Mr. Brainerd's JOURN …

Mr. Brainerd's JOURNAL among the INDIANS.


Mirabilia Dei inter Indicos, OR THE RISE and PROGRESS Of a Remarkable WORK of GRACE Amongst a NUMBER of the INDIANS In the Provinces of NEW-JERSEY and PENNSYLVANIA, Justly REPRESENTED in A JOURNAL Kept by Order of the Honourable SOCIETY (in Scotland) for propagating CHRISTIAN KNOWLEDGE. With some general REMARKS.

By DAVID BRAINERD, Minister of the Gospel, and Missionary from the said Society.

Published by the Rev. & Worthy Correspondents of the said Society. With a Preface by them.

Isaiah lv. 13.

Instead of the Thorn shall come up the Fir-Tree; and instead of the Brier, shall come up the Myrtle-Tree: And it shall be to the Lord for a NAME, for an everlasting Sign, that shall not be cut off.

Isaiah lxv. 1.

I am sought of them that ask'd not for me: I am found of them that sought me not: I said, Behold me, behold me, to a Nation that was not called by my Name.

Psalm cxiv. 10, 11.

All thy Works shall praise thee O Lord, and thy Saints shall bless thee, they shall speak of the Glory of thy Kingdom, and talk of thy Power.

Philadelphia: Printed and Sold by WILLIAM BRADFORD in Second-Street.



THE Design of this Publication, is to give GOD the Glory of his distinguishing Grace, and gratify the pious Curiosity of those who are waiting and praying for that blessed Time, when the SON OF GOD, in a more extensive Sense than has yet been accomplish'd, shall receive the Heathen for his Inheritance, and the uttermost Parts of the Earth for a Posses­sion.

Whenever any of the guilty Race of Mankind, are awakened to a just concern for their eternal Interest, are humbled at the footstool of a So­vereign God, and are perswaded and enabled to accept the Offers of redeeming Love, it must al­ways be acknowledged a wonderful Work of divine Grace, which demands our thankful Praises.—But doubtless it is a more affecting E­vidence of almighty Power—a more illustrious display of Sovereign Mercy, when those are en­lightned with the Knowledge of Salvation, who have for many Ages dwelt in the grossest Dark­ness [Page vi] and Heathenism, and are bro't to a chearful Subjection to the Government of our divine Re­deemer, who from Generation to Generation had remain'd the voluntary Slaves of the Prince of Darkness,

THIS is that delightful Scene which will pre­sent itself to the Readers View, while he atten­tively peruses the following Pages. Nothing cer­tainly can be more agreeable to a benovelent and religious Mind, then to see those that were sunk in the most degenerate State of human Nature, at once, not only renounce those barbarous Cus­toms, that they had been inured to from their Infancy, but surprizingly transformed into the Character of real and devout Christians.—

This mighty Change was bro't about by the plain and faithful Preaching of the Gospel, at­tended with an uncommon Effusion of the divine Spirit, under the Ministry of the Reverend Mr. DAVID BRAINERD, a Missionary employ'd by the Honourable Society in Scotland, For propagating Christian Knowledge.

AND surely it will administer abundant Mat­ter of Praise and Thanksgiving to that Honour­able Body, to find that their generous Attempt to send the Gospel among the Indian Nations upon the Borders of New-York, New-Jersey and Penn­sylvania has met with such surprising Success.—

[Page vii] IT would perhaps have been more agreeable to the Taste of politer Readers, if the follow­ing Journal had been cast into a different Me­thod, and form'd into one connect Narrative.—But the worthy Author amidst his continued Labours, had no Time to spare for such an Un­dertaking.—Besides the pious Reader, will take a peculiar Pleasure to see this Work described in its native Simplicity, and the Operations of the Spirit upon the Minds of these poor benighted Pagans, laid down just in the Method and Or­der in which they happened.—This, it must be confess'd, will occasion frequent Repetitions, but these, as they tend to give a fuller View of this amazing Dispensation of divine Grace in its Rise and Progress, we trust, will be easily forgiven.

WHEN we see such Numbers of the most ig­norant and barbarous of Mankind, in the Space of a few Months, turn'd from Darkness to Light, and from the Power of Sin and Satan unto God, it gives us Encouragement to wait and pray for that blessed Time, when our victorious Redeemer shall, in a more signal Manner than he has yet done, display the Banner of his Cross, march on from conquering to conquer, till the Kingdoms of this World, are become the Kingdoms of our LORD AND OF HIS CHRIST.—Yea we cannot but lift up our Heads with Joy, and hope that it may be the Dawn of that bright and illustrious Day when the SON OF RIGHTEOUSNESS shall [Page viii] arise and shine from one End of the Earth to the other.—When, to use the Language of the in­spired Prophets, the Gentiles shall come to his Light, and Kings to the brightness of his Rising, in Consequence of which, the Wilderness and so­litary Places shall be glad; and the Desert re­joice and blossom as the Rose.

IT is doubtless the Duty of all, in their diffe­rent Stations, and according to their respective Capacities, to use their utmost endeavours to bring forward this promised—this desired Day.—There is a great want of School-masters among these Christianized Indians, to instruct their Youth in the English Language and the Principles of the Christian Faith: For this, as yet, there is no cer­tain Provision made, if any are inclined to con­tribute to so good a Design, we are persuaded they will do an acceptable Service to the Kingdom of the Redeemer. And we earnestly desire the most Indigent to join, at least, in their Wishes and Prayers, that THIS WORK may prosper more and more, till the whole Earth is filled with the GLORY OF THE LORD.



Crosweeksung, in New-Jersey, June 19. 1745.

HAVING spent most of my Time for more than a Year past amongst the Indians in the Forks of Dela­ware in Pensylvania; and having in that Time made two Journeys to Susquehannah River, far back in that Province, in order to treat with the Indians there, respecting Christianity: And not having had any considerable appearance of special Success in either of those Places, which damp'd my Spirits, and was not a little Discouraging to me. Upon hearing that there was a Number of In­dians in and about a Place call'd (by the Indians) Crosweeksung in New-Jersey, near fourscore Miles Southeastward from the Forks of Delaware, I determined to make them a visit, and see what might be done towards the Christianizing of them; and accordingly arrived among them this Day.

I found very few Persons at the Place I visited, and perceived the Indians in these Parts were very much scatter'd, there being not more than two or three Families in a Place, and these small Set­tlements six, ten, fifteen, twenty and thirty Miles, [Page 2] and some more, from the Place I was then at. However, I preach'd to those few I found, who appear'd well dispos'd, and not inclin'd to object and cavil, as the Indians had frequently done o­therwhere.

When I had concluded my Discourse, I in­form'd them (there being none but a few Women and Children) that I would willingly visit them again the next Day. Whereupon they readily set out and travel'd ten or fifteen Miles, in order to give Notice to some of their Friends at that Distance. These Women, like the Woman of Samaria, seem'd desirous that others might see the Man that told them what they had done in their Lives past, and the Misery that attended their idolatrous Ways.

June 20. Visited and preach'd to the Indians again as I propos'd. Numbers more were gather'd at the Invitations of their Friends, who heard me the Day before. These also appear'd as at­tentive, orderly and well dispos'd as the others. And none made any Objection, as Indians in o­ther Places have usually done.

June 22. Preach'd to the Indians again. Their Number which at first consisted of about seven or eight Persons, was now encreased to near Thirty.

There was not only a solemn Attention among them, but some considerable Impressions ('twas apparent) were made upon their Minds by di­vine Truths. Some began to feel their Misery [Page 3] and perishing State, and appear'd concern'd for a Deliverance from it.

Lords-Day. June 23. Preach'd to the Indians and spent the Day with them.—Their Number still increas'd; and all with one Consent seem'd to rejoice in my coming among them. Not a Word of Opposition was heard from any of them against Christianity, altho' in times past, they had been as opposite to any Thing of that Nature, as any Indians whatsoever. And some of them not many Months before, were enraged with my In­terpreter because he attempted to teach them something of Christianity.

June 24. Preach'd to the Indians at their de­sire and upon their own Motion. To see poor Pagans desirous of hearing the Gospel of CHRIST, animated me to discourse to them, altho' I was now very weakly, and my Spirits much exhausted. They attended with the greatest seriousness and diligence; and there was some Concern for their Souls Salvation, apparent among them.

June 27. Visited and preach'd to the Indians again. Their Number now amounted to about Forty Persons. Their Solemnity and Attention still continued; and a considerable Concern for their Souls became very apparent among sundry of them.

June 28. The Indians being now gather'd a considerable Number of them, from their seve­ral and distant Habitations, requested me to preach twice a Day to them, being desirous to hear as [Page 4] much as they possibly could while I was with them. I chearfully complied with their motion, and could not but admire at the Goodness of God, who, I was persuaded, had inclin'd them thus to enquire after the Way of Salvation.

June 29. Preach'd again twice to the Indians. Saw (as I thought) the Hand of God very evi­dently, and in a Manner somewhat remarkable, making Provision for their Subsistance together, in Order to their being instructed in divine Things. For this Day and the Day before, with only walking a little way from the Place of our daily Meeting, they killed three Deer, which were a seasonably Supply for their wants, and without which, it seems, they could not have subsisted to­gether in order to attend the Means of Grace.

Lords-Day, June 30. Preach'd twice this Day also. Observ'd yet more Concern and Affection among the poor Heathens than ever: So that they even constrain'd me to tarry yet longer with them; altho' my Constitution was exceedingly worn out, and my Health much impair'd by my late fatigues and labours, and especially by my late Jour­ney to Susquehannah in May last, in which I lodg'd on the Ground for several Weeks together.

July 1. Preach'd again twice to a very serious and attentive Assembly of Indians, they having now learn'd to attend the Worship of God, with Christian Decency in all respects.

There were now between Forty and Fifty Per­sons of them present, old and young.

[Page 5] I spent some considerable Time in discoursing with them in a more private Way, enquiring of them what they remembred of the great Truths that had been taught them from Day to Day; and may justly say, 'twas amazing to see how they had receiv'd and retain'd the Instructions gi­ven them, and what a Measure of Knowledge some of them had acquir'd in a few Days.

July, 2. Was oblig'd to leave these Indians at Crosweeksung, thinking it my Duty, as soon as Health would admit, again to visit those at the Forks of Delaware. When I came to take leave of them, and spoke something particularly to each of them, they all earnestly enquir'd when I would come again, and expressed a great desire of being further instructed. And of their own accord a­greed, that when I should come again, they would all meet and live together during my Continuance with them. And that they would do their utmost Endeavours to gather all the other Indians in these Parts that were yet further remote. And when I parted, one told me with many Tears, She wished God would change her Heart? Another, That She wanted to find Christ? And an old Man that had been one of their Chiefs, wept bitterly with concern for his Soul. I then promis'd them to return as speedily as my Health, and Business elsewhere would admit, and felt not a little con­cern'd at parting, left the good Impressions then apparent upon Numbers of them, might decline and wear off, when the Means came to cease; [Page 6] and yet could not but hope that he who, I trust­ed, had begun a good Work among them, and who I knew did not stand in need of Means to carry it on, would maintain and promote it in the Absence of them, altho at the same Time I must confess, that I had so often seen such encouraging Appearances among the Indians other where prove wholly abortive; and it appear'd the Favour would be so great, if God should now, after I had pass'd thro' so considerable a Series of almost fruitless Labours and Fatigues, and after my rising Hopes had been so often frustrated among these poor Pagans, give me any special Success in my La­bours with them, that I could not believe, and scarce dared to hope that the Event would be so happy, and scarce ever found myself more sus­pended between Hope and Fear, in any Affair, or at any Time than this.

This encouraging Disposition and Readiness to receive Instruction, now apparent among these Indians, seems to have been the happy Effect of the Conviction that one or two of them met with some Time since at the Forks of Delaware, who have since endeavour'd to shew their Friends the Evil of Idolatry, &c. And altho' the other Indi­ans seem'd but little to regard, but rather to de­ride them, yet this, perhaps, has put them into a thinking Posture of Mind, or at least, given them some Thoughts about Christianity, and excited in some of them a Curiosity to hear, and so made Way for the present encouraging Attention. An [Page 7] Apprehension that this might be the Case here, has given me Encouragement that God may in such a Manner bless the Means I have used with Indians in other Places, where there is as yet no Appearance of it. If so, may his Name have the Glory of it; for I have learn'd by Experience that he only can open the Ear, engage the At­tention, and incline the Heart of poor benighted prejudic'd Pagans to receive Instruction.

Forks of Delaware, in Pennsylvania, 1745.

LORD'S DAY, July 14. Discours'd to the In­dians twice, several of whom appear'd concern'd, and were, I have Reason to think, in some mea­sure convinc'd by the Divine Spirit of their Sin and Misery: So that they wept much the whole Time of divine Service.

Afterwards discours'd to a Number of white People then present.—

July 18. Preach'd to my People, who attend­ed diligently, beyond what had been common among these Indians: And some of them ap­pear'd concern'd for their Souls.

LORD'S DAY, July [...]1. Preach'd to the Indians first, then to a Number of white People present, and in the Afternoon to the Indians again.—Di­vine Truths seem'd to make very considerable Im­pressions upon several of them, and caused the Tears to flow freely.

Afterwards I baptiz'd my Interpreter and his [Page 8] Wife, who were the first I baptiz'd among the In­dians.

They are both, Persons of some experimental Knowledge in Religion; have both been awa­ken'd to a solemn Concern for their Souls; have to appearance, been brought to a Sense of their Misery and Undonness in themselves; have both appear'd to be comforted with divine Consolations; and 'tis apparent both have pass'd a great, and I can't but hope a saving Change.

It may perhaps be satisfactory and agreeable that I should give some brief Relation of the Man's Exercise and Experience since he has been with me, especially seeing he is improv'd as my Inter­preter to others.

When I first employ'd him in this Business in the Beginning of Summer 1744, he was well fit­ted for his Work in regard of his Acquaintance with the Indian and English Language, as well as with the Manners of both Nations. And in re­gard of his desire that the Indians should conform to the Customs and Manners of the English, and especially to their Manner of living: But he seem'd to have little or no Impression of Religion upon his Mind, and in that Respect was very unfit for his Work, being uncapable of understanding and communicating to others many things of Impor­tance, so that I labour'd under great disadvanta­ges in addressing the Indians, for want of his having an experimental, as well as more doctri­nal Acquaintance with divine Truths; and, at [Page 9] times, my Spirits sank, and were much discou­rag'd under this Difficulty, especially when I ob­serv'd that divine Truths made little or no Im­pressions upon his Mind for many Weeks together.

He indeed behav'd soberly after I employ'd him, (altho' before he had been a hard Drinker) and seem'd honestly engag'd as far as he was ca­pable in the Performance of his Work; and es­pecially he appear'd very desirous that the Indians should renounce their Hathenish Notions and Practices, and conform to the Customs of the Christian World. But still seem'd to have no concern about his own Soul, 'till he had been with me a considerable Time.

Near the latter End of July 1744, I preach'd to an Assembly of white People, with more Free­dom and Fervency than I could possibly address the Indians with, without their having first attain­ed a greater Measure of doctrinal Knowledge: At which time he was present, and was somewhat awaken'd to a concern for his Soul; so that the next Day he discours'd freely with me about his spiritual concerns, and gave me an Opportunity to use further Endeavours to fasten the Impressions of his perishing State upon his Mind: And I could plainly perceive for some time after this, that he addressed the Indians with more Concern and Fervency than he had formerly done.

But these Impressions seem'd quickly to decline, and he remain'd in a great Measure careless and secure, until some time late in the Fall of the [Page 10] Year following, at which time he fell into a weak and languishing State of Body, and con­tinu'd much disorder'd for several Weeks together. And at this Season divine Truth took hold of him, and made deep Impressions upon his Mind. He was brought under great Concern for his Soul, and his Exercise was not now transient and un­steady, but constant and abiding, so that his Mind was burden'd from Day to Day; and 'twas now his great Enquiry, What he should do to be saved. His spiritual Trouble prevail'd till at length his Sleep, in a Measure, departed from him, and he had little rest Day or Night; but walk'd about under a great Pressure of Mind, (for tho' he was disorder'd he was still able to walk) and appear'd like another Man to his Neighbours, who could not but observe his Behaviour with wonder.

After he had been sometime under this Exer­cise, while he was striving for Mercy, he says, there seem'd to be an impassible Mountain before him. He was pressing towards Heaven as he thought, but his Way was hedg'd up with Thorns that he could not stir an Inch further. He look'd this Way and that Way, but could find no Way at all. He thought if he could but make his Way thro' these Thorns and Briers, and climb up the first steep Pitch of the Mountain, that then there might be Hope for him, but no Way or Means could he find to accomplish this. Here he labour'd for a Time, but all in vain; he saw twas impossible, he says, for him ever to help him­self [Page 11] thro' this insupportable Difficulty. He felt it signify'd nothing, it signify'd just nothing at all for him to strive and struggle any more. And here, he says, he gave over striving, and felt that it was a gone Case with him, as to his own Power, and that all his Attempts were, and forever would be vain and fruitless. And yet was more Calm and compos'd under this View of Things, than he had been while striving to help himself.

While he was giving me this Account of his Exercise, I was not without Fears that what he related was but the Working of his own Imagina­tion, and not the Effect of any divine Illumination of Mind. But before I had Time to discover my Fears, he added, That at this Time he felt him­self in a miserable and perishing Condition: That he saw plainly what he had been doing all his Days, and that he had never done one good Thing, (as he express'd it.) He knew, he said, he was not guilty of some wicked Actions that he knew some others guilty of. He had not been us'd to steal, quarrel and murder; the latter of which Vices are common among the Indians. He likewise knew that he had done many Things that were right: He had been kind to his Neigh­bours, &c. But still his Cry was, That he had never done one good Thing. I knew, said he, that I had not been so bad as some others in some Things, and that I had done many Things which Folks call good, but all this did me no good now, I saw that all was bad, and that I never had [Page 12] done one good Thing, (Meaning that he had ne­ver done any Thing from a right Principle, and with a right View, tho' he had done many Things that were materially Good and Right.) And now I thought, said he, that I must sink down to Hell, that there was no Hope for me, because I never could do any Thing that was good; and if God let me alone never so long, and I should try never so much, still I should do nothing but what is bad, &c.

This further Account of his Exercise, satisfy'd me that 'twas not the meer Working of his Ima­gination, since he appear'd so evidently to die to himself, and to be divorc'd from a Dependance upon his own Righteousness, and good Deeds, which Mankind in a fallen State, are so much attach'd to, and inclin'd to hope for Salvation up­on.

There was one thing more in his View of Things at this Time that was very remarkable. He not only saw, he says, what a miserable State he himself was in, but he likewise saw the World around him, in general, were in the same perish­ing Circumstances, notwithstanding the Profession many of them made of Christianity, and the Hope they entertain'd of obtaining everlast­ing Happiness. And this he saw clearly, as if he was now awaked out of Sleep, or had a Cloud ta­ken from before his Eyes. He saw that the Life he had liv'd was the Way to eternal Death, that he was now on the Brink of endless Misery: [Page 13] And when he look'd round, he saw Multitudes of others who had liv'd the same Life with himself,—had no more Goodness than he, and yet dream'd that they were safe enough, as he had formerly done. He was fully persuaded by their Conver­sation and Behaviour, that they had never felt their Sin and Misery, as he now felt his.

After he had been for some Time in this Con­dition, sensible of the impossibility of his helping himself by any Thing he could do, or of being deliver'd by any created Arm, so that he had gi­ven up all for lost, as to his own Attempts, and was become more calm and compos'd: Then, he says, it was born in upon his Mind as if it had been audibly spoken to him, There is Hope, there is Hope. Whereupon his Soul seem'd to rest and be in some Measure satisfy'd, tho' he had no considerable Joy.

He can't here remember distinctly any Views he had of Christ, or give any clear Account of his Soul's Acceptance of him, which makes his Experience appear the more doubtful, and ren­ders it less satisfactory to himself and others, than (perhaps) it might be if he could remember di­stinctly the Apprehensions and actings of his Mind at this Season.

But these Exercises of Soul were attended and follow'd with a very great Change in the Man, so that it might justly be said, he was become another Man, if not a new Man. His Conversa­tion and Deportment were much alter'd, and e­ven [Page 14] the careless World could not but admire what had befallen him to make so great a Change in his Temper, Discourse and Behaviour.—

And especially there was a surprizing Altera­tion in his publick Performances. He now ad­dress'd the Indians with admirable Fervency, and scarce knew when to leave off: And sometimes when I had concluded my Discourse, and was returning homeward, he would tarry behind to repeat and inculcate what had been spoken.

His Change is abiding, and his Life, so far as I know, unblemish'd to this Day, tho' tis now more than six Months since he experienc'd this Change, in which space of Time he has been as much expos'd to strong Drink, as possible, in di­vers Places where it has been moving free as Water; and yet has never, as I know of, disco­ver'd any hankering Desire after it.

He seems to have a very considerable Experi­ence of spiritual Exercise, and discourses feeling­ly of the Conflicts and Consolations of a real Christian. His Heart eccoes to the Soul-humbling Doctrines of GRACE, and he never appears bet­ter pleas'd than when he hears of the absolute So­vereignty of GOD, and the Salvation of Sinners in a Way of meer free Grace. He has likewise of late had more Satisfaction respecting his own State, has been much enliven'd, and assisted in his Work, so that he has been a great Comfort to me.

[Page 15] And upon a View and strict Observation of his serious and savory Conversation, his Christian Temper, and unblemish'd Behaviour for so con­siderable a Tract of Time, as well as his Expe­rience I have given an Account of, I think that I have Reason to hope that he is created a New in Christ Jesus to good Works.

His Name is Moses Tinda Tautamy, he is about Fifty Years of Age, and is pretty well acquainted with the Pagan Notions and Customs of his Country-Men, and so is the better able now to ex­pose them. He has, I'm persuaded, already been, and I trust will yet be a Blessing to the other In­dians.

July 23. Preach'd to the Indians, but had few Hearers: Those who are constantly at home seem of late to be under some serious Impressions of a religious Nature.

July 26. Preach'd to my People, and after­wards baptized my Interpreters Children.

LORD'S DAY, July 28. Preach'd again, and perceiv'd my People, at least some of them, more thoughtful than ever about their Souls Concerns. I was told by some, that seeing my Interpreter and others baptiz'd made them more concern'd than any thing they had ever seen or heard be­fore. There was indeed a considerable Appear­ance of divine Power amongst them at the Time that Ordinance was administred. May that di­vine Influence spread and increase more abun­dantly.

[Page 16] July 30. Discours'd to a Number of my Peo­ple, and gave them some particular Advice and Direction, being now about to leave them for the present, in order to renew my Visit to the In­dians in New-Jersey. They were very attentive to my Discourse, and earnestly desirous to know when I designed to return to them again.

Crosweeksung in New-Jersey, 1745.

August 3. Having visited the Indians in these Parts in June last, and tarried with them some considerable Time, preaching almost daily: At which Season God was pleased to pour upon them a Spirit of awakening and concern for their Souls, and surprizingly to engage their Attention to di­vine Truths. I now found them serious, and a Number of them under deep concern for an In­terest in Christ: Their Convictions of their sin­ful and perishing State having, in my Absence from them, been much promoted by the La­bours and Endeavours of the Reverend Mr. Wil­liam Tennent, to whom I had advised them to apply for Direction, and whose House they fre­quented much while I was gone.—I preached to them this Day with some View to Rev. xxii. 17. And whosoever will, let him take the Water of Life freely: Tho' I could not pretend to handle the Subject methodically among them.

The Lord, I'm persuaded, enabled me in a Manner somewhat uncommon to set before them [Page 17] the Lord Jesus Christ as a kind and compassio­nate Saviour, inviting distressed and perishing Sinners to accept everlasting Mercy. And a sur­prizing concern soon became apparent among them. There were about Twenty adult Persons together, (many of the Indians at remote Places not having as yet had time to come since my re­turn hither) and not above two that I could see with dry Eyes. Some were much concern'd, and discover'd vehement Longings of Soul after Christ to save them from the Misery they felt and fear'd

LORD'S DAY, August 4. Being invited by a neighbouring Minister to assist in the Administra­tion of the Lord's-Supper, I comply'd with his Request, and took the Indians along with me, not only those that were together the Day before, but many more that were coming to hear me, so that there were near Fifty in all, old and young.

They attended the several Discourses of the Day, and some of them that could understand English, were much affected, and all seem'd to have their Concern in some Measure rais'd.

Now a Change in their Manners began to ap­pear very visible. In the Evening when they came to sup together, they would not taste a Morsel 'till they had sent to me to come and ask a Blessing on their Food, at which time sundry of them wept, especially when I minded them how they had in Times past eat their Feasts in Honour to Devils, and neglected to thank God for them.

[Page 18] Aug. 5. After a Sermon had been preach'd by another Minister, I preached, and concluded the publick Work of the Solemnity from John vii. 37. And in my Discourse address'd the Indians in particular, who sat by themselves in a Part of the house; at which time one or two of them were struck with deep Concern, as they afterwards told me, who had been little affected before: Others had their Concern increas'd to a considerable Degree. In the Evening (the greater Part of them being at the House where I lodg'd) I discours'd to them, and found them universally engag'd about their Soul's Concern, enquiring, What they should do to be saved? And all their Conversation among them­selves turned upon religious Matters, in which they were much assisted by my Interpreter, who was with them Day and Night.

This Day there was one Woman, that had been much concern'd for her Soul, ever since she first heard me preach in June last, who obtain'd Comfort, I trust, solid and well grounded: She seem'd to be fill'd with Love to Christ, at the same Time behav'd humbly and tenderly, and appear'd a­fraid of nothing so much as of grieving and of­fending him whom her Soul lov'd.

Aug. 6. In the Morning I discours'd to the Indians at the House where we lodg'd: Many of them were then much affected, and appear'd sur­prizingly tender, so that a few Words about their Souls concerns would cause the Tears to now free­ly, and produce many Sobs and Groans.—

[Page 19] In the Afternoon, they being return'd to the Place where I have usually preach'd amongst them, I again discours'd to them there. There were about Fifty five Persons in all, about Forty that were capable of attending divine Service with Understanding: I insisted upon 1 John iv. 10. Herein is Love, &c. They seem'd eager of hear­ing; but there appear'd nothing very remarkable, except their Attention, till near the Close of my Discourse, and then divine Truths were attended with a surprizing Influence, and produced a great Concern among them. There was scarce Three in Forty that could refrain from Tears and bitter Cries. They all, as one, seem'd in an Agony of Soul to obtain an Interest in Christ, and the more I discours'd of the Love and Compassion of God in sending his Son to suffer for the Sins of Men; and the more I invited them to come and par­take of his Love, the more their Distress was ag­gravated, because they felt themselves unable to come.

It was surprizing to see how their Hearts seem'd to be pierc'd with the tender and melting Invi­tations of the Gospel, when there was not a Word of Terror spoken to them.

There were this Day two Persons that obtain'd Relief and Comfort, which (when I came to dis­course with them particularly) appear'd solid, ra­tional and scriptural. After I had enquir'd into the Grounds of their Comfort, and said many Things I thought proper to them, I asked them [Page 20] what they wanted God to do further for them? They replied, They wanted Christ should wipe their Hearts quite clean, &c.

Surprizing were now the Doings of the Lord, that I can say no less of this Day (and I need say no more of it) than that the Arm of the Lord was powerfully and marvelously revealed in it.

Aug. 7. Preach to the Indians from Isaiah liii. 3.—10. There was a remarkable Influence at­tending the Word, and great Concern in the As­sembly; but scarce equal to what appear'd the Day before, that is, not quite so universal: How­ever, most were much affected, and many in great distress for their Souls; and some few could nei­ther go nor stand, but lay flat on the Ground, as if pierc'd at Heart, crying incessantly for Mercy: Several were newly awaken'd, and 'twas remark­able that as fast as they came from remote Places round about, the Spirit of God seem'd to seize them with Concern for their Souls.

After publick Service was concluded, I found two Persons more that had newly met with Com­fort, of whom I had good Hopes; and a Third that I could not but entertain some Hopes of, whose Case did not appear so clear as the other; so that here were now Six in all that had got some Relief from their spiritual Distresses, and Five whose Experience appear'd very clear and satisfactory: And tis worthy of Remark, that those who obtain'd Comfort first, were in general [Page 21] deeply affected with Concern for their Souls, when I preached to them in June last.

Aug. 8. In the Afternoon I preached to the Indians, there Number was now about Sixty-Five Persons, Men, Woman and Children: I discours'd from Luke xiv. 16,—23. and was favour'd with uncommon Freedom in my Discourse.

There was much visible Concern among them while I was discoursing publickly; but afterwards when I spoke to one and another more particular­ly, whom I perceiv'd under much concern, the Power of God seem'd to descend upon the As­sembly like a rushing mighty Wind, and with an astonishing Energy bore down all before it.

I stood amaz'd at the Influence that seiz'd the Audience almost universally, and could compare it to nothing more aptly, than the irresistable Force of a mighty Torrent, or swelling Deluge, that with its insupportable Weight and Pressure, bears down and sweeps before it whatever is in its Way! Almost all Persons of all Ages were bow'd down with Concern together, and scarce one was able to withstand the Shock of this sur­prizing Opperation! Old Men and Women who had been drunken Wretches for many Years, and some little Children, not more than Six or Seven Years of Age appear'd in Distress for their Souls, as well as Persons of middle Age. And 'twas apparent these Children (some of them at least) were not meerly frighted with seeing the general Concern; but were made sensible of their Dan­ger, [Page 22] the Badness of their Hearts, and their Mise­ry without Christ, as some of them express'd it. The most stubborn Hearts was now oblig'd to bow. A principal Man among the Indians, who before was most secure and Self-righteous, and thought his State good because he knew more than the Generality of the Indians had formerly done, and who with a great Degree of Confidence the Day before, told me, he had been a Christian more than ten Years, was now brought under so­lemn Concern for his Soul, and wept bitterly. Another Man considerable in Years, who had been a Murderer, a Powwow, (or Conjurer,) and a notorious Drunkard, was likewise brought now to cry for Mercy with many Tears, and to com­plain much that he could be no more concern'd when he saw his Danger so very great.

They were almost universally praying and cry­ing for Mercy in every Part of the House, and many out of Doors, and Numbers could neither go nor stand: Their concern was so great, each one for himself, that none seem'd to take any Notice of those about them, but each pray'd as freely for themselves; and (I'm apt to think) were, to their own Apprehension, as much retir'd as if they had been every one by themselves in the thickest Desart: Or, I believe rather, that they thought nothing about any but themselves, and their own States, and so were every one pray­ing a-part, altho' all together.

[Page 23] It seem'd to me there was now an exact Ful­filment of that Prophesy Zech. xii. 10, 11, 12. For there was now a great Mourning like the Mourning of Hadadrimmon.—And each seem'd to mourn a part. Methought this had a near Resemblance to the Day of God's Power, men­tion'd Josh. x. 14. For I must say, I never see any Day like it in all Respects: 'Twas a Day wherein I am persuaded the Lord did much to destroy the Kingdom of Darkness among this People,

This Concern in general was most rational and just, those who had been awaken'd any conside­rable Time, complained more especially of the Badness of their Hearts; and those newly a­waken'd of the Badness of their Lives and Acti­ons past; and all were afraid of the Anger of God, and of everlasting Misery as the Desert of their Sins.

Some of the white People who came out of Curiosity to hear what this Babbler would say, to the poor ignorant Indians, were much awaken­ed, and some appear'd to be wounded with a View of their perishing State.

Those who had lately obtain'd Relief, were fill'd with Comfort at this Season; they appear'd calm and compos'd, and seemed to rejoyce in Christ Jesus: And some of them took their di­stressed Friends by the Hand, telling them of the Goodness of Christ, and the Comfort that is to be enjoyed in him, and thence invited them to [Page 24] come and give up their Hearts to him. And I could observe some of them in the most honest and unaffected Manner (without any design of being taken Notice of) lifting up their Eyes to Heaven as if crying for Mercy, while they saw the Distress of the poor Souls around them.

There was one remarkable Instance of awaken­ing this Day, that I can't but take particular No­tice of here. A young Indian Woman, who, I believe, never knew before she had a Soul, nor ever thought of any such Thing, hearing that there was something strange among the Indians, came (it seems) to see what was the Matter: She in her Way to the Indians, called at my Lodgings, and when I told her I designed presently to preach to the Indians, laugh'd and seemed to mock; but went however to them. I had not proceed­ed far in my publick Discourse, before she felt effectually that she had a Soul, and before I had concluded my Discourse, was so convinced of her Sin and Misery, and so distress'd with Concern for her Soul's Salvation, that she seemed like one pierced through with a Dart, and cried out in­cessantly. She could neither go nor stand, nor fit on her Seat without being held up. After publick Service was over, she lay flat on the Ground praying earnestly, and would take no No­tice of, nor give any Answer to any that spoke to her. I hearkened to hear what she said, and per­ceived the Burden of her Prayer to be, Güttum­máukälümméh wéchäuméh kméléh Ndah, i. e. Have [Page 25] Mercy on me, and help me to give you my Heart. And thus she continued praying incessantly for many Hours together.

This was indeed a surprizing Day of God's Power, and seemed enough to convince an Atheist of the Truth, Importance and Power of God's Word.

Aug. 9. Spent almost the whole Day with the Indians, the former Part of it in discoursing to many of them privately, and especially to some who had lately received Comfort, and endeavouring to enquire into the Grounds of it, as well as to give them some proper Instructions, Cautions and Directions.

In the Afternoon discoursed to them publickly. There were now present about Seventy Persons, old and young. I opened and apply'd the Para­ble of the Sower, Mat. xiii. Was enabled to discourse with much Plainness, and found after­wards that this Discourse was very instructive to them. There were many Tears among them while I was discoursing publickly, but no consi­derable Cry: Yet some were much affected with a few Words spoken from Mat. xi. 28. with which I concluded my Discourse. But while I was discoursing near Night to two or three of the awakened Persons, a divine Influence seemed to attend what was spoken to them in a powerful Manner, which caused the Persons to cry out in Anguish of Soul, although I spoke not a Word of Terror, but on the Contrary, set before them [Page 26] the Fullness and All-sufficiency of Christ's Merits, and his Willingness to save all that came to him; and thereupon press'd them to come without De­lay.

The cry of these was soon heard by others, who, tho' scattered before, immediately gathered round. I then proceeded in the same Strain of Gospel-Invitation, till they were all melted into Tears and Cries, except two or three; and seemed in the greatest Distress to find and secure an Inte­rest in the great Redeemer.—Some who had but little more than a Ruffle made in their Passions the Day before, seemed now to be deeply affected and wounded at Heart: And the Concern in general appear'd near as pravalent as it was the Day before. There was indeed a very great Mourning among them, and yet every one seem'd to mourn apart. For so great was their Concern, that almost every one was praying and crying for himself, as if none had been near. Guttummau­kalummeh, Guttummaukalummeh: i. e. Have Mer­cy upon me, Have Mercy upon me: Was the com­mon Cry.

It was very affecting to see the poor Indians, who the other Day was hallowing and yelling in their idolatrous Feasts and drunken Frolicks, now crying to God with such Importunity for an In­terest in his dear Son!

Found two or three Persons who I had reason to hope had taken Comfort upon good Grounds since the Evening before: And these, with others [Page 27] that had obtain'd Comfort, were together, and seem'd to rejoyce much that God was carrying on his Work with such Power upon others,

Aug. 10. Rode to the Indians, and began to discourse more privately to those who had obtain'd Comfort and Satisfaction; endeavouring to instruct, direct, caution, and comfort them: But others being eager of hearing every Word that related to spiritual Concerns, soon came together one af­ter another: And when I had discours'd to the young Converts more than half an Hour, they seem'd much melted with divine Things, and earnestly desirous to be with Christ. I told them of the godly Soul's perfect Purity, and full En­joyment of Christ, immediately upon its Separa­tion from the Body, and that it would be forever inconceivably more happy, than they had ever been for any short Space of Time, when Christ seem'd near to them, in Prayer or other Duties. And that I might make Way for speaking of the Resurrection of the Body, and thence of the com­pleat Blessedness of the Man, I said, but perhaps some of you will say, I love my Body as well as my Soul, and I can't bear to think that my Bo­dy should lye dead if my Soul is Happy. To which they all chearfully reply'd, Muttoh, muttoh, (before I had opportunity to prosecute what I de­sign'd respecting the Resurrection,) No, No. They did not regard their Bodies, if their Souls might be but with Christ. Then they appear'd [Page 28] willing to be absent from the Body, that they might be present with the Lord.

When I had spent some time with these, I turn'd to the other Indians, and spoke to them from Luke xix. 10. I had not discours'd long before their Concern rose to a great Degree, and the House was fill'd with Cries and Groans. And when I insisted on the Compassion and Care of the Lord Jesus Christ for those that were lost, who thought themselves undone, and could find no way of Escape, this melted them down the more, and aggravated their distress, that they could not find, and come to so kind a Saviour.

