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A LETTER from the most Ingenious Mr. LODOWICK

Honoured & Esteemed Mr. Mather,

HAving seen your Book, called, Quakerism Displayed, wherein you have been pleased to mention my Name and my Challenge to the Quakers [...] this Isla [...] I am thereby emboldned, to trouble [...] time with some Lines; sending You [...] Books penned by G. Keith, with a [...] Written by Him about Three years [...] His Way to the City of God, from [...] will see, what Christ he owned [...] p. 62 to 65. You will see [...] understood by the Seed, Ligh [...], and Grace [...] and in p. 50 51 18. what His Faith in Ch [...]ist then was. But G. Keit [...]) perhaps by means of His Controversies with Mr. Hicks, (perceiving the many Absurdities which follow from this New Fabrick ▪ (e. g. that the Heaven [...]y Body or Divine In­termediate Substance, if there was really such an one would be discerpible into particles, which par­ticles should be carried hither and thither by men, as they step from place to place, and that there would have been so many Messia's or Christs within, consist­ing of a Spirit and Body, as there have been Saints from the beginning; and that the portion of that Bo­dy in the Son of Mary, increased in quantity, and that that Heavenly Substance, consisting of a Body and Spirit, should be most properly the Father of Christ the Second Adam, if a portion of him, supplied [Page 2] the Male-Seed in the Conception of Christ in Mary &c.) built some years after, another Fabrick, as You will find by His, The way cast up, from p. 89. to 168. which he further defends in his Third Book. By the Manuscript You may further understand the Dotages of this Notional Man, which some obscure Passages in his late Books have reference unto. When I read Your Book, I did wish, that You might have had the perusal of these Books of his, ere You wrote Yours. For tho' You have notably discove­red the Errors of the Generality of the Quakers (whom I call Foxians) yet there is also a little party dispersed to and fro, among the com [...] [...] who, tho' they observe G. Foxes [...] pass with the rest under the [...] are nevertheless no true F [...]xians, [...] sake) be called [...] but they are so few, that I believe, [...] all gathered together, they might meet [...] and make no considerable appearance [...] are most of them, the more learned sort [...] people called Quakers: the chief writers of these, are G. Keith, Ro. Barclay, (both Scotchmen,) and because Mr. Faldo and Mr. Hicks knew not the distinction that is to be made between the Foxians & Semi-fox­ians and their several Opinions, G. Keith and W. Pen were in some things too hard for them, (for notwithstanding what W. Pen had written before that time, as a Foxian touching the Three Persons, Christs Satisfaction, Remission of sins &c. He subtilly without confessing any change, acted the Semi-foxian in his controversies with Mr. Faldo and Mr. Hicks.) The common Foxians conceive that that which con­demns every man within him, is a measure of the Es­sence of God, which they call Christ, the Light, the Word, and the Eternal Spirit &c. And they conceive [Page 3] that this Christ is also the Father, (because Christ [...] called Everlasting Father,) and the Holy Ghost, (because he is a Spirit as God,) and they fancy, that [...] this Inward Condemner doth condemn for some evi [...] (which they call, a Manif [...]sting, R [...]vealing and shew­ing them w [...]at is evi [...],) so it does shew them not only Errors in Practice but also Errors in Judgment, and that, if they be faithful to it (which they call believ [...] ­ing in it) it will reveal unto them more in time, and that there is no more required of any man, then G [...]d or Christ hath thus shown him within him &c. And herein consist their daily Divine Illuminations, Inspi­rations, Revelations of knowledge▪ but their Experi­mental knowledge of Christs Birt [...], Deat [...], R [...]surrecti­on ▪ &c. [...]onsists in this, that when a man is [...] then they say, the Immortal Babe is born, Christ the Seed and Lamb which was slain, comes to be Rai­sed, and he ascends the Throne, and comes to Judge­ment in Clouds of Heaven within, and Judgeth such a man for his sins [whereby they only describe the va­rious condition of man's Conscience.] And hence they deny wholly, that ever Christ as Man shall come down from Heaven to Raise and Judge the Dead. And they say, that that which is a man's Trou [...]b [...]er, R [...]p [...]ver and Condemner within him, will be also his Comforter, Approver, Justifier and Saviou [...], if he be­lieves in it, and it will redeem and save him from all sin, and from W [...]ath for sin, (esteeming the checks of the Conscience to be God's Wrath) Herein they place their Salvation and R [...]demp [...] from sin, viz. some wi [...]ful sinning, and their sin [...]ess Perfection consist in their abstinence from gross wil­ful sinning and the peace of Conscience ensuing there­upon, they call the peace [...], and Justification in the sight of God. And their Inherent Righteousness, they call the Righteousness of Christ, which he hath [Page 4] wrought within them, and they do never speak of the Merit of the sufferings, Death and Resurrection [...] of Jesus at Jerusalem, but they call