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An ANSWER To the Rev. Mr. Garden's Three First Letters To the Rev. Mr. Whitefield.

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AN ANSWER TO The Rev. Mr. Garden's Three First Letters TO The Rev. Mr. Whitefield. With An APPENDIX Concerning Mr. Garden's Treatment of Mr. Whitefield, &c.

Rom. 3.27, 28.

Where is boasting then? It is excluded. By what Law? of Works? Nay: but by the Law of Faith. Therefore we conclude, that a Man is justified by Faith with­out the Deeds of the Law.

BOSTON: Printed and Sold by S. KNEELAND and T. GREEN, over against the Prison in Queenstreet. 1741.

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AN ANSWER, &c.

SIR,

ACCORDING to your Desire I now send you some Remarks upon Mr. Commissary GAR­DEN'S LETTERS to the Reverend Mr. WHITEFIELD, which you may either publish or suppress, as you think they deserve.

Remarks on Mr. GARDEN'S First LETTER.

THE First consists chiefly of an endeavour to prove Mr. Whitefield guilty of a Self-Contradiction, founded upon what he saith in his Sermon Entitled, What think ye of Christ. pag. 18. viz. Observe my Dear Brethren the Words of the Article, Good Works are the Fruits of Faith, and follow after Justification. How then can they precede, or be any ways the cause of it? No; our Persons must be Justified before our Performances are Accepted Upon which Mr. Garden observes, that Mr. Whitefield (hath ex­plain'd) this Article into a Contradiction to his own Doctrine, since he hath taught, that a true Faith necessarily preceeds Justi­fication; and the latter part of the Article saith, that Good Works do necessarily spring out of a true and lively Faith. From [Page 2]both which Mr. Garden thinks it will follow, that Good Works do in fact go before Justification. The Argument is all con­tained in these Words, viz. "Now if Good Works do ne­cessarily spring out of a true and lively Faith; and a true and lively Faith necessarily preceeds Justification, the conse­quence will be, that Good Works do not only follow after Justi­fication, but preceed it also.

This he assures us is a plain Consequence. But I am apt to think it is a plain Consequence to none, who have not that Scotch Second-Sight he speaks of; i. e. an Ability of seeing that which is not. Indeed if Mr. Whitefield had said, that Faith necessarily preceeds Justification any space of Time, tho' ever so small, he would have owned in Effect that Good Works go before Justification as well as follow it; and Mr. Commissary might have sang T [...] D [...]um with a much better Grace than he doth at present. The whole turns upon this single Point: If Mr. Whitefield hath said, that Faith preceeds Justification, any real space of Time; Actum est; he must fall before his Adversary. But if he doth not hold this Thing, the Commissary triumphs without any Victory.

Now what Mr. Whitefield holds, as to Faith's preceeding Justification, this Reverend Gentleman tells us himself. In pag. 19. he saith, ‘That some sew, who disturb, insult and abuse their Neighbours for differing from them (meaning Mr. Whitefield and others) suppose that Faith and Justifica­tion are coexistent, and that there is no space between the first Act of a justifying Faith and Justification for Good Works to be exerted in. That is in other Words, that Faith preceeds Justifi­cation, not in Time, but only in the order of Conception. Well then, this being Mr. Whitefield's Idea of Faith's preceeding Justification, (his Enemy himself being Judge) wherein doth it appear that he hath explained the Article into a Contradiction to himself? Doth it follow that because he holds Faith and Justification to be coexistent that therefore they are not coexistent; that because he supposes there is no room for Good Works to be exerted in between them, that therefore he supposes there is some room for them? If these are no Consequences, then Mr. Garden is no Conqueror. How naturally might his own Words be returned to him again! Away with such con­fused and contradictory Gibberish!

[Page 3] Surely this Man of Logick, when he comes to see there was no Knot at all, will wish he had been Asleep when he challenged Mr. Whitefield to untie it if he could; and be heartily asham'd of this same confident boasting.

Remarks on Mr. GARDEN'S Second LETTER.

MR. Whitefield having given this Gentleman to understand that be was too warm for a Dispute; and desit'd him to peruse the Sermon again, and confute it in Print if he could. He Answers in his Second Letter, ‘That he is free from Warmth, and not willing to be put off in a Mat­ter which was of so much Importance to his own Soul, and the Souls of his People: and therefore tells him what he hath firmly believed, and taught his People, beseeching him in the most solemn Manner to restore him, if therein he hath departed from the Gospel, and the Articles of his own Church.’

What he firmly believes and hath always taught his Peo­ple, he faith is this, ‘That Good Works do as necessarily spring from a true and lively Faith, whither before or after Justification as Light and Heat do the Sun’ It is well worth the while to Inquire here what he means by a true and lively Faith. And this he tells us very honestly in Pag 9. Line 1. That it is a Faith actually producing Good Works. This then being the settled meaning of a true and lively Faith, if we consider aright, we shall find that the amount of what he ushers in with so much Solemnity, is only this; viz. That he hath always firmly believed, and taught his Hearers, that Good Works always spring from the Faith that produceth Good Works; or to be plainer still; that the Faith which produceth Good Works, produceth Good Works; than which it is impos­sible any thing should be more Orthodox, or less Instructive. 'Tis needless for him to desire to be set more right in this Matter: Nay as he hath always taught his Hearers this Doc­trine, so let him teach it to them still, for tho' it will do them no manner of Good, it may do them less Harm than other Doctrines they might hear in lieu of it. Mr. Garden, to do him Justice, did not attain to this unlucky Expression Proprio Marte. It seems rather to be a Form of Words, venerable for Antiquity; their very Giants in Divinity speak the same Things, [Page 4]and feed their People with the same wholesome but not very nourishing Food.

The good Commissary goes on in continuation of the Sen­tence; Or that as the Body without the Soul is dead, so Faith without Works, whither before or after Justification, is dead also.

In which Words he makes no Declaration of his Idea of Faith in Man's Justification, since he only sets down a Scrip­ture Passage, without explaining it; which he knows his Adversaries maintain to be their Belief as well as he that 'tis his.

This is just as if an Arian or Socinian should say, that he firmly believed and had always taught his Hearers, that Jesus Christ is the Son of God; and without explaining him­self further, desire to be set Right, if in this he hath assered any Thing contrary to the Scriptures. Would not Mr. Garden himself think such an Arian or Socinian, had said nothing in all this, and therefore deserved no Notice. And yet this is exactly his own Case, in saying that he be­lieves with St. James, that Faith without Works is dead, and desiring to be restored, if he hath said amiss. Upon the whole, I have often heard of some who have a Talent of saying a great deal in a little: of others, whose Talent is to say a little in a great deal; and with these I incline to rank Mr. Garden, tho' some critical Readers, may be apt to thrust him down to a third Class, alledging that thro' this whole Epistle he hath said just nothing at all:

Quid tulit hic Tanto Dignum promissor Hiatu!
Parturiunt Montes &c.

Remarks upon Mr. GARDEN's Third LETTER.

MR. Garden's third Letter, is as he saith, a Supplement to his former, and containing a few Queries to the Reverend Mr. Whitefield, concerning his Behaviour as a Presbyter of the Church of England. And he immediately attacks him with a Charge of wilful and malicious Slander against his Brethren Conformists, in the before mentioned Sermon pag. 18. ‘You have accused them in that Sermon, [Page 5]saith Mr. GARDEN, of not Preaching the Truth as it is in Jesus, of falling from our Established Articles. and of Preaching only the Law, & not the Way of Salvation by Jesus Christ; i. e. of Preach­ing Justification by Works, and not by Faith only. And then instead of saying in Words, (whatever he said in his Heart) Pudet [...]aec opprobria nobis, et dici potuisse et non potuisse refelli; he very couragiously asks Mr. Whitefield, where are his Evi­dences, what Proof he hath to support his Charge; and chal­lenges him to make out the Assertion; which alas! is a thing Deplorably easy to be done. Accordingly I shall set my self to shew that the Clergy in general have run away from their own Articles, leaving them to the Dissenters to keep for them: And more particularly that of Justification by Faith only, crying up dead Works in Lieu of it. That they have Deserted the Articles Solemnly Subscribed by them, will appear from the Proof of these two Assertions, viz (1) That their Articles were Industriously compiled in opposition to what are now called Arminian Errors; and (2) that their Clergy generally speaking are Infected with this deadly Poyson; and spread the Infection with all their Might.

FIRST then I will attempt to make it evident that the Ar­ticles were Industriously composed, to confront what are called Arminian Errors. And this is so plain, at first sight, that he that Runs may Read it in them. I doubt not but if a Million of unprejudiced Men, were to peruse them, they would to a Man construe them in this Sense. Mr. Whiston therefore, a Man of chief Note among them, being both afraid & asham'd of twisting them into the Sense of Arminius, acknowledges that they directly and expresly assert the Calvinian Doctrines, and therefore he advises the Convocation to alter them, or to lay them quite aside. (See Mr. Whiston's Preface to Dr. Mather.)

I know the Men of this Way have this Subterfuge, viz. that the Compilers of the Articles intended a double Meaning that so honest Men on both Sides the Question might see their own Principles in them, and subscribe them with a good Conscience. But this is a broken Reed to lean upon. For in the first Place, it doth not seem consistent with Simplicity and godly Sincerity, that a Number of Ministers of the Gospel, should avoid Plainness of Speech with their utmost En­deavours, and study Words of an uncertain Sound, while they [Page 6]were declaring what they thought to be the Truth as it was in Jesus. And the very Gentlemen who use this Evasion, re­flect greatly upon themselves, as well as upon the Authors of the Articles: For they do in Effect [...]a [...] that if they had been of the Number of the ancient Compilers, or were they now to compile Articles which contained the true Belief of the Church of England, they would easily be carried away with su [...]h Dissimulation, and slily hunt after Words that have a double, and a treble Meaning too, if they could find them. Charity therefore for those worthy Compilers of the Articles, and a Regard to their own Reputation, should keep these Men from [...]in [...]imating that they were so full of Sub [...]l [...]ty, and acted not uprightly, according to the Truth of the Gospel.

Besides, (in the next Place) the Preamble to the Articles saith, that they were compos'd with this View, that there might be Uniformity touching the Doctrine of true Religion: and if Uniformity and Diversity be not the same Thing, then it follows, that the Compilers had no double Meanings in the Articles. In a Word, the Compilers say, that they design'd Men should be of one Mind; these Gentlemen say, they design'd Men should be of two Minds; and who could tell their Intent best, they themselves, or these Men, let the World judge. And as the Articles were compes'd upon the Calvin [...]stick Scheme, so have they been publickly understood ever since.

I am now, (which was the SECOND Thing) to shew that the Clergy, generally speaking, have r [...]rn'd their Backs upon their own Articles, and have embrac'd, and propagated the Errors of Arminius. I say, generally speaking; because, as Mr. Whitefield observes, there are some sew who dare to ad­here to the Doctrines of the Reformation, and are not asha­med to preach what they have subscribed, but Apparent Rari: and those that do appear, have Trials of cruel Mockings, are treated as the filth and off-scourging of all Things; and as bi [...]er Enemies to what is now called the Church. This is so evident and a Thing they so much G [...]ory in, that I shall not Summon any Arguments to prove Arminianism upon them, lest I come under that Censure of CICERO; Utitur in re non Dubia Tessibus non Necessar [...]is. Tho' it is probable that Mr. [Page 7] Johnson may rise up, and disapprove of my taking this Point for granted. For in his second Letter to his dissenting Parishioners (i.e. to those Parishioners of his, that are not his Parishioners) he asserts it is very abusive to call him and his Brethren Arminians, since they don't hold every Thing just as Arminius did. But at this Rate, he might deny that there is an Arian, or Socinian upon the Face of the Earth, since those that are called Arians and Socinians differ in some Things (full as much as they from Arminius) from their respective Founders, Arius and Socinus. However, if the Name of Arminians doth not exactly suit them; they must have some other Name invented for them, which sig­nifies f [...]ll as bad. Nay, as Multitudes of them are less Orthodox than Arminius, they had better be contented with the Name they have at present, for fear of a worse.

I now proceed to the particular Charge Mr. Whitefield brings against his Brethren of the Established Clergy, viz. Their preaching up Justification by Works, and not by Faith only, as they are enjoined by their own Article. And hath Mr. Garden the Forehead to deny this? Yes, surely; and calls it a malicious Slander, without the least Foundation of Truth to support it; and yet poor Man, while he would clear the Clergy from this Charge, he owns the very Thing charg'd against them; and is a swift Witness against himself.

‘The Doctrine (saith he) which you are so angry at, and censure as preaching Justification by Works, and not by F [...]th only, is this; That we are justified by Faith only, and not by Works; thus explained, viz. that we are justi­fied by such a Faith as is true and lively, that is actually producing good Fruits or Works, and consequently im­plying them, as a necessary Condition, (but no meritorious Ca [...]se) of our Justification. pag. 8, 9.’ That is, we are justified by such a Faith as implies Works. Works are part of this Man's Definition of justifying Faith; nay an essential Part according to Bishop Williams, whom our Author cires, as giving his own Sentiments. For "the Faith which justifies, (saith the Bishop) 'is a practical Faith, and to which Repentance [...] and Obedience (i.e. Works) do belong as the essential Parts of it." Which is exactly the same that others mean when they tell [Page 8]us, that Faith in Christ, signifies Faith in him, and Faith­fulness to him; an assent to the Gospel, and compliance with it. However, tho' Works are an essential Part of justifying Faith, yet if we will believe Mr. Garden, they don't at all justify. Egregiously absurd! As if that which is the essential Part of a Thing, should have no Hand in what is done by that Thing. Common Sense will tell any one, that if Faith doth justify, whatever is Faith doth justify; and since Works are Part of Faith, an essential Part of it, Works must also justify in Part: And then what becomes of their Justification by Faith only, which Mr. Garden is not ashamed to say, he and his Brethren maintain. His way to creep out is no better, nor bigger than this: by Faith he means Faith and Works too; and then very cunningly holds, that we are justified by Faith only. Which is just about as Good, as if a Man should say that the Duke of Marlborough only commanded in such a Battle, and that Prince Eugene was not with him: and being urged, that he asserted what was contrary to known Fact; should insist upon it, that it was a certain Truth that the Duke only commanded, and that the Prince was not with him; making out his Assertion thus; that by the Duke of Marlborough he always means, the Duke of Marlborough, and Prince Eugene too.

But then if this is what Mr. Garden means, what need is there of fa [...]ing, that we are justified by Faith only. For if his Defi­nition of Faith be so large as to take in Faith and Works too, what is there left to justify: By saying that we are justified by Faith only, he seems to exclude something else which er­roneous Men are apt to think doth justify; and in reality, he takes in every thing, and excludes nothing at all. And the Amount of this saying in his Mouth, and the Mouths of his Brethren, is only this; that Men are justified only by every thing, and by nothing else. It were to be wished therefore that they would be a little more Logical for the future, and only say, that men are justified by Faith; leaving the needless Word only out of all their Writings and Dis­courses for ever.

