A SUMMARY Historical and Political, Of the first Planting, progressive Improve­ments, and present State of the British Settlements in NORTH-AMERICA.


I. Some general Account of ancient and modern Colonies, the granting and settling of the British Continent and West-India Island Colonies, with some transient Re­marks concerning the adjoining French and Spanish Settlements, and other Remarks of various Natures.

II. The Hudson's-Bay Compa­ny's Lodges, Fur and Skin Trade.

III. Newfoundland Harbours and Cod-Fishery.

IV. The Province of l'Accadie or Nova-Scotia; with the Vicis­situdes of the Property and Ju­risdiction thereof, and its present State.

V. The several Grants of Sa­gadahock, Province of Main, Mas­sachusetts-Bay, and New Plymouth, united by a new Charter in the present Province of Massachusetts-Bay, commonly called New-Eng­land.



Ne quid falsi dicere audeat, ne quid veri non aùdeat.


BOSTON, NEW ENGLAND: Printed and Sold by ROGERS and FOWLE in Queen-Street. MDCCXLIX.


The Author to the Reader.

THIS HISTORICAL SUMMARY concerning the British Continent Plantations in North-America, we published in loose Sheets by way of Pamphlet, feuille volante, or los-blad; which in their Nature are temporary, and soon lost: but as it is generally well receiv­ed, that it may be more permanent, we publish it in two large Octavo Volumes, each Volume divided into two Parts:

Vol. I. Part 1. contains general Affairs, viz. Some Account of ancient and modern Colonies, the first Grants and settling of our Continent Colonies and West-India Islands, and the adjoining French and Spanish Set­tlements, with Remarks of various Natures.

Vol. I. Part 2. contains, 1. The Hud­son's-Bay Companies Settlements, Facto­ries or Lodges, and their Fur and Skin-Trade. 2. Newfoundland Cod-Fishery. 3. The Province of Nova-Scotia; the Vicissi­tudes under the British and French Jurisdic­tions. 4. The several Grants united by a new Charter in the Province of Massach [...]s [...]ts Bay.

Vol. II. Part 1. Concerning the sun­dry other British Provinces, Colonies, or Plantations in the Continent of North-America, [Page ii] viz. New-Hampshire, Rhode-Is­land, Connecticut, East and West-Iersies, Pensylvania higher and lower, Maryland, Virginia, North-Carolina, South-Carolina and Georgia.

Vol. II. Part 2. is by way of Appendix, containing miscellaneous Affairs, such as the natural History, the Distempers at Times epidemical, and the endemial Dis­eases in these various Climates, with their Paper-Currencies; as also some Addenda and Corrigenda, particularly, if by Histo­rical Freedoms used, any just Offence (hu­manum est errare) is given to Person or Persons, it shall be candidly rectified.

The Writer with Candour acknowledges that in the Affair of Commodore Knowles's Impress in the Harbour of Boston, Nov. 1747, there was somewhat of passionate Warmth and Indiscretion, meerly in Affection to Boston, and Country of New-Eng­land, his Altera Patria; but not with Rancour or Malice, having no personal Acquaintance nor Dealings with Mr. Knowles; therefore from common Fame, he (as Historians do) only narrate his pecu­liar Temper, his Severity in Discipline, and not so much Regard as some other Sea-Commanders have for the mercantile In­terest, [Page iii] by impressing their Men, when he thought the publick Service required it: His general Courage as a Sea-Officer is not questioned; the Insinuation concerning his personal Courage, has been construed a­miss; the refusing of passionate Challenges from private Masters of Merchant Ships, whose Men he had impressed, which per­haps might deprive the Nation of his Ser­vice, is no Slur.

The Writer declares that he had no other Intention, than by setting the Affair in a strong Light, to contribute towards extend­ing to the Continent Colonies, particularly to New-England, a late Act of Parliament against impressing of Sailors in the Sugar West-India Islands. Therefore as this Af­fair was temporary, of no Use, and may give Offence, it is suppressed in the present Publication of this first Volume of the Sum­mary. Admiral Knowles since he sail'd from Boston, has been happy in successful Expeditions, particularly in reducing the Fort of Port Louis of Hispaniola, and in beating a superior▪ Spanish Squadron off the Havannah; he has been in a Course of Preferments; and prosperous as to his private Fortune.



BOundaries between the British and French Colonies of North-America
Ancient and Modern Navigation, and Colonies in general
The first Adventures from Europe to the East and West-Indies
Dutch East-India Trade
Scot's Darien Company
Digression concerning Whaling
Spanish Discoveries and Settlements
English South-Sea Company and Bubble
French Misissippi Bubble
French Discoveries and Settlements
Portuguese Discoveries and Settlements
Dutch Discoveries and Settlements
British general Discoveries and Settlements on the Continent and Sugar-Islands
Digression, concerning Sugar
Leeward Islands
Bahama Islands
The Eastern Tribes of North-America Indians, their Polity, Trade Religion, Food and Language
Religion of ancient Nations in general
Our Wars with the Indians
General Remarks concerning the Constitution of the British Colonies
Discoveries before Grants
Their religious Sectaries
Societies for propagating the Gospel
Utopian Amusement concerning the regulating our Colonies
Concerning the Magnetick Needle, and its Variations in North-America, &c.
HUdson's-Bay Company and Trade
Cabots, Frobisher, Gilbert, Davis, Hudson
Greenland Whaling
Middleton and Dobbs
Button, Iames, Baffin, Fox, Danes, Guillam
Hudson's-Bay Charter
French Depredations there
Hudson's-Bay Weather
N. W. Passage
[Page] Middleton's Voyage
Newfoundland, its Fishery
Fisheries of five Species, Whales, Herring, Cod, smaller Kinds, and for present Use
Port-Royal reduced by G. Nicholson 1710
A Canada Expedition under Sir William Phipps 1690
Paper-Currencies animadverted
A Canada Expedition miscarries 1711
A Canada designed Expedition abortive 1746
New England Indian War, 1722, &c.
French Attempts upon Annapolis 1744, &c.
New-England Indian War, 1744, &c.
Duke d' Anville's Expedition to North-America
Island of Sables
Cape Breton Islands
Reduction of Louisbourg
336, 345
North-America Sea-Campaigns 1744, 1745, 1746, 1747
Affairs of Louisbourg
Paper Currencies animadverted
Province of Massachusetts-Bay
General Account
Historians fau [...]
Irish Presbyterian Church in Boston
A general Account of the settling New-England
Massachusetts New Charter
Explanatory Charter 1726
Sagadahock or Duke of York's Property
Province of Main
Late Plymouth Colony
Boundaries with Rhode-Island determined
Islands near Cape-Cod
Massachusetts-Bay old Colony
Authors faulted
Old Charter
Controversies with New-Hampshire
Charter vacated and Revolution
Boundary Lines
Wheelwright's Grant
Million Purchase
Boundary wit [...] New-Hampshire
General History under Old Charter
Laws and Customs
Mint House
County Divisions
Religious Sectaries
Independent [...]
[Page]Church of England
Massachusetts Mountains and Hills
Rivers and Runs of Water
The new Charter Massachusetts
America Post Office and great Road
Civil Administration; General Assembly or Legislature
Surveyors of the Woods
Custom-Officers, and Auditor
House of Representatives
Some political Plantation Observations
Paper Currencies animadverted
The three Negatives in a joint Capacity
House of Representatives, continued
Cape-Breton Reimbursement
The Constitution of New-England Townships
Provincial Civil Officers of Massachusetts-Bay
Executive Courts
Taxes and Valuations
Annual Supplies
Reimbursement for Cape-Breton
Massachusetts Inhabitants, Produce, Manufacturies
Do. Establishments military Sea and Land
Do. Fishery, Timber, and Grain
Rum, Hats, Iron
College in Massachusetts-Bay
French and Indian Wars since the Revolution, with a circumstantiated Account of our late French and Indian War in the Administra­tion of Governor Shirley
The French Claims to some Part of Nova-Scotia revived
Proceedings at the Court of Great-Britain, toward [...] encouraging the Settling and Fishery of Nova-Scotia

A Summary, Historical and Political, of the first Planting, progressive Improve­ments, and present State of the British Settlements in NORTH-AMERICA; with some transient Accounts of the Border­ing French and Spanish Settlements.

AS Distance of Place does equally or rather more admit of Latitude, for imperfect, erroneous, and romantick Accounts of Affairs than Distance of Time; the Author, after Thirty Years Residence in these Colonies, and C [...]espondence with some inquisitive Gentlemen of the several Governments, does generously offer to the Publick, the following Collection, done with some Ex­pence of Time borrowed from the Business of his Profes­sion, and Hours of Relaxation; without any mercenary, sordid, scribbling View of Profit, or Ostentation of more Knowledge in these Things than some of his Neighbours, but to contribute towards a solid certain Foundation for the Histories of these Countries in Times to come. The People in Europe (the publick Boards not excepted) have a very indistinct Notion of these Settlements, and the Ame­rican Settlers are too indolent, to acquaint themselves with the State of their neighbouring Colonies.

Descriptions and bare Relations, although accurate and instructive, to many Readers are insipid and tedious; therefore a little Seasoning is sometimes used; where a mica Salis occurs, may it not be disagreeable, it is not designed with any malicious invidious View. For the same Rea­son, a small Digression, but not impertinent to the Subject, is now and then m [...]de Use of; as also some short Illustra­tions.

[Page 2]

SECT. I. Concerning the Boundaries, between the British and French Settlements in NORTH-AMERICA.

AS a Treaty of Peace seems to be upon the Anvil in Europe between Great-Britain and France; the Sub­ject-Matter of this Section, is to propose a Scheme (the more Proposals or Projections, the more Choice) to­wards determining and settling the Territorial Limits, and of an exclusive Indian Trade, between Great-Britain and France in North-America. The Scheme must be short, else it will not be attended to, and therefore requires some previous Elucidations, and some short anticipating Ac­counts of Things.

Our principal Interest is to rival the French and Dutch in their Trade and Navigation, without Distinction or Partiality to either. In this present War, the French Court seem to neglect their Colonies, Trade and Naviga­tion, the principal Care of their late good and great Mi­nister Cardinal de Fleury; and do run into their former Romantick Humour of Land-Conquests. This is the Opportunity to take the Advantage of their Inattention, more especially with Regard to North America, our present Subject.

The FRENCH are the common Nusance and Disturbers of Europe, and will in a short Time become the same in America, if not mutilated at Home, and in America fenced off from us by Ditches and Walls, that is, by great Ri­vers and impracticable Mountains. They are a numerous▪ powerful, rich and polite Nation, they have the Advan­tage of us in three grand Articles.

[Page 3]1. Their Government is absolutely Monarchical; Tax at Pleasure; not accountable for Monies expended in secret Services (in Great-Britain, the Article for secret Services in the Civil List, is small, and when the Parliament allows any Sum extraordinary for that Use, it occasions a Grum­bling both within and without Doors) in this they have the Advantage of us, well knowing that not only private Persons, but Ministers of State, Generals, Admirals, even Sovereign [...] may be bought or brib'd; the late E. of Or—d the grand Master of Corruption, when he gave himself the Loose, at Times declared, ‘That there was no private Person or Community, but what might be corrupted, provided their Price could be complied with.’ It therefore becomes the Representatives of Great-Britain, narrowly to inspect into the Conduct of their Ministers, and other great Officers in Trust, especially in making Treaties with France; the infamous Treaty of Utrecht, 1713, was procured by the French Court bribing our cor­rupted Administration, that Part of it relating to the Bri­tish Northern American Colonies, will in Time be their Ruin, if not rectified and explained. 2. By Custom Time out of Mind, they are above, and do upon all Occasions dispense with the Principles of Honesty and Honour; Supe [...]iority and Power is their only Rule, as LOUIS XIV. modestly expressed it▪ in the Device upon his Cannon, Ratio ultima Regum: They occasionally make Dupes of the other Princes in Eu­rope; their Promises and Faith are by them used only as a Sort of Scaffolding, which, when the Structure is finish­ed, or Project effected, they drop; in all publick Trea­ties they are Gens de mauvaise Foy. This may seem an unmannerly national Reflection; but at this Time it could not be avoided, considering their perfidiously exciting a Rebellion in Great-Britain, contrary to their solemn Ac­knowledgment and Guarantee of the Hanover Succession, by inciting the Highlanders to Rapine and killing of their Countrymen; their re-fortifying of Dunkirk in Time of Peace; their violating of their Guarantee of the Pragma­tick Sanction, concerning the Austrian Succession, by Inva­sion [Page 4] of Germany. 3. The greatest and most essential real Article is, The Largeness of their Dominions in the best Country of Europe, and thereby are become an Overmatch for their Neighbours, and more capable of swarming into their Colonies than we are; in order to preserve a Ballance in Europe, they ought to be curtail'd or dismembred there, which will effectually at the same Time prevent their too great Growth in America.

Louisbourg being now in our Possession, there can be no great Difficulty in reducing of Canada: at present it is not populous (perhaps not exceeding 12,000 Men capable of marching) neither is it compact (from the Mouth of St. Laurence River to its Rise from Lake Ontario, at Fort Fron­tenac are about 800 Miles;) and the French (without a Pun) are like Cocks which fight best upon their own Dunghill: Witness, their late Behaviour in Germany, in Italy, their late Poltronnerie in Cape-Breton, and at Sea. Flanders is their own Dunghill, and perhapsfor politick Rea­sons, the Allies allow them to over-run it, it will be to them a chargeable Possession, and a Diminution of their Army in garrisoning of so many Towns: Thus by giving them Scope, they may run themselves out of Breath, that is, out of Men and Money, and become an easy Prey.

Cape-Breton Islands and Canada being reduced, would be to us an immense Advantage, viz. The Monopoly of all the American Fish, Fur and Skins Trade, provided these Acquisitions could be annexed to Great-Britain, as a last­ing Possession: but unless in the present Treaty we could absolutely give the Law to France, and perswade the other Powers of Europe to allow us this Monopoly, we should to no Purpose, incur (if not reimbursed from Home) an inextricable Expence or Debt, and by extending or stretch­ing our Colonies, render them more slender and weak; we are not capable of settling Inland Countries in a short Time, our European Dominions, cannot allow or spare People sufficient for that Purpose. The Phaenicians, Greeks, Venetians, Genoese, &c. formerly had many Facto­ries and Colonies in sundry Places, but for Want of Peo­ple [Page] sufficient to maintain these Possessions, [...] It is true, the Dutch, an [...] though a small People, maintain their [...] But we may observe, they never [...] far from their natural and tradin [...] [...] Water.

Formerly Priority of Discovery, was [...] Claim. The Cabots coasted North [...] were in Canada River) in the End of [...] Secretary Walsingham, being [...] Westerly, North of North Virginia ( [...] New-England were soon after called North [...] 1583, sent out Vessels upon the Discover [...] [...] the River of St. Laurence, took Possession [...] settled some Trade there. In Queen [...] dispersed in Canada, Anno 1711, when [...] for the Reduction of it, was on Foot, it [...] Canada belong'd to the English by [...] and what the French possessed there [...] from the English, and consequently held [...] therefore where the Possessors turn [...] Quebec was taken by some private Englis [...] [...] Anno 1629. It was given up by Treat [...] [...] 1632.

Afterwards in Place of prior Discovery [...] the Indian Natives, and Occupancy, was [...] just and equitable Title. In Case of a [...] happened, upon a Peace, an u [...]i [...] Practice with the Turks and other [...] Right: But at present in Europe, amon [...] [...] and polite Nations, at the Conclusion of [...] of the Treaty, is former Treaties [...] Bargains, Indentures, or Ius Gentium) [...] Money, absolute Cession, or Exchange [...] for Damages received, or supposed to be [...] of former Treaties, explained and [...] present Case the Treaty of Utrecht 171 [...].

[Page 6] By Treaty of Peace and Neutrality for America, Anno 1656, Nov. 6, 16, between Great Britain and France; in one another's Districts they are not to trade, fish, or har­bour (except in Cases of Distress to repair, wood and wa­ter) but iniquitously by the Treaty of Utrecht, our cor­rupt Administration, granted to the French the Liberty of catching, and curing of Fish in the most advantageous Places "on that Part of Newfoundland from Cape-Bonavista to the Northernmost Part of the Island, and from thence running down by the Western Side to Point Riche:" There Cod-Fish are so plenty and fall in so near the Shore, that the French Fishermen without the Charge or Trouble of Hook and Line, catch them by a Kind of Grapling, as our Privateers discovered when they made Prizes of several French Fish Traders in the Summer, 1744, in the Northern Harbours of Newfoundland: By this unaccountable Concession, the French had already the better of us in the Fishery Trade, and in a few Years more would have supplied all the Markets in Europe, and by underselling, entirely excluded us from the COD-FISH­ERY, which is more beneficial and easier wrought than the Spanish Mines of Mexico and Peru.

It would be a vast Advantage to our Trade and Navi­gation, if by the ensuing Congress for a general Peace, we could obtain the Monopoly of the North America Cod-Fishery; there are Precedents of Monopolies al­lowed amongst sovereign Princes: The Dutch have en­grossed the Spice Trade (Pepper excepted) of the East-Indies. But if the French are still to be allowed some Share in this Fishery, let them cure their Fish upon the Islands of the Gulph of St. Laurence, and upon the S. E. Shore of Terra de Labaradore near the Straights of Belle Isle.

By the said Treaty of Utrecht, our corrupted Court gave up to the French the Island of Cape-Breton, and the other Islands in the Gulph of St. Laurence, with this pernicious Clause, LIBERTY TO FORTIFY. Accordingly in Cape-Breton or L' Isle Royale, was erected the Fortress of [Page 7] LOUISBOURG, the North American Dunkirk, to annoy our American Navigation and Trade; but by good Luck it is lately fallen into our Possession: As the People of NEW-ENGLAND, from their abundant Loyalty to the Crown, and Zeal for the British Interest, were the first Projectors and principal Promoters of this most valuable Acquisition; if it is confirmed to us by a subsequent Peace, it may prove a Kind of Monopoly of the Cod-Fishery. New-England deserves not only a pleniary Re­imbursement, but also some peculiar Favour or Bounty from the Parliament of Great Britain; having upon this Occasion involved themselves deeply in Debt, and lost many of their best labouring Men, not by the Enemy, but by an ill-condition'd Putred or Hospital Fever and Flux. The high Encomiums of our Militia, ought not to give any Umbrage of Jealousy to the British Govern­ment or Mother-Country; that in Case of any general Discontent here, concurring with a Dutch or French (ma­ritime Powers) War, they cast themselves into the Arms of the French or Dutch; and occasion some Difficulty, for a British Squadron and Armament, to reduce them to Reason; the People here are so loyal to the Crown, and so affectionate to their Mother-Country, that this cannot be supposed; it is true, the King and Council of Great-Britain, lately seem to be of Opinion, that the Co­lony of Massachusetts-Bay, with Regard to the neighbour­ing Colonies, is too large, and have accordingly CUR­TAIL'D it, by annexing a large Part of it to the inconsi­derable Government of New-Hampshire, and some Part of it to the small Colony of Rhode-Island; as we have never settled our Line with New-York Government, we are told they design to put in for a Share.

Cape-Breton and the other Islands of the Bay of St. Laurence, before the Peace of Utrecht, were in our Pos­session, as belonging to M. Subercasse's Commission, in which he is called Governor of L' Acadie and Cape-Breton Islands; he was the French Governor when we reduced that Country 1710; but by the Peace these Islands were [Page 8] given to the French in Exchange for the Fortress (no Settlemen [...]) of Placentia: while the Peace was negotiating Mr. More of the Board of Trade and Plantations, was so barefacedly corrupt, when the Importance of Cape-Breton was represented, he answered, Must the French then have nothing?

By the Treaty of Utrecht the Canada or French Line with Hudson's-Bay Company or Great-Britain, was ascer­tained, viz. from a certain Promontory upon the Atlan­tick Ocean in N. Lat. 58 Deg. 30 Min. to run S. W. to Lake Mistasin (which communicates by Indian Water Carriage by P. Rupert's River with Hudson's-Bay, and by Seguany River, with St. Laurence River at the Port of Tadousac 30 Leagues below Quebec) and from thence continued still S. W. to N. Lat. 49 Deg. and from thence due West indefinitely; this West Line takes in the Northern Parts of the Upper-Lake, large as the Caspian Sea in Asia, one of the North America five great Lakes or Inland Seas. By this Concession we gave the French a Sea-Line Skirt of Terra de Labaradore (by Authors who [...] in Latin, called Terra Laboratoris or Nova Britannia) the better to accomodate their Fishery: Whereas if the British Interest had been in View, the West Line or Parallel of 49 D. N. Lat. ought to have been continued, East to a little above the Mouth of St. Laurence or Canada River.

By said Treaty, the French were not to fish within 30 Leagues of Nova Scotia to the Eastward, beginning at the Island of Sable; its South Side lies in 43 D. 55 M. N. Lat. and from thence in a S. W. Line indefinitely: N. B. There is no Cod-Fishery to the Southward of N. Lat. 41 D. Salmon, Smelts and some other North Cli­mate Fish are under the same Restriction: to the West­ward of this Line was a mare Clausum.

In the Peace of Utrecht was omitted, to settle a Line between our Colonies and those of France, called com­monly Canada, and Mississippi, or New France and Louisiana, from North to South; and the Line East and West be­tween [Page 9] Carolina or Georgia, and the Spanish Cape Florida Claims. In the proposed Negociation for a Peace, it would be much for the Ease and Quiet of all Parties to have the same settled.

The natural and most effectual Boundaries of Countries or Territories seem to be large Rivers (thus the Upper Rhine divides the French Acquisitions from sundry German Sovereignties) and Mountains impracticable (the Pyrenean Mountains in general divide France from Spain, the Dafforne Hills divide Sweden from Norway, the Carpach, or Corpathian Mountains divide Poland from Hungary and Transylvania) The Great River of St. Laurence, the Lakes Ontario and Erie, and the Apalatian Mountains may answer the intended British and French Boundary, without any Advantage or Acquisition, Disadvantage or Loss on either Side; but meerly for Peace and good Neighbourhood.

The French Fur Trade, and their Settlements are almost entirely Northward of St. Laurence River: let us take a cursory View of the Southern or British Side of this great River, and of the Lakes Ontario and Erie, and of the Apalatian Mountains or blue Hills: All the Ad­vantage the French can have, by Indians in their Interest, or small Settlements South of St. Laurence, is only upon Occasion to distress their Neighbours, the British in Nova-Scotia, New-England, and New-York.

From Cape Rosiers at the Southern Side of the Mouth of the River St. Laurence in N. Lat. 50 D. 30 M, to La Riviere-puante or the Indian Tribe, called the Mission of Besancourt, over against Les Trois Rivieres, are about 400 Miles: The Barrenness of the Soil, Impracticable­ness of the Mountains, which lie but a small Way South of the great River, the Rapidity of the short Rivers or Runs of Water from these Mountains; renders the Country unhospitable, especially there being no proper Water Carriage for Indian Canoes: Here are no Indian Tribe Settlements, and as if in a Desart, no humane Kind to be met with, only a very few Indian Travel­lers. [Page 10] In Massachusett's New Charter, Anno 1661, the Claim is kept up in its Extent, by express Words, "To the Gulf of St. Laurence and Canada Ri­vers." By our last Treaty with the French, which was that of Utrecht 1713, L' Accadie or Nova-S [...]tia was confirmed to us; the French Commission to their last Governor Subercasse, was from Cape Rosiers to Quenebec River; this River lies nearly in the same Meridian with Quebec, and the Head of it not above fifty or sixty Miles distant from Quebec, the Metropolis of Canada, or New France. (The Mouth of Sagadahoc or Quenebec River, lies nearly in 44 D. N. Lat. Quebec, according to M. De l' Isle's accurate Observations, lies in 46 D. 55 M. N. Lat: from the Entrance of Sagadahoc to Norridgwag, the Head Quarters on Quenebec River, of a considerable Tribe of the Abnequie Indian Nation our Subjects, or Dependants; are not exceeding 100 Miles, thence up Quenebec River, almost due North, so far as Indian Ca­noes with Paddles and setting Poles can proceed, about 70 Miles; these 170 Miles, allowing for the Meanders or crooked Turnings of the River, may be computed at 2 Degrees of Latitude; remains about 60 Miles only, to Quebec, hilly bad Travelling; the Norridgwag Indians Road to Canada, is up to the Head of Quenebec River, and thence by several Lakes and Carrying-Places, to the River La Chaudierie very rapid, which falls into St. Lau­rence River about 4 or 5 Leagues above Quebec: Their best but longest travelling Road is from Quenebec River to Connecticut River, up Connecticut River, and thence to the River St. Francois, which falls into St. Laurence River, about four or five Leagues above Les Trois Rivieres.

To render it evident, that we do not intend to project any large Extension of [...]erritories Inland, we shall pro­ceed to enumerate some [...] E [...]tents in sundry Places of the projected [...]. From Saratogoa a considerable British Settle [...] in th [...] [...]rook Elbow and long Fall [...] of [Page 11] Hudson's River, the Carrying-Place, to Wood-Creek, are 12 to 15 Miles (according to the wet or dry Seasons) thence about 30 Miles to the Verdronken Landen, or drowned over-flowed flooded Lands, thence 50 Miles to Crown-Point, a Pass near the Entrance of Lake Champlain (Crown-Point is not well expressed in English, the proper Name is Scalp-Point, from some Indian Battle which happened there, and many Scalps carry'd off; it is better express­ed in French Point Chevelure, and in Dutch Kruyn Punt) from Crown-Point 100 Miles to Fort Chamblais at the Falls of Chamblais River, near its Outlet from the Lake; thence 5 or 6 Leagues to Monreal the second good Town of Canada, is in all 210 Miles from the New-York Settlement of Saratogoa.

This Crown-Point not muc [...] exceeding 100 Miles from Monreal, is to this Day, with the adjoining Country, called the Dutch Side of the Lake Champlain or Corlaer (a Dutchman of Consequence who was drowned there in a Storm.) We are sorry that the Levies of the several Northern Colonies, did not proceed in the intended Expedition against the Fort of Crown-Point; Success or not, it would have made some Noise in Europe, and naturally have led the Congress to settle the Line or Boundaries.

We have a Fort and constant Garrison of Regular Troops at Oswego N. Lat. 43 d. 20 m. near the Mouth of Onondagas River on the south Side of the Lake Onta­rio or Cataraquie; in the proper Seasons, here is kept a Fair for the Indian Trade; Indians of above twenty differ­ent Nations have been observed here at a Time, the greatest Part of the Trade between Canada and the Indi­ans of the great Lakes and some Branches of the Mississip­pi, pass near this Fort, the nearest and safest Way of carrying Goods upon this Lake, being along the south Side of it. The Distance from Albany to Oswego Fort is about 200 Miles West, and many good Farms or Settle­ments in the Way.

[Page 12]The Apalatian Mountains or great Blue Hills (Land much elevated in the Air, view'd at a considerable Dis­tance, appears of a Sky Colour) are only 200 to 300 Miles distant from the Sea Line of Virginia, Carolinas and Georgia; the British People and some naturalized Germans have made some good Settlements at the Foot of the East Side of these Mountains, the Wash of the Hills rendring the Soil very rich. This Chain of Mountains, is not pas­sable but in very few Places with Pack Horses; it runs from the Sennekas Country near the Lake Erie, almost due South to the Bay of Apalatia in the Gulph of Mexico. Sundry Deeds from the Indians to the Proprietors of the Carolinas do expresly mention this great Ridge of Moun­tains as a W. and N. W. Line or Boundary.

The CHIKESAW and Upper CHERAKEE Nations reach from the West Side of these Mountains to the great River Mississippi; at present and for many Years past, their Trade is and has been with the Virginia and Carolina Indian Traders, who keep considerable Stores among these Na­tions. We have many trading Houses and Stores all along the East Side of these Hills, and all the Indians who live there are our fast Friends and Traders, exclusive of a­ny other European Nation. The Sennekas, Chouwans, the old Tuscaroras, Cuttumbas, the lower and middle Cherakee Nations. All our long Rivers reach those Mountains, viz. Potomack and Iames Rivers in Maryland and Vir­ginia, Maratoke alias Raonoak River, Pemlico River, Neuse River, and a Branch of Cape Fear River in North-Carolina, Peddie River the middle Branch of Wineaa in South Carolina, and the Savanna River of Georgia.

The proposed Line cannot be of any great Detriment to the French Colony of Canada; they have little or no Fur-Trade South of the River of St. Laurence, and not exceeding 280 Friend Indian fighting Men, viz The Mission of Besancourt over against Les Trois Rivieres 40 Men on La Riviere Puante; the Mission of St Francois on the River of the same Name about 4 or 5 Leagues higher, 160 Men; these two Tribes are of the Abnaquie Nation, [Page 13] and therefore naturally belong to the New-England In­dians; above Monreal there are about 80 Men called Kahnuagus or praying Indians; idle Fellows, who run a­bout the Streets of Monreal, begging with their Chap­lets or Beads, they are Runaways from our Mohawk Indians.

As to our Boundary with the Spaniard South of Geor­gia, which a few Years since occasioned considerable Disputes, and the stationing of a Regiment (Col. Ogl [...] ­thorp's) of regular Troops; we may observe, That soon after the Restoration, the Crown granted the Colony of Carolina to certain Proprietors, extending so far South as 29 D. N. Lat. (this included St. Augustine, in the Lati­tude of the Bottom of the Bay of Apalatia; and by the Treaties of 1667 and 1670 seems confirmed to us. St. Augustine is a bar'd Place, no Harbour for Vessels, except­ing small Craft, and seems of no other Advantage to the Spaniard, but in Time of War to annoy our Navigation in these Parts, and to disturb our adjoining Colonies by exciting the Creek Indians in their Neighbourhood to Rapine, as was the Case, Anno 1715. They improve no Territory. The Florida Neck or Tongue, Southward is a barrenSoil, not worth contending for. This Florida Shore appears to be of no great Benefit to Spain, but would be of considerable Advantage to Great-Britain, for the Tranquility of our Colonies in that Neighbourhood.

A Scheme towards settling the Boundaries between the British and French Colonies of NORTH-AMERICA, and for the better Regulation of their Trade.

IT is further agreed and concluded, That the Bounda­ries between the British Hudson's-Bay Company, and the French Colony of Canada, shall remain as settled by the Peace of Utrecht, 1713. That in Conformity to the Treaty of Peace and Neutrality for the English and French Colonies in America, Anno 1686: French Vessels shall not enter any of the Harbours of Newfoundland [Page 14] (excepting in Cases of Distress) shall not trade or cure Fish there, neither shall they fish within — Leagues of the same. That the exclusive fishing Line on the Coasts of Nova-Scotia and New-England, shall begin at the Southerly Entrance of the Gut of Canso, and run a direct Course to the Island of Sable, comprehending all the Banks of said Island; and from thence to run South West indefinitely. That the Inland Line shall begin at Cape Rosiers, the Mouth of the River St. Laurence, up said Ri­ver, and Catarequia River to the Lake Cataraquie or On­tario; along said Lake and its Communication with Lake Erie; along Lake Erie so far as the Senneka's Country extends, and from this Termination, the nearest Course or Distance to the Apalatian Mountains; and along the Ridge of said Mountains to the Bay of Apalatie in the Gulph of Mexico; St. Augustine and the Promontory of Florida included. That the Islands in the Gulph and River of St. Laurence shall belong to the French, but the Navigation of said Gulph, Rivers and Lakes shall be free to both Parties. That the French shall not set up Lodges, Trading Houses or Factories, nor travel with Goods, in the British American Territories; neither shall theBritish Subjects in French American Territories; Penalty, Confiscation of Goods: but the Indians shall have a free Passage, with their Skins and Furs, and Return of Goods for the same, indifferently, to a Market, in both Territo­ries. That the Trade with the Chikesaw and Chirakee Indian Nations (although West of the Apalatian Moun­tains) as being of many Years Continuance, shall con­tinue with the British Subjects exclusively.

THIS SECTION would have more naturally concluded, than began the ESSAY; but as it may be supposed that at Negociation for Peace between Great-Britain and France, is now on Foot in Europe; it was judged seasonable, and advisable not to postpone it. This ESSAY towards a HISTORY of British North-America, is re­duced under the following Heads.

[Page] SECT. I. A Scheme for Boundaries between the British and French Colonies in NORTH-AMERICA, and for regulating their exclusive Trade.

II. Some general and short Account of the Spanish, English, French and Dutch Discoveries, Settlements and Claims [...] America.

III. Concerning the Indian Nations and Tribes; intermixed with, under the Protection of, or in Alliance with Great-Britain: As also some im­perfect Hints of those called the French Indians.

IV. Some Remarks in Relation to the general British Constitution of their Colonies, in order to render the Accounts of the several Provinces more succinct.

V. HUDSON'S BAY Company; their trading Lodges, Forths, and Facto­ries; their Boundaries with Canada, as settled by the Treaty of Utrecht Anno 1713.

VI. NEWFOUNDLAND Fishery; it is not colonized.

VII. NOVA SCOTIA, appointed to be colonized in Governor Philips's Instructions, but hitherto neglected; and may be said (the Garrison of Annapolis excepted) to be as much a French Colony as before its Reduc­tion; together with some short Account of the Islands in the Gulph of St. Laurence, formerly included in the Government of L'Accadie or Nova Scotia, but given to France by the Treaty of Utrecht, and lately reduced to Subjection of the Crown, I wish I could say annexed to the Dominions of Great-Britain.

VIII. MASSACHUSETTS-BAY. In the Extent of their new Charter- Anno 1691, comprehending Old Massachusetts-Bay Colony, Plymouth Set­tlement, Province of Main; and the Iurisdiction but not the absolute Pro­perty of Duke of York's Grant from Quenebec River to River St. Croix in the Bay of Fundy; commonly called Sagadahoc.

IX. NEW HAMPSHIRE, including the Northern Settlements of Massa­chusetts-Bay, lately adjudged to the Crown, and annexed to that Province.

X. RHODE-ISLAND, including a Part of Plymouth late Colony, lately adjudged to Rhode-Island Colony.

XI. CONNECTICUT.; according to the Boundaries respectively set­tled, by Commissioners with Massachusetts-Bay, New-York, and Rhode-Island; and confirmed by the King in Council.

[Page 16] XII. NEW-YORK, according to their divisional Line settled with the Proprietors of East-Jerseys, Anno 1719, by Commissioners appointed by the Legislatures of both Provinces, and confirmed by the King in Council: and according to a divisional Line, settled Anno 1725, by Commissioners from the respective Legislatures of New-York and Connecticut Colonies, and confirmed by the King in Council: The Boundary between Massachu­setts-Bay and New-York Colony we must defer, as not ascertained; Notwithstanding the New-York Commissioners agreed, that the Basis of their Settlements with Connecticut, should be 20 Miles East from, and pa­rallel with Hudson's River; the Colony of New-York, (as I am informed) insist that Housatonick, alias Westenhoek, alias Stratford River, shall be the Boundary with Massachusetts-Bay; the Neutrality in Queen Anne's War, between New-York and their Indians, and Canada and their In­dians, was bounded Easterly by Housatonick River: some of the New-York Politicians say, that their Claim extends to Connecticut River: Their Line with Pennsylvania, is limited by Delaware River, and the Parallel of 43 D. N. Lat.: Their Northern Boundary with Canada, wants to be fixed in some subsequent Treaty.

XIII. The EAST and WEST J [...]R [...]YS, two distinct Grants: the Proprietors surrendred the Government to the Crown, Anno 1702: Be­ing small the Crown has united them, under one Iurisdiction or Govern­ment.

XIV. PENNSYLVANIA. Two distinct Governments or Legislatures, but under one Governor; because the Property of one Family.

XV. MARYLAND. Lord Baltimore's Property. We cannot adjust his Line with Penn's Family, it is not as yet settled.

XVI. VIRGINIA. According to their Line lately run and confirmed with North Carolina.

XVII. NORTH CAROLINA; according to their late Line with Vir­ginia to the North, and South-Carolina to the Southward.

XVIII. SOUTH CAROLINA. The other Government: the Grant of Carolina, being very large, was divided into two Governments.

XIX. GEORGIA. An Utopian Property and Government; granted by Charter to certain Trustees. A favourite and chargeable Colony, but hi­therto unprofitable.

[Page 17]

SECT. II. An introductory short Account of the antient and modern Navigation, Discoveries, and Settling of Colonies.
As this SECTION may contain a great Variety▪ Perspicuity, requires its being divided or distinguished under the following Heads or ARTICLES.

ARTICLE I. A general View of Navigation and Colonies in remote Times.

IN Trade and Navigation, as in all other Affairs of Antiquity, we are not to go too far back; in [...]he very remote Ages, the Antients did much indulge a Poetical, florid Rhetorical, Enigmatical, and Mytholo [...]gical Vein; it is not possible at this Distance of Time and Place, to distinguish between their true and fabulous Relations: Their Histories and all other Matters were wrote in Verse, admitting of many Poetical Fancies *.

[Page 18]Doubtless from Time to Time by Famine, Pestilence, and some implacable Sword, whole Countries have been depopulated, and consequently their Records destroyed; we find that we cannot with any Certainty go back ex­ceeding 2500 Years. From what we may collect, we find, that China, the East-Indies, and Arabians are prior to us in Trade and Navigation; at present we have much the Advantage of them.

In the Revolution of Ages, the several Countries upon the Earth have been depopulated by Pestilence, Famine or Wars; and afterwards settled from other Countries; thus the Origin of the several Countries must be very various and uncertain. The Plains and overflowed Lands, called Interval Lands in New-England, upon the Banks of the Tigris and Euphrates in Chaldea, and of the Nile in Egypt, being very fertile and pleasant, enticed People to settle them in a compact Political improving Manner; therefore our first certain Records of Things seem to originate there.

Amongst the Aborigines, the ARABIANS or Saracens have been Time out of Mind, and are at present the prin­cipal Aboriginal Navigators of the East-India Seas. The Arabian Moors or Mahometans, long before we navigat [...]d these Parts, sent Colonies to almost all their Sea Coasts and Islands, and drove the Natives up into the Moun­tains. The Arabians and Egyptians for many Ages navi­gated the Red Sea and Indian Sea. We had Indian Spices in Europe above 2000 Years. Suez, the antient Arsinoe in N. Lat. 30 d. was the Barcadier or Sea-Port [Page] of Grand Cairo for the Red Sea, distant 4 [...] The Arabian Gulph was the most [...] upon Account of the East India Trade, [...] doubled the Cape of Good Hope. [...] their Situation upon the Red Sea, drove [...] between the Indies and the Egyptians, [...] Time the greatest Trade of the know [...] from the Saracen Navigation and Colonie [...] and Africa, excepting the Tartars, China [...] insignificant Pagans; are of the [...] Doubtless, for the same Reason, all [...] of Time will become Christians. The [...] was and is very considerable, [...] is not one navigable River in all Arabia [...] [...] and Moors had several Colonies in [...] totally drove out of Spain, until Anno [...]

After the Egyptians and Arabians, [...] became the principal Navigators, first [...] the Tyrians, and afterward their famous [...]. The Phaenicians were [...] who fled from the Red-Sea to the [...] CHRIST 1047 Years; being used to [...] Traffick in the Indies; they began the [...] in the Mediterranean Sea to Greece, &c. [...] of their Wars with the Edomites made [...] native Habitations and settle upon [...] They were the first who directed the [...] Stars in the Night Time (the Magneti [...] [...] is a modern Discovery) their first [...] Ships with Sails and one Order of Oars. [...] Colonies abroad, viz. Byzantiun or [...] Byrsa or the famous Carthage in Barbary [...] in Spain, Cassiteredes (Tin Islands) Sicily [...] in Great-Britain, &c: Carthage [...] trading antient Phaenician Colony [...] before CHRIST, were Masters and set [...] along the N. W. Coast of Barbary, in [...] or Canaries, and in the Hesperides or [...] [Page 20] in N. Lat. 15 d: they had Colonies in the Baleares In­sulae (Majorca Minorca & Yvica) in Sardinia and Sicily. Carthage was for many Years the Emporium or Mart of Trade in the West, as Corinth in Greece was the Empo­rium of the East: they were both destroy'd about the same Time by the Romans 146 Years before CHRIST.

The Assyrians, an Inland People, had no Notion of Navigation: by conquering Egypt and Phaenicia, put a Damp to Trade and Navigation: After some Time a new Tyre was built, and the Tyreans flourished more than before, until Alexander the Great, a Royal Knight errant, destroy'd the City and sold the Inhabitants for Slaves.

In the History of Navigation and Colony Settlers, next were the GREEKS; at first more for War Expeditions and Invasions than for Traffick. The first Account, that we have of a long Ship was that of Argos *, who about 53 Years after Solomon, or 939 Years before CHRIST, according to the Computation of the most ingenious (I wish our Language, as the Dutch, would admit of a Degree of Comparison, above the Superlative) and penetrating Sir Isaac Newton, in his Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms amended. The A [...]gonouts were the Flower of Greece, fitted out to persuade the Nations upon the Coasts of the Euxine and Mediterranean Seas, to revolt from Egypt; they were a Parcel of Jolly young Gentlemen, viz. Castor and Pollux, Esculapius, Orpheus, Hercules, Deucalion the Son of Minos, Bacchus's Sons, &c.

The several Graecian Republicks had their Turns of Fortune of being more or less potent at Sea, the Cypriots were the most noted for Commerce. They settled Colo­nies in the Southern Parts of Italy and in Sicily, calling it Magna Graecia; this Name was afterwards confined to Calabria Superior in the Kingdom of Naples; they built [Page 21] Marseilles in Provence in France; they had Settlements near Barcelona in Spain.

Before CHRIST, 885 Years, The Corinthians began to improve Navigation by large Ships and Triremes.

Thucydedes says, That in the 29th Olympiad was the oldest Sea-fight mentioned in History, it was about 657 Year [...] before CHRIST, between the Corinthians and Corcy­reans of Corfu. The Athenians (whose Continent Do­minions were not larger than Yorkshire) assisted the Corcy­reans, the Lacedemonians aided the Carthaginians (the La­cedemonians were more powerful by Land, but the Athe­nians were more powerful by Sea) this gave Occasion to the famous Poloponesian War, the Subject of Thucidades History: on one Side and the other, almost all Greece were engaged. The Athenians and Lacedemonians disputed the Empire of the Sea for some Time.

During the intestine Fueds of the Graecian Common­wealths; Philip King of Macedon, invaded and conquered the Countries in his Neighbourhood, and at Sea enriched himself by Pyracies, and put an end to the Graecian Liberties. His Son Alexander the Great, proceeded to the Levant, and conquered (committe [...] Murders and [Page 22] Robbery) so far as the River Indus: * Upon his Return, intoxicated with Wine, and his youthful Vanity from Conquests, he died at Babylon; and his Depredations (they deserve no better Name) were canton'd amongst [...] Generals in their several Stations or Commands, who, after some Bickerings, agreed to an Uti Possidetis.

Next in Course, at Sea appeared the ROMANS, who at first (like the present Turks) did only mind Conquest, not Trade; but in Process of Time, finding that the Corinthians and Carthaginians, having the Dominion of the Seas, so as to land and make Depredations where they pleased; to keep them within Bounds, the Romans were obliged to mind the Sea out of Necessity, and were both destroy'd about the same Time by the Romans; a great Wound to Trade.

Iulius Caesar invaded Great Britain from France in very small Vessels or Craft, they were all built and fitted in two Months: The Britains at that Time had no Navigation; they were reduced to a Roman Pro­vince, not a Colony, and continued so above 400 Years. As the People of Britain at that Time were a Sort of Sylvestres, Wild People like our American Indians, Scots Highlanders, Miquelets of Spain, or Montenagrins: all parti [...]lar Accounts of Great-Britain may be reputed as fab [...]us before Caesar's Time. Upon the Swarming or Emigration of the Northern Barbarians, the Roman Troops in Great-Britain were recalled to the Defence of their own Country: a Party of the same Northern Nations called Saxons, embraced the Opportunity, invaded Great-Britain in that Part of it now called England; and one [Page 23] of their considerable Tribes, the Angles, gave Name to the Country.

Pirates in the Mediterranean Sea have been formidable, BELLUM PIRATICUM is sometimes recorded by the Roman Historians. Pompey was delegated for one of these Pirate Wars, and in the space of four Months (to his great Honour and Glory, as it is said) reduced all the Pirates.

The Romans with their Conquests and Colonies intro­duced their own Language * all over Italy, into France, Spain and Portugal, where it continues to this Day, but much intermixed with the Languages of the Aboriginals, and of some Foreigners, who invaded them from Time to Time. In other Nations, which submitted to the Romans rather for Patronage or Protection than by Con­quest (the Romans were at that Time the general Ar­bitrators of all the known civilized Nations ) the Roman Language or Latin did not prevail.

The GOTHS, Vandals and other Barbarous Nations, who swarmed from the Northern Parts of Europe, and like Locusts or Caterpillars, over-run the Southern Parts of Europe; may be said, generally, to have superseded the Romans; they had no Notion of Navigation and a Sea-Trade, and did not in the least apply themselves that Way. Of these only the NORMANS and Danes (a sort of Pirates became potent at Sea; their first Expe­dition into Great-Britain was about Anno 800.** They settled a Colony in the North Parts of France, and called it Normandy; in a Course of Years they made Depre­dations and some Settlements along the Coasts of Saxony, Flanders, Britain, and France; as a Monument of this, there is to be found on the Sea-Coasts of those Countries, [Page 24] to this Day, Blond Complexions, red and yellowish Hairs. This Norman Colony in France called Normandy, (I shall not say, conquered England) in Process of Time gave a King to England, called WILLIAM the Conqueror, whose Establishment continues to this Day.

While the Mahometan Saracens prevailed, they were for a considerable Time Masters of the Seas (especially of the Mediterranean from the Red Sea to Hercules's Pillars) in the Southern Parts of Europe while the Normans ravaged the Northern Parts. The Moors and Saracens reduced the greatest Part of Spain Anno 714, and were not totally subjugated by the Aboriginal Spaniards until Anno 1492 *: The Spanish Blood is much tainted with the Morasco.

The next and last Set to be mentioned in this Article, are the several REPUBLICKS IN ITALY (Venetians, Genoes, Florentines, Pisans) and Catalonia in Spain; they carried on the Trade and Navigation of the Southern Parts: and the HANS TOWNS in Germany; they had the Trade and Navigation of the Northern Parts of Europe. Their Intercourse was generally at Sluys and Bruges in Flanders; and exchanged or barter'd Naval Stores, Woollens, Linnens, &c. for Persian and East-India Goods, and Spices, &c. which in Part were purchased at Grand Cairo, but mostly brought over Land in Caravans to several Barcadiers or Sea-Ports in the Bottom of the Mediter­ranean Sea.

The Genoes had many Colonies in Lesser Asia and upon the Euxine Sea, and drove a great Trade there: In the beginning of the 13th Century, they were in Possession of Nice and Uintimiglia in Italy, of Tyre in Syria, of Ceuta in Barbary, of Corsica and Sardinia: their Families of Doria and Spignola, had the principal Administration.

[Page 25]The Venetians formerly were in Possession of Candia and of all the Islands in the Archipelago and Ionian Sea: in short, their becoming so rich and powerful, gave Jealousy and Umbrage to the other Sovereignties in Europe, and occasion'd the famous League of Cambray, Anno 1508.

The first Discoveries made in America were generally by Italian Navigators or of Italian Extract (Columbus in the Spanish Service, Cabots in the English, Americus Vespucius in the Portuguese, Veruzani in the French Ser­vice, &c.) employed by several European Princes.

The Hans Towns were an Association of several Trading Towns in Germany, at a Time they were in Number about 70 Hans Towns, they are at present re­duced to four (there is constantly an English Resident or Minister with the Hans Towns) Lubeck on the River Trave the Principal; Dantzick on the Weissel or Vis­tula, Hamburg on the Elbe, and Bre [...]n on the Weser: all these are free Towns with a territo [...]al District.

The Venetians, more particularly, becoming vastly rich by their Trade in East-India Goods and Spices; set sundry Princes of Europe upon projecting a navigable (consequently less chargeable Way, so as to undersell the Venetians, and out them of that Trade) and usefully prac­ticable Passage from Europe, to the rich Produce and Manufactures of the East. This leads to the Subject of the following Article.

ARTICLE 2. Concerning the several Essays or Adventures, towards discovering navigable Passages from Europe to the East-Indies, China, and the Spice Islands.

IT is said, That one great Inducement to Columbus's Adventure Westward, was to try for a Western Na­vigation to the Spice Islands; and luckily, by Islands and a great Continent intercepting him, America was discovered.

As the several great Continents of Europe and Africa Eastward, and America Westward lay in the Way; the Case was, how to double the extreme North or South Points or Lands-Ends of these Continents; or to find some pr c­ticable [Page 26] Straits or Thorough-Fares in these Continents.

Before we proceed, we shall insert by way of Amuse­ment, as not impertinent to the Subject, the following Digression.

Some Dutch Fishers missing of Whales, are said to have sailed in Quest of them, several Degrees North of Cape Purchas of East Greenland, which lies in N. Lat. 82 d; there was no Ice, only an open Sea, but very hollow. Whalers say, that the further North, on Spitsbergen, or East Greenland, they found the greater Plenty of Grass, and other green Herbs; therefore towards the Pole it must be hotter: This seems to be probable from the Na­ture of Things: In Iune at the North Pole the Sun is 23 d. 30 m. high, and for some Months always above the Horizon; whereas, for Instance, at London, the Me­tropolis of Great-Britain, in N. Lat. 51 d. 30 m. the Sun in December is only about 15 d. high, and only for one Third of its Revolution or Day, above the Horizon.

M. Frazier, a French Navigator, says, in the Account of his South-Sea Voyages; that on the 13th of March 1714, N. S. in returning to France, South of Cape Horn, in Lat. 58 d. 30 m. and 68 d. 30 m. W. Longitude from Paris, he discovered several Islands of Ice, whereof one was four or five Leagues long; Ice is not frequently met with hereabouts, and as Ice is formed by an Adherence to some Land or Shore, there must be Land towards the South Pole; but not within 63 d. S. Lat. for the Extent of about 200 Leagues from 55 d. to 80 d. West Long. from Paris; because this Space has been run by several Ships, which the S. W. and S. S. W. Winds have oblig­ed to stand far to the Southward, to weather Cape-Horn, the Lands-End of South-America, in 55 d. 55 m. S. Lat. This is the Reason, why that Chimera or Fancy of a Terra Australis is at present left out of our Charts or Maps. If Lands are discovered South of 64 d. S. Lat. they must be inhospitable and uninhabitable, considering that the Weather is more stormy, and Winters more rigid, in the high South Latitudes, than in the same Northern Lati­tudes; [Page 27] the same Climates South of the Equator, are much colder than to the Northward of the Equator.

The Southern Latitudes are much colder, than in the same Degrees of Northern Latitudes. 1. The Sun is annually eight Days longer on the Northern Side of the Equinoctial than on its Southern Side. 2. The Sun in our North Country Winters is in Perigee, that is, nearer the Earth, than in the Southern Winters, being then in his Apogee. 3. The highest Cod-Fishery according to Capt. Frazier, in the Southern Latitudes is in 31 d. S. Lat; our Cod Fishery in North-America (there are some stragling Cod-Fish caught more to the Southward) extends to Nan­tucket New-England in 41 d. N. Lat: Therefore 41 d. N. Lat. is nearly of the same Temper or Coolness as 31 d. S. Lat.

To obtain navigable Passages, into the Indian and South Seas, the extreme North and South Promontories or Lands-Ends of the several Continents above-mention­ed, were to be doubled. They are reduceable to four, viz. 1. The S. E. Passage by doubling the Cape of Good Hope the South Point of Africa. 2. The S. W. Pas­sage by doubling Cape Horn the South Point of America, Megallan's Streights is a Thorough-Fare. 3. The N. E. Passage, North of the North Cape of Europe, but hither­to not discovered. 4 The N. W. Passage, or rather Thorough-Fare between the North Shore of America, and the South Shore of West-Greenland, commonly called Da­vis's Streights (to double the North Parts of this West-Greenland, has hitherto not been imagined) this has at Times been endeavoured in the last Century and half, M. Dobbs is at present, in Pursuit of it. Lastly, We shall men­tion some Tentatives for discovering Thorough-Fares in several Openings in the Body of the Continentof America.

The Antients had no Knowledge of Countries South of the Equator. Iohn I. of Portugal, conquer'd Ceuta from the Moors, 1409; Henry, third Son of K. Iohn, much in the Humour of Navigation Discoveries; by his Encouragement, the Portuguese began Anno 1418, to range the West Coast of Africa: 1438 Alphonsus V. [Page 28] took Tongier, and ranged so far as Cape Negroe in 16 d. South Latitude, and to this Day have several Colonies with territorial Jurisdiction from thence to 7 d. S. Lat. in Congo, Angola, and Loango. Anno 1442, the Portuguese obtain'd of the Pope a Grant of all Lands, laying S. and E. of Cape Bajador on W. Side of Africa, 26 d. 30 m. N. Lat. In the Reign of Emanuel 1497, Vasquez de Gamma doubles the Cape, they had discovered this Cape Anno 1487, and called it the Cape of Good-Hope, in Expectati­on of doubling it; thence they coasted along the Eastern Shore of Africa, from Cape Negroe on the West Side of Africa, 16 d. S. Lat. round (Cape of Good-Hope, a Dutch Place of Refreshment excepted) to Rio de Spirito Santo in S. Lat. 18 d. on the East Shore of Africa, is a very wild and savage Country, no European Settlers; but from 18 d. S. Lat. to 5 d. N. Lat. the Portuguese have Possessions, the chief being Mozembique in 15 d. S. Lat. and Melinda in 2 d. 30 m. S. Lat.

From the Eastern Coast of Africa, the Portuguese sail'd over to the Malabar Coast on the Indian Peninsula. The next Portugal Expedition for the East-Indies, was drove upon the Coast of Brazil, and after taking Possession of it, proceeded to the Malabar Coast. Anno 1510, Albu­kerk reduces Goa, takes Amboyna, Banda, and some other of the Molucca Islands, and returns home richly loaden with Spices. They sail'd along the Coast of China; thus during the Reign of their good King Emanuel, who died [Page 29] Anno 1521, they carried all before them at Sea, and su­perseded the Venetians in a Trade which they had enjoy'd ever since Anno 1260. Having purchased of Charles V, Emperor, his Claim as King of Spain, of a pretended Priority of Discovery in the Spice Islands; they solely enjoy'd without Molestation for near a Century of Years the famous and profitable Trade and Navigation to the East-Indies; as Spain did that to the West-Indies.

Henry, King of Portugal, dying without Children Anno 1580; K. Philip by a powerful Army under the Duke d' Alva reduces Portugal, he claim'd it in Right of his Mother Elizabeth the Empress; Spain became Master of all the Portuguese Dominions and rich Trade; [...]eing in the Height of Glory, after a few Years; Anno 1588 the King of Spain fits out the Invincible Armada (as he calle [...] [...]it) against England.

