account, they will be so impolitic as not to alter and catholicise these Consti­tutions. At present they are under no Necessity of doing this, because, all our American Colleges of Note being under the same narrow Government, Youth cannot better themselves by leaving one to go to another. But, if ours is establish'd in a proper Manner, they must new-model their Colleges to retain their Youth at Home; and what sort of religious Establish­ment, among us, must be productive of so much Good, is very evident.—I cannot at present, and for the future, I fear, shall not, find Leisure, to set these Points in the Light they deserve. But what I have hinted may, I hope, excite some other Person, speedily to do it.—

All I shall add is, to intreat and obtest the Legislature, by the Spirit of their Ancestors, and the Glory of the English Name, to proceed, at their first Meeting, to take some resolute and de­cisive Step in this whole Affair; without regarding the un­govern'd Heats of Sectaries, which, in that Case, will quickly die away. For to me it appears, that the longer this Work is delay'd, the more Difficulties will arise, or be rais'd, to retard it. Let them but begin;—Support, Aid and Success will not — cannot—be wanting. This I have often said before; and this (as the Matter is now become so interesting) might as properly be said, at the Conclusion of every public Paper, on whatever Subject, as Cat [...] concluded his every public Speech with— Delenda est Carthago.

April 10th, 1753,


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