AN ADDRESS To the INHABITANTS of NORTH-CAROLINA; OCCASIONED By the difficult Circumstances the Govern­ment seems to labour under, for Want of a Medium, or something to answer in lieu of Money; for the Encourage­ment of the People, in regard to Business: To which is added, A PROPOSITION for a Paper-Currency, whereby the Possessors of the Soil may, in a very honourable Manner, and with cheerful Hearts, discharge their Quit-rents and publick Taxes: And whereby, also, new Life may be given to Trade and Commerce, so far as is necessary; which will be a natural Inducement to the fair Trader to settle and re­side in the Government, as well as the only Means to propagate Navi­gation (that necessary Branch of Business) in all its proper Parts.





WHEREAS the following Address and Propos [...]tions was put forth, under a Consideration, That we, the Inhabitants of North-Carolina, fall far short of having an equal Chance in the Value of our Labour with our neighbouring Colon [...]s, for Want of a proper furthering Trade amongst us, put [...] William Bord [...]n, of Carteret County, for the Encouragement of the People of this Province, to procure Commodities suitable, at their just Value, that would induce Farmers to i [...]port furthering Good into the Govern­ment; whereby they may have Opportunity to purchase the furthering Neces­saries at the best and cheepest Hand, by granting a new Emission of Paper Bills, lent out without Us [...], or any other significant Incumbrance; founded upon the Incouragement of Indus [...]ry, stayed and answer [...] [...] Respect of its Value, by Silver and Gold, it being their End and Center, as will m [...]re fully appear by the following Address or Propos [...]tion hereto annexed; or without Bills, as appears by a Proposition of a latter Calculation, but stitched in one Volume in Quarto; to which Propositions we refer the Reader for it is ma­ture [...]; and we, the Inhabitants of Carteret and Onslow Counties, [...] Opportunity to peruse and weigh them, are of real Opinion, that [...] Benefit, and vast Advantage to the Province, if rightly [...] Assembly, and prudently managed in each County; which [...] see to; therefore we thought, for our own Interest, [...] [...]eighbours, ourself under an Obligation, and in Duty [...] Counties the like Opportunity to peruse and [Page] weigh them: For we think them of great Importance, [...]nd the most proper Method, seeming to us, to put them in Print, and the most likely Way to give the Inhabitants the quickest Knowledge of them; therefore we have taken that Method n [...]w, respecting the first, and Intent of the latter Proposition: We are of Opinion, That the first Proposition would be [...]sily more advantageous to the Province than the l [...]tter, with that Proviso Liberty can be obtained, from the King, for a new Emission of Paper Bills, if Need require; which we doubt not but He would readily grant, if there appeared Prospect of Ad­vantage to His Province; which evidently appears in the first Proposition, viz. For a Paper Currency; and is made manifest by reasonable and sound Argu­ments, and proved by Arithmetick: And as to the latter, we believe it will be of great Advantage to the Province, and was calculated in case the King, upon Trial, should refuse to grant a new Emission of Paper Bills; but if we obtain our Request in that, we esteem it to be inferi to the former. Now, thinking it needless to advance further in Recommend [...] o [...] of them, concluding they are sufficient to recommend themselves, we shall not add, only this we have to request of our Neighbours, and Countrymen of this Province, in each County, that after a settled Perusal of them, and they appear to be warrantable, that you [...] to, and pass them on to the Assembly, for their Perusal and Consi­deration, in order, that if there appears no other Proposition of more Weight and Value, manifest by more reasonable and sounder Arguments, proved more authentickly by Arithmetick, to be of greater Ease and Benefit to the Inhabi­tants of this Province, to be put into a Law.

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IT is evident. That Mankind is liable to fall into many Casualties, and meet with grievous Misfortunes, in travelling through a howling Wil­derness, by taking indirect Measures and following wrong Courses: And would it not be high Ingratitude [...]f not a gross Sin in any M [...]n, who seeing his Neighbours in immin [...] Danger, on th [...] Bord [...]rs of a Desert, even almost arrived at the [...]ink of Destruction, and not call earnestly to them, and labour hard to inform them of right Ways, in which they might travel with [...]as [...] and Safety? Well,

Thus it app [...]rs, in the [...]y [...]s and Understanding of the Author, to be the very Case and pres [...]nt Circumstance of the Inhabitants of North-Carolina, which gives just and necessary Occasion for all the honest hearted, who reside in the Government, to call aloud to them, and labour to advise and infor [...] them [...]tter.

It is gen [...]rally allowed, That from the Liberties of Magna-Charta, all [...]ree-born Subjects to the Crown of Great-Britain, have a native [...]ight, not only to think their own Thoughts, but to speak freely also in all Cases, Matter [...], and Thing [...], [...] to their own Affairs, whether Publick or Pr [...]vat [...].

And whereas, the Government of North-Carol [...]na hath Liberty, from the Kin [...], to make wholesome Laws and Statutes, agreeable to its Constitution, for a Publick Benefit; Does it not, ther [...]fore, highly behove the Inhabitants to examine and con­sider, strictly, how far and how often it hath been mistaken in its View, in Times past, respecting a Paper Medium? Hath not our Paper Medium, in Times past, inst [...]ad of having a good Tendency, ev [...]r been a [...]nare and Perplexity, and Burt [...]en to the People? And is it not to be feared, will end or terminate to the R [...]in or [Page 2] grievous Hurt of many of the Commonalty? However, let that terminate as it may, what is past cannot be revoked; nor can Yest [...]rday be recalled: But does it not now (especially at this Juncture) highly behove the Inhabitants, to shape better Courses, and take more direct Measures, respecting a Medium, for publick Uses, as well as for Trade and Comm [...]r [...], lest the Government be reduced to the lowest Poverty, exposed to op [...]n [...], and appear ridiculous and scandalous in the Eyes of its neighbouring Gov [...]rnm [...]nt, and the Commonalty be destroyed in their In­t [...]rests? Does it not highly b [...]h [...]v [...] all the Inhabitants, to a Man, to consider well, which Way they shall tr [...]t the King with Honour, in discharging themselves, not only of their Quitr [...]nts, but by relieving themselves also in all th [...]ir oth [...]r Affairs? And when a Method is prescribed for the on [...], doubtless it may serve for the other also.

But, perhaps, some may query, What Proposal can be made, whereby the King shall be honourably tr [...]ted, in Regard to his Quitr [...]nts, &c? Oth [...]rs, per­haps, will answer and say, Let us rate our Manuf [...]ctori [...], in Ord [...]r to pay our Quit­r [...]nts and publick Charges: But if it is possible to pr [...]scribe some r [...]gul [...]r Method, to pay our Quitrents in Gold or Silver, according to Pat [...]nt, Will it not th [...]n be a gross Imposition, to pay the King his Du [...]s, with our lumb [...]ring Commodities? And to say, we will make him Amends, by und [...]rvaluing our Labour, and l [...]t him have our Commodities at a low Rat [...]: Pray what will all this amount to, but a bur­thensome and base Imposition upon the Inhabitants, and the on [...]y Way to di [...]hearten the People, and give the Government, on each Hand, the Advantage over [...]? And will it not, also, have a direct Tendency to discourage the further Settlement of the Country? Which all must allow will not be very consistent with the King's Inter [...]st, as well as for the common Advantage of the Province.

