A SERMON Preached before His GRACE JOHN Duke of Marlborough, PRESIDENT, THE VICE-PRESIDENTS and GOVERNORS OF THE HOSPITAL FOR THE SMALL-POX, and for INOCULATION, AT THE Parish-Church of St. Andrew Holborn, On THURSDAY, March 5, 1752.

By ISAAC Lord Bishop of WORCESTER.

Published at the Request of the PRESIDENT, VICE-PRESIDENTS, and GOVERNORS.

LONDON: Printed. BOSTON; N. E. Re-printed and Sold by J. DRAPER, in Cornhil, or at the Printing-Office in Newbury-Street. 1752.


TO THE KING's Most Excellent MAJESTY.


IT would be a Defect both in Gratitude and Duty, if the first Discourse from the Pulpit in Favour of INOCULATION, was not most humbly inscribed to YOUR MAJESTY.

THE Nation, among numerous other Instances of paternal Regard, stands obliged to YOUR MAJESTY's Goodness and Resolution, for the Introduction and Pro­gress of that salutary Practice.

THE very early Concern YOUR MAJESTY shewed for the Safety and Happiness of this Kingdom, by exposing Your own va­luable Life, with great Intrepidity, to all the Hazards of War, was again apparent, when, with equal Firmness of Mind, You [Page] exposed the important Lives of Your own tender and Royal Offspring, in the first Experiments made in Britain of the Effects of this Method of communicating an o­therwise dangerous and often fatal Disease.

AND probably to thisOperation we owe the Life of that illustrious PRINCE, to whom, under Divine Providence, this Nation, and the whole Protestant Interest, are so deeply indebted, for the happy Victory at the Battle of Colloden.

THAT YOUR MAJESTY's vigilant At­tention to the Welfare of Your People, in all Respects, may be rewarded with a very long and happy Reign upon Earth, and crowned with immortal Glory in Heaven, is the ardent Prayer of,

Your MAJESTY's Most obliged, and most devoted Subject and Servant, ISAAC WORCESTER.
[Page 1]
ISAIAH LVIII. 7.‘—And that thou bring the Poor that are are cast out, to thy House.’

THESE Words are Part of a Description of that Humiliation and Worship, that is really acceptable to the great Creator and Go­vernor of the World; as highly proper in itself, and as a just Imitation of his divine Goodness, which regardeth the Prayer of the poor De­stitute, and despiseth not his Desire; and which, in the sacred Writings, is so frequently represented, both as an Example and an Encouragement to human Benevo­lence.

IS not this the Fast, says Almighty God, ver. 6. that I have chosen, to loose the Bands of Wickedness,— to undo the heavy Burdens; — is it not to deal thy Bread to the Hungry; and that thou bring the Poor that are cast out, (cast out and afflicted, as the original Word also signifies) to thy House? and that thou hide not thyself from thine own Flesh?

THE sore Distress of our Fellow-creatures, our own Flesh, literally cast out and afflicted, which occasions the present Solemnity, falls very naturally under the Command of the Text, Bring the Poor that are cast out to thy House.

[Page 2]THE SMALL POX is a well known Distemper, to which Providence has been pleased to subject Mankind, the Seeds of it being intermixed with the human Con­stitution; this may be said in general, because the In­stances of those, who pass through Life, after having arrived at Manhood, and having been within the Reach of Infection, are so extremely few, as scarce to form an Exception; learned Calculations have made it as one to many Hundreds.

AT the same Time, this almost universal Disease is very loathsome and nauseous both to the Sufferers and those who attend them; so spreading and infectious, as to prevent all friendly Assistance from Persons who have not themselves undergone the Distemper; and likewise so pernicious and fatal, as, upon a very mode­rate Calculation, to destroy One in Seven of all whom it attacks, and very often in much greater Proportion. An Instrument of Death that slays without Distinction! Youth and Beauty, Dignity and Power, Wealth and Affluence, are no Protection; the Palace and the Cot­tage stand in this respect upon a Level, and the Rich and the Poor meet and fall together; possibly with some Disadvantage to the former, if their Blood has been inflamed by luxurious Diet and high Living.

AND where Numbers of Men are collected together, as in Garrisons, Regiments, or the Crew of a Ship, the Havock is prodigious; which in some Junctures has been, and therefore may be, highly prejudicial in a nati­onal View, besides the Loss of Lives.

THE Confusion and Terror of the Inhabitants, the Cessation of Trade and Business, and the great Slaughter made by this dreadful Malady when, like a destroying Angel, it attacks populous Towns and Villages, are extreamly certain and notorious.