The Truth is, Mr. Garden and Friends see so much of Justi­fication by Faith only in the Scriptures of Truth, especially the Epistles of St. Paul; that they are ashamed of holding [Page 9]any Thing else but Justification by Faith only themselves. But in as much as they don't believe it with the Heart; whenever they take it upon them to explain themselves, they are always found out. They try to say Shibboleth, as well as others; but they can't frame their Mouths for such an hard Word; after all their Endeavours an unavoidable Sibboleth comes and discovers who they are. Even the good Bishop of Lon­don himself is an Instance, shewing how impossible it is that any one whose Heart is not Right in the Article of Justification by Faith, should express himself upon that Sub­ject, to the Satisfaction of those who have a true Idea of it. For, when in his pastoral Letter, he exhorts his Clergy, ‘to preach Justification by Faith only, so as to leave no Doubt upon the Minds of their Hearers but that Good Works are a necessary Condition of Justification: 'Tis no better than if he had accosted them thus; My very good Presbyters, when­ever you teach your People that they are justified by Faith only, never leave them till you have made them believe that they are not justified by Faith only: which Injunction of his Lord­ship they are too careful to observe.

If it be said, that whatever Stress the Bishop, Mr. Garden, and all the Men of this Device lay upon Good Works, they don't look upon them as meritorious Causes of Man's Justifi­cation, but that they allow that the Death and Sufferings of Christ, are what alone merit Justification for the rebellious Sons of Men. I answer, whoever charges them with this? The Papists themselves own Christ's Passion to be the merito­rious Cause that Justification may be had for us with God. But then doth it follow that because they don't hold Merit in this high Sense, that therefore they don't hold it in any Sense? That because they are not worse than the Papists in this Point, that therefore they are nothing like them?

But to come directly to our Charge against them; and it is this; That since Christ hath merited Justification for Man­kind, they together with the Papists hold that the way for them to merit, or to be intitled to this merited Justification, are Works of Righteousness which they do The Reverend Commissary surely will not deny this Charge; for he hath ex­pr [...]sly told the World, that, GOOD WORKS ARE MEANS OF OUR JUSTIFICATION. Page 30. Which is so contrary [Page 10]to St. Paul, and so agreab'e to his pretended Holiness at Rome, that were there a proper Opportunity, he would bid fair for an Euge from that Man of Sin. For upon this single D c­trine it is, that the Papists build their Pilgrimages, supersti­tious Austerities, and almost every thing else abhorrent from Reason and Scriptures. Could the Papists, but once disbe­lieve, what Mr. Garden firmly believes, Popery would no lon­ger cumber the Earth.

What is it that sets poor deluded Souls upon offering up Gists to my Lady of Loretto; upon trave [...] after the Bones of Thomas a Becket, and other Saints b [...]h good and bad; and practising uncommanded Austerities upon their own Bodies; but a firm belief of Mr. Garden's Doctrine, in­stilled into them by their o [...]n blind Guides the Friars and Jesuits; viz. That GOOD WORKS ARE MEANS OF JUSTI­FICATION! When they are in bitterness at any Time, thro' a Sense of their Guilt, and sollicitous to escape the Wrath to come, they immediately betake themselves to the doing of good Works, which they have been told are Means of Justification; and never leave doing them till they have done enough to be justified; to the neglect of that Faith in Christ, which whosoever hath is justified, and whosoever hath not is condemned even tho' he had all the good Works of the Church of Rome, or of the whole World of Man­kind, plac'd to his Account, to screen him from the Wrath of an angry God.

And as Mr. Garden and Friends harmonize with the Pa­pists in their belief of this Principle, that GOOD WORKS ARE MEANS OF JUSTIFICATION; so do they, in their Practice upon it. Instead of finding convinced Sinners to God for the obtainment of precious Faith, and exhorting them to give God and themselves no rest till they have a Princi­ple of justifying and sanctifying Faith infused into them, by his almighty Spirit; they only tell them to forsake their Sins, and to do their D [...]ty, and especially to abound in Works of Charity, which covereth a Multitude of Sins: which indeed is no more likely to convert them, than sending them to Loretto ordering them to tell their Beads, to whi [...] their Bodies for the Sins of their Souls; or to do an h [...]dted other foolish Things, usually prescribed by the Romish [Page 11]Priests on such Occasions. I say not, that the forsaking of Sin, and doing our Duty comma [...]ed in God's Word, are not to be prefer'd to the abovementioned and such like Fool­eries of the Roman Catholick Church. God forbid that I should say any thing like it! But this I say, that for Mi­nisters of the Gospel to order convinced Sinners to reform their Lives, by departing from Evil and doing Good, without shewing them the necessity of a Principle of Faith infused in­to them by the Spirit of the ever living God, in order to their Acceptance: I say for the reformed Clergy to do so (and all do so, that follow Arminius whosoever they be) is not taking a more likely way to convert them, and bring them into a justified State, than it they had bid them to en­dow Hospitals, to go Pilgrimages after sacred Reliques &c. For in the first Place, these Sinners cannot forsake their Sins as to the love and practice of them, not comply with the D [...]ies enjoined by God's Word, they being yet Strangers to the Faith of God's Elect, which alone can purify the Heart, and amend the Life. And then, in the next Place, could they cease to do Evil, and learn to do well better than any unregenerate Persons ever did; yet their Obedience not springing from Faith, and being depended upon by them, would be but a vain Oblation and no more incline their Ma­ker to justify them, than if they had only visited and kissed Bones, told their Beads, and practised other sanctified Fop­peries of the Church of Rome. The Truth is, these Teachers suppose that all Men have Faith (who live under the Gospel and are not Infidels) and therefore when they are applied to by their Hearers, inquiring what they shall do to be saved; they only tell them to live obedient Lives, and through the Merits of Christ, their imperfect Obedience shall be accepted of them: Which tho' it may appear plausible at first view, is in reality only to cause them to seek to be justified by the Works of the Law: A fundamental Principle taught by that Mother of Abominations the Church of Rome.

It was not therefore without Reason, that our pious Fore­fathers accused Archbishop Laud with another mitred Brother in Iniquity of a Design to introduce Popery paving [...]he Way to it b [...] Arminianism, and pa [...]ic [...]latly the Denial of Justifica­tion by Faith only. This being as Luther well observes Arti culus stantis vel cadentis E [...]chsioe

[Page 12] I do not pretend to say that these Men have any Design of a total Reconciliation with that Church; or that they are as bad as Papists: For Mr. Bradbury's saying, is what I agree to; viz. ‘That those Protestants who hold Justification by Works have only the Heart of Popery without the Head: And 'tis certainly better to have only the Heart, than to have Head and Heart too.

Thus we see that Mr. Garden who charges Mr. White­field with Faishood and Slander, for saying he and others held Justification by Works, hath in Fact owned the very Thing by saying Good Works are Means of Justification.

Mr. Garden, I know, will be ready to say, as he hath said, that tho' Good Works are Means of Justification, yet they don't justify. Which is no better than it he should say, that Blows given with an Ax, were Means of cutting down a certain Tree; but yet the Tree was not cut down by those Blows. For my Part I should think that Means which do nothing are very poor Means; or rather no Means at all.

But however, if Good Works must be Means of Justification, as I am perswaded Mr. Garden thinks they are thorough Means, let what will become of his other Assertion, viz that Men are justified by Faith only; I shall mention several Things which follow from it. And

1. Will it not follow from hence that Good Works are the Only Means of Justification? I am apt to think that if they do any Thing in Man's Justification, they do every Thing; as may appear from the following Instance. Sup­pose two Men to have only that Faith without Works which is dead; they are at present undoubtedly in an unjustified State. Suppose further, that one of them doth Good Works, and doth them long enough to be justified; while the other's Faith is yet alone. The former will be justified, the latter not. And yet what is the Cause that the former is justified while the latter is not? why nothing, but Works of Righteousness which he did. So that the whole of this Man's Justification curtis upon his Good Works. If i [...] be said, that this Man is not justified by his Works, but because his Faith was lively and operative (as I expect it will be said) I answer, this is saying nothing; and I shall [Page 13]take Notice of it But if it be said that this happy Man, besides his Works, had an increasing Faith, more than he had when he first set out; and more than the other ever had; I Answer, The good Man's Faith was of the same Kind with the wicked Man's, and only superiour in Degree (both being only Faith of Assent.) And if the bad Man's Faith did not justify him at all; so neither can a greater Degree of the same Faith be of a justifying Nature; And consequently he that was justifyed, was justified by Works, and not by Faith. Or, if any Man will say, that he was justified by Faith, it can be only in this poor Sense, viz. he was justified by Faith, only as Faith help'd him to do justifying Works.

2. If good Works are Means of Justification, then a cer­tain Number of Good Works is necessary to justify every Person that comes into the World. I say not that the same Number of good Works will do for all. For, to keep to their Principle, they must suppose that a greater or lesser Number shall be required, according as Persons have been greater or lesser Sinners; and according as the good Works they do are more or less vertuous, not to say meritorious.

3. Consequently no Man can tell exactly when he o [...] others are justified; contrary to the Scripture, which ex­horts Men to be sure of their Justification, and to rejoyce in a Sense of it; because 'tis impossible to know just how many Works will do. There are some that hold that no Man is justified in this Life: and that we must needs go out of the World before it can be said of us, that God is at Peace with us. And I shall shew, that Mr. Garden's Works have led him into this Error by and by: If he stands by one of his Bishops whom he hath cited as giving his own Sentiments.

4. If Good Works are Means of Justification, this is an undeniable Consequence, that a Man may attain to one half, two thirds, three quarters, ninety nine hundredths of Justification; may arrive so near to it that one Prayer, or good Wish more would certainly justify him; which Divinity St. Paul would never have own'd. The most unseeing of Mr. Garden's Friends may be sensible of no Consequence here: And others may call it Cavilling and Sophistry, that don't deserve an Ans­wer; and thereby keep up their Credit with their Hearers. [Page 14]But let them attempt fairly to prove that this frightful Di­vinity is good Divinity; Or if they are asham'd to own it to be good Divinity, then let them prove that it is not their Divinity, and get rid of it they can: And they will find that Hic Labor hoc opus erit.

I say again; that if Good Works are the Means of Justi­fication, there will be a necessity l [...]id upon these Men to ac­knowledge what I have now objected; and particularly that a Man may be so near a justified Estate, that one little good Work more, would certainly bring him into it. This will hold good in all manner of Works which require a Conti­nuance of Time for their performance. Thus in the finish­ing an House, or writing a Book, there is a certain Time, wherein one Blow more with the Hand, or one Letter more with the Pen, would compleat the House or Book And so in Justification which is tho't by them a Work of long Conti­nuance, and effected by good Works as the Means; there must of necessity be a critical Instant, in which a Man may be so near being justified, that the doing the least good Work that can be tho't of would justify him intirely. Well then; this being inseperable from Mr. Garden's dear Doctrine of Good Works being the Means of Justification, I would ask, (if it be lawful to ask a civil Question) what would become of a poor Sinner, that should be taken out of the World in that unhappy Juncture, wherein his Justifica­tion was so near being effected, that there wanted but one good Wish, one, Lord have Mercy upon me, more, to have compleated it? Shall the Man be miserable for ever for this Defect? Or, shall he be look'd upon as justified, tho' he had not quite worked out his own Justification? Or, lastly, shall he be doom'd to Purgatory for a while, to satisfy for what was wanting, and thereby to be made meet for the In­heritance of the Saints in Light? As the Papists positively hold, being induc'd by Mr Garden's Principle of Good Works being the Means of Justification. Lastly, I would ask, what will become of those Good Works, which are the Overplus after a Man is justified? And whether it be not from this Doctrine that the Popish Priests teach that some Men may have more good Deeds than they need themselves, and a little to spate for those that want,

[Page 15] Mr. Garden having to'd the "strange Way, in which he and some others, hold Justification; he applies himself to Mr. Whitefield thus, ‘This is the Doctrine which you cen­sure, and are so angry at; but which notwithstanding is the true Doctrine of the Gospel; and agreably taught by the ancient Fathers; by the Church of England; by her Clergy at all Times; and (be not surprized) by your Re­verence, and Brethren Methodists, tho' not without ap­parent Shuffle &c. pag. 9.’

To each of which Assertions I shall endeavour a proper Answer: And,

1. I utterly deny his Justification to be the Doctrine of the Gospel: Nay I affirm it to be another Gospel, brought from Rome; which St. Paul knew nothing of St. Paul every where concludes that Men are justified by Faith without the Works of the Law, Rom 3.28. If he had thought that Works did any thing in Man's Justification, tho' never so little, he would certainly have acknowledged it, notwithstanding all his Zeal for Faith; and not have determined peremptorily that they did nothing at all. How careful is he to distinguish between Faith and Works in Man's Justification, left any one should seek Justification, as it were by the Works of the Law. i.e. b. Faith and Works mixed together, Gal 2.16. But do Mr. Garden and Brethren make this Distinction? No, verily; they chuse to jumble them together for a Reason well known to themselves, and to almost every Body else. Nay, St. Paul not only inculcates the Doctrine of Justification by Faith without any impure Mixture of Works; but shews it to be of the last Importance to be believed. He testifies to the Galatians over and over, and to all Christians to the End of the World, that whoever sought to be justi­fied by the Works of the Law, (as well moral as ceremonial Works) they had fallen from Grace, and Christ would profit them nothing, Gal. 5.4.

This was what St. Paul testified seventeen Hundred Years ago And would to God that all his Successors, would testify the same Thing, and not directly the contrary! Then should we have the Doctrine of Grace restored to us, as it was at the first, and pure Christianity, as it was in the begin­ning. [Page 16]Then would perishing Souls no longer be starv'd with the dry Husks of Morality, but be fed with Food convenient for them, and grow fat and flourishing in the Courts of our God.

And blessed be the Name of God, that he hath in this Day of Darkness and Error raised up several Men full of Faith and of the Holy Ghost; Men whose great Business it is to preach this Truth as it is in Jesus; and who have some of them spread the Savour of this Knowledge into distant Parts, undaunted with all the Persecutions they meet with from wicked and unreasonable Men Sing O Heavens, and Rejoyce O Earth! May they still be strong in the Lord, and in the Power of his Might; and may the Word of the Lord spoken by them, have free Course, run, and be glorified. May the Lord of the Harvest send forth other Labourers into the Vineyard of the same Spirit and Power. And may the Know­ledge of Justification by Faith ONLY, cover the Earth, as the Waters do the Sea.

