Free Grace indeed! A LETTER TO THE REVEREND Mr. John Wesley, Relating to His SERMON AGAINST Absolute Election; Published under the TITLE of Free Grace.

LONDON, Printed, PHILADELPHIA, Re-printed. BOSTON, Re-printed by ROGERS and FOWLE, for J. EDWARDS and S. ELIOT in Cornhill. 1741.




I Have perus'd your Sermon publish'd under the plausible Title of Free Grace. If an Enemy to the Power of Godliness, had de­clared himself against the Election of Grace, by as plain Indications of implacable Hatred, as you have done in this printed Sermon, I should not have been surpriz'd at it; when I remember, what Opposition that and other Doctrines founded upon it, have met with, from the Pelagians of old, Papists, Socinians, and the Self-Righteous Arminians of late: But to hear the Whispers of the Enemy, reviving from the Mouth, and Pen, of the Reverend and learned Mr. Wesley, gives me Room to appre­hend, That there is none, in Time, can plead Ex­emption from sinning.

[Page 4]I am persuaded, That it was neither Enmity, or any other known or wicked Motive, gave Rise to this Discourse against Election, but a certain ill-grounded Persuasion, That what you have delive­red, is the Truth as it is in Jesus, and therefore found yourself obliged to declare it to the World.

However (humanum est errare) I'm far from ad­vising you to venture your eternal All upon this Bottom. You'll therefore pardon me, when I say that I'm convinced, not only, That what you have delivered is not the Truth as it is in Jesus, but also find myself obliged to declare so much to you.

And tho' in Justice to the well ordered and ever­lasting Covenant, I cannot be of your mind, in the Point of universal Redemption; yet let us agree to put on Bowels of Mercy, Gentleness and Long-suffer­ing, in Meekness inquiring the Way to Zion: That when the Day breaks, and the Shadows fly away, it may be reported in Emanuel's Land, See how the disputing Children are come home, and lovingly warm their Souls under the Redeemer's Wings.

You have been at some Pains, Section 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8, to put the Calvinistical Notion of Elec­tion in a clear Light. You might have said all in less Bounds, viz.

They hold, an eternal, absolute, personal Electi­on, of a certain Number of Adam's Seed to Salvati­on, without an antecedent Respect to any Qualifi­cation in them, and they leave you to conjecture, how God shall deal with the rest.

You also hold an Election, which (if I mistake not) is this, § 28. ‘An eternal unchangeable [Page 5] Decree to save all Men in the general, respecting this Qualification or Condition, If they should suf­fer Christ to make them alive; That God fore­seeing who would and would not suffer Christ to make them alive, did eternally and unchange­ably elect those who would:’ And you leave them to conjecture, how God shall deal with the rest.

I find, upon Examination, That the Difference between the two Schemes, as to the Consequences, is not worth the half of your Sermon. Yes; you'll say, ‘The Doctrine of absolute Election is attended with seven Consequences horrible in their Na­ture, hurtful in their Tendency, uncomfortable to Man, and blasphemous towards God, and my Election upon Fore-Knowledge is not.’ If those forced Inconveniencies have determined you against absolute Election, I hope if they should attend your own, you'll abandon that too. Let us see:

You'll admit there is a certain Disposition in one Man to embrace Christ, that is not in another, who rejects him; for if there is no such Disposition, then, if ever God finds out any, it must be in an absolute Way, which you will not allow. §. 3. Therefore in your own Account, they are only the Elect, who, ‘according to the Fore-knowledge of God, would suffer Christ to make them alive;’ i. e. whom he did foresee were disposed to believe. You'll admit, That the omniscient God did, from Eternity, Foreknow the Number and Names of [Page 6] the Persons so disposed, or (if you please) whom he was to dispose.

You'll grant also, That this Fore-knowledge of God is eternal, unchangeable and infallible, to exclude all Possibility of Mistake; and by Conse­quence the State of those elected upon it, must be eternal, unchangeable, and infallible also: And if so, then follows your first Consequence. §. 9. Vain ‘is our Preaching, and vain the People's Hearing, for whether with, or without these, God in­fallibly knows whom he did foresee in Heaven, and whom in Hell; these shall unavoidably be saved, and those unavoidably damned.’ For it is absolutely impossible, any thing should be otherwise than as God did foresee it; for Instance, if of Forty Persons, God did eternally, and unchangeably foresee Twenty disposed, and Twenty indisposed, to "suffer Christ to make-them alive," he as eternally and unchangeably elected these, and over-looked those; upon which, the State of both is eternally fixt; no one single Circumstance in the State of either can be otherwise, than as unchangeably Foreseen.

If so, your second Consequence follows, §. 10. ‘This tends to destroy Holiness, by wholly taking away the first Motives to follow after it, viz. The Hope of Heaven and the Fear of Hell. These can be no Motives to him to struggle for Life, who believes’ God did foresee him in Heaven, or Hell; "his Lot is cast already," upon the Foundation of God's Fore-knowledge, who knoweth who are his: ‘And tho' he knows not [Page 7] whether it is Heaven, or Hell, this helps not the Matter; for (if you judge rightly) if he knows he shall infallibly be in the one or in the other, it is not reasonable for him to be holy, or practise any particular Branch of Holiness; such as, Meekness or Love. §. 11. Yea, if he believes, (according to you) suspects or fears any such thing, what Comfort can he have from all the precious Promises of God,’ Which is your third Consequence, §. 12.

Again: If the Foundation of God's Fore-know­ledge stands sure; ‘This destroys our Zeal for Good Works, for whether with, or without them, shall unavoidably be in Heaven or Hell; and if we happen to know that the most Part of Mankind shall be damned, this lessens our Love to them, we believe it is the Will of God they should die. Yea; tho' we should not know whether they shall be in Heaven or Hell, only believe they shall land in the one or in the other, our Labour is vain, &c.’ Which is your fourth Consequence, §. 17.

Also, ‘By this Doctrine of a Fore-known Elec­tion, the whole Christian Revelation is destroy­ed, it is not necessary,’ for known to God are all his Works. The limited Number of Persons whom from Eternity he did foresee in Heaven, shall infal­libly be there, and no other shall, whether Revela­tion or none, which is your fifth Consequence. §. 18. All I foresee you can answer is, as God did infallibly foresee some in Heaven, so he did as infallibly foresee the Death of Christ, the Christian Revelation, [Page 8] preaching, hearing and Good Works, as the Means towards their being there. So say I on absolute E­lection, as God decreed a certain Number to Salva­tion, so he also decreed Christ's Death, the Christi­an Revelation, preaching, hearing, and Good Works, as the Means towards that End; And where is the Difference?

