A TRUE and HISTORICAL NARRATIVE Of the COLONY of GEORGIA In America, From the first Settlement thereof until this present Period: CONTAINING The most authentick Facts, Matters and Transactions therein; TOGETHER WITH His Majesty's Charter, Representations of the People, Letters &c. AND A Dedication to his Excellency General OGLETHORPE.


  • PAT [...], [...].D.
  • [...], M.A.
  • DA. [...]

Land-holders in Georgia [...] Charles-Town in South-Carolina




To his Excellency James Oglethorpe, Esq General and Commander in chief of his Majesty Forces in South-Carolina and Georgia; and one of the honourable Trustees for establishing, the Colony of Georgia in America, &c.

May it please your Excellency,

AS the few surviving Remains of the Colony of Georgia find it necessary to present the World (and in particular Great Britain) with a true State of that Province from its first Rise to its present Period. [...] Excellency (of all Mankind) is best entitled to the Dedication, as the principal Author of its present Strength and Affluence, Freedom and Prosperity: And tho' incontestable Truths will [...] the following NARRATIVE to [...] attentive Reader; yet your Name, [...] will be no little Ornament to the Frontis­ [...] and may possibly engage some courteous [...] beyond it.

[Page iv] That Dedication and Flattery are synonimous, is the Complaint of every Dedicator who concludes himself ingenious and fortunate, if he can discover a less trite and direct Method of flattering than is usually practised; but we are happily prevented from the least Intention of this kind, by the repeated Offerings of the Muses and News Writers to your Excellency in the publick Papers: 'Twere prefumptuous even to dream of equalling or increasing them; we therefore flatter ourselves, that nothing we can advance will in the least shock your Excellency's Modesty; not doubting but your Goodness will pardon any Deficiency of Elegance and Politeness on account of our Sincerity, and the serious Truths we have the Honour to approach you with.

We have seen the ancient Custom of sending forth Colonies for the Improvement of any distant Territory, or new Acquisition, continued down to ourselves; but to your Excellency alone it is owing, that the World is made acquainted with a Plan, highly refined from those of all former Projectors. They fondly imagin'd it necessary to communicate to such young Settlements, the fullest Rights and Properties, all the Immunities of their Mother Countries, and Privileges rather more extensive: By such Means indeed these Colonies flourished with early Trade and Affluence; but your Excellency's Concern for our perpetual Welfare could never permit you to propose such transitory Advantages for us: You considered Riches like a Divine and Philosopher, [Page v] as the irritamenta malorum, and knew that they were disposed in inflate weak Minds with Pride, to pamper the Body with Luxury, and introduce a long Variety of Evils. Thus have you protected us from our selves, as Mr. Walter says, by keeping all earthly Comforts from us. You have afforded us the Opportunity of arriving at the Integrity of the Primitive Times, by entailing a more than Primitive Poverty on us: The Toil that is necessary to our bare Subsistance must effectually defend us from the Anxieties of any further Ambition: As we have no Properties to feed Vain-glory and beget Contention, so we are not puzzled with any System of Laws to ascertain and establish them: The valuable Vertue of Humility is secured to us by your Care, to prevent our procuring, or so much as seeing any Negroes, (the only human Creatures proper to improve our Soil) lest our Simplicity might mistake the poor Africans for greater Slaves than ourselves: And that we might fully receive the Spiritual Benefit of those wholesome Austerities, you have wisely denied us the Use of such Spiritous Liquors as might in the least divert our Minds from the Contemplation of our happy Circumstances.

Our Subject swells upon us; and did we allow ourselves indulge our Inclination, without considering our weak Abilities, we should be tempt­ed to launch out into many of your Excellen­cy's extraordinary Endowments, which do not so much regard the Affair in Hand; but as this [Page vi] would lead us beyond the Bounds of a Dedication, so would it engross a Subject too extensive for us, to the Prejudice of other Authors and Panegyrists; we shall therefore confine ourselves to that remarkable Scene of your Conduct, where­by Great Britain in general, and the Settlers of Georgia in particular, are laid under such inexpressible Obligations.

Be pleased then, Great SIR, to accompany our heated Imaginations, in taking a View of this colony of Georgia, this Child of your auspicious Politicks, arrived at the utmost Vigor of its Constitution, at a Term when most former States have been struggling through the Convulsions of their Infancy. This early Maturity, however, lessens our Admiration that your Excellen­cy lives to see (what few Founders ever aspired after) the great Decline and almost final Termination of it. So many have finished their Course during the Progress of the Experiment, and such Numbers have retreated from the Phantoms of Poverty and Slavery, which their cowardly I­maginations pictur'd to them, that you may justly vaunt with the boldest Hero of them all,

Like Death you reign
O'er Silent Subjects and a desart Plain.

Yet must your Enemies (if you have any) be reduced to confess, that no ordinary Statesman could have digested in the like Manner so capacious a Scheme, such a copious Jumble of Pow­er and Politicks, We shall content ourselves with [Page vii] observing, that all those beauteous Models of Government which the little States of Germany exercise, and those extensive Liberties which the Boors of Poland enjoy, were designed to con­center in your System; and were we to regard the Modes of Government, we must have been strangely unlucky to have miss'd of the best, where there was the Appearance of so great a Variety; for under the Influence of our Perpetual Dictator we have seen something like Aristocracy, Oligarchy, as well as the Triumvirate, Decemvirate, and Consular Authority of famous Republicks, which have expired many Ages before us. What Wonder then we share the same Fare? Do their Towns and Villages exist but in Story and Rubbish? We are all over Ruins; our Publick-works, Forts, Wells, Highways, Light-house, Store and Water-mills, &c. are dignified like theirs with the same venerable Desolation. The Log-house indeed is like to be the last forsaken Spot of your Empire; yet even this, thro' the Death or Desertion of those who should continue to inhabit it must suddenly decay; the bankrupt Jailor himself shall be soon denied the Privilege of human Conversation; and when this last Moment of the S [...]ell expires, the whole shall vanish like the Illusion of some Eastern [...].

But let not this [...] Prospect impress your Excellency with any Fears of having your Ser­vices to Mankind, and to the Settlers of Geor­gia in particular, buried in Oblivion; for if we diminutive Authors are allowed to prophesy, (as [Page viii] you know Poets in those Cases formerly did) we may confidently presage. That while the Memoirs of America continue to be read in English, Spanish, or the Language of the Scots Highlanders, your Excellency's Exploits and Epocha will be transmitted to posterity.

Should your Excellency apprehend the least Tincture of Flattery in any thing already hint­ed, we may sincerely assure you we intended no­thing that our Sentiments did not very strictly attribute to your Merit; and in such Sentiments we have the Satisfaction of being fortified by all Persons of Impartiality and Discernment.

But to trespass no longer on those Minutes, which your Excellency may suppose more significantly employed on the Sequel, let it suffice at present to assure you, that we are deeply affected with your Favours; and tho' unable of our­selves properly to acknowledge them, we shall embrace every Opportunity of Recommending you to higher Powers, who (we are hopeful) will reward your Excellency according to your MERIT.

May it please your Excellency,
Your Excellency's Most devoted Servants. The Land-holders of GEORGIA. Authors of the following Narrative.
[Page ix]


THE Colony of Georgia has afforded so much subject of Conversation to the World, that it is not to be question'd, but a true and impar­tial Account of it from its first Settlement to its present Period, will be generally agreeable; and the more so, that the Subject has hitherto been so much dis­guised and misrepresented in Pamphlets, Poems, Ga­zettes and Journals.

If it is ask'd, Why this NARRATIVE has not been publish'd to the World sooner? We assign two Reasons, which (we doubt not) will be satisfactory.

First, A Number of Honourable Gentlemen accepted the Charge of Trustees for executing the Purposes in his Majesty's most gracious CHARTER; Gentlemen, whose Honour and Integrity we never did, nor yet do call in question: But, to our great Misfortune, none of that hon­ourable Body (excepting Mr. OGLETHOTPE) ever had Opportunity of viewing the Situation and Circumstances of the Colony, and judging for themselves as to the Neces­sities thereof. How far Mr. Oglethorpe's Schemes were consistent with the Welfare or Prosperity of it, will best appear from the following Narrative.

When Experience gradually unfolded to us the Altera­tions we found absolutely requisite to our subsisting, we made all dutiful and submissive Applications to these our [Page x] Patrons, in whom we placed so much Confidence: This Course we judged the most proper and direct, and there­fore repeated these our dutiful Applications, both to the Body of the Trustees and to Mr. Oglethorpe; but alas! our Miseries could not alter his Views of things, and therefore we could obtain no Redress from him; and the honourable Board we found were prejudiced against our Petitions (no don' [...]) thro' Misinformations and Misrepre­sentations; an [...] his (we are confident) a further Enqui­ry and Time will convince them of.

The inviolable Regard we paid to the honourable Board kept us from applying to any other Power for Redress, whilst the least Hopes could be entertained of any from them: And we make no doubt, but that our Moderation in this respect will recommend us to all Persons of Humanity.

A second Reason is, That as we had daily Occasion of seeing our supreme Magistrates, who ruled over us with unlimited Power, exercising illegal Acts of Authority, by Threatnings, Imprisonments, and other Oppressions; therefore we had just Reason to apprehend, that any fur­ther Steps to obtain Relief might subject us to the like Effects of arbitrary Power; so, until now, that a handful of us have made our Escape to a Land of Liberty, (after having made Shipwreck of our Time and Substance in that unhappy Colony) we had it not in our Power to represent the State of that Settlement to the World, or make our Application to higher Powers for Redress.

We are hopeful that the Perusal of the following Sheets will rectify two sorts of Readers in their Surprize in re­lation to the Colony of GEORGIA, viz. Those of Great Britain, who have never known this Part of the World but by Description; and those of America The First are no doubt surprized to think it possible, that so plea­sant and temperate a Crime, so fruitful a Soil, such ex­tensive Privileges, all which were publickly given out, [Page xi] and such considerable Sums of publick and private Bene­factions, have not satisfied and enriched us: Them we refer to the following Narrative for Satisfaction. The A­merican Reader, on the other hand, must be equally sur­prized to find that such Numbers should have been so fooled and blindfolded, as to expect to live in this Part of Ame­rica by Cultivation of Lands without Negroes, and much more without Titles to their Lands, and laid under a Load of Grievances and Restrictions: And tho' these were re­dress'd, how could Persons in their Senses ever imagine, that Fifty Acres of Pine-Barren, not value Fifty Six­pences in Property, (and whereof many Thousands may be purchased at half that rate in the neighbouring Province) could maintain a Family of White People, and pay such Duties and Quit-rents in a few years, as the richest Grounds in Carolina, or other Provinces in America, will never bear? To these last we shall only beg Leave to ob­serve, that such fatal Artifice was used, (we shall not say by whom) such specious Pretences were made use of, and such real Falsities advanced, and the smallest Foun­dations of Truth magnified to Hyperbole; that we, who had no Opportunity of knowing otherways, or means of learning the real Truth, and being void of all Suspicion of Artifice or Design, easily believed all these, and fell into the Decoy.

The Mind of Man is naturally curious and enterpriz­ing; we easily seed our Wishes into Realities, and affect and look upon every Novelty in the most favourable Light; how easy then is it for Cunning and Artifice to lay hold on the weak Sides of our Fellow Creatures, as we catch Fish with a Hook baited to their particular Gout?

To prove this Charge, we shall only transcribe some Passages from a Piece of Prose, and some from a Piece of P [...]sie; by which specimens the Reader may judge of some considerable Number which were dispers'd and vend­ed of the same Stamp.

[Page xii] The First are from a Pamphlet printed at London 1733, entituled, A new and accurate Account of the Provinces of SOUTH-CAROLINA and GEORGIA. The Author has not thought fit to favour us with his Name; but it is easy to conceive that we, who suspected no Arti­fice or Design, must conclude that it came from the best Authority, from the Circumstances of its being dispersed publickly, and not being contradicted, and from the Au­thor's intimate Acquaintance (at least so pretended) with all the Trustees Measures and Designs. After a high En­comium upon the Trustees, Page 7, he says, ‘The Air of GEORGIA is healthy, being always serene and plea­sant, never subject to excessive Heat or Cold, or sud­den Changes of Weather; the Winter is regular and short, and the Summer cooled with refreshing Breez­es; it neither feels the cutting North-west Wind that the Virginians complain of, nor the intense Heats of Spain, Barbary, Italy, and Egypt. The Soil will pro­duce any thing with very little Culture.’Page 19,‘All Sorts of Corn yield an amazing Increase; one Hun­dredfold is the common Estimate, tho' their Husban­dry if so slight, that they can only be said to scratch the Earth, and meerly to cover the Seed: All the best Sort of Cattle and Fowls are multiplied without Num­ber, and therefore without a Price: Vines are Natives here.’Page 21,

The Woods near Savannah are not hard to be cleared, many of them have no Under-Wood, and the Trees do not stand generally thick on the Ground, but at considerable Distances asunder: When you fell the Timber for Use, or to make Tar, the Root will rot in four or five Years; and in the mean time you may pasture the Ground; but if you would only destroy the Timber, 'tis done by half a Dozen Strokes of an Ax surrounding each Tree a lit­tle above the Root, in a Year or two the Water get­ing into the Wound rots the Timber, and a brisk Gust [Page xiii] of Wind fells many Acres for you in an Hour, of which you may make one bright Bon-fire. Such will be fre­quently here the Fate of the Pine, the Walnut, the Cypress, the Oak and the Cedar. Such an Air and Soil can only be described by a Poetical Pen, because there is no Danger of exceeding the Truth; therefore take WALLER's Description of an Island in the Neighbour­hood at CAROLINA, to give you an Idea of this hap­py Climate:
The Spring, which but salutes us here,
Inhabits there, and courts them all the Year:
Ripe Fruits and Blossoms on the same Tree live;
At once they promise what at once they give.
So sweet the Air, so moderate the Clime,
None sickly lives, or dies before his Time.
Heav'n sure has kept this Spot of Earth uncurst,
To shew how all things were created first.

Page27, ‘The Indians bring many a Mile the whole Deers Flesh, which they sell to the People who live in the Country for the Value of Sixpence Sterling; and a Wild Turkey of Forty Pound Weight for the Value of Two Pence.In page 32, the Author when recommending the Georgia Adventure to Gentle­men of decayed Circumstances, who must labour at home or do worse, states the following Objection, viz. ‘If such People can't get Bread here for their Labour, how will their Condition be mended in GEORGIA?’ Which he solves in the following Manner,‘The An­swer is easy; Part of it is well attested, and Part Self­evident; they have Land there for nothing, and that Land so fertile, that, as is said before, they receive an Hundredfold Increase, for taking a very little Pains. Give here in England ten Acres of good Land to one of those helpless Persons, and I doubt not his Ability to [Page xiv] make it sustain him, and by his own Culture, without letting it to another; but the Difference between no Rent and rack'd Rent, is the Difference between eat­ing and starving.’ Page 32, ‘These Trustees not only give Land to the Unhappy who go thither, but are also impowered to receive the voluntary Contribu­tions of charitable Persons, to enable to furnish the poor Adventurers with all Necessaries for the Expence of their Voyage, occupying the Land, and supporting them till they find themselves comfortably settled; so that now the Unfortunate will not be obliged to bind themselves to a long Servitude to pay for their Pas­sage, for they may be carried gratis into a Land of Liberty and Plenty, where they immediately find them selves in the Possession of a competent Estate, in an happier Climate than they knew before, and they are unfortunate indeed, if here they cannot forget their Sorrows.’Nay, as if such Assertions as these were not powerful enough to influence poor People, Calculations are subjoin'd, to demonstrate, that a Family consisting of one poor Man, his Wife, and Child of seven years old, may in Georgia earn sixty Pounds Sterling per Annum, and this abstracted from Silk, Wine, &c. Page 41, ‘Now this very Family in Georgia, by raising Rice and Corn sufficient for its Occasions, and by attending the Care of their Cattle and Land (which almost every one is able to do in some tolerable Degree for himself) will easily produce in gross Value the Sum of sixty Pounds Sterling per Annum; nor is this to be wondred at, be­cause of the valuable Assistance it has from a fertile Soil and a Stock given gratis; which must always be remembred in this Calculation.’

The Calculation of one Hundred such Families when formally extended, stands thus,—Page 43,

In London one Hundred poor Men earn5000000
One Hundred Women and One Hundred Children,5000000
In Georgia an hundred Families earn, One Hundred Men for Labour,12000000
Di [...]to for Care of their Stock at Leisure Hours,12000000
One Hundred Women and One Hundred Children,24000000
Land and Stock in themselves,12000000

Q. E. D.

But we must conclude this Head, lest we tire the Read­er. We shai [...] now beg Leave to quote a fewPoetical Ac­counts of this Paradise of the World, and of the Fatherly Care and Protection we might depend on from Mr. Ogle­thorpe. An hundred Hackney Muses might be instanced; but we shall confine ourselves to the celebrated Perfor­mance of the Rev. Mr. Samuel Wesley, where we might will expect a sufficient Stock of Truth and Religion, to counter-ballance a Poetical Licence. Vide a Poem en­t [...]tuled, GEORGIA, Verses upon Mr.OGLE­ [...]RPE'S second Voyage to GEORGIA. Printed London, 1736.

SEE where beyond the spacious Ocean lies
A wide waste Land beneath the Southern Skies;
[...] kindly S [...]s for Ages roll'd in vain,
[...] the Vintage saw, or ripening Grain;
[...] into wild Lux [...]iance ran,
[...] the Aid of Man.
[Page xvi] In this sweet Climate and prolisick Soil,
He bids the eager Swain indulge his Toil;
In free Possession to the Planter's Hand,
Consigns the rich uncultivated Land.
Go you, the Monarch cries, go settle there,
Whom Britain from her Plenitude can spare:
Go, your old wonted Industry pursue;
Nor envy Spain the Treasures of Peru.
But not content in Council here to join,
A Further Labour, OGLETHORPE, is thine:
In each great Deed thou claim'st the foremost Part,
And Toil and Danger charm thy gen'rous Heart:
But chief for this thy warm Affections rise,
For oh! thou view'st it with a Parent's Eyes:
For this thou tempt'st the vast tremenduous Main,
And Floods and Storms oppose their Threats in vain.—
He comes, whose Life, while absent from your View,
Was one continued Ministry for you;
For you were laid out all his Pains and Art,
Won every Will, and soften'd every Heart.
With what paternal Joy shall he relate
How views its Mother Isle your little State:
Think while he strove your distant Coast to gain,
How oft he sigh'd and chid the tedious Main!
Impatient to survey, by Culture grac'd,
Your dreary Wood-land and your rugged Waste.
Fair were the Scenes he feign'd, the Prospects fair;
And sure, ye Georgians, all he feign'd was there.
A Thousand Pleasures crowd into his Breast,
But one, one mighty Thought, abso [...]bs the rest,
And gives me Heav'n to see (the Patriot cries)
Another BRITAIN in the Desart rife.—
[Page xvi]
Again, With nobler Products see thy GEORGIA teems,
Ch [...]ar'd with the genial Sun's directer Beams;
There the wild Vine to Culture learns to yield,
And purple Clusters ripen through the Field.
Now bid thy Merchants bring thy Wine no more,
Or from th' Iberian or the Tuscan Shore:
No m [...]re they need th' Hungarian Vineyards drain,
And France herself may drink her best Champaign.
Beh [...]ld! at last, and in a subject Land,
Nectar sufficient for thy large Demand:
Delicious Nectar, powerful to improve
Our hospitable Mirth and social Love:
This for thy jovial Sons.—Nor less the Care
Of thy young Province, to oblige the FAIR;
Here tend the Silk-Worm in the verdant Shade,
The [...]ugal Matron and the blooming Maid.

From the Whole, we doubt not, the Reader will look [...] us as sufficiently punished for our Credulity: And [...], who would not have been catch'd with such Pro­mises, such Prospects? What might not the Poor Man [...] himself with, from such an Alteration in his [...]? And how much more might a Gentleman expect [...] plentiful Stock of his own, and Numbers of Ser­vants to set up with? Could a Person with the least [...], question'd the Committing his Interests to [...] Guardians, and such a tender Father as Mr. Ogle­thorpe was believed to be? Whether he has acted that [...] was, that humane, that fatherly Part, the following [...] [...]ust determine.

[...] for these Poetical Licences touching the Wine and [...] we do not transcribe them as a Reflection upon the [...] as a Satyr upon Mismanagement of th [...]se [...], since no Measures were taken that seem'd [...] their Advancement.

[Page xviii] We no wise question the Possibility of advancing such Improvements in GEORGIA, with far less Sums of Mo­ney, properly applied, than the Publick has bestow'd: But not even the Flourishing of Wine and Silk, can make a Colony of British Subjects happy, if they are deprived of the Liberties and Properties of their Birth­right.

We have endeavour'd to the Utmost to be tender of Characters; but as we undertake to write an Account of Facts and Truths, there is no help for it, when those Facts and Truths press home.

It is a common Satisfaction to Sufferers, to expose to the Publick the Rocks upon which they split, and the Misfortunes by which they suffered; and it may well be allow'd us, to publish the Causes to which we attribute the Ruin of that Settlement and ourselves; and more e­specially as we are Prosecutors for Justice from higher Powers; which we doubt not receiving as the Case de­serves.

We hope the Truth of the following Narrative will re­commend itself to the Perusal of the candid Reader. The fatal Truths of this Tragedy hath already been seal'd with the Death of Multitudes of our Fellow-Creatures; but still (Thanks to the Providence of the Almighty) some survive to attest and confirm the Truth of what is here in contain'd, against any Persons or Names, however great, however powerful. Our Circumstances and Sin­cerity will excuse our want of that Politeness and Accu­racy of Stile, which might have represented our Case to greater Advantage to the Courteous Reader, whom we shall no longer detain [...] from the subject in hand.

[Page 1]

A true and historical NARRATIVE, &c.

NOTHING is more difficult for Authors than to divest themselves of Byass and Parti­ality, especially when they themselves are Parties or Sufferers in the Affair treated of.

It is possible this may be supposed the Case with us [...] Publishers of this Narrative; it may be imagined, [...] the Hardships, Losses and Disappointments we have [...] with in the Colony of Georgia, will naturally sowr [...] Humours, and engage us to represent every thing [...] worst Light.

[...] the Probability of those Surmises is very obvious [...] we have, to the utmost of our Power, guarded [...] the weak Side of ourselves; and to convince the [...] our Sincerity, shall no further descend into the [...] of particular Persons, than is absolutely [...] for making our General Narrative intelligible; [...] faithful Detail of publick Vouchers, Records, [...], Memorials and Representations, shall [...] so much of History as may be necessary to [...] material Events, and compleat the Co [...]

[Page 2] We are hopeful, that an information founded upon the strictest Truth will effectually introduce any further Steps that Providence shall enable us to take towards procuring the Redress of our Grievances. While we had the least Hopes of Redress from our immediate Superi­ors and Patrons, we would not; and when we began to despair of Relief by that Channel, we durst not make Application to any other Tribunal, unless we would ex­pose ourselves to the dreadful Effects of the Resentment of those who had before reduced us to Poverty by Op­pression: And indeed, in all the Applications we made for Redress, we were brow-beat, obstructed, threatned, and branded with opprobrious Names, such as prou [...], idle, lazy, discontented and mutinous People, and seve­ral other Appellations of that kind, and were always af­terwards harrassed by all Means whatsoever; several In­stances of which will appear to the Reader in the Sequel.

Our late Retreat from that Confinement to a Land of Liberty puts it in our Power to speak the Truth; and tho' our Endeavours are too late to relieve the dead, the dying, and those many now dispersed in all the Corners of his Majesty's Dominions; yet they may be the Means of ushering in Sympathy and Assistance to the Survivors, and to Multitudes of Widows and Orphans of the de­ceased from the humane and generous.

As our sole Design is to give A plain Narrative of the Establishment and Progress of the Colony of GEORGIA, from its Rise to its present Period, we shall court no other Ornaments than those of Truth and Perspicuity, and shall endeavour to carry the Reader's Attention regularly from the first to the last Motions we make mention of.

In the year 1732 his Majesty was pleased to erect, by his ROYAL CHARTER, into a separate Province, di­stinct from South-Carolina, that Space of Land lying be­tween the Rivers Savannah and Alatamaha, under the Name of GEORGIA.

As this gracious Charter is the Basis and Foundation [Page 3] of all the Transactions relating to this Province, which [...] so much amused and perplexed the World, and which our Endeavour is to set in a true Light, we can­ [...] dispense with inserting the Charter at large, which, [...] are confident, for many Reasons, will be acceptable to the Reader.