But to return; Mr. Garden having conceded that St. PAUL held Justification by Faith, would have him expounded by St. JAMES, who saith that Faith without Works is dead being alone And it is very true that St PAUL should be so understood. But tho' St. PAUL held undoubtedly that Works were the effect of a Justifying Faith, yet it never entered into his Heart, that Works had any Hand in justifying; as Mr. Garden and Brethren Dream it hath. I cannot but observe that as the Apostle PAUL and Mr. Garden differ, so there is no great Harmony between him and St. JAMES, even in this Passage, which he hath cited from him, as co respondent to his own Thoughts For certainly St. JAMES by saving that Faith without Works is Dead; saith that Faith with Works is not Dead Whereas our Divine thinks, that Faith with Works may be Dead as well as Faith without Works. Here Mr. Garden and Friends may Cry out Slander and Abuse; but let them have a little Patience. For, in speaking to the Twelfth Article of the Church, pag. 18. He saith that the Article dont mean to exclude good Works going before Justification provided that they are the fruits of Faith; so that there may be good Works according to him, which are the fruits of Faith, and the Man that hath this Faith and Works, not justified and con­sequently [Page 17]Faith with Works, which is Dead. For if Faith with Works dont Justify, then it is Dead. Astonishing Divinity this! This can only be avoided by saying what I wonder any Man is not ashamed to say, viz. that the Faith with Works which goes before Justification is not Dead but Alive, as far as it goes: and that it there were more of it, or rather more Works tack'd to it, it would Justify compleatly.

II. This is so far from being the Doctrine of the Ancient Fathers, that the Fathers he hath selected as most for his pur­pose, dont say one Word in its Favour, but quite the contrary. For all that is here cited, is perfectly agreable to what is held by those who suppose Faith and Justification are coexistent; and that there can be no good Works preceeding Justification.

But to show the Doctrine of the Ancient Fathers, I need only now confront him with his own Authentick Book of HOMILIES, compiled for every Minister to Read to his Congregation, in the Reign of King Edward VI, by the excellent Reformers of the Church of England, who Seal'd their Doctrine with their Blood, in the Reign of his next Successor Queen Mary I. In the 2d Part of the Sermon of Salvation, They say as follows, Faith ONLY Justifieth, is the Doctrine of old Doctors. And after this wite, To be justified ONLY by this true and lively FAITH in CHRIST, speak ALL the Old and Ancient Authors, both Greeks and Latins, of whom I * will especially re­hearse Three; Hilary, Basil and Ambrose. St Hilary saith these Words plainly in the Ninth Canon upon Mathew; Faith ONLY justifieth. And St. Basil a Greek Author writeth thus. This is a perfect and whole Rejoycing in GOD, when a Man advanceth NOT himself for his own Righteousness, but acknowledgeth himself to LACK true Justice and Righteousness, and to be justified by the ONLY FAITH in CHRIST: and Paul (saith he) doth glory in the Contempt of his own Righteousness, and that he looketh for the Righteousness of GOD by FAITH. These be the very Words of St. Basil. And St. Ambrose a Latin Author saith these Words, This is the Ordinance of GOD, that they which believe in CHRIST should be saved, WITHOUT WORKS, by FAITH ONLY, freely receiving Re­mission [Page 18]of their Sins. Consider diligently these Words; WITHOUT WORKS, by FAITH ONLY, freely we receive the Remission of our Sins. What can be spo [...]n more plainly than to say, that freely WITHOUT WORKS, by FAITH ONLY we obtain Remission of our Sins? These and other like Sen­tences, that we be justified by FAITH ONLY, freely, and WITHOUT WORKS, we do read oftimes in the best and most ancient Writers, as beside Hilary, Basil and St. Ambrose, before rehearsed; we read the same in Or [...]g [...]n, St Chrysostome St Cyprian, St. Augustin, Prosper, Occumentus, Proclus, Ber­nardus, Anseim, and many other Authors Greek and Latin. All these are the connected Passages in the said 2d Part of the sermon of Salvation, contain'd in your own Book of Homilies appointed to be Read in Churches, in the Reign of Queen Elizabeth a so, and Directed to be Read in Churches, in your Book of Common Prayer, which you have Solemnly de­clared your Approbation of; which Book of Homilies is also approved in the 39. Articles, which you have solemnly De­clared your unfeigned Assent to and subscribed the same: and yet now directly contrary to this Book of Homilies. and directly contrary to your own Declaration and Subscription, you in your Letter III assert that Good Works are implied as a NECESSARY CONDITION of our JUSTIFICATION; and that this is the true Doctrine of the Gospel, and agreably taught by the Ancient Fathers, by the Church of England by her Clergy at all Times. By which Means you publickly in Print be [...]ie your own Book of Homilies, which you have solemnly Declared your unfeigned Assent unto and subscribed the same. And for your maintaining what is contrary thereto by the 12th Chapter of Laws in the 13th Year of Queen Elizabeth, you ought to be Deprived

III. Is it not Astonishing that he should bring in the good old Orthodox Eleventh Article of the Church of England, as favouring his wild Notion of Justification; and that the HOMILY which he press'd to stand by him, should fight most powerfully against him? The Homily (which, 'tis agreed on both Sides, gives the true Sense of the Article) tells us that St Chrysestom, saith, that Faith of it self is full of Good Works; and that as scon as a Man doth believe [...] shall be gar­nish [...]d with them. Which is very true if we understand Faith of that special Faith of which Mr Colvin and Followers speak, which is in [...]used into the Soul by the Spirit of the [Page 19]ever li [...]ing God, and which is simultaneous with Justification: Bar absolutely false, if we understand it of any other: For these Men themselves suppose the Faith of Assent doth not necessarily produce Good Works; and that in some that have is, it is accompanied with Good Works, in others not Where­fore when the Homily cites St. Chrysosteme as saying that Faith it self is full of Good Works; and that as soon as a Man doth believe be shall be garnished with them; it explains the Article into a Cal [...]mistick Faith (which will not suffer Good Works to go before it) or else it asserts what all Sides hold to be false.

But Mr. Garden will say, that the Homily means, that the Faith which is true and lively is full of Good Works &c. and that therefore there is no need of supposing that i [...] speaks of an infused Calvinistick Faith, simultaneous with Justification, and inconsistent with Good Works going before it. And I grant him that if the Homily doth mean his true & lively Faith, there is no more to be said. But I have one very strong Reason to the contrary, and that is this; that I can hardly believe they were shallow enough to have no better a Meaning We have already seen what his true and lively Faith is, viz. A Faith actually producing good Works. And therefore, if the Authors of the HOMILY intended Mr. Gar­den's t [...]ue and lively Faith; the Amount of what they said in the forecited Words would be only this, viz. that the Faith which actually produceth Good Works, produceth Good Works; and when he hath a Faith that garnisheth him with Good Works, then he is garnished with Good Works. In a Word, the Authors of the Homily understood the Eleventh Article to speak of such a Faith which is coexistent with Justification; and between which and Justification there can be no Good Works.

But for your full Conviction, I shall show from your Book of Homilies and Articles (1) What is that Faith which they hold does justify; and (2) That this Faith only is That which justifies. (1) In the 3d Part of the Sermon of Salva­tion their Note in the Margin is in these Words—What is the true and justifying Faith, and answering to it in the Page is the Description following — ‘For the right and true Christian Faith is not only to believe that holy Scrip­ture and all the foresaid Articles of our Faith are true; [Page 20]but also to have a sure Trust and Confidence in God's merciful Promises, to be saved from everlasting Damnation by CHRIST: whereof doth follow a loving Heart to obey his Commandments.’ (2) That THIS FAITH is That which ONLY justifies appears also further both from the 35th and 11th Articles of the Church of England, in Conjunction with the Book of Homilies For Article 35 is in these Words, ‘The second Book of Homilies, the several Titles whereof we have joined under this Article, doth contain a Godly and wholsome Doctrine, and necessary for these Times, as doth the former Book of Homilies, which were set forth in the Time of Edward the VI. and therefore we judge them to be Read in Churches by the Ministers DILIGENTLY and distinctly, that they may be understanded of the People.’ And Article 11th is This—‘We are accounted Righteous before God, only for the Merit of our Lord and Savioar JESUS CHRIST, by Faith, and not for our own Works, or Deservings. Wherefore that we are justified by FAITH only, is a most wholsome Doctrine, and very full of Comfort, as more largely is expressed in the HOMILY of Justification.

Now these Articles and Homilies thus included in them, you and all the Clergy of the Church of England, have solemnly Declar'd your UNFEIGNED ASSENT unto, and have SUE­SCRIBED to the same And now we'll see what the Homily further says in this Point of Justification, which the said 11th Article expresly refers to, and which you have Declar'd and Subscribed your unfeigned Assent to.

For besides what I recited before from the said Homily, affirming that WITHOUT WORKS by FAITH ONLY we are JUSTIFIED, and that THIS is the Doctrine of ALL the ANCIENT AUTHORS; since this authentick Book enlarges on this GreatPoint, I shall add the following Passages from it, to your utter Contusion: In Part I of the said Sermon of Salvation, are the following Passages, viz. ‘St. Paul declareth here nothing upon the Behalf of Man concerning his Justification, but ONLY a true and lively Faith, which nevertheless is the Gift of GOD, and not Man's only Work without GOD: and vet that FAITH doth not shut out Repentance, Hope, Love, Dread and the Fear of GOD, to be join'd with FAITH in every Man that is justified; but it shutteth THEM out from [Page 21]the Office of JUSTIFYING. So that altho' they be all pre­sent [...]ogether in him that is justifyed, yet they justify NOT all together: neither doth Faith shut out the Justice of our GOOD WORKS, necessarily to be done after wards of Duty towards GOD (for we are most bounden to serve GOD in doing good Deeds commanded by him, in his holy Scripture all the Days of our Life) But it exclud [...]th THEM so that we may not do them to this Intent, to be made Just by Doing of them.

And after the above recited Passages of the Doctrine of the Fathers in the said 2d Part of the Sermon of Salvation, wherein the Homily teaches Justification without Works by Faith only; the Homily condemns you and all your Clergy who [...]ou say preach Good Works as a necessary Condition of Justification; I say, the said Homily fearfully condemns you in the following Words—in the Margin, "WHAT THEY BE that impugn the Doctrine that FAITH ONLY JUSTIFIETH." And against the said Margin in the Body of the Page, the Clauses following, viz. This Faith the holy Scripture teach­eth us is the strong Rock and Foundation of Christian Re­ligion: THIS DOCTRINE all old and ancient Authors of Christ's Church do approve: This Doctrine advanceth and setteth forth the true Glory of CHRIST & beateth down the vain Glory of Man: THIS whosoever denieth, is not to be accounted for a Christian Man, nor for a setter forth of CHRIST's Glory, but for an Adversary to CHRIST and his Gospel, and for a setter forth of Men's vain Glory.’

This Doctrine then, viz. of Justification by Faith ONLY without Works so fully declar'd in the said Article & Homily, whosoever Denies, tho' he be Mr. Commissary or the Author of the Whole Duty of Man, or Bishop Williams or ArchBishop Tilletson, or any of the Present Clergy of the Church of England; the said Homily says, He is not to be accounted for a Christian Man, but for an Adversary to CHRIST and his Gospel: and this both Mr Commissary, and the Bishop of London, and all the Clergy of said Church, have solemnly Declared and Subscribed their unfeigned Assent to. And yet the Commissary both denies this Doctrine, and even reproaches and derides it as an An­tinomian Doctrine at the End of his Letter IV. to Mr White­field, in the following Words. — ‘Then what becomes of your remarkable ANTINOMIAN Challenge,— Who dares [Page 22]ass [...]rt that we are not justified in the Sight of God m [...]erly by an Act of Faith in Jesus Christ, without any Regard to Works, past, present, or to come.

Yes what a horrid Scandal does Mr. Commissary Charge on his own Clergy? For contrary to their own Book of Homilies, and to their own Articles asserting the Book of Homilies to contain a godly and wholsome Doctrine and necessary for these Times, and THEREFORE to be read in Churches by the Mini­ster DILIGENTLY and distinctly, that they may be understanded of the People: And especially contrary to the 11th Article, which asserts that we are justified by FAITH ONLY is a MOST WHOLSOME Doctrine, as more largely expressed in the Homily of Justification; yea lastly contrary to their own solemn Declaration of their UNFEIGNED ASSENT and their Sub­scription to the same — Mr. Commissary affirms in Print that THEIR CLELGY teach GOOD WORKS as a NECESSARY CONDITION of JUSTIFICATION.

IV. As to his saying that he explains Justification by Faith, in Harmony with the Clergy at all Times, I have al­ready prov'd the contrary, by shewing that this Justifica­tion of his is altogether Popish, and hath had publick Testi­mony born against it from the Reformation. He hath indeed pick'd up several great Names between whom and himself, he would have us think there is a perfect Agreement in this Matter; concerning each of whom I would make a few Remarks. And

1. We have a Passage from Bishop DOWNAM brought in thus—‘And as of the CHURCH, so agreably is this the Doctrine at all Times preached by her CLERGY—We are justified by Faith only and not by Works: and, yet (saith Bp DOWNAM, Treatise of Justific. Pag 15) That Faith which is alone severed from all other Inward Graces and Out­ward Obedience, doth not justify either alone, or at all: because it is not a true and lively, but a counterfeit and dead Faith.

Now in this the Commissary seems greatly to impose on the ignorant Part of the World; whether consciously to him­self or not I don't determine. For Bp DOWNAM did in 1639, publish a Folio upon Justification, containing about 660 [Page 23] Pages. The whole Design of which large Work, is against the Papists, to show, that the RIGHTEOUSNESS of CHRIST, imputed to us, is the only meritorious Cause of our Justification, and that FAITH in CHRIST is the ONLY Instrument of our Receiving Justification from his Righteousness; or that FAITH in CHRIST is the ONLY Thing on our Part whereby we are Justified, and this not as a Work, but ONLY as an Instrument and the ONLY Instrument of our apprehending CHRIST'S Righteousness; upon which That Righteousness becomes imputed to us for our Justification.

This is the main Purport of that old and excellent Divine in that large Performance: and that the Reader may more surely see it, I shall here recite that whole Paragraph out of which Mr. Garden selected the Scrap abovesaid. It is ex­actly in the following Words, ‘SIXTHLY, When we say that FAITH doth justify ALONE. Two Things are implied: FIRST, that we are justified by the Righteousness of CHRIST ALONE apprehended by FAITH, and not by any Righteousness inherent in us. SECONDLY, That this Righteousness of CHRIST by which ALONE we are justified, is apprehended by FAITH ONLY. Not that justifying Faith is or can be alone; but because there being MANY GRACES in the Faithful, which all have their se­veral Commendations; yet NONE OF THEM serveth to appre­hend CHRIST's Righteousness, but FAITH ONLY; and yet that Faith which is alone, severed from all other inward Gra­ces and outward Obedience doth not justify either alone or at all; because it is not a true and a lively, but a counterfeit and dead Faith. For even as the EYE among all the Parts of the Body, which all have their several Uses, hath ONLY the FACULTY of SEEING; and yet that Eye which is separated from the rest of the Parts, doth see neither alone nor at all, be­cause it is but the Carcase of an Eye: so among [...]all the Groces of the Soul, it is the OFFICE of FAITH ALONE, as the EYE of the SOUL, to LOOK upon HIM that was figur'd by the BRAZEN SERPENT: yet if it should be severed from the Rest, it evere Dead For as St James saith [Jam. 2. 1 [...].] That Faith which is alone and by it self is dead And as the EYE in respect of PEING is not alone yet in respect of SEEING it is ALONE; so FAITH which is not alone, doth justify ALONE.’