Sundry Persons who before had been but slight­ly awaken'd, were now deeply wounded with a Sense of their Sin and Misery. And one Man in particular, who was never before awaken'd, was now made to feel, that the Word of the Lord was quick and powerful, sharper than any two edged Sword. He seem'd to be pierc'd at Heart with Distress, and his concern appear'd most rational, and scriptural: For he said, All the Wickedness of his past Life was brought fresh to his Remem­brance, and he saw all the vile Actions he had done formerly, as if done but Yesterday.

Found one that had newly receiv'd Comfort, after pressing Distress from Day to Day. Could not but rejoyce and admire at divine Goodness in what appear'd this Day. There seems to be some Good done by every Discourse: Some newly a­waken'd every Day, and some comforted.

[Page 29] 'Twas refreshing to observe the Conduct of those that had obtain'd Comfort, while others were distress'd with Fear and Concern; these were lifting up their Hearts to God for them.

LORDS-DAY, August 11. Discours'd in the Forenoon from the Parable of the Prodigal Son, Luke xv. Observ'd no such remarkable Effect of the Word upon the Assembly as in Days past.—There were Numbers of careless Specta­tors of the white People; some Quakers and others.

In the Afternoon I discours'd upon a Part of St. Peter's Sermon, Acts ii. And at the Close of my Discourse to the Indians, made an address to the white People, and divine Truths seem'd then to be attended with Power both to English and Indians. Several of the white Heathen were awa­ken'd, and could not longer be idle Spectators, but found they had Souls to save or loose as well as the Indians, and a great concern spread thro' the whole Assembly, so that this also appear'd to be a Day of God's Power, especially towards the Conclusion of it, as well as several of the former, altho' the Influence attending the Word seem'd scarce so powerful now as in some Days past.

The Number of the Indians, old and young, was now upwards of Seventy, and one or two were newly awaken'd this Day, who never had appear'd to be mov'd with Concern for their Souls before.

Those that had obtained Relief and Comfort, and had given hopeful Evidences of having pass'd [Page 30] a saving Change, appeared humble and devout, and behave in an agreeable and Christian Manner. I was refreshed to see the Tenderness of Consci­ence manifest in some of them, one Instance of which I cannot but take Notice of. Per­ceiving one of them very sorrowful in the Morning, I enquired into the Cause of her Sor­row, and found the Difficulty was, she had been angry with her Child the Evening before, and was now exercis'd with Fears, left her Anger had been inordinate and sinful, which so grieved her that she waked and began to sob before Day­light, and continued weeping for several Hours together.

Aug. 14. Spent the Day with the Indians. There was one of them who had some time since put away his Wise (a is common among them) and taken another Woman, and being now brought under some serious Impressions, was much concern'd about that Affair in particular, and seem'd fully convinc'd of the Wickedness of that practice, and earnestly desirous to know what God would have him do in his present Circumstances. When the Law of God respecting Marriage had been open'd to them, and the Cause of his leav­ing his Wife enquir'd into; and when it ap­pear'd she had given him no just Occasion by Unchastity to desert her, and that she was willing to forgive his past Misconduct, and to live peacea­bly with him for the future, and that she more­over insisted on it as her Right to enjoy him; he [Page 31] was then told, that it was his indispensible Duty to renounce the Woman he had last taken, and receive the other who was his proper Wife, and live peaceably with her during Life, with which he readily and chearfully comply'd, and thereup­on publickly renounc'd the Woman he had last taken, and publickly promis'd to live with and be kind to his Wife during Life, she also pro­mising the same to him.—And here appeared a clear Demonstration of the Power of God's Word upon their Hearts. I suppose a few Weeks be­fore the whole World could not have persuaded this Man to a Compliance with Christian Rules in this Affair.

I was not without Fears, least this proceeding might be like putting new Wine into old Bottles, and that some might be prejudiced against Christi­anity, when they saw the Overtures made by it. But the Man being much concerned about the Matter, the Determination of it could be deferred no longer, and it seem'd to have a good, rather than an ill, Effect among the Indians, who ge­nerally own'd, that the Laws of Christ were good and right respecting the Affairs of Marriage.

In the Afternoon I preached to them from the Apostle's Discourse to Cornelius Acts x. 34. &c. There appear'd some affectionate Concern among them, tho' not equal to what appeared in several of the former Days. They still attended and heard as for their Lives, and the Lords Work seem'd still to be promoted, and propagated among them.

[Page 32] Aug. 15. Preached from Luke iv. 16—21, The Word was attended with Power upon the Hearts of the Hearers. There was much Con­cern, many Tears, and affecting Cries among them, and some in a special Manner were deeply wounded and distressed for their Souls. There were some newly awakened who came but this Week, and Convictions seemed to be promoted in others.—Those that had received Comfort, were likewise refreshed and strengthened, and the Work of Grace appear'd to advance in all res­pects. The Passions of the Congregation in ge­neral were not so much moved, as in some Days past, but their Hearts seemed as solemly and deeply affected with divine Truths as ever, at least in many Instances, altho' the Concern did not seem to be so universal, and to reach every individual in such a Manner as it had appeared to do some Days before.

Aug. 16. Spent considerable Time in convers­ing privately with sundry of the Indians. Found one that had got relief and Comfort, after pressing Concern, and could not but hope, when I came to discourse particularly with her, that her Com­fort was of the right Kind.

In the Afternoon preached to them from John vi. 26,—34. Toward the Close of my Discourse, divine Truths were attended with con­siderable Power upon the Audience, and more especially after publick Service was over, when I particularly address'd sundry distressed Persons.

[Page 33] There was a great Concern for their Souls spread pretty generally among them: But especi­ally there were two Persons newly awaken'd to a Sense of their Sin and Misery, one of whom was lately come, and the other had all along been very attentive, and desirous of being awaken'd, but could never before have any lively View of her perishing State. But now her Concern and spiritual Distress was such, that, I thought, I had never seen any more pressing. Sundry old Men were also in Distress for their Souls; so that they could not refrain from weeping and crying out aloud, and their bitter Groans were the most con­vincing as well as affecting Evidence of the Rea­lity and Depth of their inward Anguish—God is powerfully at work among them! True and ge­nuine Convictions of Sin are daily promoted in many Instances, and some are newly awaken'd from time to time; altho' some few, who felt a Commotion in their Passions in Days past, seem now to discover that their Hearts were never duly affected. I never saw the Work of God appear so independant of Means as at this Time. I dis­coursed to the People, and spoke what (I sup­pose) had a proper Tendency to promote Con­victions, and God's Manner of working upon them appeared so entirely supernatural, and above Means, that I could scarce believe he used me as an Instrument, or what I spake as Means of car­rying on his Work: For it seem'd, as I thought, to have no Connection with, nor Dependance up­on [Page 34] Means in any Respect. And although I could not but continue to use the Means I thought pro­per for the Promotion of the Work, yet God seem'd (as I apprehended) to work entirely with­out them: So that I seemed to do nothing, and indeed to have nothing to do but to stand still and see the Salvation of God, and found my­self oblig'd and delighted to say, Not unto us, not unto Instruments and Means, but to thy Name be Glory. God appear'd to work entirely alone and I saw no room to attribute any Part of this Work to any created Arm.

Aug. 17. Spent much time in private Confe­rences with the Indians. Found one who had newly obtain'd Relief and Comfort, after a long Season of spiritual Trouble and Distress, (he hav­ing been one of my Hearers in the Forks of De­laware for more than a Year, and now follow'd me here under deep Concern for his Soul) and had abundant Reason to hope that his Comfort was well grounded, and truly divine.

Afterwards discours'd publickly from Acts viii. 29,—39. And took Occasion to treat concern­ing Baptism, in order to their being instructed and prepared to partake of that Ordinance. They were yet hungry and thirsty for the Word of God, and appear'd unwearied in their Attendance upon it.—

LORD'S-DAY Aug. 18. Preached in the Fore­noon to an Assembly of white People, made up of Presbyterians, Baptists, Quakers, &c. After­wards [Page 35] preach'd to the Indians from John vi. 35,—40. There was considerable Concern visible among them, though not equal to what has fre­quently appear'd of late.

Aug. 19. Preach'd from Isaiah lv. 1. Divine Truths were attended with Power upon those who had receiv'd Comfort, and others also. The for­mer were sweetly melted and refreshed with di­vine Invitations, the latter much concern'd for their Souls, that they might obtain an Interest in these glorious Gospel Provisions that were set be­fore them. There were Numbers of poor impo­tent Souls that waited at the Pool for healing, and the Angel seem'd, as at other Times of late, to trouble the Waters: So that there was yet a most desirable and comfortable Prospect of the spiritu­al Recovery of diseased perishing Sinners.

Aug. 23. Spent some time with the Indians in private Discourse, afterwards preach'd to them from John vi. 44.—50. There was, as has been usual, a great Attention and some Affection among them. Several appear'd deeply concern'd for their Souls, and could not but express their in­ward Anguish by Tears and Cries. But the amaz­ing divine Influence that has been so powerfully among them in general, seems, at present, in some Degree abated, at least in regard of its Universal­lity, though many that have got no special Com­fort, still retain deep Impressions of divine Things.

Aug. 24. Spent the Forenoon in discoursing to some of the Indians, in order to their re­ceiving [Page 36] the Ordinance of Baptism. When I had open'd the nature of the Ordinance, the obliga­tions attending it, the Duty of devoting ourselves to God in it, [...] the Priviledge of being in Covenant with him, sundry of them seem'd to be fill'd with Love to God, and delighted with the Thoughts of giving up themselves to him in that solemn and publick Manner, melted and refreshed with the Hopes of enjoying the Blessed Redeemer.

Afterwards I discours'd publickly from 1 Thes. iv. 13,—17. There was a solemn Attention, and some visible Concern and Affection in the Time of publick Service, which was afterwards increas­ed by some further Exhortation given them to come to Christ, and give up their Hearts to him, that they might be fitted to ascend up and meet him in the Air, when he shall descend with a Shout, and the Voice of the Archangel.

There were several Indians newly come, who thought their State good, and themselves happy, because they had sometimes liv'd with the white People under Gospel-Light, had learn'd to read, were civil, &c. although they appear'd utter Strangers to their own Hearts, and altogether unacquainted with the Power of Religion, as well as with the Doctrines of Grace. With those I discours'd particularly after publick Worship, and was surprized to see their self-righteous Disposition, their strong Attachment to the Covenant of Works for Salvation, and the high Value they put upon their suppos'd Attainments. Yet after much dis­course [Page 37] one appear'd in a Measure convinc'd that by the Deeds of the Law no flesh living should be justified, and wept bitterly, enquiring, what he must do to be saved?

This was very comfortable to others, who had gain'd some experimental Acquaintance with their own Hearts; for before they were griev'd with the Conversation and Conduct of these New-Com­mers, who boasted of their Knowledge, and thought well of themselves, but evidently discover'd to those that had any Experience of divine Truths, that they knew nothing of their own Hearts.

LORD'S-DAY, Aug. 25. Preached in the Fore­noon from Luke xv. 3,—7. There being a Multitude of white People present, I made an Address to them at the Close of my Discourse to the Indians: But could not so much as keep them orderly; for scores of them kept walking and gazing about, and behaved more indecently than any Indians I ever address'd; and a View of their abusive Conduct so sunk my Spirits, that I could scarce go on with my Work.

In the Afternoon discours'd from Revel. iii. 20 At which Time the Indians behav'd seriously, tho' many others were vain.

Afterwards baptized Twenty Five Persons of the Indians, fifteen Adults and ten Children. Most of the Adults I have comfortable Reason to hope are renewed Persons, and there was not one of them but what I entertain'd some Hopes of [Page 38] in that Respect, tho' the Case of two or three of them appear'd more doubtful.

After the Croud of Spectators was gone, I call'd the baptized Persons together, and discours­ed to them in particular, at the same Time in­viting others to attend, minded them of the so­lemn Obligations they were now under to live to God, warn'd them of the Evil and dreadful Consequences of careless living, especially after this publick Prefession of Christianity; gave them Directions for their future Conduct, and encou­raged them to Watchfulness and Devotion, by setting before them the Comfort and happy Con­clusion of a religious Life.—This was a desira­bse and sweet Season indeed! Their Hearts were engag'd and chearful in Duty, and they rejoye'd that they had in a publick and solemn Manner de­dicated themselves to God.—Love seem'd to reign among them! They took each other by the Hand with Tenderness and Affection, as if their Hearts were knit together, while I was discours­ing to them: And all their Deportment toward each other was such, that a serious Spectator might justly be excited to cry out with Admira­tion, Behold how they love one another! Sundry of the other Indians at seeing and hearing these Things, were much affected and wept bitterly, longing to be partakers of the same Joy and Comfort that these discover'd by their very Coun­tenances as well as Conduct.

[Page 39] Aug. 26. Preach'd to my People from John vi. 51,—55. After I had discours'd some time, I address'd those in particular who entertain'd Hopes that they were pass'd from Death to Life. Opened to them the persevering Nature of those Consolations Christ gives his People, and which I trusted he had bestow'd upon some in that As­sembly, shew'd them that such have already the Beginnings of eternal Life, (Ver. 54.) and that their Heaven shall speedily be compleated, &c.

I no sooner began to discourse in this Strain, but the dear Christians in the Congregation began to be melted with Affection to, and desire of the Enjoyment of Christ, and of a State of perfect Purity. They wept affectionately and yet joyful­ly, and their Tears and Sobs discover'd Brokeness of Heart, and yet were attended with real Com­fort and Sweetness, so that this was a tender, af­fectionate, humble delightful Melting, and ap­pear'd to be the genuine Effect of a Spirit of A­doption, and very far from that Spirit of Bondage that they not long since laboured under. The Influence seem'd to spread from these through the whole Assembly, and there quickly appear'd a wonderful Concern among them. Many who had not yet found Christ as an all-sufficient Savi­our, were surprizingly engag'd in seeking after him. It was indeed a lovely and very desirable Assembly. Their Number was now about Ninety Five Persons, old and young, and almost all af­fected [Page 40] either with Joy in Christ Jesus, or with ut­most Concern to obtain an Interest in him.

Being fully convinc'd it was now my Duty to take a Journey far back to the Indians on Sus­quebannah River, (it being now a proper Season of the Year to find them generally at home) af­ter having spent some Hours in publick and pri­vate Discourses with my People, I told them that I must now leave them for the present, and go to their Brethren far remote and preach to them: That I wanted the Spirit of God should go with me, without whom nothing could be done to any good Purpose among the Indians, as they them­selves had had Opportunity to see and observe by the Barrenness of our Meetings at some Times, when there was much Pains taken to affect and a­waken Sinners, and yet to little or no purpose: And asked them, if they could not be willing to spend the Remainder of the Day in Prayer for me, that God would go with me, and succeed my Endea­vours for the Conversion of those poor Souls. They chearfully comply'd with the Motion, and soon after I left them (the Sun being then about an Hour and half high at Night) they began, and continued praying all Night till break of Day, or very near, never mistrusting (they tell me) till they went out and view'd the Stars, and saw the Morn­ing Star a considerable Height, that it was later than common Bed-time. Thus eager and un­wearied were they in their Devotions! A remarka­ble Night it was, attended (as my Interpreter tells [Page 41] with a powerful Influence upon those who were yet under Concern, as well as those that had receiv'd Comfort.

There were, I trust, this Day two distressed Souls brought to the Enjoyment of solid Comfort in him, in whom the weary find rest.

It was likewise remarkable that this Day an Old Indian, who has all his Days been an obstinate Idolater, was brought to give up his Rattles (which they use for Musick in their idolatrous Feasts and Dances) to the other Indians, who quickly de­stroyed them, and this without any Attempt of mine in the Affair, I having said nothing to him about it, so that it seem'd 'twas nothing but just the Power of God's Word, without any particular Application to this Sin, that produced this Effect. Thus God has begun, thus he has hitherto sur­prizingly carryed on a Work of GRACE amongst these Indians. May the Glory be ascribed to him, who is the sole Author of it.

Forks of Delaware in Pennsylvania, 1745.

LORD'S DAY, September 1. Preach to the In­dians here from Luke xiv. 16—23. The Word appear'd to be attended with some Power, and caus'd some Tears in the Assembly.

Afterwards preach'd to a Number of white People present, and observ'd many of them in Tears, and some who had formerly been as care­less. [Page 42] and unconcern'd about Religion perhaps as the Indians.

Towards Night discours'd to the Indians a­gain, and perceiv'd a greater Attention, and more visible Concern among them than has been u­sual in these Parts.

Sept. 3. Preach'd to the Indians from Isaiah liii. 3,—6. The divine Presence seemed to be in the midst of the Assembly, and a considerable Concern spread amongst them. Sundry Persons seemed to be awakened, amongst whom were two stupid Creatures that I could scarce ever before keep awake while I was discoursing to them. Could not but rejoyce at this Appearance of Things, altho' at the same Time I could not but fear lest the Concern they at present manifested, might prove like a Morning Cloud, as something of that Nature had formerly done in these Parts.

Sept. 5. Discoursed to the Indians from the Parable of the Sower, afterwards convers'd par­ticularly with sundry Persons, which occasion'd them to weep, and even to cry out in an af­fecting Manner, and seiz'd others with Surprize and Concern; and I doubt not but that a divine Power accompanied what was then spoken. Sundry of these Persons had been with me to Crosweeksung, and had there seen, and some of them, I trust, felt the Power of God's Word in an effectual and saving Manner. I ask'd one of them, who had obtain'd Comfort, and given hopeful Evidences of being truly religious, why [Page 43] he now cry'd? He reply'd, When he thought how Christ was slain like a Lamb, and spilt his Blood for Sinners, he could not help crying, when he was all alone. And thereupon burst out into Tears and Cries again. I then ask'd his Wife, who had likewise been abundantly comforted, (wherefore she cry'd) she answered, She was griev'd that the Indians here would not come to Christ as well as those at Crosweeksung. I ask'd her if she found a Heart to pray for them, and whe­ther Christ had seem'd to be near to her of late in Prayer, as in time past, (which is my usual Method of expressing a Sense of the divine Pre­sence.) She replyed, Yes, he had been near to her, and that at some Times when she had been praying alone, her Heart lov'd to pray so, that she could not bear to leave the Place, but wanted to stay and pray longer.

Sept. 7. Preached to the Indians from John vi. 35,—39. There was not so much Appear­ance of concern among them as at several other Times of late; yet they appear'd serious and attentive.

LORD'S-DAY, Sept. 8. Discoursed to the Indians in the Forenoon from John 12. 44. 50. In the Afternoon from Acts ii. 36,—39. The Word of God at this Time seem'd to fall with Weight and Influence upon them. There were but few present, but most that were, were in Tears, and sundry cryed out under distressing Concern for their Souls.

[Page 44] There was one Man considerably awaken'd who never before discover'd any Concern for his Soul. There appeared a remarkable Work of the divine Spirit among them, almost generally, not unlike what has been of late at Crosweeksung. It seem'd as if the divine Influence had spread from thence to this Place; altho something of it appear'd here in the awakening of my Inter­preter, his Wife, and some few others.

Sundry of the careless white People now pre­sent were awakened, (or at least startled) see­ing the Power of God so prevalent among the Indians. I then made a particular Address to them, which seem'd to make some Impression upon them, and excite some Affection in them.

There are sundry Indians in these Parts who have always refused to hear me preach, and have been enraged against those that have attended my preaching. But of late they are more bit­ter than ever, scolfing at Christianity, and some­times asking my Hearers, How often they have [...]? And whether they han't now cry'd enough to do the Turn, &c.? So that they have already Tryal of cruel Mockings.

Sept. 9. Left the Indians in the Forks of Delaware, and set out on a Journey towards Susquehanuah-River, directing my Course to­wards the Indian-Town more than an Hundred and Twenty Miles West-ward from the Forks. Travel'd about Fifteen Miles and there lodg'd.

Sept. 13. After having lodg'd out three [Page 45] Nights, arrived at the Indian-Town I aim'd at on Susquehanuah, call'd Shaumoking, (one of the Places, and the largest of them, that I visited in May last) and was kindly receiv'd and enter­tain'd by the Indians: But had little Satisfacti­on by reason of the heathenish Dance and Revel they then held in the House where I was o­blig'd to lodge, which I could not suppress, tho' I often entreated them to desist, for the sake of one of their own Friends who was then sick in the House, and whose Disorders was much aggravated by the Noise.—Alas! how destitute of natural Affection are these poor un­cultivated Pagans? altho' they seem somewhat kind in their own Way. Of a Truth, the dark Corners of the Earth are full of the Habitations of Cruelty.

This Town (as I observ'd in my Journal of May last) lies partly on the East-side of the River, partly on the West, and partly on a large Island in it, and contains upwards of Fifty Houses, and (they tell me) near Three Hundred Persons, tho' I never saw much more than Half that Number in it; but of three different Tribes of Indians, speaking three Languages wholly unintelligible to each other. About one Half of its Inhabitants are Delawares, the o­thers call'd Senakas, and Tutelas. The Indians of this Place are counted the most drunken, mischievous, and ruffainly Fellows of any in [Page 46] these Parts: And Satan seems to have his Seat in this Town in an eminent Manner.

Sept. 14. Visited the Delaware King, (who was suppos'd to be at the Point of Death when I was here in May last, but was now recover'd) and discoursed with him and others respecting Christianity, and spent the Afternoon with them, and had more encouragement than I ex­pected. The King appear'd kindly disposed, and willing to be instructed: This gave me some Encouragement that God would open an effec­tual Door for my preaching the Gospel here, and set up his Kingdom in this Place. Which was a Support and Refreshment to me in the Wilderness, and render'd my solitary Circum­stances comfortable and pleasant.

LORD'S-DAY, Sept. 15. Visited the Chief of the Delawares again, was kindly received by him, and discoursed to the Indians in the Af­ternoon, still entertain'd Hopes that God would open their Hearts to receive the Gospel, tho' many of them in the Place, were so drunk from Day to Day, that I could get no Opportunity to speak to them. Towards Night discoursed with one that understood the Languages of the Six-Nations, (as they are usually call'd) who discovered an Inclination to hearken to Christi­anity, which gave me some Hopes that the Gos­pel might hereafter be sent to those Nations far remote.

[Page 47] Sept. 16. Spent the Forenoon with the Indi­ans, endeavouring to instruct them from House to House, and to engage them, as far as I could, to be friendly to Christianity.

Towards Night went to one part of the Town where they were Sober, and got together near Fifty Persons of them, and discoursed to them, having first obtained the King's chearful Consent.—There was a surprizing Attention among them, and they manifested a considerable Desire of being further Instructed. There was also one or two that seem'd to be touched with some Concern for their Souls, who appeared well pleased with some Conversation in private, after I had concluded my publick Discourse to them.

My Spirits were much refreshed with this Appearance of Things, and I could not but re­turn with my Interpreter (having no other Com­panion in this Journey) to my poor hard Lodg­ings, rejoycing in Hopes that God designed to set up his Kingdom here, where Satan now reigns in the most eminent Manner: And found uncommon Freedom in addressing the Throne of Grace for the Accomplishment of so great and glorious a Work.

Sept. 17. Spent the Forenoon in visiting and discoursing to the Indians About Noon left Shaumoking, (most of the Indians going out this Day on their hunting Design) and travel'd down the River South-westward.

[Page 48] Sept. 19. Visited an Indian Town call'd Ju­neauta, situate on an Island in Susquehannah. Was much discourag'd with the Temper and Behaviour of the Indians here, altho' they ap­pear'd Friendly when I was with them the last Spring, and then gave me Encouragement to come and see them again: But they now seem'd resolved to retain their Pagan Notions, and per­sist in their idolatrous Practices.

Sept 20. Visited the Indians again at Juneanta Island, and found them almost universally very busy in making Preparations for a great Sacrifice and Dance. Had no Opportunity to get them to­gether in order to discourse with them about Christianity, by reason of their being so much engaged about their Sacrifice. My Spirits were much sunk with a Prospect so very discouraging, and especially seeing I had now no Interpreter but a Pagan, who was as much attach'd to Idolatry as any of them, (my own Interpreter having left me the Day before, being oblig'd to attend up­on some important Business otherwhere, and knowing that he could neither speak nor un­derstand the Language of these Indians) so that I was under the greatest Disadvantages imagina­ble; however I attempted to discourse private­ly with some of them, but without any Ap­pearance of Success: Notwithstanding I still tarried with them.

In the Evening they met together, near a Hundred of them, and danced round a large [Page 49] Fire, having prepar'd ten fat Deer for the Sa­crifice. The Fat of whose Inwards they burnt in the Fire while they were dancing, and some­times rais'd the Flame to a prodigious Height, at the same Time yelling and shouting in such a Manner, that they might easily have been heard Two Miles or more.

They continued their sacred Dance all Night, or near the Matter; after which they ate the Flesh of the Sacrifice, and so retired each one to his Lodging.

I enjoy'd little Satisfaction this Night, being entirely alone on the Island, (as to any Christian Company) and in the midst of this idolatious Revel; and having walk'd to and fro 'till Body, and Mind were pain'd and much oppress'd, I at length crept into a little Crib made for Corn, and there slept on the Poles.

LORD'S DAY, Sept. 21. Spent the Day with the Indians on the Island. As soon as they were well up in the Morning, I attempted to instruct them, and laboured for that Purpose to get them together, but quickly found they had something else to do; for near Noon they gathered toge­ther all their Powwows (or Conjurers) and set about half a Dozen of them to playing their juggling Tricks, and acting their frantick dis­tracted Postures, in order to find out why they were then so sickly upon the Island, number of them being at that Time disordered with a Fe­ver, and bloody Flux. In this Exercise they [Page 50] were engaged for several Hours, making all the wild ridiculous and distracted Motions imagina­ble; sometimes singing, sometimes howling, sometimes extending their Hands to the utmost Stretch, spreading all their Fingers and seemed to push with them, as if they designed to fright something away, or, at least, keep it off at Arms end; sometimes stroking their Faces with their Hands, then spurting Water as fine as Mist; sometimes setting flat on the Earth, then bowing down their Faces to the Ground; wringing their Sides, as if in Pain and Anguish; twisting their Faces, turning up their Eyes, grunting, puffing, &c.

Their monstrous Actions tended to excite I­deas of Horror, and seem'd to have something in them (as I thought) peculiarly suited to raise the Devil, if he could be rais'd by any thing odd, ridiculous and frightful. Some of them I could observe, were much more servent and de­vout in the Business than others, and seem'd to chant, peep and mutter with a great Degree of Warmth and Vigour, as if determined to awa­ken and engage the Powers below. I fat at a small Distance, not more than Thirty Feet from them, (tho' undiscover'd) with my Bible in my Hand, resolving if possible to spoil their Sport, and prevent their receiving any Answers from the internal World, and there view'd the whole Scene. They continued their heideous Charms and Incantations for more than three [Page 51] Hours, until they had all wearied themselves out, altho' they had in that Space of Time ta­ken sundry Intervals of Rest, and at length broke up, I apprehended, without receiving any Answer at all.

After they had done Powwowing, I attempt­ed to discourse with them about Christianity; but they soon scatter'd, and gave me no Op­portunity for any Thing of that Nature. A view of these Things, while I was entirely a­lone in the Wilderness, destitute of the Society of any One that so much as named the Name of Christ, greatly sunk my Spirits, gave me the most gloomy Turn of Mind imaginable, almost stripp'd me of all Resolution and Hope respect­ing further Attempts for propagating the Gos­pel, and converting the Pagans, and render'd this the most burdensom and disagreeable Sabbath that ever I saw. But nothing, I can truly say, funk and distress'd me like the Loss of my Hope respecting their Conversion. This Concern ap­pear'd so great, and seem'd to be so much my own, that I seem'd to have nothing to do on Earth, if this fail'd: And a Prospect of the great­est Success in the saving Conversion of Souls un­der Gospel Light, would have done little or nothing towards compensating for the Loss of my Hope in this Respect; and my Spirits now were so damp'd and depress'd, that I had no Heart nor Power to make any further Attempts among them for that Purpose, and could not [Page 52] possibly recover my Hope, Resolution and Cou­rage, by the utmost of my Endeavours.

The Indians of this Island can many of them understand the English Language considerably well, having formerly liv'd in some Part of Ma­ryland among or near the white People, but are very vicious, drunken and prophane, altho' not so Savage as those who have less Acquaintance with the English. Their Customs in divers Respects, differ from those of other Indians upon this Ri­ver. They dont bury their Dead in a common Form, but let their Flesh consume above Ground in close Cribs made for that Purpose, and at the End of a Year, or perhaps sometimes a longer Space of Time, they take the Bones, when the Flesh is all consum'd, and wash and scrape them, and afterwards bury them with some Ceremony.—Their Method of charming or conjuring over the Sick, seems somewhat different from that of other Indians, tho' for Substance the same: And the whole of it, a­mong these and others, perhaps is an Imitation of what seems, by Naamans Expression, (2 Kings v. 11.) to have been the Custom of the antient Heathens. For it seems chiefly to consist in their striking their Hands over the Diseased, re­peatedly stroaking of them, and calling upon their Gods, excepting the spurting of Water like a Mist, and some other frantick Ceremo­nies common to the other Conjurations, I have already mentioned.

[Page 53] When I was in these Parts in May last, I had an Opportunity of learning many of the Noti­ons and Customs of the Indians, as well as of observing many of their Practices: I then tra­velling more than an Hundred and thirty Miles upon the River above the English Settlements; and having in that Journey a View of some Per­sons of seven or eight distinct Tribes, speaking so many different Languages. But of all the Sights I ever saw among them, or indeed any where else, none appear'd so frightful or so near a kin to, what is usually imagin'd, of infernal Powers; none ever excited such Images of Ter­ror in my Mind, as the Appearance of one who was a devout and zealous Reformer, or rather restorer, of what he suppos'd was the ancient Religion of the Indians. He made his Appear­in his pontificial Garb, which was a Coat of Bears Skins, dress'd with the Hair on, and hanging down to his Toes, a Pair of Bear-Skin Stock­ings, and a great Wooden Face, painted the one Half black, the other tauny, about the Colour of an Indians Skin, with an extravagant Mouth, cut very much a-wry; the Face fastened to a Bear Skin Cap, which was drawn over his Head. He advanc'd toward me with the In­strument in his Hand that he us'd for Musick in his idolatrous Worship, which was a dry Tortoise-Shell, with some Corn in it, and the Neck of it drawn on to a Piece of Wood, which made a very convenient Handle. As he came forward, [Page 54] he beat his Tune with the Rattle, and danced with all his Might, but did not suffer any Part of his Body, not so much as his Fingers, to be seen: And no Man would have guess'd by his Appearance, and Actions, that he could have been a human Creature, if they had not had some Intimation of it otherways. When he came near me, I could not but shrink away from him, altho' it was then Noon-day, and I knew who it was, his Appearance and Gestures were so prodigiously frightful! He had a House con­secrated to religious Uses, with divers Images cut out upon the several Parts of it; I went in and found the Ground beat almost as hard as a Rock with their frequent dancing in it.—I dis­cours'd with him about Christianity, and some of my Discourse he seem'd to like, but some of it he dislik'd entirely. He told me that God had taught him his Religion, and that he never would turn from it, but wanted to find some that would join heartily with him in it; for the Indians, he said, were grown very de­generate and corrupt. He had thoughts, he said, of leaving all his Friends, and travelling abroad, in order to find some that would join with him, for he believ'd God had some Good People some where that felt as he did. He had not always, he said, felt as he now did, but had formerly been like the rest of the Indians, until about four or five Years before that Time: Then, he said, his Heart was very much dis­tress'd [Page 55] so that he could not live among the In­dians, but got away into the Woods and liv'd alone for some Months. At length, he says, God comforted his Heart, and show'd him what he should do; and since that Time he had known God, and tried to serve him; and loved all Men, be they who they would, so as he never did before.—He treated me with uncommon Cour­tesy, and seemed to be hearty in it.—And I was told by the Indians that he oppos'd their drinking Strong-Liquor with all his Power and if at any Time he could not dissuade them from it, by all he could say, he would leave them and go crying into the Woods. It was manifest he had a Set of religious Notions that he had look'd into for himself, and not taken for grant­ed upon bare Tradition; and he relish'd or dis­relish'd whatever was spoken of a religious Na­ture, according as it either agreed or disagreed with his Standard. And while I was discours­ing he would sometimes say, Now that I like: So God has taught me, &c. And some of his Sentiments seem'd very just. Yet he utterly deny'd the Being of a Devil, and declar'd there was no such a Creature known among the Indians of old Times, whose Religion he suppos'd he was attempting to revive. He likewise told me, that departed Souls all went Southward, and that the Difference be­tween the Good and Bad was this, That the former were admitted into a beautiful Town [Page 56] with spiritual Walls, or Walls agreeable to the Nature of Souls; and that the latter would for ever hover round those Walls, and in vain at­tempt to get in. He seem'd to be sincere, ho­nest, and consciencious in his own Way, and ac­cording to his own religious Notions, which was more than I ever saw in any other Pagan: And I perceiv'd he was look'd upon, and derid­ed amongst most of the Indians as a precise Lea­lot, that made a needless Noise about religious Matters. But I must say, there was something in his Temper and Disposition that look'd more like true Religion than any Thing I ever ob­served amongst other Heathens.

But alas! how deplorable is the State of the Indians upon this River! The brief Representa­tion I have here given of their Notions and Manners, is sufficient to shew that they are led captive by Satan at his Will, in the most emi­nent Manner: And, methinks, might likewise be sufficient to excite the Compassion, and en­gage the Prayers of pious Souls for these their Fellow-Men, who sit in the Regions of the Sha­dow of Death!

Sept. 22. Made some further Attempts to instruct and christianize the Indians on this Island, but all to no Purpose. They live so near the white People, that they are always in the Way of Strong-Liquor, as well as the ill Examples of nominal Christians; which renders it so un­speakably [Page 57] unspeakably Difficult to treat with them about Christianity.

Forks of Delaware, 1745.

October 1. Discoursed to the Indians here, and spent some Time in private Conferences with them about their Soul's Concerns, and af­terwards invited them to accompany, or if not, to follow me down to Crosweeksung as soon as their Conveniency would admit; which Invi­tation sundry of them chearfully accepted.

Crosweeksung, in New-Jersey, 1745.

Preached to my People from John xiv. 1.—6 The divine Presence seemed to be in the As­sembly. Numbers were affected with divine Truths, and it was a Season of Comfort to some in particular.

O! What a Difference is there between these and the Indians I had lately treated with upon Susquehannah! To be with those seemed like being banished from God and all his People, to be with these like being admitted into his Family, and to the Enjoyment of his divine Presence! How great is the Change lately made upon Numbers of these Indians, who not many Months ago were many of them as Thoughtless, and averse to Christianity, as those upon Sus­quehannah! [Page 58] And how astonishing is that Grace that has made this Change!

LORD'S-DAY, Octob. 6. Preach'd in the Fore­noon from John x. 7,—11. There was a consi­derable melting among my People, the dear young Christians were refresh'd, comforted and strengthened, and one or two Persons newly awakened.

In the Afternoon I discoursed on the Story of the Jaylor, Acts xvi. and in the Evening expounded Acts xx. 1,—12. There was at this Time a very agreeable Melting spread thro' the whole Assembly. I think I scarce ever saw a more desirable Affection in any Number of Peo­ple in my Life. There was scarce a dry Eye to be seen among them, and yet nothing boisterous or unseemly, nothing that tended to disturb the Publick Worship; but rather to encourage and excite a Christian Ardour and Spirit of Devo­tion.

Those who, I have reason to hope were sav­ingly renewed, were first affected, and seem'd to rejoyce much, but with Brokenness of Spi­rit and godly Fear, their Exercises were much the same with those mentioned in my Journal of August 26. evidently appearing to be the genuine Effect of a Spirit of Adoption.

After Publick Service was over I withdrew, (being much tired with the Labours of the Day) and the Indians continued praying among themselves for near Two Hours together, which [Page 59] continued Exercises appear'd to be attended with a blessed quickning Influence from on High.

I could not but earnestly wish that Numbers of God's People had been present at this Sea­son, to see and hear these Things which I'm sure must refresh the Heart of every true Lover of [...] Interest. To see those, who very lately were savage Pagans and Idolators, hav­ing no Hope, and without God in the World, now fill'd with a Sense of divine Love and Grace, and worshiping the Father in Spirit and in Truth, as Numbers here appear'd to do, was not a lit­tle affecting! And especially to see them ap­pear so tender and humble, as well as lively, servent and devout in the divine Service.

Octob. 24. Discoursed from John iv. 13,—14 There was a great Attention, a desirable Af­fection, and an unaffected Melting in the As­sembly.—'Tis surprizing to see how eager they are of hearing the Word of God. I have often­times Thought they would chearfully and dili­gently attend divine Worship Twenty Four Hours together, had they an Opportunity so to do.

Octob. 25. Discoursed to my People respect­ing the Resurrection, from Luke xx. 27—36 And when I came to mention the Blessedness the Godly shall enjoy at that Season, their final Freedom from Death, Sin and Sorrow: their Equality to the Angels in regard of their Near­ness [Page 60] to, and Enjoyment of Christ; (some im­perfect Degree of which they are savour'd with in the present Life, from whence springs their sweetest Comfort) and their being the Children of God, openly acknowledged by Him as such: I say, when I mentioned these Things, Num­bers of them were much affected, and melted with a View of this blessed State.