The Dutch at this Time, as revolted from the Dominions of Spain, were prohibited by the King [Page 30] of Spain, to trade to Portugal, the only Emporium of East India Spices and other Goods: This occasi­o [...]ed their Endeavours to sail directly to the East-Indies, and Spice-Islands: they first attempted a N.E. Passage by Waygatz Streights, but in vain; afterwards Anno 1595, without Ceremony, they double the Cape of Good-Hope, seized several of the Spanish or Portuguese Colonies, got a great Footing in the East-Indies, and have established a great Trade, and settled many considerable Colonies.

Upon the Expiration of the 12 Years Truce between Spai [...] and Holland, Anno 1621, the Dutch made several successful Expeditions to Brazil (at the same Time made some Settlements in Guiana) and got some Footing there. P. Maurice was appointed Governor, and resided there from Anno 1637 to Anno 1644; for Want of Supplie [...] he left it and returned home: the Dutch having a bette [...] Game to play in the East-Indies, from whence they almost outed the Portuguese, they gave Way in the Brazils, and after some Years the Portuguese recovered it entirely by Anno 1660.

The following Digression, may perhaps be an agreeable Amusement to some Readers.

To make some Estimate of the Dutch East India Whaling, and Suga [...] Trade (which with their Herring Fishery, and Carrying, are the Branches of their Traffick) we shall instance the Year 1738 (perhaps a Medium Year [Page 31] of Business) that Year arrived in the Texel, for Amsterdam, and the small Towns in the Zuyder Zee, from the East-Indies 15 Ships, from East Greenland, or Spitzbergen 92 Whalers, from West Greenland or Davis's Streights Whalers 55; with Sugar, Coffee, Cocoa, from Surinam 36, Curaso 11, other Places in the West-Indies 14.

The Dutch at first carried on their Trade in the East-Indies, by Factories in several Parts; afterwards they settle [...] Colonies with a Territorial Jurisdiction; they did not fully monopolize the Trade, until 1635. The Subscription for a Company Trade was 6,440,200 Gilders or Florins.

The whole Trade is supposed divided into sixteen Parts, and the Company into six Chambers, each Chamber hav­ing Parts nearly in Proportion to their Subscription; o [...] those sixteen Parts 8 belong to the Chamber of Amster­dam, 4 to Zealand, 1 to Rotterdam, 1 to Delft, 1 to Horn, and 1 to Enchuysen: each Chamber has a peculiar Board of Directors called in Dutch Bewindhebbers; the Chamber of Amsterdam consists of 20 Directors, that of Zealand consists of 12 Directors, the other four Chambers each consists of 7 Directors: The grand Affairs of the united Chambers, are managed by a grand Council, which sits at Amsterdam for six Years, and at Middleborough in Zealand for two Years, alternately; this general Council consists of a Deputation from each of the six Chambers, Amsterdam sends 8 Deputies, Zealand 4 Deputies, the other four Chambers send 1 Deputy each; and a seventeenth (this Council consists of 17) is chose alternately by the six Chambers, and is President or Chairman.

This Company is vastly rich, an Original Share of 3,000 Gilders (3,000 is reckoned a high Share) has been sold frequently at 20,000 Gilders; notwithstanding of their great annual Charges in building and repairing Forti­fications, Ships, Store-Houses, Salaries, Soldiers Pay, &c. amounting sometimes to upwards of a Million and a half Gilders per Annum. They are the most powerful private Society in the World, some think them more powerful than the Government of their own seven United Provinces at home in Europe: they have at Times lent the Govern­ment [Page 32] or States General, great Sums of Money for con­tinuing their Privileges; Anno 1688 they lent the States General 8,000,000 Gilders for continuing their Privileges to Anno 1740. It has been thought, that if the Dutch (I mean their People of Quality and Fortune) should at any Time foresee a certain Danger of being reduced by a more potent Neighbour; they would transport their Fa­milies and Effects to the East-Indies, where they are Ma­sters of the Sea: thus, in ancient Times, the Tyrians when in apparent Danger of being reduced by Alexander the Great, sent their Wives, Children and Effects to Carthage. This Company exports very little Bullion from Holland (the English East-India Company export too much Silver) their Spices vended in that Country, purchases all the o­ther Goods they may have Occasion for. The English East India Company in some Articles of Trade, have the Advantage of the Dutch; for in Fact, the Hollanders buy near half the Goods sold at the English East-India Sales.

The Seat of Government for all the Dutch East-India Colonies and Factories is at Batavia; here resides their Governor-General with much greater State, than the Pre­sident of the States-General of the United Provinces. The Governor-General is chosen by the Company, with the Approbation of the States-General; he is elected only for three Years, but frequently continued for Life; he has a Council of Six, viz. The Major General, a military Officer; Director-General, who has the Inspection of the Trade, and gives Orders or Instructions to all under Di­rectors, Factors, Supercargoes, and Masters or Skippers, with Four more named by the Company. In very good Policy, they have an Independent Court of Judicature for civil and criminal Matters, to whom the Governor-Ge­neral is subject, and by whom he may be condemned even to Death. Under the Governor-General are six conside­rable Governments or Colonies; each has a Governor, Director of Trade, besides several lesser Govern­ments, Commanderies and Factories. This being only a Digression, I must forbear to enumerate more Particulars. As the above Observations are not publick, that is in Print, I hope they may be acceptable.

[Page]II. A short History of the S. W. Passages [...] to the Mare del Zur South Sea, or Pacifick [...] to the East-Indies, or China and the Spice [...] the Portugueze formerly claimed an [...] by the S. E. Passage, in like Manner the [...] to the exclusive Navigation of the S. [...] to the East-Indies. For the better [...] Affair, we may previously observe *,

The Reason why several Princes of [...] other Passages besides that of the S. E. [...] Good Hope to the Spice Islands and the [...] as follows. Ever since Anno 1410, the [...] with infinite Labour and much [...] the West Coast of Africk to gain a Passage [...] Indies; Anno 1442, they obtained of the [...] a Grant of the sole Navigation of Seas and [...] Lands laying S. and E. of Cape Bajador N▪ [...] W. from London 15 d. in Africa; this [...] Good Hope and the S. E. Passage.

The Pope Anno 1493, having granted to [...] all Lands beginning 100 Leagues West [...] or Western Islands (belonging to [...] indefinitely; occasioned a Dispute between [...] and Portugueze. Th [...] Portugueze reckoning [...] Discovery of America Anno 1492, and this [...] upon their Right to the Ocean, [...] Navigators of this Ocean, complained to [...] VI. Anno 1493: He composed this [...] the Limits of a Meridian called, the Line of [...] on Degrees West of St. Antonio the [...] [Page 34] the C [...]pe de Ver [...] Islands: St. Antonio lies 25 d. West from London .

As the Pope at that Time, and for many Years fol­lowing, was universally in Europe regarded, as the sole and absolute Arbitrator, or rather Disposer of all Domini­o [...] upon Earth; the other Princes of Europe did impli­citly acquiesce in this fantastical, or rather FANATICAL Division of the Globe of Earth (its Parts to be discover­ed) between the Spaniards and Portugueze; and for near a Century all the Traffick of the East and West-Indies was engrossed respectively by the Portugueze and Spani­ards; but in Process of Time, the British, French and Dutch have got into their Hands the greatest Part of this Traffick; Gold, Silver, and precious Stones excepted.

There are three different South West Passages.

1. The Straits of Magellan (it is properly a Thorough-fare, but near the Land's End of America) the East En­trance lies in 52 d. 30 m. S. Lat. its West Entrance in 53 d. S. Lat; in all its Turnings about 116 Leagues long, Cape Q [...]aad not above 4 Miles wide, at Batchellors River 50 Leagues from its East Entrance the Flood begins to come from the Westward and makes a ripling with the Ea [...]ern Flood. After the beginning of May to the End of Sept. these Straits are so full of Ice with fixed stormy Wes­terly Winds there is no passing; at other Times It is very difficult and tedious, therefore it is now disused. Trees grow here to a considerable Bigness; there are no [Page 35] [...] Trees in these Southern Latitudes, the like Northern Latitudes abound with them.

Ferdinand Magellanez a Native of Portugal, not suffi­ciently rewarded for his many good Services in the Por­tugueze Discoveries, offer'd his Service to the Emperor Charles V. King of Spain, to find a Passage to the Spice Islands by sailing Westward, without any Violation of the Pope's Bull or of the Agreement with Portugal: with five Ships and 300 Men he sa [...]l'd from S [...]vile in Sp [...]in August 10. Anno 1519; he wooded and watered on th [...] Coast of Brazil in 22 d. S. Lat; he first, but in vain, attempted a Passage by the River of Plate, he discover'd and passed the Straits of his own Name November Anno 1520, he proceeded to the Ladrones and Philippine Islands where he was killed in a Skirmish with the Indians; his Ships proceed and arrived at the Moluccas or Spice Islands in November 1521, * and settled a Colony, they loaded with Spices, and by Way of the Cape of Good Hope, in three Years returned to Spain. After Megellan's Pas­s [...]ge, it was discontinued (being represented so very dif­ficult) for many Years. Camerga a Spaniard is said to have passed it Anno 1539.

Capt. Francis Drake is reckoned the Second who cir­cumnavigated our Globe or Earth by passing the Straits of Magellan, w [...]h five Ships 164 Men, he sail'd from Plymouth, Dec. 13. Anno 1577, he passed the Straits of Ma­gellan in Sept. Anno 1578, after a very difficult Navigation [Page 36] of sixteen Days, he got much Treasure along the Coast of Chili and Peru, sail'd so far North as 43 d. N. Lat. the Inclemency of the Weather obliged him to return South­ward, he took Possession in Form of the N. W. Parts of California for the Crown of England, and called it NEW-ALBION. He arrived at Ternate one of the Molucca or Spice-Islands Nov. 14, Anno 1579, and loaded a Quan­tity of Cloves; arrived in England, Nov. 3. 1580. He was knighted aboard of his own Ship by Queen Eliza­beth. His Journal differed one Day from the Account of Time in England. |

[Page 37]Capt. Thomas Cavendish (he was afterward knighted) was the third Adventurer and Circum-navigator by this Strait, having passed, he distressed the Spaniards very much along the South-Sea Shore, he touched at [...] ­fornia, took an Aquapulco Ship, touched at the Philip [...] Islands and Iava, he doubled the Cape of Good Hope, touch­ed at St. Helena in 15 d. S. Lat; with much Booty and Glory, he arrived at Plymouth, Sept. 9. Anno 1591.

The Spaniards having found two Land-passes or Con­veyances, viz. The Isthmus o [...] Darien, and from the Ri­ver of Plate cross the Andes to the South-Seas, they dis­continued this Navigation. Oliver Nort, Anno 1598, and George Spilbergen, Anno 161 [...], Dutch Men passed. Sir Iohn Narborough, fitted out by King Charles II. and the Duke of York, sail'd from England May 15. Anno 1669, was only six Months from B [...]ldivi [...] in [...]ili to England, he repassed the Straits of Magellan, and made the Lizard, June 10, 1671, was only one Year and nine Months in his Voyage. M. de B [...]chesne a French Man (perhaps the last in this Navigation) passed Anno 1699, he returned S. of Cape-Horn without making Land.

2. The Passage by Straits Le Maire and Cape Horn. This Strait lies between Terra del Fouego and Staten Is­land, in 55 d. S. Lat. 5 Leagues long, 8 Leagues wide, good Soundings; from thence they double Cape-Hor [...] the South Land's End of America, in 57 d. 50 m. S. Lat.

Cornelius Schouten of Horn, and Iacob Le Maire of Amsterdam, Anno 1615, were the first who adventured South of Magellan-Straits. The Island which makes the Straits had its Name from the States of Holl [...]nd, the [Page 38] Straits were called by the Name of one of the Discover­ers, the Cape was called after the Name of the Birth-Place of the other Discoverer. They performed their Circ [...]-navigation in two Years and eighteen Days. Thi [...] Passage has been much practised.

Commodore Anson's (now Admiral Anson) Voyage through these Straits round our Globe or Earth, is the l [...]est we have any particular Account of; he sail'd from England, Sept. 18. 1741, to annoy and distress the Spa­ [...]iards in the South-Seas, his Squadron consisted of Ships, one 60 Guns, two 50 Guns, one 40 Guns, one 20 Guns, [...] Sloop or Snow of 8 Guns, 2 Victuallers, he had twelve Months Provision aboard, 500 Marines and Invalids, but returned to England a single Ship: Of the 510 Men a­board the Centurion the Commodore, when he sail'd from England, not exceeding 130 returned to England. He was unfortunate as to wrong Seasons all the Voyage, he set out too late, was 38 Days in his Passage to Maderas, did not leave St. Catherine's * on the Coast of Brazil, in 27 d. S. Lat. until Jan. 18, passed in Sight of the Magellan Straits in March, through Straits Le Maire, he was off of Cape Horn in the Height of their Winter, with hollow Seas, and boisterous adverse Winds (we before hinted that the South high Latitudes, are in their Winters more tempestuous, than the like North high Latitudes in the Northern Winters; thus Cape of Good Hope, although in 34 d. S. Lat. was at first called Cape Tormentosa, the N. W. Winds in May, June, July and August being as it were fixed and very tempestuous) here he parted from all his Fleet; the Severn and Pearl of 50 and 40 Gun Ships, tired out (as it is supposed) with [...]edious contrary Winds, dismal Storms, and an over­grown Sea, left him and put back: Some of his Fleet [Page 39] joined him again at the Island of Iuan Fernandez [...] South-Sea, which is generally used as a Place of Re­freshment by Enemies and Interlopers. He had a [...] ­dious Passage of 148 Days from St. Catherine's [...] thi [...] Island. He did not arrive off of Aquapulco until t [...]e End of Ianuary, O. S. the Manila Ship being [...]ot in Ianuary 9. From the West Coast of Mexico he [...] 109 Days to the Ladrones (it is generally performed by heavy Sailers in 60 or 70 Days) from thence he [...] to Macao a Portugueze Settlement upon an Island [...] Canton the chief Place of Trade in China, here he co [...]i­nued from November 1742 to April following. Iune [...]. Anno 1743, Commodore Anson by good Chance ( [...] Manila Ship might have got into her Port, but [...]ing [Page 40] informed at Aquapulco of Anson's bad Condition, he bore up to him to take him) took the Manila Ship bound from Aquapulco to Manila, about 6 Leagues S. E. of Cape Spiri [...]u Sancto off the Island Mindora near Luconia or Ma­nila Island July 11, he anchored again in Macao Road, and left it December 15, bound for England. Anno 1744, April 3, he left Cape of Good Hope, and June 12, made the Lizard Point. The Prize Money of the Ma­nila Ship, and of some small Captures on the Coast of Peru, accounted for was in Value 355,324 £. Ster.

3. The Navigation East of Staten Island, clear of all Land giving Cape Horne the Land's End of South Ame­rica a good Birth. This is the present Practice of the French South-Sea-Men, and is the most adviseable.

Capt. Sh [...]rp a Bucanier, * Anno 1681, came from the South Seas to the North Seas without making Land; it was in their Summer-Season, Nov. 17, he was in 58 d. 30 m. S. Lat. to the Southward of Cape Horn, where he [Page 41] met with several Islands of Ice and hard Frosts; he crossed the Equator or Line Ianuuary 7.

Capt. Woods Rogers (afterwards Governor of Provid [...]nc [...] and the other Bahama-Islands) with two good Privateers, set out from Bristol in August, Anno 1708, (his Pilot was Dampier, formerly a Logwood Cutter, who had been three Times in the South-Seas, and twice round the Globe) he wooded and watered at Cape de Verde Islands, at Brazils end of November, and at the Island Ferd [...]d [...], in the South-Sea; having Sea-room sufficient be passed into the South-Seas without seeing of Land; Jan. 10, he was South of Cape-Horn in Lat. 61 d. 53 m; 10 Weeks from the Brazils, he was upon the Coast of Chili and Peru, where he continued making Depredations till the Month of December, then he lay in Wa [...]t near the South End of California. He took the small Manila Ship Dec. 22. He left California Jan. 12. arrived at Guam, March 11, left Guam, March 22, arrived in Batavia June 20, left Iava-head October 24, arrived in the Harbour of Cape Good-Hope Dec. 28, sail'd from thence April 8▪ with the Dutch East-India Fleet (they are generally 17 to 20 Sail home [...]ard bound) passed in Sight of St. Helena April 30, off of Schetland Islands North of Scotland July 16, and arrived in the Texel, July 23; having encroach'd upon the exclusive Trade and Navigation of the English East-India Company, they did not think it convenient to come to England, until they had settled the Affair with the Company.

III. Thorough-Fares in the Body of the American Con­tinent from the Eastern Ocean to the Western Ocean, commonly called from the North Se [...] to the South-Sea and East-Indies.

1. The Straits of Magellan, already discussed.

2. Rio de La Plata. Iohn Diaz de Solis a Spaniard, sailing Southward fell in with this River of Plate Anno [Page 42] [...]515; the Name was occasioned by the first Silver from Peru, coming down this River (the native Indians call this Country Paraguay) t [...]ey went up the River so far as was convenient, and thence travelled by Land, to the Country that afforded so much Silver and Gold, and made Returns of it. Garcias a Portu [...]u [...]ze was up this River An. 1524. he was cut off by the Indians. Sebastian C [...]b [...]t in the King of Spain's Service An. 1525 sail'd 200 Leagues up the River of Plate. Anno 1535 Don Pedro de Mendoza, with 12 Ships went up this River; he left some Forces there, they conquered the Country to the Mines of P [...]tosi; and Town of La Plata 500 Leagues from their first Settlements; the Spaniards did not begin to work the Mines of Potosi, until An. 1545. Buenos Ayres is 50 Leagues up from the Mouth of the River of Plate; one Branch of this River is called Paraguay, here is the famous Country Tucuman of the Iesuites; Iesuites having in some Degree civilized the native Indians, they divided it into Districts or Missions, under the Direction of the Iesuites to this Day. St. Iago in 29 d. S. Lat. is the Capital of the Iesuites Country. At present there is a good Land Communication from the River of Plate to Peru and Chili, so the Assiento Negroes are conveyed from Buenos Ayres to Peru and Chili: the Road passes through La Plata (the great River comes near to it) in 21 d. S. Lat. the Capital of the Audience of Los Cher [...]as in Peru: the Silver Mines of Potosi and Porco are in its Neigh­bourhood.

3. The River of Amazons *. Its Mouth lies near the Line or Equinoctial, it is of a very long Course, about 1800 Leagues (it is the largest River upon Earth) from its many Windings and bad Navigation, it is relinquish'd as a Thorough-Fare. Gonzalo Pizarro (Brother to the fa­mous [Page 43] Pizarro) Governour of Quito in Peru, Anno 1540 with a small Army crossed the Andes, and fell down this River in Quest of Gold; here he built a Briga [...]ine which sail'd down the River, which went home to Spain by the East or North Sea; Pizarro himself returned by L [...]d to Quito, he found no Gold. Father d' Ac [...]na from Quito went down this River, and by the East Sea to Spain, and published an Account of the Country. The Spaniards endeavoured a Settlement upon the River An. 1554, but soon relinquished it. By the Peace of U [...]recht, France (the French have some small Settlements in Guiana, North of this River) renounces both Sides of the River [...], and the Navigation thereof.

4. The River Oronoque. Its Mouth lies in about 9 d. N. Lat. by this River no Thorough-Fare ever was effect­ed; it is the South Easterly Boundary of the Spanish Set­tlements on the East or North Sea of America: St. Tho­mas is the only Settlement, the Spaniards have South-East of this River, some New-England Privateers in the Be­ginning of the present Spanish War made some Attempts upon this Place Sir Walter Raleigh took Possession [Page 44] of the Country of Guiana, Anno 1595 for the Crown of England.

5. The Gulph of Mexico and Isthmus of Darien. Vasco Numes de Balboa with 290 Men Anno 1513 was the first who crossed this Isthmus, and discovered the South-Sea in 8 d. 30 m. N. Lat. between Porto Bello and Carthagena; at this Place the Isthmus is about one Degree wide. This Vasco received no Benefit by this Discovery, being soon su­perseded by Padracias, who was by the Court of Spain ap­pointed Vice-Roy of Panama, originally and at that Time Capital of the South-Sea Spanish Colonies: There is a great Ridge of Mountains; or rather of many distinct Hills running along this Ihstmus, into the Gulph of Darien there comes from the Mountains many Rivers, which formerly afforded much Gold Dust or Grains; this was the prin­cipal Inducement to that romantick, ill-contrived, badly executed, and therefore short-lived Scots Settlement here called the Darien or CALEDONIA * Company, An. 1699.

[Page 45]Anno 1680, some of the Bucaniers went up the Gulph or River of Darien, and from thence by a short Land-Passage to St. Maria in the Bay of Panama: Some Bu­caniers [Page 46] returned the same Way to the North Sea. At some Distance to the Westward 6 Leagues is Nombre de Dios, (nomen Dei) 18 Leagues from Panama, here the Galleons formerly loaded, but because of the sickly Air here and in the Gulph of Darien, they were both relin­quished by the Spaniards, this is the narrowest Place of the Neck; Negroes from Iamaica Interlopers, have car­ried Letters of Advice from Nombre de Dios to Panama, and brought back Answers in 36 Hours. Six Leagues West from Nombre de Dios is Porto-Bello, it is the North Sea Barcadier of Panama, about 20 Leagues distant, and the Fair for the Spanish Galleons and the British South-Sea annual Ship. A few Leagues West of Porto-Bello is the River Chagre (here Vernon An. 1740 seized the Spanish Factory and carried off Goods to the Value of 70,000 £. Sterl.) from the Head of their River is the shortest Land Carriage to Panama, not exceeding seven Leagues.

5. The early Adventurers to America, where they found any large Opening or Inlet, they had some small Hopes of a Thorough-fare to the South Seas, but proceeding only a small Way they were baulk'd: thus it happen'd in Chesapeak-Bay of Virginia, in Hudson's River of New-York, in St. Laurence's River of Canada the longest and largest of these Inlets: Iohn Cartier a French Man An. 1535 sail'd up the Gulph and River of St. Laurence so far as [Page] Monreal in Canada. Sir Humphry Gilbert from Engla [...] hearing of a Strait North of Virginia (New-England [...] Nova-Scotia were at that Time comprehended in the [...] nomination of Virginia) imagin'd, it might be a [...] fare to the East-Indies; he sail'd up the Gulph and [...] of St. Laurence An. 1583 and took Possession for [...] Crown of England.

6. The next and last Thorough-fare Northward, [...] Davis's Straits; but as this is a very wide Opening [...] rather Sea dividing North-America from a North [...] distinct Continent called West-Groenland or New- [...] we must refer it to the Paragraphs of a North [...] Passage, and the Section of Hudson's-Bay Lodges [...] Trade.

IV. Essays towards a Nor [...] East Passage to China [...] the Indian Seas, come next in Course of Time, these A [...]ventures were prior to the Outsets for a North-West [...]covery. The Cabots in Quest of a North-East Passa [...] first weathered the North Cape of Europe in 72 d. [...] Lat; by much Sollicitation, our Sovereigns of these [...] were prompted to make some Advances this Way in [...] of Trade. In King Edward VI's Reign, was [...] corpora [...]ed a Company of Merchants for discovering [...] Lands unknown; in Consequence of this some [...] Ships, by the White Sea, came to Archangel; and [...] Grand [...] of Muscovy or Russia, grants to an [...] Russia-Company sundry Privileges. AnnoRegni 1, 2. [...] and Mary, by Patent, a Society was incorporated, by [...] Name of the Governor, Consuls, Assistants, Fellows [...] and Commonality of Merchant-Adventurers to [...] Territories, &c. unknown or unfrequented; this [...] were in Possession of the Russia Trade 25 or 30 [...] before the Dutch attempted it.

Towards the End of the sixteenth Century the [...] and Dutch began to try for a North-East Passage, and many Years lost Ships and their Labour in impractic [...] Adventures: It had an incidental good profitable [...] [Page 48] it brought them into the Russia Trade and Whale-Fishery. The North-East and the North-West Discoverers intro­duced the whaling Business. The Dutch have winter'd in 75 d. N. Lat. in Nova-Zembla, the English have winter'd in 78 d. N. Lat. in Greenland, it was remark'd that Nova-Zembla although Southward of Greenland, is colder than Greenland. The English Russia Company were the first who went a Whaling at East-Greenland, at that Time they employed Biscayers; afterwards the Dutch came into it, followed it more closely, an [...] a [...]e better acquainted. A few Years since, the English South-Sea-Company fitted out a great Number of goo [...] large Ships Whalers; they sunk much Money from Mismanagement, and soon abandoned the Affair.

A North-East Passage has been essay'd three different Ways, viz. East of East-Greenland or Spitsbergen, between East-Greenland and Nova-Zembla, and by Wygatz Straits between Nova Zembla and Russia upon the Continent.

The Southermost Point of East-Greenland lies in 76 d. N. Lat. almost due North from the North Cape of Eu­rope. This Greenland may reach the North Polar Re­gions, but hitherto Point Purchas (so called by the Name of the Discoverer) in 82 d. N. Lat. is the furthest North that has been discovered. The Southernmost Part of East-Greenland lies about 150 Leagues from Nova Zembla.

Anno 1671 a Whaler sail'd the Coast of East-Green­land to 81 d. N. Lat. there they found the Ice firm, it did not float; therefore it must adhere to some Land backwards, consequently there can be no North-East Pas­sage that Way. As the Northerly and Easterly Winds in these Parts, cause very intense Frosts, there must be to Windward vast Continents covered with Snow or large Fields of impenetrable Ice. Thus the very hard Frost [...] from the North and North-West Winds in Baffin's Bay, Davis's Straits, and Hudson's Bay, indicate vast Conti­nents of Snow and Ice to the North-West.

[Page 49] Anno 1676 Capt. Wood was fitted out by the Court of England in his Majesty's Ship Speedwell with the Prosperous Pink, to discover a North-East Passage to the Indian Seas; the Speedwell was cast away upon Rocks of Nova Zembla in 74 d. 30 m. N. Lat. (the Men were saved and came home in the Prosperous Pink) they found Ice along to the Northward with Soundings, therefore Land is not far off, and Nova Zembla (a Conjecture) may range North West­ward, until it meets with East Greenland, consequently no North-East Passage between them, unless by some Straits; the Flood sets from the S. or S. W, therefore no Passage Northward, besides the Water is rather salter than common Sea or Ocean Water.

In endeavouring a N. E. Passage Nova Zembla was dis­covered, and Waygatz Straits between Nova Zembla and the Continent of Tartary or Russia: Those Straits in N. Lat. 70 d. are always froze and full of Ice, excepting when for a very short Time by a N. E. Hurricane or Storm it is cleared; but this Time being short and Weather tempestuous, it may be deem'd impracticable.

* Sundry Writers give us various small Accounts or Hints, some favouring some discouraging a N. E. Passage, [Page 50] none of them are sufficiently vouched. Some have wrote, that upon the Coasts of Iapan and China, drift Whales have been found with Dutch Harping Irons, these must have come by a N. E. Passage. Some relate Russian Barks that have sail'd from the Mare Glaciale East of Wy­gatz Straits by Cape Suotainos in N. Lat. 60 d. to trade with the People who live on the Oriental Ocean in N. Lat. 50 d. therefore Asia and America are two separate Continents. The Dutch (as it is said) Anno 1646, tried this Passage backwards, from Iapan to the North Ocean, but to no Purpose; they were not obstructed by the Ice, but puzzled by broken Lands, Head-Lands, Islands, Bays, Coves, Inlets, and Creeks. Some Dutch Whalers missing of Whales proceeded further North than Cape Purchas of East Greenland in N. Lat. 82 d. and found an open Sea clear of Ice but very hollow. N. B. Why did they not proceed in Quest of a Passage? If a clear Sea could be found, that is without Continents or Islands to fasten and fix the Ice, a Passage might be possible: But a Pas­sage through Straits cannot be practicably safe, their Ice is generally fixed; if accidentally in the Height of some Summers they be open, it can be only for a short Time, and the Uncertainty, when a Frost may set in, renders the Navigation too hazardous to run the Risk of the [Page 51] Vessel being froze up, and the People perish: Spitsbergen or East Greenland seems to be a Cluster of broken Islands.

V. Adventures of a North West Passage to the West or Indian Seas for the Spice-Islands and China. Sebastian Cabot a Native o [...] England, was fitted out by Henry VII. of England, Anno 1497, to discover a North-West Pas­sage to the Spice Islands and East-Indies, he made Land in West Greenland in N. Lat. 67 d. and called it Prima Vista, and from thence coasted to Florida, taking Possession, ac­cording to the Forms of those Times as he sail'd along for the Crown of England; but endeavoured no Passage.

St. Martin Frobisher, at first fitted out by private Ad­venturers, made three Voyages Anno 1576, 1577, 1578 to a Straits in N. Lat. 63 d. called by his own Name, but Ice and the Inclemency of the Weather successively obliged him to return, without any North-West Passage Discovery. He took formal Possession of the North Con­tinent of Greenland, for the Crown of England, but the Norwegians (at present the Subjects of Denmark) pretend­ed to have had Settlements there prior by 200 Years, from Island (its North Parts are in N. Lat. 66 d. 20 d. West from London); but our first North-West Adven­turers Frobisher, Davis, Hudson, Bassin, Smith, &c. did not find the least Vestige of the Norwegians ever being there: There was no Bread-Corn, no Herbage, the Aborigines had not altered their Way of Living, being cloathed with Skins, and lodging in Caves. This North Continent the Danes call New Denmark, and have a small miserable Set­tlement there in Davis Straits in N. Lat. 64 d. and a Guard Ship in the Whaling Season: The Soil and Indian Trade are not worth contending for; the best of Beaver and other Fur is from hence, but in small Quantities; it is unhospitable. Hans Egeda in his natural History of Greenland, 4to, 1741, says, that Greenland was first discover­ed by the Norwegians and Islanders Anno 982, but the In­clemency of the Climate, occasioned their abandoning of it; his Relation of many Colonies, Abbeys, and Churches is too Romantick to obtain Credit. Anno 1721 a Com­pany [Page 52] of Merchants or trading Men, by a Royal Danish License set up at Bergen of New-Denmark in N. Lat. 64 d. where the Author and his Family continued 15 Years: He says that Barley does ripen there, some Tillage and Pasture-Land, only Brush Wood, several Shell-Fish, Land constantly covered with Ice and Snow, excepting near the Sea-Shore, Turnips grow well; Muskitoes very trouble­some in Iuly and August.

There is no good Whaling amongst the loose Ice, the Whales when struck, dive, and it is uncertain where they may come up to blow, but near great Islands of Ice, and Fields of Ice or fast Ice, they must come up by the same Side; as the American or West Shore belongs to Great-Britain by the Treaty of Utrecht, Anno 1713, the Winds, being generally from the North and North West, it is the Lee Shore and Field of Ice; therefore if a Monopoly of Whaling could be allowed, by the Law of Nations, in Davis Straits, it must belong to Great-Britain; thus we claim, but for political Reasons do not prosecute our Claim, to an exclusive Herring-Fishery at Schetland or North Parts of Scotland; this Controversy is well canvessed pro and con by Selden in his Mare Clausum and by Grotius in his Mare Liberum. At present the King of Denmark as­sumes the Sovereignty of the Seas in Davis Straits.

Iohn Davis upon the North-West Passage Discover [...] ▪ Anno 1583 made Cape Desolation about 62 d. N. Lat. and sail'd to no Effect, so high as 66 d. 40 m. He made another Voyage Anno 1586 found among the Natives some Copper. Anno 1587 he made a third Voyage and sail'd [Page 53] so high as 72 d. 10 m. this Opening is still call'd Fretum Davis or Davis Straits.

The King of Denmark, upon Pretence of renewing his Claims, fitted out some Vessels for this Discovery Anno 1605, 1606, 1607, &c, their Adventures were of no Consequence. Anno 1619 Iohn Munck sail'd into the Northern Parts of Davis Straits and call'd it Mare Chri­stianum (the Name of the King of Denmark at that Time) he wintered in 63 d. 20 m. N. Lat. and called it Monk's Winter Harbour, and the Country he called New-Denmark, few of his Men survived so as to return Home and live.

In the Beginning of last Century Henry Hudson, by two Adventureshaving satisfied himself that there was noNorth-East Passage toChina, was sent from England to try aNorth West Passage; as the West Northward Navigation had no Success, he sailed by the West Southward Opening, through the Straits called by his Name into a Bay called Hudson's-Bay, where he perished by the Insidiousness of his villanous Crew.

Sir Thomas Button (in these Times many seafaring Commanders were knighted, to encourage Discoverers) Anno 1611 encouraged by Prince Henry, pursued the N. West Discoveries, passed through Hudson's Straits and Bay, navigated and lookt into the several Creeks and In­lets of its Western Shore (Water generally 80 Fathom deep) he gave it the Name of New Wales, he in much Misery winter'd in 57 d. 10 m. N. Lat. he called the Place Port Nelson; this West Coast was afterwards called Button's-Bay.

Sir. Thomas Smith's Sound discovered Anno 1616 is in N. Lat. 78 d.

After Davis, M. Baffin prosecuted the North North-westward Passage, in the North Parts of Davis Straits, there he found a great Bay called Baffin's-Bay, he did not prosecute to the Bottom or further Extent of this Bay, but despair'd of finding a North West Passage. In N. Lat. 78 the Compass varied 57 d. W. the greatest known Variation.

[Page 54]No more Voyages were made from England upon that Design until Anno 1631. Capt. Thomas Iames of Bristol made some additional Discoveries to those of Hudson, Button, and Baffin (here we anticipate a little▪ the Hudson's Bay Account) he wintered at Charleton Island, near the Bottom of Hudson's-Bay; in this Island, he says, in Sum­mer-Season, the Days are excessive hot, and in the Nights Frost; in the Months of Iune and Iuly the Musketoes are intolerable, several Kinds of Flies and Butterflies, no Fish nor Fish-Bones or Shells upon the Shore excepting Cockle-Shell; here were several Kinds of Fowl, Deers, Foxes, Bears, and some small Quadrupedes; full of Spruce, Firs, and Juniper. He printed his Journal (a good Performance) 4to London 1633. He gives it as his Opinion, that there can be no North West Passage.

Several others in the Beginning of the Seventeenth Century made Attempts for a North-West Passage, West Greenland and Fields of Ice obstructed them; but an in­cidental very considerable Benefit accrued, viz. the Davis Straits Whale-Fishery. None have prosecuted the Na­vigation along the West Side of West Greenland into very high Latitudes, to discover whether West Greenland and East Greenland do converge so as to join, or if there be a Pas­sage along by the North Pole.

The many Dis [...]ppointments and Discouragements, as also the intestine Bro [...]s and Confusions in England did put a Stand to all Discoveries and other Improvements. Upon the Restoration of King Charles II, the Discovery Projects were again set on Foot by some Noblemen and Mer­chants. Prince Rupert was concerned: Capt. Guillam in the Nonesuch Ketch was fitted out, Anno 1667; he sail'd up Baffin's-Bay so high as 75 d. N. Lat. and returned to Prince Rupert's River in N. Lat. 51 d. and laid the Foun­dation of an advantageous Fur-Trade in the Hudson's-Bay Company, established by Royal Patent Anno 1670 to Prince Rupert and Associates.

Capt. Middleton in his North West Discovery Voyage Anno 1742▪ says, it is impossible in any Part of the Wes­tern [Page 55] Coast, lower than 67 d. N. Lat, called Cape Hope West fro [...] London 87 d; he pretends to have inspected this Coast narrowly; and if there be any Passage further North it must b [...] impracticable, because (if at all clear) it can not be clear above one Week in the Year. His main Attempt was in Wager River N. Lat. 65 d. 25 m. the Entrance 6 to 8 Miles wide, Tide 5 or 6 Knots, Soundings not less than 16 Fathoms (many Savages came aboard but had no Trade, they spoke of Mines ) the further he went up Wager River, the Tides did rise less (whereas Sir Iohn Narborough in his Passage through the Straits of Magellan, the nearer he approached the Western Flood, the Tide did rise more) the Water from salt be­came brakish, and gradually more fresh, therefore it must proceed from some fresh Water River, and is no salt Wa­ter Thorough-Fare.

If there were discovered a N. E. or N. W. Passage to China, the Difficulties in Navigation, would render it of little or no Use, other, than to amuse the Curious in the Hydrography of those Parts.

There is a River which the French Coureur des Bois, call St. Lawrence coming from the Westward, falls, into the Northern Parts of the upper Lake, nearly 100 d. W. from London, and the same Latitude with the Bottom of Hudson's-Bay, and communicating with it by Water Canoe Carriage; the North Parts of Calefornia lie in about 130 d. West from London (according to Dr. Hally's accurate laying of it) and in Lat. 42 d; thus the Difference of Lon­gitude is only 30 d; which at the Medium Lat. of 45 d. (14 Leag [...]es to a Degree) makes only 420 Leagues; and if Calefornia is divided from the Continent by a Sinus or Straits, this will render the Distance to that Straits still shorter. By going up this River so far as Water Canoe Carriage will allow, and then perhaps only some short [Page 56] Land Carrying-Place to some Rivulet or River running Westward towards the Seas of California or Western O­cean, if some Ridge or Chain of impracticable Moun­tains do not interveen. But cui bono all this Puzzle? only to ascertain the Geography of that Country; it can be of no Use in Navigation.

Mr. Dobbs who faulted Capt. Middleton very much for his bad Management and Unfaithfulness, did Anno 1745 procure an Act of Parliament, viz. Whereas a North West Passage through Hudson's Straits to the Western American Ocean will be a great Benefit to the Trade of Great-Britain; there is enacted a publick Reward of 20,000 £. Sterl. to any Ship or Vessel belonging to Sub­jects of Great-Britain, that shall find out any such Tho­rough-Fare or Passage. Upon this Encouragement the Dobbs Galley and California sail'd from England in May 1746; hitherto we have no Account of them.

A Digression concerning Whaling.

The New-England Whalers distinguish 10 or 1 [...] dif­fer [...] Species of the Whale-Kind, the most beneficial is the Black Whale, Whale-Bone Whale, or True Whale as they call it; in Davis Straits in N. Lat. 70 d. and upwards they are very large, some may yield 150 Puncheons b [...] ­ing 400 to 500 Barrels Oil and Bone of 18 Feet and up­wards; they are a heavy logy Fish and do not fight, as the New-England Whalers express it, they are easily struck and fastened, but not above one Third of them are reco­vered; by sinking and bewildering themselves under the Ice, two Thirds of them are lost irrecoverably; the Whale Bone Whales kill'd upon the Coast of New-England, Terra de Labradore, and Entrance of Davis Straits, are smaller, do yield not exceeding 120 to 130 Barrels Oil and 9 Feet Bone 1400 lb. wt. they are wilder more agile and do fight.

Sperma Ceti Whales are to be found almost every where, they have no Bone so called, some may yield 60 to 70 Barrels Oil called Vicious Oil the fittest for Lamps [Page 57] or a burning Light. It is from this Whale that we have the Parmacitty or Sperma Ceti (very improperly so called) the Ancients were at a Loss whether it was an Animal or Mineral Substance, Schroder a celebrated Pharmacop [...]ia ▪ Writer about the Middle of last Century, calls it Aliud Genus Bituminis quod Sperma Ceti Officinae vocant, he de­scribes it Pinguedo furfurosa producta exhalatione terrae Sulphureae. We now find that any Part of its Oil, but more abundantly the Head-Matter as the Whalers term it; if it stand at Rest and in the Sun will shoot into Adipous Fleaks resembling in some Manner the Chrystali­sation of Salts: Instead of Sperma Ceti, it ought to be call­ed Adeps Ceti, in the Materia Medica. This same Whale gives the Ambergrease, a Kind of Perfume, as is Musk▪ Anciently it was by the natural Historians described as a Kind of Bitumen, hence the Name Ambra-grisea. Dale a noted Author, in his Pharmacologia not long since pub­lishes it as such; it is now fully discovered to be some Pro­duction from this Species of Whale, for some Time it was imagined some peculiar concreted Juice lodged in a peculiar Cystis; in the same Manner as is the Castor [...]um of the Beaver or Fiber Canadensis, and the Zibethum of the Civet-Cat or Hyena, in Cystis's both Sides of the Ani [...] ▪ thus not long since, some of our Nantucket Whaler [...] im­agined, that in some (very few and rare) of these male or Bull Whales, they had found the Gland or Cystis in the Loins near the Spermatick Organs: Late and more ac­curate Observations seem to declare it to be some Part of the Ordure, Dung, or Alvine Excrement of the Whale; Squid Fish one of the Newfoundland Baits for Cod, are sometimes in Newfoundland cast ashore in Quantities, and as they corrupt and fry in the Sun they become a Jelly or Substance of an Ambergrease Smell; therefore as Squid Bills are sometimes found in the Lumps of Ambergrease, it may be inferred, that Ambergrease is some of the Excre­ment from Squid Food, with some singular Circumstan [...]es or Dispositions that procure this Quality, seldom concur­ring, thus the Nantucket Whalers for some Years last, [Page] have found no Ambergrease in their Whales. The Sper­ma-Ceti Whale has no B [...]ne or Baleine in his Mouth, but fine white Teeth; they are most plenty upon the Coast of Virginia and Carolina.

The Fin-Back, beside two small Side Fins, has a large Fin upon his Back, may yield 50 to 60 Barrels Oil his Bone is brittle, of little or no Use, he swims swifter, and is very wild when struck. The Bermudians some Years catch 20 of these Whales, not in Sloops, but in Whale-Boats from the Shore as formerly at Cape-Cod, their Go­vernor of Bermudas has a Perquisite of 10 £. out of each old Whale.

The Humpback has a Bunch in the same Part of his Back, instead of a Fin: The Bone is not good; makes 50 to 60 Barrels Oil.

The Scrag Whale has several of these Bumps.

Black Fish, i. e. Grampus of 6 to 10 Barrels Oil, Bottle­nose of 3 or 4 Barrels, may (like Sheep) be drove ashore by Boats.

Liver-Oil is reckoned the best, especially for Leather-Dressers.

Whales are gregarious and great Travellers or Passen­gers, in the Autumn they go South, in the Spring they return Nor [...]hward. They copulate like neat Cattle, but the Female in a supine Posture. The True or Whale-Bone Whale's Swallow is not much bigger than that of an Ox, feed upon small Fish and Sea-Insects that keep in Sholes, has only one small Fin each Side of his Head of no great Use to him in swimming, but with a large ho­rizental Tail he sculs himself in the Water. The North Cape (in N. Lat. 72 d. in Europe) Whales, are of the same small Kind as are the New-England, and Entrance of Davis Straits: here we may again observe, that the high European Latitudes, are not so cold as the same American Latitudes, because 72 d. is the proper N. [Page] Lat. in Davis Straits for the large Whales, and the Dutch fish for them long-side of Fields or large Islands of Ice, they use long Warps, not Drudges as in New-England.

Nantucket Men, are the only New-England Whalers at present; this Year 1746 not above 3 or 4 Whales caught in Cape Cod, the Whales (as also the Herrings, our Herrings are not of a good Quality) seem to be drove off from thence. Last Year Nantucket, brought about 10,000 Barrels to Market, this Year they do not follow it so much, because of the low Price of Oil in [Page 60] Europe, notwithstanding, this Year they fit out 6 or 7 Ves­sels for Davis Straits, and sail End of March; they some­times make Cape Farewell in 15 Days, sometimes in not less than six Weeks. Upon a Peace, they design to fish Whales in deep Water, so far as the West-Indies, and Western Islands. A Whale may keep half an Hour under Water without blowing (breathing) but is obliged to blow many Times before she dives again.

Some New-England Men a few Years since attempted whaling in the Entrance of Davis Straits, but to no Ad­vantage: They generally arrived there too late, in keep­ing too near the Labaradore Shore (they kept within 50 Leagues of the Shore, they should have kept 150 Leagues to Sea) they were embay'd and impeded by the Fields of Ice.

Whales seem to have some Degree of Sagacity. When much disturbed, they quit their keeping Ground, and the Tracts of their usual Passages (the Whale is a Passenger from North to South, and back again according to the Seasons) thus, as to New-England, formerly for many suc­cessive Years, they set in along shore by Cape-Cod, there was good Whaling in Boats, proper Watchmen ashore by Signals gave Notice when a Whale appear'd; after some Years they left this Ground, and passed further off upon the Banks at some Distance from the Sho [...]e, the Whalers then used Sloops with Whale-Boats aboard, and this Fish­ery turn'd to good Account: At present they seem in a great Measure, to be drove off from these Banks, and take their Course in deep Water, that is, in the Ocean, thither upon a Peace our Whalers design to follow them. In Davis Straits, at the first coming of the whaling Ships, Whales are plenty, but afterwards being much disturbed, they become scarce, and the Ships return Home, before the Inclemencies of the Weather set in. The whaling Season in both Greenlands is in May and Iune; the Dutch set out for Davis Straits Beginning of March, sometimes they are a Month in beating to weather Cape Farewell, they do not arrive in the fishing Ground until May. An. [Page] 1743, perhaps a Medium Year, the Dutch had in [...] Straits 50 whaling Ships (at Spitsbergen or East- [...] they had 137 Whalers) and got seventy six and [...] Whales.

Observation and Experience or Practice improves [...] Affair, formerly the Whalers (even at Spitsbergen) [...] to tow the Whales they kill'd into Harbo [...]s to cut [...] up; at present they cut them up at Sea and save [...] Time: Formerly they whaled in New-England [...] only with Boats from the Shore (at Bermuda [...] [...] continue so) afterwards by Sloops upon the [...] Banks, and do now proceed to catch them in deep [...] Formerly it was imagined that the True Whale [...] upon a Kind of Alga or Sea-Grass, or upon an ouzy [...] now it is certain that they feed in Sholes of small [...] and Sea-Insects; formerly our Naturalists judge [...] [...] Sperma Ceti and Ambergrease to be Bitumina Suige [...] at present it is obvious that the first is only a [...] Oil or fleaky Adeps of a certain Species of Whal [...] [...] other is an indurated Part of the Ordure of the sam [...] [...] of Whale when it feeds upon Squids, with other [...] of Sex, Season, &c. and therefore but rarely [...]

Some Years since the South Sea Company [...] 24 large fine whaling Ships, from Mismanagement [...] to no Account, they sunk about 100,000 £. St. [...]

The British Parliament to encourage Whaling, [...] an Act Anno 1733 to continue during the Whaling [...] George II; That there should be paid by the [...] General of the Customs upon their Return as a [...] 20 s per Tun of Shipping, under the following [...]; the Ships not be under 200 Tuns, havi [...] [...] board 40 Fishing-Lines of 120 Fathom at least [...] Harpoon Irons, 4 Boats with 7 Men to each ( [...] the Harponeer, Steersman, and Line-Manager [...] employ'd in such Voyages) with the Master and [...] in all 30 Men. For Ships exceeding 200 Tuns, for [...] exceeding of 50 Tuns, an Addition of 1 Boat, 6 [...] [Page 62] 10 Lines, and 10 Harpoon Irons: Must carry six Months Provision: The Oil and Bone to be Duty free.

This Prolix Digression as containing some Things that are not generally attended to, may be Amusement to the Curious; and does by Anticipation abbreviate the Article of Fishery, in the History of New-England.

ARTICLE 3. Some Account of the Discoveries and first Settlements in America from Europe.

* The only Europeans Navigators and Planters of A­merica are the Spanish, Portuguese, Dutch and English; the English are the proper Subject-Matter of this Hist [...], and their Discoveries shall be related in Course, the others are the Subject of this Article of the Introduction.

The Continent of America at a medium Estimate is about 1000 Leagues (by Leagues we always mean the twentieth Part of a Degree on the Meridians) from Europe and Africa, upon the intervening Atlantick or Northern, and the Ethiopick or Southern Ocean, the Spaniards call the whole Mar del Nort; from Asia about 2500 Leagues upon the intervening South Sea, Pacifick Ocean, or Mar-del Zur which is reckoned to extend two Fifths of the East and West Circumference of the Earth.

At first the America Navigations were via Canaries and the Caribee-Islands; a more direct Navigation to its se­veral Parts is now practised; the Ancients imagined that within the Tropicks (non est habitabilis Aesta) theEarth was not habitable, whereas the fine rich Countries of Mexico and Peru lies mostly within the Tropicks.

[Page 63] America may be divided into the Continents of North-America called by the Spanish Writers America Mexicana, the Continent of South-America called by the Spaniards America Peruviana, the intermediate Isthmus or Audience of Guatimala, and Groenland North of Davis Straits.

SECT. III. Concerning the Indian Tribes and Nations; intermixed with, under the Protection of, and in Alliance with Great-Britain: Also some Hints of the French Indians.

THAT the Contents of this Section may be the more easily comprehended, perhaps it may be convenient to distinguish it into some separate Articles. 1. A general History of the West-Indians, or aboriginal Americans. 2. Their Religion, Language, Manners, Arts and Improvements in Nature. 3. Their Tribes or Nations laying upon, or near the Eastern Shore of North-America. 4. Their Wars with, and Incursions upon the British North-America Colonies.

ARTICLE 1. A general History of the aboriginal Americans.

AS to the Origin of Things, particularly of Man­kind, we have no other Account in Credit with Christians, whether allegorical or literal is not my Af­fair, but that of Moses in the Scriptural Books of our [Page 152] Bible or Religion: Doubtless there have been at Times general or almost universal Pestilences, Famines, Deluges, implacabl [...] Wars; which have almost extinguished the Race of Mankind in the Countries where these general Calamities prevailed; and must require many Centuries to repeople them, from the small remaining Stock, and to reduce them by Gradations * to large Societies called Tribes or Cantons, Nations, and Empires.

[Page 153]The Boundaries of their united Tribes, called Nations or Empires, are natural, viz. Seas, Bays, Lakes, great Rivers, high Mountains, thus for Instance, our neigh­bouring Nation of Abnaquies are bounded by the Atlan­tick Ocean, or rather at present by the English Set­tlements upon the Atlantick Shore, by the Bay of Fundi, by the great River St. Laurence, by Lake Cham­plain and Hudson's River.

The Tribes which, at least nominally, compose their general Denomination of a Nation, are generally named from the Rivers upon which they live; as in Lapland of Sweden, the Laplanders are distinguished by the Names of the Rivers Uma, Pitha, Lula, Torneo, and Kimi.

As China seems to be the elder Brother of all the Na­tions of Mankind as to their Politia and Improvements in Nature; so America may with much Propriety be called the youngest Brother and meanest of Mankind; no Civil Government, no Religion, no Letters▪ the French call them Les Hommes des Bois, or Men-Brutes of the Forrest: They do not cultivate the Earth by plant­ing or grazing: Excepting a very inconsiderable Quan­tity of Mays or Indian Corn, and of Kidney-Beans (in New England they are called Indian Beans) which some of their Squaas or Women plant; they do not provide [Page 154] for To-Morrow, their Hunting is their necessary Sub­sistence not Diversion; when they have good Luck in Hunting, they eat and sleep until all is consumed and then go a Hunting again.

The higher the Latitudes, the Indians are fewer in Numbers and more straggling, Nature not affording ne­cessary Subsistence for many, and only in small Bodies or Herds: Their Trade or Commerce is trifling, having no Produce, no Manufacture, but little Game; the Difficulty of subsisting requires almost their whole Time to provide for themselves.

Excepting that Constitution of Body, which by Use they have acquired from their Birth, of enduring Hard­ships of Hunger and Weather; they are tender, and not long-lived, and generally very simple and ignorant, some of their old Men by Use and Experience in the World, acquire a considerable Degree of Sagacity. New Negroes from Guinea generally exceed them much in Constitution of Body and Mind. In the Province of Massachusetts-Bay New-England, there was formerly a very good Project or Design, to educate at College, some of their most promising Youths, to serve as Mis­sionaries for civilizing, instructing and converting of the wild Indians: This good Purpose turn'd abortive from the Tenderness of their Constitution and Aukwardness in Learning, and at present is laid aside.

They are not so polite as the wandring Tartars, no Dairys. Like the wild Irish they dread Labour more than Poverty, like Dogs they are always either eating or sleeping, excepting in Travelling, Hunting, and their Dances; their Sloth and Indolence inclines them to Sottishness; before Christians arrived amongst them, they had no Knowledge of strong Drink; this Chri­stian Vice not only destroys their bodily Health, and that of their Progeny, but creates Feuds, Outrages, and horrid Murders. They are much given to Deceit and Lying, so as scarce to be believed when they speak Truth. See Annotations Page 116. Their Temper is [Page 155] the Reverse of the East Indians, whereof some Casts or Sects will not kill any Animal; the West Indians or Americans are barbarous, and upon small Provocations kill their own Species; some of them exceed in Bar­barity, and in Revenge and Fury eat the Flesh of their Enemies, not from Hunger or Delicacy; such formerly were the Florida Indians, they said that the Flesh of the English eat mellow and tender, that of the Spaniard hard and tough, the Bermudian fishy.

The Aboriginal Americans have no Honesty, no Ho­nour, that is, they are of no Faith, but meer Brutes in that Respect. They generally have great Fortitude of Mind; without any Appearance of Fear or Concern, they suffer any Torture and Death. In Revenge they are barbarous and implacable; they never forget nor forgive Injuries; if one Man kills another, the nearest in Kindred to the murdered, watches an Opportunity to kill the Murderer; and the Death of one Man may occasion the Deaths of many; therefore when a Man is guilty of Murder, he generally leaves the Tribe, and goes into a voluntary Kind of Banishment. They are a sullen close People. The Indian Wars ought to be called Massacres, or inhumane barbarous Out-rages, rather than necessary Acts of Hostility.

The Indians have their Hunting, Fowling and Fish­ing Grounds, by a forked pointed Pole, they strike or harpoon their Fish; but their Wives and Children reside mostly on their planting Grounds, they plant but little. They do not wander like the Tartars; there are said to be some wandering Indians, they cannot be many; because the settling Indians are very jealous of their hunting and fishing Grounds or Properties.

Their ancient Navigation was only crossing of Rivers upon Bark-logs, travelling along Rivers, Rivulets and Sides of Lakes in Canoes or Schuyties, portable by two Men in their Carrying-Places from one River or Pond to another, they are of Birch-Bark upon Ribs of Ash, sow'd together by some tough wooden Fibres, and [Page 156] paid (as Sailors express it) with Rozin from some Pine Kind; they use no Sails and Oars, only Paddles and Setting-Poles; they are capable of carrying a Man, his Wife, Children and Baggage. Narrow Rivers are better travelling than Ponds or Lakes, because upon the Lakes, if stormy or much Wind, they cannot proceed, but must put to the Shore.

Many of our intermixed Indians are of good Use as Servants. It is observable, that amongst the Indian Ser­vants and Negro Slaves; the silly, thoughtless, and pu­silanimous answer best; some perhaps may observe from this, that the blind passive Obedience and Non-Re­sistence Men, make the best Subjects and Court Slaves in Europe.

The Indians between the Tropicks, their Complexion is not of so good a metaline Copper Lustre, but paler, Stature smaller, not so robust and couragious; but by Reason of the Fertility of the Country are in larger Tribes and consequently more civilized; and from be­ing civilized, their Confederacies and federal Unions re­duced them into vast Empires : Such were the Em­pire of Mexico, their Moderator or principal Man was Mon [...]ezuma; and the Empire of Peru, Attabaliba was their leading Man. The Empire of Mexico seems to have been the more polite, that of Peru the more rich, as having vast Treasures of Silver and Gold.

