THE SPIRIT OF MAN: OR, Some Meditations (by way of Essay) on the Sense of that Scripture.

1 Thes. [...]. 23.
And the very God of Peace Sancti­fie you wholly, and I pray God, your whole Spirit, and Soul, and Body, be Preserved Blameless un­to the Coming of our Lord Jesus Christ.

By Charles Morton, Minister of the Gospel at Charlstown in New-England.

Mal. 3. 16.
Take heed to your Spirit.
Luke 19. [...]5.
Ye know not what manner of Spirit you are of.

Boston Printed by B. Harris, for Duncan Campbell, at the Dock-Head, over-a­gainst the Conduit. 1693.



PAge 23. line 19. for Casual r. Equally. p. 26. l. 2. after That r. Tho' p. 50. l. 30. for To. read in. p. 77. l. 29. for The r. They p. 78. l. 24. for Clears r. cleaves. p. 8 [...]. l. 21. for whence r. where▪


AS we have all manner of Demon­strations, to assure us, of what E­lihu asserted when he said, There is a Spirit in man; so we have the Eternal Spirit of God Himself, by the Pen of His Inspired Solomon, Recommending this Blessed Oracle of Wisdom unto us, A man of Understanding is of an Excel­lent Spirit. Indeed, we have no Under­standing till, believing that we have within us, a Spirit Excellent for the first Author and Nature of it, we Endea­vour above all things to make that Spirit become yet more Excellent, by the Alterations of a New Birth upon it. The Woful and Rueful Degeneracy, which has befallen the Spirit of Man, by his Fall into Sin, is a matter of the most bleeding Lamentations, unto eve­ry Spirit that in the least measure be­gins to Awaken out of that Lamentable Fall. Yea, The whole Creation Groans over the vitiated Spirit of man, and sighs, How art thou Fallen, O thou Child of the Morning! Accordingly, when once the Symptoms of a Recovery, from, [Page] The madness in our Hearts while we Live, do dawn in the Reflections of our Spirit, upon its own unhappy Depravations ou [...] chief Question and Study then is, What we shall do for the Salvation of that Spi­rit from the Distempers of it; and we become wonderfully Thankful unto our God, for His accommodating of Us, with such means of Grace, as He never be­stow'd upon the Apostate Spirits, whom He hath Reserved in Darkness under Everlasting Chains. If we duely consider, the Natural Faculties of that Spirit, which the Father of Spirits hath Breathed into us, or the pro­vision which God has made for it, in the Spiritual World, we shall indeed reckon, that our Spirit is too Excellent a Thing to be neglected; yea, that there is no Folly like that of the man, who Despiseth his own Soul. But if we again consider the Moral Pollutions, which have disordered our Spirit, we may be soon convinced, That we are in Danger of Dying without Wisdom, whereby the Excellency that is in us then will go away: And that there had need be some Es [...]ayes towards a Revival of the Primitive Excellency in our Nobler and Better Part, in order to our Meetness for the Inheritance of the Saints in Light. Now, as the whole work of Sanctification [Page] upon the Spirit, is necessary to make it Excellent, so, there is a notable stroke of that work performed in the Sanctification of the Humour, which is to be seen in the Temper and Biass of that Spirit. There is a certain Air of our Complexion, which Re­sults from some Circumstances of the Uni­on between our Souls and our Bodies; and this Disposition, we ordinarily call, The Spirit of the man. Let This be Sanctify'd, and the Man will become one of, The Ex­cellent in the Earth. It would be a marvel­lous Renewal of the Divine Image in our Spirits, and it would render us extraordina­rily as well Serviceable to others, as Com­fortable to our selves, if that Inclination which our Spirits have, as they are United, and therefore very much Conform'd, unto our Bodies, were Preserved Blameless: and were this remarkable Article of Sanctifica­tion, more considered, we should see per­haps, far more Excellent Spirits, than are now too frequently beheld in those that wear the Name, that began at Antioch.

To promote this Holiness and Happiness, the Reader is here blessed with the Wor­thy Labours, of a Learned, Pious, and now Aged Servant of the Lord Jesus Christ in the Ministry of the Gospel▪ He is a person too considerable in his Generation, [Page] to want any of our Commendation; and as for this his Judicious Treatise, 'twill by its own Pertinency, and Usefulness, abun­dantly Commend it self unto every sensi­ble person, that shall peruse it with a just Attention. All that belongs unto Us, is to follow it with our Prayers, That He who Forms the Spirit of man within him, would by this Book assist the Readers in Reforming whatever they may find in their own Spirits calling for that Refor­mation; and in Glorifying of God, with the Spirits, which He has Made and Bought for His own Immortal Glory.

  • Increase Mather
  • James Allen
  • Samuel Willard
  • John Baily
  • Cotton Mather


  • TExt Opened 1
  • Whole man-what 5
  • Expositors Differ. 6
  • The most proper Interpretation thought by the Author. 9
  • Spirit out of Man. 9
  • In Man. 10
  • Peculiar Genius, (in Text. 14
  • Scripture Distinctions of Soul & Spirit 16
  • Constitution of our Spirit▪ 18
  • Spirits Hot. 27
  • Chearfulness. 28
  • Activity. 31
  • Courage. 34
  • Anger in zeal. 41
  • In Jealousie. 51
  • Spirits Cold, 54
  • Sorrowful. 55
  • Dull. 63
  • Timorous. 65
  • Meek. 69
  • Spirits Moderate. 73
  • Inference, no strained Notion. 88
[Page 1]

THE SPIRIT of MAN. OR, Some Meditations (by way of Essay) on the sense of that Scripture.

1 Thes. 5. 2 [...].And the very God of Peace Sanctifie you wholly, and I pray God your whole SPI­RIT, and SOUL and BODY, be pre­served blameless unto the Coming of our Lord Jesus Christ.

THe Apostle, having given the Thessalonians, divers Exhortati­ons in the preceding Verses, closes all with a profession of Prayer for them; as well knowing, That all Counsels, or Charges by men, tho' [Page 2] sent from God himself, would be of no effect, unless God by his Sanctifying Spirit do give men Grace to Improve them.

He prayes, not only that they may be Sanctified, but that they may be wholly so; And that the fulness of the Expression [HOLOTELEIS, wholly perfectly] may the better appear, He Descends to all the particulars, that are in Man; he men­tions the chief Heads of them, which are either all that is in Man, or To which All, that belongs to Meer Man, may be Referred. Your whole Spirit, and Soul, and Body; that they may be Sanctified or filled with Grace; and not only so, but also preserved blameless therein to the Co­ming of our Lord Jesus Christ; (that is) preserved to the End.

We shall a little Explain the words:

The very God of peace, (Autos de O Theos) or the God of Peace himself: 'twas a frequent Option, Benediction, Salutation or Valediction, [Peace be to you.] In the word Peace, all good was comprehended. So, to these same persons, 2 Thes. 3. 16. Now the Lord of Peace himself, give you peace always, by all means. Here in the Text it seems to Referr to a D [...]ty, peace with men, v. 13. be at peace among your [Page 3] selves. And a priviledge, peace with God, and in your Consciences. To both which Sanctification doth contribute, in the per­formance of the afore-mentioned Duties.

[Sanctifie you] HAGIASAI, make you ho­ly, or separate and consecrate you to himself, (this is the Notation of the word.) The Definition of the Thing, Sanctification, is A Renewal of the whole man, whereby we are enabled daily more and more to Die [...]nto Sin and Live unto Righteousness according to Gods Foreordaination.

[Wholly] HOLOTELEIS, wholly-perfectly (as is before noted is, To Extend this work of Grace, to all the parts of Grace, and all the parts of Man. The parts of Grace, both Habits and Acts; and in both, the perfection of Degrees, and persistance of Duration. In the parts of Man, that which follows.

[And I pray God your whole Spirit] HOLOCLERON TO PNEUMA. The word HOLOCLERON signifies properly (Haeres ex asse) a compleat Heir, from whom nothing is given away; or one that has the whole Inheritance. It there­fore (I think) does here signify all that Appertains to Man, expressed by the word Spirit, HUMON TO PNEUMA. All the Spirit that is in you, or all that may be [Page 4] called your Spirit. Your; not the Spirit of God in you; for He is not capable of Sanct­ification, being already, and always in himself perfectly Holy. TO PNEUMA, The Spirit: What it is, is the chief mat­ter of our present Enquiry; and there­fore of it, more fully after; only we shall here Note, That it seems to be a more General, and comprehensive word, in which the two that follow are Included

[And Soul and Body] KI HE PSUCHE KI TO SOMA. The Latin [Et Anima, & Corpus] I should not scruple to Tran­slate [Both the Soul and the Body,] and if (et & et) in Latin signifie [Both, & And] why (KI & KI in Greek, does not as pro­perly the same, I see no Reason. And then the Text would run thus. I pray that your whole compleat Spirit (as a General) Both Soul and Body (two special Ingredi­ents thereof, or contributers thereunto) may be preserved, &c.

[Preserved] TERETHEIE, may be care­fully watched; as those that keep Guard in a Garrison; for this Spirit of a man, is most liable to Assaults by Temptation: And because men are apt to be Defective in this Spiritual Watch, I pray that God would take the charge of you, watch o­ver you and keep you sa [...]e.

[Page 5] [Blameless] AMEMPTOS, so as Momus (the Carper) shall find no fault in you; so is the word Rendred, Phil. 2. 15. and 3. 6. 'Tis supposed you are, or will be, wholly Sanctified (according to the first Prayer in the Text,) but this notwith­standing your peculiar Spirit is apt to ru [...] out, and so be blameable, unless you are especially protected, guided and preserved.

[To the coming of our Lord.] that is, to the end; Till you come thro' Grace to Glory. This needs no farther Explicati­on as to the present Enquiry. The words thus Explained, we come now to view the parts of the Text, wherein we have.

1. Two Acts. Sanctification and Pre­servation.

2. The Author of them, God; to whom the Prayer is Directed.

3. The Modification of them; wholly, throughout, continually.

4. The Subject, the whole man, expres­sed by the Whole Spirit, both Soul and Body. And this Last it is, with which (at present) we are mostly concerned.

The Whole Man is sometimes expressed by only two words [Soul and Body, or Spirit and Body] which are the two phy­sical, or constituent parts of Man. So 1 Cor. 6. 20.Ye are Bought with a price, [Page 6] therefore Glorifie God in your Body, and in your Spirits which are Gods. Also in 2 Cor. 7. 1. Having these promises, Let us cleanse our selves from all filthiness of the Flesh and Spirit. In both which places Spirit is the same with Soul; and Flesh in the latter, is the same with Bo [...] in the former. But why here the whole man (for 'twas the same to be preserved that was to be Sancti­fied) why (I say) he should be here ex­pressed by three particulars, is a matter wherein Expositors do differ, and I [...]ind these several Interpretations of the place.

1. Some will have Spirit and Soul to be put Exegetically; as if both signified but one and the same thing; one being add­ed only as Explication of the other; so Austin.) But (indeed methinks) this here seems a little harsh, because needless; for Soul and Body, or Spirit and Body (as it is in the two fore-cited Scriptures) were Intelligible enough to express the two physical constituents of a man. Be­sides, the particle [Kl. And, or rather Both] seems to connect Spirit,, And Soul, as two things that have some Distinction between them.

2. Others will have Spirit to signifie the Mind and Understanding; and Soul the Will and Affections (Calvin, Marlorate, and divers others) from whom I would not [Page 7] willingly Dissent, and therefore shall not slight their Judgment; yet I must humbly profess, however clear the Notion was to them, it is not so to me; for that which they call Soul is as truly Spirit, as the Lea­ding Faculty (the Intellect.) Yea, I find the Expressions quite Transverse; As if Soul signified the Intellectual Faculty and Spirit the Volitive) in Mary's Song. Luk. 1. 46,47. My Soul doth Magnify the Lord; and my Spirit hath Rejoyced in God my Savi­our. As if she had said; My Soul, (that is, my Mind and Understanding) Doth Magnify (i. e. Has high Thoughts of God, great Estimation of him; which are Acts of the Intellect, and the only Internal Magnification of him) And my Spirit, (i. e. my W [...]ll and Affections) hath Rejoy­ced (which is their proper Act.) This to me seems more currant, if in this place there be a Distinction between Soul and Spirit. But I will not Assert it, I rather think there is none here; only her Inward Joy of heart, being great; her Outward Expressions thereof in words, are [...]nlar­ged; Soul and Spirit in a Pleonasm signify­ing only her Inner Man. But if Spirit here do present us with any Distinct No­tion, I should take it to be, a Chearful Frame▪ of Spirit, in which she then was; And then, it will fully fall in with our [Page 8] present Conceptions of the word Spirit in our Text, as shall be shewn anon.

3. Some will have Spirit (in our Text) to signifie the Higher Faculties (both Un­derstanding and Will) the Rational part in man; and Soul, the Inferiour Faculties common to man with Bruits and Plants (Sensative, Vigetative, &c.) This indeed is a common Interpretation. But me­thinks it is harsh to Denominate Mans Soul from the Inferiour Powers (contrary to that Logical Rule. Denomination is from the better part. Nor do I find in Scripture (to my Remembrance) the word Soul, any where else to have this signification. Nor (Lastly) are these Lower Faculties capable of other Sanctification then that of the Body, which is to be but Instru­mental to the Soul in Holiness; and there­fore thus to separate Soul from Spirit, is but to confound it with Body in the busi­ness of Sanctification and Preservation here spoken of.

These three forementioned Interpreta­tions I will not Absolutely deny, nor Contend with their Authors about them; Because they all agree well enough in the General Scope of the place, which is (be sure) that all, that is In Man be sancti­fyed to God, However any one part be [Page 9] Distinguished from the other. Yet I am apt to think that a more Proper Interpreta­tion may be found, which will give a more Full and Edifying sense to the place, then is usually ascribed to it.

For the Enquiry after this we shall consider to what things the Name of Spirit is given in Scripture besides those before mentioned: And this I finde to be, to some things Out of Man, and some things In Man.

1 Out of Man the Word (Spirit) is ascribed both to God and Creatures.

1. To God both Essential and Personal.

1. Essential, as in Joh. 4. 24 God is a Spirit, and they that worship him, &c. Not that Spirit is an Univocal Genus of God and any of his Creatures; for then there would be a Common Nature; but there is Infinite Distance between them: Only be­cause Spirit is the Name of the most No­ble Created Nature, we Ascribe it also to God by Analogie, for that we have no better Name to give him.

2. Personal, the Third in the Blessed Trinity, under the Title of the Holy Ghost, or Spirit; the Spirit of the Lord; of Jesus &c. But this is not OUR Spirit; nor is he to be Sanctified or Preserved; and so can­not be here meant.