[Page 24] This is Bp DOWNAM'S whole Paragragh in pag. 15. and the same Things he repeats in other Places, [...]and with more Enlargement in Chap. IV III, which he who [...]y spends in pro [...]ing Justification by Faith ALONE without any Regard to Works or other Graces. For thus he begin the Chapter, Sect. I. ‘Now I come to the 3d QUESTION, which is the Principal concerning FAITH, wh [...]th [...] be justified by FAITH ALONE, as WE with ALL ANTIQUITY do hold: or not by Faith alone, but also by OTHER HABITS of GRACE, as Charity and the rest, and by the WORKS of GRACE which the PAPISTS hold [...] concur in us to the Act of Justification, as the Causes thereof?’ In Sect III. he says— ‘But the Word ALONE [...]oth most [...]please the PAPISTS, who [...]ill needs part S [...]akes with CHRIST in their Justification’ In Sect VI He proceeds to prove our Justification by FAITH ALONE and brings this Argu­ment, ‘For if we be justifi [...] by he IMPUTED RIGHTE­OUSNESS of CHRIST ALONE, and if in us there be NO­THING which [...] or m [...]th us Partakers of CHRIST'S RIGHTEOUSNESS, but FAITH ONLY; then there is nothing in us by which we are justified, b [...] ONLY FAITH’. In Sect. VII. He pro [...]nces several Scriptures to prove the same. In Sect. VIII He brings this Argument — ‘All those Places which exclude Works from Justification, do by necessary Consequence teach Justification by FAITH ALONE’. In Sect. IX He argues thus — ‘THAT by which ALONE the Promise [...] Justification, by which ALONE Justification, by which ALONE CHRIST Himself who is our Righteousness is received THAT a one justifieth: By FAITH ALONE the Promise, by it ALONE Justification, by it ALONE CHRIST himself is received.’ In Sect X. He argues thus — ‘THAT which is the ONLY CONDITION of the COVENANT OF GRACE by THAT ALONE we are justified, because to THAT ALONE Justification is pro­mised: FAITH is the ONLY CONDITION of the COVE­NANT OF GRACE. [Job 3.16 Act 10 43. Gal. 3 9.] which is therefore called THE LAW OF FAITH [Rom. 3 27] Therefore by FAITH ALONE we are justified. If against the ASSUMPTION it be OBJECTED, that CHARITY and OBEDIENCE and OTHER VIRTUES are also required: I ANSWER. That THE [...] are NOT the CONDITIONS of the COVENANT, but the Things by Covenant Promised to them [Page 25]that Believe. If we Believe. GOD hath promised to justify us; and b [...]ing Justified. or Redeemed, to [...] and to save us. See Luk [...] 73.74, 75. Jer. 31.33, 34. Heb. 8.10, 11, 12. Gal 3 9. and 14 22. CHARITY, OBE­DIENCE &c are the Conditions of the Covenant of Works, D [...]th [...]s and thou shalt Live: but the Condition of the CO­VENANT of GRACE is, BELIEVE; and thou shalt be ENABLED to walk in the OBEDIENCE of the Law, thou shalt Receive the Gift of the SPIRIT, and finally thou shalt be SAVED For being by FAITH freed from Sin, and become Servants to GOD, you have your Fruit unto Holiness and the End everlasting Life, P [...]om. 6. 22.’ In Sect XI. H [...] argues thus. —‘The Holy Scriptures where­soever they speak of THAT by which we are justified, mention Nothing in us but FAITH; not WORKS, not OTHER GRACES. unless it be to EXCLUDE THEM from the Act of Justification: which is a plain Evidence that FAITH doth justify ALONE’ In Chap. IX. the Title is— Testimonies of the ancient Fathers, and of Others in all Ages for Justification by FAITH ALONE.’ Then he begins the Chapter thus—‘Now that this Doctrine is no No­velty, but that which in ALL AGES hath been the received Doctrine of the CHRISTIAN CHURCHES. I will prove by the Testimony of the CHRISTIAN WRITERS in ALL AGES, but chi [...]fl [...] of the ancient FATHERS.’ And then he fills he Chapter with Quotations from between thirty and forty of them to the same Purpose. All these comma'd Pas­sages are the very Words of the excellent Bp DOWNAM.

But all this Doctrine is directly contrary to Mr. Commissary's Scheme, and to the present Scheme of most of his Brethren Clergymen of the Church of England, as Mr. Commissary lays it down in Pag 8, 9. in the following Words— Well then the Doctrine the CLERGY preach is this, viz. That we are justified by such a Faith only as is trus and lively, that is actually producing GOOD FRUITS or WORKS, and consequently implying THEM as a NECESSARY CONDITION (but no meritorious Cause) of our JUSTIFICATION. This is indeed the true Doctrine of the Gospel; and agreably taught by the ancient FATHERS — by the CHURCH of ENGLAND— by her CLERGY at ALL TIMES &c.’

[Page 26] And now which shall we believe— Mr. Commissary, or the learned Bp DOWNAM, as to Matter of Fact? For as the Bishop asserts and proves that Good Works are no Condition at all of our Justification, but that Faith in CHRIST is the ONLY Condition, and this only as an Instrument apprehending the Righteousness of CHRIST, and that this is the Doctrine of the Church of England and of the ancient Fathers and Christian Writers in all Ages, whose Testimonies he expresly produces. Mr. Commissary plumply contradicts him, and says with the Papists whom the Bishop opposes, that Good Works are implied as a NECESSARY CONDITION of our Justi­cation; and (without any Proof) that this is the true Doctrine of the Gospel and agreably taught by the ancient Fathers, by the Church of England, and by her Clergy, at all Times.

Indeed the Commissary happened here to own one most sor­rowful and evident Truth, viz that the Present Clergy preach GOOD WORKS implied as a NECESSARY CONDITION of our Justification. But every Man of Learring knows that this is a Doctrine which the excellent Bp DOWNAM calls a Popish Doctrine and which he strenuously opposes; and is indeed a modern Doctrine in the Protestant Church of England, and was never own'd, but oppos'd in the Church till the Return of those two Popish Princes into England, viz Charles the II and his Brother James, in 1660 And now Mr Com­missary boldly asserts that This which Bp Downam opposes as a Popish Doctrine, is the true Doctrine of the Gospel, and that this is the Doctrine which the Church of England Clergy Preach &c.

In short, it appears a most astonishing and horrible Thing, that when the Commissary had both Bp DOWNAM and the BOOK of HOMILIZS in his Hand, where the ancient Fathers are produced as utterly excluding WORKS from being any Condition of Justification and strongly asser [...]ing Justification by FAITH ONLY; that yet in direct Opposition to those known and authentick Treatises, he should roundly affirm that Good Works are implied as a NECESSARY CONDITION of Justification, and that the ancient Fathers and the Church of England and her Clergy at all Times have taught the same [...] It is also strange, that in Opposition to Mr. Whitefield, who charges the modern Divines for departing from the Doctrine of the old Divines of the Church in the Point of Justifica­tion; [Page 27]yet Mr. Commissary should bring Bp DOWNAM in, as if He were a modern Divine; when he printed his Folio in 1639 and was one of those old Orthodox Divines, from whom Mr. Whitefield justly complains, that the present Clergy have sadly departed in the Point of Justification! And that Mr. Commissary should yet quote this worthy BISHOP, and there­by make the ignorant Part of the World who have not his Book, believe, as if Mr. Commissary with his present Clergy and that old Orthodox BISHOP were of the same Mind!

In the

2. Place, we have the Suffrage of Bishop Beveridge; whose Words, (besides many other Things spoken by him just as Mr. Garden's Opposers speak upon the same Point) are these; That it is not from our WORKS that accompany our FAITH, but from our FAITH which is accompanied by our WORKS, that we are justified By which Words it appears that his next Bishop will do him more Harm than Good, and therefore he had better have said nothing about him. For, doth Mr Gar­den hold to what I have just quoted from him concerning the Bishop? No, by no Means. Mr. Garden holds that Faith implies Works; and as hath been shewn, with Bishop Williams asserts. that WORKS are an essential Part of justifying FAITH. And if they are an essential Part of justifying Faith, 'tis from them that we are justifyed So that Bishop Beveridge whom he summoned to Witness for him, bears full Testimony against him

To this I add what Bishop Beveridge says in his Private Thoughts under Article VIII. in the following Words — ‘How is it possible that I should be justified by Good Works, when I can do no Good Works at all before I be first justified? my Works cannot be accepted as Good till my Person be so: not can my Person be accepted by GOD, till first engrafted into CHRIST; before which engrafting into the true Vine, 'tis impossible I should bring forth Good Fruit: For the Plowing of the Wicked is Sin says Solomon, Prov. xxi. 4. Yea the Sacrifices of the Wicked are an Abomi­nation to the Lord, Chap. xv. 8. And if both the civil and spiritual Actions of the Wicked be Sin; which of all their Actions shall have the Honour to justify them in the Sight of GOD?’

[Page 28] And now Mr. Garden! would you have the World be­lieve that you are of the same Sentiment with the pious Bp Beveridge in the Point of Justification? when you assert Good Works are a NECESSARY CONDITION of Justification; and the said Bishop asserts that, before we are justified. we can do NO Good Works AT ALL, and that this is impossible.

In the

3d Place, Comes the Bishop of Sarum, whom I readily grant to be on our A [...]hor's Side; for it appears from what he hath quoted from him, especially the last Sentence, that together with Mr. Garden, by justifying Faith, he means Faith, Love Repentance, and Obedience; that is every Thing. But yet there is this Difference between th [...]m; that where­as Mr. Garden faith. we are justified by this Faith only; the Bishop rememb [...]ing that his Faith stood for Faith and Works too, very Logically left out the Word only.

But both Bishop Barnet and Mr. Garden's next cited Author Bishop Williams, are some of those modern Writers whom all Men of Learning know have, in the Point of Justification, openly departed from the Doctrine of the first Reformers in the Church of England. And to convince every one of this, he needs only read the Passages Mr. Garden cites from Bishop Barnet and Bishop Williams and then compare them with the Passages I have recited from the Articks, the Book of Ho­milies, and Bp Downam.

4. The Rear of this Episcopal Army is brought up by Bishop Williams: who also is a Man after Mr. Garden's own H [...]art [...] for his Justifying Faith comprehends in [...] all that Duty and those Graces, which he saith, are made the Condition of the Gos­pel Covenant; and which gives a Title to all the benefits of it. i. e. Justifying Faith, signifies Faith and all manner of Good Works in Conjunction. And in the last Sen [...]ence, he tells us that not only Repentance and Obedience. but Perseverance also belongs to this justifying Faith, and is an essential Part of it. See Pag 11. lin. ult From which Words of the Bishop. and Mr Garden's citing them with Approbation, may we not discover a very odd Opinion held by them both. viz. That no Man is, justified in this Life; and that we must needs go out of the World before it can be said that we are [Page 29]reconciled to our Maker? contrary to the Tenor of the Bible. For if Perseverance is an essential Part of justifying Faith, there can be no such Thing as Justification, while an essential Part of that which justifies is wanting; and this essential Part must be wanting all the Days of a Man's Life: for Perseverance intends the whole of our Course.

But however horrid this Opinion appears, considered in it's Repugnancy to Scripture, and Reason, it must be confess'd it looks much better if we take a View of it as grafted upon Mr. Garden's Bosom Tenet, that Good Works are Means of Justifi­cation. Nay, if I could once swallow down the latter, I should make no difficulty with the former If I really tho't Good Words to be Means of Justification. I should think it more likely that a Man should be justified by the Good Works he performed thro' his whole Life; than by the Obedience of (perhaps) a few Days Nay it looks much more modest, and ascribes a less degree of Merit to Good Works, to maintain that all the Good Works a Man ever did are required to justify him, than to maintain, that half or one quarter of them (perhaps) will do very well.

And besides, by this Means I should get rid of what I should be glad to get [...]d of by any Means, viz. the Doctrine of a Man's being in a State of Grace to Day, and out of it To­morrow; his being a Child of GOD, and a Child of the Devil by turns, no one knows how often. And as to the Doctrine of a Man's attaining to one half two thirds, nine tenthts, &c of Jus­tification; I should be no more perplex'd with it upon the new Hypothesis, than upon the old Thus I have fairly shewn the Doctrine of no forgiveness in this Life, may be charg'd upon the Bishop, and Mr Garden, since the Passage which the former wrote, and which the latter vouches as his own Sentiments, un­deniably contains it. However if Mr. Garden will do Penance, and own that the good Bishop and he wrote both besides them­selves; the one in blundering so eg [...]egriously, the other in publishing his Blunder with Approbation and Veneration; the Publick will doubtless exercite suitable Charity towards them.

V. As to his saying that Mr. Whitefield and Brethren Methodists, hold Justification by Faith as he himself doth: [Page 30]I Answer, that Mr. Garden doth not really think this Charge against them to be just; because in pag. 19 he tells how dif­ferently from him they explain Justification by Faith, and blames them for it. All therefore that he can found his Charge upon, must be some Passages of theirs wherein they have contradicted themselves, and before they were aware of it, come over to him. And I allow Mr Garden to treat them as I have treated him, and as I design to treat him again; that is to set them a Fighting with their own selves, if he can do it fairly. But the Passages he hath adduced are not really in any measure inconsistent with their avowed Principles. They have asserted, ‘That true Faith continually excites Men to shew forth that Faith by abounding in every good Word and Work. And that the Faith which justifies, is not a Faith exclusive of Good Works, but inclusive, or (productive) of them. Mr. Whitefield's Sermon, What think ye of Christ? And Mr. W [...]esley Sermon on, Salvation by Faith, pag. 14.’

And doth it follow that because these Gen [...]lemen hold that Faith always produceth Good Works, that therefore he and they must have he same idea of Faith and Works in Man's Justification? No in no wise. Is it not strange, that Mr. Garden and Friends can see no Medium between Antinomianism and A [...]mmianism; and that they should assert that all those who [...] themselves of the former Error, join with them in espou [...]ng the latter?