Again, This Doctrine of Fore-knowledge ‘makes the Christian Revelation contradict itself;’ for Instance, The Assertors of it interpret that Text, He is not willing that any should perish, &c. as im­plying that God made no Man to be damned, quite contrary to that Text, Prov. xvi. 4. The Lord made All for himself, yea, even the Wicked for the Day of Evil; which is your sixth Consequence.

Lastly, ‘This Doctrine contains in it manifest Blasphemies.’ §. 23, 24, 25; For instance, The Lord Jesus, the omniscient God invited every individual Sinner to him, and wept because of the Hardness of Men's Hearts, tho' he did foresee some of them in Hell, as infallibly as his Knowledge was clear and uninterrupted from Eternity, and yet (with Reverence to the Eternal, I repeat your Words) ‘like a Hypocrite, a Deceiver, a Man void of common Sincerity, invites to Favour whom he knew would never come.’ You see that the Consequences with which you have load­ed Absolute Election, so as naturally attend your Election upon Fore-knowledge, which has made some consistent Gentlemen of your Way, say, That God suspends his Knowledge in such a Case i. e. destroys his own being; and, That God cannot [Page 9] know Contingencies, i. e. what depends upon the Will of another. Some Men chuse rather to bid an open Defiance to Heaven than hold Predestination! I hope God will not allow you to be hurried their Length. But perhaps you'll say, That God's Fore-knowledge has no causal Influence towards the Exi­stence, or Non-existence of any thing. I answer, just as much as his positive Decree; for Instance, God did Decree from Eternity I should write to Day; he did eternally and infallibly foresee that you would read to Day; it is therefore as eternally impossible for you not to read, as it is for me not to write; or it was as certain from Eternity, That you should read and I write, as it is when we have done both: And yet it is certain, you find your­self free to read or not read, and I myself to write or not write. So that hitherto your Doctrine of Fore-knowledge, is as narrow, ungenerous and ill-natured, as absolute Election. Let us see whether your next Account of it is more generous.

You tell us (§. 3.) ‘The Grace or Love of God is free in all to whom it is given.’ You must mean Paul's Love to God, or God's Love to Paul. Paul's Love to God, is not free: Christ bought it, the Spirit wrought it and supports it. Therefore you must mean God's Love to Paul is free. What did constitute Paul's [...] to that Love? Christ's Death: That has founded a Title to every Individual of Adam's Seed, as well as to Paul; there must therefore be some distinguishing Love to Paul, to make him differ from Simon, call it a Second Love, or a more intense Degree of the same Love, or without Degrees, the same Love ap­plied [Page 10] or what else you please; it is plain, the first would be a Cypher in Paul's Salvation, without the last. I ask, What did constitute his Title to that Second Love? You answer, §. 3. ‘Not any thing he is, or has done, not his good Purposes, Endeavours, good Desires, or Intentions, these flow from the Grace, or Love of God, not it from them.’ Never Predestinarian made Grace more absolute! It is then, in all possible Respects free, which others call absolutely free; and since it depends on nothing in, or about Paul, it (must if we speak Sense) be irresistable too. Thus you have got into absolute and irresistable Grace. You'll go further, and own, That God purposed Yester­day, to give that Grace to Paul to Day, and what he purposed Yesterday, he purposed from Eternity; for there are no new Acts in the Will of God, but ‘through one Eternal Now, the same;’ So that God's Love to Paul is absolute, irresistable and eternal. You'll also grant, That God from Eter­nity, could distinguish Paul by Name and Person, from Simon: That as purposely, freely, knowingly, and eternally, God dealt with Paul; so with every Peter and Paul who shall be in Glory: And I am sure you will not deny, that God from Eternity did know their exact Number, Names, and Persons. And as to the Decree of God, it is his eternal, con­tinued Thought or Purpose, (use which Term you will) knowing, fore-knowing, seeing, discerning them, without the least Desire, Intention or En­deavour on their Side, (as you have granted) to bribe his eternal Respect. So that by what you have ad­mitted, you are as absolute a Predestinarian as any in Town.

[Page 11]However, let that be as it will, you'll overturn all immediately: Grace must depend, in its coming and going, on some Power in Man, tho' at the Expence of God's Fore-knowledge, Power, and Wisdom; yea, to the utter Confusion of all God's Ways, and Works; and it must be confess'd, you are not Singular in this Conduct; for enquire of the Counsel of Trent, of all Papists (excepting a few Jan­senists) of the Church of England (excepting the Ar­ticles, and a few serious Ministers, who are rarae aves in terris) and of all other Universalists, whether Grace is free? You shall be answered; It is Free; and sometimes front their Performances with Free Grace; when their plain Meaning is free in the general, free to all, and free to none, unless they bribe it with a good Disposition, and a few good Works to help it up, free, as it is God's, and bought as it is ours; first by Christ for every Body, and next by every Body for himself: Or free at a Di­stance, which will never come unto you, unless you go to it; and tho' it should happen to come, you may resist it: Or free for the taking, i.e. if you get Faith, God will get Grace; or if you get a Pur­pose, a Disposition, God will find Faith, and more Grace after that: Free in the Purchase, brib'd in the Application: Free in the Offer, clogg'd in the Enjoyment: Free in the Front, mercenary in the Body: Free in Sound, and bound in Fact. Now, Sir, if this was your Meaning, why was you disinge­nuous, to write the first Part of your Sermon? And if not, why was you injurious, to write the last? For I defy an Angel to reconcile both together, with the Proviso he speak Sense: However, you'll attempt it.

