The Corporation Feast OR [...] the Roast Beef of Old England.

Mrs. TAYLOR's Family Companion; OR THE WHOLE ART OF COOKERY DISPLAY'D, In the newest and most easy Method, Being a Collection of Receipts to SET OUT A TABLE CHEAP, Under the following Heads:

  • PIES
  • DRYING, &c.

TO WHICH ARE ADDED, Instructions for Marketing, Sundry Bills of Fare, Directions for Clear-Starching, The Lady's Toilet, or Art of Preserving Beauty, &c. &c. &c.

The Whole calculated to assist the prudent Mistress and her Servant, in providing the cheapest and most elegant Set of Dishes in the various Departments of Cookery.

By Mrs. MARGARET TAYLOR, Late Cook from the Crown and Anchor.




In the first place, you must regulate your fire ac­cording to the Piece of meat you are to dress:— If it be a small or thin piece, make a pretty little brisk fire; but if it be a large joint, let a very good fire be laid to cake. Take care to keep your fire always clear, and let your spit be very clean. When the steam draws near the fire, it is a sign that the meat is done enough; but you will best judge of that from the time it was put down. Observe, that in frosty weather all kinds of meat take more time in dressing.

To roast Venison.

TAKE a haunch of venison, and when you have spitted it, lay over it a large sheet of white paper, then a thin paste with another sheet of paper over it, and tie it well to prevent the paste from falling. [Page 2] About five or six minutes before you take it up, take off the paper and paste, baste it with butter, and dredge it with a little flour: when you dish it up, let it be accompanied with some good gravy in one sauceboat, and sweet sauce in another. If it be a large haunch, it will take three hours roasting. The neck and shoulder may be dressed the same way. The sauce for venison may be either cur­rent jelly warmed, or half a pint of red wine, with a quarter of a pound of sugar, simmered over a clear fire for seven or eight minutes; or about half a pint of vinegar, with a proportionate quantity of sugar, simmered till it becomes of the consistence of a syrup.

To roast Mutton.

If it be a Chine or faddle of mutton, you must raise the skin, and then skewer it on again; for that will prevent its being scorched. Strip off the skin about a quarter of an hour before you take it up; throw some flour on your meat, together with a handful of salt, and baste it with butter. Roast mut­ton, when served up, may be accompanied with French beans, broccoli, potatoes, cauliflower, horse­radish, or water cresses.—N. B. Onion sauce is frequently used with a shoulder of mutton, either roasted or boiled.

To roast Mutton so as to make it eat like Venison.

Having procured a fat hind-quarter of mutton, cut the leg in the shape of a haunch of venison, lay it in a pan, and pour over it a bottle of red wine, in which it must lie twenty-four hours; then put it on the spit, and baste it with the same liquor and butter all the time it is roasting. If you have a good quick fire, your meat will be done in two hours. You may send it to table with some good gravy in one bason, and current jelly in another.

To roast a Pig.

Put into the belly of your pig a few sage leaves chopped, a piece of butter, a crust of bread grated, and some pepper and salt; sew it up, spit it, and lay it down to a large brisk fire. Flour it all over very thick, and continue to do so till the eyes begin to start. As soon as you find the skin tight and crisp, and that the eyes are dropped, set two basons in the dripping-pan, to receive the gravy that comes from it. When the pig is done enough, put a lump of butter into a cloth, and rub all over it, till the flour is quite off; then take it up into your dish, and having cut off the head, cut the pig in two down the back; chop off the ears, and place one upon each shoulder; cut the under jaw in two, and lay on each side; melt some butter, put it into the gravy that came from your pig, boil it up and put it into the dish with the brains bruised fine, and a little shred sage; then send the whole to table, with bread sauce in a bason, and garnish with lemon.

A Pig barbecued.

Take two or three anchovies, a few leaves of sage, and the liver of the pig; chop them very small, and put them into a marble mortar, with half a pint of red wine, some butter, bread-crumbs, and pepper: beat them all together to a paste, and sew them up in your pig's belly; then lay it down to the fire, singe it well, pour in the dripping pan two or three bottles of red wine, and baste it with the wine all the time it is roasting. When it is almost done, take the sauce out of your dripping-pan, add to it one anchovy, half a lemon, and a bunch of sweet herbs, boil these a few minutes, then take up your pig, put a small lemon, or apple in its mouth, strain your sauce, and pour it on boiling hot; lay barberries and sliced lemon round the pig, and serve it up whole.

To roast a Leg of Mutton with Oysters or Cockles.

Take a leg of mutton that has been butchered two or three days before, stuff it all over with oysters or cockles, and roast it. Garnish the dish with horse­radish.

To roast Beef.

Butter a piece of writing-paper, and fasten it with small skewers to the top of your beef; then lay it down to a good fire, throw some salt on it, and baste it well with good dripping. A little while before you take it up, remove the paper, dredge the meat with some flour, and baste it with a piece of butter. Garnish the dish with scraped horse-radish, and send it to table with broccoli, French beans, potatoes, horse-radish, or cauliflower. When you want to keep your meat a few days before you dress it, you must dry it well with a clean cloth, then flour it all over, and hang it up in a place where the air may come to it.

To roast Veal.

In dressing a fillet or loin of veal, paper the udder of the fillet to preserve the fat, and the back of the loin to prevent it from being scorched. Lay your meat at some distance from the fire till it is soaked, and then draw it nearer the fire; baste it well with butter, and dust it with a little flour. The stuffing for a fillet is made thus: take half a pound of suet, about a pound of grated bread, some parsley, thyme, sweet marjoram, and savory, a piece of lemon-peel, nutmeg, pepper, and salt, and mix them up together with the yolks and whites of a few eggs.

A breast of veal must be roasted with the caul on, and the sweet-bread skewered on the back-side: when it is almost done, take off the caul, and baste it with butter and a little flour.

To roast Lamb.

When you lay it down, baste it well with fresh butter, and scatter on it a very little flour; then baste it with what drips from it; and just before you take it up, sprinkle on a little salt and chopped par­sley, and baste it again with butter. You may serve it up with mint sauce, green pease, a sallad, cauli­flower, or French-beans.

To roast a Leg of Lamb with Forcemeat.

Take a large leg of lamb, and with a sharp knife cut off all the meat, leaving the skin whole with the fat on it: then chop the meat small with half a pound of beef suet, some marrow, a few oysters, an onion, an anchovy, some sweet herbs, lemon-peel, mace, and nutmeg; and having beat all these toge­ther in a mortar, stuff the skin with them, sew it up, rub it with the yolks of eggs, spit it, flour it all over, lay it down to the fire, and baste it well with but­ter: when done, pour some nice gravy into the dish, and send it up.

To roast Pork.

In roasting a loin of pork, you must cut the skin across in small streaks, and take care that it be joint­ed before you lay it down; it is sometimes served up with onions.—A sparerib should be roasted before a clear fire, and basted with a small piece of butter, a little flour, and some sage shred fine: send it up with apple sauce.—The knuckle of a roast leg of pork is frequently stuffed with sage and onion chopped small, with a little pepper and salt, and eat with gra­vy and apple sauce. But the best way of roasting a leg is as follows: first parboil it, then skin it and lay it down, and baste it with butter; take a little sage shred fine, a few crumbs of bread, some nutmeg, pepper and salt; mix these together, and strew them over your meat white it is roasting: send up some [Page 6] gravy in the dish, and serve it up with apple-sauce and potatoes. A griskin may be dressed in the same manner.—N. B. Pork must be well done, otherwise it is apt to surfeit.

To roast a Tongue.

You must parboil it first, then roast it; baste it well with butter, stick ten or twelve cloves about it, and send it to table with some gravy and sweet sauce. —N. B. An udder dressed the same way is very good eating.

To dress a pickled Neat's Tongue.

Having first soaked it, boil it till the skin will peel off, then stick it with cloves, put it on the spit, wrap a veal caul over it, and roast it till it is enough; af­ter which you must take off the caul, and serve up your tongue with gravy in the dish, and some veni­son sauce in a boat. Garnish with raspings of bread and sliced lemon.

To roast a Calf's Liver.

Lard it with bacon, fasten it on the spit, and roast it with a gentle fire: send it to table with good veal gravy, or melted butter.

To roast Rabbits.

Having trussed your rabbits, put them down to a quick clear fire, dredge them, baste them well with butter, and roast them near three quarters of an hour: boil the livers with a bunch of parsley, and chop them very fine; then melt some good butter, put into it half the liver and parsley, and pour it in the dish; garnish with the other half. The French sauce for rabbits consists of onions minced small, fried, and mixed up with pepper and mustard.— Some people put a pudding in a rabbit's belly, when they roast it.

To roast a Hare.

Stuff your hare with a pudding made thus: take some crumbs of bread, a quarter of a pound of beef­suet minced fine, the hare's liver parboiled and chopped small, some butter, two or three eggs, one anchovy, a little lemon-peel, parsley, thyme, nut­meg, pepper and salt; mix these several ingredients together, and put them into the belly of your hare, and then roast it. Put about three pints of milk and half a pound of fresh butter into your dripping-pan, which ought to be very clean: baste the hare with this all the while it is roasting; and when it has soaked up all the butter and milk it will be done enough. Serve it up with melted butter and cream, currant jelly, gravy, or claret sauce.

Another Way of roasting a Hare.

Take a piece of fat bacon, some bread-crombs, the liver of the hare, an anchovy, a shalot, some nut­meg and winter-savory, chop these fine, beat them up to a paste, and put them into the hare; then lay it down to the fire, baste it with stale beer, put a small piece of bacon in the dripping-pan, and when it is half roasted, baste it with butter: send it to ta­ble with melted butter and savory.

To roast a Turkey, Goose, Duck, Fowl, &c.

When you roast a turkey, goose, fowl, or chicken, lay them down to a good fire; singe them clean with white paper, baste them with butter, and dust on some flour. As to time, a large turkey will take an hour and twenty minutes, a middling one a full hour; a full-grown goose, if young, an hour; a large fowl three quarters of an hour, a middling one half an hour, and a small chicken twenty mi­nutes; but this depends entirely on the goodness of your fire.

[Page 8] When your fowls are thoroughly plump, and the smoke draws from the breast to the fire, you may be sure that they are very near done. Then baste them with butter; dust on a very little flour, and as soon as they have a good froth, serve them up.