GEORGE the Second, by the Grace of GOD, of Great Britain, France and Ireland, KING, Defender of the Faith, &c. To all to whom these Presents shall come Greeting. WHEREAS we are credibly inform­ed, That many of Our poor Subjects are, through Mis­fortunes, and Want of Employment, reduced to great, Necessity, insomuch as by their Labour they are not able to provide a Maintenance for themselves and Fa­milies; and if they had Means to defray their Charges of Passage, and other Expences incident to new Settle­ments, they would be glad to settle in any of Our Pro­vinces in America; where, by cultivating the Lands at prese [...] waste and desolate, they might not only gain [...]comfortable Subsistance for themselves and Families, but also strengthen Our Colonies, and increase the Trade, Navigation and Wealth of these Our Realms. [...] whereas Our Provinces in North-America have been frequently ravaged by Indian Enemies, more e­specially that of South-Carolina, which in the la [...]e War [...] the neighbouring Savages was laid waste by Fire of [...] Sword, and great Numbers of the English Inhabi­ [...], miserably massacred; and Our loving Subjects [...] now inhabit there, by reason of the Smallness of [...] Numbers, will, in case of a new War, be expo­sed to the late Calamities, inasmuch as their whole [...] Frontier continueth unsettled, and lieth open [...] Savages. AND whereas we think it high­ [...] [...] our Crown and Royal Dignity to protoct [...] Subjects, be they never so distant from [...] Our fatherly Compassion even to the mean­est [Page 4] and most insatuate of Our People, and to relieve the Wants of Our above mentioned poor Subjects; and that it will be highly conducive for accomplishing those Ends, that a regular Colony of the said poor People be settled and established in the southern Territories of Carolina: AND whereas We have been well assured, That if We would be graciously pleased to erect and settle a Corporation for the receiving, managing and disposing of the Contributions of Our loving Subjects, divers Persons would be induced to contribute to the Purposes aforesaid, KNOW YE therefore, That We have, for the Considerations aforesaid, and for the bet­ter and more orderly carrying on the said good Purpo­ses, of Our special Grace, certain Knowledge, and mere Motion, Willed, Ordained, Constituted and Ap­pointed, and by these Presents, for Us, Our Heirs and Successors, do Will, Ordain, Constitute, Declare and Grant, That Our Right trusty and Well-beloved John Lord Viscount Purcival of Our Kingdom of Ireland, Our Trusty and Well-beloved Edward Dig [...]y, George Carpenter, James Oglethorpe, George Heathcote, Thomas Tower, Robert Moor, Robert Hucks, Roger Holland, Wil­liam Sloper, Francis Eyles, John Laroche, James Vernon, William Bcletha, Esqrs. A. M. John Burton, B. D. Ri­chard Bundy, A. M. Arthur Bedford, A. M. Samuel Smith, A. M. Adam Anderson and Thomas Coram, Gentlemen, and such other Persons as shall be elected in the Manner herein after mentioned, and their Successors to be e­lected in the Manner herein after directed, be, and shall be one Body Politick and Corporate, in Deed and in Name, by the Name of The Trustees for Establishing the Colony of Georgia in America; and them and their Suc­cessors by the same Name, We do, by these Presents for Us, Our Heirs and Successors, really and fully Make, Ordain, Constitute and Declare, to be one Body Poli­tick in Deed and in Name for ever; and that by the same Name they and their Successors shall and may [Page 5] have perpetual Succession; and that they and their Successors, by that Name, shall and may for ever here­after, be Persons able and capable in the Law, to pur­chase, have, take, receive and enjoy, to them and their Successors, any Manors, Messuages, Lands, Te­nements, Rents, Advowsons, Liberties, Privileges, Jurisdictions, Franchises, and other Hereditaments whatsoever, lying and being in Great Britain, or any Part thereof, of whatsoever Nature, Kind or Quality, or Value they be, in Fie and in Perpetuity; not ex­ceeding the yearly Value of One thousand Pounds, be­yond Reprises; also Estates for Lives, and for Years; and all other manner of Goods, Chattels and Things whatsoever they be, for the better settling and sup­porting, and maintaining the said Colony, and other Uses aforesaid; and to give, grant, let and demise the said Manors, Messuages, Lands, Tenements, Heredi­taments, Goods, Chattels and Things whatsoever a­foresaid, by Lease or Leases, for Term of Years, in Possession at the time of granting thereof, and not in Reversion, not exceeding the Term of Thirty one Years, from the time of granting thereof; on which in case no Fine be taken, shall be reserved the Full; and in case a Fine be taken, shall be reserved at least [...]a Moiety of the Value that the same shall reasonably and bona fide be worth at the time of such Demise; and that they and their Successors, by the Name afore­said, shall and may for ever hereafter, be Persons able, capable in the Law, to purchase, have, take, receive and enjoy, to them and their Successors, any Lands, Territories, Possessions, Tenements, Jurisdictions, Franchises and Hereditaments whatsoever, lying and being in America, of what Quantity, Quality or value whatsoever they be, for the better settling and sup­porting, and maintaining the said Colony; and that by the Name aforesaid they shall and may be able to sue and be sued, plead and be impleaded, answer and be [Page 6] answered unto, defend and be defended in all Courts and Places Whatsoever, and before whatsoever Judges, Justices and other Officers, of Us, our Heirs and Suc­cessors, in all and singular Actions, Plaints, Pleas, Mat­ters, Suits and Demands, of what Kind, Nature or Quality soever they be; and to act and do all other Matters and Things in as ample Manner and Form as any other Our Liege Subjects of this Realm of Great Britain, and that they and their Successors for ever hereafter, shall and may have a Common Seal, to serve for the Causes and Businesses of them and their Suc­cessors; and that it shall and may be lawful for them and their Successors, to change, break, alter and make new the said Seal, from time to time and at their Ple­asure, as they shall think best. AND We do further grant, for Us, Our Heirs and Successors, That the said Corporation, and the Common Council of the said Corporation herein after by Us appointed, may from time to time, and at all times, meet about their Affairs when and where they please, and transact and carry on the Business of the said Corporation. And for the better Execution of the Purposes aforesaid, We do, by these Presents, for Us, Our Heirs and Successors, give and grant to the said Corporation, and their Successors, That they and their Successors for ever, may, upon the third Thursday in the Month of March yearly, meet at some convenient Place to be appointed by the said Corporation, or major Part of them who shall be pre­sent at any Meeting of the said Corporation, to be had for the appointing of the said Place; and that they, or two Thirds of such of them that shall be present at such yearly Meeting, and at no other Meeting of the said Corporation, between the Hours of Ten in the Morn­ing and Four in the Afternoon of the same Day, Chuse and elect such Person of Persons to be Members of the said Corporation, as they shall think beneficial to the good Designs of the said Corporation. And our fur­ther [Page 7] Will and Pleasure is, That if it shall happen that any Persons herein after by Us appointed as the Common Council of the said Corporation, or any other Persons to be elected or admitted Members of the said Com­mon Council in the Manner hereafter directed, shall die or shall by Writing under his or their Hands re­spectively resign his or their Office or Offices of Com­mon Council Man or Common Council Men; the said Corporation, or the major Part of such of them as shall be present, shall and may at such Meeting, on the said third Thursday in March yearly, in manner as afore­said, next after such Death or Resignation, and at no other Meeting of the said Corporation, into the room or place of such Person or Persons so dead or so resign­ing, elect and chuse one or more such Person or Per­sons, being Members of the said Corporation, as to them shall seem meet: And Our Will is, That all and every the Person or Persons which shall from time to time hereafter be elected Common Council Men of the said Corporation as aforesaid, do and shall, before he or they act as Common Council Men of the said Cor­poration, take an Oath for the faithful and due Exe­cution of their Office; which Oath the President of the said Corporation for the Time being, is hereby au­thorized and required to administer to such Person or Persons elected as aforesaid. And Our Will and Plea­sure is, That the first President of the said Corporati­on is and shall be Our Trusty and Well-beloved the said John Lord Viscount Purcival; and that the said President shall, within Thirty Days after the passing this CHARTER, cause a Summons to be issued to the several Members of the said Corporation herein particularly named, to meet at such Time and Place as [...]e shall appoint, to consult about and transact the Businesses of the said Corporation. And Our Will and Pleasure is, and We, by these Presents, for Us, Our Heirs and Successors, grant, ordain and direct, That [Page 8] the Common Council of this Corporation shall consist of Fifteen in Number; and We do, by these Presents, nominate, constitute and appoint Our Right Trusty and Well-beloved John Lord Viscount Purcival, Our Trusty and Beloved Edward Digby, George Carpenter, James Oglethorpe, George Heathcote, Thomas Laroche, James Vernon, William Beletha, Esqrs. and Stephen Hales, Master of Arts, to be the Common Council of the said Corporation, to continue in the said Office du­ring their good Behaviour. AND whereas it is Our Royal Intention, That the Members of the said Corpo­ration should be encreased by Election, as soon as con­veniently may be, to a greater Number than is here­by nominated; Our further Will and Pleasure is, and We do hereby, for Us, Our Heirs and Successors, ordain and direct,That from the Time of such Increase of the Members of the said Corporation, the Number of the Common Council shall be increased to Twenty four; and that at the same Assembly at which such additional Members of the said Corporation shall be chosen, there shall likewise be elected, in the Manner herein before directed for the Election of Common Council Men, Nine Persons to be the said Common Council Men, and to make up the Number Twenty four. And Our fur­ther Will and Pleasure is, That Our Trusty and Well-beloved Edward Digby, Esq shall be the first Chair­man of the Common Council of the said Corporation; and that the said Lord Viscount Purcival shall be and continue President of the said Corporation; and that the said Edward Digby shall be and continue Chair­man of the Common Council of the said Corporation, respectively, until the Meeting which shall be had next and immediately after the first Meeting of the said Corporation, or of the Common Council of the said Corporation respectively, and no longer: At which said second Meeting, and every other subsequent and future Meeting of the said Corporation, or of the Com­mon [Page 9] Council of the said Corporation respectively, in order to preserve an indifferent Rotation of the seve­ral Offices of President of the Corporation, and of Chairman of the Common Council of the said Corpo­ration; We do direct and ordain, That all and every the Person and Persons Members of the said Common Council for the time being, and no other, being pre­sent at such Meetings, shall severally and respectively in their Turns, preside at the Meetings which shall from time to time be held of the said Corporation, or of the Common Council of the said Corporation respe­ctively: And in case any Doubt or Question shall at any time arise touching or concerning the Right of a­ny Member of the said Common Council to preside at any Meeting of the Said corporation, or at the Com­mon Council of the said Corporation, the same shall respectively be determined by the major Part of he said Corporation, or of the Common Council of the said Corporation respectively, who shall be present at such Meeting. Provided always, That no Member of the said Common Council having served in the Offices of President of the said Corporation, or of Chairman of the Common Council of the said Corporation, shall be cap­able of being or of serving as President or Chairman at any Meeting of the said Corporation or Common Council of the said Corporation, next and immediate­ly ensuing that in which he so served as President of the said Corporation, or Chairman of the said Com­mon Council of the said Corporation respectively; un­less it shall so happen, that at any such Meeting of the said Corporation there shall not be any other Member of the said Common Council present. And our Will and Pleasure is, That, at all and every of the Meetings of the said Corporation or of the Common Council of the said Corporation, the President or Chairman for the time be­ing, shall have a Voice and shall vote and shall act as a Member of the said Corporation, or of the Common [Page 10] Council of the said Corporation, at such Meeting; and in case of any Equality of Votes, the said President or Chairman for the time being, shall have a lasting Vote. And Our further Will and Pleasure is, That no President of the said Corporation, or Chairman of the Common Council of the said Corporation, or Member of the said Common Council or Corporation, by Us by these Pre­sents appointed, or hereafter from time to time to be elected and appointed in Manner aforesaid, shall have, take or receive, directly or indirectly, any Salary, Fee, Perquisite, Benefit or Profit whatsoever, for or by Rea­son of his or their serving the said Corporation, or Com­mon Council of the said Corporation, or President, Chairman or Common Council Man, or as being a Member of the said Corporation. And Our Will and Pleasure is, That the said herein before appointed Pre­sident, Chairman or Common Council Men, before he and they act respectively as such, shall severally take an Oath for the faithful and due Execution of their Trust, to be administred to the President by the Chief Baron of Our Court of Exchequer for the Time being, and by the President of the said Corporation to the rest of the Common Council, who are hereby authorized severally and respectively to administer the same. And Our Will and Pleasure is, That all and every Person and Persons who shall have, in his or their own Name or Names, or in the Name or Names of any Person or Persons in Trust for him or them, or for his or their Benefit, any Office, Place or Employment or Profit, under the said Corpo­ration, shall be incapable of being elected a Member of the said Corporation; and if any Member of the said Corporation, during such Time as he shall continue a Member thereof, shall in his own Name, or in the Name of any Person or Persons in Trust for him, or for his Benefit, have, hold, exercise, accept, possess or en­joy any Office, Place or Employment of Profit under the said Corporation, or under the Common Council [Page 11] of the said Corporation, such Member shall, from the Time of his having, holding, exercising, accepting, possessing and enjoying such Office, Place and Employ­ment of Profit, cease to be a Member of the said Cor­poration. And We do, for Us, Our Heirs and Succes­sors, grant unto the said Corporation and their Succes­sors, That they and their Successors, or the major Part of such of them as shall be present at any Meeting of the said Corporation, conveen'd and assembled for that Purpose by a convenient Notice thereof, shall have Pow­er from time to time, and at all times hereafter, to au­thorize and appoint such Persons as they shall think fit, to take Subscriptions, and to gather and collect such Monies as shall be by any Person or Persons contribut­ed for the Purposes aforesaid, and shall and may revoke and make void such Authorities and Appointments as often as they shall see Cause so to do. And We do here­by, for Us, Our Heirs and Successors, ordain and direct, That the said Corporation every Year lay an Account in Writing before the Chancellor, or Speaker, or Com­missioners for the Cus [...]oay of the Great Seal of Great Bri­tain, of Us, Our Heirs and Successors, the Chief Jus­tice of the Court of Kings-Bench, the Master of the Rolls, the Chief Justice of the Court of Common-Pleas, and the Chief Baron of the Exchequer, of Us, Our Heirs and Successors, for the Time being, or any Two of them, of all Monies and Effects by them received or expend­ed for the carrying on the good Purposes aforesaid. And We do hereby, for Us, Our Heirs and Successors, give and grant unto the said Corporation and their success­sors, full Power and Authority to constitute, ordain, and make such and so many By-Laws, Constitutions, Orders and Ordinances, as to them, or the greater Part of them, at their General Meeting for that Purpose, shall seem necessary and convenient for the well ordering and go­verning of the said Corporation, and the said By-Laws, Constitutions, Orders and Ordinances, or any of them, [Page 12] to alter and annul as they, or the major Part of them then present, shall see requisite; and in and by such By-Laws, Rules, Orders and Ordinances, to set, impose and inflict reasonable Pains and Penalties upon any Of­fender or Offenders who shall transgress, break or vio­late the said By-Laws, Constitutions, Orders and Ordi­nances, so made as aforesaid, and to mitigate the same as they, or the major Part of them then present, shall think convenient; which said Pains and Penalties shall and may be levied, sued for, taken, retained and reco­vered by the said Corporation and their Successors, by their Officers and Servants from time to time to be ap­pointed for that Purpose, by Action of Debt, or by a­ny other lawful Ways or Means, to the Use and Behoof of the said Corporation and their Successors; all and singular which By-Laws, Constitutions, Orders and Or­dinances, so as aforesaid to be made, WE WILL, shall be duly observed and kept, under the Pains and Penal­ties therein to be contained; so always as the said By-Laws, Constitutions, Orders and Ordinances, Pains and Penalties, from time to time to be made and imposed, be reasonable, and not contrary or repugnant to the Laws or Statutes of this Our Realm; and that such By-Laws, Constitutions and Ordinances, Pains and Penalties, from time to time to be made and imposed; and any Repeal or Alteration thereof, or any of them, be likewise agreed to, be established and confirmed by the said General Meeting of the said Corporation, to be held and kept next after the same shall be respective­ly made. And whereas the said Corporation intend to settle a Colony, and to make an Habitation and Planta­tion in that Part of Our Province of South-Carolina in America, herein after described; KNOW YE, That We greatly desiring the happy Success of the said Corpo­ration, for their further Encouragement in accomplishing so excellent a Work, Have, of Our foresaid Grace, cer­tain Knowledge, and mere Motion, Given and Grant­ed, [Page 13] and by these Presents, for Us, Our Heirs and Suc­cessors, Do Give and Grant to the said Corporation and their Successors, the Reservation, Limitation and De­claration hereafter expressed, Seven undivided Parts, the Whole in Eight equal Parts to be divided, of all those Lands, Countries and Territories situate, lying, and being in that Part of South-Carolina, in America, which lies from the most northern Part of Stream or River there, commonly called The Savannah, all along the Sea-coast to the Southward, unto the most southern Stream of a certain other great Water or River called The Alatamaha, and westerly from the Heads of the said Rivers respectively in direct Lines to the South Seas; and all that Share, Circuit and Precinct of Land within the said Boundaries, with the Islands on the Sea lying opposite to the eastern Coast of the said Lands, within Twenty Leagues of the same, which are not in­habited already, or settled by any Authority derived from the Crown of Great Britain, together with all the Soils, Grounds, Havens, Ports, Gulfs and Bays, Mines, as well Royal Mines of Gold and Silver as o­ther Minerals, precious Stones, Quarries, Woods, Ri­vers, Waters, Fishings, as well Royal Fishings of Whale and Sturgeon, as other Fishings, Pearls, Commodities, Jurisdictions, Royalties, Franchises, Privileges and Pre­eminencies within the said Frontiers and Precincts there­of, and thereunto in any sort belonging or appertain­ing, and which We by Our Letters Patent may or can grant; and in as ample Manner and Sort as We may, or any Our Royal Progenitors have hitherto granted to any Company, Body Politick or Corporate, or to any Adventurer or Adventurers, Undertaker or Under­takers of any Discoveries, Plantations or Traffick of, in, or unto any Foreign Parts whatsoever, and in as le­gal and ample Manner as if the same were herein par­ticularly mentioned and expressed: To have, hold, pos­sess and enjoy the said Seven undivided Parts, the whole [Page 14] into Eight equal Parts to be divided as a aforesaid, of all and singular the Lands, Countries and Territories, with all and singular other the Premisses herein before by these presents granted, or mentioned or intended to be granted to them the said Corporation and their Suc­cessors for ever, for the better Support of the said Co­lony; to be holden of Us, Our Heirs and Successors, as of Our Honour of Hampton-Court, in Our County of Middlesex, in free and common Soccage, and not in Ca­pite; Yielding and Paying therefore to Us, Our Heirs and Successors, yearly for ever, the Sum of Four Shillings for every Hundred Acres of the said Lands which the said Corporation shall grant, demise, plant or settle; the said Payment not to commence or to be made un­til Ten Years after such Grant, Demise, Planting or Settling, and to be answered and paid to Us, Our Heirs and Successors, in such Manner, and in such Spe­cies of Money or Notes as shall be current in Payment by Proclamation from time to time in Our said Province of South-Carolina; all which Lands, Countries, Ter­ritories and Premisses hereby granted, or mentioned and intended to be granted, We do, by these Presents, make, erect and create, One independent and separate Province by the Name of GEORGIA, by which Name WE WILL the same henceforth be called; and that all and every Person or Persons who shall at any time hereafter inhabit or reside within Our said Province, shall be and are hereby declared to be free, and shall not be subject to, or be bound to obey any Laws, Or­ders, Statutes or Constitutions which have been here­tofore made, ordered and enacted, or which hereafter shall be made, ordered or enacted by, for, or as the Laws, Orders, Statutes or Constitutions of Our said Province of South-Carolina, (save and except only the Command in chief of the Militia of Our said Province of Georgia, to Our Governor for the Time being of South-Carolina, in Manner hereafter declared) but shall [Page 15] be subject to and bound to obey such Laws, Orders, Statutes and Coustitutions as shall from time to time be made, ordered and enacted, for the better Govern­ment of the said Province of Georgia, in the manner herein after declared. And We do hereby, for Us, Our Heirs and Successors, ordain, will and establish, That for and during the Term of Twenty one Years, to com­mence from the Date of these Our Letters Patent, the said Corporation assembled for that Purpose, shall and may form and prepare Laws, Statutes and Ordinances, fit and necessary for and concerning the Government of the said Colony, and not repugnant to the Laws and Statutes of England, and the same shall and may present, under their Common Seal, to Us, Our Heirs and successors, in Our or Their Privy Council, for Our or Their Approbation or Disallowance; and the said Laws, Statutes and Ordinances being approved of by Us, Our Heirs and Successors, in Our or Their Privy-Council, shall from thenceforth be in full Force and Virtue, within Our said Province of Georgia. AND FORASMUCH as the good and prosperous Success of the said Colony, cannot but chiefly depend, next under the Blessing of GOD and the Support of Our Royal Authority, upon the provident and good Direction of the whole Enterprize; and that it will be too great a Burthen upon all the Members of the said Corporation, to be convened so often as may be requisite to hold Meetings for the Settling, Supporting, ordering and Maintaining the said Colony: Therefore We do will, ordain and establish, That the said Common Council for the time being, of the said Corporation, being assembled for that Purpose, or the major Part of them, shall from time to time, and at all times here­after, have full Power and Authority to dispose of, extend and apply all the Monies and Effects belong­ing to the said Corporation, in such Manner and Ways, and such Expences as they shall think best to con­duce [Page 16] to the carrying on and effecting the good Purpo­ses herein mentioned and intended: And also, shall have full Power, in the Name and on the Account of the said Corporation, and with and under their Common S [...]al, to enter under any Co [...]enants or Contracts for car­rying on and effecting the Purposes aforesaid.And Our farther Will and Pleasure is, That the said Common Council for the time being, or the major Part of such Common Council which shall be present and assembled for that Purpose from time to time, and at all times here­after, shall and may nominate, constitute and appoint a Treasurer or Treasurers, Secretary or Secretaries, and such other Officers, Ministers Servants of the said Corporation, as to them or the major Part of them as shall be present, shall seem proper or requisite for the good Management of their Affairs; and at their Will and Pleasure to displace, remove and put out such Treasurer or Treasurers, Secretary or Secretaries, and all such other Officers, Ministers and Servants, as often as they shall think fit so to do, and others in the Room, Office, Place or Station of him or them so displaced, removed or put out, to nominate, constitute and appoint; and shall and may determine and appoint such reasonable Salaries, Perquisites and other Re­wards for their Labour, or Service of such Officers, Servants and Persons, as to the said Common Council shall seem meet; and all such Officers, Servants and Persons shall, before the acting their respective Offices, take an Oath, to be to them administred by the Chair­man for the time being of the said Common Council of the said Corporation, who is hereby authorized to ad­minister the same, for the faithful and due Execution of their respective Offices and Places, And Our Will and Pleasure is, That all such Person and Persons who shall from time to time be chosen or appointed Trea­surer or Treasurers, Secretary or secretaries of the said Corporation, in manner herein after directed, shall, [Page 17] during such times as they shall serve in the said Offices respectively, be incapable of being a Member of the said Corporation. And We do further, of Our spe­cial Grace, certain Knowledge and mere Motion, for Us, Our Heirs and Successors, grant, by these Presents, to the said Corporation and their Successors, That it shall be lawful for them and their Officers or Agents, at all times hereafter, to transport and convey out of Our Realm of Great Britain, or any other Our Domi­nions, into the said Province of Georgia to be there set­tled, and so many of Our loving Subjects, or any Fo­reigners that are willing to become Our Subjects and live under our Allegiance in the said Colony, as shall be willing to go to inhabit or reside there, with suffici­ent Shipping, Armour, Weapons, Powder, Shot, Ord­nance, Munition, Victuals, Merchandize and Wares, as are esteem'd by the wild People, Cloathing, Imple­ments, Furniture, Cattle, Horses, Mares, and all O­ther Things necessary for the said Colony, and for the Use and Defence, and Trade with the People there, and in passing and returning to and from the same. Al­so We do, for Our Selves and Successors, declare, by these Presents, That all and every the Persons which shall happen to be born within the said Province, and every of their Children and Posterity, shall have and enjoy all Liberties, Franchises and Immunities of Free Denizons and Natural Born Subjects, within any of Our Dominions, to all Intents and Purposes, as if abiding and born within this Our Kingdom of Great-Britain, or any other Dominion. AND for the greater Ease and Encouragement of Our loving Subjects, and such others as shall come to inhabit in Our said Colony, We do, by these Presents, for Us, Our Heirs and Succes­sors, grant, establish and ordain, That for ever here­after there shall be a LIBERTY OF CONSCIENCE allowed in the Worship of GOD, to all Persons inhabi­ting, or which shall inhabit or be resident within Our [Page 18] said Province, and that all such Persons, except Pa­pists, shall have a free Exercise of Religion; so they be contented with the quiet and peaceable Enjoyment of the same, not giving Offence or Scandal to the Govern­ment. And Our further Will and Pleasure is, and We do hereby, for Us, Our Heirs and Successors, declare and grant, That it shall and may be lawful for the said Common Council, or the major Part of them assembled for that Purpose, in the Name of the Corporation, and under the Common Seal, to distribute, convey, assign and set over such particular Portions of Lands, Tene­ments and Hereditaments by these Presents granted to the said Corporation, unto such of Our loving Subjects Naturally born or Denizons, or others, that shall be willing to become Our Subjects, and live under Our Allegiance in the said Colony, upon such Terms, and for such Estates, and upon such Rents, Reservations and Conditions as the same may be lawfully granted, and as to the said Common Council, or the major Part of them so present, shall seem fit and proper. Provided always, That no Grant shall be made of any Part of the said Lands unto any Person being a Member of the said Corporation, or to any other Person in Trust for the Benefit of any Member of the said Corporation; and that no Person having any Estate or Interest in Law or Equity in any Part of the said Lands, shall be capable of be­ing a Member of the said Corporation, during the Conti­nuance of such Estate or Interest. Provided also, That no greater Quantity of Lands be granted, either entire­ly or in Parcels, to or for the Use or in Trust for any one Person than Five Hundred Acres; and that all Grants made contrary to the true Intent and Meaning hereof, shall be absolutely null and void. And We do hereby grant and ordain, That such Person or Persons for the time being, as shall be thereunto appointed by the said Corporation, shall and may at all times, and from time to time hereafter, have full Power and Au­thority [Page 19] to administer and give the Oaths appointed by an Act of Par [...]ament made in the First Year of the Reign of Our late Royal Father, to be taken instead of the Oaths of Allegiance and Supremacy; and also the Oath of Abjuration, to all and every Person and Per­son which shall at time be inhabiting or residing within Our said Colony; and in like Cases to admini­ster the solemn Affirmation to any of the Persons com­monly called Quakers, in such manner as by the Laws of Our Realm of Great Britain the same may be administred. And We do, of our further Grace, certain Knowledge and mere Motion, grant, establish and ordain, for Us, Our Heirs and Successors, That the said Cor­poration and their Successors shall have full Power and Authority for and during the Term of Twenty one Years, to commence from the Date of these Our Let­ters Patent, to erect and constitute Judicatories and Courts of Record, or other Courts, to be held in the Name of Us, Our Heirs and Successors, for the Hear­ing and Determining of all manner of Crimes, Offences, Pleas, Processes, Plaints, Actions, Matters, Causes and Things whatsoever, arising or happening within the said Province of Georgia, or between Persons of Georgia; whether the same be criminal or civil, and whether the said Crimes be capital or not capital, and whether the said Pleas be real personal or mixed; and for Awarding and Making out Executions thereupon; To which Courts and Judicatories, We do hereby, for Us, our Heirs and Successors, give and grant full Power and Authority, from time to time, to administer Oaths for the Discovery of Truth, in any Matter in controversy or depending before them, or the solemn Affirmation to any of the Persons commonly called Quakers, in such manner as by the Laws of Our Realm of Great Britain the same may be administred. And Oar Further Will and Pleasure is, That the said Corpo­ration and their Successors do from time to time, and [Page 20] at all Times hereafter, register or cause to be registred all such Leases, Grants, Plantings, Conveyances, Settle­ments and Improvements whatsoever, as shall at any Time hereafter be made by or in the Name of the said Corporation, of any Lands, Tenements or Heredita­ments within the said Province; and shall yearly send and transmit, or cause to be sent or transmitted, au­thentick Accounts of such Leases, Grants, Conveyan­ces, Settlements and Improvements respectively, unto the Auditor of the Plantations for the Time being, or his Deputy, and also to Our Surveyor for the Time being of Our said Province of South-Carolina, to whom We do hereby grant full Power and Authority from time to time, as often as Need shall require, to inspect and survey such of the said Lands and Premisses as shall be demised, granted and settled as aforesaid, which said Survey and Inspection, We do hereby declare to be in­tended to ascertain the Quit-Rents which shall from time to time become due to Us, Our Heirs and Suc­cessors, according to the Reservations herein before mentioned, and for no other Purposes whatsoever; hereby, for Us, Our Heirs and Successors, Strictly en-joining and commanding, That neither Our or their Sur­veyor, or any Person whatsoever, under the Pretext and Colour of making the said Survey or Inspection, shall take, demand or receive any Gratuity, Fee or Reward of or from any Person or Persons inhabiting in the said Colony, or from the said Corporation or Common Council of the same, on the Pain of Forfei­ture of the said Office or Offices, and incurring Ou [...] highest Displeasure. Provided always, and Our further will and Pleasure is, That all Leases, Grants and Con­veyances to be made by or in the Name of the Said Corporation, of any Lands within the said Province, or a Memorial containing the Substance and Effect thereof, shall be registred with the Auditor of the said Plantations, of Us, Our Heirs and Successors, within [Page 21] the Space of One Year, to be computed from the Date ther [...] otherwise the same shall be void. And Our further Will and Pleasure is, That the Rents, Issues and all other Profits which shall at any Time hereafter come to the said Corporation, or the major Part of them which shall be present at any Meeting for that Purpose assembled, shall think will most improve and enlarge the said Colony, and best answer the good Purposes herein before mentioned, and for defraying all other Charges about the same. And Our Will and Pleasure is, That the said Corporation and their Successors shall from time to time give in to one of the principal Secre­taries of State, and to Commissioners of Trade and Plantations, Accounts of the Progresses of the said Co­lony. And Our Will Pleasure is, That no Act done at any Meeting of the said Common Council of the said Corporation shall be effectual and valid, unless Eight Members at least of the said Common Council, including the Member who shall sever as Chairman at the said Meeting, be present, and major Part of them consenting thereunto. And Our Will and Pleasure is, That the Common Council of the said Corporation for the Time being, or the major Part of them who shall be present being assembled for that Purpose, shall from time to time, for and during and unto the full End and Expiration of Twenty one Years, to commence from the Date of these Our Letters Patent, have full Power and Authority to nominate, make, constitute, commission, ordain and appoint, by such Name or Names, Stile or Stiles, as to them shall seem meet and fitting, all and singular such Governors, Judges, Ma­gistrates, Ministers and Officers, Civil and Military, both by Sea and Land, within the said Districts, as shall by them be thought fit and needful to be made or used for the said Government of the said Colony; [...] and except such Officers only as shall by Us, Our Heirs and Successors, be from time to time [Page 22] constituted and appointed for the managing and col­lecting and receiving such Revenues as shall from time to time arise within the said Province of Georgia, and become due to Us, our Heirs and Successors, Provided always, and it is Our Will and Pleasure, That every Governor of the said Province of Georgia, to be appoin­ted by the Common Council of the said Corporation, before he shall enter upon or execute the said Office of Governor, shall be approved by Us, Our Heirs or Successors, and shall take such Oaths, and shall qua­lify himself in such Manner in all Respects as any Go­vernor or Commander in chief of any of Our Colonies or Plantations in America are by Law required to do; and shall give good and sufficient Security for observ­ing the several Acts of Parliament relating to Trade and Navigation; and to observe and obey all Instru­ctions that shall be sent to him by Us, Our Heirs and Successors, or any acting under Our or their Authori­ty, pursuant to the said Acts, or any of them. And We do by these Presents, for Us, Our Heirs and Suc­cessors, will, grant and ordain, That the said Corpora­tion and their Successors shall have full Power, for and during and until the full End and Term of Twenty one Year, to commence from the Date of these Our Let­ters Patent, by any Commander or other Officer or Officers by them for that Purpose from time to time appointed, to train, instruct, exercise and govern a Mi­litia for the special Defence and Safety of Our said Colony, to assemble in Martial-array the Inhabitants of the said Colony, and to lead and conduct them, and with them to encounter, expulse, rep [...]i, resist and pur­sue, by Force of Arms, as well by Sea as by Land, within or without the Limits or Our said Colony; and also to kill, slay and destroy, and conquer, by all fight­ing Ways, Enterprizes and Means whatsoever, all and e­very such Person or Persons as shall at any Time here­after in any hostile Manner attempt or enterprize the [Page 23] Destruction, Invasion, Detriment or Annoyance of Our said Colony; and to use and exercise the Martial-Law in Time of actual War and Invasion or Rebellion, in such Cases where by Law the same may be used or ex­ercised; and also from time to time to erect Forts, and forti [...]y and Place or Places within Our said Colony, and the same to furnish with all necessary Ammuniti­on, Provisions and Stores of War of Offence and De­fence, and so commit from time to time the Custody or Government of the same to such Person or Persons as to them shall seem meet; and the said Forts and Fortifications to demolish at their Pleasure; and to take and surprize, by all Ways and Means, all and e­very such Person or Persons, with their Ships, Arms, Ammunition and other Goods, as shall in an hostile Man­ner invade or attempt the invading, conquering or an­noying of Our said Colony, And Our Will and Plea­sure is, and We do hereby, for Us, Our Heirs and Suc­cessors, declare and grant. That the Governor and Com­mander in chief of the Province of South-Carolina, of Us, Our Heirs and Successors for the Time being, shall at all Times hereafter have the chief Command of the Militia of Our said Province hereby erected and established; and that such Militia shall observe and o­bey all Orders and Directions that shall from time to time be given or sent to them by the said Governor of Commander in chief, any Thing in these Presents be­fore contained to the Contrary hereof in any wife not­withstanding. And, of Our more special Grace, cer­tain Knowledge and mere Motion, We have given and granted, and by these Presents, for Us, Our Heirs and Successors, do give and grant unto the [...] Corporation and their Successors, full Power and Authority to im­port and export their Goods at and from any Port or Ports that shall be appointed by Us, Our Heirs and Successors, within the said Province of Georgia for that Purpose, without being [...] to touch at any other [Page 24] Port in South-Carolina. And we do by these Presents, for Us, Our Heirs and Successors, will and declare, That from and after the Determination of the said Term of One and twenty Years, such Form of Govern­ment and Method of making Laws, Statutes and Ordi­nances, for the better governing and ordering the said Pro­vince of Georgia, and the Inhabitants thereof, shall be established and observed within the same, as We, Our Heirs and Successors, Shall hereafter ordain and ap­point, and shall be agreeable to Law; and that from and after the Determination of the said Term of One and twenty Years, the Governor of Our said Province of Georgia, and all Officers Civil and Military within the same, shall from time to time be nominated and con­stituted and appointed by Us, Our Heirs and Succes­sors. AND LASTLY, We do hereby, for Us, Our Heirs and Successors, grant unto the said Corporation and their Successors, That these Our Letters Patent, or the Enrolments or Exemplification thereof, shall be in and by all Things, good, firm, valid, sufficient and effectual in the Law, according to the true Intent and Meaning thereof, and shall be taken, construed and adjudged in all Courts and elsewhere, in the most fa­vourable and beneficial Sense, and for the best Advan­tage of the said Corporation and their Successors, any Omission, Imperfection, Defect, Matter of Cause or Thing whatsoever to the contrary in any wise notwith­standing. IN WITNESS We have caused these Our Letters to be made Patent. Witness Ourself at West­minster, the Ninth Day of June, in the Fifth Year of Our Reign.