If this be the distressed State of North-Carolina, for want of a proper Currency, or useful Medium, whereby every Man may be enabled (honourably) to discharge his Duty to his King, in Respect to his Quitr [...]nts, as well as to promote Trade and Commerce (that necessary Article) in the Government, let it be well considered and examined into, Whether a n [...]w Emission of Pap [...]r Bills cannot be made useful to relieve the Inhabitants in their Distress, when all the former Emissions have had a Tendency, rather, to lead the Commonalty into further Intanglements, and to ag­gravate their Punishment? Let it be now examined into, Whether a new Emission of Bills cannot be projected, that shall afford them Relief. Cannot a Scheme be cal­culated for a Paper Currency that shall circulate freely, and be serviceable, in com­mon, to the Inhabitants, both gentle and simple, and not be liable to be hoarded up in Chests and Coffers, and hid in Holes and Corners, and in the End be made a Trap and Snare to the Commonalty? To which may be answered, Yea; as may more fully appear, by a Scheme h [...]r to annexed. Have not the Commonalty a na­tive Right (according to the Engl [...]sh Establishment) to hear, see, think, speak, and act, rationally, for themselves? Is not the General Assembly of North-Carolina constitut [...]d from Home? Does it not consist of three Branches, to wit, Governor, Council, and House of Burgesses, in Representation of King, Lords and Commons, in Great-Britain? If so, Are not then the House of Burgesses, in North-Carolina, one Branch of the Legislature? Are they not elected, to that Service, by the major Vote or Voice of the Commonalty? Are they not thus appointed, by each several [Page 3] County, in the Province, to give due Attendance at the General [...]ssembly, there to appear, as Eyes for the Commonalty, as Ears for the Commonalty, and as Mouths for the Commonalty? And, as they are thus sent forth, as it were, with the Lives and Liberties of the Commonalty in their Hands, to represent and serve the Com­monalty, in carefully guarding the Country, that no unwholsome Laws be inad­vertently made, that may prove burthensome and destructive to the Inhabitants; how ess [...]ntially necessary is it, then, for every honest-hearted Burg [...]ss, to think free­ly, and speak freely, in Behalf of the Commonalty, as he is in Duty bound, and, if possible, to suffer no inadvert [...]nt Proposal whatsoever, to be passed into a Law, that may in any wise be hurtful to the Commonwealth? And how vile must all such Burg [...]sses appear, in the Eyes of every honest-hearted, thinking Man, who, for sinist [...]r Views and Self-interest Sake, will betray so great a Trust? And inasmuch as there is too great an Aptness in Man, to be warp [...]d and swayed by Self-interest and sinister Views; how essentially necessary is it therefore, for every of the Com­monalty, to a Man, in every County, to be exceeding thoughtful and more than common careful, for the future, in the Choice of their Burgesses? For let it be con­sidered; Is there any Man made a Burgess, till he is elected and created a Burgess by the Commonalty? Is it not then the Commonalties immediate Concern and Business, to elect Men, who seek to be strictly just in their Principles, who will la­bour faithfully, also, to serve their King and Country▪ with Integrity of Heart, in Matters of so great Consequence as are c [...]mmitted to their Charge? Let it be con­sidered further, also; Can a legal General Assembly be held in the Province without a proper Set of such Burgesses? Is not the House of Burgesses one Branch of the Legislature, without whom no authentick Law can be enacted or made in the Go­vernment? If the Case be so, let it again be considered; If wild St [...]rage be made in the Province, whose Door then do [...]s the Fault lie at? Does the Fault lie at the Governor's Door, who represents the King's Person, and sits in General Assembly, waiting to give his Assent to all wholsome Laws that are enacted, having the Con­currence of both Houses? Let Charity be extended to the Governor; let him be excused. Is it owing then to the Council or Upper House? If it is known that the Misfortunes and heavy Burthens the Commonalty labours und [...]r [...]re owing to them, Why then are they not tax'd with it? Or is it not owing rath [...]r to the Weak­n [...]ss, Simplicity, and Folly of the Commonalty themselves, whose Right and Pri­vilege it is, to nominate and appoint the whole House of Burgesses, who are a House of Instruments created by the Commonalty, to give Attendance in the Ge­neral Assembly, in the Commonalties Stead and Place; there to act in all Matters and Things redounding to the King's Inter [...]st, and the Commonalties Good? Now if the Commonalty neglect this great Privilege and Point of th [...]r Duty, are they not then grossly to blame? If the Commonalty, instead of voting for M [...]n of In­tegrity, who have the Good of the Country at Heart, will vote for selfish Men, who, with private Views, are seeking in every Shape, privately to milk and gull the Commonalty, to advance their own private Interests; are not the Commonalty then much to blame, when instead of carefully chusing judicious Burgesses, who will labour faithfully to serve them in their Str [...]ights and Difficulti [...]s, and strive hard to relieve them in their Distress, do perhaps care and make Choice of heavy Task-Masters, who lord it over them? And what shall be said then in this Case? Does it [Page 4] not evidently appear▪ That it is chiefly, if not altogether, owing to the Though [...] and Conduct of the Commonalty, whether they move forward or go backward, whether they stand still, or whether they entirely fall? How highly then does it be­hove them to double their Diligence, as in Duty bound, for the Interest of their King, the Promotion of his Country, and for their own Good? Can it be supposed there are any, who (knowing the miserable and distressed State the Commonalty la­bours under) when a solid Proposition is made in General Assembly for the Country's Relief, that will presume to discourage or strike a Death to it, except it be such who are empty or void of Wisdom, Honesty, and common Humanity; even such whose vi­cious Inclinations move them to think, that by keeping the Commonalty in a State of Poverty and Distress, they may have the greater Opportunity to gull Mankind, reach­ing, in their Imaginations, after the Fat and the Fleece, when the poor [...]heep, by being kept to short Meat, are not able to get it? Which has also a direct Tendency, not only to sink the Value of the Government and destroy its Prosperity, but it ten [...]s also, in the End, to frustrate all such Men in their vicious Views and Mistaken Notions, of acquiring Honour and Int [...]rest to themselves; and by their avaricious and mean Way of Thinking and Acting, they may be instrumental to reduce the Government and themselves also, to a low State of Poverty and Shame. Wherefore let it be duly considered, whether it is not a Duty incumbent upon the Commonalty, when they have elected their several Burgesses, to caution them strictly to obs [...]rve, that when­ever a Proposition is offer'd in General Assembly, in Behalf of the Publick, that nothing be acted thereon, either for it or ag [...]inst it, but what shall be expos [...]d to publick View in Print, whereby the Commonalty, whose Right it is, may be satis­fi [...]d, who are seeking the King's Interest, and the Commonalti [...]s Good, and who are (in their mistaken Imaginations) seeking their by-Ends, and pursuing their own selfish Views. With what Abhorrence ought all such selfish Burgesses to be looked upon, whose Actions, and plausible Projections and Schemes, have a direct Tendency to the Downfal, Disgrace and Shame of any People? Whereas, on the other Hand, every honest, sincere-hearted Burgess, that leaves all selfish Views, and seeks the com­mon Good of his fellow Creatures; whose Labours, Projections and Schemes, have a Tendency to teach Frugality and promote Industry, is worthy of double Honour; without doubt it will be allowed on all Hands, that to propagate and promote In­dustry in the Province will redound to a publick as well as a private Good, which if wisely order'd, in a publick Manner, will produce all Manner of Necessaries of Life, so far as the Soil and Climate will bring forth: And this Thing called Industry, or Labour, with the Produce of it, must be allowed to be the Foundation and main Wheel of all Trade and Commerce: All which, if prudently entered upon, and honestly pursued, may be a Means to advance the King's Interest, by rendering his Government more valuable, and make the Commonalty a happy People; but if the Foundation Work is never properly laid, nor [...] Wheel in Trade and Com­merce never set a going, how can it be expected the Buildings shall ever go forward, or that the smaller Wheels and lesser Movements shall ever go round to a publick Advantage? Does it not highly behove the Commonalty of North-Carolina, to behold and consider well, the miserable State of the Govern­ment? How are the Inhabitants puzzled and put to their Shifts, in r [...]gard to Trade and Commerce? And how grievously are the Commonalty str [...]ightned, in buy­ing them Necessaries of Life, for want of a proper Medium? And how helpless is [Page 5] the Province in respect to Navigation? Are not the Inhabitants ( [...] want of a pro­per Navigation in the Government) obliged to purchase all their foreign Necessari [...]s at the very last and dearest Hand? When, perhaps, a Parcel of Goods or Merchan­dize have passed through the Expence of Navigation, &c. in the neighbouring Go­vernments, and have passed through the Hands of many Merchants or Traders, and they have all had their Profits on them, and Livings from them, then, perhaps, poor North-Carolina Planters have the Honour of eating, drinking, and wearing some of the riff-raff Remains, at a dear Rate: Pray consider, then, what all this amounts to, but a supporting Navigation and Trade in the neighbouring Go­vernments, at the Expence of the poor North-Carolina Planters: And, will this do? Is it possible this can redound to the King's Honour? Will this advance his Govern­ment? Will this make the Commonalty a happy People? Have the Navigators been in a Dream? or the Compass [...], and the Watchm [...]n [...]sl [...]ep? Does not the present State and Condition of the Gov [...]rnment make it [...]? What can be said to this? Can the Honour of the King's Government, and the Commonalty of North-Carolina, any more [...]e support [...]d by this Way of Management, than a Ship without a Bottom can be support [...]d above Water by pumping? Is it not all the same as labouring to pump the Ocean dry? Pray l [...]t this Point b [...] well consider'd: And if any, for Information, shou'd query, What Remedy can b [...] prescribed? Let it be obs [...]rved, That the Globe consists of several different Climat [...]s; it's evident, like­wise, that it produces sundry different Necessaries for the Use of Man: And, with­out all Doubt, it was so ordered, that Mankind shou'd have a Correspond [...]n [...] one with anoth [...]r. And wh [...]reas there is no Mill, or other Ma [...]in [...], can move, eff [...]ctu­ally, to the Advantage of its Mak [...]r, without Wind, Water, or some artificial Strength, to give it a Motion, so n [...]ither can the Province of North-Carolina hold a Corr [...]spondence abroad, nor c [...]rry on a pl [...]asant, profitable, and proper Trade a­mongst themselves, without a proper Medium to circulate amongst them, in Propor­tion, as from Time to Time th [...]re may appear to be a n [...]cessary Demand for it.