Geese and ducks are commonly seasoned with onions, sage, and a little pepper and salt.

A turkey, when roasted, is generally stuffed in the craw with force-meat, or the following stuffing: Take a pound of veal, as much grated bread, half a pound of suet cut and beat very fine, a little parsley, with a small matter of thyme, or savory, two cloves, half a nutmeg grated, a tea-spoonful of shred lemon-peel, a little pepper and salt, and the yolke of two eggs.

Sauce for a Turkey. Good gravy in a boat; and either bread, onion, or oyster sauce in a bason.

For a Goose. A little good gravy in a boat, apple sauce in a bason, and mustard.

For a Duck. A little gravy in the dish, and onions in a tea cup.

For Fowls. Parsley and butter; or gravy in the dish, and either bread sauce, oyster sauce, or egg­sauce in a bason.

To roast a green Goose with green Sauce.

Roast your goose nicely; in the mean time make your sauce thus; take half a pint of the juice of sorrel, a spoonful of white wine, a little grated nut­meg, and some grated bread; boil this over a gentle fire, and sweeten it with pounded sugar to your taste; let your goose have a good froth on it before you take it up; put some good strong gravy in the dish, and the same in a boat. Garnish with lemon.

To roast Pigeons.

Take a little pepper and salt, a small piece of but­ter, and some parsley cut small; mix these together, [Page 9] put them into the bellies of your pigeons, tying the neck end tight; take another string, fasten one end of it to their legs and rumps, and the other to the mantle-piece. Keep them constantly turning round, and baste them with butter. When they are done, take them up, lay them in a dish, and they will swim with gravy.

To roast Larks.

Truss your larks with the legs across, and put a sage leaf over the breast; put them upon a long fine skewer, and between every lark a little piece of thin bacon; then tie the skewer to a spit, and roast them at a quick, clear fire, baste them with butter, and strew over them some crumbs of bread mixed with flour; fry some bread crumbs of a nice brown, in a bit of butter; lay your larks round in your dish, the bread crumbs in the middle, with sliced orange for garnish. Send good gravy in a boat.

To roast a Fowl or Turkey with Chesnuts.

Take a quarter of a hundred chesnuts, roast and peel them; bruise about a dozen of them in a mor­tar, with the liver of the fowl, a quarter of a pound of ham, and some sweet herbs; mix these together with some mace, pepper, salt, and nutmeg, and having put them into your fowl, spit and roast it, and baste it with butter. For sauce take the rest of the chesnuts, chop them small, and put them into some strong gravy, with a glass of white wine, and a piece of butter rolled in flour: pour the sauce in the dish, and garnish with water-cresses and sliced orange.

To roast Wild Ducks; Widgeons, or Teal.

If your fire be very good and brisk, a teal, wild duck, or widgeon, will be done in a quarter of an hour. The following sauce will suit all kinds of [Page 10] wild fowl: take a sufficient quantity of veal-gravy, season it with pepper and salt, squeeze in a little claret and the juice of two oranges.

To roast Pheasanis or Partridges.

Lay them down at a good distance from the fire, dredge them, and baste them with nice butter, that they may go to table with a fine froth: they will take twenty minutes or half an hour roasting: when you dish them up, let there be some gravy in the dish, and bread or celery sauce in a boat. Garnish with slices of orange or lemon.

N. B. You may, if you please, lard turkies, par­tridges, pheasants, larks, ortolans, &c. when you roast them.

To roast Snipes or Woodcocks.

Truss your snipes, and put them on a small bird­spit; dredge them, and baste them well with but­ter: have ready a slice of bread toasted brown, which must be laid in a dish, and set under the birds while they are roasting. They will take a quarter of an hour or twenty minutes. When they are done, take them up, and lay them on the toast; pour some beef-gravy and melted butter in the dish, and garnish with orange or lemon.

N. B. You need not draw a woodcock or snipe when you roast it.

To roast Quails.

Let them be stuffed with beef-suet and sweet herbs chopped and seasoned with a little spice; spit them, and when they begin to grow warm, baste them with salt and water; then flour them, and baste them with a little butter. Mean­while dissolve an anchovy in good gravy, with two or three shalots chopped small, and the juice [Page 11] of a Seville orange; dish up your quails in this sauce, and garnish with lemon and fried bread-crumbs.

To roast Plovers.

Green plovers are roasted as you do woodcocks: Lay them upon a toast, and put good gravy sauce in the dish. Grey plovers are roasted, or stewed, thus: Make a force-meat of artichoke bottoms cut small, seasoned with pepper, salt, and nutmeg: stuff the bellies, and put the birds into a saucepan, with good gravy just to cover them, a glass of white wine, and a blade of mace; cover them close, and stew them softly till they are tender; then take up your plovers into the dish; put in a piece of but­ter rolled in flour, to thicken your sauce; let it boil till smooth; squeeze in it a little lemon; scum it clean, and pour it over the birds. Garnish with orange.


To roast a Cod's Head.

Wash and scour the head very clean, scotch it with a knife, strew a little salt on it, and lay it before the fire; throw away the water that runs from it the first half hour, then strew on it some nutmeg, cloves, mace, and salt, and baste it often with butter. Take all the gravy of the fish, white wine, and meat gravy, some horse-radish, shalots, whole pepper, cloves, mace, nutmeg, and a bay leaf or two; boil this li­quor up with butter, and the liver of the fish boiled, broke and strained into it. with the yolks of two or three eggs, oysters, shrimps, and balls made of fish; put fryed fish round it. Garnish with lemon and horse radish.

To roast a Lobster.

First parboil your lobster, then rub it well with butter, and set it before the fire; baste it all over till the shell looks of a dark brown colour, and serve it up with melted butter in a bason.

To roast a Pike.

Take a large pike, gut it, clean it, and lard it with eel and bacon, as you lard a fowl; then take thyme, savory, salt, mace, nutmeg, some crumbs of bread, beef suet, and parsley, all shred very fine, and mix it up with raw eggs; make it into a long pudding, and put it into the belly of your pike; sew up the belly, and dissolve three anchovies in butter to baste it with; put two laths on each side the pike, and tie it to the spit; melt butter thick for the sauce; (or, if you please, oyster-sauce) and bruise the pudding into it. Then garnish with lemon.

To roast an Eel.

Scour the eel well with salt; skin him almost to the tail: then gut, wash, and dry him; take a quarter of a pound of suet shred as fine as possible, sweet herbs, and a shalot, and mix them together with salt, pepper, and nutmeg; scotch your eel on both sides, wash it with yolks of eggs, lay some sea­soning over it, stuff the belly with it, then draw the skin over it, and tie it to the spit; baste it with butter, and make the sauce of anchovies, and butter, melted.

Any other river or sea fish, that are large enough, may be dressed in the same manner.

To roast Sturgeon.

Take a piece of fresh sturgeon, let it lie six or eight hours in water and salt; then spit and lay it down, baste it with flour and butter, strew over it some grated nutmeg, a little beaten mace, pepper, and salt, a few crumbs of bread, and some sweet herbs powdered fine. When your sturgeon is done dish it up, and garnish with slices of lemon. For sauce, take a pint of water, a bit of lemon-peel, an onion, an anchovy, a bunch of sweet herbs, some horse radish, mace, cloves, and whole pepper; let this mixture boil a quarter of an hour, then strain it, put it again into the saucepan, with a pint of white wine, a few oysters, the inside of a crab or lobster bruised fine, two or three spoonfuls of catchup and walnut pickle, and a lump of butter rolled in flour; boil the whole up together, and pour it over the fish.


Be sure that your pots and covers are well tin'd, very clean, and free from sand.—Mind that your pot really boils all the while, else you will be disappointed in dressing any joint, though it has been a proper time over the fire. Fresh meat must be put in when the water boils, and salt meat whilst it is cold. Take care likewise to have sufficient room and water in the pot, and allow a quarter of an hour to every pound of meat, let it weigh more or less.

To boil a Leg of Pork.

A Leg of pork must lie in salt six or seven days; after which put it into the pot to be boiled, without using any means to freshen it. It requires much water to swim in over the fire, and also to be [Page 14] fully boiled; so that care should be taken, that the fire does not slacken while it is dressing. Serve it up with pease-pudding, melted butter, mustard, butter'd turnips, carrots, or greens.

To boil Pickled Pork.

Wash the pork, and scrape it clean. Put it in when the water is cold, and boil it till the rind be tender. It is to be served up always with boiled greens, and is commonly a sauce of itself to roasted fowls or veal.

To boil a Ham.

A ham requires a deal of water, therefore put it into the copper cold, and let it only simmer for about two hours, and allow a full quarter of an hour to every pound of ham; by this means your ham will eat tender and well.

A dry ham should be soaked in water over night; a green ham does not require soaking. Take care they are well cleansed before you dress them.

Before you send a ham to table take off the rind, and sprinkle it over with bread crumbs, and put it in an oven for a quarter of an hour: or you may crisp it with a hot salamander.

To boil Beef or Mutton.

When your meat is put in, and the pot boils, take care to skim it very clean, otherwise the scum will boil down, stick to your meat, and make it look black. Send up your dish with turnips, greens, potatoes, or carrots. If it is a leg or loin of mutton you may also put melted butter and capers in a boat.

To boil Lamb.

A leg of lamb of five pounds will not be boiled in less than an hour and a quarter; and if, as it ought to be, it is boiled in a good deal of water, and your pot be kept clean skimmed, you may dish it up as white as a curd. Send it to table with stewed spinach, and melted butter in a boat.

To boil Veal.

Let the pot boil, and have a good fire when you put in the meat; be sure to scum it very clean. A knuckle of veal will take more boiling in proportion to its weight than any other joint, because the beauty is to have all the gristles soft and tender.

You may either send up boiled veal with parsley and butter, or with greens and bacon.

To boil a Calf's Head.

The head must be picked very clean, and soaked in a large pan of water a considerable time before it be put into the pot. Tie the brains up in a cloth, and put them into the pot at the same time with the head; skim the pot well; then put in a piece of bacon, in proportion to the number of people to eat thereof. You will find it to be enough by the tenderness of the flesh about that part that joined to the neck. When enough, you may grill it before the fire, or serve it up with melted butter, bacon, and greens, and with the Brains mashed and beat up with a little butter, salt, pepper, vinegar, or lemon, sage, and parsley, in a separate plate; and the tongue slit and laid on the same plate; or serve the brains whole, and the tongue slit down the middle.