[Page 3]NOW, the general View of the present charitable Un­dertaking, is with God's Blessing, to render this grie­vous Distemper less destructive, and diminish that hor­rid Devastation which it now continually makes among the human Species.

AND the Relief here propos'd to the Poor, is accor­dingly pursued by two different Methods; the one is, as it were preventive, to lessen the Violence and the Dan­ger of this malignant Disease; the other is to supply in­digent, distress'd, Patients, who actually labour under it by common Infection, with all necessary Assistance and Relief. The Aim of the previous Method is this, viz. After due Preparation, in a known, visible Manner, to raise that Commotion in the Blood, which sends forth in­to the Surface of the Body the latent Materials of this Distemper so very dangerous, when excited in the com­mon Way by infectious Particles unperceived. It seems therefore (like the raising a Fit of the Gout, when the Particles of that painful Malady are dispersed thro' the whole Mass of Blood) not so properly the giving a Distemper to a human Body intirely free from and out of Danger of that Distemper, as choosing the safest Time and Manner of causing a Disorder, otherwise al­most unavoidable in a Way extremely more pernicious, the Fuel thereof being lodged within us. An Intention beyond all Dispute worthy of much Approbation; and which should always be pursued with the utmost Care and Precaution both in the Choice of the Person from whom the infectious Matter is collected, and of unex­ceptionable Subjects, upon whom the Operation is per­form'd.

IT is needless to enter into a Disquisition, which is the properest Method of designedly raising this Disorder in the Human Frame, by carrying the Person that is to receive it to the contagious Steams or Effluvia; on, [Page 4] bringing to him the infected Matter. Religious Difficul­ties (if any still remain concerning a Practice, that has preserv'd so many Lives, and prevented the heaviest Grief in so many Families) are exactly the same, in either Method of voluntary Communication.

FOR 'tis no more invading the Prerogative of Heaven, to occasion one easy and voluntary Conveyance of the Infection than another; by a slight and hardly sensible Rasure upon the Skin of the Arm, than communicating the same Distemper by invisible Particles, to that tender Organ the Lungs, which are so frequently affected by the Venom of this Disease, when contracted by the Breath, or receiving into the Body infected Particles in what is called the natural Way.

WERE this preventive Method universally successful, and never once to fail in any Instance whatsoever, 'tis scarce to be presumed that any Objection would be raised against a salutary Expedient, to preserve from Destruction so great a Part of the human Species, as daily fall by this mortal Enemy, when it attacks Men as it were in the Dark, ignorant of, and unprepar'd for the Assault.

THIS Method of Inoculation would then be no more liable to Censure, than the making a voluntary Wound, by Incision, to form a necessary Drain; or administring any operative Medicine, which upon repeated Trials had prov'd an unfailing Security against any other dangerous and prevailing Pestilence or Contagion.

BUT, in order to excite and secure a Dependence upon his Divine Providence, the GREAT GOVERNOR of the World has appointed that no human Affairs, not even our necessary Sustenance, should be attended with such absolute Certainty; a very wise Appointment! That vain Man might not [...] himself an independent [Page 5] Being, but among all the Changes and Chances of this mortal Life, should still look up unto, because he can only be defended by, God's most gracious and ready Help.

EXPERIENCE alone must determine the good or bad Consequences of this artificial Infection, as it ought to do in all other medical Attempts, which in many Instances are, in reality, little more than curing or alleviating one Distemper, by exciting or introducing another. And in this View the Method, now under Consideration, of les­sening the Hazard of a very mortal Disease, should be considered in the same Light as every other Antidote, or preventive Attempt in Physic or Surgery, against any probable, almost certain Malady, internal or external. I forbear therefore to derive any Strength to the Argu­ment, from the great Number of noble, venerable, and worthy Persons of every Rank and Profession, who ap­pear the public Advocates of this compassionate Design: Let it stand upon its own proper Evidence, and Founda­tion.

A SAFE Passage thro' this Distemper, like the eman­cipating Slaves, is a Deliverance to vast Numbers of People, kept as it were in Bondage; who, before they have undergone this abhorred Disease, are excluded from many Offices of Life, and prevented from pursuing their necessary Business; and it gives Tranquillity and Chear­fulness to Persons of better Condition, who under Ap­prehensions of this loathsome and infectious Disorder, were all their former Days subject to great Anxiety and constant Fear.