This Gentleman having shewn or rather attempted to shew how agreable his Idea of Justification by Faith, is to the Gospel, to the ancient Fathers, to the Church of England, to her Clergy at all Times, and lastly to Mr. Whitefield and Friends; he accuses Mr. Whitefield of arrogant and [...]icked Stander in accusing him and Brethren of holding Justification by Works, since he could not do it upon an, Grounds but what would equally support the Charge against himself, and Friends the Methodists. In which Accusation, after what hath been said, I believe there is no Man will think his Fault was want of Courage! He seems indeed in the very next Breath to be sensible of his misrepresenting these two excellent Gen­tlemen; and he addresses himself to Mr. Whitefield thus

‘But you will say this is not a fair Representation o [...] State of the Matter in Question. For the Ground on which you [Page 31]accuse the Clergy of preaching only the Law, or Justifica­tion by Works, is not their preaching that Good Works such as are pleasing to God, are the necessary Fruits and Effects of a justifying Faith; no, but their preaching that such Good Works are the necessary Conditions of Justifica­tion, and consequently not only follow after, but go before it also, contrary to sound Doctrine, and the 12th Article of the Church,’ Pag. 13. To which he Answers, That this is a miserable Distinction, serving only to intangle and amuse, and not to instruct the Minds of the weak and un­wary Populace. And his strong Reasons are these that follow.

1. That Mr. Edwards a Wrangler in Mr. Whitefield's own Way, (so he calls an eminently pious and peaceable Man) owns that Goods Works may be a Condition of Justification, in another Sense than that of meritorious Causes. Ergo quid [...] Why, that Mr. Whitefield wrongs him and Fraternity in say­ing that they hold Works to be meritorious Causes of Justifi­cation. Doth it follow that because they might have another Sense, that therefore they had? A Posse ad esse an unquam va­luit consequentia?

But it will be said, that since it is possible, according to Mr. Edwards, that Men may hold Good Works to be Con­ditions of Justification in another Sense than that of their being meritorious Causes, Mr. Whitefield ought in Charity to think they did.

I Answer, Mr. Whitefield's Charity must have been extra­vagantly large, to have suppos'd that they don't look upon Good Works as meritorious, when by Preaching, Writing, and Conversation, they declare they do. I don't say that they look upon Good Works to be meritorious of Condignity, but of Congruity only, with the more moderate Papists. Indeed the Word Merit, is a Name of such evil Report, that they are perfectly ashamed of it; but then they hold fast the Thing, which is worse than the Name; and will never be perswa­ded to let it go. Nay, they have some of them the Cou­rage, to tax the Roman Catholicks, as if this Doctrine was p [...]culiar to them; and yet they cannot bring one Argument to support the Charge against the more moderate Papists, which will not equally conclude against themselves.

[Page 32] This I have prov'd already, and need not do it again.

To return therefore; Must Mr. Whitefield be deem'd a malicious Slanderer of these Men in what he hath said of them? No verily. Unless, they may be thought Slande­rers of their own Selves. For when they speak or w [...]ite, they make out full as much against themselves, as he ever charg'd them with. Their very Charges of Falshood against him, unluckily for them, prove that he is a Man of Truth, and that in his Spirit there is no Guile. And the grand Reason why they count him their Enemy is because he tells them the Truth; having found our, and born Testimony against that base smugling Trade of Importing prohibited Goods from Rome, in which they are so deeply engaged.

His 2d Argument (for 'tis very probable, he tho't it an Argument) is taken from what he saith no one will deny, viz. That Faith and Good Works are both Conditions of Salva­tion; and if of Salvation, then he inters they must be Con­ditions of Justification too; and consequently that Good Works go before Justification. Q. E D.

But then, I would tell him, that when he builds an Argu­ment upon the Consent of all, he must be sore that all do Consent; otherwise he will have no Foundation, and the Su­perstructure, will be just good for nothing. And accordingly I now take away this Foundation, and set all a tumbling, by denying that Good Works, are so necessary to Salvation, that there can in no Case be Salvation without them. In which Denial I shall be born out by all that hate the Ora­cles of Arminius; by the Church of England; and parti­cularly by Mr Garden himself: for this Gentleman seems (by his Conduct) so set upon being consuted, that least his Ad­versary should not do it effectually without him, he scarcely ever falls to confute himself.

The Followers of Mr. Calvin, it is well known hold that as soon as a Man believes he is justified, and that if God should please to take him out of the World in that Instant, he would not perish, but have everlasting Live: tho' not one Good Work had been done by him. The Di [...]ines of this Way do indeed more than any Men, press the Necessity of an universal Obedience to the Laws of God, testi [...]ying unwea­riedly, that Faith without Works is dead; that is, that what­ever [Page 33]Pretences Men may have to Faith, yet if they dare to rebel against the most high God, their Faith will not stop them from the Damnation of Hell whither they are hastning. But yet in as much as they believe Men are justified by Faith only; they suppose that where there is the reality of Faith there is the reality of Justification, and would be of Salvation, were the Subject of it immediately to depart this Life. The Church of England also, being Calvinistical, as I have shewn; might from hence be argued to be of this Opinion: but they expresly shew themselves to be like minded, in their ordering the Minister, in his Visitation of the Sick, after saying to, and hearing a few Words from [...]he dying Person to forgive his Sins upon the Spot. Many Things might be excepted against this Form; but yet it sully implies their Be­lief of this Truth, viz that a Man may be forgiven and in a State of Salvation without doing any Works of Righteousness at all. Nay, Mr Garden (for I am now come to him) hath undoubt­edly affirmed in the most solemn manner, to departing Pro­fligates that by Vertue of the Power deriv'd to him from his Saviour, be forgave their Sins. Which (at the least) im­plie [...], that if they were sincere in what they said to Mr. Gar­den, their Sins were forgiven by God. And if so, then there is no doubt, but that if they had been snatched away the very Moment of their Absolution, Heaven & Happiness would have been their Portion. The Truth is, Mr. Garden is either in Jest, or in Earnest, when he forgives the Sins of poor dying People. If he is in Jest, (which I can't think of him) there is no more to be said. But if he is in Earnest, why then he confutes himself: holding in effect, with the Church of Eng­land and all Calvinists, what he said every Body deny'd, and upon the denial of which he builds all his Reasoning: which indeed is very good Reasoning, and would never fall to the Ground, were there any Thing under it, to keep it up.

Perhaps, some Friend of Mr. Garden, will be ready to say, that when he forgives the Sins of dying wicked Men, upon their saying what is prescrib'd for them to say in the Common Prayer Book, he hath Regard to some Good Works he supposes they have sormerly done; or rather to all the Good Works which the poor sick wicked Men ever did in the Co [...]rse of their Lives. So that tho' they are really forgiven upon Mr. Garden's absolving them, yet they are not forgiven [Page 34] without Good Works, that is Good Works formerly done by them. Without stopping to put several Questions which natural­ly arise here; I will evade this Solution, by supposing the dying Penitent to be one, who had formerly been justified, but had at the Time the Minister comes to absolve him, fallen from Grace; nor done one Good Work towards reinstating himself into the divine Favour: I would now ask, whither, upon his saying in sincerity what is prescribed, and Mr. Garden's forgiving him, he would really be forgiven by Gad. and taken to Happiness, if he dy'd that Instant? If it be said Yes (and I think no one will say No) then it is most plain, that the dying Penitent is forgiven (and would be sav'd if he then dy'd) with­out any Regard to Good Works.

But perhaps it may be said, that tho' in such a Case, there is no Regard to Good Works past, yet there is to Good Works which the Person would have done, had he had a longer space: That such a Sinner, so dying is forgiven and received up to Glory, because God saw the Validity of his Repentance, and that if there had been Opportunity, he would have brought forth Fruits meet for Repentance This is that vertual Obe­dience which Dr. TILLDTSON, speaks of, in his Sermon, from these Words, If ye live after the Fl [...]sh, ye shall die &c. And which he thinks will save a Man. where there is no room for that which is actual. Such miserable Inventions do Men seek out to themselves, who will not believe that we are justified by Faith only, according to the Scriptures! I say, miserable Inventions: For if God hath Regard to the Good which he foreseer wicked Men would have done had they liv'd longer; then by a Pa­rity of Reason be will have Regard to the Evil which he fore­sees Good Men would have done, had they lived longer: And then the Rule of his Proceedings at the Great Day, will not be according to the Good and Evil Men have done in the Body, but according to the Good and Evil they would have done, had they lived longer: which is horrible Divinity, and therefore shews the absutdity of the Supposition from whence it flows.

What hath been said, might be applied to what he cites from Dr Jackson However, lest it should he tho't a neglect to say nothing to him in particular, I shall consider the Case which he supposes, viz. ‘of a Man's Departing in the very [Page 35]Instant in which be is Justified. He saith, no Man will doubt either of his Absolution or Salvation. He then asks, is he sav'd with Works, or without? If without, then our Savioue's Rule fails, Math. 5.20 Except your Righteousness exceed the Righteousness, &c.’ As if it was not a great deal more na­tural, to suppose, that Sanctification of the Spirit, and Belief of the Truth are joyn'd together in the Soul of a Believer, as they are in the Scripture; and that a Man may be Righteous, and so his Righteousness exceed the Righteousness of the Scribes and Pharisees, though there be no Opportunity to Work Righteousness; even as a Tree may be good, and yet cat down before it bring forth good Fruit. The Man who Repents and Believes to the Salvation of his Soul, is certainly at the very instant, and before he hath done one Good Work, a more Righteous Person than any of the Scribes and Pharisees were. Nay was all the Righteousness of all the Scribes and Phari­sees from the beginning to this very Day (and perhaps there never were so many Pharisees in the World at a time, as there are at this Day) I say, was all this Righteousness transferr'd to one Man, he would not be so Holy and Righteous, as the Believer is the very moment of his receiving Jesus Christ by Faith. But if we should grant Dr. Jackson what there is no need of granting him, viz. that by Righteousness our Saviour means outward Acts of Righteousness, as if it had been said, Except your good Deeds, and Acts of Righteousness are more and better than those of the Scribes and Pharisees, there is no Difficulty in explaining the Words: The meaning will be this, that whatever Confidence Professors may put in their Faith and Attainments, yet if in their Lives and Conversation, they don't exceed the Scribes and Pharisees, they may conclude that their Faith is not the right sort, and that they shall never enter into the Kingdom of Heaven.

But then how those of Doctor Jackson's Mind, who explain the Words according to the severity of them, as denying Heaven absolutely to all whose outward Good Works are not more and better than those of the Scribes and Pharisers; I say, how they will get over their own Explanation, I am not able to understand. For, not to mention the Case of Infants, which seems to be desperate: How will they make out their giving Thanks to God that he hath in great Mercy taken to him­self, the Souls [...]f all that die Church-Men, provided they have [Page 36]been Baptised, were not excommunicated and did not lay violent Hands upon themselves; even tho' they be the vilest of Men, Lyars, Fornicators, Profane Swearers, Drunkards, that die Drunk, and the like Do these all exceed the Righteousness of the Scribes and Pharisees?

Let any Man consider the many good Things these vile Men were remarkable for; or at least their treedom from scandalous Sins, and he will judge that they were not compa­rable for Vileness, to thousands of the Sons of the Church, who as soon as Dead, are as it were Canonnised for Saints, and have solemn Thanksgivings put up to God for their Reception into Heaven.

For my Part, tho' I doubt not but that there have been and still are many good Christians of the Prelatical Church; yet at the same time I believe it to be matter of common and sorrowful Observation, that the very highest part of High Church are generally speaking, much worse than Scribes and Pharisees: and vet the Men who officiate at their Funerals, and testify to their good Estate; insist upon it, that unless a Man's Righte­ousness, his outward Acts of Righteousness and Obedience exceed those of the Scribes and Pharisees, he can in no Case enter into the Kingdom of Heaven.

And as they contradict their own Exposition of Math 5 20, by officiating at Funerals, so do they by gi [...]ing Absolution to dying Sinners; as is evident from what hath been said upon that Head.

There is not one of them I believe that dares to deny, but that in Case a Person whom he knew to have been as bad as a Scribe or Pharisee, should be sick nigh unto Death, and desire Absolution, saying over what is appointed him to say; he would absolve him: And yet how he could do it, consist­ently with their Exposition, is what he nor I shall ever be able to comprehend.

Mr. Garden hath also a great deal about Dr Edwards, la­bouring to prove him guilty of a Self Contradiction. (that is to bring him into the same Comdemnation with himself) and withal representing him as one of the worst of Men. Whether the Doctor is really inconsistent with himself in any thing, he [Page 37]hath cited from him, is a Matter of great uncertainty with me; not having the Original, and not clearly understanding the Passages, and Remarks upon them, as they stand in Mr. Garden's Letters. However, if either Dr. Edwards, or Mr. Whitefield, or any other Gentleman, hath in fair Construction, done once, what Mr. Garden hath a great many times; con­tradicted his own self; I shall so far readily give up his Cause, It being my Motto;

Nullius Addictus Jurare in Verba Magistri.

And as for the Cry which Mr Garden and Company make against this excellent Divine of their own Communion: 'tis well known that they hate him for the same Reason which made Cain hate Abel, viz. because he was more Righteous than themselves, Adhearing Steadfastly to the Articles of the Church of England, and Reproving them for turning their Backs upon them.

Our Reverend Commissary having prov'd (as he thought) that he and those that are with him, don't hold any Merit in Good Works; and that Good Works must go before Justifica­tion, because they go before Salvation: He comes in the

3d Place to speak to the Twelfth Article of the Church of Eng­land, which Mr. Whitefield had said, was full against Good Works preceeding Justification; and which he labours to prove is not inconsistent with that Doctrine. Pag. 18. And to this purpose he observes, that the Article don't mean to exclude Good Works from going before Justification, because it hath no Ne­gative Words to exclude them For my Part, I should think, that the Article saving that Good Works are the Fruits of Faith, and follow after Justification, doth sufficiently exclude any Good Works from going before: and am persuaded he would think so too, were it not that he hath such a Kindness for them, as to bring them into the Condition of our Justification, and is not willing they should be excluded. Supposing the Article of the Church which speaks of Original Sin, had contain'd a Clause similar to this; and asserted that Men were chargea­ble with Guilt in the Sight of God, after they arrived to Years of Discretion; would not the Commissary have seen clearly that the Article intended to exclude any Sin from going before; and rejoyce that it was so full in their Favour; crying out, [Page 38] Exceptis firm at Regulam in non Exceptis. I believe that he dares not say that he would not. How unreasonable therefore is it, that he should love Darkness rather than Light? And tho' he hath Eyes given him on purpose to see with; that he should hoodwink himself least he should see what is displeasing to him?