[Page 10] 2. To Angels, both Good and Bad; but Bad Angels cannot be Sanctified; and Good need no Prayers in this Respect: Nor can they be called OUR Spirits, unless by Assignation of particular Guardian An­gels to particular men; which (whatever were the Opinion of some Jews, and Gentiles of [...]ld) I know no ground to Believe. This of the Spirit Out of Man.

2. In Man, the Spirit is that, which belongs to a man in a proper and na­tural sense; and of this kind there seem to be four distinct Significations of the word. Such as.

1. When taken for the Soul (the forma hominis) Resigned up to God in Death. So I understand David, Psa. 31. 5. Unto thee, O Lord I commit my Spirit; (howe­ver men deal with my Body;) And this the rather, because Christ, at his Death u­sing the same words, must needs be so understood. Luk. 23. 46. Agreeable to Eccles. 12. 7. The Spirit returns to God who gave it. And in the same sense also, Ch. 11. 5. Thou knowest not the way of the Spi­rit, nor how the Bones grow in the womb. That is, (as I take it) Thou understand­est not how the Soul doth form the Body, as an Habitation for it self. 'Tis the Inward part of man; so the Exegesis seems very [Page 11] plain, in that Isa. 26. 9. With my Soul have I desired thee in the night; yea, with my Spirit within me will I seek thee early; i. e. with my inward man I have, and will, apply my self to thee: from whence arises a Tropical sense of Spirit, namely to signifie Sincerity. God is my witness, whom I Serve in my Spirit in the Gospel, Rom. 1. 9.

2 Spirit is taken for the Life, or Union of Soul and Body; or Souls being in the State of Union. So I understand, Job. 10. 12. thou hast granted me Life, and thy visitation hath preserved my Spirit; namely to continue in and with my Body. And ch. 34. 14. 15 If God gather to himself mans spirit and his breath, all flesh shall perish to gether, and man shall turn again unto Dust. Thus tis said of the Damsel. whom our Saviour Raysed to Life; Her Spirit came again, and she arose Luk 8. 55. came again (ie) to be again United to her Body. We Read Ecl: 3.21. of the Spirit of a man, that goes upwards; and the Spirit of a beast that goeth Downwards, If the Spirit in both parts be understood in the same sense (as most likely it is); then either Brutes have proper Spirits (which many are loath to admit;) or the Spirit of man must signifie but the Life, which is all [Page 12] (if not more, then) some will allow to Beasts. Again, Chap. 8. 8. No man hath power over the Spirit, to Retain the Spirit in the Day of Death. i. e. No man is Master of his own Life to prolong it. To the same purpose is that Expression in Hezeki­ahs Prayer, Isa. 38. 16. O Lord by these things men Live, and in all these things is the Life of my Spirit, so wilt thou Recover me, and make me to Live. He means not by the Life of his Spirit; the continued Duration of his Ever-living Soul, but the continuance of its Union with the Bo­dy, whereby the Life of his person should be prolonged.

The Spirit, in this sense taken, may indeed be Sanctified. The Life may be Devotedun▪ to God; according to that of the Apostle. Rom 14. 8. Whether we Live, we Live unto the Lord; or Whother we Dye &c. But this (I think is not the direct meaning of the Spirit in our Text.

3. Spirit is taken for some special Faculties, or particular Acts of the mind; such as,

1. Understanding, Prov. 20. 27. The Spi­rit of a man is the Candle of the Lord, searching all the Inward Parts of the Belly▪ not in an Anatomical, but Moral Sense; The Understanding is set up by God in man (as a Candle) to search and [Page 13] find out by its Exercise, all those In­ward Acts and Inclinations which would otherwise lie hidden and undiscovered. So that, Isa. 29. 24. They that Erred in Spirit, shall come to Understanding, and they that Murmured, shall Learn Doctrine. That is, they that had misapprehensions of Me, and my Ways, shall come to Understanding (not the Faculty, but) the Rectitude thereof; and they that Murmured, whose Wills were averse to embrace Truth shall be graciously Incli­ned to Learn that which is Right.

2. The Fancy or Imagination is some­times to be understood by Spirit. Ezek. 13. 3. Wo unto the Foolish Prophets, that follow their own Spirit, and have seen no­thing, or that walk after the things which they have not seen; (as in orig.) which God hath not Revealed to them, but they have fabricated to themselves out of their Evil Hearts and Foolish Fancies or Imaginations.

3. The Spirit is also taken for the Thoughts upon, or Remembring of some person or thing. Thus the Apostle Ex ­presses his Thinking of the Corinthians 1 Cor. 5. 3. I verily as absent in Body, but present in Spirit, have judged already, as tho' I were present, concerning him that hath [Page 14] done this Deed. He thought of them and their Affairs; tho' at a distance from them. So of the Colossians, Chap. 2. 5. Tho' I he absent in the Flesh, yet am I with you in the Spirit, Joying and Be­holding your order, and the stedfastness of your Faith in Christ. He Rejoyced to behold their Graces by the eye of his mind, his Cogitations of them. And thus much of the Souls Faculties or Acts, for which sometimes the word Spirit is taken.

4. Spirit is Lastly taken for some Qua­lifications, or Inclinations of the mind as United to the Body, and Conformed much thereunto.

This is the product of Nature, Acqui­sition and Circumstances of Life, all which concur to form the GENIUS, Temper, or Disposition of man. Each man hath some­thing peculiar to himself in this Respect; as he has in the Features of his Coun­tenance, Stature, Shape, Meen or Car­riage of his Body, whereby he is Dis­tinguished from any other. So, if we ask, [What Spirit is he of?] we mean, of what Temper, Inclination or Geni­us? How Disposed? How Qualified? And the true Answers will be as various, as men; of whom one man is (by Na­ture, [Page 15] Acquisition, or both) of a sober, grave Spirit. Another of a Quick, Active, Chearful Spirit. Another of a weak, ti­morous, Careful; Some are Gentiel, Ge­nerous, Courteous, Open Hearted; O­thers Churlish, Clownish, Surly, Rough, Close and Reserved, &c. All these Spi­rits are viciated by Corrupt Nature; and may by the Spirit of Grace be so Sanctified, as to Render men Serviceable, tho' in a different way, and of good acceptance both with God and man.

Now, This I take to be the most proper meaning of the word Spirit Here in the Text; And then the sense of it is,

‘[I Pray God you may be wholly Sancti­fyed in every Part and Faculty; every Power, Natural & Acquired; and being Sanctifyed may be wholy also preserved; In General your whole Spirit; All that gives any of you a Distinguishing Cha­racter from other men; more Particularl [...] your Soul (the forma hominis) the Inn [...] part; and your Body (the materia ho­minis) or Outer part, Both which are Included in the Spirit, which Results from both: The Faculties of the Soul, with th [...] Habituations, or Improvements; and the Temperament of the Body, attend­ed with Outward Circumstances, contribu­ting [Page 16] thereunto.]’ This I think is the Apostles meaning, i [...] I rightly under­stand him.

Having thus laid down the Notion in General, we shall Endeavour to make it plain, by opening some particulars▪ As

1. There is in Scripture such a Distin­ction between the Soul and Spirit, which we shall first shew by one place in the General, and after by more particularly in their proper places.

The place in General is that of Hebr. 4. [...]2, 13. The Word of God is quick and pow­erful, and sharper than any Two Edged Sword, piercing even to the Dividing asunder of Soul and Spirit, and of the Joynts and Marrow; and is a Discerner of the Thoughts, and In­tents of the Heart; neither is there any Crea­ture, that is not manifest in his sight, &c.

This Dividing asunder of Soul and Spirit; Is it a Philosophical Distinction, of the Powers and Faculties, into Supe­riour and Inferiour (as some would have it) I pray to what purpose? Is it to shew the Superiour, as clear, and untainted by the Fall; but that the Inferiour and Bruit­al, or sensual part is Vi [...]iated and corrupt, as some of the Heathen Philosophers have confusedly suggested? They say in [...] that NOUS (the mind▪) is Divina [Page 17] auroe particula, a Sacred, and Divine Thing [...] not inclined to any thing Disallowed by Right Reason; till it come to be Incarce­rated in the Body: and then clogg'd by a Dull Material Flesh, and yoked with a couple of other silly Souls (the Sensitive of Brutes, and the Vegetative of Plants) It became obstructed in all vertuous aspiring; and born down to Sensual and Inferiour Acts and Objects. Thus they Dreamt; and does the Scripture give any Countenance to such Fancies? I think not.

I rather take it thus. The Apostle ha­ving Exhorted them to study and use Di­ligence, or Labour (as we read it) to En­ter into the Rest before mentioned; Ta­citly implies that this work should be done, with all Sincerity, for that they had to do herein with a Heart-searching God; This is manifest by the Energie of his Word, which openeth to a man the Secrets of his Soul; for the word is Living or Quick, &c. As if he had said; God, who made man, knows him altogether, and better under­stands what is in man, than man does what is in himself. Man has but Dark Apprehensions of himself, and therein oft times grosly does mistake; But God by his Word Searcheth intimately, and Dis­covereth fully to him what he else would [Page 18] not take notice of: His Soul and Spirit lye close together (as do his Joynts and Mar­row▪) But, as the Anatomists Knife lays open the one Difference; so the piercing Two Edged Sword of the Word, does the other: That word shews him, How his Soul came pure out of the Hand of God; but he hath added thereto a vicious Spi­rit, by the perverting of what God did make upright.

Let not man therefore charge God foo­lishly, and say (as Adam did concerning Eve) From the Soul which thou gavest me all my faults do arise: No, It is from that Evil Spirit, which man hath to him­self Acquired: His Soul indeed has the powers, but 'tis his Spirit that gives the In­clinations, which (in a natural corrupt▪ State) are wholly bent unto Evil. Thus the Malady is opened and searched by the word, and the Cure is also by the same word prescribed: As here in the Text; Namely Sanctification.

And thus much for the first particular; That there is in Scripture such a Distinction, betwixt the Soul and Spirit.

2. That the Constitution of this Spirit or Genius, is an Aggregate or Resultant from the Connexion of divers things in Man: As his Souls Faculties; his Bodies [Page 19] Tempera­ment; His Acquired Habits, by Instructi­ons, Examples, or Customes; And Last­ly, The Outward Adjacents, or Circum­stances of his present Life. A little of each of these.

1. The Faculties of the Soul, (as Un­derstanding, Will, Sensitive Appetite or Passions) are all Ingredients as the Sub­strate Matter of this Spirit in Man; But the Modification of them is from the other Causes. Souls in themselves are all E­qual; but the Spirits are vastly Different one from another. And this is from the particulars that follow, and in a chief manner from

2. The Temperament of the Body, which is (more or less) Different in e­very Individual Man. As there are scarce Two Pebbles on the Sea Beach, or Two Chips hewen from the same wood, ex­actly figured alike; Nay, As there are hardly Two Faces, Gestures, or M [...]en [...]s of Men (which are the outward Indi­ces of their Inward Constitutions) But doe [...]n some things Differ, tho' some are more alike than others: Even so it is with their Temperaments, which are a chief Ingredient into their Spirits, where­of we now speak. That saying of Phi­losophers [Manners of the Mind follow [Page 20] the Temperament of the Body] is true if right­ly understood with a due Temper, or (as we say) with a Grain of Salt: By Manners, we must understand, not the Vertues, or Vices themselves; But the Ge­nius and Inclination, which leads and Dis­poses to them. And that's the same with this our Spirit. Otherwise, skilful Phy­sicians (who may perhaps have the worst Manners) might be accounted the best [...], & they could easily mend all the wo [...]ld, who cannot mend themselves.

Nor must we understand by this, our Substrate Matter (the Faculties above­mentioned) as if, The Body has an Oper [...] ­tive Influence upon the Soul to Induce (as it were) a new form upon it; for the Soul is the Active part, in Man, and the Body nothing so. But the thing stands thus.

The Soul, which is a True Spirit (in a Nobler Sense, than that whereof we are now treating) being, by its Information of the Body, most Intimately conjoyned thereun­to; while it is in the State of Conjun­ction, and Union in Man, Uses the Parts, Humours, and Members, as its In­struments o [...] Organs, in all its Operations. Now a [...] a Workman Receiveth nothing of his strength or skill, from his Tools where­with [Page 21] with he works; yet in the Exercise of his Abilities he will find himself much furthered or hindred in his business, accor­ding as his Tool is either Apt, or Unapt, for his Work. So is it in this Case: The Soul Recei [...] no power from the Body; But in Exerting its own proper powers, is helped or hindred by the Bodys good or ill Temperament. Thus an I [...]l Tempered Brain makes that Soul Act like a Fool, or Ideot, which had it a Brain Well Temper­ed, would be both prudent and sagacious. And so also the Temperament of the Heart, Blood, and Natural Spirits, gives Help, or Impediment to the Will and Af­fections; even as, The Organs of Sense do, to their proper Senses. Hence that saying [Anima Galboe male habitat] The Brave Soul of Galba had but an Ill Lodging; He being a brave Spirited Man, but very sickly.

3. Acquired Habits do much Alter the Genius or Spirit, from what it would be, if men were left to their Pure Naturals. These Habits arise partly, (1) From In­struction & Rules: so Intellectual & Moral Habits (whether good or evil) are formed much according to the Information men meet with, especially in their younger dayes. Thus (as to Advantage) every [Page 22] part of Philosophy contributes its share; Logick and Metaphysicks, sharpness of Judg­ment; Mathematicks Solidness and Sa­gacity; Physicks good conjecture at the Reasons of things; Moral Philosophy and History, Prudence; R [...]etorick, Fairness and Con [...]idence of Address; Poetry, quickness of fancy, and Imagination; Any of these as they are better studied, do according­ly Enable and Incline the mind of Man.

Didicisse fidelite [...] Artes &c.

And so on the Contrary (as to Disad­vantage) All vicious and erroneous Prin­ciples, foolish and vain traditions, and such like evil Rudiments, being Instilled into Youth, do Taint and Darken the Judg­ment, Debauch the Will & Affections, and Debase the whole Spirit and Genius of the Man.

2. From Pattern. Example, and Con­verse, with People, make deeper impressi­on then Rules, and have a very great in­fluence in forming the Genius; especially of Youth, when they are stepping from Boy to Man, and are taking upon them to ch [...]se their own way; then, (if ever) M [...]ltu [...] Refert quocum vixeris; it concerns you to think where you dwell. The force of Example is set forth in that (Prov. 22. 24. 25.) Make no friendship with an angry [Page 23] man, and with a furious man thou shalt not go; Lest thou learn his way, and get a snare to thy soul. Tis called a Snare; tho' the ill­favoured humour be no plausible bait [...]o allure; yet for that, all Custom has a secret and fascinating Insinuation, whereby, at least, the Aversation and Abhorrence of Ill things, to which we are enured is ve­ry much abated. So as, not only the Vices themselves under some sal [...]e name (such as Gallantry of Spirit, Greatness of Soul, Scorning to take an injury, &c▪) put fair for an approbation, and are conta­gious; But even the Inclinations to them, & preparation of Spirit for them, do common­ly spread themselves from one person to a­nother.