By Writ of Privy Seal.

The gracious Purposes and ample Privileges contain­ed in the foregoing CHARTER, are so obvious to e­very Reader, that we need only say they were suitable [Page 25] to a most generous and humane British Monarch; and had the Settlement of the Colony of Georgia been carri­ed on conformable thereto, and no other Restrictions or Reservations made than what are therein mentioned, then would the Colony at this Time have been in a flourishing Condition, answerable to all those glorious Ends that were proposed and expected from it: But on the contrary, Laws and Restrictions being made, such as were never heard of in any British Settlement, the Co­lony is brought to the present melancholy Situation. But we shall say no more at present on this Head than what Mr. Oglethorpe said in Parliament relating to the Charitable Corporation, viz. * The better the Design was, the more those deserve to be punished who have disappointed the Publick of reaping the Benefits that might have accrued from it.

Inhabitants of all sorts, Roman Catholicks only except­ed, from all Parts of the World, were invited to pos­sess this promised Land, and large Sums of Money from the Parliament, as well as Contributions from private and publick Charity, were collected; the Country was laid out as an Earthly Paradise, the Soil [...]ar surpassing that of England, the Air healthy, always serene, plea­sant and temperate, never subject to excessive Heat or Cold, nor to sudden Changes.

It was Particularly set forth, and with a Shew of Reason enough, that this proposed Settlement could not fail of succeeding when the Nation was so bountiful, the King so gracious, the Trustees so disinterested and ho­nourable, who had, for the Benefit of Mankind, given up that Ease and Indolence to which they were entitled by their Fortunes, and the too prevalent Custom of their Native country; and withal being able, by seeing [Page 26] the Mistakes and Failures of other Colonies, both to a­void and rectify them; and lastly, the universal Report of Mr. Oglethorpe's matchless Humanity and Generosity, who was to conduct the first Embarkation, and who was, in all Appearance, to undergo the greatest Hard­ships, without any other View than to succour the di­stressed; and, despising Interest or Riches, was to ven­ture his Life, his All, in establishing the intended Settle­ment. Glorious Presages of the future Happiness of that Colony! Irresistable-Temptations to those whose Genius or Circumstances led them to leave their native Country!

No wonder then that great Numbers of poor Subjects, who lay under a Cloud of Misfortunes, embraced the Opportunity of once more tasting Liberty and Happi­ness; that Jews, attracted by the Temptation of Inhe­ritances, [...]lock'd over; that Germans, oppressed and dis­satisfied at home, willingly joined in the Adventure, some as Settlers, and others as Servants to the Tru­stees; and lastly, that great Numbers of Gentlemen of some Stock and Fortune, willingly expended Part of the same in purchasing Servants, Tools commodities and other Necessaries to entitle them to such respective Pro­portions of Land as the Trustees had thought proper to determine, and such Liberties and Properties as they had Reason to expect from his Majesty's most gracious Charter: But how much they were all disappointed the Sequel will shew. The first Thing that was done was the circumseribing the Rights and Titles given by his Majesty, and making many other various Restrictions, Services and Conditions, impossible for any human Per­son to perform; a few of which we shall here enumerate: in the first Place, there was an excessive Quit-Rent laid upon the Land, being a great deal more than his Maje­sty's Subjects in the other British Colonies pay, viz. Twenty Shillings [...] for every Hundred Acres, to be paid yearly and i [...] it, or any Part thereof, should be behind and unpaid by the Space of Six Calendar Months [Page 27] next after any Day of Payment on which the same be­came due, then the Land was forfeited, and returned to the Trustees; as it likewise did upon Failure in any of the Following Conditions, viz. One Thousand Mulberry-Trees always to be growing on every Hundred Acres; no Partnership or Company to be entred into for mak­ing Pot-Ash; not to assign or transfer the Land, or any Part or Parcel thereof, or any Estate or Interest in the same for any Terms of Years; not to hire, keep, lodge, board or employ within the Limits of the Province, any Black or Negro; and if the Person holding Land should die without Issue Male, or his Heirs at any Time should die without Issue Male, in that Case likewise the whole Land was forfeited and reverted to the Trustees; and if any Part or Parcel of any of the Five hundred A [...]re-Tracts should remain not cultivated, cleared plan­ted and improved after the Space of Eighteen Years, such Part to return to the Trustees. These were the chief Restrictions in all the Grants of Lands, which appeared very hard even to Strangers, who had not yet felt them, and who were ignorant of the Climate and Nature of the Place; but when any one complained of the Hard­ships of them, to palliate the Matter, it was given out, that Negroes were entirely useless and unprofitable, Wine, Silk, Olives, Gardens, and Manufactures for Wo­men and Children, were the intended Improvements of the Colony; that the Restriction of the Rights of Lands were only temporary, to prevent the bartering or sel­ling them by the unthinking People at an Undervalue; and concerning the Want of Male Issue it was asserted, that the Trustees being duly petitioned, would grant Continuation of the Land to the eldest Daughter, if a­ny &c. upon their good * Behaviour: That the Laws [Page 28] England, and the Administration of Justice, in the most impartial Manner, and most adapted to the Nature of the a free British Government, Should be ever secured to the Inhabitants.

The First of February 1732-3, Mr. Oglethorpe arrived at Georgia with the first Embarkation, consisting of For­ty Families, making upwards of One hundred Persons, all brought over and supported at the publick charge. The FIRST Thing he did after he arrived in Georgia was to make a kind of solemn Treaty with a Parcel of Fugitive Indians, who had been formerly banished their own Na­tion for some Crimes and Misdemeanors they had comm­itted, and who had, some Months before this, got Li­berty from the Governor of South-Carolina to settle there * Some of these he afterwards carried home with him under the Title of Kings, &c and all of them have been ever since maintained at the publick Charge, at vast Expence, when many poor Christians were starv­ing in the Colony for Want of Bread; and we may safe­ly affirm, (and appeal to the Store-books for the Truth of it) that a larger Sum of Money has been expended for the Support of those useless Vagrants, than ever was laid out for the Encouragement of Silk, Wine, or any other Manufacture in the Colony.

SECONDLY, He prohibited the Importation of Rum, under Pretence that it was destructive to the Constituti­on, and an Incentive to Debauchery and Idleness. How­ever specious these Pretences might seem, a little Expe­rience soon convinced as that this Restriction was di­rectly opposite to the Well-being of the Colony: For in the first Place, we were cut off from the most imme­diate and probable Way of exporting our Timber (the only poor Prospect of Export that we could ever flatter ourselves with) to the Sugar Islands, Rum being the [Page 29] Principal Return they make. In the Second Place, the Experience of all the Inhabitants of America will prove the Necessity of qualifying Water with some Spirit, (and it is very certain, that no Province in America yields Water that such a Qualification is more necessary to than Carolina and Georgia) and the Usefulness of this Expe­riment has been sufficiently evident to all the Inhabi­tants of Georgia who could procure it, and use it with Moderation. A third Reason which made this Restri­ction very hurtful to the Colony was, That tho' the Laws were in force against it, (which put it in the Pow­er of the Magistrates to lay Hardships upon every Per­son who might be otherwise under their Resentment) yet great Quantities were imported *, only with this Diffe­rence, that in place of Barter or Exchange, the ready Money was drained from the Inhabitants: And likewise, as it is the Nature of Mankind in general, and of the common sort in particular, more eagerly to desire, and more immoderately to use those Things which are most restrained from them, such was the Case with Respect to Rum in Georgia,

The THIRD Thing he did was regularly to set out to each Freeholder in Savannah Lots of Fifty Acres, in three distinct Divisions, viz. The Eight Part of One Acre for a House and Garden in the Town; Four Acres and 7 Eighths at a small Distance from the Town; and Forty five Acres at a considerable Remove from thence. No Regard was had to the Quality of the Ground in the Divisions, so that some were altogether Pine-Barren, and some swamp and Morass, far surpassing the Strength and Ability of the Planter: And indeed what could be done at any Rate with such small Parcels of Land Separate from one another? These Loss were likewise shaped in long pointed Triangles, which considerably increased [Page 30] the Extent of Inclosure, and rendred great Part of each Lot entirely useless. But these and many other Hard­ships were scarcely felt by the few People that came there, so long as Mr. Oglethorpe Staid, which was about Fifteen Months: They work'd hard indeed in building some Houses in Town; but then they labour'd in com­mon, and were likewise assisted by Negroes from Caro­lina, who did the heaviest Work: But at*Mr. Ogle­thorpe's going to England, the growing Fame of the Co­lony was thereby greatly increased, so that, as it has been before observed, People in abundance from all parts of the World stock'd to Georgia. Then they be­gan to consider, and endeavour, every one according to his Genius or Abilities, how they might best subsist themselves: Some, with great Labour and Expence, es­sayed the making ofTar: This, as it is well known to the Trustees, never quitted Costs: Others tried to make Plank and Saw-Boards; which, by the great Price they were obliged to sell them at, by reason of the great Expence of white Servants, was the chief Means of ruining those who thought to procure [...] Living by their Buildings in Town; for Boards of all kinds could always be bought in Carolina for half the Price that they were able to sell them at; but few were capable to com­mission them from thence, and those who were so were prevented from doing it, upon pretence of discouraging the Labour of white People in Georgia. Those who had Numbers of Servants and Tracts of Land in the Coun­try, went upon the Planting of Corn, Pease, Potatoes, &c. and the Charge of these who succeeded the best, so [Page 31] far exceeded the Value of the Produce, that it would have saved three Fourths to have bought all from the Carolina Market. The Felling of Timber was a Task ve­ry unequal to the Strength and Constitution of white Servants, and the Hoeing the Ground, they being expo­sed to the sultry Heat of the Sun, insupportable; and it is well known, that this Labour is one of the hardest upon the Negroes, even though their Constitutions are much stronger than white People, and the Heat no way disagreeable nor hurtful to them; but in us it created inflammatory Fevers of various kinds both continued and in­termittent, wasting and tormenting Fluxes, most excruciate­ing Cholicks, and Dry-Belly-A [...]hs; Tremors, Vertigoes, Palsies, and a long Train of painful and lingring nervous Distempers; which brought on to many a Cessation both from Work and Life; especially as Water without any Qualification was the Chief Drink, and salt Meat the only Provisions that could be had or afforded: And so general were these Disorders that during the hot Sea­son, which lasts from March to October, hardly one half of the Servants and working people were ever able to do their Masters or themselves the least Service; and the yearly Sickness of each Servant, generally speaking, cost his Master as much as would have maintained a Negroe for four Years. These Things were represent­ed to the Trustees in Summer 1735, in a Petition for the Use of Negroes, signed by about Seventeen of the better sort of People in Savannah: In this Petition there was also set forth the great disproportion betwixt the Maintenance and Cloathing of white Servants and Negroes. This Petition was carried to England and Pre­sented to the Trustees by Mr. Hugh Stirling, an experienced Planter in the Colony; but no Regards was had to it, or to what he could say, and great Resentment was even shewn to Mr. Thompson, the Master of the Ves­sel in which it went.

Whilst we laboured under those Difficulties in sup­porting [Page 32] ourselves, our Civil Liberties received a more terrible Shock: For, instead of such a free Government as we had Reason to expect, and of being judged by the Laws of our Mother Country, a * Dictator, (under the Title of Bailiff and Store-keeper) was appointed and lest by Mr. Oglethorpe at his Departure, which was in April 1734 whose Will and Pleasure were the only Laws in Georgia: In regard to this Magistrate, the others were entirely nominal, and in a Manner but Cyphers: sometimes he would ask in publick their Opinion, in order to have the Pleasure of showing his Power by con­tradicting them. He would often threaten Juries, and especially when their Verdicts did not agree with his Inclination or Humour. And in order the more fully to establish his absolute Authority, the Store and Dispo­sal of the Provisions, Money and publick Places of Trust, were committed to him; by which Alteration in his State and Circumstances he became in a Manner infa­tuated, being before that a Person of no Substance or Character, having come over with Mr. Oglethorpe a­mongst the first Forty, and left England upon account of something committed by him concerning his Majesty's Duties: However, he was sit enough for a great many Purposes, being a Person naturally proud, covetous, cun­ning and deceitful, and would bring his Designs about by all possible Ways and Means.