It's very evident that N [...]tur [...], under th [...] Order and Dictates of Providence, has been exceeding kind to the People of North-Carolina, even from its first Settlement to this Day; And may not the Advantages that Nature has afforded the Government, in Time past, (consid [...]ring the Mann [...]r of Improvement the Inhabitants have made of them) be compared to Rivers of Wat [...]r, that run plentifully for the Use of Man? But if those Rivers are continually running out on every Iland, and are not, by some Means or other, supplied in Proportion, must they not then, of Consequence, be drain [...]d dry? And is not this evidently s [...]en to be the State of North-Carolina? [...] evident to our View, That it h [...]ng [...], as it were, behind all the Provinces in [...], belonging to the Realm of Gr [...]t-Britain: Are not many of the Inhabi­tants very poor and n [...]edy? But notwithst [...]n [...]ing, Friend [...], Neighbours, Country­m [...]n and Partners, whose Wel [...]ar [...] is [...] sought [...]or, i [...] [...]ot di [...]heart [...]ed, or dismayed, at the Difficulti [...]s you l [...]bour un [...]r: [...] the ho [...]st-heart [...]d amongst you b [...] rather encourag [...]d, and [...], that by a mor [...] mature Thought, and better [...] amongst the Common [...]lty, in [...]cting and advising their [...] of Burg [...]sses, there may be Methods [...] pr [...]scribed to advance the King's Ho­nour, by putting the Province into a [...], and making his [...] a happy People▪ so that they who have but little in the [...] in a [...]lenti­ful Mann [...]r, and they who have much, may advance in Propo [...]ion.

[Page 6]The foregoing being left to your Consideration, it may not be amiss to say something [...]specting a Paper Currency; That is to say, on what Footing it may be most proper to put it forth, and how it may be most carfully improved, for the King's Int [...]r [...]st as well as for a publick Benefit, since every common Capacity knows, or may know, that by taking wrong Paths, or indirect Measures, Mankind is led into Difficul [...]s, if not to entire Ruin; which, in Order to escape, let the fol­lowing Ideas or Comparisons be solidly considered off:

Admit there were two wealthy Housholders, having, each of them, many Sons and others of the Houshold, and each of those Housholders put forth a Quantity of Bills of Credit, for each of their Families Use and Service; the first Housholder f [...]rnishes his Sons, and others of his Houshold, with their several Quotas thereof upon [...], making the said Bills their Mark and Cent [...]r, by obliging them to pay in a­gain the same Bills of Credit, with Interest, except they will redeem them with the Produce of their Labour at a very under Price; in [...]smuch then the said Bills will answer in li [...]u of their Labour, which they for [...]know must go at an under Price: How natural is it therefore, for those Sons and Servants of his, to turn Idle-packs, by jockeying, sh [...]rking, and perplexing each other, that by any Means they may procure said Bills, to discharge their Obligations, rather than to lie under the Name or Notion of a Disadvantage? The one, perhaps, in his Streights, sells a Plantation, and another a Yoke of Oxen, the Third a breeding Mare or Cow, under a Notion of getting those Bills of Credit; which Manner of trafficking and trifling away their Time, neither adds to their Lands, nor increases their Cattle, nor cultivates the Earth; the Consequence of which is, that what the one gets, the other must loose: And by thus neglecting their proper Business, their Houshold comes to Poverty and Shame.

But the other Housholder, wisely considering, that Food and Raiment were all that they wanted to support this Life, and inasmuch as Bills of Credit had no intrin­sick Value in themselves, and, of Consequence, would be of no Service, except they were made to answer in lieu of Money, to make an even Ballance between Neigh­bour and Neighbour, for proper Utensils, &c. to encourage Industry, whereby to procure Necessaries of Life; he therefore, neither obliged them, nor yet encou­raged them, to pursue those Bills of Credit, (as pursuing Birds in the Air) neither did he make those Bills their Mark or Center, which, when caught, afforded them neither Food nor Feathers; but wisely made the Necessaries of Life their Mark, and Gold and Silver their Center; obliging them to bring in the said Necessaries of Life, at their just Value, whereby the Houshold were plentifully and cheerfully fur­nished with the Comforts of Life, and all were encouraged together.

Well, if this be a proper Comparison, that conveys any Idea, is it not Time then to consider well of what is already written, together with the Tendency of it? and also of the great and mighty Handy-works of the Creation, which are evident to our View, and may teach to any People Knowledge? It is evidently seen that all Sorts of Creatures, of what Kind soever, have, in some Sort, a Scrabble in the World to live and support their Species; some Beasts, in the Wilderness, feed upon Grass, and other Herbs, and some upon other Fruits of the Earth; the Catterpiller spins her Webb on the Oak or Apple Tree, and depends for Food on the Leaves thereof, which come by Nature, (without any Cultivation or Propagation of their [Page 7] own) and they often times eat themselves out and peris [...]; some Sort of Birds find Use for Hair and Feathers, to build their Nests, others make Use of Sticks; the fishing Hawk is diligent (after her Kind) to get Fish for the Support of hers [...]lf and Specie; the Eagle, we may observe, is very dexterous, also, to look out sharp, tho' not with any View of lending the industrious Hawk a helping Hand, lest they shou'd both come to Poverty and Want; but the brightness of her View is only to take away what is already caught.

In a peculiar Manner, we may behold the industrious Bees; it may be observed of them, that so soon as they are [...]uietly hived and got settled, and not confused in their own Government, they immediately set to work with Courage, and gather their Wax, and draw Honey from almost all Sorts of Flowers: We may obs [...]rve also the Toad, which is an Annimal that often lies partly hid under Ground, whose na­tive Food is Worms, Flies, and Fleas; notwitstanding which, at Times, they will hop round those Hives of Bees, and when they find them engaged in their Wax and Honey, they are so avaricious and hungry after them, (whether by Instinct or ill Habit I leave) that without any Thought how, or wherewith they shall be sup­ported for the future, they make those industrious Bees their Prey; and those Bees, with their Honey in their Bowels, (when eaten by them) altho' extracted from spaci­ous Flowers, yet it's the Nature of that under-ground Animal to convert it to Poison, yea, of a poisonous Quality to all those who suffer their Hands to partake thereof or their Heads to be infused with it: And it is even further worth our Ob­servation, that when diligent Bees multiply and swarm, the young Swarms, natural­ly incline to assume to themselves their native Manner and Form of Government; notwithstanding which, many of them (through Loss of their native Guide or Want of proper Aid) get shatter'd, confused, and become useless in the Creation, even unworthy of Notice, although surrounded with rich and spacious Flowers: How apt are such ill-governed, shattered, and confused Swarms (for want of regular Guides to lead them in a native and free Manner) to grow lazy, contentious and quarrelsome? In and amongst such Swarms, Strife is often created, (no doubt with some seeming, though rude, Authority) whereby they are prompted, in an angry Humour, to sting, poison, and kill each other, to the total Destruction and Over­throw of themselves, even in their own Hives. Now, were it given to those Bees (which are created innocent in their own Nature) to conceive and see clearly, that the Reason of their lazy, indolent, contentious, and quarrelsome State, was owing to a poisonous Disposition in their unnatural Guides, by which they have suffered th [...]mselves to be govern [...]d; and could see also, it's poisonous Quality, how nearly resembling the Toad, that converts all h [...] com [...]nds with his Mouth to Poison: How natural is it to conclude, that those disordered and misled Swarms would be surprized at their own State and Condition, [...]nd be ready to fly for Shame, with Abhorrence of their past rude Conduct, and consult better Measures, to establish their Hive in a peaceable and better Settlement for the future.

But Mankind (the most noble of all in the Creation) seeing the Weakness and Frailty of all those Creatures, it may be reasonably thought and expected of and from them, That they will act upon more rational Principles, in getting the Neces­saries of Life, and supporting their Specie in the World, than either the dumb Beasts of the Field, the [...]lighty Fowls of the Air, or the creeping Insects which crawl upon the Face of the Earth.