The Northern Tribes are small and distinct; a large Parcel of Land laying waste (in Winter-Countries) for many Months in the Ye [...], not fertile, and not cleared of Woods, cannot subsist many People, but these [Page 157] small Tribes, though much dispersed are allied by Contiguity, Language, and Intermarriages; thus it is with our neighbouring Abnaquies who border upon New-England; the Iroquois or Mohawks who border upon New York, Pensylvania and Virginia; and the Chirakees who bo [...]der upon Carolina; these may be called three distinct great Nations.

The Indians in the high Latitudes are paler, short, thick, squat; cloathed with Skins (generally Seals-Skins) sow'd with Thongs; no Bread-Kind, no Fire; live upon Whale and Seal-Blubber, and other Fish; and what Beasts they may kill with their Arrows and Darts; their Boats and Canoes are of a singular Make, adapted only for one Person; in the Winter they live in Caves.

Indians in general paint their Bodies, especially their Faces (they affect red Colour) as the Picts and Britons of Great-Britain formerly were accustomed.

In the higher Latitudes the Indians reckon by Winters (Years) Moons (Months) and Sleeps (Nights.) Be­tween the Tropicks they reckon by Rains (the Seasons of Rains, End of Summer and Beginning of Autumn are periodical, as are our Winters) Moons and Sleeps. In computing Distances, they reckon by Sleeps or Days Travel (as the Dutch do by Hours) viz. so many Sleeps or Days Travel from one Place to another.

Notwithstanding of the Unpoliteness and Want of Fire-Arms amongst the American Aboriginals, the Euro­peans could not have effected their Settlements because of vast Disparity in Numbers; if some disaffected Tribes, to be revenged of the Impositions and Encroach­ments of some neighbouring Tribes, had not joined the European Small-Arms; thus Cortez against Mexico was [Page 158] joined by several disaffected Tribes; when the Settlers of New Plymouth first landed, Massasoit was glad of the Countenance of their Small Arms against the Na­ragansets.

As to their Make and Complexion. * They have thin Lips, flattish Faces, languid Countenance, small black [Page 159] Eyes, imberbes and impuber [...], Stature various as in Eu­rope; in the high North and South Latitudes, they are taller and more robust, than between the Tropicks; their Hair jet black, lank (between the Tropicks not so lank) stiff, called by the French Crin. The Spaniards found it more tedious and much more difficult to reduce Chili, than in their other American Conquests. Their Com­plexion is of a splendid redish Brown, or metaline Lustre, which is well expressed by a Copper Colour; thus a splendid White, is called Silver Colour: Not of an Olive-Colour or tawney (a tanned Leather yellowish Colour) as are the Aborigines of Barbary, and some of their Progeny in the South Parts of France, Spain, and Portugal. Some Indians upon the Isthmus of Darien, are of a milk-white Complexion, which is not natural and hereditary; but proceeds from a tender morbid Constitution, their Parents were copper-coloured, and their Children become copper-coloured.

Their Posture is not cross-legg'd as among the Asia­ticks; accumbent as formerly with the Greeks and Ro­mans, laying on their left Side, leaning upon their Elbow; nor cowring as the Women call it, the Manner of the African Negroes, Knees bent and Legs parallel to their Thighs; nor sitting upon their Buttocks and Thighs with their Legs dependant as in Europe; but sitting on their Buttocks erect with their Thighs and Legs in a strait Line extended horizontally.

Our general Trade with the Indians is Fire-Arms, Powder, and Shot for War and Hunting; Strouds and Blankets for Cloathing; Spirits, Rum and Brandy for Indolence; formerly Toys, which were as considerable though silly Amusement to them, as Jewels are to us.

In Travelling they direct their Course by noted Mountains, by the Sun when visible, by the mossy or North side of Trees. As most Insects avoid Oils, the Indians grease themselves as a Defence against Muskitoes and other troublesom Flies.

[Page 160]Many of our European's Purchasers of Lands can scarce be said, for valuable Considerations: But a long Pos­session and in Consequence Prescription have made our Title good. Father Ralle a late ingenious Jesuit and French Missionary with the New-England Abnaquie In­dians, about 26 Years since, did kindle a War or Insur­rection of those Indians in New-England; by inculcat­ing, that they held their Lands of GOD and Nature in succeeding Generations, that Fathers could not alienate the Earth from their Sons. We use no other Artifice to keep the Indians in our Interest, but, by undersell [...] the French, and giving a higher Price for Indian Co [...] ­modities; this is fair and just.

Our printed Histories of the Indian Countries, their Governments, Religion, Languages, and Customs; are credulously copied from credulous Authors, and full of silly Conceits; a very late and notable Instance of this, we find in the Journal of Anson's Voyage to the South-Seas, published by the Mathematical Master of the Cen­turion, Anno 1745.

Strictly speaking, they seem to have no Government, no Laws, and are only cemented by Friendship and good Neighbourhood; this is only a Kind of tacit fe­deral Union between the many Tribes, who compose the general Denomination of a Nation; every individual Man seems to be independant and sui juris, as to Go­vernment, and is only in Friendship and neighbourly Relation with others of the same Tribe: Notwith­standing we sometimes find Heads of Tribes mentioned as if in Succession, nay even Female Successions; in the New-England Pocanoket, Mount-Hope, or King Philip's War Anno 1675, there is mentioned the Squaa-Sachem of Pocasset, and a Squaa-Sachem amongst the Nara­gansets. In other Parts of the Earth all Societies or Cohabitants have Government, and an absolute com­pelling Power is lodged somewhere and in some Man­ner; but the American Indians have no compulsive [...]ower over one another: When a Tribe or Neigh­bourhood [Page 161] send Delegates, to treat with other Bodies of Men Whites or Indians; the Conclusions are carried home memoriter, and the young Men must be perswaded to come into these Articles; when the Indians at any Time are forced into a Peace, the Blame of the War is laid upon their young Men.

The aboriginal Cloathing of the Northern Indians was Skins of Seals cut in particular Fashions, and sow'd together with Thongs (they had no Threads of Flax, Hemp, or any other Herbs) in other Parts they wore Skins of the va­rious Beasts of the Forrest: At present the Indians who have Commerce with the Colonies from Europe, wear Duffils and Blanketing of about two Yards square, which the Romans called a * Toga; their Segamores or Sachems wear Blankets with a Border of a different Co­lour, and may be called Praetextati.

ARTICLE 2. The Religion, Language, Food and Medicine, with some other loose Particulars relating to the American Indians.

AS the Americans before the Arrival of Colonies from Europe, seem to have been and still continue in general, the most barbarous and the least polished Peo­ple upon Earth; a clear, exact and full Account of these Things cannot be expected, but for the greater Perspicuity we reduce them under distinct Heads.

ARTICLE 3. The Indian Nations and Tribes upon the Eastern Side of Northern-America.

WE may distinguish the Indians by their Relation or Position with Regard to the European Colonies settled in North-America. 1. The Indian Nations (we can­not particularize their several Tribes or Clans) without, but bordering upon the British Grants, such are the French Indians of Canada, and the Spanish Indians of Florida. 2. Indian Tribes within our Grants or Charters, but without our Settlements, such are the Mikamakes of Nova-Scotia, the Abnaquies of New-England, the Mo­hawks, or Five Nations of New-York, the emigrant Tus­car [...]ro [...]s, I do not call a Nation, &c. 3. Indian Fami­lies, interspersed with our Settlements upon Indian reserv­ed Lands; these are useful to the Europeans, particularly to the British, as domestick Servants, Labourers, Sailors, Whalers, and other Fishers▪ Many of the Indian Re­serves [Page 178] are extinct, and their Lands lapsed to the Pro­vinces.

The present Names of the several Indian Nations, or general great Divisions, may continue in Perpetuity, as classical Names in History: The many particular Tribes included or which compose the several Nations or general Divisions; their Names are so various and changeable, we cannot enumerate them; and still less known are the Names and Numbers of the Villages or Castles in the several Tribes.

The Indian Nations or general Divisions which lie upon or near the Eastern Shore of North-America are the Indians of West-Greenland, commonly called Davis's Streights, Eskimaux, Algonquins, Tahsagrondie, Owlawaes, Miamis, Chikesa [...]s: Mikamakis, Abnaquies, Irocois or Mo­hawks, Chawans, Old Tuscararoes, Cuttumbaes, Chirakees, and Creek Indians: Some short Description or Deline­ation of these, will make the Face of the East Side of North-America more apparent and familiar to us, before we set down the several modern Colonies settled there; in Imitation, Si parva magnis componere, of the Europae antiquae et modernae, Tables or Maps.

I. The Indians of WEST-GREENLAND, or of a North East Continent from Davis Streights reaching from Cape Farewell in N. Lat. 60 d. Northward indefinitely, and [...]ll the Indians in the same Latitudes; are a few strag­ling miserable People, live in Caves or Dens under Ground, because of the Severity of the Cold,* have no Fire (no Fewel) eat their Flesh and Fish raw, are cloth­ed in Seal-Skins, much subject to the Scurvy or Itch [Page 179] (the French call those of Terra de Labradore South of Davis Streights, for this Reason, the scabed Indians) have no Produce or Subject for Trade.

The ESKIMAUX extend from Davis's and Hudson's Streights North, along the West Side of the Atlantick Ocean to the Mouth of St. Laurence River South; thence range Westward cross the lower Parts of the several Rivers which fall into the Bottom of Hudson's-Bay, and then Northward along the Western Shore of Hudson's-Bay to the Polar Circle in 66 d. or 67 d. N. Lat. as Mr. Dobbs writes. Thus the Esquimaux, excepting a small narrow Tract upon the Labradore Shore, are all quit-claim'd to us by France in the Treaty of Utrecht, Anno 1713▪ Excepting those who frequent the Bottom of Hudson's-Bay, the others can be of no commercial Benefit, they afford a very small Matter of Feathers, Whale-Oil, and Blubber.

Mr. Dobbs of Ireland, the present Enthusiastick Fol­lower of a N. W. Passage Projection, very credulous, gives the Names of many imaginary Tribes West of Hudson's-Bay; but as in high Latitudes not many Peo­ple can subsist, and his Tribes not well vouched, we cannot mention them: Mr. Dobbs is an Enemy of the Hudson's-Bay Company; he says, that Trade is got into the Hands of about 9 or 10 of their principal Men, who export not exceeding 3,000 £. St. per An. in British Pro­duce and Manufacture, and keep up their Prices so high; the French supply them cheaper and carry the Trade; whereas if their Charter was vacated, and the Trade [Page 180] laid open; many Traders would settle Factories or trading Houses up the Rivers towards the French, and by underselling of them, much increase our Fur-Trade.

ALGONQUINS in several Tribes reach from the Mouth of St. Laurence River along its North Side, extending about 150 Leagues; they are [...]he French best Indian Friends; but frequently upon little Differences give the French Settlers much Disturbance; may be about 1500 fighting Men.

TAHSAGRONDIE Indians are between the Lakes Erie and Hurons, perhaps from the Barrenness of the Coun­try, they are of small Numbers, dispersed and of no great Notice: They are Friends of the New-York Nations.

OUTAWAES. A great and powerful Nation, they live upon the Outawae River, which joins upon the Cataraqui River (the Outlet of the great Lakes) a little above Monreal, and upon the great Lakes, and extend N. W. to near the S. W. Parts of Hudson's-Bay; they deal considerably with the New-York trading Houses at Oswego * [Page 181] upon the Lake Ontario in the Onondagues Country. In May, Anno 1723, about 80 Men besides Women and Children, from a large Tribe belonging to the Outawaes came to Albany in the Province of New-York, and desir­ed to be admitted as another Friend Nation amongst the Mohawk Nations; this Tribe lies between the Lake of Hurons and the upper Lake, and call themselves Neca­ragees, of 6 Castles or Villages, near the Streights be­tween these two Lakes, adjoining to a Tribe called by the French Misilimackinac. There is a large Nation [Page 182] South West of the O [...]waes, called by the French, [...] R [...]nar [...]; they are not within our Knowledge.

MIAMIE [...], so [...]alled by the French (we call them Twig [...]w [...]e [...] or Ilinois they live generally upon the Ri­ver Miami [...] and the Lake and River Ilinois which re­ceives the River Miamis: This Ilinois is a great River, and by it is one of Canada Routs for their Patroul and Trade to the Misissippi.

CHICK [...]SA [...] seem to lie next to the Miamis on the Eastern Side of the Misissippi; they are Allies of and Traders with the People of Carolinas. The Chirakees are next in Course upon the East Side of Misissippi Ri­ver; but as they lie both Sides, and upon the Apalatian Mountains; we shall for Method's Sake (Method renders every Thing distinct and easy) refer it to the next Range of Indian Nations.

We have given a general View of the more remote Nations of Indians, that is, of the Nations that live North, and West, and South-West of the great River [...]. [...]aurence, and West of the Apalatian Mountains to the great River of Misissippi: We now proceed to the next Range that lie from the Mouth of St. Laurence, River North, to the Bay of Apalatie in the Gulph of Mexico South; being upon the South and South East Sides of the River St. Laurence, and East Side of the [Page 183] Apalatian Mountains or great Blue Hills, which reach from the * Niagara Falls in the Streights between Lake Onta­rio and Eri [...] N. Lat. 43 d. to the Bay of Apalachie in N. Lat. 30 d. these Mountains are generally 300 Miles from the Atlantick Shore; all the Runs of Water from their East Side, falls into the Atlantick Ocean, and these from the West Side into the grand River Misissippi.

II. The MIKAMAKES of L' Accadie or Nova-Scotia, some of them live along Cape-Sable Shore, some at Green-Bay, Menis, and Chicanicto, some in Cape-Breton Island, and St. Iohns Island: They do not much exceed 350 fight­ing Men; they continue in the French Interest, from our bad Management, notwithstanding that the whole Pro­vince was quit-claim'd to us by the Peace of Utrecht 1713; from this same Neglect or wrong Conduct it proceeds, that the French are allowed to keep five Mis­sions in this Province, viz. That of Annapolis River, of Cape-Sable Shore, of Menis, of Chicanicto, and St. Iohn's River; the Bishop of Quebec in Canada is allowed to be their Superior and Constituent, and they act by his Di­rection.

The ABNAQUIES, properly the New England Indian Nation, reach East and West from the Bay of Fundy (to describe the Indian Nations as Geographers in Europe do Countries, by Latitudes and Longitudes; would be stiff, pedantick, not accurate, and of no Use) to Hudson's or New-York River and Lake Champlain or Corlaer; North and South from the St. Laurence or Canada great River, to the Atlantick Ocean: They are in many Tribes, but dwindle much and become less formidable; their In­tercourse with the British and French has introduced ad­ditional Distempers amongst them particularly those [Page 184] which proceed from the immoderate Use of Spirits, Brandy or Rum; hence they become more indolent, and are straightned for Subsistence; their Hunting fails them, they have but few Deer and Beaver; a small Matter of Indian Corn and Kidney-Beans which their Squaas or Women plant, is at present a considerable Part of their Subsistence; they consisted of many Tribes, some extinct, some extinguishing, and the others much reduced,* let us enumerate them in their natural Order. 1. The Indians of St. Iohn's River, these belong to Nova Scotia, and have a French Missionary Priest; the Mouth of St. Iohn's River in the Bay of Fundy, is about 10 Leagues from Annapolis-Royal. The St. Iohn's River Indians in travelling to Quebec go up this long River, and carry to a short rapid River which falls into the River of St. Laurence a few Leagues below Quebec; they do not exceed 150 fighting Men. 2. Penobscot Indians are within the Massachusetts-Bay Grant, have a French Missi­onary; they lay upon a great Bay of the same Name, their Numbers not exceeding 150 Men fit to march; they travel to Quebe [...] up the small River of Penobscot which comes from the Westward, and carry to Quenebec River a little above Taconick Falls, and thence fol­low the same Rout with the Quenebec Indians. 3. Sheep­scut Indians in the Massachusetts Grant, upon a River of the same Name, which falls into Sagadahock (formerly called Sagatawooke) River or rather Bay, from the East­ward; not exceeding two or three Families existing Anno 1747. 4. Quenebec Indians, in the foresaid Grant, upon the River of the same Name, being the middle and [Page 185] principal River of Sagadahock, their principal Settlement or Head-Quarters is at Norridgwoag about 100 Miles up Northward from the Entrance of Sagadahock; they were much reduced in their War or Rebellion, in the Time of the wise Administration of William Dummer, Esq They have a French Missionary, and travel to Quebec up Quenebec River, and from the Head thereof, by several Ponds and Carrying-Places to the short rapid River La Chaudiere which falls into St. Laurence River about four Leagues above Quebec; at present they do not exceed 60 fighting Men. 5. Amerescogin Indians upon Pegepscut or Brunswick River, which falls into the West Side of Sagadahock, they may be said extinct. 6. Pigwacket In­dians on Saco River (they are in two Settlements Pig­woket and Ossepee (at Ossepee Pond, Lovel and his Party of Voluntiers were cut off by the Indians, Anno 1724) lies about 50 Miles above Winter-Harbour, the Mouth of Saco River; at present not exceeding a Dozen fight­ing Men, and formerly did travel (at present they are in the British Interest) to Quebec via Connecticut River up, and St. Francois River down to Canada River. 7. The Pennycook Indians, upon Merrimack River in New-Hampshire Jurisdiction, but lately quite extinct. 8. The Wanonoak Indians, on the Rivier Puante, called the Mission of Besancourt, over against Les Trois Rivieres 30 Leagues above Quebec, at this Time in the Canada Ju­risdiction, about 40 fighting Men. 9. The Arousegunte­cook Indians, upon the River and Mission of St. Francois, about 40 Leagues above Quebec, in the Canada Jurisdic­tion, not exceeding 160 Men fit to march. 10. Masi­assuck Indians, on the East or Dutch Side of Lake Champ­lain; in the French Interest, do not exceed 60 fighting Men. Thus the Abnoquie extensive Nation of Indians, does not exceed 640 fighting Men fit to march.

The IROQUOIS Indians. We call them Mohawks, the Name of one of the Five or Six united Nations; thus the seven united Provinces of the Baligick Netherlands are called Holland from the Pro [...]ince of Holland, and the [Page 186] ten Spanish, now Austrian Provinces there; are called Flanders from the Province of Flanders: They head or lie North of our Provinces of New York, Pennsylvania, Maryland, and some Part of Virginia; the Senacaas reach a great Way down Sesquahana River, the Tribe of about 100 Souls called Shaumakins, lie below the Forks of Ses­quahana about 120 Miles West from the Forks of De la Ware River. In all publick Accounts they are lately called the Six Nations of New-York Friend Indians, the Tuscararoes, Emigrants from [...]he old Tuscararoes of North-Carolina, lately are reckoned [...]s the Sixth; we shall rec­kon them as formerly. 1. The Mohawks, they live upon the Mohawks or Schenectady River; they have a Castle or Village Westward from Albany 40 Miles, an­other 65 Miles West from Albany: The Number of their fencible Men about 160. 2. Oneidaes about 80 Miles from the Mohawks second Village, consisting of near 200 fighting Men. 3. Onondagues about 25 Miles further (the famous Oswego trading Place on the Lake Ontario, about 200 Miles West from Albany, is in their Country) consist of about 250 Men. 4. Cayugaes about 70 Miles further, of about 130 Men. 5. Senekeas fur­ther West, about 700 marching fighting Men. The fighting Men of the Five or Six Nations of Mohawks, may be reckoned at 1500 Men, and extend from Albany West about 400 Miles, laying in the New-York, Penn­sylvania, Maryland, and Virginia Governments, in about 30 Tribes or Villages. Besides these, there is settled a little above Monreal, a Tribe of Scoundrel Runaways from the Mohawks, they are called Kahnuages of about 80 Men.

The CHOWANS on the East Side of the Apalatian Mountains, or great Blue-Hills, are reduced to a small Number, they lie West of Virginia and North-Carolina; they live North of Roanoke River. Lately our Indian Traders have found several pr [...]c [...]icable Passes cross these Mountains, and keep Stores in their West Side, or Inter­vals of Ridges; they are in continued or natural Enmity with the Tuscararoes.

[Page 187]The TUSCARAROES lie between Roanoke and Pen [...]lico Rivers in North-Carolina, do not exceed 200 fightin [...] Men; being much reduced upon their North-Carolin [...] Insurrection, Anno 1711; and many of their Natio [...] drove off, now settled with the New-York Five Nations.

CATABAWS in Course lies South of the Tuscararoe [...] a small Nation, of about 300 Men. The Catabaw [...] Chirakees, and some of the Creeks, are not stiled Subject but Allies and good Friends of Great-Britain.

CHIRAKEES live upon the Southern Parts and bo [...] Sides of the Apalatian Mountains, are a populous exte [...]sive Nation of about 6000 Men. Anno 1722 in a Co [...]gress with Governor Nicholson of South-Carolina, the [...] were present of the lower and middle Chirakees the Chie [...] of 37 Towns or Tribes; and with their Consent G [...]neral Nicholson appointed Wrosetasatow their Command [...] in chief. The People of South-Carolina have a consid [...]rable Trade or trucking Factory at Tunisec, a Chirak [...] Tribe upon the River Misissippi.

CREEK Indians of Florida about 2000 Men. Th [...] lower Creeks consist of 8 to 10 Tribes, and run West [...] Flin [...] River which falls into the Bay of Apalachie or Gu [...] of Mexico, by Instigation of the Spaniards, particular [...] of St. Augustine, are very troublesom to our Carolina an [...] Georgia Settlements: Especially the adjoining Tribe [...] Yamasses: For Instance, Anno 1719, there was som [...] French and Spanish Projection against Great-Britain i [...] Embrio; the Abnaquies of New-England by the Instig [...]tion of the French began to be troublesom upon the sam [...] Projection: This Projection in Europe came to [...] Maturity.

III. Indian Families, or small Tribes upon reserve [...] Lands interspersed with the British Settlements in Nort [...]America. [Page 188] Upon the lower Parts of the several [...] which run into the Atlantick Ocean in the Britis [...] Set­tlements, are several small distinct Tribes or relat [...]d [...]a­milies, which are not reckoned as belonging to the [...]ur­ther Inland large Nations: They extinguish [...]pace from the Infection of our European Distempers and Vices, it can be of no Use to follow a Detail of these perishing transitory small Tribes or Families; as a Sample, I shall enumerate those in the Province of Massachusetts-Bay.

By Act of the Massach [...]setts-Bay Assembly Anno 1746, the Indian Reserves being distinguished into eight Par­cels, Guardians or Managers for these silly Indians were appointed. 1. Upon the Eastern Part of the Promon­tary or Peninsula of Cape-Cod, in the Townships of Truro, Eastham, Chatham, Harwich, and Yarmouth; these Indi­ans go by the several Names of Pamet, Nosset, Pach [...]e, Potowmaket (here is an Indian Congregation with a Mi­nister) Sochtoowoket, and Nobscusset. 2. The Western Part of said Peninsula of Cape-Cod in the Townships of Barnstable, Sandwich, and Falmouth; called the Indians of Wayanaes (the Name of a formerly greatest Sachem in that Country) or Hyanaes, Costoweet, Mashpe, Waquo [...]t (Oyster Harbour) Scootin, and Saconosset or Woods Hole, the Ferry-Place to Martha's Vineyard. 3. The Indians of the Island of Nantucket about 900 Souls, being more than all the others together, are very useful in the Whale and Cod-Fishery. 4. Indians of Martha's Vineyard Island about 450; lately many of them have gone to settle in Nantucket, being a Place of better Employment. 5. The Indians of Plymouth, Pembroke, and Middleborough, called Namasket. 7. The Nipmugs (formerly comprehending all the small Inland Tribes from Connecticut River to Merrimack River; Blackstone or Patucket River, which falls into the Naraganset-Bay, was formerly called Nipmug River) formerly known by the Names of Cutamogs or Nipnets in the Townships and Districts of Dudley, Ox­ford, Woodstock, Killinsbay, and Douglass; the Hasana­missets [Page 189] [...] from [...] small Tribe of [...] called [...], upon a River of that Name called [...] by the [...] ▪ they are lat [...]ly [...] with the English in the Townships of S [...]effield and [...].

Excepting the Indians of [...] and M [...]rtha's-Vineyard (better imploy'd) all the others in a few Years will be extinct, most of their M [...]n were perswad [...]d to [...]n­list as Soldiers in the lat [...] Expeditions to Cuba and Car­thagena against the Spaniards, and to C [...]pe-Breton and Nova-Scotia against the Fren [...]h; scarce any of them sur­vived, and the Names and Memory of their Tribes not worth preserving.

In the other British Colonies, where any Tribes inter­mixed with our Settlements require Notice; they shall be mentioned in the proper Sections. This Article I prosecute no further.

ARTICLE 4. Indian Wars with the British Colonies in North America.

WHEN the Country of the Indians at War with us, lies upon our Frontiers but without our Grants, I call it a War in the common Acceptation; if within our Grants, but without our Settlements, I call it an [Page 190] Eruption, in our Proclamations against them it is called a Rebellion, as in all the New-England Wars with the A [...]quies▪ if intermixed with our Settlements, it is an Insurrection, such were the Wars of the Pequods, Anno 16 [...]7▪ and of King Philip and his Confederates Anno 1675.

In this Article I only mention the I ndian Insurrections or Commotions which happened from the first Landing of the English in these A [...]erican Countries, until the Bri [...]ish * Revolution in Favour of the Prince of Orange, Anno 16 [...]: After this Period, though our Indian Wars were generally executed by the bordering Indians, they were under the Influence, and by the Direction of the [...] Fr [...]c [...] ▪ therefore I do not reckon them as [...] W [...] ▪ but [...] Fre [...]ch Wars in America, they [...] with the British and French Wars in [...] ▪ and [...] with the European and Ne [...] Engl [...] Briti [...] Expeditions against Canada, Nova- [...] [...], we [...] short Account of them in the properSections.

[...] of the small [...] Skirmishes, at our first [...] be of [...] useful Information, and at this [...] Time is no Amusement. A rascally Fellow Cap [...] [...] Anno 1614. by S [...]alth carried off some In­dians ▪ and [...] of Europe, sold them to the [...] Moor [...] captivated from B [...]rb [...]ry; this occasioned a [...] Disgust against the English Traders upon that Coast for some Time: In New-Eng­land, excepting the Indian Wars with the [...] 1637▪ and with the [...] (called King Philip's War) and their Confederates [...] 1675▪ and the French Indian Wars with us during King William's and Queen Anne's Wars in Europe; and an Eruption Anno 1722 to 1725, when the French and Spaniards were hatching a War a­gainst [Page 191] us in Europe, which proved abortive; and our present War with the French and their associated Indians; we had no Indian War of any Kind, it is true, there have been private Rencounters between the English and Indians at Times, from sudden Flights of Passion or Drunkenness, as happens all the World over.

Upon good Enquiry it will be found, that our properly speaking Indian Wars have not been so frequent, so te­dious, and so desolating, as is commonly represented in too strong a Light (Hunger-starved, and Cold-starved were our greatest Hardships in settling) in New-England our only Indian Wars properly so called were the Pequod War, Anno 1637, it lasted three Months, and King Phi­lip's War, Anno 1675 and 1676 was of about 14 Months Continuance, and the War of 1722 to 1725.

In our Northern Parts, the Indians generally appear in small skulking Parties with Yellings, Shoutings and an­ [...] Postures, instead of Trumpets and Drums; their Indian Wood-Cry is Io-han, their War-Cry may be ex­pressed, Woach, Woach, Ha, Ha, Hach, Woach.

The Indians are not Wanderers like the Tartars, but are Ramblers, and in Time of War, according to the Seasons, they may be annoyed at their Head-Quarters, and ambuscaded or Way-laid, at their Carrying or Land travelling Places. Their Retreats or strong Places are the Swamps (Copses in a Morass) Dr. Cotton Mather, with good Propriety calls it, being inswamped, in Imi­tation of the European Term intrenched. Like the French in Europe, without Regard to Faith of Treaties, they suddenly break out, into furious, rapid Outrages, and Devastations; but soon retire precipitately, having no Stores for Subsistence, the Country is not cleared and cultivated. Their Captives if they sicken or are other­ways incapable of travelling, they kill them and save their Scalps; the English thus captivated are sold to French Families in Canada, but redeemable upon reim­bursing the Price paid, by an Order from the Governor-General of Canada.

[Page 192]Their Head-Warriors are Men noted for Strength and Courage; sometimes in their Wars they chuse a tem­porary Chief of all the Tribes of one Nation engaged (at Times some particular Tribe or Village have declined joining in War with the general Nation, thus the Nian­ticks in the Pequod War, thus the Saco Indians in the present War or Rebellion of the Abnaquies; but not with a Roman dictatorial Power, Anno 1676 Madacawando of Penobscot was chief of all the Eastern or Abnaquie Indians and Squando of Saco was his Second; Anno 1637, Sassacous was chief of the Pequod Castles or Villages.

Our Scouts or Indian Hunters in Time of War, carry Packs, which at first setting out may weigh 70 Wt. be­ing about 30 Days Provision of Biscuit, or parched In­dian Corn, salt Pork, Sugar and Ginger to qualify and animate their Drink, which is Water: Their Method of lodging, pitching, or camping at Night, is in Parcels of Ten or Twelve Men to a Fire, they lie upon Brush, wrapt up in a Blanket with their Feet to the Fire.

Towards the better understanding of the Pequid or Po­quot, and King Philip's Wars, it may be proper to know the Situation and Circumstances of their adjoining Indians as they were Anno 1637. Along Shore first were the Cape-Cod Peninsula Indians in several Tribes, the Nan­tucket and Martha's-Vineyard Island Indians; these were always in Friendship with the English Settlers: Next were the Pocassets (at present called Seconet) of about 300 fighting Men: The Pockanokets or King Philip's Men about 300 fighting Men: The Nipmugs adjoining to the Pockanokets Inland, in several Tribes, extending from Connecticut River to Merrimack River: The Naragansets from Naraganset-Bay to Pakatuke River, the Boundary between Connecticut and Rhode-Island Colonies, about 1000 Men: The Pequods from Pakatuck River to near Hudson's or New-York River: The Moheags at the Head of New-London or Thames River about 400 Men: The Connecticut River Indians in several Tribes.

[Page 193]PEQUOD WAR. The Occasions of this War, were, 1. A barbarous warlike Nation, they killed Anno 1634, Captains Stone and Norton, Traders. 2. Lords Say and Brook 1636, building a Fort at the Mouth of Connecti­cut River, near their Head-Quarters offended them. 3. Their continued killing upon Connecticut River of English Traders, upon frivolous Pretences to the Number of 30; at Length the English could not avoid a proper Re­sentment.

Anno 1635 Iuly 15. The associated Colonies of New-England made a League offensive and defensive with the six Naraganset Sachems; by one of the Articles the Na­raganset Indians confirm all former Grants of Lands made to the English: The Naraganset and Pequods were not cordial Friends with one another.

1637 In May 20, a Body of 77 English, 60 Connecticut River Indians, 200 Naraganset Indians, 100 Nianticks (a Village of the Pequods in Friendship with the Engli [...]) and 20 Men from the Garrison of Saybrook Fort, under the Direction of Capt. Mason, afterwards Deputy Go­vernor of Connecticut (the 160 Men from Massachusetts-Bay under Mr. Stoughton, and the [...]0 Men from Plymouth Colony had not then join'd them) took and burnt the Pequod Fort near Mystic River (this River divides Ston­ington from Groton in Connecticut) and killed about 140 Indians; a great Body of Pequods came down from their neighbouring principal Fort, but the English and their auxiliary Indians made a good Retreat to their Boats, in all they had only two Men killed, and 16 Men wounded. The English pursued the Pequods from Swamp to Swamp with great Havock; at Length in a Swamp of Fairfield towards New-Netherlands, they were routed; their cap­tivated Children were sent to Bermudas and sold for Slaves: Sassacous their leading Sachem with about 30 [Page 194] more Pequods fled to the Mohawks and were murdered by them. In less than three Months War about 700 Pequods were destroy'd, and that Nation reduced to about 200 Men, who sued for Peace; which was granted them upon Condition of their abandoning their Name and Country, which accordingly they did, and incorporated themselves with the [...] and Moheags . N. B. They had not many Fi [...] Arms.

After the Pequod War, there were at Times between the Indians and English, private mutual Injuries, some­times more general Misunderstandings and threatned Rup­tures; but the Union offensive and defensive of the four united Colonies of New-England, awed them; by this Union the Proportions were Massachusetts 100, Plymouth, Hartford, and New-Haven each 45 Men, this Union was made Anno 1643 the 19th Day of the third Month.

Anno 1645 and 1646, the Naragansets were privately hatching of an Insurrection, but were soon brought to an open Declaration of a settled Friendship with the English.

1653 * The Dutch of New-Netherlands were forming [Page 195] a Confederacy with our Indians, to cut off all the New-Eng [...]and Settlements, but a Peace between England and Holland prevented it.

Anno 1654, The Naraganset and Niantick Indians, made War against Montaoke Indians East End of Long-Island, but the united Colonies of New-England by fitting out 270 Foot, 40 Horse, soon brought the Naragansets to Accommodation.

PACONOKET OR KING PHILIP'S WAR. Massasoit, Chief of the Wampanogoes, whereof Pockanoket or Mount Hope Neck was a Tribe, was a good Friend to the first Plymouth Settlers: He left two Sons, Wamsucket and Metacomet, at their own Desire the Government of Ply­mouth gave them the English Names of Alexander and Philip; Alexander died Anno 1662: Philip by a formal Instrument to the Government of Plymouth Anno 1671 restricted himself from disposing any of his Lands without their Consent.

[Page 196]This Philip Sachem of the Wampanogoes or Pacanoket Indians, was naturally a Man of Penetration, Cunning, and Courage; he formed a deep Plot Anno 1675, to extirpate the English of New-England: With profound Secresy he effected an extensive Confederacy with other Tribes of Indians, viz. Pocasset, Naragansets, Nipmugs, Connecticut River Indians, several Tribes of the Abnaquies our Eastern Indians; the Canada French were in the Scheme, and by their Emissaries endeavoured to keep up the Spirit of Insurrection; the Dutch from Albany were suspected of supplying these Indians with Ammunition. By the New-Plymouth Grant we find the Pocanoket Indians extended up Patuket or Blackstone formerly Nipmug River to the Nipmug Country; but this Boundary could not be ascertain'd, by the late Commissioners for settling the Line between Plymouth and Rhode-Island Colonies.

Philip began his Insurrection Iune 24. 1675, by killing of nine Englishmen in Swanzey, adjoining to Mount-Hope his Head-Quarters. The English suspecting the Nara­gansets, a powerful Nation, might join Philip, marched an armed Force into the Naraganset Country, and awed them into a Treaty of Peace and Friendship; but not­withstanding (such is Indian Faith) they joined Philip as does appear in the Sequel.

Beginning of Iuly the Pocassets beg [...]n Hostilities. In a Pocasset Swamp, King Philip and his confederate Po­cassets, were environed by the English, but by Night made their Escape to the Nipmug Country, leaving about 100 Women and Children. Middle of Iuly the Nipmugs be­gin Hostilities by Depredations in Mendon. August 25 the Connecticut River Indians begin Hostilities by annoy­ing the neighbouring English Settlements.

In August the Eastern Indians, viz. Pennycooks of Mer­rimack, Pigwokets of Saco, and Amarescogins of Pegepscut Rivers, break out and by December they killed about 50 English, with their own Loss of about 90 In­dians. The Severity of the Winter brought these Tribes of Eastern Indians to a formal Peace, but by Sollicitation [Page 197] of Philip they broke out again next Summer and were joined by the Quenebec Indians, kill several English, and destroy their Stock; but Philip being killed they soon came in and submitted.

The Enemy Indians, imagining that upon the Footing of the late Treaty, the English would deem the Naragan­sets as Neutrals, in Winter retired to the Naraganset Country; but for very good Reasons the English, jealous of the Naragansets, send thither 1000 Men, whereof 527 from Massachusetts, under the Command of Governor Winslow of Plymouth, they were increased to 1500 Men by an Addition of some neighbouring Friend Indians; December 19, they attack the Indians in their Fort or Swamp, and kill'd about 700 Indians, besides Women and Children, with the Loss of about 85 English killed, and 150 wounded; the Swamp is called Patty-squamscut.

Notwithstanding of this Disaster, the Indian [...] [...] skulk­ing Parties out all Winter, they kept the Field better than the English, and harassed our People much; they did Damage in the Town of Plymouth, and within a few Miles of Boston, and the English were obliged to keep close in Garrison-Houses. In the Spring the Mohawks having some Difference with the Abnaquies favoured the English; and the Indians being much harassed by Fa­mine (they had little Produce, because of the War, from their planting Grounds last Crop) Fevers and Fluxes; the Massachusetts Government very wisely issued a Pro­clamation Iuly 8. 1676, promising the Hopes of a Pardon to all Indian Enemies or Rebels, who should come in within 14 Days; many submitted, many withdrew to their respective peculiar Abodes; some travel'd Westward towards Hudson's River, were pursued and kill'd. Philip was reduced to skulk about, and in a Swamp of Mount Hope his own Country, with 6 or 7 of his Followers was kill'd August 12, 1676.

During Philip's War about 3000 Indians were kill'd, captivated and submitted, the Naragansets from a large Body reduced to about 100 Men. The War being over, [Page 198] about 400 Indians by Order met at Major Waldron's of Catchecho; 200 were culled out, who had been notorious­ly wickedly mischievous; of these a few suffered Death, the others (of the 200) were transported and sold forSlaves.

King Philip's or Bristol Neck was sold towards defray­ing the Charges of the War, and afterwards by the Ge­neral Court incorporated by the Name of Bristol with some peculiar Privileges and Exemptions.

The Colony of Connecticut was scarce touched in this War. We have no Record of Rhode-Island Assistance.

After Philip's War, there were no more Insurrections or Rebellions of our intermixed Indians: The following Wars were by Eruptions and Incursions of the Indians within our Grants, but without our Settlements, by In­stigation of our natural Enemies the French of Canada, viz. from Autumn Anno 1688 (some short Truces inter­veening) to Ianuary 7. Anno 1698, 9, and from August 16. Anno 1703, to Iuly 17. Anno 1713: and from Spring 1744, when there were mutual Declarations of War in Europe of the British and French; this War still subsists at this present writing September 1747. Here we may observe that our Eastern Indians in this pending War have not annoyed our Settlements Eastward, being called off by the French to Crown-Point; from Crown-Point the French and their Indians have done considerable Damage upon the New-York and Massachusetts Western Frontiers; and to Nova-Scotia, by investing of the Fort of Annapo­lis-Royal, and by the Massacre of our People at Menis, they have considerably incommoded us. The late Dis­asters of the French Expeditions under Duke d'Anville and M. La Ionquiere against Cape-Breton, Nova-Scotia, and our other Settlements in North-America, have made the French desist [...]rom any farther Enterprizes in Nova-Scotia, and our Eastern Indians being dismissed from that Ser­vice, have lately appeared against our Forts of Pemaquid and Georges.

Our Wars with the Indians in the Reigns of King William and of Queen Anne, and the present War are [Page 199] intermixed with Expeditions from Europe, they are not meerly Indian; we refer them to the subsequent Sections.

GOVERNOR DUMMER'S WAR against the Indians may be reckoned purely Indian, we shall give some short Ac­count of it. The Canada French perceiving our Eastern Settlements advance apace, set their Quenebec Missionary Father Ralle a Jesuite to Work; he made these Indians jealous of the English by telling them, that these Lands were given by GOD unalienably to the Indians and their Children for ever, according to the Christian sacred Ora­cles. Anno 1717 The Indians began to murmur, and after some Time gave the English Settlers formal Warn­ing to leave the Lands within a set Time, at the Expi­ration of the Time they committed Depredations by de­stroying their Cattle and other Stock: The Missionary, with a Priestly Heat began the Affair too precipitately, before the receiving of Directions from France, as appears by a Letter from M. Vandreuil Governor-General of Ca­nada to this Father "he could not tell, how far he might intermeddle in the Affair, until he had particular Instruc­tions from the Council of the Navy in France;" all the French Colonies are under the Direction of that Board: And the Small-Pox (which the Indians with good Rea­son dread) prevailing in New-England, Anno 1721, pre­vented a declared Rupture until Anno 1722. Iuly 5. the Government of Massachusetts-Bay proclaimed them Re­bels, and ordered 100 £. per Scalp to Voluntiers fitted out at their own Charge, and afterwards 4 s. per Day be­sides: Our most considerable Action against them was at Noridgwoag of Quenebec River August 12. Anno 1724, their fighting Men being just come Home from Scout­ing; Capt. Harman with 200 Men in 17 Whale-Boats go up Quenebec River, surprize the Indians at Naridgwog, bring off 26 Indian Scalps, and that of Father Ralle; Indians kill'd, and drowned in their Flight cross the River, were computed to be Eighty: Capt. Lovel a Voluntier, with 44 Men sets out, via Ossipy Pond, for Pigocket ▪ was intercepted by about 70 Indians, he [Page 200] and about 14 of his Men were killed, and many wound­ed.

The French and Indians of Nova-Scotia were concern'd in this War, they made a vain Assault upon the Fort of Annapolis-Royal, and did some Damage at Canso.

The Delegates from the 5 or 6 New-York Indian Na­tions, and from the Mohegin or Hudson's River Indians, and from the Scatacooks, came to Boston, received Pre­sents, gave fair Promises of acting in our Favour, but did nothing.

We sent Commissioners to the Governor-General of Canada, to expostulate with him concerning his encourag­ing the Indian Depredations, and to reclaim Captives: His Answer was, that these Indians were independant Nations, and not under his Direction; this was a meer Evasion.

After many Bickerings, by good Management in the wise Administration of Lieutenant-Governor Dummer, the Indians beg'd and obtain'd a Cessation of Arms, Decem­ber 15, Anno 1725, and a Peace the May following at Casco; saving to the Indians all their Lands not hitherto convey'd, with the Privilege of Hunting, Fowling, and Fishing as formerly: Signed by the Noridgwoag, Penob­scot, St. Iohns, and Cape-Sable Indians.

Three or four Years since, some interspersed Indians in Maryland were troublesome and occasionally kill'd some English Men; they were soon quelled.

In Virginia, in the Beginning, the Indian Incursions re­tarded them much, and Anno 1610, from 500 they, were reduced to 80; from 1612 there was uninterrupted Peace with the Indians till 1622, by a sudden general Insurrec­tion they massacred 347 English People, reckoned at that Time half of the Colony. Sir Iohn Harvey a very ar­bitrary Governor encroached much upon the Indians by making enormous Grants of their Lands, this occasion­ed another Massacre from the Indians Anno 1639▪ 500 English were cut off, especially about the Head of York [Page 201] River; this was soon over, and Peace lasted many Years. Anno 1676 some mutual Murders happened between the English and Indians in the Out-Settlements. Bacon a hot­headed young Gentleman of the Council, because, as he thought, the Assembly was too dilatory in fitting out a­gainst the Indians; in Contempt of the Government, and without a proper Commission, inlists Soldiers of his own Accord, and occasioned an intestine civil Mutiny of the white People against the Government, and obliged the Governor Berkley to fly t [...] the remote County of Acco­mack upon the Eastern Shore of Chesapeak Bay: To quell this Commotion a Regiment of Soldiers was sent from England, but Bacon dying, the Commotion was o­ver, before the Regiment arrived, this Corps continued there three Years, and were dis [...]anded in Virginia; Ba­con's Body could not be found to be exposed to Infamy. This does anticipate, but at the same Time it helps to shorten the Section of Virginia.

In NORTH-CAROLINA, Anno 1711, in November the Cape Fear Indians broke out, and destroy'd about 20 Fa­milies, and much Stock: by Succours from Virginia and South-Carolina, they were soon reduced; and many of the Tuscararoes obliged to [...]ake Refuge amongst the New-York Indian Nations, where they continue, and are generally called the sixth Nation.

SECT. IV. General Remarks concerning the British Colonies in America.

THE Subject-Matters of this Section according to my first Plan are prolix, being various and copious, and perhaps would be the most curious and informing Piece of the Performance to some Readers; but as many of our Readers in these Colonies seem impatient for our entring upon the Affairs of their several Settlements, we shall contract the present Section, and shall defer several [Page 202] Articles to the Appendix; such as, the Rise, Progress, and present State of the pernicious Paper-Currencies; some Account of the prevailing or Endemial Diseases in our North-America Colonies, and many other loose Parti­culars, the various Sectaries in Religion, which have any Footing in our American Colonies shall be enumerated in the Section of Rhode-Island, where we find all Degrees of Sectaries (some perhaps not known in Europe) from NO RELIGION to that of the most wild Enthusiasts. [Page 203] Religious Affairs, so far as they may in some Manner ap­pertain to the Constitution of the Colonies, do make an Article in this Section.

ARTICLE I. Concerning our first Discoveries of, and Trade to the British North-America; before, it was by Royal Grants, Pa­tents, and Charters divided into the Colonies at present subsisting.

IN Page 109, &c. I gave some anticipating Account of these our first Discoveries. I shall further add.

Sebastian Cabot commissioned by King Henry VII. of England, to endeavour Discoveries of a North-West Pas­sage to China and the East Indies, Anno 1497, did dis­cover and take Possession, according to the Forms used in those Times, of all the Eastern Coast of North-Ame­rica, from about the North Polar Circle to Cape Florida, (as is related) in the Name of the Crown of England; the Cabots had a Royal English G [...]ant of the Property of all Lands they should discover and settle Westward of Eu­rope, they made no Settlement, and their Grant dropt.

Sir Walter Raleigh a Favourite, by Order of Queen Elizabeth, Anno 1584, sent two Vessels to North-America, to land People that were to remain there; they landed at Roanoke in North-Carolina, where they remained and planted for some short Time. Raleigh gave to all that Part of America the Name VIRGINIA, in Honour or Memory of the Virginity of Queen Elizabeth; a conti­nued [Page 204] but small Trade was carried on from England to these Countries for some Time, and by landing at Times in sundry Places, took further Possession for the Crown of England.

Anno 1606 April 10. King Iames in one Patent incor­porated two Companies called the South and North Vir­ginia Companies; the South Virginia Company to reach from 34 d. to 41 d. N. Lat. they began a Settlement Anno 1607 on Chesapeak-Bay, and this Part of the Country retains the Name Virginia in a peculiar Man­ner to this Day; here we must drop it, and reassume in the proper Section of Virginia: The North Virginia Company called also the West-Country Company, had Li­berty to settle upon the same Eastern Coast of America from 38 d. to 45 d. N. Lat. they kept a constant small Trade on Foot, and sometimes wintered ashore, as, for Instance, at Sagadabock Anno 1608; but made no formal lasting Settlement, until that of New Plymouth Anno 1620; here we must stop and reassume in the Sections of New-England Colonies. These Settlements were to have been at 100 Miles Distance from one another, that is, from their chief Place each Territory or Colony was to extend 50 Miles both Ways along Shore, and 100 Miles back into the Country, so as to make a District of 100 Miles square: Thus from the Gulph of St. Laurence to Cape-Fear we should have had seven Colonies of equal Dimensions, but not of equal Quality; at present in that Space we have about a Dozen Colonies very unequal and irregular, because granted at different Times, most of them run back into the Wilderness indefinitely. This Pat [...]nt did not subsist long, the Companies were managed by Pr [...]sidents and Council, but in a few Years made a Surrender. The Dutch took the Opportunity to sit down in some Parts of the Degrees of Latitude, that were in common to both Companies, and kept Possession of Pro­p [...]rty and Jurisdiction, almost threescore Years.

Capt. Henry Hudson Anno 1608 discovered the Mouth of Hudson' [...] River in N. Lat. 40 d. 30 m. upon his own [Page 205] Account as he imagined, and sold it, or rather imparted the Discovery to the Dutch; the Dutch made some Set­tl [...]ments there, but were drove off by Sir Samuel Argol, Governor of a second Virginia Company Anno 1618, be­cause within the Limits of that Company's Grant; but Anno 1620 King Iames gave the Dutch some Liberty of Refreshment for their Ships bound to Brazils, which they afterwards in the Times of the Civil Wars and Confusions in England, improved to the settling of a Colony there, which they called New Netherlands, comprehending all the present Provinces of New-York and New-Iersies, and some Part of Pennsylvania; their principal Settlements were New Amsterdam, at present called the City of New-York on Hudson's River, and Fort Casimier, since called New-Castle upon Delaware River, West Side of it; Hudson's River was called by the Dutch, Nord Rivier, and Delaware River was called Zuid Rivier. Beginning of King Charles II. Reign, by Conquest 1664 and the subsequent Cession by the Breda Treaty 1667, it reverted to the Crown of Eng­land. The further Account of this Territory belongs to the Sections of New-York and New-Iersies.

We may in general observe; that Spices, Precious Stones, Gold, Silver, other Metals and Minerals, were the first Inducements and Objects of our East and West-India Discoveries; (the Trade for Tobacco, Rice, Fish, Furs, Skins, and Naval Stores, seem to have been only inci­dental) as these did not succeed, our first Endeavours or Adventures for Settlements, did not proceed.

From Historical Observations during the last Century and half, we may learn many of the successful Methods to be used, and the Inconveniencies to be avoided in settling of Colonies.

ARTICLE 2. Concerning the general Nature and Consti [...]ution of British North-American Colonies.

ALL our American Settlements are properly Colonies, not Provinces as they are generally called: Province [Page 206] respects a conquered People (the Spaniards in Mexico and Peru may perhaps in Propriety bear this Appellation) un­der a Jurisdiction imposed upon them by the Conqueror; Colonies are formed of national People v. g. British in the British Colonies, transported to form a Settlement in a foreign or remote Country.

The first Settlers of our Colonies, were formed from various Sorts of People. 1. Laudably ambitious Adven­turers. 2. The Malecontents, the Unfortunate, the Ne­cessitous from Home. 3. Transported Criminals. The present Proportion of these Ingredients in the several Plantations varies much, for Reasons which shall be men­tioned in the particular Sections of Colonies, and does depend much upon the Condition of the first Settlers: Some were peopled by Rebel Tories, some by Rebel Whigs (that Principle which at one Time is called Royalty, at another Time is called Rebellion) some by Church of England Men, some by Congregationalists or Independants, some by Quakers, some by Papists (Maryland and Mon­serrat) the most unfit People to incorporate with our Constitution.

Colonies have an incidental good Effect, they drain from the Mother-Country the Disaffected and the Vicious (in this same Manner, subsequent Colonies purge the more ancient Colonies); Rhode-Island and Providence Plantations, drained from Massachusetts-Bay, the Antino­mians, Quakers, and other wild Sectaries. Perhaps in after Times (as it is at Times with the Lord Lieutenants and other high Officers in Ireland) some Malecontents of Figure, capable of being troublesome to the Administra­tion at Home, may be sent in some great Offices to the Plantations.

In our Colonies we have four Sorts of People. 1. Mas­ters that is Planters and Merchants. 2. White Servants. 3. Indian Servants. 4. Slaves for Life, mostly Negroes. White Servants are of two Sorts, viz. Poor People from Great-Britain, and Ireland mostly, these are bound or sold, as some expres [...] i [...], for a certain Number of Years, to re­imburse [Page 207] the transporting Charges, with some additional Profit; the others are Criminals judicially transported, and their Time of Exile and Servitude sold by certain Undertakers and their Agents.

In our American Settlements, generally the Designations are, Province, where the King appoints a Governor; Colony, where the Freemen elect their own Governor: This customary Acceptation is not universal; Virginia is called a Colony, perhaps because formerly a Colony, and the most ancient.

We have some Settlements with a Governor only; others with Governor and Council, such are Newfound­land, Nova-Scotia, Hudson's-Bay, and Georgia, without any House orNegative deputed by the Planters, according to the Essence of a British Constitution: These, may be said, not colonized.

There are various Sorts of Royal Grants of Colonies. 1. To one or more personal Proprietors, their Heirs and Assigns; such are Maryland and Pennsylvania; both Property and Government. 2. The Property to perso­nal Proprietors; the Government and Jurisdiction in the Crown; this is the State of Carolinas and Iersies. 3. Property and Government in the Crown, viz. Virginia, New-York, and New-Hampshire commonly called Piscataqua. 4. Property in the People and their Repre­sentatives; the Government in the Crown; as is Massa­chusetts-Bay. 5. Property and Government in the Go­vernor and Company, called the Freemen of the Colony, such are Connecticut and Rhode-Island.

This last seems to be the most effectual Method of the first settling and peopling of a Colony; Mankind are na­turally desirous of Parity and Leveling, without any fixed Superiority; but when a Society is come to Maturity, a more distinct fixed Subordination is found to be requisite. Connecticut, Rhode-Island, and some of the Proprietary Go­vernments, are of Opinion, that they are not obliged to attend to, or follow any Instructions or Orders from their Mother-Country or Court of Great-Britain; they do not [Page 208] send their Laws home to the Plantation-Offices to be pre­sented to the King in Council for Approbation or Disal­lowance: They assume the Command of the Militia, which by the British Constitution is a Prerogative of the Crown: Some Time ago, they refused not only a Pre­ventive Custom-House Office, but likewise a Court of Vice-Admiralty's Officers appointed from Home; but these Points they have given up, especially considering that the Royal Charter grants them only the Privilege of trying Causes, Intra corpus Comitatus, but not a-float or Super altum mare.

As a small Country, though rich and thriving, cannot afford large Numbers of People; it ought not to run upon Discoveries and Conquests, beyond what they can well improve and protect; because by over-stretching, they weaken or break the Staple of their Constitution: But they may in good Policy distress as much of the En­emy's Country as is possible, and for some short Time keep Possession of some of their most important Places, though at a great Charge, even, by hiring of foreign Troops; in Order to obtain some suitable profitable E­quivalent. New-England with the incidental Countenance of a small British Squadron, did easily reduce the North America Dunkirk, or Louisb [...]urg in Cape-Breton Island; and perhaps luckily, w [...]thout waiting for the Direction of the British Ministry. Considering our large Sea and Land-Force, well fitted, upon the Expeditions, against Havanah and its Territory in the Island of Cuba, the Rendezvous of all the Spanish Plate-Fleets; and against Carthagena the best Strong-Hold the Spaniards have in America; and against Canada called the New-France in North-America, which would have given us the Monopoly of the Cod-Fish and Fur-Trade, many of our American Militia voluntarily formed themselves into Companies and Regiments for that Purpose; but the Ministry at Home perhaps for good Reasons best known to themselves, seem to have baulkt these Affairs; the above apparently intended Con­quests would have been [...]asy.