Octob. 26. Being call'd to assist in the Ad­ministration of the Lord's-Supper, in a neigh­bouring Congregation, I invited my People to go with me, who in general embrac'd the Op­portunity chearfully, and attended the several Discourses of that Solemnity with Diligence and Affection, most of them now understand­ing something of the English Language.

LORD'S-DAY, Octob. 27. While I was preach­ing to a vast Assembly of People abroad, who appeared generally easy and secure enough, there was one Indian Woman, a Stranger, who never heard me preach before, nor ever regard­ed any Thing about Religion, (being now per­suaded by some of her Friends to come to Meet­ing, tho' much against her Will) was seiz'd with pressing Concern for her Soul, and soon after express'd a great Desire of going home (more than Forty Miles distant) to call her Husband, that he also might be awakened to a Concern for his Soul. Some other of the Indians also appeared to be affected with divine Truths this Day.

[Page 61] The pious People of the English (Numbers of whom I had Opportunity to converse with) seem'd refreshed with seeing the Indians wor­ship God in that devout and solemn Manner with the Assembly of his People: And with those mentioned Acts xi. 18. they could not but glorify God, saying, then hath God also to the Gentiles granted Repentance unto Life.

Octob. 28. Preached again to a great Assem­bly, at which Time some of my People ap­peared affected; and when publick Worship was over, were inquisitive whether there would not be another Sermon in the Evening, or before the sacramental Solemnity was concluded; be­ing still desirous to hear God's Word.


Octob. 28 Discoursed from Mat. xxii. 1,—13. I was enabled to open the Scripture, and adapt my Discourse and Expressions to the Capacities of my People, I know not how, in a plain, easy, and familiar Manner, beyond all that I could have done by the utmost Study: And this, without any special Difficulty, with as much Freedom as if I had been addressing a common Audience, who had been instructed in the Doctrine of Christianity all their Days.

The Word of God at this Time seem'd to fall upon the Assembly with a divine Power and Influence, especially toward the Close of my Discourse: There was both a sweet Melting and bitter Mourning in the Audience—The [Page 62] dear Christians were refreshed and comforted—Convictions revived in others, and sundry Persons newly awakened who had never been with us before, and so much of the divine Presence appear'd in the Assembly, that it seem'd, this was no other than the House of God, and the Gate of Heaven. And all that had any Savour and Relish of divine Things were even constrained by the Sweetness of that Sea­son to say, Lord it is good for us to be here. If ever there was amongst my People an Appear­ance of the New-Jerusalem—as a Bride a­dorned for her Husband, there was much of it at this Time; and so agreeable was the Enter­tainment where such Tokens of the divine Presence were, that I could scarce be willing in the Evenning to leave the Place, and repair to my Lodgings. I was refreshed with a View of the Continuance of this Blessed Work of Grace among them, and its Influence upon Strangers of the Indians that had of late, from time to time, providentally fallen into these Parts.

Nov. 1. Discoursed from Luke xxiv. briefly explaining the whole Chapter, and insisting es­pecially upon some particular Passages.

The Discourse was attended with some affec­tionate Concern upon some of the Hearers, tho' not equal to what has often appeared among them.

LORD'S-DAY, Nov. 3. Preached to my Peo­ple from Luke xvi. 17, more especially for the sake of several lately brought under deep Con­cern [Page 63] for their Souls. There was some appa­rent Concern and Affection in the Assembly, tho' far less than has been usual of late.

Afterwards I baptized Fourteen Persons of the Indians, six Adults and eight Children: One of these was near fourscore Years of Age, and I have reason to hope God has brought her sav­ingly Home to himself: Two of the others were Men of Fifty Years old, who had been sin­gular and remarkable, even among the Indians, for their Wickedness, one of them had been a Murderer, and both notorious Drunkards as well as excessive Quarelsom; but now I can't but hope both are become Subjects of God's special Grace, especially the worst of them *. I deserred their Baptism for many Weeks after they had given Evidences of having pass'd a great Change, that I might have more Oppor­tunities to observe the Fruits of those Impressi­ons they had been under, and apprehended the Way was now clear: And there was not one of the Adults I baptized, but what had given me some comfortable Grounds to hope, that God had wrought a Work of special Grace in their Hearts; altho' I could not have the same Degree of Satisfaction respecting one or two of them, as the rest.

Nov. 4. Discoursed from John xi. briefly ex­plaining [Page 64] most of the Chapter.—Divine Truths made deep Impressions upon many in the As­sembly, numbers were affected with a View of the Power of Christ, manifested in his raising the Dead, and especially when this Instance of his Power was improved to shew his Power and Ability to raise dead Souls (such as many of them then felt themselves to be) to a spiritual Life: As also to raise the Dead at the last Day, and dispence to them due Rewards and Punish­ments.

There were sundry of the Persons lately come here from remote Places, that were now brought under deep and pressing Concern for their Souls, particularly one, who not long since came half drunk, and rail'd on us, and at­tempted by all means to disturb us while en­gag'd in the divine Worship, was now so con­cern'd and distress'd for her Soul, that she seem'd unable to get any ease without an Interest in Christ. There were many Tears and affectio­nate Sobs and Groans in the Assembly in gene­ral, some weeping for themselves, others for their Friends. And altho' Persons are doubt­less much easier affected now, than they were in the Beginning of this religious Concern, when Tears and Cries for their Souls were Things unhear'd of among them, yet I must say, their Affection in general appear'd genuine and unseigned; and especially this appear'd very conspicuous in those newly awakened. So that [Page 65] true and geuine Convictions of Sin, seem still to be begun and promoted in many Instances.

Baptized a Child this Day, and perceiv'd sun­dry of the baptized Persons affected with the Administration of this Ordinance, as being there­by minded of their own solemn Engagements.

I have now baptized in all Forty Seven Persons of the Indians, Twenty three Adults, and Twen­ty four Children. Thirty five of them belonging to these Parts, and the rest to the Forks of Dela­ware: And (thro' rich Grace) they have none of them as yet been left to disgrace their Professi­on of Christianity by any scandalous or unbecom­ing Behaviour.

I might now justly make many Remarks on a Work of Grace so very remarkable as this has been in diverse Respects, but shall confine myself to a few general Hints only.

1st. 'Tis remarkable that God began this Work among the Indians at a Time when I had the least Hope, and (to my Apprehension) the least rational Prospect of seeing a Work of Grace pro­pagated amongst them. My bodily Strength be­ing then much wasted by a late tedious Journey to Susquehannah, where I was necessarily expos'd to Hardships and Fatigues among the Indians: My Mind being also exceedingly depress'd with a View of the Unsuccessfulness of my Labours, (since I had little reason so much as to hope that God had made me Instrumental of the saving Con­version of any of the Indians, except my Inter­preter [Page 66] and his Wife) whence I was ready to look upon my self as a Burden to the Honourable Society, that employ'd and supported me in this Business, and began to entertain serious Thoughts of giving up my Mission; and almost resolv'd I would do so, at the Conclusion of the present Year, if I had then no better Prospect of special Success in my Work than I had hitherto had, altho' I can't say I entertained these Thoughts because I was weary of the Labours and Fatigues that necessa­rily attended my present Business, or because I had Light and Freedom in my own Mind to turn any other Way; but purely thro' Dejection of Spirit, pressing Discouragement, and an Appre­hension of its being unjust to spend Money con­secrated to religious Uses, only to civilize the In­dians, and bring them to an external Profession of Christianity, which was all that I could then see any Prospect of having effected, while God seem'd (as I thought) evidently to frown upon the De­sign of their saving Conversion, by withholding the convincing and renewing Influences of his blessed Spirit from attending the Means I had hitherto us'd with them for that End.

And in this Frame of Mind I first visited these Indians at Crosweeksung, apprehending 'twas my indispensible Duty (seeing I had heard there was a Number in these Parts) to make some Attempts for their Conversion to God, tho' I can't say, I'd any Hope of Success, my Spirits were now so extreamly sunk. And I don't know that my [Page 67] Hopes respecting the Conversion of the Indians were ever reduc'd to so low an Ebb, since I had any special Concern for them, as at this Time.

And yet this was the very Season that God saw fittest to begin this glorious Work in! And thus he ordained Strength out of Weakness, by mak­ing bare his Almighty Arm at a Time when all Hopes and human Probabilities most evidently appear'd to fail.—Whence I learn that tis good to follow the Path of Duty, tho' in the midst of Darkness and Discouragement.

2dly. 'Tis remarkable how God providentially, and in a Manner almost unaccountable called these Indians together to be instructed in the great Things that concern'd their Souls; and how he seized their Minds with the most solemn and weighty Concern for their eternal Salvation as fast as they came to the Place where his Word was preached. When I first came into these Parts in June, I found not one Man at the Place I visited, but only four Women and a few Children: But before I had been here many Days they gathered from all Quarters, some from more than Twenty Miles distant, and when I made them a second Visit in the Beginning of August, some came more than Forty Miles to hear me.

And many came without any Intelligence of what was going on here, and consequently without any Design of theirs, so much as to gratify their Curiosity; so that it seem'd as if God had summon­ed them together from all Quarters for nothing [Page 68] else but to deliver his Message to them, and that he did this (with regard to some of them) with­out making Use of any human Means; altho' there was Pains taken by some of them to give Notice to others at remote Places.

Nor is it less surprizing that they were one af­ter another affected with a solemn Concern for their Souls, almost as soon as they came upon the Spot where divine Truths were taught them. I could not but think often that their coming to the Place of our publick Worship, was like Saul and his Messengers coming among the Prophets: They no sooner came but they prophesied; and these were almost as soon affected with a Sense of their Sin and Misery, and with an earnest con­cern for Deliverance, as they made their Appear­ance in our Assembly.—After this Work of Grace began with Power among them, 'twas common for Strangers of the Indians, before they had been with us one Day, to be much awakened, deeply convinced of their Sin and Misery, and to enquire with great Solicitude, What they should do to be saved?

3dly. 'Tis likewise remarkable how God pre­served these poor ignorant Indians from being pre­judiced against me, and the Truths I taught them, by those Means that were used with them for that Purpose by ungodly People. There were many Attempts made by some ill minded Persons of the white People to prejudice them against or fright them from Christianity. They sometimes [Page 69] told them, The Indians were well enough on't already:—That there was no need of all this Noise about Christianity:—That if they were Christians they would be in no better, no safer, or happier State, than they were already in, &c.

Sometimes they told them, That I was a Knave, a Deceiver, and the like: That I daily taught them a Company of Lies, and had no o­ther Design but to impose upon them, &c.

And when none of these and such like Suggesti­ons would avail to their Purpose, they then tried another Expedient, and told the Indians, "My Design was to gather together as large a Body of them as I possible could, and then sell them to Eng­land for Slaves." Than which nothing could be more likely to terrify the Indians, they being na­turally of a jealous Disposition, and the most a­verse to a State of Servitude perhaps of any People living.

But all these wicked Insinuations (thro' divine Goodness over-ruling) constantly turned against the Authors of them, and only serv'd to engage the Affections of the Indians more firmly to me: For they being awaken'd to a solemn Concern for their Souls, could not but observe that the Persons who endeavour'd to imbitter their Minds against, me were altogether unconcerned about their own Souls, and not only so but vicious and pro­phane; and thence could not but argue, that if they had no Cencern for their own, 'twas not likely they should have for the Souls of others.

[Page 70] It seems yet the more wonderful that the Indi­ans were preserved from once hearkening to these Suggestions, in as much as I was an utter Stranger among them, and could give them no Assurance of my sincere Affection to, and Con­cern for them, by any Thing that was past,—while the Persons that insinuated these Things were their old Acquaintance, who had had fre­quent Opportunities of gratifying their thirsty Appetites with strong Drink, and consequently, doubtless, had the greatest Interest in their Af­fections.—But from this Instance of their Pre­servation from fatal Prejudices, I have had Oc­casion with Admiration to say, If God will Work, who can hinder or resist?

4thly. Nor is it less wonderful how God was pleased to provide a Remedy for my want of Skill and Freedom in the Indian Language, by remark­ably fitting my Interpreter for, and assisting him in the Performance of his Work. It might rea­sonably be suppos'd I must needs labour under a vast Disadvantage in addressing the Indians by an Interpreter, and that divine Truths would una­voidably loose much of the Energy and Pathos with which they might at first be delivered, by rea­son of their coming to the Audience from a second Hand. But altho' this has often (to my Sorrow and Discouragement) been the Case in Times past, when my Interpreter had little or no Sense of divine Things, yet now it was quite otherwise. I can't think my Addresses to the Indians ordi­narily [Page 71] since the Beginning of this Season of Grace, have lost any Thing of the Power or Pungency with which they were made, unless it were some­times for want of pertinent and pathetick Terms and Expressions in the Indian Language; which Difficulty could not have been much redress'd by my personal Acquaintance with their Language. My Interpreter had before gain'd some good Degree of doctrinal Knowledge, whereby he was render­ed capable of understanding and communicating, without mistakes, the Intent and Meaning of my Discourses, and that without being confined strictly and oblig'd to interpret verbatim. He had like­wise, to appearance, an experimental Acquaint­ance with divine Things, and it pleased God at this Season to inspire his Mind with longing De­sires for the Conversion of the Indians, and to give him admirable Zeal and Fervency in ad­dressing them in order thereto. And tis remark­able that when I was favoured with any special Assistance in any Work, and enabled to speak with more than common Freedom, Fervency and Pow­er, under a lively and affecting Sense of divine Things, he was usually affected in the same Man­ner almost instantly, and seem'd at once quicken­ed and enabled to speak in the same pathetick Language, and under the same Influence that I did. And a surprizing Energy often accompa­nied the Word at such Seasons, so that the Face of the whole Assembly would be apparently [Page 72] chang'd almost in an instant, and Tears and Sobs became common among them.

He also appeared to have such a clear doctrinal View of God's usual Methods of dealing with Souls under a preparatory Work of Conviction and Humiliation as he never had before, so that I could, with his help, discourse freely with the distressed Persons about their internal Exercises, their Fears, Discouragements, Temptations, &c.

He likewise took Pains Day and Night to re­peat and inculate upon the Minds of the Indians the Truths I taught them daily, and this he ap­pear'd to do not from spiritual Pride, and an Af­fectation of setting himself up as a publick Teacher; but from a Spirit of Faithfulness, and an honest Concern for their Souls.

His Conversation among the Indians has like­wise (so far as I know) been Savory, as becomes a Christian, and a Person employed in his Work; and I may justly say, he has been a great Comfort to me, and a great Instrument of promoting this good Work among the Indians: So that what­ever be the State of his own Soul, 'tis apparent God has remarkably fitted him for this Work.

And thus God has manifested that, without be­stowing on me the Gift of Tongues, he could find a Way wherein I might be as effectually ena­bled to convey the Truths of his glorious Gospel to the Minds of these poor benighted Pagans,

5thly. 'Tis further remarkable that God has carried on his Work here by such Means, and in [Page 73] such a Manner as tended to obviate, and leave no room for those Prejudices and Objections that have often been raised against such a Work. When Persons have been awakened to a solemn Concern for their Souls, by hearing the more awful Truths of God's Word, and the Terrors of the divine Law insisted upon, it has usually in such Cases been objected by some, that such Persons were only frighted with a fearful Noise of Hell and Damnation; and, that there was no Evidence that their Concern was the Effect of a Divine Influence. But God has left no room for this Objection in the present Case, this Work of Grace having been begun and carried on, by al­most one continued Strain of Gospel-Invitation to perishing Sinners, as may reasonably be guess'd, from a View of the Passages of Scripture I chief­ly insisted upon in my Discourses from Time to Time: Which I have for that Purpose inserted in my Journal.

Nor have I ever seen so general an awakening in any Assembly in my Life as appeared here, while I was opening and insisting upon the Para­ble of the great Supper, Luke xiv. In which Discourse I was enabled to set before my Hearers the unsearchable Riches of Gospel Grace.

Nor that I would be understood here, that I ne­ver instructed the Indians respecting their fallen State, and the Sinfulness and Misery of it: For this was what I at first chiefly insisted upon with them, and endeavoured to repeat and inculcate in [Page 74] almost every Discourse, knowing that without this Foundation I should but build upon the Sand; and that it would be in vain to invite them to Christ, unless I could convince them of their Need of him, Mark ii. 17.

But still this great awakening, this surprizing Concern was never excited by any Harrangues of Terror, but always appear'd most remarkable when I insisted upon the Compositions of a dying Saviour, the plentiful Provisions of the Gospel, and the free Offers of divine Grace to needy distressed Sinners.

Nor would I be understood to insinuate, that such a religious Concern might justly be suspected as not being genuine, and from a divine Influence, because produc'd by the preaching of Terror: For this is perhaps God's more usual Way of a­wakening Sinners, and appears intirely agreeable to Scripture and sound Reason.—But what I meant here to observe is, that God saw fit to improve and bless milder Means for the effectual awaken­ing of these Indians, and thereby obviated the forementioned Objection, which the World might otherwise have had a more plausible Colour of making.

And as there has been no Room for any plausi­ble Objection against this Work, in regard of the Means, so neither in regard of the Manner in which it has been carried on.—'Tis true, Persons Concern for their Souls has been exceeding great, the Convictions of their Sin and Misery have ri­sen [Page 75] to a high Degree, and produced many Tears, Cries and Groans: But then they have not been attended with those Disorders, either bodily or mental, that have sometimes prevailed among Persons under religious Impressions.—There has here been no appearance of those Convulsions, bo­dily Agonies, frightful Screamings, Swoonings, and the like, that have been so much complained of in some Places; altho' there have been some who, (with the Jaylor) have been made to tremble un­der a Sense of their Sin and Misery—Numbers who have been made to cry out from a distressing View of their perishing State—And some that have been, for a Time, in a great Measure, de­priv'd of their bodily Strength, yet without any such convulsive Appearances.

Nor has there been any Appearance of mental Disorders here, such as Visions, Trances, Imagina­tions of being under prophetick Inspiration, and the like; or scarce any unbecoming Disposition to appear remarkably affected either with Con­cern or Joy, tho' I must confess, I observed one or two Persons, whose Concern, I thought, was in a considerable Measure affected; and one whose Joy appeared to be of the same Kind. But these Workings of spiritual Pride, I endeavoured to crush in their first Appearances, and have not since observed any Affection either of Joy or Sor­row, but what appeared genuine and unaffected. But,

[Page 76] 6thly. And lastly, The Effects of this Work have likewise been very remarkable. I doubt not but that many of these People have gain'd more doctrinal Knowledge of divine Truths, since I first visited them in June last, than could have been instill'd into their Minds by the most diligent Use of proper and instructive Means for whole Years together, without such a divine Influence. Their Pagan Notions and idolatrous Practices seem to be entirely abandoned in these Parts. They are regulated, and appear regularly disposed in the Affairs of Marriage, an Instance whereof I have given in my Journal of Aug. 14. They seem generally divorc'd from Drunkenness, their darl­ing Vice, and the Sin that easily besets them: So that I dont know of more than two or three who have been my steady Hearers, that have drank to excess since I first visited them, altho' before it was common for some or other of them to be drunk almost every Day: And some of them seem now to fear this Sin in particular more than Death itself. A Principle of Honesty and Justice appears in many of them, and they seem con­cern'd to discharge their old Debts, which they have neglected, and, perhaps, scarce thought of for Years past. Their Manner of living is much more decent and comfortable than formerly, hav­ing now the Benefit of that Money which they used to consume upon Strong Drink. Love seems to reign among them, especially those who have given Evidencies of having pass'd a saving Change: [Page 77] And I never saw any appearance of Bitterness or Censoriousness in these, nor any Disposition to es­teem themselves better than others, who had not received the like Mercy.

As their Sorrows under Convictions have been great and pressing, so many of them have since appear'd to rejoyce with Joy unspeakable, and full of Glory: And yet I never saw any Thing exta­tick or flighty in their Joy. Their Consolations don't incline them to Air and Lightness; but on the Contrary, are attended with Solemnity, and oftentimes with Tears, and an apparent Brokenness of Heart, as may be seen in several Passages of my Journal: And in this Respect some of them have been surprized at themselves, and have with Concern observ'd to me, that when their Hearts have been glad, (which is a Phrase they com­monly make Use of to express spiritual Joy) they could not help crying for all.

And now upon the whole, I think, I may justly say, here are all the Symptoms and Evidences of a remarkable Work of Grace among these Indians, that can reasonably be desir'd or look'd for. May the great Author of this Work maintain, and pro­mote the same here, and propagate it every where, 'till the whole Earth be fill'd with his Glory. Amen

I have now rode more than Three Thousand Miles, that I have kept an exact Account of, since the Beginning of March last, and almost the whole of it has been in my own proper Business [Page 78] as a Missionary, upon the Design (either imme­diately or more remotely) of propagating Christi­an Knowledge among the Indians. I have taken Pains to look out for a Colleague, or Companion, to travel with me; and have likewise us'd Endea­vours to procure something for his Support, among religious Persons in New-England, which cost me a Journey of several Hundred Miles in Length; but have not as yet found any Person qualified and disposed for this good Work, altho' I had some Encouragement from Ministers and others that 'twas hopeful a Maintenance might be pro­cured for one, when the Man should be found.

I have likewise of late represented to the Gen­tlemen concern'd with this Mission, the Necessity of having an English-School speedily set up among these Indians, who are now willing to be at the Pains of gathering together in a Body for this Purpose. And in order hereto have humbly pro­pos'd to them the Collecting of Money for the Maintenance of a School-Master, and defraying of other necessary Charges in the Promotion of this good Work; which they are now attempting in the several Congregations of Christians to which they respectively belong.

The several Companies of Indians I have preach­ed to in the Summer past, live at great Distances from each other. 'Tis more than Seventy Miles from Crosweeksung in New-Jersey, to the Forks of Delaware in Pennsylvania. And from thence to sundry of the Indian Settlements I visited on Sus­quehannah, [Page 79] is more than an Hundred and Twenty Miles. And so much of my Time is necessarily consumed in Journeying, that I can have but little for any of my necessary Studies, and conse­quently for the Study of the Indian Languages in Particular; and especially seeing I am obliged to discourse so frequently to the Indians at each of these Places while I am with them, in order to redeem Time to visit the rest. I am, at Times, almost discouraged from attempting to gain any Acquaintance with the Indian Languages, they are so very numerous, (some Account of which I gave in my Journal of May last) and especially seeing my other Labours and Fatigues ingross al­most the whole of my Time, and bear exceed­ing hard upon my Constitution, so that my Health is much impair'd—However I have taken con­siderable Pains to learn the Delaware- Language, and propose still to do so, as far as my other Bu­siness and bodily Health will admit. I have al­ready made some Proficiency in it, tho' I have la­boured under many and great Disadvantages in my Attempts of that Nature. And it is but just to observe here, that all the Pains I took to ac­quaint my self with the Language of the Indians I spent my first Year with, were of little or no service to me here among the Delawares, so that my Work, when I came among these Indians, was all to begin a-new.

As these poor ignorant Pagans stood in need of having Line upon Line, and Precept upon Pre­cept, [Page 80] in order to their being instructed and ground­ed in the Principles of Christianity, so I preach­ed publickly, and taught from House to House al­most every Day for whole Weeks together, when I was with them. And my publick Discourses did not then make up the one Half of my Work, while there was so many constantly coming to me with that important Enquiry, What must we do to be saved? And opening to me the various Exercises of their Minds. And yet I can say (to the Praise of rich Grace) that the apparent Suc­cess with which my Labours were crown'd, un­speakably more than compensated for the Labour itself, and was likewise a great Means of support­ing and carrying me thro' the Business and Fa­tigues, which (it seems) my Nature would have sunk under, without such an encouraging Pros­pect. But altho' this Success has afforded Mat­ter of Support, Comfort and Thankfulness, yet in this Season I have found great Need of As­sistance in my Work, and have been much op­press'd for want of one to bear a Part of my La­bours and Hardships.

May the Lord of the Harvest send forth other Labourers into this Part of his Harvest, that those who sit in Darkness may see great Light, and that the whole Earth may be filled with the Knowledge of himself. Amen.

David Brainerd.
Divine GRACE display …

Divine GRACE display'd OR THE Continuance and Progress Of a Remarkable WORK Of GRACE Among some of the INDIANS

Belonging to the Provinces of NEW-JER­SEY and PENNSYLVANIA, Justly REPRESENTED in A JOURNAL

Kept by Order of the Honourable SOCIETY (in Scotland) for propagating CHRISTIAN KNOWLEDGE. With some general Remarks

To which is subjoined an APPENDIX, con­taining some Account of sundry Things, e­specially of the Difficulties attending the Work of a Missionary among the INDIANS.

By DAVID BRAINERD, Minister of the Gospel, and Missionary from the said Society.

Published by the Reverend and Worthy Corre­spondents of the said Society

Rom. ix. 25, 26.

I will call them my People that were not my People, and her beloved, that was not beloved. And it shall come to pass, that in the Place where it was said unto them, Ye are not my People; there shall they be called, the Children of the living God.

Ephes. v. 8,

Ye were sometimes Darkness; but now are ye Light in the Lord.

Psalm. cxviii. 23.

This is the Lord's Doing, it is marvelous in our Eyes


[Page 83]

Crosweeksung, in New-Jersey, 1745.
LORDS-DAY, November 24.

PREACH'D both Parts of the Day from the Story of Zaccheus, Luke xix. 1—9. In the latter Exercise, when I open'd and insisted upon the Salvation that comes to the Sinner, up­on his becoming a Son of Abraham, or a true Believer, the Word seem'd to be attended with divine Power to the Hearts of the Hearers.—Numbers were much affected with divine Truths—Former Convictions were revived—One or two Persons newly awaken'd—And a most affectionate Engagement in divine Service appear'd among them universally.

The Impressions they were under appear'd to be the genuine Effect of Gods Word brought home to their Hearts, by the Power and In­fluence of the divine Spirit.

November 26. After having spent some time in private Conferences with my People, I dis­cours'd publickly among them from John v. 1. 9. I was favour'd with some special freedom and servency in my Discourse, and a powerful E­nergy accompanied divine Truths. Many went [Page 84] and sob'd affectionately, and scarce any appear'd unconcern'd in the whole Assembly. The In­fluence that seiz'd the Audience appear'd gen­tle, and yet pungent and efficacious. It pro­duc'd no boisterous Commotion of the Passions, but seem'd deeply to affect the Heart; and excited in the Persons under Convictions of their lost State, heavy Groans and Tears.—And in others who had obtain'd Comfort, a sweet and humble Melting. It seem'd like the gentle but steady Showers that effectually Water the Farth, without violently beating upon the Surface.

The Persons lately awakened, were, some of them, deeply distress'd for their Souls, and appear'd earnesty solicitous to obtain an Interest in Christ: And some of them, after publick Worship was over, in Anguish of Spirit, said They knew not what to do, nor how to get their their wicked Hearts changed, &c.

November 28. Discours'd to the Indians pub­lickly, after having us'd some private Endea­vours to instruct and excite some in the Duties of Christianity. Open'd and made Remarks upon the sacred Story of our Lord's Transfigu­ration, Luke ix. 28.—36.—Had a principal View in my insisting upon this Passage of Scrip­ture to the Edification and Consolation of God's People. And observ'd some, that I have Reason to think are truly such, exceed­ingly affected with an Account of the Glory [Page 85] of Christ in his Transfiguration; and fill'd with longing Desires of being with him, that they might with open Face behold his Glory.

After publick Service was over, I ask'd one of them, who wept and sob'd most affectionate­ly, what she now wanted? She replied, Oh! to be with Christ, she did not know how to stay, &c. This was a blessed refreshing Season to the re­ligious People in general. The Lord Jesus Christ seem'd to manifest his divine Glory to them, as when transfigured before his Disciples. And they, with the Disciples, were ready uni­versally to say, Lord it is good for us to be here.

The Influence of God's Word was not con­fin'd to those who had given Evidences of being truly gracious, tho' at this time, I calculated my Discourse for, and directed it chiefly to such. But it appear'd to be a Season of divine Power in the whole Assembly; so that most were, in some Measure, affected. And one aged Man in particular, lately awakened, was now brought under deep and pressing Concern for his Soul, and was earnestly inquisitive how he might find Jesus Christ.

God seems still to vouchsase his divine Pre­sence, and the Influence of his blessed Spirit to accompany his Word, at least in some Measure, in all our Meetings for divine Worship.

Novem. 30. Preach'd near Night, after hav­ing spent some Hours in private Conference with some of my People about their Souls con­cerns. [Page 86] Explain'd and insisted upon the Story of the rich Man and Lazarus, Luke, xvi, 19, 26.—The Word made powerful Impres­sions upon many in the Assembly, especially while I discours'd of the Blessedness of Lazarus in Abraham's Bosom. This I could perceive, affected them much more than what I spoke of the rich Man's Misery and Torments. And thus it has been usually with them. They have almost always appear'd much more affected with the comfortable than the dreadful Truths of Gods Word. And that which has distressed many of them under Convictions, is, that they found they wanted, and could not obtain, the Happiness of the godly. At least they have often appear'd to be more affected with this, than with the Terrors of Hell. But whatever be the Means of their awakening, 'tis plain, Numbers are made deeply sensible of their Sin and Misery, the wickedness and stub­bornness of their own Hearts, their utter In­ability to help themselves, or to come to Christ for Help, without divine Assistance; and so are brought to see their perishing need of Christ to do all for them, and to lie at the Foot of So­vereign Mercy.

LORD'S DAY, December 1. Discours'd to my People in the Forenoon from Luke xvi. 27, 31. There appear'd an unseign'd Affection in divers Persons, and some seem'd deeply impressed with divine Truths.

[Page 87] In the Afternoon preach'd to a Number of white People; at which time the Indians at­tended with Diligence, and many of them were able to understand a considerable Part of the Discourse.

At Night Discours'd to my People again, and gave them some particular Cautions and Directions relating to their Conduct in divers Respects. And pressed them to Watchfulness in all their Deportment, seeing they were en­compassed with those that waited for their halting, and who stood ready to draw them into Temptations of every kind, and then to expose Religion for their misteps.

LORD'S-DAY, Decem. 8. Discoursed on the Story of the Blind Man, John ix.—There ap­pear'd no remarkable Effect of the Word upon the Assembly at this Time. The Persons who have lately been much concern'd for their Souls, seemed now not so affected nor solicitous to obtain an Interest in Christ as has been usual; altho' they attended divine Service with Serious­ness and Diligence.

Such have been the Doings of the Lord here, in awakening Sinners, and affecting the Hearts of those who are brought to solid Comfort, with a fresh Sense of divine Things from time to time, that 'tis now strange to see the Assem­bly sit with dry Eyes, and without Sobs and Groans!

[Page 88] Decem. 12. Preach'd from the Parable of the Ten Virgins, Mat. xxv. The divine Power seem'd in some Measure to attend this Discourse, in which I was favour'd with uncommon Free­dom and plainness of Address, and enabled to open divine Truths, and explain them to the Capacities of my People, in a Manner beyond myself.—There appear'd in many Persons an af­fectionate Concern for their Souls; altho' the Concern in general seem'd not so deep and pressing as it had formerly done. Yet it was refreshing to see many melted into Tears and unaffected Sobs; some with a Sense of divine Love, and some for want of it!

LORD'S-DAY, Decem. 15. Preach'd to the Indians from Luke xiii. 24, 28.—Divine Truths fell with Weight and Power upon the Audi­ence, and seem'd to reach the Hearts of many. Near Night discours'd to them again from Mat. xxv. 31—46. At which Season also, the Word appear'd to be accompanied with a divine Influence, and made powerful Impressions upon the Assembly in general, as well as upon divers Persons in a very special and particular Manner. This was an amazing Season of Grace! The Word of the Lord, this Day, was quick and powerful, sharper than a two edged Sword, and pierced to the Hearts of many. The Assembly was great­ly affected, and deeply wrought upon; yet without so much apparent Commotion of the [Page 89] Passions, as was usual in the Beginning of this Work of Grace. The Impressions made by the Word of God upon the Audience appear'd solid, rational and deep, worthy of the solemn Truths by Means of which they were produc'd, and far from being the Effects of any sudden Fright or groundless Perturbation of Mind.

O! How did the Hearts of the Hearers seem to bow under the weight of divine Truths! And how evident did it now appear that they received and felt them, not as the Word of Man, but as the Word of God! None can frame a just Idea of the Appearance of our Assembly at this Time, but those who have seen a Congre­gation solemnly awed, and deeply impressed by the special Power and Influence of divine Truths delivered to them in the Name of God!

Decem. 16. Discours'd to my People in the Evening from Luke xi. 1—13. After having insisted sometime upon the 9th Verse, wherein there is a Command and Encouragement to ask for divine Favours, I called upon them to ask for a new Heart with utmost Importunity, as the Man mentioned in the Parable, I was discoursing upon, pleaded for Loaves of Bread at Midnight.

There was much Affection and Concern in the Assembly; and especially one Woman ap­peared in great distress for her Soul. She was brought to such an Agony in seeking after Christ, that the Sweat ran off her Face for a considera­ble Time together, altho' the Evening was very cold; and her bitter Cries were the most affect­ing [Page 90] Indication of the inward Anguish of her Heart.

Decem. 21. My People having now attained to a considerable Degree of Knowledge in the Principles of Christianity, I thought it proper to set up a catechetical Lecture among them; and this Evening attempted something in that Form; proposing Questions to them agreeable to the Reverend Assembly's Shorter Catechism, receiving their Answers, and then explaining and insisting as appear'd necessary and proper upon each Question. After which I endeavour'd to make some practical Improve­ment of the whole. This was the Method I enter'd upon.—They were able readily and ra­tionally to answer many important Questions I proposed to them: So that, upon Trial, I found their Doctrinal Knowledge to exceed my own ex­pectations.—In the Improvement of my Dis­course, when I came to infer and open the Blessedness of those who have so great and glo­rious a God, as had before been spoken of, for their everlasting Friend and Portion, sundry were much affected; and especially when I exhorted, and endeavour'd to persuade them to be recon­ciled to God, thro' his dear Son, and thus to se­cure an Interest in his everlasting Favour. So that they appear'd to be not only enlightened and instructed, but affected and engaged in their Souls Concern by this Method of discoursing.

LORD'S DAY, Decem. 22. Discoursed upon the Story of the young Man in the Gospel, Mat. [Page 91] ix. 16—22. God made it a seasonable Word, I'm persuaded, to some Souls.

There were sundry Persons of the Indians new­ly come here, who had frequently liv'd among Quakers, and being more civiliz'd and conform'd to English Manners than the generality of the Indians, they had imbib'd some of the Quakers Errors; especially this fundamental one, viz. That if Men will but live soberly and honestly, according to the Dictates of their own Con­sciences (or the Light within) there is then no Danger or Doubt of their Salvation, &c.—These Persons I found much worse to deal with than those who are wholy under Pagan Dark­ness, who make no Pretences to Knowledge in Christianity at all, nor have any self-righteous Foundation to stand upon. However, they all, except one, appear'd now convinced, that this sober honest Life, of itself, was not sufficient to Salvation; since Christ himself had declar'd it so in the Case of the young Man. And seem'd in some Measure, concern'd to obtain that change of Heart which I had been labouring to shew them the necessity of.

This was likewise a Season of Comfort to some Souls, and in particular to one (the same men­tioned in my Journal of the 16th Instant) who never before obtain'd any settled Comfort, tho' I have abundant Reason to think she had passed a saving Change some Days before.

She now appeared in a heavenly frame of Mind, compos'd and delighted with the divine [Page 92] Will. When I came to discourse particularly with her, and to enquire of her, how she got Relief and Deliverance from the spiritual Dis­tresses she had lately been under, she answer'd in broken English, * Me try, me try, save my­self, last my Strength be all gone, (meaning her ability to save herself) coud'nt me stir bit further. Den last, me forc'd let Jesus Christ alone, send me Hell if he please. I said, but you was not willing to go to Hell was you? She replied, Could not me help it. My Heart be would wicked for all. Could not me make him good, (meaning she saw 'twas right she should go to Hell, because her Heart was wicked, and would be so after all she could do to mend it.) I ask'd her, how she got out of this Case? She answered still in the same broken Language, § By, by my Heart be grad desperately. I ask'd her why her Heart was glad? She replied, Grad my Heart Jesus Christ do what he please with me. Den me tink, grad my Heart Jesus Christ send me Hell. Didn't me care where he put me, me lobe him for all, &c.

And she could not readily be convinc'd, but that she was willing to go to Hell, if Christ was pleased to send her there. Tho' the Truth [Page 93] evidently was, her Will was so swallowed up in the divine Will, that she could not frame any Hell in her Imagination that would be dreadful or undesirable, provided it was but the Will of God to send her to it.

Toward Night discoursed to them again in the catechetical Method I entered upon the E­vening before. And when I came to improve the Truths I had explained to them, and to answer that Question, 'But how shall I know whether God has chosen me to everlasting Life' by pressing them to come and give up their Hearts to Christ, and thereby to make their Election sure, they then appear'd much affected: And the Persons under Concern were afresh engag'd in seeking after an Interest in him; while some others, who had obtained Comfort before, were refreshed to find that Love to God in themselves, which was an E­vidence of his electing Love to them.