[Page 8]And is it not evident also to our View, that when a Hive of Bees are not shattered nor confused amongst themselves, but having regular Guides to aid them in a pru­dent Manner, How mutually do▪ they proceed in their Business? whose Interest is inseparable, they being depend [...]t one on another, in regard to the Preservation and Support of each other; all being engaged and e [...]ployed in their proper Work, to the mutual Advantage of their little Community. And how do they carry on their Affairs together, with far more Dext [...]rity and Ingenuity, Yea, far more honourable, in providing and procuring their Necessaries, than many of the Creatures fore­mentioned.

May it not then reasonably be thought and expe [...]d of and from Man, (a [...]tional Being) that they shoul [...] far exceed the Bee (a poor Insect) in their Method and Manner of prescribing Ways and Means, that shall tend to a general Advantage of a Government? These Similies or Comparisons may serve to convey cautionary Ideas, in order that nothing may be projected on the one Hand, or adhered to on the other, but what may tend strictly, to the Revival and Preservation of a sinking Go­vernment; the only Remedy and Means, whereby both Province and People, in th [...]ir distress'd State and Condition, may be rebuilt, repaired and recovered, and like as all industrious well-governed Swarms of Bees are prosperous in gathering their Wax and Honey, even so both Gentle and Simple may be made to abound, in a plentiful Manner, with all the Comforts of this Life, by Dint of Industry and good Husbandry: For as those former Benefits and Privileges, we have received, that came as it were by Nature from the Wilderness, served the Inhabitants, then in the Inf [...]ncy of the Province, as well for a Medium as for Food and Raiment; it is now evident to our View, that those native Benefits have had their Time, they are almost eaten out and gone; Is there not then a Duty incumbent upon us, to emulate or strive to excel the Catterpiller, in labouring to encourage and assist each other, to cultivate and propagate something, substantial, in lieu thereof? In order that it may be so, I am willing (if it may be so received) to cast in a Mite, in some proper Structure or Building, furnished with all necessary Proposals, founded upon Reason, that may invite the Governor, Council, and House of Burgesses to view it; tending strictly to the mutual Benefit and Welfare of the Province of North-Carolina; having due regard to the King's Honour and Interest therein, which consists in the Pros­p [...]rity and flourishing State of his Kingdom and People. And whereas the Govern­ment of North-Carolina labours, perhaps, under almost as many Difficulties as can be named, for want of a proper Medium, the following Proposition is therefore of­fered to the mature Consideration of the Province, tog [...]ther with some Accounts, stated in Form, shewing (according to the Author's Appr [...]hension) the great Benefit and Advantage that would ac [...]r [...] to the Government, by granting an Emission of Bills of Credit, upon the Faith and Credit of the Province, Liberty first of all (with due Submission) being asked and o [...]ained from the King, if Need be.

Admit therefore the Government was to grant an Emission of an Hundred Thou­sand Pounds, Bills of Credit; be the Sum more or less, as may discretionally, be adjudged th [...]re should be a necessary Demand for; the said Bills to be made equal in V [...]lu [...] to Proclamation, as established by Parliament, and to go [...]orth upon Loan, on Land Security, for the Encouragement of Industry, and the landed Interests, which it believes every wise Planter to consult: The natural Tendency of which Scheme [Page 9] (if rightly considered) is, that those Bills of Credit (if wisely negociated) will ter­minate to the furnishing the publick Treasury with [...]n equivalent Sum, in Gold and Silver, to redeem them; and they also, in the mean Time, be a Means (gradually) to introduce a l [...]vely Trade in the Government; which will admit of a Growth, and may, eventually, be far more valuable to the Province, that ten Times the Value given it from far, which will as evidently appear hereafter.

It is farther proposed, That an Agent, or faithful Trustee, be appointed (by a Majority of Votes) in each County, by Act of Assembly, in order to receive their several Counties Quotas, or Proportion, of the said Bills of Credit, with proper In­structions: That those Trustees dispose of said Bills upon good warrantable Land Security, free of Interest or any other Incumbrances: Saving only, the proportionable Quota, or Part of the Charge of Plates, Paper, Printing and Signing; with neces­sary Expences in making said Bills of Credit; on Conditions, that the Borrower pay, annually, into the Hands of the Agent or Trustee af [...]r [...]said, the one tenth Part of what he received, in good m [...]rchantable Commodities, of the Produce and Manufacture of the Government (meaning such Commodities only, as are suitable for a foreign Trade or Market) and at such Prices as the same Commodities ar [...] sold for, in common, at Philadelphia or elsewhere in the n [...]ighbouring Governments, for Money of equal Value; by which Means those County Agents or Trustes, at ten annual Periods, will gradually be possessed of the whole Value of said Emission of Paper Currency, in good Country Produce, even such as in itself is valuable; and let those Agents or Trustees be so qualified and furnished with Instructions, that, as they receive those annual Tenths, in Country Produce as aforesaid, they may have Orders also, to sell the said Country Produce, or b [...]rt [...]r it away, to and with any Ship Masters and Merchant Traders, as shall and may import suitable Goods or Mer­chandize into the Government; always observing, duly, to contract with the said Ship Masters and Merchant Traders, that one Quarter Part of the Pay for said Coun­try Produce, be in Gold and Silver, and the other three Quarters in Goods and Mer­chandize, by Wholesale, for the Account and b [...]st Advantage of the Province▪ even such Goods and Merchandize as may be adjudged the most suitable for the Use and Service of the Inhabitants; and when the said Goods and Merchandize are so pur­chased, by the Agent or Trustee, by Wholesale, for the Account and Service of the Province, let those Agents or Trustees be impower'd further to sell or bart [...]r the same away, in small Parcels, to and with the Inland Traders and other Inhabitants, for the Produce and Manufacture of the Government as aforesaid; even such Com­modities as is or may be suitable for a West-India Trade or Market; always observing, duly, that a reasonable Advantage be made in the Sale of the Goods and Merchan­dize, aforementioned, in order to defray the Commissions and necessary Charges that shall or may accrue upon negociating the Aff [...]r; and in like Manner, let those Pro­duce or Manufacture of the Province, so purchased, [...]e again sold to Ship Masters and Merchant Traders, as aforesaid, for one Quarter Gold and Silver, and the other three Quarters in West-India, or other suitable Goods, and Merchandize, [...]it for the Use and Service of the Inhabitants: The Silver and Gold so purchased and received to go, annually, into the publick Treasury; and the Goods and Merchandi [...]e so purchased and received, by the Agents or Trustees, to be again negociated in l [...]ke Manner as before described, and so on. By which Means, i [...] the Affair is prudently [Page 10] negociated, it evidently appears, (to the Author's Understanding) that at the Expi­ration of a reasonable Term of Years, the Treasury would be furnished with One Hundred Thousand Pounds, in Gold and Silver, absolutely and clearly gained to the Province, by honest Industry; which will be there a valuable Pledge. (Let this be noted) that this Gold and Silver, so gained, will be lodged in the publick Trea­sury, a valuable Pledge, which will keep up the Value and Credit of the said Bills; and when ever the Government thinks fit [...]o put a Period to their passing as a Medium, the said Gold and Silver is there, ready, to redeem them from those who have them in Possession. Now if this Hundred Thousand Pound [...], Bill [...] of Credit aforemention­ed, (which in themselves are of no Valu [...] may have a Tendency to furnish the tran­s [...]nt Traders, and all Buyers and Sellers in the [...]rovince, with a wholesome and safe Medium in their Trade and Commerce, and may tend also to enable the Government to introduce, carry on, and support a lively Trade, according to the provincial Scheme afore described; and out of their Nothingness, may tend (with prudent Ma­nagement, in a reasonable Run of Years to enrich the Province with One Hundred Thousand Pounds in Gold and Silver, (which in itself has an intrinsick Worth,) therefore I query; If this Proposition were set on Foot, and was thus to opperate, to the enriching the Government a Hundred Thousand Pounds, in a reasonable Run of Years, pray, who then has the Inhabitants of the Province been at work for? Hath it not been for themselves? Is it not evident, that they borrow the Money of themselves? Do they not set themselves up in the World upon their own Founda­tion, even upon the Value and Credit of their Lands; and by one Consent have improved those Bills to their own Advantage, without Use or any other significant Incumbrance, saving only the Charge of making them; which is paid also out of the same Sp [...]cie?

Thus, the Author is of Opinion, It may be clearly seen, that the Province of North-Carolina, from its miserable State of Poverty, (saving the solid Soil, which is immoveable) may not only provide itself with a credible Medium, to stand [...]ast and steady in its Value, but may thereby raise itself up in the World, and be enabled to build on a right Foundation; even first of all, in their Business at Home; secondly, on a proper Bottom, for Navigation, Trade, and Commerce Abroad; and save themselves from the vast Charge of supporting Navigation, in the Neighbouring Governments, at the Expence of the Inhabitants of North-Carolina.