To boil a Turkey, Fowl, Goose, Duck, &c.

Poultry are best boiled by themselves, and in a good deal of water; skim your pot clean, and you need not be afraid of their going to table of a bad colour. A large turkey, with a force-meat in his craw, will take two hours; one without, an hour and a half; a hen-turkey, three quarters of an hour; a large fowl, forty minutes; a small one, half an hour; a large chicken, twenty minutes; and a small one, a quarter of an hour. A full-grown goose, salted, an hour and a half; a large duck, near an hour.

Sauce for a boiled Turkey. Take a little water, a bit of thyme, an onion, a blade of mace, a little lemon-peel, and an anchovy; boil these together, [Page 16] and strain them through a sieve, adding a little melted butter. Fry a few sausages to lay round the dish, and garnish with lemon.—Or, white oyster­sauce.

Sauce for a Fowl. Parsley and butter; or, white oyster-sauce.

Sauce for a Goose. Onions or cabbage, first boiled and then stewed in butter for a few minutes.

Sauce for a Duck. They should be smothered with onions.

To boil Rabbits.

Truss your rabbits close, and boil them off white. For sauce, take the livers, which, when boiled, bruise with a spoon very fine, and take out all the strings; put to this some good veal broth, a little parsley shred fine, and some barberries clean picked from the stalks: season it with mace and nutmeg; thicken it with a piece of butter rolled in flour, and a little white wine: Let your sauce be of a good thickness, and pour it over your rabbits. Garnish with lemons and barberries.

To boil Rabbits with Onions.

Truss your rabbits short, with their heads turned over their shoulders; let them be boiled off very white; boil some large onions in a good deal of water, till they are very tender; put them into a cullender, and when drained, pass them through it with a good deal of butter, a little salt, and a gill of cream; stir them over the fire till they are of a good thickness; then dish up your rabbits, and pour the onions over them.—Garnish with lemon and raw parsley.


To boil Salmon.

Let it be well scraped and cleansed from scales and blood; and after it has lain about an hour in salt and spring water, put it into a fish-kettle, with a [Page 17] proportionate quantity of salt and horse-radish, and a bunch of sweet herbs. Put it in while the water is lukewarm, and boil it gently till it is enough; or about half an hour, if it be thick; or twenty minutes if a small piece. Pour off the water, dry it well, and dish it neatly on a fish plate, in the centre, and garnish the dish with horse-radish scraped (as is done for roast beef) or with fried smelts or gudgeons, and with slices of lemon round the rim.

The sauce to be melted butter, with and without anchovy, or shrimp and lobster sauce in different basons.

To boil a Turbot.

A turbot ought to be put into pump water, with salt and vinegar, for two hours before it is dressed. In the mean time put a sufficiency of water into the fish-kettle, with a stick of horse-radish sliced, a hand­ful of salt, and a faggot of sweet herbs. When the water tastes of the seasoning, take it off the fire, and let it cool a little, to prevent the fish from breaking. Put a handful of salt in the mouth and belly of the turbot, put it into the kettle, and boil it gently. A middling turbot will take about twenty minutes.

When it is enough, drain it a little; lay it upon a dish sufficiently large, and garnish with fried smelts, sliced bacon, scraped horse-radish, and bar­berries.

Sauce. Lobster sauce, anchovy sauce, and plain butter, in separate basons.

To boil a Cod.

Gut and wash the fish very clean inside and out, and rub the back-bone with a handful of salt; put it upon a fish plate, and boil it gently till it is enough; and remember always to boil the liver along with it. Garnish with scraped horse-radish, small fried fish, and sliced lemon.

Sauce. Oyster sauce, shrimp sauce, or lobster sauce, with plain melted butter, in different boats, and mustard.

To boil a Cod's Head.

After tying your cod's head round with pack-thread, to keep it from flying, put a fish kettle on the fire, large enough to cover it with water; put in some salt, a little vinegar, and some horse-radish sliced; when the water boils, lay your fish upon a drainer, and put it into the kettle; let it boil gently till it rises to the surface of the water, which it will do if your kettle is large enough; then take it out and set it to drain; slide it carefully off your drainer into your fish plate. Garnish with lemon and horse-radish scraped.

Have oyster sauce in one bason, and shrimp sauce in another.

To boil Scate.

Great care must be taken in cleansing this fish; and as it is commonly too large to be boiled in a pan at once, the best way is to cut it into long slips, cross ways, about an inch broad, and throw it into salt and water; and if the water boils quick it will be enough in three minutes. Drain it well, and serve it up with butter and mustard in one bason, and anchovy or soy sauce in another.

You may, if you please, place spitch cocked eels round about the scate.

To boil Plaice and Flounders.

Let the pan boil, throw some salt into the water, then put in the fish; and (being boiled enough) take it out with a slice, and drain it well. Serve it up with horse-radish and boiled parsley, to garnish the edges of the dish; and with a bason of butter melted plain, and anchovy sauce; or butter melted with a little catchup or soy.

To boil Carp.

Take a brace of large carp, scale them, and slit the tails let them bleed into about half a pint of red [Page 19] fine, with half a nutmeg grated (keep it stirring, or the blood will congeal;) then gut and wash them very clean; boil the roes first, and then the carp, as you would do any other fish, then fry them; fry some sippets cut corner ways; and lastly, dip some large oysters in butter, and fry them also, of a fine brown.

For the sauce, take two anchovies, a piece of le­mon-peel, a little horse-radish, and a bit of onion; boil these in water till the anchovies are wasted: strain the liquor into a clean saucepan, and, as you like it, add oysters stewed, a lobster cut small (without the [...]pawn) craw fish, or shrimps; set it over the fire, and let it boil; then take near a pound of butter, roll a good piece in flour, put it into your saucepan with the liquor, with what other ingredients you intend, and boil all together, till it is of a good thickness; then pour in the wine and the blood, and shake it about, letting it only simmer. Take up the fish, put them into a dish, and pour the sauce over them.

Garnish your dish with fried oysters, horse-radish, fried parsley, and lemon: stick the sippets about the fish, and lay the roe, some on the fish, and the rest on the dish; send it to table as hot as you can.

To boil Mackarel.

Having cleansed the mackarel very well, and soaked them for some time in spring water, put them and the roes into a stewpan, with as much water as will cover them, and a little salt. Boil a small bunch of fennel along with them, and when you send them up, garnish with the roes, and the fennel shred fine.

Sauce. Grated sugar in a saucer; melted but­ter, and green gooseberries boiled, in different ba­sons; or, parsley and butter, with a little vinegar and lemon.

To boil Eels, &c.

Having skinned and washed your eels, and cut off the back fins with a pair of scissars, roll them round [Page 20] with the heads innermost, and run a strong skewer through them. Put them into a stew-pan, with a sufficient quantity of water, and a little vinegar and salt. Garnish with sliced lemon.

Sauce. Parsley and butter.

To boil a Pike.

Gut and clean your pike very well with salt and water, fasten the tail in the mouth with a skewer, then put it into the stew-pan, with as much water as will cover it, a little vinegar and salt, and a piece of horse-radish sliced. Garnish with lemon and scraped horse-radish.

Sauce. Anchovy, shrimp, or soy sauce; or melted butter and catchup.

To dress a Turtle.

Fill a boiler or kettle with a quantity of water sufficient to scald the callapach and callapee, the fins, &c. And about nine o'clock hang up your turtle by the hind fins, cut off its head, and save the blood; then with a sharp-pointed knife separate the calla­pach from the callapee (or the back from the belly part) down to the shoulders, so as to come at the entrails, which take out, and clean as you would those of any other animal, and throw them into a tub of clean water, taking great care not to break the gall, but to cut it from the liver, and throw it away. Then separate each distinctly, and put the guts into another vessel, open them with a small penknife, from end to end, wash them clean, and draw them through a woollen cloth in warm water, to clear away the slime, and then put them into clean cold water till they are used, with the other part of the entrails, which must all be cut up small, to be mixed in the baking dishes with the meat. This done, separate the back and belly pieces en­tirely, cutting away the four fins by the upper joint, which scald, peel off the loose skin, and cut them into small pieces, laying them by themselves, [Page 21] either in another vessel, or on the table ready to be seasoned. Then cut off the meat from the belly [...]art, and clean the back from the lungs, kidneys, [...] and that meat cut into pieces as small as a wal­ [...]ut, laying it likewise by itself. After this you are [...] scald the back and belly pieces, pulling off the [...]ell from the back, and the yellow skin from the belly, when all will be white and clean; and with the kitchen cleaver cut those up likewise into pieces about the bigness or breadth of a card. Put these pieces into clean cold water, wash them out, and place them in a heap on the table, so that each part [...]ay lie by itself.

The meat, being thus prepared and laid separate, or seasoning, mix two third parts of salt, or rather more, and one-third part of Cayenne pepper, black pepper, and a nutmeg and mace pounded fine, and mixed together; the quantity to be proportioned to the size of the turtle, so that in each dish there may be about three spoonfuls of seasoning to every twelve pounds of meat.

Your meat being thus seasoned, get some sweet herbs, such as thyme, savory, &c. let them be dried and rubbed fine, and having provided some deep dishes to bake it in, (which should be of the com­mon brown ware) put in the coarsest part of the meat at the bottom, with about a quarter of a pound of butter in each dish, and then some of each of the several parcels of meat, so that the dishes may be all alike, and have equal portions of the different parts of the turtle; and between each laying of the meat, strew a little of the mixture of sweet herbs, all your dishes within an inch and a half, or two inches of the top; boil the blood of the turtle, and put into it; then lay on force-meat balls made of veal, or fowl, highly seasoned with the same season­ing as the turtle; put in each dish a gill of good Madeira wine, and as much water as it will conve­niently hold; then break over it five or six eggs, [Page 22] to keep the meat from scorching at the top, and over that shake a handful of shred parsley, to make it look green; when done put your dishes into and oven made not to make bread, and in an hour and a half, or two hours (according to the size of your dishes) it will be sufficiently done.


