[Page 3]


TO THE HONOURABLE GEORGE THOMAS, Esq With the King's Royal Approbation, Lieutenant Governor of the Province of Pennsylvania, and Counties of Newcastle, Kent, and Suffex, on Delaware, under the Ho­nourable JOHN PENN, THOMAS PENN, and RICHARD PENN, Esqs true and absolute Proprietors of the said Province and Counties.
May it please the GOVERNOR,

HAVING been honoured with a Commission, authorizing us, the Subscribers, in Conjunction with the Governors of the Neighbour­ing Colonies, or their Delegates, or separately, to treat with the Indians of the Six United Nations at Albany, in October last; we think it our Duty to render an Account of our Conduct therein; which be pleased to receive as follows.

THE next Day after the Receipt of the Commission, that is, on the Twenty­seventh Day of September last, we set out for Albany, where we arrived on the Third of October following. On the Fourth of October, the Day ap­pointed to treat with the Indians, Pursuant to the Instructions given us, we waited on the Governor of New-York, acquainted him with our Appointment, and shewed him the Commission by which we were impowered to treat.

THE Governor desired his Secretary might take a Copy of it; to which we consented. The Indians of Five of the Six United Nations, in Number about Four Hundred and Sixty, arrived the same Day, none of them Scnecas; it being, as we were inform'd, a Time of great Sickness and Mortality among them, which prevented their Coming.

[Page 4]BUT the Commissioners from the Massachusetts not being come, the Treaty was deferred until their Arrival. Two Days after, being the Sixth of October in the Evening, we received a Message from the Governor of New-York, by his Secretary, desiring to know of us at what Time we would confer with a Committee of his Council, either alone, or with the Com­missioners of the other Colonies, all then arrived, viz.

For the Massachusetts,

Jacob Wendal,Esq a Member of the Council,
John Stoddart,Esqs Members of Assembly.
Samuel Wells,
Thomas Hutchinson,

For Connecticut Colony,

Wolcot, Esq Lieutenant Governor, And Col.—Stanley.

WE agreed to return our Answer to his Message in the Morning.

ACCORDINGLY in the Morning we returned our Answer by James Read, that we would meet the Committee of Council at a Quarter after Ten that Day, and chose to have our first Conference with them only. About the Time appointed we went; but the Commissioners from the other Colonies coming into the Room soon after, deprived us of the separate Conference proposed. Being all thus met, the Gentlemen of the Council, to wit, Daniel Horsmanden, and Joseph Murray, Esqs; let us know, they were appointed by the Governor of New-York, a Committee to confer with us concerning the Treaty which was to ensue; that their Governor desired to be inform'd of our Sentiments, whether we were inclinable to speak to the Indians of the United Nations separately, of whether we thought a joint Speech to be delivered on Behalf of all the Colonies, might be best, either being indifferent to him.

THE Commissioners from New-England declared their Opinions for a joint Speech, as what would show our Union, and consequently, have the greater Weight with the Indians. On the Part of Pennsylvania, it was [...] that we had divers Matters in Charge which related to our own Government only, which would be improper in such a joint Speech; and perhaps it might be the Case of other of the Colonies: That such a joint Speech would require much Time in forming; and with Difficulty, if at all likely to be agreed on.

BUT it was replied, this would be best judged of when the Heads of such joint Speech were read; and the Committee of Council producing what they had prepared to this Purpose, it was agreed to be read. On Reading of which we observed, that it mentioned a Complaint against the Eastern Indians for killing some white People; and therefore, among other Things, proposed the Indians of the Six United Nations should be put on declaring War against the Eastern Indians; and to assure them that the se­veral Colonies would support them in it. To this Article it was objected, on the Part of Pennsylvania, That it was necessary the Legislature of each [Page 5] Government should be consulted before the Indians were put on Declaring of War: That it would be very mischievous to all the Colonies, as it would be a Means of drawing the War nearer on their Borders: That the Indians did not seem disposed to enter into a War with each other, but rather to re­main Neutral: That in this Disposition, little better could be expected from them than what was remarked to be the Case in the last War, when the Indians of opposite Parties passed each other without fighting, and only scalp'd the white People: That as to the People who had been killed, the Indians might be put on demanding Satisfaction, and might possibly obtain it, and prevent the Cause of War; or if they were put on Declaring of War, at least Care should be first taken to provide them with the Requisites neces­sary for defending themselves, and carrying on such War; without which, it would in Effect, be a Betraying them. What Provision was made by the Government of New-York, the Gentlemen of the Council best knew. In Pennsylvania we knew no Provision was made for them. That therefore if this Article was inserted in the Speech proposed, we must insist on Treating separately. To the Proposal for putting the Indians of the Six United Na­tions on demanding Satisfaction, one of the Commissioners of the Massachu­setts answered, That Proposal ought to come on the Part of the Indians; for that if no more was proposed to them on the Behalf of the Govern­ments, than that they should demand Satisfaction for the Injury done, they would offer something yet less. At length it was agreed all the other Go­vernments, Pennsylvania excepted, should treat jointly; and we were desired to be assistant in their joint Treaty so far as we judged fit.