As his Power increased so did his Pride, Haughtiness and Cruelty, insomuch that he caused eight Freeholders, with an Officer, to attend at the Door of the Court eve­ry Day it sat, with their Guns and Bayonets, and they were commanded by his Orders to rest their Firelocks as soon as he appeared; which made People in some Man­ner afraid to speak their Minds, or Juries to act as their Consciences directed them. He was seldom or never un­covered on the Bench, not even when an Oath was ad­ministred [Page 33] and being perfectly intoxicated with Power and Pride, he threatned every Person without Distincti­on, Rich and Poor, Strangers and Inhabitants, who in the least opposed his arbitrary Proceedings, or claimed their just Rights and Privileges, with the Stocks, Whip­ing-Post and Log-House, and many times put those Threatnings in Execution; so that the Georgia Stocks, Whipping-Post and Log-House, soon were famous in Caro­lina, and every where else in America where the Name of the Province was heard of, and the very Thoughts of coming to the Colony became a Terror to People's Minds. And now the Province of Carolina, who had, in private and publick Donations, given us upwards of 1300 l. Sterling, seeing these Things, and how the publick Mo­ney was thrown away, began to despise the Colony, and out of a Regard to the Welfare of their Fellow Crea­tures, disswaded every Body they could from settling in it. That this absolute Power might be exercised with­out the least Interruption, the other Magistrates were such, that they either were unable or incapable to op­pose it: It is true, in December 1734, Mr. Causton met with a little Interruption; for the Trustees then sent o­ver to savannah one Mr. Gordon, as chief Magistrate, who being a person of a very winning Behaviour, a [...]able and fluent in Speech, soon got the Good-will of every Body, and a great many of the People laid their Grie­vances and Hardships open to him, which seem'd a little to eclipse Mr. Causton; but he soon found out an Expe­dient to remove this Adversary, viz. by refusing him Provisions from the Store, which in a little Time ren­dred him incapable to support himself and Family, where­by he was obliged, after about six Weeks Stay, to leave the Place, in order, as he said, to represent our Grievances to the Trustees, and soon after returned to London; but he did not perform his Promise, for what Reason we shall not pretend to determine; and some time thereaf­ter he either resigned or was dismissed from his Office of [Page 34] First Bailiff, and Mr. Causton was appointed in his stead. As to Mr. Henry Parker, who was appointed Third Bai­liff when Mr. Gordon came over, he was, in the first Place, a Man who had nothing to support himself and large Family but his Day-Labour, which was Sawing, and consequently as soon as his Time was otherwise emp­loyed he must be entirely dependent on the Store for his Subsistance. In the second Place, he was a Man of no Education; so that Mr. Causton soon moulded him to his own liking, and infused into him what Notions he Pleased. Thirdly, he was and is an absolute Slave to Li­quor, and he who plies him most with it (which Causton always took care to do, and whose Example has been since followed by his Successor Jones) has him, right or wrong, on his Side. As to Mr. Christie the Recorder, he was easily over-ruled by the other two, and the same Practice was always continued; for he who was appoin­ted Third Bailiff after Gordon's Dismission or Resignati­on, was one Darn, nigh Seventy Years of Age, crazed both in Body and Mind, who died not long after his Appointment, and his Successor R. Gilbert could neither read nor write; so that Causton had never after Gordon's Departure any Opposition made by the other Magistrates to his arbitrary Proceedings. It we should allow our­selves to enter into a Detail of the Particular Instances of such Proceedings, we should exceed much our proposed Bounds; we shall therefore confine ourselves to two on­ly, which may serve as a Specimen of the many others. ONE is that of Capt. Joseph Watson: This Person having incurred Mr. Causton's Displeasure, was indicated for stir­ring up Animosities in the Minds of the Indians, &c. tending to the Ruin and Subversion of the Colony. Up­on his Trial the Jury in their Verdict found him only guilty of some unguarded Expressions, (altho' twice retur­ned and hectored by Mr. Causton, who acted both as Witness and Judge in the Matter) and verbally recom­mended him by their Foreman to the Mercy of the [Page 35] Court, imagining or supposing he might be lunatick; (however, as it afterwards appeared, it was represented to the Trustees that the Jury found him guilty of Luna­cy in their Verdict) whereupon he was immediately con­fined by Mr. Causton, (altho' sufficient Bail was offered) and kept Prisoner near three Years, without any Sen­tence. But, as we are informed this Affair now lies be­fore a proper Judicature, we shall say no more of it.

The other Instance is that of Mr. Odingsell, who was [...]n Inhabitant of Carolina, and had been a great Benefa­ctor to the infant Colony of Georgia, having given seve­ral Head of Cattle and other valuable Contributions to­wards the promoting it. This Person having come to Savannah to see how the Colony succeeded, after he had been there a few Days, being abroad some time af­ [...] it was Night, as he was going to his Lodgings was taken up in the Street for a Stroller, carried to the Guard-House, and threatned with the Stocks and Whip­ping-Post; the Terror and Fright of which (he being a mild and peaceable Man) threw him into a high Fever with a strong Delirium, crying out to every Person who came near him, that they were come to carry [...] to the Whipping-Post; and after lying two or three Days in this distracted Condition, he was carried aboard his Boat in order to be sent home, and died in the Way somewhere about Dawfuskee Sound.

Thus, while the Nation at home was amused with the Fame of the Happiness and Flourishing of the Colo­ny, and of its being free from Lawyers of any kind, the poor miserable Settlers and Inhabitants were exposed to as arbitrary a Government as Turky or Muscovy ever felt. Very Looks were criminal, and the grand Sin of with­standing, or any way opposing Authority, (as it was cal­led, when any Person insisted upon his just Rights and Privileges) was punished without Mercy. Nevertheless, we bore all these Things patiently, in full Hopes th [...] the Trustees Eyes would soon be opened, and then our [Page 36] Grievances be redressed, and still continued exhausting our Substance in pursuing an impracticable Scheme, namely cultivating Land to Advantage in such a Cli­mate with white Servants only, not doubting but that the parliament, who yearly repeated their Bounty, would make up our Damages: But alas! their Bounty was ap­plied in Georgia rather to the Hurt than Benefit of the Colony, as we shall here briefly relate. First, a Light­House was set about; but before the Frame was erected it was almost half rotten, and has not been carried on any further, nor never even covered, which has like­wise greatly contributed to its Decay; and now that lofty Fabrick, so highly useful to Vessels which make that Coast, is either fallen or must fall very soon. Log­Houses and Prisons of various Sorts were built and era­zed successively, and most Part of them were fitter for Dungeons in the Spanish Inquisition than British Goals, I­rons, Whipping-Posts, * Gibbets, &c. were provided to keep the Inhabitants in perpetual Terror; for Innocence was no Protection; and for some time there were more Imprisonments, Whippings, &c. of white People in that Colony of Liberty, than in all British America besides. Corn­Mills, Saw-Mills, Public Roads, Trustees Plantations, (as they were called) Wells and Forts, in different Pla­ces were all set about, but, as is evident from the E­vent, with no Design to serve the Publick, but only to amuse the World, and maintain some Creatures who as­sisted in keeping their Neighbours in Subjection; for few or none of these Things were ever brought to Perfecti­on; some of them were left off half finished, and of those that were finished some were erazed, (being found of no Service) and others fell of themselves for Want of proper Care. To carry on the Manufactures of Silk, and Wine, a Garden was planted with Mulberries and [Page 37] Vines, which was to be a Nursery to supply the rest of the Province: But this was as far from answering the proposed End as every Thing else was; for it is situat­ed upon one of the most barren Spots of Land in the Co­lony, being only a large Hill of dry Sand: Great Sums of Money were thrown away upon it from Year to Year to no Purpose. This was remonstrated to the Trustees, and they seem'd to be sensible of the Error, and gave Order to chuse another Spot of Ground; but the rul­ing Powers in Georgia took no Notice thereof. And now, after so great Time and Charge, there are not so many Mulberry-Trees in all the Province of Georgia as many one of the Carolina Planters have upon their Plantations, nor so much Silk made there in one Year as many of those Planters do make: Nor could they ever in that Garden raise one Vine to the Perfection of bearing Fruit. And here it may be observed, That the Silk Mr. Ogle­thorpe carried over for a Present to Queen CAROLINE, was most of it, if not all, made in Carolina. Tho' no proper Measures were ever taken for advancing the Silk and Wine Manufactures, yet private Persons made seve­ral Essay towards the Culture of European Grapes; but even such Attempts met with no suitable Encourage­ment from Mr. Oglethorpe, as will appear from the fol­lowing Fact. Abraham De Leon, a Few, who had been many Years a Vineron in Portugal, and a Freeholder in Savannah, cultivated several kinds of Grapes in his Gar­den, and, amongst others, the Port [...] and Malaga to great Perfection; of this he sent home an attested Ac­count to the Board of Trustees, proposing further, That if they would lend him, upon such Security as he offered, Two hundred Pounds Sterling for three Years without Interest, that he would employ the said sum, with a fur­ther S [...]k of his own, in sending to Portugal, and bringing [...] and Vinerons; and that he should be bound to re­pay the Money in three Years, and to [...] growing within the [...] F [...]ty Thousand such [...], which he would fur­nish the [...] at moderate Rates.

[Page 38] The Trustees were satisfied with the Security, and accepted the Proposal, and wrote him, That they had remitted the Two hundred Pounds by Mr. Oglethorpe for his Use; which he did not deny when applied to by the said Leon for the same, but said, that he could not ad­vance more than Twenty or Thirty Pounds, in regard he had other Uses for the Money; and so that Design dropt.

In February 1735-6 Mr. Oglethorpe arrived in Georgia for the second Time, with great Numbers of People, in order to settle to the southward, where he soon after carried them. Upon the Island of St. Simons he settled a Town, which he called Frederica; and about five Miles Distance from thence, towards the Sea, he placed the independent Company which he removed from Port­Royal in Carolina, their former Station. On one of the Branches of the Alatamaha he settled the Highlanders, in a Village which was called Darien. Then he settled a Fort on Cumberland, which he named St. Andrews; and some time after he caused a Garrison of about Fifty Men to be placed on a sandy Island (without fresh Wa­ter) in the Mouth of St. John's River, opposite to a Spa­nish Look-out, where Possession was kept for about six Months, and several Fortifications built; but at last he was obliged to abandon it, after several People had lost their Lives by the Inconveniencies of the Place, besides great Sums of Money thrown away in vain.

Whilst Things thus passed in the southern Part of the Province, Mr. Causton was not idle at Savannah; and one would have thought, that he made it his particular Design further to exa [...]perate the People of Carolina: He stopt their Boats who were going up to New-Windsor; and not content with that, he caused them to be search­ed, and whatever Rum was found therein was directly staved, in pursuance of an Act, as he alledged, entituled, An Act against the Importation of Rum into the Colo­ny of Georgia. To complain of this, and to represent the bad State of the Indian Trade, a Committee from [Page 39] the Assembly of South-Carolina arrived at Savannah in July 1736 where Mr.Oglethorpe then was: But their coming was of little Consequence; for after this the Differences and Animosities betwixt the two Provinces rather encreased than diminished; and we shall only ob­serve, that one Thing is certain, that ever since Mr.Oglethorpe intermeddled in the Indian Trade, it has de­cayed apace, and at this time is almost entirely good-for-nothing either to the one or the other Province.

Thus while the Province of Carolina resented the bad Treatment they had met with from the Leading Powers in Georgia, against the Colony in general; the poor In­habitants were doubly unfortunate, being ill look'd up­on by their nearest Neighbours and Friends, for the Act­ings of their Governors, while they themselves were still the greatest Sufferers by those very Actings.

Whil [...]t Mr.Oglethorpe staid in Georgia, great Com­plaints were made against the arbitrary Procee­dings of Mr. Causton; but to no purpose: Likewise several Per­sons endeavoured to shew the Impossibility of the Colo­ny's succeeding, according to its then present Constitution: But if this was done in his Hearing, he either al­ways brow-beat the Person or evaded the Discourse; if by Letters, he never made any Answer to them; ev­en altho' he had given publick Orders, that every Per­son should give in their Grievances and Complaints to him in Writing, and that he would consider and answer the same. But that we might not be entirely ignorant of his Thoughts, Mr. Causton, who always spoke his Sentiments, publickly declar'd, That we had neither Lands, Rights or Possessions; that the Trustees gave, and that the Trustees could freely take away: And a gain, when he was told, that the Light-house wanted a few Spike­nails to fasten some of its Braces which were loose, and which might occasion the Downfal of the Whole Fa­brick; he answer'd, That he would say as Mr. Ogle­thorpe said, It might fall and be d—d. Mr. Oglethorpe [Page 40] Staid in Georgia until November 1736, most of which Time he spent to the Southward, and then embark'd for England, leaving Mr. Causton with the same Authority he had formerly invested him with, and in the same Power he then exercised, and the Colony under the same Difficulties and Hardships.

In March thereafter we had Advice of the Spaniards Intentions of attacking the Colony from the Havannah. This put the whole Province in great Consternation, e­specially the Town of Savannah; they having neither Fort, Battery, or any other Place to Shelter themselves in, in case of any actual Attack: Therefore they imme­diately set about building a Wooden Fort, and all sorts of People labour'd continually until it was in some measure finish'd; only Mr. Causton never came to the Work, but did all he could to retard it, making light of the Information, altho' it was sent Express by Commodore Dent, with a Letter directed to the Commander in Chief of Georgia; and has since been put out of all manner of Doubt, the Spaniards having at that time Four thousand Men embarqued and ready to sail, if an extraordinary Accident had not prevented* them. People now seeing the little Care that was likely to be taken in case of a real Attack; and likewise finding, to their Cost, that the Improvement of Land was a vain and fruitless Labour with white Servants only, and with such Restrictions and precarious Titles, many began to withdraw and leave the Colony, and very little was planted this Season.

And Now to make our Subjection the more compleat, a new kind of Tyranny was this Summer begun to be imposed upon us; for Mr. John Wesly who had come over and was receiv'd by us a Clergy­man of the Church of England, 1737. soon discovered [Page 41] that his Aim was to enslave our Minds, as a necessary Preparative for enslaving our Bodies. The Attendances upon Prayers, Meetings and Sermons inculcated by him, so frequently, and at improper Hours, inconsistent with necessary Labour, especially in an infant Colony, tend­ed to propagate a Spirit of Indolence, and a Hypocrisy amongst the most abandoned; it being much easier for such Person, by an affected Shew of Religion, and Ad­herence to Mr. Wesly's Novelties, to be provided by his Procurement from the publick Stores, than to use that Industry which true Religion recommends: Nor indeed could the Reverend Gentleman conceal the Designs he was so full of, having frequently declar'd That he ne­ver desir'd to see Georgia a Rich, but a * Religious Colony.

At last all Persons of any Consideration came to look upon him as a Roman Catholick, for which the following Reasons seem'd pretty convincing. Ist, Under an af­fected strict Adherence to the Church of England he most unmercifully damned all Dissenters of whatever Denomination, who were never admitted to communi­cate with him until they first gave up their Faith and Principles entirely to his Moulding and Direction, and in Confirmation thereof declared their Belief of the In­validity of their former Baptism, and then to receive a new one from him: This was done publickly on the Persons of Richard Turner, Carpenter, and his Son. An­other Instance was that of William Gaff, who had once communicated and always conformed to his Regulati­ons, but was at last found out by Mr. Wesly to have been baptized by a Presbyterian Dissenter, the same thing was propos'd to him; but Mr. Gaff not inclinable to go that length, was ever thereafter excluded from the Communion.

2dly, While all Dissenters (whereof a considerable Number was in the Colony) were thus unmercifully [Page 42] damned, and shut out from Religious Ordinances, con­trary to that Spirit of Moderation and Tenderness which the Church of England shews towards them; Person su­spected to be Roman Catholicks were received and caressed by him as his First-rate Saints.

3dly, A third Confirmation of this Suspicion arose from his Endeavours to establish Confession, Penance, Mortifications, Mixing Wine with Water in the Sacra­ment, and Suppressing in the Administration of the Sa­crament the Explanation adjoyned to the Words of the communicating by the Church of England, to shew that they mean a Feeding on Christ by Faith, Saying no more than "The Body of Christ; The Blood of Christ;" by appointing Deaconesses, with sundry other Innova­tions, which he called Apostolick Constitutions.

4thly, As there is always a strict Connexion betwixt Popery and Slavery; so the Design of all this fine Scheme seem'd to the most Judicious to be calculated to debase and depress the Minds of the People, to break any Spi­rit of Liberty, and humble them with Fastings, Penan­ces, Drinking of Water, and a thorough Subjection to the Spiritual Jurisdiction which he asserted was to be e­stablished in his Person; and when this should be ac­complished the Minds of People would be equally pre­pared for the receiving Civil or Ecclesiastical Tyranny.

All Jes [...]tical Arts were made use of to bring the well concerted Scheme to Perfection; Families were divided in Parties; Spies were engaged in many Houses, and the Servants of others brid'd and decoy'd to let him in­to all the Secret [...] of the Families they belonged to; nay, those who had given themselves up to his Spiritual Gui­dance (more especially Women) were obliged to disco­ver to him their most secret Actions, nay even their Thoughts and the Subject of their Dreams: At the Same time he gave Charge to Juries; gave his Opinion in all Civil Causes that came before the Court: Nor could we imagine what all this would end in: Complain we might; [Page 43] but to no purpose: And Mr. Causton and he went hand-in-hand.

But the merciful Providence of GOD disappoints fre­quently those Designs that are laid deepest in Human Prudence.

Mr.Wesly at this time repulsed Mrs. Sophia Williamson, Neice to Mr. Causton, from the Sacrament. This young Lady was by her Friends put under the Ghostly Care of Mr. Wesly, who was pleased to make Proposals of Marriage to her: These she always rejected; and in some little time married Mr. William Williamson of Sa­vannah, much contrary to Mr. Wesly's Inclinations: After the said Marriage Mr. Wesly used all Means to create a Misunderstanding betwixt Mrs. Williamson and her Hus­band, by persuading her, that Mr. Williamson had no Right to regulate her Behaviour as to conversing with him, or attending Meetings as formerly; but at last finding he could gain nothing upon her, and that Mr. Williamson had forbid him any conversation with his Wife out of his Presence; he took the foresaid Means, by repelling her from the Holy communion, of shewing his Resentment. Mr. Williamson thought himself well founded in an Action of Damages; and Mr. WESLY (being no longer supported by Mr. Causton, Who was highly nettled at the Affront put upon his Neice, and could now declaim as fluently against spiritual Tyran­ny as any Person) was indicated before a GRAND JURY of Forty four Freeholders, and Thirteen Indictments were found against him; one concerned Mr. Williamson and his Spouse; the others concerning the Grievances we felt by his Measures, and the Exercise of his Ecclesia­stical Functions, as above related: These last were given into the Magistrates, to be by them laid before the Trustees, that these our Grievances might in time co­ming be properly redressed, (we having no other juris­diction, either Civil or Ecclesiastical, that we could make Application to:) Then the Grand Jury began to [Page 44] consider and think, that as it was not probable a great­er Number of the better Sort of People could ever be le­gally met together; so this was a fit Time to represent their Grievances and Hardships to the Trustees: which they did in the following Manner.

An Abstract of the Representation of the Grand Jury of SAVANNAH to the Honourable the Trustees.

We the Grand Jury duly sworn on the 22d of the last Month, and having divers Matters laid before us, which we humbly conceive cannot proper­ly be presented to this Court, because several of the said Matters touch the Proceedings of the Magistrates of the said Court, and contain sundry Articles, setting forth many publick Necessities and Hardships, which can only be remedied by your Honours Authority: THEREFORE, We the said Grand Jury having exa­mined several Witnesses, do, upon our Oaths, repre­sent to your Honours the following Grievances, Hard­ships and Necessities.

That as the Inhabitants of this Town and County have been and are still subject to many Inconvenien­cies, for Want of a Body of the Laws and Constituti­ons of this Province; it being exceeding difficult in many cases, both for Grand and Petit Juries, to dis­charge in a proper manner the great Duties that are incumbent on them by their Oaths; so we hope your Honours will assist us, that we may be enabled well and truly to execute our Duties as aforesaid.

That Thomas Causton, by his arbitrary Proceedings, hath endeavoured to render the Power and Proceed­ings of Grand Juries ineffectual, especially this Grand Jury, by intruding upon it when inclosed and about Business, and using the Members thereof with great Haughtiness and Ill-nature, and threatning to dissolve them.

[Page 45] That the said Thomas Causton, by his Office of Store­keeper, hath the dangerous Power in his Hands of al­luring weak minded People to comply with unjust Measures; and also over-awing others from making just Complaints and Representations to your Honours; and the known Implacability of the said Causton and his frequent threatning of such People, is to many weak­minded tho' well-disposed Persons, a strong Bulwark against their seeking Redress, by making proper Com­plaints and just Representations to You their Benefa­ctors, Patrons and Protectors.

That the said Causton has made great Advancements on Provisions and Goods sold out of the Trustees Store to the Inhabitants, contrary to Mr. Oglethorpe's Pro­mise when he first settled this Colony, and contrary, as we apprehend, to your Honours good Intentions, and greatly detrimental to the Prosperity of the Colo­ny; and that he hath refused to pay the Publick Debts otherwise than in Provisions at those dear Rates, and sometimes bad and unwholsome, out of the Publick Store, whereby the Inhabitants were greatly distressed, and some have been obliged to leave the Province.

That whereas one John White, who had been com­mitted for Felony, at the Suit of William Aglionby, and he the said Aglionby was bound to prosecute the same at next Court: Notwithstanding he the said white was removed before that time by a Warrant under the Hand and Seal of Thomas Christie, and as we think, by the Advice and Command of Thomas Causton; by which means we imagine the Criminal has escaped Justice, to the great Encouragement of enormous Offenders, con­trary, as we conceive, to the Laws of our Country, the Peace of our Sovereign Lord the King, his Crown and Dignity, and particularly to the Welfare of this your Colony.

That the said Causton, did greatly discourage the In­habitants of this Town and County, in the Measures [Page 46] they had taken for the Defence and Safety of this Place in the late Alarm from the Spaniards; for altho' almost every Body, Masters and Servants, labour'd continually in making a Fort to defend themselves, in case of Necessity; yet he the said Causton never came nigh the Work, but by his Words and Behaviour did all he could to prevent it; until at last the People were obliged to leave off the Work unfinished, con­trary to the Welfare and Safety of this Colony.

That the said Causton hath greatly prevented and discouraged the Cultivation of Lands, by his hindring People to settle on the Tracts that were allotted to them by the Trustees; whereby several People have been greatly distressed, and some almost ruin'd con­trary (as we humbly conceive) to your Honours good Intention, and the principal Part of your glorious Un­dertaking.

That the said Thomas Causton, in order to colour his illegal Proceedings, hath uttered Words to this or the like Purpose, we do not stand upon our Feet; we do not know either our Laws or Liberties, nor what the Trustees intend; a Magistrate cannot act to strict Forms, but may dismiss Matters of Petty Felony in the easiest Manner; thereby claiming to himself (as we humbly conceive) a dispending Power, fatal to the Liberties of British Sub­jects, and contrary, &c.

The Want of Publick Roads hath been greatly detri­mental to many who have Settlements at any Distance from this Place; and some have lost, and are still liable to lose a great part of their Crops, through the Diffi­culty of passing to and from their Plantations.

That the great Want of Servants in this Town and Country, doth render the Freeholders thereof inca­pable of proceeding with proper Vigour in the Culti­vating their Lands; and as the Honourable James Oglethorpe, Esq did generously promise, that your Ho­nours would be pleas'd to give this Colony continual [Page 47] Assistance, by sending over Servants to the said Free­holders at reasonable Rates: Therefore, we do, with all Humility, lay before your Honours the great and gene­ral Want of Servants in this Town and Country; not [...]oubting your timely Assistance therein.

That the Town of Savannah stands in the utmost Need of having a good Wharff and Crane, for the Con­veniency of both Strangers and Inhabitants, they be­ing at double Pains and Costs in landing and getting their Goods up the Bluff.

That the Light-House of Tybee, which with great Labour and, as we humbly conceive, vast Expence to your Honours, remains unfinish'd and uncover'd; by reason of which, that most necessary and lofty Stru­cture is subject to all the Injuries of Weather, and may totally decay if not in time prevented, which will be greatly detrimental to the Trade, Navigation and Wel­fare of this Colony.

That the Inhabitants of this Town and County are at vast Expence in time of Sickness, especially they who have most Servants; it being a general Misfortune, that during the hot Season of the Year, hardly one half of the Servants are able to do their Masters any Work, by reason of the violent Sicknesses; which hath very much prevented the Inhabitants from making Improvements.

It is without the least personal Resentment to Mr. Causton, or any other person, that we do, with the most profound Respect and Duty, lay before your Ho­nours the foregoing Grievances, Hardships and Necessi­ties; and it is not the Persons or personal Infirmities of any of the Magistrates we blame; but such of their Actions and Words as, we humbly conceive, tend to the Subversion of our Laws and Liberties; and we are firmly persuaded, that Mr. Causton would not have im­pannelled this Grand Jury, on an Affair that so nearly concerned him as that of his Niece's did, if he had not believed the several Persons of this Grand Jury, to be [Page 48] Men of strict Integrity, and no way prejudiced against him; and as we the said Grand Jury are, for the time be­ing, appointed for the solemn Representation of Truth, we humbly hope your Honours will consider this our Representation, as proceeding from a strict impartial and found Enquiry.

In Witness, &c.—this first Day of September, 1737.