Hence may also be seen, on due Consideration, That the Streams formerly men­tioned, which are running out on every Hand, to the impoverishing both Publick and Private, may, by this Scheme, (if honestly pursued and improved) be turned and brought home, proportionably, to every of our Doors; whereby the Welfare of the Country may be credibly recovered, to the Honour of the King, and to the common Comfort of all the Inhabitants.

And further to evince, That such a Scheme, improved in such a Manner, would have such a Tendency; the following explanatory Accounts are formed, under a Supposition, that a Hundred Thousand Pounds were granted, by Act of Assembly, as aforementioned; and that Ten Thousand Pounds, of the same, were alotted as a proportionable Quota, to be negociated by an Agent or Trustee in Craven County, for the Account, common Benefit, and Use of the Province of North-Carolina; and the Formation of the aforementioned Accounts is introduced by an Account [Page 11] stated, by a supposed Agent or Trustee, for Craven County, betwixt the Province of North-Carolina and himself, (Agent or Trustee) in Manner following:

Province of North-Carolina, to and with Timothy Toaster, Agent, or Trustee, for Craven County.
    1745. Sept. &c. Fol. 00. By Bills of Credit, received of and from the Province Treasurer, to be improved according to Instructions, for Account and best Advantage of the Province aforesaid; and to be account­ed for in like Manner, agreeable to Act of Assembly, - - £. 10,000 00 00
    N. B. —The above 10,000 l. is to be lent to the Planters, on Land Security, free of Interest, &c. as the Scheme specifies.
1747. Sept. Fol. 15. To Gold and Silver, for so much conveyed this Day into the Treasury, it being a Quarter Part of one annual Tenth of the Paper Scheme, as nego­ciated in Craven County, for Anno 1746. supposed to be five Turns in Trade, viz.But for Conveniency of more easily conveying the intended Idea, the following Accounts run upon 1000 l. supposed to be one annual Tenth, or First Payment, from the Planters to the A­gent, or Trustee afore­said.—And let it be no­ted, that the said One Thousand Pounds is ne­gociated, carried on, and calculated, for five Turns in Trade and Commerce.1000000 [...]
 l.s.d.1747. Sept. Fol. 14. By Goods and Mer­chandize, per Draught on the Treasury, for what is over p [...]id in Gold and Silver▪23150 [...]
The first Turn2500000 10231506
Second Turn2250000    

Timothy Trimsquare, of Craven County, Planter, his Account with Timothy Toaster, Agent for the County aforesaid.
 l.s.d. l.s.d.
1745. Octo. &c. Fol. 00. To Bills of Cre­dit upon Loan, as per Mortgage Deed, &c. dated October, 1745. to be paid annually, a 10th Part thereof in the Pro­duce and Manufacture of the Province, as the Law directs, the First annual Payment becom­ind due Oct. &c. 1746.50000000Fol. 13. By Country Pro­duce, One annual Pay­ment, receiv'd this Day, Oct. &c. 1746.5000000
N. B.—That in negociating this Branch of the Business, there will arise a Charge of Commissions, for the Agents, or Trustees Trouble; which may be de­frayed, in Manner, as the Assembly may see to be most convenient.    

Leonard Lov [...]liquor, of Craven County, Planter, his Account with Timothy Toaster, Agent, or Trustee, &c.
 l.s.d. l.s.d.
1745. Fol▪—To Bills of Credit, upon Loan, as per Mort­gage Deed, &c. dated Oct. 1745. to be paid, annually, a Tenth Part thereof in the Produce and Manufacture of the Province, as the Law directs; the First an­nual Payment becom­ing due Oct. &c. 1746.50000000Fol. 13. By Country Pro­duce, One annual Pay­ment, receiv'd this Day, Oct. &c. 1746.5000000
—Thus the aforementioned Bills of Cre­dit are lent out to the Planters, on Land Security: And the next Action in the Affair, is to receive in the an­nual Tenths; for which an Account is also stated▪    

Country Produce, or Manufacture of the Province, as the Law directs, in the Paper Scheme.
 l.s.d. l.s.d▪
1746. Oct. Fol. 12. To Timothy Trim­square, for one annual Payment of his Loan Money, receiv'd this Day in Country Pro­duce, as Pork, Beef, Lumber, &c.50000001746. Nov. Fol. 14. By Tom Thumb, Commander of the Sloop Rover, for Pork, Beef, Lumber, &c. sold him, agreeable to Act of As­sembly, to be paid, one Quarter in Gold and Silver, the other three Quarters in Goods and Merchandize,100000
Oct. Fol. 12. To Leonard Love­liqu [...]r, for his annual Payment of his ditto, in like Mann [...]r,5000000 100000
Dec. Fol. 16. To Ieffry Iill­pot an Co. for Sundries receiv'd of them, as Beef, Pork, Lumber, &c. for Account of the Province,9000000Ian. Fol. 17. By Stephen Sagamore, Commander of the Sloop Good-Luck, for Pork, Beef, Lumber, &c. to be paid in Manner as aforesaid,900000
1746-7. Mar. Fol. 16. To ditto, for ditto, receiv'd in like Manner, amounting to81000001747. April. Fol. 17. By Peter Punch, Merchant, Commander of the Brigantine D [...]ver, for Beef, Pork, Lumber, &c. sold him, to be paid for, in Manner as aforesaid,810000
1747. May. Fol. 16. To ditto, for ditto, receiv'd in like Manner; for Account of the Province, a­mounting to7290000Iune. Fol. 17. By ditto, for a Parcel of Pork, Beef, Lum­ber, &c. receiv'd in like Manner,72900 [...]
Iuly. Fol. 16. To ditto, for ditto, receiv'd in like Manner; for Account of the Province,6 [...]60200Aug. Fol. 17. By ditto, for Pork, Beef, Lumber, &c. re­ceiv'd in like Manner,65602 [...]

Tom Thumb, Commander of the Sloop Rover.
 l.s.d. l.s.d.
1746. Nov. Fol. 13. To Country Produce, Pork, Beef, Lumber, &c. sold and de­livered him on Conditions, that he pays for the same, one fourth Part in Gold and Silver, and the other three Fourths in suitable Goods and Merchandize: for Ac­count of the Province,100000001746. Nov. Fol. 14. By Goods and Merchandize, so much receiv'd of him, accord­ing to Contract,7500000
Fol▪ 15. By Gold and Silver, re­ceiv'd of him, according to Con­tract, in full,2500000

Goods and Merchandize, for Account of the Province.
 l.s.d. l.s.d.
1746. Nov. Fol. 14. To Tom Thumb, Comman­der of the Sloop Rover, for sun­dr [...] Goods and Merchandize, re­ceiv'd of him, according to Con­tract, Value75000001746. D [...]em. Fol. 16. By Ieffry Iillpot and Comp. Inl [...]nd Traders, for Good, sold them, in Parcels, 750 00 0 Advance at 20 per Cent. 150 00 09000000
Ian. Fol. 17. To Stephen Sagamore, Com­mander of the Sloop Good-Luck, for ditto, the second Turn in Trade.67500001746▪ 7. Mar. Fol. 16. By ditto, for Goods sold them, in Parcels, 675 00 0 Advance at 20 per Cent. 135 00 08100000
1747. Apr. [...]ol. 17. To Peter Punch, Mercht. Commander of the Brigt. Diver, for a Parcel of Goods and Mer­chandize, the third Turn in Trade,60710001747. April. Fol. 16. By ditto, for Goods, in like Manner, 607 10 0 Advance at 20 per Cent. 121 10 07290000
Iune. Fol. 17. To ditto, for a Parcel of Goods and Merchandize, the 4th Turn in Trade,5461500Iuly. Fol. 16. By ditto, for Goods and Mer­chandize parcelled out, in like Man­ner, 546 15 0 Advance at 20 per Cent, 109 07 06560200
Aug. Fol. 17. To ditto, for a Parcel of Merchandize, the fifth Turn in Trade,4920106 30950200
Sept▪ Fol. 11. To the Province of North-Carolina, for a Draught on the Treasury, it being so much [...] Gold and Silver,231506Sept. Fol. 16. By ditto, for a Parcel of Mer­chandize, being the Purchase of the fifth Turn in Trade, contracted to be paid in Bills of Credit, for the Use of the Province, 492 01 6 Advance at 20 per Cent. 98 08 35900909
 30950200 36851109
To sundry Charges for Commissions, Porterage, Housing, &c. which▪ were omitted heretofore, on Purpose, for Conveniency Sake.    
Transferred to Folio 18.   Transferred to Folio 18.   