A COMMITTEE was then named to prepare the joint Speech to be deli­vered by the Governor of New-York. When it was prepared we were to meet again to consider the same.

IT was two Days after this before the Speech was ready; and in the mean Time the Governor and Council of New-York made Enquiry concern­ing the Alarm which happened the last Winter amongst the Mohawks, oc­casioned by a Report spread amongst them that the English were coming to cut them off. To this Purpose the Governor of New-York sent for the Mohawks, and let them know that the String of Wampum which had been sent him by them not to make any further Enquiry concerning that Affair, he could not accept of; that it was necessary the Authors of this false Rumour should be known and punished; and therefore he insisted they would dis­cover all they knew concerning the Authors; and if they had any other Cause of Uneasiness, to communicate it to him: And thereupon he deli­vered back the String of Wampum sent him. The Mohawks agreed to re­turn their Answer the next Day. Some of the Mohawks accordingly at­tended the Governor of New-York the next Day, and named to him a Per­son who they said was the Author of this false Alarm. The Person being sent for, owned his having heard and mentioned the Report; but deny'd his being the Author of it.

AFTER the strictest Enquiry and Examination, the Governor and Council seemed to believe him innocent, and that the Rumour had been raised and spread by Means of some one or more of the Mohawks themselves.

[Page 6]ON the Tenth of October, the Speech proposed to be delivered to the Indians by the Governor of New-York, being prepared, we were desired to meet the other Commissioners, and hear the same read. Accordingly, about Ten of the Clock in the Forenoon, we met them; the Speech was read; after which it was objected on the Part of Pennsylvania, that it contain'd a Narrative of many Facts to which we were altogether Strangers; and there­fore were not proper to be made Parties in the Relation: That it pressed the Indians on making of War; which we thought might be attended with mis­chievous Consequences to all the Colonies: That as we are to treat separately, and they had already heard our Reasons against a War, they must judge for themselves how far it would be prudent in them to press it. The Result was, the Commissioners of the other Colonies agreed to the Speech, as it had been prepared; and in the Afternoon of the same Day, the Deputies of the United Nations were desired to attend the Governor of New-York: They came accordingly; and the Governor in Behalf of his Government, and those of the Massachusetts and Connecticut, and in the Presence of the Com­missioners from thence, read the Speech agreed on; which was interpreted to the Indians: A Copy whereof was delivered to us, and follows in these Words, viz.


HERE are present upon the Occasion of this Interview, Commissioners from the Governments of the Massachusetts-Bay and Connecticult, con­ven'd with me on the same righteous Intention of Renewing [...] and Strengthening the Covenant Chain which has tied you and His Britannick Majesty's several Colonies on this Continent, in the [...] to each other, for Supporting and Maintaining our Common Cause.

WE are glad to see so many of our Brethren, and we bid you Welcome here; at the same Time, that we heartily condole the Absence of our Bre­thren the Senecas, and the Calamities which have occasioned it; may the Almighty comfort them under their grievous Afflictions, and soon wipe off all Tears from their Eyes.

WE do with you our Brethren, and with you as their Representatives, ratify, confirm, and establish all former Engagements entered into by us and our Brethren of the Six United Nations; and assure you, that we shall ever hold them inviolable, and we doubt not of the same from you.



THE Rumour which last Winter gave an Alarm to our Brethren the Maquas, and was from thence spread to the other Nations, now appears to have been without Foundation; and I cannot help observing on this Occasion, that you ought not for the future to suffer any such idle Tales to be raised or propagated among you, as they not only tend to separate your and our Affec­tions each from the other; but also to make us jealous of our own People, without sufficient Grounds for it.

A String of Wampum.

[Page 7] Brethren,

IT must be further observed to you, that we hear several of the Chiefs and others of our Brethren of the Six Nations, have contrary to our Inclinations, and against our express Advice, had an Interview with the Governor of Canada this Summer at Montreal.

AND that your Pretence for holding this Correspondence with our declared Enemies, was for the publick Good and the Preservation of the House at Oswego.

TO tell the Governor of Canada that they must not make any Attack or Attempt upon that Place, for that our Brethren are resolved to defend it, and that it should remain a Place of Peace and Trade.

YOU declared your Intent was Good, and that the Governor of Canada should never prevail upon you in any Thing hurtful to your Brethren the English, who you knew did not like your going thither; that yet upon your Return from thence, your Brother the Governor of New-York should know all that passed between them and the Governor of Canada.

WE will tell our Brethren what we hear was done, whilst they were with the Governor of Canada, and we expect the whole Truth from them accord­ing to their Promise, and whether what we hear is true or not.

WE hear that whilst our Brethren were with the Governor of Canada, the French Indians took up the Hatchet against the English; which we believe to be true, for Reasons you shall hear by and by; and thereby the Treaty of Neutrality concluded between you and them, is become vain.