Decem. 25 The Indians having been used upon Christmas-Days to drink and revel among some of the white People in these Parts, I tho't it proper this Day to call them together and Discourse to them upon divine Things: Which I accordingly did from the Parable of the bar­ren Figg-Tree, Luke xiii, 6—9—A divine In­fluence, I'm persuaded, accompanied the Word at this Season. The Power of God appear'd in the Assembly, not by producing any remark­able Cries, but by shocking and rousing at Heart, (as it seem'd) several stupid Creatures, [Page 94] that were scarce ever moved with any Concern before. The Power attending divine Truths seem'd to have the Influence of the Earthquake rather than the Whirlwind upon them. Their Passions were not so much alarm'd as has been common here, in Times past, but their Judgments appear'd to be powerfully convinced by the masterly and conquering Influence of divine Truths. The Impressions made upon the As­sembly in general, seem'd not superficial but deep and Heart affecting. O how ready did they now appear universally to embrace and comply with every thing they heard and were convinced was Duty! God was in the midst of us of a Truth, bowing and melting stubborn Hearts! How many Tears and Sobs were than to be seen and heard among us! What Liveli­ness and strict Attention! What eagerness and intenseness of Mind appear'd in the whole Assem­bly in the time of divine Service! They seem'd to watch & wait for the dropping of God's Word, as the thirsty Earth for the former and latter Rain.

Afterwards I discoursed to them on the Duty of Husbands and Wives, from Eph. v. 22—33. And have Reason to think, this was a Word in Season.—Spent some time further in the Even­ing, in inculcating the Truths I had insisted upon in my former Discourse respecting the barren Fig-Tree, and observ'd a powerful In­fluence still accompany what was spoken.

Decem. 26. This Evening I was visited by a Person under great spiritual Exercise. The [Page 95] most remarkable Instance of this Kind I ever saw. She was a Woman of (I believe) more than fourscore Years old, and appeared to be much broken and very childish thro' Age, so that it seem'd impossible for Man to instil into her Mind any Notions of divine Things, not so much as to give her any doctrinal Instruction, because she seem'd uncapable of being taught.—She was led by the Hand into my House, and appeared in extreme Anguish. I ask'd her, what ailed her? She answered, that her Heart was distressed and she fear'd she should never find Christ. I ask'd her, when she began to be concerned? with divers other Questions relating to her dis­tress. To all which she answer'd, for Substance, to this effect, viz. That she had heard me Preach many Times, but never knew any Thing about it, never felt it in her Heart till the last Sabbath; and then it came (she said) all one as if a Needle had been thrust into her Heart; since which time, she had no rest Day nor Night. She added, that on the Evening before Christmas, a Number of the Indians be­ing together at the House where she was, and discoursing about Christ, their talk prick'd her Heart, so that she could not sit up, but fell down on her Bed; at which time she went away (as she expressed it) and felt as if she dream'd, and yet is confident she did not dream. When she was thus gone, she saw, she says, two Paths, one appeared very broad and crooked, and that, she says, turn'd to the left Hand. [Page 96] The other appeared strait and very narrow, and that went up the Hill to the right Hand. She travelled, she said, for some Time up the narrow right Hand Path, till at length some­thing seem'd to obstruct her Journey. She sometimes call'd it Darkness, and then describ'd it otherwise, and seem'd to compare it to a Block or Bar. She then remembred, she says, what she had heard me say about striving to enter in at the straight Gate, (altho she took little Notice of it, at the Time when she heard me discourse upon that Subject) and thought she would climb over this Bar. But just as she was thinking of this, she came back again, as she term'd it, meaning that she came to herself; whereupon her Soul was extremely distress'd, apprehending she had now turned back and forsaken Christ, and that there was therefore no Hope of any Mercy for her.

As I was sensible that Trances and imaginary Views of Things, are of dangerous Tendency in Religion, when sought after and depended up­on, so I could not but be much concern'd about this Exercise, especially at first; apprehending this might be a Design of Satan to bring a Ble­mish upon the work of God here, by introdu­cing visionary scenes, imaginary Terrors and all manner of mental Disorders and Delusions, in the Room of genuine Convictions of Sin, and the enlightning Influences of the blessed Spirit; and I was almost resolved to declare, that I look'd upon this to be one of Satan's Devices, [Page 97] and to caution my People against it, and the like Exercises, as such.—However I deter­min'd, first to enquire into her Knowledge, to see whether she had any just Views of Things, that might be the Occasion of her present dis­tressing Concern, or whether 'twas a meer Fright arising only from imaginary Terrors. I ask'd her divers Questions respecting Man's primitive, and, more especially, his present State, and respecting her own Heart; which she an­swer'd rationally and to my surprize. And I thought 'twas next to impossible, if not alto­gether so, that a Pagan who was become a Child thro' Age, should in that State gain so much Knowledge by any meer human Instruc­tion, without being remarkably enlighten'd by a divine Influence.

I then proposed to her the Provision made in the Gospel for the Salvation of Sinners, and the Ability and Willingness of Christ to save to the uttermost all (old as well as young) that come to him. To which she seem'd to give a hearty Assent. But instantly reply'd, Ay, but I can't come, my wicked Heart won't come to Christ: I dont know how to come, &c. And this she spoke in anguish of Spirit, striking on her Breast, with Tears in her Eyes, and with such Earnest­ness in her looks as was indeed piteous and affec­ting.

She seems to be really convinc'd of her Sin, and Misery, and her need of a Change of Heart: And her Concern is abiding and constant. So [Page 98] that nothing appears but that this Exercise may have a saving Issue. And indeed it seems hope­ful, seeing she is so solicitous to obtain an In­terest in Christ, that her Heart (as she expresses it) prays Day and Night.

How far God may make Use of the Imagina­tion in awakening some Persons under these, and such like Circumstances, I can't pretend to determine. Or whether this Exercise I have given an Account of, be from a divine Influ­ence, I shall leave others to judge: But this I must say, that its Effects hitherto bespeak it to be such: Nor can it (as I see) be accounted for, in a rational Way, but from the Influence of some Spirit, either good or evil. For the Woman I am sure, never heard divine Things treated of in the Manner she now view'd them in; and it would seem strange she should get such a rational Notion of them from the meer work­ing of her own Fancy, without some superiour, or at least, foreign aid.—And yet I must say, I haved looked upon it one of the Glories of this Work of Grace among the Indians, and a special Evidence of its being from a divine In­fluence, that there has, till now, been no Ap­pearance of such Things, no visionary Notions, Trances, and Imaginations intermix'd with those rational Convictions of Sin, and solid Consolations, that Numbers have been made the Subjects of. And might I have had my Desire, there had been no Appearance of any Thing of this Nature at all.

[Page 99] Decem. 28. Discoursed to my People in the catechetical Method I lately enter'd upon. And in the improvement of my Discourse, wherein I was comparing Man's present with his primitive State; and shewing what he had fallen from, and the Miseries he is now involv'd in, and exposed to in his natural Estate; and pres­sing Sinners to take a View of their deplorable Circumstances without Christ; as also to strive that they might obtain an Interest in him; the Lord, I trust, granted a remarkable Influence of his blessed Spirit to accompany what was spoken, and there was a great Concern appear'd in the Assembly: Many were melted into Tears and Sobs, and the Impressions made upon them, seem'd deep and Heart-affecting. And in parti­cular, there were two or three Persons who appear'd to be brought to the last Exercises of a preparatory Work, and reduc'd almost to ex­tremity; being in a great Measure convinced of the Impossibility of their helping themselves, or of mending their own Hearts; and seem'd to be upon the Point of giving up all Hope in themselves, and of venturing upon Christ as naked helpless and undone. And yet were in Distress and anguish because they saw no safety in so doing, unless they could do something to­wards saving themselves.

One of these Persons was the very aged Wo­man above-mention'd, who now appear'd weary and heavy laden with a sense of her Sin and Mi­sery [Page 100] and her perishing need of an Interest in Christ.

LORD'S-DAY, Decem. 29. Preached from John 3. 1—5. A Number of white People were present as is usual upon the Sabbath. The Dis­course was accompanied with Power, and seem'd to have a silent, but deep and piercing Influence upon the Audience. Many wept and sob'd affectionately. And there were some Tears among the white People as well as the Indians. Some could not refrain from crying out, tho' there were not many so exercised. But the Impressions made upon their Hearts, appear'd chiefly by the extraordinary Earnestness of their Attention, and their heavy Sighs and Tears.

After publick Worship was over, I went to my House, proposing to preach again after a short Season of Intermission. But they soon came in one after another, with Tears in their Eyes, to know what they should do to be Saved. And the divine Spirit in such a Manner set Home upon their Hearts what I spoke to them, that the House was soon fill'd with Cries, and Groans.—They all flock'd together upon this Occasion, and those whom I had Reason to think in a Christless State, were almost univer­sally seiz'd with Concern for their Souls.

It was an amazing Season of Power among them, and seem'd as if God had bow'd the Hea­vens and come down. So astonishingly prevalent was the Operation upon old as well as young, [Page 101] that it seem'd as if none would be left in a Se­cure and natural State, but that God was now about to convert all the World. And I was ready to think then, that I should never again despair of the Conversion of any Man or Woman living, be they who or what they would.

'Tis impossible to give a just and lively De­scription of the Appearance of Things at this Season, at least, such as to convey a bright and adequate Idea of the Effects of this Influence! A Number might now be seen rejoycing that God had not taken away the powerful Influence of his blessed Spirit from this Place.—Re­fresh'd to see so many striving to enter in at the strait Gate.—And animated with such Concern for them, that they wanted to push them for­ward, as some of them expressed it.—At the same time Numbers both of Men and Women, Old and Young, might be seen in Tears, and some in Anguish of Spirit, appearing in their very Countenances like condemned Malefactors, bound towards the Place of Execution, with a heavy solicitude sitting in their Faces: So that there seemed here (as I thought) a lively Emblem of the solemn Day of Accounts! A mixture of Heaven and Hell, of Joy unspeak­able, and Anguish inexpressible!

The Concern and religious Affection was such, that I could not pretend to have any formal re­ligious Exercise among them; but spent the Time in discoursing to one and another, as I [Page 102] thought most proper, and seasonable for each, and sometimes addressed them all together, and finally concluded with Prayer.—Such were their Circumstances at this Season, that I could scarce have half an Hours Rest from speaking from about half an Hour before 12 o'Clock (at which Time I began publick Worship) till past seven at Night.

There appear'd to be four or five Persons newly awakned this Day and the Evening before, some of whom but very lately came among us.

Decem. 30. Was visited by four or five young Persons under Concern for their Souls, most of whom were very lately awakened. They wept much while I discours'd to them, and endea­vour'd to press upon them the necessity of flying to Christ, without delay, for Salvation.

Decem. 31. Spent some Hours this Day in visiting my People from House to House, and conversing with them about their spiritual Con­cerns; endeavouring to press upon Christless Souls the necessity of a Renovation of Heart: And scarce left a House, without leaving some or other of its Inhabitants in Tears, appearing solicitously engaged to obtain an Interest in Christ.

The Indians are now gather'd together from all Quarters to this Place, and have built them little Cottages, so that more than Twenty Fa­milies live within a Quarter of a Mile of me. [Page 103] A very convenient Situation in Regard both of publick and private Instruction.

January 1. 1745-6. Spent some consider­able Time in visiting my People again. Found scarce one but what was under some serious Impressions respecting their spiritual Concerns.

Jan. 2. Visited some Persons newly come among us, who had scarce ever heard any Thing of Christianity (except the empty Name) before. Endeavoured to instruct them particu­larly in the first Principles of Religion, in the most easy and familiar Manner I could.

There are Strangers from remote Parts almost continually droping in among us, so that I have Occasion repeatedly to open and inculcate the first Principles of Christianity.

Jan. 4. Prosecuted my catechetical Method of instructing.—Found my People able to answer Questions with Propriety, beyond what could have been expected from Persons so lately brought out of heathenish Darkness.

In the Improvement of my Discourse, there appeared some Concern and Affection in the Assembly: And especially those of whom I entertained Hopes as being truly gracious, at least divers of them, were much affected and refreshed.

LORD'S-DAY, Jan. 5. Discours'd from Mat. xii. 10—13. There appeared not so much Liveliness and Affection in divine Service as usual. The same Truths that have often pro­duc'd many Tears and Sobs in the Assembly, [Page 104] seem'd now to have no special Influence upon any in it.

Near Night I propos'd to have proceeded in my usual Method of catechising. But while we were engaged in the first Prayer, the Power of God seem'd to descend upon the Assembly in such a remarkable Manner, and so many appear'd under pressing Concern for their Souls, that I thought it much more expedient to insist upon the plentiful Provision made by divine Grace for the Redemption of perishing Sinners, and to press them to a speedy Acceptance of the great Salvation, than to ask them Questions a­bout doctrinal Points. What was most practical, seem'd most seasonable to be insisted upon, while Numbers appear'd so extraordinarily so­licitous to obtain an Interest in the great Redeemer.

Baptiz'd two Persons this Day; one Adult (the Woman particularly mention'd in my Jour­nal of December 22.) and one Child.

This Woman has discovered a very sweet and heavenly frame of Mind, from time to time, since her first Reception of Comfort. One Morning in particular she came to see me, dis­covering an unsual Joy and Satisfaction in her Countenance, and when I enquired into the Reason of it, she replied, That God had made her feel that 'twas right for him to do what he pleased with all things; and that 'twould be right if he should cast her Husband and Son both into Hell; and she saw 'twas so right for God [Page 105] to do what he pleased with them, that she could not but rejoyce if God should send them into Hell. Tho' 'twas apparent she lov'd them dearly. She moreover enquir'd whether I was not sent to preach to the Indians, by some good People a great way off. I reply'd, yes, by the good People in Scotland. She answer'd that her Heart lov'd those good People so, the Even­ing before, that she could scarce help praying for them all Night, her Heart would go to God for them &c. so that the Blessing of those ready to perish is like to come upon those pious Persons who have communicated of their Substance to the Propagation of the Gospel.

Jan. 11 Discoursed in a catechetical Me­thod, as usual of late. And having open'd our first Parents primitive Apostacy, from God, and our Fall in him, I proceeded to improve my Discourse, by shewing the Necessity we stood in of an Almighty Redeemer, and the absolute, need every Sinner has of an Interest in his Merits and Mediation. There was some Ten­derness and affectionate Concern appear'd in the Assembly.

LORD'S-DAY, Jan. 12. Preach'd from Isaiah 55— [...]6. The Word of God seem'd to fall upon the Audience with a divine weight and Influ­ence, and evidently appear'd to be not the Word of Man. The blessed Spirit, I'm persuaded, accompany'd what was spoken to the Hearts of many. So that there was a powerful Revival [Page 106] of Conviction in Numbers who were under spiritual Exercise before.

Toward Night, catechiz'd in my usual Me­thod. Near the Close of my Discourse, there appear'd a great Concern, and much Affection in the Audience. Which increas'd while I continu'd to invite them to come to an all-suf­ficient Redeemer for eternal Salvation.

The Spirit of God seems from time to time, to be striving with Numbers of Souls here. They are so frequently and repeatedly rouz'd that they seem unable at present to lull them­selves asleep.

Jan. 13. Was visited by divers Persons under deep Concern for their Souls: One of whom was newly awaken'd.—'Tis a most agreeable Work to treat with Souls who are solicitously enquiring what they shall do to be saved. And as we are never to be weary in well doing, so the Obliga­tion seems to be peculiarly strong when the Work is so very desirable. And yet I must say, my Health is so much impair'd, & my Spirits so wasted with my Labours and solitary Manner of living (there being no human Creature in the House with me) that their repeated and almost incessant Application to me for help and direc­tion, are sometimes exceeding burdensom, and so exhaust my spirits, that I become fit for No­thing at all, intirely unable to prosecute any business sometimes for Days together. And what contributes much toward this difficulty is, that I'm oblig'd to spend much time in [Page 107] communicating a little Matter to them: There being often times many things necessary to be premis'd, before I can speak directly to what I principally Aim at: Which Things would rea­dily be taken for granted, where there was a Competency of doctrinal Knowledge.

Jan. 14. Spent some time in private Con­ferences with my People, and found some dis­pos'd to take Comfort, as I thought, upon slighty grounds.—They are now generally awaken'd, and 'tis become so disgraceful, as well as terrisying to the Conscience, to be desti­tute of Religion, that they are in eminent Danger of taking up with any Appearances of Grace, rather than to live under the Fear and Disgrace of an unregenerate State.

Jan. 19. Prosecuted my catechetical Method of discoursing. There appear'd a great solom­nity and some considerable Affection in the Assembly.

This Method of instructing, I find very pro­fitable. When I first enter'd upon it, I was exercis'd with fears, least my discourses would unavoidably be so doctrinal that they would tend only to enlighten the Head, but not to affect the Heart. But the event proves quite o­therwise: For these Exercises have hitherto been remarkably blessed in the latter as well as the former Respects.

LORD'S-DAY, Jan. 19. Discours'd to my People from Isaiah lv. 7.—Toward Night cate­chiz'd in my ordinary Method. And this ap­pear'd [Page 108] to be a powerful Season of Grace among us. Numbers were much affected.—Convicti­ons powerfully reviv'd.—Divers of the Chris­tians refresh'd and strengthned—And one wea­ry heavy lacen Soul, I have abundant Reason to hope, brought to true Rest and solid Comfort in Christ, who afterwards gave me such an Ac­count of God's Dealing with his Soul as was abundantly Satisfying as well as refreshing to me.

He told me, he had often heard me say, that Persons must see and feel themselves utterly helpless and undone, that they must be emptied of a Dependance upon themselves, and of all hope of saying themselves by their own Doings in or­der to their coming to Christ for Salvation. And he had long been striving after this View of Things; supposing this would be an excel­lent Frame of mind to be thus emptied of a De­pendence upon his own Goodness: That God would have respect to this Frame, would then be well pleased with him, and bestow eternal Life upon him.—But when he came to feel himself in this helpless [...] Condition, he [...] it quite contrary to all his Thoughts and Expectations: so that 'twas not the same, [...] any Thing like the Frame he had been feeling [...]. Inseed of its being a good Frame of Mind, he now found nothing but [...] in him self, and saw 'twas forever impos­sible for him to make himself any better. He wonder'd he sai, that he had ever hoped to mend his own Heart. He was amaz'd he had [Page 109] never before seen that 'twas utterly impossible for him, by all his Contrivances and Endeavours, to do any Thing that Way, since the matter now appear'd to him in so clear a Light.—Instead of imagining now, that God would be pleas'd with him for the sake of this Frame of Mind, and this View of his undone Estate, he saw clearly, and felt it would be just with God to send him to eternal Misery, and that there was no Goodness in what he then felt; for he could not help seeing, that he was naked, sin­ful and miserable, and there was nothing in such a sight to deserve God's Love or Pity.

He saw these Things in a Manner so clear and convincing, that it seem'd to him, he said, he could convince every Body of their utter In­ability ever to help themselves, and their un­worthmess of any Help from God.

In this Frame of Mind he came to publick Worship this Evening, and while I was inviting Sinners to come to Christ maked and empty, without any Goodness of their own to recommend them to his Acceptance, then he thought with himself, that he had often tried to come and give up his Heart to Christ, and he used to hope, that sometime or other he should be able to do so. But now he was convinced he could not, and it seem'd utterly vain for him ever to try any more: And he could not, he said, find a Heart to make any further attempt, because he saw it would signify nothing at all: Nor did he now hope for a better Opportunity, or more ability [Page 110] hereafter, as he had formerly done, because he saw, and was fully convinced, his own Strength would forever fail.

While he was musing in this Manner, he saw, he said, with his Heart (which is a com­mon Phrase among them) something that was unspeakably good and lovely, and what he had never seen before; and this stole away his Heart whether he would or no. He did not, he said, know what 'twas he saw. He did not say, this is Jesus Christ, but 'twas such Glory and Beauty as he never saw before. He did not now give away his Heart so as he had formerly intended and attempted to do, but it went away of itself af­ter that Glory he then discovered. He used to try to make a Bargain with Christ, to give up his Heart to him, that he might have eternal Life for it. But now he thought nothing a­bout himself, or what would become of him hereafter. But was pleased, and his Mind wholly taken up with the unspeakable Excel­lency of what he then beheld.

After sometime he was wonderfully pleased with the way of Salvation by Christ; so that it seem'd unspeakably better to be sav'd alto­gether by the meer free Grace of God in Christ, than to have any Hand in saving himself.—And the Consequence of this Exercise is, that he appears to retain a sense and relish of di­vine Things, and to maintain a Life of serious­ness and true Religion.

Jan. 28. The Indians in these Parts having [Page 111] in Times past run themselves in Debt by their excessive Drinking; and some having taken the Advantage of them, and put them to trou­ble and Charge by arresting sundry of them, whereby 'twas supposed a great Body of their Hunting Lands were much endangered, and might speedily be taken from them. And I being sensible that they could not subsist to­gether in these Parts in order to their being a Christian Congregation, if these Lands should drop out of their Hands, which was thought very likely, thought it my Duty to use my utmost Endeavours to prevent so unhappy an Event. And having acquainted the Gentle­men concern'd with this Mission of this Affair, according to the best Information I could get of it, they thought it proper to expend the Money they had been and still were collecting for the religious Interests of the Indians (at least a part of it) for the Discharging of their Debts, and securing of these Lands, that there might be no entanglement lying upon them to hinder the Settlement and hopeful Enlargement of a CHRISTIAN CONGREGATION of Indians in these Parts—And having received Orders from them, I answered, in behalf of the In­dians, Eighty two Pounds five Shillings, New-Jersey Currency, at eight Shillings per Ounce; and so prevented the Danger of Difficulty in this Respect.

As God has wrought a wonderful Work of Grace among these Indians, and now inclines [Page 112] others from remote Places to fall in a­mong them almost continually, and as he has opened a Door for the Prevention of the Diffi­culty now mentioned, which seem'd greatly to threaten their religious Interests, as well as worldly Comfort, 'tis hopeful he designs to e­stablish a Church for himself among them, and to hand down true Religion to their Pos­terity.

Jan. 30. Preach'd to the Indians from John iii. 16—17. There was a solemn Attention and some Affection visible in the Audience; especially divers Persons who had long been concern'd for their Souls, seem'd afresh exci­ted and engaged in seeking after an Interest in Christ. And one, with much Concern, af­terwards told me, his Heart was so prick'd with my preaching, he knew not where to turn nor what to do.

Jan. 31. This Day the Person I had made made Choice of and engaged for a School-master among the Indians, arriv'd among us, and was heartily welcom'd by my People universally.—Whereupon I distributed several Dozen of Pri­mers among the Children and young People.

February 1. 1745-6. My School-master en­ter'd upon his Business among the Indians.—He has generally about thirty Children and young Persons in his School in the Day time, and about Fifteen married People in his Even­ing-School. The Number of the latter sort of Persons being less than than it would be [Page 113] if they could be more constant at Home, and spare Time from their necessary Employ­ments for an Attendance upon these In­structions.

In the Evening catechiz'd in my usual Method. Towards the close of my Discourse, a surprizing Power seem'd to attend the Word, especially to some Persons.—One Man consi­derably in Years, who had been a remarkable Drunkard, a Conjurer and Murderer, that was awakned some Months before, was now brought to great Extremity under his spiritual Distress, so that he trembled for Hours together, and ap­prehended himself just droping into Hell, with­out any Power to rescue or relieve himself.—Divers others appeared under great Concern as well as he, and solicitous to obtain a saving Change.

LORD'S-DAY, February 2. Preach'd from John v. 24, 25. There appear'd (as usual) some Concern and Affection in the Assembly.

Toward Night proceeded in my usual Me­thod of catechising. Observed my People more ready in answering the Questions propo­sed to them than ever before. 'Tis apparent they advance daily in doctrinal Knowledge. But what is still more desirable, the Spirit of God is yet operating among them, whereby experimen­tal, as well speculative, Knowledge is propaga­ted in their Minds.

Feb. 5. Discours'd to a considerable Number of the Indians in the Evening; at which Time [Page 114] divers of them appeared much affected and melted with divine Things.

Feb. 8. Spent a considerable Part of the Day in visiting my People from House to House, and conversing with them about their Souls Concerns. Divers Persons wept while I discours'd to them, and appear'd concern'd for nothing so much as for an Interest in the great Redeemer.

In the Evening catechiz'd as usual. Divine Truths made some Impression upon the Audi­ence, and were attended with an affectionate Engagement of Soul in some.

LORD'S DAY, Feb. 9. Discours'd to my Peo­ple from the Story of the Blind Man, Mat. x. 46—52. The Word of God seem'd weighty and powerful upon the Assembly at this Time, and made considerable Impressions upon many. Divers in particular who have generally been remarkably stupid and careless under the Means of Grace, were now awakened, and wept af­fectionately. And the most earnest Attention, as well as Tenderness and Affection, appeared in the Audience universally.

Baptiz'd three Persons, two Adults and one Child. The Adults, I have reason to hope, were both truly pious. There was a considera­ble melting in the Assembly, while I was dis­coursing particularly to the Persons, and admi­nistring the Ordinance.

God has been pleased to own and bless the Administration of this, as well as of his other Ordinances, among the Indians. There are some [Page 115] here that have been powerfully awakened at seeing others baptiz'd. And some that have obtain'd Relief and Comfort, just in the Season when this Ordinance has been administred.

Toward Night catechiz'd. God made this a powerful Season to some. There were many affected.—Former Convictions appear'd to be powerfully reviv'd. There was likewise one, who had been a vile Drunkard, remarkably a­waken'd. He appear'd to be in great Anguish of Soul, wept and trembled, and continued so to do till near Midnight.—There was also a poor heaven laden Soul, who had been long un­der spiritual Distress, as constant and pressing as ever I saw, that was now brought to a comfortable Calm, and seem'd to be bow'd and reconcil'd to divine Sovereignty; and told me, She now saw and felt 'twas right God should do with her as he pleas'd. And her Heart felt pleased and satisfied it should be so. Altho' of late she had often found her Heart rise and quarel with God because he would, if he pleas'd, send her to Hell after all she had done, or could do to save herself, &c. And added, That the heavy Burden she had lain under, was now re­mov'd: That she had tried to recover her Con­cern and Distress again, (fearing that the Spi­rit of God was departing from her, and would leave her wholly careless) but that she could not recover it: That she felt she never could do any Thing to save herself, but must perish forever if Christ did not do all for her: That [Page 116] she did not deserve he should help her; and that 'twould be right if he should leave her to perish. But Christ could save her, tho' she could do nothing to save herself, &c. And here she seem'd to rest.

Forks of Delaware in Pennsylvania, 1745-6.

LORD'S-DAY, Feb. 16. I knowing that divers of the Indians in those Parts, were ob­stinately set against Christianity, and that some of them had refus'd to hear me Preach in Times past, thought it might be proper and beneficial to the Christian Interest here to have a Num­ber of my religious People from Crosweeksung with me, in order to converse with them about religious Matters: Hoping it might be a Means to convince them of the Truth and Importance of Christianity, to see and hear some of their own Nation discoursing of divine Things, and manifesting earnest Desires that others might be brought out of heathenish Darkness, as them­selves were.

And having taken half a Dozen of the most serious and knowing Persons for this Purpose, I this Day met with them and the Indians of this Place, (sundry of whom probably could not have been prevail'd upon to attend the Meeting, had it not been for these religious In­dians that accompany'd me here) and preached to them—Some of them who had, in Times past, been extremely averse to Christianity, [Page 117] now behaved soberly, and some others laugh'd and mock'd. However the Word of God fell with such Weight and Power, that sundry seem'd to be stunned, and express'd a willing­ness to hear me again of these Matters.

Afterwards pray'd with, and made an Address to the white People present, and could not but observe some visible Effects of the Word, such as Tears and Sobs, among them.

After publick Worship, spent some Time and took Pains to convince those that mock'd, of the Truth and Importance of what I had been insisting upon; and so endeavour'd to awaken their Attention to divine Truths. And had Reason to think, from what I observ'd then and afterwards, that my Endeavours took consider­able Effect upon one of the worst of them.

Those few Indians then present, who used to be my Hearers in these Parts (some hav­ing remov'd from hence to Crosweeksung) seem'd somewhat kindly dispos'd toward, and glad to see again, altho' they had been so much attack'd by some of the opposing Pagans, that they were almost asham'd or afraid to ma­nifest their Friendship.

Feb. 17. After having spent much Time in discoursing to the Indians in their respective Houses, I got them together, and repeated and inculcated what I had before taught them—

Afterwards discours'd to them from Acts viii. 5—8. A divine Influence seem'd to attend the Word. Sundry of the Indians here appear'd [Page 118] to be somewhat awakened, and manifested a concern of Mind, by their earnest Attention, Tears and Sobs. My People from Crosweek­sung continued with them Day and Night, re­peating and inculcating the Truths I had taught them: And sometimes pray'd and sung Psalmsamong them; discoursing with each other, in their Hearing, of the great Things God had done for them, and for the Indians from whence they came: Which seem'd (as my Peo­ple told me) to take more effect upon them, than when they directed their discourses imme­diately to them.

Feb. 18. Preach'd to an Assembly of Irish People near Fifteen Miles distant from the Indians.

Feb. 19. Preach'd to the Indians again, af­ter having spent considerable Time in conver­sing with them more privately. There ap­pear'd a great Solemnity, and some Concern and Affection among the Indians belonging to these Parts, as well as a sweet melting among those who came with me.—Divers of the Indians here seem'd to have their Prejudices and Aver­sion to Christianity remov'd, and appear'd well disposed and inclined to hear the Word of God.

Feb. 20. Preach'd to a small Assembly of High Dutch People, who had seldom heard the Gospel preach'd, and were (some of them at least) very Ignorant. But have divers of them lately been put upon an Enquiry after the Way of Salvation, with some thoughtfulness.

[Page 119] They gave wonderful Attention, and some of them were much affected under the Word, and afterwards said, (as I was inform'd) that they never had been so much enlighten'd a­bout the Way of Salvation in their whole Lives before. They requested me to tarry with them, or come again and preach to them. And it grieved me that I could not comply with their Request, for I could not but be affected with their Circumstances; they being as Sheep not having a Shepherd, and some of them ap­pearing under some Degree of Soul-Trouble, standing in peculiar need of the Assistance of an experienced spiritual Guide.

Feb. 21. Preach'd to a Number of People, many of them Low-Dutch. Sundry of the fore-mentioned High-Dutch attended the Ser­mon, tho' eight or ten Miles distant from their Houses.—Divers of the Indians also belong­ing to these Parts, came of their own accord with my People (from Crosweeksung) to the Meeting. And there were two in particular, who, the last Sabbath, oppos'd and redicul'd Christianity, that were now present and be­haved soberly. May the present encouraging Appearance continue.

Feb. 22. Preach'd to the Indians. They ap­pear'd more free from Prejudice, and more cor­dial to Christianity than before. And some of them appear'd affected with divine Truths.

LORD'S-DAY, Feb. 23. Preach'd to the Indians from John vi. 35—37.—After publick Service, [Page 120] discours'd particularly with sundry of them, and invited them to go down to Crosweeksung, and tarry there at least for some time; knowing they would then be free from the Scoffs and Temptations of the opposing Pagans, as well as in the Way of hearing divine Truths dis­cours'd of, both in publick and private. And got a Promise of some of them, that they would speedily pay us a Visit, and attend some further Instructions. They seem'd to be con­siderably enlightened, and much freed from their Prejudices against Christianity. But 'tis much to be fear'd their Prejudices will revive again, unless they could enjoy the Means of Instruction here, or be remov'd where they might be under such Advantages, and out of the Way of their Pagan Acquaintance.

Crosweeksung, in New-Jersey, 1745-6.

March 1. Catechiz'd in my ordinary Method. Was pleased and refreshed to see them answer the Questions propos'd to them with such re­markable Readiness, Discretion and Knowledge.

Toward the Close of my discourse, divine Truths made considerable Impressions upon the Audience, and produc'd Tears and Sobs in some under Concern: And more especially a sweet and humble melting in sundry that, I have Reason to hope, were truly gracious.

LORD'S-DAY, March 2. Preach'd from John xv. 1—6.—The Assembly appear'd not so [Page 121] lively in their Attention as usual, nor so much affected with divine Truths in general as has been common.

Some of my People who went up to the Forks of Delaware with me, being now re­turn'd, were accompany'd by two of the In­dians belonging to the Forks, who had pro­mised me a speedy visit. May the Lord meet with them here. They can scarce go into a House now, but they will meet with Christian Conversation, whereby, 'tis hope­ful, they may be both instructed and awaken'd.

Discours'd to the Indians again in the After­noon, and observ'd among them some liveliness and Engagement in divine Service, tho' not equal to what has often appear'd here.

I know of no Assembly of Christians, where there seems to be so much of the Presence of God, where brotherly Love so much prevails, and where I should take so much delight in the publick Worship of God, in the general, as in my own Congregation. Altho' not more than nine Months ago, they were worshiping Devils and dumb Idols under the Power of Pagan Darkness and Superstition! Amazing Change this! effected by nothing less than di­vine Power and Grace! This is the Doing of the Lord, and 'tis justly marvelous in our Eyes!

March 5. Spent some Time just at Evening in prayer, singing and discoursing to my People upon divine Things; and observ'd some agreea­ble Tenderness and Affection among them.

[Page 122] Their present Situation is so compact and commodious, that they are easily and quickly call'd together with only the Sound of a Conk­Shell (a Shell like that of a Perwinkle) So that they have frequent Opportunities of attending religious Exercises publickly; which seems to be a great Means, under God, of keeping a­live the Impressions of divine Things in their Minds.

March 8. Catechiz'd in the Evening. My People answered the Questions propos'd to them well. I can perceive their Knowledge in Religion increases daily.—And what is still more desirable, the divine Influence that has been so remarkable among them, appears still to continue in some good Measure. The di­vine Presence seem'd to be in the Assembly this Evening. Some, who I have good Rea­son to think are Christians indeed, were melted with a sense of the divine Goodness, and their own Barrenness and Ingratitude, and seem'd to hate themselves, as one of them afterwards ex­pressed it.—Convictions also appear'd to be reviv'd in several Instances; and divine Truths were attended with such Influence upon the Assembly in general, that it might justly be call'd, an Evening of divine Power.

LORD'S-DAY, March 9. Preach'd from Luke x. 38—42.—The Word of God was attended with Power and Energy upon the Audience. Numbers were affected and concern'd to obtain the ONE THING NEEDFUL. And sundry that [Page 123] have given good Evidences of being truly gracious, were much affected with a Sense of their want of Spirituality; and saw the need they stood in of growing in Grace. And most that had been under any Impressions of divine Things in Times past, seem'd now to have those Impressions reviv'd.

In the Afternoon propos'd to have catechiz'd in my usual Method. But while we were en­gag'd in the first Prayer in the Indian Language, (as usual) a great part of the Assembly was so much mov'd, and affected with divine Things, that I thought it seasonable and proper to omit the Proposing of Questions for that Time, and insist upon the most practical Truths. And ac­cordingly did so: Making a further Improve­ment of the Passage of Scripture, I discours'd upon in the former Part of the Day.

There appear'd to be a powerful divine In­fluence in the Congregation. Sundry that I have Reason to think are truly pious, were so deeply affected with a sense of their own Bar­renness, and their unworthy Treatment of the blessed Redeemer, that they look'd on him as peirced by themselves, and mourned, yea some of them were in Bitterness as for a first born.—Some poor awakned Sinners also ap­pear'd to be in Anguish of Soul to obtain an Interest in Christ. So that there was a great mourning in the Assembly: Many heavy Groans, Sobs and Tears! And one or two Persons new­ly come among us, were considerably awaken'd.

[Page 124] Methinks it would have refreshed the Heart of any who truly love Zion's Interest, to have been in the midst of this divine Influence, and seen the Effects of it upon Saints and Sinners. The Place of divine Worship appeared both Solemn and Sweet! And was so endear'd by a Display of the divine Presence and Grace, that those who had any relish of divine Things, could not but cry, How amiable are thy Taber­nacks O Lord of Hosts!

After publick Worship was over, Numbers came to my House, where we sang and dis­cours'd of divine Things; and the Presence of God seem'd here also to be in the midst of us.

While we were singing, there was one (the Woman mention'd in my Journal of Feb. 9.) who, I may venture say, if I may be allow'd to say so much of any Person I ever saw, was fill'd with Joy unspeakable and full of Glory, & could not but burst forth in Prayer and Praises to God be­fore us all, with many Tears, crying sometimes in English and sometimes in Indian, O blessed Lord, do come, do come! O do take me away, do let me die and go to Jesus Christ! I am afraid if I live I shall Sin again! O do let me die now! O dear Jesus, do come! I can't stay, I can't stay! O how can I live in this World! Do take my Soul away from this Sinful Place! O let me ne­ver Sin any more! O what shall I do, what shall I do! Dear Jesus, O dear Jesus, &c.—In this Extacy she continued some Time, uttering these and such like Expressions incessantly.— [Page 125] And the grand Argument she used with God to take her away immediately, was, that if she liv'd, she should Sin against him.