[Page 209] Great-Britain does not, like France, swarm with a nu­merous People, therefore cannot settle Colonies so fast, without allowing of a general Naturalization. From Germany we had many emigrant Palatines and Saltsburgh­ers, and in Time may have more: Foreigners imported, should not be allowed to settle in large separate Districts, as is the present bad Practice; because for many Gene­rations they may continue, as it were, a separate People in Language, Modes of Religion, Customs and Manners; they ought to be intermixed with the British Settlers: English Schools only allowed for the Education of their Children; their publick Worship for the first Generation or 20 Years, may be allowed in their original Language in the Forenoon, and in English in the Afternoon, ac­cording to any tolerated Religion: as our Missionaries do not attend the Service of Indian Conversions, some of them may be employ'd in this Service; after the first twenty Years from their first Arrival, their publick Worship, shall for ever be in English; all their Conveyances, Bonds, and other publick Writings, to be in English; thus in two or three Generations (as de Foe humorously expresses it) they will all be­come true born Englishmen. We have an Instance of this in New-England, where many Irish in Lan­guage and Religion (I mean Roman Catholicks) have been imported some Years since; their Children have lost their Language and Religion, and are good Subjects: We have a notorious Instance of the bad Effects in not observing this Regulation, in Nova Scotia; the French Inhabitants though in Allegiance to the Crown of Great-Britain ever since Anno 1710, by allowing them a sepa­rate Residence, with their Language and Religion conti­nued, are at present, as much estranged from and Enemies to the British Interest, as they were 37 Years ago; witness their Behaviour in our present French War, by their favouring and concuring with our French Canada Enemies, and the late Expeditions from France: The D—ch in a neighbouring Province, because not well [Page 210] dashed or intermixed with the English, though in Allegiance above Eighty Y [...]ars; do not seem to consult our Interest so much, as might be expect­ed.

Although the Colonies of various Nations may learn the Iuvan [...]ia and the Laedentia, from one another; there may be several Political Regulations in Colonies foreign to us, which may have a good Effect with themselves, but may not fit our Constitution; for Instance, 1. The Spaniards say, that their vast extensive Settlements in A­merica, have continued in due Subjection about 250 Years, by their principal Officers; Ecclesiastical, Civil, and Military, being from Old-Spain; In China (a polite Na­tion) no Man can be a Mandarin in his own Country or District, where he was born. 2. The French, Spanish, and Portuguese Colonies, are not allowed to make Wines, and distil Spirits of Sugar for Merchandize, because it would hurt the Vent of the Wines and Brandies of their Mother Countries: Some such Regulations with Regard to T [...]ings commonly manufactured in Great-Britain, not to be manufactured in the Plantations, have from Time to Time been laid before the Court of Great-Bri­tain, by People disaffected to the Plantations v. g. by Col. D—r not long since; but happily, have had little or no Effect.

The several Colonies, particularly those of New-Eng­land the most suspected, have it neither in their Power nor Inclination to withdraw from their Dependance upon Great-Britain: Of themselves, they are comparatively nothing, without the As [...]istance and Protection of some European maritime Power; amongst those, the French, Spanish, and Portuguese differ so much from them in Re­ligion, the most popular Affair, and in an absolute, mon­archial Government inconsistent with our Plantation, le­velling Spirit; that we have nothing to fear from them; the Dutch being nearly the same with us in Religion, and apparently (though not really) the same as to a po­pular Government; they bid the fairest for carrying off [Page 211] our Plantations from th [...]ir Allegiance, and ought in a particular Manner to be guarded again [...]t; if in Time of some general Disconte [...]t, a W [...]r should happen with the Dutch.

As in natural Parentage, so Infant Colonies, ought to be tenderly and fi [...]ally used, without any Suspicion or Surmise of a future obstinate Disobedie [...]ce, Desertion, or Revolt. Some of the American Colony-Legi [...]latures, have at Times been drawn into Errors and I [...]advertencies, by some popular, wicked, leading Men, which has obliged the Court of Great Britain to make som [...] Alterations in their peculiar Constitutions; we shall enumerate them in the respective Colony Sections, a [...] present we shall only instance a few relating [...]o this Province of Massachusetts-Bay. 1. Upon a Quo War [...]nto f [...]om the Court of King's Bench issued in Trinity-Term Anno 1635 agai [...]st the Go­vernor and Company of the Colony of Massachusetts-Bay; and in Trinity Term Anno 1 [...]37 Judgment was given for the King to seize said [...]olony, an [...] to take Go­vernor Cradock's Body i [...]to Custody; but by Reason of the ensuing Troubles, t [...]is Judgm [...]t was never put in Execution. 2. The [...]eirs of Mas [...] a [...]d Gorge, Pro­prietors of the Provinces of N [...]w [...]am [...]hire and Main, complain'd to the King of the Usu [...]t [...]ons of the Go­vernment of Massach [...]s [...]ay; t [...]e [...]i [...]g by a manda­tory Letter Anno 1676 to Ma [...]sachuset [...]s Bay Colo [...]y re­quired an Answer to those Com [...]lai [...]ts: The Agents for Massachusetts-Bay, before the Cou [...]t of King's-Bench, dis­claim'd these Lands, and by an Act of Assembly of the Colony 1679, all their encroaching Grants were vacated. 3. Upon several pretended Complaints their Charter was vacated in Chancery 1684, but they obtai [...]ed a new and more perfect Charter Anno 1691. 4. Governor Shute Anno 1722 carried Home seven Articles of Complaints concerning their House of Repres [...]ntatives encroaching upon [...] Prerogative; by their Agent in England ▪ they submis [...]ively g [...]ve up five of these Articles, and the ge­neral Assembly accepted of an explanatory Charter, where­by [Page 212] the other two Articles were explained away; all these shall be related more at large in their proper Place. 5. Se­veral bubling Banks and Schemes designed to defraud Creditors and others, by depreciating the Currency in New England, being on Foot, and not suppressed by the pro­per Legislature, perhaps because many of their leading Membe [...]s were concerned; several worthy Gentlemen applied Home for Redress, and obtain'd Anno 1741 An Act of Pa [...]liament against unwarrantable Schemes in America.

Upwards of thirty Years since, upon some Complaints concerning the Colonies, particularly of South Carolina; the Court of Great-Britain judged, that it might be for the general British Interest, to have all Charter and Pro­prietary Governments vacated by Act of Parliament, and accordingly a Bill was brought into the House of Com­mons; but the New England Agent Dummer by an in­genious Piece which he publish'd at that Time giving the true State of the Colonies, by his Vigilancy, Assiduity, proper Sollicitations and personal Address, and Interest with some of the leading Men, occasioned the Bill to be dropt.

The vacating of all Charter and Proprietary Govern­ments is not the ultimate Chastisement that may be used with delinquent Colonies; the Parliament of Great-Bri­tain may abridge them of many valuable Privileges which they enjoy at present; as happened in an Affair relating to Ireland; the Parliament of Great Britain Anno 1720 passed an Act for the better securing the Depen­dance of the Kingdom of Ireland upon the Crown of Great-Britain: Therefore the Colonies ought to be circumspect, and not offend their Mother-Country; as for Instance, 1. In abusing that Privilege which our Co­lonies have of raising Taxes and assessing of themselves; South Carolina had not supplied the nec [...]ssary Charges of Government, for four Years preceeding Anno 1731; New-Hampshire for five Years preceeding Anno 1736. 2. In Time of Peace emitting of depreciating publick [Page 213] Bills of Credit for a Medium of Trade and Commerce, and making them legal Tenders; this is equivalent to Coinage (and of a base Standard) a Prerogative of the Crown.

Our British American Colonies have many valuable Privileges. 1. Enacting of their own Laws, with Con­dition of their not being repugnant to the Laws of Great-Britain, but may be otherways various from them. 2. Raising their own Taxes. 3. No Act of the British Parliament made since the first setling of our Colonies, exten [...]s to the Colonies, unless expresly extended in the British Act of Parliament. 4. No private Purchase from the Indians shall be valid (formerly much Deceit and Cheat has been discovered in these Purchases, tending to alienate the Indians from the British Interest) without the Confirmation of the Governor and Council in some Colo­ni [...]s, and without the Approbation of the Legislature in the otherColonies. There are Lands in some of our Plantations, where it is not possible to shew any Indian Conveyance, [...] they were Derelicts; such are all our West-India Island Settlements, no Indians being there at our first landing: The [...]ossessors who were prior to Patent or King's commis­sioned Governor, have no other Title to their Lands but long Possession, a Sort of Prescription; thus the old Set­lers of New-Hampshire hold their Lands, it being supposed that Mr. Mason had neglected or relinquished his Grant.

In the Beginning of our Colony Grants, there was only one House of * Legislature; the Governor or President, the Council or Assistants, and the Representatives voted together. At present in Conformity to our Legislature in Great-Britain, they consist of three separate Negatives; [Page 214] thus, by the Governor, representing the King, the Colonies are Monarchial; by a Council they are Ari­stocratical; by a House of Representatives or Dele­gates from the People, they are Democratical: These Three are distinct and independant of one an­other, and the Colonies enjoy the Conveniencies of each of these Forms of Government, without their In­conveniences, the several Negatives being Checks upon one another. The Concurrence of these three Forms of Governments, seems to be the highest Perfection that human Civil Government can atta [...]n to in Times of Peace with the neighbouring States; if it did not sound too profane, by making too free with the mystical Ex­pressions of our Religion, I should call it a Trinity in Unity.

The second Negative in our Legislatures, differs from that of Great-Britain. In Great-Britain it is an he­reditary Ho [...]se of Lords, in our American Settlements, the Members of their Councils so called, are only tem­porary, appointed by the Court of Great-Britain durante [Page 215] Beneplacito, or by annual Elections in some of our Colo­nies. In Carolina at first the [...]e was designed an hereditary second Negative (in Place of a Council) of Palatines and Cassiques, Lords of large Manors, this is dropt.

There are a few Irregularities or Exceptions from these three Negatives in some of our Colonies, which shall be taken particular Notice of, in the proper Sections, and doubtless in Time will be rectified. 1. In Connecti­cut and Rhode-Island their Elective Governor has no Ne­gative. 2. In Pennsylvania the Council has no Negative. 3. In Massachusetts-Bay, the Council is not independa [...]t; it is obnoxious to the Caprice of a Governor's Negative, and to the Humour of the House of Representatives who elect them: In some Elections the Council and Repre­sentatives vote together.

Notwithstanding of a Colony Assembly's being upon the Point of dissolving in Course, according to their se­veral and various municipal Laws; the Governors [...]is­solve them in Form, as in Great-Britain, to keep up the Prerogative of the Crown.

In Proprietary Colonies, where the Proprietors have retained the Jurisdiction, the Proprietors nominate the Governor, with the Approbation of the King in Council. Excepting in Proprietary and Charter Colonies all Patents for Lands are in the King's Name, Teste hi [...] Ex­cellency in Council.

The municipal Laws, or Laws peculiar to the several Colonies are too various and variable, as well as bulky to be inserted in a Summary; they are remitted Home from Time to Time, and are to be found in the Plantat [...]on-Offices in London; excepting those of the Proprietary and Charter Governments; [...] their Patents they are not obliged (this was an origin [...]l Defect in such Pate [...]s, and may be rectified by Act of Parliament) to transmit them to the Crown for Approba [...]ion or Disallowance. The Laws of a Colony may be various from, but not r [...] ­pugnant to the Laws of Great-Britain.

In our Colonies, the Courts of Judicatur [...] are variou [...], [Page 216] but all of the same Nature with the Courts in England; viz. Chancery (in the Charter Governments Ius and Aequum are in the same Court) Common Law, Probate of Wills and Appurtenances; a Court of Vice-Admiralty for Sea-Af­fairs; and a Iusticiary Court of Admiralty, by Q. Anne's Commission Tertio Regni, pursuant to an Act of Parliament 11, 12 Gul. III, called, An Act for the more effectual Sup­pression of Piracy; consisting at least of seven of the nomi­nated from th [...]ir Offices, and for Want of that Number com­pleat, any Three of the nominated may appoint a Com­pliment.

Cases in Chancery, and common Law may be carried Home by Appeal or Petition to the King in Council; from thence it is referred to the Lords of the Committee * of Council for Plantation-Affairs; from this Committee of Council, it is referred or sent down to the Lords Com­missioners for Trade and Plantations, this last Board fre­quently take the Advice of the Attorney and Sollicitor-General; and Reports are returned back from one Board to another, and issued by the King in Council.

The Officers of the Customs Receiving or Preventive, are immediately under the Direction of the Commission­ers of the Customs in Great Britain.

The Commission of Vice-Admiral to our Plantation-Governors gives no Command a-float; their Jurisdiction is only, relating to Wrecks, &c. cast on Shore, to low Water Mark; being of the same Nature with the seve­ral Vice-Admirals along the Coast in Great-Britain.

Every King's Commission with Instructions to a Go­vernor in the Plantations; is a Sort of Charter to that Colony or Province, durante Beneplacito.

Our Plantation Governors, have no Power without Or­ders from the Court of Great-Britain, to grant Letters of Reprisals. The French and Dutch Governors have thisPower.

[Page 217]All our Plantation-Governors are liable to be called to Account (on Complaints) at the King's-Bench Bar in West­minster; for Instance Douglass of the Leeward Islands, Anno 1716, and Lowther of Barbadoes 1720.

Formerly Governors, if Court-Favourites, had at Times Plurality of Governments (as some Clergymen Favou­rites of leading Men, have Plurality of Benefices, Lord Willoughbay was Governor of Barbadoes and the Leeward Islands; Sir Edmond Andros, in the Reign of Iames II, was Governor of all New England, New York, and the Iersies; Lord Bellamont was Governor of New York, Mas­sachusetts-Bay, and New-Hampshire: It is not so at pre­sent, except in the two distinct Governments of Pensyl­vania, therefore under one Governor.

In the Colonies their Revenue-Acts are generally annual; in Iamaica, they are temporary, but of a long Period; in a few of the Colonies there are some perpetual Taxes; thus in Barbados and Leeward Islands the four and half per Ct. upon Produce exported, and in Virginia 2 s. per Hogshead Tobacco. All their Provincial Treasurers are appointed by their own Assemblies; excepting the four and half per Ct. in Barbadoes and the Leeward-Islands; the King's Collectors are the Receivers, and also receive the Plantation Duties laid on by Act of Parliament 1673, as not appropriated for the Use of the Treasuries of the several Plantations, but at the King's Disposal: The 1 d. per Ct. upon Tobacco of Virginia and Maryland is appropriated for the Benefit of the College or Seminary at Williamsburg.

In the several Colonies their general Revenue is by a Tax of some Pence in the Pound, upon the Principal of real Estate, personal Estate, and Faculty; and a Pol-Tax, Imposts, and Excises.

The Produce for Export in the several Colonies shall be enumerated in the proper Sections. Upon our first Discoveries of America, we found no Horses, Asses, Cows, Sheep, and Swine. In the Inland Parts of the Continent, especially upon the Misissippi, there was Plenty [Page 218] of Buffaloes, and in the West-India Islands, several Sorts of Wild Hog Natives; every where much Deer, and the American Stag or Buck-Moose, which differ from the German Elke, by its branched Brow Antlers: Variety of Geese, of Ducks, and of wild Fowl called Gibier by the French.

In the Colonies of the several European Nations, they have a national exclusive Commerce amongst themselves and with their Mother-Countries. St. Thomas, a Danish Settlement only, admits of a free general Trade. The French and Dutch Governors (perhaps by a private In­struction from their Courts at Home, and as a conside­rable Perquisite, do at Times allow, or connive at a fo­reign Importation of Necessaries (Provisions, Lumber, Horses, black Cattle, &c.) with which they cannot other­ways be accomodated, and are much in Want of.

By Act of Parliament Anno 1698, no Vessels, unless registred in England, Ireland or the Plantations (by the Union, Scotland is included) upon Oath that they were built there (foreign Prizes are also qualified) and that no Foreigner is directly or indirectly concerned.

Plantation Produce or Goods as enumerated (com­monly called enumerated Goods) by several Acts of Par­liament, are not to be carried, but to Great-Britain; and Plantation Bonds are given, and a Certificate to be return­ed to the Officers of the Shipping Ports, of their being loaded accordingly. The enumerated Goods are naval Stores, viz. Pitch, Tar, Turpentine, Masts, Yards, and Bowsprihts; Sugars, Molasses, Cotton-Wool, Indigo, Ginger, Dying-Woods, Rice, Beaver, and other Furs, Copper Oar. Rice and Sugars by late Acts of Parlia­ment, are indulged under certain Conditions (too long to be enumerated in a Summary) to be carried to certain foreign Parts: Logwood is not the Growth or Produce of our Plantations, and by the Construction of the Com­missioners of the Customs, is exempted from being an enumerated Commodity, (as we have no Logwood the Growth of our Plantations) being imported from the [Page 219] Spanish West-Indies to our Colonies and re-exported to Europe.

By an Act of the Parliament of England Anno 1673, there are imposed Plantation-Duties (Produce carried from one Colony to another) upon certain enumerated Goods for a genera l national Use, not for the particular Colony. viz.

 s. d. d.
Muscovado Sugars1.6 pr Ct. wt.Tobacco1. pr lb.
White Do.5.Cotton half1.
Dying Woods.6.Coco Nuts1.

that upon Tobacco has been appropriated to the College in Virginia at Williamsburg.

Our North America Trade to Great-Britain, is, the enumerated Commodities above mentioned, Pig Iron, and Fish Oil, sometimes Wheat and Staves to Ireland. To Spain, Portugal, and Italy, dry'd Cod-Fish. To the West-India Islands, Lumber, Refuse dry'd Fish, salt Beef and Pork, Butter; and Cheese, Flower, Horses and Live Stock, the Returns from the West-India Islands, are, Su­gar, Molasses, Rum, Cotton, Indigo, Dye-Woods, Span­ish Money, and Cocoa: Sugar, Rum, Tobacco, and Chocolate are much used in our Colonies.

Anno 1729 The Attorney and Solicitor General, gave it as their publick Opinion, that a Negro Slave coming to Europe, or baptized any where, does not make him free.

In our Colonies * Computations of all Kinds, Weights and Measures are the same as in England.

[Page 220]Our Settlements upon the Easterly Side of North-Ame­rica, are much colder in Winter, and much hotter in Summer, than the same Latitudes, in the Westerly or European Side of the other vast Continent; the Globe of our Earth may be said to consist of two large Continents viz. the ancient Continent of Europe Asia and Africa, and the new Continent called America. Every Man who h [...]s resided some Time in Europe, and some Time in North America, is personally sensible of this: in Europe Northern Fisheries, for Instance, Cod and Salmon extend Southward to 51 d. N. Lat. in North-America they ex­tend no further than 41 d. N. Lat.

Mariners observe, that in their Passages between Europe and America, Winds are almost three Quarters of the [Page 221] Year Westerly; Baron Lahontan a Canada Officer writes, "That, the Winds from Canada to Europe are Easterly for about 100 Days in the Year, and Westerly about 260 Days:" This with an attending Westerly Swell or heaving of the Sea, is the Reason, that the Passages from North-America to Europe are much shorter than from Europe to North-America.

In North-America the dry freezing Winds are from North to West, in Europe the dry freezing Winds are from North to East; proceeding from that great Conti­nent which receives and retains the Northern Effects of Cold, viz. Snow and Ice, laying to the Westward of A­merica, and to the Eastward of Europe; the Current of Air gliding along, becomes more and more impregnated with the Cold, the Terms of frigorific Particles, or of a peculiar Salt of Nitre, I leave with the virtuoso idle no­tional Philosophers. The Situation of Lands occasions considerable Differences in the Temper of the Air; the Weather in Canada is generally in Winter colder (in Pro­portion to its Latitude) than in New-England, and more settled; as being surro [...]ed with Land of some Extent, and therefore the Land Influence from all Corners of the [Page 222] Winds, of the same Nature; whereas in New-England to the Eastward is Water or Sea of a very different Influ­ence from the Land or Earth's specifick Gravity or Soli­dity in receiving or retaining Cold or Heat. By the Soft­ness of the Vapour from the Water, the Sea-Shore is warmer than the Inland, the Sea warmer than the Shore, and the Ocean or deep Water warmer than the Sea: Thus the Island of Great-Britain and its appertaining Is­lands are much warmer in Winters than the adjacent Con­tinent, but with this Inconveniency (a Digression) that this soft Vapour or Damp, disposes the Inhabitants to a catarrhous or colliquative Consumption; this Distemper, Time out of Mind, is recorded as an English Endemial Distemper. The Situation of the various Countries as to Islands, and Head-Lands, as to Variety of Soil, sandy Lands which retain the Heat, Morass, Swamps, and Wood-Lands which retain Damps; these a Summary cannot enumerate, with Regard to the Winds or Current of the Air and as to the Temper of the Air in our various Colonies.

Georgia excepted (Nova-Scotia and Cape-Breton I do not call Colonies) our American Colonies have been no Charge to Great-Britain; a small Matter of Artillery to some of them must be acknowledged, but without Am­munition. The British Men of War or King's Station-Ships, of late, have been of no Use only by their Coun­tenance: The Commanders are either indolent, or in Collusion with the Pursers (not long since they had the Perquisite of Pursers) take Advantage of the Provisions of the Non-effectives, connive at their Ships being ill man'd, and upon an Exigency or when called Home, distress the Trade by pressing Sailors: There are Excep­tions, I shall only instance Sir PETER WARREN an assi­duous, faithful, good, and therefore fortunate Man. Our Provinces have frequently grumbled upon this Account, and have lately made an Experiment by fitting out a Province-Frigate at a great Charge in Massachusetts Bay; but for these last two Years seem to be under the [Page 223] same Censure, where the Fault lies, I shall not, at present relate.

In all our Colonies are many good, industrious, frugal, pious, and moral Gentlemen; I hope the following, ge­neral Character of many of the Populace will give no Offence. 1. Idleness, Intemperance, Luxury in Diet, Extravagancies in Apparel, and an abandoned Way of Living. Our Planters, especially their Children, when they go Home to Great-Britain, distinguish themselves too much by their Dress, and expensive Way of Living for a short Time. 2. The People of all Colonies (Bri­tish, French, &c.) do not seem to have so much Solidity in thinking as in Europe; but exceed the European menu peuple, as to some little Tricks and Arts in Business ac­quired by Education, and a continued Practice. 3. By importing and expending too much of Superfluities from Europe; and in some Colonies by substituting a Paper-Currency, they impoverish themselves, and are under a Necessity of sending their Gold and Silver, as Returns, to Europe. 4. A present Profit prevails over a distant Interest.

To avoid Prolixity, but with Impatience, I must defer the Iniquity of a multiplied Plantation Paper Currency to the Appendix; it is of no Benefit only to the fraudulent Debtor, they are not ashamed to acknowledge that Equity and natural Justice, they ought to repay the same in real Value which they received; but they say, their Province Laws excuses and indemnifies them, by paying any no­minal Value; and that the compassionate good Creditor, must blame himself for his Forbearance and long Credit, while Money is depreciating: That a multiplied Paper-Currency naturally depreciates it self, I shall at present only evince by the Instance of the Province of Massachusetts-Bay, November 1747; where are about Two Millions, One Hundred Thousand Pounds current publick Bills of Credit not cancelled or burnt, whereof a small Matter is in the Hands of the Receivers of the Taxes; the Opera­tion is, Bills of Exchange with Great-Britain are risen to the extravagant incredible Height of One Thousand [Page 224] Pound New-England, for One Hundred Pound Ster­ling.

Timber-Trees, especially White-Oaks for Ship-build­ing, the best grow in New-England; further North they are dwarfish, and of an untoward Grain; further South they are spungy and soft, and do not afford compass Timber.

In Countries far North the Mould is light and spungy, being much distended by the hard long Frosts.

ARTICLE 3. The Ecclesiastical or Religious Constitution of the British Colonies in North-America.

IN all the Royal Patents and Charters of our Colonies, the principal Condition required of the Patentees, s [...]ems to be the Conversion of the Indians; and [...]he Crown on the other Part conditions for the Encourage­ment of Settlers, a free Profession or Liberty of Consci­ence: Therefore a * TOLERATION for all Christian Pro­fessions [Page 225] of Religion, is the true Ecclesiastical Constitution of our American Colonies; the Roman Catholick only [Page 226] is excepted; the Nature of our Constitution, the horrid Principles of thatReligion, and at present the Popish Claims to our Royal Succ [...]ssion, can by no Means admit of it; the Papists of Maryland Pensylvania and Montserrat, seem to be too much indulged. By an Act of the English Par­liament incorporated with the Act of Union of Scotland and England, Anno 1707; the Church of England is, and forever hereafter shall be the established Religion in the Territories belonging to England, viz. in the Planta­tions: Therefore, the Church of England is at present, and must continue in Perpetuity the established national Religion of the Plantations, being one of the fundamen­tal Articles of the Union; Earl of I—lay a great Law­yer, upon a certain Occasion in a Speech in the House of Lords well observed, "That there were only two Articles of Union [...]alterable, viz. Those relating to Re­ligion, and the Proportion of Taxes." Antecedent to Anno 1707 it seems that a general Toleration limited as above was the religious Establishment of our Colonies; 1. In thei [...] Charters and Grants, there is no Preference given to the Church of England. 2. The Act of Uni­formity in the Beginning of Queen Elizabeth's Reign, was prior to the Colonies in America. 3. In the Act of Uniformity, Beginning of King Charles IId's Reign, are mentioned only "the Realm of England, Dominion of Wales, and Town of Berwick upon Tweed." 4. By a late Act of the British Parliament for the naturulizing Fo­reigners in the Plantations; receiving the Sacrament in any Protestant Congregation is a Qualification; therefore it did not extend to the Plantations.

I know of no doctrinal * Difference between the Laity of the Church of England, and the Laity of the three [Page 227] Deno [...]nations of Protestant Dissenters; who are thus distinguished from other Dissenters, because they take out [Page 228] Licenses for their Meetings or religious Assemblies in England, I mean the Presbyterians, Independents, and An­abaptists ▪ these last at present seem to differ from the others only in the Manner and Age proper to receive Baptism. My being prolix in this Point, is designed not to dictate, but to contribute towards conciliating their Affections to one another; their doctrinal Religion is the same, their Establishment or legal Toleration the same; they differ only nominally, or in Denominations; if any of these Denominations should be angry with me, I give them this short anticipating Answer, I am independent and of no Party, but that of Truth.

The Differences in the Modes of BAPTISM are not es­sential; my Voucher is the Bishop of London our Dio­cesian, noted by his printed pious super-excellent Pastoral Letters; in a Letter to the Reverend Mr. Miles, a Rector of the Church of England in Boston, dated Fulham Sept. 3. 1724. ‘I have been informed within these few Days, by a Bishop who had a Letter from Boston, that some of the Ministers there, begin the Dispute about the Validity and Invalidity of Baptism; administred by Persons not episcopally ordained. This was advanced in England some Years ago, by the Nonjurors, Ene­mies of the Protestant Religion and present Govern­ment. The Bishops in Convocation then assembled, set forth a Paper, proving and declaring, that Baptism by Water in the Name of the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, by what Hand soever administred or however ir­regular, is not to be repeated: This Doctrine, the great Patrons of our Church maintain'd against the [Page 229] Puritans in the Reigns of Queen Elizabeth and King Iames I. Considering the Views wit [...] which this Doc­trine has been lately advanced here, by the Nonjurors, if any Missionary shall renew this Controversy, and ad­vance the same, I shall esteem him an Enemy to the Church of England, and the Protestant Succession, and shall deal with him accordingly.’ Dodwel carried this Affair of Baptism to a ridiculous Height, viz. That the Souls of Men were naturally mortal, but Episcopal Baptism makes them immortal.

The Differences in offering up their PRAYERS, to the Supreme Being are not essential; whether, 1. By Liturgy, a printed Form, called in the Church of England, Com­mon Prayer. 2. Memoriter, though generally composed by some Directory, or Custom, or Habit; as amongst the three Denominations of Protestant Dissenters. 3. Random extempore Prayers of the Sober-minded; I do not mean the profane enthusiastick Prayers of New-Lights and others, which they impiously call, Praying as the Spirit shall give them Utterance; Inspirations are ceased▪ 4. Mental Prayers, these are called Qui [...]tists, such are th [...] English Quakers, the Dutch Mennists or Mennonites, the Spanish, French, and Italian Molinists, they are of Opi­nion that in our Devotions, we are to r [...]tire our Minds from all Exteriors, and sink into a pious Frame of Si­lence; that using of Words or attending to Words, in­terrupts Devotion, and they reduce all the Exercise of Religion to this Simplicity of Mind: In short, Qui­etists are of Opinion, that the great GOD ought to be adored in Silence and Admiration; that Words and Ce­remonies divert true Devotion, to material Sounds and Objects. Our Quakers say, that their silent Meetings are the most edifying. A strict Uniformity in Religion does not people a Country, but depopu­lates, and particularly sends away the best of their People, the industrious peaceable conscientious Dissenters. The Revocation of the Edict of Nantz hurt France very much by sending away many of their best Ma [...]u­facturers [Page 230] and Artificers; to the great Benefit of Great-Britain and Holland, where an extensive compassionate charitable Toleration is established by Laws and Plakka [...]ts.

3. In our Colonies, People of all Religions are under the coercive Power of the Civil Government; therefore at present, any other Government in the several Denomi­nations of Churches, might have the bad Effect of Im­perium in Imperio, i. e. Confusion: In Fact, in our Plan­ [...]ations, at this Time, there is no real Provincial Church Government, and consequently do not differ in this Re­spect; the Bishop's Commissary is only a nominal Office; the annual Meetings of the Independant or Congregational Clergy, in Boston End of May at the Solemnity of the Election of a Provincial Council; and the yearly Pilgri­mage of some Quakers, are only upon a laudable friend­ly Account. Perhaps a Superintendant of the Missionaries from the Society of 1701, might have a good Effect; with a Power, and Instructions, to remove Missionaries from one Station to another, as the Interest of propagat­ing the Gospel might require. As an Historian, every Thing is in my Province. Some who do not understand Propriety of Characters, think, I ought not to mention the Clergy; but as a Writer of History, I cannot avoid it, without being reckoned deficient, and partial in the Affairs of the Clergy.

4. The Vestments of the Clergy are not to be faulted: They are not essential to Religion; all Communions seem to affect something peculiar in this Respect; the Gown, Cas [...]ock, Girdle, Rose, Surplice, &c. of the Church of Eng­land; the plain black Gown of the Officiating Clergy in Geneva, Switzerland, and Hugenots of France; the black Gown with Frogs in the Country Ministers of Scotland; the black Cloak of the Independants; the antiquated Ha­bit of the Quakers, particularly of their Exhorters.

Perhaps, at present, many Religions, are so loaded with verbal Differences or Controversies, and with enthu­siastick devotional Terms; that they are become an Affair not of Piety, Sincerity and Truth, but a Jumble of in­significant [Page 231] technical Words and Cant-Phrases: As for­merly, instead of true solid Philosophy and natural History, there was in the Schools only a pedantick metaphysical Iargon, which by this Time has received a notable Refor­mation; so I doubt not, that Religion in Time may ad­mit of the like Purity and Simplicity.

In Great-Britain there are three distinct Societies for propagating Christian Protestant Knowledge or Religion in foreign Parts, incorporated by Royal Charters.

1. Anno 1649. The Parliament of England, granted a Charter to a President and Society, for propagating the Gospel in New-England; at the Restoration it was laid aside, but by Sollicitation a newCharter was granted 14 Car. II. February 7, to a Society or Company for propagating the Gospel in New-England, and Parts adjacent in Ame­rica, the Number of Members not to exceed 45, and the Survivers to supply Vacancies; they appoint Commissi­oners in New-England to manage Affairs there: This Charity has been helpful to some of the Preachers in New-England who have small Provision.

2. Anno 1709 by Charter there was established in Scot­land a Society for propagating Christian Knowledge a­mongst the Highlanders; 4 Geor. I. their Charter was ex­tended to all Infidel Countries beyond Seas; they have a considerable Fund, they have had a Missionary upon the New-England Western Frontiers, and another upon its Eastern Frontiers; the laborious Mr. Brainard, late­ly dead, was their Missionary amongst the Indians upon the Northern Frontiers of Pensylvania and the Iersies.

3. A Society for propagating the Gospel in foreign Parts, established by Charter Iune 16. Anno 1701, their certain Fund is very small, they depend upon Subscripti­ons and casual Donations; their subscribing and corre­sponding Members at present, are upwards of 5,000; in the American Colonies, near 60 Missionaries; their annual Expence exceeds 4,000 £. St. We may find by their Charter, by their annual Society-Sermons, and by the yearly Narratives of the Progress of thi [...] Society; [Page 232] that the principal Design is to propagate Christian Know­ledge, that the Indians may come to the Knowledge of CHRIST; to preach the Gospel to the Heathen; the Care of the Indians bordering upon our Settlements, and such like Expressions: A secondary Design is, to officiate where there is no Provision, or only a small Provision for a Gospel Ministry. Many good Things were originally intended by this Charter, and doubtless the same good Intentions continue with the Society; but in all publick distant Affairs the Managers at Home may be imposed upon: here I beg Leave of the Missionaries, as an His­torian to relate Matters of Fact; if any Missionary thinks that I deviate from the Truth, he may correct me, and I shall be more explicit and particular in the Appendix. The Remarks which I shall make at present are 1. The Missionaries do not concern themselves with the Conver­sions of the Indians or Heathen; the Missionaries of Albany in the Province of New-York, have at Times vi­sited the Mohawks. 2. Instead of being sent to reside and serve th [...]ir Missions in our out Town new Settle­ments (where, in the Words of their Charter) "the Provision for Ministers is very mean, or are wholly des­titute and unprovided of a Maintenance for Ministers, and the publick Worship of GOD," they are sent to the Capitals, richest, and best civilized Towns of our Pro­vinces; as if the Design and Institution were only to bring over the tolerated sober, civilized Dissenters, to the Formality of saying their Prayers Liturgy-Fa­shion. In the Colony of Rhode-Island, discreet able Mis­sionaries are requisite.

The British Missionaries of the three distinct Societies, are much d [...]ficient, when compared with the Missionaries of other Nations amongst the Heathen. 1. For many [Page 233] Years last past, we have frequent Accounts of many nu­merous Conversions of the Heathen in the East-Indies by the Danish Christian Protestant Missionaries▪ which not only propagates our Christian Religion, but i [...] a political View brings over the Aborigines and secures them in a national Interest. 2. The French Missionaries in Canada are indef [...]tigable, and thereby serve the Interest of France, equally with that of Christianity. 3. The Popish Missi­onaries in China from several European Nations, by their Mathematical Ingenuity, and their Omnia Omnibus, have been very useful to Christianity.

A DIGRESSION Concerning the Settling of Colonies in general; with an U­topian Amusement, or loose Proposals, towards regulating the British Colonies in the North Continent of America.

It is a common but mistaken Notion, that sending a­broad Colonies, weakens the Mother-Country: Spain is generally adduced for the Instance; but Spain being ill peopled does not proceed from thence, it is from their native Sloth, from driving all the Moors out of that Country, from a rigorous Inquisition in religious Affairs, from vast Numbers of Friers and Nuns who do not la­bour, and who are not allowed to propagate their Species, for this Reason, and from the Popes being Landlords only for Life; the Popes Dominions in Italy are almost deso­late of People, but not from sending out of Colonies; they have no Colonies.

[Page 234]The Grandeur of Phoenicea, Greece, and Rome, was much owing to their Colonies; they made no Complaints of their Colonies depopulating their respective Mother-Countries. The many and large Dutch Colonies in the East Indies, do not depopulate Holland, but are the chief Foundation of their Wealth. How vastly rich, must France have been in a very short Time, if the good Car­dinal Flury's Scheme of Trade and Colonies had been followed, in place of their idle Romantick Land-Conquests in Europe.

The People sent f [...]om Great-Britain and their Progeny make vastly more profitable Returns, than they could pos­sibly have done by their Labour at Home: I do not m [...]an Idlers and Soldiers sent only for the Defence of un­necessarily multiplied Colonies; this seems to be bad Policy, by exhausting their Mother-Country both of Men and Money. If any neighbouring foreign Settlement becomes noxious, let us demolish or dismantle it, when in our Power; and prevent, by Treaty or Force any future Settlement; this will be sufficient and profitable.

The Nations of Great-Britain are not a numerous Peo­ple, and therefore cannot swarm so much (in Allusion to Bees) as some other Countries of Europe: We have found and do practice two considerable Expedients, to supply this Defect. 1. Importing and naturalizing of Foreigners; witness the late incredible Growth of the Province of Pensylvania, from the Importation of Pala­tines and Strasb [...]rghers from Germany. By an Act of P [...]rliament, any Foreigners who after the 1st of Iuly 1740▪ shall reside in any of his Majesty's Colonies seven Years or more, without being absent above two Months at a Time from the Colonies, and shall bring a Certificate of his having received the Sacrament within three Months in some Protestant Congregation, and of taking the Oaths to the Government before a Justice, and registering the same, shall be deem'd as natural-born Subject. By an Act of Parliament 1740, every foreign Seaman who shall after 1st Ian. 1739, 40, have served during the War, on board [Page 235] any British Man of War, Merchant Ship, or Privat [...]er for two Years, shall be deem'd a natural born Subject of Great-Britain, and shall enjoy all Privileges as an actual Native of Great-Britain with some Exceptions as to Offi­ces of Trust. 2. Importing and employing of Slaves from Africa ▪ in the West-India or Sugar-Islands, and in the Southern District of the British Colonies in North-A­merica, they are about 300,000, at the Charge of about 30 s. St. per An. per Head: These Negro Slaves are employed in the Produce of all our Sugars, Tobacco, Rice, and many other valuable Commoditi [...]s.

The Discouragements and Hindrances of the Growth of our Plantations, which require to be remedied, are all IMPRESSES, because hitherto our Plantations have no spare Hands. 1. Inlisting of Landmen as Soldiers to serve without their several Provinces or Colonies: All the Co­lonies want more People, and Whites, Natives of Ame­rica, do not well bear Transplantation; of the two Com­panies sent from Massachusetts-Bay in New-England many Years ago for the Relief of Iamaica, not above 5 or 6 returned; of the 500 Men sent to Cuba Expeditions, not exceeding 50 Men returned; of the 4000 Men Volun­tiers upon the Expe [...]ition to Louis [...]ourg, o [...]e Half died of Sicknesses; and they who returned, came Home with a Habit of Idleness, and generally consumed more than they earned, and consequently were worse than dead: Inlistments to be allowed only occasio [...]a [...]y in Case [...] of Invasions or Insurrections in the neighbouring Provinces. 2. Impressing of Seamen for the Servi [...] of the Navy, this prevents the Increase of Shipping and Seamen in the Co­lonies, and occasionally makes Ri [...]s and dangerous Tu­mults; out of many Instances I shall mention one which lately happened at Boston in New-England, Nov. 17. Anno 1747, Commodore Knowles made a general Imp [...]ss [Page 236] in a most illegal, unprecedented Manner, seized, or rather in the Night Time in Surprize by his Press-Gangs STOLE [Page 237] away Ship-Builders Apprentices, and whole Crews of Ships, not only outward bound but actually cleared out, [Page 238] without leaving any of his own People on Board to take Care of the Ships and Merchants Interest: This natural­ly occasioned a considerable Tumult; the Rioters seized the Sea-Officers that the Commodore had imprudently left ashore, by Way of Reprizals, but used them well; the Commodore threatned, and did actually make some Advan [...]es with his Fleet towards the Town of Boston, to bombard it or land his Men there (doubtless if he had arrived to the Point of putting this furious Madness in Execution, his Officers would have confined him as a Maniack) but this Paroxysm abated, and he returned a few [Page 239] of the impressed Men: Such a dangerous Experiment might have occasioned a general * Insurrection o [...] the Province.

The impressing of Seamen has in Part been redressed by a late Act of Parliament. There had long subsisted a Dispute between the Admiralty, and the Trade, concern­ing the impressing of Sailors: The first insisted that, Commanders of Privateers, and Masters of Merchant-Men, did encourage Desertion from his Majesty's Ships of War by entertaining and hiring Deserters; the Mer­chants complain'd of the great Hardships upon Trade and Navigation, from the arbitrary unreasonable Impress of Hands by indiscreet Captains and Commanders: To accommodate this Affair the Parliament of Great-Britain [Page 240] in their Wisdom passed an Act Anno 1746, that Privateers or Merchant-Men harbouring Deserters from the King's Ships, should forfeit 50 £. St. per Man; and any Officer of a Man of War impressing any Sailor (De­serters excepted) on Shore or on Board should pay 50 £. St. for each Man impressed. This Act is only in Relation to the Sugar-Island Colonies; it might easily when in Agitation have been extended to the Continent Colonies of North-America by proper Application of their several Agents; in a particular Manner New-England claimed this Exemption (if their Agents had had that Address, In­terest, Vigilancy and Assiduity which their Duty required) by having lately suffered so much in their Persons and Purses by a voluntary Expedition in Favour of their Mo­ther-Country against Louisbourg: I am apt to think that being too forward beyond our natural Abilities, may give the Ministry at Home some Reason to imagine, that New-England is so encreased in People, as to have many Idlers to spare; as appears by their Order for two Regi­ments of Soldiers (or 2000 Men) from hence, in Addi­tion to the Garrison of Louisbourg: At present I hope the Ministry are convinced that New-England can not spare Idlers sufficient to make one Regiment compleat. I speak for the Interest of the Country, and impartially in general, my Interest being in that Country some may wrongly think that I am partial.

Before the Plantation or Colony-Trade took Place, the Trade of England consisted only in the Exportation of some Lead, Tin, Leather, Grain, and Wool; by Colonies our Trade and Navigation is vastly improved; Crom­well and the Rump-Parliament, had good Notions of Trade in general, and particularly of the Plantation-Trade; they had a Scheme to bring the Dutch to Rea­son, for some Outrages they had done us in our Spice-Trade and other Affairs, but the subsequent Reigns of the indolent Charles II, and of the Popish-Priest-Rid Iames II, were great Damps. The Addition which the Factories and Colonies have made to our Trade and Na­vigation [Page 241] is immense, viz. The India Trade, Fur and Skin Trade, Cod-Fishery and Fish-Oil, Naval Stores, Tobacco, Rice, Sugar and other West-India Island Produce. Besides theProfits they afford to the Planters, Merchants and Na­vigation Owners; they yield great Branches of Revenue, to the publick Treasury, the East-India Trade about 300,000 £. St. per An. Tobacco 200,000 £. St. Sugars 150,000 £. St. &c.

In multiplying of Colonies there are Boundaries which to Advantage cannot be exceeded; thus our Sugar-Colo­nies produce as much Sugar as we can vent to Profit, the same may be said of Rice, and perhaps of Tobacco; if we increase in these, their Prices at Market from their Plenty must fall, and not yield a sufficient Profit.

The Regulations in the Colony-Trade, ought to be alter­ed according as Circumstances of Time, &c. may require, for Instance, seeing by an Arret of the Council of State 1726, the French Colonies are allowed to carry their Pro­duce directly to other Ports of Europe, but the Vessels to return directly to the Ports of France from whence they set out; therefore Great-Britain seems to be under a Necessity to take off all Enumerations (that of Sugar and Rice is lately in Part taken off) but that the Vessels which carry Plantation-Goods to foreign Ports, shall clear out from Great-Britain, before they return to the Plantations, this would prevent their carrying foreign Goods to our Plantations directly, and would maintain the proper De­pendency of the Colonies upon their Mother-Country.

The Utopian Amusement.

I shall conclude the general History of the British North-America Colonies, being the first Part of our Sum­mary; by a Scheme for the better regulating these Co­lonies: It is not to be expected that such considerable Alterations, are to be made, and therefore may be called an idle Scheme; but, perhaps, it may give some Hints, towards rectifying several Things, which much require Emendations.

[Page 242]By the general Patent of King Iames I. Anno 1606, t [...]e Sea-Line of the English North-America, at that Time called North and South Virginia, was to have been divid­ed into Colonies 147 of 100 Miles square, being for each Colony, 100 Miles upon the Sea; but this Patent was soon vacated, and the proposed Divisions did not take Place: Afterwards Royal Grants were made at sundry Times, to various Grantees of single Persons or Communities, of different Humours and Views; so that Boundaries (the Countries not being well explored, In­stance, Merimack River with Relation to the Boundaries of Massachusetts-Bay and New-Hampshire Colonies) were uncertain, and their Constitutions different. The Colo­nies at this Time are arrived to a State of consider [...]ble Maturity, and the Conveniences and Inconveniences of the Politia or Polity of the several Colonies are now ap­parent; perhaps it would be for the Interest of the Na­ [...]ions of Great-Britain, and for the Ease of the Ministry or Managers at the Court of Great-Britain, to reduce them to some general Uniformity; referring to their several General Assemblies or Legislatures, the raising of Taxes and appropriating the same, with the Affairs relating to their different or sundry Produces and Trade; these may be called their municipal Laws.

Previously, at the Court of Great-Britain, there may be constituted A BOARD OF TRADE AND PLANTATI­ONS for Direction; to be composed of Gentlemen re­turned Home who have formerly been Governors of Co­lonies, Iudges of Vice Admiralty, Consuls at foreign Ports of Trade, Commodores who have served some Time in Plantation-Stations, Surveyor-Generals and Collectors of the Customs in the Colonies, Planters, Merchants and Fac­tors who follow the Plantation Trade: Some few of these may have Sallaries, and obliged to a close Attendance; the others may be honorary, and with equal Power of Manage­ment when present: The Agents (they are properly their Attorneys) of the Colonies to attend when called upon.

[Page 243]This Board being constituted, their first Business may be to compose a Draught of a Body of general Laws for all the Plantations (it may be called the MAGNA CHARTA OF THE BRITISH COLONIES IN AMERICA) by perusing the present Law-Books of the several Colonies, and from their own personal Experience and Observation, with the Assistance of the Attorney and Solicitor-General, or of some other eminent Lawyers. This Draught of general Laws for the Plantation to be laid before the British Parliament for their Approbation, and to be passed into a publick Act of Parliament; in Process of Time, and as Things may require, subsequent Parliaments may make Additions and Amendments. All these general Laws may be compris­ed in one Pocket Volume.

Some of these Plantation general Laws may relate to the following Articles.

I. Property shall permanently remain as at present and tranferable according to Law, with a Clause for quieting Possessions.

Proprietary and Charter-Governments to be vacated for Equivalents, either in Money, or [...] furth [...] [...] of Land-Property, and all Governments of the Co [...]onies to be vested in the Crown. *

[Page 244]The Government of all the Northern American Con­tinent Colonies being thus in the Crown; that Country may at the Pleasure of the Court of Great-Britain, be di­vided into sundry Governments more uniform, equal, and convenient for the Attendance of Persons concerned in their Provincial Courts, than at present; without any Damage or Infraction of Property; moreover, the se­veral Colonies will be more adequate Checks upon one [Page 245] another in Cases of Mutiny or Insurrections. The several Colonies as at present are at length and with much Dif­ficulty become well-bounded and distinguished (the Line between Maryland and Pensylvania excepted) and therefore without any Trouble may be reduced into the following Governments.

  • 1. Nova-Scotia.
  • 2. Sagadahock, Province of Main, and New-Hampshire.
  • 3. Massachusetts-Bay.
  • 4. Rhode Island, and Connecticut.
  • 5. New-York, and New-Iersies.
  • 6. Pensylvania, and the three lower Counties upon Dela­ware River.
  • 7. Maryland.
  • 8. Virginia.
  • 9. North Carolina.
  • 10. South Carolina.
  • 11. Georgia.

Hudson's-Bay is not a Colony, and consists only of very much separated small Factories or Lodges, at the Mouths of some considerable Rivers, where the Indians in their Canoes come to trade with Furs and Skins. Newfound­land is not a Colony, but only a Number of good Har­bours for curing of Cod-Fish; the Soil is good for nothing.

As the Country and Rivers are now well explored and known, if the Colonies were to be new-modelled, they might be more distinctly bounded as follows.

Nova-Scotia, which is bounded by the River and Gulph of St. Laurence, by the Atlantick Ocean, and Bay of Fundi, shall be further bounded by Boundary, No. 1. being St. Iohns River, &c.

[Page 246]In the Boundaries of the several Colonies according to this Scheme, I mean a due true Course, but not according to Compass or Magnetick Needle, because of the conti­nued irregular progressive Variations.

1. St. Iohns River from its Mouth up to — N. Lat. and thence in a Course true North to St. Laurence River, called Canada River.

2. Sagadahock Entrance and up Quenebec River to N. Lat. — and then North to the River of St. Laurence.

3. Up Merrimack River to its Fork in N. Lat.— near Endicot's Tree, and thence North to St. Laurence River.

4. Up Connecticut River to — N. Lat. and thence North to the River of St. Laurence.

5. Up Hudson's River to the Carrying-Place to Wood­creek, by Woodcreek and the drowned Lands to Lake Cham­plain, by Lake Champlain and down the River Chamblai [...] to St. Laurence River.

6. Up Delaware-Bay and River to N. Lat. —, and thence North to Lake Ontario.

7. Up Chesapeak-Bay and Sesquahana River to N. Lat. — and thence North to Lake Ontario.

8. Up Chowan Sound and Roanoke River to — Long. West from London, and thence due West to the Apala­tian Mountains, or further West to the River Misissippi.

9. Up Wi [...]ea-Bay and Peddie River to — W. Long. and thence West to the Apalatian Mountains or further to the River of Misissippi.

10. Up the Savanna River to — W. Long. and thence West to the Apalatian Mountains, or further to the great River Misissippi.

11. Finally, is the New Utopian Colony of Georgia, which may extend South and West indefinitely.

Islands in the dividing Bays and Rivers may be annexed in whole to one of the adjoining Provinces, or partly to one and partly to the other.

II. In each Colony or Province, there may be a Le­gislature for raising of Taxes, and for appropriating the [Page 247] same to the sundry Articles of the Charges of Govern­ment, and for enacting of Municipal Laws, adapted to the peculiar Circumstances of the Colony, to be sent Home (if for any considerable Period) for Approbation▪ If presented and not disallowed by the King in Council after — Time, such Plantation Laws, shall be deem'd good, as if ratified.

The Legislatures may consist of three Negatives:

1. The Governour with Advice of the King's or Go­vernour's Council appointed by the Crown, with Re­commendation of the Board of Trade and Plantations; this may be called the King's Negative.

2d Negative may be some particular hereditary Lords of large Manors (v. g. Renslaer, Livingston, Beekman in New-York Government) appointed by Royal Patents: The Qualifications may be a Land Estate in constituted Townships or Parishes, not less than three thousand Acres, and who shall pay at least — £. Ster. value in every thousand Pound Province Rate; something of this Nature was designed in the beginning of Carolina Settle­ment. These Patricii or hereditary Optimates will be a Credit to the Country, and may be called the Upper House of Assembly. Those Lands to be in tail general, that is to Femal [...]s in defect of Males (while in Females that Vote lies dormant, until a Male the Issue of this Female shall appear) indivisible and unalienable: This seems to be consonant to the second Negative in the Parliament of Great Britain.

3d Negative is the Representatives of the common People from their several Districts; and may be called the Lower House of Assembly, or the Commons House of [Page] Assembly. At present they are variously represented, a [...] may appear in the following Sections, concerning the several Colonies. Perhaps a general Uniformity might be exped [...]ent, that is, two o [...] more Representatives from each County, and two Representatives from each Shire Town: The Qualification for the Electors to be 40 s per Annum Sterling Value of Freehold, or 50 £. Sterling Value Prin­cipal in any Estate Real or Personal; the Qualification of the Elected, Representative or Deputy to be — per An. Land Rent, or — principal Estate of any Kind clear of all Incumbrances. As the Representatives of Counties and Towns are not elected as Agents for these Counties or Townships at the General Court, but as their Quota of the Commons Representation in the Province; when they find a Person well qualified in Knowledge and Ho­nesty though not a Town Resident (in the out Town­ships it cannot be supposed that the Residents or Settlers do understand much of State-Policy Affairs) they may have the Privilege of electing that Person though a * Non-Resident, but with some natural Interest of Freehold in the County or Townships.

As upon frivolous Occasions Disputes sometimes hap­pen between the several Negatives; and thereby their General Assemblies spend much idle Time, attended with extraordinary Charge, and Delay of Business: Therefore in Times of Peace, they shall not sit at one Session exceeding — 153 Days; which will oblige the Representatives of the People to a quicker Dispatch of Business, and will prevent the Governours from forcing them into his own interested Measures, by an inconveni­ent long Attendance.

As in some Colonies, their Assemblies have refused or [Page 249] neglected for some Years following, to supply the or­dinary Charges of their Governments: therefore if such a Neglect happen in any Colony for two Years running, the Board of Trade and Plantations shall be impowered to tax that Colony, and make an Assessment in Proportion to some former Assessment, and the usual or last chosen Collectors and Constables be obliged to collect the same, and carry it into their respective Treasuries, to be applied as the said Board shall direct, but for the Use of the Charges of the particular Colony, and for no other Use.

III. RELIGION. "For the greater Ease and Encou­ragement of the Settlers, there shall for ever hereafter be a Li [...]erty of Conscience (this is in the Words of the Charter of the Province of Massachusetts-Bay) allowed in the Worship of GOD, to all Christians,* Papists excepted;" and without any peculiar religious Qualifications for Of­fices. As the Church of England by the Articles of Union is the national Church of all the British Plantations, their Ministers must be licensed by their Diocesian; but all other Communities, their Places for religious Worship, may be licensed by the Quarter Sessions and registr [...]d. Upon any Complaints in Cases of Life or Doctrine of the Ministers, the Quarter Sessions may appoint some know­ing discreet Ministers of the Gospel in the Neighbour­hood (this is a Jury of their Peers) to enquire into the Matter, and make a Report of their Opinion to the Quar­ter Sessions. Preachers and Exhorters not licensed by the Quarter Sessions, who shall intrude without the Invi­tation or Consent of Town or Parish Minister (as by their Noise and Nonsense they may alienate the Minds of weak People from their own settled Ministers) shall be [Page 250] deemed as Fortune-Tellers, idle and disorderly Persons, Vagrants and Vagabonds. That the Parsons of the Church of England, and the Ministers of the tolerated Communities be enjoined to live in exemplary Charity and Brotherhood. That their Pulpit Discourses may principally relate to Things which do not fall within the Cognizance of the municipal Laws; to preach up In­dustry, and Frugality; to preach down Idleness, a disso­lute Life, and Fraud; never to intermeddle in Affairs of State; no Pulpit Invectives against tolerated religious Sects, that as Dr. Swist humourously expresses it, "Their religious Zeal having no Vent by their Tongues, may be turned into the proper Channel of an exemplary Life.

IV. JUDICATORIES. That in the several Colonies, the Legislatures or General Assemblies, may have a Power to erect Judicatories for Crimes capital or not capital; for Pleas real, personal, or mixt; and to elect Judges and Justices not annually or durante Beneplacito, but for Life, or Quamdiu se bene Gesserint; and when by Reason of Age in the Judges, their intellectual Faculties become lan­guid, [Page 251] and their Memories fail; they may be allowed a certain yearly Pension; thus these Gentlemen will make the Law their Delight, Study, and only Business; and be under no Temptation of being mercenary to provide for a rainy Day. It must always be supposed that the Officers of the Court of Vice-Admiralty, the Officers from the Board of Customs, and the Surveyors of the Woods or Masting-Trees, are to be appointed by the Court of Great-Britain; the Justices of the general Sessions of the Peace, of the Inferior Court of Common Pleas, of the Superior Court of Judicature, Assize and general Jail-Delivery, and of Probates to be elective in the several Provinces. That Appeals from the Colonies shall be to a Court of Dele­gates being a Committee of the Board of Trade and Plantations; and from thence in Cases of great Conse­quence to the House of Lords in Great-Britain, the der­nier Resort of all Justice for the Dominions of Great-Bri­tain, which is a Court of Law and Equity in it self, as all other Courts of Judicature ought to be.*

The four principal Executive Offices ought to be in four * distinct Persons or Boards. 1. The Governor with his Council. 2. The Chancery. 3. The Iudges of the Superior Court of Common Pleas. And 4. The Iudge of Probate of Wills and granting of Administration.