He goes on and saith that the next following Article, entitled of Works before Justification, confirms his Assertion, viz. That the other did not mean to exclude Good Works from going before Justification. The Words are Works before the Grace of Christ, and the Inspiration of his Spirit are not pleasing to God: He asks why? And then answers in the following Clause of the Article, Because they spring not of Faith in Jesus Christ. Upon which his Remark is, that here it is plain, that by Works be­fore Justification the Article means Works that are so before it, as to be before the Grace of Christ, and consequently Faith in him; that is in a State of meer Heathenism, and Infide­lity: And therefore he inters that Works that are not so be­fore the Grace of Christ, that is, Works perform'd by all that live under the Gospel, and are not Infidels, by this Article, are suppos'd to be good and acceptable to God.

This Gentleman speaks of several trembling Fits which came upon him while he was writing his Letters; and in my Opinion this was a Place for him to have trembled in, and to have been horribly afraid. For it seems utterly im­possible, that it should enter into any Man's Heart, that the Compilers of the Article design'd to be understood in this Sense. He knows that the whole Article was level'd at the Papists, who held that Good Works, which were meritorious of Condignity or Congruity, went before Justification, and were Means of it. The meridian Sun is not plainer, to any one that reads it. And yet he would give the World to understand, that the De­sign of the Article was only to shew that the Good Works of Heathens and Infidels, were of but little Value. How­ever, if Mr. Garden will declare that he expounded this Arti­cle in the simplicity of his Heart; that he verily believes this wild romantick Sense was intended by the Authors; and that he doth not feel something within him at the same time, pu­nishing him for saying so; the Publick may have a better Opinion of his Honesty, tho' not of his Judgment. It is for a [Page 39]Lamentation, and shall be for a Lamentation, that Necessity the Mother of Invention, too often puts Men upon wresting the Articles of the Church of England, as they do the SCRIPTURES also. They know that if they will but give them a fair Construction, some beloved Error must fall to the Ground. And therefore they hunt after, and pick up such Meanings, as no Man would ever think of, to be sure would never em­brace, were it not for some present Distress. And in this Diffi­culty and Pursuit, it often befalls them, that they hit upon Meanings so uncunningly devised, that they do them full as much harm as good. So it fares with them respecting this new Sense put upon the old Article. For tho' it helps them to avoid the unwelcome Truth contained in it; yet it exposes them to have no Charity for Infidels under the Gospel; (with whom some of them, tho' I hope not Mr. Garden are in great Charity) and also to declare that the Heathen World are out of a State of Salvation: For by saying that Works that are so before the Grace of Christ, as to be in a State of Heathenism, are not pleasing to God; they do in effect say, that Hea­thens cannot please God in any Thing they do; nor conse­quently can be accepted of him: when yet the World knows they look upon moral Heathens to be in God's Favour; tho' they are heartily cursed for it by their own Church in the 18th Article; which saith; ‘They also, are to be had ACCURSED who presume to say, that every Man shall be saved by the Law or Sect which he professeth, so that he be diligent to frame his Life, according to that Law, and the Light of Nature.’ I know they have a Trick to explain away this Article also, which I shall not stop to consure, but only make this Remark upon it; viz that the Man that can use it, and keep his Countenance, whatever he is addicted to, is not much addicted to Blushing. Upon the whole of the Argu­ment, let the 12th Article be fairly, grammatically construed (and Authority commands us to construe it so) and it is im­possible but any considerate and unprejudiced Man, should see that Mr. Garden's Exposition was calculated to serve a Design; and that Mr Whitefield and the Article speak the same Things; viz. that truly Good Works follow after Justi­fication, but can never go before it.

Mr. Garden having derided the Supposition of the Coexistence of Faith and Justification, and of there being no room [...]o [...] [Page 40]Good Works between them, as dishonouring the Articles; and as of no manner of Consequence, whether true or false, so long as this Foundation is held sure, that we are justified by such a Faith as is true and lively he challenges any one to prove that the first meer Act of Faith and Justification are coexistent; and also to shew the Importance of the Doctrine if it should be true: Of which couragious, but no judicious Chal­lenge I readily accept. And

1. I shall prove, what he, either erring, or else not know­ing the Scriptures, thinks it is impossible for any Man to prove, viz. that Faith and Justification are simultaneous; or that as soon as a Man believeth in JESUS CHRIST, he is justified from all his Sins. And here I shall detach but one single Passage of the whole Army of them, which are ready to make out this Truth And that is what we read in Joh. 3.18. He that believeth is not condemned. Which shews, (it Words of the Holy Ghost can shew it) that as soon as it may be said of a Man that he Believes in JESUS CHRIST, with such a Kind of Faith as is there intended; so soon it may be said of him, that he is not condemned, but justified. I don't sup­pose this Text will signify any Thing with Mr. Garden and Friends; for they have such a knack of explaining away the Scriptures, that they care not how many of them stand in their way?

But what will they say here? Why, that by BELIEVING the Apostle means BELIEVING and WORKING too. But why will they say so? For no other Reason in the World, but because they would have it so: their Wills and not their Un­derstandings helping them to explain or rather to darken the Apostle's Words: for the Apostle seems to have guarded with all his Might, against Good Works going before Justification, to the Conviction of all Legalists in his Days, and to the End of Time: but almost to none Effect. If what he hath said will not convince these Men, I am sore nothing would. Nay, if St. Paul had said, that the first meer Act of Faith and Justifica­tion are coexistent, in so many Words; which Mr. Garden faith now is absolutely false: I say, if these had been Words of Scripture, would not he and Friends confure them as perfectly consistent with their beloved Nation of Good Works going before Justification? I doubt not but they would. Nay, I could tell the Way they would go to work in such a difficult Case.

[Page 41] Mr. Garden assures us, ‘that no one can be under any Temp­tation of disbelieving that Men are justified immediately upon their believing: and gives this very odd Reason for it, viz. Because the less we are required to do, so much the happier is it for us, who are able to do so little, and who are so unwilling to do any thing at all.’ Pag. 20

That is in other Words, Since Salvation is easier upon the Supposition that Men are justified by Faith, before the doing of Good Works, than upon Mr. Garden's Supposition, that Works are necessary before Justification; therefore any one would be rather tempted to believe the former to be right, than the latter, provided there were Grounds for it in Scripture. And I grant that were justifying Faith a Thing so scandalously cheap as the Faith of Assent is, he would be right; it would be an easier way to Heaven than his, and Men would NATURALLY hold Justification by Faith. But since justifying Faith is supposed to be a Principle infused into the Soul by the SPIRIT OF GOD, which Man can't attain to of himself, and which therefore is infinitely harder than doing dead Works, before Justification; 'tis the Difficulty of Salvation this way which makes Men naturally reject it, tho' a Man declare it unto them, and chuse Mr. Garden's way be­fore it.

For they say thus within themselves; if this infused Faith is necessary, as we know nothing of it at present, to it being out of our Power, it may be we never shall: And hence they will hold to that Way which seems most in their Power, and in spight of Scripture seek to be justifyed by the Works of the Law; tho' God himself by Inspiration assures us that by the Deeds of the Law no Flesh living shall be justified, Rom, 3.20.

Nay, I would appeal to the Consciences of Mr Garden and Abettors, whether or no the grand Cause of their Malignity against Justification by an infused Faith, be not a Fear that they are unacquainted with the Thing; and consequently an Apprehension that if the Doctrine be true, they themselves are in a State of Damnation as yet, and without so much Power to work out their own Salvation, as they chuse to think themselves possess'd of Had they comfortable Hopes that let this Doctrine be ever so true, they should run no Risque of Eternal Salvation; would they oppose the Doctrine with so much Vigour and Rage? I am sure they would not. Vast [Page 42]Allowances ought therefore to be made by their Hearers and Readers, when they find them set for the Defence of the contrary way of Justification: For it is for their Interest; by this Craft they have their Comfort: If the other Way be right, they are undone for ever: And therefore it stands them in Hand, to be zealous against it.

But with the Opposers of their Doctrine it is not so. Let it be never so Right they are not hurt by it. If this Faith should be a Whimsey (as they think and call it) yet they hold and practice Good Works, at least as much as their Bre­thren; and therefore if the Arminian Justification be the right one, they shall be justified with an Arminian Justification.

It would therefore be highly proper for Laymen, when they hear Ministers on both Sides zealously cry down each others Method of Justification, to inquire with the wise Romans, Cui bono? i. e. What Advantage they propose to themselves by their Zeal? And if they find those who preach against Justification by an infused Faith, are afraid that the Doctrine should be true; as most certainly they are, lest they should lose their Peace: And on the contrary that those Ministers, who preach down their Justification, have no Interest to pro­mote by it, but only the common Salvation; these Considera­tions ought in Reason to go a great way with them.

I am afraid Mr. Garden and Confederates, will make them­selves merry rather than serious with these Things; alledging that this Faith is a meer Nonentity, and that all the Arguments in the World, cannot give a real Existence to it. But why should they speak Evil of the Things which they know not; and sport themselves with their own Deceivings? They are sensible that the Scripture speaks almost every where of a certain Faith which doth justify. They themselves are ashamed to say that the Faith of Assent doth justify. And as to what they call justifying Faith, they know it is not properly Faith, but a compound of Faith and Works together. Would it not be their Wisdom therefore to conclude that there is some other thing which is truly JUSTIFYING FAITH, and to seek after it? They have the Testimony of thousands, and thousands, whom they must own to be as wise and as good Men as themselves, who have obtained this Mercy of the Lord: and who will tell them that they build all their Hopes upon it, counting Faith [Page 43]of Assent, and unregenerate Morality in all its Glory, to be but Loss and Dung in comparison of it.

Nay, there are many who can assure them that they them­selves in the Times of their Ignorance, were Scoffers and Mockers at the Faith of God's Elect, being elated with unsanctified Rea­son, and the Pride of Philosophy falsly so called: And that they have had their towering Thoughts and lofty Imaginations brought down to the Foolishness of an infused Faith; and that they would not be deprived of it for Millions of Worlds. Why therefore, should these Men reject it upon the Foun­dation of their own Want of Experience: for other Foundation can no Man have against it? Would not they themselves call that Debauchee a Madman, who should affirm there was no Pleasure in a religious Life, because he never found any in it? And yet this is exactly their own Case, who deny that the exceeding Greatness of God's Power is exerted upon the Souls of Believers, meerly because they are not conscious of any such blessed Operations upon their own.

Surely if they would be prevail'd upon to act as Men, and as Christians; they would be jealous over themselves with a godly Jealousy, and cry mightily to GOD, that what they know not be would teach them: giving themselves no rest till the same Spirit which worketh in others, work effectually in them also, making them Partakers of like precious Faith: Which GOD of his infinite Mercy grant unto all that are destitute of it; through JESUS CHRIST our Lord.

Which brings me to the

2d Thing, which was to shew that the Doctrine of a Man's being justified immediately upon his believing, is not only true, but a Doctrine of Importance Mr. Garden faith, that as long as this Foundation is held sure, that Men are justi­fied by a true and lively Faith, that is, a Faith actually pro­ducing Good Works; it is of no manner of Consequence whether Good Works go before Justification, or not. And I grant that there is an Appearance of Truth in what he faith: And 'tis this Deceivableness of Error, which causes many inconsiderate Persons, to conclude that 'tis not worth the while to set up one way of Justification, and to pull down the other; since both hold, that it Men don't Maintain Good Works, as well as Be­lieve, [Page 44]there will be no Heaven for them. But yet there is really a vast and amazing Difference between these two Opi­nions; that Men ARE justified as soon as they believe; and that other of Mr Garden's, viz. that Men are NOT justified so soon as they believe, nor till they have done a Number of Good Works. The Belief of the former causes Sinners to go the right Way to work in Religion, viz. to seek to God in the first Place, and with their whole Hearts, that he would reveal his Son in them, and give them that Faith in him, which intitles to his Merits, and which alone can purity their Hearts, and amend their Lives: The Belief of the latter causes Persons to treasure up an heap of Good Works in hopes, that together with the Faith of Assent (which Reprobates are capable of) they shall be render'd so acceptable to their Maker that he will be merciful to their Unrighteousness, and remember their Iniquities no more. They do indeed make mention of the Righteousness (passive) of Christ, and own that 'tis through the Merit of his Sufferings, that there is Forgiveness and Justification for them with God: But then, as was said before, they think the Way to intitle themselves to this merited Justification, is by doing Works of Righteousness To give my Sentiments freely upon this Doctrine: It leads Men from CHRIST, and [...] him. It doth not tend to make Men true Christians, but only true Pharisees. Every Preacher of it, whoever he be, is a Pharisee; and every Man begotten by him into the Be­lief of it, is himself a Pharisee, and the Son of a Pharisee. Away, away with it then [...] Rome, from whence it came: And there let it abide as long as the Sun and Moon endure; if it may not perish from under the whole Heavens through the tender Mercies of our God. Let the Friends of it but carry it back to the Land of its Nativity; and if they make no Returns or worse than none, bringing home Salt, Cream, Spittle, and other superstitious Fooleries in Li [...] of it; they will make a saving Voyage. For there is really more deadly Poison in this one Tenet of Good Works going before Justification, than there is in one half of the Popish Ceremonies put together. It is not without Reason therefore that Mr. Whitefield, and other e­minent Servants of the most high GOD, sent into the World on purpose to teach the way of Truth more perfectly, than these Men do; Cry aloud, and spare not but lift up their Voices like Trumpets against it: witnessing both to small and great, in Season, and out of Season, the Everlasting Misery and Destruction that are in its Ways.

[Page 45] These pious Gentlemen know, that the Proud have them greatly in Derision; that all manner of Evil is spoken of them falsly; and that their Names are cast out as Evil. But none of these Things move them. Nay I am perswaded, that they [...]ount not their Lives dear to themselves, so that they can but fulfil their Ministry, and testify the Gospel of the GRACE of GOD.

The great Outcry of the Clergy against them, and what makes them set the profaner Populace a roaring as them, is a Pretence that they are so full of Zeal, that they have no Charity: and yet whoever is present at their Devo­tions, and observes the vehement and flaming Love to GOD, and the Souls of Men, which runs through them all; will be ready to think, that of all Men living these Men have Cha­rity; or else that what their Enemies call Charity is a poo [...] sorry Thing, and not worth the having. And indeed there is sorrowful Occasion to observe, that Charity (as well as Faith) is quite another Thing from what it was in the Days of the A­postles. It now mostly stands for a woful Neutrality, with regard to those Truths we are bid to contend earnestly for; and consequential Belief that the Way to Heaven is very broad and easy. And accordingly those Ministers who are most formal and sleepy in the House of the living God; who are most regardless of working out their own Salvation with fear and trembling; and of taking others by the Hand, and leading them in the way in which they should go; are the most charitable Men, according to the common, and perverse Ac­ceptation of the Word. And indeed, this Thing must needs be so: For he that hardly believes there is an Heaven, will ordinarily hare any Disputes about the Way to it; and will rather charitably believe that almost all Mankind are tra­velling to Heaven, as well as himself, if there be an Heaven. Of this Charity, I readily grant Mr. Whitefield, and those o­ther Gentlemen, know but little; saving that they frequently observe and lament it in their Enemies. But then, as for St. Paul's Charity which consists in an ardent Love to GOD and CHRIST, and an unquenchable Desire after the Salvation of perishing Souls, to say the least of them, they come not a whit behind the chiefest of their Adversaries.

