Adam's Losing, and CHRIST's Saving all their Seed. A SERMON Preached at the LECTURE in East-Haddam, June 12th. 1734.

By George Beckwith, A.M. Pastor of the Third Church in Lyme.

Rom. 5.15.

For if thro' the offence of one many be dead, much more the grace of God, and the gift by grace, which is by one man, Jesus Christ, hath abounded unto many.

Ver. 19.

For as by one man's disobedience many were m [...] sinners: so by the obedience of one shall many b [...] [...] righteous.

BOSTON: Printed by [...]


TO My much Respected, and worthy Friends, Deacon Daniel Brainard, And Deacon Isaac Spencer, Both of East-Haddam


YOUR repeated request, the reasons you have offer'd, together with the importunity of some other my Friends, have at length pre­vailed with me to grant you a Copy of that Sermon, I preach'd some time ago, at your Lecture: In doing which, I have preferr'd your judgment before my own; and have sought to grati­fy you herein, rather than to please my self.

For to me it appears, that I have little consulted my own Reputation herein. The World will censure me, for ap­pearing at all in Print, who am but of yesterday; and the Copy which I have here sent you, is one, but hastily corrected, which some time ago I transcribed for the use of a private Person only; being by an extraordinary dispensation of Providence (of which you heard) pre­vented [Page] from preparing a more correct Copy for you, as I had given encouragement to do; however, I don't think it worth while for me to go about to excuse my self, by telling under what disadvantages this comes forth; nor yet, by declaring to the World, my unwillingness to come into this. You Sirs, and other my Friends, know how the matter was; And I hope it now is, and ever will be, more my concern, that I be able to give a goal account to God, and my own Conscience than to any Man on Earth.

I have made little alteration in this Copy from what you heard me preach; and doubt not, but that it is the truth, which I ought to teach and maintain, tho' it ap­pears in a very plain dress, and will find but a very indifferent reception with many. And indeed, your pious zeal and forwardness to promote the spreading & establish­ing of these Truths, in which you are so well established, and built up, hath been a principal motive with me, to adventure thus to expose my self.

And I hope it will still be your care, as well as mine, to do what you may for the propagating and maintain­ing these fundamental Truths, which are but growing out of fashion at this Day.

But if it will please God (who can work by any means) by his Grace and Blessing, to make this mean Essay serviceable, for the promoting and establishing of his Truth in the Minds and Hearts of any, that his great Name may have the Glory, and precious Souls the benefit, then your end in Printing, and mine in Writing, will be attain'd.

I am, SIRS, Your sincere Friend and Servant, G. B.

Life lost in Adam; and Regained in JESUS CHRIST.


For as in Adam all die, even so in Christ shall all be made alive.

THE great Subject which the Apostle is principally treating of in this Chap­ter, is the Doctrine of the Resurrection, which he asserts and establisheth by sundry Arguments, principally drawn from the Resurrection of Christ, where­in having first proved that Christ is certainly risen, he thence infers that the dead shall certainly rise, which is an incon­testable proof of the Resurrection, especially of all good Men; for Christ is their federal Head, they mem­bers of his Body mystical, and if the Head be risen, it is certain the members shall rise also; yea Christ's Re­surrection is the earnest and first fruits of ours. Ver. 20. But now is Christ risen from the dead, and become the first fruits of them that slept.

[Page] [...] from it, ver [...] [...] Death, by Man came also the Resurrection of the dead.

And he further illustrates and confirms this in my Text, For as in Adam all die, even so in Christ shall all be made alive; i. e. as thro' the Sin of the first Adam all Men became mortal, because all derive from him the same sinful Nature;—so through the obedience and merits of Christ, shall all that are made partakers of the divine Nature, be made both alive and immortal. All that died, died in Adam, all that ever are made alive, are made alive in Jesus Christ.

But in the Words we may further,

1. Observe, The Persons treated of, viz Adam and the Lord Jesus Christ; the first and the second Adam.

2. Observe, That both are spoken or treated of, as publick Persons, Heads, or Representatives. And this is evident from the form of the Apostle's reasoning, wherein he shews that Adam did not act in a single capacity for himself alone, but as a publick Head for all mankind, therefore is it that all die in him; i. e. as in their publick Head: For in no other sense could they die in him. And that the Lord Jesus Christ was and is such a publick Person, not only the Apostle here, but also the whole Gospel witnesseth.

3. Observe, The influence, and effects, that the acts and doings of these publick Persons had, and have on those they represent and act for, viz. Death and Life. Adam conveys Death to all he acted for: Jesus Christ Life to all his. In Adam all die, i. e not only be­came guilty with him in the first Sin conveyed to them in the channel of natural Generation, to the exposing all his progeny to temporal and eternal Death; but [Page] the Phrase also denote, the conveyance of such a coruption of Nature so communicated to all who abide in him, as is daily working Death in them.

But now! the Lord Jesus Christ coming in as Man's second common and covenant Head, for his deliver­ance from this Death, and fulfilling both the penal and preceptive parts of the Law, hath hereby abolished this Death, and purchased for his People a title to spi­ritual and eternal Life; which by his Grace and Spirit he conveys & communicates in effectual Vocation to all, as many as the Father hath given him.

And so a Number of those who were dead in Adam, are thus again recover'd and made alive in Christ Jesus.

The Doctrine then is plainly this, viz.

