Barbarian Cruelty BEING A True History of the Distressed Con­dition of the [...] under the Tyranny of [...] Ishmael Emperor of [...] King of Fez and [...] Barbary.

In which is likewise given a particular Account of his late Wars with the Algerines. The manner of his Pi­rates taking the Christians and Others. His breach of Faith with Christian Princes. A Description of his Castles and Guards, and the Places where he keeps his Women, his Slaves and Negroes.

With a particular Relation of the dangerous Escape of the Author, and two English Men more from thence, after a miserable Slavery of ten Years.


BOSTON, Re printed for S. Phillips, at the Brick Shop. 1700.


Decemb. 8. 1692.

Imprimatur, Edmund Bohun.

[Page 3]

To Their Sacred Majesties, William and Mary, Of Great-Britain, France and Ireland, KING and QUEEN.

Most Gracious Soveraigns,

A Midst the throng of those weighty and important Cares that fill Your Royal Breasts, it is indeed a high presumption, in one so inconsiderable as I am, to offer the interrupting them by this Address. But since such is your Royal Cle­mency, as not to deny Access to the meanest of Your Subjects, Permit me, with awful Reverence and Humility, to lay the ensuing Narrative at Your Majesties Feet, with hopes You will vouchsafe to shelter it under Your Royal Patronage.

The diplorable and miserable Condition, wherein many of Your Majesties Subjects, with other Christians, now lie groaning in [Page 4] Slavery, and under the barbarous Tyranny and Inhumanity of Mully Ishmael Emperor of Morocco, is a Subject that may perhaps not altogether be thought unworthy the Cogni­zance of Your Majesties; it being manifest to all the World how much it has been the Glori­ous Design of Your Majesties whole Life and Reign, to set Mankind at Liberty, and to free the Distressed from the Yoke of Tyranny and Oppression. May that Almighty Hand that has framed Your Majesties for the Sup­port and Joy of the Universe, continue to Crown all your Affairs with uninterrupted Success, giving You more and more the Hearts of Your Subjects, and the Necks of Your Ene­mies. And after Your Majesties have reaped many Harvests of Lawrels, may You plant such an Olive of Peace, under the Branches whereof all Europe may for successive Ages rejoyce.

Which is and shall be the constant Prayer of Your Majesties poor and distressed, though Loyal Subject, Francis Brooks.
[Page 5]

TO THE Reader.

Courteous Reader,

THough I must own my self in­capable to write upon this Subject, any thing worthy to be exposed to the publick view, since my Education hath not given me those Advantages of Stile and Compositi­on, altogether necessary for such an Un­dertaking: Yet considering I had the miserable Experience of what hath been barbarously inflicted on me, with many others my Fellow Sufferers, who are still groaning under the most insupportable Miseries; I thought my self bound in Duty to publish, as well as I can express it, what was plain Matter of Fact, to the end it might more powerfully move your [Page 6] Compassion, and excite you Charity for the Redemption of those who remain to this Day under their Egyptian Task-ma­sters. A full Account of which you have in the ensuing Relation, wherein I have made it my Business, to give you a clear and particular view of the most remark­able Passages that happened during the unfortunate time of my Confinement a­mong those barbarous Salvages. I shall offer nothing but Truths, which ten Years Sufferings have made me too long ac­quainted with. We were not only ba­nished from our Native Country, (being English men, and my self born in Ratcliff Parish in Bristol) but from all the Spiri­tual as well as Temporal Comforts. We were confin'd amongst those whose Re­ligion was composed of Cruelty, whose Customs were Extravagant, and whose Usages almost intolerable; what from the hardness of our Labours, and the coarsness of our Provisions, we were re­duced to the most pressing Extremities, which caused us to think and contrive all ways and means to procure our desired Liberties; which considering how nar­rowly we were watch'd, and how close­ly [Page 7] kept, was almost impossible to be effected.

I need not mention here how I made my Escape, with two others of my Com­panions, since I have given you an exact Account of it, with all its Circumstances, in the following Relation, with what happened afterwards to the Person who was instrumental in our happy Delive­rance, for which we are in Duty bound, during the whole Course of our Lives, to own the particular Providence of God, to whose Assistance and Protection we owe our present Safety.

The chiefest Design of my publishing this Book, is to caution all Seafaring men, whose particular Voyages carry them into the Streights, that they take all possible care not to be trapan'd by these subtile Pirates, who infest those Coasts, where we unfortunately fell into their Hands; and that reflecting on the Barbarities they must expect to suffer from those merciless Enemies, it will be their surest Interest to defend themselves to the ut­most of their power, even to the last Extremity, Death it self being to be pre­ferred before that, or any other Slavery.

[Page 8]Another Motive is, That I hope what I write, may be a means to procure Li­berty for these my Country men, who are now labouring under the most pres­sing Miseries, and who would be very serviceable at this time against the Com­mon Enemy; whose deplorable Condition hath been not long since published and recommended in a Brief to be con­tinued for two whole Years, as follow­eth.

WILLIAM & MARY, by the Grace▪ of God, King and Queen of Eng­land, Scotland, France and Ireland, De­fenders of the Faith, &c. To all and singular Arch-bishops, Bishops, &c.

Whereas a great number of Our good Subjects, peaceably following their Employ­ments at Sea, have been taken by the Turkish Pirates of Algiers, Salley, Barbary, and o­ther Places on the Coast of Africa, and now remaining Slaves, in Cruel and Inhumane Bondage without any Dayes of Rest, either on the Turkish Sabbath or ours, except four Dayes in a Year, being kept to extream Labour; from which some endeavouring a [Page 9] little Rest, several of them were barbarou­sly Murdered. Neither is their Diet any more Tolerable than their Labour, great Numbers being allowed no other Food than decayed Barley, which stinketh so, that the Beasts refuse to eat it: And often they are not permitted to go from their La­bour to fetch Water, which is their only Drink; and sometimes driven about by Black a moors, who are set over them as Task masters; and some by them have been so severely whipp'd, that they have dropp'd down Dead. Whose miserable Con­ditions being represented to Us, and We having now an Offer from the Emperor of Fez and Morocco, by his Envoy sent [...]i­ther to Treat about a general Redemption of all the English that are his Slaves; and the Dey of Algiers having now also invited Us to redeem Our Subjects there in Slavery, &c.

So that if the before-recited End may have its desir'd Success, it will make sufficient Amends for any Cen­sures or Reflections that may be made on me, upon the account of my im­perfect Performance; therefore I shall [Page 10] only refer their distressed Case to your Benevolence and Charity, as I do my Book to your Pardon and Candour; which, I hope, will neither be denied to them, nor

Your Humble Servant, F. B.

[...] [Page 15] their Cutlasses. * They had on board them 300 Men and 16 Guns; when they had thus taken our Ship, they carried us to Sally, and sent our Ship into Memora, having secured us in a place under Ground: our Diet they gave us was a little black Bread and Water. There they kept us four days, and then sent us to Memora to discharge the Ship they took from us, and sent the Oil with which we were loaden, in Skins, upon Camels and Mules, to the Emperor of Morocco. After we had work'd there very hard all Day in delivering the Ship, they put us down in the Hold of their Ship in Irons, and afterwards sent us to Macqueness, where the Emperor's Castle is, and where he keeps all his Slaves, and we were delivered up to the Vice-Roy, (the Emperor being then in Camp against a City to the Southward, called [Page 16] [...]arradant in Barbary) and by his Negroes we were driven to work all day, driving and cursing of us, bidding us turn Moors, and at Night we were driven to a place where the rest of the Christians lay, being like a Vault under groud.

In the Year 1680, the English Cap­tives that were under this inhuman Ty­rant, the Emperor of Morocco, bewailing their own Condition, making moan to one another, and praying to God for Deliverance, at last concluded amongst themselves to draw a Petition to our late King Charles the Second of Great Britain, giving him to understand their miserable Condition in this Captivity: which being done, the King took it into Consideration, and sent over Captain Francis Nicholson; who being come, and seeing the Cruel Bondage his poor Coun­try-men were in, their hard Labour and cruel Fare, having therewith many cruel Stripes and Blows, he could not but la­ment their Condition, and prayed God that he might come to some Composition with that Hellish Tyrant for them. The Emperor at the same time sent for the Shack, or Chief over all the Jews in his [Page 17] Dominion, and bid him build a Town, which would be better for the Jews than the Cane Houses, (his Name was Abra­ham Memoran) and at that time Captain Nicholson made an Agreement with the Emperor for the Christians, and the English and Portuguese were delivered him up, the Emperor wishing them a good Jour­ney to Tangier; the Captain took them out of the Town that Night, which the Shack of the Jews hearing of, that came to the Emperor, telling him, if he would let him have the Christians to build the Jews Town, he would give him as much Money as the Captain had agreed with him for: the Emperor bid him come a­gain in the Morning. Then the Shack or Chief of the Jews went immediately home to his House, and got a Present ready, and sent it in to the Emperor's Wife, that she might solicite the Empe­ror for him: which having received, she sent word back by the Eunuchs, that she would endeavour to prevail with him, which she did. And the next Morning he spoke again to the Emperor, who im­mediately sent out his Negroes to drive back the Christians, which were hurried [Page 18] again to their Works in a cruel manner. The Moors of his City Macqueness seeing that, cursed the Jews for doing it. But the Captain could in no wise prevail with this grievous Tyrant the Emperor, (notwithstanding the Captain had done what in him lay to have got the Christi­ans away) who said he would not part with them till the Town was finished. So they went to work with great Chops, and Baskets to carry Earth in; and the Negroes were set over them to keep them at it from Morning to Night. When the Town was finished, he put in his Negroes: but the Curse of the Jews fell upon their own Governour, his Mis­chief returned on his own Head, as will shortly be shewn. In the mean time the poor Christians were grievously hur­ried and punished by those Hellish Ne­groes at the Command of this wicked and inhumane Tyrant the Emperor, and had scarce time to take any Nourishment, or eat any of their bad Bread that was allowed them, but with a great many Threats, Stripes and Blows by the Ne­groes, bidding them turn Moors. In which condition they prayed to God to [Page 19] preserve them in their Faith; in which, through his Assistance, they remained constant.