[Page 12]§. 4. "Grace is free for All;" What All? Every Child of the first Adam, Christ tasted Death for All, and procured the Love of God in the general? How then comes the Difference to be made? by God's Fore-knowledge of Something in the one, which is not in the other. What can that be? A Power to choose, or to refuse. Every Man has that Power (you say) in virtue of Christ's Death, they are yet on a Level: What more? Faith in the one, and not in the other. What Faith? either the general Faith of Christ's coming to the World to save Sin­ners, which Devils have as well as Men; or that which purifies the Heart, and distinguishes from Men and Devils? You'll say the last; tho' the Generality of your Way are wise, tho' irreligious, to hold by the first. How does he foresee this Faith in them; as his own, or as theirs, or as his and theirs together? Not entirely as his, for as such, he is willing every Man should have it; not entirely as theirs, it is the Gift of God: It must be his by Giving, and theirs by Acceptance and Enjoyment. How come they to ac­cept of it, and not others; It must be either by a peculiar Turn in their Constitution, or by a certain Act of their Will? It cannot be by the first, that would argue Partiality in the Maker, or something worse, which you will not allow; it must then be by an Act of their Will, a Turn, a Desire, a Purpose, call it what you will: It is very plain, that all the awful and mysterious Proceedings of God, in relati­on to Man's Salvation entirely depend for Success, on a single contingent Turn in the Will of Man. And it is as plain, that thus far the CREATOR depends on the Creature; the Creature introduced [Page 13] as more absolute than he CREATOR; and the CREATOR traduc'd as the weak Creature; which may appear by the following Similitude:

An old, loving, tho' weak and imprudent Prince, passes an Act of Grace in favour of a Rebellious Province, and freely justifies every one of them; so did my God (you'll say ‘for the World is justi­fied;’ the Prince gives them Arms to fight, or not fight for him, as they found themselves disposed; so did my God ‘give a Power to choose, or to refuse;’ the Prince ordered Estates to be purchased, and Mansion-Houses built for them, near his own Palace; so did my God provide a Heaven and there a Mansion for every of Adam's Seed: the Prince dispatches his Servants, inviting the Rebels to enjoy the Effects of his Generosity; so did my God, &c. All this is [...] [...]jected; behold the [...]! Most part of the Rebels scorn his [...] their Enmity, employ all their Power [...] his Designs; and they are resolved, com [...] [...] come Life, never to be reconciled.

This is reported to the Prince; [...] sor­rowful and angry at the Disappointment, and whom shall he blame? He once set his Love upon Ob­jects he now hates, because he was not knowing enough to foresee the Reasons of his Hatred; or fondly loves them still, tho' he knows they shall never love him. His Weapons are employ'd against himself; and to the Destruction of his Subjects, be­cause he was unwise, yea cruel in giving them; ignorant, in not foreseeing the Abuse of them; his Treasury is exhausted, his Money lost, the Estates unpossessed, the Houses desolate; and the poor [Page 14] Prince cannot help it, or make the Rebels better minded towards him; and tho' he should attempt it, they have now Power in their Hands to oppose him, and effectually to resist him with his own Weapons: But, tho' he cannot reclaim them, he can destroy them. How shall he destroy whom he is supposed to love? And how can he hate, who is all Love? Thus the Scheme, for most part, proves ineffectual, and it is more by Chance than good Con­duct, it takes any Effect at all; for the touchy Wills of the consenting Few, were within a Hair's Breadth of joining with the greater Numbers, only some lucky Minute or other cast the Balance. The Application is easy.

'Tis impossible, Sir, upon your Scheme, to dis­tinguish between the Characters of God, and this loving, unwise, and ignorant Prince; and shall such a one be our God, who cannot resist our Will, whose Love and Hatred are, and are not like our own; with whom we can contend in projecting, and who cannot help himself more then we, when disappoint­ed? He shall be our God, who is (every way) the same to Day, Yesterday, and for ever; who is in one Mind, and who can turn him; and what his Soul de­sireth, that he doth; whose Counsel shall stand, and do all his Pleasure. And as, by your Scheme, God and that Prince carry the same Character, so your Scheme and That, are exact Parallels, plausible in the projecting and first mentioning (which makes it take with those, whose Notions of earthly Prin­ces and Wisdom are uppermost, and those who spend more of their Thoughts upon themselves than their God) he unfortunate in the Execution, and merely accident to its Effects.

[Page 15]How will the ETERNAL come off without Shame, upon this universal vagrant Scheme? Let him sit from everlasting in Consultation with his Wisdom; let him speak an Universe to Being; let Heaven, Earth and Hell be shaken; let all Things in the Power of the Almighty be done, even to the pledging his Glory, easting his Honour in the Dust, and making his Soul an Offering for Sin. Where shall all this vast Expence of eternal Knowledge, Wis­dom, and Power end? Fortune only can determine. The amazing Contrivance is entirely the Mercy of one single fortnitous Cast in the Will of Man, and the Contriver himself said to have cast it on this acci­dental Hinge, which one would think unworthy Supereminent Wisdom. Said to have cast it! Who says so? Not Angels, they cannot resist his Will; but Men embark in Satan's Quarrel to say it! Men! Monstrous! Wonder, O Heavens, he horribly afraid; the Ox knoweth his Owner—but my People know not me.

How will God come off? What if one of the pettish Seed of Adam should in some Period of Eter­nity, rise and attack his God thus; ‘Now thou Lord of this higher House, I am with thee, but I owe thee no more Thanks than my Brother in Hell. How so? ‘Thou didst once pass an Act of In­demnity in his Favour as well as mine. But I loved thee freely. ‘True; and whatsoever Freedom was in thy Love towards me, was also in thy Love to him.’ I elected thee, and not him. ‘True; but why? Because thou didst foresee some Turn in my Will to choose the Good, which Thou didst not foresee in us.’ It was my Grace gave that turn. ‘Not so, Lord; for that [Page 16] was not thy Method, that would be a partial, arbitrary, absolute Way of dealing. Not so Lord; Thou hast given him and equal Power of Will with me: Thou didst intend the same Favour for us both; the same Father loved us equally; the same Christ payed an equal Ransom for us; the same Spirit worked the same Grace in us. For, give me leave to say, my Brother was once a Child of God, tho' not now, so that my standing and his falling, can be owing to no­thing but our Will.’ Nay your standing is owing to my preserving Grace. Sure then his Fall is owing to the Want of that Grace, which Thou mightest have given him, and therefore Thou mightest still be an odd, absolute Being, who hast Mercy on whom Thou pleasest only; or else, I must glory in myself. Name the Favour if thou canst or the least Circumstance of Love intended unto me peculiarly. I shall then praise sovereign distinguishing Grace; but till then, if ever Thou should put the Question again, who made me dif­fer from my Brother in Hell? I shall answer, My well-disposed Self.’