DOCT. That as Adam brought in, and communicates Death to all his natural Seed: So the Lord Jesus Christ hath brought in, and communicates Life to all his spiritual Seed. Text, As in Adam all die, so in Christ shall all be made alive; i. e. all that ever are made alive.

I shall endeavour to illustrate and clear up this Doctrinal Truth, by speaking to these five things con­tained in it, viz.

PROP. I. That both Adam and Jesus Christ, were treated with, and acted as publick Persons, Heads, or Representatives.

PROP. II. That both Adam and Jesus Christ had, and have a Seed, whom they so represented and acted for.

PROP. III. That as both Adams had, and have a Seed▪ so both their acts and influences are communicated to their Seed.

PROP. IV. That the one of these publick Heads con­veys Death with all the cursed influence of original Sin and Pollution: The other conveys Life with all the fruits of Grace, and blessings of Salvation to his Seed.

[Page 4]PROP. V. That each of these communications are made much in the same way and manner.

PROP. I. That both Adam and Jesus Christ, were treated with, and acted as publick Persons, Heads, or Representatives.

And in this respect Adam was indeed a Type of Christ, did represent and resemble him, and is so spoken of in the Scripture on this account, Rom. 5 14.—Which was the figure of him that was to come. Adam was the Head of the first Covenant; and so was treated with, for and instead of all Mankind. He was the common Head and surety of all Mankind, acted for them, and represented them, as the Deputy of a Town, Colony, or any Corporation acts for, and represents those who choose and send him.

God was pleased to call and appoint him to this Office, to treat with him in a Covenant way as such a common Head and publick Person; did so plight a Covenant with him, wherein Adam became ingaged for, and charged with all his Children that should de­scend from him; that he was to act for them, and they to stand to what their Covenant Head did: If he should punctually obey, his Obedience was to be ours too, and we to receive the benefit, if he should disobey, the act was to be ours too; we must stand and fall in our federal Head, we were in his Loins, he our Root in which we grew, and we acted in him, or with him, or by him. This is evidently implied in the Text, and further cleared up in other paragraphs of holy writ, particularly in Rom. 5.12, 17, 18. Here the Apostle plumply asserts that Sin came into the World by Adam, and Death by Sin; and that this Death hath passed or fallen on all Men, for that all have sinned, i. e. in Adam their publick Head. And in the 17 and 18 verses, he tells us to what sad Effect this hath passed on all, even unto Condemnation: And that this Death hath a sovereign power over, or reigning influence in the Hearts of Men, that they die in Adam daily.

[Page]Thus the holy Scripture looks upon, or represents all Men in their natural or unregenerate State, dead in Adam, and condemned with him in Law. But how could this be, were he not our publick Head, were he not so looked upon & treated with in the first Covenant? Where would be the Justice of such a conveyance of Sin, Guilt, and Death, to all his Posterity? Besides 'tis evident he did stand in the place of such a publick Person, and acted as such, because the Scriptures speak of him as such an one, placing him in opposition to Christ who is the second publick Head: So in the 47th ver. of our Context, The first Man is of the Earth earthy, the second Man is the Lord from Heaven.

And what! Tho' Mankind was not then capable to depute him to this Office by their own Choice, or Vote; yet infinite Wisdom knew, who was the fittest Person to be deputed to this publick Trust, and therefore could make as wise a Choice for us, as we could have made for our selves; and 'tis clear the fittest Person was in fact Chosen; so that we can't complain of any injustice done us on this account.

Well! As Adam, so Jesus Christ is also a publick Head and Representative: he is Head of the second, as Adam was of the first Covenant. Christ is the Head of all the Elect; he was treated with as such, acted for them, suffered for them, bea [...] the Wrath of God in their room and stead, [...]ied the just for the unjust, their Sins were charged to him, layed upon him; and he bear the punishment of them, Isai. 53.5, 6. And the Lord hath laid on him the Iniquity of us all.

The Elect were in the eternal Decree, involved and wrap'd up with Christ in the first Covenant, even from Eternity, Eph. 1.4 And as soon as Man fell, Christ actually undertook for all the Elect, became surety to his Father on their account, that so by his own per­sonal acts, he might do away Sin and present his Elect to the Father guiltless and blameless in and by his own sufferings and merits. And God was pleased to accept him as such a Surety, and to plight such a Co­venant [Page 6] with him, and publickly declares his royal ac­ceptance and approbation of Christ in this Office, when he did actually appear in the World, to execute that for which he had so undertaken, as in Mat. 3.17. And lo, a Voice from Heaven, saying, this is my beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased.

And it was by virtue of this early undertaking of Christ, as a publick Head, and his becoming security to the Father for all the Elect, that the Patriarchs and holy Men of old were saved. For inasmuch as he was become Surety, and was to obey and suffer for them in time; the Law therefore looked on all that were in him thro' believing, as having really suffered the penalty and yielded the obedience required, and so as having fulfilled the Law of the first Covenant; be­cause Christ was become Surety, had put in his Bond for us; become engaged to Justice to do all for his Elect, when the fulness of time should come.

And thus also when he did actually come in the Flesh, and did in our Nature obey and suffer, he did this as a publick Person for us, in our room and stead: Hence that 2 Cor. 5.21. For God hath made him to be Sin for us who knew no Sin, that we might be made the righteousness of God in him.

And he now appears before the Father in Heaven as our publick Head, he is there our Advocate to plead our Cause, present our Services, and to procure for us all that good which we stand in need of, and pray for. So the Apostle teacheth, 1 John 2.1. We have an Ad­vocate with the Father, Jesus Christ the righteous.