'TIS needless to enter into a Discussion of several Ob­jections, that attended the Infancy of this useful Practice, which Time and fuller Experience have now removed; with respect to the Communication of other Diseases with the varielous Matter; or that certain Ails and Complaints [Page 6] have follow'd the inoculated Distemper; of both which Inconveniencies there is at least an equal Hazard upon Infection, by an unperceiv'd Contagion, that, like a Pestilence walketh in Darkness: Or that the Disease is more likely to return after Inoculation. The large Ex­perience of many Years has now effectually removed all these Objections, nor can it be wondred at, if in the In­fancy of the Practice especially, some few Attempts have prov'd ineffectual.

BEYOND all Dispute, in the voluntary Communica­tion of this Disease, there is an happy Opportunity to choose—The best Season of the Year — The early, the properest Time of Life— A Juncture when the Disease it self is most favourable, and the Blood is in a right State to receive it, neither too much enriched, nor too much impoverished — To prevent treating the first doubtful Symptoms in an improper manner— To avoid Cold, or Inflammation of the Blood, by Food, Liquors, or Exercise, after the known Infection is received.

BUT to proceed to the only sure Evidence, real Ex­perience and Matter of Fact; in which almost every Part of the Globe, Asia, Europe and America give a concurrent Testimony — GREAT BRITAIN in particular has now had a Trial of this voluntary Method of artifi­cially exciting the Distemper for near thirty Years at different Times, and distant Places, with very great Success.

AT first, indeed, in this, as in other very useful Ar­ [...]s, the Success was far inferior to what longer Expe­rience, and repeated Trials have now so happily accom­plished, in this Metropolis, as well as in diverse other Places, particularly in that useful Establishment formed for the Reception of deserted young Children; and more especially in this Hospital peculiarly instituted for [Page 7] this good Purpose, being one Branch of the Charity for which we are now assembled.

BESIDES this general Evidence of the Advantages of Inoculation, I can speak with more Assurance upon the beneficial Effects of that Operation, because I speak up­on full Information, and by the Permission of three Gentlemen in particular, of deserved Eminence and Dis­tinction in the Profession *, who have been very largely employed for a considerable Time, in this salutary Prac­tice. It cannot therefore fail to give this worthy Audi­ence much Satisfaction, to be thus authentically assured;

I. That the artificial Communication of the Small Pox by Inoculation, is, almost without Exception, an effectual Security against that dangerous Symptom the second Fever, which destroys so great Part of those who perish in the natural Way.

II. That under Inoculation, there is scarce any Diffi­culty in Breathing or Complaint upon the Lungs, which Disorder produces so many bad Effects when the Distemper is received in the unknown and acci­dental Manner.

The IIId and most material Article is the great and happy Success, as to Numbers, with which God's good Providence has blessed this useful Operation; Great, beyond the most sanguine Hopes; so great that in above FIFTEEN HUNDRED Persons inocu­lated by these eminent Hands, only three have [Page 8] died; and this very material Fact is also confirmed by unexceptionable Accounts from diverse other Places *.

BUT that a Matter of such Importance many be brought to some apparent Certainty, it may not be improper to enter a little into Calculation.

FROM the annual Account within the Bills of Mortality (in which many Places in and near the City are omitted) it appears, that in twenty Years, viz. from the Year 1731 to the Year 1750 inclusive, no less than 39,115 Persons have died of this fatal Distemper; which, inclu­ding the Places not inserted in the Weekly Bills, must be considerably more than 2,000 every Year that fall in the two adjoining Cities and Parts adjacent.

AND if only one in seven (which is a very sufficient Allowance) is supposed to die by the Distemper taken in the natural Way, then the whole Number of Persons who in this Period of twenty Years have been thus in­fected, amounts to 280,000, and of these no less than 40,000 have perished.

[Page 9]BUT if in every TWO HUNDRED One should be sup­posed to die under Inoculation, which, as observed al­ready, is really much more than fall by that artificial Infection, now continually advancing with increasing Safety; and the certain Fact, as above-mentioned, is only One in 500, being less than half of the Number I have stated — But suppose I say One in 200 to die under Inoculation, then had this artificial Method of conveying the Distemper universally taken place, instead of that prodigious Destruction of Mankind, 40,000 in the Space of 20 Years in one District, no more than 1400 had perished; and the Difference in that short Period would have been no less than THIRTY-EIGHT THOUSAND SIX HUNDRED Lives preserved, besides the numerous Posterity that might have been derived from them. And were this Practice universal in these two Cities only NINETEEN HUNDRED AND THIRTY Lives, under the Blessing of God, would be annually preserved.