And, so also (in some measure, tho' not casually) may we expect in things of a better Character. Prov. 13▪ 20. He that walketh with the wise shall be wise, &c. Which place (I think) does not only intimate Gods usual Blessing upon fit means, but also discovers those proper means, which in their own Nature are apt to operate, in a Moral way upon the minds of men: not indeed to give the Truth of Grace; for then all in Godly Families would be Religious, & Leave no ground for that complaint, In the Land of upright­ness [Page 24] will he deal unjustly. Isa. 26. 10. And the contrary (too often) do we find by sad experience. Nor are those [...]air Dispositi­ons, which Conversation may work, such Preparations for Grace, as doth oblige God (ex congruo) to give the Truth thereof; but only the whole is this; If God please to give his Supernatural Grace, to one, that has fair Natural Dispositions; Those Graces will the more Illustriously, appear, to Render a Man the more Eminently Serviceable.

Add to this our daily Experience, and common observation; that men are much what the Custom and usual practice of the place is, where they live. He that is bred, or much conversant, in the coun­try; gets there a simple plain heartedness; or perhaps a Rough Rusticity: He that is much in the City, has more of Civility, Sagacity, and Cunning. One, who lives where News is frequently Talked, Gets somewhat of a Publick Spirit: Amongst good natured People, a Candid Spirit. Amongst Souldiers, a Bold and Boysterous one; And so of all other Affections: which may be considered in an Indiffe­rency; Neither morally Good nor Bad, in themselves; but only as Sanctification or Corruption makes the Difference.

[Page 25] 4. Outward Circumstances do also Ex­ceedingly vary mens spirits, and that in a shorter space of time, then Habits use to do. Thus Prosperity, Wealth, Honour, Health, friends &c. do commonly enlarge the mind of a man; and make him bold and brisk: Whereas the contrary Poverty, Disgrace, Sickness, &c. do usu­ally Contract and Emasculate the Spirit.

If these are of a long continued Series, they do very much towards the forming of a setled and fixed Genius. But if only Occasionally, or at certain times they oc­cur; then they vary and Contemperate the Setled Spirit for a season; and per­haps become a means to Reduce it to a better Mediocrity. Thus one of a Light and Airy Spirit, and for the most part in all good Circumstances, (may at such times) be unmanageable by Advice; until perhaps, a particular sore Affliction, hath somewhat abated of his Gallantry, and opened his Ear to Instruction, where­by his Spirit may be better Regulated for the future.

And thus much for the Aggregation or Resultance, of this our Spirit, from the concurrence of divers things, both within, and without the Man.

3. The next particular in order to the [Page 26] Explaining of our General Notion, shall be the taking Notice; That all these do some way concurr to Constitute and Re­present the Man, Abstracted from Grace and Sin; yet the Internals and Essentials of Soul and Body, have the principal stroak herein: And then, that the other matters, that are External to the Essence of man; the Accidental Inherents, and Adjacents; do but somewhat Modify and Affect the former constitution, which will still ap­pear in some Degree or other.

Naturam Expellas, furca licet, ipsa recurret.
Drive Nature out with Pitch forks; twill Return,
And act its part, as sure as fire will Burn.

And, because the Soules Primitive facultyes are supposed to be all Equal in every man; tis the Bodyes Temperament, that especially gives the great Diversity in Mens Spirits; we shall therefore speak of these more Distinctly; And that not Exactly according to the common four First Qualityes (Hot and Dry, Cold and Moyst) which are said, by their Mixture, to give the four Complexions (Sanguine, Cholerick, Melancholy, and Phlegmatick) of which Physicians do so often speak. But I shall Treat of them, ac­cording [Page 27] to the Actives (Hot, and Cold,) with a Mean Temper between them; Taking notice of the other By the way, only as occasion is offered. For it is not Physical composition, or Medical Dispositi­on of spirits, which we have now to do with; But Spirits as they Relate to Humane and Moral Actions; into which these three (Hot, Cold, and Mean) have the greatest Influence. Besides, all men will admit of a Hotter, and a Cooler Temperament; even those who Reject Elementary Mixtures; and have no great Regard to the four Complexions. If a­ny like better to have it expressed by Matter, more or less, moveable or moved; They may please themselves. There is no Difference in the Thing, however Ex­pressions vary.

I say therefore; some mens Spirits are Hot, and they do commonly Act warmly; Others are Cold, and they usually Act Cooly; Others have a Spirit of a fine Mean between these two Extreams, and their Actions are participant of both qualificati­ons; viciously, it Unsanctified, and under natural Corruption; vertuously, if Sanctifi­ed, and mens Spirits be guided, and acted by the Spirit of God: All common­ly according to their several Capacities: [Page 28] But if at any time a man be acted con­trary to his peculiar Genius, 'tis by a spe­cial hand of the Good or Evil Spirit up­on him; some special Instigation, and Assistance, upon a particular occasion. And according to this Method we shall Treat of the several Spirits; first Descri­bing themselves, and then their States, both of Unregeneracy and Sanctification.

1. The more Hot Spirit Discovers it self in Chearfulness, Activity, Courage, and Angry Zeal or Jealousy.

1. Chearfulness: Heat joyned with a convenient Moisture (answerable to the Sanguine Complexion) Renders a man Chearful, Vivid, Sprightly, and upon occa­sion (with apt Circumstances) Joyous, Refreshed, Merry and Comfortable. It makes him look Ruddy, and of a Beau­tiful Countenance (like David in the flower of his Youth) and pleasant, like the face of all things in the Spring. Da­vid (we may suppose) was of a Natural Chearful [...] it: His Musical Inclination, whereby his skill was great, seems to speak so much: for this, and his prudence in matters (so we Read in the Text, but in the Margin prudent of Speech. 1 Sam. 16. 18.) for these things (I say) He was sent for by Saul; that so his Musick [Page 29] and his prudent Mirth, might Drive away Sauls Evil (Melancholly) Spirit. This Chearful Spirit, as it was, in Young David, Natural; so it was in Old Jacob, upon occa­sion; when he heard good News of Joseph, and saw the Waggons that were sent for him, (Gen. 45. 27.) 'tis said, The Spirit of Jacob their Father Revived. Such also were the Refreshed Spirits mentioned, 1 Cor 16. 17, 18. I am glad of the coming of For­tunatus, for they have Refreshed my Spirit and Yours. And that of Titus his Joy, (2 Cor. 7. 13. Because his Spirit was Refreshed by you all.

The meaning of all is: Their Spirits were Chearful and Vivid, upon these Comfortable occasions. The Spirit also signifyes Health and strength; as in the Hunger▪starved Egyptian (1. Sam: 30) who being left sick (v 13) having now Eaten and Drank, after the three Days fasting; tis said (v 12. His spirit came again to him; that is, He had now some life in him, and could do something like himself; who before was as one Dead, with sadness and Desperation; But now Doubtless, was glad that he was alive.

This Chearful Spirit, If Unsanctifyed and Corrupt, is groslyabused to Levity, froth, vanity, and foolish Jesting, which is not [Page 30] convenient: To Lasciviousness in them, who make Provision for the flesh to fulfil the Lusts thereof: To Pride & Haughtiness, self co [...]c [...]it and glorying in their own strength and Beauty; to forgetfulness of God feeding themselves without fear; yea, to wax fat and Kick against their Maker; and Rejoyce in their Boastings; But all such Rejoy [...]ings are evil. James 4. 16.

But If Sanctifyed, The Joy of their Spirit becomes Spiritual Joy; Like Marys (Luke 1. 46. 47.) My Soul doth Magnify the Lord, And my Spirit hath Rejoyced in God my Savi­our. It Disposeth them to Thankfulness, and adapts for Praysing and Glorifying of God. It fits men for Chearful Service to him; which much commends Religi­on to the World, who are apt to be fright­ed from it by Conceits of nothing but Mortification and Self Denial therein. Chearful Christianity adds a Lustre to Pro­fession; and convinces men, That they may be merry and wise.

Now, tho' this doth chiefly arise from the Testimony of a Good Conscience, and the Sealings of the Comforting Spirit of Adoption; yet Subservient thereunto is this our Natural Spirit, which Renders men more apt outwardly to express it. David was (as is before noted) of this Sanguine [Page 31] and Cheerful temper; and he did Emi­nently Glorify God by his Musick and Psalmody; agreeable to the Apostles Rule James 5. 13. Is any among you merry, Let him sing Psalms. This of Cheerful­ness.

2. Activity is another effect of the Hotter Spirit; it shews it self in a willingness and readiness to be employed; as also some­times in strong inclinations and vigorous motions; in a great inquisitiveness and earnest search after things that are out of common view. This Temper is very na­tural to Youth, which is usually fitter for Execution then Deliberation; and because of this Spirit tis called the Sprightliest time of mens Lives.

This Active Spirit, while Unsanctifyed is (like as in a brisk Monkey) a very un­lucky thing; It renders men Idle Busy-Bodys; Medlers with other Mens Matters; Grievously Troublesome, both to the Church and World; Restless in themselves; and suffering none to be quiet by them; this fruitful Soyl uncultivated, brings forth a multitude of Weeds; if set upon mis­cheif, one such will do more then many o­thers; like the active Element of Fire, where it is not employed in profitable Ser­vice, it works Destruction and Desolation. [Page 32] The Inquisitiveness, that attends such un­sanctified Spirits, does often make men See­kers in Religion; never satisfied with set­led Truths, but Scepticks, Rambling and Uncomposed Sectarys, tossed about with e­very wind of Doctrine; or, if they hap to be Sect-Masters, they' [...] compass Sea and Land to make a Proselyte. In a word; They are the nimblest Servants of the Devil, and notable [...]t Instruments he can find, to make use of, in the world.

But if Sanctified, Then, none so Service­able to God, or Man. Such Spirits will make men wi [...]ling to do Service. (as Exo. 35. 21.) They came every one, whose Heart stirred him up; and every one, whose Spirit made him willing; and they brought the Lords Offering to the work of the Tabernacle. 'Tis not said, [whom Gods Spirit made willing] Tho' that is most true, as to the First Cause; But [whose Spirit made him willing, whose heart stirred him up] That is, his own Spirit, being Sanctified by the Spirit of God: Here the Second Cause is noted, being stirred up by the First. And indeed God often Warms and Raises up mens Spirits for any noble Designs, in which he intends to use them. So in those (Ezra 1. 1.) The Lord [...]tirred up the Spirit of Cyrus, and [Page 33] then Cyrus communicates of his warmth, to stir up the Spirit of the poor Dispirited Jews. (v. 3.) Who is there among you of all the People? What? Have you never a Brave Man among you to undertake this Great & Worthy affair? Upon this Giving Fire their Spirits were Enflamed, Then r [...]se up the chief of the Fathers, the Priests and the Levites, with all them, whose Spirit God had Raised to go up (v. 5.) Not All the People, but some Chief men: men (its likely) that were of Large Souls, act­ive and Gallant Spirits in themselves, fitted for Noble designs; but (alas;) they were so shrunk, and sunk by their long Captivity, that neither In nate briskness, nor the Encouragement which Cyrus gave them, was sufficient to Chirp them up, till God Sanctifyed their Spirits, and raised them above themselves to this Pious and Noble undertaking. Two of them are mentioned by Name (besides others, Hag. 1. 14.) The Lord stirred up the Spirit of Zerubbabel, the Governour; & Joshua, the High Priest; and the Spirit of [...] the Rem­nant of the People, and they came and did work in the house. Now, was it the Souls of the [...]e men? Or, the men them­selves? Methinks tis more Genuine, The Spirits of those men in the sense we now propose▪

[Page 34] This Active Spirit, uses to discover and express it self (as is befere noted) in a strong Inclination, & vigorous Motion. Elihu speaks of a Spirit in man (Job 32 8.) which I suppose is the same, to which he hath Reference. (v. 18.) I am full of matter (or words) and the Spi­rit within me (or of my Belly) constrai­neth me (v. 20.) I will speak, that I may be refreshed. Now Elihu was the youngest of Jobs Friends, as he himself intimates (v. 6, 7.) and upon that account, in part, he is more earnest, and copious, then the rest; the Ardour, and Activity of his Spirit, caused an eager desire in him to express his mind; which he calls the Constraining of his Spirit. But be­cause there was somewhat of anger in the case, (besides his Youthful Warmth) we shall have occasion to reflect upon this instance again; and then shew more of this vigorous Motion, and strong Incli­nation, under the Head of Zeal, to which we shall referr it.

3. This Hotter Spirit, is a Spirit of Courage & Boldness, to address Difficultys, and meet with Evil.

This shews it self divers ways.

1. Sometimes in a wrath for War; which God Stirs up or Abates, as is a­greeable [Page 35] to his own holy purposes. Thus to Impoverish, take, and lead Captive the Idolatrous Israelites, (1 Chron. 5. 26.) The God of Israel, [...]tirred up the Spirit of Pull, King of Assyria, and Tilgath Pilne­ser King of Assyria, and he carried them away. The former took their Goods 2 King. 15. 19.) Menahem gave Pull a Thousand Talents of Silver (that is an Hundred and Eighty Seven Thousand, One Hun­dred pounds) And he turned back, and staid not in the Land. This was a Vast S [...]m; But the other came and swept all both Goods, and Persons too.

On the other hand, He Abates also Mens Courage, and takes down their Spirits. He shall cut off the Spirit of Prin­ces; He is terrible to the Kings of the Earth (psal. 76. 12.) Thus Moses Prophecy of the Dukes of Edom, and Inhabi­tants of Canaan (Exod. 15. 16.) Fear and Dread shall fall upon them, by the greatness of thine Arm; they shall be as still, as a stone, till thy People pass o­ver, O Lord. And to the same ef­fect is that Promise, (Ex. 11: 7.) But against any of the Children of Israel, shall not a Dog move his Tongue. The Geni­us and Spirit of a Dog, is (you▪ know) to Bark at Strangers: This is an effect [Page 36] of Heat and Boldness in that Animal, where it is but a little afraid; but if it be greatly Terrifyed, it will then Run and hide it self in silence: So some Men, that would in their wicked In­clinations, both Bite and Devour, may be yet so far over awed by Gods Pro­vidence, that they dare not so much as Bark at his People.