PROP. II. That Both Adam and Jesus Christ had, and have a Seed whom they so represented and acted for.

All for whom they acted, and to whom they stand in in the relation of a common or publick Head, are their Seed. Adam was not only the natural Parent, but also the federal Head of all Mankind; as they are descen­dants from him, and in their natural estate, they are [Page 7] his Seed; his natural Seed, his Covenant Seed, branches of the same Stock sprang from the same Root; Before we had our being in the World, we were virtually in Adam's Loins, as the effect is in the Cause, or as fruit is first in the Tree, before it is brought forth, or hath any actual Existence.— Thus in this very sense as I take it, the Tribe of Levi, is said to pay tithes in Abraham, long before Levi the Father of that Tribe was born, Heb. 7.9.

And when we actually have our being in the World, we are actually in Adam as our Covenant Head, are his Seed; and hence as one observes, it is that all Na­tions are said to be of one Blood, Acts 17.26. And hath made of one Blood all Nations of Men.—We are in Covenant looked upon not only as the natural Seed of Adam, as we spring from him in natural Generation; but also as his Covenant Seed and Children for whom he acted, and in whom we both stand and fall.

Well! as Adam, so the Lord Jesus Christ hath also a Seed: He also undertook as a Covenant Head, or publick Person to transact for Man, and to purchase to himself an holy Seed out of the ruined Rubish, and fallen race of old Adam; that thereby he might bring many Sons home to Glory at last.

When God called him to this his Office, according to Psal. 40 7. Then said I, lo, I come, &c. i. e. in answer to the call of the Father; then did the Father promise him such a Seed, to be the reward of his undertaking, Isai. 53.10 When thou shalt make his Soul an offering for Sin, he shall see his Seed, &c. And again ver. 11. He shall see of the travail of his Soul and be satisfied, by his knowlege shall thy righteous Servant justify many.

All the Elect were Christ's appointed Seed in the eternal Decree of Election, so chosen in him, according to Eph. 1.4, 5. According as he hath chosen us in him, before the Foundation of the World, that we should be holy and without blame before him in love: Having pre­destinated us unto the Adoption of Children, by Jesus Christ to himself, according to the good pleasure of his will.

[Page 8]And all the faithful upon their actual believing, become his real Seed. Faith takes them out of old Adam, Grace cuts them out of the old Stock and in­grafs them into the true Olive, the new Covenant, the second Adam, whereby they become his Seed, ac­cording to Rom. 11.

But this brings me to the third thing, viz

PROP. III. That as both Adams have a Seed, so both their acts and influence are communicated to their Seed.

And this necessarily follows from the former: For if both were publick Persons or Representatives, and both had and have a Seed for whom they, in their pub­lick capacity acted, and who were involved and wrapt up with them in the Covenant, Adam's Seed with him in the first, Christ's Seed with him in the second Cove­nant; then both their acts and doings, must needs be communicated to their Seed, so far forth as they acted in this their publick capacity. Indeed their Seed did really act in them, or with them, or by them; as a Town acts with and by their Representative, or a Colony by their Agent; whose acts and influence so far forth as he acts properly, in his publick capacity, must needs be com­municative to all for whom, and in whose name he so acts

And as by the general Vote of mankind, such a depu­ting of one to represent, and act for the whole body, in cases civil, is allowed to be just; so it is certainly no less just in this case. Nor can any one justly complain of his being wronged, or layed under any disadvantage by his being so in, or represented by Adam: for it is certain they acted no otherways in him than they would have acted out of him; for the nature of every one being just the same with his, they would have done just as Adam did, if put upon the same trial as he was.— So that it was every whit as well; yea and on some accounts at least, more safe for his Children to act in, and by him, then it would have been for them to have acted singly for themselves, & each one to have made his own Choice. [Page 9] For it is certain that the happiness of his whole Poste­rity (whom nature would make dear to him) being concerned in the Affair, as well as his own happiness, could not but lay him under far greater moral engage­ments to take heed what he did, and so make it seem far more likely that he should persevere and be faith­ful, than for any other Person in a single capacity who would not be under the same engaging Circum­stance. So that it should seem this way fixed, or put Mankind really upon a fairer foot for happiness, than if each single Person had been to have acted for him­self and to have made his own Choice.

But then it is to be observed, that altho' both Adams acted in such a publick capacity; yet there is a vast odds, a wide difference in the acts and influences them­selves, which these two publick Persons communicate to those standing in such a Covenant relation with them.

PROP. IV. For the one conveys Death with all the cursed influence of original Sin and Pollution: The other conveys Life with all the blessed fruits of Grace and blessings of Salvation to his Seed.

The first Adam by his first Sin, brought Guilt and Death on himself and all his Seed or Posterity; the second Adam, Christ, by his obedience and sufferings purchased Life and Grace for his. This the Apostle assures us of in the Text; 'tis there taken for granted, that in Adam all die; which is a sad Truth, in a two­fold Sense, viz. his first Sinful act which brought in the Fall was our act too, as acted by our publick Head, and so by us in and thro' him,; as also that sinful pra­vity and corruption of Nature, which thereby he pro­cured to himself, he doth in the way of natural Gene­ration communicate to us; in both which respects, we all sinned in him, and are dead with him.