When she had a little recovered herself, I ask'd her, if Christ was not now sweet to her Soul? Whereupon, turning to me with Tears in her Eyes, and with all the Tokens of deep Humility I ever saw in any Person, she said, I've many Times heard you speak of the Goodness and the Sweetness of Christ, that he was better than all the World. But O! I knew nothing what you meant, I never believ'd you! I never be­liev'd you! Bat now I know it is true! Or Words to that Effect.—I answered, And do you see enough in Christ for the greatest of Sinners? She replied, O! Enough, enough! For all the Sinners in the World if they would but come. And when I ask'd her, if she could not tell them of the Goodness of Christ; turning herself about to some poor Christless Souls who stood by, and were much affected, she said, O! There's enough in Christ for you, if you would but come! O strive, strive to give up your Hearts to him, &c.—And upon hearing something of the Glory of Heaven mentioned, that there was no Sin in that World, &c. She again fell into the same extasy of Joy, and desire of Christ's coming; repeating her former Expressions, O dear Lord, do let me go! O what shall I do, what shall I do! I want to go to Christ! I can't live! O do let me die, &c.

She continued in this sweet Frame for more [Page 126] than two Hours, before she was well able to get Home.

I am very sensible there may be great Joys arising even to an extacy, where there is still no substantial Evidence of their being well­grounded. But in the present Case there seem'd to be no Evidence wanting, in Order to prove this Joy to be divine, either in Regard of its Preparatives, Attendants, or Consequents.

Of all the Persons I have seen under spiritual Exercise, I scarce ever saw one appear more bow'd and broken under Convictions of Sin and Misery (or what is usually call'd a prepa­ratory Work) than this Woman. Nor scarce a­ny who seem'd to have a greater Acquaintance with her own Heart than the had. She would frequently complain to me of the Hardness and Rebellion of her Heart. Would tell me, her Heart rose and quarrel'd with God, when she thought he would do with her as he pleased, and send her to Hell notwithstanding her Pray­ers, good Frames, &c. That her Heart was not willing to come to Christ for Salvation, but tried every where else for Help.

And as she seem'd to be remarkably sensible of her Stubbornness and Contrariety to God, under Conviction, so she appear'd to be no less remarka­bly bow'd and reconcil'd to divine Sovereignty be­fore she obtain'd any Relief or Comfort. Some­thing of which I have before noticed in my Jour­nal of Feb. 9. Since which time she has seem'd constantly to breath the Spirit and Temper of [Page 127] the new Creature: Crying after Christ, not thro' fear of Hell as before, but with strong Desires after him as her only satisfying Portion. And has many Times wept and sob'd bitterly, because (as she apprehended) she did not and could not love him.—When I have sometimes ask'd her, Why she appear'd so sorrowful, and whether it was because she was afraid of Hell? She would answer, No, I ben't distress'd about that; but my Heart is so wicked I can't love Christ; and thereupon burst out into Tears.—But altho' this has been the habitual Frame of her Mind for several Weeks together, so that the Exercise of Grace appear'd evident to others, yet she seem'd wholly insensible of it herself, and never had any remarkable Com­fort, and sensible Satisfaction till this Evening.

This sweet and surprising Extacy, appear'd to spring from a true spiritual Discovery of the Glory, ravishing Beauty and Excellency of Christ: And not from any gross imaginary No­tions of his human Nature; such as that of see­ing him in such a Place or Posture, as hanging on the Cross, as bleeding, dying, as gently smiling, and the like; which Delusions some have been carried away with. Nor did it rise from a sordid selfish Apprehension of her having any Benefit whatsoever conferred on her, but from a View of his personal Excellency, and tran­scendant Loveliness, which drew forth those vehement Desires of enjoying him she now ma­nifested, and made her long to be absent from [Page 128] the Body, that she might be present with the Lord,

The Attendants of this ravishing Comfort, were such as abundantly discover'd its Spring to be divine, and that 'twas truly a Joy in the Holy Ghost.—Now she view'd divine Truths as living Realities; and could say, I know these Things are so, I feel they are true!—Now her Soul was resign'd to the divine Will in the most tender Points; so that when I said to her, What if God should take away your * Husband from you, (who was then very sick) how do you think you could bear that? She replied, He belongs to God, and not me, he may do with him just what he pleases!—Now she had the most tender Sense of the Evil of Sin, and discovered the utmost Aversion to it; long­ing to die that she might be delivered from it.—Now she could freely trust her all with God for Time and Eternity. And when I quered with her, how she could be willing to die and leave her little Infant, and what she thought would become of it in Case she should? She answer'd, God will take care of it. It belongs to him, he will take care of it.

Now she appear'd to have the most humbling Sense of her own Meanness and Unworthiness, her Weakness and Inability to preserve herself from Sin, and to persevere in the Way of Ho­liness, crying, If I live, I shall Sin. And I [Page 129] then thought I had never seen such an appea­rance of Extasy and Humility meeting in any one Person in all my Life before.

The Consequents of this Joy are no less desi­rable and Satisfactory than its Attendants. She since appears to be a most tender, broken-heart­ed, affectionate, devout, and humble Chris­tian, as exemplary in Life and Conversation as any Person in my Congregation. May she still grow in Grace and in the Knowledge of Christ.

March 10. Toward Night the Indians met together of their own accord and sang, pray'd, and discours'd of divine Things among them­selves. At which Time there was much Affec­tion among them. Some who are hopefully gracious, appear'd to be melted with divine Things. And some others seem'd much con­cern'd for their Souls.—Perceiving their En­gagement, and Affection in religious Exercises I went among them, and pray'd and gave a Word of Exhortation; and observ'd two or three somewhat affected and concern'd, who scarce ever appear'd to be under any religious Impressions before. It seem'd to be a Day and Evening of divine Power. Numbers retained the warm Impressions of divine Things that had been made upon their Minds the Day be­fore.

March 14. Was visited by a considerable Number of my People, and spent some Time in religions Exercises with them.

March 15. In the Evening Catechiz'd. [Page 130] My People answer'd the Questions put to them with surprizing Readiness and Judgment. There appeared some warmth and feeling Sense of divine Things among those, I have reason to hope, are real Christians, while I was discours­ing upon Peace of Conscience and Joy in the Holy­Ghost. These seem'd quickned and enliven'd in divine Service, tho' there was not so much ap­pearance of Concern among those I have Reason to think in a Christless State.

LORD'S-DAY, March 16. Preach'd to my Congregation from Heb. ii. 1—3. Divine Truths seem'd to have some considerable Influence upon many of the Hearers; and produc'd many Tears, as well as heavy Sighs and Sobs among both those who have given Evidences of being [...] Christians and others also. And the Im­pressions made upon the Audience, appeared in general deep and Heart affecting, not superficial, noisy and affected.

Toward Night discours'd again on the great Salvation. The Word was again attended with some Power upon the Audience. Num­bers wept affectionately, and, to appearance, unseignealy; so that the Spirit of God seem'd to be moving upon the Face of the Assembly.

Baptiz'd the Woman particularly mentioned in my Journal of last Lord's Day; who now, as well as then, appear'd to be in a devout, hum­ble and excellent Frame of Mind.

My House being throng'd with my People in the Evening, I spent the Time in religious [Page 131] Exercises with them, till my Nature was almost spent.—They are so unwearied in religious Exercises and unsatiable in their Thirsting after CHRISTIAN KNOWLEDGE that I can some­times scarce avoid labouring so, as greatly to exhaust my Strength and Spirits.

March 19. Sundry of the Persons that went with me to the Forks of Delaware in February last, having been detain'd there by the danger­ous Illness of one of their Company, return'd Home but this Day. Whereupon my People generally met together of their own Accord in order to spend some time in religious Exer­cises; and in special to give Thanks to God for his preserving Goodness to those who had been absent from them for several Weeks; and recovering Mercy to him that had been sick, and that he had now return'd them all in Safety. I being then absent, they desir'd my School­master to assist them in carrying on their religi­ous Solemnity; who tells me they appear'd engaged and Affectionate in repeated Prayer, singing, &c.

March 22. Catechiz'd in my usual Method in the Evening.—My People answer'd Questi­ons to my great Satisfaction. There appear'd nothing very remarkable in the Assembly, con­sidering what has been common among us. Al­tho' I may justly say, the strict Attention, the Tenderness and Affection, the many Tears, and Heart affecting Sobs appearing in Numbers in the Assembly would have been very remark­able, [Page 132] were it not that God has made these Things common with us, and even with Strangers soon after their coming among us, from time to time. Altho' I am far from thinking that every Ap­pearance, and particular Instance of Affection, that has been among us, has been truly genuine, and purity from a divine Influence. I am sensible of the Contrary. And doubt not, but that there has been some corrupt Mixtures, some Chaff as well as Wheat, especially since religious Concern became so common and preva­lent here.

LORD'S-DAY, March 23. There being a­bout Fifteen Strangers, adult Persons, come among us in the Week past; divers of whom had never been in any religious Meeting till now, I thought it proper to discourse this Day in a Manner peculiarly suited to their Circum­stances and Capacities: And accordingly attemp­ted it from Hosea 13. 9. In the Forenoon open­ing in the plainest Manney I could, Man's Apostacy and ruin'd State. After having spo­ken some Things respecting the Being and Per­fections of God and his Creation of Man in a State of Uprightness and Happiness. In the Afternoon; endeavoured to open the glorious Provision God has made for the Redemption of Apostate Creatures, by giving his own dear Son to suffer for them, and satisfie divine Justice on their behalf.

There was not that Affection and Concern in [Page 133] the Assembly that has been common among us, altho' there was a desirable Attention appear­ing in general, and even in general, and even in most of the Stran­gers.

Near Sun-set I felt an uncommon Concern upon my Mind, especially for the poor Strangers, that God had so much withheld his Presence, and the powerful Influence of his Spirit, from the Assembly in the Exercises of the Days, and thereby denied them of that Matter of Conviction which I hop'd they might have had. And in this Frame I visited sundry Houses and discours'd with some Concern and Affection to divers Persons particularly; but without much appearance of Success, till I came to a House where divers of the Strangers were; and there the solemn Truths I discours'd of appeared to take Effect, first upon some Children, then upon divers adult Persons that had been somewhat a­waken'd before, and afterwards upon several of the Pagan Strangers.

I continued my Discourse, with some Fer­vency, till almost every one in the House was melted into Tears; and divers wept aloud, and appear'd earnestly concern'd to obtain an Interest in Christ—Upon this, Numbers soon gather'd from all the Houses round about, and so throug'd the Place that we were oblig'd to remove to the House where we usually meet for publick Worship. And the Congregation gathering im­mediately, and many appearing remarkably af­fected, I discours'd some Time from Luk. xix. 10 [Page 134] Endeavouring to open the Mercy, Compassion and Concern of Christ for lost, helpless, and un­done Sinners.

There was much visible Concern and Affec­tion in the Assembly; and I doubt not but that a divine Influence accompanied what was spoken to the Hearts of many. There were five or six of the Strangers (Men and Women) who appear'd to be considerable awakened. And in particular one very rugged young Man, who seem'd as if nothing would move him, was now brought to tremble like the Jaylor and weep for a long Time.

The Pagans that were awakened seem'd at once to put off their Savage Roughness and Pagan Manners, and became sociable, orderly and humane in their Carriage. When they first came, I exhorted my religious People to take Pains with them (as they had done with other Strangers from time to time) to instruct them in Christianity. But when some of them at­tempted something of that Nature, the Stran­gers would soon rise up and walk to other Houses, in Order to avoid the Hearing of such Dis­courses. Whereupon some of the serious Per­sons agreed to disperse themselves into the se­veral Parts of the Settlement. So that where­ever the Strangers went, they met with some instructive Discourse, and warm Addresses re­specting their Souls Concern.—But now there was no need of using Policy in order to get an Oppertunity of conversing with some of them [Page 135] about their spiritual Concerns; for they were so far touch'd with a Sense of their perish­ing State, as made them tamely yield to the closest Addresses that were made them, respect­ing their Sin and Misery, their need of an Ac­quaintance with, and Interest in the great Re­deemer.

March 24. Number'd the Indians to see how many Souls God had gather'd together here, since my coming into these Parts, and found there was now about an Hundred and Thirty Persons together, old and young. Sundry of those that are my stated Hearers, perhaps to the Number of Fifteen or Twenty, were absent at this Season. So that if all had been toge­ther, the Number would now have been very considerable; especially considering how few were together at my first coming into these Parts, the whole Number not amounting to Ten Persons at that time.

My People going out this Day upon the De­sign of clearing some of their Lands above fifteen Miles distant from this Settlement, in Order to their settling there in a compact Form, where they might be under Advantages of at­tending the publick Worship of God, of hav­ing their Children Schooled, and at the same Time have a conveniency for Planting, &c. Their Land in the Place of our present Resi­dence being of little or no value for that Pur­pose. And the Design of their settling thus in a Body, and cultivating their Lands (which [Page 136] they have done very little at in their Pagan State) being of such necessity and Importance to their religious Interest, as well as worldly Comfort, I thought it proper to call them to­gether, and shew them the Duty of labouring with Faithfulness and Industry; and that they must not now be slothful in Business, as they had ever been in their Pagan State. And endea­vour'd to press the Importance of their being laborious, diligent and vigorous in the Prosecu­tion of their Business, especially at the present Juncture, (the Season of Planting being now near) in order to their being in a Capacity of living together, and enjoying the Means of Grace and Instruction. And having given them Directions for their Work, (which they very much wanted) as well as for their Behaviour in divers Respects, I explained, song, and en­deavoured to inculcate upon them Psalm cxxvii. common Metre, Dr. Watts's Version. And hav­ing recommended them, and the Design of their going forth, to God, by Prayer with them, I dismissed them to their Business.

In the Evening read and expounded to my People (those of them who were yet at Home, and the Strangers newly come) the Substance of the third Chapter of the Acts. Numbers seem'd to melt under the Word, especially while I was discoursing upon u. v. 19. Sundry of the Strangers also were affected.—When I ask'd them afterwards, whether they did not now feel that their Hearts were wicked, as I [Page 137] had taught them? One replied, Yes, she felt it now. Altho' before she came here (upon hear­ing that I taught the Indians their Hearts were all bad by Nature, and needed to be changed and made good by the Power of God) She had said, Her Heart was not wicked, and she never had done any Thing that was bad in her Life. And this indeed seems to be the Case with them, I think, universally in their Pagan-State.

They seem to have no Conciousness of Sin and Guilt, unless they can charge themselves with some gross Acts of Sin contrary to the Commands of the Second Table.

March 27. Discours'd to a Number of my People in one of their Houses in a more private Manner. Enquired particularly into their spi­ritual States, in Order to see what Impressions of a religious Nature, they were under. Laid before them the Marks and Tokens of a rege­nerate, as well as unregenerate State: And en­deavoured to suit and direct my Discourse to them severally according as I apprehended their States to be.

There was a considerable Number gather'd together, before I finish'd my Discourse; and divers seem'd much affected, while I was urg­ing the Necessity and infinite Importance of getting into a renew'd State.—I find particu­lar and close Dealing with Souls in private, is often very successful.

March 29. In the Evening catechiz'd as u­sual upon Saturday—Treated upon the Benefits [Page 138] which Believers receive from Christ at Death—The Questions were answered with great Rea­diness and Propriety. And those who, I have Reason to think, are the dear People of God, were sweetly melted almost in general. There appear'd such a Liveliness and Vigour in their Attendance upon the Word of God, and such Eagerness to be made Partakers of the Benefits then mentioned, that they seem'd to be not only looking for, but hasting to the coming of the Day of God. Divine Truths seem'd to until upon the Audience with a gentle, but melting Ef­ficacy, as the refreshing Showers upon the new grown Grass. The Assembly in general, as well as those who appear truly religious, were affect­ed with some brief Account of the Blessedness of the Godly at Death: And most then dis­covered an affectionate Inclination to cry, Let me die the Death of the Righteous, &c. Altho' many were not duly engag'd to obtain the Change of Heart that is necessary in Order to that blessed End.

LORD'S-DAY, March 30. Discoursed from Matt. xxv. 31—40. There was a very consi­derable moving and affectionate melting in the Assembly. I hope there were some real, deep and abiding Impressions of divine Things made upon the Minds of many.—There was one a­ged Man newly come among us, who appear'd to be considerably awakened, that never was touch'd with any Concern for this Soul be­fore.

[Page 139] In the Evening catechiz'd. There was not that Tenderness and melting Engagement a­mong God's People that appeared the Evening before, and at many other Times. Altho' they answer'd the Questions distinctly and well, and were devout and attentive in divine Service.

March 31. Call'd my People together, as I had done the Monday Morning before, and discours'd to them again on the Necessity and Importance of their labouring industriously, in order to their living together and enjoying the Means of Grace, &c. And having engag'd in solemn Prayer to God among them, for a Blessing upon their Attempts, I dismissed them to their Work.

Numbers of them (both Men and Women) seem'd to offer themselves willingly to this Service; and some appear'd affectionately con­cern'd that God might go with them, and begin their little Town for them; that by his Blessing it might be a Place comfortable for them and theirs, in regard both of procuring the Neces­saries of Life, and of attending the Worship of God.

April 5. 1746. Catechiz'd towards Evening. There appear'd to be some Affection and ser­vent Engagement in divine Service thro' the Assembly in general; especially towards the Conclusion of my Discourse.

After publick Worship, a Number of those I have Reason to think are truly religi­ous, came to my House and seem'd eager [Page 140] of some further Entertainment upon divine Things. And while I was conversing with them about their spiritual Exercises, observing to them, that God's Work in the Hearts of all his Children, was, for Substance, the same; and that their Trials and Temptations were also alike; and shewing the Obligations such were under to love one another in a peculiar Manner, they seem'd to be melted into Tenderness and Affection toward each other: And I thought that particular Token of their being the Dis­ciples of CHRIST, viz. of their having Love one toward another, had scarce ever appear'd more evident than at this Time.

LORD'S-DAY, April 6. Preach'd from Matt. vii. 21—23.—There were considerable Effects of the Word visible in the Audience, and such as were very desirable: An earnest Attention, a great Solemnity, many Tears and heavy Sighs, which were modestly suppressed in a considerable Measure, and appear'd unaffected and without any indecent Commotion of the Passions. Di­vers of the religious People were put upon se­rious and close Examination of their spiritual States, by hearing that not every one that saith to Christ, Lord, Lord, shall enter into his King­dom. And some of them expressed Fears least they had deceived themselves and taken up a false Hope, because they found they had done so little of the Will of his Father who is in Heaven.

There was also one Man brought under very [Page 141] great and pressing Concern for his Soul; which appear'd more especially after his Retirement from publick Worship. And that which, he says, gave him his great Uneasiness, was, not so much any particular Sin, as that he had ne­ver done the Will of God at all, but had sin­ned continually, and so had no claim to the Kingdom of Heaven.

In the Afternoon I open'd to them the Dis­cipline of Christ in his Church, and the Method in which Offenders are to be dealt with. At which Time the religious People were much af­fected, especially when they heard, that the Offender continuing obstinate, must finally be esteemed and treated as an Heathen-Man, as a Pagan that has no Part nor Lot among God's visible People. This they seem'd to have the most awful Apprehensions of: A State of Heathenism, out of which they were so lately brought, appearing very dreadful to them.

After publick Worship I visited sundry Houses to see how they spent the remainder of the Sabbath, and to treat with them solemnly on the great Concerns of their Souls: And the Lord seem'd to smile upon my private Endea­vours, and to make these particular and personal Addresses more effectual upon some, than my publick Discourses.

April 7. Discours'd to my People at Even­ing from 1 Cor. xi. 23—26. And endeavour­ed to open to them the Institution, Nature and Ends of the Lord's-Supper, as well as the Qua­lifications [Page 142] and Preparations necessary to the right Participation of that Ordinance.—Sun­dry Persons appeared much affected with the Love of Christ manifested in his making this Provision for the Comfort of his People, at a Season when himself was just entering upon his sharpest Sufferings.

LORD'S-DAY, April 20. Discours'd both Forenoon and Afternoon from Luke xxiv. Ex­plaining most of the Chapter, and making re­marks upon it. There was a desirable Atten­tion in the Audience, tho' there was not so much appearance of Affection and Tenderness among them as has been usual.—Our Meeting was very full, there being sundry Strangers present who had never been with us before.

In the Evening catechiz'd. My People an­swered the Questions propos'd to them, readi­ly and distinctly; and I could perceive they advanced in their Knowledge of the Principles of Christianity.

There appear'd an affectionate melting in the Assembly at this Time. Sundry who, I trust, are truly religious, were refreshed and quick­ened, and seem'd, by their Discourse and Be­haviour after publick Worship, to have their Hearts knit together in Love.—This was a sweet and blessed Season, like many others, that my poor People have been favour'd with in Months past! God has caused this little Fleece to be repeatedly wet with the blessed Dews [Page 143] of his divine Grace, while all the Earth around has been comparatively dry.

April 25. Having of late apprehended that a Number of Persons in my Congregation, were proper Subjects of the Ordinance of the Lord's Supper, and that it might be Seasonable speedi­ly to administer it to them: And having taken Advice of some of the Reverend Corre­spondents in this solemn Affair; and according­ly having proposed and appointed the next Lord's-Day (with leave of divine Providence) for the Administration of this Ordinance, this Day, as preparatory thereto, was set apart for solemn Fasting and Prayer, to implore the Blessing of God upon our Design of renewing Covenant with him, and with one another, to walk together in the Fear of God, in Love and Christian-Fellowship; and to intreat that his divine Presence might be with us in our de­signed approach to his Table; as well as to humble ourselves before God on Account of the apparent withdrawment (at least in a Measure) of that blessed Influence that has been so prevalent upon Persons of all Ages a­mong us: As also on Account of the rising Ap­pearance of Carelesness, Vanity and Vice a­mong some, who, sometime since, appeared to be touch'd and affected with divine Truths, and brought to some sensibility of their mi­serable and perishing State by Nature. And that we might also importunately pray for the peaceable Settlement of the Indians together [Page 144] in a Body, that they might be a commodious Congregation for the Worship of God; and that God would blast and defeat all the At­tempts that were or might be made against that pious Design. *

The Solemnity was observed and seriously attended, not only by those who proposed to communicate at the Lord's Table, but by the whole Congregation universally.—In the for­mer Part of the Day, I endeavour'd to open to my People the Nature and Design of a Fast, as I had attempted more briefly to do be­fore, and to instruct them in the Duties of such a Solemnity.—In the Afternoon, I insisted upon the special Reasons there were for our engaging in these solemn Exercises at this Time; both in Regard of the Need we stood in of divine Assistance, in order to a due Pre­paration for that sacred Ordinance we were some of us proposing (with leave of divine Providence) speedily to attend upon: And al­so in respect of the manifest Decline of God's Work here, as to the effectual Conviction and Conversion of Sinners, there having been few of late deeply awakened out of a State of Security.

[Page 145] The Worship of God was attended with great Solemnity and Reverence, with much Tenderness and many Tears, by those who appear to be truly religious: And there was some appearance of divine Power upon those who had been awakened some Time before, and who were still under Concern.

After repeated Prayer and Attendance upon the Word of God, I proposed to the religious People, with as much Brevity and Plainness as I could, the Substance of the Doctrine of the Christian Faith, as I had formerly done, pre­vious to their Baptism, and had their renewed chearful Assent to it.—I then led them to a solemn renewal of their baptismal Covenant, where in they had explicitly and publickly given up themselves to God, the Father, Son and Holy-Ghost, avouching him to be their God; and at the same Time renouncing their Hea­thenish Vanities, their idolatrous and superstitious Practices, and solemnly engaging to take the Word of God, so far as it was, or might be made known to them, for the Rule of their Lives, promising to walk together in love, to watch over themselves, and one another; to lead Lives of Seriousness and Devotion, and to discharge the relative Duties incumbent upon them re­spectively, &c.

This solemn Transaction was attended with much Gravity and Seriousness: And at the same Time with utmost Readiness, Freedom, and Chearfulness; and a religious Union and [Page 146] Harmony of Soul, seem'd to crown the whole Solemnity. I could not but think in the E­vening, that there had been manifest Tokens of the divine Presence with us in all the several Services of the Day; tho' it was also manifest there was not that Concern among Christless Souls that has often appeared here.

April 26. Toward Noon pray'd with a dying Child, and gave a Word of Exhortation to the By-standers to prepare for Death, which seem'd to take Effect upon some.

In the Afternoon discours'd to my People from Matt. xxvi. 26—30. Of the Author, the Nature and Design of the Lord's-Supper; and endeavoured to point out the worthy Receivers of that Ordinance.

The religious People were affected and even melted with divine Truths,—with a View of the dying Love of Christ. Sundry others who had been for some Months under Convictions of their perishing State, appear'd now to be much mov'd with Concern, and afresh engag'd in seeking after an Interest in Christ; altho' I can't say, the Word of God appeared so quick and powerful, so sharp and piercing to the Assembly as it had sometimes formerly done.

Baptiz'd two adult Persons, both serious and exemplary in their Lives, and, I hope, truly religious. One of them was the Man particu­larly mentioned in my Journal of the 6th Inst. who altho' he was then greatly distress'd, be­cause he had never done the Will of God, has [Page 147] since ('tis hopeful) obtain'd spiritual Comfort upon good Grounds.

In the Evening I catechiz'd those that were design'd to partake of the Lord's-Supper the next Day, upon the Institution, Nature and End of that Ordinance; and had abundant Sa­tisfaction respecting their doctrinal Knowledge and Fitness in that Respect for an Attendance upon it. They likewise appear'd, in general, to have an affecting Sense of the Solemnity of this sacred Ordinance, and to be humbled un­der a Sense of their own Unworthiness to ap­proach to God in it, and to be earnestly con­cern'd that they might be duly prepar'd for an Attendance upon it. Their Hearts were full of Love one toward another, and that was the Frame of Mind they seem'd much concern'd to maintain, & bring to the Lord's Table with them.

In singing and prayer, after catechizing, there appear'd an agreeable Tenderness and Melting among them, and such Tokens of bro­therly Love and Affection, that would even constrain one to say, Lord, 'tis good to be here; 'tis good to dwell where such an heavenly In­fluence distills!

LORD'S-DAY, April 27. Preach'd from Tit. ii. 14. Who gave himself for us, &c.—The Word of God at this Time was attended with some Appearance of divine Power upon the Assembly; so that the Attention and Gra­vity of the Audience was remarkable; and [Page 148] especially towards the Conclusion of the Exer­cise divers Persons were much affected.

Administred the Sacrament of the Lord's-Supper to Twenty three Persons of the Indians, (the Number of Men and Women being near e­qual) divers others, to the Number of five or six, being now absent at the Forks of Delaware, who would otherwise have communicated with us.

The Ordinance was attended with great So­lemnity, and with a most desirable Tenderness and Affection. And 'twas remarkable that in the Season of the Performance of the Sacra­mental Actions, especially in the Distribution of the Bread, they seem'd to be affected in a most lively Manner, as if Christ had been really crucified before them. And the Words of the Institution when repeated and enlarged upon in the Season of the Administration, seem'd to meet with the same Reception, to be entertain'd with the same full and firm Belief and affecti­onate Engagement of Soul, as if the Lord Jesus Christ himself had been present, and had per­sonally spoken to them.

The Affections of the Communicants, altho' considerably raised, were not withstanding agree­ably regulated, and kept within proper Bounds. So that there was a sweet, gentle and affecti­nate melting, without any indecent or boistrous Commotion of the Passions.

Having rested some Time after the Admi­nistration of the Sacrament (being extremely tired with the necessary Prolixity of the Work) [Page 149] I walk'd from House to House, and conversed particularly with most of the Communicants, and found they had been almost universally refreshed at the Lord's-Table as with new Wine. And never did I see such an Appearance of Christian Love among any People in all my Life. It was so remarkable, that one might well have cried with an agreeable Surprize, Behold how they love one another! I think there could be no greater Tokens of mutual Affection a­mong the People of God in the early Days of Christianity, than what now appear'd here. The Sight was so desirable, and so well becom­ing the Gospel, that nothing less could be said of it, than that it was the Doing of the Lord, the genuine Operations of him who is Love!

Toward Night discours'd again on the fore­mention'd Tit. ii. 14. and insisted on the im­mediate End and Design of Christ's Death, viz. That he might redeem his People from all Ini­quity, &c.

This appear'd to be a Season of divine Power among us. The religious People were much refreshed, and seem'd remarkably tender and affectionate, full of Love, Joy, Peace and De­sires of being compleatly redeem'd from all Ini­quity; so that some of them afterwards told me, they had never felt the like before.—Con­victions also appear'd to be reviv'd in many In­stances; and divers Persons were awakened whom I had never observ'd under any religious Impressions before.

[Page 150] Such was the Influence that attended our As­sembly, and so unspeakably desirable the Frame of Mind that many enjoy'd in the divine Ser­vice, that it seem'd almost grievous to con­clude the publick Worship. And the Con­gregation when dismiss'd, altho' it was then al­most dark, appear'd loth to leave the Place and Employments that had been render'd so dear to them by the Benefits enjoy'd, while a bles­sed quickening Influence distill'd upon them.

And upon the whole, I must say, I had great Satisfaction with Relation to the Administra­tion of this Ordinance in divers Respects. I have abundant Reason to think, that those who came to the Lord's Table, had a good Degree of doctrinal Knowledge of the Nature and De­sign of the Ordinance; and that they acted un­derstandingly in what they did.

In the preparatory Services I found (I may justly say) uncommon Fredom in opening to their Understandings and Capacities, the Cove­nant of Grace, and in shewing them the Nature of this Ordinance as a Seal of that Covenant. Altho' many of them knew of no such Thing as a Scal before my coming among them, or at least of the Use and Design of it in the com­mon Affairs of Life—They were likewise thoroughly sensible that 'twas no more than a Seal or Sign, and not the real Body and Blood of Christ—That 'twas design'd for the Refresh­ment and Edification of the Soul, and not for the feasting of the Body.—They were also [Page 151] acquainted with the End of the Ordinance, that they were therein call'd to commemorate the dying Love of Christ, &c.

And this Competency of doctrinal Know­ledge, together with their grave and decent attendance upon the Ordinance; their af­fectionate melting under it; and the sweet and christian Frame of Mind they discovered con­sequent upon it, gave me great Satisfaction re­specting my Administration of it to them.

And O what a sweet and blessed Season was this! God himself, I'm persuaded, was in the midst of his People! attending his own Ordi­nances! And I doubt not but many in the Con­clusion of the Day, could say, with their whole Hearts, verily a Day thus spent in God's House, is better than a Thousand elsewhere. There seem'd to be but one Heart among the pious People! The sweet Union, Harmony and en­dearing Love and Tenderness subsisting among them, was (I thought) the most lively Em­blem of the heavenly World, I had ever seen.

April 28. Concluded the Sacramental So­lemnity with a Discourse upon John xiv. 15. If ye love me, keep my Commadments. At which Time there appeared a very agreeable Tender­ness in the Audience in general, but especially in the Communicants.—O how free, how en­gag'd and affectionate did these appear in the Service of God: They seem'd willing to have their Ears bored to the Door-Posts of God's House, and to be his Servants forever.

[Page 152] Observing Numbers in this excellent Frame, and the Assembly in general affected and that by a divine Influence, I thought it proper to improve this advantagious Season, as Hezekiah did the desirable Season of his great Passover, (2 Chron. xxxi.) in Order to promote the blessed Reformation begun among them; and to engage those that appear serious and religious, to persevere therein; and accordingly propos'd to them, that they should renewedly enter into Covenant before God, that they would watch over themselves and one another, least they should dishonour the Name of Christ by falling into sinful and unbecoming Practices. And e­specially that they would watch against the Sin of Drunkenness, (the Sin that easily be­sets them) and the Temptations leading thereto; as well as the Appearance of Evil in that Re­spect.—They chearfully complied with the Proposal, and explicitly joyn'd in that Covenant. Whereupon I proceeded in the most solemn Manner I was capable of, to call God to Witness respecting their sacred Engagement; and mind­ed them of the greatness of the Guilt they would contract to themselves in the Violation of it; as well as observed to them, that God would be a terrible Wittness against those who should presume to do so, in the great and notable Day of the Lord.

It was a Season of amazing Solemnity! And a divine Awe appeared upon the Face of the whole Assembly in this Transaction! Affection­ate [Page 153] Sobs, Sighs and Tears, were now frequent in the Audience: And I doubt not but that many silent Cries were then sent up to the Fountain of Grace, for supplies of Grace suffici­ent for the fullfilment of these solemn En­gagements.

Baptiz'd six Children this Day.

LORD'S-DAY, May 4. My People being now remov'd to their Lands, mention'd in my Jour­nal of March 24. Where they were then, and have since been making Provision for a compact Settlement, in Order to their more convenient Enjoyment of the Gospel, and other Means of Instruction, as well as the Comforts of Life: I this Day visited them (being now obliged to board with an English Family at some Distance from them) and preach'd to them in the Fore­noon from Mark iv. 5. Endeavoured to shew them the Reason there was to fear left many pro­mising Appearances and hopeful Beginnings in Religion, might prove abortive, like the Seed dropp'd upon stony Places.

In the Afternoon discours'd upon Rom viii. 9: Now if any Man have not the Spirit of Christ, he is none of his.—I have Reason to think this Discourse was peculiarly Seasonable, and that it had a good Effect upon some of the Hearers.

Spent some Hours afterwards in private Con­ferences with my People, and labour'd to re­gulate some Things I apprehended amiss among some of them.

[Page 154] May 5. Visited my People again, and took Care of their worldly Concerns, giving them Directions relating to their Business.

I daily discover more and more of what Im­portance 'tis like to be to their religious Inte­rests, that they become laborious and industri­ous, acquainted with the Affairs of Husbandry, and able, in a good Measure, to raise the Ne­cessaries and Comforts of Life within themselves; for their present Method of living greatly ex­poses them to Temptations of various Kinds.

May 9. Preach'd from John v. 40. in the open Wilderness; the Indians having as yet no House for publick Worship in this Place, nor scarce any Shelters for themselves.—Divine Truths made considerable Impressions upon the Audi­ence, and it was a Season of Solemnity, Ten­derness and Affection.

Baptiz'd one Man this Day (the Conjurer, Murderer, &c. mention'd in my Journal of August 8. 1745. and February 1. 1745-6) who appears to be such a remarkable Instance of di­vine Grace, that I can't omit some brief Ac­count of him here.

He liv'd near, and sometimes attended my Meeting in the Forks of Delaware for more than a Year together; but was (like many o­thers of them) extremely attach'd to strong Drink, and seem'd to be no ways reformed by the Means I used with them for their Instruc­tion and Conversion. In this Time he like­wise murder'd a likely young Indian, which [Page 155] threw him into some kind of Horror and Des­paration, so that he kept at a Distance from me, and refused to hear me preach for several Months together (as I noted in a former Jour­nal of March 4. 1744-5) till I'd had an Oppor­tunity of conversing freely with him; and gi­ving him Encouragement, that his Sim might be forgiven for Christ Sake. After which he again attended my Meeting at some Times.

But that which was the worst of all his Con­duct, was his Conjuration. He was one of them who are sometimes call'd Powwows among the Indians: And not withstanding his frequent at­tendance upon my Preaching, he still followed his old Charms and juggling Tricks, giving out that himself was some great One, and to him they gave heed, supposing him to be possessed of a great Power. So that when I have instructed them respecting the Miracles wrought by Christ in healing the Sick, &c. and mention'd them as Evidences of his divine Mission, and the Truth of his Doctrines, they have quickly observ'd the Wonders of that Kind which this Man had perform'd by his Magick Charms: Whence they had a high Opinion of him and his superstitious No­tions, which seem'd to be a fatal Obstruction to some of them in Regard of their receiving the Gospel. And I have often thought, 'twould be a great Favour to the Design of Gospellizing the Indians, if God would take that Wretch out of the World; for I had scarce any hope of his ever coming to Good: But God, whose [Page 156] Thoughts are not as Man's Thoughts, has been pleased to take a much more desirable Method with him: A Method agreeable to his own mer­ciful Nature, and, I trust, advantagious to his own Interest among the Indians, as well as ef­fectual to the Salvation of the poor Soul him­self. And to him [...] the Glory of it.

The first genuine Concern for his Soul that ever appear'd in him, was excited by seeing my Interpreter and his Wife Baptiz'd at the Forks of Delaware, July 21. 1745. Which so pre­vail'd upon him, that, with the Invitation of an Indian who was a Friend to Christianity, he follow'd me down to Crosweeksung in the Begin­ning of August following, in Order to hear me preach, and there continued for several Weeks, in the Season of the most remarkable and power­ful Awakening among the Indians; at which Time he was more effectually awakened, and brought under great Concern for his Soul: And then, he says, upon his feeling the Word of God in his Heart, (as he expresses it) his Spirit of Conjuration left him intirely, that he has had no more Power of that Nature since, than any other Man living. And declares that he dont now so much as know how he us'd to charm and conjure; and that he could not do any Thing of that Nature if he was never so de­sirous of it.