Sir, would not the Heavens sweat for Anguish, if there was Room for this Dialogue? Would not the Angels tremble and blush to hear this Language, between the uncreated Potter and his Clay? Would not awful Majesty be over come? You'll say, there will be no such Language in Heaven. It matters not if their will be such Thoughts. Nor such Thoughts. If so, every one of your Way of thinking and speak­ing, will change their Thoughts before they are there. Whether they shall do this in Time, at [Page 17] Death, or in some middle State, I leave you to de­termine; for one thing is certain, That God will be praised in Heaven, by Subjects of eternal, unmo­ved, absolutely free, distinguishing and electing Grace, each in pleasing Trances of Wonder. What moved the ETERNAL to put a Difference between him and Judas? And if you should be there, you will be as complete an absolute Election-Man, as they shall have among them, tho' you believe no such Thing to Day.—But, perhaps, tho' you cannot a­gree to the Notion of it in general, you'll admit the particular Propositions which make it up. You believe:

1. That no created Motive can influence an un­created Mind, to act or not act otherwise than he eternally thought fit to be done. Therefore it fol­lows, that no created Disposition, &c. can influence God to save any, but whom he purposed from Eter­nity to save.

2. That there are no fresh Purposes in the Mind of God, as in that of Man, He is not Man that he should repent, and proceed upon Reasons to Day, unknown to him Yesterday. His Purposes, and the Reasons on which he proceeds, are as Eternal as Himself. Therefore it follows, That if God pur­poses to save John to Day, or Twenty Years hence he purposed the same from Eternity, and that upon eternal Reasons.

3. That there is no formal, oral, judicial Decree with God, as with Men. The uncreated constant Purpose of his Mind, is his Decree, call it Thought, Purpose or Decree, it matters not. Therefore it follows, That God did eternally and unchangeably [Page 18] decree to save John. And if the Affirmative holds the Negative must, viz. If God did not purpose to save Judas, when he hanged himself, neither did he (God) from Eternity.

4. That if God purposed, to Day, to save John, through Christ, preaching, hearing, &c, He purpo­sed the same Salvation to John, by the same Means from Eternity, &c. Therefore, &c.

5. That if God knows John's Person and Name to Day, he knew that numerical Person and Name from Eternity; and as truly knows the Names and Persons of every Heir of Glory. Therefore, &c.

Now, if you deny the above Propositions, or any of them, you lose your God, and have a Man in his Room: And if you own them, you lose universal Redemption, and find in its Room, an eternal, un­changeable Purpose, or Decree to save thro' Christ, &c. a certain Number of Adam's Seed personally, nominally, freely, and absolutely, without Respect to any Qualification in them, more than in others.

After all, tho' you cannot deny the Propositions you'll deny the Conclusion no doubt, viz. Absolute Election; because of the Seven Consequences, you have drawn from it, which induce you to believe, "it is not of God." I have made the very same Consequences attend your Doctrine of Fore-know­ledge. Why then should you believe any of them to be of God, but pursue a Third Scheme? How­ever, fearing you should throw away both, I shall answer your Objections, which shall be as well to reconcile you to yourself, as reconcile you to others.

Object. 1. (§. 9.) If Election holds, then ‘vain is our Preaching, and vain the People's Hearing, [Page 19] for whether, with or without them, the Elect, shall be saved, and the Non-Elected damned.’ Suppose yourself with the Centurion (Acts xxvii. 24.) when Paul assured him from God, That not one of them in the Ship should be lost. You would say, no doubt, (as now) if so, vain is our Fear to be cast on the Rock. Ver. 29. And vain to confine our Men in the Ship. Ver. 30. For whether with, or without such Fear and Confinement, God cannot lie. Nay, says Paul except these Men abide in the Ship, they cannot be saved. So the Lord decreed the Sal­vation of the Elect, and puts the unanswerable Que­stion, How shall they be saved without Faith? How shall they believe without Hearing? How shall they hear without a Preacher? Therefore tho' Election holds, you may preach on, there is to Danger, the Means are all decreed, as well as the End.

Object. 2. (§. 10.) ‘This Doctrine destroys the first Motives to Holiness in general, viz. The Hope of Heaven, and fear of Hell; if Men are unalterably adjudged either to Life or Death, these can be no Motives to them to struggle for Life; and tho' they know not which, it is not reasonable for them to strive, because it is not reasonable for a sick Man to take Physick at all if he knows he shall unavoidably die, or recover, tho' he knows not which.’

You know, you must unavoidably be in Heaven or Hell, Why then do you struggle for Heaven? I hope you, do not set up for a Third Place. Every sick Man knows he shall either die or recover, yet the Physician, and even the sick Man might be [Page 20] tempted to think your Conclusion a very odd Piece, for who knows but the Lord will be gracious: Yea, tho' the sick Man did know he was to recover and live, it is reasonable for him to take Physick. He­zekiah was assured by Isaiah, 2 Kings xx. That the Lord would heal him, and add fifteen Years to his Life. Why then, say you, was a Plaister of Figgs applied to him? You ‘heard a Man both in bo­dily and spiritual Sickness say, If I am ordained to Life I shall live; If to Death I shall die; so I need not trouble myself about it.’ Heze­kiah might have said, If I'm ordained to Health and Life, I shall live fifteen Years, if not, I shall die; therefore away with Medicines. What if Hezekiah had been profane or desperate enough to say so, or others on the like Occasion, and your Man with the rest? Are we therefore to reject the eternal Truths of God? Satan told Christ, That God de­termined to care for him always, and therefore he might throw himself down from a Pinacle of the Temple. Was Christ to do it? No: He com­manded the T [...]pter to retire. I wish your Man had done the [...].

You state this Objection more particularly, §. 11. where you say, absolute Election ‘destroys Bran­ches of Holiness, such as Meekness and Love, and tends to inspire a sharpness of Temper, quite contrary to the Meekness of Christ; which ap­pears in the Asserters of it, toward those who oppose them on this Head’

Alas, Sir! How come you to know this? Sure the Members of the establish'd Church, who are of your universal Way, discover more sharpness of [Page 21] Temper towards you, than dissenting Calvinists. Were, or are the Papists, who are of your Way of Thinking on this Head, more meek towards Pro­testants, than Protestants towards them; Were, or are the Jesuits, more loving towards the Jansenists, than the Jansenists towards them? Perhaps some unlucky Person opposed you on this Head, with some Keenness, and you found yourself meek in the interim: What then? This might arise from his natural Constitution, and that from yours; or this from the Want of Grace in him, and from Grace in you: He from his Doctrine supposed me a Repra­bate; and you supposed him void of "Meekness and Love;" and by Consequence a Child of the Devil, so you was not at all behind with him. He "could not help applying his Doctrine to me;" and could you help applying yours to him? ‘The Enemy of Souls applied it from him.’ True; and the same Enemy applied yours for you; Yea, (which is a bolder Stroke) he applied the same Doctrine for Christ, Mat. iv. So that you or the Calvinist, need not expect better Quarters from the Devil.