When Adam put forth his Hand, and took and eat of the forbidden Fruit, he did this, not as a private but as a publick Person, as we have before shewn: Hence that his act was our act too, justly imputed un­to [Page 10] us, and charged on us, and put down to our Ac­count, because the act of our Head and Representative, and by virtue thereof conveyed unto us. Thus we all died in Adam, he sinning, we sinned in him, he being condemned for it, we are condemned in and with him; hence that, Rom. 5 18 By the offence of one, Judgment is come on all Men to condemnation

Again, by this first Sin or Fall, our Father and com­mon Head, Adam, not only lost the Life and Happi­ness promised to perfect obedience, and incurr'd the Death threatned; but also he lost that noble rectitude of Nature, that divine principle of Grace, and stock of Wisdom, with which in his native state of innocence he was furnished and indued; the most High taking of it from him, as a just punishment for that first and great Transgression, for his great abuse thereof; on which followed ignorance, pravity, and perversness of Nature, corrupt and evil Principles, indisposing the Mind for any good, and inclining of it to all manner of Evil.

Now this pravity and corruption of Nature which is spiritual Death; according to Rom. 8.6. Adam com­municates to all his Seed, and that in the way of natu­ral Generation. How and what this is, will more fully appear in the sequel. But allowing the Hypothesis, the thing itself will appear consistent with the rules of Justice. For we being guilty in the first great Trans­gression by and with our Covenant Head, and that as soon as we have our being in him, by becoming of the species of Man; therefore the same punishment be­came justly due to us, as to him, for the same Sin, at least the same for kind.

Now that punishment which immediately took place on him, for the first Sin, was God's casting of him out of his favour, and taking from him those noble divine habits, or principles of spiritual Wisdom and Grace, with which he was dignifyed and endowed in his first Creation, called in holy writ the Image of God. Gen. 1.27. And so leaving of him to fall under the Govern­ment, [Page 11] or governing influence of a corrupt and depraved mind.

Well now! we being guilty in and with Adam of the same Transgression, and that as soon as ever we become his Seed by having Soul and Body united together, it is but just that we should for the same Sin be punished in the same way Adam was, viz. by having that stock of Divine Wisdom, Knowlege, and Grace (or what ever men will please to call it) withheld from and not be­stowed on us, in our Creation or Formation, which was due to our natures as first made in innocency, and abso­lutely necessary to capacitate and furnish us for perform­ing or yielding that perfect Obedience, which the Law required of us. On which depravation or withholding from us, will necessarily follow that pravity and corrup­tion of Nature of which we are speaking. For Man hereby being left without divine Light, and so incapable to discern the spiritual & real Excellencies of divine and heavenly things, being sunk below the chief good, and so consequently without inclination to it, hence the Soul can't chuse and imbrace it; but being still desirous of good, and not rightly apprehending wherein it consists, and how it may be attained unto; hence he betakes himself unto the World for happiness, and would fain attain thereunto by gratifying the desires of the Flesh and carnal Mind, living in ease and pleasure, apprehend­ing no greater happiness than he fancies may be enjoyed in this way, &c.—which certainly is Death in a sound Scripture sense, Rom. 8.6. To be carnally minded is death.

Now of this original depravation or pravity of humane nature, I think this further account may be given, viz. Man in his innocent state, was furnish'd with powers na­tural, and supernatural. By supernatural powers, I mean such as capacitated him, clearly to discern the Will of God, and to entertain right notions about God, and spi­ritual things, and mysteries, and perfectly to delight him­self in the same. Hereby he was made capable of com­munion with God, and of enjoying him as his chief good; perfectly to do his Duty, and to delight himself in it, [Page 12] and to live a life of communion with Heaven— this the Image of God in him.

His natural powers, I call such as flowed from his na­tural Constitution, and capacitated him for the enjoy­ment of this World, and for taking complacency there­in as a subordinate good. And these were under the go­vernment & regulation of his divine supernatural Powers. But when Man sinned, God (in way of just punishment) took from him these supernatural Powers, or divine na­ture, or habit, and left him wholly to his natural powers, which immediately assume the Government, and lead away the Man captive, &c. Now this as I take it, is the natural Man, spoken of in 1 Cor. 2 14. But the natural man receives not the things of the spirit.

And now, the Man being become thus depraved and carnal, wholly bent to carnal Pleasures and enjoyments, conceiving his happiness to consist therein; hence he can't but have an inward aversion, to every thing that tends to thwart, cross and stop him in the pursuit of that, wherein he hath conceived his felicity to consist.

Now the Word of God, and his authority therein, do­ing this; hence he can't but dislike and hate it, at least in his heart; as what he conceives would abridge him in his happiness, by laying such restraints on him, as he can't bear, and this inkindles enmity in him, against God and his holy Law: Which I take to be the Enmity spoken of, Rom. 8 7. Because the carnal mind is enmity against God, for it is not subject to the law of God, neither indeed can be.