2. Sometimes in a stout Resolvedness of Mind, that will take no discouragement; this is to have a Heart like that of a Ly­on (2. Sam. 17. 16.) Now a Lyon, when a multitude of Shepheards is called forth against him, will not be afraid of their voice, nor abase himself for the noise of them (Isay, 31. 4,)

The contrary hereunto is a Spirit fai­ling (Isa. 19. 3.) The Spirit of AEgypt shall fail (or be emptied) in the midst thereof; tis said in the Precedent (v 2) I will set AEgyptians, against AEgyptians, & they shall fight: They shall spend their Spirits, or Courage among themselves; but shall have no Spirits left to defend their Country. So tis said of the A­morites and Canaanites, that heard of the drying up of Jordan, which they accounted as their M [...]ate and Fence a­gainst [Page 37] Israel, Their heart melted neither was there Spirit in them any more (Josh. 5: 1:) So that you see both ways, in the Abundance and in the Defect, Spirit, Signifies Courage and Resolu­tion.

Now if this Spirit be Unsanctifyed, tis a stoutness in evil: that will be ready to say, (with Pharoah) Who is the Lord? Tis Obstinacy and Hardning; Sihon King of Heshbon would not let us pass; for the Lord had hardned his Spirit, and made his Heart Obstinate (Deut. 2. 30.) This may be also the meaning of the perverse Spirit min­gled among the Egyptians, (Isa. 19 14.) that is, a quarrelsome and contentious Spirit, among themselves, whereby their Councils were Divided, and their Affairs Unsetled, as a Drunken Man staggereth in his Vomit: They had Spirit, or Animo­sity, enough against one the other; but for Publik defence, AEgypt shall be like unto Women, they shall be afraid and fear (v 16) And this Discovers one fault more, in this Unsanctified Spirit. That it is Un­stable: Stout and Surly, were it should be Humble and Meek; Mean and Poor; where it should be Brave, and Resolute. Such were the Rebellious Israelites (Ps. 78. 8.) a stubborn and rebellious Genera­tion, [Page 38] that set not their hearts aright, whose Spirit was not Stedfast with God. It follows (v. 9.) that, how Sturdy soever they were against God; yet against their Enemies they were very Cowards, or God, in Jus­tice made them so, for their Stubborness against him. The Children of Ephraim be­ing Armed, and carrying Bows, turned back in the day of Battel.

But, If Sanctified, 'tis an Excellent Spirit, and of great use. This was that o­ther Spirit of Caleb (Numb: 14. 24.) The Spirit of the other Spies was Base and Cowardly, and caused the heart of the People to melt (Josh. 18. 8.) at which God was greatly displeased; but Calebs cou­rage was approved, and accepted of God, tho' it had not its desired effect upon men; and was Rewarded with admission into the Land of Promise, when others were excluded.

This Spirit Sanctified, is a Spirit Bound Bent, and Resolved, in the service of God what-ever be the Hazards. And now b [...]hold (says Paul) I go bound in the Spirit to Jerusalem, not knowing the (par­ticular) things, that shall befal me there (Act 20. 22.) saving Bonds and Afflictions (in [Page 39] general) which I expect (v. 23.) But none of these things move me (v. 24.) Now this Bound Spirit I take to be, the Apo­stles Brave Spirit Bound (that is) strong­ly inclined by the Spirit of God to this special, and particular, Service, not­withstanding all these foreseen difficul­ties, to break thorow which he was Gallantly Resolved. And this his Cou­rage is (I think) the same, that he prays might be given to the Ephesians, chap. 3. 16. That he would grant you, accor­ding to the Riches of his Glory to be strength­ned with might, by his Spirit, in the Inner Man. This referrs to (v. 13) I desire that ye faint not, at my Tribulations for you. Some men are so Weak-Spirited, as to faint, when they see another Bleed; or have a grievous Wound dressed, or the like; But I would not have you to be so Feeble-Minded; I would have you more Couragious; and for that end, make this prayer on your behalf; I should ra­ther shrink that feel the trouble; then you, that only behold it with your eyes.

Such another Brave Spirit was in Ne­hemiah, when God had raised it up. See a taste of it (Neh. 6: 11.) Should such a Man as I Fly? And who is there being [Page 40] as I am, would go into the Temple to save his Life? I will not go in. This Gallan­try was of the Lord; for (whatever his Naturl Spirit was) His Captive circum­stances had rendred him but weak; as we may Guess by his Timorousness to speak to the King (tho' he was in good place about him) He continually [...]etch'd his strength from God; He was fain (by Ejac [...]lation) to pray between a Question and an Answer (chap. 2. 4.) What is thy Request? So I Prayed= And I said &c. He had not Courage to give the King an answer; till he had his Spirits Revived by the God of Heaven.

4. This Hotter Spirit is an Angry Spirit i [...] Ardent and Fervent in it self; Eager and Vigorous in motion; with a vehe­mence in Inclinations (all which may be better Referred to this head, then that of Activity, before mentioned) Its chief ingredient is Chollerick Constitution tho' it may be also Habitually encreased, and Morally Fixt in men, by frequent oc­casions and provocations; as also by much converse, with peevish and fretful persons this is intimated in that (Prov. 22. 24. 25,) Make no friendship with an angry man, & with a furious man thou shalt not [Page 41] go; Lest thou Learn his ways, and get a snare to thy Soul. His anger will, by degrees heat thy Spirit into a Disorder; or, at least bring it into another frame; then to what thou art naturally inclined.

This Spirit Acts, and shews it self in ZEAL, and JEALOUSY.

1. Zeal, is a Fervour of Spirit, where­by a man does Act (Valide & Valde) All that comes to his hand, he present­ly does it with his Might. Here An­ger is (Cos Fortitudinis) the Whetstone of Valour; And tho' Courage hath its Strength in it self, yet it commonly has the beginning, and more often the conti­nuance of its motion, from this Zeal. This is as the Touch▪Powder, that catches the first Fire, and as soon inflames that which has all the force in it. Tis a Natural Passion, and therefore (in it self) neither Good nor Bad.

But if,

1. Unsanctifyed, 'tis a Hellish Flame, that burns unmercifully, and does abundance of Hurt, to ones self and others. 'Tis KAKOZELIA, a mischievous vehemence that spoyles the comfort of Humane So­ciety; and if it be any way concern'd in [Page 42] Religion, it makes Havock of the Church as is seen in the Bigots of a false Re­ligion. An eminent example of which, was Paul (while he was Saul) before his Conversion to the true Faith. They shall kill you, and think they do God good Service (John 16: 2:) In a word, it ren­ders men (like the Chaldeans) Bitter & Hasty (Habbac. 1. 6.)

2: But if Sanctified, then the Warm-Spirited Paul is another Man. He now reflects on his former course, as a Mad Hare▪ Brain'd, Wicked Business. See the Account of it. (Acts 26. 9, 10 11.) I verily thought (His Hot Head mistook his way, and so ran on furiously in a Pernicious Error) That I ought (Di­vil [...]sm is now taken for Duty) to do many things contrary &c. Many (not a few▪) were suitable to his Hot and Active Spirits; many places (Jerusalem; every Synagogue; even to strange Cities) many Persons (Many of the Saints) Many Ways did I (shut up in Prison; put to Death; and compelled them to Blas­pheme) yea, when he was but a Strip­ling, when he could not hurll Mortify­ing Stones, he gave his voice against them; Held the Garments of those that Stoned Ste­phen [Page 43] and was consenting to his Death All this he acknowledges to be meer madness: being exceeding mad against them.

But being now Converted, Does his Grace quite extinguish his Fiery Nature, & Spirit? Not at all; only directs, & exerts it, to better purposes Paul is the same Zealot; but in other matters. His Active Spirit Labours more abundantly then they all. (1 Cor. 15. 10.) Zeal he commends, exhorts, and practises. He commends Zeal in his Epistles, if it be rightly pla­ced. 'Tis always good to be Zealous in a good thing, (Gal. 4. 18.) To be Zealous of Spiritual Gifts (1 Cor. 14. 12.) of Good Works. (Titus 2. 14.) He also exhorts men to be Fervent in Spirit, Serving the Lord. (Romans 12. 11.) And he Allowed and Prac­tised it in himself; of which we have Divers Instances.

Take a view of his Hot and Earnest Spi­rit in some particulars. At Athens his Spirit was stirred in him, when he saw the City wholly given to Idolatry. (Acts 17. 16) 'twas full of Gods, without the True God, and he was angry and ve [...]t to see it. So in Corinth, at the Jews Infidelity. He was pres­sed in Spirit, and Testified that Jesus was [Page 44] the Christ. (chap. 18. 5.) Now [...] was this? 'Twas [...] and [...] come from [...]. H [...] had a good mind to it before; even, when he was a poor Labouring Sojourner (v. 3.) Even then he Reasoned and perswaded every Sabbath, (v. 4) But, now his friends are come, by them is his Countenance sharpened (Prov. 27. 17.) He had good Metall be­fore, but now is a Keen Edg put upon it. Whether it were, that they brought him Contribution, which better'd his Out­ward Condition, and so Raised his Spirit a pegg higher: or else that they were to be his Fellow Travellers; and so, being now Ready to Depart (v. 7.) He was bravely resolved to out with that, which had so long broyled in his Bosome. Some way or other (whatever it were) it had relation to their coming, where­by his Spirit was enlarged. He had a Good Spirit before, but [...]ow a Great one His Zeal before was kindled, but now it breaks out. He cares not now, what they said, or thought of him; he now Ruffles them; Roundly delivers his Tes­timony; shakes his Raiment at them; Tells them their own; and throws the Blood of their Obstinacy upon their own Heads. So much may Outward Circum­stances [Page 45] sometimes Help forward the actings of Grace and Nature, in a Sanctifyed Spirit:

Tis manifest he was of a vehement Spirit, and eager in all things. When he missed his friend, he could not stay at Tro [...]s (tho' he might have done it to good purpose; for there a Door was opened to him of the Lord (2 Cor. 2. 12.) But he had no rest in his Spirit; because he found not Titus his Brother there, and away he must, into Macedonia after him. (v. 13.)

Doubtless, the Apostles Removes, were by direction of the Spirit of God; but yet (oftentimes) they were according to Humane Affection or Spirit, Tho' secret­ly over-ruled by God for his Holy ends Thus, this H [...]t Spirited Man was parted from Barnabas in an anger (Acts 15: 39.) The Contention was so sharp that they parted; one to Cyprus, and the other to Syria & Cylicia; but both about the same Evangelical Business.

Another Instance of his Zealous, Sturdy, and Vehement Spirit, was his Carriage to Peter: [...] withstood him to the face; (Gal. 2: 11) Peter, was Pauls elder Brother in the Faith; another man [Page 46] (perhaps) in the case, would have hand­led him more respectfully; but Paul can­not complement; he must do all things like himself; he not only Preaches a­gainst his blameable Practice and Com­plyance, but noses him for it in a publick presence. I said unto Peter before them all [v. 14.] And thus much of Pauls Zealous Spirit.

The next Example shall be Apollos, who was by Nature (tis likely) as well as Grace, a man Fervent in Spirit; and therefore Spake and Taught Diligently, according to the Knowledge that he had in the Gospel; which as yet was not ve­ry great, Knowing only Johns Baptism; un­til a Tent-maker and his Wife (Aquil [...] and Priscill [...]) had Expounded unto him the way of God more perfectly. He was indeed a man of a brave Spirit and Excellent Endowments; He was Eloquent, and a great Textuary, Mighty in the (Old Te­stament) Scriptures; and so, well fur­nished for an Eminent Preacher; But 'twas his Spirit, his Fervent Spirit, Sub­ordinate to his Grace, that fitted him to Speak Boldly in the Synagogues; and mightily to Convince the Jews, and that publickly▪ (Acts 18. 25, &c.) A man of as much Grace, and more Knowledge, [Page 47] might not have been Able so well to perform this Service. Zeal for God, which is every mans Duty, will not Comport so well with every mans Spi­rit. [Non omnia possumus omnes] All cannot do All. When Father Paul at Venice was Discoursed by some Helvetian Ministers, concerning the Reformation, and he had owned to them the chief principles of the Reformed Religion; tho' he still continued in the Papal Com­munion; being demanded by them why he did not publickly profess his Faith? He is said to have Answered, [profecto Deest mihi Spiritus Lutheri] Alas! in Truth, I want Luthers Spirit.

The Hearts of those Jews were so Callous and Hard, that they needed to be warmly fomented. They needed (under the Law) The Bitterness and Heat of Ezekiels Spirit (Ezek. 3. 14.) So the Spirit Lifted me up, and took me away, and I went in the Bitterness, in the Heat [Hebr. and Anger] of my Spi­rit. Gods Spirit moved him, and then his Angry Spirit was moved; The Spi­rit of God made use of a vehement Spi­rit in the man, to deal suitably with them.

And so [under the Gospel] They [Page 48] needed the Like Spirit. Therefore he sent John as his Forerunner; that Burning as well as Shining Light, to Imitate the Prophet Elias: He shall go before him in the Spirit of Elias. (Luke 1. 17.) Now Elias was a Hot-spirited man, and prayed down Hot Fire to Consume the Enemies. John (like him) Preached Repentance with Severity; Calling them Generation of Vipers; and Laying the Ax to the Root of the Tree. He was a Rough Man in a Rough Garment, and handled them Roughly. And indeed this Spirit was proper in the (pr [...]ecursor▪ the) Forerun­ner of Christ, who came to Preach Peace, and Heal the Wounds of Conscience, which Johns Doctrine had made.

Jesus Christ himself, was the Meek and Holy Lamb of God, who Bare all Inju­ries with an Inimitable Patience; and yet was not altogether without this warmth of Spirit upon occasion. The Zeal of thine House hath eaten me up; was spo­ken of him (Psal. 69. 9.) And Applied to him [John 2. 17.] When he whipped the Buyers, and Sellers out of the Tem­ple; and Overturned the Tables of the Money-Changers; This he did Once, but commonly his sweet Conversation, [Page 49] was much otherwise. 'Twas Prophesied of him. (Isa. 42. 2.) And Interpreted of him, (Mat. 12. 19.) He shall not strive, nor Cry; neither shall any man hear his Voyce in the Streets. Nor does he allow the Hot and Fiery Temper an Ordinary Indulgence in his Disciples. When James and John, would have had him Call for Fire from Heaven, on a Village of the Samaritans (Luke 9. 54.) He tells them, They kn [...]w not, what Spi­rit they were of; (i. e.) either what they ought to be, if they would [...]e his Disci­ples: or rather, they might mistake them­selves (as men are too often apt to do) and think, That to be a Sanctified Zeal, which more appeared, but a Corrupt and Revengeful [...]ury. These two men were Bretheren (the Sons of Zebedee) whom Christ (who knew their Spirits better, than themselves) named (accor­ding to their Nature) And he Surnamed them Boanerges, which is, The Sons of Thunder. (Mark 3. 17.) He was not Deceived in them, when he chose them; But knew how to Sanctify their Rough Spirit, and so make a very good use thereof: They might make good Thun­dring Preachers; They might be fitted for Tough▪work (as Luther after them was) [Page 50] to Break through such Difficulties, as would have likely Foyled and disheartned as good men, but of a meeker Spirit. [Malus Nodus, malus Cune [...]s] Rugged Wedges are fittest for a cross-grain'd piece of Service. Fire in mens Spirits (as well as among the Elements) may be necessary sometimes; And Rendred very Serviceable if it be well Governed.