In dressing all kinds of vegetables, the cook must be particularly careful that they are properly clean­sed before they are put into the pot. To effect this, take off the outer leaves, and such as have received injury by the weather: then examine the inner leaves with great nicety, that there be no small snails or catterpillars between them, which is frequently the case, particularly in cabbages and savoys.— When you have done this, wash them well in a pail or pan of water, and put them in a cullender to drain. Before you put your water that is to boil them into the saucepan, examine the vessel carefully that it be clean, and free from sand or grease. You must likewise be very attentive to the time of their boiling, for if they are done too much they will be spoiled. All greens should have a little crispness, which will not be the case if they are over-boiled; neither will they look so well, or eat so sweet as when properly done.

To boil Asparagus.

First cut the white ends off about six inches from the head, and scrape them from the green part downward very clean. As you scrape them, throw them into a pan of clean water; and, after a little soaking, tie them up in small even bundles. When your water boils, put them in, and boil them up quick; but by over-boiling they will lose their heads. Cut a slice of bread for a toast, and bake it brown on both sides. When your grass is done, take them up carefuily; dip the toast in the asparagus water, and lay [Page 23] it in the bottom of your dish; then lay the heads of [...]he asparagus on it with the white ends outwards; [...]our a little melted butter over the heads; cut an, orange into small quarters, and stick them between or garnish.

To boil Artichokes.

Wring off the stalks close to the artichokes: [...]hrow them into water, and wash them clean; then put them into a pot or saucepan. They will take better than an hour after the water boils; but the best way is to take out a leaf, and if it draws easy, they are enough. Send them to table with butter in tea-cups between each artichoke.

To boil Cauliflowers.

A cauliflower is the most favorite plant in the kitchen garden amongst the generality of people. Take off all the green part, and cut the flower close [...]t the bottom from the stalk; and if it be large or dirty, cut it into four quarters, that it may lay better in the pan, and be thoroughly cleansed. Let [...]t soak an hour, if possible, in clean water, and then put it into boiling milk and water (if you have any milk) or water only, and skim the pan very well. When the flower or stalks left above it feel tender, it will be enough; but it must be taken up before it [...]oses its crispness; for cauliflower is good for nothing [...]hat boils till it becomes quite soft. When enough, [...]ay it to drain in a cullender for a minute or two, and serve it up in a dish by itself, and with melted butter in a bason.

To boil Carrots.

Scrape them very clean, and when they are enough [...]ub them in a clean cloth, then slice them into a plate, and pour some melted butter over them. If they are young spring carrots, half an hour will boil them; if large, an hour; but old Sandwich carrot [...] will take two hours.

To boil Sprouts.

Pick and wash your sprouts very clean, and see there are no snails or grubs between the leaves, cut them across the stem, but not the heart; after they are well washed, take them out of the water to drain; when your water boils, put in some salt, and then the sprouts, with a little more salt on them; make them boil quick, and if any scum arises, take it clean off. As soon as the stalks are tender, strain them off, or they will not only lose their colour, but likewise their flavour.

To boil Spinach.

There is no herb requires more care in the wash­ing than spinach; you must carefully pick it leaf by leaf, take off all the stalks, and wash it in three or four waters; then put it in a cullender to drain. It does not require much water to dress it: half a pint in a saucepan that holds two quarts, will dress as much spinach as is generally wanted for a small family. When your water boils, put in your spi­nach, with a small handful of salt, pressing it down with a spoon, as you put it into the saucepan; let it boil quick, and as soon as tender, put it into a sieve, or cullender, and press out all the water. When you send it to table, raise it up with a fork, that it may lie hollow in the dish.

To boil French Beans.

Take your beans and string them; cut them in two, and then across: when you have done them all, sprinkle them over with salt, and stir them together. As soon as your water boils, put them in, salt and all; make them boil up quick. They will be soon done, and look of a better green than when growing in the garden. If they are very young only take off the ends, break them in two, and dress them in the same manner.



To broil Pigeons.

PUT a bit of butter, some shred parsley, and a lit­tle pepper and salt into the bellies of your pige­ons, and tie them up neck and vent. Set your grid­iron high, that they may not burn, and send them up with a little melted butter in a cup. You may split them, and broil them with a little pepper and salt; or you may roast them, and serve them up with a little parsley and butter in a boat.

To broil Chickens.

Slit them down the back, and season them with pepper and salt, lay them at a great distance, on a very clear fire. Let the inside lie downward, till they are above half done: then turn them, and take great care the fleshy side does not burn; throw over them some fine raspings of bread, and let them be of a fine brown, but not burnt. Let your sauce be good gravy with mushrooms, and garnish with lemon and the livers broiled, the gizzards cut, slashed, and broiled with pepper and salt.

To broil Eggs.

First put your salamander into the fire, them cut a slice round a quartern loaf, toast it brown, and butter it, lay it in the dish, and set it before the fire; poach seven eggs, just enough to set the [Page 26] whites, take them out carefully, and lay them on your toast; brown them with the salamander, grate some nutmeg over them, and squeeze Seville orange over all. Garnish your dish with orange cut in slices.


To broil Cod.

First dry it well with a cloth, then strew some flour on it, and when your fire is quite clear, lay it on the gridiron, and broil it till it is of a fine brown. For sauce, take good melted butter, with the body of a lobster bruised therein; cut the meat of the lobster very small, put all together in the melted butter, make it hot, and pour it into the dish, or into basons. Garnish with horse-radish and lemon.

To broil Whitings.

Let them be first washed with some salt and water, then dry them well and flour them. Rub the gridiron well with chalk, to prevent their sticking, and let it be quite hot before you lay them on. When they are done, serve them with oyster or shrimp sauce. Garnish your dish with sliced lemon.

To broil Haddocks.

Scale them, gut and wash them clean, but do not rip open their bellies; take the guts out with the gills, and dry them well in a clean cloth.— If there be any roe or liver, take it out, but put it in again; flour them well, and have a good clear fire. Let your gridiron be hot and clean, lay them on, turn them quick two or three times, for fear of sticking; then let one side be enough, and turn the other. When that is done, lay them [Page 27] in a dish, and serve them up with melted butter and a little catchup.

To broil Eels.

Take a large eel, skin it and make it clean.— Open the belly, cut it in four pieces, take the tail and, strip off the flesh, beat it in a mortar, season [...] with a little beaten mace, a little grated nutmeg, pepper and salt, a little parsley and thyme, a little lemon-peel, and an equal quantity of crumbs of bread; roll it in a little piece of butter, then mix [...] again with the yolk of an egg; roll it up again, and fill the three pieces of belly with it. Cut the skin of the eel, wrap the pieces in, and sew up the skin. Broil them well, and have butter and an anchovy for sauce, with a piece of lemon.

To broil Mackarel.

First take off their heads, then gut them and wash them clean; pull out the roe at the neck end. Boil it in a little water, and then bruise it with a spoon: beat up the yolk of an egg with a little nutmeg, a little lemon-peel cut fine, a little thyme, some parsley boiled and chopped very fine, a little pepper and salt, and a few crumbs of bread. Mix these all well together, put it into the body of the mackarel; then flour it well, and broil it gently all it is enough. Let your sauce be plain butter, butter with anchovy or walnut-pickle.

To spitchcock Eels.

You must split a large eel down the back, and [...] the bones, cut it in two or three pieces, melt a little butter, put in a little vinegar and salt, [...] your eel lay in it two or three minutes; then [...] the pieces up one by one, turn them round [Page 28] with a little fine skewer, roll them in crumbs [...] bread, and broil them of a fine brown. Let [...] sauce be plain butter, with the juice of lemon, [...] good gravy with an anchovy in it.


To broil Beef Steaks, Mutton, or Pork Chops.

Lay your steaks on the gridiron, and throw upon them pepper and salt to your taste. Do not turn them till one side be enough; and when the other side has been turned a little while, a fine gravy will lie on the top, and lift it altogether with a pair of small tongs, or carefully with a knife and fork, into a hot dish, and put a little piece of butter under it, which will help to draw out the gravy. Some palates like it with a shalot or two, or [...] onion, shred very fine.

But if they be mutton or pork steaks, they must be frequently turned on the gridiron.

The general sauce for steaks is horse-radish [...] beef; mustard for pork; and girkins pickled [...] mutton. But in season, I would recommend a good sallad, or green cucumbers, or celery, for beef and mutton; and green peas for lamb steaks.

To broil Sheep or Hog's Tongues.

First boil, blanch, and split your tongue season them with a little pepper and salt, and the dip them in eggs; throw over them a few crumbs of bread, and broil them till they are brown; serve them up with a little gravy and butter.



To fry Beef Steaks.

TAKE some beef steaks, beat them with a roller, fry them in half a pint of ale that is not bitter, and whilst they are frying, cut a large onion small, a very little thyme, some parsley shred small, some grated nutmeg, and a little pepper and salt; roll all together in a piece of butter, and then in a little [...]our, put this into a stew-pan, and shake all toge­ther. When the steaks are tender, and the sauce of a fine thickness, dish it up.

Another Way.

Cut the lean by itself, and beat them well with the back of a knife; fry them in just as much butter as will moisten the pan; pour off the gravy as it runs from the meat, turn them often, and do them over a gentle fire; then fry the fat by itself, and lay upon the meat; and put to the gravy a glass of red wine, half an anchovy, a little nutmeg, a little beaten pepper, and a shalot cut small; let it have two or three boils, season it with salt to your palate, pour it over the steaks, and send them to table.— Garnish your dish with scraped horse-radish.

To fry Beef Steaks with Oysters.

Pepper some tender beef steaks to your mind, but don't salt them, for that will make them hard; turn them often, till they are enough, which you will know by their feeling firm; then salt them to your mind.

[Page 30] For sauce, take oysters with their liquor, and wash them in salt and water; let the oyster liquor stand to settle, and then pour off the clear; stey them gently in it, with a little nutmeg or mace some whole pepper, a clove or two, and take care yo [...] don't stew them too much, for that will make their hard; when they are almost enough, add a little white wine, and a piece of butter rolled in flour to thicken it.

To fry Mutton Steaks.

Cut off the rump end of the [...]oin, then cut the rest into steaks, and flat them with a cleaver o [...] rolling-pin, season them with a little salt and pep­per, and fry them in butter over a quick fire; an [...] you fry them put them into an earthen pot till you [...] have fried them all; then pour the fat out of the pan, put in a little gravy, and the gravy that comes from the steaks, with a spoonful of red wine, an anchovy, and an onion or shalot shred; shake up the steaks in the gravy, and thicken it with butter rolled in flour. Garnish with horse-radish and shalots.

Another Way.