Object. 3. (§. 12.) ‘This Doctrine tends to destroy the Comforts of Religion.’ This is turning the Chace! We think the Doctrine teaching a Man, tho' a real Child of God to Day, may open his Eyes in Hell To-morrow, to be the most uncomfortable of the Two. However, you say, ‘this is evident, as to those who believe them­selves to be reprobated.’ As evident, say I, as to those who believe God did foresee them in Hell. But who can help Unbelief? None, except he who [Page 22] hath said, I pray that thy Faith should not fail. ‘It is true of those who only suspect or fear it.’ I am sure not true, for I suspect and fear it, and en­joy many Rays of Comfort. No Comfort when you fear. Yes, if you believe me, sometimes my Trembling and Mirth join so close, that I cannot distinguish the one or the other.

§. 13, 14, 15. You give Life to this Objection by observing, ‘The Asserters of Election have their Doubts and Fears; whereas many of those who hold it not, have a full Assurance of Faith to exclude all Doubts and Fears.’ This is a new Turn! Universalists hitherto have tho't others half mad, to affirm Assurance of Salvation, to be attain­able in Time. Universalists now do affirm, the op­posite ‘Doctrine not to be of God, because it tends to obstruct, if not destroy that Assurance.’ How comes this about? The Papists, after Abso­lution, or any other Sacrament, are assured they have Grace, ‘a feeling Possession of God's Love in their Hearts, and the Willingness of the Spirit.’ The English Arminians deny not the Assurance of Grace, i. e. That they are Chil­dren of God now, tho' possibly of Satan To-morrow. The Quakers are as strongly persuaded of a ‘feeling Possession of God in their Hearts.’ You plead for Assurance with the rest; Do you mean any Thing more than they? No: ‘This Feeling Possession of God in the Heart, or the witnes­sing of the Spirit, &c. implies a full Assurance, that past Sins are forgiven, but not a full Assu­rance of our future Perseverance.’ The Coun­cil of Trent, and the Popish Writers have told us this [Page 23] much, a Thousand Times over. And as you are convinced many of them take fond Presumption for Assurance; even of Grace; so it cannot at all en­danger your after Salvation, to lose your Comfort for a Time, in examining whether your Assurance be of the same Nature with theirs. Better to work out our Salvation with Fear and Trembling, than to enjoy a temporary one, without either.

I confess, the Salvation you contend for, is not worth much Fear and Doubts; for when you have got it, you are only assured you have a crea­ted Love or Joy, are Creature for your Portion. Are you certain you shall have the Creator? No: "I take no Thought for To-morrow." Christ in­tended by these Words, We should take no Tho't for the Creature. You intend, we should take no Tho't for the Creator. ‘We feel the Creator posses­sing our Hearts, & his Spirit witnessing with us.’ You really can never feel God in or about you. You feel only some created Effects of an invisible unfelt Hand, such as Love and Joy, &c. And tho' you are assurred of these Effects, (besides the Danger of their arising from other Causes) you are assured of nothing material, in Time or Eternity; and yet you fear none. No: ‘Because the Holy Ghost supports such Assurance, and needs not a speculative Faith to help it.’ Supposing he did support it, (which notwithstanding may be a De­lusion.) Yet Holy Ghost, Love, Assurance, and all may turn away To-morrow, and leave you in Hell; and yet you fear none. No: Because, ‘If I abide in Him, he shall abide with me from Hour to Hour.’ I am not to believe, if his eternall. we [Page 24] he not engaged to keep you in Him, your created Love cannot keep him in you. It is not unsafe therefore, to doubt a little of your Strength to keep Him; for according to your own Account, one sinful Thought, tho' on a Death-Bed, is enough to lose Christ's Spirit, Grace and Glory: and yet you fear none. No: ‘Because I have the full Assurance of Faith, &c.’ If you believe the Apostle, Faith is the Substance of Things not seen and the Evidence of Things hoped for. Things not seen, not felt, not at hand, not in your Possession. Whatever Assurance you have, cannot be that of Faith, but of Sense; therefore not the chief Com­fort of the Believer; (tho' you say it is) because every created Grace in you is vitiated, by re­maining Corruption, and the least Imperfection in any of them, is enough to exclude the Soul from God forever; and yet you fear none.

Real Assurance of Faith, is a full Persuasion in the Soul, that neither Life, or Death, Things pre­sent or to come, shall separate him from the uncre­ated Love of God, in Jesus Christ. This Assu­rance, you say, ‘is not necessarily implied in your full Assurance;’ therefore, say I, your Assu­rance is not good: Much like his who said, If the blessed Virgin stands at my Bed-Side, I'm sure to be saved; if not, I'm sure to be damned. But the full Assurance of the Imputation of the Righteousness of Christ, apprehended by Faith alone, is that, which others labour for with Doubts and Fear. And you ‘appeal to them, to say it between God and them, whether their Fears have not returned?’ You should rather have put the Question, Whether their [Page 25] Fears have ever left them? For generally they can­not presume, they are out of the Reach of Danger, till in Christ's Arms. They cannot be Fearless in their Enemies Land.

You add on this Head, (§. 16.) ‘A Thought uncomfortable to those who have put on Bowels of Mercy, &c. That Thousands and Millions, without any preceding Offence of theirs, are un­changeably doom'd to everlasting Burnings.’ Is not this as uncomfortable a Thought? That God unchangeably foreseeing Thousands and Millions should offend, and knowing the very Persons who would, should notwithstanding create them meerly to be damned? Does not this follow, as plain on your Doctrine, as that upon the other? But what shall you gain at the Almighty's Hand, to charge him foolishly, and to say, Why hast thou made me thus? His Ways are past finding out. He shall give Account of his Matters to none.