But here's the Difficulty; Many good Christians, by Reason of Natural Infirmi­ty, are not always able to manage a Zea­lous Spirit; nor can always Distinguish be­twixt Fire from Heaven, in the stronger Motions of Gods Holy Spirit, which al­ways ought to be Cherished; and that Fire, which arises from Hell in the vehe­mence of Temptation, Enkindling the Reakings and Fumes of their Corrupted Nature; of which the Devil never fails to take his Advantage.

Young Elibu (before mentioned) was a zealous, warm Spirited man; And not without great Piety (as the Tenour of his Discourse does manifest.) Yet when his Spirit constrained him, and his Belly was as Wine, which hath no vent, and ready to Burst like New Bottles, (Job 32. 18, 19.) i: e.) When his Passion was stirred within him; He Breaks out, not only to Irreverence to [Page 51] his Elder Brethren (v. 9.) Great men are not always wise; neither do the Aged Un­derstand Judgment; But he also Charges Job (I think) very falsely (ch. 33. 8, 9.) I have heard the voice of thy words saying, I am clean without Transgression; I am Inno­cent, neither is there Iniquity in me. Where (I wonder) does Job so speak? Surely if he had, God would not have Justified him, as he does (ch. 42. 7.) Ye have not spoken of me the thing that is Right, as my Servant Job hath. So much do Hot Spi­rited Men, tho' Good Men, yet often over­shoot themselves.

The Rightest Temper of a Sanctified Zeal, was that of Stephens; a mixture of Meekness, Wisdome and Courage, (Acts 6. 10) They were not able to Resist the Wisdom, and the Spirit, with which he spake. He spake with a Spirit, which I take to be Zeal and Earnestness; and yet with Wis­dome, so as no Exception could be justly taken; and with Meekness too, which (af­ter all their horrid Injuries) is Testified by his Last and Dying Words; (ch. 7. 6.) Lord, Lay not this Sin to their Charge. And thus much of Zeal; near of kin to which is.

2. Jealousie, a passion, to which, some mens Spirits are, more than others, prone; [Page 52] And whereby men are Inclined to Suspici­on, fierce Anger, Hatred, and Bitterness. Tis called a Spirit of Jealousie coming upon a man, (Numb. 5. 14.) whether his Wife be Defiled, or not.

This Spirit in Unsanctifyed persons and practises, is an Odious and Bitter Evil. 'Tis Declared Hateful to God, and horri [...]ly Injurious to man. Hateful to God, (Mal. 2. 16.) I hate putting away saith the Lord [...]. Therefore Take Heed to your Spirit: name­ly, This Jealous Spirit, that you Entertain it not. And Injuri [...]us to man, as appea [...]s in the precedent words (v. 15.) Take Heed to your Spirit, Let none deal Treache­rously (or Unfaithfully: marg.) Against the Wife of his Youth. 'Tis a Treacherous Unfaithfulness, to Entertain groundless Jealousies: Love is Covenanted in Marri­age; and this is quite contrary thereunto: Love thinketh no Ill; Jealou [...]e thinking no­thing else. Love covereth Faults; Ground­less Jealousie searcheth to Discover faults, where there are none. And then the Re­petition of the words [Therefore take Heed to your Spirit] (v. 15. and again v. 16) is well to be Noted; for 'tis a Rule, [Repeated words in Scripture call for special observation.] And as in Marriage, so in o­ther Relations; it Destroys Friendship; [Page 53] spo [...]is Humane Society, and mutual Confi­dence; and sometimes stirs up the most bitter Enmity; for Jealousie is the Rage of a man, That takes no Ransome for Life. (Prov. 6. 34.) This is the Spirit that Dwel­leth in us, (i. e.) our Corrupted Nature) Lusting to Envy (James 4. 5.)

And yet, for All this Evil said of it (nor can enough be said) Abstract but a Jealous and Suspicious Spirit, from In-bred Corruptions; Take it as a pure Natural Temper; 'Tis a Basis of Great Prudence, Wisdom and Wariness. Not to allow of that Rotten principle [Suspect every man to be Knave, with whom you have to do] But to take care in avoiding that Character of a Fool Noted in (Prov. 14. 15.) The Simple believeth every word; But the pru­dent man Looketh well to his going. Not Uncharitably to Suspect, but prudently to be Circumspect, is becoming a wise and honest man. This pure Natural Cautious Spirit may be the Subject of Sanctification, and may become God-like, and a Godly Jealousie. God-like, when a man so utterly Disapproves Sin and Dishonesty; That he Dislikes the very Appearance thereof, and Tendency thereunto. Thou shalt not Bow down, for I the Lord thy God am a Jea­lous God. (Exo. 20. 5.) And by Sins [Page 54] (however palliated) is provokt to Jealousie. (Deut. 32. 16. 21.) Every Likeness of Sin, may Deserve that name, (Ezek. 8.3) The Image of Jealousie, which provoketh to Jealousie. And as God-like, so 'tis Godly. The Holy Prophet owned, and professed it. (1 King. 19. 10. 14.) I have been very Jealous for the Lord God of Hosts. And so did the Holy Apostle. (2 Cor. 11: 2.) I am Jealous over you with Godly Jealousie; for I have Espoused you to one Husband, &c. 'Tis Godly, when the Bent of Jealousie is only to promote Holiness; when the Suspicion notes but care and watchfulness; and the Bitterness ascribed to this Spirit, is but a Hatred of Sin; it may so be of very Excellent Use, especially in those, who by Gods Order have the Oversight of others.

And thus much of the Hotter Spirit, which is Chearful, Active, Couragious, An­gry in zeal and Jealousie. We shall now take a view of its Opposite, and so better Illustrate both, by comparing them toge­ther.

2. The Colder Spirits, which are in some men, under the Temperaments of Phlegm, or Melancholly; The more if Radicated by Habits, or excited and promoted by Objects, or Outward Circumstances. These [Page 55] are in every point of the contrary Chara­cter, to those Hotter Spirits before menti­oned. As

1. Is that Chearful and Bris [...]; This is sorrowful and pensive: full of Grief and Mourning; as if made up of Sighs and Tears. And whether it be from Natural Temper, or from that concurrence (men­tioned) of sad and troublesome Circum­stances; Mens Spirits are hereby Formed and Disposed to Lamentations. Such was weeping Jeremiah; such was our Blessed Saviour in his Humiliation A man of Sor­rows and acquainted, with Grief, as was Pro­phesied of him, (Isa. 53. 3.)

Now if this be Unsanctified it Disposes to many Evils; especially, where the Dogged Melancholly is prevalent therein. 'Tis an Evil Spirit in it self; and of Evil Consequences.

1. In it self; probably this was the Evil Spirit from the Lord upon Saul. A Melancholly Spirit; and perhaps sometimes even unto Fits of Distraction. I take it so to be; for that it was Alleviated by Davids Musick (1 Sam. 16. 23.) Surely Davids Harp could not Conjure down Devils; Nor does give any Countenance to Popish Bell Baptism for the same pur­pose: No, rather it was a Natural Evil, [Page 56] an Evil Natural Spirit, sent of God in Judgment; and Helped by Natural Means, thro' his Blessing. David played with his hand, so Saul was Refreshed, and was well; and the Evil Spirit Departed from him. So; by a Natural Means prescribed by his Doctors (v. 16.) [Musica Mentis Medi­cina M [...]est [...]e;] was well; It seems before he was Sick, Distempered, and his Spirit was out of Order. 'Tis and Evil, both Natural, Moral, and Judicial. A Natural; (Prov. 17.22.) A Merry Heart doth Good like a Medicine; but a Broken Spirit Dryeth the Bones: (i. e.) Wasteth the Marrow, and Impaireth the Health. And it Tend­eth als [...] [...] Evil Moral and Judicial too; as you may observe, in

2. Its Consequences; It Disposeth to Sul­len Discontent, and peevish Frowardness; both which are very Ugly, as well as wicked Humours.

Sullen Discontent we may see in proud Haman, who, (whatever his Natural Spirit was) had a very Jolly one upon the Kings Favour. Haman went forth that Day, Joyful, and with a Glad Heart. (Esth. 5.9.) That Day, It seems it was not always so; (Aspiring Pride, and Sowerness of Spirit, are frequently con­joyned; because of the many obstructi­ons [Page 57] Real, and more apprehended, that cross his Ambition) But That Day, and upon that particular Occasion, he was very Merry. This in him was Unsanctifyed, and therefore Unstable and soon Altered to the contrary, by a very slight matter; for after he had Boasted among his Friends of all his Riches and Glory: yet (saith he) All this availeth me nothing, so long as I see Mordecat the Jew sitting at the Kings Gate. (v. 13.) What Remedy now in the Case? His Wife advises him (v. 14.) Erect a Lof [...]y Gallows, and get Mordecai Hanged thereon; and Then go thou in Merrily, with the King unto the Ban­quet. No Merriment, no [...]ure of the Sullens, till Mordecai be Dispatched; He was in a Desperate Case; his Bones were all Rotten, (for that's the Name of his Disease (Prov. 14. 30.) Envy is the Rot­tenness of the Bones) and 'tis likely, he might have Died of Discontent, it he had not (soon after) by the Gibbet.

Another such an Instance of Sullenness was Covetous Ahab, whose Spirit was sad, because he was Denyed Naboth's Vineyard (1 King 21. 5.) which caused him to Loll on his Bed, turn away his face, and would not eat Bread (like a pouting Child) vext at heart, that he could not have his [Page 58] Will; proud Jezebe [...], like Zeresh, (here's another Wit of the Wife) comes in with her Cursed Contrivance, to Dry up Ahabs Tears, by the Shedding of Naboth's Blood. One would have thought, that these Wo­men (because of the Natural Coldness and Moysture of their Sex) should have been Authors of milder Counsels; But their Unsanctifyed Hearts, being filled with Devillish Pride, makes them act contrary to that, which should be their very Nature; so virulent are Feminine Humours, when Corruption (on occasi­on) turns them into Acids. Dismissing these Two, as they are; you may (if you please) send in Jobs Wife; with her Curse God and Die, (Job 2. 9.) to make up the Number, All. (Tria sunt om­nia.) Note only (by the way) That Old Wives Prescriptions, are seldome good Re­medies, for sad and melancholly Husbands. And this of Sullen Discontent.

Of the Froward Peevishness, in this Colder and Mournful Spirit, we have a Notable Instance in the Israelites; who could not hear what was Reasonable, and might be Comfortable, to them. God by Moses had sent them a very good and Gracious Word; A Promise of their De­liverance; of being their God, and ta­king [Page 59] them to be his People; And Moses spake so, unto the Children of Israel; But they hearkened not unto Moses, for Anguish (or Shortness) of Spirit, and for Cruel Bondage, which was the occasion thereof. (Exod. 16. 9.) They were in this Like weeping Rachel, who Refused, and would not be Comforted. (Mat. 2. 18.)

From these Instances (besides frequent Experience,) we may Learn, That the Consequents of a sad Unsanctifyed Spirit are Deplorable; All manner of Evil, Natural, Moral and Judicial. Natural and Moral seem to be pointed at in that Expression (2 Cor. 7. 10.) The sorrow of the world worketh Death. This may referr to both; 'tis both a Sin and a Mischief; as appears by the Antitheta (in the former part of the verse.) Godly Sorrow worketh Repen­tance to Salvation, not to be Repented of; Therefore (by the Rule of contraries) Worldly Sorrow is Sin, unto Destruction, and to be Repented of by those, who would avoid those Evils. But more ex­presly is it Judicial, when God pronoun­ces it as a Curse. Ye shall Cry for sorrow of heart, and shall Howl for vexation (or Breaking. marg.) of Spirit. (Isa. 65. 14) This if Unsanctified.

And yet by Sanctification, a Mournful [Page 60] Spirit may become a Blessing; it may Adapt, and Incite to many Graces and Duties. In that (2 Cor. 7. 10.) worketh Repentance to Salvation, not to be Repented of: You'l have no cause to be sorry, for a sorrowful Spirit, if your Tears be set to Run in a [...]ight Channel. S [...]e more of the [...]ssed Effects (v. 11.) Ye Sorrowed after a godly sort; [...] ehold what Carefulness it wrought in you; what clearing of your selves; yea what Indignation; yea what Fear; yea what vehement Desire; yea what Zeal; yea what Revenge. Understand In­dignation, Fear and Revenge, to Respect Sin, and not m [...]n.

A Mournful Spirit Sanctified Disposes to Prayer. Hanna professes to Eli, (who had misapprehensions of her) I am a Wo­man of a sorrowful Spirit, and have poured out my Soul before the Lord (1 Sam. 1. 15.) She wept inwardly, as she mentally prayed, and her Prayers and Tears were secretly mingled, and poured out to her God; she was in Bitterness of Soul, and prayed unto the Lord, and wept sore (v: 18.) David of­ten to this purpose, (Ps. 77. 2.) In the Day of my Trouble I [...]ought the Lord. When was that? When my Spirit was overwhelm­ed (v. 3.) So (Ps. 142. 2, [...].) I [...] poured out my Complaint before him, I shewed before [Page 61] him my Tyouble, when my Spirit was over­whelmed within me. And in the next (Ps. 143. 4.) His Spirit was again Over­whelmed; I stretched forth my hands unto thee. (v. 6.) That Spirit which was wont to be full Fraught with Harmonious Prai­ses is now Overset, and another Service is appointed for him; He Sayled joy [...]lly in pleasant Gales, but Storms find him other work.

The greatest Instance (in mee [...] man) of a sorrowful Spirit, was that of Job, in the Days of his Tryal; His Complaint he Uttere [...]h freely, and Justi [...]yeth his so doing, as of a natural Necessity: His Case was sad; His Spirit was Drunk up, (ch. 6. 4.) Drunk up (as he expresses it) That he had None Left to bear his Trou­bles. The Spirit of a man will bear his In­firmity (P [...]o. 18 14.) But (alas) his Bearing Spirit is gone, and nothing but a Broken and Burthened one is Left in him: In this case, he says, I will not Re­frain my mouth; I will speak in the Anguish of my Spirit; I will complain in the Bitterness of my Soul (ch. 7. 11.) But his Com­plaint is To God, and not Of God. As for me, is my Complaint to man? And if it were so, why should not my Spirit be Troubled? (ch. 21. 4.) And yet, we may [Page 62] say of him in all this, as was testified of him in the beginning, In all this Job sinned not, nor charged God foolishly (ch. 1. 22.) Altho' Satan expected it from him. (v. 11 and ch: 25.) which indeed he would have done, had not God Sanctified his sorrowful Spirit: and preserv­ed it Blameless.