Some time after Captain Nicholson be­ing gone from thence, the Emperor laid Siege against a City called Tarradant, in the South part of that Dominion, being kept by a King whose Name was Mully Hammet: and having been there a consi­derable time▪ he sent to the chief of the Jews, to bring him up some Goods which he wanted from Macqueness. When he had gotten Mules, and carried them to the place where the Emperor was in Camp, the Vice Roy's Son being there with the Emperor, went to the said Shack or chief of the Jews, and desired him to assist him with some Money, and his Father would repay him, when he, viz. the Chief of the Jews, should return to Macqueness. He told him his Father owed him already several thousand Du­cats, and would not pay him any, for as yet he could get none from him: and said moreover, if he should die and pe­rish, he would not lend him a penny. Of which passages he acquainted his Fa­ther, writing a Letter thereof to Macque­ness. [Page 20] Afterwards the Chief of the Jews went to Macqueness to the Vice Roy cal­led Coyd Birry, and told him he had ac­quainted the Emperor of the Care he had in his Absence of his Castle and Business; he taking little notice of him, but returning him Thanks for his Kind­ness he went away. But Coyd Birry the Governour (being so called in the Em­perors Absence) ordered one of his chief Negroes in a little time after to go and take such a Horse which he describ­ed to him, and go to the place where the Country People kept their Market, to see if he could find the said Chief of the Jews; and if he saw him, take little notice of him; but if he had an oppor­tunity, watch as he went home to his House, and kill him. The Negroe did as he was ordered, and espying the Shack, or Chief of the Jews, going home to his House, in a Road which lay through a parcel of Olive Trees, the Negro came to him, pretending Kindness to him, be­ing glad to see him, &c. and riding by his side along on Horseback, spied his opportunity very diligently, so spurred his Horse over him, rode upon him and [Page 21] trode out his Brains. Word thereof was quickly carried to the Vice-Roy, that the Chief of the Jews was killed, at which he seemed to be sorry, that the People might take no notice thereof, and ac­quainted the Emperor therewith, and had made search, but knew not who had done it. The Emperor sent him word back, that if he did not find out who did it, he would cut off his Head, and ordered the said Vice Roy to put the Governour of the Jews Son to be the Chief in his stead; but the old Jew was soon forgotten by the Emperor.

When the Emperor had laid Siege some Years against Tarradant, and could not take it, he returned home to Macque­ness. After he had been at home a cer­tain time, he went against that City with about 70000 Horse and Foot, and decla­red that if any Christians knew what belonged to mining he would set them to work; and if they took the Town, they should have their Liberty; so four English Men undertook the Work, the Moors digged, and they gave Directions. The Mines being finished, and 30 Bar­rels of English Powder rowled into the [Page 22] Mine, and a Train laid; the Christian that fired it was blown up: and a Breach was made in the Castle-Wall, but they could not enter, their Enemies fired so thick upon them, killing a great many of Mully Ishmael the Emperor's Men. They mined again under the Burges, or small Forts: after Powder was put in, and a Train laid, he that gave fire to it, had his Arm struck off, the Burg was blown up with the People therein. And the Emperor Mully Ishmael coming to view the Breach, and being told by the People, the Christian had lost his Arm, he ordered his chiefest Doctor to take care and heal him; for in case he did not see to him carefully, he should lose his Head. Mully Hammet got up his People to the Breach, and kept out the Emperor and his Forces, that they could not enter. Afterwards Mully Hammet went out of his Castle with a small Guard, and meeting with some of the Emperor's Scouts, one of them knowing Mully Hammet, cock'd his Piece and shot him to death: Then Mully Ham­met's Guard fought with Mully Ishmael's Scouts, and there were several killed on [Page 23] both sides. Some of Mully Hammet's Guards retired into the Castle, and ac­quainted the chiefest of them that were in the Castle, that their King was killed: presently they proclaimed Mulla Rann (being the chiefest of the Governours in Mully Hammet's time) to be their King. Which News being carried to the Emperor by his Scouts, he enquired who had killed Mully Hammet? they told him one of the Scouts, which he sent present­ly for by a Messenger, and bid him ac­quaint him that he should have a good Reward for killing him; he being brought before the Emperor, expecting a great Reward for so doing, after he had examin'd him, he rewarded him with calling him Dog, and said he should die for killing Mully Hammet, and im­mediately caused him to be made fast to a Mule's Tail, and so had him dragged through the Camp, and ordered one to go before and declare, that it was for killing of Mully Hammet; he was dragged so long till his Body was torn in pieces; after that he had him put in a place where the Country People used to come into the Camp. Mully Ran kept the [Page 24] Castle and City, and the Emperor's For­ces made more Mines in order to take the City and Castle, which being finished, they blew up the Town Walls, and seve­ral small Forts, with the People in them, and made so great a Breach that Mully Ishmael entred his Men and took both the City and Castle, and promised the People he would be kind to them; but when he took the Town, he secured their Arms, Ammunition and Treasure, and carried the People of that place to Macqueness: and being come down to Macqueness, he put all the Christians, and several hundreds of the Natives to work there to make a Court, and Houses for his Women. And coming on a cer­tain time, (as he uses constantly to do) although it rained very fast, as he was going into one of the Houses, the Mast­er Workman and his Assistants going [...] hoist up a piece of Timber, the Rope that held it broke, and the Timber fell, with which he suddenly retired back, and sent for the Master-Workman in great Passion, threatning him for taking no better care: he told him he was as careful as he could be for his life in [Page 25] doing it, saying, it was a Mischance he he could not prevent; nevertheless he took a Piece out of one of his Boys Hands, and shot him to Death, and went among the Christians raving and tearing as if he would have killed them all, set­ting his Negroes and Guard to beat both the Moors and the Christians that were at work; which they did with such Vi­olence, that many of them had their Heads and Arms miserably broken, ma­king his Buildings more like a Slaugh­ter-house than a place of Work; and at the same time ran two of his Moors through with his Launce. So that he makes no more to kill a Man at his Pleasure, than to kill a Dog.

In a little time after the Emperor was come to Macqueness, the three Chri­stians that were Miners; desired their Liberty as he had promised: He gran­ted it, and ordered a Letter to the Go­vernour of Sally, that he should send them away by the first opportunity; a Ship being ready, they desired their Liberty, being at Sally, in order for their Journey; but the Governour in­stead of granting it, abused and railed [Page 26] on them, saying, they should pay him so much a Head, or they should not go. The English Man that lost his Arm, tur­ned back and acquainted the Emperor thereof, telling him what the Governour said, who wrote a Letter and sent him, with two of his chief Negroes, saying, If he would not let them go off▪ he would cut off his Head: The Governour hearing that, durst not detain them any longer. So the three English Men, whose Names were William Chalender, Robert Jackson, and Benjamin Newman, through the Goodness of God arrived at London, and came again to their own Country.

In the Year 1683. Captain Venetia the younger, a Pirate, belonging to Sally, met with one Mr. Bellamy, an English Man, who was bound for Leghorn in a Pink of 8 Guns, to whom he gave Chase: and when he came up to Mr. Bellamy ▪ the Pirate examined him from whence he came? he answered, From London; and enquired likewise of him whither he was bound? who said, To Leghorn Mr▪ Bellamy asked him from whence he came and what Place he belonged to? he said To Algier. The Pirate commanded Bel­lamy [Page 27] to hoist out his Boat, and bring his Pass aboard, who answered, he should hoist out his own if he had any business with him, which he did, and sent his Lieutenant aboard on Bellamy. One of Mr. Bellamy's Men that had been a Cap­tive in Sally, knowing the said Pirate told the Master he knew him very well, and that he belonged to Sally. When the Lieutenant came to Bellamy's side. Mr. Bellamy placed some of his Men with their small Arms at the entring, and said, one Man should not enter him save the Lieutenant, who viewed Mr. Bella­my's Pass, acknowledging it to be good. The Lieutenant returning aboard their own Ship, acquainted the Captain, saying, We'll fire at them and afright them; in order to which, he commanded them to make ready; the Pirate firing at Mr. Bellamy, he fired at them again, so they fought a considerable time: Mr. Bella­my killed and wounded about thirty of his Men, and he wounded some of Bel­lamy's Men: but for want of Powder, Mr. Bellamy was forced to yield. When Venetia had taken him and his Company, and brought them aboard his own Ship, [Page 28] leaving several of his own Men in their stead, he began to examine Mr. Bellamy why he had killed and wounded so ma­ny of his Men? Who answered, he would have killed all the rest, and him too, if he had had Powder; with that the Pirate cut him down with his Cutlass and rip'd him open, and said, there was an end of a Dog, so threw his murdered Body into the Sea, and carried all his Men into Sally, and from thence to Mac­queness. Thus have these bloody Hea­thenish Crew deceived many of our Country-men, telling them they belong­ed to Algier, when they belonged to Sal­ly. I pray God keep all my Country­men, and all good Christians out of the Hands of that barbarous and inhumane Crew, the worst that live upon the Earth! and that all may beware of them, hath caused me thus to write; being one that by sad Experience, and from a certain knowledge I have had of them, can as­sure these things to be nothing but a real Truth; & bless God that he has thought me worthy to escape them, and that I am now come safe to the Land of my Nativity.