First take a handful of grated bread, a little thyme, parsley, and lemon-peel, shred very small with some salt, pepper and nutmeg; then cut a loin of mutton into steaks, and let them be well beaten; take the yorks of two eggs, and rub all over the steaks. Strew on the grated bread with these ingredients mixed together, and fry them. Make your sauce of gravy, with a spoonful or two of claret, and a little anchovy.

To fry a Loin of Lamb.

Cut the loin into thin steaks, put on them a little pepper, salt, and nutmeg, and fry them in fresh [Page 31] butter. When the steaks are enough, take them put, and lay them in a dish before the fire; then [...]our out the butter, shake a little flour over the bottom of the pan, pour in a quarter of a pint of boiling water, and put in a piece of butter; shake all together, give it a boil or two up, pour it over [...]he steaks, and serve them up. Garnish the dish with fried parsley.

You may do mutton the same way, and two spoon­fuls of walnut pickle.

To fry Liver and Bacon.

Cut the liver in slices, and fry it first brown and [...]ice, and then the bacon; lay the liver in the dish, and the bacon upon it. Serve it up with melted butter in a boat, and garnish with sliced lemon.

To fry Sweetbreads and Kidnies.

Split the kidnies, and then fry them and the sweetbreads together in butter. Serve them up with a brown ragoo sauce and mushrooms; and garnish the dish with fried parsley and sliced lemon.

To fry Tripe.

Cut your tripe into pieces about three inches long, dip them into the yolk of an egg, and a few crumbs of bread, fry them of a fine brown, and then take them out of the pan, and lay them in a dish to drain

Have ready a warm dish to put them in, and send them to table with butter and mustard in a boat.

To fry Calf's Feet in Butter.

Blanch the feet, boil them as you would do for eating, take out the large bones and cut them in [Page 32] two, beat a spoonful of wheat flour and four eggs together, put to it a little nutmeg, pepper and salt, dip in your calf's feet, and fry them in butter, a light brown, and lay them upon a dish with a little melted butter over them. Garnish with slices of lemon, and serve them up.

To fry Sausages.

Cut them in single links, and fry them in good butter; then take a round of a loaf, fry it of a nice brown in the same butter, and lay it in the bottom of your dish; put the sausages on the toast in four parts, lay poached eggs between them, and dish them up with melted butter.

To fry Sausages with Apples.

Take six apples, and half a pound of sausages; cut four of the apples into thin slices, and quarter the other two; then fry them with the sausages, and when they are enough, lay the sausages in the middle of your dish, and the sliced apples round them. Garnish with the quartered apples.

To fry Veal Cutlets.

Cut your veal into slices, and lard them with bacon; wash them over with eggs, and then strew on them seasoning made with sweet-marjoram, nutmeg, pepper, salt, and a little grated lemon.— Fry them in sweet butter, and when they are done, pour into the dish some good gravy.—Garnish the dish with sliced lemon.

Another Way.

Cut a neck of veal into steaks, and fry them in butter. Boil the scrag to strong broth, add [Page 33] two anchovies, a nutmeg, some lemon peel, [...]enny-royal, and parsley, shred very small: burn a piece of butter, and put into the liquor; then put in the cutlets, with a glass of white wine, and [...]ofs up the whole together. If it be not thick enough, flour a bit of butter, and throw it in. Lay it into the dish, squeeze an orange over it, and strew on as much salt as will properly relish [...]t.

To fry cold Veal.

Cut it into pieces about as thick as half a crown, and as long as you please, dip them in the yolk of an egg, and then in the crumbs of bread, with a few sweet herbs, and shred lemon-peel in it; grate a little nutmeg over them, and fry them in fresh butter. The butter must be hot, and just enough to fry them in: For sauce, make a little gravy of the bone of the veal; when the meat is fried, take it out with a fork and lay it in a dish before the fire, then shake a little flour into the pan, and stir it round; put in a little gravy, squeeze in a little lemon, and pour it over the veal. Garnish with lemon.

To make Scotch Collops.

Cut some lean veal into slices, and dip them into the yolks of eggs that have been beaten up with melted butter, a little salt, some grated nutmeg, and grated lemon-peel. Fry them quick, and shake them often, to keep the butter from oiling; then put to them some beef gravy, and some mushrooms, or forced meat balls. Garnish your dish with slices of bacon and lemon.—If you would have the collops white, do not dip them in eggs. When they are fried tender, pour off the liquor quite clean, put in some cream to the meat, just give it a boil up, and then serve it to table.

To fry Beef Collops.

Cut your beef in thin slices, about two inches long, lay them upon your dresser, and hack them with the back of your knife; grate a little nutmeg over them, and dust on some flour; lay them into a stew-pan, and put in as much water as you think sufficient for sauce; shred half an onion, and a little lemon-peel very fine, a bundle of sweet herbs, and a little pepper and salt. Roll a piece of but­ter in flour, and set them over a clear fire till they begin to simmer; shake them together often, but don't let them boil up; after they begin to simmer; ten minutes will do them; take out your herbs and dish them up. Garnish the dish with pickles and hors-radish.

To make white Scotch Collops.

Cut about four pounds of fillet of veal in thin pieces; then take a clean stew pan, butter it over, and shake a little flour over it; then lay your meat in piece by piece, till all your pan is covered; then take two or three blades of mace, and a little nutmeg, set your stew-pan over the fire, toss it up together till all your meat be white, then take half a pint of strong veal broth, which must be ready made, a quarter of a pint of cream, and the yolks of two eggs; mix all these together, put it to your meat, keeping it tossing all the time till they just boil up; when they are enough, squeeze in a little lemon. You may add oysters and mushrooms, to make it rich.


To fry Carp.

Scale and clean your carp very well, slit them in [...]wo, sprinkle them with salt, flour them, and fry them in clarified butter. Make a ragoo with a good fish broth, the melts of your fish, artichoke bottoms cut in small dice, and half a pint of shrimps: thicken it with the yolk of eggs, or a piece of butter rolled in flour: put the ragoo into a dish, and lay your fried carp upon it. Garnish with fried sippets, crisp parsley and lemon.

To fry Tench.

When you have thoroughly cleansed them of their lime, slip the skin along the backs, and with the point of your knife raise it up from the bone; then cut the skin across at the head and tail, strip it off, and take out the bone; then take another tench, or a carp, and mince the flesh small with mush­rooms, chives, and parsley. Season them with salt, pepper, beaten mace, nutmeg, and a few savory herbs minced small. Mingle these all well toge­ther, then pound them in a mortar with crumbs of bread, and as much as two eggs soaked in cream, the yolks of three or four eggs, and a piece of but­ter. When these have been well pounded, stuff the tenches with this farce: take clarified butter, put it into a pan, set it over the fire, and when it is hot, flour your tenches, and put them into the pan one by one, and fry them brown; then take them up, lay them in a coarse cloth before the fire, to keep hot. In the mean time, pour all the grease and fat out of the pan, put in a quarter of a pound of butter, shake some flour all over the pan, and keep stirring with a spoon till the butter is a little brown; then pour in half a pint of white wine, stir it to­gether, [Page 36] pour in half a pint of boiling water, an onion stuck with cloves, a bundle of sweet herbs, and a blade or two of mace. Cover them close, and let them stew as softly as you can for a quarter of an hour, then strain off the liquor, put it into the pan again, add two spoonfuls of catchup, have ready an ounce of truffles, or morels, boiled tender in half a pint of water, pour the truffles, water and all, into the pan, with a few mushrooms, and either half a pint of oysters, clean washed in their own liquor, and the liquor and all put into the pan, or some craw-fish; but then you must put in the tails, and after clean picking them, boil them in half a pint of water, then strain the liquor, and put into the sauce; or take some fish-melts, and toss up in your sauce. All this is just as you fancy.

When you find your sauce is very good put your tench into the pan, make them quite hot, then lay them into your dish, and pour the sauce over them. Garnish with lemon.

Or you may, for change, put in half a pint of stale beer instead of water. Or you may dress tench as you do carp.

To fry Trout.

Scale your trout clean, then gut them, and take out the gills, wash them, and dry them in a cloth, flour them, and fry them in butter till they are of a fine brown; when they are enough, take them up, and serve them; fry some parsley green and crisp, melt anchovy and butter, with a spoonful of white wine. Dish your fish, and garnish with fried parsley, and sliced lemon. You may pour your fauce over the fish, or send it in a boat, which you please.

In this manner you may fry perch, small pike, jacks, roach, gudgeons, or a chine of fresh salmon.

To fry flat Fish.

Dry the fish well in a cloth, rub them over with the yolk of an egg, and dust over some flour; let [...]our oil, butter, lard, or dripping, be ready to boil before you put in the fish; fry them off with a quick fire, then let them be of a fine brown. Be­fore you dish them up, lay them upon a drainer be­fore the fire sloping, for two or three minutes, which will prevent their eating greasy. For sauce, take half a pint of water, two anchovies split, a clove, a bit of màce, a little lemon-peel, a few pepper-corns, and a large spoonful of red wine; boil all together, till your achovy is dissolved; then strain it off, and thicken it with butter rolled in flour.

You must observe on fast days, and in Lent, never to dress your fish in any thing but butter, or oil.

To fry Herrings.

After having cleansed your herrings, take out the roes, dry them and the herrings in a cloth; flour them, and fry them in butter of a fine brown; lay them before the fire to drain; slice three or four onions, flour them and dry them nicely; dish up the herrings, and garnish them with the roes and onions: Send them up as hot as you can with but­ter and mustard in a boat.

To fry Eels.

After having skinned and cleaned your eels, split them, and cut them in pieces; let them lay for two or three hours in a pickle made of vinegar, salt, pepper, bay-leaves, sliced onion, and juice of lemon; [Page 38] then dredge them well with flour, and fry them in clarified butter; serve them dry with fried parsley, and lemon for garnish. Send plain butter and an­chovy sauce in several boats.

To fry Lampries.

Bleed them, and save the blood, then wash them in hot water to take off the slime, cut them in pieces, and let them be fried in butter, not quite enough; drain out all the fat, then put in a little white wine, and shake your pan; season them with whole pepper, nutmeg, salt. sweet herbs, and a bay leaf, a good piece of butter rolled in flour, and the blood that was saved; cover them close, and shake the pan often. When you think they are enough, take them up, and give the sauce a quick boil, squeeze in a little lemon, and pour the sauce over the fish.—Send it to table garnished with lemon.