When Nebuchadnezzar Dreamed Dreams, wherewith his Spirit was Troubled. [Dan. 2. 1.] We find this Unsanctified Hea­then fret and vex, and require unreaso­nable things: The Thing is gone from me I have quite forgot it; yet, Tell me the Dream, and the Interpretation, or ye shall be cut in pieces, and your Houses made a Dung­hil. (v. 5.) So eager was he to be Rid of his Troubled Spirit. But Daniel thro' Sanctification was of another Temper in the like case. (ch. 7. 15.) I Daniel was grieved in my Spirit, in the midst of my Body (or sheath) and the Visions of my Head troubled me. He then seeks for sa­tisfaction from God, by Drawing near to his Angel (v. 16.) And though he say; My Cogitations Troubled me, and my Counte­nance changed in me. (v. 28:) yet he was not in haste to be Rid of it; But I kept the matter in my heart; namely, to be farther Meditated upon, and to wait the Issue: [Page 63] And indeed in all Troublesome Cases, This is the Guise of a Gracious and Sancti­fied Spirit.

But of all other Instances, the Great Exemplar the Lord Jesus Christ is most to be Admired and Imitated in his Holy Mournful Spirit. His Sorrow in Gethse­mane, when he approached near his Passi­on, is thus set forth. He began to be sore Amazed, and to be very Heavy; and saith, My Soul is exceeding Sorrowful unto Death. (Mat. 14. 33, 34.) And what does he, but pray? That this Bitter Cup (as Ma­thew) or this Hour (of Temptation) as Mark) might pass from him; and being in an Agony he prayed more earnestly, (Luk. 22. 44.) In this wrestling with God, His Sweat was a [...] it were, great Drops (or Clod­ders (of Blood falling down to the Ground. And yet, notwithstanding all this Earnest­ness, it was with the greatest Submission. Nevertheless not as I will, but as thou wilt. (v. 39.) And thus much of the Sorrowful Cold Spirit.

2. Is that Hotter Spirit Active and Vigo­rous: This Colder is dull and weak; a dull Spirit, or Spirit of Heaviness, as 'tis call'd (Isa. 61. 3.) The Spirit of a man is the principle of his Activity. It Disposes him Diligently to Teach, (as is before shewn) [Page 64] and Diligently to Learn; to make Dili­gent Search (as tis expressed, Psal. 77. 6.) But this Dull Soul (in it self) is fit for neither.

The Spirit of man, is also the princi­ple of his Vigour, and helps to bear his Burdens; But this Spirit is (in it self) a Burden. The Spirit of a man will sus­tain his Infirmity; but a Wounded Spirit who can Bear? (Prov. 18. 14.) 'Tis a weak and fainting Spirit; much like that, which was in the Queen of Sheba, when she saw the Effects of S [...]l [...]mons Wisdom, she was even astonished, and the [...] was no more Spirit in her. (1 Kin. 10.5.

This Unsanctifyed is a pi [...]tiful, base, and Useless Spirit; Inclining only to Sotti [...]h Sloth and Idleness; It Renders unapt to Do, or Receive any good. When they should Teach, they are Dumb Dogs; and when they should Learn, they have a Spirit of S [...]mber and of Deep Sleep (Isa. 29. 10.) and so proportionably in any other worthy Affair.

But if Sanctified, Its slowness makes the surer work; takes time for good De­liberation; and helps to prevent much Rashness and Precipitance, which Nimbler Spirits are more liable unto. All Slow­ness [Page 65] is not Blameable; Some are Duties; as, Slow to Wrath (Prov. 14. 29.) Slow to speak. (James 1. 19.) And where Slow­ness of Speech, is an Infirmity; yet this hinders not Gods making use of such in very Eminent Service, as he did Moses (Exod. 1. 10.)

And as to the Weakness of this Spirit, It Leads to Dependance on Gods All-Sufficiency; It is often an Effect of great Sorrow, By Sorrow of heart the Spi­rit is Broken. (Prov. 15. 13.) And the Crack'd or Broken Spirit (as before no­ted) is very weak; but Sanctified it is accompanied with Faith. And then it makes Prayerful, in Applications to God for help. Hear me speedily O Lord, my Spirit faileth; I have no strength of my own to Bear up against the Floods; I will cry unto thee when my heart (or Spi­rit) is overwhelmed; Lead me to the Rock, that is higher than I. (Ps. 61. 2.)

3. Is That Spirit Bill, Resolute and Confident; The Colder one is Timorous and humbly yielding. 'Tis Little in it self; and commonly Less in its own Eyes: It Designs no great things; nor is fit for any Great Undertaking; But is apt to shun all things, that appear any way Dangerous.

[Page 66] This, if Unsanctifyed is a Base Pusilani­mity; a mean, poor, cowardly and creep­ing Spirit: Unfit for Doing any Notable Good; or Suffering any Considerable Evil. Such will never be Martyrs for, or Con­ [...]ssors of, any valuable Truth. This Spi­rit (like Issachar) stoops under the Bur­den, of every Imposing and Tirannical Humour, without the least opposition, or Resentment; so as it will easily let go Christian, or Civil Liberty; And even Tempt the proud to Trample on their Neck. It gives way, not only for a mo­ment, a short time (in matters, that will bear it) upon prudent Considerations; But gives up for good and all (as we us [...] to speak) without any consideration at all: The former is Good Fencing; the lat­ter is Base Cowardise, which opens a care­less Gap, that not only Suffers, but Invites Trespassers. This Spirit is a Saddled Ass, ready to be Rid at pleasure; and is most mischievous in a Church, where are Diotre­phian Spirits, and Ruinous to a State, where Tyranny would be playing pranks. Such are men Born to be Slaves, for whose Un­reasonable Yielding, their Posterity will have cause to Curse them.

As to the performance of Necessary Du­ties, They always imagine Lions in the way, [Page 67] and in the least appearance of a Difficulty▪ they are ready to fancy Insuperables, and thereby Inhance Discouragements; so that they Tremble, tho' it be, but at the shaking of a Leaf, (Lev. 26. 36.) I will send a faintness into their hearts, and the sound of a shaking Leaf shall Chase them; and they shall flee, as fleeing from a Sword; and they shall fall, when none pursueth. To Fear, where no Fear is, is not only a Judi­cial Misery, but it is also too often a Sin, Derived from Unbelief, as against frequent Commands; Fear not, neither be Dismayed: Fear not their Fear, be not afraid of their Faces, &c. And a Sin (it seems) of the worst Character, as Ushering in the Bedroul of Abominable Wickedness, in that Denunciation (Rev. 21. 18.) But the Fearful, and Unbelieving, and the A­bominable, and Murtherers and Whoremongers, and Sorcerers, and Idolaters, and all Liars, shall have their part in the Lake that Burn­eth. This Spirit it self is not a Sin, so far as it Depends on Natural Causes; 'Tis no Evil for a Woman to be Less Couragi­ous, then a man; or to be more afraid upon apparent Danger; But when Fear is Habituated, or Acted by Unbelief; for then it Impeaches Gods Glorious Attri­butes; his Mercy, Truth, and All-sufficiency

[Page 68] But if this Little, Low, and Timorous Spirit be Sanctified, 'tis Exercised in a Gracious Humility, which Aspires not to things too high (Ps. 131. 1.) A Contrite Spirit, Sanctifyed, is no Base and Contemptible Spirit. 'Tis Preferred and Esteemed by Wise men, Directed by the Holy Spirit of God, who teaches men to put a due value, upon the good of Things, and Persons. Better it is to be of an Humble Spirit with the Lowly, then to Divide the Spoyl with the Proud. (Prov. 6. 19.) He shall be far from Contempt: A mans pride shall bring him Low; but Honour shall uphold the Humble in spirit (Prov. 29. 23.) Humility is a Lovely Grace amongst men; it avoids Quarrels, which Pride and Haughtiness of Spirit commonly makes: It gives no Offence, and Removes the Offences that are Taken. Yielding paci­fyeth great Offences. (Eccl. 10. 5.) And as 'tis Acceptable to men, so it is well plea­sing unto God. A Broken and a Contrite Spirit O God thou wilt not Despise, (Psa. 51. 17.) Not Despise is a MEIOSIS, yea he Favours and Approveth. The Lord is nigh to them▪and Saveth such, as [...]e of a Contrite Spirit. (Ps. 34. 18.) This Favour he the more Illustrates by setting forth his own Excellencies. The Great and High [Page 69] God Regards the Little and Low Spirit; This is more than once shewn by the Prophet Isai [...] ▪ For thus saith the High and Lofty One, who Inhabiteth Eternity; I Dwell in the High and Holy Place, and with him also, that is of an Humble and Contrite Spi­rit; to Revive▪ the Spirit of the Humble, and to Revive the Heart of the [...] (Isa. 57. 15, 16.) And (ch 66. 2.) [...] ­ven and Earth hath mine Hand made; [...] to this man will I Look, even to him that is poor, and of a Contrite Spirit, and Trembleth at my word. 'Tis not that poor, mean, Spirit, that Trembles at the Shaking of a Leaf; or sinfully fear [...]th man, whose Breath is in his Nostrils; but he that feareth the Lord and Trembleth at his Word. Such an one shall not only be Countenanced, and Comforted by God here; but bountifully, and graciously, be Rewarded hereafter; 'tis the first of the Beatitudes (Mat. 5. 3.) Blessed are the poor in Spirit; for theirs is the Kingdom of Heaven.

4. Is that Hotter Spirit an Angry Spi­rit, fermenting in Zeal and Jealousie: This c [...]lder is meek and wholly Inclined to peace: 'Tis Sheepish, Lamblike, and Inoffensive; no great Doer, and a quiet Sufferer: 'Tis patient and silent in bearing Injuries, and [Page 70] easily overlooks Faults: It's apt to think well of all, and in general, all its motions are calm and soft.

This quiet, calm Temper, if Unsanctified, hath its spring, only in Bodily Tempera­ment, and Worldly Wisdom; and then Un­decently bears oftimes, what it ought to shake off, with Indignation. 'Tis indeed Inclined to good Offices, but still with Earthly Design. It does good, to Receive good, Looking for something again contrary to our Saviours Rule. (Luke 6. 45.) 'Tis not the Subject of Anger, because it would not be the Object thereof; always ac­companied with self-seeking; and its greatest Design is to pass quietly thro' the World. 'Tis utterly Indisposed for holy Zeal, so as never to contend earnestly for the Faith. Nor will it plead Gods Cause, when Wickedness is Rampant, nor La­bour to Restrain or Rebuke Ungodliness. This Gallio-like Spirit cares for none of these things. (Acts 18. 17.) But wholly Leaves men to their own Course, without any Religious Controul. This was El [...]es Sin, for which both he and his Family were severely Dealt with; God was Angry with him, because he was not Angry [...]or God. Tis a Listless Frame for Affectionate Duty; Dead Hearted to and in, Heavenly Ser­vice; [Page 71] A Professor of such a Spirit is but a Cold Christian, and will have but a cold Entertainment when he comes to seek his Reward. A true Christian should be al­ways furnished with a Spirit, though not always Use it: There is a time for necessa­ry Anger. And we should Use our warmth of Spirit, or forbear it, as occasi­on Requires. What will you? Shall I come unto you with a Rod; or in Love, and in the Spirit of Meekness? (1 Cor. 4. 21.)

This Unsanctified softness of Spirit, Tho' it be thus Useless and Blameable; yet this must be acknowledged of it: That of all the Worldly Spirits 'tis one of the best; and as it does no good, so it does Least Harm and Mischief. It may Render a man a quiet and untroublesome Neighbour, and tollerable Member, of the Common wealth; But still a sapless and fruitless Branch in the Church,; and is far short of true Chri­stianity, whatever it professes.

But if the Meek Spirit be a Sanctified one; Oh! How Excellent, How Lovely and Desirable is it? How much does it conduce to Brethrens Living together in U­nity? How many Brawls and Factions would it prevent? It then (when Sancti­fyed) has another principal Rise and End [Page 72] then was suggested by Nature and Circum­stances. It then Arises from Conformity to the Great Exemplar (Isa. 53. 7.) Who was brought as a Lamb to the Slaughter: and as a Sheep before the Shearers is Dumb, so opened not he his Mouth When he was Reviled, he Reviled not again; when he Suffered, be Threatned not; but committed himself to him, who Judgeth Righteously. (1 Pet. 2. 23.)

Again, this is a fit Spirit to Deal with Sinners. Restore such an one in the Spirit of Meekness. (Gal. 6. 1.) 'Tis that which is peaceable with men, and pleasing to God; and therefore is Honourable, as an Ornament. The Ornament of a meek and quiet Spirit; which in the sight of God is of great price. (1 Pet. 3 4.) Surely God knows the true value of Things, who hath put all Worth and Dignity into them. This is a proper Gospel Spirit, very much for its Honour, and promo­ting its Interest in the World: It oft­times holds the Hands and stops the Mouths of its Adversaries. That Rebuke of our Saviour to those Sons of Thun­der, (James and John) when they would have Fire from Heaven upon the Samaritan Village. (Luke 9. 55.) Inti­mates the True and Genuine Gospel-Spirit; [Page 73] Ye kn [...]w not what manner of Spi­rit you are of. You are not Spirited as you should be: The Spirit you have is a Chollerick, Revengeful Spirit, and you know it not: Or, you know not what Spirit, you should be of, as my Disci­ples: The Spirit of Elias (under which you would cover your passions) Has done its Preparatory work in John Bap­tist; But now the Evangelical-Spirit hence forward, is quite another thing; 'Tis full of meekness, sweetness, and gentleness of mind; which by your present talk, you seem little to understand; You (as my Disciples) do profess to be of the Gospel-Spirit; But alas, you have it not; You kn [...]w not what Spirit you are of!

And thus much of the two Opposite Spirits, the Hot and the Cold. We come now to the Mean, between them both; which of all the Natural Spirits is the most Curious, Desireable, and best Manage­able, to every good purpose. Therefore

3. Some men are of a more Tempe­rate Spirit, which is Cool in Respect of the Heats; and Warm, in Respect of the Chills of Spirit, in the former two Ex­treams. All the Conveniencies of those it has, without their Inconveniencies; This is the Well-balanced Spirit, that moves [Page 74] Evenly, Smoothly, and Firmly; The Vessel of due proportion, betwixt Hull, and Sayl, which usually well Arrives at its intended Port. 'Tis the foelix Tem­peries of the Philosophers, that naturally Disposes to, and Adapts for, General Ver­tue. 'Tis best enabled to Use its own Abilities; and manage its own powers, whether Intellectual or Volitive to the best Advantage.