[Page 29]In the Year 1685. A Ship being bound from London to Barbadoes, in which were four Women, two of them being Mother and Daughter; one of those Heathenish Pirates meeting them, gave them Chase, and coming up to them, examined them strictly from whence they came, and whither bound? who told them as a­fore, From London to Barbadoes; (the Pirate was Venetia the younger, who had 300 Men, and 18 Guns) after the Com­mander had enquired the same of them, he understood what they were, they telling him that they came from Algier; so they demanded of him to shew his Pass, and said he must hoist out his Boat; they seeing him not provided with Guns to defend himself, could make no Resist­ance, which being done, the Captain of the Pirate took them into his Cabin, and would shew himself kind to them, treat­ing them, and giving them Dates. In the mean while the Lieutenant and Moors girded their Pistols and Cu [...]lasses on their Wastes, and with the English man's Boat went aboard his Ship, and took all that were aboard him, with the four Women. And the Captain ask­ed [Page 30] who the young Woman was, & whe­ther she was ever married? Account be­ing given him concerning her, he order­ed her to be put in the Cabin, lest any of his own barbarous Crew should offer to lie with her, and so Sailed away for Sally. Being come there, the Captain of the Pirate brought them they had taken to Macqueness, and the Women were car­ried before the Eunuchs. The Captain giving an account to the chief Eunuch, that one of those Women was a Virgin; but for the Men, they were driven by the Negroes to hard Labour. And af­terwards all the Christians of the Ship, and the 4 Women were brought up to Macqueness; the Women were brought be­fore the Emperor's Eunuchs, and an ac­count given to the Chief of them by the Moors Captain, that one of them was a Virgin, and she was immediately sent to the Emperor's Women▪ and the Eunuch sent to the Vice-Roy, acquainting him how he had disposed of the Virgin, who ordered the other Women to be brought to his House, and ordered the Negroes to drive the poor Christians to hard Labour, who at Night were look'd up, amongst [Page 31] the other Christian Captives, having no Sustenance allowed them for that day; and what their poor Brethren offered them, they could not eat, being such Bread as I have already described, so bad, that the Beasts in that place refused to eat it: and what betwixt their Diet and Lodging on the cold ground, together with the Negroes hard Usage, many of them fell sick. And to add to their Ex­tremity, were threatned and abused by the Negroes to turn Moors; but they daily prayed to God to strengthen them in their Afflictions, and in his great Mer­cy work some way for their Deliverance out of this dreadful Bondage.

Afterwards the chief Eunuch sent word to the Emperor, that he had a Christian Virgin amongst the rest of his Women. The Emperor ordered him to send her up to the Camp, with a parcel of his Eu­nuchs to guard her thither. When she came to the Camp, the Emperor urged her, tempting her with Promises of great Rewards if she would turn Moor, and lie with him. She earnestly desired of the Lord to preserve and strengthen her to resist his earnest Perswasions, & great [Page 32] Proffers, which he used, to have his De­sires fulfilled. When he could not pre­vail so, he fell to threatning her, and put her amongst his Negro Women, and threatned to kill them if they offered to shew her any Kindness, where they kept her, beating and abusing her for several days. She prayed still to the Lord to strengthen her, and held a resolution to withstand him; who again sought to pre­vail with her, tempting and promising of her great things, if she would turn, which she still refused: so he caused her to be stript, and whipt by his Eunuchs with small Cords, so long till she lay for dead; and he caused her to be carried away out of his Presence that time, and charged his Women none of them should help her till he sent for her, which was not till two days after, and in the mean time to have no Sustenance but that black rotten Bread: at which time he sought again to prevail with Promises and Threats, which she still withstood, praying to the Lord that she might be preserved from him, and be delivered from his cruel Hands. Then he prick'd her with such things, as commonly his Women use in­stead [Page 33] of Pins, being as sharp. Thus this beastly and inhumane Wretch by all ways he could invent, sought to force her to yield, which she resisted so long, till [...]tures, and the hazards of her Life forced her to yield, or resign her Body to him, tho her Heart was otherwise in­clined So he had her wash'd, & cloath­ed her in their fashion of Apparrel, and lay with her; having his Desire fulfilled, he inhumanely, in great haste forc'd her away out of his Presence; and she be­ing with Child, he sent her by his Eu­nuchs to Macqueness (who delivered her with the Emperor's Charge concerning her) to the chief Eunuch, and after that she was delivered of two Children.

About four Years ago, two English­men, and a French man being at Memo­ra; and as they were passing along the River, on a certain time in a Boat, with some Moors, one of which was a Lieute­nant, he ordered the Christians to go on Shore to fetch a little of their black Rusk and Water: And as they were passing along the River to take their Pleasure, the Christians said to one another, Now is the time, with the Lord's leave, for us [Page 34] to see for our Liberty: The French-man said, The Moors would be too many for them: The English-men said, Fear not, let us trust in the Lord, and he'll deliver us. So they going aboard with their Bread and Water, the Lieutenant bid them get out their Oars, and pull up like Dogs as they were; which they bore pa­tiently. At Night some of the Moors lying down, they fell upon those Moors that were awake. They then fearing the Christians would be too hard for them, called out and awaked the other Moors. Then the Lieutenant and other Moors came, and he drew his Knife, and stab'd one of the English men to death, the other knock'd him down, and they fought so long till Blood was spilt on both sides. The next day the English man and French-man were carried up to Macqueness in I­rons, before the Emperor, and by the Moors was informed of what was done. The Emperor upon Examination, told them if they did not immediately turn Moors, he would kill them. The French-man yielded: the Emperor then threat­ned the English man, if he did not turn, he would quickly kill him. He made [...] [Page 39] said true? but they finding not the Mule that was wanting, he ordered the Negro, immediately to be stript unto his Drawers, and fastened to a Mule's Tail, which was done, and he was dragg'd so the space of half a Mile to Prison, there to remain; and had the Master-Workman stretch'd out by four Negroes, two at his Hands and two at his Feet, beating of him till he could not turn himself, bidding him take care of his Mules, saying, if when he came again he found such bad stuff for his Work, he would cut off his Head. So immediately he sent his Negro Boys to fetch the seventy Christians that were hard at Labour making a Wall; so asked one of them if he could speak his Lan­guage? who said he could, examining him in like manner about the Stuff? who answered, he durst not for fear acquaint him of the Badness of it: so he took one of his Sticks they used to carry after him, and calling him Dog, bid him hold his Head fare to strike at: having strucken him down, he knocked down all the rest with his own Hands, and broke their Heads so miserably, that the place was all bloody like a Butcher's Stall, and none of [Page 40] them durst make Resistance, for if they had he would presently have killed them. So he bid them rise like Dogs as they were, saying, if they used any more such bad Stuff in his Work, he would kill them all.

In 1689, the Emperor sent down to the Coyde, or Governour of Tangier, to take a view of Alarache, where was a Gar­rison belonging to the King of Spain. The Governour taking view thereof, he sent him farther Orders to prepare for the taking it, if he could possibly. So sending back to the Emperor to provide him Forces, the Emperor sent him down 40000 Horse and Foot, besides the For­ces he had there: And he laying Siege to the Place, the Spanish Boats fetch'd off the Officers Wives and Children. They afterwards raised a small Fort, to keep all small Vessels or Boats from fetching any thing off. Which the Friars taking no­tice of, hoisted up a Flag of Truce; and came to a Treaty with the Governour of the Moors, till they had been with the Emperor at Macqueness. When come thither, they told him, that if he would let them go, and take what was their [Page 41] own with them, they would give him the Place, with the Christians, and all the Ammunition and Guns. To which he agreed, saying, he would. They return­ing again to Alarach, ordered the Gover­nour of the Moors to make a Feast; and going to their own Garrison, told their own Governour, that they had made an Agreement with the Emperor, and that they should march into Ceuta in their own Arms, saying, They had better do so, than go into Slavery amongst the Chri­stians. The Governour, and the Gover­nor of the King of Spain dining toge­ther: When Dinner was over, he bid him send for his Men, and send them with all speed to Ceuta. They being come, he commanded them to lay down their Arms; which he (to wit the Moors Go­vernour) quickly secured, telling them they must go up to the Emperor at Mac­queness, for he had a mind to see them, and afterwards they must return to Ceuta. So the Moors took the great Guns, with their Carriages, Muskets and Powder, car­rying them all to the Emperor, with a Band of Men to guard them thither. Be­ing come thither, he set his Negroes to [Page 42] drive them to work; ordering the great Guns to be unmounted, and laid flat on the Ground betwixt the two Walls, with those Guns that were brought from Memora. So the Negroes kept them at hard Slavery, beating and whipping them all day long; and at Night they were to lodg under-ground; allowing them such Bread as his other poor Captives have, & Water to sustain them alive.