And inasmuch as the Pleasure of the Lord apparently prospers in their Hands; inasmuch as Ministers of all Deno­minations [Page 46]know, whether they own it, or not, that their People come away much more seriously disposed, than from hearing themselves: they ought to Rejoyce in their Labours, to grow warm from their Fire, to esteem them worthy of dou­ble Honour, and to wish them God Speed. At least they ought to be afraid of prating against them with malicious Words; of devising evil Devices; and indeed of doing any thing against these Men, lest if their Work be of God, they cannot overthrow it, but only kick against the Pricks, and at last be found fighters against God.

Mr Garden coming near the close of his Letter, rattles off Mr. Whitefield upon the old Score, of his accusing him and the Clergy of his Mind, of holding Good Works to be me­ritorious; or that Men are justified by them: telling him that he hath not prov'd this poisonous Insinuation; and that he dares not pretend to do it for these two Reasons; because he hath no Talent at proving any Thing; and because he is conscious to himself that the same Arguments which he must bring to prove Merit upon them, will help the Solifidian to prove Merit upon himself.

As to the first of them; viz his having no Talent at proving any Thing, as Mr. Garden saith of him in his haste; were this true, he might nevertheless, make out his Assertion. For there requires no Genius for Disputing, to prove so plain a Matter, as that of the indicted Clergy, holding Good Works to be meritorious; or that Men are justified by them. He needed only to have collected what they themselves have said, and then the unprejudiced Part of Mankind would have seen that they were condemned out of their own Mouths.

And then, as to Mr. Whitefield's being scared from such an Attempt, by an Apprehension of the Solifidians being upon his back, and mauling him with the same Weapons, which he must use in mauling his Clerical Brethren: I answer, this would have been fearing where no fear was.

For it will by no Means 'follow that if Mr. Garden is a Meritmonger for saving. Good Works necessarily go before Justification; that Mr. Whitefield must be one too, for ass [...]t­ing that [...] Works are necessary to Salvation: For Mr. White­field [Page 47]doth not suppose them to be so necessary to Salvation, as Mr. Garden would have them to be to Justification. The former justly thinks, that those who don't maintain Good Works, shall never see the Lord. But then he is fully of the Min that whoever truly believes, is in that Instant an Heir of the Kingdom of Heaven, and if he should die before he did one Good Work, would undoubtedly depart into the Possession of it Whereas the latter thinks that Good Works are of the Essence of Justifi­cation, and that without them no Man can be justified.

Mr. Garden looks upon Good Works as what do (at least in Part) justify: But Mr. Whitefield don't imagine that Good Works save Men in any Measure; but are only the genuine Effects of that which doth instrumentally save them, i. Faith. So that since Good Works are not so necessary to Salvation ac­cording to Mr. Whitefield, as they are to Justification, according to Mr. Garden; nor necessary in the same Manner; it is abundantly evident, that Mr. Whitefield's Arguments against the Clergy upon the Point of Merit, could not have been improv'd against himself by the Solifidians. And yet Mr. Garden is so perswaded to the contrary, that he gives his Word and Honour, that in Case it can be shewn, that he can defend himself against a Charge of Merit, from Solifidians, better than himself and Friends can from the same Charge brought by him against them; he will turn Methodist, the next Moment. Which Promise he is Here by these Presents, desired to remember, and to make good.

I purposely omit making any Answer to what follows in this Letter about Fire, Fagot, Jesuits, Deists, Persecution &c. because there is nothing material contained in these Para­graphs, that needs answering; and also because I have been so long already in discussing other Matters.

In his Postscript; he desires Mr. Whitefield to help out Mr. Wesley against a Self Contradiction which he endeavours to prove upon him from two Expressions cited from him. Concerning which I would remark, that the Contradiction, is only a seeming. and not a real one. Describing the Faith which justifies he asserts that it is not dead; but inclusive of all Good Works, and all Holiness. Serm. By Grace ye are saved through Faith. Pag. 14. And in his Preface to his Hymns, Pag 5. [Page 48]Shewing how we are justified, he declares that it is by Faith which produces Good Works or Holiness, but vet not by Faith as it includes Good Works or Holiness. The short of what Mr. Wesley faith, and means is this; That JUSTIFYING FAITH includes (or produceth) Good Works; but then when we consi [...]t it as strictly justifying, we must not consider it, as including Good Works: o [...], lumping FAITH and WORKS together, as Mr. Garden and his Brethren for eve [...] do.

Thus Sir, I have comply'd with the one half of your Desire, and must be excused as to the rest; since I am much cum­ber'd with Business, and have wrote more upon the first three Letters, than I thought I should upon the whole six

I know nothing of the Gentleman who is the Author, as to his Person; but will venture to affirm, that however power­ful his bodily Presence may be, his Letters are certainly weak.

I am SIR, Your Friend and Humble Servant, A. Croswell.
[Page 49]

AN APPENDIX, Concerning the Rev. Mr. GARDEN'S Treatment of his Christian Brother the Rev. Mr. WHITEFIELD.

THE Occasion of this Appendix is that vain glorious Paragraph in Mr. Commissary's Third Letter, dated at Charlestown April 8. 1740, in the following Words—‘But still PERSECUTION—you cry out; — for WANT of it you mean: For OURS is NO Persecuting Country for Religion; EVERY MAN may enjoy HIS OWN WAY in PEACE and SAFETY. But as you may regard the being Persecuted as something essential to a true Christian, and ne­cessary to keep up the Spirit of Christianity, you seem to be in Quest and Pursuit of it; Please only to step into a Neighbour­ing Country, SPAIN or PORTUGAL, and you'l hid fair, I dare say, to find it.

And now we'l see how long the Rev. Mr. Garden will keep his Rev. and Christian Brother Whitefield in WANT of Perse­cution; and how long the Bishop's Commissary will maintain the King's Province of South Carolina, to be no Persecuting Country for Religion; how long every Man may enjoy his own way there in Peace and Safety; and how long his pious and excellent Brother Clergyman Mr. Whitefield had need of stepping into Spain or Portugal, to find out Persecution. For

I. As Ishmael's MOCKING Isaac, Gen. 21.9 is by the inspired Apostle thus described, Gal. iv. 29. As then be that was born after the Flesh PERSECUTED him that was born after the Spirit; even so it is NOW. I may for the same Reason assert the [Page 50]same Thing both of the present Age and of the present Case—Even so it is NOW. Or it Mockings, Scoffs and Jeers of the Pious and Rev. Mr. Whitefield for his strict Adherence to the Holy Scriptures, as well as the Articles and Homi [...]ies of the Church of England, in the great Point of Justifica­tion by Faith in Christ, and by this Faith alone; be Perse­cution: Then Mr. Garden has Persecuted Mr. Whitefield; as Ishmael Persecuted Isaac.

To make this evident, I shall here set down some of Mr. Commissary's bitter Words and Scoffings in his Third & Fifth Letters, as follow — LETTER III. Dated April 8.

In Page 8. Mr. Commissary charges Mr. Whitefield with 'wilful and malicious Slander'. Pag 9. 'Your Reve­rence'. — Apparent Shuffle'. Pag. 12. 'Your Reve­rence'. — Not without Shuffle — Thus your Reverence'. Pag. 13. 'Arrogant and wicked Slander in you— Miserable Distinction, a poor Jingle of Words — A Wrang­ler in your own Way'. Pag 14 'Your Mob Harangues— Guilty of wilful Slander'. — Nonsense'.

In Page 16, 17, 18 are Mr. Garden's following Flouts on the late Rev. Learned, Pious and highly esteemed Dr Edwards, one of the principal Ornaments of the Church of England in his Day, and doubtless now in Glory. — Page 16. 'Sense­less Distinction'.—'Silly Subterfuges'.—'Rare Champion of Grace!'—'Wonderful Fears!' Pag. 17. 'A very sorry Decision'.—'His Apprehension of the Matter is absurd'. Pag. 18. 'Sanctified Logick out of all Question!' — 'Arrant Piece of Nonsense'.

Then Mr. Comm [...]ssary returns to Mr. Whitefield, with the following reviling and jeering Passages, Pag. 20. 'You reach and deceive the People'.—'Your poisoned Insinuation; false and insidious!' ‘—You have no Talent at proving any Thing.’‘Up starts a hair-brain'd Solifidian, &runs about a Mouthing—’. Pag. 21, 22 ‘Lay your Hand on your Mouth! Nay rather open it wide, and recall the Slan­der you have scattered far and wide around you’‘The Fire you have kind [...]ed is that of Slander and Defamation [...] a Fire which no Devil in Hell, no nor Jesuit nor Deist on Earth will ever go about to extinguish, but fagot and foment it with all their Might—’ Is it not you that falsely accuse [Page 51]the Brethren? '—Pursue the first Plan you amused the World with'.— ‘But why poor Gentleman are you thus to be Ban­tered? Are you not really Persecuted? Are you not cast out of the Synagogues; excluded the Church of England Pulpits; and treated as a Disciple of Fox or MUGGLETON? And is not all this PERSECUTION? But for what Cause ARE YOU THUS TREATED? Why only for the trifling Cause of accusing the Clergy &c.’— 'Will your Reverence be pleased &c.'

Mr. Commissary's IVth LETTER, dated April 15. is about an Anonymous Pamphlet, which he says He presumes not to know whether Mr. Whitefield approves of all and every Thing it con­tains. But in his Vth Letter, dated April 21. Mr. Commissary readily returns to the same kind of abusive Language, in the following Passages:

Pag. 32. ‘Had you observed common Decency or good Manners — But your contrary Behaviour, exposes you to the utmost Scorn & Contempt.’‘You know how, pretend­ing the Cause of God, to bring railing Accusations, to sup­port some Crotchets you have got in your own Brains.’ Pag. 33. ‘You know how to dispense it to the Populace in a Vehicle of cant Terms, without Sense or Meaning.’ Pag. 35. 'Arrant Gibberish!' Pag. 36. 'Your monstrous Inference'. —'You love dearly to shuffl [...]e among Terms'.—‘Alas my old Friend, whether is your poor Head now a wandering?’‘In your Mountebank Way, you have young David like, as you fancy, slain your Geliah.‘In the Pride and Naugh­tiness of your Heart, you have made so absurd an Attempt and so foolishly manag'd it.’ — 'Your dirty Pamphlets'. Pag. 36, 37. ‘But might not one such Conquest have sufficed you, as it did young David, at a Time? No, your noble Spirit scorns only to imitate, but must excel. No sooner have you dispatch'd this Champion of the un­circumcised in Heart and Ears; but advancing from a David into a Knight of Lamanca, you go straight in Pur­suit of new Adventures! And who unhappily falls in your Way, but another Son of Anak, the Author of the Whole Duty of Man? Down he must come; — and thus you gird your self for the Battle.’ Pag. 37. ‘Choice Ar­mour indeed! who shall be able to stand before you? None sure but the Pope and the Mufti — a mo [...]ly Tri­umvirate [Page 52]of Infallibles! Your Reverence, the Pope and the Mufti — most consummate Assurance, wherewith you jointly and severally disturb and confound the World’ — 'Who dares dispute your Infallibility'. Pag 38. ‘Thus an elder Brother of yours, the ever memorable GEORGE Fox, an Infallible also in his Day, to whom God had given the true Knowledge of the Doctrines of Grace.’‘Your Reverence.’—'Another noble Champion of Grace'. —'Your 'Reverence'.—'This Brother Champion of yours'. Page 39. 'Your Infallibility'. — 'Enlighren'd with your Reve­rence'. Pag 40. ‘Have you not been dabling with the Marrow of modern Divinity, or some such precious Book, which puz­zles your Head, and lies crude on your Understanding? Or are you deputed by some other Head or Hand behind the Curtain, to put off such Stuff upon the World? Or finally, do you really mean to burlesque the Bible &c.’

I might recite other Passages; but am weary of them, and so I believe is the Christian Reader. But on the whole, I would ask, whether this is the Language of a grave, meek and humble Minister and Disciple of JESUS; or of a Bishop's Commissary? Exalted with a secular Dignity over, and look­ing down with Scorn upon his pious and labourious Brother; and a Brother flaming with a wondrous Zeal, and spending his Strength more than all other Men in these Parts of the World, for the Conversion of Souls, and Recovery of the Church of England to those Pure Doctrines of Grace and Justifi­cation; for which her first Reformers gloriously suffered Mar­tyrdom; but which Mr. Commissary now Derides, and says the present Clergy of the Church of England are of the same Opi­nion with him: tho' both He and They have all solemnly declared their unfeigned Assent to the contrary.

And as when there was a Strife among the First Ministers of CHRIST, which of them should be accounted the Greatest — JESUS called them to him and said, ye know that the Princes of the Gentiles exercise DOMINION over them; and they that are Great exercise AUTHORITY upon them; but IT SHALL NOT BE SO AMONG YOU, Luk. xxii. and Math. xx. So Mini­sters of a worldly Spirit, have in all Ages affected worldly Dominion and Authority; like even those first Ministers of CHRIST, for which he justly blamed them; and like the Princes [Page 53]and other great Ones among the Gentiles, which he forbids them in the least to imitate lin the Exercise of Dominion and Authority. A most wise and gracious Prohibition! As all Ages restisy; who have always found that the raising the Ministers of Christ to worldly Dominion and Authority, has rais'd their Pride, and made them Worldly, nourished their spiteful Passions, ruined their humble Character; and given them a dreadful Scope to wreak their Malice and Revenge on those beneath them. And none in the World have so cruelly used their Power as Clergymen invested with a worldly Dominion and Authority.

The BRITISH COLONIES have indeed till now been hap­pily free from their terrible Dominion. But whoever considers the Spirit which Mr Garden shows in the above Expressions, will be apt to think that he only wanted a Power and Opportunity to vex his Rev and Pious Brother in a more grievous Manner. And it is not long ere the Commissary finds an Opportunity, and readily lays hold on it, to make Mr. Whitefield know and feel his Power. As we in the

II. Place proceed to show. For in the latter End of June following Mr. Whitefield goes from the Province of Georgia into the Province of South Carolina. On Thursday July 3. enters Charlestown. The next Day being Friday July 4, receives a Letter from the Commissary, which Mr. Whitefield immediately answers. On Saturday July 5, Preaches twice: and Lord's Day July 6 twice more. On the same Day he goes to Church both Forenoon and Afternoon: and as Mr. Whitefield writes in the following Words—‘I heard the Commissary Preach as virulent and unorthodox, inconsistent Dis­course, as ever I heard in my Life. His Heart seemed full of Choler and Resentment: Out of the Abundance thereof, he poured forth so many bitter Words against the Methodists (as he called them) in general, and Me in particular, that several who intended to receive the Sacrament at his Hands, withdrew. Never I believe was such a Preparation Sermon preach'd before. I could not help thinking the Preacher was of the same Spirit with Bishop Gardner in Queen Mary's Days. After Sermon he sent his Clerk to desire me not to come to the Sacrament, till he had spoke with me — I immediately retired to my Lodging, rejoycing that I was [Page 54]accounted worthy to suffer this further Degree of Contempt for my dear Lord's Sake. Blessed Jesus lay it not to the Com­missary's Charge. Amen and Amen.’