WE hear likewise, that our Brethren of the Six Nations there present, were so far prevailed upon by our Enemies the French, as to accept of the Hatchet, upon Condition to carry it home to their Council to deliberate upon, and then to return the Governor of Canada their Answer; which we cannot believe to be true, till we have it from our Brethrens own Mouths.

WE expect a plain and full Answer from our Brethren concerning these Matters, that the Way may be cleared, for wiping off all Stains from the Covenant Chain; and that we may preserve it bright, firm, and inviolable, as long as the Sun shall shine.



WE must now acquaint you of some Things relating to the War; the Success of his Majesty's Arms against the French in this Part of the World; and the Rise and Occasion of our Attacks upon the Enemy in this Quarter.

WHEN you were here last Summer, you were told that War was declar'd between the Crowns of Great-Britain and France: The Events that have since happened are too numerous to relate particularly.

HIS Majesty's Subjects in this Country lay still the last Summer without attempting any Thing against the French Settlements: But the French first [Page 8] attack'd and destroyed a small Place belonging to us call'd Canso, about twenty five Leagues from Cape Breton.

AFTERWARDS they laid Siege to Annapolis-Royal; but therein they pro­ved unsuccessful.

THEY then agreed to make another Trial for that Place next Spring; and in the mean Time they sent to France, hoping to obtain some of the King's Ships to facilitate the Reduction of it.

THEY having proceeded thus far, Mr. Shirley, the Governor of the Massachusetts-Bay, thought it high Time to do something to curb the Insolence of that haughty People; and did therefore raise a small Army, which was joined by a Number of Men from the Governments of Connecticut and New-Hampshire, and sent them early last Spring against Louisburgh.

THEY were likewise joined by a Number of His Majesty's Ships of War; and after about seven Weeks Siege, that important and strong fortified Place was, through the Goodness of Divine Providence, delivered up to our Forces.

WHEREUPON the rest of the Inhabitants of the Island of Cape Breton, to­gether with those that were settled in Parts adjacent, surrendred themselves Prisoners to the English.

AND during the Siege, and since, many French Ships were taken, and divers of them of great Value; and the Design of the French against Anna­polis-Royal was frustrated.

WE have in this Part of the Country lain still, both the last Summer and this, hoping that our Neighbours in Canada would either be quiet, or carry on the War in a manly and christian-like Manner.

AND to induce them thereto, a Message was sent from this Place to the Government of Canada the last Summer, by which he was assured, that if he should renew their former vile Practice of treating His Majesty's Subjects inhumanly, the several Governors, together with the Six Nations, would join and make Reprisals on them.

AND at the same Time you publickly declared, That if any of His Ma­jestly's Subjects, in any of His Governments, should be killed by any Indian, you would immediately join in the War against them and the French.

YOU likewise sent your Delegates last Summer to the Eastern Indians to warn them not to engage in the War against the English, threatning them in Case they should do so.

NOTWITHSTANDING these Things, divers Hostilities have been com­mitted.

SOME Months ago the Eastern Indians, who had formerly acknowledged their Subjection to the Crown of Great Britain, entred into solemn En­gagements with the King's Subjects, and had been since treated by them with great Kindness.

[Page 9]BUT at the Instigation of the French, they have lately killed one English­man, and also great Numbers of Horses and Cattle; burnt a Saw-Mill, and many Dwelling-houses, and attack'd on English Garrison.

NOTWITHSTANDING such outrageous Insults, the Governor of Massachu­setts-Bay was so tender of them, that he resented it no further than to send a Message to them, demanding the Delivery of the Murderers, as they would avoid the Consequence of their Neglect.

THIS Proposal was rejected by them, and since that Time they have killed two or three others; whereupon the Governor of the Massachusetts declared War against them.

AND we are informed the English have killed two of them, and taken another Prisoner.

ABOUT three Months since some of the Canada-Indians killed two Eng­glishmen near Connecticut River; the Body of one of them was treated in a most barbarous Manner, by which they left a Hatchet of War, thereby dar­ing us to take it up and return it.

THERE has likewise been several other Parties that have attempted to destroy his Majesty's Subjects of New-England, but have hitherto been pre­vented.

THESE Facts plainly shew that the French are still acted by the same Spi­rit that they were formerly governed by; and they seem never pleased but when they are at War, either with the English, or some of the Tribes of Indians; and if they had it in their Power, they would doubtless destroy all about them.

IT is likewise evident, that the most solemn and sacred Engagements are broken through by those Indians that have committed the late Murders.

THAT Belts of Wampum will not bind them to the Performance of their Promises.

THAT we are slighted, and you contemned, as though they thought you not worthy to be regarded.

BUT now the French and their Indians, by the little Regard they have shewn to your Threatnings, or to the Covenants they have made with you, do de­clare that they think you do not intend to perform what you have threatned, or that they do not fear your Displeasure; both which do reflect equal Dis­honour on you.