As an Estate Qualification, the Judges of Probates and Judges of the Superior Courts, shall have a clear Estate of any Sort, above what will discharge all Incumbrances; paying — in every Thousand Pound Tax: Inferior Judges and Justices of the Quarter Sessions a like Estate [Page 252] paying — in every Thousand Pound Colony or Province Tax.

Some Regulations to prevent Delay of Justice, that Cases may speedily be brought to Issue and Execution; some Exception may be made in Cases, where are con­cerned, Infants, femme couverte, Non-compos, and Persons beyond Sea [...]. In all the Ports, a Court Merchant, for the summary Dispatch or Recovery of Debts belonging to Strangers and transient Traders.

That the real Estate of Intestates be indivisible, and go to the next in Kin.

V. TO ENCOURAGE THE GROWTH OF THE COLO­NIES. No Person shall be carried out of the respective Colonies, or required to march, without their own Con­sent, or by a particular Resolve of their Legislature, no Levies of Lands Men for Soldiers, excepting in Cases of foreign Invasions, great Incursions of the Indians, or ge­neral Insurrections in any of the Colonies: These Levies [Page 253] to be in certain Proportions or Quotas for each Colony, to be settled from Time to Time, according to their pro­portional Growths by the Board of Trade and Plantations. No Impress of Sailors, it hinders the Growth of their Trade and Navigation, the Profits center in the Mother-Country; Impresses may occasion Tumults and Mutinies in the Colonies, a noted Instance we have from that rash unprecedented Impress * at Boston New-England by Com­modore Knowles, Nov. 17. 1747. 2. Importing and na­turalizing [Page 254] of Foreigners conform to two Acts of Parlia­ment, An. 1740, see P. 234; naturalized Foreigners are [Page 255] not to settle in separate peculiar Districts, but intermixed­ly with the original British, see Page 209. Papists or Nonjurors, shall register their Names and Estates.

[Page]VI. PUBLICK SCHOOLS AND HOSPITALS. For the Education of Youth, there shall be one publick School or more in each Township or District, for teaching of read­ing English, Writing, and Arithmetick: In each Shire Town a Grammar School for the learned dead Languages of Greek and Latin, for Hebrew Roots Recourse may be had to the Divinity Colleges; the Masters of the Town and Country Schools to be approved of by the Quarter Sessions: In each Province, a Schola illustris, or College, for what are called Arts and Sciences, to be regulated by the Legislatures: And near the Center of the North-America Continent Colonies (therefore not in Bermudas, Dr. Barclay's Scheme) an University or Academy to be regulated by the Board of Plantations, to initiate young Gentlemen in the learned Professions of Divinity, Law and Medicine; in the modern, commercial and travelling Languages of Frenc [...] Spanish and Dutch; in other cu­rious Sciences of Mathematicks, Belles Lettres, &c, and [Page 257] Gentleman Exercises of riding the great Horse, Fencing and Dancing; from School to College, from College to Travel, and from Travel into Business, are the Gradations of a liberal Education, but for Want of Effects the Link of Travel is frequently wanting.

In every Shire-Town there shall be a Work House, to oblige and habituate Idlers to some Work: It is a better Charity to provide Work for the idle Poor, than to feed them; as also an Alms-House for the aged, infirm, and incurable Poor of the County: But principally and es­pecially, an Orphan-House for poor Children; where Parents are dead or unable to provide for their Children, these Children become Children of the Common-Wealth, not to be brought up to * idle Learning (Reading and Writing excepted) but to Trades and Labour: Generally these poor Children may be bound to proper Masters, as Apprentices or Servants, the Boys to 21 Aet. the Girls to 18 Aet. by the County Courts, or by three Justices Quorum Unus.

VII. TO ENCOURAGE TRADE AND NAVIGATION IN [Page 258] THE COLONIES. 1. All Enumerations be taken off, excepting upon such Commodities, that are the peculiar Produce of our Plantations, and which no foreign Nation can purchase of any other Nation. 2. As * Animosities sometimes happen between Colonies, from the mutual imposi [...]g of high Duties upon the mutual Importation or Exportation of Goods, which may tend to alienate their mutual Affections, and may prevent or much obstruct a very useful national Intercourse amongst the Colonies: Therefore no such Colony-Duties shall be imposed, but by special Acts of Parliament. 3. That all Combinations and Agreements, between Workmen concerning Wages▪ &c. shall be unlawful: That the Employer shall pay the full Prices agreed on, in Money, not in Goods, or by Way of Truck, with certain Penalties. 4. That the Le­gislatures in each Colony, may make their own munici­pal or local Laws. 5. That the Governors of the several Colonies or Provinces, shall have their Salaries out of the Civil List from Home, but shall have no Salaries, or Gra­tuities from the respective Assemblies; it has happened at Times in all our Colonies, that some designing evil Men, having obtained a wicked Majority in the Assembly have thus biassed and corrupted their Governours. 6. When Townships exceed 500 legal Voters for a Town-Meeting; the Legislature, or the Governour with his [Page 259] Council, may appoint a certain Number for Life, or Number of Years, of the most knowing, discreet, and substantial Men of the Town, to act in every Thing, in Place of a general Town-Meeting; excepting in Electi­ons of Representatives or Deputies for the General As­sembly; in every Township all Papists to register their Names and Estates. 7. That all Vessels, those from Great-Britain not excepted, be liable to Tunnage or Pow­der-Money, it being towards the Protection of their Trade and Navigation. 8. That no Man (even with his own Consent) shall be inlisted in actual Land or Sea-Service under 20 Aet. nor above 52 Aet; this is conform to a late Act of Parliament, for enlisting Marine Soldiers.

VIII. TAXES. The different Nature of the several Colonies, will not admit of any general Taxations; there­fore the various Taxes must be local, adapted to the Con­veniencies of each Colony; here I shall only observe, 1. That in these Colonies (in North-Carolina there is no o­ther Tax) where there is a Poll-Tax upon all Male Whites from 16 Aet. and upwards, it seems not equitable that a Chimney-Sweeper or the meanest of the People should pay as much (as at present in Massachusetts-Bay) as a Counsellor or Prime Merchant; the People ought to be classed and pay in Proportion, according to their Rank and Substance, 2. That as Wines and Spirits are not the Necessaries of Life (and therefore Hardship upon the Poor, is not in the Case) there may be a considerable Impost or Custom up­on this Importation, and where Spirits are manufactured (for Instance Rum in Boston) an Excise at the Still Head. Thus private Tippling Houses that pay no Excise, will have no Advantage over the licensed Houses; upon Ex­portation to draw back the Duties of Impost or Excise. 3. That there be a License-Tax upon all Taverns, Inns, and other publick Houses of that Nature. 4. A * sump­tuary [Page 260] Excise or Duty upon Extravagancies used in Diet or Apparel, excepting upon Materials that are the Pro­duce or Manufacture of Great-Britain. 5. As vexatiou [...] Suits in Law, are a great Nuisance in all Countries; and the smaller the Charges of Courts, the greater is the Encouragement to such Suits: Therefore there shall be a stamp Duty upon all Writings or Instruments used in Law-Affairs. Whereas Appeals from one Court to ano­ther are generally vexatious, no Appeal to be allowed, un­less the Appellant deposite — Sum of Money; if the Appellant is cast, this Money to be applied towards the Charges of the Province or County. 6. In the Affair of Rates as in Great-Britain, the principal Gentlemen of the County in the Land-Tax Act are nominated as Commissioners for the County, whereof but a very few are acting: In the Plantations the Justices of the Quarter Sessions in the Counties seem to be the proper Commissi­oners to appoint Assessors in each Parish of the most sub­stantial Men; and in Cases of Grievance, Appeals in first Instance may be made to the Quarter Sessions.

IX. * That for the Benefit of the British Trade and Navigation more especially with Regard to the American [Page 261] Colonies, and Factories in Africa, the East Indies, and China: And for the better adjusting the Boundaries of the Colonies or Grants in North-America, there shall be fitted out at certain Periods of Years by the Board of Admiralty or Navy Board, a few small Vessels, such as are th [...] Man of War Snows called Sloops, with able Observers or Mathe­maticians, [Page 262] and a proper Apparatus; in different Routs a­long the Seas of Trade, TO OBSERVE THE VARIATIONS for the Time being; and to reduce them, to a general Chart of Variations, in Imitation of the Ch [...]rt (the first of that Kind) for Anno 1700, delineated by the ingeni­ous, assiduous, learned, and of blessed Memory Dr. Halley; from his own Knowledge and Observations, from the good Accounts of others, and from the Analogy of the whole; it was soon cavil'd [...]t by our Competitors the French Academicians and Navigators; but afterwards conceded to and applauded by the French * Academicians. In these Voyages, when on Shore by observing the Eclipses of Iupiter's Moons, and of our Moon when to be had, they may adjust the Longitudes, and other Requisites of Places. The other Nations of Commerce, particularly France and Holland may do the same at a publick Charge, [Page 263] thus by Means of so many Checks, we may attain from Time to Time some Certainty as to the Variations; this insensibly brings me to a Digression.

A Digression concerning the Magnetick Needle, commonly called the Mariner's Compass.

That the MAGNET or Loadstone attracted Iron, was known to the highest Antiquity in Record: But the Po­larity of an Iron Rod or Wire, touched by a Magnet and afterwards poised, was not observed until the 13th Cen­tury of the Christian Aera. The Mariners Compass is said to have been first used in Italy (the principal Place of Traffick in those Days) Anno 1301. Cab [...]t a Ve [...]etian makes the first Mention Anno 1544 of the Variation or Deflection of the Magnetick Meridian from a true Meri­dian, various in various Places. Gasse [...]di about a Century and half since, discovered that this Declination of the Needle in each particular Place, in Process of Time, had some Variation. It is not long since that the Dip of the Needle, various in various Places; and the Variation of this dip Variation in the same Place, has been discover­ed: A Needle poised before it is touched, upon the Mag­netick Touch, its North Point with us dips from a Ho­rizontal Position; for Instance, Anno 1723 Mr. George Graham in London observed it to dip 75 d; he observes, the stronger the Touch, the greater the Dip: This Nee­dle must be afterwards properly loaded to bring it again to an horizontal Poise to serve in the Compass. As the Variations of the Dip are at present of no Use in Naviga­tion, therefore having no Relation to our History of the British American Colonies, we drop them.

Magnetism is some Power in Nature, hitherto inexpli­cable, as are Gravity and Electricity; whereby a Load­stone (an Iron Ore or Mineral) draws to it self Loadstone or Iron. No interposed Body can hinder this Influence or Attraction; a large Magnet broken to Pieces, each [...]rustum or Fragment, retains the Attraction and Polarity▪ [Page 264] Steel is more receptive and retentive of Magnetism than common Iron. The North Poles of touched Needles do not attract but repel one another, and attract South Poles: Likewise South Poles do not attract bu [...] [...]epel South Poles. If the different Directions of the Magnetick Needle were permanent for the same Place, it might be imagined to proceed from different Accumulations of Magnetick Mat­ter in these different Parts of the Earth. Halley's amus­ing Fancy, that the Globe of the Earth was one great Magnet, with two contain'd Nuclei (which humorously may be term'd Wheels within a Wheel) whose four Poles are different from those of the Earth, and from one ano­ther; and in Case a third Line of no Variation should be discovered in the South Seas (which he seems to suspect from the Accounts, Anno 1670, of Sir Iohn Narborough, of the Variation upon the West Coast of South-America decreasing very fast) he was to introduce a third Nucleus: These Nuclei he supposes detached from the Earth and from one another, and to have a circulatory or libratory Motion, equal or inequal, according as the Solution of the Phaenomina might require; but this pleasant Novel does in no Manner account for the Irregulaties in the Va­riations, as hereafter related; and until by future Obser­vations they be reduced to som [...] Rules, it seems in vain to attempt any Hypothesis.

Dr. Halley upon his Return from his long Voyages, de­lineated the Variations as they were Anno 1700 in all the Oceans and Seas, the Pacifick Ocean excepted, from 58 d. N. Lat. to 58 d. S. Lat; Delisle delineates the Vari­ations 20 d. further N. than Halley. This Chart of Hal­ley's being the first of its Kind, will perpetuate his Mem­ory better than Brass or Marble, and will be a permanent Credit to our British Nation. Since Dr. Halley's Chart of Variations for Anno 1700, near half a Century is elap­sed, which has produced great Alterations in the Variations, seeing Halley's Atlantick and Ethiopick Line of no Varia­tion, in about the Space of a Century from 1600 to 1708, had moved (it passed Anno 1600 by Cape Agulhas, the [Page 265] Southernmost Cape of Africa, by the Morea, and the North Cape of Europe, in N. Lat. 71 d. 24 m. and 22 d. 10 m. E. Long. from London) by its North Parts thro' Vienna Anno 1638, through Paris Anno 1666, West­ward in all about 1400 Leagues, and by its South Parts only about 500 Leagues.

The Anomalies or Bizarreries of the Variations, are un­accountable, and no Length of Time or Series of Years is likely to bring them to a Mean.

1. The Variations for the same Place, sometimes have a direct progressive Motion but unequally, sometimes are stationary, and sometimes retrograde: I shall instance the Variations at Paris for about a Century and three Quarte [...]s of a Century; Anno 1580 the Variation was 11 and half d. E. Anno 1666 no Variation, is at a Medium about 8 m. per An. Anno 1715 Variation was 12 d. 30 m. W. for that Interval, is about 14 m. per An. from that Time to Anno 1720 it was generally retrograde; from 1720 Va­riation about 13 d. W. for five Years it was strictly stati­onary; from Anno 1725 it was at a Medium directly in­creasing or progressive to Anno 1732, Variation 15 d. 45 m. W. from 1732 to 1743 (so far the Memoirs of the Paris Academy of Sciences are published) the Variation was 15 d. 5 m. W. tha [...] is a little upon the Decrease with a li­bratory Motion: Therefore (as I may conjecture) the general Increase of the European West Variations seem to be retarded, or stationary, or upon the Decrease.

2. Mr. George Graham of London, an ingenious and accurate Mechanicien observes Anno 1722 from February 6 to May 10 (the Compass-Box remaining unmoved all that Time) above One Thousand Times; the greatest Variation (Westward) was 14 d. 45 m. the least 13 d. 50 m. he observes, that the Variation is considerably d [...] ­ferent in different Days, and in different Hours of t [...]e same Day; without any Relation to Heat or Cold, dry or moist Air, clear or cloudy, Winds or Calms, nor the [Page 266] Height of the Barometer. In the same Day he observed the greatest Variation from Noon to 4 Hours Afternoon, and the least about 6 or 7 Hours in the Evening. Mr. Ioseph Harris in his Return from Iamaica to London, Anno 1732 observed, that the Westerly Variations were less in the Morning than in the Afternoon. The Curves of no Variation, and of each particular Variation, do al­ter their Curvatures so irregularly and undulatory; they are not reducible to any Equation expressive of their Nature.

3. The Variations have no Relation to Meridians; ac­cording to Halley's Chart Anno 1700, at the Entrance of Hudson's Streights, Variation was 29 and half d. West; at the Mouth of Rio de la Plata, nearly under the same Meridian, the Variation was 20 and half d. East. As to Parallels of Latitude it is observed, that the further North or South from the Equinoctial, the Variations are the greater, but in no regular Progression either as to Distance from the Equinoctial or Difference of Time. M. des Hayes and Du Glos Anno 1682 at Martinique, found the Varia­tion 4 d. 10 m. East; Anno 1704 it was 6 d. 10 m. E. this is 2 d. in 21 Years; in the same Interval of Time, it increased at Paris 5 d. 30 m. The further from the Lines of no Variation, the Variations seem to increase or decrease the faster.

4. Capt. Hoxton from Maryland, relates a strange Phae­nomenon of his Magnetick Needles orCompasses, Anno 1725, Sept. 2, a little after Noon, fair Weather, small Sea, in N. Lat. 41 d. 10 m, 28 d. E. Long. from Cape Henry of Virginia, all his Compasses (an Azimuth, and 4 or 5 more) carried to several Parts of the Ship continued for about one Hour, traversing very swiftly, so as could not steer by them, but all of a sudden, every one of them stood as well as usual. Capt. Midleton in his Hudson's-Bay Voyage of 1725; says, that his greatest Variation was 40 d. W. in N. Lat. 63 d. 50 m, 78 d. W. from London; where the Compass would scarce traverse: He says, a great Cold or Frost hi [...]ers the Needle from tra­versing: [Page 267] where near a great Body of Ice, there were great Complaints of the Compass not traversing: He suspected, that the Age of the Moon had some Influence upon the Variation.

5. The three Lines of no Variation seem to be of different Natures; that Line in the Atlantick and Ethiopick Ocean gives Easterly Variations West of its Line, and Wes­terly Variations East of its Line; that Line in the Indian Ocean reversly gives Westerly Variations West of its Line; and Easterly Variations East of its Line; that in the Pacifick Ocean or South-Sea, unexpectedly gives Easterly Variati­ons both Sides; Dr. Halley and others, before this third Line was discovered, seem to have laid it down as a Law in Nature, that where an Easterly Variation terminated, a Westerly Variation must begin, and where a Westerly Variation terminated an Easterly Variation was to begin, but further Observations evince this to be no stated Law.

There is a Magnetick Influence all over the Surface of our Globe or Earth; the Magnetick Needle in some Places has a true Meridian Direction, in others the Mag­netick Meridian has a Deflection more or less in different Places, East or West: The Points or Places of no Va­riation, and of the several Quantities of Variation, when connected, form Curves, but so irregular as not reducible to any Equation, and of no permanent Figure, and not easily to be classed: We shall only observe,

There are at present three Lines of no Variation. 1. Between Europe with Africa, and America in the Atlantick and Ethiopick Ocean; the Variations East and North of this Line are Westerly, and the further distant from this Line, the greater and their Increase or Decrease the swifter, this is a general Principle in Variations; Halley says that in t [...]e Beginning of this Century, all over Europe the Va­riations were Westerly and upon the Increase; but at present, these West Variations in the Eastern Parts of Eu­rope seem to be stationary (at Nuremberg in Germany the W. Variation was stationary at 11 d. from 1700 to 1708) or upon the Decrease; for Instance at Torneo in N. Lat. 65 d. [Page 268] 50 m, 23 d. E, from London; M. Bilberg Anno 1695 found the Variation 7 d. W. Anno 1736 the French A­cademiciens [...]ound it 5 d. 5 m. W. therefore upon the De­crease, and perhaps belonging to the System or Class of the Indian Ocean Line of no Variation (the Line is not ascertain'd where the Increase ends, and the Decrease be­gins) as in the Northern Parts of Asia they belong to this Class of Indian Ocean Variations; for Instance, at Astra­can near the Caspian Sea, N. Lat. 46 d. 15 m. and 45 d. E. Long. while the East Variations decreased at London, there the West Variations increased even to 24 d.; and as the West Variation increased in London it diminished at Astra [...]an. Our North-America Variations belong to this first Line of no Variations, and are Westerly N. and E. of this Line, and Easterly S. and W. of it; these E. Variations along the Coast of South-America increase very slow; at La Vera Cruz, in N. Lat. 19 d. 12 m. Anno 1727 it was only 2 d. 15 m. E, at Pariba in Brazil be­ginning of this Century S. Lat. [...] d. 38 m, it was 5 d. 35 m. E; at Buenos Ayres S. Lat. 34 d. [...]0 m. it was Anno 1708, 15 d. 32 m. E.; at Cape-Horn 20 d; South of Cape-Horn in S. Lat. 56 d. 42 m. it was 17 d. E. be­ing upon the Decrease, and stretching along the Pacifick Ocean Westward or Northward these East Variations decreas'd.

This Line of no Variation moves the quickest; Anno 1600 it passed Cape Agulhas (about 2 d. E. of Cape Good-Hope) the Morea, and North Cape of Europe; at this Cape Agulhas the Variations afterwards became West, viz. Anno 1622. 2 d, Anno 1675. 8 d, Anno 1691. 11 d, Anno 1732 17 d; at St. Helena the Variations were Anno 1600. 8 d. E, Anno 1623. 6 d. E, Anno 1677 Halley found 40 m. E, Anno 1690. 1 d. W, Anno 1700 Halley found 2 d. W, Anno 1732. 8 d. W. Halley Anno 1700 ascertains this Line of no Variation from four Observations N. Lat. 31 d. W. Long. [...]4 d, N. Lat. 2 d, Long. 18 d. W; S. Lat. 17 d, Long. 10 d. W▪ S. Lat. 37 d, Long. 4 d. W. Th [...]s L [...]ne of no [...] seems to move quick to the [Page 269] Westward, in S. Lat. 35 d. from Anno 17 [...] to 1709, it mov'd 50 Leagues Westward. A French Ship Anno 1706 (being the first that made this Traverse) from Rio de Gal­leguas upon the East Coast of America in S. Lat. 51 d, 68 d. W. Long. from Paris, Variation 23 d. E. made 1350 Leagues toCape of Good Hope in 34d. 15m. S. Lat. 17d. 45 m. E. Long. from Paris, found the Variation Lines tending towards the S. Pole, to become nearly parallel, and in some Places alters only one Degree for two Degrees of Longitude.

The second Line of no Variation, in the Indian Ocean Anno 1600 passed through the Moluccas or Spice-Islands and a little East of Canton in China; in a Century follow­ing that is Anno 1700 it had not advanced Eastward a­bove 100 Leagues▪ the W. Point of Iava (and in the Influence of this Line) Anno 1676 was 3 d. 10 m. West Variation; Anno 1732 it was only 3 d. 20 m. but the fur­ther West these Variations increased, the quicker to the common Axis of the Variation Parabolick Curves, and th [...] began to decrease and terminate in the first Line of no Variation. The common Axis of the inscribed Para­bolick Curves Anno 1700 passed through Madagascar and the Streights of Babelmandel about 50 d. E. Long. from London, where the increasing W. Variations terminate, and the same W. Variations begin to decrease; Halley place [...] the highest of these West Variations 27 d. S. Lat. about 530 Leagues East of Cape Good Hope.

The third Line of no Variation was found by Capt. Rogers in the Pacifick Ocean in N. Lat. 14 d, W. Long. from London 125 d; and in N. Lat. 13 d, W. Long. 193 d, was 12 d. E; (and afterwards decreasing to the second Line,) the largest of these East Variations which reign all over the Pacifick Ocean; French Navigators since Anno 1710 have traversed this Ocean Southward of the Equi­noctial Line, as Capt. Rogers did Northward of it, and found the no Variation Line nearly upon the above-said Meridian, and the other Variation-Lines nearly paralle [...] with the Meridians. Sir Iohn Narborough, Dr. Halley ▪ and Capt. Rogers were mistaken in [...] Co [...]jecture tha [...] [Page 270] South of the Equinoctial in the middle Parts of this Ocean there must be a Tract of Western Variations.

This 3 d no Variation Line seems to be a Continuation of the first inflected Westward into a circular Arch whose Vertex at present seems to be in about 34 d. N. Lat, and 80 d. W. Long. from London.

All Variations within this Curve made by the first and third Line, being a Space of 140 d. upon the Equinoctial, are Easterly; all without it, on its East Side, being a Space of 115 d. to the second Line are Westerly; all without it on its West Side are Easterly, being a Space of 105 d. to the said second Line. It is observable, that all Vari­ation Lines the nearer they approach to the Poles of our Earth, the more they converge towards a Parallelism with the Meridians, as if to terminate in the Poles. The se­veral Variation Lines seem to receive their Flexures from the Influence of their Easterly and Westerly no Variation Lines, so as to form Parabolick Curves or circular Arches.

The Alterations in the Variations are not from any uni­form circulatory or libratory Power; but as these mag­netick Powers seem to be accumulated and act connect­edly, it must be by some Kind of Fluctuation; in Oppo­sition to this, it may be said, that the Fluctuation of any dense or specifically heavier considerable Part of the Earth would alter the Equilibrium and diurnal Rotation of the Earth, and make strange Changes in the fluid Surface of the Earth by Inundations and Ebbs.

This Digression is too abstruse and philosophical for most Readers: The Design of it is, to incite the Curious, to attend the useful Speculation of Variations, more than heretofore.

As the Variations of the Magnetick Needle or Compass have not been much attended to in the Colonies; I can­not pretend to be particular in that Affair, and shall only relate some loose Hints that are come to my Knowledge. The L [...]ne of no Variation (which for Distinction I call the first) from the Eastward, enters the Continent of North-America, in Carolina about 33 d. N. Lat. at this Writing [Page 271] Anno 1748; and by a flattish Flexure crosses the Con­tinent of North-America, and in the Pacifick Ocean con­verges Southward, and forms what is now called the third Line of no Variation. Capt. Rogers Anno 1708 in 14 d. N. Lat, 125 d. W. Long. from London fell in with this Line of no Variation.

To the Northward and Eastward of this No. 1▪ no Va­riation Line upon the Eastern Coast of North America, the Variations are West; and the further North the great­er, but all upon the Decrease; and the further North, the quicker is the Decrease.

The greatest Variation known was Anno 1616, in N. Lat. 78 d. at Sir Thomas Smith's Sound in Baffin's-Bay, the Variation was 57 d. West.

Capt. Midleton publishes that at the Mouth of Churchill River (N. Lat. 59 d, W. Long. from London 94 d. 50 m, from an Immersion of Iupiter's first Satellite) Anno 1725 the Variation was 21 d. W. Anno 1738 it was 18 d. W. Anno 1742 it was 17 d. W. decreasing very fast.

At Quebec in Canada Anno 1649 the Variation was 16 d. W. Anno 1686 it was 15 d. 30 m. is half a Degree in 37 Years; but after this, according to M. Delisle, it varied 1 d. in eleven Years.

In New-England Mr. Brattle observed at Boston, Anno 1708, the Variation 9 d. West; Anno 1741 upon a Com­mission for settling Lines between Massachusetts-Bay Pro­vince, and the Colony of Rhode Island, a little to the South­ward, the Commissioners found the Variation 7 d. 30 m. West.

In New-York City (by Eclipses of Iupiter's first Satel­lite, Governor Burnet found it 74 d. 57 m. W. of London, being in N. Lat. 40 d. 40 m.) Mr. Wells, Surveyor-Ge­neral of the Province-Lands Anno 1686, found the Varia­tion 8 d. 45 m. West; Governor Burnet Anno 1723 found it 7 d. 20 m. West.

In New-Ierseys Anno 1743 the Line, between the Pro­prietors of East and West Ierseys wa [...] run 150 Miles, [...] Chains, 9 d. 19 m. West; but because of the Diff [...]rence [Page 272] of Variation which must be supposed at the South and North Terminations of this Line, it was alledged that it m [...]st not be a direct Line: And upon Examination it was found that this Line was in all Respects erroneous, at the South Point near Egg-Harbour the Variation was only 5 d. 25 m. West, and at the North Point on Delaware River in 41 d. 40 m. it was 6 d. 35 m. West, this was to the Prejudice of the East-Iersey Proprietors.

The Streets of Philadelphia Anno 1682 were laid out with g [...]at Pr [...]cis [...]n [...]ss N. 18 d. E; Anno 1642, they were found to be 1 [...] d. East; this is 3 d. in 60 Years.

In the Parallel of 39 d. running the Line between Pen­sylvania and Maryland Anno 1686, the Variation was fo [...]nd to be 9 d. Westerly. Anno 1739, in running this E [...]st and West Line it was found 5 d. 30 m. W; Differ­ence is 3 d. 30 m. in 53 Years.

In Virginia, Cape Henry in 37 d. N. Lat. 75 d. West from London, Anno 1732 the Variation was 4 d. 40 m.

In the Carolinas, Navigators upon the Coast, give no A [...]owance for Variation, because near the Line of no Va­riation; Inland, in running a divisional Line between the two Governments or Jurisdictions of South and North Ca­r [...]lina, and in laying off Cart [...]'s eighth Part of the Pro­ [...]rty of Carolina, no Account was made of Variation.

[...]rom the Line of no Variation in N. La [...]. 33 d. South­ward the East Variation takes Place, increasing very slow; [...]cause at L [...] Vera Cruz, N. Lat. 19 d. 12 m. W, Long. 97 d. [...]0 m, Anno [...]727 the Variation was only 2 d. 1 [...] m. East.

Here ends the first or general Part of the Summary, concerning the British Colonies in America, with some in­t [...]rs [...]sed [...]ints relating to the Colonies of the other European Nations. In the following Part we shall give [...] Accounts of our several Colonies, in Order, as [...] enumerated Page 15 and 16.
The END of Part First.
[Page 273]


SECT. V. Concerning the Hudson's-Bay Company, their Territories and Trade.

THE Adventurers who endeavoured a N. W. Passage to China, the Spice-Islands, and the East-Indies; and in Search for Copper-Mines; gave Occasion to the Disco­very of Hudson's-Bay, and its subsequent Fur and Skin Trade.

177 The Cabots Anno 1496 obtained from Henry VII of England, a Grant of all Lands they should discover and settle Westward of Europe; in Quest of a N. W. Pas­sage, they coasted the Eastern Shore of North-America, and took a general Possession for the Crown of England, but made no Settlement; the first Land they made was West-Greenland in N. Lat. 66 d.

178 From that Time this Navigation and these Discove­ries were entirely neglected until Anno 1576, 1577, and 1578 Sir Martin Frobisher made three Voyages to a Strait which retains his Name, but he made no Discoveries.

Si [...] Humphry Gilbert by Direction [...]f Secretary Wal­singham, coasted the North Easterly S [...]ore of America: particularly he took Possession of Newfoundland, and St. Laurence or Canada River, for the Crown of England, and b [...]g [...]n some fishing Trade there, Anno 1583.

[Page 274]Capt. Iohn Davis from Dartmouth, made three Voyages this Way, Anno 1583, 1586, and 1587, but made no Discoveries; that Branch of the Opening (the Opening at Cape Farewell in 60 d, N. Lat. a little further at Cape Desolation branches into two Openings) which reaches North Westward retains the Name Davis Straits, and is the Whaling Ground of West-Greenland where the * Eng­lish, Dutch, Biscayers, Hamburgers, Bremers, and Danes kill large Whales of 500 to 600 Barrels Oil, and 18 Feet Bone; this Whaling continues for about seven or eight Weeks.

Henry Hudson after two N. E. successless Trials, and one in vain North Westward Navigation, he essayed the other Opening above mentioned, and sailing Westward, and Southward he discovered the Straits and Bay called by his Name: Anno 1611 proceeding upon further Discove­ries, he was never more heard of; in his Time he was as much an Enthusiast for a N. W. Passage, as Mr. [Page 275] D—bs is at present, as appears by the present Paper-War between D—bs and Midleton.

[Page 276]Sir Thomas Button fitted out by Prince Henry, Anno 1612 passed Hudson's Straits, and sailing Westward, dis­covered a large Continent, and called it New Wales; its Sea and Bay retains the Discoverer's Name; he could not proceed further than 65 d. N, Lat, and called it Ne Ultra, he wintered miserably upon that West Continent at Port Nelson in 57 d. N. Lat.

Capt. Thomas Iames from Bristol, Anno 1631 made fur­ther Discoveries in Hudson's-Bay, he wintered near the Bot­tom of the Bay at Charleton Island in N. Lat. 52 d. and published a good Journal of his Voyage.

Anno 1616 Mr. Baffin, by the North Westerly Open­ing called Davis Straits, carried the N. W. Affairs so high as N. Lat. 80 d. to no Purpose, and gave his Name to the Sea or Bay in that high Latitude.

Capt. Fox Anno 1632 sail'd into Hudson's Bay upon the Discovery, where he see many Whales End of Iuly, he proceeded no further than Port Nelson in N. Lat. 57 d. he wintered there; Tide 14 Feet.

Beginning of the last Century the Danes went upon the N. W. Discovery, and took Possession of the N. Easterly Shore of Davis Straits, and called it New-Danemark, and made a miserable Settlement in N. Lat. 64 d: From that Time, they have assumed the Sovereignty of the Seas in Davis Straits, and keep a Royal Frigate stationed there, duri [...]g the Whaling Season, which does not continue a­bove 7 or 8 Weeks.

The Civil Wars in England prevented any further At­tempts of such Discoveries for some Time, until Prince Rupert and Company Anno 1667 sitted out Capt. Guilam; he landed at Rupert River in N. Lat. 51 d. upon the East Continent of Hudson's Bay, built Charles [...]o [...]t, trad [...]d with the Indians to good Advantage, and laid a Founda­tion for the Companies Fur and Deer-Skin Trade.

A Royal Charter was granted May 2. Anno 1669 to a Governor and Company of Adventurers of England trad­ing into Hudson's Bay; whereof h [...]re f [...]llows an Abstract. To [...] Rupert Count Palatine of the Rhine, to G [...]or [...]e [Page 277] Duke of Albemarle, to William Earl of Craven, and to Fifteen Others, and to others whom they shall admit into said Body corporate, Power to make a common Seal, and to alter it; to chuse annually sometime in November, a Governor, a Deputy-Governor, and a Committee of Seven, any Three of the Committee with the Governor or Deputy-Governor, to be a Court of Directors: Freemen to be admitted (their Factors and Servants may be admitted Freemen) at a General Court, a Power to dismiss the Governor, Deputy-Governor, or any of the Committee, before the Year expires; and upon their Dismission, or Death, to elect [...]thers in their Room for the Remainder of the Year: To have the sole Property of Lands, Trade, royal Fishery, and Mines within Hudson's Straits, not actually possessed by any Christian Prince, to be reputed as one of our Colonies in America, to be called Rupert's Land, to hold the same in free and common Succage, to pay the Skins of two Elks, and two black Beavers, as often as the King or Queen shall come into those Lands: Power to as­semble the Company and to make Laws for their Government and other Affairs, not repugnant to the Laws of England; an exclusive Trade, without Leave obtain'd of the Company, Penalty Forfeiture of Goods and Shipping, one half to the King, one half to the Company. In their General Meetings for every 100 £. original Stock to have one Vote; may ap­point Governors, Factors, and other Officers in any of their Ports; the Governor and his Council to judge in all Mat­ters civil and criminal, and execute Iustice accordingly: Where there is no Governor and Council, may send them to any Place where there is a Governor and Council, or to Eng­land for Iustice: Liberty to send Ships of War, Men, and Ammunition for their Protection, erect Forts, &c: To make Peace or War with any People who are not Christians, may appeal to the King in Council.

Anno 1670 Mr. Baily with 20 Men was sent over by the Company to Rupert River. Port Nelson was the next Settlement Anno 1673; and Mr. Bridge was sent over [Page 278] Governor of the West Main from Cape Henrietta Maria. Anno 1683 the Factory was removed from Rupert River to Moose River. Rupert River is not used because ex­posed to the Depredations of the French; from Tadousac 30 Leagues below Quebec upon Canada River, there is Water Carriage to Lake Mistasin which communicates with Rupert River. The Trade at the Mouth of all the Rivers which fall into Hudson's Bay is secured to Great-Britain by the Treaty of Utrecht, but the Heads of the Southern Rivers are within the French Bounds, and the French have Trading-Houses which do very much inter­cept and lessen our Indian Trade: The Company do not much use the East and South Parts of the Bay, be­cause of the bad Neighbourhood of the French.

In the Summer Anno 1686 in Time of Peace, the French from Canada became Masters of all our Hudson's Bay Fac­tories, Port Nelson excepted. Anno 1693 The English re­covered their Factories, but the French got Possession of them again soon after. Anno 1696 two English Men of War retook them. In Queen Anne's War, the French from Canada were again Masters of these Factories; but by the Peace of Utrecht Anno 1713, the French quit-claim'd them to the English so far South as 49 d. N. Lat; hi­therto we have not heard of any Attempt made upon them by the Canadians in this French War which commenced in the Spring 1744.

Mr. Dobbs reckons that this Country called Hudson's Bay, may be esteemed from 51 d. to 65 d. N. Lat, and from 78 d. to 95 d. W. Long. from London; the true Definition of it, is, from the Treaty of Utrecht 1713; viz. From a certain Promontory on the Atlantick Ocean N. Lat. 58 d. 30 m. runs S. W. to Lake Mistasin (this includes the Western half of Terra Labradore) thence S. W. to N. Lat. 49 d. and from this Termination due West indefinitely; the Northern Boundary may be rec­koned Davis Straits because of the Danish Claim, and otherwa [...] North indefinitely.

The Entrance of Hu [...]n's Straits at Resolution Island [Page 279] is about 15 Leagues wide, Tide flows 4 Fathom, Winds N. W. about 9 Months in the Year, not free of Ice above 2 Months in the Year; Sails and Rigging freeze in July, it is 140 Leagues in Length to the Bay: At the Bottom of the Bay only 4 Feet Tide. Capt. Midleton in 23 Voyages never could arrive at the Factories, above 5 or 6 Times, before the 10th of August; and it is a standing Order not to attempt coming back the same Year, unless they can fail from the Factories by Sept. 10; it is general­ly pleasant Weather; Midleton in all his Voyages never suffered Shipwreck; August is the proper Month for the Navigation of Hudson's Bay and Straits; always good Soundings.

This Grant is divided into the West Main or Continent formerly in Charts called New-North and South Wales, and the East Main called Terra de Labradore or New-Britain: The French claim'd the Bottom of the Bay as belonging to New France or Canada, but they disclaim'd it by the Treaty of Utrecht.

Because of the Unhospitableness of the Country, no Towns or Plantations, can ever be settled there; it must [...] ever remain a Number of scattered dismal Lodges o [...] Factories. Hudson's Bay and Georgia are improperly called Colonies, they have no House of Representatives; the Hud­son's Bay Company in London make their Laws and Regu­lations, as the Trustees for Georgia in London do for the Settlers in Georgia.

Hudson's Bay Colony as it is called, consists of several [...]odges at the Mouths of several Rivers for Trade with the Indians, viz. on the West Continent are Churchill River, Nelson's River, Severn River, Albany River, and Moose River; on the E. Continent are Rupert River and Slude River.

Churchill River (Prince of Wales Fort) is the most Nor­therly, being in about 59 d. N. Lat, and 94 d. 50 m. W. Long. from London, the most Westerly Part of Hudson's Bay; here Capt. Midleton Anno 1742, upon a N. W. Discovery wintered miserably. At the Mouth of this Ri­ver, [Page 280] the Tide comes from N. b. E. 2 Knots; they return about 20,000 Beaver-Skins pr An. the Company keeps here about 28 Men: It is navigable 150 Leagues.

Nelson's River (Fort York) called by the French Bour­bon River; its Port lies in N. Lat. 57 d; it is the finest and largest River in the Bay, it communicates with great Lakes, and Branches of Rivers of Indian Trade: Tide 14 Feet; the Company have here 25 Men.

New Severn River, the French call it St. Huiles, in N. Lat. 55 d; it is at present slighted or neglected, a bar'd River.

Albany River in N. Lat, 52 d. W. Long. 85 d. 20 m. 4 Feet Tide: From the Middle of May to the Middle of September fine warm Weather; Anno 1731, 118 Canoes came there to trade, the Company keep here 25 Men.

Moose River in N. Lat. 51 d. 4 Feet Tide; it is a much larger and finer River than Albany River; the Com­pany have here 25 Men.

P. Rupert River on the E. Side of the Bay, N. Lat. 51 d; is at present neglected.

Slude River on the E. Side of the Bay in N. Lat, 52 d; here are 8 or 9 Men kept by the Company.

The Company's Profits are very great, and engrossed by a few; their Stock has been sold at 300 for 100 O­riginal; they may export annually about 3,000 £. St. Va­lue, and their half yearly Sales are about 25,000 £. St▪ 8 or 9 Merchants have engrossed about nine Tenths of the Stock; the Charge of the Company is about 120 Ser­vants, 2 or 3 annual Ships, having in Time of War about 120 Men aboard. They import Deer-Skins, Castoreum or Beaver-Stone, Feathers, Whale-Bone and Blubbor; but Beaver-Skin is two Thirds of the whole, and is the Stan­dard of their Truck or Currency.

Mr. Dobbs thinks it would be a publick national Be­nefit, that the Hudson's Bay Companies Charter were va­cated, and the Trade laid open; thus we shall under [...]ll the French and carry on a greater Trade with the Indians (the Company keep the Price of Goods too high) and [Page 281] we would have Trading Houses up the River, the Com­pany have no such Trading Houses, the Company by their Charter are obliged to endeavour a N. W. Passage, which on the contrary they discourage.

As this is a Country of exclusive Trade and Navigation, we are too much confined to the Accounts of their own Navigators. As a Specimen we shall take a Medium Voyage of Capt. Midleton's Anno 1735. He set out from London May 21, Iune 12 made Cape Farewell in N. Lat. about 59 d, W. Long. 45 d. 50 m. Var. 29 d. W. Iuly 1. in N. Lat. 61 d. W. Long. 70 d. 10 m. Var. 41 d. W, he was fast in thick Ice with Fogs and Rain; August 3. he arrived in Moose River, N. Lat. 51 d; W. Long. 83 d, Var. 22 d. W; he sail'd from thence Sept. 1. makes no Mention of Ice in his Return; arrived in England Oct. 7. As for the Climate, Midleton in the Journal of his N. W. Discovery Voyage Anno 1741 and 1742, says, He arrived in Churchill River August 10; first Snow was Sept. 1. Geese flying to the Southward; Sept. 27 Thermometer as low as in London, Time of the greatFrost; Oct. 21. Ink and Water froze by the Bed-side; Beginning of Nov. a Bottle of Spirits full Proof froze in the open Air: After Nov. 11, no going abroad without being froze (N. B. forgetting himself, he frequently mentions the Company's Servants, and Indians being abroad after that Tim [...] [...] 2. begins to thaw in the Sun, about this Time the Ice at the Ship was 10 Feet thick with 13 Feet Snow over the Ice. April 10 large Fleaks of Snow (in the pre­ceeding Months the falling Snow was as fine as Dust) a Sign of the Winter's being spent; April 22 a Shower of Rain (no Rain for 7 Months preceeding) Beginning of May Geese begin to appear; May 13 got the Ship into the Stream, and Iuly 1. we sail'd upon the N. W. Dis­covery; he proceeded no farther North than 66 d. 44 m. because Beginning of August from a high Mountain we perceived to the S. E, at about 20 Leagues Distance a Straits covered with an impenetrable solid Body of Ice, and therefore no Communication with the Eastern Sea; and [Page 282] the Tide of Flood coming from thence, we had no Hopes of passing that Way, into the Western or Pacifick Ocean, and August 8. we bore away to the Southward.

In the Northern Factories, the great Thaws begin End of April; the Waters inland are froze up from the Begin­ning of October to the Beginning of May. In North-A­merica we judge of the Inclemencies of their several Cli­mates, by the Times of the Flights of their Passenger Birds: In these Factories wild Geese and Swans fly South­ward Beginning of October, and return Northward End of April and Beginning of May. Seldom a Night in Winter without an Aurora Borealis. Some Deer 12 to 13 Hands high, here are white Bears, Swans, Ducks of se­veral Kinds, and other Water-Fowl; in their Mea [...]ows instead of Cerealia and Gramina, that is Bread-C [...]rn, and Grasses, they have only Moss, some scurvy Grass, and Sorrel. Hares, Rabits, Foxes, Patridges, beginning of Oc­tober, from their native Colour, become Snow-white, and continue so for 6 Months, till the Season produces a new Coat: Wind blows from the N. W. about 9 Months in the Year, they have 9 Months Ice and Snow; the cold Fogs and Mists damp the Pleasure of their short Summers.

I formerly hinted the vast Advantage that the European Western North Latitudes had of the American Eastern North Latitudes; by Way of Amusement, I continue fur­ther to observe that in 50 d. (for Instance) N. Lat. in the N. Easterly Parts of America, it is as cold as in 60 d. or upwards N. Lat. in N. Westerly Parts of Europe; the Ocean and its mellow Vapour being to the Windward of Europe; but a rude, rigorous, chilly, frozen and snowy Continent is to the Windward of the other. I vouch this by a few Instances. 1. From Churchill River Fort there was no going abroad without being frozen in Winter; from Torneo in Lapland Anno 1736 nearly under the Polar Circle, to investigate the Length of a Degree of Latitude there, the French Academici [...]s in the Severity of the Win­ter, were 63 Days in the Desert, procuring a compleat Set of Triangles. 2. The Bottom of Hudson's-Bay is scarce [Page 283] habitable in Winter, though scarce so far North as London, a most agreeable Caelum or Air. 3. In the Orkneys (where the Hudson Bay Ships call in to hire Men and Boys at 5 to 20 £. St. pr An. according to the Years of their indent­ed Continuance; they are called N. W. Men) there is good [...]i [...]tering; Barley, Pease, and Oats, Cabbages, o­ther Pot Herbs, and usual Roots, grow kindly; not much Snow and Ice; Orkneys is a little North of Churchill-River.

* Capt. Midleton in his too minute Journals of his many Voyages from England to Hudson's Bay; observed that in Hudson's Bay, in the same Longitudes from London; in sailing North, the Variations increase faster than in any known Part of the Earth; for Instance, in one of his Voyages he observed, that in about 84 d. W. Long. from London; the Variations increase thus,

In N. Lat. 50 d.Variation was 19 d. W.

Capt. Serogs Anno 1722 (he had Mr. Norton late Go­vernor of Churchill Fort aboard, with two Northern In­dians to discover the much enquired after Copper-Mines) he traded with the Indians for Whale-Bone, at Whale-Bone Point in N. Lat. 65 d, here the Tide flowed 5 Fathom.

A DIGRESSION Giving some further Accounts of late Endeavours towards a North-West Passage to China.

A Passage by the North Westward or Davis Straits seems to be given up or relinquished by all European Ad­venturers; but the Passage by the West Southerly Branch or Hudson's Bay is still in Prosecution: The British Par­liament [Page 284] lately enacted a Reward of 20,000 £. St. to theDis­coverer, if from Hudson's Bay; upon this Encouragement, the Dobbs Galley and California, as a private Adventure, sail'd from England May 1746; in our Knowledge, they are not as yet return'd to England. Their original Pro­posal was to sail Eastward to the East-Indies a [...]d China (but there is no Act of Parliament to indemnify them, in a Trespass upon the exclusive Navigation granted to the East-India Company in these Seas, by Charter and Act of Parliament) and from the Eastward to sail to the North­ward of California, and from thence to endeavour an Eas­terly Passage to Davis Straits or Hudson's Bay.

The last Tentative for a N. W. Passage was by Capt. Midleton from Hudson's B [...]y Anno 1741 and 1742, accord­ing to Order and Instructions from the Lords of the Ad­miralty May 20. Anno 1741: There was no Occasion for his wintering in Hudson's Bay, before he set out upon the Discovery; he should have sail'd from England, so as to arrive in Hudson's Bay, Middle of Iuly; push the Disco­very, Month of August; and return in September.

A short Abstract of his Discovery Journal, is. We sail'd from Churchill River Iuly 1; in N. Lat. 65 d. 10 m, F. Long. from Churchill River 9 d. we doubled a Head-Land, and called it Cape Dobbs; and the following Opening, we called Wager River, Tide 5 or 6 Knots from the East, and full of Ice, Eskimaux Indians came aboard but had no Trade: Proceeding further North, we doubled another Head-Land, and called it Cape Hope; and sailing further to N. Lat. 67 d. E. from Churchill Fort 12 d. 20 m; from the Mountains we see a narrow dangerous Strait frozen over, and no Probability of its being clear this Year, deep Water, no Anchorage; being afraid of f [...]eez­ing up, we returned to N. Lat. 64 d, here were many Whale-Bone Whales; we examined all along to N. L [...]t. 6 [...] d, Tide from the Eastward: August 15 we bore away for England, and Sept. 1 [...], we arrived at Kerston in the [...]kneys.

I shall by Way of Amusement mention the Arguments [Page 285] used both Sides of the Question, in Favour of, and in Pre­judice against a N. W. Passage to China.

In Favour of a N. W. Passage. 1. The Whales found in Plenty on the West Side of Hudson's Bay, as there is no Mention of Whales in Hudson's Straits, they do not come that Way; they cannot come from Davis Straits by the frozen Straits of Midleton, because of a wide and large Field of Ice; Whales cannot pass under a large Tract of Ice, they cannot live without blowing at Times in the open Air; therefore these Whales must come from the Western orPacifick Ocean, by some Straits or Thorough-Fare in Hudson's Bay: It is more probable that the great Whales in Davis Straits, when the Sea there begins to be froze up, pass into the Ocean, or deeper Water, because warmer; Thus the Cod-Fish upon the Coast of New-England in very cold Winters, retire into deep Water: Mr. Dobbs affirms that Midleton see no Whales near Cape Hope or the frozen Straits; he judges the frozen Straits to be only a Chimaera; therefore the Whales in Button's Bay must come from the Westward. 2. Wager River, where was Midleton's principal Enquiry, in N. Lat. 65 d. 24 m. W. Long. 88 d. 37 m; from 7 Miles wide at its Entrance, further up increased to 8 Leagues wide, and from 14 to 80 Fathom Water, and Whales were seen 20 Miles up the Ri­ver. Dobbs conjectures that these Whales came from the Western Ocean, by some Strait or Passage South of Wager River from N. Lat. 65 d. to 62 d; here it is where the Eskimaux Indians follow Whaling, and traded with Capt. S [...]rogs Anno 1722. 3. Midleton from some undue Influ­ence, did not well inspect the Coast, where the greatest Probability was of a Passage, designedly he kept too great an Offing; and descry'd pretended Land and Mountains in the Clouds; concluding there were no Thorough-Fares, he did not send his Boats ashore to try for Inlets. Fox, Anno 1632 sailing upon this Coast, see much broken Land and Islands, and Plenty of Whales end of Iuly. 4. Midleton's Officers said that the Tide was three Hours sooner at the Mouth of Wager River than at Cape Frigid; [Page 286] therefore the Tide did not come from the frozen Straits and Baffins Bay Eastward, but from some Straits West­ward; the same malecontent Officers assured Mr. Dobbs, that the higher up Wager River, the Water became the salter, and the Flood was from W. S. W. Midleton says the Tide came from North-Easterly.

To evince the Impracticableness of a N. W. Passage. 1. The French very inquisitive and mindful of their Inter­est, seem to give up any Prospect of this Passage, [...] by the Treaty of Utrecht they readily renounced for ever to Great-Britain, the sole and exclusive Benefit of a N. W Passage to China from Hudson's Bay or Davis Straits when discovered. 2. The Whales on the WestSide of Hudson's Bay, by the frozen Straits, came from Davis Straits where they are plenty. 3. Midleton says (we cannot answer for his Vouchers) that Indian Travellers have gone by Land from Churchill River, as high as the Aretick Circle, but met with no Thorough-Fares; his Northern Indians which he took on Board, in Churchill River were chiefly designed to shew him theCopper-Mines. 4. The further upWager Ri­ver, the Tides rise less; the Water from salt becomes break­ish, and the higher the more fresh. 5. Midleton writes, that from his own Experience, there is no Thorough-Fare from Churchill River in N. Lat. 59 d. to N. Lat. 67 d; and further North, if there be any Straits or Thorough-Fare, it cannot be clear of Ice (if ever clear) above a Week or two in the Year, and therefore impracticable: From the River Wager to N. Lat. 62 d, he stood into every Bay and [...]arched the Coast narrowly. 6. As the Winds there are [...]enerally from the N. W. and excessively cold, there must [...]e a long continued or connected Tract of Land West­ward, covered with perpetual Snow and Ice and therefore impracticable. Moreover, if there is any such Strait, it is narrow and long; the Adventurers would run a certain Risk of being froze up and of perishing.

[Page 287]

SECT. VI. Concerning the Island of Newfoundland, and its Cod-Fishery.

THIS is a Fishery of longer standing, than are any of our Colony or Plantation Settlements; it is noColony, it is not confined to any Patent or exclusive Company, but is an open general British Cod-Fishery, consisting of many Lodges, or commodious Harbours for curing of Cod-Fish, for the Spanish, Portuguese, and Italian Markets.

* Our Claims of Discovery, not Occupancy, run so high as the Times of the Cabots coasting along the Eastern [Page 288] Shore of North-America upon a N. W. Discovery, and their taking Possession for the Crown of England, from Place to Place; they settled no Fishery there, but gave it the Name Anno 1507 of Terra de Baccaleos with good Propriety; that is, Cod-Fish Land: The French called it Terre Neuve, we retain their Name and call it New­foundland

Secretary Walsingham Anno 1583 (about this Time all the trading Nations of Europe were intense upon a N W. Passage to China and the East-Indies) being informed of a Westerly Opening North of North-Virginia (the present Nova-Scotia) sent out Sir Humphrey Gilbert, a Gentleman of Estate upon the Discovery; this Gentleman sail'd up the Gulph and some Part of the River St. Laurence; and in Form, took Possession of Newfoundland and Canada for the Crown of England; he settled a Fishery at Newfound­land, but being cast away upon his Return to England, the Fishery was soon relinquish'd; but prosecuted by the French, Spaniards and Portuguese.

Anno 1608 this Fishery was again undertaken by Iohn Gu [...]y of Bristol Merchant; several English Men, Wo­men, and Children winter'd there, Anno 1613.

Anno 1610 King Iames gave to the Earl of Southamp­ton Lord Keeper, and others, a Grant from Bonavista to Cape St. Mary W. of Cape Raze; some Families were sent over; it did not answer, they returned to England.

Anno 1620 or 1623 Sir George Calvert principal Secre­tary of State, afterwards Lord Baltimore, obtain'd a Pa­t [...]t for some Part of Newfoundland, from the Bay of Bulls to Cape St. Marys; he s [...]ttled a Fort and Plantation at Fairyland; but in the Time of the Troubles in the ci­vil War of England, it was discontinued, and was outed [Page 289] by Sir David Kirk. A. 1654. having retained some Claim until that Time, Lord Baltimore a zealous Roman Catho­lick came abroad (as the first Settlers of New-England did in their Religion Way) to enjoy the free Exercise of his Religion in Quiet: from Newfoundland he removed to Virginia, but the Virginians being as zealous for the Church of England Way, as he was for the Church of Rome Way, he became uneasy, and went further up the Bay of C [...]esa­peak above the Virginian Settlements; and afterwards ob­tained a most beneficial Patent of those Lands now called Maryland, which the Family enjoy to this Day; at present this Family is Christian Protestant.

The French made a Settlement at Placentia in the South Part of the Island where the Cod-Fish first set in yearly; this was relinquished to Great Britain by the Treaty of Utrecht A. 1713, and by Way of Equivalent, the French had given to them, the Islands of Cape Breton, and all the other Islands in the Gulph of St. Laurence, and Liberty to catch and cure Fish in the northern Harbours of Newfound­land: the French pretend, that they have had a constant Fishery at Newfoundland ever since it was taken Possession of, for Francis I. King of France, by Verazano a Floren­tine. In Cromwel's Time Sir David Kirk's Family resided some Years in Newfoundland, he invaded Canada several Times, and had a Grant of Lands North of St. Laurence River, called Canada: but King Charles II. always more in the French Interest (Kings may be bought to betray their own Countries Interest) than in that of Great Bri­tain, Quit claim'd Canada, as also Placentia, St. Peters &c. of Newfoundland in the Gulph of St. Laurence, to the French.