'TIS a pleasing Observation, That the Slaughter made by this formidable Distemper is greatly decreased, the Numbers as recorded in the Yearly Bills, being one-fifth lessened since this Practice has prevailed.

FACTS like these, speak so strongly and so clearly, that Reasoning and Argument must be quite superfluous, to excite your generous and ample Contributions, which are absolutely necessary to carry on and extend this great, this compassionate, this national Undertaking. Humanity, Regard to our Country, the Dictates of Rea­son, and the Precepts of Religion, would awaken your generous Sentiments at any Juncture; but especially at this unhappy Period, when Debauchery, Vice, with the most destructive and as it were pestilential Intem­perance, are making such daily and dreadful Havock among the Inhabitants of this Island, as renders every Design, every Attempt to preserve the Lives of the [Page 10] People, extremely seasonable, and to the highest Degree necessary!

THOSE, in particular, who have themselves, or whose Children have, by God's great Goodness, safely passed thro' the Dangers of so destructive a Distemper, by this happy Expedient; those also who are desirous to obtain the divine Blessing when the Experiment is made in their own Family, cannot fail to exceed in Bounty, that the Lives of the Poor, (of great Regard in the Sight of God) may also be preserved.

BUT it is high time to turn our Thoughts to the other Branch of this great and necessary Undertaking, the Relief of destitute and miserable Creatures, labour­ing under this dreadful Distemper, contracted by com­mon Infection.

THIS mournful Case is peculiarly affecting, as these wretched Sufferers are so really cast out and afflicted; afflicted with one of the sorest Maladies incident to hu­man Nature, cast out and abandoned of all human Help.

THIS beneficial Charity therefore is not a new Insti­tution, but a most desirable Addition, and a necessary Supplement to all other Hospitals, since from all other Hospitals these destitute and miserable Objects are una­voidably excluded, and sometimes even forcibly expelled, in the utmost Distress, and without any Place of Refuge!

THE usual Danger of this terrible Disease, is by this Means greatly increased, I might say ascertained by their absolute want of all necessary Care and Assistance.

CAN Thought conceive a more deplorable Condition, or is any Sorrow like unto their Sorrow? Nor Food, nor Physic, nor Bed to lie upon, nor House to cover [Page 11] their diseased Bodies from the coldest Blasts of the open Air! This is no Picture drawn by Imagination, but real and certain tho' most melancholy Fact, which, to the Knowledge of many who now hear me, has occur­red in numerous, affecting, shocking Instances, one of which would be sufficient to move the hardest Heart of any Spectator.

PERSONS unavoidably driven out from other Hospi­tals, as soon as this Distemper appears to be their real Complaint; industrious Labourers that come from far, in the busy Time of Harvest, with many others, in simi­lar Circumstances, make up the Instances that so fre­quently occur, of wretched Objects quite destitute of Friends, or Habitation into which they can gain Admi­ssion.

BUT where the Calamity does not reach this extream Degree of Woe and Misery, there is still, in too many sad Instances, Distress enough to melt any human Heart.

TAKE, for Example, a Case that lately happened, —

A POOR Man sick of this Distemper, of which his Wife lay dead in the same Room, with four Children around him catching the dreadful Infection, but destitute of all Relief, till they found some in that too narrow Building, which now importunately begs your compassionate Bounty to enlarge its Dimensions, that you may then, without Repulse or Refusal, bring the Poor that are cast out and afflicted, to a House of Mercy!

IT would afford greater Joy to reflect, tho' some have died in this Place, and no wonder, when they often come almost in the last Stage of the Distemper, that yet near 800 poor Creatures have, by the Blessing of the Almighty, received a Cure under this pious and [Page 12] charitable Institution, were not this Joy darkened by a Cloud of unrelieved Distress and Misery.

BUT cruel it would be, in the highest Degree, to poor rejected Supplicants, and unfaithful to the Nation, not to publish, that the present Supplies for this excel­lent and necessary Undertaking, are so defective and inadequate, that the Doors of this charitable House, all the Beds being full, are continually shut against a great Number of miserable Objects, sometimes seven or eight, in one Day, who implore Admittance; but, alass! im­plore in vain! The Extent of the present Building is by much too small, and the present Fund quite insufficient to enlarge it. Besides that Anguish of Heart which these unhappy Creatures feel, upon being rejected, the Publick also may suffer greatly.