IT is high Time for us and you to exert our selves and vindicate our Ho­nour; and although it is well known that we delight not in the Destruction of our Fellow-creatures, but have chosen rather to suffer our selves to be abused; yet we cannot think our selves obliged any longer to bear their Insults and evil Treatment.

[Page 10]THEREFORE since neither our peaceable Dispositions, nor Examples, nor any Methods we have been able to use, have been sufficient to prevail upon them to forbear their barbarous Treatment of us, but they will force our Resentments; in the Name of GOD, we are resolved, not only to defend our selves, but by all proper Ways and Methods to endeavour to put it out of their Power to misuse and evil intreat us as they have hitherto done.

AND we doubt not of your ready and chearful Concurrence with us, agreeable to your solemn Promise made in this Place last Summer, in joining with us against our Enemies the French, and such Indians as are or shall be instigated by them; for we esteem them Enemies to God, as well as to all their Fellow-Creatures who dwell round about them.

A large Belt, with the Figure of a Hatchet hung to it.

THE publick Affairs of my Government have prevented my Meeting you sooner.

I WAS apprehensive I should not have been able to meet you this Fall, and it was determined upon on a sudden, so that there could not be timely Notice sent to the rest of His Majesty's Governments, or, I doubt not, they would likewise have sent Commissioners to be present at this Interview.

WE are all subject to the same Prince, united in the same Bonds of Duty and Allegiance to the Great King, our common Father, and in Friendship and Affection to each other; and in this Union consists that Strength that makes us formidable to our Enemies, and them fearful of our Resentments.

WE are all united with you in the same Covenant-chain, which as long as we preserve it free from Rust, must remain impregnable: And you on your Parts, have declared that you will preserve it so strong and bright, that it shall not be in the Power of the Devil himself, with all his Wiles and Art, to break or dirty it.

You are also united with all the far Nations of Indians in League with our Great King, with whom we recommend to you to preserve strict Friend­ship, and hold frequent Correspondence.

THAT your selves, who many of you live scattered and dispersed, should dwell in Bodies closer together, as you have heretofore promised to do.

AND we advise you to keep your young Men at home, and within Call, excepting such as may be sent from Time to Time a Hunting, or against our Enemies; and you may depend upon the most ready and effectual Assistance from us in all Times of Danger.


THE Indians of the United Nations promised to call a Council the next Morning; and, if they could, to return their Answer to this Speech the same Day.

THE next Day we waited on the Governor of New-York, and delivered to him, according to our Agreement, the Speech we propos'd to make to [Page 11] the Indians of the United Nations, in order for his Perusal, and then to be returned us; which he promised to do by the next Morning.

OCTOBER the Twelfth, in the Morning, we received a Message from the Governor of New-York, with the Speech he proposed to make to the Mobiggans, or River Indians; which we perused, and returned to the Se­cretary, without making any Objections against what was proposed to be said to them. Some Time after we received a second Message, desiring us to be present when the Governor delivered this Speech, and at the Receiving the Answer of the Six Nations to the Speech made to them.

WE attended accordingly. The Commissioners for the Massachusetts and Connecticut also attended: And the Speech prepared for the River Indians was read by Paragraphs, and translated to them; a Copy of which was delivered us, and is as follows:


I AM glad to see you here, and bid you welcome. I sent for you to meet me at this Place, that I might have an Opportunity to renew and confirm the Covenants and Engagements made from Time to Time between us. And I do now publickly promise, that nothing shall be wanting on my Part; but that the Covenant Chain shall remain bright and strong for ever.


I MUST put you in mind of what you promised me last Year. You en­gaged that you would keep your People at Home, which, I am informed, you have not done; but many of your People have lately left Schahkook, and are one to Canajoherie, and some to Attowawie. I want to know for what Reason they have left their Habitations, and charge you to send for them back as soon as you can; and that you would live together at Schahkook.

A String of Wampum.


LAST Year I acquainted you that War was declared between the Great King, your Father, and the French King; and told you what I expected of you. You answered me, that in all Things relating to the War you would take the Six Nations for an Example; which I expect you will do.


TO this Speech the River Indians the same Day returned their Answer; of which, with what further past between them and the Governor of New­York, we obtained a Copy, which follows in these Words:


WE are glad to see you here in Health. Your Children here present bid you all welcome.


YOU have renewed the Covenant, and have assured us that you will keep it inviolable. We do now likewise assure you, that nothing shall be wanting on our Parts, but that we will keep the Covenant Chain clear and free from Rust.

[Page 12] Father,

WHEN we were here last, you told us that you was glad to see so great a Number of us together; and now you ask us what is the Reason so many of us have left Schahkook and are gone to Canajoherie and Attowawie; and that you are sorry so many of us have left our Habitations.


YOU have told us that War is proclaimed between the English and French, and that you designed to go and fight the French. You told us that we should do as our Uncles the Six Nations did with respect to the War.