1. Intellectual by a moderation, and order of Thoughts; of a sufficient Heat to Excite them, and yet of Coolness enough to Govern them, and their Effects, which otherwise might be Exorbitant. 'Tis not the Dull▪ Soul, that thinks not Intense­ly of any thing; Nor the Phantastick Air, that Huddles, and is precipitant in all things. But it is such a well compo­sed Spirit, as indeed Quickens a man to Act, and yet Renders him Sober, and Deliberate, in all his Actions. Hence a­rises Wisdom and Prudence in Matters, and a firm Judgment, that will not suf­fer it self to be Biassed or Disordered by any unruly Passions; But Governs them by Reason; and brings and keeps them in their due Subordaination.

Whence follows

2. The Volitive Powers are well used, [Page 75] and ordered by such a Moderate Spirit; The Will is Benign, and the Passions Re­gular. The Will, and all the powers under its Commands are Disposed to Sub­jection unto Right Reason. Hence This Spirit is apt to be well governed In the man, that has it; And thereby Renders him more fit to Govern amongst other men in the world; from both which it may be Denominated A Spirit of Govern­ment. Of this brave Spirit was Titus Vespasian, who from thence was called (Humani Generis Delicioe) The Delights of Mankind. Faithfulness, Candour, Beneficence, and all other things that are Excellent (so far as Nature can go) have their Derivation from this Spirit; because it is not so liable to the Infirmity of Unruly Passions, which is the Natural Cause of all the contrary Vices.

Yet if this Rare and Excellent Spirit, which is so very good in it self be Un­sanctify'd and Corrupt; 'Tis all as Bad, if not worse, then the Rest. Corruption of the best is worst. For

1. Its Wisdom and Prudence, if Unsancti­fyed, is (at best) but Worldly Wisdom, and Imployed wholly to serve Worldly Interests: But it seldome stops there; for it commonly proceeds in a way of [Page 76] Enmity against God and Goodness; And becomes too often a Devilish Policy. If the Enemies of the Church be men of this Spirit, they are most Dangerous: 'Tis the men of this Temper, that are the Achitophels for Mischievous Counsels.

The Hot Spirited Huffs, and Hectors, may have as great an Enmity, which they of­ten shew in a storming rage; But their vehement Passions do oft-times Deprive them, of a discreet consideration, where­by they overshoot themselves, and miss their Designs. The Smooth-bootes that look Demure, who can think and con­trive, and are not in over-great Haste; The Wolves in Sheeps-cloathing; (in a word) The close and undiscerned Hypo­crites (who by means of this Moderate Spirit, may more easily so be.) These are the Dangerous Enemies; These under their seeming Vertues, have advantage to act their secret Vices. Lyons by Roaring, may Terrific the Sheep into their Safe-folds, while the [...]li [...] Foxes (by surprise) do Devour the Flock.

As to the Spirit of Judgment, and Go­vernment Unsanctified; 'tis that which maketh Nets and Snares, and perverteth Jugdment in the Gate. 'Tis not the Baw­ling Sollicitor, so much as the subtile [Page 77] Judge, that Frames Mischief by a Law, (Psa. 94. 20) and cover it over by a plausible pretence. Not the Clamarou [...]s Multitude, so much as the Cunning High-Priests, that do violence to the Law, and pollute the S [...]nctuary. (Zeph. 3. 4.) 'Tis they, that say, We have a Law, and by our Law he ought to Die. (Joh. 19. 7.) Thus they Turn Judgment into Hem­lock, and make the Ordinance of God Minister to their Lusts and Passions.

2. Its calmness of Will, and moderati­on of Affections, with those seeming Ver­tues, that attend it, all are nothing so, as they do appear, but are Evil, and Sub­servient thereunto. Evenness of Mind Un­ [...]anctified Renders a man but a Gallio, ca­ring for none of these things; Not con­cerned about the Greatest Interests of their own, or others Souls: This is that Odious Lukewarmness which God will Spue out of his mouth. (Rev. 3. 16.)

Again, Benignity, Generosity, and Can­dour of Spirit, if Unsanctified, is, (as Mr.Fuller calls it) The Bad-good-nature, which is commonly, and most Abused by Para­sitical Hang-byes. Such men are Led by a Thred (not like Ariadne's Clew, out of, But) into continual Dangers. The Gallantly follow Trappanning, and De­ceitful [Page 78] Guides, to do Mischief; like the men, that followed Absalom in their simpli­city, and they knew not any thing of his De­signs. (2 Sam. 15. 11.) These are oft Impos [...]d upon; and made Tools, and Im­plements, in mischievous and ungodly projects, for want of Gracious Wisdom. On the same account of Bad-good-nature, they are apt to spare and favour, even Wickedness in men; and Indulge them in their corrupt ways. They are apt to be prodigally Bountiful, to such as they should rather frown away. (Prov. 29. 23.) The North-wind Driveth away Rain; and so doth an Angry Countenance a Backbiting Tongue.

Lastly, as to the Fidelity and Stedfastness of this Natural Spirit, if Unsanctifyed, it fits men to keep the Devils Counsel; He Heareth Cursing, and bewrayeth it not. (Pro. 29. 24.) A Thief may trust him with his Stollen Goods. Alas he is mislead by false names and notions of things, and the Clears Immoveably to them: As for Instance; An Oath, to which he will stick, tho' it be but a Bond of Iniquity, (contrary to the very nature of an Oath)

Truth and Trust he so looks upon, un­der the Name of Moral Vertues, That he forgets the Christian Duty of not being [Page 79] Partaker in other mens Sins. So also, in Friendship, which (through his Candour) he often strikes with the Enemies of God; He then thinks himself obliged to be faithful in all things to these his friends; Tho indeed true Friendship is only in Ver­tue; and other Friendship neither ought to be Begun, or Continued: Shouldst thou Help the Ungodly, and Love them, that Hate the Lord? Therefore is Wrath upon thee from the Lord. (2 Cor. 19. 2.)

These Firm Spirited, are the unhappy men, who being once Ill-engaged, are hard to be Reclaimed: They will persist, tho' against the very Edge, and prickles of Conscience, and Convictions: They scorn to forsake their Colours, tho' it be to come under Christ's Banner: There is no hope to perswade; no; For I have Loved Stran­gers, and ( [...]e never be a base Changling or Turn-coat) After them will I go. (Jer. 2. 25.)

Thus this Noble Spirit is abused; Thus its Silver is become Dross; and those seem­ing Vertues, which use to Glitter therein, are no more than (as Austin calls the Heathen Morals) Splendida peccata; meer Gloworms and Fire flies to the sight of a Moon-Ey'd World.

[Page 80] But if Sanctified, if Light and Heat be put into them by the Baptism of Fire, How do the Excellencies of this Spirit Excel themselves? This Governa­ble Spirit is under a Twofold Govern­ment; That of our own, and that of God too. This Fortified Spirit has a Double Guard; That of our Discretion, and that of Gods Grace. Let us take a view of this Spirit, as Regulated by, and Set forth in, the Scripture.

1. 'Tis a Temperate Spirit; not Cold or Lukewarm, but Governably Cool. In (Prov. 17. 27.) we have (in this Re­spect) its Character, and its Commen­dation. He that hath Knowledge, spareth his words; and a man of Understanding is of an Excellent or (as in the Margin) a Cool Spirit. By Knowledge and Un­derstanding in Scripture (and frequently in this particular Book) is meant Gra­cious Wisdom, and Sanctified Knowledge: 'Tis this that truly Tempers the Spirit to be excellently Cool; and enables it to Govern it self and its Astions; yea; and that Unruly Little Member, the Tongue, which in Hot, and Gun-powder Spirited men is oft-times Inflamed and Set on Fire of Hell. (James 3. 5, 6.) 'Tis a [Page 81] Spirit of Government, both Passively and Actively.

1. Passively (or fit to be Governed) which gives Commendation to the man that has it, beyond the Triumphs of a Conqueror. He that Ruleth his Spirit is better, than he that Taketh a City. (Prov. 16. 32.)

Fortior est, qui se; quam qui fortissima vincit.
That's the brave man, that Rules his Spirit; he
Has the brave Spirit, where 'twill Ruled be.

The Cold Spirit is too slow and heavy, to follow the Dictates of Regulated Rea­son, unto any considerable Effect. The Hot Spirit over-runs it, and (of the Two) is the most Ungovernable. The Hasty and Disordered Spirit is chiefly Denomi­nated Unruly, which often Exposes a man to Dangers, as an Unfortify'd City. (Prov. 25. 28.) He that hath no Rule over his (Royled and Ruffled) Spirit, is like a City, that is Broken down, and hath no Walls. The Moderate Spirit sets Discretion in the Government of his Affairs; But the Hasty Spirit (not taking time to consider, what is to be done upon the present E­mergence) Exalteth Folly (Prov. 14. 20.) [Page 82] To the same Effect is that Comparison; The patient in Spirit is better, than the proud in Spirit (Eccl. 7. 8.) which is Explained and Applied, in that Caution. (v. 9.) Be not Hasty in the Spirit, to be Angry; for (proud) Anger Resteth in the Bosome of Fools.

The Moderate Spirit is well compact, and firm, which keeps Folly from Break­ing in, or out; But the Immoderate both Admits, and Discovers Folly, in all its Actions; And most easily and commonly in the Tongue. A perverse Tongue is (i. e.) Betokens and Declares) a Breach (or Disorder) in the Spirit. (Prov. 15. 4.)

This Cool and Temperate Spirit In­clines to Wisdom, observed in Daniel, by the Babilonians, who Recommend him for it to Nebuchadnezzar, (Dan. 5. 12.) An [...]cellent Spirit, and Knowledge and Under­standing, was found in him—to Dissolve Doubts (or Untie Knots.) And for this he was Advanced; Because an Excellent Spirit was in him (ch. 6. 3.) Now here we must Remember, that in Scripture phrase, the Excellent Spirit, is in the Mar­gin Read, the Cool Spirit, (as is before no­ted.) It seems Daniel was a man of Tem­per, even in their Observation, who could not Discern his Grace; 'Twas his Prudence, [Page 83] and not his Piety, that they took notice of; And tho' (ch. 4. 8, 9.) The Spirit of the Holy Gods was by those Heathens ac­knowledged to be in him; yet, it was not his Sanctification by the Spirit of the True God, which they meant; But (ac­cording to their manner) whatever Tran­scended the common course of men, they were wont to Diefy. Daniel had indeed Extraordinary Assistance from God for Re­vealing Secrets; But this Help was above their Cognizance; they only observed such Excellency of his Spirit, as manifest­ed it self in his Covers amongst them; for which also The King thought to set him over the whole Realm. (ch. 6. 3.)

That phrase in (Job 20. 3.) The Spirit of my Understanding causeth me to Answer. Signifies not (I think) his Understanding Faculty; but rather, That Moderation and Government, of his Spirit, whereby he was enabled (without Disturbance) to go on in Discourse of the Matters that were before them; as if Zophar had said, I have heard the check of my Reproach; But it does not so Disturb the order of my Thoughts, that I cannot have my Wits about me; No, no, I know well enough, what to say; I have still an Understand­ing; Because a Well-governed Spirit, that is [Page 84] not Hurried by provocation; I can Rule my own Spirit, tho' not your Tongue; and therefore I can Answer what is meet: The Spirit, that accompanie [...] another mans Understanding, might (perhaps) silence him from any prudent Reply, but the Spirit of my Understanding, (or, that Spirit which accompanies it) causeth me to An­swer. And thus tis a passive Spirit of Go­vernment, or, a Spirit to be Governed.

2. It is also a Spirit of Government, Act­ive; or it is most fit to Rule in the world. So thought Darius, when he thought to set Daniel over the whole Realm. When Moses prayed for a Successor to Lead the people into the Land of Promise (Numb. 27.16.) He does it in these very suitable words, Let the Lord, The God of the Spirits of all Flesh, set a man over the Congregation; The Answer to this prayer is (v. 18.) Take thee Joshua the Son of Nun, in whom is the Spirit, namely, which thou Desirest: He has Excellent Qualifications, as a man; But Lay thine Hand upon him, as a Consecra­ting Act to the work, and I will follow it with a special Blessing; He shall have from me somewhat above Meer Man; He has a Brave Sptrit already; But I will give him farther Additions in and by [...]he Laying on of Hands. This is mentioned, [Page 85] (Deut. 34. 9.) Joshua was full of the Spi­rit of Wisdom; for Moses had Laid his Hands upon him; and they hearkened to him; It gave him Authority, as well as Qualifica­tious; He was before a choice Vessel, and now a Chosen Vessel (the like as was said of Paul.) Not that God needs any Excel­lencies of men; yet because 'tis his good pleasure, to Deal with men after a humane manner, he commonly (in Providence) suits, and singles out, persons, apt for the work, to which he does Design them. When God promised to shew Mercy to the Remnant of Israel; 'tis said (Isa. 28. 5, 6.) In that Day shall the Lord of Hosts be for a Crown of Glory, and for [...] Diadem of Beauty, to the Residue of his Peo­ple; and for a Spirit of Judgment to him that sitteth in Judgment; and for Strength to them, that Turn the Battle to the Gate; whence the word [for] signifies either, as much as, or Instead of, and then it Im­ports, that a Spirit of Judgment is fit for Judges; as Strength and Courage is for Souldiers: or else it signifies the same with that (ch. 1. 26.) I will Restore thy Judges as at first, and thy Counsellors as at the beginning; that is by Raising up ei­ther in Providential Dispensations, or spe­cial Qualifications, men, that should be [Page 86] Repairers of their Breaches, and Restorers of paths to dwell in; (ch. 58. 12.) from all which it appears, that this Moderate Spirit is not only apt to be Governed; but also it is fit to Rule and Govern in the World; because of the Wisdom and Discretion, that is used to accompany it; especially when it is Sanctified and Over-ruled by God.

As to that General Vertue, in respect to the Will, or Volitive Faculty, to which it is Adapted, as the Philosophers (foelix temperies) happy temperament; by San­ctification, these Moral Vertues become True Graces. In Heathens, where is no Sancti­fication, yet, if God Excites their Spirits, they become eminently Serviceable. So Cyrus, who was of a Generous Noble Temper in himself; yet how much did he act above himself, when God stirred up his Spirit (2 Cor. 36. 22.) The Lord stirred up the Spirit of Cyrus King of Persia; upon which he Issues forth a Noble Pro­clamation. (v. 23.) It was Cyrus his Spirit, tho' stirred by God, and Inclined to this special Service.