To fry small Fish of all Sorts.

Small fish are generally dressed to garnish a dish of fish, as smelts, gudgeons, roach, small whitings, &c. Wipe them dry with a cloth, then rub them over with the yolk of an egg, flour them, and fry them in oil, butter, hog's-lard, or beef dripping; take care they are fried of a fine light brown; and if they are sent by themselves in a dish, garnish with fried parsley and lemon.

Whitings, when small, should be turned round, the tail put into the mouth, and so fried; if large, they are skinned, turned round and fried.

Plaice, flounders, and dabs, are rubbed over with eggs, and fried.

Small maids are frequently dipped in batter, and fried.

As these sorts of fish are generally dressed by themselves for supper, you may send various sauces

[Page 39] you like best; either shrimps, oysters, anchovy and butter, or plain melted butter; and some chuse oil and lemon.

To fry Oysters.

You must take a better of milk, eggs and flour; then take your oysters and wash them; wipe them fry, and dip them in the batter, then roll them in some crumbs of bread and a little mace beat fine, and fry them in very hot butter or lard.

Or, beat four eggs with salt, put in a little nut­meg grated, and a spoonful of grated bread, then make it as thick as batter for pancakes, with fine flour; drop the oysters in, and fry them brown in clarified beef suet. They are to lie round in any dish of fish. Ox palates boiled tender, blanched, and cut in pieces, then fried in such batter, is proper to garnish hashes or fricasees.


To fry Cauliflowers.

Take two fine cauliflowers, boil them in milk and water, then leave one whole, and pull the other to pieces; take half a pound of butter, with two spoon­fuls of water, a little dust of flour, and melt the butter in a stew-pan; then put in the whole cauli­flower cut in two, and the other pulled to pieces, and fry it till it is of a very light brown. Season it with pepper and salt. When it is enough, lay the two halves in the middle, and pour the rest all over.

To fry Artichoke Bottoms.

First blanch them in water, then flour them, fry them in fresh butter, lay them in your dish, and [Page 40] pour melted butter over them. Or you may put a little red wine into the butter, and season with nutmeg, pepper and salt.

To fry Celery.

Take six or eight heads of celery, cut off the green tops, and take off the outside stalks, wash them clean; then have ready half a pint of white wine, the yolks of three eggs beat fine, and a little salt and nutmeg; mix all well together with flour into a batter, dip every head into the batter, and fry them in butter. When enough, lay them in the dish, and put melted butter over them.

To fry Potatoes.

Pare them very clean, and take out all the specks; then cut them into thin slices, and fry them till they are of a nice brown on both sides: then take them up, put them into your dish, and serve them to ta­ble, with melted butter in a bason or boat.

To fry Parsley.

Let your parsley for this purpose be very young. Wash it thoroughly clean, and pick the leaves care­fully from stalks. Then put a little butter in your pan, which must be quite clean, and when it is very hot put in the parsley: keep it constantly stirring with a knife till it is quite crisp; then take it out, and apply it to the purposes for which it is wanted.

To fry Onions.

When you have pealed your onions, cut them into slices about a quarter of an inch thick: dip these slices into batter, or an egg well beaten up, and fry them brown. When they are done, let them lay two or three minutes on a strainer before the fire, in order that the greafe may drain from them, and serve them to table.



To flew a Goose.

YOU must cut the goose down the back, bone it, and stuff it with forcemeat; then sew it up, and fry it of a fine brown; after which you must put it into a deep stewpan with two quarts of beef gravy, cover it close, and let it stew for two hours: then take it up, and skim off the fat, add to the gravy a glass of red wine, two or three spoonfuls of catchup and lemon pickle, an anchovy shred fine, some beaten [...]nace, pepper and salt, and a lump of butter rolled in flour; give it a boil, dish up your goose, and strain the sauce over it.

To stew Rabbits.

Divide your rabbits into quarters, lard them with pretty large slips of bacon, and fry them; then put them in a stewpan, with a quart of good broth, a glass of white wine, a bunch of sweet herbs, a little pep­per and salt, and a piece of butter rolled in flour. When they are enough, dish them up, and pour the sauce on them. Garnish with sliced orange.

To stew a Turkey or Fowl.

Put your fowl or turkey into a saucepan, with a sufficient quantity of gravy, a bunch of celery cut small, an onion, a sprig of thyme, and a muslin rag [...]illed with pepper, mace, cloves, and other spice; [...]et these stew gently till they are enough, then take [Page 42] up your fowl or turkey, thicken the sauce with flou and butter, and pour it in your dish. N. B. You may stew a neck of v [...]al in the same manner.

To stew Ducks or Pigeons.

First stuff their bellies with a seasoning made of sweet herbs, pepper, salt, cloves, and mace, mixed up with a piece of butter; then set them before the sire, and when they are half roasted, put them in a stewpan, with a sufficiency of good gravy, some pickled mushrooms, and a glass of white or red wine, a bit of lemon-peel, a small bundle of sweet herbs, some whole pepper, mace, and a piece of onion; when they are done, take them out, thicken the sauce with butter and the yolks of eggs, and pour it over your ducks or pigeons. Garnish with sliced lemon, or with shalots.—N. B. Ducks are frequently stewed with green pease.

To stew Giblets.

Let the giblets be clean picked and washed, the feet skinned, and the bill cut off, the head split in two, the pi [...]ion bones broken, the liver and gizzard cut in four, and the neck in two pieces: put them into half a pint of water, with pepper, salt, a small onion, and sweet herbs. Cover the saucepan close, and let them stew till enough upon a slow fire. Then season them with salt, take out the onion and herbs, and pour them into a dish with all the liquor.

To stew a Hare.

Let it be half roasted, and then, having cut it into small pieces, and dissected the bones, put all of it into a stewpan, with a quart of gravy, a gill of red wine, and an anchovy. You must not let it boil, [Page 43] but keep tossing it up with butter and flour till it be enough; and then serve it up in a soup dish garnish­ed with fried parsley.

To stew Partridges.

Having stuffed your partridges with beaten mace, pepper, salt, and a lump of butter, flour them well, and fry them of a light brown; then put them into a stewpan, with a quart of good gravy, a spoonful or two of Madeira wine and lemon pickle, one an­chovy, a few sweet herbs, and half a lemon: when they have stewed half an hour, take them out, thicken the gravy, boil it up, pour it on the par­tridges, and lay round them artichoke-bottoms, boiled and cut in quarters.

To stew Pheasants.

Take artichoke-bottoms parboiled, and some chesnuts roasted and peeled; stew your pheasant in veal gravy, and when it is enough, put in the chesnuts and artichoke-bottoms, some lemon-juice, a little pepper, salt, beaten mace, and a glass of white wine; thicken the sauce with butter and flour, pour it over the pheasant, and lay some forcemeat [...]al [...]s or fried sausages in the dish.


To stew Carp or Tench.

Scale and gut your carp or tench, wash and dry them, dust them with flour, and fry them of a light brown in dripping or suet: then put them into a stewpan, with a quart of water, a quart of red wine, a spoonful or two of lemon pickle and walnut catch­up, an onion stuck with cloves, a piece of horse-radish, some nutmeg, mace, pepper, and salt. When [Page 44] your fish are done, take them out, thicken the gravy with flour and butter, boil it a little, and strain it over your carp or tench. Garnish the dish with pickled mushrooms and scraped horse radish.

To stew Plaice, Soles, or Flounders.

First half fry them in butter, then take them up: add to the butter a quart of water, and boil it slowly a quarter of an hour with a sliced onion, and two anchovies; then put in your fish again, and when they have stewed gently for twenty minutes, take them out; thicken the sauce with butter rolled in flour, give it a boil, and strain it through a hair sieve over your fish.

To stew a Trout.

Take a few crumbs of bread, two or three eggs buttered, a piece of lemon-peel, a little thyme, nut­meg, salt, and pepper; mix them all together, and stuff the belly of your trout with them; then put it in a stewpan, with some gravy and white wine, and a lump of butter. When it is done, serve it up with the sauce in the dish, and garnish with lemon cut in slices.


To stew Veal in general.

Take some lean veal, either raw, or under­roasted, or boiled; cut it in thick slices, then put them in as much water as will just cover them; throw in a little pepper and salt, nutmeg, mace, sweet-marjoram, a shalot and a little lemon-peel; when they are almost stewed enough, put into the liquor a little catchup, a little lemon-juice, a glass of white wine, and let it stew some time longer; then strain [Page 45] off the liquor, and put some pickled mushrooms in the sauce, and thicken it with cream, or butter rolled in flour. Garnish your dish with fried oysters, and sliced orange and lemon.

To stew a Neck of Veal.

Cut the neck of veal in steaks, and season them well with a mixture of salt and pepper, grated nut­meg, thyme, and knotted marjoram. Stew these gently over the fire till they are enough: then add two anchovies, some gravy or strong broth, and a piece of butter rolled in flour. Toss it up till it becomes thick; then put it in as dish, and serve it up hot. Garnish with sliced lemon.

To stew a Breast of Veal.

Let the breast be fat and white, cut off both ends, and boil them for gravy. Make a force­meat of the sweet bread boiled, a few crumbs of bread, a little beef suet, two eggs, pepper and salt, a spoonful or two of cream, and a little grated nut­meg; with which mixture, having raised the thin part of the breast, stuff the veal. Skewer the skin close down, dredge it over with flour, tie it up in a clean cloth, and stew it in milk and water about an hour.

To mince Veal.

Let your veal be cut as fine as possible, but not chopped; grate a little nutmeg over it, shred a little lemon-peel very fine, throw a very little salt on it, and dredge it with flour. To a large plate of veal, take four or five spoonfuls of water, let it boil, then put in the veal, with a piece of butter as big as an egg, stir it well together, and when it is thoroughly hot, it is enough. Lay some sippets round the plate, and before you your in the veal. squeeze half a lemon, or half a spoonful of vinegar.

To stew Beef.

Take a piece of lean beef, with about a pound of the hard fat of brisket cut in pieces. Put these into a stew-pan with three pints of water, a little salt, pepper, dried marjoram powdered, and thr [...]e cloves. Cover the pan very close, and let it stew four hours over a slow fire. Throw in a much turnip and carrot cut into square pieces as you think convenient; and the white part of a large leek, two heads of cellery shred, a piece of crust of bread burnt, and half a pint of red wine. Let these stew all together one hour more; then pour it all into a soup dish, and serve it up hot. Garnish with sliced carrot.