YOU told us that you would keep the Covenant; and we are resolved to do the same; as a Token whereof we give this



YOU must not be surprized that so many of our People have left Schahkook. They are not gone to a strange Country, but are only among our Uncles the Six Nations, with whom we are united in Covenant.

A String of Wampum.


RESPECTING the War with the French, we will do as the Six Nations, and our Father; and will take them for Examples in all Things relating thereto.



WE are glad the Six Nations design to send some of their People to Ca­nada, to treat with the Indians there. We have been two or three Times to the Carrying-place to treat with some of those Indians, in order to keep Peace; and design to send some of our People to Canada, to speak with some of the Indians there, upon the same Business.

Give some Skins.

HIS Excellency recommended to them, that they should use their Edea­vours to prevail upon the Aschicanhcook Indians, and all the rest of the Indians who have left their old dwelling Place, to return to Schahkook.

THEY answered, they would.

THE Indians of the United Nations then delivered their Answer to the Speech made to them, Canassatego being Speaker: A Copy of which, with what ensued, as we received it, follows in these Words.


TWO Days ago you spoke to us, and we are now come to give you our Answer. You must not expect that we can answer particularly to the several Heads you mentioned to us, but only to the principal Articles. You have renewed to us the Covenant Chain, and we do now renew the same on our Parts; and it is impossible that it can ever Rust, for we daily wipe off the Rust and Dirt, and keep it clean; which we will ever continue to do.


[Page 13] Brethren,

YOU thought fit to mention to us, that there had been an Uproar among us last Winter, and told us, We ought not to entertain any such Notions of you our Brethren, especially as we had no Grounds to believe any such Thing. It is true, Brethren, there was such a Rumour among us; but it was imme­diately buried and forgot; and we did not expect that our Brethren would have mentioned any Thing concerning that Affair to us, at this Interview; and we desire you to think no more of it. We are always mindful of the Covenants between us and our Brethren; and here is a Certificate *, whereby it appears, that we are in Covenant with our Brethren of Boston.

A String of Wampum.


YOU spoke to us concerning our going to Canada, and told us, that the Commissioners of Indian Affairs had last Winter told us not to go there; but some of us went. As to what you tell us, that we had taken up the Hatchet against you our Brethren, and promised him to consider of it at home, it is not so. The Mohawks and Tuskaroroes at their Return, gave the Commis­sioners of Indian Affairs, an Account of all that passed there; and we are con­vinced that that Account is true.



YOU have thought sit to relate to us several Particulars concerning the War between you and the French, and what Reason you had for taking up the Hatchet against the French and their Indians. We thank you for giving us a particular Account of the Provocations and Inducements you had for declaring War against them. You have also mentioned to us, that we are one Body and one Flesh, and that if one of us [...] or hurt, the other is like­wise; and you have informed us, that you were molested and attacked by the Enemy, and had therefore taken up the Hatchet against them, and desired, as we are on [...] with you, that we would also take up the Hatchet against The French, and those under their Influence, in Conjunction with you. We Six Nations accept of the Hatchet, and will keep it in our Bosom. We are in Alliance with a great Number of far Indians, and if we should so suddenly lift up the Hatchet, without acquainting our Allies, it would perhaps dis­oblige them; we will therefore, before we make Use of the Hatchet against the French, or their Indians, send four of our People who are now ready, to Canada, to demand Satisfaction for the Wrongs they have done our Brethren; and if they refuse to make Satisfaction, then we will be ready to use the Hatchet against them, whenever our Brother the Governor of New-York, orders us to do it.


HIS Excellency ask'd them what Time they thought necessary to see whe­ther the French Indians would make such Satisfaction?

THEY answered, Two Months.

[Page 14]HIS Excellency asked them, That if in Case the Enemy should commit any further Hostilities in the mean time, Whether they would then, upon his Commands, immediately make Use of the Hatchet?

THEY answered, Yes.


YOU desired us to gather together our People who are scattered, and to settle in a Body; especially as it is very uncertain how soon we may have occa­sion for them: Your Request is very reasonable, and we will use our En­deavours to that End.



WE have now finished our Answer; and have nothing further to say, but only one Request to make to you all; which is, That you our Brethren should be all united in your Councils, and let this Belt of Wampum serve to bind you all together; and if any Thing of Importance is to be communi­cated to us, by any of you, this is the Place where it should be done.


THE Answer thus delivered by the United Nations, was received with the Approbation of the Governor of New-York; the Commissioners from the Massachusetts only expressed their Dissatisfaction; for that, as they alledged, the Indians the last Year had engaged, that if Hostilities were com­mitted against the English, they would in such Case, declare War: That Hostilities had been since committed; and therefore that by those Engage­ments, the Six Nations ought now to declare War with the French and Indians.

THIS Day we proposed to have delivered our Speech to the Indians; but the Time being too far spent, and this the last Day of the Week, we were obliged to postpone it, until the Beginning of the next.