Gold and Silver, for Account of the Province.
 l.s.d. l.s.d.
1746. Nov. Fol. 14. To Tom Thumb, Commander of the Sloop Rover, receiv'd the Quar­ter Part, according to Con­tract, it being the first Turn in Trade,2500001747 Sept. Fol. 11. By the Province of North-Carolina ▪ for so much Gold and Silver, paid this Day into the Treasury, agreeable to Act of Assembly, &c. it be­ing the Produce of one annual Tenth of the Pa­per Scheme, as negocia­ted for Craven County, —1023156
Ian. Fol. 17. To Stephen Sagamore, for so much receiv'd, be­ing a second Turn in Trade,225000    
1747. Apr. Fol. 17. To Peter Punch, Merchant, Commander of the Brigantine Diver, for so much receiv'd, in like Manner, on a third Turn in Trade,202100    
Iune. Fol. 17. To ditto, for so much receiv'd, in like Manner, on a fourth Turn in Trade,182050    
Aug. Fol. 17. To ditto, for so much receiv'd, in like Manner, on a fifth Turn in Trade,164006    

Ie [...]y Iillpott and Company, of Craven County, Inland Traders, &c.
North-Carol. [...]ContraCr.
 l.s.d. l.s.d.
174 [...]Dec. Fol. 14. To Goods and Mer­chandize, for Sundries, sold and delivered them▪ in Par­cels, to be paid for in Coun­try Produce, as per Act of Assembly, amounting to7500001746. Dec. Fol. 13. By Country Produce, for Beef, Pork, Lumber, &c. r [...]ceiv'd of him for Account of the Province,900000
Advance at 20 per Cent.150000    
1746-7. March. Fol. 14. To ditto, parcelled out, and to be paid for in [...]ke Manner, amounting to6750001746-7. March. Fol. 13. By ditto, receiv'd in like Mann [...]r, for Account of the Province,81000 [...]
Advance at 20 per Cent. [...]35000
1747. May. Fol. 14. To ditto, in like Man­ner,6071001747. May. Fol. 13. By ditto, receiv'd [...] like Manner, for Account of the Province,729000
Advance at 20 per Cent.121100
Iuly. Fol. 14. To ditto, in like [...], [...]46150Iuly. Fol. 13. By ditto, receiv'd in like Manner, for Account of the Province,636020
Advance at 20 per Cent.109070
Sept. Fol. 14. To ditto, for a Parcel of Merchandize, being th [...] Purchase of the fifth Turn in Trade; for which they are to pay, in Bills of Credit, for Account of the Province,492016    
Advance at 20 per Cent.98083    

Stephen Sagamore, Commander of the Sloop Good-Luck.
 l.s.d. l.s.d.
1746. Ian. Fol. 13. To Country Produce for Sundries sold him, as Beef, Pork, Lumber, &c. to be paid, the one Quarter in Gold and Silver, the other three Quarters in Goods and Merchandize, for Account of the Province; Value9000001746. Ian. Fol. 14. By Goods and Mer­chandize, for Sundries, as per Agreement, according to Act of Assembly, for the Use of the Province; Value675000
Ian. Fol. 15. By Gold and Silver, receiv'd in full, for Account of the Province,225000

Peter Punch, Merchant, Commander of the Brigantine Diver.
 l.s.d. l.s.d.
1747. April. Fol. 13. To Country Produce, for Sundries sold him, as Beef, Pork, Lumber, &c. to be paid, one Quarter in Gold and Silver, the other three Quarters in Goods and Mer­chandize, agreeable to Act of Assembly; Value8100001747. April. Fol. 14. By Goods and Mer­chandize, so much receiv'd agreeable to Contra [...] for the Use of the Province, Value607100
Fol. 15. By Gold and Silver, receiv'd in full Payment, per Agreement,202100
Iune. Fol. 13. To ditto, for a Parcel of Pork, Beef, Lumber, &c. sold him, to be paid for in like Manner as formerly, for Account of the Province,729000Iune. Fol. 14. By Goods and Mer­chandize receiv'd, agreeable to Contract, for the Use of the Province,546150
Fol. 15. By Gold and Silver, receiv'd in full, per Agr [...]e­ment, for th [...] Us [...] of the Province,182050
Aug. Fol. 13. To ditto, for a Parcel of Country Produce, in like Manner, for Province Ac­count,6 [...]6020Aug. Fol. 14. By Goods and Mer­chandize receiv'd, agr [...]eable to Contract, for the Us [...] of the Province, [...]016
Fol. 15. By Gold and Silv [...]r, receiv'd in full, by Agr [...]e­ment, for th [...] Use of the Province,16 [...]006
     6 [...]0020

Goods and Merchandize continues.
 l.s.d. l.s.d.
1747. Sept. —To Foot of Account brought from Folio 14.3095201747. Sept. —By Foot of Account brought from Folio 14.9685119
—To sund [...]y Charges for Com­missions, Porterag [...], Housing, &c. as aforesaid, viz. Com­missions, &c. on Country Produce; the first receiving in, at 2 and a Half per Cent. on 1000 l.       
October, 1746.25000    
Nov.—D [...]tto on Sales thereof at 2 and a half per Cent.25000    
Half Commissions for receiv­ing Goods and Merchandize, in the first Turn in Trade and Commerce,12100    
Dec.—Commissions, &c. at two and a half per Cent. for Sales of Goods and Merchandize, on 900 l.22100    
Ian. — Ditto, for receiving Country Produce, at 2 and a half per Cent. on 900 l.22100    
Ditto, on Sales of ditto,22100    
Half Commissions, for re­ceiving Goods and Merchan­dize, the 2d Turn in Trade,11050    
—Commissions, &c. at 2 and a half per Cent. for Sales of Goods and Merchandize, on 810 l.20050    
Ditto, for receiving Coun­try Produce,20050    
Ditto, for Sale of ditto,20050    
Half Commissions for receiv­ing the Goods and Merchan­dize, the 3d Turn in Trade,10026    
Transferred to Folio 19.   Transferred to Folio 19.   

Goods and Merchandize continues.
 l.s.d. l.s.d.
1747. To Foot in Folio 18,3095020By Foot in Folio 18.3685119
To Foot brought forward short,212026    
Commissions for Sale of Goods and Merchandize, at 2 and a half per Cent. on 729 l.18046    
Ditto, for receiving Country Produce,18046    
Ditto, for Sales on Country Produce,18046    
Half Commissions, for receiv­ing the Goods [...]nd Merchan­dize, the 4th Turn in Tr [...]e,9020    
Commissions, for Sale of Goods and Merchandize, at 2 and a half per Cent. on 656 l. 2 s.16084Craven County, North-Carolina,
Ditto, for receiving Country Produce,16084September, 1747.
Ditto, for Sales of Country Produce,16084Errors excepted▪ per
Half Commissions, for receiv­ing Goods and Merchandize, the fifth Turn in Trade,8042Timothy Toaster, Agen [...] or Trustee for Craven
Commissions for Sale of Goods and Merchandize, at 2 and a half per Cent. on 590l. 9s. 9d. it being the last Parcel sold to Ieffry Iillpott and Company, in Sept. 1747.14169County.
Ballance due, in Favour of the Province of North-Carolina, remaining under the Care and Notice of the Agent or Trustee,24 [...]057    

[Page 20]Thus, from the foregoing Accounts (by diligently negociating one annual Tenth [...] Thousand Pounds, in Craven County) is shewn, That in five Times turning the said Thousand Pounds; whether it be accomplished in one Year, or whether it may require more Time than a Year; be that as it may; yet it evidently appears, that by five Turns of said Thousand Pounds, in Trade, there is, thereby, conveyed into the publ [...] Treasury a Thousand Pounds, in Gold and Silver; and a [...] the same Time ther [...] is an out-standing Debt, remains due to the Province (from Ieffry Iillp [...]t and Company of Five Hundred and Ninety Pounds Nine Shillings and Nine Pence, contracted to be paid in Bills of Credit; which is sufficient to pay the Agent or Trustee, T [...]ree Hun [...]red Forty Eight Pounds Four Shillings and Two Pence, for his Commissions, [...]ort [...]r [...]ge, &c. and when said Charges are so paid, there yet re­mains due, from I [...]ffry Iillp [...]tt and Company (in Favour of the Province) Two Hundred Forty Two Pounds Five Shillings and Seven Pence, in Bills of Credit: And it is likewise farther to be considered, that the One Thous [...]d Pounds aforesaid, has not only, in five Turns in Trade, furnished the [...]reasury with One Thousand Pounds in Gold and Silver, clear of Charge, with Two Hundred Forty Two Pounds Five Shillings and Seven Pence, good to the Province, in Bills of Credit; but the Inhabitants of Craven County has been, perhaps, supplied in the mean While with West-India Goods, and other Necessaries, for their Use and Comfort, to the Value of Three Thousand Seventy One Pounds Six Shillings and Six Pence, at prime Cost.