After the poor Christians had under­gone their hard Labour and cruel Stripes, for the space of five months time, many of them fell sick and died: then this Ty­rant came & enquired what was become of them? they gave him account, that seven hundred of them were turned Moors, and five hundred were dead. Af­ter that the poor Christians concluded to draw a Petition to the King of Spain, & lay before him their miserable Condition under this Tyrannical Emperor, having but now and then rotten Bread, and Wa­ter when they could catch it, and there­with cruelly punished to add to their Ex­tremity. The King of Spain received their Petition; and viewing it, declared to his Council what a Condition his poor [Page 43] Subjects were in under this cruel Tyrant the Emperor of Morocco. And the said King took it into consideration, and sent over an Ambassador to the Emperor▪ to see if he could agree with him for his Subjects that were there in Slavery. The Ambassador being come an Agreement was made betwixt them, that the King of Spain should give a thousand Moors for an hundred Christians. And for the Soul­diers Wives that were not carried off, & young Children, they agreed for 4 Moors a Head. The Ambassador bargained with the Emperor, to have the Christians down to Tittivan, lying near unto Tan­gier, and there to remain till the Moors were brought over, and left at Ceuta, a place not far from thence. After which the Ambassador returned home to the King of Spain, acquainting his Master what a miserable condition his poor Sub­jects were in, working from Morning to Night, allowing them nothing but old rotten Barley bread and Water; not suf­fering them to have any thing to lie up­on, after their hard Labour and cruel U­sage by the Moors, nor no Apparrel to wear, but daily beating them, and often [Page 44] with his own Hands, to force them to turn Moors. The King of Spain ordered his Ambassador to take as many Moors as he had agreed for: So [...] went and got the Moors together, and went over to Ceu­ta with them; when being come thither, he went to Tittivan; & leaving the Moors in Ceuta, he spoke to their Governour, told him the Moors were ready at Ceuta, and that as many Christians as he was plea­sed to send to Ceuta, there should be so many Moors surrendred as they had a­greed for. When the Moors were all de­livered up, and the Christians brought in; The Moors Governour brought them up to Macqueness to the Emperor; the Em­peror enquired of them how they had fa­red in Christendom? They answered, they had allowed them a Jacket and a pair of Breeches once a year; and for their Pro­vision, they had a certainty of Rusk, and hot Beans once a Day. But being come to their own Country, they began to la­ment the Christian Captives poor condi­tion, seeing daily what they endured with Hunger, Cold, and Stripes; and many times the Tears fell from their Eyes for grief to see it; some of the Moors saying, [Page 45] We are Christians, (privately to them) but durst not publickly own it: And at another time told the Captives, (when they saw the Emperor's Cruelty, often murdering one or other at his Pleasure; and themselves had nothing allowed them but a little of that rotten Barley-bread, and a little Butter that stunk) that they had rather be in Spain than there. And some of the Moors got back again into Spain, acquainting the People there what a cruel Tyrant their Emperor was, and how miserably he used the poor Christi­ans. And when the Spanish Ambassador returned with the Christians, into their own Country, the King asked them how they had fared? Who gave a large Ac­count, as aforesaid, of the hard Bondage and Slavery the Emperor of Morocco had kept them in whilst they were un­der him. The King said, it was well they had kept their Faith, as they had done, whilst there. And his Ambassa­dor drew a Petition to the King his Ma­ster, imploring his Favour to remember them that were left behind, & take their suffering Condition into his Christian Consideration; which he did, and order­ed [Page 46] them some Relief. Those that were left behind, likewise petitioned him to allow them something Yearly: which was done, and care taken that it should be sent over for their Use: As likewise our Fact­ories at Cales and Portugal, having enquir­ed how it was with them; and under­stood the English fared no better than the rest, contributed towards their Ne­cessities, and sent it over from Cales to Tittivan' to one Mr. Anthony Packer, a Merchant there, desiring him to order it them for their Relief: Who accordingly did, and they therewith bought them a few Cloaths to cover their Nakedness. So they wrote back to Mr. Anthony Packer, and to the Factories, returning them Thanks for their Kindness in remembring them, praying to God to prosper them in their Affairs. And I beseech God to open the Hearts of our Gracious King and Queen of England, as he hath done others, to grant some Relief for their distressed Subjects that are yet in that place, whose cruel Sufferings I could do no less than acquaint them with, being when I left them, in as poor a condition as ever.

[Page 47]The poor Christian Captives that are taken by any of those Hellish Pirates be­longing to the Emperor of Morocco, are brought up to Macqueness, being kept at hard Work from Day-light in the Morn­ing till Night, carrying Earth on their Heads in great Baskets, driven to and fro with those barbarous Negroes by the Emperor's Order: and when they are drove home by the Negroes at Night to their Lodging, which is on the cold Ground, in a Vault or hollow place in the Earth, laid over with great Beams a­thwart, and Iron Bars over them, they are told in there like Sheep, and out in the Morning; and if any be wanting, he quickly secures the Negroes, and sends out a parcel of his Guard to look for them. Their Food is Bread made of old rotten Barley, and their Drink Water when they can get it: Many times when they are hurried to their Work in a Morning, not knowing whether they shall be able to undergo their Afflictions till Night: and when they are drove home, expecting Rest, the Tyrant sends some of his Negroes to hurry them again to work, either to hale down Walls, cut [Page 48] [...] or the like, keeping them both Night and Day many times without either Bread or Water, which is all their Sustenance: when they have done that, the Negroes dare not to drive them home before he gives order, lest they be killed for so doing; when they have his Order, they drive them home, tell them over, and so lock them up until Day light in the Morning. And in this Captivity. I have been, with the rest of my poor Country men for the space of Ten Years, being so long since taken; but now, through the Mercies of God, I am come to see my Native Country, and cannot but condole their Miseries I have left behind under that cruel Tyrant the Emperor of Morocco; beseeching Almigh­ty God, that none of my Country men may ever come to have a share under that hard Task-master. There are three hundred and forty English men, Subjects of our Gracious King, in this sore Capti­vity.

This Emperor, as I have been inform­ed, touching his Birth or Descent, was be­gotten of a Negro Woman by a white Man, one of the noblest of their Quality [Page 49] in that time, and is a Molatto by his Co­lour; but when he's in a passion, he looks just as he is, as black as an Infernal Imp; which his Natives take notice of, and can tell when he's angry. For his Apparrel, he wears a fine Holland Shirt, with Sleeves so large that will make any ordinary man a pair of Drawers, besides a large pair of Drawers of the same, with Breeches over them, and next to his Shirt a Garment of as fine Stuff as can be had, made of the fashion of a Wastcoat without Sleeves, & over that a Coat of as fine Cloth as can be bought, made almost of our fashion; he wears over that a sort of Garment which they call a Shilham, or Barnoose, but we may call it a short Cloak, being wrought all over with Silver and Gold, with a Cap to go over his Head, having at the top of it a great Bob with a Fringe, and at the bottom a great Fringe all round it: on the lower part from his Breast it is open, and the upper part made fast; and over that in cold Weather he wears a Cloak, with a Cap to put over his Head: upon his Head he wears sometimes a Turbet (as they call it) made of Silk; and when it is hot weather, he wears a Garment made [Page 50] of a sort of Stuff like fine Crape, and a Hat; and on his Legs he wears fine red Boots, but different from our Fashion: he's oftner on Horseback than on Foot; his Guard, which are of different Stature, wear some of them Shoes, and have over their Shirts & Drawers only Cloaks with Caps, some light coloured, & some dark: sometimes he has an hundred following him, and at other times fifty, and some­times more, he having thirty thousand Negroes of his own Slaves.

Every one of his black Guard have a Piece, and he has three or four Launces carried after him, and several Pieces rea­dy charged, to kill with at his pleasure, either the Christians or his own Natives. When he falls out with his Guard, he strips and takes their Clothes from them, and puts them in Irons, and sets them to work. He seldom returns home after his going out in a Morning, without killing one or other before he returns, by running of them through with his Launce, shoot­ing them, or dragging them at a Mule's Tail, either Men or Women, seldom re­penting for what he has done; Mahomet their great Prophet possessing them with [Page 51] a Belief, that if he kills any one, he merits Heaven by so doing; but if any Person should kill him, he cannot avoid going to Hell. He has Water carried after him by a Boy, which he drinks, to make the People believe he drinks nothing else▪ and likewise hath short sticks carried af­ter him daily, to beat the poor Slaves at his pleasure, which is hourly, to vex and punish them, delighting in nothing more.

He was first made a Coyde or Gover­nour of some part of the Country, and by his Kindness and Affability to the People, he gained Respect from them in that Country. Mully Sheade being then King, and living in the City of Fez, there died; and the Inhabitants there being all Whites, and he a Mollato, they cryed up Mully Hammet. Mully Ishmael being then beloved of his own People, he raised a small Army, and went against the said City and won it: having conquered Fez ▪ he still strove to oblige the People; and one Guillan raised a small Army, against whom Mully Ishmael went. Guillan being a great Friend to our Nation, the Gover­nour of Tangier offered him Assistance if he was pleased to accept it: he returned [Page 52] him Thanks, saying, it was bad enough for himself and his own Army to be con­quered, and it would be worse for the Christians if they should go with him; but engaging himself, Mully Ishmael con­quered him, and his People carried his Head up to Macqueness. When I was there, the Emperor kept two of Guillan's Sons in his Castle, and had them at School amongst his own Children, because of their Father's Courage and Stoutness.