his Righteousness a Rightousness of another at a distance, which can do us no good; and they say, it is an inward blood that must cleanse our Souls inwardly. And here also may be understood, what their Baptism of Repentance with Fire and with the Spirit of Judgement, is, VIZ. When a man is inwardly Judged for his sin, so as to repent of it. And unto this PROTON PSEUDOS or fundamental Error, VIZ. That the Inward Con­demner is Christ, the Light, and if obeyed, will be­come a mans Justifier and Saviour, they have suted all their other Doctrines concerning Christ, saying, that the true Christ was never seen with Mortal Eyes, heard with Carnal Ears, and that the Visible Body Born of Mary, was but a Garment of the true Christ tabernacling in it; which body, s [...]me of them say he hath laid down, othe [...]s canot tell what is become of it, and they say, to mind Christ in that bodily appear­ance and manifestation (as they call it,) is to know Christ after the Flesh, and they call their Christ within Christ in the Spirit, they say that Christ Born of Mary was Christ in the Flesh. And beacuse they, read of Eating Christ [...]s Flesh, and of Drinking his Blood ▪ they have feigned also an Omnipresent and Invisible B [...]d [...] of Spiritual Fl [...]sh and Blood, which they say the Saints in all Ages partook of within them; and when they feel an inward Affectedness or sensible Refreshment of their B [...]wels (which they call the [...],) then they say, they eat of Christs Flesh, or o [...] the Bread of Life, and they drink of his Blood which is Life, and by which they are cleansed. And here in consists their Lords Supper: and he that fully un [...]derstands what they mean by their Light and by their Life, may understand their whole Divinity. Th [...] [Page 5] Semi-foxians finding this Doctrine to be too Gross, and that God is Indivisible and Immortal, and can­not be Crucified Slain and Raised from Death, will not say, that the Inward Condemner is a measure of the uncreate Eternal Spirit, but they say, 'tis a create or rather Emanated Being, Emanated from God in the beginning before all things, VIZ. A measure of the Es [...]ence of the Heavenly Man, which they generally call the Light and Spirit of Jesus Christ, and the pur­chase of his Death R. Barclay saith in his Apology p. 87. that it is a M [...]asure of the Heaven [...]y Body of Christ, and that every unrighteouss Action is Reproved by it. But G. Kieth on his Way cast up, will have it to be the Nes­hamah of the Heavenly Man extended into us. (And co [...] ­sequently their pretended inward Motions immediate Inspirati­ons, Illuminations, and Revelations are not Immediately from God, but medi [...]t [...]ly either thro' the Body or Soul of a feigned Man: and by this is also their inward Justification, Sanctifi­cation and [...]egeneration) This is thei [...] Divin [...] Ess [...]ntial Principle, which they so often speak of, [...]nd sometimes call the Seed, Grace and Word of God, and R. B. saith, that it is the Manifestation of the Spirit spoken of 1. Cor. 12.7. the seed of th [...] Kingdom, Math. 13.18, 19. the Ligh [...] [...]hat maketh all things manif [...]st, Eph. 5.13. the word of God Ro. 10.18. th [...] Talent Math. 25 15. the little Leav [...], the Gospel preached in every Creature, Col. 1 23.. and he is [...]ffended with them that call it a Natural Conscience. He saith, that if this Seed [...]e reci [...]ved into the Heart to bring forth it [...] Ef­fects, Christ cometh to be formed of it, which the Scripture calls the New Man, Christ within, the hope of Glory. In this Birth or Form [...]tion of Christ within us, and working his works in us, and powring his Blood into our Souls, he places our formal Justification, which he expl [...]s to be all one with Sanctification, viz. A ma [...]ing [...]ight [...]ou [...] inwardly▪ and tho' he grant [...] that Remission of sins was only purch [...]sed by vertue of Christs Sacrifice without us, [...] he [...], that they may come to partake of it, that are ignorant of the History of Christ, for he asserts that by the operation of this Light [Page 6] and Seed, some have been and may yet be saved, to whom the Gospel is not outwardly Preached, nor the History of Christ outwardly known, because they have with all other men, a day of Visitation, in which God offers to work this Salvation, by the Measure of a saving, sufficient supernatural Right, gi­ven to every man, which all are to believe in, as he would in­fer from Joh. 12 36. G. Keith writes in [...] Way to the City of God, to the same purpose. And you may see by G. Keith Books, how they have framed their Doctrine Concerning Christ, according to this their Hypothesis, borrowing several of their Noti [...]n out of the Writings of some Rabbies among the Eastern Jews, Translated into Latin, by a Learned Noble Man in Germany [whose Children I Tutored some years a­goe] but i [...] the Rabbies-Aensoph [...]e according to the Semi-foxians, the Father, Word and Holy Ghost, (as they say) and the Aensoph's having clothed himself [...]ith the M [...]nhood called Adam Cadmon, be, the Word's being made Flesh, then according to th [...]m, not only the Word, but also the Father and Holy Ghost were ma [...] Flesh. This and many other Ab­surdities follow from G. Keiths ass [...]rtion, that the Word was made Flesh in the beginning, and that this Fl [...]sh is the Rabbies Adam Cadmon. And these Cabbalis [...]i [...]al Semi-foxians s [...]em to expect that their heavenly Adam Cadmon in the Body, assumed of Mary, shall come from Heaven to Judgement, and [...] then there shall be [...] Resurrection out of the Graves; and G. K. doth [...]lso [...]lieve, that at his coming there will be the 1000 Years-Reign, which is more then I ever heard any on [...] called a Quaker affirm. And because G. Keith, as he tol [...] [...] last Summer, favours the Twelve Revolutions or Transmi­grations of our Souls, whereof R. [...]ischack, a whimsical [...]ew in the Eastern Countries, (who pretended to Revelations,) hath written most largely, (which notion he perhaps learned of some of the Turks in some of those parts, who greatly fa­vour the Pythagorean Metempsychosis) therefore he is of late very [...]ickle concerning the R [...]surrection-body; for he told [...] last Summer, that this our Flesh which goes into the grave shall not rise again, but there is an Invisible Bone dispersed thro' the Body, called by the Cabbalists Luz, which is the Seed Sown, unto which God shall give a Spiritual Body: and he said, that he asked some of the Jews i [...] these parts, what [Page 7] [...] signified, and they [because they understood nothing of [...] Cabb [...]la, and perhaps knowing that the word, Luz in [...]he Portugal and Spanish Tongue signifieth Light] told [...]im it m [...]an [...] Light and so G. K [...]ith is hugely pleased with [...]e fancy of it, and thinks it su [...]eth bravely with their Light [...] Seed. And when I told him, that the Cabbalists said, [...] this Invisible Bone is only a Small Bone in the back, he [...]swered, that Wise men would not tell all at once. I sup­ [...]se also that he beli [...]ves, that honest Pagans, at some of their [...]evolutions receive the knowledge of Jesus of Nazareth, [...] & according to his late absurd Notion) are then perfectly [...]stified and Saved [as if Justification [...]dmitted of Magis and [...],] I asked him last Summer, how any such Gentile [...] be actually justified and saved from wrath, before he be [...]rdoned, and how he could be pardoned of the least imper­ [...]ction of the very best of his moral vertues, without Faith in [...]sus of Nazareth, and he gave me no direct Answer. Certain­ [...] G. Keith hath no reason to quote not only Protestants but [...] the Fathers, because he holds not the same Christ, Grace [...] Justifying Faith with them. You will likewise find, [...], that G. Keith bel [...]veth not only the Preexistence of Two [...]grees of the Soul of Christ, but also the preexistence of our [...]ouls, of which he makes of late more degrees then one, thus [...]ntradicti [...]g what he formerly writt concerning our Nephesh [...] hi [...] Way [...]ast up And indeed the GALGAL or Revoluti­ [...] of Sou [...] presupposeth their Preexistence. These Cabalis­ [...]al Semi-Q [...]akers labour as much as is possible, to use the [...]pressions [...] G. Fo [...] and his followers, whence many of the [...]mmon Foxian ▪ do not so much as suspect that they differ [...] them; and in their Writing, they use deceitfully and [...] the Words W [...] and Us, without any specifical [...]tinction, as tho' they did write the Sense and [...]udgment [...] the whole People called Quakers, wh [...]n th [...]y do not; and [...]en they answer the Books writ by Anti-Quakers, they [...]ll either put another Meaning, or some favourable Con­ [...]nction on the gross Tenents of Fox and his Followers, [...]thout ingenuously bearing witness against those Errors, [...] if they be [...]oo gross, they will either [...]o [...]k some Evasion, or [...]nder their Opposites gross Lyars and A [...]users of the [...] People called Quakers, because themselves do not [Page 8] maintain these things, tho' they know in their Consciences▪ that their Pagan Brethren (as George Keith lately called them) hold those gross Tenents, upon whom they were also most truly and justly charg'd by their Opponents▪ And therefore as I suppose George Keith is writing an An­swer to your Book, so I believe, he will use many Evasi­ons, and take advantage where he can: and he will eithe [...] put some other Meaning upon George Foxes words whic [...] you have quoted (and which he dares not well deny) fo [...] his Brethrens sake, who esteem George Fox the greates [...] Oracle and Prophet that ever was among them; or per [...]haps he will say, that you have quoted no page, an [...] therefore he will wave them. I was glad to see th [...] Antidote which you and your Honoured Colleagues i [...] Boston, have set forth against George Keith, and I can sin [...]cerely say, that God made it very profitable and servic [...]able to me▪ in many respects: and it is to be admire [...] what Baseness and Malice George Keith did not scruple [...] use against you, and how unreasonably he perverted th [...] Assembly's Words and Meaning. Having exceeded my i [...]tended Brevity, I shall conclude, desiring God to ble [...] your Labour and Service in the Go [...]pel of his Dear Son▪ And Rest with my Respects to you,

Your Servant in the Faith of Christ, Christianus Lodowic [...]

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