FOR, could such poor Wretches be received into an Hospital before the Disease becomes infectious, * and continued there till they had obtain'd a Cure, and the Infection ceased; the spreading of this pernicious Ma­lady might be very much lessen'd, which now in a Course of Communication of its subtile Particles goes far and wide, and sometimes makes sad Devastation in the best and greatest Houses. I desire not to open the Wounds of those I greatly regard, or revive my own Sympathy for the affecting Losses, in the Prime and Bloom of Life, so many noble and respectable Families have sustain'd by this undistinguishing Destroyer. 'Tis too melancholy a Thought to dwell upon, and is men­tioned only to excite our Attention to that Practice which renders this grievous Malady less fatal, and to [Page 13] engage our Compassion to the afflicted Poor, when they have the Misfortune to be visited by the same Disease.

MAN, it is always said, is a social Creature, and it is no less certain that he ought to be a religious one; but if ever this Character can shine with distinguished Lustre, and Society and the Influence of pure and undefiled Re­ligion, appear with superior Advantage, it must be in such Assemblies as this, collected for the Purposes of pious Benevolence and Compassion, in Behalf of the afflicted Part of our own Species.

AND if ever Scenes of Wretchedness and Misery ought to move the Heart, and engage these amiable Disposi­tions, the deep and deplorable Distress of the Objects now under Consideration, will certainly produce that desirable Effect, and to a Degree answerable to the large Supplies that are absolutely requisite in a Case so very extensive.

REFLECT, with Attention, upon that beautiful, and, in the present Case, very apposite Parable of the hard­hearted rich Man, and the afflicted Lazarus, drawn by the compassionate Saviour of Mankind, to excite Bene­volence and Pity, by representing the different Fate and Condition of the uncharitable Rich, and the distressed Poor, in this World, and in the next.

THERE was a certain rich Man who fared sumptu­ously every Day; and there was a certain Beggar, named Lazarus, which was laid at the rich Man's Gate, full of Sores, — unpitied, unrelieved!— Moreover the Dogs came and licked his Sores. — View the awful Scene that follows, where the unmerciful rich Man, lifting up his Eyes, in Hell, being in Torment, in vain sollicits for that Mercy and Relief, which he, in the Day of his [Page 14] Prosperity, had cruelly denied to his afflicted Brother; Son, says the holy Patriarch whom he importuned for a Drop of Water to cool his Tongue, REMEMBER that thou in thy Life-time receivedst thy good Things, and likewise Lazarus his evil Things; but now he is com­forted, and thou art tormented!

BUT observe, that in the Sense of the Gospel, who­ever has sufficient Ability to relieve his sick and destitute Brother, and does it not, that uncharitable Person is, in truth, the rich Man intended by the Parable.

CARRY on your Thoughts then to that awful Day, when you also must appear in Judgment; and, if your present Benevolence does not prevent it, must undergo the same sad Doom, when your tremendous Judge shall say, and what is the stinging Aggravation, your own Conscience say, (as the Prophet of old to the guilty Prince) —Thou art the Man!

BUT, Brethren, we hope better Things of you, even such as accompany Salvation; and that with chearful Hearts, and very liberal Hands, you will extend your much wanted Beneficence, proportioned in some Mea­sure to the prodigious Distress of the prodigious Num­bers that stand in need of this compassionate Relief.

HAVE you, yourselves, undergone this loathsome, and grievous Disease? have you seen your Friends or Children under it, assisted with all the Advantages of affectionate Help, and skilful Art? Think then, and consider, how wretched, how deplorable, is the Case of a destitute Creature, visited by the same dismal Malady, without Medicine, and without Attendance.

[Page 15]YIELD to the benevolent Dictates of human Nature, pursue and gratify the rational Feelings and Sympathy of your own Mind; hide not thy self from thine own Flesh, preserve the Lives of your Brethren, afflicted, destitute, sick, and abandoned Brethren; some of them perhaps at this very Instant, for want of a sufficient Fund to procure more extensive Relief unavoidably delivered up to the two most woful Companions, Poverty and Sick­ness; excluded from this too scanty House, and mise­rably consigned over to Grief, Despair, and almost certain Death. Good God! Is there one Heart here present hard enough to bear the affecting Thought!

DO Good therefore, this important Good, while you have Opportunity; to many of us, and God only knows to whom, this may be the last Opportunity. Neglect it not. Be grieved for the Afflictions of your Brother; Bring the Poor that are cast out, to thy House of Mercy; promote the Welfare of your Country; derive from the God of Heaven a Blessing upon your own Children and Family, who are equally exposed to this Arrow of the Almighty! and secure to your self the everlasting Favour of the Father of Mercies, and God of all Comfort. AMEN.


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