The Original of this was signed by all the Forty four, and sent home; but was taken no notice of by the [...] stees for any thing ever we heard; and we hope it will appear evident to every judicious Reader, that his Jury was neither byassed nor intimidated by Causton, to the Pre­judice of any Person whatsoever, as Mr. Wesly asserts in his Journal printed at Bristol, 1739. He likewise says, there were a professed Atheist and Deist in the Number; but for our Parts we know of neither: But a Man of Mr. Wesly's Principles, who makes no Scruple of writing wilful Falshoods (as may be seen by any Body that compares this Narrative with his Journal) and of damning every Person of a contrary Opinion with himself, may, with­out Hesitation, give People what Appellations come in his Head: However this put an End to any further Pro­secution of Mr. Wesly's Schemes; for soon after this, he departed the Colony privately by Night, and went to Charles-Town, and from thence to England.

Mr. Wesly had Address enough (as he says in his fore­mentioned Journal) to persuade several Persons who were Members of the Grand Jury, to retract (by some Paper which he drew up for them to sign) their former Sentiments; but this, it is was at all, proceeded entire­ly from the solemn Assurances which he gave them, that his main Design home was to represent the Grievances and Oppressions which the poor Colony laboured under; and up­on this Account was charged with divers Letters and Papers from private Persons, relating to the Colony; which he undertook faithfully to deliver: But as we [Page 49] have since found, that all Mr. Oglethorpe's Interest was employed to protect Mr.Wesly, it is no Wonder those Promises were never fulfilled; nor indeed could it ever be ascertained that even the private Letters which he carried were so much as delivered.

On the other Hand Mr.Causton ever after bore a mor­tal Hatred to the Members of this Grand Jury, and took every Opportunity to shew his Resentment; and we doubt not but he prevailed upon three or four of them to make a Recantation, having either terrified or starv'd them into a Compliance: But we bore these Things the more patiently, as being satisfied the Trustees were Gentle­men who had our Interest at Heart, and who would hear and redress our Grievances in due Time, and that Mr. Oglethorpe might still be a Friends to the Colony; but at last we heard He had procured a Regiment for its Defence, of which he was made Colonel, and that He was likewise made General and Commander in chief over all his Majesty's Forces in South-Carolina and Geor­gia. This News was confirmed by William Stephens, Esq who was sent over as Trustees Secretary, to repre­sent the State and Condition of the Colony as it really was, and to assist and consult with the Magistrates: But Mr. Causton soon found the Means to bring over the old Gentleman to his Interest, or at least to acquiesce in eve­ry Thing he said or did; for he had still the Command of the Cash and Stores, and Mr. Stephens had nothing to live upon but his Salary, which he could stop the Pay­ment of at Pleasure; so our Secretary remained passive until Causton's Government ended.

At last Mr. Oglethorpe comes over for the third time, in September with the Remainder of his Regiment, the other Part having come with Colonel Cochran in May; but alas! this Regiment was of no Service, otherwise than to strengthen us in case of an Attack; for we could neither furnish them in Cloaths, Provisions, nor any one Thing they wanted: And to put us out of all Hopes of [Page 50] bettering our Condition, Mr. Oglethorpe was pleased to declare in the Court-house of Savannah That as long as he had any thing to do with the colony, there should neither be Allowance of Negroes, nor Alteration in the Titles of Land; and if any such thing should happen, he would have no farther Concern with it. The People thus seeing there was no Hope of Redress, left the Colony daily; and the Trustees Credit receiving a great Shock by their re­fusing Mr. Causton's certified Accounts, and an entire Stop being put to the publick Store, many poor Wret­ches died of Hunger; for at this Time Mr. Causton was turned out of all his Places, and the Store was ordered to be sold, in order, as was said, to pay off the Trustees Debts. One Thomas Jones, a Favourite of Mr. Oglethorpe, whose Character we shall have Occasion to give after­wards, was put in his Place as Cash and Store-keeper, only with a different Title, viz. that of Magazine-keep­er; for none but the Trustees Servants were to be sup­plied from it: But the contrary soon appeared; for the Sola Bills that were sent over were ordered to be issued out in the Names of William Stephens, Esq Mr. Thomas Christie and Mr. Thomas Jones, or any two of them; but the other two agreeing together entirely excluded Chri­stie, and paid them to whom, and for what purpose they thought convenient: They bought New-York Cargoes, and any other Commodities that could be got in Quan­tities, and put them into the Magazine, where they were sold out by Jones in Wholesale and Retail for ready Money, at [...]xorlitant Rates. This Trade they have car­ried on ever since to their vast Advantage, but to the no small Distress of the poor People, who are obliged to give at the Rate almost of cent▪ Per cent. for their Pro­visions. Thus, under the Colour of no Store, these two keep as open a one as ever Causton did; and by having the publick Money at their Disposal, the Payment of all Salaries and Pensions coming through their Hands, they are become as absolute; with this Difference, that Mr. [Page 51] Causton's Power in every Respect extended over the whole Colony, when it was most populous and Money most plenty; but theirs seems only to affect the wretch­ed Remains of Savannah.

We might have imagined that the Trustees were somewhat moved with our repeated Complaints, and that Mr. Causton's Removal was owing thereto; but alas! in this we were mistaken; nothing (as ever we could understand) was laid to his Charge on our Account; and it was of small Benefit to us whether the Misma­nagement of Money, which was the Reason of his Dis­mission, lies at his or Mr. Oglethorpe's Door: And we cannot but here take notice, that Mr. Causton's Cafe for­tifies the common Observation, That those who prostitute themselves to carry on illegal and oppressive Schemes, when they have once stack in the M [...]re, they are forsaken by their Employers, and despised by all the World besides.

Mr. Oglethorpe staid not long at Savannah, his com­mon Residence being at Frederica, where they had, in Imitation of us, built a few Houses, and cleared some Land; but finding Planting not answer, they left it off, and as soon as the Regiment came, almost every Body betook themselves to the keeping publick Houses; and in this Manner do the few that now remain live.

All the publick Work being put a Stop to, and clear­ing of Land being found impracticable, by which most of us had ruined ourselves, we were in a miserable Con­dition; and all Hope from Mr. Oglethorpe being at an End, we could hardly tell what to do: But still think­ing that the Trustees might be ignorant or misinformed of the present Condition of the Colony, we at last resolved to set forth our Grievances in a short and gene­ral Representation, to be signed by all the Freeholders in the Colony, of which the following is an exact Copy.

[Page 52]

To the honourable the Trustees for establishing the Colony of Georgia in America

May it please your Honours,

WE whose Names are underwritten, being all Settlers, Freeholders and Inhabitants in the Province of Georgia, and being sensible of the great Pains and Care exerted by you in endeavouring to settle this Colony since it has been under your Protection and Manage­ment, do unanimously join to lay before you, with the utmost Regret, the following Particulars: But in the first Place, we must beg leave to observe, that it has afforded us a great deal of Concern and Uneasi­ness, that former Representations made to you of the same Nature have not been thought worthy of due Consideration, nor even of an Answer. We have most of us settled in this Colony in pursuance of the Descri­ption and Recommendation given of it by you in Bri­tain; and from the Experience of residing here seve­ral Years, do find that it is impossible that the Mea­sures hitherto laid down and pursued for making it a Colony can succeed. None of all those who have plan­ted their Land have been able to raise sufficient Pro­duce to maintain their Families in Bread-kind only, e­ven tho' as much Application and Industry have been exerted to bring it about, as could be done by Men engaged in an Affair on which they believed the Wel­fare of themselves and Posterity so much depended, and which they imagined required more than ordina­ry Pains to make succeed; so that by the accumulate­ed Expences every Year of Provisions, Cloathing and Medicines, for themselves, Families and Servants, se­ [...] have expended all their Money, nay even run [...] in Debt, and so been obliged to leave off Planning and making further Improvements; and those [...] continue are daily exhausting more and more of [Page 53] their Money, and some daily increasing their Debt, without [...] Possibility of being reimbursed, according to the p [...]se [...]t Constitution. This being now the general State [...] the Colony, it must be obvious that People can­not [...] by their Land according to the present E­stablishment; and this being a Truth resulting from Trial, Practice and Experience, cannot be contradi­cted by any theorical Scheme or Reasoning. The Land then, according to the present Constitution, not being capable to maintain the Settlers here, they must una­voidably have Recourse to, and depend upon Trade; but to our woful Experience likewise, the same Causes that prevented the first obstruct the latter; for tho' the Situation of this Place is exceeding well adapted for Trade, and, if it was encouraged, might be much more improved by the Inhabitants, yet the Difficulties and Restrictions which we hitherto have, and at present do labour under, debar us of that Advantage. Timber is the only Thing we have here which we might export, and notwithstanding we are obliged to fell it in planting our Land, yet we cannot manufacture it for a foreign Mar­ket but at double the Expence of other Colonies: As for Instance, the River of May, which is but twenty Miles from us, with the Allowance of Negroes, load Vessels with that Commodity at one half of the Price that we can do; and what should induce Persons to bring Ships here, when they can be loaded with one Half of the Expence so near us? Therefore the Tim­ber on the Land is only a continual Charge to the Possessors of it, tho' of very great Advantage in all the Northern Colonies where Negroes are allowed, and consequently Labour cheap. We do not in the least doubt but that in time Silk and Wine may be produced here, especially the former; but since the Cultivation of Land with white Servants only cannot raise Provi­ [...] [...] our Families, as before mentioned, therefore [...] impossible to carry on these Manufactures [Page 54] according to the present Constitution. It is very well known that Carolina can raise every thing that his Co­lony can, and they having their Labour so much cheap­er, will always ruin our Market, unless we were in some Measure on a Footing with them; and as in both the Land is worn out in four or five Years, and then fit for nothing but Pasture, we must be always at a great deal more Expence than they in clearing new Land for Plant­ing. The Importation of the Necessaries of Life come to us at the most extravagant Rate, Merchants in general, especially of England, not being willing to supply the Settlers here with Goods upon Commission, because no Person here can make them any Security of their Lands or Improvements, as is very often practised in other Places to promote Trade, when some of the Employ­ers Money is laid out in necessary Buildings and Im­provements fitting for the Trade intended, without which it cannot be carried on: The Benefit of Impor­tation therefore is all to transient Persons, who do not lay out any Money amongst us, but on the contrary carry every Penny out of the Place; and their chief Reason for enhancing the Price is because they cannot get any Goods here either on Freight or Purchase for another Market: If the Advantage accruing from Im­portation centred in the Inhabitants, the Profit thereof would naturally circulate amongst us, and be laid out in Improvements in the Colony. Your Honours, we imagine, are not insensible of the Numbers that have left this Province, not being able to support themselves and Families any longer; and those still remaining, who had Money of their own and Credit with their Friends, have laid out most of the former in Improve­ments, and lost the latter for doing it on such pre [...]ious Titles. And upon account of the present Establish­ment, not above two or three Persons, except those brought on Charity and Servants sent by you, have come here for the Space of two Years past, either to [Page 55] settle Land or encourage Trade, neither do we hear of any such likely to come until we are on betterTerms. It is true his Majesty has been graciously pleased to grant a Regiment for the Defence of this Province and our neighbouring Colony, which indeed will very much assist us in defending ourselves against all Ene­mies, but otherwise does not in the least contribute to our Support; for all that part of their Pay which is expended here is laid out with transient People, and our Neighbours in Carolina, who are capable to supply them with Provisions and other Necessaries at a mode­rate Price, which we, as before observed, are not at all capable to do upon the present Establishment. This then being our present Condition, it is obvious what the Consequences must be.

But we for our Parts have entirely relied on, and confided in your good Intentions, believing you would redress any Grievances that should appear; and now by our long Experience, from Industry and continual Application to Improvement of Land here, do find it impossible pursue it, or even to subsist ourselves any longer, according to the present Nature of the Consti­tution; and likewise believing you will agree to those Measures that are found from Experience capable to make this Colony succeed, and to promote which we have consumed our Money, Time and Labour; we do, from a sincere Regard to its Welfare, and in Duty both to you and ourselves, beg leave to lay before your immediate Consideration the Two following chief Cau­ses of these our present Misfortunes, and this deplorable State of the Colony, and which, we are certain, if granted, would be an infallible Remedy for both

1st, The Want of a free Title or Fie-simple to our Lands, which, if granted, would both induce great Numbers of new Settlers to come amongst us, and like­wise encourage those who remain here chearfully to [...] in making Further Improvement [...], as well to [Page 56] retrieve their sunk Fortune as to make Provisions for their Posterity.

2d, The Want of the Use of Negroes, with proper Limitations; which, if granted, would both occasion great Numbers of white People to come here, and al­so render us capable to subsist ourselves, by raising Pro­visions upon our Lands, until we could make some Produce fit for Export, and in some Measure to ba­lance our Importation. We are very sensible of the Inconveniencies and Mischiefs that have already, and do daily arise from an unlimited Use of Negroes, but we are as sensible that these may be prevented by a due Limitation, such as so many; to each white Man, or so many to such a Quantity of Land, or in any other Manner which your Honours shall think most proper.

By granting us, Gentlemen, these Two Particulars and such other Privileges as his Majesty's most dutiful Subjects in America enjoy, you will not only prevent our impending Ruin, but, we are fully satisfied, also will soon make this the most flourishing Colony possessed by his Majesty in America, and your Me­mories will be perpetuated to all future Ages, our latest Posterity sounding your Praises, as their first Foun­ders, Patrons and Guardians; but if, by denying us these Privileges, we ourselves and Families are not on­ly ruined, but even our Posterity likewise, you will always be mentioned as the Cause and Authors of all their Misfortunes and Calamities; which we hope will never happen.

We are, with all due Respect, your Honours Most dutiful, and obedient Servants,
  • Henry Parker,
  • His Robert R G Gilbert,
  • Mark. Thomas Christie,
  • John Fallowfield,
  • John Brownfield,
  • William Woodroose,
  • Patrick Tailfer,
  • [Page 57] Andrew Grant,
  • Robert Williams,
  • Samuel Mercer,
  • Patrick Grhame,
  • David Douglass,
  • Thomas Bailie,
  • Hugh Anderson,
  • James Williams,
  • Edward Jenkins,
  • Thomas Ormston,
  • Joseph Wardrope,
  • George Bunckle,
  • Adam Loyer,
  • Peter Joubart,
  • John Burton,
  • Robert Hows,
  • Williams Meers,
  • Thomas Salter,
  • James Bailow,
  • James Anderson,
  • Thomas Trip,
  • Samuel Holins,
  • James Muer,
  • William Parker,
  • John Grhame,
  • James Papot,
  • John smith,
  • William Calvert,
  • stephen Marrauld,
  • Richard Mellechamp,
  • Isaac Young, sen,
  • James D [...]rmer,
  • William Carter,
  • Henry Moulton,
  • Jac [...] Wal [...],
  • Henry Ma [...]ley,
  • Samuel Parker,
  • Stephen Mounfoord,
  • David Gender,
  • James Chainsae,
  • James Landry,
  • Lowis Stamon,
  • William Starflichet,
  • Simon Rie [...]were,
  • John Young,
  • Samuel L [...]acy,
  • Peter Bailow,
  • Peter Emry,
  • William Elbert,
  • William Greenfield,
  • Christopher Greenfield,
  • Thomas Young, Sen.
  • Henry Green,
  • Peter Tector,
  • Hugh Frazer,
  • John Sallie,
  • James Carwells,
  • John Lyndall,
  • Joseph Fitzwater,
  • [...]isha Foster,
  • Walter Fox,
  • John Penrose,
  • David Snook,
  • Edward Townsend,
  • John Desborough,
  • — Gorsand,
  • Andrew Duchee,
  • James Gallway,
  • John Kelly,
  • Joseph Stanley,
  • Thomas Young,
  • Thomas Cross,
  • Richard Davis,
  • Thomas Tibbet,
  • [Page 58] James Dean,
  • Donald Stewart,
  • John Dudding,
  • William Ewen,
  • Henry Loyd,
  • John Amory,
  • James Houston,
  • Isaac Young,
  • Robert Hanks,
  • Archibald Glen,
  • Thomas Neal,
  • Stephen Tarrien,
  • James Smith,
  • Samuel Ward,
  • Pierre Morelle,
  • John Desborough, jun.
  • Edward Bush,
  • Benjamin Adams,
  • Charles Britain,
  • John Rae,
  • William Colthred,
  • Thomas Wattle,
  • Thomas Bailie,
  • James Corneck,
  • James Burnside,
  • John Teasdale,
  • Giles Becou,
  • Francis Brooks,
  • John Clark,
  • George Rush,
  • Andrew Walker,
  • John Miller,
  • Thomas Andrews,
  • William Sterling,
  • Thomas Gantlet,
  • Richard Rogers,
In all 117.

This Representation was signed with the greatest Wil­lingness by the above One hundred and seventeen Free­holders in the Country of Savannah, and only a very few of the General's Favourites declined to subscribe the same, so strong appeared to all of them the Truths therein contained, and the absolute Necessity of such an Application. The Jews applied for Liberty to sign with us, but we did not think it proper to join them in any of our Measures: We likewise did not allow Widows and Orphans to subscribe, because, as the Representat­ion contained the absolute Necessities of the Colony, it might be objected to us, that they were no proper Jud­ges. As for the People of Ebenezer, the Subscribers did particularly appoint some of their Number to wait upon Mr. Boltzius their pastor, and shew him the Represen­tation, which was done; and Mr. Boltzius declared, That the saltzburghers were equally dissatisfied with [Page 59] their Rights and Restriction as the other Freeholders, and he doubted not their Willingness to join petition­ning for Redress, engaging to consult them, and to bring their Answer, which he never did; and being thereafter questioned thereupon by Mr. Anderson (one of the Persons commissioned to commune with him as is above related) in the Presence of several Gentlemen, he the said Boltzius, after some frivolous Excuses, con [...]es­sed that the honourable Mr. Oglethorpe had both given them Satisfaction, and engaged him to write home to Germany for a further Supply of his Countrymen.

This Gentleman (we observe it with Regret) has been made the Instrument of imposing upon many British Sub­jects, by publishing Journals and Letters (to which we refer) most inconsistent with Truth.

Neither did we admit of servants to sign the same, lest it should be objected, that they were under the In­fluence of their Masters. By this our Conduct it will appear to every person of Impartiality how far we were from using Arts * to extort by Clamour a Redress of our Grievances.

A copy of the Representation was immediately sent to Frederica and another to Darien; the last was sent to Mr. John More M'Intosh, and under the same Cover a Letter to Mr. Benjamin M'Intosh but the first kept up the other's Letter, and sent his own with the Represen­tation to the General, who immediately dispatched Lt. George Dunbar (Who speaks the Highland Language, and has a very fluent and artful Way of talking) who, with the Assistance of More M'Intosh and Promises to the poor People of Cattle, (Which they afterwards got) with several other Considerations, soon perswaded them to sign a paper, the Design of which, they were told, was to oppose the People of savannah, who being Ene­mies to the General, were petitioning against him. As [Page 60] for their Leader M'Intosh, he was immediately set up in a Store, and plentifully supplied with all Kinds of Goods, and has often declared, That if, by acting as he did, he could live well himself, he did not care what be­came of the rest of the Colony; and as for his Children, they might go wander in the Woods with the Indians. As soon as it was heard that the Representation was come to Frederica, the Inhabitants were called together, and told, That the People of Savannah were going to throw off the Government of the Trustees, and had associated together for that Purpose; and therefore advis'd them to beware of any snare that might be laid by these People, which if they were caught in would ruin them. And thus was the De­sign of the Representation quash'd both in Darien and Frederica. Some time after this a Copy of the Repre­sentation was sent to Mr. Oglethorpe, together with the following Letter, which was wrote by an anonymous Author; which we think is partly an Explanation of the Representation, and likewise a true View of the Si­tuation of the Colony at that time, with the Character Mr. Oglethorpe then bore in it; and for these Reasons we here insert it: It was directed,

To the Honourable James oglethorpe, Esq General and commander in Chief over all his Majesty's Forces in South-Carolina and Georgia, .- at Frederica.


IT is the common Misfortune of all who act in the higher Stations of Life to be surrounded with Flat­terers, who consult rather the Humours, Passions and Prejudices of their Patrons, than their Honour and In­terest: This should induce every Person in such Stati­on, who regards his own Honour, Interest or Fame, to lend an open and attentive Ear to Truth, in what­ever Shape or from whatever Hand delivered. I who use this Freedom with your Excellency, being an [Page 61] ano­nymous Author, have no other Byass, Motive or In­terest in view, further than as I am a Member of the colony, and a Well-wisher to the Happiness of Socie­ty, unless a real and sincere Regard to your Honour and Welfare, and an earnest Desire to restore you to that Quiet of Mind and the now suspended Affections of the People, which the present State of Affairs must necessarily deprive you of; it is not therefore of con­sequence to enquire who writes, but what is wrote: I am, Sir, a Plain-Dealer, and shall, with the greatest Respect, use you with more Sincerity than Ceremony; and if my Arguments can attain the desired Effect, you will, I doubt not, think me your and the Colony's real Friend. When a skilful Physician would re­lieve his Patient of a Disease, he traces it from the Beginning, and examines the Sources and Progress of it, in order that by finding out the Cause, he may the more certainly apply a Remedy: In the Body Politick the fame process is necessary to effect a Cure. The pre­sent languishing and almost desperate Condition of the Affairs of this Province, is too obvious to your Excel­lency to need a Description: Be pleased then, laying aside Prepossession and Prejudice, to retire unto your self, and examine impartially whence the present Mis­fortunes take Rise; in order to which, let me present your Excellency with a View of the Nation's Designs in establishing this Colony; and indeed they were and are nothing unsuitable to a British or Roman Spirit; to wit, The establishing a strong and numerous Settlement as a Barrier and Safeguard of British America: To employ those Persons in effecting this End who were least useful at home, and others who from the Reasonableness of the Proposals, should voluntarily profer their service: To re­store Liberty and Happiness to those who, oppressed by the common Misfortunes of Mankind, were groaning under the Conferences of these Misfortunes, and incapable to [...] or Country at home: And lastly, to sit [Page 62] a-foot such new Manufactures as might be most useful to support the Colony, or tend to rectify the Balance of Trade of Great Britain with neighbouring Nations. A Design truly great, founded on the juste [...]t Policy, and practicable: To suggest that any low private Design was ever laid down, that might tend to make the Ad­venturers Slaves, or, at best, Tenants at Will; or that it was a Concert to leave the Industry and Substance of the Settlers exposed to satisfy the Ambition or Co­vetousness of an After-Governor, or any particular Courtier or Party; or to imagine that the Honourable Board of Trustees, or any of them, could be capable of such a Concert, I say, Sir, that such a Thought were impious. What Wonder then, if Numbers of Persons, encouraged by his Majesty's most ample Rights and Privileges granted in his Royal Charter to the Honourable Trustees, for the Behalf of the Inha­bitants; from the beautiful Description of the Fertility of the Soil and Happiness of the Climate; and lastly, from a View that Mr. Oglethorpe, a Gentleman of the greatest Humanity and Generosity, was willing to sa­crifice his Ease, and all those Pleasures and Enjoy­ments which his easy Circumstances of Life entitled him to, in order to be the Patron and Father of the Di­stress'd, and the distinguish'd Friend of his Country, So­ciety and human Nature; I say, Sir, no Wonder, if Numbers, upon those Views, embark'd their Persons, Families and Fates in such an Adventure. Shall anything then intervene to render such a noble Design a­bortive, and frustrate those of their expected Happiness, or your Excellency of your deserved Honour? GOD FORBID!