So that all Men dye in Adam, in this twofold sense, viz. We are condemned in and with him, for the first sin: and he communicates this pravity and corrupti­on of nature, to all that descend from him, in the way of natural generation. And this seems to be the truth, evident both from reason & Scripture; For Adam could communicate no other nature to his Children, than he had himself: well, his nature being now depraved and viciated, such a nature therefore he must needs commu­nicate. And the Scriptures seem to give us this very account of the matter. Thus, after the Fall, Adam be­gets [Page 13] a Son in his own likeness, Gen. 5.3— And begat a son in his own likeness, after his image.— And we are told what this is, John 3.6. That which is born of the flesh is flesh And we are assured, that Children born of corrupt sinful Parents, do derive from them no better a nature, Job 14.4 & 15.14 What is Man that he should be clean? And he which is born of a woman that he should be righteous? And the Apostle confirms all this by tel­ling of us, what the spiritual condition of all persons is, while in their natural estate, wholly corrupt, wholly gone out of the way, &c. Rom. 3.10, 11, 12. As it is written, There is none righteous, no not one: There is none that understandeth, there is none that seeketh after God. They are all gone out of the way, they are together become unprofitable, there is none that doth good, no not one And ver. 13, 14, 16, 17.—Destruction & misery are in their ways: And the way of peace have they not known.

Well now, Christ the second Adam in like manner communicates a twofold life to all his spiritual Seed, viz. The life of Grace in Conversion, in this World, and a title to Eternal Life, in the other World.

As the first Adam by the first sin, brought all his Pro­geny under a sentence of Death; so Christ the second Adam by his bearing the sins of all the Elect, in his own Body on the Cross, and being so made a curse for them, Gal. 3 13. Hath hereby removed the Sentence of the Law, from all that are his, and purchased them a dis­charge from that Sentence; hence that, Rom 8.33, 34. Who shall lay any thing to the charge of God's elect? It is Christ that died. And also Christ by himself yielding, in our Natures, that very Obedience to the moral Law, which in the first Covenant, was made the condition of Eternal Life being bestow'd; hath hereby given them a good and legal title unto life.

The first Covenant threatned Death, on the least failure in obedience, Gal. 3.10. It is written, Cursed is every one that continueth not in all things which are written in the Book of the Law to do them

Adam by the first Sin, made himself and all his Poste­rity, Men of Death, the Law immediately pronounceth [Page 14] sentence on them, Ezek. 18.4—The Soul that sinneth it shall die. Hence Justice cannot be satisfied, nor the sentence be reversed, unless the blood of the offender be shed, the penalty truly suffered, Heb. 9.22. And without shedding of blood, is no remission. Hence Christ the second Adam, undertakes for this, dies in our Na­ture, and suffers the full demands of Justice, as our Surety; which upon our believing, becomes ours, by the valid constitution of God; and in the Law looked upon as our own act, and suffering, as tho' suffered by us; because done by our Surety and Representative; which therefore takes us out of old Adam, in whom we sinned; brings us from under the Law sentence, and into good terms with it. Hence that Rom. 8.1. There is therefore now no condemnation to them that are in Christ Jesus; compar'd with Rom. 3.19. and 6.14. Ye are not under the Law, but under Grace.

Again, the reward of Life, was promis'd to perfect obedience, to the whole moral Law, as the Apostle plainly describes, Rom. 10 5. But this Adam, and we in him, failed of, and so forfeited the reward; and have lost all claim thereunto, as the Apostle teacheth us, Rom. 3 23. For all have sinned, and come short of the glory of God. But Christ the second Adam, hath also undertaken this for us, to renew our Claim, and in our Nature hath performed and yielded that very perfect obedience for us; hath fulfilled all righteousness, as Matt 3 15. And that as a publick Person, as our great high Priest and Surety

Hereby hath he purchased for all that believe on him, the same title, and legal claim, to Eternal Life, that Adam would have had, and we in him, had he per­sever'd in perfect obedience. Thus the second Adam saves from the Death brought in by the first; not by any Relaxation of the severity of the first Covenant, or Law, but by an exact and punctual fulfillment of the conditions of it, which seems to be the plain mean­ing of the Apostle in that, Rom 3. ult. Do we then make void the Law thro' Faith? God forbid; yea we establish the Law.

[Page 15] Fi [...]y, As Adam brought in by the Fall, and com­municates to all that descend from him, a fearful pra­vity and corruption of Nature, which inclines all Men to stray & wander from God endlesly; and every way disposes and incapacitates them for a return; so that under the efficacy of this impotency, they are dying daily; as we have before shewn. So Christ the second Adam, hath also a remedy for this evil disease, he re­covers from this spiritual Misery and Death. He hath purchased all Grace for his People, which by his holy Spirit, he conveys and communicates unto all, whom he effectually Calls to be his, to their recovery, and Renovation. He renews their spiritual powers, im­plants a principle of new Life, perswades and enables them to return to God, and their duty; and makes them alive unto God, and holiness. Rom. 6.11. He revives again his own lost Image in them; so making them new Creatures. 2 Cor. 5 17 If any Man be in Christ, he is a new creature: old things are past away, be­hold all things are become new. He likewise communi­cates unto them, all that influencing, assisting, & quick­ning Grace, whereby his spiritual Seed, & Children, are enabled to overcome the World, vanquish Temptation, mortify their Lusts, and to persevere in an holy Life; to the final Salvation of their Souls. Hence that Joh. 1.16. Of his fulness have we all received, and grace for grace.

Thus we have shewn what both Adams convey, & com­municate to their Seed.

Which brings me to the fifth and last thing, viz

PROP. V. That each of these convey; or each of these communications are made much in the same way and manner.

So the text intimates to us; As in Adam — So in Christ —

Three things consider'd will clear up this,

1. Each of these communications are made in a Cove­nant way

Each of these are in pursuance of the Covenant made with each publick head. The first Adam being Head [Page 16] of the first or old Covenant, doth therefore [...] & com­municate the guilt & curses of that broken Covena [...] unto all wrap'd up with him therein; because such was [...] tenour of that Covenant; that his acts and doings as such a publick Person, should be equally their act, for whom he so acted: and that his influence should derive to them as above shewn.