He continued under Convictions of his sinful and perishing State, and a considerable Degree of Concern for his Soul, all the Fall and former [Page 157] part of the Winter past, but was not so deeply exercis'd till sometime in January; and then the Word of God took such hold upon him, that he was brought into great Distress, and knew not what to do, nor where to turn himself.—He then told me, that when he us'd to hear me preach from time to time in the Fall of the Year, my preaching prick'd his Heart and made him very uneasy, but did not bring him to so great Distress, because he still hop'd he could do something for his own Relief: But now, he said, I drave him up into such a sharp Corner, that he had no Way to turn, and could not a­void being in Distress

He continued constantly under the heavy Burden and Pressure of a wounded Spirit, till at length he was brought into the accute Anguish and utmost Agony of Soul, mention'd in my Jour­nal of February 1st. which continued that Night and part of the next Day.

After this, he was brought to the utmost calmness and composure of Mind, his trembling and heavy Burden were remov'd, and he ap­pear'd perfectly Sedate; altho' he had, to his Apprehensions, scarce any hope of Salvation.

I observ'd him to appear remarkably com­poss'd, and thereupon ask'd him how he did? He replied, 'Tis done, 'tis done, 'tis all done now. I ask'd him what he meant? He an­swer'd, I can never do any more to save myself, 'tis all done forever, I can do no more. I queried with him whether he could not do a little more [Page 158] rather than to go to Hell. He reply'd, My Heart is dead, I can never help myself. I ask'd him, what he thought would become of him then? He answer'd, I must go to Hell. I ask'd him, if he thought 'twas right that God should send him to Hell? He reply'd, O 'tis right. The Devil has been in me ever since I was born. I ask'd him, if he felt this when he was in such great Distress the Evening before? He answer'd, No, I did not then think it was right. I thought God would send me to Hell, and that I was then dropping into it, but my Heart quar­rell'd with God and would not say 'twas right he should send me there. But now I know 'tis right, for I've always served the Devil, and my Heart has no Goodness in it now, but is as bad as ever it was, &c.—I thought I had scarce ever seen any Person more effectually brought off from a Dependance upon his own Contrivances and Endeavours for Salvation, or more appa­rently to lie at the Foot of Sovereign Mercy than this Man now did under these Views of Things.

In this Frame of Mind he continued for se­veral Days, passing Sentence of Condemnation upon himself, and constantly owning, that 'twould be right he should be damn'd, and that he expected this would be his Portion for the Greatness of his Sins. And yet 'twas plain he had a secret Hope of Mercy, tho' impercepti­ble to himself, which kept him not only from Despair, but from any pressing Distress: So [Page 159] that instead of being sad and dejected, his very Countenance appear'd pleasant and agreeable.

While he was in this Frame, he sundry Times ask'd me, when I would preach again, and seem'd desirous to hear the Word of God every Day. I ask'd him why he wanted to hear me preach, seeing his Heart was dead and all was done. That he could never help him­self, and expected that he must go to Hell. He reply'd, I love to hear you speak about Christ for all. I added, but what good will that do you, if you must go to Hell at last! (using now his own Language with him; having be­fore from time to time, labour'd in the best Manner I could, to represent to him the Excel­lency of Christ, his All-sufficiency and Wil­lingness to save lost Sinners, and Persons just in his Case; altho' to no Purpose, as to yield­ing him any special Comfort.) He answer'd, I would have others come to Christ, if I must go to Hell myself.—'Twas remarkable in this Season that he seem'd to have a great Love to the People of God, and nothing affected him so much as the Thoughts of being separated from them. This seem'd to be a very dreadful Part of the Hell he thought himself doom'd to.—'Twas likewise remarkable, that in this Season he was most diligent in the Use of all Means for his Soul's Salvation; altho' he had the clear­est View of the Insufficiency of Means to afford him Help. And would frequently [...] [...]hat all he did, signified nothing at all; and [...] was [Page 160] never more constant in doing, attending Secret and Family-Prayer daily, and surprizingly di­ligent and attentive in hearing the Word of God: So that he neither despair'd of Mercy, nor yet presum'd to hope upon his own Doings, but us'd Means, because appointed of God in Order to Salvation; and because he would wait upon God in his own Way.

After he had continued in this Frame of Mind more than a Week, while I was discours­ing publickly, he seem'd to have a lively, Soul refreshing View of the Excellency of Christ, and the Way of Salvation by him, which mel­ted him into Tears, and fill'd him with Admi­ration, Comfort, Satisfaction and Praise to God; since which he has appear'd to be a humble, devout and affectionate Christian; serious and exemplary in his Conversation and Behaviour, frequently complaining of his Barrenness, his want of spiritual Warmth, Life and Activity, and yet frequently favour'd with quickening and refreshing Influences. And in all Respects, so far as I am capable to judge, he bears the Marks and Characters of one created anew in Christ Jesus to good Works.

His Zeal for the Cause of God was pleasing to me, when he was with me at the Forks of Delaware in February last. There being an old Indian at the Place where I preach'd, who threatned to be-witch me and my religious Peo­ple [...] accompanied me there; this Man [...] challeng'd him to do his worst, telling [Page 161] him, that himself had been as great a Conjurer as he, and that notwithstanding as soon as he felt that Word in his Heart which these People lov'd (meaning the Word of God) his Power of conjuring immediately left him—And so it would you, said he, if you did but once feel it in your Heart; and you have no Power to hurt them, nor so much as to touch one of them, &c.

So that I may conclude my Account of him by observing (in allusion to what was said of St. Paul) that he now zealously defends, and practically preaches the Faith which he once de­stroyed, or at least was instrumental of obstruct­ing.—May God have the Glory of the amazing Change he has wrought in him.

LORD'S-DAY, May 18. Discours'd both Parts of the Day from Revel. iii. 20. There ap­peared some affectionate melting towards the Conclusion of the Forenoon Exercise, and one or two Instances of fresh awakening.—In the Intermission of publick Worship, I took Oc­casion to discourse to Numbers in a more pri­vate Way, on the Kindness and Patience of the blessed Redeemer in standing and knocking, in continuing his gracious Calls to Sinners, who had long neglected and abused his Grace! Which seem'd to take some Effect upon sundry.

In the Afternoon, divine Truths were at­tended with Solemnity, and with some Tears, altho' there was not that powerful, awakening and quickening Influence, which in Times past has been common in our Assemblies. The [Page 162] Appearance of the Audience under divine Truths, was comparatively discouraging; and I was ready to fear, that God was about to withdraw the blessed Influence of his Spirit from us.

May 19. Visited and preach'd to my People from Acts xx. 18, 19. And endeavoured to rectify their Notions about religious Affections: Shewing them on the one Hand, the desirable­ness of religious Affection, Tenderness and ser­vent Engagement in the Worship and Service of God, when such Affection flows from a true spiritual Discovery of divine Glories, from a justly-affecting Sense of the transcendant Excel­lency and Perfections of the blessed God—A View of the Glory and Loveliness of the great Redeemer: And that such Views of divine Things, will naturally excite us to serve the Lord with many Tears, with much Affection and Fervency, and yet with all Humility of Mind.—And on the other Hand, observing the sinful­ness of seeking after high Affections immediately, and for their own Sakes, that is, of making them the Object our Eye and Heart is nextly and principally set upon, when the Glory of God ought to be so. Shewed them, that if the Heart be directly and chiefly fix'd on God, and the Soul engaged to glorify him, some De­gree of religious Affection will be the Effect and Attendant of it. But to seek after Affection, directly and chiefly, to have the Heart princi­pally set upon that, is to place it in the Room [Page 163] of God and his Glory. If it be sought that others may take Notice of and admire us for our spirituality and forwardness in Religion, 'tis then abominable Pride: If for the Sake of feeling the Pleasure of being affected, 'tis then Idolatry and Self-Gratification.—Labour'd also to expose the disagreeableness of those Affections that are sometimes wrought up in Persons by the Power of Fancy and their own Attempts for that Purpose, while I still endeavoured to recommend to them that religious Affection, Fervency and Devotion which ought to attend all our religious Exercises, and without which Religion will be but an empty Name and life­less Carcase.

This appear'd to be a seasonable Discourse, and prov'd very Satisfactory to some of the re­ligious People, who before were exercised with some Difficulties relating to this Point.

Afterwards took Care of, and gave my Peo­ple Directions about their worldly Affairs.

May 24. Visited the Indians, and took Care of their secular Business, which they are not able to manage themselves, without the con­stant Care and Advice of others.

Afterwards discours'd to some particularly about their spiritual Concerns.

LORD'S-DAY, May 25. Discours'd both Parts of the Day from John xii. 44—48. There was some Degree of divine Power attending the Word of God. Sundry wept and appeared considera­bly affected: And one who had long been un­der [Page 164] spiritual Trouble, now obtained Clearness and Comfort, and appear'd to rejoyce in God her Saviour. It was a Day of Grace and divine Goodness: A Day wherein something, I trust, was done for the Cause of God among my Peo­ple. A Season of Sweetness and Comfort to divers of the religious People, altho' there was not that powerful Influence upon the Con­gregation which was common some Months ago.

LORD'S-DAY, June 1. 1746. Preach'd both Forenoon and Afternoon from Mat. xi. 27, 28. The Presence of God seem'd to be in the As­sembly, and Numbers were considerably melted and affected under divine Truths. There was a desirable Appearance in the Congregation in general, an earnest Attention and agreeable Ten­derness, and it seem'd as if God design'd to visit us with further Showers of divine Grace.—I then baptiz'd Ten Persons, five Adults and five Children, and was not a little refreshed with this [...] made to the Church of such as (I hope) shall be saved.

I have Reason to hope, that God has lately (at, and since our Celebration of the Lord's Supper) brought home to himself, sundry Souls who had long been under spiritual Trouble and Concern: Altho' there have been few Instances of Persons lately awakened out of a State of Security. And those comforted of late, seem to be brought in, in a more silent Way, neither their Concern nor Consolation [Page 165] being so powerful and remarkable as ap­pear'd among those more suddenly wrought upon in the Beginning of this Work of Grace.

June 6. Discours'd to my People from Part of Isaiah liii.—The divine Presence appear'd to be amongst us in some Measure. Divers Per­sons were much melted and refreshed, and one Man in particular, who had long been under Concern for his Soul, was now brought to see and feel in a very lively Manner the Impossi­bility of his doing any Thing to help himself, or to bring him into the Favour of God, by his Tears, Prayers and other religious Per­formances, and found himself undone as to any Power or Goodness of his own, and that there was no Way left him, but to leave him­self with God to be disposed of as he pleased.

June 7. Being desired by the Reverend Mr. William Tonnent to be his Assistant in the Ad­ministration of the Lord's Supper: My People also being invited to attend the sacramental So­lemnity, they chearfully embraced the Opportu­nity, and this Day attended the preparatory Services with me.

LORD'S DAY, June 8. Most of my People, who had been Communicants at the Lord's Table before, being present at this sacramental Occa­sion, communicated, with others, in this holy Ordinance, at the desire, and, I trust, to the Satisfaction and Comfort of Numbers of God's People, who had long'd to see this Day, and whose Hearts had rejoiced in this Work of [Page 166] Grace among the Indians, which prepared the Way for what appear'd so agreeable at this Time.

Those of my People who communicated, seem'd in general agreeably affected at the Lord's Table, and some of them considerably melted with the Love of Christ; altho' they were not so remarkably refresh'd and feasted at this Time, as when I administred this Ordi­nance to them in our own Congregation only.

Some of the By-standers were affected with seeing these, who had been Aliens from the Common Wealth of Israel, and Strangers to the Covenant of Promise, who of all Men had liv'd without God and without hope in the World, now brought near to God as his professing People, and sealing Covenant with him, by a solemn and devout Attendance upon this sacred Or­dinance. And as Numbers of God's People were refreshed with this Sight, and thereby ex­cited to bless God for the Enlargement of his Kingdom in the World, so some others (I was told) were awakened by it, apprehending the Danger they were in of being themselves fi­nally cast out, while they saw others, from the East and West, preparing, and hopefully pre­par'd in some good Measure, to sit down in the Kingdom of God.

At this Season others of my People also, who were not Communicants, were considerably affected, Convictions were reviv'd in divers In­stances; and one (the Man particularly men­tion'd [Page 167] in my Journal of the 6th Instant) ob­tain'd Comfort and Satisfaction; and has since given me such an Account of his spiritual Ex­ercises, and the Manner in which he obtain'd Relief, as appears very hopeful. It seems as if he who commanded the Light to shine out of Darkness, had now shined in his Heart, and giv­en him the Light of an experimental Knowledge of the Glory of God in the Face of Jesus Christ.

June 9. A considerable Number of my Peo­ple met together early in the Day in a retir'd Place in the Woods, and pray'd, sang and con­vers'd of divine Things, and were seen by some religious Persons of the white People, to be affected and engag'd, and divers of them in Tears in these religious Exercises.

Afterwards they attended the concluding Ex­ercises of the Sacramental Solemnity, and then return'd home, divers of them rejoycing for all the Goodness of God they had seen and felt: So that this appear'd to be a profitable as well as a comfortable Season to Numbers of my Congregation. And their being present at this Occasion, and a Number of them communi­cating at the Lord's Table with others of God's People, was, I trust, for the Honour of God, and the Interest of Religion in these Parts, as Numbers, I have Reason to think, were quick­ened by Means of it.

June 13. Preach'd to my People upon the New Creature, from 2 Cor. v. 17. The Pre­sence of God appear'd to be in the Assembly.— [Page 168] It was a sweet and agreeable Meeting, wherein the People of God were refresh'd and strength­ned, beholding their Faces in the Glass of God's Word, and finding in themselves the Marks and Lineaments of the New Creature.—Some Sinners under Concern, were also renew­edly affected, and a fresh engag'd for the secu­ring of their eternal Interests.

Baptiz'd five Persons at this Time, three A­dults and two Children. One of these was the very aged Woman of whose Exercise I gave an Account in my Journal of December 26th, She now gave me a very punctual, rational and satisfactory Account of the remarkable Change she experienced some Months after the Begin­ning of her Concern, which, I must say, ap­peared to be the genuine Operations of the di­vine Spirit, so far as I am capable of judging. And altho' she was become so childish thro' old Age, that I could do nothing in a Way of questioning with her, nor scarce make her un­derstand any that I ask'd her, yet when I let her alone to go on with her own Story, she could give a very distinct and particular Relati­on of the many and various Exercises of Soul she had experienced: So deep were the Impres­sions left upon her Mind by that Influence and Exercise she had been under! And I have great Reason to hope, she is born a new in her old Age, she being, I presume, upwards of fourscore.—I had good hopes of the other A­dults [Page 169] and trust they are such as God will own in the Day when he makes up his Jewels.

June 19. Visited my People with two of the Reverend Correspondents. Spent some Time in Conversation with some of them upon spiri­tual. Things; and took some Care of their worldly Concerns.

This Day makes up a compleat Year from the first Time of my preaching to these Indians in New-Jersey.—What amazing Things has God wrought in this space of Time for these poor People! What a surprizing Change appears in their Tempers and Behaviour! How are moross and Savage Pagans in this short space of Time, transform'd into agreeable, affectionate and humble Christians! And their Drunken and Pagan Howlings, turn'd into devout and ser­vent Prayers and Praises to God! They who were sometimes Darkness, are now become Light in the Lord. May they walk as Children of the Light and of the Day. And now to him that is of Power to stablish them according to the Gospel and the Preaching of Christ.—To God only wise, be Glory, thro' Jesus Christ forever and ever. Amen,

Before I conclude the present Journal, I would make a few general Remarks upon what to me appears worthy of Notice, relating to the continued Work of Grace among my People.

And First, I can't but take Notice that I have in the general, ever since my first coming [Page 170] among these Indians in New-Jersey, been favour'd with that Assistance, which (to me) is uncommon, in preaching Christ crucified, and making him the Center and Mark to which all my Dis­courses among them were directed.

'Twas the principal Scope and Drift of all my Discourses to this People for several Months together (after having taught them something of the Being and Perfections of God, his Cre­ation of Man in a State of Rectitude and Hap­piness; and the Obligations Mankind were thence under to love and honour him) to lead them into an Acquaintance with their deplora­ble State by Nature, as fallen Creatures: Their Inability to extricate and deliver themselves from it: The utter Insufficiency of any external Reformations and Amendments of Life, or of any religious Performances, they were capable of, while in this State, to bring them into the Favour of God, and Interest them in his e­ternal Mercy. And thence to shew them their absolute need of Christ to redeem and save them from the Misery of their fallen State.—To open his All-sufficiency and Willingness to save the Chief of Sinners.—The Freeness and Riches of his divine Grace, propos'd without Money and without Price, to all that will accept the Offer.—And thereupon to press them without delay to betake themselves to him, under a Sense of their Misery and undone Estate, for Relief and everlasting Salvation.—And to shew them the abundant Encouragement the [Page 171] Gospel proposes to needy perishing and help­less Sinners, in order to engage them so to do. These Things I repeatedly and largely insisted upon from time to time.

And I have often Times remark'd with Ad­miration, that whatever Subject I have been treating upon, after having spent Time sufficient to explain and illustrate the Truths contain'd therein, I have been naturally and easily led to Christ as the Substance of every Subject. If I treated on the Being and glorious Perfections of God, I was thence naturally led to discouse of Christ as the only Way to the Father.—If I at­tempted to open the deplorable Misery of our fallen State, 'twas natural from thence to shew the Necessity of Christ to undertake for us to a [...]tone for our Sins, and to redeem us from the Power of them.—If I taught the Commands of God, and shew'd our Violation of them, this brought me in the most easy and natural Way, to speak of, and recommend the Lord Jesus Christ as One who had magnified the Law we had broken, and who was become the End of it for Righteousness, to every one that believes. And never did I find so much Freedom and Assistance in making all the various Lines of my Discourses meet together and center in Christ, as I have frequently done among these Indians!

Sometimes when I've had Thoughts of offer­ing but a few Words upon some particular Sub­ject, and saw no Occasion, nor indeed much [Page 172] Room for any considerable Enlargement, there has at unawares appear'd such a Fountain of Gospel-Grace shining forth in, or naturally re­sulting from a just Explication of it, and Christ has seem'd in such a Manner to be pointed out as the Substance of what I was considering and explaining, that I have been drawn in a Way not only easy and natural, proper and per­tinent, but almost unavoidable to discourse of him, either in Regard of his Undertaking, In­carnation, Satisfaction, admirable Fitness for the Work of Man's Redemption, or the infi­nite Need that Sinners stand in of an Interest in him; which has open'd the Way for a con­tinued Strain of Gospel-Invitation to perishing Souls, to come empty and naked, weary and heavy-laden, and cast themselves upon him.

And as I have been remarkably influenced and assisted to dwell upon the Lord Jesus Christ, and the Way of Salvation by him, in the general Currant of my Discourses here, and have been, at Times, surprizingly furnished with perti­nent Matter relating to him and the Design of his Incarnation: So I have been no less assisted oftentimes in Regard of an advantagious Manner of opening the Mysteries of divine Grace, and representing the infinite Excellencies and un­searchable Riches of Christ, as well as of recom­mending him to the Acceptance of perishing Sinners. I have frequently been enabled to represent the divine Glory, the infinite preci­ousness and transcendent Loveliness of the great [Page 173] Redeemer; the Suitableness of his Person and Purchase to supply the Wants, and answer the utmost Desires of immortal Souls.—To open the infinite Riches of his Grace, and the won­derful Encouragement propos'd in the Gospel to unworthy, helpless Sinners.—To call, in­vite and beseech them to come and give up themselves to him, and be reconciled to God thro' him.—To expostulate with them re­specting their neglect of one so infinitely lovely, and freely offered.—And this in such a Manner, with such Freedom, Pertinency, Pathos and Application to the Conscience, as (I'm sure) I never could have made myself Master of by the most affiduous Application of Mind I am capable of. And have frequently at such Sea­sons been surprizingly help'd in adapting my Discourses to the Capacities of my People, and bringing them down into such easy, vulgar and familiar Methods of Expression, as has ren­der'd them intelligible even to Pagans.

I don't mention these Things as a Recom­mendation of my own Performances; for, I'm sure, I found from time to time, that I had no Skill or Wisdom for my great Work; and knew not how to chuse out acceptable Words proper to address poor benighted Pagans with! But thus God was pleased to help me not to know any Thing among them, save Jesus Christ and him crucified. Thus I was enabled to shew them their Misery and Undonness without him, and [Page 174] to represent his compleat Fitness to redeem and save them.

And this was the Preaching God made Use of for the awakening of Sinners, and the Pro­pagation of this Work of Grace among the Indi­ans.—And 'twas remarkable, from time to time, that when I was favour'd with any special Free­dom, in discoursing of the Ability and Willing­ness of Christ to save Sinners, and the Need they stood in of such a Saviour, there was then the greatest Appearance of divine Power in a­wakening Numbers of secure Souls, promoting Convictions begun, and comforting the Distress'd.

I have sometimes formerly in reading the Apostle's Discourse to Cornelius (Acts x.) ad­mired to see him so quickly introduce the Lord Jesus Christ into his Sermon, and so intirely dwell upon him thro' the whole of it, observing him in this Point very widely to differ from many of our modern Preachers: But latterly this has not seem'd strange, since Christ has appeared to be the Substance of the Gospel, and the Center in which the several Lines of divine Revelation meet. Altho' I am still sensible there are many Things necessary to be spoken to Persons under Pagan Darkness in Order to make Way for a proper Introduction of the Name of Christ, and his Undertaking in Behalf of fallen Man.

Secondly. 'Tis worthy of Remark, that Num­bers of these People are brought to a strict Compliance with the Rules of Morality and [Page 175] Sobriety, and to a conscientious Performance of the external Duties of Christianity, by the internal Power and Influence of divine Truths (the pe­culiar Doctrines of Grace) upon their Minds; without their having these moral Duties fre­quently repeated and inculcated upon them, and the contrary Vices particularly exposed and spoken against. What has been the general strain and drift of my Preaching among these Indians; what were the Truths I principally insisted upon, and how I was influenced and enabled to dwell from time to time upon the peculiar Doctrines of Grace, I have already ob­served in the preceeding Remark. Those Doc­trines, which had the most direct Tendency to humble the fallen Creature; to shew him the Misery of his natural State; to bring him down to the Foot of sovereign Mercy, and to exalt the great Redeemer, discover his tran­scendant Excellency and infinite Preciousness, and so to recommend him to the Sinner's Ac­ceptance, were the Subject-Matter of what was deliver'd in publick and private to them, and from time to time repeated and inculcated up­on them.

And God was pleased to give these divine Truths such a powerful Influence upon the Minds of these People, and so to bless them for the ef­fectual awakening of Numbers of them, that their Lives were quickly reform'd, without my insisting upon the Precepts of Morality, and spending Time in repeated Harangues upon ex­ternal [Page 176] Duties. There was indeed no Room for any Kind of Discourses but those that respected the essentials of Religion, and the experimen­tal Knowledge of divine Things, whilst there were so many enquiring daily, not how they should regulate their external Conduct, (for that, Persons who are honestly dispos'd to com­ply with Duty, when known, may, in ordi­nary Cases, be easily satisfied about) but how they should escape from the Wrath they fear'd and felt a Desert of,—obtain an effectual Change of Heart,—get an Interest in Christ,—and come to the Enjoyment of eternal Blessedness.—So that my great Work still was to lead them into a further View of their utter undonness in themselves, the total Depravity and Corrup­tion of their Hearts; that there was no Man­ner of Goodness in them; no good Dispositions nor Desires; no Love to God, nor Delight in his Commands: But on the Contrary, Hatred, Enmity and all Manner of Wickedness reign­ing in them.—And at the same Time to open to them the glorious and compleat Remedy provided in Christ for helpless perishing Sin­ners, and offer'd freely to those who have no Goodness of their own, no Works of Righteous­ness which they have done to recommend them to God.

This was the continued Strain of my Preach­ing! This my great Concern, and constant En­deavour so to enlighten the Mind, as thereby duly to affect the Heart, and, as far as possi­ble [Page 177] give Persons a Sense and Feeling of these precious and important Doctrines of Grace, at least, so far as Means might conduce to it. And these were the Doctrines—this the Method of Preaching which were blessed of God for the awakening, and, I trust, the saving Conversion of Numbers of Souls—and which were made the Means of producing a remarkable Reforma­tion among the Hearers in general.

When these Truths were felt at Heart, there was now no Vice unreform'd—no external Duty neglected.—Drunkenness, the darling Vice, was broken off from, and scarce an Instant of it known among my Hearers for Months toge­ther. The abusive Practice of Husbands and Wives in putting away each other, and taking others in their Stead, was quickly reform'd: So that there are three or four Couple who have voluntarily dismiss'd those they had wrongfully taken, and now live together again in Love and Peace. The same might be said of all other vicious Practices.—The Reformation was gene­ral; and all springing from the internal In­fluence of divine Truths upon their Hearts; and not from any external Restraints, or because they had heard these Vices particularly expos'd, and repeatedly spoken against: For some of them I never so much as mention'd; particu­larly that of the parting of Men and their Wives, 'til some, having their Conscience a­waken'd by God's Word, came and, of their own accord, confess'd themselves guilty in that [Page 178] Respect. And when I did at any Time men­tion their wicked Practices, and the Sins they were guilty of contrary to the Light of Nature, 'twas not with Design, nor indeed with any Hope, of working an effectual Reformation in their external Manners by this Means, for I knew, that while the Tree remain'd corrupt the Fruit would naturally be so; but with design to lead them, by observing the Wickedness of their Lives, to a View of the Corruption of their Hearts, and so to convince them of the Neces­sity of a Renovation of Nature, and to excite them with utmost Diligence, to seek after that great Change, which; if once obtain'd, I was sensible, would of Course produce a Reforma­tion of external Manners in every Respect.

And as all Vice was reform'd upon their feel­ing the Power of these Truths upon their Hearts, so the external Duties of Christianity were com­plied with, and conscientiously perform'd from the same internal Influence; Family-Prayer set up and constantly maintain'd, unless among some few more lately come, who had felt little of this divine Influence.—This Duty constantly perform'd even in some Families where there were none but Females, and scarce a prayerless Person to be found among near an Hundred of them.—The LORD'S-DAY, seriously and religiously ob­serv'd, and Care taken by Parents to keep their Children orderly upon that sacred Day, &c. And this, not because I had driven them to the Performance of these Duties by a fre­quent [Page 179] inculcating of them, but because they had felt the Power of God's Word upon their Hearts—were made sensible of their Sin and Misery, and thence could not but pray, and comply with every Thing they knew was Du­ty, from what they felt within themselves. When their Hearts were touch'd with a Sense of their eternal Concernments, they could pray with great Freedom as well as Fervency, with­out being at the Trouble first to learn [...] Forms for that Purpose. And some of them who were suddenly awaken'd at their first coming among us, were brought to pray and cry for Mercy with utmost Importunity, without ever being instructed in the Duty of Prayer, or so much as once directed to a Performance of it.

The happy Effects of these peculiar Doctrines of Grace, which I have so much insisted upon with this People, plainly discover, even to De­monstration, that instead of their opening a Door to Licentiousness (as many vainly imagine and slanderously insinuate) they have a direct contrary Tendency: So that a close Applica­tion, a Sense and Feeling of them, will have the most powerful Influence toward the Renova­tion and effectual Reformation both of Heart and Life.

And happy Experience, as well as the Word of God and the Example of Christ and his A­postles, has taught me that that Method of preaching, which is best suited to awaken in Mankind, a Sense and lively Apprehension of [Page 180] their Depravity and Misery in a fallen State—to excite them earnestly to seek after a Change of Heart, and to fly for Refuge to free and so­vereign Grace in Christ, as the only Hope set before them, is like to be most successful to­ward the Reformation of their external Con­duct.—I have found that close Addresses, and solemn Applications of divine Truth to the Conscience, tend directly to strike Death to the Root of all Vice, while smooth and plausible Harrangues upon moral Vertues and external Du­ties, at best, are like to do no more than lopp off the Branches of Corruption while the Root of all Vice remains still untouch'd.

A View of the blessed Effect of honest En­deavours to bring home divine Truths to the Conscience, and duly to affect the Heart with them, has often minded me of those Words of our Lord, (which I have thought might be a proper Exhortation for Ministers in respect of their treating with others, as well as for Per­sons in general with Regard to themselves) Cleanse first the inside of the Cup and Platter, that the outside may be clean also.—Cleanse, says he, the inside, THAT the outside may be clean. Q. D. The only effectual Way to have the outside clean, is, to begin with what is within; and if the [...] be purified, the Streams will naturally be pure. And most certain it [...] if we can awaken in Sinners a lively Sense of their inward Pollution and Depravity—their Need of a Change of Heart, and so engage [Page 181] them to seek after inward Cleansing, their ex­ternal Defilement will naturally be cleansed; their vicious Ways, of Course be reformed, and their Conversation and Behaviour become re­gular.

Now altho' I can't pretend that the Re­formation among my People, does, in every In­stance, spring from a saving Change of Heart, yet I may truly say, it flows from some Heart­affecting View and Sense of divine Truths that all have had in a greater or lesser Degree.

I don't intend by what I have observ'd here, to represent the Preaching of Morality, and pressing Persons to the external Performance of Duty, to be altogether unnessary and useless at any Time; and especially at Times when there is less of divine Power attending the Means of Grace.—When for want of internal Influences, there is need of external Restraints. 'Tis doubtless among the Things that ought to be done, while others are not to be left undone.—But what I principally design'd by this Re­mark, was to discover plain Matter of Fact, viz. That the Reformation, the Sobriety and exter­nal Compliance with the Rules and Duties of Christianity, appearing among my People, are not the Effect of any meer doctrinal Instruc­tion, or meerly rational View of the Beauty of Morality, but from the internal Power and Influence that divine Truths (the Soul-hum­bling Doctrines of Grace) have had upon their Hearts.

[Page 182] Thirdly, 'Tis remarkable that God has so con­tinu'd and renew'd the Showers of his Grace here.—So quickly set up his visible Kingdom a­among these People; and so smil'd upon them in Relation to their acquirement of Knowledge, both divine and human. 'Tis now near a Year since the Beginning of this gracious out-pouring of the divine Spirit among them: And altho' it has often seem'd to decline and abate for some short space of Time, (as may be observed by seve­ral Passages of my Journal, where I have en­deavour'd to note Things just as they appear'd to me from time to time) yet the Shower has seem'd to be renew'd and the Work of Grace reviv'd again: So that a divine Influence seems still apparently to attend the Means of Grace in a greater or less Degree in most of our Meet­ings for religious Exercises; whereby religious Persons are refreshed, strengthened and establish­ed—Convictions reviv'd and promoted in many Instances—and some few Persons newly awak­ened, from time to time. Altho' it must be acknowledged, that for some time past, there has, in the general, appear'd a more manifest decline of this Work, and the divine Spirit has seem'd in a considerable Measure, withdrawn, especi­ally in Regard of his awakening Influences; so that the Strangers who come latterly, are not seiz'd with Concern as formerly; and some few who have been much affected with divine Truths in time past, now appear less concern'd. Yet (blessed be God) there is still an Appea­rance [Page 183] of divine Power and Grace, a desirable Degree of Tenderness, religious Affection and Devotion in our Assemblies.

And as God has continued and renewed the Showers of his Grace among this People for some Time, so he has with uncommon quickness set up his visible Kingdom, and gather'd himself a Church in the midst of them.—I have now baptiz'd, since the Conclusion of my last Jour­nal, Thirty Persons, fifteen Adults and fifteen Children. Which added to the Number there mention'd, makes Seventy Seven Persons; where­of Thirty eight are Adults, and Thirty nine Chil­dren; and all within the Space of eleven Months past.—And it must be noted that I have bap­tiz'd no Adults, but such as appear'd to have a Work of special Grace wrought in their Hearts: I mean such who have had the Experience not only of the awakening and humbling, but (in a Judgment of Charity) of the renewing and comforting Influences of the divine Spirit. Al­tho' there are many others under solemn Con­cern for their Souls, who (I apprehend) are Persons of sufficient Knowledge, and visible Seriousness, at present, to render them proper Subjects of the Ordinance of Baptism. Yet since they give no comfortable Evidences of having as yet pass'd a saving Change, but only appear under Convictions of their Sin and Mi­sery, and having no Principle of spiritual Life wrought in them, are liable to loose the Im­pressions of Religion they are now under: And [Page 184] considering the great Propensity there is in this People naturally to abuse themselves with strong Drink, and fearing least some, who at present appear serious and concern'd for their Souls, might loose their Concern and return to this Sin, and so (if baptiz'd) prove a scandal to their Profession, I have thought proper hitherto to omit the Baptism of any but such who give some hopeful Evidences of a saving Change, al­tho' I don't pretend to determine positively re­specting the States of any.

I likewise administred the Lord's Supper to a Number of Persons, who I have abundant Rea­son to think (as I elsewhere observ'd) were pro­per Subjects of that Ordinance, within the Space of ten Months and ten Days, after my first coming among these Indians in New-Jersey. And from the Time that I am inform'd, some of them were attending an idolatrous Feast and Sacrafice in Honour to Devils, to the Time they sat down at the Lord's Table (I trust) to the Honour of God, was not more than a full Year. Surely Christ's little Flock here, so sud­denly gather'd from among Pagans, may justly say, in the Language of the Church of old, The Lord hath done great Things for us, where­of we are glad.

Much of the Goodness of God has also ap­pear'd in Relation to their acquirement of Know­ledge, both in Religion and in the Affairs of common Life. There has been a wonderful Thirst after Christian Knowledge prevailing a­mong [Page 185] them in General, and an eager Desire of being instructed in Christian Doctrines and Man­ners. This has prompted them to ask many pertinent as well as important Questions; the Answers to which have tended much to enligh­ten their Minds, and promote their Knowledge in divine Things. Many of the Doctrines I have delivered, they have queried with me about, in Order to gain further Light and Insight into them; particularly the Doctrine of Predestina­tion. And have from time to time manifested a good Understanding of them, by their An­swers to the Questions propos'd to them in my catechetical Lectures.

They have likewise queried with me, respec­ting a proper Method as well as proper Matter of Prayer, and Expressions suitable to be made Use of in that religious Exercise; and have taken Pains in order to the Performance of this Duty with Understanding.

They have likewise taken Pains, and appear'd remarkably apt in learning to sing Psalm-Tunes, and are now able to sing with a good Degree of Decency in the Worship of God.

They have also acquir'd a considerable De­gree of useful Knowledge in the Affairs of common Life: So that they now appear like rational Creatures, fit for human Society, free of that savage Roughness and brutish Stu­pidity, which render'd them very disagreeable in their Pagan State.

[Page 186] They seem Ambitious of a thorough Acquain­tance with the English Language, and for that End frequently speak it among themselves; and many of them have made good Proficiency in their Acquirement of it, since my coming among them; so that most of them can under­stand a considerable Part, and some the Sub­stance of my Discourses, without an Interpreter, (being used to my low and vulgar Methods of Expression) tho' they could not well understand other Ministers.

And as they are desirous of Instruction, and surprizingly apt in the Reception of it, so di­vine Providence has smil'd upon them in Re­gard of proper Means in Order to it.—The Attempts made for the Procurement of a School among them have been succeeded, and a kind Providence has sent them a School-master, of whom I may justly say, I know of no Man like minded, who will naturally care for their State.

He has generally Thirty or Thirty-five Chil­dren in his School: And when he kept an E­vening School (as he did while the length of the Evenings would admit of it) he had Fifteen or Twenty People, married and single.

The Children learn with surprizing Readiness; so that their Master tells me, he never had an English School that learn'd, in general, compara­bly so fast. There were not above two in Thirty, altho' some of them were very small, but what learn'd to know all the Letters in the Alphabet distinctly, within three Days after his [Page 187] Entrance upon his Business; and divers in that space of Time learn'd to spell considerably: And some of them, since the Beginning of February last (at which Time the School was set up) have learn'd so much, that they are a­ble to read in a Psalter or Testament without spelling.

They are instructed twice a Week in the Re­verend Assembly's shorter Catechism, viz. on Wednesday and Saturday. And some of them, since the latter End of February, (at which Time they began) have learn'd to say it pretty dis­tinctly by Heart considerably more than half thro'; and most of them have made some Pro­ficiency in it.

They are likewise instructed in the Duty of secret Prayer, and most of them constantly at­tend in Night and Morning, and are very care­ful to inform their Master if they apprehend a­ny of their little School-Mates neglect that re­ligious Exercise.

Fourthly, 'Tis worthy to be noted (to the Praise of Sovereign Grace) that amidst so great a Work of Conviction,—so much Concern and religious Affection, there has been no Prevalency, nor indeed any considerable Appearance of false Religion, (if I may so term it) or Hearts of Ima­gination, intemperate Zeal, and spiritual Pride; which corrupt Mixtures too often attend the Revival and powerful Propagation of Religion; and that there have been so very few Instances of irregular and scandalous Behaviour among [Page 188] those who have appear'd serious.—I may justly repeat what I observ'd in a Remark at the Conclusion of my last Journal, viz. That there has here been no Appearance of bodily Agonies, Convulsions, frightful Screamings, Swoonings, and the like: And may now further add, that there has been no Prevalency of Visions, Trances and Imaginations of any kind; altho' there has been some Appearance of something of that Nature since the Conclusion of that Journal. An Instance of which I have given an Account of in my Journal of December 26th.