Now, if this be the good Effects of negociating and turning One Thousand Pounds, in Craven County, Pray, let it be considered, That as this is but One annual Tenth of what is negociated in the Province; the Treasury, then of Consequence, will be fur­nished or supplied, from the sev [...]ral Counties in the Province, with Ten Thousand Pounds, for every [...]ive Turns in Trade; and will have good in its Favour at every five Turns in Trade aforesaid, Two Thousand Four Hundred and Twenty Two Pounds Fifteen Shillings and Ten Pence in Bills of Credit.

Now whereas it so evidently appears, That this Scheme hath so grand a Tendency to a publick Benefit, as well as of private Service in the Province; therefore if any other Schemes, for a Paper Curr [...]n [...]y, is proposed in the Province, pray let their Authors produce them, that they may be examined and proved, whether they are of equal Weight, or whether they will, eventually, contribute more than this to a publick Good; whereby the Inhabitants may also be in a Capacity, honourably, to discharge their Duty to their King, in regard to Quitrents, &c.

N. B. The foregoing Script is left to the mature Thought of all judicious Peo­ple in the Gov [...]rnment, who have Opportunity of reading it; and it is referred to their solid Consideration. And as the Author conceives it is evidently manifest, that th [...]re would be an Advantage to the Publick, by thus encouraging the Inhabitants, in Manner afor [...]sai [...], to bring in the Produce of their Labour, in lieu of Bills of Credit, a Qu [...]ry th [...]r [...]f [...]re aris [...]s, Whether it would not be as proper a Method to [...]ring in the Value of the Quitrents in like Manner, seeing it appears, evidently, to be in no wise charg [...]bl [...] to the Publick; but quite the Reverse; as is sufficiently [...], by the Run of Accounts hereto annexed?

But as a Town or City cannot so properly be built in a Year, even so this, per­haps, may (gradually) be brought to pas [...]. In the mean Time, it's the Author' [...] [Page 21] Opinion, that the Quitrents may also be discharged in the aforementioned Bills of Credit, in as much as they are equal in Value to Proclamation: And it may, per­haps, without Difficulty be so ordered, that the Receiver General may, at proper Seasons, exchange them in the Treasury, for Gold and Silver; and when said Bills are so brought home and centered in the Treasury, there arises another Query▪ Whether the same Bills, so brought home as aforesaid, may not, by a new Life given them, by Act of Assembly, be again [...]ent out in Manner as formerly, to [...]ply their Place again, as a Medium?


Second Month, 1745.

HAVING a native Right to advise with you, who represent the Govern­ment, (as I doubt not, upon due Consideration, but you will readily grant) be pleased then to peruse the following Lines, viz.

I, having heard that you are returned home from the General Assem­bly, may say, am surprized to hear so little you have done, tending to a Publick Good: I wou'd query; Have you weightily considered the miserable distressed State of the Government? The Reasons why it is so, and that it shou'd be thus far ast [...]rn, or as it were, behind all the rest of the Governments (belonging to the Realm of Great-Britain) in America? Let me solidly query; Have you weightily consi­dered of that weighty and necessary Point aforementioned, and of the Reasons why it so happened? The Inhabitants, without doubt, were in Hopes you were then going with Resolution on that Design and Purpose, as well as to labour to establish some Encouragements in a prudent Manner for its Recovery, by laying a proper Foundation for the [...]nhabitants to build upon; even to propagate and raise proper Produce: The Effects whereof, to furnish and s [...]pply the Inhabitants, as well with a Proportion of Silver, necessary, as all other foreign Commodities as shall or may be wanting; a material Point to have ent [...]red upon Years ago; and much more so in our Day, if you, that are Members of the present House of Burgesses, carelesly neglect such great and weighty Points of your incumbent Duty. Pray, for what Use then are you elected to att [...]nd the General Assembly?

[Page 22]2dly, As you represent each Cou [...]ty in the Province, as Ears, Eyes, and Mouths for the People, I query th [...]refore▪ How stands the Affair of Trade and Commerce in the Government? Does it appear to your View, that we have an equal Chance with our neighbouring Gov [...]rn [...]nts? If not an equal Chance with them, then, Why is it that Navigation, [...] abroad, is not prudently promoted in the Go­vernme [...]? Why is it not wis [...]ly encouraged and set on Foot as far as may be agree­able wit [...] Reason, and [...], from our Mother Country, in Order that our Importation of foreign Necess [...]ri [...], for Eating and Wearing, may come to us at the first and best Hands?

3dly, And in order, that every Capacity may discover the Reason, why the Peo­ple of the Government labour under such a low State of Poverty and Distress, in r [...]spect to Trade and Commerce, let the Account [...] of Merchandize in our neighbour­ing Government [...], b [...] car [...]f [...]lly examined into, which will evidently demonstrate to us, whether we have an equal Chance with them, Yea or Na [...] ▪ We may be well assured, that except our Navigation and Manner of Trade and Commerce, be so calculated, that we can, at all Times, sell the Produce of our Labours, at its true Value, equal in Proportion with our neighbouring Governments, and be put in a Capacity, also, in the Course of our Trade and Commerce, to purchase all our foreign Necessari [...]s at an equal or proportionable Lay with them; I say, except our Scheme for Navigation, Trade, and Commerce, be thus calculated, there must of Consequence, be Poverty on our Side; in which Stat [...], we are made even a Pr [...]y to our neighbouring Governments, in respect to Trade and Comm [...]rce▪ as by In­formation it evidently appears. We may find, that at New-York, Beef is sold from 40 to 60 s. per Barrel; which being reduced to our Currency, at Six for One, is 12 to 18 l. per Barr [...]l, our Money; Pork we may find, goes from 50 to 80 s. per Bar­rel; which being reduced, at Six for One, is 15 to 24 l. per Barrel, our Money: And, moreover, ev [...]n the many Sorts of Timber, in our neighbouring Govern­ments, became valuable, by Means of a proper foreign Trade; whereby many of the Inhabitants (instead of being at an immence Charge to burn it in Heaps) were enabled, by the Produce thereof, to clear their Lands.

And on the other Hand, it is said, That Sugar, by the small Quantity, is sold from 4 to 8 d. per Pound; which being reduced, at Six for One, is 2 to 4 s. per Pound, our Money: Melasses is said to be sold, from 16 to 18 d. per Gallon, by the Hogshead; which being reduced, at Six for One, is 8 to 9 s. per Gallon, our Mo­ney: Thus it may appear, by a reasonable Computation, to any Eyes, except they are blind, and to any ones Understanding, except it is stupified, that what Sugar the Inhabitants of New-York expends in their Families, at 2 to 4 s. per Pound, our Money; we cann [...] [...]xp [...]nd the same in our Families here▪ [...] 5 to 7 s. and 6 d. per Pound, in ou [...] [...]; and so, in like Mann [...]r, what Melasses they expend in their Families, at 8 to 9 s. per Gallon, our Money; we must expend the same in our Families here, at 25 to 30 s. per Gallon, in our Way of Trade, or otherwise go without it. Salt also, from 2 to 3 s. in New-York, which being re­duced, at Six for One, is 12 to 18 s▪ per Bushel, our Currency, for which we must give 30 to 40 s. per Bushel h [...]re: And so, in some Proportion, we may conclude it i [...] with other Merchandize.