So in like manner, that Christ's Suffering, and Obedi­ence, is made ours in Law, and imputed; and the influ­ences of his Grace conveyed, is in pursuance of the second or new Covenant. Hence

2. As Adam conveys sin and guilt to those that had not sinned actually; So doth Jesus Christ convey righteousness to those▪ that had not wrought righteousness. Adam act­ing for us in the Covenant, and we in him; hence upon his first sinful act, we were all virtually made sinners; and so the sentence went out against us; and we were hereby involved in the Curse, were looked upon as sin­ners, & exposed to the condemning sentence of the Law; and this before we made our selves so, by any personal, sinful act of our own. Hence that Rom. 5 14. Death reigned from Adam to Moses, even over them that had not sinned after the similitude of Adams transgression. Now to sin actually, is to sin after the similitude of Adam's transgression, but before we sin so, saith the Apostle, Death reigns over us. The Apostle in this, as one ob­serves, doubtless points at Babes, who die in Infancy, before ever they had committed an actual sin; yet Death reigns over them, they are guilty in their federal head.

So Christ's righteousness in like manner, is conveyed to those that had not wrought righteousness. Yea all the Elect are chosen, and in the Decree or Covenant of Re­demption looked upon as Righteous, having a Righte­ousness engaged for, secured and laid up for them in the Covenant, long before there is any real conveyance thereof made to them, yea long before they have their being or existence in the World; as seems evident from the Eph. 1 4, 5. According as he hath chosen us in him, before the foundation of the world, that we should be holy, [Page 17] and without blame before him in love: Having predestinated us unto the adoption of children by Jesus Christ to himself, according to the good pleasure of his will compare Rom. 9 [...]0, 31 What shall we say then? That the Gentiles which followed not after righteousness, have attained to righteous­ness—.And it was by virtue of this Obedience & Righ­teousness of Christ, though not actually wrought out, yet engaged for, and secured in Covenant to all the Elect, to be conveyed unto them upon their believing, — that all the holy Men of old were sav'd; as was before ob­served.

3. Finally, It is in the same way and manner, even thro' our union to either of these publick Heads, that either of these communications are actually made, and conveyed to us. No sooner do we become of the spe­cies of Mankind, by having Soul and Body united, but hereby we become united unto Adam, of his Seed and Children; by virtue of which union to him, his Sin is imputed and his Guilt conveyed unto us personally, together with that whole depravation, pravity, or cor­ruption of Nature which Adam procured, and brought in by his first Sin or Fall. What less than this is con­tained in that ingenious and plump confession of the Psalmist, Psal. 51.5. Behold I was shapen in Iniquity, and in Sin did my Mother conceive me.

And this corrupt and sinful Nature thus derived, dis­covers its self in Children as soon as they can act, which is indeed an incontestable proof of the truth here in hand: Hence that Psal. 58.3. The wicked are estranged from the womb, they go astray as soon as they be born speaking lies.

Well now in like manner; as soon as a Soul is united to Christ the second Adam, through Faith in his Name, what he hath done becomes that Souls, his merits are applied and his righteousness is conveyed, and made over to it, and is in Covenant, and Law looked upon as his own: and that Person stands righteous and clear before God in the virtue of the same; hence such Texts, Rom. 3.22 Eph. 2 61.

[Page 18]Thro' this union also is conveyed all needed influ­ences of Grace. No sooner are we thro' Faith, cut out of the old and cursed Stock in which we grew, and ingraffed into the true Olive; but hereupon are we made to partake of the juice and fatness, or sap of this Olive; whereby we have our natures changed from sinful to holy Dispositions, and are prepared to bare and bring forth good Fruit, as branches abiding in the true Vine, as Joh. 15 4, 5.

Thus we have endeavour'd to shew what is contained, and wrapt up in these few Words. As in Adam all die, even so in Christ shall all be made alive.

Some Application or Improvement now follows

USE I. Of Information in a few things, As

1. Learn we from what was offer'd under the Doctrine, That Adam and Jesus Christ divide the World. They are both covenant Heads, and the alone publick Heads, to whom all Persons in the World stand related in Covenant. All in their natural Estate are the Children and covenant Seed of Adam, have their in-being in him, and so are under the Curse he brought in; and also under the Government and influence of a depraved vitiated Nature derived from him, and must so remain until by Faith in Christ the second Adam, they get out out of this cursed Stock by being ingraffed into the new and living one. This is a sad state and condition, not only of all Heathens, Pagans, Infidels, &c. but also of all unbelieving, prophane, hypocritical, christian Professors: They are still the Children of old Adam and fallen with him, involved, deeply involved with him in Guilt and Misery, exposed to perish for ever.

But now all believers, all faithful Christians, they belong to the other publick Head, even Christ the second Adam; they are no longer related to the first Adam, no more under the dominion of the Law of the first Covenant, Christ hath fulfilled that Law for them, born the penalty, yielded the obedience therein required, and so hath discharged them from the demands and [Page 19] penalties of it, stoped its mouth, that it hath nothing to lay to the Charge of these Elect of God.