But this Work of Grace has, in the main, been carried on with a surprizing Degree of Purity, and freedom from trash and corrupt Mix­ture. The religious Concern that Persons have been under, has generally [...] rational and just; arising from a Sense of their Sins, and exposed­ness to the divine Displeasure on the Account of them; as well as their utter Inability to deliver themselves from the Misery they felt and feared. And if there has been in any In­stances an Appearance of irrational Concern and Perturbation of Mind, when the Subjects of it knew not why, yet there has been no Pre­valency of any such Thing; and indeed I scarce know of any Instance of that Nature at all.—And 'tis very remarkable, that altho' the Con­cern of many Persons under Convictions of their perishing State has been very great and pressing, yet I have never seen any Thing like Desperation attending it in any one Instance. [Page 189] They have had the most lively Sense of their undonness in themselves; have been brought to give up all Hopes of Deliverance from them­selves; and their spiritual Exercises leading hereto, have been attended with great Distress and Anguish of Soul: And yet in the Seasons of the greatest Extremity, there has been no Appearance of Despair in any of them—no­thing that has discouraged, or in any wise hinder'd them from the most diligent Use of all proper Means for their Conversion and Salva­tion; whence 'tis apparent, there is not that Danger of Persons being driven into Despair un­der spiritual Trouble (unless in Cases of deep and habitual melancholly) that the World in general is ready to imagine.

The Comfort that Persons have obtain'd af­ter their Distresses, has likewise in general ap­pear'd solid, well grounded and scriptural; aris­ing from a spiritual and supernatural Illu­mination of Mind,—a View of divine Things (in a Measure) as they are,—a complacency of Soul in the divine Perfections,—and a pecu­liar Satisfaction in the Way of Salvation, by free sovereign Grace in the great Redeemer.

Their Joys have seem'd to rise from a variety of Views and Considerations of divine Things, altho' for Substance the same. Some, who un­der Conviction seem'd to have the hardest Strug­gels and Heart-risings against divine Sovereign­ty, have seem'd, at the first Dawn of their Comfort, to rejoyce in a peculiar Manner in [Page 190] that divine Perfection—have been delighted to think that themselves, and all Things else were in the Hand of God, and that he would dispose of them just as he pleased.

Others, who just before their Reception of Comfort, have been remarkably oppress'd with a Sense of their undonness and poverty, who have seen themselves, as it were, falling down into remediless Perdition, have been at first more peculiarly delighted with a View of the Freeness and Riches of divine Grace, and the Offer of Salvation made to perishing Sinners without Money and without Price.

Some have at first appear'd to rejoyce especi­ally in the Wisdom of God, discover'd in the Way of Salvation by Christ; it then appearing to them a new and living Way, a Way they had never thought, nor had any just Conception of, until open'd to them by the special Influ­ence of the divine Spirit. And some of them upon a lively spiritual View of this Way of Salvation, have wonder'd at their past Folly in seeking Salvation other Ways, and have admi­red that they never saw this Way of Salvation before, which now appear'd so plain and easy, as well as excellent to them.

Others again have had a more general View of the Beauty and Excellency of Christ, and have had their Souls delighted with an Appre­hension of his divine Glory, as unspeakably exceeding all they had ever conceived of be­fore: Yet without singling out (as it were) [Page 191] any one of the divine Perfections in particular, so that altho' their Comforts have seem'd to arise from a variety of Views and Considerations of divine Glories, still they were spiritual and supernatural Views of them, and not groundless Pancies, that were the spring of their Joys and Comforts.

Yet it must be acknowledged, that when this Work became so universal and prevalent, and gain'd such general Credit and Esteem among the Indians, that Satan seem'd to have little Advantage of working against it in his own proper Garb; he then transformed himself into an Angel of Light, and made some vigo­rous Attempts to introduce turbulent Commotions of the Passions in the Room of genuine Convictions of Sin, imaginary and fanciful Notions of Christ, as appearing to the mental Eye in a human Shape, and being in some particular Postures, &c. in the Room of spiritual and supernatural Discoveries of his di­vine Glory and Excellency, as well as divers other Delusions. And I have Reason to think, that if these Things had met with Countenance and Encouragement, there would have been a very considerable Harvest of this Kind of Con­verts here. Spiritual Pride also discovered it­self in various Instances. Some Persons who had been under great Affections, seem'd very desirous from thence of being thought truly graci­ous; who, when I could not but express to them my Fears respecting their spiritual States, disco­vered [Page 192] their Resentments to a considerable De­gree upon that Occasion. There also appear'd in one or two of them an unbecoming Ambition of being Teachers of others. So that Satan has been a busy Adversary here as well as else­where. But (blessed be God) tho' something of this Nature has appear'd, yet nothing of it has prevail'd, nor indeed made any consider­able Progress at all. My People are now ap­pris'd of these Things, are acquainted that Sa­tan in such a Manner transformed himself into an Angel of Light in the first Season of the great out-pouring of the divine Spirit in the Days of the Apostles, and that something of this Nature, in a greater or lesser Degree, has attended almost every Revival and remarkable Propagation of true Religion ever since. And they have learn'd so to distinguish between the Gold and Dross, that the Credit of the lat­ter is trod down like the Mire of the Streets: And it being natural for this Kind of Stuff to die with its Credit, there is now scarce any Appearance of it among them.

And as there has been no Prevalency of ir­regular Heats, immaginary Notions, spiritual Pride, and satanical Delusions among my Peo­ple, so there has been a very few Instances of scandalous and irregular Behaviour among those who have made a Profession, or even an Ap­pearance of Seriousness. I don't know of more than three or four such Persons that have been guilty of any open Misconduct, since their [Page 193] first Acquaintance with Christianity, and not one that persists in any Thing of that Nature. And perhaps the remarkable Purity of this Work in the latter Respect, its freedom from frequent Instances of Scandal, is very much owing to its Purity in the former Respect, its freedom from corrupt Mixtures of spiritual Pride, Wild-Fire and Delusion, which naturally lay a Foun­dation for scandalous Practices.

May this blessed Work in the Power and Pu­rity of it prevail among the poor Indians here, as well as spread elsewhere, till their remotest Tribes shall see the Salvation of God. AMEN.

Money collected and expended for the Indians.

As mention has been made in the preceed­ing Journal, of an English School erected and continned among these Indians, dependant in­tirely upon Charity; and as Collections have al­ready been made in divers Places for the Sup­port of it, as well as for defraying other Charges that have necessarily arisen in the Promotion of the religious Interests of the Indians, it may be satisfactory, and perhaps will be thought by some, but a piece of Justice to the World that an exact Account be here given of the Money already received by way of Collec­tion for the Benefit of the Indians, and the Manner in which it has been expended.

[Page 194] The following is therefore a just Account of this Matter.

MONEY received since October last, by way of publick Collection, for promoting the re­ligious Interests of the Indians in New-Jersey, viz.

From New-York,£. 23102
Jamaica, on Long Island,3000
Elizabeth-Town Farms,1189
Woodbridge,218 [...]2
Freehold Dutch Congregation,4143
Shrewsbury and Shark-River,350
Middle-Town Dutch Congregation,2000
The Dutch Congregation in and about New-Brunswick350
Neshaminy, and Places adja­cent in Pennsylvania,14510
A [...]ington and New-Providence, by the Hand of the Rev. Mr. Treat,1050
The whole amounting to£. 100000

[Page 195] MONEY paid out since October last for pro­moting the religious Interests of the In­dians in New-Jersey, viz.

Upon the Occasion mentioned in my Journal of January 28.8250
For the Building a School House,350
To the School-master as a part of his Reward for his present Years Service,17100
For Books for the Children to learn in300
The whole amounting to£. 10600
David Brainerd.

APPENDIX to the Journal.

I SHOULD have concluded what I had, at present, to offer upon the Affairs respecting my Mission, with the preceeding Account of the Money collected and expended for the religions Interests of the Indians, but that I have not long since received from the Reverend President of the Correspondents, the Copy of a Letter directed to him from the Honourable Society for propagating Christian Knowledge, dated at Edinburg, March 21. 1745. Wherein I find 'tis expresly en­joyn'd upon their Missionaries, That they give an exact Account of the Methods they make Use of for instructing themselves in the Indians Lan­guage, and what Progress they have already made in it. What Methods they are now taking to instruct the Indians in the Principles of our holy Religion. And PARTICULARLY, that they set forth in their Journals, what Dif­ficulties they have already met with, and the Methods they make Use of for surmounting the fame

As to the two former of these Particulars, I trust that what I have already noted in my Journals from time to time, might have been in a good Measure Satisfactory to the Ho­nourable Society, had these Journals arrived safely and seasonably, which I am sensible they have [Page 197] not in general done, by Reason of their falling into the Hands of the Enemy, altho' I have been at the Pains of sending two Copies of e­very Journal, for more than two Years past, least one might miscarry in the Passage. But with Relation to the latter of these Particulars, I have purposely omitted saying any Thing considerable, and that for these two Reasons. First, because I could not oftentimes give any tollerable Account of the Difficulties I met with in my Work, without speaking somewhat par­ticularly of the Causes of them, and the Cir­cumstances conducing to them, which would necessarily have render'd my Journals very lengthy and tedious. Besides some of the Causes of my Difficulties I thought more fit to be conceal'd than divulg'd.—And Secondly, Be­cause I thought, a frequent mentioning of the Difficulties attending my Work, might appear as an unbecoming Complaint under my Burdens; or as if I would rather be thought to be en­dow'd with a singular Measure of Self-denial, Constancy and holy Resolution to meet and confront so many Difficulties, and yet to hold on and go forward amidst them all. But since the Honourable Society are pleas'd to require a more exact and particular Account of these Things, I shall chearfully endeavour something for their Satisfaction in Relation to each of these Particulars: Altho' in Regard of the latter, I am ready to say, Infandum—jubes reuovare Dolorem.

[Page 198] The most successful Method I have taken for instructing myself in any of the Indian Languages, is, to translate English Discourses by the Help of an Interpreter or two, into their Language, as near verbatim as the Sense will admit of, and to observe strictly how they use Words, and what Construction they will bear in vari­ous Cases; and thus to gain some Acquaintance with the Root from whence particular Words proceed, and to see how they are thence varied and diversified. But here oc­curs a very great Difficulty; for the Interpre­ters being unlearn'd and unacquainted with the Rules of Language, 'tis impossible some­times to know by them what Part of Speech some particular Words is of, whether Noun, Verb, or Participle, for they seem to use Par­ticiples sometimes where we should use Nouns, and sometimes where we should use Verbs in the English Language. But I have, notwith­standing many Difficulties, gain'd some Acquain­tance with the Grounds of the Delaware Lan­guage, and have learn'd most of the Defects in it; so that I know what English Words can, and what cannot be translated into it. I have also gain'd some Acquaintance with the particular Phrasiologies, as well as Peculiarities of their Language, one of which I can't but mention. Their Language don't admit of their speaking any Word denoting Relation, such as Father, Son, &c. absolutely; that is, without prefixing a Pronoun-passive to it, such as my, [Page 199] thy, his, &c. Hence they can't be baptiz'd in their own Language in the Name of THE Fa­ther, and THE Son, &c. But they may be baptiz'd in the Name of Jesus Christ and HIS Father, &c. I have gain'd so much Knowledge of their Language, that I can understand a con­siderable Part of what they say, when they discourse upon divine Things, and am frequent­ly able to correct my Interpreter, if he mis­takes my Sense. But I can do nothing to any Purpose at speaking the Language myself.

And as an Apology for this Defect, I must renew, or rather enlarge, my former Complaint, viz. That while so much of my Time is necessa­rily consum'd in Journeying, while I am oblig'd to ride four Thousand Mile a Year (as I have done in the Year past) I can have little left for any of my necessary Studies, and consequently for the Study of the Indian Languages. And this I may venture to say, is the great, if not the only Reason why the Delaware Language is not familiar to me before this Time. And 'tis impossible I should ever be able to speak it without close Application, which (at present) I see no Prospect of having Time for. To preach and catechize frequently, to converse privately with Persons that need so much In­struction and Direction as these poor Indians do, to take Care of all their secular Affairs as if they were a Company of Children, to ride a­broad frequently in Order to procure Collecti­ons for the Support of the School, and for their [Page 200] Help and Benefit in other Respects, to hear and decide all the petty Differences that arise among any of them, and to have the constant Over-Sight and Management of all their Af­fairs of every Kind, must needs ingross most of my Time and leave me little for Application to the Study of the Indian Languages. And when I add to this, the Time that is necessa­rily consum'd upon my Journals, I must say I have little to spare for other Business. I have not (as was observed before) sent to the Honourable Society less than two Copies of every Journal, for more than two Years past, most of which I suppose have been taken by the French in their Passage. And a third Copy I have constantly kept by me, lest the others should miscarry; which has caused me not a little Labour, and so straitned me for time, when I've been at Liberty from other Business and had Opportunity to sit down to writing (which is but rare) I have been obliged to write twelve and thirteen Hours in a Day, till my Spirits have been extremely wasted, and my Life almost spent to get these Writings accomplish'd. And after all; after diligent Ap­plication to the various Parts of my Work, and after the most industrious Improvement of Time I am capable of, both early and late, I can't oftentimes possibly gain two Hours in a Week for Reading, or any other Studies, un­less just for what urges and appears of ab­solute Necessity for the present. And frequently [Page 201] when I attempt to redeem Time by sparing it out of my sleeping Hours; I am by that Means thrown under bodily Indisposition; and render'd fit for nothing.

This is truly my present State, and is like to be so, for aught I can see, unless I could pro­cure an Assistant in my Work, or quit my present Business.

But altho' I have not made that Proficiency I could wish to have done, in learning the In­dian Languages, yet I have us'd all Endeavours to instruct them in the English Tongue, which perhaps will be more advantagious to the Chris­tian Interest among them, than if I should preach in their own Language; for that is very defective, (as I shall hereafter ob­serve) so that many Things can't be communi­cated to them without introducing English Terms. Besides they can have no Books trans­lated into their Language without great Diffi­culty and Expence, and if still accustomed to their own Language only, they would have no Advantage of hearing other Ministers occasion­ally, or in my Absence. So that my having a perfect Acquaintance with the Indian Language, would be of no great Importance with Regard to this Congregation of Indians in New-Jersey, altho' it might be of great Service to me in treating with the Indians elsewhere.

The Methods I am taking to instruct the Indians in the Principles of our holy Religion, are, to [Page 202] preach, or open and improve some particular Points of Doctrine; to expound particular Pa­ragraphs, or sometimes whole Chapters of God's Word to them: To give historical Relations from Scripture of the most material and remark­able Occurrences relating to the Church of God from the Beginning: and frequently to cate­chize them upon the Principles of Christianity. The latter of these Methods of instructing, I manage in a twofold Manner. I sometimes ca­techize Systematically, proposing Questions agree­able to the Reverend Assembly's Shorter Ca­techism. This I have carried on to a considera­ble length. At other Times I catechize upon any important Subject that I think Difficult to them. Sometimes when I have discours'd upon some particular Point, and made it as plain and familiar to them as I can, I then Cate­chize them upon the most material Branches of my Discourse, to see whether they had a thorough Understanding of it. But as I have catechiz'd chiefly in a Systematical Form, I shall here give some Specimen of the Method I make Use of in it, as well as of the Propri­ety and Justness of my People's Answers to the Questions propos'd to them.

Questions upon the Benefits Believers receive from Christ at Death.

Ques. I have shewn you that the Chil­dren of God receive a great many good Things [Page 203] from Christ while they live, now have they a­ny more to receive when they come to die.

Ans. Yes.

Q. Are the Children of God then made perfectly free from Sin? Ans. Yes.

Q. Do you think they will never more be troubled with vain, foolish and wicked Thoughts?

Ans. No never at all.

Q. Won't they then be like the good Angels I have so often told you of? Ans. Yes.

Q. And do you call this a great Mercy to be freed from all Sin? Ans. Yes.

Q. Do all God's Children count it so?

Ans. Yes all of them.

Q. Do you think this is what they would ask for above all Things, if God should say to them, ask what you will, and it shall be done for you?

Ans. O Yes be besure, this is what they want.

Q. You say the Souls of God's People at Death are made perfectly free from Sin, where do they go then?

Ans. They go and live with Jesus Christ.

Q. Does Christ shew them more respect and Honour, and make them more happy * than we can possibly think of in this World? Ans. Yes.

Q. Do they go immediately to live with Christ in Heaven, as soon as their Bodies are dead, or do they tarry somewhere else a while?

Ans. They go immediately to Christ.

[Page 204] Q. Does Christ take any Care of the Bodies of his People when they are dead, and their Souls gone to Heaven, or does he forget them?

Ans. He takes Care of them.

These Questions were all answered with sur­prizing Readiness, and without once missing as I remember. And in answering several of them which respected Deliverance from Sin, they were much affected, and melted with the Hopes of that happy State.

Questions upon the Benefits Believers receive from Christ at the Resurrection.

Q. You see I have already shewn you what good Things Christ gives his good People while they live, and when they come to die: Now will he raise their Bodies and the Bodies of others to Life again at the last Day.

Ans. Yes they shall all be raised.

Q. Shall they then have the same Bodies they now have? Ans. Yes.

Q. Will their Bodies then be weak, will they feel Cold, Hunger, Thirst and Weariness as they now do? Ans. No, none of these Things.

Q. Will their Bodies ever die any more af­ter they are raised to Life? Ans. No.

Q. Will their Souls and Bodies be joyned together again? Ans. Yes.

Q. Will God's People be more happy then than they were while their Bodies were asleep?

Ans. Yes.

[Page 205] Q. Will Christ then own these to be his Peo­ple before all the World? Ans. Yes.

Q. But God's People find so much Sin in themselves, that they are often asham'd of themselves, and won't Christ be asham'd to own such for his Friends at that Day?

Ans. No, he'll never he asham'd of them.

Q. Will Christ then show all the Word, that he has put away these Peoples Sins, * and that he looks upon them as if they had never sinn'd at all?

Ans. Yes.

Q. Will he look upon them as if they had never sinn'd for the Sake of any good Things they have done themselves, or for the Sake of his Righteousness accounted to them as if 'twas theirs?

Ans. For the Sake of his Righteousness counted to them, not for their own Goodness.

Q. Will God's Children then be as happy as they can desire to be? Ans. Yes.

Q. The Children of God while in this World, can but now and then draw near to him, and they are ready to think they can never have e­nough of God and Christ, but will they have enough there, as much as they can desire?

Ans. O Yes, enough, enough!

Q. Will the Children of God love him then as much as they desire, will they find Nothing to hinder their Love from going to him?

Ans. Nothing at all; they shall love him as much as they desire.

[Page 206] Q. Will they never be weary of God and Christ, and the Pleasures of Heaven, so as we are weary of our Friends and Enjoyments here, after we have been pleased with them a while?

Ans. No, never.

Q. Could God's People be happy if they knew God lov'd them, and yet felt at the same time that they could not love and honour him?

Ans. No, no.

Q. Will this then make God's People perfectly happy, to love God above all, to honour him continually, and to feel his love to them?

Ans. Yes.

Q. And will this Happiness last forever?

Ans. Yes, forever forever!

These Questions, like the former, were an­swered without Hesitation or Missing, as I re­member, in any one Instance.

Questions upon the Duty which God requires of Man.

Q. Has God let us know any Thing of his Will, or what he would have us do to please him?

Ans. Yes.

Q. And does he require us to do his Will, and to please him? Ans. Yes.

Q. Is it right that God should require this of us, has he any Business to command us as a Father does his Children? Ans. Yes.

Q. Why is it right that God should com­mand us to do what he pleases?

Ans. Because he made us, and gives us all our good Things.

[Page 207] Q. Does God require us to do any Thing that will hurt us, and take away our Comfort and Happiness? Ans. No.

Q. But God requires Sinners to repent and be sorry for their Sins, and to have their Hearts broken: Now don't this hurt them and take a­way their Comfort to be made sorry and to have their Hearts broken?

Ans. No, it does them good.

Q. Did God teach Man his Will at first by writing it down in a Book, or did he put it into his Heart, and teach him without a Book what was right? Ans. He put it into his Heart and made him know what he should do.

Q. Has God since that Time writ down his Will in a Book? Ans. Yes.

Q. Has God written his whole Will in his Book; has he there told us all that he would have us believe and do? Ans. Yes.

Q. What need was there of this Book, if God at first put his Will into the Heart of Man and made him feel what he should do?

Ans. There was need of it, because we have sinned and made our Hearts blind.

Q. And has God writ down the same Things in his Book, that he at first put into the Heart of Man? Ans. Yes.

In this Manner I endeavour to adapt my In­structions to the Capacities of my People; altho' they may perhaps seem strange to others who have never experienced the Difficulty of the Work. And these I have given an Account of [Page 208] are the Methods I am from time to time pur­fuing, in order to instruct them in the Princi­ples of Christianity. And I think I may say, 'tis my great Concern that these Instructions be given them in such a Manner, that they may not only be doctrinally taught, but duly affected thereby, that divine Truths may come to them not in Word only, but in Power and in the Holy Ghost, and be receiv'd not as the Word of Man.

Difficulties attending the Christianizing of the Indians

I shall now attempt something with Rela­tion to the last Particular requir'd by the Ho­nourable Society in their Letter, viz. To give some Account of the Difficulties I have already met with in my Work, and the Methods I make use of for surmounting the same. And what I have to say upon this Subject, I shall reduce to the following Heads.

First, I have met with great Difficulty in my Work among these Indians, from the rooted Aversion to Christianity that generally prevails a­mong them. They are not only brutishly stupid and ignorant of divine Things, but many of them are obstinately set against Christianity, and seem to abhor even the Christian Name.

This Aversion to Christianity arises partly from a View of the Immorality and vicious Beha­viour of many who are call'd Christians. They observe that horrid Wickedness in nominal Chris­tians, [Page 209] which the Light of Nature condemns in themselves: And not having distinguishing Views of Things, are ready to look upon all the white People alike, and to condemn them alike for the abominable Practices of some.—Hence when I've attempted to treat with them about Christianity, they have frequently objected the scandalous Practices of Christians, and cast in my Teeth all they could think of that was odious in the Conduct of any of them. Have observ'd to me, that the white People lie, deffaud, steal and drink worse than the Indians; that they have taught the Indians these Things, especially the latter of them; who before the coming of the English, knew of no such Thing as strong Drink: That the English have by these Means, made them quar­rel and kill one another, and in a Word, brought 'em to the Practice of all those Vices that now prevail among them. So that they are now vastly more vicious, as well as much more miserable, than they were before the coming of the white People into the Country.

These, and such like Objections, they frequent­ly make against Christianity, which are not easily answered to their Satisfaction; many of them being Facts too notoriously true.

The only way I have to take in Order to surmount this Difficulty, is, to distinguish between nominal and real Christians, and to shew them, that the ill Conduct of many of the former pro­ceed not from their being Christians, but from [Page 210] their being Christians only in Name, not in Heart, &c. To which it has sometimes been ob­jected, that if all those who will cheat the In­dians, are Christians only in Name, there are but few left in the Country to be Christians in Heart. This and many other of the Re­marks they pass upon the white People, and their Miscarriages, I am forced to own, and can't but grant, that many nominal Christians are more abominably wicked than the Indians. But then I attempt to show them that there are some who feel the Power of Christianity, that are not so. And I ask them when they ever saw me guilty of the Vices they complain of, and charge Christians in general with. But still the great Difficulty is, that the People who live back in the Country nearest to them, and the Traders that go among them, are ge­nerally of the most irreligious and vicious sort, and the Conduct of one or two Persons, be it never so exemplary, is not sufficient to counter­ballance the vicious Behaviour of so many of the same Denomination, and so to recommend Christianity to Pagans.

Another Thing that serves to make them more averse to Christianity, is a Fear of being enslaved. They are, perhaps, some of the most jealous People living, and extremely averse to a State of Servitude, and hence are always a­fraid of some Design forming against them. Be­sides they seem to have no Sentiments of Ge­nerosity, Benevolence and Goodness: That if [Page 211] any Thing be propos'd to them, as being for their Good, they are ready rather to suspect that there is at Bottom some Design forming against them, then that such Proposals flow from Good-will to them, and a Desire of their Well­fare. And hence, when I've attempted to re­commend Christianity to their Acceptance, they have sometimes objected, that the white People have come among them, have cheated them out of their Lands, driven them back to the Mountains, from the pleasant Places they us'd to enjoy by the Sea Side, &c. That therefore they have no Reason to think the white Peo­ple are now seeking their Wellfare; but ra­ther that they have sent me out to draw them together under a pretence of Kindness to them, that they may have an Opportunity to make Slaves of them as they do of the poor Negroes, or else to ship them on Board their Vessels, and make them fight with their Enemies, &c. Thus they have oftentimes construed all the Kindness I could shew them, and the Hard­ships I have endur'd in Order to treat with them about Christianity. He never would (say they) take all this Pains to do us Good, he must have some wicked Design to hurt us some way or other. And to give them Assurance of the Contrary, is not an easy Matter, while there are so many, who (agreeable to their Apprehension) are only seeking their own, not the Good of others.

[Page 212] To remove this Difficulty I inform them, that I am not sent out among them by those Persons in these Provinces, who, they suppose, have cheated them out of their Lands, but by pious People at a great Distance, who never had an Inch of their Lands, nor ever thought of doing them any Hurt, &c.

But here will arise so many frivolous and im­pertinent Questions, that 'twould tire one's Patience, and wear out one's Spirits to hear them, such as that But why did not these good People send you to teach us before, while we had our Lands down by the Sea Side, &c. If they had sent you then, we should likely have heard you and turn'd Christians. The poor Creatures still imagining that I should be much beholding to them in Case they would heark­en to Christianity, and insinuating that this was a Favour they could not now be so good as to shew me, seeing they had received so ma­ny Injuries from the white People.

Another Spring of Aversion to Christianity in the Indians, is, their strong Attachment to their own religious Notions, (if they may be call'd religious) and the early Prejudices they have imbib'd in Favour of their own frantick and ridiculous Kind of Worship. What their Notions of God are, in their Pagan State, is hard precisely to determine. I have taken much Pains to enquire of my Christian People whether they, before their Acquaintance with Christianity, imagined there was a Plurality of [Page 213] great invisible Powers, or whether they sup­pos'd but one such Being, and worshipped him in a variety of Forms and Shapes. But can't learn any Thing of them so distinct as to be fully satisfying upon the Point. Their Notions in that State were so prodigiously dark and confus'd, that they seem'd not to know what they thought themselves. But so far as I can learn, they had a Notion of a Plu­rality of invisible Deities, and paid some kind of Homage to them promiscuously, under a great variety of Forms and Shapes. And 'tis certain, those who yet remain Pagans pay some Kind of superstitious Reverence to Beasts, Birds, Fishes, and even Reptiles; that is, some to one Kind of Animal and some to another. They don't indeed suppose a divine Power es­sential to, or inhering in these Creatures, but that some invisible Beings (I can't learn that 'tis al­ways one such Being only, but divers; not dis­tinguish'd from each other by certain Names, but only notionally) communicate to these A­nimals a GREAT POWER, either one or other of them, (just as it happens) or perhaps some­times all of them, and to make these Creatures the immediate Authors of Good to certain Persons. Whence such a Creature becomes sacred to the Persons to whom he is suppos'd to be the immediate Author of Good, and thro' him they must Worship the invisible Powers, tho' to others he is no more than another Crea­ture. And perhaps another Animal is look'd [Page 214] upon to be the immediate Author of Good to another, and consequently he must worship the invisible Powers in that Animal. And I have known a Pagan burn fine Tobacco for Incense, in Order to appease the Anger of that in­visible Power which he suppos'd presided over Rattle-Snakes, because one of these Animals was kill'd by another Indian near his House.

But after the strictest Enquiry respecting their Notions of the Deity, I find, that in ancient Times, before the coming of the white People, some suppos'd there were four invisible Powers who presided over the four Corners of the Earth. Others imagin'd the Sun to be the only Deity, and that all Things were made by him: O­thers at the same Time having a confus'd No­tion of a certain Body or Fountain of DEITY, somewhat like the Anima Mundi, so frequent­ly mentioned by the more learned ancient Heathens, diffusing itself to various Animals, and even to inanimate Things, making them the immediate Authors of Good to certain Per­sons, as was before observ'd, with Respect to various suppos'd Deities. But after the com­ing of the white People, they seem'd to sup­pose there were three Deities, and three only, because they saw People of three different Kinds of Complection, viz. English, Negroes and themselves.

'Tis a Notion pretty generally prevailing a­mong them, that 'twas not the same God made them who made us; but that they were made [Page 215] after the white People, which further shews, that they imagine a Plurality of divine Powers. And I fancy they suppose their God gain'd some special Skill by seeing the white People made, and so made them better: For 'tis certain they look upon themselves and their Methods of living (which, they say, their God expresly prescrib'd for them) vastly preferable to the white People, and their Methods. And hence will frequently sit and laugh at them, as being good for Nothing else but to plow and fatigue themselves with hard Labour; while they en­joy the Satisfaction of stretching themselves on the Ground, and sleeping as much as they please, and have no other Trouble but now and then to chase the Deer, which is often attend­ed with Pleasure rather than Pain. Hence, by the way, many of them look upon it as dis­graceful for them to become Christians, as 'twould be esteem'd among Christians for any to become Pagans. And now altho' they suppose our Religion will do well enough for us, because prescrib'd by our God, yet 'tis no ways pro­per for them, because not of the same Make and Original. This they have sometimes of­fer'd as a Reason why they did not incline to hearken to Christianity.

They seem to have some confus'd Notion about a future State of Existence, and many of them imagine that the Chichung (i. e. The Shaddow) or what survives the Body, will at Death go Southward, and in an unknown [Page 216] but curious Place, will enjoy some kind of Hap­piness, such as Hunting, Feasting, Dancing and the like. And what they suppose will con­tribute much to their Happiness in that State is, that they shall never be weary of those En­tertainments. It seems by this Notion of their going Southward to obtain Happiness, as if they had their Course into these Parts of the World from some very cold Climate, and found the further they went Southward the more comfortable they were; and thence concluded, that perfect Felicity was to be found further towards the same Point.

They seem to have some faint and glimer­ing Notion about Rewards and Punishments, or at least Happiness and Misery in a future State, that is, some that I have convers'd with, tho' others seem to know of no such Thing. Those that suppose this, seem to imagine that most will be happy, and that those who are not so, will be punished only with Privation, being only excluded the Walls of that good World where happy Souls shall dwell.

These Rewards and Punishments they sup­pose to depend intirely upon their Conduct with Relation to the Duties of the second Table, i. e. their Behaviour towards Mankind, and seem, so far as I can see, not to imagine that they have any Reference to their religious Notions or Practices, or any Thing that relates to the Worship of God. I remember I once consulted a very ancient, but intelligent Indian upon [Page 217] this Point for my own Satisfaction; ask'd him whether the Indians of old Times had suppos'd there was any Thing of the Man that would survive the Body? He reply'd, Yes. I ask'd him, where they suppos'd its abode would be? He reply'd, 'twould go Southward. I ask'd him further, whether it would be happy there? He answered, after a considerable Pause, that the Souls of good Folks would be happy, and the Souls of bad Folks miserable. I then ask'd him, who he call'd bad Folks? His answer (as I remember) was, those who lie, steal, quarrel with their Neighbours, are unkind to their Friends, and especially to aged Parents, and in a Word, such as are a Plague to Mankind. These were his bad Folks; but not a Word was said about their neglect of divine Worship, and their Bad­ness in that Respect.

They have indeed some Kind of religious Worship, are frequently offering Sacrifices to some suppos'd invisible Powers, and are very ready to impute their Calamities in the present World, to the neglect of these Sacrifices, but there is no Appearance of Reverence and Devotion in the Homage they pay them; and what they do of this Nature, seems to be done only to appease the suppos'd Anger of their Deities, to engage them to be pla­cable to themselves, and do them no Hurt, or at most, only to invite these Powers to succeed them in those Enterprises they are engag'd in respecting the present Life. So that in of­fering [Page 218] these Sacrifices, they seem to have no Reference to a future State, but only to present Comfort. And this is the Account my Inter­preter always gives me of this Matter. ‘They Sacrifice (says he) that they may have Suc­cess in Hunting and other Affairs, and that Sickness and other Calamities, may not befal them, which they fear in the present World, in Case of Neglect; but they don't suppose God will ever punish them in the coming World for neglecting to Sacrifice, &c.’ And indeed they seem to imagine, that those whom they call bad Folks, are excluded from the Com­pany of Good People in that State, not so much because God remembers, and is determin­ed to punish them for their Sins of any Kind, either immediately against himself or their Neighbour, as because they would be a Pla [...]e to Society, and would render others unhappy if admitted to dwell with them. So that they are excluded rather of Necessity than by God acting as a righteous Judge.

They give much heed to Dreams, because they suppose these invisible Powers give them Directions at such Times about certain Affairs, and sometime informs them what Animal they would chuse to be Worshipped in. They are likewise much attach'd to the Traditions and fabulous Notions of their Fathers, who have inform'd them of divers Miracles that were an­ciently wrought among the Indians, which they firmly believe, and thence look upon [Page 219] their Ancesters to have been the best of Men. They also mention some wonderful Things which, they say, have happen'd since the Me­mory of some who are now living. One I re­member affirm'd to me, that himself had once been dead four Days, that most of his Friends in that Time were gather'd together to his Funeral, and that he should have been buried, but that some of his Relations at a great Dis­tance, who were sent for upon that Occasion, were not arriv'd, before whose coming he came to Life again. In this Time, he says, he went to the Place where the Sun rises (imagining the Earth to be plain) and directly over that Place, at a great Height in the Air, he was ad­mitted, he says, into a great House, which he supposes was several Miles in length, and saw many wonderful Things, too tedious as well as ridiculous to mention. Another Person, a Woman, whom I have not seen, but been cre­dibly inform'd of by the Indians, declares, that she was dead several Days, that her Soul went Southward, and feasted and danced with the happy Spirits, and that she found all Things exactly agreeable to the Indian Notions of a future State.

These superstitious Notions and Traditions, and this kind of ridiculous Worship I have mentioned, they are extremly attach'd to, and the prejudice they have imbib'd in Favour of these Things, renders them not a little averse to the Doctrines of Christianity. Whence some of [Page 220] them have told me, when I've endeavour'd to instruct them, that their Fathers had taught them already, and that they did not want to learn now.

'Twill be too tedious to give any considerable Account of the Methods I make use of for sur­mounting this Difficulty. I will just say, I endeavour as much as possible to shew them the Inconsistency of their own Notions, and so to confound them out of their own Mouths. But I must also say, I have sometimes been al­most nonplus'd with them, and scarce knew what to answer them. But never have been more perplex'd with them than when they have pretended to yield to me as knowing more than they, and consequently have ask'd me Num­bers of impertinent, and yet difficult Questions, as how the Indians came first into this Part of the World, away from all the white People, if what I said was true, viz. that the same God made them, who made us? How the In­dians became black, if they had the same original Parents with the white People? And Num­bers more of the like Nature.

These Things, I must say, have been not a little difficult and discouraging, especially when withal, some of the Indians have appear'd angry and malicious against Christianity.

What further contributes to their Aversion to Christianity, is, the Influence that their Powwows (Conjurers or Diviners) have upon them. These are a sort of Persons who are sup­pos'd to have a Power of foretelling future Events, [Page 221] of recovering the Sick, at least oftentimes, and of charming, inchanting or poysoning Persons to Death by their magick Divinations. And their Spirit, in its various Operations, seems to be a sa­tanical Imitation of the Spirit of Prophecy that the Church in early Ages was favour'd with. Some of these Diviners are endow'd with this Spirit in Infancy.—Others in adult Age.—It seems not to depend upon their own Will, nor to be acquir'd by any Endeavours of the Person who is the Subject of it, altho' 'tis sup­pos'd to be given to Children sometimes in Consequence of some Means the Parents use with them for that Purpose: One of which is to make the Child swallow a small living Frog, after having perform'd some superstitious Rites and Ceremonies upon it. They are not under the Influence of this Spirit always alike—but it comes upon them at Times. And those who are endow'd with it, are accounted singu­larly favour'd.