[Page 23]Well, if the Case be so, pray consider then, What does all this amount to? Does it not plainly shew, that we are supporting Navigation, Trade, and Commerce in New-York, or other of our neighbouring Governments, who are trading with us, at the Expence of our own Inhabitants, to the impoverishing the Publick, and starving the Private, which tends, eventually, to the Destruction of the whole Province: And I query; At whose Door does the Fault lie, that it is so? Is not this proper Business for you? And that you weightily consider those Affa [...]s, and as carefully pursue proper Remedies? Is it possible for the Government to subsist and keep Pace with the neighbouring Governments, while we are running in those indi­rect Paths? Is it possible that the Commonalty shall steer cl [...]r of [...]overty whilst in those Paths? In which State▪ Is it possible for them to cultivate their Lands, and be instrumental to propagate the King's Government according to their Pattents? Or, Is it possiible for them to accomplish two or three Day's Work in one Day, or to raise two or three Acres of Corn in one Acre of Ground, and all other necessary Produce in Proportion thereto? Or is it not rather, so far inconsistent, with a ratio­nal Idea, that the Labourer is obliged to work upon such Terms, the Effects whereof, will hardly purchase him wherewith to cover his Nakedness, unless the Employer suffer Loss? I appeal to your own Consciences, Is not the State of the Government even such? They that have six or eight Negroes, with proper Utensils for Business, have rather a Scrabble to live, without being, as it were, h [...]ld up by the Head or Heels, by King or Commonalty, or in some other Shape than their Plantation Business can afford them, under the present State of the Province. What Encouragement is this; to introduce Foreigners for the further Settlement thereof? Or, How shall a poor Man be able to support his Family, or comply with his Landlord, for his Rents? Or be they not so poor, in common, for Reasons before-mentioned, that they become rather a Charge to him▪ Which Way, in the Uni­verse, can you think, that the Inhabitants (excepting such as join upon the other Governments) shall be able to discharge themselves, even of their Quit-r [...]nts, &c. and carry on their other Affairs on such heavy and discouraging Terms and Con­ditions as the Government of the Province now stands? I could [...]e [...]rtily wish those Affairs were made the chiefest Concern of your Minds, in respect to the Govern­ment; and that you, (as a first Movement) might, in a regular Manner, give it a proper Motion, and it's to be hoped, nor do I doubt at all, but that, if those Points are regularly moved, in the House of Burgesses, the other two Branches of the Legislature would co-work together with you, whereby such wholesome L [...]ws might be Enacted, that the Government, from its low and distressed State of Po­verty, might be recovered: Doubtless there may be Means and Methods proposed, whereby the Province may be pres [...]rved and raised over all those Difficu [...]ti [...] it la­bours under; provided the Legislature carefully lay the Foundation, in a proper Manner, and be more than ordinary careful, also, not to undervalue the Province nor the Produce of it, themselves, for that it is, at present, so destitute of a M [...]d [...]u [...], whereby to promote Trade and Commerce amongst ourselves: Such a Mistak [...], in­deed, might be looked upon, as a gross Imposition upon ours [...]lv [...]s, and in no wise conducive to establish good and wholesome Governments in the [...]rovince: Such a Mistake would be inconsistent, in respect to propagating the King's Government, and Interest in it, as it would also be again our own, to be obliged to quit and ne­glect [Page 24] our Plantations, and slee to the neighbouring Governments for Relief of Ne­cessaries, as well as for a Medium for Trade and Commerce, perhaps, at 150 per Cent. Loss to the Publick; and may we not be well assured, that the King bars you not from acting, encouraging, and supporting his Children? Has he not rather waited, as in Compassion, for several Years, that you might propose something in a proper Manner to answer as a Medium, even for his Quit-rents? What stood in your Way? Or what hindered you, that Bill was not prepared and presented to the Upper House, in order to have a Pass to the Governor, for his Assent, with the King's Approbation, to a Proposition well approved of? May we not reasonably conclude, that the King (as a Father▪ hearing of our Poverty, matters not whether a Medium be prepared of Paper, Leather out of old Shoes or new ones, provided it be upon a proper Footing, which may tend to propagate and populate his Go­vernment? But, no doubt, was w [...]ary of the old Currency, emitted w [...]out Con­ditions of Cultivation or Propagation, excepting the Interest thereupon arising▪ which Sort of Paper Currency, with all its interest, has ever been as Traps and Snares, perplexing and vexatious, tending even to Poverty itself: And will it not (if not already accomplished) leave us in that Condition? But, as it ever was, so per­haps it is now, None so blind as they, who, in their Imaginations are above Learning, or at least, will not see: What an Imposition would it have been upon the Merchants, Yea, even to Nations, provided their Mariners would not be advised, nor put by, of their former Methods or Mann [...]r of Navigation, who usually make it a three Year's Voyage to the Last-Indies, which is now o [...]t [...]n accomplished in eighteen Months, cen­suring perhaps all those, who had a clear Sight of more direct Methods, without look­ing through their Spectacles? But, as it [...] not then touch nor ruffle any but the proud, peevish, and guilty, is it not even so now? Men of just Principles, Honour and Integrity, are willing as well to hear as they are to see; they are as willing to perceive and understand as they are to speak.

Now, to [...]hew by what Method or [...] Government may find Relief, I re­fer you, first, to a Proposition, dir [...]cted to the Inhabitants of North-Carolina ▪ and, upon your mature Consideration thereof, doubt not but you will find Encourage­ment to proceed in such Manner, agreeable thereto, as may meet with Concurrence in the Upper House, and the Governor's Ass [...]nt, (the King's Approbation being first asked and obtained) but, if not, th [...]re may be other M [...]thods, whereby the Pro­vince may find Relief from its distressed State and Condition.

We may be well assured, that the Inhabitants will be glad to have the Benefit of their own Labour, and hope the Legislature are as willing they should, it being for the Int [...]rest of the Government. I query, Where is the Man among us, that hav­ing the Opportunity (at any Time) to exchange the Produce of his Labour, at the first and b [...]st Hand, where perhaps 50 l. may be far better to him than 100 l. but would r [...]dily embrace it? How natural is it for Men to be pleased at such Oppor­tuniti [...]s of Advantage? But if it should be manifested and made evidently to appear, that such a Thing mig [...]t evidently be brought to pass, by the Help of the Legisla­ture, and if any Man or Set of Men, should rise up in Opposition, what can be said of them? Will it not evidently appear▪ that such Opposition must be owing to either Prejudice, Ignorance, or some selfish Views? How can it be construed otherwise? I would therefore offer a Proposition to the Governor, Council, and House of Burgesses, for their Perusal and Consideration:

[Page 25] Firstly, I would propose, That an Agent or Trustee be appointed (by a Majority of Votes) in each County, to provide suitable Store-houses for Merchandize.

Secondly, Each Tithable to bring in (annually) for a Term of Years, such a Part of the Produce of his Labour, as you may, discr [...]tionally, think to be sufficient to supply the Inhabitants with foreign Necessaries.

Thirdly, Let the Agent or Trustee afore-mentioned, for each County, be autho­rized to receive the Produce, aforesaid, from each Tithable, in such as shall be good and merch [...]ntable, and of the Manufacture of the Province, suitable for a foreign Market, and at such Prices as the same Commodities are (in common) sold for, at Philadelphia, New-York, or elsewhere, for Money of equal Value.

Fourthly, Let these Agents or Trustees be so qualified and furnished with Instruc­tions, That (as they receive those annual Tithables, in Country Produce, as afore­said) they have Orders to exchange or barter the same away, to and with any Ship Masters and Merchant Traders, as shall or may import suitable Goods and Mer­chandize into the Government, always observing, duly, to contract with said Ship Masters and Merchant Traders, that such a Proportion of the Pay, for the said Country Produce, as you may think proper, be in Silver and Gold, and the other in Goods and Merchandize by Wholesale, agreeable as it is purchased in the Go­vernments afore-named, for the Account and Benefit of the Publick, even such Goods and Merchandize as may be adjudged the most suitable for the Use and Ser­vice of the Inhabitants; and when the said Goods and Merchandize are so pur­chased by the Agents or Trustees, that they be impowered further to deliver to every of the Inhabitants (in Proportion to their Tithables) the said Goods and Mer­chandize, at prime Cost, as purchased by the Agents or Trustees aforesaid, as also their Proportions of Silver and Gold; reserving only a certain Quota or Proportion, for defraying the Charges of Commissions of Porter [...]ge, &c.

By thus negociating Trade and Commerce, in a publick Manner in the Govern­ment, for a certain Term of Years, I humbly conceive, that by a reasonable Com­putation it will appear, that fifty Pounds, then, will be f [...]r more valuable to each In­habitant, than an Hundred Pounds is now.

For whereas, in our present Manner of trafficking, when the New-Yorkers can ex­pend Sugar in their Families, at Two to Four Shillings per Pound our Money, we must, at same Time expend it in our Families, at Five to Seven Shillings and Six Pence per Pound; and when the New-Yorkers can expend Melasses in their Fami­lies, at Ei [...]ht to Nine Shillings per Gallon, our Money, we must at same Time expend it in our Families, at Twenty Five to Thirty Shillings per Gallon; and when the New-Yorkers can purchase Salt, at Twelve to Eighteen Shillings per Bushel, we (in our wil [...] and rude Manner of trafficking must purchase the same here, at Thirty to Forty Shillings; and even so it is, in some Proportion, with all other Goods and Merchandize; and when they defray their Charges of clearing their Lands by then [...]mber, we must be at an immence Charge to burn it in Heaps.

Now, admit the Query was put to the Inhabitant [...] of North-Carolina, Man by Man, whether they would chuse to remain in the perplexed State and Condition they are now in, in respect to Trade or Commerce, as well as in regard to paying their Quit-rents and publick Taxes, &c. Or whether they would chuse, rather, to be taxed Five, Ten, or Twenty Pounds per Annum ▪ to promote such a Trade as [Page 26] [...]

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