Object. 4. §. 17. ‘This Doctrine destroys Good Works, by destroying our Love to the Evil and Unthankful, and cutting off one of the strongest Motives to Acts of Bodily Mercy, such as Feed­ing the Hungry, and Cloathing the Naked, viz. The Hope of Saving their Souls from Death.’ This runs upon an impossible Supposition of know­ing the Evil, i. e. Non-Elected. The Case is, Sir, I can no more know them by others, than I can be Omniscient; therefore I take Mankind, espe­cially the Houshold of Faith, as the Objects of my Love, and Acts of Kindness, in relation to their Souls and Bodies. Nay, it does, ‘whether you know them, or not, in either Case; your La­bour [Page 26] is in vain.’ This is more strange! Election must be down at any Rate, per sas aut nefas! I know not who are Elected, who not. You know not who the Foreseen are, who not; therefore neither of us knows who the finally saved are, who not; and yet we both know of those now on Earth, some shall unavoidably be saved, and others unavoidably be damned, tho' we know not which. Why then do we trouble ourselves about any living? (if your Argument be good) "Our Labour is vain." Yea, why do we care for ourselves; for one Thing is evident, You and I will infallibly be in Heaven or Hell, tho' we know not which. Why then may not we throw ourselves down a Precipice? Allow me to say, this Piece of Reasoning is a little Unbe­coming.

Object. 5. ‘This Doctrine tends to destroy the whole Christian Revelation, by making it un­necessary, according to the Desire of the modern Unbelievers.’ The Lord has chosen Men in Christ; (the great Mean) saves them by Preach­ing, by his Word and Spirit. These are the Means (as said before) decreed with the End; and till you find Men set up for an End, without Means to obtain it, I beg Leave to think your Doctrine produces more Unbelievers. Examine the Isle of Britain (tho' you go no further) you'll find at a moderate Computation, Three Thousand modern Unbelievers, i. e. Deists, c. your universal Way; I dare say, not one absolute Election-Man among them. And that your loose and generous Doctrine, managed by the Enemy of Souls, is the Spring of this Evil, is too plain to be denied.

[Page 27] Object 6. §. 19. ‘It makes that Revelation contradict itself, by being grounded on such In­terpretations of some Texts, as flatly contradict all the other Texts, and indeed the Scope and Tenor of Scripture.’ You instance in some Texts on the Side of Election, and in some on the universal Strain. You found them literally oppo­site. Have you reconciled them? No: You left them as you found them. You say, the Election-Interpretation of some Texts, contradicts all your Texts. And does not your Interpretations of some Texts, contradict the Election-Texts; and where is the Difference? Have you reconciled their Texts with your Interpretation? No: ‘Better their Texts have no Meaning at all.’ Let that be as it will, I am sure your Texts have a Meaning, tho' you have not hit upon it. What Texts prove E­lection to be contrary to the Tenor of Scripture.

"1 John iv. 8. God is Love." —Your Conclu­sion must be (if any) God does not hate, or is not Hatred. Does he not hate Devils? Does he not hate Men, viz. The Damned? Does he not hate wicked Men on Earth? Psalm xi. 5. But the Wicked—his Soul hateth; therefore your Argument is not good. To whom then is God's Love? To some Men in Christ, Ver. 16. And we have known and believed the Love that God hath to us (Believers) God is Love. No Word of his Love to any other.

Psalm cxliv. 9. God is good to all, (not loving to every Man, as you have it). And his tender Mercies over all his Works.’ True: Good, not only to Israel, but to all other Nations. He gi­veth Rain to the Just and the Unjust. He filleth their [Page 28] Hearts with Food and Gladness. Does this imply, that God loved the Heathen Nations, as he did Is­rael? Or, that every Man is an Object of God's Redeeming Love? If so; Beasts may come in for a Share. The Text includes them. ‘His Mer­cies are over all his Works.’ He giveth the Beast his Food, and the young Ravens that cry.— Whatever Love this Text implies, suits a Raven as well as Man.

Rom. viii. 32. He that spared not his only Son, but delivered him up for us All; how shall he not with him freely give us all Things.’ This Text, on which you have grounded your Negative Discourse, is remarkably foreign to your Purpose. The Apostle, Ver. 33. says, Who shall lay any Thing to the Charge of God's Elect, it is God that justifieth them; how then shall he not glorify them; Yea, give them every Thing freely, since they are the Cal­led according to his Purpose. Ver. 28. No Word of any other.

"Acts x. 34. God is no Respecter of Persons." If you incline to have a literal Sense of this Text, it will follow, That God respects no Person; no not the Persons of the Trinity. Not so to be understood. How then? God does not respect one Person or Nation above another? Not so: He respected Abel, not Cain; Israel, not the Heathen Nations. Was it for any Good in Abel above Cain, or in Is­rael above other Nations, he respected them? No: You teach, §. 3. That all Good, in or from Man, flows from Grace; Grace then must preceed, and God's Respect preceed that; or, He respects now, because he respected them before; therefore it was [Page 29] no Good in the one or the other, was the Cause of God's Respect; so far from it, That if God had the same Respect to Tyre and Sidon, they should have repented.—Whereas those to whom he had, were a stiff-necked Generation.

You'll say, he respected the Jewish Nation, be­cause of some grand Design he had in View, viz. The Incarnation of Christ, of, and among them. True; and when That was accomplished, He had an equal Respect to Jews and Gentiles, no Respect of the Persons of honest Cornelius (a Gentile), and Peter (a Jew): The Partition Wall is broke down: In every Nation, he that feareth Him and worketh Righteousness, is accepted of Him, i. e. such as are inwardly, and outwardly Holy, fearing God in­wardly, and working Righteousness outwardly. And this, you grant, flows only from Grace, and Grace from Respect. Or thus; whom God re­spects, he respects in every Nation; and who doubts it? It is the very Language of Election, but far from your Scope.

You charge them, p. 19. with saying, ‘That our being Elected, no Way depends on the Fore-knowledge of God.’

Sir, this is a Mistake; What they say, is, That their being Elected, does not depend on God's Fore-knowledge of any Good in them, which you have granted, §. 3. But the Fore-knowledge mention­ed, Rom. viii. 30, 1 Pet. i. 1, 2. which you have brought to confute them, is the very Ground of their Election; such as God did fore-know, or loved, or respected, them he calls, justifies, and glo­rifies. What Fore-knowledge do you mean in [Page 30] Opposition to theirs? Is it of any ‘good Intenti­on, Purpose, Endeavour, &c.’ You say no, §. 3. Is it of any Good intended for them above others? If so, this argues eternal Respect, which is the Fore-knowledge they plead for.