Our English Governour was concerned at the loss of Guillan & his People. When the Emperor had won most of his Coun­try, and conquered Tarradant, he soon af­ter came to Macqueness, and ordered all his Bashaws or Governours to build Walls and great Houses upon their own Charge, on pain of losing their Lives. Some fi­nished their Houses, and some could not, having not wherewith to do it, being brought so low, he causing it to be so, that they might not rebel against his chief Son, called Mully Sedan, for whom he hath the greatest Esteem above all his Sons, thinking he may succeed after his Decease: but I hope in God, and wish it may never be, for the young Tyrant [Page 53] imitates his Father too much in cutting and killing the Slaves as bad as he almost, that the People begin to dread him as well as the old one.

The Emperor's Castle hath four Gates belonging to it. The City of Macqueness is an old decay'd place, the Castle stand­ing distant from it, and walled in some places double, and has a few old Iron Guns mounted upon them: For the Brass Guns that were taken from the King of Spain, he's afraid to leave them with any of his Governours, lest they rise against him, and had them brought up to Mac­queness, plac'd within the Castle Gates betwixt two Walls flat upon the Ground. The Buildings within the Walls are very high, and several small Forts round the Castle Walls. And lately he set the Peo­ple to build two new Towns, (with which to plague his Country-People, to bring them as low as he can) which I think will never be finished in his time; and if he did it on his own Cost and Charge, he would not have so many Buildings. When Taxes are brought him in, he treasures it up, taking but little out again.

[Page 54]The common Diet the Emperor uses to eat, is made like a kind of Grain; they call is Cuscozoo ▪ being boiled and mixed with their Butter, which is far more loathsome and strong to us than our But­ter in England; being put into Platters, they put thereon Mutton cut in small pie­ces: So he sits down, and thrusting his Hand into it, he shakes it a little to and fro, crambing it in his mouth together. When he has done, he calls his Negroes to take what's left to eat while he stands over them, and they are in great fear lest he kill them; which he certainly would do, if one should eat more than another. Their Drink is commonly Water; 'tis said, he'l drink Wine; wherein he makes invalid the Doctrine of their great Pro­phet Mahomet ▪ who told the People, it was a great Sin to do it; yea, and he'll often be drunk too▪ (to the sorrow of his poor Slaves); though if any of the rest, if it be the greatest among them, be found in the like case, if he comes to the know­ledge of it, he'l kill them. His Guards about him are made up of Negro Boys, of fourteen, sixteen, or eighteen Years old. If he calls for the greatest Man in [Page 55] his Country about the least Crime, they pre­sently run like so many Hounds, & they come Collering of him, as if he were a Bullock to be slaughtered: When he's hal'd so before the Emperor, he either kills him, or he's beaten, or put in Irons, and thrown into Prison; and after this manner he governs his own People.

When he had Business with our Nati­on, and asked Advice of the Chief of his own Country, none durst say his Con­cerns would go well or ill, for fear he would dislike what they said, although he would often require them to do it: So he first gives his own Judgment of the matter, and they say as he does. He is seldom true to his Word, having cheated most Kings and Princes that have had a­ny thing to do with him; as in case of the Algerines, who made him pay dearly for it.

Whilst I was there, he made Peace with Holland and France; but soon broke it, taking since that time several Dutch & French Ships, making Slaves of their Sub­jects. If he swears one thing to day, he'l swear another thing on the morrow. Yet he did not out wit (notwithstanding his [Page 56] Falshood and Treachery) the King of Spain's Ambassador, who surrendred not one of the Moors, till the Christians were got into the Spanish Garrison.

If any Christian King or Prince sends an Ambassador to this Emperor, (as in my time there have been from England, Spain and France) when they come thi­ther, he makes them wait a considerable time: And he's so high in his own con­ceit, that except they be Persons of Quality, he regards them not; & when they come before him, [...] be either in his Stable, or on Horseback, or sitting on an heap of Earth, and so speaks to them by an Interpreter, (and will not allow a Penny towards their Charges, nor any Place to lodg in, be they who they will) & so sends for several of the white men, being Bashaws or Governours, the chief­est of his Country, who dare not for their lives be judges to speak otherwise than what he says first, for fear of him

About twelve years since he sent an Ambassador over to our late K Charles the Second, to Congratulate his Majesty, and Treat with him for Peace, or the like; and in the mean time sent out his [Page 57] Pirates to take our English Ships. Our King not thinking him to be so false, sent him a Present over by Hammet Benhado, the Emperor's Ambassador; who is now as barbarous to the poor Christians as any belonging to the Emperor. He never goes to rest, but when dead sleep over­comes him, and make him so drowsy, that he can't hold up his Head; and as he goes to rest, he often kills one or other of his Negroes, at home as well as abroad. Then in one of his Rooms in the Castle, he lies down on a kind of Quilt on the Ground; and sleeping that Night, he ri­ses early in the Morning, and falls to his old Tyrannous and Inhumane Practices, domineering over his poor Slaves, & sets the Negroes to whip, stone & beat them, to work harder than many times it's pos­sible for them to think they can hold out or endure till Night. The poor Christi­ans, the English Captives, dayly praying to God, if it be his Will, to support them in this distressed Condition and to keep them and deliver them from under this miserable Oppression they are under, & restrain the Hands of that bloody Ty­rant: And when they think of their Na­tive [Page 58] Country, and the Government there­of, they cannot but greatly lament their own Condition, erecting their Prayers to Heaven for the Preservation of their own King and Country; and that God would be pleased to open their Hearts to re­member them in this sad and deplorable Condition. Thus bemoaning one ano­ther, they commit their Case to him, who is the wise Disposer and Orderer of all things, without whose Permission nothing can be acted or done, who can in his due Time grant them Relief.

On Fridays the Emperor goes to his Place of Worship, having first viewed his Slaves, being of several sorts, both Christi­ans, Negroes, and a sort of People called Brabboes; the last sort being Natives of the Country, which he suppresseth so much, that they are not able to pay him Taxes, keeping them at as hard Slavery as the rest. If he kills none in the Morn­ing before he goes to Worship, they dread him for fear he will at his return: he rides thither and back again, going about Eleven of the Clock, and returns about One, against which time the poor Slaves order one or other to watch, and [Page 59] are in as great fear when they see him as if they must all be destroyed; and they all work more hard that day than all the rest of the Week. He killed seven and twenty Moors on one day; but there's none can tell the several thousands of poor Souls this unmerciful Tyrant hath stain since his Reign, which is now about two and twenty Years.

For his Women I think he knows no the number of them, he hath so many both Whites, Blacks, Mollatoes, and Copper-colour'd; and for Apparel they have a piece of Silk of a Red or Yellow Colour, which they wear over their Heads. They wear Shifts or Smocks made of fine Linnin, big enough to make two Shifts, and fine Drawers that will reach down to their Heels, which are open or slit in the middle; and their upper Garment is fine Flannel, and a Silk Girdle about their middle: upon each of their Breasts they wear Silver or Gold Pins, with which they fasten their upper Garment; and upon their Wrists of their Hands they wear on each a Silver Shackle, and like­wise upon the Small of their Legs; and on their Feet red Slippers. He hath store [Page 60] of Children of several Colours. He hath built within his Castle fine Dwellings for himself to live and lodg in; and for his Women he hath built very fine Houses, two Courts very sumptuous; in the big­ger of them are seventy two Marble Pillars, each at least three foot thick, to support the fine painted Works above; in the middle of the greater Court is a Marble Cistern with curious Spring Wa­ter, which springs or boils up in the mid­dle thereof, and comes from a Fountain about two Miles from the Castle. If he desires to lie with any of his Women, he sends an Eunuch to fetch whom he plea­ses: she being come, he lies with her, after that he bids her begone; being as inhumane in this as in the rest of his Actions; and away she goes, lest he kill her. He allows his▪ Women a quantity of Flower, and sends his Eunuchs to mea­sure it them out; and sometimes goes to look over them himself, lest his Eunuchs cheat him. One of his Women came to him carrying a young Child in her Arms, desiring him to allow her a little more Flower and Butter; he bid her stay a while, and she should have it; then he [Page 61] called for some of his Eunuchs, and kill­ed her, and caused them to pull the young Child in pieces Limb from Limb.

It's his Pleasure sometimes to shew his Women his fine Buildings: before he goes, he sends his Eunuchs to drive away all the Men out of their sight, riding with a Lance himself before the Women, being two or three hundred following, where he rides in great Pomp, extolling this and the other Work, and admiting the Bra­very thereof: but the Women dare not to speak a word otherwise than as he him­self doth.