To stew Beef Collops.

Take a piece of raw beef, and cut it in the same manner as you do veal for Scotch collops. Put the collops into a stew-pan with a little water, a glass of white wine, a shalot, a little dried morjoram dried to powder, some salt and pepper, and a slice or two of fat bacon. Set this over a quick fire till the pan is nearly full of gravy, which will be in a little time; add to this a little mushroom juice, and then serve it up hot. Garnish with slices of lemon, or small pickles and red cabbage.

To stew Brisket of Beef.

Having rubbed the brisket with common salt and saltpetre, let it lie four days. Then lard the skin with fat bacon, and put it into a stew-pan with a quart of water, a pint of red wine or strong beer, half a pound of butter, a bunch of sweet herbs, three or four shalots, some pepper, and half a nut­meg grated. Cover the pan very close. Stew it over a gentle fire for six hours. Then fry some square pieces of turnips very brown. Strain the [Page 47] liquor the beef was stewed in, thicken it with burnt butter, and having mixed the turnips with it, pour all together over the beef in a large dish. An ox­cheek, or a leg of beef, may be served up in the same manner.

To stew Beef Gobbets.

Cut any piece of beef, except the leg, in pieces, the size of a pullet's egg. Put them into a stew­pan, and cover them with water. Let them stew one hour, and skim them very clean. Then add a sufficient quantity of mace, cloves, whole pepper, tied up loose in a muslin rag, some celery cut small, and sa [...]t, turnips and carrots, pared and cut in slices, a little parsley, a bundle of sweet herbs, a large crust of bread, and, if you please, and an ounce of pearl barley, or rice. Cover all close, and stew it till tender. Then take out the herbs, spices, and bread, and add a French roll fried and cut in four. Dish up altogether, and send it to table.

To stew Ox Palates.

Put the palates into a saucepan of cold water, and let them stew very softly over a slow fire till they are tender. Then cut them into pieces, and dish them with cock's-combs and artichoke bot­toms cut small; and garnish with lemon sliced, and with sweetbreads stewed for white dishes, and fried for brown ones, and cut also into little pieces.

N. B. This stew is generally used for im­proving a fricassee, or a ragoo of veal, lamb, [...]abbits, &c.

To stew a Rump of Beef.

You must half roast your beef, then put it in a leep pan, with two quarts of water, one quart of [Page 48] red wine, a shalot, some sweet herbs, pepper, an salt, two or three blades of mace, and a spoonful or two of walnut catchup and lemon-pickle; let [...] stew over a moderate fire, close covered, for two hours; then take it up, and lay it in a deep dish [...] strain the gravy, put in half a pint of mushrooms, and an ounce of morels, thicken it with flou [...] and butter, and pour it over the beef. Garnish with horse-radish and beet-root.

To stew a Neck or Leg of Mutton.

You must first bone the joint that you are going to stew; then put your meat in a saucepan, with some whole pepper, salt, mace, and nutmeg, one anchovy, a turnip, a few sweet herbs, two onions, a pint of ale, a pint of red wine, two quarts of water, and a hard crust of bread; cover it close, and when it is stewed enough, serve it up with toasts and the gravy.

N. B. An ox-cheek may be dressed in the same manner.

To stew Mutton Chops.

Put them into a shallow tin pan, with a very small quantity of water, and some pepper and salt, cover your pan very close, and place it over a slow fire. When the chops are done (which will be in a very short time) dish them up with their own liquor, and garnish with pickles.

To stew a Pig.

Let your pig be roasted till it is hot through; then skin it, cut it in pieces, and put it in your stew­pan, together with some strong gravy, a gill of white wine, an onion, a little marjoram, a piece of butter, three of four spoonfuls of elder vinegar, some salt, pepper, and nutmeg. When it is enough, take it out, lay it upon sippets, and serve it up with slice [...] lemon for garnish.


To hash a Hare.

CUT up your hare entirely, put it into a stew-pan with some good gravy, a gill of red wine, some shred lemon-peel, and a bundle of sweet herbs; let it stew for an hour, then add some forced-meat balls, and yolks of twelve hard boiled eggs, with truffles and morels. Give them a boil up, then take out the herbs, place the hare hand­somely on the dish, and pour the gravy, &c. over it. Garnish with sliced lemon and barberries.

To hash a Calf's Head.

Boil it till it is near enough, then take it up, and let it lie in a dish till it is cold. This done, take one half of the head, and cut off the meat in thin slices, put it into a stewpan with a little brown gravy, a spoonful or two of walnut-pickle, a spoon­ful of catchup, a glass of red wine, a little shred [...]ace, a few capers shred, or a little mango; boil it over a stove, and thicken it with butter and [...]our. When you have done this, take the other part of the head, cut off the bone ends, and score it with a knife, season it with a little pepper and salt, rub it over with the yolk of an egg, and strew [...] it a few bread crumbs and little parsley; then [...] it before the fire till it is brown, and when you fish up the other part, put this in the middle.— [...] about your hash some force-meat balls, a [...] slices of bacon nicely fried, and brain cakes. This last article must be made thus: Take a handful of bread crumbs, a little shred lemon-peel, pepper, salt, nutmeg, sweet-marjoram, pars­ley shred fine, and the yolks of three eggs;— [Page 50] Take the brains and skin them; boil and chop them small, and mix them all together; put a little but­ter in your pan when you fry them, and drop them in as you do fritters. If they should run in your pan, put in a handful more of bread crumbs.

To hash a Lamb's Head and Pluck.

Boil the head and pluck a quarter of an hour at most, the heart five minutes, the liver and lights half an hour. Cut the heart, liver and lights, into small square bits, not bigger than a pea. Make a gravy of the liquor that runs from the head with a quarter of a pint of the liquor in which it is boiled, a little walnut liquor or catchup, and a little vine­gar, pepper and salt; them put in the brains and the hashed meat, shake them well together in the liquor, which should be only just as much as to wet the meat. Pour all upon the sippets in a soup dish, and having grilled the head before the fire, or with a salamander, lay it open with the brown side up­wards upon the hashed liver, &c. Garnish with sliced pickled cucumbers, and thin slices of bacon broiled.

To hash cold Fowl.

When you have cut up your fowl in the usual manner, divide the legs, wings, heart, &c. into several pieces; then put them into a stewpan, with a blade or two of mace, and a little shred lemon-peel; dredge it on a little flour, and put in about half a pint of good gravy. When it begins to simmer, put in a piece of butter rolled in flour, with a few pickled mushrooms. As soon as it boils it is enough; then take it up, pour the whole into your dish, and garnish with sliced lemon.

To hash Mutton.

Take mutton half roasted, and cut it in pieces as big as half a crown; then put into the saucepan half a pint of red wine, as much strong broth or gravy (or water, if you have not the other) one anchovy, a shalot, a little whole pepper, some nut­meg grated, and salt to your taste; let these stew a little, then put in the meat, and a few capers and samphire shred; when it is hot through, thicken it up with a piece of fresh butter rolled in flour; have toasted sippets ready to lay in the dish, and pour the meat on them. Garnish with lemon.

To hash Beef.

Take the raw part of any piece of roasted beef, and cut it into thin slices, about the length of a little finger, and about the same breadth. Take also a little water, and an equal quantity of gravy; boil it well with a large onion cut in two, pepper and salt, then take a piece of butter rolled in flour, and stir it in the pan till it burns. Put it in the sauce, and let it boil a minute or two; then put in the sliced beef, but you must only just let it warm through. Some add only a few capers, mushrooms, walnut-pickle, or catchup. Serve this up to table in a soup dish, garnished with pickles.

To mince Veal.

Take any part of veal that is under done, either roasted or boiled, and shred it as fine as possible with a knife. Then take a sufficient quantity of beef gravy, dissolve it in the quantity of a hazle nut of caviare to half a pound of meat, and then put into the gravy the minced veal, and let it boil not above a minute. Pour it into a soup plate, or dish, upon sippets of bread toasted, and [Page 52] garnish the dish with pickled cucumbers, &c. or with thin slices of bacon broiled.


To make a Brown Portable Soup.

TAKE a large leg of beef, bone it, and take off the skin, and what fat you can; put it into a stoving-pot with a tight cover; put to it about four gallons of soft water, with six anchovies, half an ounce of mace, a few cloves, half an ounce of whole white pepper, three onions cut in two, a bunch of thyme, sweet marjoram, and parsley, with the bottom crust of a two-penny loat that is well baked; cover it very close, and let it have a constant fire to do leisurely for seven or eight hours; then stir it well together, to make the meat separate; cover it close-again, and in an hour try your broth in a cup, to see if it will glutinate; if it does, take if off, and strain it through a canvas bag into a clean pan; then have china or well­glazed earthen cups, and fill them with the clear jelly; put them into a broad gravy-pan, or stew­pan, with boiling water; set in the cups, and let them boil in that till they are perfectly glue.— When they are almost cold, run a knife round them, and turn them upon a piece or new flannel, to draw out the moisture; in six or seven hours turn them, and do so till they are perfectly hard and dry; put them into stone jars, and keep them in a dry place.

This is very good for soups, sauces, and gravies. When you intend to make it into soup, shred and wash very clean what herbs you have to enrich it, as celery, endive, chervil, leeks, lettuce, or indeed what herbs you can get; boil them in water till [Page 53] they are tender, strain them off, and with that water dissolve what quantity of portable soup you please, according to the strength you would have it. If you are where you can get it, fry a French roll, and put it in the middle of your dish, moistened first with some of your soup; and when your cakes are thoroughly melted, put your herbs to it, and set it over the fire till it is just at boiling; then dish it up, and send it to table.

To make a White Portable Soup.