THE Fourteenth of October, being the Time we appointed for speaking with the Indians, we gave Directions to Conrad Weiser to give them Notice to attend. But before they came to the Place appointed, we received a Message from the Governor of New-York, that he was then met in Council, and desired to speak with us. We went accordingly. When we came to the Governor's besides himself and his Council, there were present the Com­missioners from the Massachusetts; who then presented to the Governor Letters that they had received by an Express, giving an Account that a Party of French and Indians, had a few Days before made an Attack on the Great Meadow Fort, about Fifty Miles, as we are informed, from Albany. That they had taken Prisoner a Person whom they sound at some Di­stance from it. That two others coming down a Creek near that Fort, were shot at, one killed, the other made his Escape. The Number of French and Indians was not mentioned. On reading of these Letters, the Commissioners for the Massachusetts were requested to be explicit in what they desired on this Occasion. They thereupon represented, That their Government thought it unreasonable the whole Burden of the War should remain on [Page 15] one Province, whilst the rest remained Neutral: That they desired the In­dians of the Six Nations might be engaged to assist them: That tho' they thought it was reasonable other Provinces should bear a Part of the Expence: yet rather than want the Assistance of the Indians on the present Occasion, they would be at the whole Expence themselves. The Governor of New-York complained, the Massachusetts Government had been too precipitate in their Declaration of War: That the other Governments were not obliged to follow the Example: Said that he had done all in his Power towards being better provided for a War: That in the Condition the Inhabitants of that Province were in on the Borders, it would be imprudent in him to engage the Indians of the Six Nations in a War: That proper Provision should first be made, which could not be done without his Assembly, who were to sit in a little Time, and before whom he would lay this Affair. After this, and more of like Import said, we parted. The Governor of New-York hav­ing delivered the Presents from that Government to the Indians of the United Nations, embarked for the City of New-York: and we proceeded to meet the Indians according to our Appointment. When we came to the Place agreed on for this Purpose, we found the Deputies of the United Nations attending, and the Speech we had before agreed on was now read, and interpreted to them by Conrad Weiser; the Interpreters of New-York and the Massachusetts being also present, and assisting: Which Speech fol­lows in these Words:

Brethren of the Six Nations,

ALTHO' it is not long since a Treaty was held with you in Pennsyl­vania, yet our Governor, and the Assembly of the Province, being informed of your coming hither, have, at the Invitation of the Governor of New-York, sent us here, to be present at the Treaty now held with you. We attend accordingly, and are glad to see you. In Token whereof, we present you with this

String of Wampum.


BEFORE your last going to Canada, you promised our Governor, That on your return you would open your Hearts, and give a full Account of all that passed between you and the French Governor; and we have it in Charge to desire you now to perform this Promise.


WE are also to put you in Mind, that, by the Treaty made last Year with our Governor, at Lancaster, you promised him, that neither the Governor of Canada, nor any of his People, should come through your Country to hurt your Brethren the English, nor any of the Settlements belonging to them: Notwithstanding which, some of the Shawnese Indians, in Conjunction with some Frenchmen from Canada, committed a Robbery on our Traders, and took from them a great Quantity of Goods. This, our Governor sometime since gave you Notice of by Conrad Weiser, and you undertook to demand Satisfaction for the Injury, of the Governor of Canada and the Shawnese Indians. We therefore now desire to be informed whether you have made this Demand, and what Satisfaction you have obtained. The Frenchmen who did this Injury came through the Lands you claim, and the Robbery was committed on our Traders on those Lands. It was therefore a manifest [Page 16] Breach of the Neutrality the Governor of Canada pretended to observe towards you, and shews the Perfidy of the French, and that they regard the Treaties they make, no longer than whilst they think it their Interest so to do.

WE hope their Example will not influence you, but that you will fulfil all the Treaties you have entered into with your Brethren the English. To impress this on your Minds, and to enforce our Request, we present you with this

Belt of Wampum.


BESIDES what we have already said, we are also to remind you, that our Governor, at the Request of the Government of Virginia, became a Media­tor between you and the Southern Indians called Catabaws: And you pro­mised him next Spring to send Deputies to Philadelphia, to meet some of that Nation, in order to conclude a Peace with them: And that in the mean Time all Hostilities shall be suspended. But our Governor is since informed that a Party of the Oneides Warriors are gone to attack the Catabaws. Whe­ther this be true or not, or whether any of your young Men went without your Knowledge, we do not know; and therefore desire you now to inform us of all the Particulars; and if any of your Warriors are gone against the Catabaws, that you will forthwith reccal them, and take Care that no more go against them during the Time agreed on.


YOU may remember that it a Treaty held with our Government at Philadelphia [...] One Thousand Seven Hundred and Thirty Two, you [...] "To call home all those of your Nations who were at Canada, [...] amongst the French ▪ lest if any Occasion or Difference should arise [...] might be prevented from returning." This, in your Answer made to our Governor in the Year One Thousand Seven Hundred Thirty Six, you call ‘Sound Advice, say the French were formerly your cruel Enemies, and that you were taking such Measures as you hoped would be effectual to bring back your People if any new Breach should happen.’