In the Year 1688, the Emperor of Morocco sent a Letter to the Algerines, ac­quainting them that he heard they had a great many Christian Slaves; and since he had a great deal of work to do, if they would sell him any of them, he would give them 150 Dollars a Head for five hundred of them, and send them a­way with all speed They gathered three hundred French Men, and brought them to Tittivan; being landed there, the Go­vernour had them to Macqueness to the Emperor, to see them, and asked him if he liked them? who answered, Yes. [Page 62] Immediately by the Emperor's Order they were driven away by the Negroes in a barbarous manner. The Algerines expecting their Money from the Empe­ror, having waited a long time for Pay­ment, they resolved at once to demand it from him: When they asked him for it, he answered, he did not use to give Money for Christians that were brought into his Land. Then they charged him with breach of Promise, saying, they hoped he would not serve them so. He said, if they did not retire out of his Country, he would cut off all their Heads. So they retiring to Algier with speed, ac­quainted the King and his Pateroons how they had sped with the Emperor, giving Relation of what he said concerning the Christians. The King presently rais'd an Army of 50000 Men, preparing Ammu­nition and Field-pieces, who marched through Trimsind, a place at or near the Emperor's Dominions, where they entred without Resistance; and as they passed along, several of Mully Ishmael's People ran to them: Mully Ishmael's Coydes, or Governours, acquainted him that the Algerines were coming against him: [Page 63] Mully Ishmael hearing thereof, raised an Army of Eighty thousand Horse and Foot, and made his Son Mully Sedan Ge­neral thereof. Whilst his Army was a preparing, the Algerines were got up as far as a Town called Tezzo, within two days Journey of Fez, where they pitch'd. Mully Sedan went against them; & being there, the Algerines wrote a Letter to Mully Ishmael, acquainting him, that they did not come to fight with his Son, but to have met himself in Person: he sent them word back that his Son was able enough for them. Soon after they had received his Letter, they engaged Mully Sedan's Army, and slew abundance of them. Many of Mully Sedan's Peo­ple deserted him, joyning with the Alge­rines. Then he sent with all speed to the Emperor his Father, giving him ac­count what had happened. When Mully Ishmael understood that, he gave out, that if any Christians would help, and stand by the great Guns, if he prevailed against the Algerines, he would give them their Liberty. So eight Englishmen told him they knew what belonged to the Guns, and they would go with him. So he ordered an hundred Moors to assist them, [Page 64] and to take out six great Guns (that they judged might be most serviceable) from the place where they lay betwixt the Walls. They told him they want­ed Carriages: He sent for Carpenters immediately, charging them to make Carriages strong and good, and that with all speed, upon pain of losing their Heads in case they neglected. Mully Sedan again sent the Emperor his Fa­ther word, that if he did not hasten to Battel, the Algerines would be in Fez, in four days time▪ Mully Ishmael hearing that, was forced to go with all speed, raising what Forces he could, leaving for haste his Field pieces behind him. The Emperor being come where his own Army lay, he made Peace with the Algerines General, and in or­der thereto, gave forty eight Mules laden with Gold, and an Horse and Furniture worth 200000 Crowns.

About a month before I came from Macqueness, one of our own Nation, name­y Elias Roberts, being by the said Empe­ror put to look after a parcel of Sheep he came himself to view them; and tel­ling, them over, found three of his num­ber [Page 65] wanting, who thereupon sent for one of his chief Negroes that kept all account of them, and examined him what was become of them? he replied, the Chri­stian kept the Key and lock'd them up every Night, and carried it with him to the place where he went to sleep under Ground. The Tyrant immediately sent his Blood hounded Negros to fetch the poor Christian, who was not far from them; being come, he asked him what was become of those Sheep that were wanting? he made Answer, he went home every Night, having first fastned the Door, and that the Negroe had a false. Key to the Door; so turning to the Ne­groe, and upon Examination finding him faulty, he presently shot him to Death, running his Launce through his Body in several places, and threatned the Christi­an for not acquainting him therewith sooner, saying, if he would not turn Moor, he would kill him, as he had done the Negro, who lay dead before them. The Christian boldly replied, he was brought up in the Faith of Jesus Christ, and he would not turn Moor, and that he feared God, whose Power was grea­ter [Page 66] than his; so the Emperor fell to cutting him, and afterwards had him very inhumanely stretched out by those bloody Negroes, and beaten till he was left for dead. Then he went away to his Works where English Captives were, and told them he had killed one of the Dogs their Brother, for taking no better care of his Sheep, calling them Dogs in his, own Language, & bidding them fetch that Dog away; five or six of them went and brought the poor Man away, who had been so cruelly beaten by the wicked Wretch, his Bo­dy was so exceedingly bruised, he could not stir neither hand nor foot; neither could he feed himself for several days, but as we help'd him. Yet through God's Mercy, he was pretty well recovered before my Departure from thence. And thus when the poor Captives are by this unmerciful, and rather, as we may term him, inhumane Brute, beaten and killed at his pleasure, none dare make any com­plaint to him; for instead of taking any Pity of them, he matters no more to kill a Christian than to kill a Dog; and if a­ny of them seeks for Favour from this [Page 67] Tyrant, he's either killed, of sorely bea­ten by either him or his bloody Negroes.

A Moor, one of the Natives of the Country, having Compassion on me, & seeing my sad Condition that I was kept daily in, which I cannot at large insert here, came to me, speaking his own Lan­guage, being Arabick, knowing I could understand him; and he asked me if I would go to my Native Country? I re­plied, are you in earnest or not? he an­swered, Yes, and would direct me, and go along with me himself to Marsegan, a Garrison belonging to the King of Portugal. I told him, if he expected any Reward or Satisfaction from me for his pains, I had nothing to give him; he said he knew that by my Condition. So I enquired of him where he lived? he answered, at a place called Assimore, which is not far from the Christian Garrison; and he said, he would trust to the Bene­volence of the Governour of that place, provided I would speak to the said Governour for a Gratuity for him, when we should arrive there. I told him I should be worse than a Jew, if I did not do that; and they themselves count the Jews [Page 68] the worst and falsest of all People. Then I asked him in what time we should pro­vide for our Journey? he said, as soon as I could find convenient opportunity; & I farther prevailed with him to take in two more English-men along with us, whose Names were Tristram Bryan, born in Plymouth; and Edward Tucker, who came from New England. And in five days time after we were fitted with a small quantity of Bread for the Journey, supposing we might accomplish our Jour­ney in ten nights time, for we must of necessity hide our selves in the Day for fear of being discovered; yet we found it difficult enough to perform it in two and twenty days, in which time we were put to great Hardships and Necessities on the way. The Particulars are as follow.

On the 26th of June, 1692, in the Evening, we set forward from Macqueness, and travelled as far as we could that Night in great fear of being pursued, with our Moor to direct us in the way, know­ing that if they had found us, we had been killed, if not burnt, which would have been the Moor's Lot had we been taken: towards day we had a great Ri­ver [Page 69] to pass; when we were got over, we found a small Coppise or Wood, where we rested the Day following, being the 27th. In the Evening when the Sun was set, our Guide was forward to be going, not knowing how the Event would prove, and I had much ado to perswade him from going before 'twas dark. When we came into the Road out of the Wood we met ten Moors, and Mules and Asses laden with Goods for the Emperor, being Iron, which they had taken from one Sa­vage, an English Master that came from Bilboa; so we followed our Guide the Moor, who gave them the time of the Night, and they him likewise; & so we passed that time without any further trou­ble, they supposing us to be Moors, being we had on their sort of Apparrel. So we travelled that Night, making what haste we could, and still in great fear, lest we should have been discovered by Moors: when we rested▪ it was towards Day, in some Brambles or Bushes, seeing them pass along by us, driving of Sheep and Bullocks; but through Mercy they did not see us. And the next Night, being the 28th, we travelled all Night; and [Page 70] when Day appeared, we could not find a convenient place to lodg in, which we sought for; and about Sun-rising we found a place betwixt two Mountains where were Holes made with the Winter Rains coming off the Hills near a Path­way, to which we made, and espied se­veral Moors who went along the Road, that had Mules and Asses loaden with Iron, who saw us not. Some part of the Day we slept; and the Moor and I watcht; in which time the Moor gathered Palm, and made a Sling, to sling Stones at Lions and other wild Beasts that ap­peared.

So in the Evening, after Sunset, (be­ing the 29th) we travelled till we came to a River-side, where were a great parcel of Moors and Mules a baiting, that had Bail Goods, which the Sally Moors had taken in Prizes, to carry to the Emperor at Macqueness; who strictly enquired of our Moor, from whence we came, and whither we were going? He made ans­wer, To Salley, and came from Macqueness, and so our Moor bad them Goodnight; and we travelled on (without further en­quiry) along the River-side before we [Page 71] could get over. When we were over, there were a great many Bramble bushes and Rush-bushes; and our Moor feared there were Lions in that Place, so we made what haste we could up a Hill, on the top of which was a great Plain; and being very thirsty, we travelled on a good way further, and heard a noise of Frogs and Toads; to which Place we came, and found a standing Water, which stunk; however we drank thereof to stay our Thirst, and 'twas sweet to us: and so went on till we found a ruined Castle, which had formerly belonged to the Portugues, at which our Moor would fain have rested; but I told him there might happen to be Moors there, because they usually rested in such Places in the Night. So we came to a place where grew a great parcel of high Weeds, and there we rested that Day.

The 30th at Night, after Sun set, we set forwards; but were very thirsty, the Sun haveing shone hot upon us that Day, having lain without shelter, only the Weeds. I asked our Moor, how long it would be e're we could find any Water? He said, A little further there was a small [Page 72] River; but we thought it a long way to it, our Throats being so parch'd with Drought; so we drank Water, and eat a little Bread, which did greatly refresh us; and we went forward till near break of Day, where we rested in some Weeds till about two in the Afternoon; at which time the three Women disturbed us two or three times, but saw not our Faces. So we three went forward, and our Moor stood, and enquired of them the way to Salley. Then the Women asked from whence we came? Who answered, From Tapholet, which was a City in that Coun­try. They further asked, if he had lain in that place all Night? and asked what they were that were with him? He told them, Three of his Neighbours, and that they had laid there all Night, being Strangers. They said, It was a wonder that the Lions had not destroyed us, there being so many in that place, they devou­red some of their Cattle, almost every Night; and they told him it was about four Leagus to Sally.