The English have been for a long Time in the Use of this Fishery, A. 1545 there was an Act of the English Par­liament, for Encouragement to the English Merchants trading to Newfoundland: the first Family Settl [...]ments with Continuance seems to have been A. 1610, at present there are nine or ten Settlements called Harbours, not Towns, where they cure and ship off their dry Cod Fish [...] [Page 290] at this Writing A. 1748 there are about 4000 People winter there: they fish and cure Fish from May to Octo­ber, the Fishery is generally off the Mouths of their Har­bours, they do not fish much upon the Banks.

M. Bellin says, that from good Observations Cape Raze, its Southernmost Point lies in N. Lat. 46. d. 50 m; its Northernmost Land in the Straits of Belle Isle, lies in N. Lat. 51 d. 30 m: its greatest Breadth (the Island resembles an Isosceles Triangle) or Base is from Cape Raze to Cape Raye about 80 Leagues. From the Nothern Part of Cape Breton Island or St. Paul are 15 Leagues to Cape Raze or rather Cape Sud the Entrance of the Gulph of St. Laurence: the North Cape of Breton Island lies in N. Lat. 47 d. 5 m.

The great Bank of Newfoundland lies from N. Lat. 41 d. to 49 d. and 90 Leagues from E. to W; Distance from Cape Raze about 35 Leagues.

As to the Regulations, Discipline or Oeconomy of Newfoundland. Differences amongst the Fishermen of the several Harbours, are at first Instance determined by the Admirals so called, being the first Ship Masters who arrive for the Season in the respective Harbours; from this Judgment, Appeal lies to the Commodore of the King's station'd Ships, who determines in Equity. Felonies in Newfoundland are not triable there, but in any County of Great Britain. Newfoundland having no Legislative Assembly or Representative of the Debtors of the Country, their Currency is not perverted but continues at a sterling Value. At present the Commodore of the King's Ships stationed fo [...] the Protection of the Fishery of Newfoundland, is Governour of Newfoundland, during his Continuance there, by the Title of Governour and Com­modore in Chief of Newfoundland, and of the Forts and Garrisons there; there are also Lieutenant Governours of the Forts of Placentia and St. Iohns at 10 s. Sterl. per Day. As we hinted, the Master of the Vessel who first arrives in the several Harbours, is called, Admiral of that Harbour, and acts as a Magistrate, and is called Lord of the Harbour

[Page 291] * The annual Quantity of Cod-Fish shipt off by British Subjects from Newfoundland is various from 100,000 Quin­tals to 300,000 Quintals; generally they make double the Quantity in Proportion to what is made in New-England.

Capt. Smith, a Man of Credit, writes A. 1623, that there fished upon the Coast of Newfoundland yearly about 250 Sail of English Vessels, at a Medium of 60 Tuns, and re­turned the Value of £ 135,000 Sterling annually: their Method of sharing at that Time, was one Third to the Owners, one Third for victualling, and one Third to the Ship's Company.

The Commodore of the King's Ships at Newfoundland, when the Fishing Season is over, receives from each Har­bour a Report in distinct Columns. I shall Instance the Year 1701, being in Time of Peace, a medium Year, and the Accounts the most distinct.

The State of Newfoundland Anno 1701.
Number of Ships, Fishers,75
Sacks or Purchasers46
Burthen of said Ships7,991 Tuns
Number of Men belonging to said Ships 
Number of Fishing [...]hips Boats338
Number of Inhabitants Boats558
Number of By Boats97
Quantity of Fish made by Ships79,820 Quint.
Quantity of Fish made by Inhabitants136,500 Quint.
Q. of Train or Liver Oil made by Ships1,264 Hhds.
Train or Liver Oil made by Inhabitants2,534 Hhds.
Number of Stages544
Number of Men461
Number of Women166
Number of Children256
Number of Servants2,698

[Page 292] Anno 1716 exported to Spain, Portugal and Italy 106,-952 Quintals.

The Fish shipt off from the several Harbours, I shall instance a Year of small Fishery.

Anno 1724 were shipt off
From the HarboursNo. VesselsQuantity of Fish
St. Peters and Placentia23,500 Quint.
Trepas [...]ay33,700
Formoos [...]23,300
St. Iohns2037,000
Conception Bay411,000
Bona Vista14,000
Bay of Bulls47,200

Anno 1732 were shipt off from Newfoundland about 200,000 Quintals, last Year being A. 1747. were export­ed somewhat more.

In Newfoundland they reckon, when well [...]isht, 200 Quintals to the Inhabitants Boat or Shallop, and 500 Quintals to a Banker.

The Liberty allow'd by the Treaty of Utrecht to the French, for fishing and curing of Fish in the Northern Parts of Newfoundland, abridges us of an exclusive Navi­gation; such as the French fully enjoy, by an Edict A. 1727 (by Virtue of the 5th and 6th Articles of Peace and Neutrality in America concluded November. 6. A. 1686) it is peremp [...]o [...]ily declared, that all English Ves­s [...]ls sailing within a League of the Shores of any French Island, shall be seized and confiscated, without any other Proof of Trade. St. Malo and Granville are the princi­pal French Cod-Fishery in North America; there are some from St. Iean de Luz, Bayone, and N [...]les; before Cape Breton lately [...]ell into the Possession of Great Britain, the [...] Bank [...]rs wh [...]n long out, went to water and refr [...]sh at [...].

[Page 293]Four to five thousand Newfoundland fresh Cod Fish are reckoned to make one hundred Quintals of well cured dry Cod or 3 Quintals wet Fish make 1 dry. The [...]vers from 100 Quintals dry Cod, afford about one Hogshead or 60 Gallons of Liver Oil. After the Fish are headed, boned, split, and salted, the Shoremen deliver one half the Weight, the overplus goes for their Labour.

The Cod-Fish annually appear first at St. Peters and Pla­centia in May, and thence proceed Northward along Shore to St. Iohns, Trinity &c, and in Autumn are fisht by the French in the North parts of Newfoundland. Cod follow the bait Fish, as they appear near the Shore successively during the fishing Season; first are the Caplin, next come the Squid, the Herrings take their Course in Autumn, at other Times a Muscle is their Bait.

Their Fish Ships are distinguished into, Fishing-Ships which by their own Boats and Men catch and cure their Fish-Cargoes, and Sack-Ships which purchase their Fish from the Inhabitants.

The Soil is Rocks and Mountains inhospitable; their Trees are Pine, Fir called Spruce, * and Birch; Strawberries and Raspberries here are good and plenty. In Newfoundland there are no Land-Estates; but many of their Salmon Streams or Falls belong to Patentees. In the Winter, they make Seal-Oil, and save their Skins. The great Islands of Ice which appear upon or near the Banks of Newfoundland, come from Davis Straits.

Goods imported to Newfoundland and consumed there, are only Salt, Bread, Flower, Rum, and Molasses; paya­ble either in Fish as the Price shall break, which is gene­rally [...] 10 s. St. per Quintal, or in Bills of Exchange upon Great Britain; these Bills of Exchange are from the Sack Ships who purchase their Fish or Cargo from the Inha­bitants by Bills: Bills purchase these Goods cheaper, [Page 294] than the Fish Truck, because the Fishermen impose any Fish in Pay.

The several Bickerings that have happened in New­foundland between the British and French, cannot be re­hearsed minutely in a Summary; we shall only mention a few. Anno 1704, August 18, about 140 French and Indians, in two Sloops from Placentia, land in Bonavist [...] Harbour, and burnt four Vessels. Anno 1705 in the Winter, M. Subercasse Governor of Placentia, afterwards Governor of Nova Scotia, with 550 Soldiers and Inhabi­tants of Placentia, and from Canada with some Indians, ransack all the Southern Settlements in a few Days, car­ried away 140 Prisoners; laid Consumption-Bay, Trinity, and Bonaviste under Contributions, having burnt their Stages and Craft; they besieged the Fort of St. Iohns (Capt. Moody and 40 Soldiers in Garrison) 5 Weeks in vain; St. Iohns is the principal British Fishery Settlement in Newfoundland; Anno 1710 the Garrison of St. Iohns was reinforced by two Companies of Marines.

Placentia was quit-claim'd by France to Great-Britain, and Anno 1714 June 1st Col. Moody being appointed Lieutenant Governor of Placentia, received Possession from M. Castabella who succeeded M. Subercasse as Governor of Placentia Anno 1706, when Subercasse was removed to the Government of L' Accadie or Nova-Sco­tia; this Castabella was made Governor of Cape-Breton Islands and continued in that Government many Years. Anno 1719 Col. Gladhill was appointed Lt. Governor of Placentia in Place of Col. Moody. This present Anno 1748 Lt. Governor of Placentia is Major Hamilton; and Lt. Governor of St. Iohns is Capt. Bradstreet.

The following Accounts of Fisheries fall in naturally with this Section, and carries along with it some Account of the New England Fishery.

A DIGRESSION concerning Fisheries.

The principal and extensive Branches of Fishery in Com­merce, are 1. Whaling, which is in common to all maritime Nations, but followed to best Advantage by the Dutch, it is [Page 295] called the great Fishery, as Herring, and Cod fishing are called the small Fisheries. 2. Herrings, of these the Dutch also make the most Gain, although the only herring Fishery, known to us, of Quantity and Quality, sufficient and pro­per for the Markets, is confined to the British Seas which is a Mare Clausum, and in all Respects is the British peculiar Property, excepting that it is a natural Thorough-Fare or high Way to all Nations in their outward bound and in­ward bound Voyages; and Great Britain, with greater Propriety, may be called Herrings Island, than Newfound­land called Terra de Baccaleos: The Dutch in the Reign of Charles I. agreed to pay annually to Great Britain, £ [...]0,000 Sterling for Licence or Liberty of fishing for Herrings upon the Coasts of Great-Britain, they paid only for one Year 1636 and no more [...] Cromwel in his Decla­ration of War against the Dutch, made a Demand of the Arrears of this licence Money (at the same Time he insi­sted upon Satisfaction for the Amboyna Affair) but the principal Differences which occasioned the War being soon accommodated, these Demands were dropt. 3. Cod-Fish. The European North Sea Cod, the Cod from the Banks of Holland and Coast of Ireland are much superiour in Quality to the American Cod; but in no Degree ade­quate to the Spanish, Portuguese, and Italian Markets: the Cod Fishery to supply Markets, is peculiar to New­foundland, Nova Scotia, and New England: If Great Britain, pending this French War, continue with Success to reduce the French Trade and Colonies, we may give the Law; and have Newfoundland, the Islands in the Gulph of St. Laurence, Nova Scotia and New-England, confirmed to us in Perpetuity; with an exclusive Trade and Navigation upon the Coasts thereof to the Extent Seaward of — Leagues; thus we shall have the Monopoly of the Cod-Fishery; at a low Estate, we can afford at a Medium 300,000 Quintals per Annum, whereof Bilboa the dry Cod-Fishery Barcadier takes off from 70,000 to 80,000 Quintals per An. to supply Madrid, and some other inland Countries of Spain

[Page 296]To render these Accounts distinct, I shall reduce them to five Heads. 1. The Whale-Fishery. 2. Herring-Fishery. 3. Cod-Fishery. 4. The smaller Fisheries ex­portable but of no great Account. And, 5. Some Fish not exportable or merchantable, but of great Benefit in present spending especially for the Poor.

1. WHALES. See a Digression concerning Whaling, P. 56. we shall further add the following Remarks; Whales, that is the true or Bone Whales go South­ward (they are Passengers according to the Seasons) towards Winter, and return Northward in the Spring. Formerly in New-England Cape-Cod embay'd them, but being much disturbed (they seem to have some Degree of Reason) they keep a good Offing. The smaller Whales, viz. Sperma Ceti, Fin-Backs, Hump-Backs, &c. which ne­ver go far to the Northward, but stroll considerably South­ward, are apt to strand upon the Shoals of North-Carolina and Bahama Banks: They become Drift Whales, and some afford drift Sperma-Ceti. In their Passages North and South, having kept an Offing to the Banks, tho' they were incommoded by the Whale-Fishers; at present in their Passages they keep deep Water; and upon a Peace the Whalers are to fish for them in deep Water.

New-England Whaling at present is by Whaling Sloops or Schooners with two Whale-Boats and 13 Men; each Boat has an Harpooner, a Steersman, and four Rowers: The Whale-Boats do not use Thaughts but Nooses for their Oars, upon Account of Expedition; because only by letting go their Oars, without loosing of them, they keep expeditiously long Side of the Whale. The best Place of striking a Whale is in her Belly, about one Third from her Gills; the Fast is a Rope of about 25 Fathom; then a Drudge or Stop-Water, a Plank of about 2 Feet square, with a Stick through its Center; to the further End of this Stick, is fastned a Tow-Rope, called the Drudge Rope of about 15 Fathom; they lance, after ha­ving fast [...]ed her by the Harpoon, till dead.

[Page 297]The New England Whalers reckon so many Ct. Wt. Bone, as Bone is Feet long: For Instance, 7 Foot Bone gives 700 Wt. Bone: New-England Bone scarce ever e [...]ceeds 9 Feet; and 100 Barrels Oil is supposed to yield 1000 Wt. of Bone Whales kill'd in deep Water, if they sink, never rise again.

Sperma Ceti Whales do not go far North; they are gregarious, or in Sholes; they go Southward to the Ba­hama Islands in October, and return in the Spring: Most of the Bermudas Whales are Finbacks, 20 to 30 pr. An. caught.

A Whale stranded back of Cape-Cod, yielded 134 Bar­rels Oil, and — Wt. of Bone; this Whale was so fat, that, some poor People tried the muscular Flesh, and made 30 Barrels more Oil. In New-England Whaling, they go upon Shares, one Quarter to the Vessel or Own­ers, the rest to the Company, finding themselves victual­ing and whaling Geer. The Whalers in deep Water, or at a considerable Distance from Nantucket, fit out in the Beginning and Middle of March. Third Week of Iuly Anno 1738 arrived our Whalers from Davis Straits. The New-England True Whale, is the same with the Eu­ropean North-Cape Whales, are not easily kill'd, being a­gile and very wild; the Dutch do not fish them. Sperma Ceti Whales do not go far North, they pass by New-England in October, and return in the Spring. Grampus's, Bottle-noses, and the other small Cetaceous Kind are called Black Fish.

It is not easily to be accounted for, that Whales do not in Course of Years become scarcer; considering the con­tinued great Slaughter of them by the Whaling Nation [...], they bring only one Calf at a Time after many Month [...] Gestation, whereas other Fish spawn Multitudes.

Fish-Oil is, 1. That from the True or Whale-Bone Whale, and the other large Whales. 2. Vitious Oil from the Sperma Ceti Whales. 3. Black Fish Oil from Grampus's▪ Bottle-noses, Porpus's, &c. of the small Cetaceous Kind. 4. Liver-Oil from the Livers of sundry Fishes, especially [Page 298] of Cod-Fish. 5. That from the Blubber or Penicula adiposa of Seals and Sea-Cows. There are two Sorts of Seals, one Sort has its Skin dappled or in small Spots, the other Sort called the Ice-Seal, hath a large black Patch, runs slow, and is kill'd by a small Blow on the Head; 500 have been killed in a Harbour at Newfoundland in a Morning; the Skins and Blubber is their mercantile Produce. The Sea-Cow or Morse is plenty upon the Coasts of Nova-Scotia and the Gulph of St. Laurence, particularly at the Island of St. Iohns; it is of the Bigness of a midling Cow (it is not the same with the Manatee of the Gulph of Mexico) a very thick Skin with Hair like that of a Seal.

In cold Winters the Whales, as do other Fish, keep in deep Water. The New-England People whale with a Drudge or Stop-Water, not with long Ropes or Warps as the Hollanders. Upon the Coast of New-England, Whales go Northward from the Middle of March to the Middle of May. About 30 Years ago, Communibus An­nis were exported from New-England about 5,000 Bar­rels of Fish-Oil, at this Writing Anno 1748, about 10,000 Barrels, notwithstanding the Whales keeping a greater Offing.

2. HERRINGS. In this Tribe of Fishes there are many Species or distinct Kinds, viz. The Shadd, the true Her­ring, the Alewife, the Sardinia, the Anchovie, &c. In this Article, I write only of the true or merchantable Herring; in good Quality and large Quantities, they seem peculiar to the Coasts of the British Islands, and I shall in the first Place mention these as a Standard.

Upon the Coasts of Great-Britain, Herrings make their first Appearance Northward (at the Western Islands of Scotland they appear in the Spring) as it is commonly said, at the * Shetland Islands in N. Lat. 61 d, beginning [Page 299] of Iune; by Custom the Hollanders do not begin to fish until Iune 24th, and return to Holland in August and September: 2000 Busses (a Pink-sterned Catch of about 40 to 50 Tun) have at one Time fished in Brassa Sound; about Midsummer Herrings are in the greatest Perfection. It is said, they come from the Northern deep Waters (we hear of no Herrings about Iseland under the Northern Polar Circle; a Cod-Fishery has been attempted there, but turns to no good Account) in a large Body or Shole, and meeting with the Islands of Great-Britain this Shole is split; one Part or Wing takes along the Eastern Shore, and make in successively into all the Friths of Scotland, more especially in August to the Frith of Forth at Dunbar and Fife Side; their next great Appearance is at Yarmouth Roads upon the Coast of England, where the Dutch pre­sume again to fish for them; thence to the Mouth of the River Thames, and thence to the Southern and Western Parts of England; at Ilfracombe, N. Lat. 51 d. 10 m. within the Mouth of the Severn River about two Leagues to Sea, they fish Herrings from Michaelmas to Christmas, and make 10,000 to 12,000 Barrels pr An. In the Au­tumn the Herrings spawn, become lank or lean, and are only fit for being cured by smoaking called Red Herrings; it is imagined that soon after spawning they disappear in deep Water South of the British Islands: The Western Shole or Wing of this great Body, pass amongst the [Page 300] Lewis's or * Scots Western Islands, thence this Part of Body of Herrings subdivides when they meet with Ireland, one Column proceeds to the Western Coast of Ireland, the other Column, pass along St. Georges or the Irish Channel to the Mouth of the Severn.

It seems more reasonable to think, that these Herrings are constant Retainers to the Islands of Great-Britain, some Times disappearing in deep Water, and at other Times appearing in Shole-Water, according to their various feed­ing and spawning Grounds; so as annually to make the Circuit of these Islands; and as is the Manner of all Pas­senger Fish, go Northward towards Summer, and South­ward towards Winter or cold Weather, and in very cold Weather take to deep or warmer Water. And in Fact or Observation we find the Herrings appear amongst the Western Islands of Scotland in Spring, they are at Shetland and the North Parts of Scotland in Summer, they are a­long the East and South Coasts of Great Britain in Au­tumn, and in St. Georges Channel in Winter.

The British Herrings spawn in August and September: When they spawn, the Fishermen call it fouling of the Water; it is said they go by Pairs to the Bottom, and rub their Bellies in the Mud and Sand until their Milts and Rows are discharged; soon after this the Herring-Fishery is supposed to be over, and that the Herrings take to Sea or deep Water.

Dantzick is the principal Market for the Scots and Dutch white or pickled Herrings, next are Hamburg and Stockholm; the Dutch re-pickle their Herrings in Holland.

The Herrings of Newfoundland, Nova-Scotia and New-England, are either of a different Species, or of a bad Quality, and if in curing their Quality could be remedied, they are not of a sufficient Quantity to supply the Her­ring Markets: They are caught in Seans or Mashes, [Page 301] they have been pickled and barrelled for the Negroes in the West-India Islands, but turned out not merchantable, and that Branch of Fishery was dropt. In Newfoundland they come in by Autumn, being their last bait Fish. In New-England notwithstanding of their being a periodical Fish, their Periods are uncertain; at present they are not so plenty as formerly, and generally set in to spawn to­wards the End of Winter.

Periodical Sholes or Passengers of North Sea Fish upon the Eastern Shore of North-America, are not found South of 41 d. N. Lat. some stragling Cod and Salmon are some Times caught to the South of Nan [...]ucket or this Latitude, but do not answer the curing.

3. COD-FISHERY. The Scots or North Sea dry Cod, and the New-England Winter dry Cod, are of the prime Quality; they will bear watering; Summer Fish of New-England when watered, breaks. Large Winter Cod dry Fish, is the best for Bilboa Market, it retains its Mel­lowness and will bear Land-Carriage to Madrid, smaller Fish will answer in other Markets; in Great-Britain and Ireland, they are not reckoned merchantable if under 18 Inches in Length, from the first Fin to the setting on of the Tail, and are allowed no Salt Debenture or Bounty. August and September are the best Times for selling a Fish Cargo in the Roman Catholick Countries, their Lent Stock by that Time is expended.

The New-England Fishery have their Salt, from Sal­tortugas, Cape de Verde Islands, Turks Islands or Bahamas, Lisbon, and Bay of Biscay. The Fishermen victual with salt Pork only, Biscuit, and Rum. All Cod-Fish caught from the Beginning of Iune to the Beginning of October are called Summer Fish, the others are called Spring and Fall Fish or Winter Fish, and are of the bet­ter Quality. The Salt Fleet from Tortugas generally ar­rives in New-England about the Middle of April.

New-England dry Cod-Fish, is more Salt burnt than those of Newfoundland, because in New-England they ge­nerally [Page 302] use Salt from Tortugas and the Isle of May, which is too fiery; at Newfoundland they make Use of Salt from Lisbon and the Bay of Biscay, of a milder Qua­lity: In Newfoundland they work their Fish Belly down, in New-England they work them Belly up, to receive more Salt, and add to their Weight. No Sun-burnt, Salt-burnt, or that have been a considerable Time pickled be­fore dried, are to be deem'd merchantable Fish.

Marblehead in New-England ships off more dry'd Cod, than all the rest of New-England besides; Anno 1732 a good Fish Year, and in profound Peace, Marblehead had about 120 Schooners of about 50 Tuns Burthen, 7 Men aboard, and one Man ashore to make the Fish, is about 1000 Men employed from that Town, besides the Sea­men who carry the Fish to Market; if they had all been well fish'd, that is 200 Quintals to a Fare, would have made 120,000 Quintals; at present Anno 1747 they have not exceeding 70 Schooners, and make 5 Fares yearly; first is to Isle of Sable, the Cod-Fish set in there early in the Spring, and this Fare is full of Spawn; for­merly they fitted out in February, but by storm [...] Wea­ther having lost some Vessels, and many Anchors, Cables and other Gear, they do not fit out until March; their se­cond Fare is in May to Brown's Bank, and the other Banks near the Cape-Sable Coast, these are also called Spring-Fish; their third and fourth Fares are to St. Georges Bank, called Summer Fish; their fifth and last Fare is in Autumn to Isle of Sables, these are called Winter Fish. New-England Cod is generally cured or dry'd upon Hur­dles or Brush. Anno 1721 were cured at Canso of Nova-Scotia 20,000 Quintals of Cod-Fish; but, as it is said, the Officers of that Garrison used the Fishermen ill, and no Fishery has been kept there for many Years. At pre­sent Anno 1747, there is cured in all Places of British North America about 300,000 Quintals dry merchantable Cod.

There are several other Particulars relating to the Cod-Fishery interspersed in the former Sheets, which we shall [Page 303] not repeat, left we should deviate from the Character of a Summary. We shall observe, that the French have been too much conniv'd at in carrying on a considerable Cod-Fishery near the Mouth of the River St. Laurence a [...] Gaspee contrary to Treaty, because it lies in Nova-Scotia. Continued Westerly or dry Winds are not requisite in curing dry Cod, because they must be sweated in Piles by some damp Easterly Weather. Winter Fish ought not to be shipt off 'till May; for although the preceed­ing Frosts makes them look fair and firm, if ship'd off too soon, the subsequent Heat of the Hold, makes them sweat and putrify. The Stock Fish of Norway and Ise­land, are Cod cured without Salt, by hanging in the Frosts of Winter upon Sticks, called Stocks in Dutch.

4. SMALLER FISHERIES used in Commerce; we shall mention a few.

Scale Fish so called, viz. Haddock, Hake, and Polluc, which in New-England are cured in the same Manner as dry Cod; those together with the dry Cod that is not fit for European Markets, are ship'd off to the West-India Islands, towards feeding of the Negro Slaves, and make a considerable Article in our Trade to the Sugar-Islands.

Mackrel, split, salted and barrel'd for the Negroes in the Sugar Islands, are caught either by Hook, Seans, or Mashes; those by Hook are the best, those by Seans are worst, because in Bulk they are bruised; Mackrel will not take the Hook, unless it have a Motion of two or three Knots, if quicker they will take the Hook, but their Jaw being tender gives Way and the Mackrel is lost. There are two Seasons of Mackrel, Spring and Autumn, the Autumn Mackrel are the best; those of the Spring appear about Middle of May, very lean, and vanish in two or three Weeks.

Sturgeon very plenty; some are 12 Feet long, and weigh 400 Wt. formerly a Merchant of Boston, contract­ed with some Fishmongers in London, Anno 1721 he sent 1500 Cags of 40 to 50 wt. (the Contract was for 5000 [Page 304] Cags per An.) the Fish were good but too salt or ill-cured; this Fishery did not answer, and it was dropt. London is supplied with Sturgeon from Dantzick, Ham­burg and Pilau.

Salmon are plenty in all the British North-America Ri­vers from Newfoundland to about N. Lat. 41 d. they set in to Massachusetts-Bay about the Middle of April, they do not chuse warm Weather, therefore do not continue there long after having spawn'd; further North they con­tinue many Months. This Salmon is not of a good Qua­lity, and is not so good for a Market, as the Salmon of Great-Britain and Ireland.

Alewives by some of the Country People called Her­rings; they are of the * Herring Tribe, but somewhat larger than the true Herring, they are a very mean, dry, and insipid Fish; some of them are cured in the Manner of white Herrings, and sent to the Sugar-Islands for the Slaves, but because of their bad Quality they are not in Request: In some Places they are used to manure Land, they are very plenty, and come up the Rivers and Brooks into Ponds in the Spring, having spawn'd they return to Sea, they never take the Hook.

5. FOR SPENDING FRESH. Besides the above menti­oned Fish, which are also eat when fresh, there are many Sorts which are not cured and ship'd off. In New-Eng­land they are generally well known, and are much the same as in Britain: We shall refer them to the Sections of New-England.

Many Fish go up the Rivers, and into Ponds, earlier or later in the Spring to spawn, viz, Salmon, Shad, Ale­wives, Tom-Cod, Smelts, and many good Laws have been made in New-England, to prevent their Passages from being stopt by Wares &c. as they are of gre [...] Benefi [...] to the Inhabitants near these Rivers and Ponds.

[Page 305]

SECT. VII. Concerning Nova-Scotia, or L'Accadie.

THIS Country was called Nova-Scotia by Sir William Alexander, Se [...]retary of State for Scotland; by Means of Sir Ferdinando Gorge, President of the New-England or Plymouth Company, he obtain'd a Royal Grant, Sept. 10. Anno 1621; he was afterwards created Lord Alexan­der, Viscount of Canada, and Earl of Stirling Anno 1633. The French call it L'Accadie, an Abreviation or Corrup­tion of Arcadia in the Morea of Greece, a Northern hilly Country of the Peloponesus: Hitherto, it cannot be called a Colony; it is only an impotent British Garrison in an ill-regulated French Settlement: The French Settlers and the British Garrison Officers (with much Impropri­ety) call the Inhabitants Neutrals, though under the Protection and in Allegiance to the Crown of Great-Bri­tain; there are no British Settlers to compose an Assem­bly or Legislature for making of Laws and raising of Taxes.

The French had early Settlements in L'Accadie or Nova Scotia; Capt. Argol from Virginia Anno 1613 visited Port-Royal and St. Croix and brought away two French Vessels. M. Biencourt was at that Time Governor of Port Royal: Argol broke up some French Settlements in Sagadahock and L'Accadie called Part of New France, or Terra Cana­densis; at present the Country North of St. Laurence Ri­ver, only, retains this Name: This Expedition of Argol's made Way for Sir William Alexander's Patent. Sir Wil­liam admitted some Associates, Anno 1623 they sent over a Ship with some Settlers, but they all returned to Eng­land the same Year, and the French proceeded in their Set­tlements. K. Charles I, Anno 1625 upon his Marriage with Henrietta Maria, a Daughter of France, quit-claim'd Nova Scotia to the French.

There have been many Revolutions in the Property and Dominion of Nova Scotia.

[Page 306]1. Anno 1627 and Anno 1628, Sir David Kirk and As­sociates, upon a private Adventure, but by Commission from the King or Crown of England, conquered the French Settlements in Canada and Nova Scotia; and Patents were obtain'd from the Court of England, by which the Lands called Canada, North of the River St. Laurence were grant­ed to Sir David Kirk, and the Lands called Nova Scotia South of said River were confirmed to Sir William Alexander.

2. Sir William sold the Property to M. Claude de la Tour D'Aunay a French Protestant, and Anno 1632 March 29, by Treaty King Charles quit claim'd it to France.

3. Cromwel sent Col. Sedgwick, he reduced it Anno 1654, and it was confirmed to England by Treaty in the Year following; M. St. Estienne, Son and Heir of the above Claude de la Tour, came to England, made out his Claim, and had the Property surrendred to him; this La Tour sold the Property to Sir Thomas Temple, who was Governor and in Possession of the Property until Anno 1662, it was then delivered up to the French by K. Charles II. (that Race ought to be called Sons of France, not Sons of Great-Britain) who agreed with the Temples for a Sum of 10,000 £. St. to be paid them (but it never was satisfied) upon Account of their Right.

Menival was appointed Governor, and built a small stockaded Fort, called Port Royal, upon a Bason, 9 Miles from the Bay of Fundi; Nova Scotia was confirmed to the French by the Breda Treaty Anno 1667, in the Man­ner of a Quit Claim. La Tour a French Protestant, upon his returning to the Roman Catholick Way of Worship, had it confirmed (as to Property) to him by the Court of France. La Tour in the various Vicissitudes, was Protes­tant when the Country was under the Dominion of Eng­land, and Roman Catholick when it was subject to the King of France. La Tour built a Fort at St. Iohns River; M. Donnee the French Governor of L'Accadie, deem'd it irregular, and inconsistent with the Royal Prerogative; while La Tour was in France, he reduced it, and inhu­manely [Page 307] destroy'd La Tour's Wife and Family. La Tour became poor, borrowed a large Sum of Money of M. Belle Isle, a rich Merchant and Trader to North America, and assigned over to him one half of the Province, or Seigneurie.

4. The French of L'Accadie being troublesome Neigh­bours, New England [...]itted ou [...] an Expedition of 700 Men under Col. Phipps, at their own Charge An. 1690 (Meni­val Governor, the Fort ill fortified, and ill provided) they demolished the Fort; the French took the Oaths of Al­legiance and Fidelity to the Crown of England, but soon revolted in Conformity to Roman Catholick and Frenc [...] Faith, and continued their Settlements; and by the Treaty of Reswick An. 1697, Great-Britain quit-claim'd it to France. N. B. The New-England Expedition sail'd from Boston (Nantasket is in Boston Harbour) 28th April, came before Port Royal 11th May, in 2 or 3 Days Meni­nal surrendred, and the French Garrison was shipt off.

Anno 1704 Major Church with 550 Voluntiers visited Penobscut, Passamaquady, and Les Mines; they brought off about 100 Prisoners; in Iuly they attempted Port-Royal, but in vain.

Capt. Rowse of Charlestown Anno 1706, as a Flag of Truce was sent to Annapolis to exchange or redeem Pri­soners; he with some of his Owners and Associates in Boston, were under Suspicion of secret Contracts,* to sup­ply the French Enemy, Indictments were laid against them for high Misdemeanors; they were fined, but their Fine remitted: One Trip they brought Home 17 Prisoners, next Trip only 7 Prisoners.

Anno 1707, 8, March 13, from New-England, there pro­ceeded [Page 308] an Expedition against Port-Royal, under Col. March, with 2 Regiments Militia, Wainwright and Hilton, covered by the Deptford Man of War from England, and the Province-Galley; this Expedition had no Effect, and the Officers of the Deptford were blamed as negligent or refractory.

Anno 1709 Col. Nicholson and Capt. Vetch apply at the Court of Great-Britain, for Sea and Land Forces to reduce Canada; there being at that Time a Sort of Court War, it was not attended to, but upon their solliciting an Ex­pedition of less Consequence, viz. to reduce Port-Royal and the Country of Nova-Scotia, this was obtained.

5. Nova Scotia continued with the French from Anno 1662 (Sir William Phips's Reduction and Possession of it Anno 1690 may be said to be only momentary) until An. 1710, it was then reduced by a Force from Great Britain, and from New England under Col. Nicholson, and confirm­ed to Great-Britain by the Treaty of Utrecht, and thus it remains to this Day.

This Expedition under General Nicholson (with Instruc­tions to all the Governors of New-England to be assisting) and Adjutant General Vetch was as follows, Anno 1710, Iuly 15▪ Nicholson with some British Officers, and Col. Reading's Marines arrive at Boston from England, for the intended Expedition: The Armament set out from Boston Sept. 18, consisting of the Dragon, Falmouth, Leostaff, and Feversham Men of War, the Star Bomb, and the Massa­chusetts Province-Galley, with Transports, in all 36 Sail; the Land-Forces aboard, were, One Regiment Marines from England, Two Regiments of Massachusetts-Bay, One Regiment of Connecticut, and One Regiment of New-Hampshire and Rhode-Island, commissioned by the Queen, and arm'd by her Gilt; they arrived at Port-Royal in six Days (the Grenadiers of Walton's Regiment were com­manded by Mascarene the present Governor of Annapolis Fort, and Commander in Chief of Nova Scotia) after a small Affair of cannonading and bombarding, the French Governor Subercasse did capitulate, and October 5, the [Page 309] Fort was delivered up, and Col. Vetch according to Instruc­tions becomes Governor. The Terms of Capitulation were, that all the French, being 481 Persons within the Banlieu, or 3 Miles of the Fort, shall be under the Pro­tection of Great-Britain, upon their taking the proper Oaths of Allegiance; the other French Settlers were left to Discretion, that in Case the French make Incursions upon the Frontiers of New-England, the British shall mak [...] Reprisals upon the French in Nova-Scotia, by making som [...] of their chief Inhabitants Slaves to our Indians; yet not­withstanding, the French of L'Accadie commitHostilities, but the Port-Royal and Cape-Sable Indians desire Terms of Amity and Alliance; the Garrison allowed to march out with 6 Cannon and 2 Mortars, afterwards bought by Ni­cholson for 7,499 Livres 10 Sols: The Garrison consisted of 258 Soldiers, with their Officers and other Inhabitants in all 481 Persons Male and Female, were shipt to Ro­chelle in France; General Nicholson sent Major Livingston, and M. Subercasse sent Baron St. Casteen to Marquis de Veaudrueïl General of Canada, to acquaint him with this Event, they arrived at Quebeck Dec. 16. The Men of War and Transports sail for Boston Oct. 14, leaving a Garrison in Port-Royal now called Annapolis-Royal, of 200 Marines and 250 New England Voluntiers; they were relieved next Year by 400 of the Troops destined for Ca­nada. The New-England Charge in this Expedition was upwards of 23,000 £. St. reimbursed by Parliament.

The French Governor's Commission, was in these Words; Daniel Auger de Subercasse, Knight of St. Louis, Governor of L'Accadie, of Cape-Breton Islands and Lands adjacent from Cape Rozier of the great River St. Lau­rence, as far as the East Parts of Quenebec River.

Here it is not improper to annex the following Digression.

A DIGRESSION concerning some late British Expeditions against Canada.

Anno 1690 the New Englanders having reduced Port-Royal, and all the rest of Nova-Scotia or L'Accadie, were [Page 310] encouraged to attempt Quebec in Canada the same Year; they set out too late in the Year, want of Experience in their principal Officers, Sickness amongst their Men, and the Army of 1000 English with 1500 Indians, who at the same Time were to march from Albany, by the Way of Lake Champlain to attack Monreal by Way of Diversion to divide the French Forces, not proceeding; occasioned a Miscarriage, with the Loss of 1000 Men, and a Loss of many of their Transports in their Return, with a great Charge incurred, which Charge occasioned the first Emis­sion of a pernicious * Paper Currency by Way o [...] publick [Page 311] Bills of Credit to pay this Charge: There sailed from Boston Frigates and Transports 32, having 2000 Land Men aboard; the Admiral called the Six Friends carried 44 Guns; they sailed from Boston August 9, did not ar­rive before Quebeck 'till October 5, landed 1400 Men un­der General Walley about one League and half from the Town, were repulsed two or three Times with great Loss. Baron La Hontan who was then at Quebec, says, "The New-England Men did not want Courage, but wanted Military Discipline; that Sir William Phipps's Conduct was so bad, that he could not have done less than he did, if he had been hired by the French, to stand still with his Hands in his Pockets; if they had come directly against the Town, it would have surrendred, but they were dila­tory in their Consultations at a Distance, which gave Time to reinforce the Place with regular Troops, Militia, and Savages; Sir William bombarded the Town from four Vessels, and did Damage to the Value of five or six Pis­toles; in the Town were only 12 great Guns, and very little Ammunition."

Anno 1711, the Scheme and Expedition for reducing of Quebec and Placentia, and consequently all Canada and [Page 312] Newfoundland, to ingross the Cod-Fishery, was concerted by the new Ministry, solicited by Nicholson;* the Reg [...] ­ments of Kirk, Hill, Windress, Clayton, and Kaine from Flanders, together with Seymours, Disnays, and a Battallion of Marines from England, under the Command of Briga­dier Hill, Brother to the new Favourite Mrs. Masham; in 40 Transports, with a Squadron of 12 Line of Battle Ships, several Frigates, two Bomb-Vessels, a fine Train of Artillery under Col. King with 40 fine Horses and six Store Ships: They sail'd from England, April 28, arri­ved at Boston, June 25: By Order from Home there was a Congress at New-London of all our Plantation Governors North of Pensylvania with Nicholson, to concert Measures; to the British Troops were joined two Regiments from Massachusetts-Bay, Rhode-Island and New-Hampshire to at­tack Quebec, while the Militia from Connecticut, New-York and Iersies, with the Indians of the Five Nations, so call­ed, under General Nicholson marched by Land from Al­bany August 20, to attack Monreal for Diversion: It was alledged that they were retarded at Boston for Want of Pro­visions, they did not sail till Iuly 30; there were 68 Vessels carrying 6,463 Troops; August 18 they anchored [Page 313] In Bay or Harbour of Gaspee on the South Side of the Entrance of St. Laurence River, to wood and water, Aug. 23 in the Night-Time, contrary to the Advice of the Pi­lots, in a Fog they fell in with the North Shore, and upon the Islands of Eggs lost * eight Transports, and 884 Men. In a Council of War, it was resolved, that by rea­son of the Ignorance of the Pilots, it was impracticable to proceed; and that Advice should be sent to recall Gen. Nicholson from proceeding to Monreal. The Fleet an­chored in Spanish River of Cape-Breton, Sept. 4. and in a general Council of War, it was resolved not to attempt any Thing against Placentia, but to return to Great-Bri­tain. They sail'd from Spanish River Sept. 16, and in 21 Days were in Soundings near the Channel of England. Oct. 16, at St. Helens, the Edgar, with the Admiral's Journals and other Papers, was blown up, and the Voyage (as some say) in that inhumane wicked Manner settled. The Charge incurred by the Province of Massachusetts-Bay was something more than 24,000 £. St. allowed by Parliament, and converted into Debentures transferable, and bearing interest; it is probable the Massachusetts De­mand of 178,000 £. St. Charges incurred in reducing Louisbourg, may be satisfied in the same Manner; these Debentures to be transferable only towards cancelling the Provincial Bills of publick Credit, that ACCURSED PAPER CURRENCY, in which the honest, industrious, frugal Peo­ple [Page 314] have lost almost the Whole of their personal Estates by Depreciations; but not to be intrusted in any Shape with fallacious Money-making and indebted G—rs and A—lies.

Our * next Canada Expedition proved abortive in a shorter Time from the Conception; but may be suppos­ed to have been occasioned by some natural good Policy Causes, and not from premeditated designed Means of Miscarriage, as in the former. By Orders dated — April 1746 from the Duke of Newcastle, Secretary of State at [Page 315] the Court of Great-Britain; all the British Governors in North-America are required to raise each of them, so many Independent Companies of 100 Men, as they can spare and effect: Those of New-York, New-Ierseys, Pensylva­nia, Maryland, and Virginia, to be formed into one Corps, to be commanded by Brigadier Gooch Lieut.-Governor of Virginia; the King to be at the Charge of arming, pay­ing and cloathing of these Troops, but the several Colo­nies to furnish Levy-Money and Victualling; Virginia sent 2 Companies, Maryland 3, Pensylvania 4, Ierseys 5, New-York 15, being 29 Companies; these were designed against Crown-Point, and from thence against Monreal; the two Virginia Companies remain'd in the Fort of New-York, the regular Troops were sent upon the Expedition; the yellow Fever at this Time prevail'd at Albany, there­fore the Troops for the Expedition rendezvous at Sara­tago about 30 Miles higher up Hudson's River: Massa­chusetts-Bay raised 20 Companies, Connecticut 10, Rhode-Island 3, New-Hampshire 2, being 35 Companies; these were to join the British Land-Forces under Lieut.-General St. Clair, with a Squadron of Men of War from England to reduce Quebec and all Canada, while Gooch was making a Diversion at Monreal, 60 Leagues further up the River of St. Laurence; these Colony Militia were to receive Part of the Booty, and to be sent Home when the Service is over.

Admiral Leflock's being appointed Commander of the Squadron destined for this Expedition, in Place of Ad­miral Warren, a Man of Integrity, and the Delays until too late in the Year, plainly evinced that the Reduction of Canada at that Time was not intended. As the Go­vernors of the several Colonies had no Instructions to dis­miss their Levies; these Levies were continued on Foot; the Massachusetts Men were disposed into two Regiments Waldo's and Dwight's; at the Request of Governor Mas­carene 5 or 6 of Waldo's Companies, the 3 Companies of Rhode-Island and the 2 Companies of New-Hampshire, [Page 316] were sent for the Protection of Nova-Scotia; the other 1500 Men were designed to join the Southern Levies, in Order to reduce * Crown-Point Fort, built by the French as a Rendezvous and Place of Arms for disturbing our Settlements of New-England and New-York, see P. 11; some Misunderstandings between the several Governments▪ and the contagious Sicknesses which prevailed about Al­bany, prevented the Prosecution of this Design: The Or­der for dismissing or disbanding of the Canada Levies, did not arrive until October Anno 1747, they were ac­cordingly dismissed, and have produced another Crop of Idlers, the Bane of all Countries.

Here we shall continue the History of the several Bic­kerings or Skirmishes which we have had in Nova-Scotia with the Canadians, the other French, and their Indians.

After the Reduction of Port-Royal or Annapolis-Royal by General Nicholson Anno 1710, notwithstanding that [Page 317] by the Capitulation, the Inhabitants without the Baulieue were to be Neutrals, they continued their Hostilities; Hostilities continuing, the French Missionary Priest, and five of the principal Inhabitants upon the River of A [...] ­napolis, were seized and kept as Hostages, for the Inhabi­tants future good Behaviour; even notwithstanding of this Precaution, Capt. Pigeon with 60 Men being sent up the River for Timber to repair the Fort, they were way­laid by the French and their Indians, this Party were all kill'd or made Captives.— Many other Hostilities were committed.

After the Peace of Utrecht, a continued Tranquility till the War between New-England and their Eastern In­dians; the French Missionaries persuaded the Indians, that the English had encroached upon their Lands. Anno 1721 in Iune, Capt. Blin a Nova Scotia Trader, Mr. New­ton Collector of Nova Scotia, and others, were captivated by the Indians at Pasamaquady, but were soon released, be­cause Gov. Doucet of Annapolis had made a Reprisal of 22 Indians. Along Cape Sable Shore the Indians began to in­sult our fishing Vessels: In Iuly these Indians take several fishing Vessels on the Cape-Sable Coast, kill and captivate many of their Men; Governor Phillips at Canso fits out two armed Sloops, they kill and captivate many Indians, and put an End to the Indian Sea-roving, Anno 1724. Anno 1723 Iuly 15 the Indians, at Canso upon Durrel's Island kill Capt. Watkins, two more Men, one Woman and one Child. Anno 1724 in July, a Party of Indians attack Annapolis of Nova-Scotia, they burn two Houses, and kill one Serjeant, and one private Man of a Party [Page 318] that sallied: In the Fort they * shot and scalp'd one of the Indian Prisoners as a Reprisal for the Indians shooting and scalping of Serjeant Mc Neal; and burn two French Houses as a Reprisal for the two English Houses burnt; several English living without the Fort were captivated, but soon ransomed by the French.

From this Time until the French War in the Spring, Anno 1744, this neglected non-effective Garrison of An­napolis continued in a profound Peace, and supine Indo­lence. In the Beginning of the present French War, the Fort of Annapolis was in a miserable Condition; the Garrison Soldiers did not exceed eighty Men, capable of fatiguing Duty; Hogs and Sheep from without, passed the Fossees or Ditches, and mounted the Ramparts at Pleasure.

War was declared by Great-Britain against France (the French had declared War some Weeks before) Anno 1744 March 29; the Proclamation of War did not arrive in Boston until Iune 2; the French of Cape-Breton were more early in their Intelligence, and the Garrison of the not tenable Post of Canso could not (in Case the general In­structions were such) have timely Advice to abandon it; accordingly about 900 Men, regular Troops and Militia, were by M. Duquesnel Governor, sent under M. Du Vivier from Louisbourg; they seize Canso May 13, there were four incompleat Companies of Phillips's Regiment inGarrison, not exceeding 80 Men, with a Man of War Tender; the French burn the small Settlement, Conditions were, to be carried to Louisbourg, and to continue there one Year, and thence to be sent to Boston or Annapolis; but were sent to Boston sooner.

In Iune a few small Vessels (Delabroiz, afterwards taken by the Massachusetts-Bay Province Snow Privateer, com­manded) from Louisbourg annoy St. Peters, and some other [Page 319] small Harbours of Newfoundland West of Placentia, and threatned Placentia Fort.

* Beginning of Iune about 300 Cape-Sable and St. Iohns Indians, under the Direction of a French Missionary Priest M. Luttre, did attempt the Fort of Annapolis; they burnt the Out-houses, destroy'd some Cattle, kill'd two Men, summoned the Garrison to surrender, promising good Quarters, otherwise threatned to storm them, upon the Arrival of some French Forces which they expected from Louisbourg; but upon the Arrival of the Province Snow Privateer beginning of Iuly from Boston with the first Company of Militia (the Government of Massachusetts-Bay raised 4 Companies to reinforce the Garrison of Anna­polis) they broke up, and returned to Minas (or les Mines) and the Women and Children of Annapolis removed to Boston for Safety.

In September, Du Vivier with 60 regular Troops from Louisbourg, and about 700 Militia and Indians (the above mentioned Indians joined him) upon the Arrival of all the Massachusetts Succours, particularly of Capt. Gorham's Indian Rangers, (Du Vivier had lain some Weeks near Annapolis Fort) he retired to Minas: Several Messages which have been censured, passed between him and the [Page 320] Garrison Officers of Annapolis: The most favourable Ac­count, is, That Du Vivier, acquainted them that he ex­pected (in the mean Time they might have good Terms of Capitulation) from Louisbourg some Men of War, one of 70 Guns, one of 56 Guns, and one of 30 Guns, with Cannon, Mortars and Stores, and a Reinforcement of 250 more Troops; the Answer of the Garrison, was, That when this Force arrived, it was Time enough to make Proposals: After he had tarried there three Weeks, dis­appointed and discontented, he retired to Minas; next Day after his decamping some trifling Vessels with Can­non, Mortars, and warlike Stores, arrived in the Bason of Annapolis, and hearing of Du Vivier's being withdrawn, they were afraid of our Frigates annoying of them, they soon removed, and as it happened, they narrowly escaped our Vessels: Du Vivier from Minas went to Bay Vert, and thence to Canada, and from thence Home to France.

As the Cape-Sable and St. Iohns Indians, persisted in their Hostilities against the Subjects of Great-Britain; in November 1744, the Government of the Massachusetts-Bay declares War against them, declaring them Enemies and Rebels; because they had joined the French Enemy in blocking up of Annapolis, had killed some British Sub­jects, and had committed other Depredations; the Pasa­maquady, Penobscot, Noridgwoag, Pigwocket, and other Indians Westward of St. Iohns, are forbid to have any Correspondence with those Indian Rebels; for all Indians Eastward of a Line, beginning at three Miles East of Pa­samaquady, and running North to St. Laurence River; The Government settles for a short Time Premiums, viz. 100 £. New * Tenor, for a Male of 12 Aet. and upwards scalp'd, [Page 321] and 105 £. New Tenor if captivated, for Women and Children 50 £. Scalps, 55 £. Captives. Sometime after­wards it was found that the Penobscot and Noridgwog In­dians, also joined with the French; the Assembly of Mas­sachusetts-Bay Colony August 23. 1745, extend the Pre­miums for Scalps and captivated Indians to all Places W. of Nova-Scotia, 250 £. New Tenor to Voluntiers, and 100 £. New Tenor to Troops in Pay.*

Anno 1745 in May M. Marin a Lieut. from Canada, Captain of a Company of Salvages or Indian Rangers, a true Partizan, with about 900 Reggamuffins; Canadi­ans, other French and Indians; comes before Annapolis, they continued but a short Time and returned to Minas, and I suppose by Orders from Louisbourg, went to relieve Louisbourg at that Time besieged: Capt. Donahew in the Service of the Massachusetts Colony met with them in As­macouse Harbour Iune 15, being 2 Sloops, 2 Scooners, and about 60 large Canoes; upon the further Appear­ance of Beckett and Fones, this Body of French and Indi­ans retired and returned to Minas. From that Time until de Ramsay's Attempt in Sept. 1746, the Garrison of An­napolis suffer'd no Insults.

From the Beginning of this French War there have been quartered at Minas and Chiconicto and the neigh­bouring French Villages a dispersed Number of Officers and Soldiers from Canada; but from Marin's leaving of Annapolis in the Beginning of Iuly 1745 to the Arrival of de Ramsay in September 1746 the Garrison of Annapolis enjoy'd their wonted Rest.

In the Summer 1746, a Force of about 1600 Men, re­gular Marine Troops, Canadian Militia, and Coureurs des Bois, with French Indians under the Command of M. de Ramsay, arrive in Minas, to join the Forces expected from [Page 322] France under * the Duke d' Anville, they were much ca­ressed by our French Subjects there; and our Minas Sub­jects, gave to the Garrison of Annapolis DECEITFUL, and [Page 323] no other Intelligence: Here they continued some Months, but the Winter-Season approaching, and no Tidings of the French Armament; the French Troops, deem'd it ad­visable to return to Canada; in their Return, Duke d'An­ville's Armament arrives in Chebucto of Nova-Scotia, and an Express was sent to recall them; about 400 of them were overtaken, and returned with de Ramsay, Culon, and [Page 324] La Corne three Captains of Marines and Chevaliers or Knights of St. Louis. Towards the End of Sept. de Ramsay comes before Annapolis, made no Assault, but en­camped at some Distance; the Chester Man of War of 50 Guns, the Shirley Frigate of 20 Guns, and the Ord­nance Scooner at that Time, were in the Bason of Anna­polis; three Companies of Reinforcements for the Garri­son from Boston were arrived, and de Ramsey having had Advice of the French Fleet being returned to France, made the French decamp October 22, and return to Minas.

His Design was to quarter at Minas and Chiconicto, du­ring the Winter, and to join the French Fleet and Land Forces which were expected to reduce Annapolis, in the Summer; Governor Mascarene of Annapolis, judged that in Addition to the three Companies of Voluntiers which arrived from Boston in Autumn; 1000 Men of Reinforce­ments from New England, might be sufficient to dislodge the French Enemy, and to consume (by Purchase) all the French Inhabitants Provisions produced there, in Time coming to prevent the Subsistence of the Enemy who might lodge there and corrupt the Inhabitants; and Bri­tish Forces being quartered amongst them, might influence them to continue in their Allegiance to the Crown of Great-Britain: Massachusetts Bay Assembly vote 500 Men to be sent, Rhode-Island 300 Men, and New Hamp­shire 200 Men; the Rhode-Island Men were shipwreck'd near Marthas-Vineyard, those from New Hampshire set out but put back upon some trifling Excuse, and never pro­ceeded, the 500 Men from Boston only arrived; the Dis­appointment of the Rhode-Island and New Hampshire Men was the Reason of our subsequent Disaster at Minas.

Our first Parcel under Capt. Morris arrived at Minas, Dec. 12; when all were arrived they did not exceed 470 Men besides Officers; Water Carriage in the Winter Season being impracticable, they marched by Land, 30 Leagues, with much Har [...]hip in eight Days, every Man [...] ou [...] with 14 Days Provision upon his Back; the [...] was quartered at Grand Pre, in a very loose, [Page 325] ill contriv'd scattered Situation, but upon Alarm to repair to the main Guard; Col. Noble superseded Col. Gorham in the chief Command; Gorham and Major Phillips with a small Escorte set out for Annapolis Jan. 29, they were but nine Miles on their Way when the French began their Attack.

The French well informed of our scattered Situation as to Cantonment, and not regularly provided with Am­munition and Provision; set out from Chiconicto Jan. 8, for Minas, which by heading of Creeks and Rivers is a­bout 30 Leagues Distance, and by Excursions to bring a­long as many of the Settlers and Indians as possible, did not arrive in Minas until Jan. 31, and began about three Hours in the Morning by many distant Attacks or Onsets at the same Time, in Parties of 70 to 50 Men; they were about 600 of the Enemy Canadians, Inhabitants and French Indians; they kill'd many of ourMen in a most in­humane base Manner; Col. Noble, Lieuts. Lechemore (Ne­phew to the late Lord Lechemore) Iones, Pickering, En­sign Noble with about 70 Serjeants, Corporals and private Men; made Prisoners Capt. Doane, Lieut. Gerrish, and Ensign Newton, in all about 69 Men, the wounded in­cluded; many of the Prisoners were set at Liberty.

The French were well provided with Snow Shoes, this necessary Winter marching Article we neglected; How­ever, a considerable Number of our Men got together; but as they had not exceeding 8 Shot per Man, and Pro­visions being scanty they capitulated, 1. We are to march off with Arms shouldered, Drums beating, Colours fly­ing, through a Lane of the Enemy with rested Firelocks. 2. To be allowed six Days Provision, one Pound of Pow­der with Ball. 3. Not [...]o carry Arms in the Bays of Minas and Chiconicto for six Months.

De Ramsey being lame was not in this Onset, M [...] Culon had the Command, and after Culon was wounded, M. La Corne commanded; this Affair being over, they returned to Chiconicto, and expecting la Ianquiere's Squadron with Land Forces from France in the Summer; they continu­ed [Page 326] at Minas and Chiconicto, until they received Advice, by some Store-Ships for Canada, which had escaped (of la Ionquiere's Fleet) being destroy'd May 3, 1747: Then they returned to Canada, and have given no fur­ther Disturbance to Nova Scotia: Notwithstanding, for the better Security of the Fort and Garrison of Annapolis, Massachusetts-Bay this Spring [...]748 sends a Reinforcement of 7 Companies of Militia.