THE French are a subtle People. A Breach hath now happened, occasi­oned by an unjust Declaration of War made by the French King against the King of Great Britain and His Subjects; and, no doubt, if any of your Peo­ple live amongst the French, they will endeavour to engage them in their Service; and, therefore, we think you would act very prudently, as soon as is possible, to persuade them to return and settle amongst you. To enforce this Request, we present you with this

Belt of Wampum.


WE have more to say to you from our Governor; but this we must defer until we hear your Answer to what we have already said.

THIS Speech being interpreted to them, and the Indians, by Cannassetego their Chief, signifying their Intention of an immediate Consultation, and in a little Time to return us an Answer, we withdrew.

[Page 17]SOME Time after being informed the Indians were come to a Result, we again met them, and received their Answer; the Substance of which, as the same was translated to us, is as follows, the aforesaid Canassatego being Speaker.


YOU that come from Pennsylvania to represent our Brother Onas, you tell us that you come hither at the Invitation of the Governor of New-York, to the Council Fire at Albany, to hear what passes between us and our Brother the Governor of New-York. You were pleased to signify to us, that you were glad to see us, for which we return you our hearty Thanks. We are likewise glad to see you, in Token wherefore we return you this

String of Wampum.


THE first Thing you required of us this Morning was, that we would give you an Account of all that passed between us and the Governor of Canada, at our last Visit to him, according to the Promise we made the last Summer to Conrad Weiser, your Interpreter, at Oswego. And since you desire to hear with your own Ears, we are now ready to do it, tho' it will take up Time, and, therefore, another Opportunity might have suited better. Our Going to Montreal was at the Invitation of the Governor of Canada. At our com­ing there, several great Men, as well of the French, as Indians, being dead since our last Journey there, we, according to our Custom, spent some Days in bewailing their Death. During this Time, divers of the French Council took an Opportunity of sounding us, to learn from us how the War went on with the English, and how far we were engaged therein. On which Occasion we told them, That formerly we had inconsiderately engaged in Wars, but that we looked upon this War, as a War between the English and French only, and did not intend to engage on either Side; for that the French and English made War, and made Peace, at Pleasure; but when the Indians once engaged in Wars, they knew not when it would end. We also told the French, that they knew, and all the World knew, the Coun­tries on which we were settled, and particularly the Lakes, were ours; and, therefore, if they would fight our Brethren, the English, they ought to fight on the salt Water, and that they must not come over our Land to di­sturb them, or to obstruct the Trade at Oswego. That they, the French, had two trading Houses on those Lakes, with which they ought to be con­tented. The Governor of Canada promised us he would not do it unless the King his Master should command him, and then he must obey. While these Things pass'd, News arrived at Montreal, of the taking of Cape Breton by the English, at which the French were much alarmed; and the Governor thereupon sent for all the Indians then at Montreal, to wit, the French Indians, and us, the Deputies of the Six Nations, who met together in a large House, where the Governor of Canada taking in his Hand a large Belt of Wampum, in which the Figure of a Hatchet was wrought, speaking to us of the Six Nations, said as follows:


YOUR Brethren the English have already taken one of my Towns (mean­ing Cape Breton) and their Fleet I suppose is now coming up to Quebec; [Page 18] and therefore I must take up the Hatchet to defend my self against them. As for you, my Children (speaking to the French Indians) I have no Occa­sion to say much to you, for you must live and die with me, and cannot deny me your Assistance. And as for you, my Children of the Six Nations (speak­ing to us) he further said, I know you love your Brethren the English, and therefore I shall not say much to you; perhaps you would not be pleased with it: But Children, said he, should know their Duty to their Father. Then speaking to us all, he desired such who loved him to go with him and assist him in defending Quebec; and that those who went with him need not to take any thing with them save their Tobacco Pouches; that he would pro­vide Guns, Pistols, Swords, Ammunition, Provisions, and every Thing, even Paint to paint them; and thereupon delivered the Belt to the Interpreter, who threw it at the Feet of the Indians present, some of whom inconside­rately, and without any Consultation first had, took it up, and danced the War Dance; and afterwards divers of the Indians present, chiefly of the Praying Indians, went with the French Governor to Quebec, where they staid eight or ten Days, but no Notice was taken of them, nor any Arms or Ne­cessaries, so much as a Knife, provided for them, nor were they admitted to speak to the Governor; which so exasperated the Praying Indians, that they left Quebec, and are since gone against their common Enemies to the South­ward. Canassatego added,


YOU also put us in mind this Morning of the Treaties of Friendship sub­sisting between you and us. The Last we made with the Governor of Penn­sylvania, was at Lancaster, the last Year. By this Treaty we were to be Neutral (and we wish the English of all the Provinces would agree that we should remain so) unless the French should come through our Settlements to hurt our Brethren the English, which we would not permit. This, and all other our Treaties, with our Brethren the English, we are determined to observe; and in Token thereof, we return you this

Belt of Wampum.