After Sun-set (July 1.) we travelled till we came to a Wood, where the Moor would have had us to rest; but seeing of [Page 73] Lights which the Country People had in their Tents, and hearing a Lion roan thereabouts, we went further, and came to a ruined Tower, where was a good Spring of Water; we drank and refresh­ed our selves, but durst not stay for fear of Moors being in that place; and going a little farther, we came into a Valley, where was a Hole the Winter Rains had made, there we rested; and after the Sun was risen, two Moors came to cut Palm: At which I awaked our Moor, who spoke to them, and gave them the time of Day, and they likewise to him. They enquired of him from whence he came, and whither he was going? He told them, he came from beyond Tapho­let, and was going to visit a great Saint at a Town called Temsnah; and asked further, if there were none with him? He answered, there were three more▪ They asked, if we had lain there all Night? He said, we had; They said, it was to be wondred that the Lions had not devoured us; and came to look at us where we lay, speaking Arabick; but the Moor told them, we could not speak that Lingua; and we were covered all o­ver [Page 74] with our white Blankets, being such as the Moors commonly wear. So they went away and left us, telling us. We did well in going to visit the Saint. So we got up, and espying a parcel of Bush­es a little distance off, we removed thi­ther, lest the two Moors should have informed of us at Sally, & so have come back to the place and found us. The Bush where we were hid, was near a River-side, but we durst not go to drink thereat, by reason of People which passed to and fro there by us all-day long.

July 2. After Sun-set, we attempted to go over the River; but it being so strong a Stream, and deep, we could not pass over it: And in our going a great way further up the River-side, there happened to be several of the Moors; yet being Night, they saw us not, save only one Man of the Natives, which had tied up a bundle of Canes fast together to pass over the River with them; to whom our Moor gave the time of the Night; and he answering with the like to us, we parted: and going higher up, we found a place not so deep as the other part of the River; so got over, and travelled up [Page 75] a Hill on the other side, where we found some Bushes, and there we rested, and our Moor lay on the out-side of them. In the Morning when the Sun was risen, came by us two Moors with [...] Asses, who said one to the other, it was won­der the Lions had not devoured that Man, meaning our Moor, who they saw lying by the side of the Bushes.

On the third Instant, after the Sun was set, we set forward, endeavouring to get to the Sea-side: but there being seve­ral People in the way, watching with their Dogs to keep the wild Beasts from their Gardens; which we hearing, were fain to flee further from them: so we travelled a little further▪ and rested a­mong some Rushes.

The next Night, being the 4th. of Ju­ly, we travelled after Sun setting as far as we could, being weary and faint, and rested.

On the 5th; on which Day after Sun was set, we set forward and travelled till we came to a place where was a stand­ing Water, being thereto led by a noise of Frogs; which although the Water stunk, yet drinking thereof, it was sweet [Page 76] to us; with that, and a little Bread, we were much refreshed; but at this time our Bread was gone, so we travelled a little further, and rested.

The 6th Instant, after Sun-set, we went forward, and discovered a great many Lights which the Natives had in their Tents where they lodg: So we parted a while one from another, to find out the Roads. At length I came to a place where the Country People use to go to Market, where we again met together; and travelling a while, we heard some Dogs as I thought, did scent us; and near that place we met with a Lion ly­ing by the way-side; which the Moor seeing, before he roused, he struck him fair over the Head. So the Lion roared at him, and followed us half a mile or more; but our Moor kept slinging of Stones at him so fast, that he left us. Then we came to a Valley, where was a Wood on each side: When Day appeared, we rested in the Wood, ha­ving no Bread to sustain us; but we durst not enter the Wood till it was Day light, for fear of the Lions: We then found a piece of Pot in the Wood, [Page 77] with which our Moor brought us some Water out of the Valley; for we durst not fetch it our selves, lest the People saw us: so when the Moor had brought us a pot full of Water, (but in the mean time we were lamenting our sad Condition for want of Bread, having then no Sustenance but Palm-Berries▪ Grass and Weeds, and any thing we could eat, which was sweet to us) he said, in his own Language, God was great. So went from us about the space of four Hours; in which time he fold his Sash, and bought us a small quantity of Bread (about a pound and an half) therewith, and brought us a little of it, which we ate; and he fetch'd us a little more Water in the Pot: After we had eaten and drank of the Water, we went to sleep, two of us watching.

On the 7th, after Sun set, we travel­led on; and the Moor slung Stones, whilst we passed through the Wood, lest there should be Lions lurking therea­bouts: having refreshed our selves with the Bread and Water, we rested amongst some Brambles, but could find no more Water that Night.

[Page 78]Then on the 8th Day at Night we came to another Wood, in which we travelled a great way, and kept two of us awake to watch against Lions and o­ther wild Beasts.

On the 9th we set forward, and tra­velled in the same Wood, and still had no Water.

The 10th, after Sun setting, we went till we came to an Hill of Rocks; at the bottom whereof we found a Spring of Water, and drinking thereof, we were greatly refreshed, and there was a little River, from which we went, till we came to some Trees or Bushes, and there rested.

About eight a Clock in the Morning, July 11. (it raining fast) we ventur'd to travel that Day, after we had rubb'd out a little Corn, and eaten, that the Moor had brought us, having no Bread to eat: so went to the top of an Hill, on which grew a Tree, which we climb'd upon, and espied the Sea at a great di­stance from us. We travelled all that Day, and the Night following, till to­wards Day, that we rested, but had nei­ther Bread nor Water.

[Page 79]On the 12th at Night, after Sun-set­ting, we travelled a good way, and heard a noise of Frogs and Toads; to which we made, and found Water, which we drank of; and although it was very brackish, yet it was pleasant to us, by reason of our sore drought. A little from thence we met with a Person of Quality, as we judged by his Habit and Attendance, having ten Men with him; to whom our Moor paid his Respects, and gave him the time of the Night. He answered him again in his own Language and asked him whither we were going? Our Moor answered, To Santa Cruse: So he bid us God speed: Afterwards our Moor asked him from whence he came? He answered, From Assimore. So we de­parted away, and travelled till we found some Bushes, wherein we rested that Day.

July 13. After Sun-setting we set out, and came so near to Assimore, that list­ening we heard the People in it, and saw the Town, which stood on the South side of a Hill, and a River by the Town, which was so deep, that we could not get over, because one of our Men could not swim: Then we travelled a­long [Page 80] the North side of the River, till we came to a place where Canes grew, and there we rested by the River-side.

July 14 After it was Day, our Moor went to see his Family which dwelt there in that Town. We having been a con­siderable time without Bread, I requested our Moor to bring us a little, (which he did) and likewise to see if he could find any thing to carry my Country man o­ver the River; and about four in the Af­ternoon he returned with some Bread, and said, he had found a Tree. After Sun was set, we went to view it, and found it not fit to swim withal: So we returned, and went back to the Canes, and there staid.

On the 15th Instant, when the Sun was risen, I desired our Moor to go and enquire of the People, where we might pass over the River? The People told him, there was no other Passage but by a Boat at the Town. So our Moor went about a League further in the Country, where he saw a Man and a Woman up­on a Mule crossing the River, and mar­ked the place with some Stones, that we might find it, and so returned to us, and [Page 81] rested till Sun setting. So we set for­ward, and had gone but a little way be­fore we heard a Lion roar, but he did not come in our sight; then we came to the place where the Moor laid his Mark, and sat down to consult how to pass o­ver there, we hearing of People in a Gar­den were near at hand: And in the in­terim, we heard a Lion just behind us; so we hastened and got over the River, and travelled a little further, & rested.

July 16. After Sun setting we travelled about a Mile further, where we saw a Town, that our Moor said was a Saint's Town, to which the People, that were not able to pay their Taxes to the Em­peror, fled for Refuge.

July 17. After Sun setting we travel­led; and going till about Midnight we came within call of the Garrison * which was at Mersygan belonging to the King of Portugal: So I called out, and the [Page 82] Souldiers made answer to me, and asked what we were? I replied, we were three Christians and a Moor: which they pre­sently acquainted the Governour of, and bid us hasten nearer, lest there should be any Moors in the hearing of us. Which we did, and running to a wrong place, they called to us again to make to the two Draw bridges, where we sat down. So the Governour, and the rest of the Officers, came to the Wall; and after he had examined us, he and the Guard let us in; and he ordered his Servants to bring us into the House, and to give us some Relief; and he himself came to us, and wondred that so little satisfied us in our eating and drinking: So had us into another Room, and asked me, If I did not know of three Men that were taken by the Moors from that Garrison? I an­swered, I knew of two, but not the third. He bid me speak to the Moor, and ask him, if he would undertake to bring them thither to that place? So I spoke to the Moor, who bid me tell the Gover­nour▪ That he would endeavour it to the utmost of his Power. So the Go­vernour ordered us a Lodging; and in [Page 83] the Morning ordered his Clerk to write a couple of Letters, and gave them to the Moor, with forty pieces of Eight for bringing us thither, saying, If he did bring the two Portuguess, he would give him as much more as should maintain him and his Family as long as he lived. The Moor said, He would do his endea­vour. So the Governour ordered Din­ner for us: And about four a Clock he again sent for me and the Moor; and bid me tell him in his Language, That if he feared any thing in his Return, he would send some of his Troopers to conduct him on the Way. The Moor made answer, He should go more safe alone. After Sun was set, the Govern­our gave him Victuals to serve him, till he could shift for himself. And the Moor taking his leave, returned, and went on his Journey.