This Colony consists of two Sorts of People; either those whom the Publick sent over and supported, or * Volunteers, who were not burdensome to the [Page 63] pu­blick; both now I look upon in the same Light; as either Party have exhausted their Support or private Stocks in endeavouring to prosecute the intended Plan; but it shall suffice for my Argument, that so many of each Kind have applied themselves to this Purpose, as are sufficient to confirm the Experiment, that it is im­possible, for us with British or Foreign Servants to afford the lowest Necessaries of Life, much less to increase our Stocks, or defray the many Exigencies and Disap­pointments that this Soil and Climate are inevitably ex­posed to: This I take to be granted; and would to God the Success of the Colony depended on the lay­ing the most satisfying Proof of it! And as for Persons who, from selfish Views, have imposed upon the Cre­dulity of the Honourable Trustees, by representing Things in Colours distant from Truth, it were super­fluous to curse them. I do not say, but in time Ma­nufactures my be founded more suitable to the Strength and Constitution of British Servants, that might support and enrich the Colony; I heartily pray for that happy Period; and should then condemn and dissent from any who would not be content with the present Regulation; but as in the Interim Production of Ne­cessaries is absolutely requisite, and under the present E­stablishment impracticable, it follows of course, that either the Scheme must be altered, or the Design aban­doned: At the first it was a Trial, now it is an Expe­riment; and certainly no Man or Society need be a­sham'd to own, that from unforeseen Emergencies their Hypothesis did misgive; and no Person of Judgement would censure for want of Success where the Proposal was probable; but all the World would exclaim a­gainst that Person or society who, through mistaken Notions of Honour or Positiveness of Temper, would persist in pushing an Experiment contrary to all Proba­bility, to the Ruin of the Adventurers. How many Methodsmay be found out by the Wisdom on the [Page 64] Trustees for remedying this Inconvenience, I know not; One only occurs to me, which is, the Admitting a certain Number of Negroes, sufficient to ease the white Servants from those Labours that are most fatal to a British Constitution: I am very sensible of the Incon­veniencies of an unlimited Use of them in a Frontier Colony; but am as sensible, that those Inconveniences may be prevented by prudent Regulations; and their Admission for executing the more laborious Parts of Culture made the Means to attract Numbers of white Servants, who would otherwise fly the Place as a Pur­gatory or Charnel-House. If our Labour and Toil is not capable of producing mere Necessaries by Cultiva­tion of Land, much less by Trade: For as all the neighbouring Colonies, by reason of their Negroes, prosecute all Branches of it at a sixth Part of the Ex­pence we can, they would for ever preclude us of any Benefit therefrom. And supporting what cannot, be ad­mitted, that the Nation would consent to give a prepe­tual Fund for making up all those Deficiencies, What Benefit could ever accrue to the Nation? or What to the Settlers but a present bare Sustenance? and What the certain Consequence but the bequeathing a nume­rous Legacy of Orphans to the Care of Providence, since no Period of Time can be affixed when such a Support would enable us to provide for ourselves? A second Reason which disables us to improve either by Land or Trade, is our Want of Credit: You know ve­ry well, that both the mercantile and mechanick Part of Mankind live more by Credit than Stock; and the Man who has a probable Scheme of improving Credit, is naturally entitled to it: As we have no Stock further to dispense, [...] in Cultivation or Trade, we are re­duced to need the Support of Credit, which the pre­sent Restrictions of our legal Rights and Titles to our Lord [...] us of: it is true indeed the Trustees have assured us, That [...] and [...] R [...]firi [...]tions are only [Page 65] temporary, and for the Welfare of the first Settlement, un­til a proper Body of Laws, which was upon the Carpet, should be perfected; and I am far from disputing the Reasonableness of that Resolution, while either thepublick Support or private Stocks kept us from needing Credit; but that now the Case is alter'd, the Necessity of removing those Restrictions is arrived, to preserve the Remains of the Colony not yet dissolved, and far too late for Hundreds whom Necessity has dispersed in other Corners of the world: This is a Truth, sir, too obvious to need further Enlargement.

Hence it is clear, we can insist on demanding our Privileges as British Subjects from the Trustees Promi­ses; but we likewise claim them asLaw, justice and Property. Your Excellency was pleased, in the Court­House of Savannah, to use a Comparison to satisfy the Minds of the People, of a Man who would lend his Horse but not his Saddle, which one refusing, another ac­cepted of: This, I humbly take it, no ways meets the Case; the King's Majesty was Owner both of Horse and saddle, of Lands and Rights, and gave us both in his charter; we ask but what is there given us. The Reliance on the Publick Faith brought us to this co­lony; and to endeavour to obviate or disappoint the Effects of those Promises which tempted us here, were to justify the decoying us to Misery, under the San­ction of the Royal Authority, than which nothing could be more injurious to the Fountain of Honour. I shall suppose, that were full and ample Rights given, that some idle Persons, who had no Judgement to value or Inclination to improve their Properties, no Affections for their Families or Relations, might dispose of their Rights for a Glass of Rum; but I absolutely deny, that Colony could lose by such an Exchange: I own such Persons were much saferis bound than at Li­berty; but where the Affection of the Parent and the Reason of the Man die, the Person is a fitter Inhabitant [Page 66] for Moorfields than Georgia. I must notice further, That not only are Parents incapable, for want of Credit, to provide for themselves, being necessitated to dispose of their Servants for want of Provisions; but if they could, only their eldest Son could reap the Benefit, their younger Children, however numerous, are left to be fed by Him who feeds the Ravens; and if they have no Children, their Labour and Substance descends to Strangers: How, sir, could you, or indeed any free­born Spirit, brook such a Tenor? Are not our young­er Children and Daughters equally entitled to our Bowels and Affections? And does human Nature end with our First-born, and not extend itself to the rest of our Progeny and more distant Relations? And is it not in­verting the Order of Nature,that the eldest Son should not only enjoy a double Portion, but exclude all the younger Children? and having an Interest independant of the Parents, how natural is it he should withdraw that Obedience and Subjection which proceeds from paternal Authority and filial Dependance! The Tru­stees are but a Channel to convey to us the King's Rights, and cannot in Law or Equity, and, I dare say, will not abridge those Rights. Can we suppose that we are singled out for a State of Misery and Servitude, and that so many Honourable Personages are Instru­ments of it? Far be the Thoughts from us! The Ge­nius of the British Nation, so remarkably zealous for Liberty and the Rights of Mankind, will never suffer British Subjects, who have not fled their Country for Crimes, but voluntarily proffered their Service, and risked their ALL, upon the Confidence of the Publick [...] and the Trustees Honour, to accomplish a Settle­ment upon the most dangerous Point of his Majority's Dominions; I say, it will never allow such to be de­priv'd of Public promises, or the natural Liberties of British Subjects, As we are on a Frontier. where our Lives and Fortunes may more frequently come into [Page 67] dispute than other People's, our Privileges and Sup­ports should be proportionably greater; for who would venture his Life to secure no Property, or fight to se­cure to himself Poverty and Misery? And no doubt our cunning and vigilant Adversaries, the French and Spa­niards, would know how to make their own Advan­tage. The King has been very gracious, and your En­deavours generous and useful, in procuring a Regiment for our Protection; but let me add a Truth equally certain, that only the Flourishing of the Colony can support that Regiment; and not only the Support of the Soldiers, but your own Honour, Glory and Reputation are intermixed with the Fate of the Colony, and must stand or fall with it.

To come closer to the Point, please to consider the Consequences of refusing the Representation of the Colo­ny, whereof your Excellency, as one of the honour­able Board, will be furnished with a Copy, and how these Consequences may affect the COLONY, [...] NATI­ON, the TRUSTEES, the MILITARY ESTABLISHMENT in this Province, the INDIANS, and YOUR EXCELLEN­CY.

As to the COLONY, the deferring hitherto the ne­cessary Relief has already too tragically affected it, by dispersing a great Part of the Inhabitants, the Remain­der, in a languishing Condition, supported more with saint Hopes, and a continued Reliance on the Honour of the Nation and Trustees, than Victuals, while Want and meagre Famine guard the Door of many, and ren­der them equally incapable to stay or go: The Town, so beautifully situated to the Honour of the Contriver, bearing the most visible Signs of Decay and Mortality before it is fully born; and the once cultivated Planta­tions now overgrown with Weeds and Brush, are so many [...]-jacets of such and such Persons and Families! I with it were possible to draw a Veil over this tragick Scene! But, Sir, our Case is more clamant than a thou­sand [Page 68] Tongues, and will reach the Ears and pierce the Hearts of every TRUE BRITON. If such are the Ef­fects of Delay, what will the total Dissolution of the Colony produce? Such a Body of miserable People, Orphans and Suppliants, will be heard by the Justice of the Nation; and if it shall appear,that the too posi­tively adhering to an impracticable Scheme, and the refusing those obvious Means that Would answer the proposed End, or withholding those just Rights which we are entitled to, have been the Cause, we should have Right to recover Damages from the Authors of our Miseries. In all Places where Settlements were attempt­ed by the English and found untenable, the Settlers were taken home upon publick Charge, their Losses recompensed, and they made otherwise useful to the Community; while we are neither allowed to do for ourselves here or elsewhere. As to the second Point, how the NATION would be affected by it, it is first obvious, that all the noble Ends and Advantages they proposed are lost, and Sums of Money expended to no Purpose but to inform the French and Spaniards of the Importance of a Pass which they would not fail to pos­sess. It were impossible to make a second Settlement up­on the present Plan, and if it is to be altered in the Fa­vours of others, why not of us who have risqued and spent our All in the Adventure? How the TRU­STESS may be affected by it in all Respects I shall not say; a Parliamentary Enquiry into their Manage­ment I no ways question but they could entirely satisfy; but all good Men will regret that so honourable a Bo­dy should lose that Glory and Fame which the Pros­perous Success of the Colony would have crowned them with. I have formerly asserted, that only the flourishing State of the Colony can support the MILI­TARY; and indeed without a Colony it were easier to maintain a Garrison in Tangier on the Coast of Afri­ca than in the South of Georgia. One Regiment would [Page 69] little suffice to withstand the Enemy; and yet so small an Handful may be reduced to Discontent, Straits and Wants notwithstanding all the Bounty of a King, or Prudence of a General. As to the INDIANS, what could we expect less than being scorned and despised? That they should immediately fall in with the tempt­ing Proffers of the French and Spaniards, and so Great Britain cut off from that valuable Branch of the Indian Trade; for how indeed could they expect Execution of Treaties or Protection from People who, without the Force of any Enemy, could not preserve their own Schemes of Government from falling to Pieces? How the Tra­gedy must affect YOUR EXCELLENCY would be Presumption in me to determine, I only know, that to see Those you honour with the Name of children in Want and Misery, that Settlement which should have perpe­tuated your Name to Posterity with the greatest Ho­nour, become the [...] all your great Undertakings; and the Expectations of all the World, from your pro­mising Endeavours, setting in a Cloud and Obscurity, must affect your Excellency in a Way suitable to your hu­mane and generous Disposition.

Sir, we still love, honour and respect you, (whatever low selfish-minded Persons, the Bane of Society, may surmise to the contrary) and will continue to do so while we can have any Hopes of your pursuing Mea­sures consistent with our Prosperity: But Sir, Smiles cannot be expected amidst Disappointments and Wants, and there is no altering the Course of Nature: Love and Gratitude are the Tribute of Favours and Protecti­on, and Resentment the Consequence of Injuries receiv­ed; and in Disappointments of this Nature much more reasonably than in those of Love, do the contrary Pas­sions take place in the same Degree. What then re­mains, but that you embrace those obvious Measures that will retrieve our desperate Affairs; r [...]sl [...]re to us, in Mr.Oglethorpe, our Father and Protector, whose [...] [Page 70] and Affection was depended upon; secure to your self a Society that loves and honours you, and who will always be ready to sacrifice both Life and Fortune to your Honour and Protection, and your Name with Blessings will be perpetuated. If in this I have, by a sincere and well-meant Freedom, given Offence, I hear­tily ask Pardon, none was intended; and I only re­quest, that, while Truth keeps the Stage, the Author may be allowed to remain incog. behind the Scenes.

I am, Sir, your, &c. The PLAIN-DEALER.
[...] those persons who settled in [...] on th [...] own [...]

This Year there was promised a Bounty of Two Shil­lings Sterling on every Bushel of Corn, and One Shilling on every Bushel of Pease and Potatoes, raised in the County of Savannah: This induced some few to plant, but they were miserably deceived, for few or none of them ever received their full Bounty, and not many any Part thereof, (altho' if they had received it twice over it could not have answered the End.) People being thus, by a Chain of Disappointments and Miseries, most of them rendred incapable to subsist, and, toward the End of this Summer, beginning to despair of having any favou­rable Answer to their Representation, or Hopes of Re­dress, left the Colony faster than ever; and when the Answer (or rather Denial) came over, they went in such Numbers, that the whole Province of South-Carolina was overspread with them, and in and about the Town of Charlestown alone, this Autumn above Fifty Georgians died in Misery and want, most of whom were buried at the publick Charge.

In September a printed Paper, entitled, An Answer to the Representation, &c. was sent over, and arrived at Sa­vannah, and of which this is an exact Copy.

[Page 71]

The Answer of the Trustees for establishing the Colony of Georgia in America, to the Representation from the In­habitants of Savannah, the 9th of December 1738, for altering the Tenure of the Lands, and introducing Negroes into Georgia.

To the Magistrates of the Town of Savannah in the Province of Georgia.

THe Trustees for establishing the Colony of Geor­gia in America, have received by the Hands of Mr. Benjamin Ball of London, Merchant, an attested Copy of a Representation, signed by you the Magi­strates and many of the Inhabitants of Savannah, on the 9th of December last, for altering the Tenure of the Lands, and introducing Negroes into the Province, transmitted from thence by Mr. Robert Williams.

The Trustees are not surprized to find unwary Peo­ple drawn in by crafty Men, to join in a Design of ex­torting by Clamour from the Trustees an Alteration in the fundamental Laws, framed for the Preservation of People, from those very Designs.

But the Trustees cannot but express their Astonish­ment, that You the Magistrates, appointed by them to be Guardians of the People by putting those Laws in Execution, should so far forget your Duty, as to put yourselves at the Head of this Attempt.

However they direct you to give the Complainants this Answer from the Trustees, That they should deem themselves very unfit for the Trust reposed in them by his Majesty on their Behalf, if they could be prevailed upon, by such an irrational Attempt, to give up a Con­stitution, [...]ramed with the greatest Caution for the Pre­servation of Liberty and Property, and of which the Laws against the Use of Slaves, and for the Entail of Lands, are the surest Foundations.

[Page 72] And the Trustees are the more confirmed in their Opinion of the Unreasonableness of this Demand, that they have received Petitions from the Darien, and o­ther Parts of the Province, representing the Inconveni­ence and Danger which must arise to the good People of the Province from the Introduction of Negroes. And as the Trustees themselves are fully convinced, that, besides the Hazard attending that Introduction, it would destroy all Industry among the white Inhabitants; and that by giving them a Power to alien their Lands, the Colony would soon be too like its Neighbours, void of white Inhabitants, filled with Blacks, and reduced to be the Precarious Property of a few, equally expo­sed to domestick Treachery and foreign Invasion; and therefore the Trustees cannot be supposed to be in any Disposition of granting this Request; and if they have not before this signified their Dislike of it, this Delay is to be imputed to no other Motives but the Hopes they had conceived, that Time and Experience would bring the Complainants to a better Mind: And the Trustees readily join Issue with them in their Appeal to Posterity, who shall Judge between them who were their best Friends, Those who endeavoured to preserve for them a Property in their Lands, by tying up the Hands of their unthristy Progenitors, or They who wanted a Power to mortgage or alien them: Who were the best Friends to the Colony, Those who with great Labour and Cost had endeavoured to form a Colony of his Majesty's Subjects, and persecuted Protestants from other Parts of Europe; had placed them on the fruit­ful Soil, and strove to secure them in their Possessions by those Arts which naturally tend to keep the Colo­ny full of useful and industrious People, capable both to cultivate and desend it; or Those who, to gratify the greedy and ambitious Views of a few Negroe Mer­chants, would put it into their Power to become sole owners of the Province, by introducing their baneful [Page 73] Commodity, which, it is well known by sad Experience, has brought our Neighbour Colonies to the Brink of Ruin, by driving out their white Inhabitants, who were their Glory and Strength, to make room for Black, who are now become the Terror of their unadvised Masters.

BENJ. MARTYN Secretary

We shall not in this Place detain the Reader, to shew the Absurdity and Insufficiency of the Reasons made use of in the above Paper, or how improperly it is cal­led An Answer to the Representation, but refer them to the whole Tenor of this Narrative. With this Paper came over new Commissions for Magistrates, viz. Messrs. Thomas Christie, First, John Fallowfield, Second, and Thomas Jones, Third Bailiffs, and Mr. William William­son, Recorder: And, as if the Inhabitants had not been sufficiently punished before by the arbitrary Govern­ment of Causton, the Two Offices of Store-Keeper and Magistrate were again joined in One Person, which in­fallibly renders him, whoever he is, absolute in Savan­nah. And indeed if the Miseries and Hardships of the People could have received any Addition, they must have done so from the Person appointed to execute those Offices, namely, Mr. Thomas Jones Third Bailiff, as be­fore mentioned, who surpassed Mr. Causton in every Thing that was bad, without having any one of his good Qualifications: And that he might the more easily go­vern at Pleasure, Mr. Oglethorpe thought proper to su­persede the Commissions of Messrs. Thomas Christie and William Williamson, and continued Mr. Henry Parker as First Magistrate, being sure he was a Person that would always be in the Interest of Whoever was Store-Keeper; and having no other Magistrate to cope with but Mr. Fallowfield, they were certain of over-ruling him, tho' [Page 74] his Sentiments were never so just. And when the Gene­ral heard that some People justly complained that the Trustees Commissions were of none effect, he threatned an armed Force if they refused to comply.

William Stephens, Esq Messrs. Thomas Christie and Thomas Jones. were likewise appointed to inspect into Causton's Accounts; but Christie was altogether reject­ed by the other two; nor did they ever do any thing to the Purpose: Indeed Jones would sometimes hector and domineer over Causton, in as haughty a Manner as ever he had formerly done over the meanest Person in Sa­vannah.

Although the Trustees say in their Answer to the Re­presentation, That they should think themselves very unfit for the Trust reposed in them, should they, by an irrational Attempt, alter the Entail of Lands; yet not one Month after we had received the aforesaid Answer, over comes the following Paper, viz.

The Resolutions of the Trustees for establishing the Colony of Georgia in America, in Common Council assembled this 28th Day of August, in the Year of our Lord 1739, re­lating to the Grants and Tenure of Lands within the said Colony.

WHereas the Common Cou [...] [...] of the said Trustees, assembled for that Purpose, in the Name of the Corporation of the said Trustees, and under their com­mon Seal, have, in pursuance of his Majesty's most gra­cious Letters Patent, and in Execution of the Trusts thereby reposed in them, granted and conveyed divers Portions of the Lands, Tenements and Hereditaments in the said Letters Patent mentioned, to many of his Ma­jesty's [...] Subjects, natural [...]orn, and Denizens, and others [...] to become his Subjects, and to live un­der [...] to his Majesty in the said Colony, to held to then respectively, and to the Heirs Male of [Page 75] their respective Bodies, lawfully begotten or to be be­gotten, under the several Rents, Reservation, Condi­tions and Provisoes therein contained:And whereas it hath been represented to the said Trustees, that many of the Persons to whom such Grants have been made have no Issue Male of their respective Bodies, and that an Alteration in the Grants and Tenure of the said Lands upon Failure of such Issue, and likewise a known certain Provision for the Widows of Tenants in Tail Male, would not only encourage all such Persons chear­fully to go on with their several Improvements, but also be [...]n Inducement and Means of inviting divers o­ther Persons to resort to and settle in the said Colony, and greatly tend to the Cultivation of the Lands, the Increase of the people, and the Defence, Strength and Security of the said Colony, which the said Trustees most earnestly desire to promote as far as in them lies: It is therefore this Day unanimously resolved by the Com­mon Council of the said Corporation, assembled for that Purpose, That the Grants of Lands or Tenements within the said Colony, heretofore made and hereafter to be made by the said Trustees to any Person or Per­sons whatsoever, shall be altered, made and established in Manner and Form following; that is to say, That,

If Tenant in Tail Male of Lands or Tenements in the said Colony, not having done or suffered any Act, Matter or Thing, whereby his Estate therein may be forfeited or determined, shall happen to die, leaving a Widow and one or more Child or Children, that then and in such Case the Widow of such Tenant shall hold and enjoy the Dwelling-house and Garden, (if any such there be) and one Moiety of such Lands and Te­nements for and during the Term of her Life; the said Moiety to be set out and divided, in case the Parties in­terested therein do not agree within the Space of three Months, by the Magistrates of the Town-Court in Geor­gia nearest thereunto, or any one of them, And in case [Page 76] such Division be made by one of such Magistrates only, then any Person or Persons finding him, her or them­selves aggrieved thereby, may within the Space of three Months appeal to the other three Magistrates of the said Town-court, whose Determination thereof shall be fi­nal. And if such Tenant shall happen to die, leaving only a Widow, and no Child or Children, then that such Widow shall hold and enjoy the said Dwelling­house, Garden, and all such Lands and Tenements, for and during the Term of her Life, And in case the Widow of any such Tenant, whether he die without Issue by her or not, shall marry again after his De­cease, then such Person to whom she shall be so mar­ried, shall, within the Space of Twelve Months after such Marriage, give Security to the said Trustees, and their Successors, whether personal or otherwise, agree­able to such Instructions as shall be given by the Com­mon Council of the said Trustees, for maintaining and keeping in repair, during such Marriage, the said Dwel­ling-house, Garden, and other the Premisses, to which she shall be so entitled in right of her former Hus­band: And if such Security shall not be given in man­ner aforesaid, within the Space of Twelve Months after such Marriage, that then, and in such Case, the Provi­sion hereby made or intended to be made for the Be­nefit of such Window, shall cease, determine and be absolutely void, to all Intents and Purposes; and the said Dwelling-house and Garden, and all and singular the Premisses, shall be, and endure to such Child or Children, or to such other Person or Persons, who would be entitled to the same, in case the said Widow was naturally dead.

And if Tenant in Tail Male of Lands or Tene­ments in the said Colony, not having done or suffered any Act, Matter or Thing, whereby his or her Estate therein may be forfeited or determined, shall happen to die leaving one or more Daughter, or Daughters, and [Page 77] no Issue Male; then that such Lands Tenements, if not exceeding eighty Acres, shall be holden in Tail Male by any one of the Daughters of such Tenant; and if exceeding eighty Acres, by any one or more of the Daughters of such Tenant in Tail Male, as such Tenant shall by his or her last Will and Testament in Writing, duly executed in the Presence of three or more credible Witnesses, direct and appoint; and in De­fault of such Direction or Appointment, then that such Lands and Tenements shall be holden in Tail Male by the eldest of such Daughters; and in Default of Issue Male and Female, either born in the Lifetime of such Tenant in Tail Male, or within nine Months after his Decease, then that such Lands and Tenements, if not exceeding eighty Acres, shall be holden in Tail Male by any one such Person; and if exceeding eighty Acres, by any one or more such Person of Persons, a such Tenant in Tail Male by his other last Will and Testament in Writing, executed as aforesaid, shall di­rect and appoint; and in Default of such Direction or Appointment, then that such Lands and Tenements shall be holden in Tail Male by the Heir at Law of such Tenant; subject nevertheless, in all and every the said Cases, to such Right of the Window (if any) as afore­said, Provided that such Daughter or Daughters, and all and every such Person or Persons so entitled to hold and enjoy and' such Lands and Tenements, do within the Space of Twelve Months after the Death of such Te­nant, personally appear, if residing in America, and claim the same in any of the Town-courts in Georgia; and if residing out of America, then within the Space of eighteen Months next after the Death of such Te­nant. And Provided also, That no such Devise or Ap­pointment shall be made by any such Tenant of Lands exceeding eighty Acres, in any lesser or smaller Porti­on or Parcel than fifty Acres to any one Daughter, or other Person. And that no Daughter; or other Person [Page 78] shall be capable of enjoying any Devise, which may thereby increase his or her former Possession of Lands within the said Colony to more than Five hundred Acres; but such Devise to be void, and the Lands thereby given to descend in such manner as if no such Devise had been made. And in Default of such Ap­pearance and Claim as aforesaid, That all and singu­lar the said Lands and Tenements shall be and remain to the said Trustees and their Successors for ever. Provided also, That all and every such Estates hereby created or intended to be created, shall be subject and liable to the several Rents, Reservations, Provisoes and Conditions, as in the original Grants thereof are particularly mentioned and contained; save and except so much thereof as is hereby altered, or intended to be altered , in case of Failure of Issue Male, and the Provision hereby made or intended to be made for Windows.