This shews us the wide difference there is between us, who make profession of the same Faith, embrace the same way of Worship, dwell together and Worship together, in the same Family, same Congregation, and same visible Church, there are some who are the Chil­dren of the first Adam, involved in the Curse, laden with Guilt, receive of his cursed influence, and are really heirs of Hell and wrath. Others belong to Christ, are his happy Seed and blessed Children, heirs of the Covenant of Grace and thro' him of Glory; who re­ceive of his blessed influence; of his fulness and grace for grace.

Oh! the difference between the Children of Christ, and the Children of fallen Adam, tho' we discern it not with a carnal Eye.

2. Hence learn also, from what hath been insisted on; That there is no mid-way between a state of Nature, and a state of Grace: Or between an estate of real Justifica­tion, and real Condemnation. There is no medium, no mid-way between these two. Every Person in the World, is in an estate either of compleat Justification, or of real Condemnation; there is no being, or standing in mid-way between these two. Conversion is instantaneous; the Man passeth immediately out of the one condition, into the other. There are degrees of Sanctification, but none of Justification. No Man is partly in an estate of Justification, & partly in an estate of Condemnation; nor is one Saint more fully justified than another. He that hath any title to Heaven, hath all the title that can be; Christ's Righteousness is equally unto and upon all who believe, without any the least difference; and he that hath not this full title, hath none at all. He that an't fully in Christ, is fully in Adam, &c. Alas there are many who can't conclude themselves Converts, have no good evidence or warrant so to do; yea who dare not really pretend to do it: Who yet labour to bear themselves up, upon a hope, that their honest mean­ings, moral lives, duties, alms-giving, &c. will so make [Page 20] even for their Sins, and be of that worth in the sight of God, as to procure for them acceptance: They fancy they live as well as most Christians do, they don't wrong their Neighbours in their dealings, they are no Fornicators, no Idolators, they defraud nor, they go the rounds in Duties, make many Prayers; and they think surely there is real worth in all this; and why an't they as likely to find acceptance as any; they can't think that a God of mercy, will send such as they are to Hell, tho' they do fall short of a thorough Conversion, tho' they an't really in Christ thro' a divine Faith.

But Sirs, if what we have heard on this Subject be true, your hopes, such hopes, are utterly vain and groundless; for it is certain you belong to the one, or the other of these publick Heads; if you are not in Christ by a thorough work of the Spirit, by a true and sound Conversion, you are yet in old Adam; and if in him, you are certainly under the Curse, and can have no acceptance with God: And you should hearken to what the Scripture saith Joh. 3.18— But he that be­lieveth not is condemned already. & ver. 36. He that believ­eth on the Son, hath everlasting life: and he that be­lieveth not on the Son, shall not see life; but the wrath of God abideth on him. And that is an awful Text, Rev. 21.8. The fearful, and unbelieving, &c. shall have their part in the Lake that burns with Fire & Brimstone.

But I pass on,

3. From what has been offered we may gather some­thing, To teach us the woful estate of Adam's Children. They die saith the Apostle in the Text; they are in a fearful deadly Condition; they are fallen in Adam, the Law hath passed Sentence of Death on them, which Sentence unless they get reversed, get removed from off them, it is impossible they should escape Damna­tion: But this they can never do by their utmost pains and diligence, while they remain in their present estate of unbelief and impenitency; for the Law they are under, curseth them, even while they strive to keep it, because they fall short of perfect obedience. Hear that Gal. 3.10. For as many as are of the works of the [Page 21] Law, are under the curse: For it is written, Cursed is every one that continueth no [...] in all things which are writ­ten in the book of the law to [...] them, compare James 2.10. Besides they have derived such [...] impotency & corrup­tion of Nature from old Adam, thro' the mediation of their next immediate Parents, as renders them uncapable of that which is good▪ & eagerly bent to all that is evil▪ hence they every day come short of the glory of God, and run themselves further on the score with him, many ways aggravating all the Guilt that before lay on them, and are daily giving fresh wounds to their poor Souls, trea­suring up to themselves wrath against the day of wrath. — How sad a condition then, are all unconverted Per­sons, all the natural Seed of Adam in; tho' insensible secure and hardened in it. And tho' there is a most glo­rious way of escape provided, yet how indisposed, and averse are they to a compliance therewith, they are full of enmity against it, at least in their Hearts, Rom. 8.7. The carnal mind is enmity.—And no wonder! since they are so full of spiritual blindness, as not to be able to see, either their own Misery, or Christ's Excellency.

Hence being destitute of Divine, and Spiritual Light, and incapable to discern the Excellencies of God and Christ & Holiness,'tis no wonder that they cannot love God and Holiness, and hate Sin; without which the will never can convert, nor the Man have any true de­sires to be brought out of his present sinful condition.

Indeed in their present state of blindness, they may have some notions, and rational Convictions, that their present condition an't safe; and so may be endeavour­ing to recover themselves by their own doings; & hence many times take pains, and go a great way in moral Vertues and Duties, yet still they have no inward cordial love for Religion and Holiness, 'tis always a burden, and meer vexation to them, and they won't be perswaded, to cast off their own vain confidences, and to see that all they can do won't help, nor avail them, until they do indeed lay aside their own Righteous­ness, and look out after Faith in Christ, and an interest in him, who only can help and save them, out of their spiritual Misery.

[Page 22]This while they neglect, what ever pains they may take, to be their own saviour's, yet are they but run­ning themselves deeper in debt, & getting further from true peace and safety.