Rom. x. 12. The same Lord over all is rich in Mercy, to all that call upon him.’ True; Yea, adds the Apostle, ibid. He who calls shall be saved, whether Jew or Greek; and who doubts it? What do you mean by this; Is it, that every one who shall happen to say, Lord have Mercy upon me, shall be saved? No; not every one that saith Lord, Lord, shall be saved, or enter into my Kingdom. Who then? Those who call from Grace for Grace; from Faith for Salvation. God must respect, and then give Grace. They shall then call, and he then will hear. What is this to the Matter?

Jam. 1. 5. If any of you lack Wisdom, let him ask of God that giveth to all Men liberally, and upbraideth not.’ You take the Advantage of the Word All. All, means every one that asks. Every one who asks, will ask in Faith, or not. If he asks not in Faith, the Apostle tells you plainly, Ver. 7. Let not that Man think that he shall receive any Thing of the Lord. If he asks in Faith, he must do it from preceding Grace; and Grace from Respect. This is very true; but not to your Pur­pose. You observe rightly, Page 20. ‘They say, Christ died not for All;’ i.e. every Man, whether saved, or damned. They say so. What say you?

Rem. xiv. 15. "Destroy not him with thy Meat," for whom Christ died, which you say, ‘is a clear [Page 31] Proof, that Christ died for the Damned:’ A very dark one, say I. If Christ had said only, false Prophets should appear, who would deceive the Elect; you would have concluded the Elect might be dam­ned. But he adds, if it were possible, to rectify your Mistake. Why should not you allow the Apostle to forbid a Brother act the Part of a false Prophet, in doing what in his Power lay to deceive, or destroy his Brother, for whom Christ died, if it were possible? Does the Apostle mean any thing more. No: He knew very well that Christ had said; none was able to pluck any Soul he died for, out of his Hands.

For further Proof of Christ's vain Ransom, you cite, Jo. iv. 42. Jo. i. 29. 1. Jo. ii. 2. 1 Tim. iv. 10, 1 Tim. ii. 6. Heb. xi. 19. Where Christ is said to be the Saviour of the World; to take away the Sins of the World; a Pro­pitiation for the Sins of the World; the Saviour of all Men; a Ransom for All; to taste Death for All.’ This last Text is translated in our English Bibles, every Man. You have followed the Original, tasted Death for All (Pantes)

The Force of your Argument for the above Texts, lies in the Terms, WORLD and ALL. And if these Terms imply not every individual of Adam's Seed; yea, all the visible Creatures of God, your Argument cannot conclude. What do do you mean, when you write in the Preface to your Sermon, ‘I am indispensably obliged to de­clare this Truth, to all the World?’ Do you intend the brute and irrational Creation? No: Men only. Generations gone off the Stage? No: [Page 32] but the Living. Heathens in unknown Parts of the World? No: Fools and Madmen in known Parts? Such as Deaf, Dumb and Blind? No: Af­ter these Limitations, you think we understand what you mean, viz. All to whose Hands your Dis­course shall come, and are capable to understand, read, or hear it. It is then strange, That God who sutes himself to the Manner of speaking among Men, should not be allowed the same in­telligible Liberty of Speech with them, without taking him at a Catch, to intend the Salvation of the Damned; Yea, if the Humour takes us, the Sal­vation of Brutes too; for the Term World includes them. Especially when God himself limits these Terms in Scripture, 1 Jo. v. 19. We are of God, and the whole World lieth in Wickedness. Here God's Children are excepted and a whole World left be­hind, Heb. xii. 8. If you be without Chastisements, whereof ALL are partakers, then are ye Bastards, and not Sons. Here God's Children are called ALL, (a World) and yet all Bastards, a World lying in Wickedness, left behind. Shall we not then do Christ the Justice to allow him to pay a Ransom and taste Death for his own ALL, his own World; especially, that the Nature of God, the Nature of Man, the Tenor of the Covenant of Grace, the Scope of God's Revelation from the Beginning, till now, and the visible Course of his Providence, will no more allow us to think that he paid a Ransom for the Damned, than that he intended Glory for the Brutes. Which, in Reason, Religion and Observation might be made evident, if this was the proper Place.

[Page 33] "2 Pet. iii. 9." The Lord is not slack con­cerning his Promise — but is long Suffering towards us, not willing that any (of us) should perish, but that all (of us) should come to Repen­tance. What us? Believers, or those to whom God gave, or was to give Faith as a Gift; and who are they? Those among the Multitude, on whom he is pleased to confer it, from eternal Re­spect, not willing any of them should perish.

"Ezek. xviii. 23." In the preceeding Verse, God says, if the wicked turn from all his Sins, and keep my Statutes, (that is, if renewed in Heart, and reformed in Life) he shall live.

I hope, you'll admit the renewing of the Heart, from which all Acts of new Obedience flow, to be God's immediate Work. May we not then understand God, If I renew a Sinner in Heart and Life, have I any pleasure in his Death? No.

"Ezek. xviii. 32." God says in the preceeding Verse, make you a new Heart and a new Spirit, which God himself promises to do. Ezek. xxxvi. 26. And then may not God say, I shall give you a new Heart and a new Spirit, for I have no Pleasure in your Death.

"Ezek. xxxiii. 11." In the preceeding Verse, the People say, If our Sins be upon us,—how shall we live? The Lord brought them to a Sense of their Sin and Punishment, by giving them a new Heart, therefore, says God to the Prophet, Thus the People speak, and thus shall you speak to them, as I live, I have no Pleasure in their Death. I will their Life, because I brought them to the Gates [Page 34] of Death. I will give them Glory, because I gave them Grace.

Deut. I have set before you Life and Death.’ If the Life and Death here spoken of, respect tem­poral Prosperity and Misery, it is not to the Pur­pose. If to eternal Salvation, it is with the Quali­fication of circumcising their Hearts, which the Lord absolutely promises to do. Ver. 6. And the Lord thy God will circumcise thine Heart. And no Body doubts that Man shall choose Life, when the Lord circumcises, or renews his Heart. What is it you mean by these Texts? Is it that God really Wills, and hath Pleasure in the Salvation of every Man? If so, Hell shall be an empty Region, for He is in one Mind, and who can turn him? (Not the Will of Devils or Men) and what his Soul de­sireth, even that he doth, Job xxiii. 13. His Counsel shall stand, and he will do all his Pleasure, Isa. xlvi. 10. When God saith, What he willeth, That he will do; shall we contradict him to his Face, and say, he cannot. When He says, His Council shall stand; shall we say, it shall not? This Language becomes the Sons of Belial, not the Expectants of Glory.