Having briefly related the French Bickerings with us in Nova-Scotia, we proceed to some further Accounts of that Country.

ANNAPOLIS in 44 d. 40 m. N. Lat; Tide 33 Feet▪ lies upon a fine Bason, but the rapid Tides in the Bay of [Page 327] Fundi make a difficult Navigation; into this Bason comes a River of good Water-Carriage without Falls for 25 Miles, and near it are several small Villages or Parcel [...] [...]f French Settlements, which in Time of Peace, plentifully and cheap supply the Garrison with fresh Provisions and other Necessaries: From Cape Anne near Boston Harbour to Cape Sables are 87 Leagues, from Cape Sables to Annapo­lis are 30 Leagues; Capt. Campbell in the Squirrel Man of War sail'd from Marblehead near Boston Harbour (s [...]ortest Course) in 23 Hours. The English have no other Footing in this Province, besides the Fort of Annapolis; and be­fore this French War, a small Fishery at Canso.

Aglate la Tour Grand-Daughter to the before mentioned La Tour, by Management and for small Considerations, obtain'd Procurations and Quit-Claims, from all the Heirs of La Tour, and Belle-Isle; she married a Subaltern Officer in Phillip's Regiment; she went to England and sold the Seignurie or Property of all the Province to the Crown of Great-Britain Anno 1731, for 2000 Guineas; the sole Property of all the Province is now in the Crown, and at present yields not exceeding seventeen Pound Ster­ling pr. An. Quit-rent: By the Peace of Utrecht, the French in Nova Scotia upon their taking the British Go­vernment Oaths, were to continue in their Possessions; the not appropriated Lands by the King of Great-Britain's Instructions were reserved for Protestant Subjects; * not­withstanding of this Instruction, the French Roman Catho­lick Subjects, as they swarm (as they multiply in Families) make free with these Crown Lands.

[Page 328]Anno 1717 Col. Phillips was appointed Governor of Nova Scotia in Place of Vetch, and of Newfoundland in Place of Moody; the four Independent Companies of Annapolis, and the four Independent Companies of Pla­centia, with two more additional Companies were regi­mented in his Favour, making a reduced or reformed Re­giment of 445 Men, Officers included. After the French Reduction of Canso, our Soldiers Prisoners arrived at Anna­polis, being about 60 Men, the poor Remains or Repre­sentatives of four Companies; three of these Companies were incorporated with the five Companies of Annapolis, and with the fourth Company of Canso: Thus at Anna­polis were six Companies, at Placentia one Company, and the three new Companies to be sent from England to St. Iohns in Newfoundland made up the Regiment of ten Companies, to be compleated to 815 Men Officers inclu­ded, the Compliment of a British marching Regiment: The Reinforcements and Recruits for this Regiment from England by Mismanagement and Neglect were very un­fortunate; and the Regiment remains in an abject low Estate, tho' in Time of War, and continual Jeopardy, from our neighbouring French, and Armaments from France.

In Order to colonize this Country, Governor Philips had a Royal Instruction to form a Council for the Ma­nagement of the civil Affairs of the Province; and ac­cordingly in April 1720, did appoint 12 Councellors, viz. Iohn Doucet Lieut.-Governor, Laurence Armstrong, Paul Mascarene, Cyprian Southack, Iohn Harrison, Arthur Savage, Iohn Adams, Herbert Newton, William Skeen, William Sherriff, Peter Boudrie, and Gillam Philips, Esqrs; By the fifth Instruction, if any of the Council be absent from the Province, exceeding 12 Months, without Leave from the Commander in chief; or absent two Years without the King's Leave; his Place shall be deem'd void or vacant. In the Absence of the Governor and Lieut.-Governor, the eldest Councellor is to act as President of the Council, and to take upon him the Government: Thus An. 1739 upon the Death of Lieut.-Governor Armstrong, Major [Page 329] Mascarene a Soldier from his Youth, a Gentleman of Pro­bity and exemplary good Life, became and continues Pre­sident of the Council, and Commander in chief for the Time being, of the Province of Nova-Scoti [...]. As Mas­carene was only Major of the Regiment, and Cosby Lieut. Col. of the Regiment, and Lieut.-Governor of the Fort of Annapolis, and consequently his superior Officer; C [...]sby seemed to dispute the Command of the Province, but by an Order from Home, it was determin'd, "That what­ever Rank any Person may have out of the Council, he must submit to the Laws of Seniority, which in civil Government ought never to be dispensed with, but by his Majesty's special Order under his Sign Manual." The Governor Phillips disputes the Moiety of the S [...]llary which the Commander in chief of the Province claim [...] in the Absence of the Governor; but by an Instruction o [...] Order from Home, the 42 Instruction to the Governor of Virginia, is also directed to take Place in Nova-Scotia, viz. Upon the Governor's Absence, one full Moiety of the Sallary, all Perquisites, and Emoluments whatsoever, shall be paid and satisfied unto such Lieut.-Governor, Commander in chief, or President of our Council, who shall be resident upon [...] Place for the Time being, for the better Support of [...] Dignity of the Government."

Col. Phillips, Governor of Nova Scotia and Newfound­land, and Col. of a Regiment in Garrisons there, arrived in Boston 1720 Oct. 4; upon his Arrival in Nova Scotia 880 effective Men of the French Inhabitants, took the Oaths to the Crown of Great-Britain; at this Time Anno 1748 we reckon French Inhabitants in Nova Sco [...]i [...] from 3000 to 4000 fencible Men; Indians in Nova Scotia not exceeding 250 marching Men, the contagious Distempers of D'Anvilles's Fleet reduced them very much.

Col. Phillips with Advice and Consent of his Council is impowered to grant Lands under cer [...]ain Limitations, but in general at 1 d. St. pr. An. per Acre Quit Rent, Ro­man Catholicks are excepted. Col. P [...]—ps had sundry Sums allowed by the Board of Ordnance for repairi [...]g [Page 330] Fortifications and the like, at Annapolis and Canso; and were converted, as is said, to his own proper Use. In Time of Peace the Garrisons in Nova Scotia and Newfoundland, with a reduced Regiment of Foot, and Detachments from the Train, cost Great-Britain about 15000 £. per Annum.

When Massachusetts-Bay Colony obtain'd a new Charter (their former Charter was taken away at the same Time with many Corporation Charters in England in the End of the Reign of Charles II. and Beginning of the like or more arbitrary Reign of Iames II.) 7 Oct. 1691, Nova Scotia at that Time in Possession of the French, was annexed (as was also Sagadahock or Duke of York's Property) to the Massachusetts Jurisdiction, to keep up the Claim of Grea [...]-Britain; Nova Scotia has since been constituted a sepa­rate Government; and has continued about 40 Years to this Time, a nominal British Province without any British Settlement, only an insignificant Preventive, but preca­rious Fort and Garrison.

[Page 331]As this Country is rude, a Geographical Description of it cannot be expected; it is a large Extent of Territory, bounded Westward by the Bay of Fundi, and a Line run­ning Northward from St. Iohn's River to St. Laurence or Canada great River; Northward it is bounded by the sai [...] St. Laurence River; Eastward it is bounded by the Gulph of St. Laur [...]nce and Gut of Canso which divides it from the Island of Cape Breton, and South-Easte [...]ly it is bounded by Cape Sable Shore.

The most valuable Article in this Province is the Cape Sable Coast, where is a continued Range of Cod-fishing Banks, and many good Harbours; it is true, that along the Cape Sable Shore and Cape Breton, for some Weeks in Summer, there are continued Fogs (as upon the Banks of Newfoundland) from the Range of Banks to the Eastward, that the Sun is not to be seen; but without Storms or bad Weather; the rest of the Year is clear Weather, very suitable for dry Cod-Fish—along this Coast to keep clear of Lands-Ends or Promontories, of Rocks, and of Shoals, the Courses are, from Cape Anne near Boston

to Cape SablesE. b. N.87 Leagues
to Cape SambroE. b. N. half N.50
to CansoE. N. E.45
to LouisbourgE. Northerly18
  200 Leagues

Some of these Harbours are called Port Latore, Port Rosway, Port Metonue, Port Metway, La Have, Malagash, Chebucto. In Chebucto in the Autumn 1746 lay the French Armada under Duke d' Anville, des [...]ined to destroy or dis­tress all the British North America Settlements: This Bay [Page 332] and River of Chebucto bids fair in Time to become the principal Port of Nova Scotia and its Metropolis; from this there is good Wheel Land-Carriage Communication with the Bay of Minas; that is, with La Riviere des Habi­tants or La Prarie, with the River of Cobaquid, with the River of Pisaquid, and the best Parts of the Province. It is true Annapolis lies upon a fine Bason, and is more in­land for a large Vent or Consumption (thus London, Bri­stol, Liverpool, Glascow h [...]e become rich) but the Coun­try round it is bad, and the Tides of the Bay of Fundi renders the Navigation difficult.

Upon the opposite or Westerly Shore of the Bay of Fundi are the Rivers of Pasamaquady and St. Croix ▪ being about 17 Leagues N. W. from the Gut or Entrance of the Bason of Annapolis; the River St. Croix is the Boundary between Nova Scotia Government, and the Territory of Sagadahock or the Duke of York's Property; for the pre­sent in Jurisdiction, annexed to the neighbouring New-England Province of Massachus [...]ts Bay. Upon this Shore further No [...]thward is the River of St. Iohns 10 Leagues distant from the Gut of Annapolis, this is a profitable Ri­ver of long Course, a considerable Tribe of the Abnaquie Indians are settled here, but always ( [...]rom the Indolence of the Government of Nova Scotia) in the French or Canada Interest: The prodigious Falls or rather Tides in this River near its Mouth of 30 Fathom, are not a Cataract from Rocks, but from the Tide being pent up in this River between two steep Mountains: By this River and Carrying-Places there is a Communication with Queb [...]c [...]he Metropolis of Canada; when we reduced Port-Royal 1710, Major Livingston and St. Casteen went by this River to acquaint the General of Canada concerning that Event. Higher or more Northward is Cap Doré about 30 Leagues from Annapolis; here is Plenty of mineral Coal for firing; some Years since, this Affair was undertaken by a Company, but soon dropt with Loss; here are some s [...]ender Veins of Copper Ore, some thin Laminae of Virgin Copper, and a Gold Su [...]phur marcas [...]e.

[Page 333]Upon the Easterly Shore or Gulph of St. Laurence, is Canso Gut, a safe and short Passage from the British Set­tlements to Canada River, 6 Leagues long, 1 League wide; a good Navigation, from the Journals of Capt. Gay­ton Anno 1746, upon a Cruize to Bay Vert [...]. About 25 Leagues further is Ta [...]amaganahou, a considerable Nova-Scotia French District or Settlement, and good Road for Vessels; 14 Leagues further is Bay Verte, shallow Water, but the Embarquadier from Canada, to disturb us in Nova Scotia, from this are only 4 Miles Land Carriage to the River of Chiconicto; here we may observe, that upon the Chiconicto Bay Side are 11 Fathom Tide, upon the Gulph of St. Laurence or Bay Verte Side, are only 4 to 5 Feet Tide. Further (Isle Bonaventure and Isle Percée in­terveening, where the French by Treaty of Utrecht do rightfully cure dry Cod Fish) at the South Entrance of the River of St. Laurence, is Gaspee, a deep Bay and good Harbour; here unrighteously the French dry Cod Fish; I observe in the late French Charts published by Autho­rity, there is a Territory prickt off, called GASPEE, as if not belonging to Nova Scotia or L'Accadie, ceded to Great-Britain by the Treaty of Utrecht; such a Paper Encroachment, if not attended to, may be construed after many Years a just Claim by Prescription; such is at pre­sent t [...]e Dispute between the Baltimore Family of Mary­land, and the Pen's Family of Pensylvania concerning the old Dutch Charts, and our new Charts in Relation to Cape Cornelius the South Cape of Delaware Bay, and Cape Hen­lopen 20 Miles South Westerly from the Mouth of Dela­ware Bay, in running the Line between the three lower Counties of Pensylvania and Maryland.

Nova Scotia is divided into 10 or 12 Districts; each District annually chuses one Deputy to be approved by the Commander and Council at Annapolis; he is a Sort of Agent for the District, and reports the State of the Dis­trict from Time to Time; they are in no legislative, or executive Capacity; the French Missionaries who are not only appointed, by the Bishop of Quebec in Canada, but [Page 334] under his Direction (a Scandal to the indolent Govern­ment and Garrisons of Nova Scotia) in their several Di­stricts and Villages, act as Magistrates and Justices of the Peace; but all Complaints may be brought before the Commander in chief and Council at Annapolis.

The New-England Bills of publick Credit; ever since the Cession by the Treaty of Utrecht, have been their com­mon Currency; until the late intollerable Depreciation by immensly multiplying this Credit beyond its Bearings, by Expeditions, and in Fact the Credit of those Bills is almost sunk,* or rather lost; the French Inhabitants absolutely re­fuse them in Currency.

Island of Sables.

ThisIsland must be deem'd in the Jurisdiction of the Pro­vince of Nova Scotia, as it lies upon the Latitudes of that Coast, though at a considerable Distance; and the British exclusive Line of Fishery by the Treaty of Utrecht 1713 beginning at this Island, implies the same to belong to Great-Britain; the Name is French, and we retain it with much Impropriety; we ought to have translated it SANDY ISLAND, in the same Manner, as we have turned Point de Sable (a former French District in St. Christophers) to the present British Name Sandy Point. The Property is loud­ly (that is in the publick News Papers) claim'd by some private Persons; I shall not inquire into the Merit of the Affair.

I am informed by People who were shipwreck'd there, and liv'd some Months upon the Island, that, from Canso [Page 335] to the Middle of the Island are 35 Leagues South; it is a low Land, with small rising Knowles of Sand called Downs, in Form of an Elbow, the Bite to the Northward, about 20 Miles in Length, and narrow; by Reason of Sholes of Sand, small Tides 5 or 6 Feet, and a great Surf, it is inaccessible, excepting in the Bite where Boats may land. Formerly some Persons of Humanity, put Cattle ashore to breed, for the Relief of the Shipwreck'd, and by multiplying, they answered that benevolent charitable End; until some wicked, mean, rascally People from our Continent, destroy'd them to make Gain (these Robbers of seafaring People, called these Depredations, making of a Voyage) of their Hides and Tallow. The South Side is in 43 d. 50 m. N. Lat; no Trees, their principal Growth is Iuniper Bushes, * Huckle-Berry Bushes, Cran­berries, Bent-Grass; some Ponds, Abundance of Foxes and Seals; great Snows in Winter, but do not lay long.

At this Island which is deem'd 30 Leagues Eastward from the Cape Sable Shore of Nova Scotia or L'Accadie, by the Treaty of Utrecht 1713, begins the British exclu­sive Line of Fishery, running S. W. indefinitely, and in­cluding the Fishing Banks belonging to the Island.


Cape Breton cannot properly be called a British Colony, until confirmed by some subsequent Treaty of Peace, and annexed to the Dominions of Great-Britain; but not­withstanding its retarding the Prosecution of this History▪ I cannot avoid taking Notice of the Reduction of Louis­bourg, [Page 336] being in our Neighbourhood, an Event recent and very memorable. I shall endeavour to relate it with Ex­actness and Impartiality; by ascribing every Step of it to Providence, I hope it will not be construed as detracting from the Merits of the Country of New-England, the Place of my Abode or Home. The Motto may be Audaces For­tuna juvat, and with good Propriety may be termed Dig­nus vindice nodus, and without Imputation of Cant, be as­cribed to some extraordinary Interposition of Providence in our Favour: Governor Shirley in a Speech, observes, that "scarce such an Instance is to be found in Histo­ry:" A Colonel in this Expedition, gave it this Turn "That if the French had not given up Louisbourg, we might have endeavoured to storm it with the same Pros­pect of Success, as the Devils might have stormed Hea­ven." The annual Convention of the New-England Mi­nisters, in their Address to the KING, call it, "The wonderful Success GOD has given your American Forces:" A Clergyman from London writes "This prosperous E­vent, can hardly be ascribed to any Thing short of an In­terposition from above truly uncommon and extraordina­ry: These Expressions of the Governor's, &c. ought not to be construed as derogating from the most bold Adven­ture of the New-Englanders.

The Reduction of Louisbourg was much above our Capacity; in short, if any one Circumstance had taken a wrong Turn on our Side, and if any one Circumstance had not taken a wrong Turn on the French Side, the Ex­pedition must have miscarried, and our Forces would have returned with Shame, and an inextricable Loss to the Pro­vince; as this was a private or Corporation Adventure without any Orders from the Court of Great-Britain, the Charges would not have been reimbursed by the Par­liament; and the People of New-England from Gene­ration to Generation would have cursed the Advisers and Promoters of this unaccountably rash Adven­ture.

[Page 337]In the Congress of Utrecht when the French demanded Cape-Breton Island, it was proposed, that it should lie in common for the Use of the British and French Fishery, without any Settlements or Forts, but open; the Fr [...]nch would have acquiesced, but in this as in some other Arti­ticles, our abandoned wicked Ministry of that Time, gave the French Nation more than they really expected, viz. the exclusive Property and Dominion of the Island, with the Liberty of fortifying. It is generally thought, that by next Peace, Louisbourg will be demolished, and the Island laid open and in common to both Nations: It is certain, that the Duke D'Anville had an Instruction, if he succeeded in recovering of Louisbourg, to demolish it.

As this was a private Adventure, upon Surrender, we might have demolished it soon, and converted the Ar­tillery, other warlike Stores, and many other valuable Things, to the Use and Benefit of the New-England Co­lonies concerned▪ and so have put an End to a great ac­cruing Charge: The Charge of maintaining a Garrison there with Men, Provisions, warlike Stores, and Repairs in Time of Peace, will be a great and unprofitable Article of national Expence, and as both Nations are much in Debt, neither of them will incline to be at the Charge, but agree to demolish it. As Great-Britain are a small People, but at present Masters at Sea; their Game is to procure all the Advantages of an extensive Commerce, we are not capable of peopling and maintaining Land-Acquirements: Perhaps the Promoters of this very po­pular Adventure do not receive the sincere Thanks of the Ministry or Managers at the Court of Great-Britain (this may be the Reason of the Remoras in our solliciting a [Page 338] Reimbursement) because thereby they have incurred, to please the Populace, an annual Charg [...] [...] we 60,000 £. Sterl. pr. An. or 600,000 £. New-Englan [...] Currency, a considerable Article where Ways and Means were difficult.

If the Act of Parliament against impressing of Seamen in the Sugar-Islands, had been extended to the Northern American Colonies; we should have been easy under a British Squadron stationed at Boston, and their Bills home for Supplies, would have made good Returns for our Mer­chants; our Traders could not have suffered above 2 or 3 pr. Ct. Difference of Insurance, which is a Trifle com­pared with the great Charge incurred by reducing of Lou­isbourg, and of maintaining it during the War.

Here I shall give some short Account of Evenements in the Northern Parts of North America from the Com­mencement of the present French War to the present Time May 1748; I shall not notice small Affairs, which do not require Mention in a general History.

The French declared War against Great-Britain March 15. 1744. N. S. Great-Britain declared War against France March 29. 1744. O. S. The French in these Parts had more early Intelligence of the War: at Boston we did not pro­claim this War until Iune 2. May 13. M. Du Vivier with a few armed small Vessels, and about 900 regular Troops and Militia from Louisbourg, tak [...] Canso without any Re­sistance, and carries the nominal four Companies being 70 to 80 Soldiers, and the few Inhabitants Prisoners to Lou­isbou [...].

Here is a notorious Instance of the French too forward rash Conduct; contrary to express Instructions sent by the Court of France to the Garrison of Louisbourg, along with the Declaration of War (my Information was from M. le Marquis de la Maison Forte Capt. of the Vigilant) that con­sidering [Page 339] the weak and mutinous State of their Garrison, it was not advisable for them, until further Orders, to at­tempt any Expedition which might alarm the populous neighbouring British Colonies. 2. If instead of taking the insignificant Post (did not deserve the Name of Fort) of Canso in their Neighbourhood, the sooner to humour the Vanity of an Eclat; had they with the same Force gone directly to Annapolis, by Surprize it would have ea­sily submitted.

About the same Time a small inconsiderable Arma­ment from Louisbourg, commanded by M. de la Brotz, made some Depredations about St. Peters of Newfound­land, and threatned Placentia Fort. This de la Brotz in a French Privateer Sloop of 18 Guns and 94 Men, was soon after this, taken by the Massachusetts Province Snow Capt. Tyng, upon the Coast of New-England, and carried into Boston. A small Privateer from Louisbourg takes a Sloop with Whale-Oil aboard from Nantucket Island bound to Boston.

See the Section of Nova-Scotia P. 319, for the At­tempts against Annapolis in Iune, by some Indians under the Direction of M. Lutre, a French Missionary Priest▪ and in September, by some French and Indians commanded by M. Du Vivier, who burnt Canso in May.

End of Iuly Capt. Rouse in a Boston Privateer, arrived at St. Iohns Harbour in Newfoundland from th [...] great Banks, he brought in 8 French Ships with 90,000 Mud-Fish. In August, Capt. Rouse in Confortship with Capt. Cleves in a Ship and some small Craft, and 50 Marines, fitted out by the British Man of War stationed at New­foundland, sail in Quest of the French Ships that cure Cod-Fish in the Northern Harbours of Newfound­land; August 18 at Fishot, [...]hey took five good French Ships, some dried Fish bu [...] not well cured, and 70 Tons of Liver-Oil; thence they proceeded to the Harbours of St. Iulian and Carrous. Capt. Rouse hereby merited, and accordingly was made a Post or Rank Captain in the Bri­tish Navy.

[Page 340]In September dies Du Quesnel the French Governor of Cape-Breton, a good old Officer, and was succeeded in Com­mand by M. Du Chambon an old Pol [...]roon.

In October Capt. Spry in the Comet-Bomb, upon the Coast of New-England, takes a French Privateer in her first Voyage or Cruize Capt. Le Gro [...]z 16 Guns 100 Men, whereof some were Irish Roman Catholick Soldiers for­merly of * Phillips's Regiment from Canso; this Privateer was called Labradore, from a Gut in Cape-Breton where she was built; she had taken two or three of our Coasters, from Philadelphia. About this Time Capt. Waterhouse in a Boston Privateer refus'd a French East-India Ship rich­ly laden; and Capt. Loring in a small Boston Privateer, was taken by a new French Man of War from Canada bound to Louisbourg.

Nov. 19. sails from Louisbourg the French grand Fleet of Fish Ships, of Fur Ships from Canada, &c. This Fleet consisted of 3 French Men of War, 6 East-India Ships, 31 other Ships, 9 Brigantines, 5 Snows, and 2 Scooners; 7 Vessels remained to winter at Louisbourg.

This is a short History of the Sea Campaign (as the French express it) in the Northern Parts of North America for Anno 1744.

Anno 1745 in March, La Renommee a French Frigate of 32 Guns, 350 Seamen, and 50 Marines, charged with publick Dispatches, and designed for Observation; in cruizing along the Cape-Sable Coast, met with several of our small armed Vessels, and with the Connecticut Trans­ports, which upon any other Occasion, she might have destroy'd with Ease: If she had put into Louisbourg, by the Addition of good Officers, of Men, and of Stores; the Garrison would have been encouraged, and perhaps have render'd our Expedition vain: But having discover­ed [Page 341] an Expedition against Louisbourg in great Forwardness she made the best of her Way to carry immedia [...]e Ad­vice thereof to France; and a Squad [...]on under the Com­mand of M. Perrier was so [...]n fitted out at from Brest for the Relief of Louisbourg, la Renommee sail'd in this Squa­dron, she was an exquisite Sailer, and at length taken by the Dover, 1747.

In May the Vigilant, a French Man of War of 64 Guns and 560 Men with a good Land Fall, instead of go­ing directly into the Harbour of Louisbourg, attack'd British Man of War of 40 Guns, the Mermaid Capt. Douglass, this prudent Officer by a running Fight decoy'd the French Ship into the Clutches of Commodore Warren in the Superbe of 60 Guns, in Company were also the El­tham of 40 Guns, the Massachusetts Frigate of 20 Guns, [Page 342] and the Shirley Galley of 20 Guns; the Vigilant struck to the Mermaid May 18, and was manned chiefly from New-England: If the Vigilant had arrived in Louisbourg considering the many good Officers aboard, a large Num­ber of Sailors and Marines, with great Quantities of Stores, we should have been disappointed in the Reduction of Louisbourg.

If the Proposal made three Days before the Vigilant was seized, had taken Place, viz. of laying up the Men of War in Chapeau rouge Bay, and landing theSailors and Ma­rines to join ou [...] [...]eging Army; the Vigilant would have got in and f [...]ustrated the Reduction of Louisbourg.

M. Marin, after an invain Attempt against Annapolis in Nova Scotia, with 900 French and Indians, in small Sloops and Canoes, was bound to the Relief of Louisbourg by molesting theSiege, in AsmacouseHarbour they were di [...] ­persed by some of our small armed Vessels Iune 15; see Nova Scotia Section, P. 321.

The French Squadron of 7 Men of War, commanded by M. Perrier, designed for the Relief of Louisbourg, set out from France too late. Iuly 19, in N. Lat. 43 d. 45 m. W. Long. from London 40 d. 30 m, E. off the Banks of Newfoundland, took our Prince of Orange Mast Ship, Lieut.-Governor Clark of New-York aboard, here the French learnt that Louisbourg had surrendred; without this Intelligence, they would have become a Prey to our Louisbourg Squadron; the French altered their Measures, and in a Storm were dispersed; la Galette of 32 Guns did not rendezvous; the Mars 66 Guns, St. Michael 62 Guns, and the Renommee of 32 Guns, put back to France; the P [...]fait 46 Guns, Argonoute 46 Guns, and le Tournoir 32 Guns, put into the Harbour of Carrous in the Nor­thern Parts of Newfoundland 51 d. [...] m. N. Lat, lay there three Weeks, and sail'd a Convoy for the French Fish Ships.

Some homeward-bound rich French S [...]ip [...], ignorant of this Event, came before Louisbourg [...]o refresh, and were taken by our Ships; as all the British Men of War had [Page 343] entred into a Contract of joint sharing, I shall not parti­cularize the Ships that made the Seizures: Iuly 24 they took an East-India Ship from Bengal, Value 75,000 £. St. soon after they take another East-India Ship. August 22 was taken a South Sea Ship (decoy'd by the Boston Packet Capt. Fletcher) Value about 400,000 £. St.

In Iuly we sent some small Craft to St. Iohns Island to bring away the French Inhabitants, to be transported to France: Some of our Men imprudently and too securely went ashore, they were ambuscaded by some French and Indians, we lost 28 Men killed and captivated.

Oct. 5. sail'd 5 Men of War, via Newfoundland with the two East-India Ships for England, to be condemned there, conform to an Act of Parliament; the South-Sea Ship for certain Reasons was condemned as unfit to pro­ceed: The Vigilan [...], Chester, and Louisbourg Fire Ship were left to winter there.

Our Provincial Privateer Snow Capt. Smithurst, was lost in a Storm and all the Men drowned.

Our Sea Campaign Anno 1746 was as follows. In the Autumn 1745 were shipt off from Gibralter the two Re­giments Foot of Fuller and Warburton with three Com­panies of Frampton's Regiment, they arrived in the Win­ter upon this bad Coast (I mean the Winter Coast of New-England, Nova-Scotia and Cape-Breton) and therefore put into Virginia to wait the Spring Season; they arrived at Louisbourg May 24. 1746, and relieved our New-England Militia of about 1500 Men that had kept Garrison there at the Charge of Great-Britain from the Surrender of the Place Iune 17. 1745; Commodore Warren received a Commission as Governor, and Col. Warburton as Lieut.-Governor of the Garrison of Louisbourg and Territories thereunto belonging. Admiral Warren's Occasions call'd him Home, and Mr. Knowles was appointed Governor and [...]ommodore of a small Squadron there, it is said, he behaved in a most imperious, disgustful Manner.

Admiral Townshend with a Squadron, was ordered from [Page 344] our West India Sugar Islands, for the Protection of Lou­isbourg, he continued there in Harbour all the Time that Duke d'Anville's French Squadron was upon our Coast▪ without giving them any Molestation in their great Dis­tress, doubtless from some secret Instr [...]ctions, which he did not think proper to communicate to Mr. Knowles▪ Townshend with eightShips sail'd in November from Louis­bourg for England.

The Story of d'Anville's Expedition that Autumn in these S [...]as, we have already related in the Section of Nova Scotia, P. 322.

In the Summer by an Order from Home, the several Nothern Colonies did raise Forces towards the reducing of Canada; see Page 324: this was perhaps only a State-Amusement, without a real Design to prosecute the Af­fair: The Massachusetts-Bay voted 3000 Men, whereof 2000 were inlisted, and by an Order from Home, they were dismissed in October 1747, after having further in­volved the Province in a considerable Debt for inlisting, victualing, and providing of Transports.

Anno 1747. In theSpring, a French Squadron with Trans­ports and Land Forces, fitted out in France, for the Annoy­ance of Cape-Breton, and Reduction of Annapolis in Nova-Scotia, were intercepted, beginning of May by Admirals Anson and Warren's Squadron; see P. 326: M. de Ram­say, with his Party of Canadian French and Indians, had wintered at Chiconicto, to join the Land Forces from France; but upon the News of La Ianquiere's Disaster, they returned to Canada; and from that Time to this pre­sent Writing May 1748, Annapolis has been in perfect Security and Tranquillity; there is at this Time a Rumour of some Expedition on Foot in Canada.

Beginning of Winter Commodore Knowles from Louis­bourg with a small Squadron, was joined at Boston by the Station Ships of North-America, leaving their Trade ex­posed to the Depredations of French and Spanish Priva­teers; he sail'd to our Windward Sugar Islands, and from [Page 343] thence to Iamaica; having made up a considerable Squa­dron with Land Forces aboard, he was to distress the French Harbours and Settlements on Hispaniola (the French call the Island St. Domingue) as much as possible, he has al­ready reduced and demolished a strong Fort in Port Louis; here 1741 lay a large French Squadron under the Mar­quis d' Antin design'd to prevent the Junction of Vernon and Ogle, or to awe our Expedition against Carthagene, or to carry Home the Spanish Plate Fleet; neither of these were effected, but returned to France in a very distressed Condition.

Anno 1748. The adjacent British Provinces or Co­lonies, are negotiating an Expedition against a French Fort at Crown-Point, upon the Dutch Side of Lake Champlain, and consequently within the Jurisdiction of New York; When the Affair is narrowly canvassed, perhaps it will be deem'd silly, but chargeable Affair: As hitherto no­thing is concluded upon, we must drop it.

Cape Breton was formerly in the Nova Scotia District, the French call it L' Isle Royal; by Commission, M. Su­bercasse the last French Governor of L'Accadie, is called Governor of L'Accadie and Cape Breton Islands, from Cape [Page 346] Rosiers at the Entrance of St. Laurence River, to Quene­beck River: By the Treaty of Utrecht 1713, all L'Acca­die or Nova Scotia was quit-claim'd by France to Great-Britain; excepting the Cape Breton Islands, that is, all the Islands in the Gulph of St. Laurence; these Great-Britain quit-claim'd to France.

The great Island of Cape-Breton, lies from 45 d. to 47 d. N. Lat, its most Northerly Point distant 15 Leagues from Newfoundland, the Gulph of St. Laurence interveen­ing, here a few Cuizers might preclude the French Canada Trade; it is separated from Nova Scotia by a Thorough-Fare, which we call the Gut of Canso, the French call it the Passage of Fronsac; the Mermaid a British Man of War of 40 Guns 1747 upon a Cruize, sail'd through this Gut, found it six Leagues long, is narrow but good An­chorage, Flood from the North; from the Gut of Canso 40 Leagues to Bay Verte, where are about 10 or 12 French Huts, upon the Nova Scotia Shore, shallow Water; here is the Communication of the Canadians with our perfidi­ous French of Nova Scotia, by a short Land-Carriage or Neck of about 4 Miles to Chiconicto. Tatamaganabo [...] is a large French Village, 14 Leagues West Southerly from Bay Verte, a Harbour for large Ships.

Louisbourg formerly called English Harbour, is in N. Lat. 45 d. 55 m. the Passage by Sea from thence to Que­bec is about 200 Leagues, and has been performed in 3 Days. In Cape Breton Island, there is a Gut Lake or in­land Sea, called Labradore about 20 Leagues long, and 3 [Page 347] or 4 Leagues wide, here they build small Vessels; the French Privateer called Labradore, Capt. Le Grotz taken by the Comet Bomb 1745, was built there. In the North Part of the Island is a good Harbour St. Anne's in a good Soil, here was laid out Fort Dauphin, to be found in the French Charts, as if finished.

The other Islands in the Gulf of St. Laurence are pri­vate French Property; St. Iohns and the Magdalene Is­lands were granted to the Conte de St. Pierre; St. Iohns is about 20 Leagues long, good Land, many French and Indians; Governor Knowles of Louisbourg neglected the Possession of it: the Island of Anticosti, is the Property of Sieur Ioliet a Canadian, it lies in the Mouth of the River St. Laurence, is large but inhospitable, no good Timber, no good Harbour, Plenty of large Cod-Fish; below Gaspee on the Coast of Nova Scotia at L' Isle Per­cee and L' Isle Bonaventure already mentioned, the French make Cod-Fish.

After a short Description of the late French Colony of Cape Breton Islands, I shall briefly, without Interruption, and at one View relate that memorable Event of reducing Louisbourg, the French American Dunkirk, by a few New-England Militia, with the Countenance of some accidental British Men of War.

When Louisbourg was given to us by the French, we found 600 regular Troops in Garrison, with about 1300 Militia, whereof about one half were called in from the adjacent Settlements; the main Fossee or Ditch 80 Feet wide, the Ramparts 30 Feet high (the Scalado or Scaling Ladders which we sent by the Direction of Mr. Bradstreet at present Lieut.-Governor of a Fort in St. Iohns Har­bour Newfoundland, were too short by 10 Feet, and never were used) upon the Town Ramparts were mounted up­wards of 65 Cannon of various Sizes; the Entrance of the Harbour defended by a Grand Battery of about 30 Guns of 42 Pound Ball, and by the Island Battery of 30 Guns of 28 Pound Ball; Provisions for six Months, Ammunition sufficient, if well husbanded from the be­ginning; [Page 348] ten Mortars of thirteen Inches, and six of nine Inches.

Mr. Vaughan of Damarascote, in the Territory of Saga­dahoc, in the Dominions of New-England; a whimsical wild Projector in his own private Concerns, intirely igno­rant of military Affairs, and of the Nature of the De­fence or Strength of a Place regularly and well fortified at an immense Expence; dreamt or imagined that this Place might be reduced by a Force consisting of 1500 raw Militia, some * scaling Ladders, and a few armed small Craft of New-England.

It is said, that Governor Shirley was taken with this Hint or Conceit, but imagined that 3000 Militia with 2 forty Guns King's Ships might do better; this Expedition was resolved upon and prosecuted, without any Certainty of British Men of War to cover the Siege and prevent Supplies; a Packet was sent to Commodore Warren sta­tioned at our West-India Sugar Islands, by a loaded Lum­ber Sloop, desiring the Assistance of two Ships of 50 or 40 Guns, and if he could not spare two, to send one which perhaps might be sufficient; Mr. Warren's Ans­wer was, that for Want of further Instructions from the Admiralty, he could in Course send only two Ships to the New-York and Boston Stations; but soon after this he re­ceived Instructions to proceed to North America with the Superbe 60 Guns, Launceston 40 Guns, and Mermaid 40 Guns, in Order to succour Annapolis or any of his Maje­sty's Settlements against Attempts of the Enemy, and to make Attempts against the Enemy; in proceeding to Boston for Provisions and other Supplies, some fishing Scooners, by Letters from Governor Shirley informed him, that the Expedition had proceeded, and desiring that he would immediately cover them by his Protection without [Page 349] touching in at Boston; the good, assiduous, and publick-spirited Commodore Warren directly proceeded and join­ed this Adventure, he is now an Admiral in the Navy, and Knight of the Bath in Reward for his good Services.

The Assembly of Massachusetts-Bay; Jan. 25. 1744, 5, by a Majority of one Vote, resolved upon this Expediti­on; Feb. 2, the Inlistments began for Voluntiers, and sail'd end of March for Canso 3000 Men compleat; we had in good Conduct and Precaution, three Weeks before this, sent out some Privateers to block up the Harbour of Lou­isbourg. At Canso they remain'd three Weeks, at this Time the Shore of Cape Breton was impracticable from Fields of Ice which came down by Thaws from the River of St. Laurence or Canada, and by Easterly Winds drove upon that Coast: At Canso was built a Block House of 8 small Cannon, garrisoned with 80 Men. The Expedi­tion sail'd from Canso April 29, and next Day arrived in Chapeau rouge Bay a little South of Louisbourg; here in landing our Men we were oppos'd by a Body of upwards of 100 regular Troops (whereof 24 were of the Swiss Com­pany) commanded by Maurepang, formerly a noted Sea Rover; we suffered no Loss, the French retired with the Loss of 8 Men killed and 10 made Prisoners; from Canso we had sent a small Party to St. Peters a small French Set­tlement upon Cape Breton, and burnt it.

May 2. We detached 400 Men to march round, under Cover of the Hills, to the N. E. Harbour of Louisbourg; upon the Surprize of our Men's burning the Store Houses and Fish Stages there, about one Mile from the Grand Battery; the Troops in the Grand Battery (to reinforce the Town, the Harbour being sufficiently guarded by the Is­land Battery) retired to the Town precipitately, without destroying the Trunnions and Carriages of their Cannon, only spiking [...] [...]ailing of them which were soon dril'd and did serve against the Town,* we took Possession of [Page 350] it May 3, and found 350 Shells of 13, and 30 of 10 Inches, and a large Quantity of Shot.

The New-England Militia before the Town were in all about 3600 * Voluntiers, whereof not exceeding 150 [Page 351] Men were lost (the Prince of Orange Snow excepted, lost in a Storm) by Fortune of War, viz. kill'd by bursting of Can­non, by Shot from the Town, kill'd and drowned in the rash Attempt against the Island Battery: upon our first en­camping, from the Damp of the Ground, there happened [Page 352] a general Flux or rather simple Diarrhea or meer Loose­ness, not mortal, and soon over. After we got into the Town a sordid Indole [...]ce or Sloth for Want of * Disci­pline, induced putrid Fevers and Dysentaries, which at Length in August became contagious, and the People died like rotten Sheep; this destroy'd, or render'd incapable of Duty one half of our Militia.

During the Siege, the French made only one insignifi­cant Sally May 8; the Garrison was mutinous, and could not be trusted at large; this rendred us secure and the Siege was carried on in a tumultuary random Manner, and resembled a Cambridge Commencement.

In the Beginning of the Siege, some of our Men in­considerately stroll'd, and suffered from a Body of French Indians.

May 16. A Party of about 100 Men in Boats, landed i [...] the Night near the Light House Point, to surprise our Men who were erecting a Battery there to play upon the Island Battery of the French; this Party was timely dis­covered and obliged to fly into the Woods, and being joined by some Indians, had several Skirmishes with our Scouts.

May 26. In Whale-Boats (so thin and light that a few [Page 353] Musket Balls are sufficient to sink them (about 400 Men, rashly attempted the Island Battery, where is bad landing, 30 Guns of 28 Pound Ball, and 180 Men in Garrison; we lost in this mad Frolick 60 Men kill'd and drowned, and 116 Prisoners to the French.

As to the Affair of the Siege of the Town, it was in this Manner. In the beginning upon Greenhill 1550 Yards distant from the King's Bastion called the Citadel, we erected a Battery of a very few small Cannon, one 13 Inch, one 11 Inch, and one 9 Inch Mortars; they could [Page 354] do no Execution; May 7, a Battery was made at 900 Yards Distance, and we summoned the Town; May 17, a Battery was advanced to 250 Yards Distance from the West Gate; May 20, on the other Side of a Creek was erected aBattery of five 42 Pounders, called Tidcomb's Bat­tery, to batter the Circular Battery and Magazine.

We made no regular Approaches by Trenches, that is, by Parallels and Zigzags, but bombarded the Town at Random, and did much Damage to the Roofs of the Houses; the West Gate was defaced, the adjoining Cur­tain and Flank of the King's Bastion were much hurt, but no practicable Breach.

The Canterbury and Sunderland being arrived it was re­solved to storm the Town by Sea Iune 18, by three 60, one 50, and four 40 Gun Ships, while the Land Forces ma [...]e a Feint or Diversion ashore: The French were a­fraid to stand it, and capitulated Iune 17, to march out with the Honours of War, not to serve for 12 Months, to be allowed all their personal Effects, and to be trans­ported to France, at the Charge of Great-Britain.

The Place was put under the joint Administration of Pepperrell and Warren; and all future Charges were to be defray'd by their Bills upon the Pay-Master General and Ordnance. According to the enlisting Proclamation, our Militia were to be discharged so soon as the Expedi­tion was over; Governor Shirley arrived in Louisbourg Aug. 17, and persuaded them to continue; but notwith­standing, if the Vigilant, the Chester, and Louisbourg Fire Ship had not continued there over Winter, the Militia might have been discouraged, and the Place in Danger of being surprized by the French and their Indians from Ca­nada, Nova Scotia, and St. Iohns Island.

When the Launceston's Guns were landed and mounted upon the Ramparts; we had 266 good Cannon mount­ed in the Town and Batteries. Capt. Montague of the Mermaid carried Home the Advice of Louisbourg being surrendred.

As it is probable that Louisbourg will be demolished [Page 355] upon a Peace, I shall not give any Description of the Town and its Fortifications; I only mention that from the Grand Battery, erected to range and defend the En­trance of the Harbour, to the Light House at the Mouth of the Harbour, are about 2000 Yards; after we were in Possession of this Battery, and dril'd some of the great Cannon which the French had nail'd and relinquish­ed; the Town and Battery cannoned one another with a great and useless Expence of Ammunition; this Folly was less excusable in the French, as they could not possibly have any Recruit of Stores; the Distance from the Grand Battery to the Circular Battery of the Town, is 1857 Yards, which is too great for much good Execu­tion. From Ma [...]repas Gate to the Island Battery E. N. E. 1273 Yards. From the Island Battery to the Light-house N. E. 1133 Yards.

As the French royal Navy at present are much * reduc­ed, and not capable of sending any considerable Squadron so far abroad; perhaps in good Oeconomy and with suf­ficient Security; the present nominal chargeable Corps (besides the large Detachment from the Train or Ord­nance) in Garrison at Louisbourg of about 4000 Men, may be reduced to 2000 effective Men, and the reformed Men may with proper Encouragement be sent to settle, and be intermixed with the French in Nova Scotia ▪ continuing them in Corps and in Pay for some Time.

The present Garrison Troops of Louisbourg, if com­pleat, consist of

Fuller's Reg.815 Marching Regiments
Warburton's815Officers included
Frampton's 3 Comp.245 
Sir Wm Pepperrell's1000for Officers not included add 80 or more to eachMay be called Ma­rines
Col. Shirley's1000

The Project of raising two Regiments in New-England was faulty in two Respects. 1. A young Settlement, al­ready much reduced in their young Men, by late Expe­ditions; to exhaust them more by standing Levies, is a grievous Hardship; it not only retards or stunts the Growth of the Colony, but in Fact, miniorates them, and puts them backwards; this is the general Complaint of the Country, extravagant Price of Labour, and Want of Labourers. 2. The publick Disappointment of the In­terest of Great-Britain, where 2000 Men are depended upon; of these 1000 perhaps are and ever will be Non-Effectives, it being impracticable for the Country to spare so many Men, for standing or continued Regular Troops.

Perhaps the speculative original Design, at Home might appear specious, that is, 1. A Garrison of Men in­digenous, Natives of, or habituated to the Climate. 2. That by reserving some Officer's Commissions, to the Disposal of the Colonels; the Gentlemen of our Militia, who had distinguish'd themselves in the Expeditions, might have some Reward for their Merit; this last De­sign was attended with the * Inconveniency of being per­verted; by bestowing these Commissions to Purchasers, to Relations, and to Friends.

Some of our good Farmers, Artificers, and other La­bourers, [Page 357] leaving their several Occupations for a short Time, to serve their Country upon an Exigency, in a mi­litary Way, is very laudable; this was in Practice amongst the Romans; some of their great Generals have upon this Account left the Plough, and when the Expedition was over, have returned to it again; such ought to be reward­ed with Places of Profit or Honour, without Purchase, Subscriptions for Presents, Assignments of their Pay for a Time, and other * avaricious Contrivances.

In the Summer 1746 the Assembly of Massachusetts-Bay, sent to the Court of Great Britain , Accounts of their Provincial Charge in reducing of Louisbourg, to the Amount of about 178,000 £. Sterling; this Affair is still depending, and is imputed, rather to the Inactivity and improper Application of our Agents, than to Dilato­riness in the Ministry and Parliament; the Righteousness and Generosity of our Parliaments are notorious, and a Reimbursement is unquestionable; and if properly push'd to Effect, we might have had for some Time past, an annu­al accruing Interest upon Debentures of 7,000£. St. pr. An. [Page 358] which at present is 70,000 £. New England Currency, this would much lessen our yearly Provincial Tax.

At Louisbourg their Currency sounds as if it were Ster­ling Value; British Coin cannot be exported, therefore Spanish Coin, which is the most general in all the com­mercial Countries of our Globe, reduced to a Sterling Va­lue, is called Sterling by us. Immediately upon our pos­sessing of Louisbourg, the Gibraltar and Colonies Curren­cies Cheat, began to take Place; that is, the Commissa­ries or Pay-Masters, what was charged to the proper Offi­ces or Boards at Home at 5 s. St, they paid off (to their own private Advantage of 11 pr. Ct. a Cheat) by a mill'd Piece of Eight Value 4 s. 6 d. St. If Louisbourg should continue a Garrison, a considerable Article in the British annual Supply; those Commissaries from the Example of our American Colonies and Gibraltar, would soon improve their Profits, to pay away a light Piece of Eight, Value 3 s. 6 d. St. for a British Crown or 5 s. St. The Impo­sition at Gibraltar of 1 s. St. for 16 d. Currency and Pay, it is said, has lately been under Consideration of the British Parliament; may it introduce the Consideration of the Abuses in our Plantation Paper Currencies, where the A­buse is vastly more; in Gibraltar 1 s. Sterl. is paid away for a nominal 16 d; in Massachusetts-Bay from a * very b—d Administration, we have exceeded all our Colonies, even North Carolina where their Paper Money was at a Discount with a fallacious cheating Truck, it is 10 for 1 St.; ours is somewhat worse in good Bills St.

[Page 359]From the Surrender of Louisbourg and Territories thereto belonging, Iune 17, 1745 to Iune 1748, there [Page 360] have been several transient Commandants, but no con­tinued established Governor; if the Court of Great-Bri­tain were in earnest to retain this Place, many Candidates would have appeared, and some Person of great Interest established; whereas from a Col. (Warburton) being Lt.-Governor, it is now reduced to a Lt.-Col. being Gover­nor. The Commandants in Succession have been as fol­lows from the Surrender,

1. The General, Pepperrell; and Commodore, Warren, naturally joint Administrators.

2. * Admiral Warren Governor; Col. Warburton Lt.-Governor.

3. Commodore Knowles Governor; Col. Warburton Lt.-Governor.

4. Hobson Lt.-Col. to Fuller, Governor; Ellison Lt.-Col. to Pepperrell, Lt.-Governor.


SECTION VIII. Concerning the Province of Massachusetts-Bay.

THE next four following Sections concern the Do­minions of New-England, at present divided into four several Colonies or Governments; to render the Accounts of them more clear and distinct, we shall begin this Section with an introductory Article, in ge­neral concerning the sundry Grants and Settlements made, before they were colonized by Royal Charters and Pa­tents: As Massachusetts-Bay Province, is composed of many different Grants, united at present in one Charter; some general Account of these several Territories may be useful; afterwards we proceed to more particular Accounts of these Territories in so many distinct Articles, beginning from the Northward.

ARTICLE I. Some general Account of the Dominions of New-Eng­land, and a general Account of the Territories incorporated by royal Charter into one Province or Colony by the Name of Massachusetts-Bay in New-England.

This is a laborious Affair, being obliged to consult MSS Records; the many printed Accounts are, 1. Too credulous and superstitious. 2. Too trifling; must the insipid History of every Brute (some Men as to Intellects do not exceed some Brutes) or Man Animal be transmit­ted to Posterity? 3. The Accounts of every white Man and Indian mutually kill'd or otherways dead, would swell and lower History so much, as to [...]ender the Perusal of [Page 362] such Histories (excepting with old Women and Children) impracticable. 4. The Succession of pious Pastors, El­ders and Deacons, in the several Townships, Parishes or Congregations; I leave to Ecclesiastick Chronologers; Canonization or Sainting seems not consistent with our Protestant Principles. 5. The printed Accounts in all Respects are beyond all Excuse * intolerably erroneous.

[Page 363]The first English Discovery of the Eastern Coasts of North America was by the Cabots in the End of the 15th [Page 364] Century. The first effectual royal Grant of Soil or Pro­perty was Anno 1584 to Sir Walter Raleigh and Asso­ciates; he gave the Name Virginia to all the Continent in general, so called from the English Queen of that Time Elizabeth, a Virgin Queen because never married.

New-England was first discovered to any Purpose, by Capt. Gosnold 1602, and the Fish, Train Oil, Skin, and Fur Trade thereof, with the Indians for some Years, was principally carried on by some Bristol Men. A rascally Fellow Capt. Hunt, carried off some Indians, and in the Mediterranean Sea of Europe sold them to the Spaniards, as Slaves, Mores of the Coast of Barbary; during some following Years the Indians had an Aversion to, and Jea­lousy of the English Traders; but at Length Anno 1619 they were brought to a thorough Reconciliation, which made the Beginning of the New Plymouth Settlement more easily carried on.

This Capt. Gosnold of Dartmouth, was an Associate of Raleigh's; Anno 1602 from England instead of the for­mer wide indirect Course to Virginia by the Canary and Caribee Islands; he sail'd a more direct or Northern Course, and fell in with this Coast, was embay'd in N. Lat. 42 d. 10 m, where he caught many Cod Fish, and called it Cape Cod; thence sailing Southward he gave Q. Elizabeth's Name to one Island; and to the next Island, where he found Quantities of wild Grape Vines, he gave the Name of Martha's Vineyard; these Names are re­tained to this Day.

Capt. Gosnold at his Return to England gave a good Character of this new Country, which induced several Gentlemen jointly to obtain a Royal Grant Anno 1606 (Sir Walter Raleigh from his Attainder having forfeited his Grants in North America) April 10, they were two [Page 365] Companies in one Charter to plant and dispose of Land [...] there: See P. 204. They were much the same Districts as are our present Southern and Northern Districts of Custom Houses; the Southern District was called the Lon­don Company which does not belong to this Part of our History. The other was called the Northern District, North Virginia, or the Company of Plymouth or West Country Adventurers; Lord chief Justice Popham and Sir Ferdinando Gorge were of this Company; Lord chief Justice Popham was their Patron and principal Promoter, he dying soon after, the Settlement dropt, but some Trade for Fish, Skins and Furs was carried on for some Years. Their first Adventure was taken by the Spaniards Anno 1606. Capt. George Popham appointed President or Di­rector of a Settlement to be made there, came over with Capt. Gilbert in 2 Ships with Families and Stores Anno 1607; some Families wintered at Sagadahoc near the Mouth of Quenebec River (here many good Rivers meet and discharge themselves into a Bay called Merry-meeting Bay) Anno 1608, but soon left it with the Character of a cold, barren, inhospitable Desert.

Capt. Smith called the Traveller, sometime President of Virginia, an ingenious Man, Anno 1614 with two Ves­sels came upon this Coast for Trade and Discovery of Mines of Minerals, Metals, and Precious Stones, Auri sacra fames promoted most of our American Discoveries; he survey'd the Coast well, and gave Names (still upon Record) to many of the Head Lands, Bays and Rivers, which are now obsolete, and other Names have taken Place: He presented a Plan of the Country to the Court of England, and it was called NEW-ENGLAND, which Name it retains to this Day.

About this Time there were several voluntary Com­panies of Adventurers to America, but without Grants or Patents; the London, Bristol, Exeter, Plymouth, &c. Com­panies, who soon dissolved of themselves.

The Northern Company of Anno 1606, insensibly dis­solved of it self; and a new Company of Adventurers [Page 366] was formed, called the Council of Plymouth or Council of New-England; their Patent reaching from N. Lat. 40 d. to 48 d. is dated Nov. 18. Anno 1620 to Duke of Lenox, Marquis of Buckingham, Marquis of Hamilton &c, the Corporation to consist of 40; upon Deaths the Vacan­cies to be supplied by a Vote of the Survivors; being in Process of Time divided amongst themselves, they sur­render'd their Patent 1635, and some of them, v. g. Duke of Hamilton, Sir Ferdinando Gorge, &c. obtain'd from K. Charles I. peculiar Grants or Patents: Their Patent was designedly extended much North and South, to include and keep up the English Claim to New Netherlands in Possession of the Dutch to the Southward, and to L'Ac­cadie, since called Nova Scotia, then in Possession of the French to the Northward; see a large Account of these Affairs, P. 109, and 205. To be a Body corporate, to have a common Seal, make Laws, and dispose of any Parts thereof, but could not * delegate the Jurisdiction without an additional Royal Charter.

This Council of Plymouth or New-England made many indistinct and interfering Grants; at this Time many of their Grants are become obsolete, such as Duke Hamilton's of the Narraganset Country, Mr. Mason's of New Hamp­shire, some Grants upon Kenebec River, &c. The Mem­bers of this Council of Plymouth differing amongst them­selves, [Page 367] occasioned the Surrender of their Charter to the Court, by an Instrument under their common Seal dated Iune 7. 1635; there has been no general British Com­pany in America since that Time.

Here we may observe in general, That Laud *, Arch­bishop of Canterbury, noted for his immoderate Zeal to promote Uniformity in the Church, occasioned an Emi­gration of Non-Conformists in great Numbers to New-England, preceeding Anno 1641; but from that Time, until the Restoration of the Family of Stuart, being about 20 Years, very few came abroad; the Independent or Congregational Manner of religious Performances having the Ascendent in England, as most * sutable to the civil [Page 368] Administration of those Times. In the Reigns of Charles II, and of Iames II, many Dissenters came over. Lately the long Leases of the Farmers in the North of Ireland being expired, the Landlords raised their Rents extravagantly: This occasioned an Emigration of many North of Ireland Scots Presbyterians, with an Intermixture of wild Irish Roman Catholicks; at first they chose New England, but being brought up to Husbandry or raising of Grain, called Bread Corn, New-England did not answer so well, as the Colonies Southward; therefore at present they generally resort to Pensylvania, a good Grain Co­lony.

[Page 369]This Council of Plymouth parcel'd out their Grant, into several Colonies or Settlements.