4. Our Doctrine also teacheth us, something of the happy estate of Christ's spiritual Seed. The Text tells us, that in Christ they are all made alive: Tho' they were once dead in Adam, yet now in Christ they are made a­live, & live evermore. The Lord Jesus Christ delivers all his from the death & misery brought in by Adam, and gives them the same, or a better title to life, than Adam would have had, if he had perfectly kept the Law, and performed the obedience therein required.

From spiritual Death, or the reigning Power of Sin, he delivers them, by sending his holy Spirit into their Hearts, to dethrone Sin there; — soften the Heart, en­lighten the Mind, perswade the Will, put a new Bias on the Affections, &c. whereby the Temper, Disposition, and Inclination, of the Mind is alter'd, from sinful to ho­ly: Sin and Lust loseth the Dominion, and Grace takes the Throne of the Heart, sits and rules there; that al­tho' Corruption rise, and stir around the Heart, and give Trouble, yet it cannot get the Dominion, Grace keeps it down and subdues it again Hence that, Rom 6.14. For Sin shall not have Dominion over you — compare with Psal. 37 24 Tho' he fall, he shall nor be utterly cast down: for the Lord upholdeth him with his hand From the curse and condemnation of the Law, hath he redeem­ed them by being made a curse for them, and so bearing the penalty in their room and stead, Gal. 3.13. A title unto life hath he purchased for them, by yielding in our natures as our publick head, that very obedience to the Law of the first Covenant, which was required of Man in innocency, as the condition of Lifes being continued, and perfect happiness being bestowed, which condition Christ having fulfilled, must needs now give the same title and claim to happiness.

And as obedience to the new Covenant, is required in order to our partaking in the saving benefits thereof, so Christ hath purchased, and by his good Spirit conveys all [Page 23] needed influences of Gra [...] to his Seed & Covenant Chil­dren; yea He himself as th [...] surety and covenant Head, stands engaged to the Father for their perseverance and safe conduct to Glory. How happy, how safe, how com­fortable then, is their condition, to whom the comfort of those words belong! Luk. 12.32. Fear not little flock, 'tis your Fathers good pleasure to give you the kingdom.

USE II. Of Examination.

If it be as we have heard, then surely it concerns us all to Examine our selves, that we may know to which of these Covenant Heads we belong, in which Adam we are; It is certain we every one of us belong to the one or to the other, and according as we stand related, so is our estate good or bad, safe or dangerous: Then let us be advised to examine into this matter, and try our selves, that so we may know how it is like to fare with is; 'tis a matter of the last moment, therefore take heed of carelesness herein; don't be flighty, don't deceive yourselves; remember 'tis the precious Soul that lieth at stake, that is to be sav'd or lost, and your end will be as your spiritual relation is at last found to be, either to the first, or to the second Adam. In the one all die, in the other all are made alive. And for your help here, I will lay down two or three rules of tryal;

1. What Birth have you? Only the natural! are you only Born, or are you also New-born? For they who descend from Adam▪ in the way of natural Generation, are his Seed, and belong to him, as you heard under the Doctrine. But, they that are Born again of spiritual re­generation, are the Seed of the second Adam. Well! what evidences can you produce of your New birth, of your being Born of the Spirit, of your Regeneration? Christ's Seed are a New born Seed, Joh. 1.13 Which were born, [...] of blood, nor of the will of the flesh, nor of the will of man, but of God. Do you know what this New birth means? Many are ignorant of it, Nicolemus tho' a Teacher in Israel was so, Joh. 3. But do you know by experience, what it is? Have you felt the pangs of it, in deep convictions of your sin and misery? Have you had a soul humbling, and heart affecting sight of your [Page] perishing condition in old Adam Not only a sight of federal Guilt & personal acts [...] sin, but also that sad and fearful pravity and pollution of nature, which Adam con­veys to all his Seed, which wholly unfits for all spi­ritual service, and pollu [...]s all the Duties we do perform while in such a condition, keeping the heart full of En­mity, &c. And have you therefore been brought really to see, that your help was not in your own Powers? And hath this put you upon an humble, fervent, & dili­gent looking and seeking unto Christ, to send his holy Spirit to enlighten, help and save you? In a word, hath the Law slain you, and the Gospel heal'd you? have you been indeed dead in Adam, but reviv'd and made alive in Christ? How do you live, is it in newness of life, as becomes such a New-born state?

2. Which Covenant doth your Souls cleave unto, and act under the influence of, that of Works or of Grace?

Adam is head of the Covenant of Works, but Jesus Christ of the Covenant of Grace. Well then, would you know to which you belong, in which Adam you have your in-being; Examine to which Covenant doth your Souls cleave, to that of Works or of Grace? And would you know this; then reflect and ask your selves, on what score do you perform Duties, is it to ingratiate your selves into God's favour by your own doings, me­rits, & duties? why this is to cleave to the old Cove­nant of Works. So on what account do you look for, and expect acceptance in Duties & Obedience, is it on account of any worth in them, or in you? why this is an old Covenant Spirit. So do you go forth in your own strength unto Duty? this is to cleave to the old Cove­nant, and will argue you belong to old Adam.

But now to go out of self, to have no confidence in the flesh, to depend on the meer Grace of God in Christ, to look unto and be as dependant on the holy Spirit for assistance, disposition, and ability, to perform duties, as on Christ the Son to merit acceptance for you▪ to be thus dependent on meer free Grace for every thing; for assis­tance in all your Obedience, and on Christ's merits and intercessions alone, for your whole acceptance therein: [...] is a new Covenant Spirit.


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