And that in every Grant hereafter to be made by the said Trustees or their Successors of any Lands or Tene­ments in the said Colony, all and every Grantee therein named, not doing or suffering any Act, Matter or Thing whereby his or her Estate therein may be forfeited or determined, shall have good Right, full Power, and lawful Authority to give and devise the same by his or her last Will and Testament in Writing, duly executed in the Presence of three or more credible Witnesses, in Manner and Form following; that is to say, Every Grantee of Lands not exceeding eighty Acres, to any one Son or any one Daughter in Tail Male; and every Grantee of Lands exceeding eighty Acres, the whole, or any part thereof, but not in lesser Lots or Portions than fifty Acres to any one Devisee, to his or her Son or Sons, Daughter or Daughters in Tail Male; and in Default of such Devise as aforesaid, then that such Lands and Tenements shall descend to the eldest Son in Tail Male; and in Default of Issue Male, to the eldest [Page 87] Daughter in Tail Male; and in Default of Issue Male and Female, then that such Lands and Tenements shall be holden in Tail Male, if not exceeding eighty Acres, by any one such Person; and if exceeding eighty Acres, by any one or more such Person or Persons, but not in a­ny smaller Lot or Portion than fifty Acres to any one Person, as such Grantee shall by his or her last Will and Testament in Writing, executed as aforesaid, direct and appoint; and in Default of such Direction or Ap­pointment, then that such Lands and Tenements shall be holden in Tail Male by the Heir at Law of such Gran­tee; subject nevertheless to such Right of the Window (if any) as aforesaid. Provided always, That no Son, Daughter, or other Person shall be capable of enjoying any Devise which may thereby increase his or her former Possession of Land within the said Colony, to more than Five hundred Acres; but such Devise to be void, and the Lands thereby given to descend in such manner as if no such Devise ha [...] been made. Provided also, That such Son or Sons, Daughter or Daughters, and all and every such Person or Persons entitled to hold and enjoy any such Lands and Tenements, do, with­in the Space of Twelve Months after the Death of such Grantee, or of those under whom they claim, personally appear, if residing in America, and claim the same in any of the Town-courts in Georgia; and if residing out of America, then within the Space of eighteen Months next after such Death; and in Default of such Appearance and Claim as aforesaid, That all and sin­gular the said Lands and Tenements shall be and re­main to the said Trustees, and their Successors for ever. And Provided also, That all and every such Estates shall be subject and liable to the like Rents, Reserva­tions, Provisoes and Conditions, as in the former Grants of Lands heretofore made, save and except so much thereof as is hereby altered, or intended to be al­tered, upon the Failure of Issue Male.

[Page 88] And it is hereby required, That publick Notice of these Resolutions be forthwith given by the Magi­strates of the respective Town-courts in Georgia, and also by the Secretary of the said Trustees in London, that all and every the Grantees of Lands or Tene­ments within the said Colony may enter their respe­ctive Claims, either at the Georgia-Office near Old Pa­lace Yard in Westminster, or in any of the Town-courts in Georgia, within the Space of twelve Months form the Date hereof, to the end that they may receive the Benefit hereby intended, and that proper Grants and Conveyances in the Law may be forthwith prepared and executed for that Purpose. And it is hereby ex­presly declared, That no Fee or Reward shall be ta­ken for the Entering of any such Claim, directly or indirectly, by any Person or Persons whatsoever.

BENJ. MARTYN, Secretary.

We believe this Paper will perplex most People, who have not throughly studied the Law, to make Sense of it; and as there were no Lawyers in Georgia, it would seem as if it had been sent over with no other End, than that it should not be understood; and indeed it rather tended to add to the Con [...]usions in the Colony, than to promote the Benefit of it: We can only assure the Rea­der, that it had no good Effect in Georgia, and that it was kept up there as much as possible from the People, only a fictitious Abridgment thereof, with the same Title and the same Way signed, being publickly exhi­bited in Writing: But this was needless Caution; for not One in Twenty of them would have understood any one Paragraph of it. In October 1739, the General is­sue, out his Proclamation for granting Letters of Marque and [...]; and the Inhabitants being called together in the Court-house , he there makes them a very elabo­rate speech, and , amongst other Things, tells them, [Page 89] That he was design'd against St. Augustine, and if he did not take it, he would leave his Bones before the Walls there­of: But he is now at Frederica, and, as we have too much Reason to believe this Castle is still in the Hands of the Spaniards. A little after this we had another In­stance how much our Benefactors had our Interest and Welfare at heart; for at this Time it was given out, That all the Cattle that were unmark'd belong'd to the Tru­stees as Lords of Mann [...]r; and Orders were given that they should be mark'd accordingly: But People [...]renuously insisting to the contrary, the Design was dropt for that Time. On the 4th of November Mr. oglethorpe departed from Savannah; and he now seems to have entirely forgot it: And it is certain, that ever since the Affair of the Representation, according to his own Words, the very Name of the Place is become hate­ful to him, as are all those who he thought were Ring­leaders in that Affair; some of whom he endeavour'd to threaten and bribe to a Recantation, but to little pur­pose; two or three being the most (to the best of our Knowledge) that he could gain, and even those, we be­lieve, never gave any thing under their Hands. One flagrant Instance of the indirect Practices he used to draw People into his Measures was as follows: * in Summer 1739, when it was thought the Representa­tion would have succeeded, Mes [...]rs. Grant, Douglass, Stirling and Baillie, who had been old Settlers in the Colony, and who had in a manner ruin'd them­selves, as others had done, either by Planting or Build­ing, wrote to the Trustees for an Island, and at the same time applied to Mr. oglethorpe for it; he appeared mighty glad at their Resolution, and told them, That if they would agree to what he had to propose, the granting of an Island should be nothing in respect to what he would do for them: They told him, They would do any thing [Page 90] that was consistent with their knowledge and Conscience: Then they were dismissed, and the next Day they were to know his Mind; that being come, two of his Emis­saries were sent separately with Proposals, which they afterwards wrote in order to be signed, but refused a Copy thereof: These Proposals were to the following Effect, viz. To acknowledge they were in the wrong for having any Hand in the making or signing the Re­presentation; to ask the General's Pardon for so doing; and to assert that they believed the Colony might flou­rish according to the then present Constitution: These Things complied with, they should have what Money they were pleased to ask for, with Horses, Cattle and every Thing else they wanted, together with the Gene­ral's perpetual Friendship and Assistance; if not compli­ed with, they might expect nothing but his highest Re­sentment. They answered, That they never expected, nor did they think they ever asked for any Favours from the Ge­neral; and as for his Resentment, they believed they had already felt the utmost of it. In whatever Shape the Ge­neral wrote home of this Affair is not known, but how­ever, from what he wrote, the Trustees thought fit at first positively to deny their Request, in a Letter which came to their Hands in July 1740, of which this is an exact Copy.

To Messrs. Grant, Douglass and Billie, at Savannah in Georgia.


THE Trustees for establishing the Colony of Georgia have received and read your Letter of May 26, 1739, by which they find you have abandoned your Settlements up­on the Ogeeche River, for the following Reasons, Because you are not allowed to have black Servants to cultivate your Lands; and because you disliked the Tenure of your Grants.

[Page 91] As to the First,You must have seen by the Trustees An­swer to the Representation of some of the People, that they cannot, and will not break into the Constitution of the Pro­vince, by such an Introduction of Slavery in Blacks, and that upon the most mature Deliberation, and for the strong­est Reasons, which indeed are obvious to every considering Man, and which they are confirmed in by the Danger which has lately threatned South-Carolina by the Insurrection of the Negroes, and would be more imminent in Georgia, it being a Frontier.

As to the Last, relating to the Tenure of Lands, the Trustees suppose you may have seen the Alteration which they have made since the writing of your Letter, and they have no doubt but you are satisfied therewith, as the rest of the colony are.

The Trustees have likewise received and considered your Petition to General Oglethorpe for a Settlement on Wil­lmington-Island, and his Answer thereto, which they think are of great Force, and therefore they cannot make you a Grant there, but hope you will go on improving your Settle­ments on the Ogeeche River, which they perceive by your Letter May 26, that you had made a great Progress in.

I am, Gentlemen, Your very humble Servant, BENJ. MARTYN Secretary.

To this they returned the following Answer.

To the honourable the Trustees for establishing to Colony of Georgia in America, at their Office near Old-Palace-Yard, Westminster.

Honourable Gentlemen,

WE have received a Letter signed by your Secreta­ry, of the 25th March last, owning the Receipt of ours to the Trustees for establishing to Colony of Georgia, dated the 26th May 1739, in which we set [Page 92] forth the Expence we had been at in prosecuting our Settlement on the Ogeeche River, together with the Impossibility of carrying on any settlement with suc­cess in this Colony according to the present Constituti­on; as an additional Confirmation of which we then presented your Honours With an Account current, car­ried on from the Commencement of our Settlement on the Ogeeche, and continued till we were drove thence by the strongest Appearances of Destruction, arising from the having expended our All in the strenuous Pro­secution of an impracticable Scheme: And here we must beg leave to observe, That it appears to us you have neither considered our Letter or Account, other­wise you never would have advised us to return to a Place on which we have already in vain consumed so much Time and Money.

We have seen and seriously considered every Para­graph of a printed Paper, entituled, The Answer of the Trustees for establishing the Colony of Georgia in America, to the Representation from the Inhabitants of Savannah; which, in our humble Opinion, is no Answer at all, but rather an absolute Refusal of Demands to which we are legally entitled, under the specious Pretences of Guar­dianship and fatherly Care, without having answered one Sentence, or confuted by Strength of Argument a­ny Part of our Assertions.

Because our neighbouring Province (of which you are pleased to take notice) has by an introduction of too great Numbers abused the Use of Negroes; or be­cause an undoubted Property in out Land-Possessions might prove detrimental or hurtful to idle, profligate or abandon'd People; it does not at all follow that we should be debarred the Use of Negroes for the Field, or the more laborious Parts of Culture, under prudent Limitations; or that sober and virtuous Men Should be deprived of just Titles to their Properties.

We are surprized that your Honours mention the [Page 93] Representations of the People of the Darien, as a Con­firmation of the Unreasonableness of our Demands: For did your Honours know the Motives by which these People were induced to present you with one or more Petitions contradictory to our Representation, the Welfare of the Colony and their own Conscien­ces, we are petswaded you never would have offered them as Reasons for rejecting the Representation from Savannah. They were bought with a Number of Cattle, and extensive Promises of future Rewards; a little present Interest made them forget or neglect their Poste­rity; whereas the People of this Place, duly sensible of the Miseries and Calamities they have suffered, and do still labour under, freely and voluntarily put their Hands to the Representation of this Part of the Pro­vince: No artful Means were used to induce them to it; no artful Man or Men, Negro-Merchants or o­thers, perswaded them to its: Dismal Poverty and the most absolute Oppression were the true Fountains from whence our Complaints proceeded. But how mise­rably were these inconsiderate deluded Wretches re­warded? They were soon after carried against St. Au­gustine, placed on a dangerous Post, where they were all or most of them cut off or taken Prisoners by the Enemy, which has put a Period to the Settlement of Darien, of which so many great Things have been fals­ly reported.

With regard to our Representation, we shall only beg leave to make one Supposition, which it is almost impossible can have happened, viz. That this and all the other Representations, Letters, Suits or Petitions, made to the Trustees by private or a joint Number of Persons, have been entirely false and groundless: What can have reduced the Colony to the Situation in which it now is? What can have reduced its Inhabitants to one sixth Part of the Number which we have known to reside here? Or, lastly, to what is the starving and [Page 94] despicable Condition of the few are now left ow­ing? Is it not, as well as every other Matter which we have before urged, owing to, and occasioned by the unanswerable Reasons at different Times given and laid before your Honours, by honest Men (indepen­dent of you) who were and are the chief Sufferers in this Colony, and who could not be bribed to conceal, or terrified from declaring their Sentiments?

Your Honours may readily and safely join Issue with us in our Appeal to Posterity, who were their best * Friends, &c. for it is certain and obvious, that if the Trustees are resolved to adhere to their present Consti­tution, they or their Successors are in no great Dan­ger of being called to any Account by our Posterity in Georgia

We have likewise seen and read the Alterations Mr. Martyn mentions to have been made by your Honours with regard to the Tenure of Lands, together with a fi­ctitious Abridgment of the same affixed to the most publick Places at Savannah

Mr. Martyn in his Letter is pleased to tell us, That your Honours imagine we are satisfied therewith, as the rest of the Colony are. Some few perhaps may have ex­pressed themselves satisfied; but we will say no worse of such few, than that your Honours will soon be sen­sible that even they are Deceivers. It is true such Al­terations, and the Paper entituled, An Answer to our Representation above mentioned, are artfully penn'd, and will doubtless for a Time amuse even Men of the best Sense in Europe, or elsewhere, who are Strangers to the Colony of Georgia; but any Man of common Understanding, or the least Penetration, who by an un­fortunate Experience has been well acquainted with that Colony, can easily demonstrate that those very Papers are further Snares to increase our Miseries, as it is [Page 95] im­possible we can be enabled by these Alterations to subsist ourselves and Families any more than before, far less to put us in Capacity of recovering our already sunk Fortunes and Loss of Time. Some time in the Summer 1739, (whilst we still expected agreeable Alterations to have succeeded our Representation) we applied more than once to General Oglethorpe, as one of the Trustees, for the same Tract of Land which we have since been re­fused by your Honours; but our Petitions and Appli­cations were rejected; and for what Reason? because indeed we refused to contradict what we had before set forth in our Representation, and so become Villains, as, we have too much Reason to believe, some others on the same Occasion were: We would not accept of Settlements, Sums of Money, Horses, Cattle and other va­luable Considerations, at the Expence of betraying our Country and contradicting our Consciences, by signing a Paper, which was prepared and offered to us, purport­ing a Repentance of the Measures we had taken for our own and the Relief of other distressed British Subjects; and consequently an Approbation of a Scheme, which, by all Appearance, seems to have been calculated and prepared to form a Colony of Vassals, whole Proper­ties and Liberties were at all times to have been dispo­sed of at the Discretion or Option of their superiors.

Such and many other Methods of Corruption have been too often practised in this Colony; but we refused and scorned such Actions, from Principles of which every honest Man ought to be possessed.

We are not surprized to find, that we have in vain applied to your Honours in several Affairs, when we see you have been hitherto prepossessed by a Gentleman of superior Interest, with Informations and Assertions full of Resentment, and which we well kno [...] [...] stand the Test of an impartial Examination, but we are amazed and sorry to find, that he has had for so many Years together the Interest of nominating Those who have [Page 96] been appointed from time to time for the Admini­stration of Justice, and making an impartial Enquiry in­to, and informing your Honours of the real Situation of the Colony of Georgia; we say, such who have been implicitely obedient in carrying on his arbitrary Schemes of Government, and oppressing the Inhabitants, as well as conniving at the deceiving your Honours and the Nation.

Gentlemen, as we have no Favours to ask, or Resent­ments to fear, we may with the greater Freedom ob­serve, that we are in full Hopes, that all we can justlyask will be granted us by a British Parliament, who, we doubt not, will soon make an Enquiry into the Grievances of oppressed Subjects, which have formerly inhabited, or do now inhabit the Colony of Georgia; that colony which has cost so great an Expence to the Nation, and from which so great Benefits were promi­sed and expected.

We are sensible of the Freedoms which have been used with our respective Characters in the Misrepresen­tations sent your Honours by partial Men; nor are we less sensible that the Majority of the Trustees have been kept in the dark with regard to our just Complaints and Representations, or that such Complaints have been com­municated to them in Lights distant from Truth, in­somuch that we have Reason to believe two Thirds of the honourable Board are either misinformed of, or are en­tire Strangers to the barbarous and destructive Schemes carried on in this miserable Colony.

We hope it will ere long appear to your Honours and the World, (whatever has been advanced to the contrary) that we are honest Men, free from any base Design, free from any mutinous Spirit, who have only stood firm for the Recovery of our lost Privileges, which have been secretly and under the most specious Preten­ces withdrawn from us by some designing and self-inte­rested Men.

We should be sorry to write disrespectfully of any one [Page 97] of the Trustees; but when distressed and oppressed People arrive at the last Extremities, it must be suppo­sed they will neither be ashamed to publish their mis­fortunes, or afraid of imputing their Calamities to the Fountain from whence they spring.

Far be it from us in any Shape to reflect in general on the honourable Board, who we still believe are Gentlemen of Honour and Reputation, who would not be accessory to any sinister or base Designs; but we can­not help thinking that they are deluded, and brought to pursue Measures inconsistent with the Welfare and Prosperity of the Colony, by some who of the whole Corporation are only acquainted with the particular Situation of it, and who must therefore wilfully, and from Design, from and prepare destructive Schemes for the perishing Inhabitants of Georgia, and, by unfair Re­presentations of Persons and Things, draw the Approba­tion of the greater Part of the honourable Board to such Measures for the Oppression of his Majesty's Subjects, which they would, if they were impartially informed, scorn to think of, far less agree to.

General Oglethorpe with all his Forces has been ob­liged to raise the Siege of St. Augustine, and we have Reason to believe the impending Ruin of this Colony will be thereby determined; for the Spaniards are re­inforced, the General's Army harrassed and weakned, and the Indians provoked and discontented; so that e­very Thing looks with the most dismal Aspect. But as his Conduct in, and the Consequences of these Affairs, will be soon published to the World, and as we doubt not we have already incurred your Honours Displeasure, by reciting thus freely the many Hardships which we have here and formerly asserted to have been the Cau­ses of our Ruin, we shall now forbear, and conclude by adding, That the Extremity of our Misfortunes has at last rendred us utterly incapable of staying here any longer; and tho' all the Money we have expended on [Page 98] Improvements in the Colony is now of no Advantage to us here, nor can be elsewhere, yet, poor, as we are, we shall think ourselves happy when we are gone from a Place, where nothing but Poverty and Oppression Sub­sists: Therefore we hope, if ever this or any other Pa­per or Letter of ours shall appear in Publick, your Ho­nours will impute such Publication to have proceeded from no other Motives besides a thorough Knowledge of our Duty to ourselves, our Fellow-Subjects and Sufferers, and to prevent others for the future from be­ing deluded in the same Manner as we have been, who are, with the greatest Respect,

Honourable Gentlemen,
Your most humble Servants, Signed,
  • Da. Douglas,
  • Win. Sterling,
  • Tho. Baillie.
Vide Answer to the Representation

About the latter End of May 1740, Mr. Oglethorpe set out with his Regiment for Florida, and soon after the Carolina Forces, consisting of about Six hundred Men, joined him, with about Three hundred Indians, and Six­ty Highlanders Volunteers from Darien, who were buoyed up by the General with the mighty Hopes of Reward, besides several Stragglers and Boatmen from other Parts of the Province and elsewhere; so that, exclusive of Se­ven Men of War, there might be about Fifteen hundred effective Men assisting at the Siege, as it was called, of the Castle of St. Augustine. But we shall take no further Notice of this Affair, than as it has affected or may still affect the Colony of Georgia: The Place being alarm­ed, the Highlanders, with some others, making in all One hundred and forty one Men, were posted at Musa, (this was a [...]all Fort about a Mile distant from the Castle which had been abandoned by the Spaniards at the General's first Approach) where they were soon af­ter [Page 99] attacked by a Superior Force of the Enemy, and a miserable Slaughter ensued, scarcely one Third of the Number escaping, the others being either killed or ta­ken Prisoners. Thus these poor People, who, at the Expence of their Consciences, signed a Representation contrary to their own Interest and Experience, and gave themselves entirely up to the General's Service, by their Deaths at once freed his Excellency from his Debts and Promises, and put an End to the Settlement of Da­rien; for there are now in that Place not one Quarter Part of the Number who settled there at first, and that is made up chiefly of Women and Children; and a Scout-Boat is stationed before the Town to Prevent a­ny of them from going off.

This Siege was raised about the Beginning of July; the General with the Remainder of his Regiment re­turned to Frederica; the Carolina Forces were shipped off for that Province; the few Georgians that were left repaired, as soon as they were allowed, to their seve­ral Homes in a miserable Condition; and the Indians marched towards their respective Countries, very much weakned and discontented; the Cherokees returned, as they came, by Savannah, and of One hundred and ten healthy Men only about Twenty got to their Nation, the rest either perished by Sickness or were slain: And thus ended the Campaign in Florida.

During these Transactions Savannah decayed apace; and in August and September the same Year People went away by Twenties in a Vessel, insomuch that one would have thought the Place must have been entirely forsa­ken; for in these two Months about One hundred Souls out of the County of Savannah left the Colony; many others have since left it, and, we believe, more will leave it very soon.

The Boats with their Hands which the General em­ployed at that unfortunate Expedition he neither will pay, subsist, or let depart from that Place; however [Page 100] they are stealing away by Degrees *: And at this Time of about Five thousand Souls, that had at various Embarkations arrived in the Colony of Georgia, October 1740. exclusive of the Regiment, scarce as many Hundreds remain, and these consist of the Saltzburghers at Ebenezer, who are yearly supported from Germany and England; the People of Frederica, who are supported by means of the Regiment; the poor Re­mainder of the Darien; a few Orphans, and others un­der the Denomination, supported by Mr. Whitefield; to­gether with some Dutch Servants maintained for doing nothing by the Trustees, with Thirty or Forty necessary Tools to keep the others in Subjection: And Those make up the poor Remains of the miserable Colony of Geor­gia

Having now brought down this Work to the Month of October 1740, being about the Time most of the Au­thors of this NARRATIVE were obliged to leave that fatal Colony, we shall conclude the whole with a geo­graphical and historical Account of its present State.

GEORGIA lies in the 30 and 31 Degrees of North Latitude: The Air generally clear, the Rains be­ing much shorter as well as heavier than in England; the Dews are very great; Thunder and Lightning are expect­ed almost every Day in May, June, July, and August; they are very terrible, especially to a Stranger: During those Months, from Ten in the Morning to Four in the Afternoon, the Sun is extremely scorching; but the Sea­breeze sometimes blows from Ten till Three or Four: The Winter is nearly of the same Length as in England; but the Mid-day Sun is always warm, even when the Mornings and Evenings are very sharp, and the Nights piercing cold.

[Page 101] The Land is of Four Sorts, Pine-Barren, Oak-Land, Swamp and Marsh. The Pine Land is of far the great­est Extent, especially near the Sea-Coasts: The Soil of this is a dry whitish Sand, producing Shrubs of several Sorts, and between them a harsh coarse kind of Grass, which Cattle do not love to feed upon; but here and there is a little of a better kind, especially in the Savan­nas, so they call the low watry Meadows which are usually intermixed with Pine Lands: It bears naturally two Sorts of Fruit, Hurtle-Berries much like those in England, and Chinquopin-Nuts, a dry Nut about the Size of a small Acorn: A labo [...]ious Man may in one Year clear and plant four or five Acres of this Land: It will produce the first Year from two to four Bushels of Indi­an Corn, and from four to eight of Indian Pease per Acre; the second Year it usually bears much about the same; the third less; the fourth little or nothing. Peaches it bears well; likewise the White Mulberry, which serves to feed the Silk-Worms; the Black is about the Size of a Black Cherry, and has much the same Flavour.

The Oak-Land commonly lies in narrow Streaks be­tween Pine-Lands and Swamps, Creeks or Rivers: The Soil is a blackish sand, producing several Kinds of Oak, Bay, Laurel, Ash, Walnut, Sumach and Gum Trees, a sort of Sycamore Dog Trees and Hickory: In the Choicest Part of this Land grow Parsimon Trees, and a few Black Mulberry and American Cherry Trees: The Common wild Grapes are of two Sorts, both red; the Fox-Grape grow two or three only on a Stalk, is thick-Skin'd, large ston'd, of a harsh Taste, and of the Size of a small Cher­ry; the Cluster-Grape is of a harsh Taste too, and about the Size of a white Curran. This Land requires much Labour to clear; but when it is cleared, it will bear a­ny Grain for three, four or five Years sometimes without laying any Manure upon it: An Acre of it generally produces ten Bushels of Indian Corn, besides five of Pease, in a Year; so that this is justly esteemed the most valu­able [Page 102] Land in the Province, white People being incapable to clear and cultivate the Swamps.

A Swamp is any low watry Place, which is covered with Trees or Canes: They are here of three Sorts, Cy­press, River and Cane Swamps: Cypress Swamps are most­ly large Ponds, in and round which Cypresses grow. Most River Swamps are overflown on every Side by the River which runs through or near them; if they were drained they would produce good Rice; as would the Cane Swamps also, which in the mean time are the best Feeding for all Sorts of Cattle.

The Marshes are of two Sorts; soft wet Marsh, which is all a Quagmire, and absolutely good for nothing, and hard Marsh, which is a firm Sand, but however at some seasons is good for feeding Cattle. Marshes of both Sorts abound on the Sea-Islands, which are very nume­rous, and contain all Sorts of Land, and upon these chief­ly near Creeks and Runs of Water, Cedar Trees grow.

We shall only add to the above, That considering no Land can be sowed (or at least what is sowed preserved) till the same is inclosed, that five Acres is the utmost a very able and laborious Man can propose to manage, this being the quantity allotted for the Task of a Ne­gro in the neighbouring Province, which Negro works four Hours each Day more than a white Man can do.

It must next be noticed, that with regard to the a­bove Returns, (suppose a prosperous Season without Disappointments, which is not the Case in such small Improvements as can be expected in an infant Colony one Year infive either Drought burns, or Rain drowns the Corn, and makes the Pease fall out of the Pod; Dear, which no Fences can exclude, devour those little Settlements in a Night; Rats and Squirrels do the same; Birds eat the Seed out of the Ground, and dig up the Blade after it is spired; and Variety of Worms and In­sects devour the one half of it: But let us suppose none of [Page 103] those Evils happened, let us view the Amount of the Produce valued at the highest Rate.