But where Sanctification Renews the whole man; and gives New Principles and Ends in all their Actions; The whole Nature of their Laudible Atchievements [Page 87] is also changed; so that, their Natural Spirit of Candour becomes the Character of a Blessed man, in whose Spirit there is no Guile. (Psal. 32. 2.) Their Fidelity comes from that Faithful Spirit, which (on just occasion) Concea [...]eth the matter, and is commended for it. (Prov. 11.13.) Their Moderation of Affections is also from a principle, that, not only Restrains (as Heathen Morals do) but Mortifyes the Affections and Lusts. (Gal. 5. 24. & Col. 3. 5) Their Firmness is farther fortifyed by Might in the Inner-man; (Eph. 3. 16.) whereby they are stedfast, unmoveable, al­ways abounding in the work of the Lord. (1 Cor. 15. 18.) for, if their well-con­sidered Reasons do fix their purposes; Much more will their well-grounded Faith establish them. In a word; its own Nature is Lovely; But Grace super-induced renders it most Exemplary, Amiable, and Useful in the World.

And thus, we have done with the Di­versity of Spirits that are in men. The Hot, the Cold, and the Moderate; How they Differ in Themselves, and how they are farther Differenced by Natural Cor­ruption, or Sanctifying Grace.

We shall now Reflect upon what has [Page 88] been said; and with some few practical Inferences conclude the present Discourse.


And by considering well the many Scriptures, that have been alledged, we may fairly see, That 'tis no strained No­tion, which is the Design of this present Treatise. It must indeed be acknowledg­ed, that in many of those Scriptures, the word [Spirit] may be taken in some of the common Senses put upon it. As for In­stance; it may be taken for the Soul in general; and in some, for the Inward Part, as an Expression of Sincerity: But to take it for the Higher Faculties of In­tellect and Will (as the Rational part, con­tradistinct from the Soul, or from the Liver; This, tho' it be the most com­mon and approved Interpretation of this Text; I must confess I do not see suf­ficient Reason to allow it. I do not find (to my Understanding) the word so taken in any other Scripture: And therefore I take it to be, but a strained Sense, and thought of, only for this particular place, because of some Difficul­ty, that appeared therein.

'Tis true indeed, there is one Scripture [Page 89] usually alledged (Heb. 4. 12.) wherein Soul and Spirit are Distinguished one from the other: of which place Dr. Smith in his Portraiture of Old Age hath Discoursed, and Laboured to Evince, That Spirit, there signifies the Superiour Faculties of man; And Soul, the Inferiour. This Discourse of the Doctor's was Considered in a former Draught on this Subject; which now, because that Ingenious Gen­tleman is some Years since gone to his Rest, I think fit to omit, only he, that has Leisure may compare what is there said, with what we have said of the same Scripture in the beginning of this Discourse, and then judge as he sees meet. And as for the many other pla­ces quoted, wherein Mans Spirit is men­tioned. (on which I now Desire you to Reflect) I suppose you will judg with me: That they may (for the most part) be very genuinely understood in our sense; and that the Interpretation of those Scriptures will, according to our proposed sense, be very Currant.

2. We may also hence Inferr;

That 'tis Unjust and Unchristian to Cen­sure and Condemn men for their Hu­mane [Page 90] Spirits: To blame the Diversity of them, is to quarrel Gods Work of Creation, or Providence. Why hast thou made me (or him) thus (Rom. 9. 20.) for Natural Temper, and Modification of it, by Out­ward Circumstances is more Dependent on his Will, then our Industry.

We should rather observe how all this variety of Spirits may be made Eminently Serviceable; for that every Spirit has its particular Natural Excellency; Tho' all have not that, wherein thou (perhaps) mayst peculiarly Excel. One Servant of God is Chearful, and Sings at his work; Another goes sadly and carefully about it, for fear of miscarriage; yet both may be good, and Faithful Servants, and nei­ther shall Lose his Reward, but Enter in­to his Masters Joy. Surely the Manifold Wisdom of God would not be so well made known by the Church in many Respects; (as Eph. 3. 10.) Nor the Manifold Grace of God. (1 Pet. 4. 10.) If every man (having Diversity of Gifts) Did not so Minister, even as he hath Received the Gift. In the (1 Cor. 12.) is a Large Discourse of Diversities of Gifts (v. 4.) Admini­strations, (v. 5.) Operations, (v. 6.) All [...] the same Spirit; and all Tending to the [Page 91] same holy Ends, Gods Glory, and the Churches good. The following verses set forth the Church under the Parable of a Humane Body; wherein every Member has its peculiar Ability and Use; so as the Eye cannot say to the Hands, or the Head to the Feet, I have no need of you; (v. 21.) But all are Serviceable in their place and kind. This (he says) he wrote, that there should be no Schism; But the Mem­bers should have the same care or regard, one for another. (v. 25.) If this were well considered, and a Charitable Estimate made, of every mans [...]everal Spirit or Ge­nius; it would much advance Love, Unity, and Mutual Honour, among Christians; Remove that Censorious, Offensive, and Froward Temper in many, that doth so much Disturb Peace and Tranquillity, both in Church and State; and incline every man to think and say, if I Excel any man in some things, He may Excel me in many more.

USE 3.

We may hence also Learn, who can Reform, and (being Reformed) pres [...]rve the Spirit of man; even he, and only he, that Formed it; That Stretcheth out the Hea­v [...]s, [Page 92] and Layeth the Foundation of the Earth, and Form [...]th the Spirit of man within him (Zech. 12. 1.) This may indeed be un­derstood of the Soul, as one of the Emi­nent Works of God, and so is here Reck­oned among them. The like may be said of that, Father of Spirits. (Heb. 12. 9.) And that (in Isa. 57. 16.) The Spirit should fail before me, and the Souls which I have made; Spirit and Souls may be taken, as put Exegetically; yet, if you consider, what follows, (in that Zach. 12. 2.) I will make Jerusalem a Cup of Trembling, to all the People round about, when they shall be in the Fire. (v. 3.) A Burthensome Stone to all the people, gathered together against it. And (v. 4.) Smite every Horse with Asto­nishment, and his Rider with madness. This (I say) considered, seems more to favour our Sense. As if the Prophet had said; The Malignant Spirit of Wicked Men is set against Gods People; But the Form­er of Spirits can quickly confound them; can dash and break them, be they as stout as the Horse Rushing into the Battle; he can soon fill them with Astonishment, and promises so to do.

Now if he can thus Over-rule the Spi­rits of the Wicked; He can as well Regu­late the Spirits of his Elect; Casting down [Page 93] Imaginations and every high thing, that Ex­alteth it self against the Knowledg of God, and bringing into Captivity every Thought to the Obedience of Christ. ( [...] Cor. 10. 5.) Thus the High Spirits (who are like Hills) are pulled down. And the mean, Low Spirits (like to Valleys) are lifted up; yea, the Crooked and Rough Spirits, shall become as a straight and plain place, to prepare the way of the [...] Lord, and make [...] paths straight. (Isa. 40. 4.)

This Sense is agreeable to the Covenan [...] made with Christ for his People, (Isa. 42. 5) where Gods Titles are much like those in Zechary; Who Created the Hea­vens, and Spread forth the Earth; He that giveth Breath unto the People upon it (There's their Natural Life) And Spirit to them that walk therein. (This I take to be their Moral▪ Life, or Conversation among men, to which the Spirit, we now speak of, does very much conduce.) He gives the Spirit, Temper, or Inclination not on­ly as a Gift of Nature, but as an Eminent Gift of Sanctifying Grace, whereby they walk Uprightly in the Earth.

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Hence also will naturally follow the Exhortation of the Apostle, (Eph. 4. 23.) Be ye Renewed in the Spirit of your minds. This means not, that you should have New Powers, or Faculties Natural (whe­ther Superiour or Inferiour) But new Inclinations, new Dispositions; The Spirit of the mind, cannot be here new Intellects, or new Wills (which some would have to be the Spirit of Man) But new Light in the Understanding, new Bent in the Will; This is to have new Spirits of the mind, by Sanctification.

In the Old man, they were Corrupt, according to Lusts (v. 22) But in the New Man (v. 24) after (or accord­ing to) God, they are Created anew in Righteousness, and True Holiness. This Ex­hortation [Be ye Renewed] Does not Suppose in man a power of Self-Renova­tion; or Require of man, that which must▪ be done by God, if ever done; But it Requires, that man should do, what in him Lyes, to Regulate, and Or­der his Spirit or Inclination: It Requires our Endeavour (to the best of our Abi­lities [Page 95] or Means) to Reform our Spirits, where they are apt to be Exuberant; and bring our Reasons to Act, in Subordaination to God in the Renovation of them. And after all; because our Endeavours in them­selves (in this matter of Governing our peculiar Spirits) we see by daily sad Expe­rience, they Do, and will miserably fall short of Effect, Therefore to Invocate Di­vine Assistance, and Influence, That the work may be Accomplished; (as we shall again touch in the End.)

Of these Endeavours in Subordaination to Gods Working a Chief one is,

1. To Discover and Know our own Spi­rits (GNOTHI SEAUSON) Know thy Self, was (I think, in This Respect) meant by the Ancient Morallist. In This Respect also (as to the General) was that Caution of the Prophet; (Mal. 2. 16.) Take heed to your Spirit; Tho' it was there Applied to a particular Case▪ And our Saviours Rebuke to his Disciples. Ye know not, what manner of Spirit, you are of, (Luk. 9. 55.) Referrs to the same matter; namely, That men should be well acquainted with their own Spirits, and Inclinations; so will they be better Enabled, To Resist Sin, [Page 96] and Address to Duty, in which two, consists That Renovation of their▪ Spirits, to which they are Exhorted.

1. To Resist Sin; That you may keep your selves (like▪ David ▪) from your Ini­quity. (Psal. 18. [...].) Know and Beway [...] your Infirmity; That particular Breach in your Spirit; (Prov. 15. 4.) where the Devil can most easily make his Assaults and Entrance. In the Spiritual Warfare of the Soul, Corruption in General [...]s [...] Treacherous Party, within the Garrison; But the most Active and Dangerous▪ Traytors of that Par­ty; are (as it were) by Name Particularly Discovered, and brought forth, by a due study of our Own Spirits. The Blameless in [...]he Text No [...]es, where the Blameable is usually to be found.

2. To Address to Duty, That we may be more Eminently Serviceable to God and Men in our Generation. Then are men most Serviceable when their Spirits are suited to their business; and therefore a fit Choice of Callings in General, may much Depend on the Knowledge of our Spirits.

When Other men make a Choice for an [Page 97] Affayr, if they act prudently, they view the Spirits of their Candidates. So the Apostle ordered the Primitive Christians to Do. (Acts 6. 3.) Look you out among you seven men of honest Report, f [...]ll of the Holy Ghost, and Wisdom, whom we may Appoint over this Business. Every Believ­er was not qualified for the Service▪ Every Godly Minister was not so fit to be sent to the Phillippians, as Timothe [...]s; of whom 'tis said, I have no man like minded, who will naturally care for your E­state. (Phil. 2. 20.)

Now as the Electors, do Regularly mind me [...]s Spirits, so much more should the Elected, in their Acceptance of Employ­ments, to which they are Chosen. The want of this Care makes many to ven­ture on Depths beyond their Stature▪ Burdens beyond their Strength: Like the Ridiculous Aspiring of the Bramble (in Jothams Parable, Judg. 9. 15.) to be King of the whole Forrest; Come (says the silly Shrub) and put your Trust in my Shaddow.

Some are Imposed upon, by Others Hypocritical Flattery; And they again Impose upon themselves, by their careless [Page 98] Self-conceit. Some are over-valued by the Esteem, that the partial Love of their Friends do put upon them: Passions are violent, and commonly Over▪lash: Love thinks all Excellent, and Hate thinks nothing good. A mans Own Prudence, should rather guide him than Others Mistaking Affections. And truly, in those things wherein others may be greatly Deceived; A man, who is well Acquain­ted with his Own Spirit, may rightly, and easily Inform himself.

This is not said, that men should only Contemplate their Own Infirmities; for then no Humble, Honest Man would ever be Employed; All such [...] would be ready to Answer with Moses upon a Great, and Illustrious Call; I am not Eloquent; I am slow of Speech; I pray thee send by the hand of him, whom thou wilt (or marg: shouldst) send. (Exod. 4. 10) Or with Holy, Humble Jeremi­ah (ch. 1. 6.) Ah Lord—I cannot speak, for I am a Child.

But the meaning is; every man (pru­dently allowing graynes for Humane Infirmity) Does, or may (by the Study of his Own Spirit) know, what in some [Page 99] measure he is good for; and should ac­cordingly apply himself to business. As it is true (on the one hand) what is con­tained in that old Proverbial Rithm.

Nemo adeo est Tusus, qui nullos Serviat Usus.
None is so good for nothing, but may be us'd in something

And 'tis as true (on the other hand) Non omnia possun [...]us omnes. We are not all fit for every thing. Invit [...] Minerva, a Crossed Genius will never do Noble Exploits.

And thus much of Knowing our Spirits.

2. But when we know them, and have Laboured to Govern them according to our best Discretion and Ability; And then finding an Insufficiency in our selves, well to manage those Head­strong, and Impetuous things: we shall see cause (besides our own Endeavours, with our own Spirits) Humbly, Earnestly, and continually to crave Assistance from on High; That God by his Sanctifying Grace would do that for us, which our Natural Power will ne­ver [Page 100] be able to Compass for our selves. Not to Expell our Natures; but to Or­der and Govern our Natural Dispositi­ons and Inclinations, as may be most for His Glory and Service; and so for our own Comfort and Advantage. We should Incessantly Pray for our selves, the same which the Apostle here does for the Thessalonians. That we may be wholly Sanctified, and that our whole Spi­rit, both Soul and Body, may be preserved Blameless to the Coming of our Lord Je­sus Christ.

I have done; and shall conclude this Discourse, with that frequent Benedicti­on of the same Apostle: As to Timothy, ( [...]2 Epist. 4. 22.) The Lord Jesus Christ be with your Spirit. Which is the same in Sense with that to the Galatians, (ch. 6. 18.) and Philemon, (v. 25.) The Grace of our Lord Jesus Christ be with your Spirit. Amen.


Some little Treatises formerly Published by this Author.

1. THe Little Peace-maker, Discovering Foolish Pride the Make- [...]ate; from Prov. 13. 10. Only by Pride cometh Con­tention; but with the well-advised is Wis­dom.

2. The Way of Good Men, for Wise Men to walk in; from Prov. 2. 20. That thou mayst walk in the way of good men, and keep the paths of the Righteous.

3. Debts Discharge, being some Consi­derations on Romans 13. 8. Owe nothing to any man, but to Love one another.

4. The Gaming Humour Considered and Reproved, or, The Passion-Pleasure, Ex­posing Mony to Hazard, by Play, Lot, or Wager. Examined.

[Page] There are also two little things in English Meeter.

The one, Meditations on the History Recorded in the First Fourteen Chapters of Exodus.

The other, The Ark, its Loss and Recovery; being like Meditations on the beginning of 1 Sam.

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