Object. 7. Page. 22. ‘This Doctrine is full of Blasphemy.’ I could wish to have Room to turn the Chace upon you; but I am not now on the Offensive, neither shall I charge you (as you have cautioned on this Head) with Blaspheming, meerly because you mention the pretended Blasphe­my of others. No: Because, I believe, you spoke as you thought, and did not think as you ought; therefore, I pray, the Lord forgive you.

[Page 35]You say, Election ‘represents Christ a deceiv­ing unsincere Hypocrite, because he invites Sin­ners to him, Mat. xi. 28. Wept over Jeru­salem, and said, I would—and ye would not; —called those whom he knew would not come, those who were not able, whom he could make able, and will not.’ Your Opinion must be, That he did not know who were able to come to him, who not. That he could not make them able, tho' his Power was present. That, the Suc­cess of the whole depended on the Will of Man. A strange ignorant weak Creature, Christ must be in your Account! No wonder, if Universalists are Arians. A powerful Being the Will of Man must be! No wonder if Free-Willers were vicious: They may be otherwise, when they please. It is strange, God did not make that same Will more like a Creature when he had it in Embryo. Well, you'll say, this must be true, or Christ insincere. Sir, neither of them is true; Christ knew what was in Man; He knew who were able to come, who not; That none was able to come, except the Father did draw him; He was able to draw whom he pleased, and still a sincere God and Man. You say, ‘it cannot be denied, he every where speaks as if he were willing, that all should be saved;’ and therefore called. Soon denied, and as soon proved; He called not the Righteous, but Sinners; not the Whole, but the Sick; not the Easy, but the Wea­ry; and by Consequence a small Number. Ac­cordingly, in your first Text, He invites the Weary and heavy laden. Weariness supposes Conviction, Conviction Grace; Grace, Eternal Respect. [Page 36] Therefore Christ says, All that the Father hath gi­ven me, shall come unto me; my Sheep hear my Voice. Christ calls them, and pray where is the Insinceri­ty? And can you deny the Lord to have the like Meaning, in his other gracious Invitations, excep­ting where he speaks of Inflicting, or not Inflicting temporal Judgments, as in your other Text. And as to it, you'll remember, That as the Lord sent Jonah a (Prophet) to Nineveh, (a Heathen City) to call them to an external Humiliation, otherwise they should be overthrown; and on humbling them­selves, are spared. So Prophets are sent to Jerusa­lem, to call them to the like Repentance, under the like Threatning. Christ, in the Quality of a Pro­phet, comes to them last; they are Disobedient; therefore tells them the City shall be overthrown; their Houses lest desolate. But these external Calls and these external Judgments, have no Connection with the eternal Salvation or Damnation of Nineveh or Jerusalem.

You may possibly object here; First, Christ's Insincerity in calling even the Elect of Life, know­ing they would not answer till quickened by his Power: And, Secondly, In weeping over Jerusalem, which himself had doomed to Destruction. You'll observe, That Christ is considered in Three Capa­cities: 1. Of an absolute God, and as such, What­ever his Soul desireth, even that he doth. 2. Of Mediator, God-Man. As such, Whatsoever he willeth, the Father heareth, and giveth always. 3. Of an absolute or real Man, and as such, He is touched with the Feeling of our Infirmities, Sin ex­cepted. He may pray and wish in Behalf of his [Page 37] Brethren, and even in his own Behalf, as in the Garden; and yet say, not my Will, but thine be done. He may call and invite, and leave the Suc­cess to God. He may as a Preacher, cry out with a loud Voice to a dead Lazarus, Come forth; tho' as God, he knows it is his Omnipotence, must give the hearing Ear. He may preach like Ezekiel, over a Valley of dry Bones; tho' as God, he knows it is his Spirit must give them Life. He may wish and weep, and pray over Jerusalem with the Bowels of a Man, a Countryman, a Friend; and as God determine its Overthrow; as you know he did many Hundred Years before. And if his inviting, calling, praying, wishing, be a Mocking of his Creatures (as you say) it is a Mocking must hold while the World stands; For it pleaseth God by the Foolishness of Preaching, to save his People. There­fore it is a Matter of Moon-shine, whether it pleases you or not. But if you have any Notion at all of your own Sincerity, as a Preacher, a Countryman, a Friend, you may entertain the like Notion of Christ's Sincerity, in the like Capacity with you, with this Difference only; He was not subject to Error in Judgment, and therefore not to Sin; but you are to both, if I mistake not. From the Whole, Election secures the Justice, Mercy, Truth, &c. of Father, Son and Spirit.

To gain the Affections, as well as inform the Judgments of your Hearers and Readers, concerning the Blasphemies contained in Election, you entertain them with a long Rhetorical Flourish. Pity so much ingenious Language should carry Nothing in [Page 38] it. The Whole of it is this, That upon the Suppo­sition of Election, and that Satan knows who the Elected are, who not, he is a Fool to tempt the one or the other; for in the one Case, his Labour is vain; and in the other supossitions. I have already made it appear, That Satan has as much Room to act the Fool on your Decree of Foreknowledge, as on that of Absolute Election; and till you make the Difference appear, I beg Leave to say, You have widely mistaken Satan's Case, in Respect to both. He is just as much in the Dark, as to the Persons of the Elected, and Non-Elected, as you are; and therefore tempts all in the general. And tho' he should know one to be a Child of God to Day; What know we, but he may be of your Opinion, to think he may be his own To-morrow, and say to God, as in the Case of Job, Stretch now forth thy Hand upon him, he shall curse Thee to thy Face; tho' you and he may be mistaken. Yea, if God should point out to him the Elected by Name; Would this abate his Rage? No: He would act the same malicious, tho' Foolish Part, he did to Christ, who he knew was not only Elected, but was the Lord his God. He would create them as much Uneasiness as lay in his Power. On the other Hand, he is equally ignorant of the Non-Elected. For ought he knows, those over whom he triumphs to Day, may be To-morrow in Christ's Arms. So that this pathetic Scene of yours, is en­tirely lost upon a false Supposition. A Supposition of Satan's Omniscience to raze down Election. But unless you had made him Omnipotent too, The [Page 39] Election shall obtain it. However, you venture set your Foot, and join Issue with every [...] of it: Every Asserter! Too many for one [...] unless he had been a Saul, to kill his Ten [...]; for, No Hercules quidam contra [...] much less All. I am glad you did not [...] Mathematical Q. E. D.


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