YOU also put us in mind of our Brother Onas his Mediation between us and the Catabaws; and that you heard some of our Warriors were, notwith­standing, gone against them. It is not in our Power to restrain our Warriors as the English can do, until a Peace be finally concluded. This the Catabaws know. We have used our Endeavours to restrain them from going, and shall continue so to do; during the Time agreed on, altho' we doubt whether the Catabaws are so desirous of Peace as they would have our Brother Onas be­lieve; otherwise they would have done as the Cherokees did, who, tho' they were at War with us, came to desire Peace; but the Catabaws have neither come to us, nor have they come to our Brother Onas: But the Account he has received, is only from the Government of Virginia. When Conrad Weiser brought us an Account of this Matter, we were going to Canada; and at our Return we had kindled a Council Fire; but receiving a Message from the Governor of New-York, we were obliged to take it up until we return. Canassatego further said, We have spoke to the Governor of Canada concerning Peter Chartier, and the Robbing of your Indian Traders; the Governor of Canada said, He knew nothing of the Matter. At our Coun­cil before-mentioned, we were to have considered what we should do further [Page 19] in this Affair; but were called away before we had come to any Resolution. He added, Your Traders go very far back into the Country, which we desire may not be done, because it is in the Road of the French. At our Return, we will hold a Council; and in the Spring, when our Deputies come to meet those of the Catabaws at Philadelphia, we shall send our Brother Onas our Result. Canassatego further said,


YOU put us in Mind of a Promise we made our Brother Onas at his coming over to Pennsylvania, That we would recal our People from Canada, who were settled there. We have invited them back to us, and have done all we can to effect it; but cannot prevail: The Governor of Canada has taken them into his Lap, suckles them as his Children, and they are so well pleased with him, it is impossible for us to prevail with them to come and settle with us. We return you this Belt instead of that we received from you.

AFTER we had received this Answer of the Indians, we acquainted them by our Interpreter, that what we had farther to say to them, would be early the next Morning. In the mean Time we ordered them a Pair of Oxen and some Beer for their Subsistence, and then parted.

THE next Morning, being the Fifteenth of October, the Indians met us, pursuant to our Appointment; when we spoke to them to the Effect fol­lowing.


WE now put you in Mind, there are two Things remaining under your Consideration, concerning which, you have received Belts from our Governor, and have, as yet, return'd no full Answer: The First relates to the Catabaws, the Second to our Indian Traders. As you have signified to us your Inability of doing it at this time, we expect when you return home, a Council will be called, and that you will give our Governor a full Answer in the Spring.


WHEN our Governor and Assembly sent us hither, they did not think it fitting we should come empty handed; but have directed us to provide you a Present. We considered Winter was approaching, that our Brethren would want Cloathing to preserve them from the Cold, and Powder and Lead to acquire their Livelihood by Hunting; we have therefore provided the Goods which now lie before you, to wit,

  • Six Pieces of Strouds.
  • Four Pieces of Indian Blankets.
  • Two Pieces of striped Blankets.
  • Four Pieces of half Thicks.
  • One Piece of Shrewsbury Cotton.
  • Eight Dozen of Knives.
  • Four Hundred and Twenty-five Bars of Lead.
  • Four half Barrels of Pistol Powder.

THESE we present to you on Behalf of our Government, and have no more to say, but to wish you a good Journey Home.

[Page 20]THIS Speech being interpreted to the Indians, after a short Consultation between themselves, they brought six Bundles of Skins; and by Canassatego, spoke as follows:


WE thank you for the Goods you present to us. We are Poor, and have little to return; however, out of what we have, we present you with the six Bundles of Skins which you see. These we desire may be accepted of, as a Token of our Affection.

TO this we replied. We accepted them in the Manner they desired, wished them well, and then took Leave of them.

THE Sloop which brought us, waiting our Return, we embarked, arrived at New York on the Nineteenth of October. The same Day took Boat, and got to Elizabeth Town Point. Then mounted our Horses; and on the Twenty-second of October, reached Home.

PERMIT us to add, That in the foregoing Relation, we do not pretend to have delivered the several Conversations which past, verbatim; but only the Substance, so far as we judge them material; and where we have made any Omissions, they are of such Things as we think of too little Consequence to be inserted. If the Governor's Health, and other Affairs of Importance, had permitted his Attendance at this Treaty, we make no Question it would have been managed with greater Skill and Delicacy. Thus much, however, we may lay, That so far as we were able, we have, pursuant to the Instructions we received, faithfully endeavoured to acquit ourselves of the Trust, to the Honour and Interest of the Province: But whether we are so happy as in any Degree to have succeeded herein, is humbly submitted to the Governor,


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