Robert Brown, a hot-headed young Enthusiastical Clergyman began Anno 1580, to preach against the C [...] ­remonies and Discipline of the Church of England; he was persecuted or baited and teazed by the Bishops Courts, he with some Disciples left England, and formed a Church as Midleborough of Zealand, in the Dutch Low Countries; after some Time this Esservescence or Ebulition of Youth subsided, he returned to England, recanted, and had a Church of England Cure bestow'd upon him, and died in that Communion, Anno 1630.

A Congregation of these Brownists wa [...] formed in Y [...]r­mo [...]th 1602, being harrassed by the established Church of England, with their Pastor they transported themselves to Leyden in Holland; here they became more moderate under the Direction of their Pastor * Mr. Robinson; and from Brow­nists changed their Denomination to that of Independents: Being of unsteady Temper, they resolved to remove from amongst Strangers after 10 Years Residence, to some re­mote Country in some Wilderness, where without Moles­tation they might worship GOD in their own de [...]ional Way: Thus the first Settlements in New-England were upon a religious Account, not properly for Produce, Ma­nufacturies, and Trade, but as Recluses: Amongst the Roman Catholicks are many Communities or Convents of unmarried or single Persons Recluse; but these were re­cluse Families.

After having obtained an Instrument from King Iames I. for the free Exercise of their Religion in any Part of America; they sold their Estates and made a common [Page 370] Bank, and entred into Articles of Agreement with the Adventurers called the Council of Plymouth, to settle on the Banks of Hudson's River, now in the Government of New-York; after the Misfortune of being twice put back, they sail'd 120 Persons in one Ship from Plymouth (they gave the same Name to their new Settlement) Sept. 6, 1620, and fell in with Cape Cod Nov. 9; being too late in the Season for proceeding to Hudson's River; although without the Limits of their Agreement they were obliged to sit down in a barren Soil, and formed themselves into a voluntary Association or Colony, subscribed by 41 Men, but had no Communication with the Indians of the Coun­try until the Middle of March following; about this Time these Indians by some ep [...]demick malig [...]a [...]t Illness and intestine Wars had been much reduced. They chuse Mr. Carver Governor for one Year, but he died in April following, and was succeeded by Mr. Bradford; from the Length of the Voyage, other Fatigues, and extreme cold Weather, about 50 of their Number died the first Year, of putrid Fevers, and other scorbu [...]ick Ails; all was in common for the first two or three Years, having divided themselves into 19 Families, Menages, or Messes; yearly t [...]ey rec [...]ived a few Recruits of People; Anno 1624 when they received their Grant, the whole Settlement consisted of only 180 Persons in 32 Messes: From so small a Be­ginning in the Space of about 125 Years, New-England is arrived to its present Glory. They purchased their Lands of Massassoit, the Indian Sachem; he was glad of their Alliance and Assistance, being then at War with the Nar [...]ganset Indian numerous Tribe.

They had no Grant of their Lands from the Council of Plymouth until Anno 1624, this Grant was not to the Company [...] Adventurers and Freemen, but to William Bradford, his Heirs, Associates, and Assigns; he was af­terwards persuaded to assign this Grant to the Freem [...]n in general: This Assignment (as I understand it) was after­wards confirmed by a new Grant from the Council of Plymouth to the Company of Freemen, Ian. 1629, 30; [Page 371] they never had any Royal Charter or Patent, conseque [...]ly no Jurisdiction; the Council of Plymouth could con­vey Property, but could not delegate Jurisdiction. Here we must break off, and reassume the History of Plymouth old Colony, when we come to the Article of Plymouth as a constituted Colony.

It is certain that the first Settlers of New England, did not (as in some of our Colonies) come over indigent or Criminals, but as devout religious * Puritans, they were not Servants to the Adventurers as in some Colonies.

Before we enter upon the four well settled and consti­tuted Colonies of New-England, we shall but just menti­on some Grants which have in Process of Time been in­corporated with these four Colonies, and their Memory lost or swallowed up in them, and of others become [...]bsolete. Some of them shall be related more at large in their proper Places.

Muscongus or Lincoln Grant of 30 Miles square.

Pemaquid Grant.

Shepscut Purchase or Nagwasack Purchase of Robinhood an Indian Sagamore, Nov. 1. 1639, between Sagadahock Bay and Shepscut River, these three are in the Territory of Sagadahock.

[Page 372] Nehumkin Purchase of the Indians October 13. 1649, both Sides of Quenebec River, in this lies Richmond Fort.

Plymouth Grant Ian. 1629, to William Bradford and Associates, lies both Sides of Quenebec River; in this is Cushnock Falls; is in all about 280 Acres.

Taconick Purchase of the Indians 1653, here are Taco­nick Falls about 40 Miles from Noridgwog; these three are upon Quenebec River, one half in Sagadahoc, one half in Province of Main.

Pegapscot Purchase each Side of Pegapscot River ex­tending to the West Side of Quenebec River; Mr. Whar­ton purchased it of the Indian Sagamores 1683, being a­bout 500,000 Acres; at present belongs to nine Proprie­tors, Thomas Hutchinson, &c. it interferes with Nahumkin Purchase and Plymouth Grant.

Province of Main granted 15 Car. I. to Sir Ferdinando Gorge, extending from Piscataqua and Newichewenock Ri­vers to Quenebec River, and 120 Miles inland; includes the Pegapscot Purchase, was purchased by the Colony of Massachusetts-Bay, and is annexed by the new Charter.

Province of New Hampshire; from Piscataqua River, to within three Miles of Merimack River, granted to Mr. Mason 1624, sold by Mr. Mason's Heirs to Mr. Allen of London; at present that Grant and Conveyance seem to be obsolete; the Property of the settled Lands is in the Settlers, the Property of the waste Land is in the Crown, and the Jurisdiction of the whole in the Crown; it ex­tends 60 Miles inland, and lately there is annexed an inde­finite Quantity of Territory, belonging to the Crown, formerly claim'd by Massachusetts-Bay.

Colony of Plymouth, the Mother Colony of New-Eng­land; extending from Old Massachusetts to the Seas, viz. to Massachusetts-Bay, the Ocean, and within three Miles of Naraganset Bay; it is now annexed to Massachusetts; they began a Voluntier Settlement 1620.

Mr. Weston one of the Plymouth Adventurers, obtain'd a separate Grant of some Land; and in May 1622 sent over about 60 Men to make a Settlement at Weymouth a­bout [Page 373] 15 Miles South from Boston, they managed ill, be­came idle and dissolute, and soon broke up, and their Me­mory is lost.

Mr. Gorge, Son to Sir Ferdinando Gorge, Anno 1623 brought over some Settlers; he had some Commission from the Council of Plymouth, as Governor General; soon discouraged, he returned Home.

About the same Time Mr. David Thompson attempted a Settlement at Piscataqua, the Memory of it is lost.

Some Adventurers propos'd to make a Settlement North Side of Massachusetts-Bay, Anno 1624 they began a small Settlement at Cape Anne, the Northern Promonto­ry of this Bay, and are now become the most considerable British America Settlement, and by Way of Eminence i [...] commonly called New-England; they have had a first and second Charter, as shall be more fully related.

Anno 1626 Capt. Wolaston and some others, with Ser­vants, Provisions, and other Stores, began a Settlement at Braintree, but not answering Expectation, after two Years they intirely broke up: Some went to Virginia, some to New Plymouth.

Anno 1630 Earl of Warwick had a Grant of a Tract of Land along Shore from Naraganset River, 40 Leagues West Southerly, and back Inland to the South Seas. Earl of Warwick assigned his Grant to Viscount Sea and Seal, and to Lord Brook, and nine more Associates; finding many Difficulties in settling they assigned their Right to the Connecticut and New-Haven Settlers; these Settlers were Emigrants from Massachusetts-Bay; originally they had no Title, but did sit down at Pleasure, and do at pre­sent enjoy a Royal Charter by the Name of the Colony of Connecticut. Part of this Grant, viz. from Naraganset Bay to Connecticut River, when the Council of Plymouth surrender'd their Patent, was given Anno 1636 by the King to Duke Hamilton, he never was in Possession, and the Claim is become obsolete.

Anno 1642 Mr. Mayhew obtain'd a Grant of the Islands of Nantucket, Marthas Vineyard, &c. and began to make Settlements there.

[Page 374]There were several other Grants and Purchases for small Considerations, and now become obsolete; for In­stance, the Million Purchase from Dunstable six Miles each Side of Merimack River to Winapisinkit Pond or Lake, granted by Governor Andros and Council in the Reign of Iames II; a Claim of this Grant was by some of the Grantees revived about 25 Years ago; but as illegal and odious it was dropt.

Originally according to Capt. Smith's Map, approved of by the Court of England; New-England extended from 20 Miles East of Hudson's River, Northward to the River St. Croix; or perhaps to the Gulph of St. Laurence, in­cluding Nova Scotia, a subsequent peculiar Grant; when Iames II. sent over Sir Edmund. Andros Governor, his Commission or Patent was for the late Colonies of Mas­sachusetts Bay, Plymouth, Connecticut, and Rhode-Island, called the Dominions of New-England; distinct from New-York and Sagadahoc, of which he was also appointed Governor. N. B. New-Hampshire and Province of Main, at that Time were of no Consideration, being under the Protection, and as it were tacitly annexed to the good flourishing Colony of Massachusetts Bay.

The Dominions or rather Denominations in New Eng­land at present consists of four Colonies, or severally in­dependent Legislatures, viz. Massachusetts-Bay Province, Province of New Hampshire, Colony of Rhode Island, and Colony of Connecticut: For Sake of Perspicuity, to each of these is assigned a distinct Section.

The new Charter of Massachusetts-Bay Anno 1691, is a Union or Consolidation of several separate Grants into [Page 375] one Legislature and Jurisdiction; for the more effectual Protection of the whole, against the Incursions of our neighbouring French and Indians. Their new Charter comprehends the following Territories; Sagadahoc or Duke of York's Property; Province of Maine; Old Co­lony of Massachusetts-Bay, old Colony of Plymouth; and the Islands of Nantucket, Elizabeth, Marthas Vineyard, &c. Before we reduce these into separate Articles, to make the whole more apparent, we shall insert an Ab­stract of this incorporating second or new Charter (al­though a late Event or Transaction) as it affords a gene­ral Idea of the Constitution of all our British Colonies.

This new Charter of Anno 1691, bears Date 3 W. and M. Oct. 7, countersigned Pigot. After Recital of the former Grant or Charter, it proceeds thus, "Whereas the said Governor and Company of Massachusetts-Bay in New England, by Virtue of said Letters patent, are become very populous and well settled; and whereas said Charter was vacated by a Iudgment in Chancery in Trinity Term, Anno 1684; the Agents of that Colony have petitioned us, to be reincorporated by a new Charter; and also to the End that our Colony of New-Plymouth in New-England, may be brought under such a Form of Government, as may put them in a better Condition of Defence: We do by these Presents, incorporate into one real Province, by the Name of the Pro­vince of Massachusetts-Bay in New-England; viz. the former Colony of Massachusetts Bay, the Colony of New-Plymouth, the Province of Main, the Territory of Aca­dia [Page 376] or Nova Scotia, and the * Tract laying between Nova Scotia and Province of Main, the North Half of the Isles of Shoals, the Isles of Capawock, and Nantucket near Cape Cod, and all Islands within ten Leagues directly opposite to the main Land within said Bounds. To our Subjects In­habitants of said Lands and their Successors. Quit-Rent, a fifth Part of all Gold, and Silver, and Precious Stones that may be found there. Confirms all Lands, Hereditaments, &c. formerly granted by any General Court to Persons, Bodies cor­porate, Towns, Villages, Colleges or Schools; saving the Claims of Samuel Allen under John Mason, and any other Claim. Former Grants and Conveyances not to be prejudiced for Want of Form. The Governor, Lt.-Governor, and Secretary to be in the King's Nomination; 28 Councellors whereof 7 at least make a Board. A General Court or Assembly, to be convened last Wednesday in May yearly; consisting of the Governor, Council, and Representatives of the Towns or Places, not exceeding * two for one Place; Qualification [Page 377] for an Elector 40 s. Freehold, or 50 £. St. personal Estate. The General Assembly to elect 28 Councellors; whereof 18 from the Old Colony of Massachusetts-Bay, 4 from Ply­mouth late Colony, 3 from the Province of Maine, 1 for the Territory of Sagadahoc, and 2 at large. The Governor with Consent of the Council to appoint the Officers in the Courts of Iustice. All born in the Province, or in the Pas­sage to and from it, to be deem'd natural born Subjects of Eng­land. Liberty of Conscience to all Christians except Papists. TheGeneral Assembly to constituteIudicatories for allCauses cri­minal or civil, capital or not capital. Probate of Wills and granting of Administrations, to be in theGovernor and Council. In personal Actions exceeding the Value of 300 £. St. may appeal to the King in Council, if the Appeal be made in four­teen Days after Iudgment, but Execution not to be staid. The General Assembly to make Laws, if not repugnant to the [Page 378] Laws of England to * appoint all civil Officers, excepting the Officers of the Courts of Iustice, to impose Taxes to be disposed by the Governor and Council. The Conversion of the Indians to be endeavoured. The Governor to have a Negative in all Acts and Elections. All Acts of Assembly, to be sent Home by the first Opportunity to the King in Coun­cil for Approbation; if not disallowed in three Years after their being presented, shall continue in Force until repealed by the Assembly. The General Assembly may grant any Lands in late Massachusetts-Bay and Plymouth Colonies, and in the Province of Maine; but no Grant of Lands from Sa­gadaho [...] River, to St. Laurence River shall be valid, with­out the Royal Approbation. The Governor to command the Militia, to use the Law Martial in Time of actual War, to erect Forts and demolish the same at Pleasure. No Person to be transported out of the Province, without their own Con­sent, or Consent of the General Assembly. The Law Martial not to be executed without Consent of the Council. When there is no Governor, the Lt.-Governor is to act, when both are wanting the Majority of the Council to have the Power. The Admiralty Iurisdiction is reserved to the King, or Lords of the Admiralty. No Subject of England to be debar'd from fishing on the Sea-Coast, Creeks, or Salt Water Ri­vers, and may erect Lodges and Stages in any Lands not [Page 379] in Possession of particular Proprietors. All * Trees fit for Masts of 24 Inches Diameter and upwards 12 Inches from the Ground, growing upon Land not heretofore granted to any private Persons, are reserved to the Crown; Penalty for cutting any such reserved Trees 100 £. St. per Tree.

About 20 Years since, the Assembly of Massachusetts-Bay, received and accepted an additional or explanatory Charter from the Court of Great-Britain; the History of the Affair is as follows. In the Administration of Go­vernor Shute, a good-natur'd Gentleman, and though no great Politician, was tenacious of the Prerogative; a few hot-headed turbulent Men who had got the Ascen­dent over their Fellow-Representatives, and in some Mea­sure over the Council, endeavoured the same over the Go­vernor, by assuming some Articles of the Prerogative: In the End of Anno 1722 Mr. Shute in Person carried Home seven Articles of Complaint against the House of Representatives encroaching upon the Prerogative.

1. Their taking Possession of Royal Masts cut into Logs.

2. Refusing the Governor's Negative of the Speaker.

3. Assuming Authority jointly with the Governor and Council to appoint Fasts and Thanksgivings.

[Page 380]4. Adjourning themselves for more than two Days at a Time.

5. Dismantling of Forts, and ordering the Guns and Stores into the Treasurer's Custody.

6. Suspending of Military Officers, and mutilating them of their Pay.

7. Sending a Committee of their own to muster the King's Forces.

Upon a Hearing before the King and Council Mr. Cook Agent for the House of Representatives, and his Council or Lawyers in the Name of the House of Repre­sentatives, gave up or renounced the 1, 3, 5, 6, and 7 Articles, acknowledging their Fault, induced by Prece­dents of former Assemblies, but wrong and erroneous; and that it was a former Assembly, not the present, that had been guilty; the other two Articles were regu­lated by an explanatory Charter, and they directed to ac­cept the same.

This explanatory Charter is dated 12 Regni Geo. I. Au­gust 20, and countersigned Cocks. "Whereas in their Charter, nothing is directed concerning a Speaker of the House of Representatives, and of their adjourning themselves: It is hereby ordered, That the Governor or Commander in chief, shall have a Negative in the Election of the Speaker, and the House of Representatives may adjourn themselves not exceeding two Days at a Time. By the prudent Conduct of Governor Dummer, the Assembly were induced to ac­cept of this explanatory Charter, by a publick Act of the General Court, Anno 1726.

We may observe in general, that the Oeconomy or Mode of Jurisdiction is much the same in all the four Co­lonies of New-England, by Justices of the Peace and their Quarterly Sessions, by Inferior County Courts of Common Law; and by Provincial ambulatory Superior Courts for Appeals, where Cases are issued, it is also a Court of Jus­ticiary or Oyer and Terminer.

They are divided into constituted Districts called Town­ships; [Page 381] they are a Kind of Bodies corporate, may sue and be sued, elect all proper Officers, send Deputies to the Legislature House of Representatives, and make By-laws. The Management of Township Affairs is in a few (call­ed Select-Men) annually elected by the qualified Voters of the Townships or District. In most of the other Bri­tish Colonies, their constituted Parishes, by Custom, act as Bodies corporate, the Management is in Vestry-Men so called, who generally are for Life, and the Survivors supply Vacancies.

In the four Colonies of New-England Juries are return­ed to the several Courts by Election in certain Quotas from the several Townships, but not by the Appointment of the Sheriffs.

In the rigid, and furiously zealous Church and State Administration of Laud, Archbishop of Canterbury (he carried both Church and State beyond their Bearings, and consequently in the Nature of Things they did overset) many Puritans and other Nonconformists flock'd over to New-England; this occasioned a State Proclamation April 30. 1637, forbidding any Subjects to transport them­selves to America, without License from his Majesty's Commissioners. Anno 1640, the People in New-England did not exceed 4000, and in the 20 following Years many went Home from New-England, their Way of Worship was then in great Vogue in Old England.

N. B. Many of the first English Set [...]lements in Ame­rica, were by Companies of Adventurers, with a joint [Page 382] Stock: Annually in London, each Company chose a Pre­sident and Treasurer for Managers.

We proceed to the several Articles concerning the Co­lonies or Territories, united into one Province by the new Charter of Massachusetts-Bay.

Each Article goes no further than the Time of this Charter Union: From that Time the History of their joint Affairs, is carried along in the Article of Old Mas­sachusetts Bay Colony.

ARTICLE 2. Concerning Sagadahoc, formerly called the Duke of York's Property.

KING Charles II, March 12. 1663, 4 granted to his Brother the Duke of York, a certain Territory or Tract of Land, thus described, "All that Part of the main Land of New-England, beginning at a certain Place, called or known by the Name of St. Croix adjoining to New-Scotland in America; and from thence extending along the Sea Coast, unto a certain Place called Pemaquin or Pema­quid, and so up by the River thereof, to the furthest Head of the same, as it tendeth Northwards, and extending from thence to the River of Quenebec, and so up by the shortest Course to the River of Canada Northwards." This was called the Duke of York's Property, and annexed to the Government of New York. The Duke of York upon the Death of his Brother K. Charles II, became K. Iames II; and upon K. Iames's Abdication these Lands reverted to the Crown.

At present the Territory of Sagadahoc, is supposed to extend from the River St. Croix Eastward, to the River of Quenebec Westward, and from each of these two Ri­vers due North to the River of St. Laurence, thus St. Lau­rence or Canada River is its Northern Boundary, and the Atlantick Ocean is its Southern Boundary. When Nova [Page 383] Scotia was in Possession of the French, Sagadahoc Terri­tory was included in the Commission of the French Go­vernor of L'Accadie or Nova Scotia; thus it was in the Time of granting a new royal Charter to Massachusetts-Bay, therefore to keep up the English Claim to this Ter­ritory, as well as to Nova Scotia, the Jurisdiction of both were included in that Charter.

Upon the Peace of Utrecht 1713, Nova Scotia and Sa­gadahoc were quit claim'd by France to Great-Britain; and the Court of Great-Britain reassumed the Jurisdiction of Nova Scotia, and after a few Years more, the Crown purchased the Property of the Soil or Seigneurie of all the French Claimers; it is now a separate King's Government, with the Property in the Crown: But this Territory of Sagadahoc remains in the Jurisdiction of Massachusetts-Bay, and sends one Member to the Council, but hitherto not any to the House of Representatives of Massachusetts-Bay: The General Assembly cannot dispose of Lands there, without the Consent of the King in Council. The Pro­perty of peculiar Grants there, remain good to the several Claimers, until the Crown do purchase the same as was the Case in Nova Scotia.

Col. Dunbar projected Sagadahoc Territory to be set off as a separate Government for himself; this was introduc­ed, by obtaining a royal Instrument or Instruction, to set off 300,000 Acres of good Mast and Ship-Timber Land, for the Use of the Crown or Navy; it was forwarded by a royal Instruction to Col. Phillips Governor of Nova Scotia April 27, 1730. to take Possession of the Lands be­tween St. Croix River and Quenebec River; accordingly a Detachment of 30 Men with an Officer, was made from the four Companies of his Regiment in Garrison at Canso in Nova Scotia, was sent to take Possession of that Country, to keep Garrison at Frederick's Fort on Pemaquid River, here the Detachment kept for some Time: Upon Appli­cation Home of the Muscongus Company, Proprietors in Part of Sagadahoc, by their indefatigable Agent Mr. Waldo, this Instruction was revoked August 10, 1732, and [Page 384] Col. Phillips's Detachment was called off. At present, the Province of Massachusetts-Bay to obviate Cavils or Complaints; of their relinquishing the Occupancy of this Territory; keep a Truck-House and Garrison at Georges, and a Garrison at Fort Frederick, and is likely to continue under the Jurisdiction of Massachusetts-Bay, and is at pre­present annexed to the County of York, or Province of Maine.

In the Beginning of this French War Anno 1744, the sencible Men in this large Territory of Sagadahock were only

at Georges and Broad-bay
at Pemaquid
at Shepscut

but at this Writing 1748, very few of these remain, being much exposed to the Canada French Coureurs de Bois, and their Indians.

In the Beginning of the last Century England and France indifferently traded to Sagadahoc; under the Direction and Countenance of Chief Justice Popham, the English made the * first New-England Settlement 1608 at Sagadahoc, but of short Continuance.

Anno 1613 Capt. Argol from Virginia broke up some French Settlements at Sagadahoc.

The Claims to Lands in the Territory of Sagadahoc, are of various and perplexed Natures, viz. Some by old In­dian Grants in drunken Frolicks for none or not valuable Considerations; some by Grants from the Council of Plymouth; some by Patents from the Governors of New-York, when under that Jurisdiction, particularly from Governor Dungan a Roman Catholick in the Reign of Iames II.

Some Part of this Territory was granted by the Coun­cil of Plymouth 1629 to Mr. Beauchomp of London [Page 385] Merchant, and to Mr. Leverett of Boston in Lincolnshire, and their Associates, called this Lincoln Company or So­ciety, viz. from Muscongus, now called Broad-Bay, a little Eastward of Pemaquid to Penobscot Bay 10 Leagues along Shore, and from this Termination and that of Muscongus 10 Leagues inland, so as to make a Parcel of Land of 30 Miles square. This Plymouth Grant se [...]ms to have been confirmed by a Royal Grant of Charles II. signed Howard Privy Seal; that was about the Time when the Connecticut and Rhode-Island Charters were granted.

Leverett's Title laying dorma [...], Sir William Phipps purchased of Madakawando, chief Sachem (as it is said) of the Penobscot Indians, the Lands each Side of Georges River, so high as the second Falls; Spencer Phipps a­dopted Heir of Sir William Phipps, made over his Right to the Heirs and Associates of Leverett; Anno 1719, it was convey'd to several Associates, so as to make 30 equal Shares in the whole; the new Associates obliged them­selves to settle two Townships upon Georges River, of 40 Families each; but an Indian War breaking out, the Con­ditions were never performed: The Indians hitherto have not formally quitclaim'd it. Mr. Waldo, a Gentleman well qualified for an Agent, a Partner, who effectually ne­gotiated the Affair at Home, against the Contrivances of Col. Dunbar to annex it to the Crown▪ has acquir'd a very considerable Part in this Grant.

Georges Truck-House and Fort lies near the Center of thisGrant, is about 12 Miles up this River; at the Mouth of the River is a Bar of a very small Draught of Wa­ter; 5 Miles higher are the first Falls of Georges River; Broad-Bay or Muscongus is only a large Creek or Bay with a small Rivulet running into it.

In the Territory of Sagadahoc not much good Ship-Timber, some white Pine for Masts; may be of good Service to Boston in supplying it with Firewood. The Soil is not bad.

The Grants of the Shepscut Lands, and of the Pema­quid Lands, seem not included in theD. of York's Property.

[Page 386]Most of the Grants and Conveyances in this Territory, are not to be found upon Record, which occasions great Confusion in Claims.

ARTICLE 3. Concerning the Province of Main.

THIS being the first of the Territories at present call­ed New-England that falls in our Course; for the Readers more ready Conception of the New-England Af­fairs, we shall ab initio, recapitulate some Matters already delivered.

King Iame [...] I, by Letters Patent bearing Date Nov. 3. 1620, granted all that Land and Territory in America, laying be­tween the N. Lat. of 40 d. to 48 d, unto the Duke of Le­nox, Marquis of Bucki [...]gham▪ Marquis of Hamilton, and others their Associates Noblemen and Gentlemen, in all forty Persons, and to their Successors; and incorporated them by the Name of the Council established at Plymouth in the County of Devon, for settling, planting, ruling and govern­ing all that Country by the Name of New-England; to have a [...]d to bold, poss [...]s and enjoy, all the Continent Lands and Islands, between the said Latitudes to them and their Successors for ever; with Power to alienate, assign, convey and set over, under their common Seal any Part or Portion thereof to any of his Majesty's Denizens or other Adven­turers.

In the End of Iames Ist's Reign Sir Ferdinando Gorge, President of the Council of Plymouth, and Capt. Mason had sundry Grants from Neumkeag River, which divides the present Towns of Salem and Beverly, to Sagadahoc or Quenebec River, which were afterwards altered into the Grants of the Province of Main, and of New-Hampshire as at present.

The Council of Plymouth Nov. 7. 1629, granted to Gorge and Mason, all that Tract of Land from the Heads of Merrimack River and Sagadahoc or Quenebec River, to [Page 387] the Lake Iroquois, now called Ca [...]araqui or Ontario, and the River which empties it self from said Lake into Ca­nada River to be called LACONIA, but as they never oc­cupied it, this Grant is become obsolete, and may be said to have reverted to the Crown; and at present since the late Settlement made of the Line between Massachusetts-Bay and New-Hampshire, may be said to be in the Ju [...]is­diction of New-Hampshire.

Sir Ferdinando Gorge, President of the Council of Ply­mouth, or Council of New England, obtain'd a Grant from this Council April 22. 1635, of a Tract of Land called the Province of Main, extending from Piscataqua River to Sagadahoc and Quenebec River. This Grant was con­firmed by the Crown April 3. 1639. The Agent or A­gents of Massachusetts-Bay, purchased 15 Car. I. July 20. 1677, this Grant of the Heirs or Assignees of Gorge.

The Grant of the Province of Main begins at the En­trance of Piscataqua Harbour, up the same to Newichewa­nock River, and through the same to the furthest Head there­of, and thence North Westward, till 120 Miles be finished, and from Piscataqua Harbour's Mouth aforesaid, North-Eastward along the Sea-Coast to Sagadahoc, and up the River thereof to Quenebec River, and through the same to the Head thereof, and thence into the Land North Westward till 120 Miles be finished; and from the Period of 120 Miles aforesaid, to cross over Land, to the 120 Miles before reckoned, up into the Land from Piscataqua Harbour through Newichewanock River: As also the North half of the Isles of Shoals.

The Lines of the Territories belonging to the Province of Massachusetts-Bay, and of the Province of New-Hamp­shire, being in Dispute for many Years: New-Hampshire petitioned the King in Council, that their Boundaries with Massachusetts-Bay might be determined; accordingl [...] with Consent of the Agents for Massachusetts Bay, Ap [...]l 9. 1737 a Commission under the great Seal of Great-Britain [Page 388] was issued, appointing five of the eldest Counsel­lors from each of the neighbouring Provinces of New-York, New Iersies, Nova-Scotia and Rhode-Island (five to be a Coram) as Commissioners, reserving Property and an Appeal to the King in Council: The Appeal was heard before a Committee of Privy Council, March 5th 1739; the Commissioners, and afterwards the King in Council, settled this Line N. 2 d. W. true Course. Ac­cordingly New-Hampshire ex parte (Massachusetts-Bay re­fusing to join in the Survey) by Mr. Bryant a Surveyor of Lands, settled the Line with the Province of Main, viz. From the Mouth of Piscataqua River to the Head of Newichewanock a little North of Lovel's Pond, upon a great Pond from whence proceeds Moussum River, a­bout North-Westerly 40 Miles, thence N. 8 d. E. by Needle (the Commissioners, and as afterwards confirmed by the King in Council, settled this Line N. 2 d. W. true Course) which is by allowing 10 d. Variation; 30 Miles; this Survey was in March, the Snow and Ice melting ren­dred the further Survey Progress impracticable; thus 40 Miles of this Line remains to be run.

Both Governments of Massachusetts-Bay and of New-Hampshire were in one and the same Person at that Time; a [...]d it was suspected that the Governor favoured Massa­chusetts-Bay; therefore the General Assembly of New-Hampshire brought on a Complaint against the Governor, previous to the Appeals coming on. The Commissioners began to sit August 1; the General Assembly of New-Hampshire was adjourned by the Governor to the 4th of August, which retarded them 3 or 4 Days in appointing Managers and giving in their Pleas: The Commission­ers pronounced Judgment Sept. 2, the Governor proro­gued the Assembly from Sept. 2. to Oct. 13, that they might not have an Appeal ready to give into the Com­missioners in six Weeks from Judgment given, the Time limited by the Commission. The Complaint was heard before a Committee of the Council, they found the Com­plaint just, and their Report was approved of by the [Page 389] in Council. To prevent the like Inconveniencies a se­parate Governor was appointed for New Hampshire; and the Governments of Massachusetts-Bay and New-Hamp­shire have been in two distinct Persons ever since.

TheMethod used before the newCharter by theColony of Massachusetts-Bay Purchase of the Heirs or Assigns of Gorge, to convey or dispose of Lands there, was in this Manner, for Instance, Iuly 26, 1684. The President of the Province of Main, by Order of the General Assembly of the Colony of Massachusetts-Bay, makes a Grant of the Township of North Yarmouth to sundry Persons. In a strict Sense the Colony of Massachusetts-Bay could not ex­er [...]ise any Jurisdiction there, because theHeirs &c. of Gorg [...] could not delegate Jurisdiction; notwithstanding, we find Orders of Jurisdiction signed in Boston; for Instance, in the War against the Indians, an Order to Sheriffs, Con­stables, &c. to impress Boats and Land Carriages, is signed Boston, Sept. 16. 1689, Thomas Danforth President of the Province of Main.

The North and South Lines running inland are 120 Miles, the Front or Sea Line, and the Rear Line may be about 80 Miles; that is the Contents of the Province of Main may be about 9600 square Miles; whereof at present granted in Townships or Districts, are only the first or Sea Line consisting of the Townships of Kittery, York, Wells, Arundel, Biddiford, Scarborough, Falmouth, North Yarmouth, GeorgeTown or Arrowsick, Brunswick, and the Set­tlement of Topsam; and a second or inland Line consisting of Berwick, Philips Town, Naraganset No. 1. Naraganset No. 7. Marblehead Township, Powers and others Town­ship, and Cape Anne Township.

In this Territory of Main, there are some private Pur­chases from the Indians, which the Proprietor General the Assembly of the Province of Massachusetts-Bay, seem not to dispute; for Instance, Anno 1683 Mr. Wharton a Mer­chant in Boston, purchased of six Sagamores, about 500,000 Acres called the Pegepscot Purchase; bounded five Miles West from Pegepscot River, by a Line running at [Page 390] five Miles Distance parallel with the River, to a certain Fall in said River, and thence N. E. about 44 Miles in a strait Line to Quenebec River; it includes the Eastern Di­visions of Nahumkee Purchase, and of Plymouth Purchase, Plymouth Purchase extends 15 Miles each Side of Quenebec River. Wharton dying insolvent, the Administrator sold this Purchase for not much exceeding 100 £. New-Eng­land Currency Anno 1714 to eight or nine Proprietors, viz. Winthrop, T. Hutchinson, Ruck, Noyes, Watts, Minot, Mountford, &c: It is bounded S. Westerly by North-Yarmouth, which takes in a small Part of this Grant at small Point; George-Town, Brunswick and Topsam are in this Grant.

At the breaking out of the French War, in the Pro­vince of Main were Militia or fencible Men 2485.

Township of Kittery450
Philip T.150
Sir W. Pepperrell'sReg.1565

N. Yarmouth150
NaragansetN. 1.20
Col. Waldo's Reg.1290

but at present many of these have left their Towns and Habitations, being exposed to the French and their Indians.

For some Time during the old Charter of Massachusetts Bay Colony they extended their Claim to 3 Miles North of the Northernmost Part of Merimack River, called En­dicots Tree, near the Crotch or Fork where Pemagawaset River, and the Wares or Discharge of Winipisiakit Pond or Lake do meet, and from thence extended their due East and W. Line to the E. and W. Oceans, that is from the Aethiopick Ocean to the South-Sea or Pacifick Ocean; thus they assumed (as being prior) almost the whole of Ma­son's [Page 391] Grant or New-Hampshire, and the S. E. Corner of Gorge's Grant or the Province of Main so far as Black-Point, near Saco River, both in Property and Jurisdiction; and did accordingly make Grants of Lands and constitute Townships which sent Representatives or Deputies to the General Assembly of Massachusetts; but upon Complaint of the Heirs of Gorge and Mason to the King in Council and the Courts in Westminster-Hall, Massachusetts-Bay disclaim'd these Lands, as hereafter shall be more fully related.

The whole of the Province of Main at present consti­tutes only one County called the County of York, and to this County is annexed the Territory of Sagadahoc.

In the Province of Main and New-Hampshire, from the first settling of the English, for about 50 Years, that is until King Philips War, the English and Indians kept a good friendly Correspondence; but ever since, during the European French Wars, the French of Canada have made Use of the several Tribes of our neighbouring Abnaquie Indians to distress our Settlements; vide Sect. III. Article 4.

Prior to the Massachusetts-Bay Purchase, the Settlers in the Province of Main, never had any other Protection, but that of the Colony of Massachusetts-Bay. When the Court of England, much corrupted, began in an arbitrary despotick Manner to re-assume Grants, Charters, it was ordered by the King in Council, Iuly 24. 1679, that the Massachusetts-Bay Government, upon the Reimburse­ment of 1200 £. St. paid Gorge's Heirs for the Province of Main, shall surrender it to the Crown, being a Purchase [Page 392] made without his Majesty's Permission. The new Char­ter of Massachusetts Bay 1691, put an End to that and all other pretended Claims.

Geography and Chronology, are two the most considera­ble Elements of History. The most essential and invaria­ble Things in the Geography of a Country, are its general Position upon the Surface of the E [...]rth as to Latitude and Longitude; the remarkable Mountains and g [...]eat Hills; the Sea-Coast; and the Runs of Rivers and Rivulets from the inland into the Sea.

In the Province of Main, the remarkable Mountains and Hills are, 1. The White Hills or rather Mountains, inland about 70 Miles North from the Mouth of Pisca­ [...]aqua Harbour, about 7 Miles W. b. N. from the Head of the Pigwoket Branch of Saco River; they are called White not from their being continually covered with Snow, but because they are bald, a-top producing no Trees or Brush, and covered with a whitish Stone or Shingle; these Hills may be observed at a great Distance, and are a considerable Guide or Direction to the Indians in tra­velling that Country. 2. The Pigwoket Hills at a small Distance from the WhiteHills, are much inferior to them, and scarce require to be mention'd. 3. AquamanticusHills well known amongst our Sailors, are in the Township of York about 8 Miles inland; it is a noted and useful Land-making, for Vessels that fall in Northward of Boston or Massachusetts-Bay.

Upon the Sea-Coast, Casco-Bay is a large, good, and safe Harbour or Road for Vessels of any Burden; being shelter'd or cover'd by many Islands: Here some of the Contract Mast Ships take in their Load. Along this Coast are many Harbours commodious for small Craft in loading of Lumber and Fire-Wood for Boston.

The Capes, Promontories or Head-Lands belong pro­perly to Sea Charts; I shall only mention Small Point at the South Entrance of Sagadahoc, Cape Elizabeth in the S. E. Corner of Casco-Bay, Black Point 4 Miles N. E. of Saco River, Cape Porpus in Arundel, and Cape Neddick in Wells.

[Page 393]The considerable Rivers are, 1. Quenebec and its Mouth called Sagadahoc, which divides the Province of Main, from the Old Bristol Purchase of Pemaquid, including the Shepscut Purchase, and from the Territory formerly call'd the Duke of York's Property, all which at present are call'd the Territory of Sagadahoc. From the Entrance of Sagadahoc to Merry meeting Bay are 18 Miles, thence to Richmond Fort and Truck-House near the Mouth of Quenebec River are 12 Miles, thence to the first Falls, though only a Ripling called Cushnock Falls are 18 Miles; thence to Taconick Falls are 18 Miles, here in Mr. Dum­mer's Indian War our People left their Whale-Boats, and marched 40 Miles by Land to the Indian Village or Town called Naridgwoag; they destroy'd the Settlement, brought away the Scalp of the French Missionary Father Rale a Jesuit with about 26 Indian Scalps, some Indians were drowned in crossing the River precipitately: Thus from the Mouth of Sagadahoc to Naridgwoag about 106 English Miles, and the Province of Main cannot ex­tend above 20 Miles higher; these Indians in travelling to Quebec, with their Canoes go much higher up the Ri­ver: The Naridgwoag Indians with their French Mission­aries, have in the French Wars been very troublesome to the English Settlements; but by Dummer's well managed Indian War, and a late Mortality from a putrid Fever and Dysentery, received, when in Curiosity they visited Duke D'Anville's sickly Troops and Squadron at Chebucto upon the Cape-Sable Coast of Nova-Scotia; they are now reduced, to very inconsiderable impo­tent Numbers. 2. Amerascogin River; up this River, not many Years since was a Tribe of Indians, but are now ex­tinct; near the Mouth of this River, is Brunswick Fort; this River is particularly noted for Plenty of good Stur­geon; not many Years since a Merchant of Boston con­tracted with some Fishmongers of London to supply them with a certain Quantity of well-cured S [...]urgeon every Year, but whether from the bad Quality of the Fish; or rather from the Negligence of the People employ'd in curing of [Page 394] it, there was no Sale for it in London, and the foresaid In­dian War breaking out, that Fishery is given up. 3. Saco River, its co [...]era [...]le Branches ar [...] Pigwacket River, it rises about 70 Mil [...] North of Piscataqua Harb [...]ur, and Ossipee Ri­ver from Ossipe [...] [...]ond about 55 Miles N. Westerly from Pis­cataq [...]a Harbour: Abou [...] 50 Miles from the Mouth of Saco formerly were Pigwacket, a considerable Tribe o [...] Indians with a French Missionary, they are now almost extinct; this River is navigable only a small Way to the Falls for small Vessels; here is a Fort and Truck-Houses; at the Mouth of Saco River is Winter Harbour, so called from Mr. Winter, who had a Farm there. 4. Mausom River comes from some Ponds near the famous Lovell's Pond, about 40 Miles a­bove Piscataqua Harbour, at these Ponds Bryant the Sur­veyor began to set off the N. 8 d. E. Line between the Province of Main and New-Hampshire; this River falls into the Ocean in the Township of Wells. 5 Piscataqua River, which for the Space of 40 Miles divides New-Hampshire from the Province of Main ▪ from the Mouth of this River or Harbour to the Inlet of Exeter Bay are about 10 Miles, thence to the Mouth of Catechecho River, which comes from the W. N. W. are 5 Miles, from this upwards, Piscataqua River is called Newichawanock River, and higher it is called Salmon Falls River.

The small Rivers or Runs of Water and of short Cours [...] are many; Recompence River, Royals River run­ning through Cape-Anne Grant or Township, and through North Yormouth to the Sea; Presumpscot River, comes from Iabago Pond, by Naraganset No. 7. through Fal­mouth; where it falls into the Sea; Falmouth River or Stroud Water of Casco-Bay; Quenebunc River dividing Arundel from Wells; York River in the Township of York.

ARTICLE 4. Concerning the late Colony of Plymouth.

WHAT relates to this Colony, prior to their more fixed and determined Grant Anno 1629 from the Council of Plymouth, see P. 370.

[Page 395]Some English Puritans belonging to Mr. Robinson's Church in * in Holland, with some of their Friends in England, obtain'd of the Council of Plymouth, an in­distinct imperfect Grant of Lands in North-America; their Design wa [...] for Hudson's River, but falling in with Cape Cod late in the Year Nov. 11, they were obliged to winter there, and in a shallow Bay and poor Soil within the Great B [...]y of Massachusetts, they sit down and call it New-Plymouth, in Remembrance of Plymouth in England, from whence they took their Departure.

They had no particular Grant from the Council of Ply­mouth of the Country where they settled, until 1624; and this was so indistinct, that they obtained a newGrant 1629, but still so obscure as not to be understood at present, as appear'd at a hearing 1741, before Commissioners ap­pointed by the Court of Great Britain, to settle their Line with the Colony of Rhode-Island.

We shall only briefly observe that Capt. Smith the Traveller, with two Ships 1614 made a good Voyage upon these Coasts, and by his Means the Country was named New-England by the Court of England.

Anno 1616 four or five Sail of fishing Vessels from London, and as many from Plymouth, make good Fares of Fish.

Anno 1618 only two Sail from Plymouth in England fish upon the Coast of New-England.

Anno 1619 only one Ship of 200 Tuns, made a good Voyage.

Anno 1621, ten or twelve Ships from the West of England, fish upon the Coast of New England, and make good Voyages with their Fish to Spain.

Anno 1622 there were upon the Coast of New-England 35 Vessels from the West of England.

Anno 1623 Capt. Smith writes, that there were for that Year 40 Sail from England, fishing upon the Coast of New [Page 396] England. That Canada and New-England in six Years last past, had shipt off 20,000 Beaver-Skins.

After some Time, a Number of People from New Ply­mouth, purchased of the Indians, a Parcel of Land called Nosset near Cape-Cod, and gave it the Name of Eastham; their Purchase upon this narrow Promontory reach'd a­bout 30 Miles from North to South. The first two Years, they liv'd without any Supply from England, clear­ed and planted 60 Acres with Indian Corn. At first they seem'd to have a Sort of Lex Agraria for each Mess or Menage; or rather their Possessions seem to have been in common.

Mr. Edward Winslow their Agent, Anno 1624, im­ported the first Cattle, being a Bull and 3 Heifers; about this Time Plymouth Settlement consisted only of 180 Per­sons; the Adventurers, as it is said, had expended 7000 £. St. being entirely carried on by Adventures, but being discouraged, they sold their Interest to the Settlers for a Trifle; the Grant at first was sole to Mr. Bradford, his Heirs, Associates and Assigns; but at the Request of the General Assembly, he assigned his Right to the Free­men: Upon Governor Carver's Death, April 1621, he was annually chosen Governor while he liv'd (excepting one Year Mr. Winslow, and two Years Mr. Prince) he died May 9. 1657. Aet. 69.


Mr. Carver from Nov. 1620 to April 1621.

Mr. Bradford the Grantee succeeded, and annually cho­sen Governor until his Death May 1657, excepting for three Years; he was a Man of no Family and of no Learning.

Mr. Prince, who had twice been chosen Governor in Mr. Bradford's Life-Time, succeeded, and was annually [Page 397] chosen Governor till Death, Aug. 29. 1673, Aet. 71. He was a Man of good natural Parts, but of no Learning.

Mr. Prince was succeeded in annual Elections by Iosiah Winslow, who died Dec. 18. 1680.

Next Richard Trent was unanimously elected, until their Charter was dropt or superseded.

I find that upon the Revolution, the Commander in chief of Plymouth Colony is called President, not Gover­nor: Thus Major Church's Commission from Plymouth to go against the Eastern Indians is signed Sept. 6. 1689, Thomas Hinkley, President.

N. B. At first this Colony was only a voluntary Asso­ciation; in the Beginning the Governor had only one As­sistant, afterwards three, and sometime after five, at length Anno 1637 they chose 7 Assistants.

As the Boundaries by their Grant were ill determined, there were continual Disputes between this Colony and that of Rhode-Island. By a Commission from Charles II. 1664 to Col. Richard Nichols, Sir Robert Carr, George Cartwright, and Samuel Maverick; to determine Contro­versies, concerning several Boundaries in the Continent of North-America; they passed Judgment concerning the Boundaries between Rhode-Island and Plymouth Colony; as it was only by Way of Amusement to quiet the Mind [...] of the People in these Colonies, and never confirmed by the King in Council; it had no Effect.

Ever since the Colony of Plymouth has been annexed to the Province of Massachusetts-Bay, those Disputes have continued or been revived from Time to Time; the chief Dispute was concerning Attleborough Gore, which if Mas­sachusetts-Bay had quitclaim'd to them, Rhode-Island would have given a general Quit-Claim in all other Concerns; and prevented the Loss of Bristol, and some Part of Bar­rington, Swanzey, Tiverton, and Little Compton; but the Influence of a few ill-natured, obstinate, inconsiderateMen, [Page 398] prevail'd in the Legislature to the Damage of the Pro­vince of Massachusetts-Bay.

Rhode-Island by Memorials sent Home, the Agents of Massachusetts-Bay giving Consent, obtain'd a Commission for the eldest Counsellors of the neighbouring Govern­ments to meet and adjust their Boundaries, accordingly they meet at Providence in Summer 1741, and found that the last determined Grant for Plymouth Colony 1629, specifies it in this Manner, viz. between Conohasset Rivu­let towards the North, and * Naraganset River, towards the South; and between the Ocean towards the East, and a strait Line extending directly into the main Land from the Mouth of said Naraganset River, to the utmost Bounds of the Packanoket Country alias Sawamset Coun­try, the famous King Philip of Mount-Hope his Country, to the ‖† Nipmug Country which Determination is now forgot, and from Cohasset back into the main Land West­ward to the utmost Bounds of the Packanoket Country.

The better to understand the Boundaries of the late Colony of New Plymouth (now annexed to the Province of Massachusetts-Bay) with the Colony of Rhode-Island; I must in Anticipation, give the Boundaries of Rhode-Island Colony as delineated in their Charter, viz. bounded Westerly by the middle Channel of Pakatuk River, and up said River Northerly to the Head thereof, and thence in a strait Line due North to Massachusetts South Bounds; extending Easterly three English Miles to the E. N. E. of the most Eastern and Northern Parts of Naraganset-Bay as it lieth or extendeth itself from the Ocean; bound­ed Southerly on the Ocean, unto the Mouth of the Ri­ver [Page 399] which cometh from Providence; and from the Town of Providence, along the Easterly Bank of said River call­ed Seaconck River up to Patucket Falls; and thence due N. to Massachusetts South Line, where is the most West­erly Line of Plymouth Colony.—The Rhode-Island Claim was 3 Miles E. N. E. of Assonet Creek of Taunton River, and thence due S. to the Ocean East of Seaconnet Point; and from the said E. N. E. Point, a Westerly Course to Fox Point, being the Mouth of the River that comes from Providence Town, thence along the East Side of Seaconck River to Patucket Falls; and thence due North to to Massachusetts South Line.

Upon a hea [...]ing at Providence in Summer 1741 of the Committees or Agents of both Colonies before the Com­missioners appointed by royal Patent to settle this Line or Boundary; the Council of Plymouth Patent, nor any Copy of it was produced; therefore the Recital of said Letters patent, in their Deed to Bradford and Associates, was not sufficient Evidence against the King's Charter to Rhode-Island; this Commission was not to meddle with Proper­ty, but only with Jurisdiction, which is ascertain'd to Rhode-Island by Royal Charter, notwithstanding of their Charter being posterior to the New Plymouth Colo­ny Grant; because the Council of Plymouth could only delegate Property, but not Jurisdiction. By no Evidence it was made appear that the Water (a salt Water Sinus, commonly called a Continuation of Taunton River, it is called Taunton great River in their private Deeds) between the main Land on the East, and the Island of Rhode Island on the West, was ever at any Time called Naraganset River.

The Determination of the Commissioners Anno 1741 was by the King in Council 1746 confirmed as final. And is to this Effect, viz. From the Province of Massa­chusetts Bay South Line, a Meridian Line (allowing S. 7 d. W. Variation) to Patucket Falls; and thence down the Easterly Side of Seaconck River, to the S. W. Corner of Bullocks Neck; and thence N. E. 3 Miles (supposing a [Page 400] N. E. Line of 3 Miles from the North-Eastermost Parts of the Bay on the W. Side of Romstick Neck) in a strait Line, until it meets with the Termination of this imagi­nary Line; and from this to the Bay near Towasset Neck, so that this Line touch the N. E. Extremity of an imagi­nary Line running N. E. from the N. E. Corner of Bristol Cove or Harbour. On the East Side of Naraganset Bay, it begins at a Point 440 Rod Southward of the Mouth of Fall River in Tiverton; thence runs East 3 Miles; and from thence runs Southerly parallel with the Eastern­most Parts of Naraganset Bay or Taunton great River to the Sea.

By this Determination the late Colony of Plymouth, or rather the present Province of Massachusetts-Bay, lost, in Favour of Rhode-Island, a triangular Piece of Land com­monly called, the Attleborough Gore ; bounded S. 7 d. W. from an Intersection with Massachusetts S. Line, to Pautuket Falls 9 and half Miles; from Pautuket Falls up Patuket or Blackstone River, to the Intersection of this River with Massachusetts South Line, in a direct or strait Course 12 Miles, W. 55 d. N; from this Intersection E. 7 d. S. about 10 Miles; this Gore is constituted a Town­ship of Rhode-Island, by the Name of Cumberland, so call­ed from Prince William Duke of Cumberland. Bristol is entirely adjudged to Rhode-Island Colony Jurisdiction, and retains its former Name. Part of Swanzey being forty seven Families, and a great Part of Barrington are consti­tuted a Township, by the Name of Warren, in Honour of Sir Peter Warren, Knight of the Bath, and an Admiral in the Navy, an honest benevolent Gentleman always pro­pitious to Trade. The three Mile Strips of Tiverton and [Page 401] Little-Compton, on the East Side of the Bay or Taunton great River, continue by the Name of Districts of Rhode-Island.

The Line between Old Massachusetts and Plymouth, is no more as a Colony Line; but continues to divide the County of Suffolk in the Massachusetts, from Plymouth and Bristol Counties of the late Plymouth Colony; this former dividing Line of the two Colonies, begins at the Inter­section of Attleborough Gore and runs 3 and half Miles E. 7 d. S. to the Station-Tree of Woodward and Saffries, from this Station to a Notch in Bridgwater E. 18 d. N. are 23 Miles; thence 1 Mile and qua [...]ter North on Bridg­water; thence E. 9 Miles to Accord Pond; thence still East to Conobasset at the Mouth of Bound Brook on the Bay of Massachusetts, six Miles; in all about 41 Miles.

From Conobasset in Massachusetts-Bay, to the race Point of Cape-Cod, is to this late Colony of Plymouth, an East South and West Boundary; by the Flexure or Hook of the Cape; the Back (as it is called) of Cape-Cod to Cape Ma­labar or Sandy-Point is an East Boundary, from Sandy-Point, further along the Back of the Cape to Elizabeth Islands, and thence along Buzard's Bay, to the Boundary Line near Seaconnet Point is a South Boundary; Westerly it is bounded by the Line settled by Commissioners Anno 1741, as before delineated; Northerly it is bounded by the Line dividing the old Colonies of Massachusetts-Bay and Plymouth already described.

In this Colony are no remarkable Mountains or great Hills.

The considerable Harbours are, 1. Plymouth Bay, Wa­ter shallow, a considerable Trade to West-India Islands for Sugar, Rum, Molasses, and Cotton; it is a Branch of Boston Custom-House or Collection, Distance 40 Miles; three small Rivulets, called Iones, Herring [...], and Eel Ri­vers, [Page 402] fall into this Bay. 2. Cape Cod Harbour, safe, and deep Water; but from the Hook or Flexure, and conse­quently different Courses, Vessels with Difficulty get out to Sea; it is no Sea-Port or Place of Trade. This Cape by its particular * Form and by stretching into the Sea be­comes a S [...]are for itinerant or passenger Fish, viz. Whales, Herrings, Mackarel, but the Whales by Expe [...]ence have [...]arnt to keep further to Sea in travelling; the other Fisheries are neglected, from the Fishermen, w [...]o were generally Indians, being carried away upon [...]omantickEx­peditio [...]s: The Tide flows within the Cape about 20 Feet, upon the back of the Cape it [...]lows only 5 or 6 Feet; Billingsgate, a Precinct of Eastham, is noted for Oysters.

The smaller Inlets or Harbours from the Discharge of Rivule [...]s are as follows, 1. Upon the Inside of the great Bay of Massachusetts (that Part of it is called Barnstable Bay) Scituate, a bad Harbour, no considerable Run of Water. All the Harbours in Barnstable Bay to Cape-Cod are shallow, because of a sandy slow Slope of the Shore, and the inland Runs are short and small, not capable of making Channels. In Sandwich is Mill River. In Barn­stable is a small Inlet. In Yarmouth a small Inlet. In Harwich a Harbour called Point of Rocks, not safe. In Eastham is Stage-Harbour, and Billingsgate, the best of t [...]se small Harbours. 2. Upon the outside or Ocean Side of Cape Cod Promontory; Head of Pamet, no pro­per Harbour, it is in Truro, and high Tides, as Anno 1723, pass over the Meadows from Sea to Sea. Sandy-Point or Monymoy in Chatham, is a good Harbour for small Vessels, [Page 403] but the Bar shifts. Bass River in Yarmouth. Hyanaes, the best of th [...]se Harbours, in Barnstable, is much used. Osler Bay in Barnstable. Falmouth Bay. Woodes Hole or Cove, called Soconosset; here is a Ferry of about one Mile to Elizabeth great Island; and of about 3 Leagues to Marthas Vineyard. We may observe, that along this Shore is a Bar at about half a Mile's Distance, with small Inlets, within the Bar is Water of some Fathoms. 3. In Buzard's Bay are many good Creeks, salt Water Rivers, or Harbours; excepting in Rochester, the Runs of Water that fall into these Creeks are of short Course: Agawam, Wagwagantit or Mill River, Sipacan Harbour, Matapoisset, Accushnot, Polyganset, and Coaxit.

The considerable Rivers in Old Plymouth Colony, are 1. North River, divides Scituate from Marshfield; deep Water, but Vessels in a Storm cannot put in there, the Entrance being rocky. The Tide flows 9 or 10 Miles up this River; here Ships and other Vessels are built to Advantage, Timber being plenty; from this River, Boston has a considerable Supply of Firewood. 2. Taun­ton River; from about 17 Miles up Taunton great River on the East Side of Naraganse