I have labour'd to gain some Acquaintance with this Affair of their Conjuration, and have for that End consulted and queried with the Man mentioned in my Journal of May 9th. who, since his Conversion to Christianity, has endeavour'd to give me the best Intelligence he could of this Matter. But it seems to be such a Mystery of Iniquity, that I can't well under­stand it, and don't know oftentimes what Ideas to affix to the Terms he makes use of; and so far as I can learn, he himself has not any clear [Page 222] Notions of the Thing, now his Spirit of Divi­nation is gone from him. However the Man­ner in which he says he obtain'd this Spirit of Divination was this, He was admitted into the Presence of a GREAT MAN, who inform'd him, that he lov'd, pitied, and desired to do him Good. 'Twas not in this World that he saw the Great Man, but in a World above at a vast Distance from this. The great Man, he says, was cloathed with the Day; yea with the brightest Day he ever saw, a Day of many Years, yea of everlasting Continuance! This whole World, he says, was drawn upon him, so that in him, the Earth and all Things in it might be seen. I ask'd him, if Rocks, Moun­tains and Seas was drawn upon, or appear'd in him? He reply'd, that every Thing that was beautiful and lovely in the Earth was upon him, and might be seen by looking on him, as well as if one was on the Earth to take a View of them there. By the side of the great Man, he says, stood his SHADDOW or Spirit; for he us'd (Chichung) the Word they commonly make use of to express that of the Man which survives the Body, which Word properly signifies a Shaddow. This Shaddow, he says, was as lovely as the Man himself, and fill'd all Places, and was most agreeable as well as wonderful to him.—Here he says, he tarried some Time, and was un­speakably entertain'd and delighted with a View of the great Man, of his Shaddow or [Page 223] Spirit, and of all Things in him. And what is most of all astonishing, he imagines all this to have pass'd before he was born. He never had been, he says, in this World at that Time. And what confirms him in the Belief of this, is, that the great Man told him, that he must come DOWN to Earth, be born of such a Wo­man, meet with such and such Things, and in particular, that he should once in his Life be guilty of Murder. At this he was displeased, and told the great Man, he would never Mur­der. But the great Man reply'd, I have said it, and it shall be so. Which has accordingly happened. At this Time, he says, the great Man ask'd him what he would chuse in Life. He replied, first to be a Hunter, and aftewards to be a Powwow or Diviner. Whereupon the great Man told him, he should have what he desired, and that his Shaddow should go along with him down to Earth, and be with him forever. There was, he says, all this Time no Words spoken between them. The Conference was not carried on by any human Language, but they had a kind of mental Intelligence of each others Thoughts, Dispo­sitions and Proposals. After this, he says, he saw the great Man no more; but supposes he now came down to Earth to be born, but the Spirit or Shaddow of the great Man still attend­ed him, and ever after continued to appear to him in Dreams and other Ways, until he felt [Page 224] the Power of God's Word upon his Heart; since which it has intirely left him.

This Spirit, he says, us'd sometimes to di­rect him in Dreams to go to such a Place and hunt, assuring him he should there meet with Success, which accordingly prov'd so. And when he had been there sometime, the Spirit would order him to another Place. So that he had Success in Hunting according to the great Man's Promise made to him at the Time of his chusing this Employment.

There were some Times when this Spirit came upon him in a special Manner, and he was full of what he saw in the great Man: And then, he says, he was all Light, and not only Light himself, but it was Light all around him, so that he could see thro' Men, and knew the Thoughts of their Hearts, &c. These Depths of Satan I leave to others to fathom or to dive into as they please, and don't pretend, for my own Part, to know what Ideas to affix to such Terms, and can't well guess what Conceptions of Things these Creatures have at these Times when they call themselves all Light. But my Interpreter tells me, that he heard one of them tell a certain Indian the secret Thoughts of his Heart, which he had never divulg'd. The Case was this, the Indian was bitten with a Snake and was in extreme Pain with the Bite. Whereupon the Diviner (who was applied to for his Recovery) told him, that at such a Time he had promised, that the next Deer he kill'd, [Page 225] he would Sacrifice it to some great Power, but had broken his Promise. And now, said he, that great Power has order'd this Snake to bite you for your Neglect. The Indian con­fess'd it was so, but said he had never told any Body of it. But as Satan, no doubt, excited the Indian to make that Promise, 'twas no wonder he should be able to communicate the Matter to the Conjurer.

These Things serve to fix them down in their Idolatry, and to make them believe there is no safety to be expected, but by their continuing to offer such Sacrifices. And the Influence that these Powwows have upon them, either thro' the Esteem or Fear they have of them, is no small hindrance to their embracing Christianity.

To remove this Difficulty, I have labour'd to shew the Indians, that these Diviners have no Power to recover the Sick, when the God whom Christians serve, has determin'd them for Death, and that the supposed great Power who influences these Diviners has himself no Power in this Case: And that if they seem to recover any by their magick Charms, they are only such as the God I preach'd to them, had determined should recover, and who would have recover'd without their Conjurations, &c. And when I have apprehended them afraid of embracing Christianity, least they should be inchanted and poisoned, I have endeavour'd to relieve their Minds of this Fear, by asking them, why their Powwows did not inchant and poison me, [Page 226] seeing they had as much Reason to hate me for preaching to, and desiring them to become Christians, as they could have to hate them in Case they should actually become such. And that they might have an Evidence of the Power and Goodness of God engag'd for the Protection of Christians, I ventur'd to bid a Chal­lenge to all their Powwows and great Powers to do their worst on me first of all, and thus la­bour'd to tread down their Influence.

Many Things further might be offer'd upon this Head, but thus much may suffice for a Re­presentation of their Aversion to, and Prejudice against Christianity, the Springs of it, and the Difficulties thence arising.

Secondly. Another great Difficulty I have met with in my Attempts to christianize the In­dians, has been to convey divine Truths to their Understandings, and to gain their assent to them as such.

In the first Place, I labour'd under a very great Disadvantage for want of an interpreter, who had a good Degree of doctrinal as well as experimental Knowledge of divine Things: In both which Respects my present Interpreter was very defective when I first employ'd him, as I noted in the Account I before gave of him. And 'twas sometimes extremely discouraging to me, when I could not make him understand what I design'd to communicate; when Truths of the last Importance appear'd foolishness to him for want of a spiritual Understanding and [Page 227] Relish of them; and when he address'd the Indians in a lifeless indifferent Manner, with­out any Heart-Engagement or Fervency: And especially when he appear'd heartless and irre­solute about making Attempts for the Con­version of the Indians to Christianity, as he fre­quently did. For altho' he had a desire that they should conform to Christian Manners (as I elsewhere observed) yet being abundantly acquainted with their strong Attachment to their own superstitious Notions, and the dif­ficulty of bringing them off, and having no Sense of divine Power and Grace, nor Depend­ance upon an almighty Arm for the accomplish­ment of this Work, he us'd to be discourag'd, and tell me, It signifies Nothing for us to try, they will never turn, &c. So that he was a dis­tressing Weight and Burden to me And here I should have sunk scores of Times, but that God in a remarkable Manner supported me; sometimes by giving me full Satisfaction that he himself had called me to this Work, and thence a secret Hope that sometime or other I might meet with Success in it; or if not, that my Judgment should notwithstanding be with the Lord, and my Work with my God. Some­times by giving me a Sense of his Almighty Power, and that his Hand was not shortned. Sometimes by affording me a fresh and lively View of some remarkable Freedom and Assist­ance I had been repeatedly favour'd with in Prayer for the Ingathering of these Heathens [Page 228] some Years before, even before I was a Missi­onary, and a refreshing Sense of the Stability and Faithfulness of the divine Promises, and that the Prayer of Faith should not fail.

Thus I was supported under these Trials, and the Method God was pleas'd to take for the Removal of this Difficulty (respecting my Inter­preter) I have sufficiently represented elsewhere.

Another Thing that render'd it very Dif­ficult to convey divine Truths to the Under­standings of the Indians, was the Defectiveness of their Language, the want of Terms to ex­press and convey Ideas of spiritual Things. There are no Words in the Indian Language to answer our English Words, Lord, Saviour, Sal­vation, Sinner, Justice, Condemnation, Faith, Re­pentance, Justification, Adoption, Sanctification, Grace, Glory, Heaven, with scores of the like Importance.

The only Methods I can make Use of for surmounting this Difficulty, are, either to de­scribe the Things at large design'd by these Terms, as if I was speaking of Regeneration, to call it, the Heart's being changed by God's Spirit, or the Heart's being made Good. Or else I must introduce the English Terms into their Language, and fix the precise Meaning of them, that they may know what I intend whenever I use them.

But what renders it much more Difficult to convey divine Truths to the Understandings of these Indians, is, that there seems to be no Foun­dation [Page 229] in their Minds to begin upon, I mean no Truths that may be taken for granted as be­ing already known, while I am attempting to instil others. And divine Truths having such a necessary Connection with, and Dependance upon each other, I find it extremely difficult in my first Addresses to Pagans to begin and discourse of them in their proper Order and Connection, without having Reference to Truths not yet known—without taking for granted such Things as need first to be taught and prov'd. There is no Point of Christian Doctrine but what they are either wholly ignorant of, or extremely confus'd in their Notions about. And therefore 'tis necessary they should be in­structed in every Truth, even in those that are the most easy and obvious to the Understanding, and which a Person educated under Gospel Light would be ready to pass over in silence, as not imagining that any rational Creature could be ignorant of.

The Method I have usually taken in my first Addresses to Pagans, has been to introduce my­self by saying, That I was come among them with a Desire and Design of teaching them some Things which I presum'd they did not know, and which, I trusted, would be for their Com­fort and Happiness if known, desiring they would give their Attention, and hoping they might meet with Satisfaction in my Discourse. And thence have proceeded to observe, that there are two Things belonging to every Man, [Page 230] which I call the Soul and Body. These I en­deavour to distinguish from each other by ob­serving to them, that there is something in them that is capable of Joy and Pleasure, when their Bodies are sick and much pained. And on the Contrary, that they find something with­in them that is fearful, sorrowful, ashamed, &c. and consequently very uneasy when their Bo­dies are in perfect Health. I then observe to them, that this which rejoices in them (per­haps at the sight of some Friend who has been long absent) when their Bodies are Sick and in Pain—this which is sorrowful, frighted, a­sham'd, &c. and consequently uneasy when their Bodies are perfectly at ease—This I call the Soul. And altho' it can't be seen like the other Part of the Man, viz. the Body, yet 'tis as real as their Thoughts, Desires, &c. which are likewise Things that can't be seen.

I then further observe, that this Part of the Man which thinks, rejoices, grieves, &c. will live after the Body is dead. For the Proof of this, I produce the Opinion of their Fathers, who (as I am told by very aged Indians now living) always suppos'd there was something of the Man that would survive the Body. And if I can, for the Proof of any Thing I assert, say, as St. Paul to the Athenians, as certain also of your own Sages have said, 'tis sufficient. And having establish'd this Point, I next ob­serve, that what I have to say to them, re­spects the conscious Part of this Man; and that [Page 231] with Relation to its State after the Death of the Body, and that I am not come to treat with them about the Things that concern the present World.

This Method I am oblig'd to take, because they will otherwise intirely mistake the Design of my Preaching, and suppose the Business I am upon, is something that relates to the pre­sent World, having never been call'd together by the white People upon any other Occasion, but only to be treated with about the Sale of Lands, or some other secular Business. And I find it almost impossible to prevent their ima­gining that I am engag'd in the same, or such like Affairs, and to beat it into them that my Concern is to treat with them about their invi­sible Part, and that with Relation to its future State.

But having thus opened the Way by dis­tinguishing between Soul and Body, and shew­ing the Immortality of the former, and that my Business is to treat with them in Order to their Happiness in a future State, I proceed to discourse of the Being & Perfections of God, particularly of his Eternity, Unity, Self-Sufficiency, infinite Wisdom, and Almighty Power. 'Tis necessary in the first Place, to teach them that God is from Ever­lasting, and so distinguish'd from all Creatures; tho' it is very difficult to communicate any thing of that Nature to them, they having no Terms in their Language to signify an Eternity a Parte aute. 'Tis likewise necessary to discourse of [Page 232] my Discourse. And in such a Case no Impres­sions can be made upon their Minds to gain their Attention. They are not awed by hear­ing of the Anger of God engag'd against Sin­ners, of everlasting Punishment as the Portion of Gospel-Neglecters. They are not allured by hearing of the Blessedness of those who embrace and obey the Gospel. So that to gain their Attention to my Discourses, has often been as difficult as to give them a just Notion of the Design of them, or to open Truths in their proper Order.

Another Difficulty naturally falling under this Head I am now upon, is, that 'tis next to impossible to bring them to a rational Conviction that they are Sinners by Nature, and that their Hearts are corrupt and sinful, unless one could charge them with some gross Acts of Immora­lity, such as the Light of Nature condemns. If they can be charged with Behaviour contra­ry to the Commands of the Second Table—with manifest abuses of their Neighbour, they will generally own such Actions to be wrong, but then they seem as if they thought 'twas only the Actions that were sinful, and not their Hearts. But if they can't be charg'd with such scandalous Actions, they seem to have no Con­sciousness of Sin and Guilt at all, as I had Oc­casion to observe in my Journal of March [...]th. So that 'tis very difficult to convince them ra­tionally of that which is readily acknowledged [Page 233] (tho alas! rarely felt) in the Christian World, viz. That we are all Sinners.

The Method I take to convince them we are Sinners by Nature, is, to lead them to an Ob­servation of their little Children, how they will appear in a Rage, fight and strike their Mo­thers, before they are able to speak or walk, while they are so young that it is plain they are incapable of learning such Practices. And the Light of Nature in the Indians condemning such Behaviour in Children towards their Pa­rents, they must own these Tempers and Ac­tions to be wrong and sinful. And the Children having never learned these Things, they must have been in their Natures, and consequently they must be allowed, to be by Nature the Chil­dren of Wrath. The same I observe to them with respect to the Sin of lying. (which their Children seem much inclined to) They tell Lies without being taught so to do, from their own natural Inclination, as well as against Restraints, and after Corrections for that Vice, which proves them Sinners by Nature, &c.

And further, in Order to shew them their Hearts are all corrupted and sinful, I observe to them, that this may be the Case and they not be sensible of it thro' the Blindness of their Minds. That 'tis no Evidence they are not sinful, because they don't know and seel it. I then mention all the Vices I know the Indians to be guilty of, and so make Use of these sinful Streams to convince them the Fountain [Page 234] is corrupt. And this is the End for which I mention their wicked Practices to them, not because I expect to bring them to an effectual Reformation meerly by inveighing against their Immoralities; but hoping they may hereby be convinced of the Corruption of their Hearts, and awakened to a Sense of the Depravity and Misery of their fallen State.

And for the same Purpose, viz. to convince them they are Sinners, I sometimes open to them, the great Command of loving God with all the Heart, Strength and Mind. Shew them the Reasonableness of loving him who has made, preserv'd and dealt bountifully with us: And then labour to shew them their utter Neglect in this Regard, and that they have been so far from lov­ing God in this Manner, that on the Contrary he has not been in all their Thoughts.

These, and such like, are the Means I have made Use of in Order to remove this Difficulty, but if it be ask'd after all how 'twas surmounted? I must answer, God himself was pleased to do it with Regard to a Number of these Indians, by taking his Work into his own Hand, and mak­ing them feel at Heart, that they were both sinful and miserable. And in the Day of God's Power, whatever was spoken to them from God's Word, serv'd to convince them they were Sinners (even the most melting Invitations of the Gospel) and to fill them with solicitude to obtain a Deliverance from that deplorable State.

[Page 235] Further, 'Tis extremely difficult to give them any just Notion of the Undertaking of Christ in Behalf of Sinners, of his obeying and suffering in their Room and Stead, in Order to atone for their Sins, and procure their Salvation, and of their being justified by his Righteousness imputed to them.—They are in general wholly unacquainted with civil Laws and Proceedings, and know of no such Thing as one Persons be­ing substituted as a Surety in the Room of ano­ther, nor have any kind of Notion of civil Ju­dicatures, of Persons being arraign'd, try'd, judg'd, condemn'd or acquitted. And hence 'tis very difficult to treat with them upon any Thing of this Nature, or that bears any Rela­tion to legal Procedures. And altho' they can't but have some Dealings with the white People in Order to procure Cloathing and other Necessaries of Life, yet 'tis scarce ever known that any one pays a Penny for another, but each one stands for himself. Yet this is a Thing that may be suppos'd, tho' seldom practic'd among them, and they may be made to understand, that if a Friend of theirs pays a Debt for them, 'tis RIGHT that upon that Consideration they themselves should be discharg'd.

And this is the only Way I can take in Or­der to give them a proper Notion of the Under­taking and Satisfaction of Christ in Behalf of Sin­ners. But here naturally arise two Questions. First, What need there was of Christ's obeying and suffering for us, why God would not look upon [Page 236] us to be good Creatures (to use my common Phrase for Justification) on Account of our own good Deeds? In answer to which I sometimes observe, that a Child's being never so orderly and obedient to its Parents to Day, does by no Means satisfy for its contrary Behaviour Yester­day: And that if it be loving and obedient at some Times only, and at other Times cross and disobedient, it never can be look'd upon a good Child for its own Doings, since it ought to have behav'd in an obedient Manner always. This Simile strikes their Minds in an easy and forcible Manner, and serves, in a Measure, to illustrate the Point. For the Light of Nature (as before hinted) teaches them, that their Children ought to be obedient to them, and that at all Times; and some of them are very severe with them for the Contrary Behaviour. This I apply in the plainest Manner to our Behaviour towards God, and so shew them, that 'tis impossible for us, since we have sinned against God, to be justi­fied before him by our own Doings, since pre­sent and future Goodness, altho' perfect and con­stant could never satisfy for past Misconduct.

A Second Question, is, if our Debt was so great, and if we all deserved to suffer, how one Persons suffering was sufficient to answer for the whole? Here I have no better Way to illustrate the infinite value of Christ's Obedience and Suf­ferings, arising from the Dignity and Excellency of his Person, than to shew them the superior Value of Gold to that of baser Metals, and that [Page 237] a small Quantity of this will discharge a grea­ter Debt than a vast Quantity of the common Copper Pence.

But after all 'tis extremely difficult to treat with them upon this great Doctrine of Justifi­cation by imputed Righteousness.

I scarce know how to conclude this Head, so many Things occurring that might properly be added here: But what has been mention'd, may serve for a Specimen of the Difficulty of conveying divine Truths to the Understandings of these Indians, and of gaining their Assent to them as such.

Thirdly. Their inconvenient Situations, Savage Manners, and unhappy Method of living, have been an unspeakable Difficulty and Discourage­ment to me in my Work.

They generally live in the Wilderness, and some that I have visited, at great Distances from the English Settlements, which has obliged me to travel much, and oftentimes over hideous Rocks, Mountains and Swamps—frequently to lie out in the open Woods—depriv'd me of the common Comforts of Life, and greatly impair'd my Health.

When I have got among them in the Wilder­ness, I've often met with great Difficulty in my Attempts to discourse to them—Have some­times spent Hours with them in attempting to answer their Objections and remove their Jea­lousies, before I could prevail upon them to give me a Hearing upon Christianity.—Have [Page 238] been often oblig'd to preach in their Houses in in cold and windy Weather, when they have been full of Smoak and Cinders, as well as un­speakably filthy; which has many Times thrown me into violent sick Head-Acks.

While I have been preaching, their Children have frequently cried to that Degree, I could scarcely be heard, and their Pagan Mothers would take no Manner of Care to quiet them. At the same Time, perhaps, some have been laughing and mocking at divine Truths.—O­thers playing with their Dogs—Whittleing Sticks and the like. And this, in many of them, not from Spite and Prejudice, but for want of better Manners.

A View of these Things has been not a little sinking and Discouraging to me—has sometimes so far prevail'd upon me as to render me in­tirely dispirited, and wholly unable to go on with my Work; and given me such a melan­cholly Turn of Mind, that I have many Times thought I could never more address an Indian upon religious Matters.

The solitary Manner in which I've generally been oblig'd to live, on Account of their inconvenient Situations, has been not a little pressing. I have spent the greater Part of my Time for more than three Years past, intirely alone, as to any agreeable Society, and a very considerable Part of it have liv'd in Houses by myself, without having the Company of any human Creature. And sometimes have scarcely seen an English Man [Page 239] for a Month or six Weeks together.—Have had my Spirits so depress'd with me ancholly Views of the Tempers and Conduct of Pagans, when I've been for some Time confin'd with them, that I have felt as if banished from all the People of God.

I have likewise been wholly alone in my Work, there being no other Missionary among the Indians in either of these Provinces. And o­ther Ministers neither knowing the peculiar Dif­ficulties, nor most advantagious Methods of per­forming my Work, have been capable to afford me little Assistance or Support in any Respect.

A feeling of the great Disadvantages of be­ing alone in this Work, has discover'd to me the Wisdom and Goodness of the great Head of the Church in sending forth his Disciples two and two in Order to proclaim the sacred Mys­teries of his Kingdom; and has made me long for a Colleague to be a Partner of my Cares, Hopes and Fears, as well as Labours amongst the Indians; and excited me to use some Means in Order to procure such an Assistant, altho' I have not as yet been so happy as to meet with Success in that Respect.

I have not only met with great Difficulty in travelling to, and for sometime residing among the Indians far remote in the Wilderness, but also in living with them in one Place and ano­ther more statedly—Have been oblig'd to re­move my Residence from Place to Place—Have procured, and after some poor fashion, [Page 240] furnished three Houses for living among them, in the Space of about three Years past—One at [...], about Twenty Miles distant from the City of Albany; one at the Forks of Delaware in Pennsylvania, and one at Crosweek­sung in New Jersey. And the Indians in the latter of these Provinces (with whom I have latterly spent most of my Time) being not long since remov'd from the Place where they liv'd the last Winter, (the Reason of which I men­tion'd in my Journal of March 24. and May 4.) I have now no House at all of my own, but am oblig'd to lodge with an English Family at a considerable Distance from them, to the great Disadvantage of my Work among them; they being like Children that continually need Advice and Direction, as well as Incitement to their worldly Business.

The Houses I have formerly liv'd in are at great Distances from each other; the two near­est of them being more than Seventy Miles apart, and neither of them within Fifteen Miles of the Place where the Indians now live.

The Indians are a People very poor and indi­gent, and so destitute of the Comforts of Life, at some Seasons of the Year especially, that 'tis impossible for a Person who has any Pity to them, and Concern for the Christian Interest, to live among them without considerable Ex­pence, especially in Time of Sickness. If any Thing be bestow'd on one (as in some Cases 'tis peculiarly necessary, in Order to remove their [Page 241] Pagan Jealousies, and engage their Friendship to Christianity) others, be there never so many of them, expect the same Treatment. And while they retain their Pagan Tempers, they discover little Gratitude, or even Manhood a­midst all the Kindnesses they receive.—If they make any Presents, they expect double Satis­faction. And Christianity itself don't at once cure them of these ungrateful and unmanly Tempers.

They are in general unspeakably indolent and slothful,—have been bred up in Idleness—know little about cultivating Land, or indeed of engaging vigorously in any other Business.—So that I am obliged to instruct them in, as well as press them to the Performance of their Work, and take the Over sight of all their secular Business. They have little or no Ambition or Resolution.—Not one in a Thou­sand of them that has the Spirit of a Man. And 'tis next to impossible to make them sensible of the Duty and Importance of being active, diligent and industrious in the Management of their worldly Business; and to excite any Spi­rit and Promptitude of that Nature in them. When I have labour'd to the utmost of my Ability to shew them of what Importance 'twould be to the Christian Interest among them, as well as to their worldly Comfort, for them to be laborious and prudent in their Business, and to furnish themselves with the Comforts of Life; how this would incline the Pagans to [Page 242] come among them, and so put them under the Means of Salvation, how 'twould encourage re­ligious Persons of the white People to help them, as well as stop the Mouths of others that were dispos'd to cavil against them; how they might by this Means pay those they owe their just Dues, and so prevent Trouble from coming upon themselves, and Reproach upon their Chris­tian Profession. I say, when I have endea­vour'd to represent this Matter in the most ad­vantagious Light I possibly could, they have indeed assented to all I said, but been little mov'd, and consequently have acted like themselves, or at least too much so. Tho' it must be acknowledged, that those who appear to have a Sense of divine Things, are consider­ably amended in this Respect, and 'tis hopeful, that Time will make a yet greater Alteration upon them for the better.

The Concern I have had for the settling of these Indians in New-Jersey in a compact Form, in Order to their being a Christian Congregation, in a Capacity of enjoying the Means of Grace, the Care of managing their worldly Business in Order to this End, and to their having a com­fortable livelihood, have been more pressing to my Mind, and cost me more Labour and Fa­tigue, for several Months past, than all my o­ther Work among them.

Their wandering to and fro' in order to procure the necessaries of Life, is another Difficulty that attends my Work. This has often depriv'd me of [Page 243] Opportunities to discourse to them—Has thrown them in the way of Temptation, either among Pagans further remote where they have gone to hunt, who have laugh'd at them for hearkening to Christianity: Or among white People more horribly wicked, who have often made them drunk, and then got their Commodities, such as Skins, Baskets, Brooms, Shovels and the like, (with which they design'd to have bought Corn and other necessaries of Life for themselves and Families) for, it may be, nothing but a little strong Liquor, and then sent them Home empty. So that for the La­bour, perhaps, of several Weeks, they have got nothing but the Satisfaction of being Drunk once; and have not only lost their Labour, but (which is infinitely worse) the Impressions of di­vine Things that were made upon their Minds before.

But I forbear enlarging upon this Head. The few Hints I have given may be sufficient to give thinking Persons some Apprehensions of the Difficulties attending my Work, on Account of the inconvenient Situations and Savage Manners of the Indians, as well as of their unhappy Me­thod of living.

Fourthly. The last Difficulty I shall mention, as having attended my Work, is, what has pro­ceeded from the Attempts that some il-minded Per­sons have designedly made, to hinder the Propaga­tion of the Gospel, and a Work of divine Grace among the Indians.

[Page 244] The Indians are not only of themselves pre­judic'd against Christianity, on the various Ac­counts I have already mention'd, but, as if this was not enough, there are some in all Parts of the Country where I have preach'd to them, who have taken Pains industriously to bind them down in Pagan Darkness. Neglecting to enter into the Kingdom of God themselves, and labour­ing to hinder others.

After the Beginning of the religious Concern among the Indians in New Jersey, some endea­vour'd to prejudice them against me and the Truths I taught them, by the most sneaking, unmanly and false Suggestions of Things that had no Manner of Foundation but in their own Erains. Some Particulars of this Kind I former­ly took Notice of in one of the Remarks made upon my Journal concluded the 20th of No­vember last. And might have added yet more, and of another Nature, than those there men­tion'd, had not Modesty forbidden me to men­tion what was too obscene to be thought of. But, thro' the Mercy of God, they were ne­ver able by all their abominable Insinuations, flouting Jeers, and down-right Lies, to create in the Indians those Jealousies they desir'd to possess them with, and so were never suffer'd to hinder the Work of Grace among them.

But when they saw they could not prejudice the Indians against me, nor hinder them from receiving the Gospel, they then nois'd it thro' the Country, that I was undoubtedly a Roman [Page 245] Catholick, and that I was gathering together and training up the Indians in Order to serve a Popish Interest; that I should quickly Head them and cut Peoples Throats.

What they pretended gave them Reason for this Opinion, was, that they understood I had a Commission from Scotland. Whereupon they could with great assurance say, All Scotland is turn'd to the Pretender, and this is but a Popish Plot to make a Party for him here, &c. And some (I am inform'd) actually went to the civil Authority with Complaints against me, but only labour'd under this Unhappiness, that when they came, they had nothing to com­plain of, and could give no colour of Reason why they attempted any such Thing, or desired the civil Authority to take Cognizance of me, having not a Word to alledge against my Preach­ing or Practice, only they surmised that because the Indians appear'd so very loving and orderly, they had a Design of imposing upon People by that Means, and so of getting a better Advan­tage to cut their Throats. And what Temper they would have had the Indians appear with in Order to have given no Occasion, nor have left any Room for such a suspicion, I can't tell. I presume if they had appear'd with the contrary Temper, 'twould quickly have been observ'd of them, that they were now grown surly, and in all probability were preparing to cut Peo­ples Throats.

[Page 246] From a View of these Things I have had Occasion to admire the Wisdom and Good­ness of God in providing so full and authentick a Commission for the undertaking and carrying on of this Work, without which (notwith­standing the Charitableness of the Design) it had probably met with Molestation.

The Indians who have been my Hearers in New-Jersey, have likewise been sued for Debt, and threatned with Imprisonment more since I came among them (as they inform me) than in seven Years before. The Reason of this, I sup­pose, was, they left freqeunting those tippling Houses where they us'd to consume most of what they gain'd by Hunting and other Means. And these Persons seeing that the Hope of fu­ture gain was lost, were resolved to make sure of what they could. And perhaps some of them put the Indians to trouble, purely out of Spite at their embracing Christianity.

This Conduct of theirs has been very distres­sing to me; for I was sensible, that if they did imprison any one that embrac'd, or hearken'd to Christianity, the News of it would quickly spread among the Pagans hundreds of Miles distant, who would immediately conclude I had involv'd them in this Difficulty, and thence be fill'd with Prejudice against Christianity, and strengthned in their Jealousy that the whole of my Design among them, was to ensnare and enslave them. And I knew that some of the Indians upon Susquahannah had made this Ob­jection [Page 247] against hearing me Preach, viz. That they understood a Number of Indians in Ma­ryland some hundred of Miles distant, who had been uncommonly free with the English, were after a while put in Jail, sold, &c. Whence they concluded, 'twas best for them to keep at a Distance, and have nothing to do with Chris­tians.

The Method I took in Order to remove this Difficulty, was, to press the Indians with all possible speed to pay their Debts, and to ex­hort those of them that had Skins or Money, and were themselves in a good Measure free of Debt, to help others that were oppress'd. And frequently upon such Occasions I have paid Money out of my own Pocket, which I have not as yet receiv'd again.

These are some of the Difficulties I have met with from the Conduct of those who, not­withstanding their Actions so much tend to hinder the Propagation of Christianity, would (I suppose) be loth to be reputed Pagans.

Thus I have endeavoured to answer the Demands of the Honourable Society in Relation to each of the Particulars mention'd in their Letter.

If what I have written may be in any Mea­sure agreeable and Satisfactory to them, and serve to excite in them, or any of God's Peo­ple, a Spirit of Prayer and Supplication for the Furtherance of a Work of Grace among the [Page 248] Indians here, and the Propogation of it to their distant Tribes, I shall have abundant Rea­son to rejoyce and bless God in this as well as other Respects.

June 20. 1746.

P. S. Since the Conclusion of the preceeding Journal (which was design'd to represent the Operations of one Year only, from the first Time of my Preaching to the Indians in New-Jersey) I administred the Sacrament of the Lord's-Supper a second Time in my Congre­gation, viz. on the 13th of July. At which Season, there were more than Thirty Commu­nicants of the Indians, altho' divers were ab­sent who should have communicated: So consi­derably has God enlarg'd our Number since the former Solemnity of this Kind, describ'd some­what particularly in my Journal. This ap­pear'd to be a Season of divine Power and Grace, not unlike the former; a Season of refreshing to God's People in general, and of awakening to some others, altho' the divine Influence manifestly attending the several Services of the Solemnity, seem'd not so great and powerful as at the former Season.

D. Brainerd.
[Page 249]


SINCE my dear and Reverend Brother Brai­nerd has at length consented to the Pub­lication of his Journal, I gladly embrace this Opportunity of testifying, that our altogether glorious Lord and Saviour JESUS CHRIST has given such a Display of his Almighty Power and Sovereign Grace, not only in the external Re­formation, but (in a Judgment of Charity) the saving Converson of a considerable Number of Indians, that it is really wonderful to all Be­holders! Tho' some alas! not withstanding suf­ficient Grounds of Conviction to the Contrary, do joyn with the Devil, that avowed Enemy of God and Man, in endeavouring to prevent this Glorious Work, by such Ways and Means as are mention'd in the aforesaid Journal, to which I must refer the Reader for a faithful, tho' very brief, account of the Time when, the place where, the Means by which, and Manner how, this wish'd for Work has been begun and carried on, by the great Head of the Church.—And this I can more confidently do, not only because I am intimately acquaint­ed with the Author of the Journal, but on ac­count of my own personal Knowledge of the Matters of Fact recorded in it respecting the Work itself.—As I live not far from the In­dians, I have been much conversant with them, both at their own Place, and in my own Pa­rish [Page 250] (where they generally convene for Publick Worship in Mr. Brainerd's absence) and I think it my Duty to acknowledge, that their Conver­sation hath often, under God, refreshed my Soul.

To conclude, It is my Opinion, that the Change wrought in those Savages, namely, from the Darkness of Paganism, to the Knowledge of the pure Gospel of Christ; from Sacrificing to Devils, to present themselves, Body and Soul, a living Sacrifice to God, and that not only from the Persuasion of their Minister, but from a clear Heart affecting Sense of its being their reasonable Service. This Change, I say, is so great, that none could effect it but he who worketh all things after the good Pleasure of his own Will. And I would humbly hope, that this is only the first Fruits of a much greater Harvest to be brought in from among the Indians, by HIM who has promised to give his Son the Heathen for his Inheritance, and the uttermost Enas of the Earth for his Possession.—And hath also declared, That the whole Earth shall be filled with the Knowledge of the Lord, as the Waters cover the Sea.—Even so Lord JESUS come quickly. Amen and Amen.

I am, courteous Reader, thy Soul's well wisher, WILLIAM TENNENT.

The ATTESTATION of the Reverend Mr. MC'KNIGHT of Croswicks.

AS it must needs afford a sacred Pleasure to such a cordially desire the Properity and [Page 251] Advancement of the Redeemers Kingdom and Interest in the World; to hear that our merci­ful and gracious God is in very deed fulfiling such precious Promises as relate to the poor Hea­then, by sending his everlasting Gospel among them, which, with the concurrence of his holy Spirit, is removing that worst than Egyptian Darkness, whereby the God of this World has long held them in willing Subjection: So this Narrative will perhaps be more accept­able to the World, when it is confirm'd by the Testimony of such as were either Eye Witnesses of this glorious dawn of Gospel Light a­mong the benighted Pagans, or personally ac­quainted with those of them in whom (in a Judgment of Charity) a gracious Change has been wrought. Therefore I the more willingly join with my Brethren Mr. William Tennent and Mr. Brainerd, in affixing my Attestation to the foregoing Narrative, and look upon myself as concern'd in Point of Duty both to God and his People to do so, by Reason that I live con­tiguous to their Settlement, and have had fre­quent Opportunities of being present at their religious Meetings, where I have, with pleasing wonder, beheld, what I am strongly inclined to believe were the Effects of God's Almighty Power accompanying his own Truths; more e­specially on the 8th Day of August 1745. in which, while the Word of God was preach'd by Mr. Brainerd, there appear'd an uncommon Solemnity among the Indians in general; but I [Page 252] am wholly unable to give a full Representation of the surprising Effects of God's Almighty Power that appear'd among them when publick Service was over, while Mr. Brainerd urg'd upon some of them the absolute Necessity of a speedy closure with Christ, the Holy Spirit seem'd to be pour'd out upon them in a plentious Measure, insomuch as the Indians present in the Wigwam seem'd to be brought to the Jaylor's Case, Acts xvi. 30. utterly unable to conceal the Distress and Perplexity of their Souls; this prompted the pious among them to bring the dispers'd Congregation together, who soon seem'd to be in the greatest extremity, some earnestly beg­ging for Mercy, under a solemn Sense of their perishing Condition, (in their Language) while others were unable to arise from the Earth, to the great wonder of those white People that were present, (one of whom is by this Means, I trust, savingly brought to Christ since) nay, so very strange was the Concern that appeared among these poor Indians in general, that I am ready to conclude, it might have been sufficient to have convinced an Atheist, that the Lord was indeed in the Place. I am for my part fully perswaded that this glorious Work is true and genuine, whilst with Satisfaction I behold se­veral of these Indians discovering all the Symp­toms of inward Holiness in their Lives and Con­versation.—I have had the Satisfaction of joining with them in their Service on the 11th of August 1746, which was a Day set apart for [Page 253] imploring the divine Blessing on the Labours of their Minister among other Tribes of Indians at Sus­quahanah, in all which they conducted themselves with a very decent and becoming Gravity, and, as far as I am capable of judging, they may be propos'd as Examples of Piety and Godliness to all the white People around them, which in­deed is justly marvelous in our Eyes, especially considering what they lately have been.

O may the glorious God shortly bring about that desirable Time, when our exalted Immanuel shall have the Heathen given for his Inheritance, and the uttermost Parts of the Earth for his Possession

Charles Mc'Knight.

ATTESTATION of the Elders and Deacons of the Presbyterian Church in Freehold.

WE whose Names are under written, being Elders and Deacons of the Presbyterian Church in Freehold, do hereby testify, that in our humble Opinion, God, even our Saviour, has brought a consider­able Number of the Indians in these Parts, to a saving Union with himself.

This we are persuaded of from a personal Acquaintance with them, whom we not only hear speak of the great Doctrines of the Gospel with Humility, Affection and Understanding, but we see them walk (as far as Man can Judge) soberly, righteously and godly. We have joyned with them at the Lord's Supper, and do from our Hearts esteem them our Brethren in JESUS. For these who were not God's People, may now be called the Children of the living God: It is the Lord's Doing and it is mar­velous in our Eyes. O that he may go on Conquering and to Conquer, until he has subdued all Things to himself. This is and shall be the unfeign­ed Desires and Prayers of

  • Walter Ker,
  • Robert Cummins,
  • David Rhe,
  • John Henderson,
  • John Anderson,
  • Joseph Ker.
  • William Ker,
  • Samuel Ker,
  • Samuel Craig.

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