Upon this I appeal to every impartial Reader, whether Mr. Commissary had not by this preceeding Management utterly disqualified Himself from being look'd upon as an impartial Judge over a Brother Clergyman, whom he had so openly and opprobriously Reviled?

But the more the Commissary rails, the more his People grow offended, and the more they leave him, and grow more cager of hearing another sort of Preaching and another sort of Language in the meek and humble Person reviled. And Mr. Whitefield being denied the Priviledge of Preaching in the Church of England, tho' desired by great Numbers of that So­ciety: where, when ever he officiates, he always uses the Common Prayer Book and conforms thereto; as he accounts himself obliged, when in the Episcopal Churches: At the Desire of the People, he Pray'd and Preach'd in the Presby­terian Meeting House: and accounting himself not obliged by Law to use the Common Prayer Book in them, be Pray'd without it. Upon which the very next Day, viz Monday July 7. Mr. Commissary could bear no longer, but begins the Exercise of his COMMISSARIAL Dominion and Authority in the follow­ing Writ or Order.

ALexander Garden lawfully constituted Commissary of the Right Reverend Father in CHRIST, Edmund, by divine Permission, Lord Bishop of London, supported by the Royal Authority, underwritten.

Alexander Garden,
TO all and singular Clerks, and literate Persons whom­soever, in and throughout the whole Province of South-Carolina, wheresoever appointed Greeting;

To you conjunctly and severally, we commit, and strictly injoining, command that you do cite, or cause to be cited, peremptorily George Whitefield, Clerk; and Presbyter of the Church of England, that he lawfully appear before us, in the Parish-Church of St. Phillip's Charlestown, and in the judicial Place of the same, on Tuesday, the 15 Day of this Instant July, 'twixt the Hours of 9 & 10 in the Forenoon, then and there in Justice to answer to certain Articles, Heads, or Interro­gatories which will be objected, and ministred unto him concerning THE MERE HEALTH OF HIS SOUL, and the [Page 55]REFORMATION, and CORRECTION OF HIS MANNERS, and EXCESSES, and CHIEFLY for OMITTING TO USE THE FORM of PRAYERS PRESCRIBED IN THE COMMU­NION BOOK.—And further to do and receive what shall be just in that Behalf on Pain of Law and Contempt.— And what you shall do in the Premisses, you shall duly certify us, together with these Presents.

Vera Copia.

But early this Monday Morning July 7, Mr. Whitefield had set out to Ashley Ferry, about 14 Miles from Charlestown; where he preached at the Baptist Meeting House. Tuesday July 8. to Dorchester; where he Preached twice in the In­dependent Meeting House. Wednesday July 9, in the Fore­noon, he preach'd near the Meeting House there again; and returning to Charlestown, preach'd in the Evening there also, Thursday July 10 went over the Water; read Prayers, & preach'd at the Request of the Church Wardens, Vestry, at Christ's Church; in the Evening return'd to Charlestown. And Friday July 11. he there preach'd twice again: In all these Places at the Desire of great Numbers, and with great Labour, Fatigue, Acceptance and Success. But while this extraordinary Person is taking all these Pains for the good of Souls; the Commissary is laying his Schemes to molest and vex him: And on the Dav last mentioned, Mr. Whitefield receiv'd from the Com­missary by the Hands of his Apparitor the following CITATION.

YOU are hereby cited to appear at the Church of St. Philip's Charlestown, on Tuesday the 15 day of this instant July betwixt the Hours of 9 and 10 in the Fore­noon, before the Rev. Alexander Garden Commissary, to answer to such Articles, as shall there be objected to you.

Wm. Smith, Apparitor.

In the mean while — Mr. Whitefield goes on in his laborious Work. On Saturday July 12. he goes upon Invita­tion to John's Island about 20 Miles up the River, Reads Pray­ers in the Church, preaches twice, and returns to Charlestown. Lord's Day July 13. in the Morning and Evening he preaches [Page 56]there again; and in the Forenoon went to Church, and heard the Commissary preac [...]e; where, as Mr Whitefield well observes — ‘Had some infernal Spirit been sent to draw my Picture, I think it scarcely possible he could paint me in more hor­rid Colours. I think if ever, then was the Time that all manner of E [...]il was spoke against me falsly for Christ's sake; The Commissary seem'd to ransack Church History for In­stances of Enthusiasm and abused Grace; he drew a Parallel between me, and all the Oliverians, Ranters, Quakers, French Prophess, till he came down to a Family of the Du [...]arts, who lived (not many Years ago) in South Carolina, and were guilty of the most notorious Incests, and Murders. To the Honour of God's free Grace be it spoken, whilst he was representing me thus, I felt the blessed Spirit strength­ning and refreshing my Soul: God at the same Time gave me to see what I was by Nature, how I had deserved his eternal Wrath, and therefore I did not feel the least Re­sentment against the Preacher; no, I pitied, I prayed for him, and wish'd from my Soul, that the Lord would con­vert him, as he did once the Persecutor Saul, and let him know, that 'tis JESUS whom he persecutes.

Monday July 14. Mr Whitefield preaches twice again. Tues­day July 15 He appear'd according to the Citation in the Parish Church of St. Philip's and in the Judicial Place in the Forenoon: where were many Spectators; and the Rev. Mr. COMMISSARY, and the Rev Mr. Guy, Millichamp, Roe and Orr, sat as Judges. The Commissary tendering a Paper, desires Mr Whitefield's Answer to those Articles: But Mr. Whitefield refused taking [...] fied of the Authority of the Court in Question. The Commissary then said, They would proceed to Censure. Upon which Mr Whitefield reminded them of the Example of the Heathen Magistrates, who exceeded their Authority in Con­demning and Scourging St. Paul being a Roman, unheard. After a short Debate the Commissary sent his Apparitor to his House for [...] Commission to act as Commissary from the Lish [...]p of London Upon Mr. Whitefield's Reading it, he desires to be satisfied of the [...]shop of London's Authority in that Pro­vince, not finding the Royal Authority underwritten, as men­tion'd in his Citation Upon this a Latin Commission without a S [...]l was Read. And Mr. Whitefield objected, That tho' there [...]ght be a GENERAL POWER given the Bishop to ex [...] E [...] ­ [...]siastical [Page 57]Jurisdiction in that Province; yet the EXTENT of that Power was to be determined by PARTICULAR ACTS of ASSEM­BLY. Mr. Whitefield further urged, that a Court of this [...] was intirely unprecedented in AMERICA; that be belong'd to GEORGIA, a different Province, not under the Commissary's Power, and was at SOUTH CAROLINA only as an [...]. He also added that tho' he had preach'd in the Fields near London some Months, yet the Bishop never attempted to exercise such Authority over him — that the Commissarys in Maryland and Penfilvania were meer Cyphers — that the Trustees, to his Knowledge. Questioned the Bishop of London's having any Juris­diction in those Parts — and that he desired he might have till To-morrow 9 o'Clock, the Time to which the Court was adjourn'd, to inform himself of the Extent of their Ecclesiasti­cal Jurisdiction in that Province: And tho' at first the Com­missary said, He had indulg'd Mr. Whitefield too far already; yet after some Consideration granted his Request, and adjourn'd. And Mr. Whitefield preach'd twice more that Day in Charistown.

Wednesday July 16. At 10 in the Morning, Mr. White­field appeared; and by the Advice of his Friends, exhibited a Recusatio Judicis, that is, his Exception against the COMMISSA­RY'S being his Judge in this Cause; having too great Reason to believe the Commissary prejudic'd against him. At first the Com­missary refused to Read it. At length he took Mr. Whitefield's Paper, read it to himself, and said, He wou'd not except it Mr. Whitefield then stood up according to Law a [...]d said he would go and Protest against all further Proceedings as null & void, and lest the Court: But being called back by the Appariter and Register, he return'd, and gave in his Exception, to be Read and Filed. By this time the Commissary had gotten Mr. Gra­ham an Attorney to appear in behalf of the Court, who insisted on having the Exceptions tried in Court: But as according to La [...] Mr Whitefield had referred them to the Examininaion of six Arbitrators, 3 nominated by him, and 3 by the Commissary; Mr. Whitefield's Attorney Mr. Rutledge in his Behalf, Protested against all further Proceedings, and against his appearing at the next Court, till the Reference to Arbitrators was complied with: it being quite improbable to imagine that the Commissary, who must be judged if the Exceptions should be tried by that Court, should allow himself prejudiced. — Mr. Whitefield being de­sire: then went to James Island and read Prayers and Preach­ed, and stay'd all Night.

[Page 58] Next Day, viz. Thursday July 17, He return'd, and by his Attorney's Advice appear'd in Court again, to see if his Excep­tions were admitted to Arbitration, according to Law, [...] Repelled. And finding his Exceptions REPELLED, and his Attorney stop­ped, as he was rising up to invalidate what the other Attorney said; Mr. Whitefield APPEALED to HIS MAJESTY in the High Court of Chancery, and declared all other Proceedings in that Court against him to be null and void. Which caused many to re­joyce and give Thanks to God on his Behalf.

Friday July 18, and Saturday July 19, He Preached twice each Day again at Charlestown. And Saturday after the After­noon Exercise, being desired by the Apparitor to go to the Commissary; Mr. Whitefield went: and at his Desire to sware he wou'd lodge his Appeal within a Twelve Month, and to De­posite Ten Pounds Sterling, and finding the Commissary's Orders gave him Authority to require it; Mr. Whitefield took the Oath, and promised to leave Ten Pounds in the Hands of a Friend &c.

And thus Ends this famous & FIRST Ecclesiastical or rather Clergical Court in the BRITISH COLONIES. But what a Thou­sand Pities, that it was not the first Time erected, to punish some notorious Immorality or other either in the Episcopal Clergy or People, to whom alone it belongs, and among whom, as well as others, there are notorious Immoralities enough abounding in all the Colonies? Or if an Episcopal Clergyman must be the primary Object of this Commissarial Power & Severity; what a thousand Pities, that their First Court was not erected to pu­nish some or other for Playing at Cards and Dice, or haunting Taverns, or too much constant Drinking, or some other Misde­meanour, which they need not take much Pains to find or prove.

But instead of this—To begin with a young Clergyman of such extraordinary Sanctity of Manners, and of such slaming Zeal to promote the highest Degrees of Piety, as we find none superiour since the Apostles Days — It cannot possibly re­commend these Courts to the Esteem of the British Colonies; but rather to their universal and great Displeasure. For tho' the common People in EUROPE are generally so ignorant and weak as to hug the Chains of the Clergy, and keep them on as fast and long as possible — the AMERICANS live in a freer Air, more generally taste the Sweets of Liberty; and being nearer an Equality of Birth and Wealth, there being Land enough for every industrious Person; there are fewer a­mong them in Dependance on others, they are generally more [Page 59]knowing than the common People in EUROPE; and are not like for several Ages, or as long as this near Equality remains, to desire the Dominion of the Clergy over them

Upon viewing the Terms of the WRIT, I believe there is scarce a Man of common Sense in all the Colonies that can forbear smiling to read of the mighty heinous Articles ob­jected to the Pious and Rev. Mr WHITEFIELD—concerning the meer HEALTH of HIS SOUL and the REFORMATION and CORRECTION OF HIS MANNERS and Excrsses; and CHIEFLY [CHIEFLY] [...]or OMITTING to use the Form of Prayers prescribed in the Communion Book Tho' every Man of common Know­lege among us knows that the Form of Prayers prescribed in the Communion Book, was Prescribed to be used only in Episcopal Churches or Chapels: and not Prescribed to be used in other Congregations, either in England or America. And how hugely does this Affair concern the mee [...] HEALTH of Mr White­field's SOUL and the Reformation and Correction of his Manners? Tho' this Omission, even in a Presbyterian Congregation, is the chief Thing to be objected to this most labourious Brother Minister; and for such an Omission chiefly or only, the Commissary has put Mr. Whitefield to near Two Hundred Pounds Sterling Charge, which I suppose is near Two Thousand Pounds Carolina Currency, to carry his Appeal to England, and main­tain it There.

And is not such a prodigious Expence as this a grievous Persecution? or is Mr. Commissary so full of Humanity as to account it no Persecution at all?— the Crime so great, and the Fine so little! —I said the Fine; For tho' strictly speaking, it may not be called a Fine; it is in Reality E­qually heavy on the helpless Sufferer. And I do not see but it is in the Power of the Commissary and the rest of his Brethren, to put Mr. Whitefield or any other Episcopalian, offensive to them, to the like Expence even every Year, by forcing him to Appeal to England till they utterly ruin him: and then he must lie down under thei [...] Power. But as, alas, it is not One in a Hundred in the British Colonies that can bear the Expence of Appealing to England; the Power of this Commissarial Court in America, seems to be in effect, to the most, Supream and So­vereign. Or if the Commissaries should say — ‘You that are able, or have able Friends to help you, need never put your selves or them to the ruinous Expence of Appealing to England; This seems no more than to say, ‘You had [Page 60]better lie down & submit to us, as your Sovereign or Dernier Power’ And I see no Way for the Episcopalians in the British Colonies to get rid of this Power, but either by joining with the Presbyterians; or by lowly Submissions making Friends with their COMMISSARIES; or by obtaining the Grace of the KING and PARLIAMENT to allow of Appeals from the COM­MISSARIAL Courts in America, to the CIVIL JUDICATORIES in the several Colonies; where the People will not be afraid to be severely Punished for Trifles; and where they will be apt to expect Humanity and common Justice.

In the mean while, we congratulate Mr. Garden for taking such effectual Care so soon to Prove —That Mr Whitefield cries out for WANT of PERSECUTION; and that South Carolina is no Persecuting Country for Religion; but that every Man [even Mr. WHITEFIELD] may enjoy his own Way [even of Praying in a Presbyterian Congregation without the Communion Book] in Peace and Safety; and if Mr. Whitefield wants PER­SECUTION, He must [alter all this,] even st [...]p into SPAIN or PORTUGAL, to find it. For Mr. Garden's Commissarial Pro­secution does not near arise to his dear Doctor Sach [...]s WHOLSOME SEVERITIES; i e. but wholesome Medicines for the me [...]r HEALTH of the SOUL.

To be Corrected.

Page.Line.Read.
415assected
96Si [...]eleth comes out,
2013DILIGENTLY
2913Good Works
3610Canorized
FINIS.

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