About three Weeks after, a Portuguese Man of War came into that Garrison, to fetch about 1800 Souldiers off from thence: So I desired of the Governour we might go aboard with them: Which he was willing, and in four days after we had been aboard, most of the Souldi­ers [Page 84] being come off, the Captain sent a Letter to the Governour, by the Coxon of the Pinnace, desiring him to hasten he remainder away. When the Pinnace went ashore, his Crew wondred to see any Moors there, and asked, What they did there? The Portugues told them, They came with a Flag of Truce, to treat for three Moors they had taken. They offered the Governour two thou­sand Dollars for them, being one of them was a Shack, or Governour; or Bullocks, or Sheep, or Corn, in lieu of Money. He answered, No; for they had taken three Troopers belonging to his Garrison; and he heard that two of them were at Macqueness. They replied, They knew by whom he heard that, for the Christians that the Moor brought, had acquainted him therewith; but he had paid dearly for it, for, said they, he was taken with the Pieces of Eight, and Let­ters about him, and carried up to the Emperor and burnt: At which the Go­vernour was very sorry when he heard it The Governour then told them, he heard two of his Troopers were alive at Macqueness, but he feared the third was [Page 85] dead, because he heard nothing of him; and bid them go up to the Emperor, and prevail with him, if they could, for the two Christians, and bring them, and they should have the three Moors. They told him, they could not do that. He made answer, Then they should never have the Moors. So at Night when they came on Board, I asked them what was the best News? Who said, Very bad; for they had seen a parcel of Moors, who had given account to the Governour, that the Moor that brought us to the Garrison was taken and burnt. At which I was much grieved, knowing the poor Moor's true hearredness towards us, in bringing and directing us on our Journey, when we made our escape from Macqueness. So setting fail for Lisbon, through God's Mercy we safely arrived there, and went to the King's Palace, giving him Thanks for the Kindness the Governour had be stowed upon us, and the Moor that brought us to the Garrison.

When we came thither, several of the Nobility enquired of us, What Nation we were of▪ and told us, if we desired it, we might speak with the King; and [Page 86] acquainted him of us, who ordered us to come before him; and enquired of us if we could speak French or Portuguese? I said, we could speak some Portuguese, and a little Lingua Franc: So he enquired from whence we came? And I gave him account of our narrow escape from that Slavery we had been in under the Emperor, &c. and told him how our Bread was gone in ten days time, and that we had been two and twenty Days in coming from Macqueness, to the Garri­son, and did eat nothing but Reach till the 23d Night. He much wondred how we were kept alive the rest of the time after our Bread was gone. I told him, through God's Assistance we had shifted as well as we could; for our Liberty be­ing sweet to us, had caused us to run these great hazards we were exposed to. He further enquired after those Christians that are still in Slavery; of which I gave him an Account of all I could re­member: And desired him, out of the abundance of his Goodness and Cle­mency to remember them in their Affli­ctions. He told me, it was more than he ever heard before, and said, he would [Page 87] before Winter came, take care to send them Relief, to buy them Victuals and Cloaths; and enquired of me, Whether any of his Subjects desired me to lay their Condition before him? I answered, No, but (by God's permission) I had in part undergone the same Afflictions they were in, and knew well enough how it was with them. He made answer, God would bless me for it. He likewise ask­ed, if I knew what number of Ships were at Salley? I cold him, eleven Sail. He said, He knew Venetia, for he had for­merly been at his Palace I said, it was our late King Jame's Pleasure to give him his Liberty; with much more that passed betwixt us.

When this Venitia returned home to the Emperor, the Emperor ordered him to build a Ship; & several English men, that were newly taken Slaves he caused to draw Timber in a Cart from Memora to Salley, (which was twelve Miles distant) like so many Oxen, driving and whip­ping of them in a very barbarous man­ner. The Name of Venetia caused me to insert this here, to show the barba­rous [Page 88] Cruelty of this inhumane Wretch; and so I shall leave him, and proceed.

We having taken our leaves here, took our Passage for Holland, where my two Country-men staid; but I took my Pas­sage for England, where, praised be God for his great Mercies, I arrived safely, being by his good Providence at last de­livered from under the Hands of this in­humane Tyrant, and his Hellish Crew of Negroes; beseeching Almighty God, that all my Country men, in all their Affairs and Negotiations, may ever es­cape from his cruel Hands.

Francis Brooks.
[Page 89]

THE Turkish FAST, Out of the Monthly Murcury, for December, 1697.

THE 29. of the last Month, N. S. the new Aga of the Janizaries made his Publick Entry into Adrianople; but he had not a­bove Ten or Twelve Captains of the Ja­nizaries to attend him, all the rest who were at the Battel of Z [...]nta being kill'd, or since dead of their Wounds. The next day the Grand Signior arriv'd at the same [Page 90] City with his new prime Visir; but he rode directly to his Seraglio without en­tring into the City, not desiring they should make him any publick Reception, or that the Sultanness his Mother should meet him, as she intended, two Miles out of the City. The ill Success of the last Cam­pagne has cast a deep Consternation into all the Provinces of his Empire which have heard the ill Tidings, insomuch that in some Places the People begin to murmur against the Grand Signior and his Govern­ment. For which Reason the Sultan has caus'd a General Fast, and Publick Pray­ers to be said throughout all his Domini­ons Alamode de Turqueske, which are to be accompany'd with Processions to Mecca, in hopes to appease the Anger of Heaven. To which purpose he has set forth the following Ordinance, wherein are many things to be observ'd relating to Mahometan Bigotry.

THe Grand Signor of the Turks ac­knowledging that the Hand of God lies heavy upon his Dominions and his Subjects, for that they have so often fought and been vanquish'd as well by Sea [Page 91] as by Land by their Enemies the Christians, who have also in a little time regain'd from 'em a large Extent of their Country, attributes these frequent Misfortunes to the too great Confidence he has had in his Stength and his Alliances against the Em­peror of the Christians. For which Rea­son he Ordains and Commands, by these Presents, for the attoning the Wrath of God, and his great Prophet Mahomet, That every Fryday of the New Moon, as also upon the 5th. 6th. and 7th. of the Month, that all Persons fast all the Day, without eating or drinking, till the Stars appear in the Sky. That the Mufti and his Clergy upon those Days be cloath'd with Sackcloth, girt with Cords, with long Beards; and that they go in that posture, first through the Streets, and then to the Churches, with their Eyes fix'd upon the Earth, lamenting and crying, Ja Aagib, Allah, Alah, that is to say, O Merciful God, O God. That they also take the Coffin of the Grand Prophet out of his Sepulchre in Mecca That after they have plac'd it in a Chair, they also take Twenty five more Coffins, full of the Bones of those who were formerly slain fighting in De­fence [Page 92] of the Musulman Religion; which done, they shall perfume 'em with In­cense, to the end that by that means the great Prophet may be mov'd to employ his Intercessions to appease the Wrath of the Great God. That after all this has been done upon the above mention'd Days, and that they shall have plac'd the Prophet's Coffin in the open Field, all Pilgrims and Inhabitants, as also all the Foreigners of all the Caravans, may walk seven times about the Coffin weeping and bewailing themselves▪ and that the last Day of the Fast they make a solemn Pro­cession, Twenty Miles an end, in the fol­lowing manner.

1. Six thousand Turks shall lead the way cloath'd in Sackloth, girt with Cords, Bare foot, and without Turbans, carrying a Box full of dead Mens Bones, with bro­ken Scimitars, small rusty Fire arms, &c.

2. Three thousand other Musselmen all bloody, cover'd with Ashes, shall follow them, bewailing themselves, and tearing their Cloaths.

3. Six thousand Persons naked from the Wast upward, shall follow them, whip­ping their Backs and Breasts with Thorns [Page 93] till th [...] fetch blood, which shall drop up­on the Ground, nor shall they be suffer'd to rub or wipe themselves.

4. After them shall appear Three thou­sand Spahi's bareheaded, with long Beards, carrying the Prophets Coffin, who shall be surrounded with Three hundred Basha's with naked Swords, and if any one shall offer to take off his Eyes from looking sted­fastly upon the Coffin, the Basha's shall pre­sently kill him & cast his body to the Dogs.

5. At the end of every Mile they shall put to the Sword, a Christian Slave, and a Jew; and they shall let 'em die in their own Blood.

6. Thirty Basha's, Governours of Pro­vinces, shall follow them without Purple, and with Turbans of plain black Cloth, dy'd before hand in the Blood of a Jew and an Ass: and every one of these Basha's shall have one Hand bound behind him, and instead of a Sword shall wear a long Came'ls Tail trailing upon the Ground.

7. Three thousand Janizaries shall fol­low them without Arms, but with Bat­toons, which they shall trail after 'em, and they shall cry out, Allah bize ramah eile, Lord be Merciful unto us.

[Page 94]8. Next to them shall come a Chest full of Money, which shall be scatter'd upon the Road. But the poor shall be forbid, upon pain of being empal'd, to touch the Money before the end of the Procession.

9. Lastly, The Concourse of People shall close the Procession. In the midst of the Crowd there shall walk a Hundred Santons, or otherwise Turkish Hermites, who shall cut their Arms, Breasts, and Faces, with Knives, till the Blood drop upon the Ground, and at the end of every Mile they shall lift up their Hands to Heaven, and cry, Vengeance against the Christians, and say, Allah Jekfa, Ja Allah erraman, 'Tis enough, Lord, most Merciful God.


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