The Produce of five Acres of Pine-Land raised by one Hand the first Year.

Indian Corn, 20 Bushels, at 10 s. Cur­rency per Bushel,1050 
Indian Pease, 40 Bushels, at ditto,2100 
Total of first Year's Produce,3150 

The secondYear the same; the third less; the fourth little or nothing.

Best Oak-Land, five Acres, at 15 Bushels of Corn and Pease per Acre, is 75 Bushels at ditto Price, is 4 l. 13 s. 9 d. Sterling.

Let us next consider the Maintenance of every single white Servant per annum at the lowest Rate, and then the Reader will be able to judge whether white Peo­ple can get their Livelihood by planting Land in this Climate without Negroes; and the Allowance to the Trustees Dutch Servants being the least at which any white Servant could be maintained in Georgia, we shall therefore take our Estimation from it, which is Eight Pence Sterling per Day, or 12 l. 3 s. 4 d. Sterl. per an­num; so that at a Medium the Expence is three Times greater than the Produce, besides Tools, Medicines and other Necessaries.

We must likewise observe, that the Proportion of Pine-Barren to either good Swamp or Oak and Hickory Land, is at least six to one; that the far greater Number of the small Lots have none, or very little Oak Land; and if they had Swamp that would bear Rice, white People are unable to clear them if they are covered with Trees, and tho' only with Canes, which is the easiest to cultivate, it were simply impossible to manufacture the Rice by white Men, the Exercise being so severe, [Page 104] that no Negro can be employed in any other Work or Labour comparable to it, and many Hundreds of them, notwithstanding all the Care of their Masters, yearly lose their Lives by that necessary Work.

Savannah stands on a flat Bluff, (so they term a high Lands hanging over a Creek or River) which rises about Forty Feet perpendicular from the River, and commands it several Miles both upwards and downwards; and, if it was not for a Point of Woods which, about four Miles down the River, stretches itself out towards the South­east, one might have a View of the Sea and the Island of [...] The Soil is a white Sand for above a Mile in Breadth South-east and North-west; beyond this, east­ward, is a River Swamp; westward a small Body of Wood-land, (in which was the old Indian Town) se­parated by a Creek from a large Tract of Land, which runs upwards along the Side of the River for the Space of about five Miles, and being by far the best near the Town, is reserved for the Indians, as General Oglethorpe declares, as are also some of the Islands in the River Savannah, and the three most valuable Islands upon all the Coast of that Province, viz. Oss [...], St. Katharine and [...]. South-West of the Town is a Pine-Barren that C [...]ends about fourteen Miles to V [...]rn [...]n River.

On the East-Side of the Town is situated the Publick Garden, being ten Acres inclosed, on a barren Piece of Land, where it is hardly possible for what is planted to live, but impossible to thrive; and from this Garden [...] all the Planters to have been furnished with Mul­be [...], Trees, &c.

The plan of the Town was beautifully laid out inWards, Tithing, and publick Squares left at proper [...] for Markets and publick Buildings, the whole [...] an agreeable Uniformity.

The publick Works in this Town are, [...]being one handsome Room with [...]: This likewise serves for a Church [...] [Page 105] vice, none having been ever built, notwithstanding the Trustees in their publick Acts acknowledge the Receipt of about Seven hundred Pounds Sterling from charitable Persons for that express Purpose.

2dly,Opposite to the Court-house stands the Log-house or Prison, (which is the only one remaining of five or six that have been successively built in Savannah) that Place of Terror and Support of absolute Power in Georgia.

3dly, Nigh thereto is a House built of Logs, at a very great Charge, as was said, for the Trustees Steward; the Foundation below Ground is already rotten *, as the whole Fabrick must be in a short Time; for the Roof being flat, the Rain comes in at all Parts of it.

4th, The Store-house, which has been many times al­tered and amended at a very great Charge; and it now serves as a Store for the private Benefit of one or two, as before mentioned.

5th, The Guard-house, which was first built on the Bluff, soon decayed, as did a second through improper Management, this now standing being the third. Seve­ral Flag-staff's were likewise erected, the last of which, according to common Report, cost 50 l. Sterling.

6th, A Publick Mill for grinding Corn was first erect­ed at considerable Expence in one Square of the Town; but in about three Years Time, without doing the least Service, it fell to the Ground. In another Square of the Town a second was set up, at a far greater Expence, but never finished, and is now erazed and converted into a House for entertaining the Indians, and other such like Uses.

7th, Wells and Pumps were made at a great Charge; but they were immediately choked up, and never ren­dred useful, tho' this Grievance was frequently repre­sented both to the General and Magistrates, the want of Wells obliging the Inhabitants to use the River Water, [Page 106] which all the Summer over is polluted with putrid Mar­shes, and the numberless Insects that deposite their O­va there, together with putrified Carcases of Animals and corrupted Vegetables; and this no doubt occasion­ed much of the Sickness that swept off many.

Several of the House which were built by Freehold­ers, for want of Heirs-male, are fallen to the Trustees, even to the Prejudice of the lawful Creditors of the de­ceased, and are disposed of as the General thinks pro­per.

At least Two hundred Lots were taken up in Savannah, about One hundred and seventy of which were built * up­on; a great many of these are now ruinous, and many more shut up and abandoned; so that the Town appears very desolate, scarce one quarter Part of its Inhabitants being left, and most of those in a miserable Condition for want of the proper Necessaries of Life.

St. Simon's Island having on the East the Gulf of Flo­rida, on the other Sides Branches of the Alatamaha, is about One hundred Miles South of Savannah, and extends in Length about Twenty, in Breadth from two to five Miles; on the West-side of it, on a low Bluff, stands Frederica, having Woods to the North and South, to the East partly Woods, partly Savannas and partly Marsh.

The Soil is mostly blackish Sand; the Fortifications are augmented since the Retreat from Auguatine, and here [...]ly most of the Remains of General Oglethorpe's Re­giment. Frederica was laid out in Form of a Crescent divided into One hundred and forty four Lots, whereof about Fifty were built upon; the Number of the Inha­bitants, notwithstanding of the Circulation of the Regi­ment's Money, are not above One hundred and twenty, Men, Women and Children, and these are daily steal­ [...] [...] all possible Ways. On the Sea-Point, [...] South-east of the Town, were three Com­panies [Page 107] of the Soldiers stationed before the Attempt up­on St. Augustine, several pretty Houses were built by the Officers, and many Lots set off to the Soldiers, and entred upon by them, most, if not all, now desolate. Several of the Officers of the Regiment brought over Servants to cultivate Land, Col. Cochran 20 Servants, Lt. Horton at Jekyl 16 Servants, Capt. Gascoign at least as many, all gone, and, according to the best of our In­formation, about Two hundred of the Regiment are di­minished.

About Twenty Miles North-west from St Simon's is DARIEN, the Settlement of the Scots Highlanders; the Town is situate on the Main-Land, close to a Branch of the Alatamaha River, on a Bluff Twenty Feet high; the Town is surrounded on all Sides with Woods, the Soil is a blackish Sand: Here were upwards of Two hun­dred and fifty Persons settled, who in Spring 1736 built a large Fort for their own Protection; and the poor Re­mains of these are now no more than Fifty three, (above Two Thirds of which are Women and Children) besides eleven of the Trustees Servants inlisted as Soldiers, and stationed there under the Command of an Officer, in or­der to keep the others from going away, who are ne­vertheless making their Escape daily.

The southermost Settlement in Georgia is FORT ST. ANDREWS, Fifty Miles South from Frederica, on the South-west Side of Cumberland Island, upon a high Neck of Land which commands the River both Ways; the Walls are of Wood, filled up with Earth, round which are a Ditch and Pallisade; two Companies of General Oglethorpe's Regiment were formerly stationed there, but are now mostly drawn to Frederica.

Opposite to Frederica, on the Main, were settled Mes­sieurs Carr and Carteret, with above Twenty Servants, where they cleared a considerable Tract of Land; but that Plantation is now quitted, and their Servants either dead or dispersed. We have lately heard from Frederica, [Page 108] that the General having station'd ten or twelve Men up­on this Place, they were attacked by Spaniards or Spa­nish Indians, four were killed, four carried off, and two left wounded.

NEW EBENEZER, to which the Saltzburghers re­moved from their former Habitation at Old Ebenezer, consists of about One hundred Persons, under the Govern­ment of Mr. Boltzius their Pastor; they live and labour in a kind of Community, and never commix or associate with Strangers; they have been hitherto liberally sup­ported both from Germany and England, and their Rights and Privileges have been much more extensive than any others in the Colony: This Town lies six Miles East­ward from the Old, on a high Bluff upon the Side of Savannah River, and forty Miles from Savannah. Near to this Place, on a Creek of the same River, was built a Saw-Mill, which cost of the Publick Money above Fifteen hundred Pounds Sterling; but, like most other publick Works, is now entirely ruinous.

About ten Miles East of Ebenezer, on a Creek three Miles from the River, was the Village of ABERCORN; in the year 1733 there were ten Families settled there, and several afterwards: In the Year 1737, Mr. John Brodie with twelve Servants settled there: But all those are gone, and it is now a Heap of Ruins.

Four Miles below Abercorn, upon the River side is Joseph's Town, which was the Settlement of some Scots Gentlemen with thirty Servants; but they have now left it, most of their Servants having died there.

A Mile below, on the River Side, is the Settlement where Sit Francis Bathurst, with twelve in Family and Servants, was placed, now in Ruins, without an Inha­bitant.

A quarter of a Mile below was the Settlement of Walter Augustine with six in Family: Within this Set­tlement was another Mill erected, at the Charge of a­bove 800 l. Sterling, all now in Ruins, Without an In­habitant.

[Page 109] A Mile below is Landiloe, the Settlement of Mr. Ro­bert Williams, with forty Servants, who made large Im­provements there, and continued for the space of four Years, planting each Season with great Industry in va­rious Shapes, still expecting (with the other Settlers) an Alteration in the Constitution; but at last having sunk a great deal of Money, he was obliged to leave it, with the Loss of above Two thousand Pounds Sterling; and it is now uninhabited, and very much decayed. Next below that is the Five hundred Acre Tract belonging to Dr. Patrick Tailfer; which was settled, but found im­practicable to proceed upon, by reason of the Hardships and Restrictions in the Colony. Next to that is Mr.Jacob Matthews's Plantation (formerly Mr. Musgrove's) called the Cow-pen, who lived there some time with ten Servants; but has now left it, and keeps only two or three to look after his Cattle. Adjoining to this was Mr. Cooksey's Settlement, with five in Family; now entirely abandoned. Next to this was Captain Watson's Planta­tion, with a good House, now in Ruins. All these lie upon the side of the River. And upon the East and Southward were the Settlements of Young, Emery, Pol­hil and Warwick; all forsaken. Next upon the River side is the Indian Land before mentioned, separated from the foregoing Settlements by a Creek, and running all along to the Town. A little below this Creek is a Place called Irene, where Mr. John Wesly built a pretty good House for an Indian School; but he soon wearied of that Undertaking, and left it. A little below this is the Indian Town called New-Yamacra, where the Re­mainder of Tomo Chachi's Indians reside.

Five Miles South-west of Savannah, on a small Rise, Stands the Village of Highgate: Twelve Families were settled here in 1733, mostly French, now reduced to Two. A Mile Eastward of this is Hampstead, where se­veral German Families were settled in 1733, and some others since, now reduced to none.

[Page 110] Five Miles South-east of Savannah is THOUSAND­BOLT, where there was a good Timber Fort, and three Families with twenty Servants were settled; but it is now all in Ruins and abandoned.

Four Miles South of this is the Island of skiddoway, on the North-east Point whereof ten Families were set­tled in 1733; now reduced to none.

A Creek divides skiddoway from TYBEE Island, on the South-east Part of which, fronting the Inlet, the Light-House is built: Twelve Families were settled here in 1734, who have now forsaken it.

Twelve Miles Southward by Land from Savannah is Mr. Houston's Plantation, kept with one Servant. And,

About thirty Miles from that, up the River Ogeeche, was the Settlements of Messrs. Stirlings, &c. with twenty five Servants: This Place, when they went there, was the Southermost Settlement in the Colony, and very * remote; so that they were obliged to build at their own Expence and at a considerable Charge, a strong Wooden Fort for their Defence. And the said Messrs. Stirlings having resided there about three Years with the Servants, they were obliged to leave it, after having exhausted their Fortune to no purpose in the Experi­ment.

Twenty Miles above this, on a high Bluff on the same River, stands Fort Argyle: 'Tis a small square Wooden Fort, Musket-proof: Ten Families were set­tled here and about it, now all gone; and the Fort itself garrison'd by oneofficerone Dutch Servant, and one Woman, who were lately surprized, in the Officer's Absence, by twoPrisoners that broke out of the Log­house in Savannah, and both murdered.

[Page 111] Near the Mouth of Vernon River, upon a kind of an Island, which is called Hope Isle, are the Settlements of Messrs. John Fallowfield, Henry Parker and Noble Jones: They have made some Improvements there, but chiefly Mr. Fallowfield, who has a pretty little convenient House and Garden, with a considerable stock of Hogs, and some Cattle, &c and where he generally resides with his Family. Near adjoining to this, upon a piece of Land which commands the* Narrows, is a Timber Building called Jones's Fort; which serves for two Uses, namely, to support Mr. Noble Jones, who is Commander of it, and to prevent the poor People of Frederica from getting to any other Place, where they might be able to support themselves.

About three Miles south-east of Savannah, upon Au­gustine Creek, lies Oxstead, the Settlement of Mr. Tho­mas Causton, improven by many Hands, and at a great Charge, where he now resides with a few Servants. Be­twixt Oxstead and the Town of Savannah lie, Ist, Hermitage, the Settlement of Mr. Hugh Anderson, who had Seventeen in Family and Servants; but he was obliged both to leave that and retire from the Colony about two Years ago, upon account of the general Hardships. 2dly, The Settlements of Mr. Thomas Christi [...], and six others belonging to the Township of Savannah; all now forsaken. 3dly, The Settlements of the Germans of Count Zinzendorff, who were twenty Families; which are likewise now entirely abandon'd, they having all gone to other Colonies.

Upon the West-side of Savannah lie the Township Lots of the Jews, now deserted, they having all gone to other colonies, except three or four; as are all others on that Quarter, excepting one or two

About three Miles from Savannah, on the South, the [Page 112] Settlement of Mr. William Williamson is in the same Con­dition: And also,

The Settlement belonging to the Trustees adjoining to Mr. Williamson's; which was committed by them to the Care of Mr. William Bradly their Steward, to be cul­tivated and improved by him at their Charge, as an Ex­ample to others, and to satisfy themselves what Im­provements in Land were practicable by white Servants. The Event might have open'd the Eyes of any that would see: Upwards of twenty, sometimes thirty Ser­vants were employ'd; above Two thousand Pounds Ster­ling expended in the Experiment; and never so much of any kind of Grain raised from it, as would have main­tain'd the Numbers employed about it six Months: It now lies on a par with the most ruinous Plantation in Georgia. Part of their Dutch Servants have been em­ployed last Year by Mr. Thomas Jones, upon a new Plantation about a Mile to the Southward of Savannah: They were twenty five in Number, and maintain'd at the Expence of [...] d. Sterl. each per diem; and we have late­ly been credibly informed, the whole Produce did not exceed One hundred Bushels of corn.

The Orphan-House is situated about fourteen Miles South-east of Savannah: This famous Work was be­gun in March 1740; and during the Space of six Months there were about One hundred People, Men, Women and Children, maintain'd and employ'd about it; and, according to their own Calculation, they have expend­ed near Four thousand Pounds Sterling: But ever since Mr. Whitefield left Georgia the latter End of August, in the same Year, it has decayed apace; for, besides those he then carried to the Northward with him, a great ma­ny have since left them; and their Money growing short, they were soon obliged to discharge most of the Workmen; besides, of late, many Divisions have arisen amongst them: In short, the Design seems to be dra [...] ­ing near a Period, altho' at this Time the House itself [Page 113] is scarcely half finished: It is built upon a low Pine Barren, surrounded one Side with a large Tract of Salt Marsh, extending to Vernon River, to which they have a Passage by Water, when the Tides are up, for small Craft; on the other Side it is Surrounded with Woods: They have cleared about ten Acres of Ground, and have built several Houses and Huts. The Frame of the Orphan-House is up, the Roof Shingled , and the Sides weather boarded: it is sixty Feet in length, for­ty Feet wide: It has two Stories besides Cellars and Gar­rets; the Cellars are built of Brick, which likewise serves for a Foundation to the whole Building: It would cer­tainly be a fine Piece of Work, is finished: but if it were finished, where is the Fund for its Support? and what Service can an Orphan-House be in a Desart and a for­saken Colony?

About three or four Miles from the Orphan-House, on the Side of Vernon River, William Stephens, Esq for­merly mentioned, has a Plantation with five or six Ser­vants, who have cleared about seven or eight Acres: However, if he reaps no Benefit from them, he is at as little Charge to maintain them *

As it would be too tedious to mention particularly the Township or five and forty five Acre Lots, being in all about One Hundred that were settled, we need only therefore in general say, that there are few or none of them but what are in the same Condition with those be­fore specified, viz. ruinous and desolate.

The last Place we shall mention is AUGUSTA, distant from Savannah two hundred Miles up the River, on the same Side: It was founded in 1737, at a consi­derable [Page 114] Charge, under the Direction of one Mr. Roger Lacy, being at that time Agent to the Cherokee Nation: It is principally, if not altogether, inhabited by Indian Traders and Store-keepers, the Number of whom may now be about thirty or upwards; and a considerable Quantity of Corn has been raised there. To account for this singular Circumstance, we shall only assign two Reasons; the first is the Goodness of the Land, which as so great a Distance from the Sea is richer than in the maritime Parts; the second and chief one is, that the Settlers there are indulged and connived at in the Use of Negroes, by whom they execute all the Laborious Parts of Culture; and the Fact is undoubted and cer­tain, that upwards of eighty Negroes are now in the Set­tlements belonging to that Place: We do not observe this, as if it gives us any Uneasiness that our Fellow­Planters are indulged in what is so necessary for their Well-being; but we may be allowed to regret, that we and so many British Subjects, who stood much more in need of them, should have been ruined for want of such Assistances.

Having now taken a [...] of the Colony of Georgia, we shall conclude this Treatise, by taking Notice of two or three of the most remarkable Transactions in it since Octoberlast.

On the 10th Day of November a Court was called at Savannah, where Colonel Stephens read a Paragraph of a letter, which he said was from the Trustees, desiring the Inhabitants to set forth their Miseries, Hardships and Difficulties in Writing, in order to have the Seal of the Colony annexed thereto, and to transmitted to the Trustees: Whereupon Mr. Stephens gave the Recorder a Paper to read, in which the Colony was represented in a most flourishing Condition, (in the Town of Augusta alone there we [...] represented to be 600 white People, and [...] Pack-horses belonging thereto, who were employed in the [...] Trade) enumerating the [Page 115] many useful, fine and curious Productions of it, such as Hedges with Pomegranates growing upon them, Wine, Silk, Oil, Wheat, &c. with many other Hyperboles. This Paper Mr. Stephens said he had been at great Care and Pains about, and which he took to a just An­swer to the Trustees Letter with the true State of the Colony: But the poor People seeing the Absurdity and Fal [...]eness of it, soon discovered their Dislike thereof by their leaving the Court-house, and only eighteen Persons signed the same, every one of whom were supported in one Shape or other by the Public. Mr. Fallowfield, then on the Bench, used what Arguments he could to per­swade him, that it was reasonable every Person should represent his own Case to the Trustees, and he appre­hended the Design of the Trustees was such; but Ste­phens in a Passion said, Except they would sign this, they should have the publick Seal to no other Paper; so it was to no Purpose what either he or the Recorder Mr. John Py could urge, who very soon left the Court, declaring their Dislike and Abhorrence of such Proceedings; but immediately they, with the rest of the Inhabitants, to the Number of above sixty, drew up a Remonstrance to the Trustees, in which they fully set forth the true State of the Colony, with their own miserable Condition in it: This Paper, and soon after a Petition to the King and Council &c. were lately transmitted to the Authors hereof, who immediately forwarded them for London; but as the Issue thereof is now depending, we do not think it proper to expose them to the Publick.

On the 2d of April last a Fire broke out by Ac­cident in the Smith's Forge in Savannah, which consum­ed almost one whole Square; and in the highest Rage of the devouring Flames Mr. Thomas Jones stood an idle Spectator with his Hands in his Bosom, and with the utmost Unconcernedness; insomuch that when he was applied to by several of the miserable People for a small Quantity of Gun-powder to blow up an adjoining House [Page 116] in order to prevent the Fire from spreading, his Answer was, I can do nothing in it, I have no Orders concerning such Matters.

We have lately been informed from Frederica, that the General having stationed twelve Men upon the Place which was the Settlement of Messrs. Carr and Carteret before mentioned, they were attacked by Spaniards or Spanish Indians, and four were killed, four carried off, and two wounded.

A good many of the People have come away from Frederica lately, and in order to get off were obliged to make use of Stratagems, such as going a hunting upon the Islands, &c. We are informed that some Differen­ces have happened betwixt the General and some of the Magistrates there, and that in the Place of one of them he has appointed one of his Waiting-boys. Several of the poor Remainder of the Darien People have likewise escaped, notwithstanding the Body of Forces stationed there to prevent them.

Having thus brought this historical NARRATIVE within the Compass proposed, and endeavoured to dis­pose the Materials in as distinct a Method and Series as the necessary Conciseness would allow, we readily ad­mit that the Design is far from being complete. to have acquainted the World with all the Hardships and Op­pressions which have been exercised in the Colony of Georgia, must have required both a larger Volume than we are capable of publishing, and more Time than we could bestow: We therefore satisfy ourselves that we have with care and sincerity executed so much of the Design as may pave the Way to any others who can descend more minutely to Particulars; and those who are best acquainted with the Affairs of that Colony will be most capable of judging how tenderly we have tou­ched both Persons and Things.

[...] Only remains that we in a few Paragraphs endea­vour to exhibite to the View of the Reader the REAL. [Page 117] Causes of the Ruin and Desolation of the Colony, and these briefly are the following.

1. the representing the Climate, Soil, . of Georgia in false and too flattering Colours; at least the not contradi­cting those Accounts when publickly printed and dispersed, and satisfying the World in a true and genuine Description thereof.

2. The restricting the Tenure of Lands from a Fie-sample to Tail Male, cutting off Daughters and all other Relations.

3. The restraining the Proprietor from selling, disposing of, or leasing any Possession.

4. The restricting too much the Extent of Possessions, it being impossible that fifty Acres of good Land, much loss Pine-Barren, could maintain a white Family.

5. the laying the Planter under a Variety of Restraints in clearing, fencing, planting, &c. which was impossible to be complied with.

6. The exacting a much higher Quit-Rent than the richest Grounds in North-America can bear

7. But chiefly the denying the Use of Negroes, and per­sisting in such Denial, after by repeated Applications we had humbly remonstrated the Impossibility of making Improve­ments to any Advantage with white Servants.

8. The denying us the Privilege of being judged by the Laws of our Mother-Country, and subjecting the Lives and Fortunes of all People in the Colony to one Person or Set of Men, who assumed the Privilege, under the Name of a Court of Chancery, of acting according to their own Will and Fancy.

9. General Oglethorpe's taking upon him to nominate Magistrates, appoint Justices of the Peace, and to do ma­ny other such Things, without, without over exhibiting to the People any legal Commission or Authority for so doing.

10. The neglecting the proper Means for encouraging the Silk and Wine Manufactures, and disposing of the liberal sums contributed by the Publick and by private Persons, [Page 118] in such Ways and channels as have been of little or no Ser­vice to the colony.

11. The misapplying or keeping up Sums of Money which have been appointed [...] particular Uses; such as building a Church, &c. several Hundreds of Pounds sterling, as we are informed, having been lodged in Mr. Oglethorpe's Hands for some Years by past for that Purpose, and not one Stone of it yet laid.

12. The assigning certain fixed Tracts of Land to those who came to settle in the Colony, without any Regard to the Quality of the Ground, Occupation, Judgment, Ability or Inclination of the Settler, &c &c &c

By these and many other such Hardships the Poor In­habitants of Georgia are scattered over the Face of the Earth; her Plantations a Wild, her Towns a Desart, her Villages in Rubbish, her Improvements a By-word, and her Liberties a jest; an Object of Pity to Friends, and of Insult, Contempt and Ridicule to Enemies.


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