Take a leg of veal, bone it, and take off all the skin and fat; take likewise two dozen of fowls or chickens feet, washed clean and chopped to pieces; put al into a large stoving-pot, with three gallons of soft water and let it stove gently till the meat is so tender as to separate. You must keep your pot tight covered, and a constant fire during the time of its stoving; in about seven or eight hours try your jelly in a cup, and when quite cold, if it is so stiff that you can cut it with a knife, take it off, and strain it through a sieve; but take off all the fat and scum first with a spoon, and then with filtering paper; provide china cups, and fill them with the clear jelly; set them in a gravy-pan, or a large stewpan of boiling water, over a stove; in this water boil your jelly in the cups till it is as thick as glue; after which, let them stand in the water till they are quite cold: Before you turn them out of your cups, run the edge of a knife round to loosen them, then turn them upon a piece of new flannel, which will draw out all the moisture gradually. Turn them every six or eight hours, till they are perfectly dry, and like a piece of glue; keep them in as dry a place as you can, and in a little time they will be so hard, that you may carry them in your pocket without the least incon­venience. When you want to use it, take a piece about the bigness of a walnut, and pour a pint of [Page 54] boiling water on it, stirring it till it is dissolved; season it with salt to your taste, and you will have a bason of strong broth. If you want a dish of soup, boil vermicelli in water; then to a cake of your soup pour a pint of water, so that four cakes will make two quarts; when it is thoroughly melted, set it over the fire just to simmer, pour it into the dish, put in thin slices of bread hardened before the fire, and the vermicelli upon them. Thus you have a dish of soup in about half an hour. Whilst this is doing, you may have any thing drest to follow, which will not only be a good addition to your dinner, but saving time.

Note. You must season it to your palate, as there is no salt, or seasoning of any kind in the preparation.

To make Gravy Soup.

Take the bones of a rump of beef, and a piece of the neck, and boil it till you have all the goodness of it; then strain it off, and take a good piece of butter, put it in a stew-pan, and brown it, then put to it an onion stuck with cloves, some celery, endive, spinach, and three carrots; put to your gravy some pepper, salt, and cloves, and let it boil all together; then put in sippets of bread dried by the fire, and you may add a glass of red wine. Serve it up with a French roll toasted. and laid in the middle.

To make a rich Giblet Soup.

Take four pounds of gravy beef, two pounds of scrag of murton, two pounds of scrag of veal, stew them well down in a sufficient quantity of water for a strong broth; let it stand till it is quite cold, then skim the fat clean off. Take two pair of [Page 55] giblets well scalded and cleaned, put them into your broth, and let them simmer till they are stewed tender; then take out your giblets, and run the soup through a fine sieve to catch the small bones; then take an ounce of butter, and put it into a stew­pan. mixing a proper quantity of flour, to make it of a fine light brown. Take a small handful of chives, the same of parsley, and a very little sweet-marjoram; chop all these herbs together excessive small, set your soup over a slow fire, put in your giblets, butter and flour, and some herbs; then take a pint of Madeira wine, some Cayenne pep­per, and salt to your palate. Let them all simmer together, till the herbs are tender, and the soup is finished. Send it to table with the giblets in it.

N. B. The livers must be stewed in a saucepan by themselves, and put in the dish when you serve it up.

To make good Pease Soup.

Take a quart of split pease, put them into a gallon of soft water, with a bunch of herbs, some whole Jamaica and black pepper, two or three onions, a pound of lean beef, a pound of mutton, and a pound of the belly piece of salt pork; boil all together till your meat is thoroughly tender, and your soup strong; then strain it through a sieve, and pour it into a clean saucepan; cut and wash three or four large heads of celery, some spinach, and a little dried mint rubbed fine; boil it till your celery is tender, then serve it up with bread cut in dice, and fried brown.

To make Green Pease Soup.

Have a knuckle of veal of four pounds, a pint and a half of the oldest green pease shelled, set them over the fire with five quarts of water, add two or three blades of mace, a quarter of an ounce of [Page 56] whole pepper, a small onion stuck with three cloves, and a bunch of sweet herbs, cover it close, and let it boil till half is wasted; strain it off, and pass your liquor through a sieve; put it into a clean saucepan, with a pint of the youngest pease, the heart of a cabbage, a lettuce or two, and the white part of three or four heads of celery cut small, cover it close, and let it stew for an hour. If you think it is not thick enough, take some of your soup, and put in half a spoonful of flour; stir it in a bason till it is smooth, pour it in to your soup, stir it well together, and let it boil for ten minutes; then dish it up with the crust of a French roll.

To make Vermicelli Soup.

Take two quarts of strong veal broth, put it in­to a clean saucepan, with a piece of bacon stuck with cloves, and half an ounce of butter rolled in flour; then take a small fowl trussed to boil, break the breast bone, and put it into your soup; stove it close, and let it stew three quarters of an hour; take about two ounces of vermicelli, and put to it some of the broth, set it over the fire till it is quite tender. When your soup is ready, take out the fowl, and put it into the dish; take out your ba­con, skim your soup as soon as possible, then pour it on the fowl, and lay your vermicelli all over it; cut some French bread thin, put it into your soup, and send it to table.

If you chuse it, you may make your soup with a knuckle of veal, and send a handsome piece of it in the middle of the dish, instead of the fowl.

To make Soup Lorrain.

Have ready a strong veal broth that is white, and clean scummed from all fat; blancn a pound of almonds, beat them in a mortar, with a little water, to prevent their oiling, and the yolks of [Page 57] four poached eggs, the lean part of the legs, and all the white part of a roasted fowl; pound all to­gether, as fine as possible; then take three parts of the veal broth, put it into a clean stewpan, put your ingredients in, and mix them well together; chip in the crust of two French rolls well rasped; boil all together over a stove, or a clear fire. Take a French roll, cut a piece out of the top, and take out all the crumb; mince the white part of a roasted fowl very fine, season it with pepper, salt, nutmeg, and a little beaten mace; put in about an ounce of butter, and moisten it with two spoon­fuls of your soup strained to it; set it over the stove to be thorough hot: Cut some French rolls in slices, and set them before to crisp; then strain off your soup through a tammy or a lawn strainer into another stew-pot; let it stew till it is as thick as cream; then have your dish ready: put in some of your crisp bread; fill your roll with the mince, and lay on the top as close as possible; put it in the middle of the dish, and pour a ladleful of your soup over it; put in your bread first, then pour in the soup till the dish is full. Garnish with petty [...]atties, or make a rim for your dish, and garnish with lemon raced.

If you please, you may send a chicken, boned in the middle, instead of the roll; or you may send [...] to table with only crisp bread.

To make Sorrel Soup with Eggs.

Take the chump end of a loin of mutton, and art of a loin of veal, to make your stock with; ason it with pepper, salt, cloves, mace, and a [...]nch of sweet herbs; boil it till it is as rich as [...]u would have it; strain it off, and put it into clean saucepan: Put in a young fowl, cover it [...]er, and stove it; then take three or four large [...]ndfuls of sorrel washed clean, chop it grosly, [...] it in butter, put it to your soup, and let it boil [...] your fowl is thoroughly done; skim it clean, [Page 58] and send it to table with the fowl in the middle, and six poached eggs placed round about it. Garnish the dish with sippets and stewed sorrel.

To make Asparagus Soup.

Take five or six pounds of lean beef cut in lumps, and rolled in flour; put it in your stew­pan, with two or three slices of fat bacon at the bottom; then put it over a slow fire, and cover it close, stirring it now and then till the gravy is drawn; then put in two quarts of water and half a pint of ale. Cover it close, and let it stew gently for an hour, with some whole pepper, and salt to your mind; then strain off the liquor, and take off the fat; put in the leaves of white beet, some spinach, some cabbage lettuce, a little mint, some sorrel, and a little sweet marjoram powdered; let these boil up in your liquor, then put in the green tops of asparagus cut small, and let them boil till all is tender. Serve it up hot, with a French roll in the middle.

To make a Craw-Fish Soup.

Cleanse them, and boil them in water, salt, and spice; pull off their feet and tails, and fry them; break the rest of them in a stone mortar, season them with savory spice, and an onion, a hard egg, grated bread, and sweet herbs boiled in good table beer, strain it, and put to it scalded chopped parsley, and French rolls; then put in the fried craw-fish, with a few mushrooms. Gar­nish the dish with sliced lemon, and the feet and tail of a craw-fish.

To make Oyster Soup.

Have ready a good fish stock, then take two quarts of oysters without the beards; bray the [Page 59] hard part in a mortar, with the yolks of ten hard eggs. Serve what quantity of fish stock you shall want over the fire with your oysters; season it with pepper, salt, and grated nutmeg. When it boils, put in the eggs, and let it boil till it is as thick as cream. Dish it up with bread cut in dice.

To make a brown Soup.

Into a clean saucepan put three quarts, or more, of water, with raspings sufficient to thicken it, two or three onions cut across, two or three cloves, some whole pepper, and a little salt; cover it close, and let it boil about an hour and a half, then strain it through a sieve; have celery, carrots, endive, lettuce, spinach, and what other herbs you like, not cut too small, and fry them in butter; take a clean stewpan, that is large enough for your ingredients; put in a good piece of butter, dust in flour, and keep it stirring till it is of a fine brown; then pour in your herbs and soup, boil it till the herbs are tender, and the soup of a proper thick­ness. Have bread cut in dice, and fried brown, pour your soup into the dish, put some of the bread into the soup, the rest in a plate, and serve it up.

To make a white Soup.

Put in a clean saucepan two or three quarts of water, the crumb of a two-penny loaf, with a bundle of herbs, some whole pepper, two or three cloves, an onion or two cut across, and a little salt; let it boil covered till it is quite smooth; take celery, endive, and lettuce, only the white parts, cut them in pieces not too small, and boil them till they are very tender, strain your soup off into a clean stewpan, put your herbs in, with a [Page 60] good piece of butter stirred in till the butter is melted, and let it boil for some time, till it is smooth. If any scum arises, take it off very clean: Soak a small French roll, nicely rasped, in some of the soup, put it in the middle of the dish, pour in your soup, and send it to table.

To make Onion Soup.

First put a tea-kettle of water on to boil, then slice six Spanish onions, or some of the largest onions you have got, flour them pretty well, then put them into a stewpan that will hold about three quarts, fry them in butter till they are of a fine brown, but not burnt, pour in boiling water suf­ficient to fill the soup-dish you intend, let it boil, and take half a pound of butter rolled in flour, break it in, and keep it stirring till your butter is melted; as it boils, skim it very well, and put a little pepper and salt; cut a French roll into slices, and set it before the fire to crisp: poach seven or eight eggs very nicely, cut off all the rag­ged parts of the white drain the water from them, and lay them upon every slice of roll; pour your soup into the dish, and put the bread and eggs carefully into the dish with a skimmer. If you have any spinach boiled, lay a leaf between every piece of roll, and send it to table.

If you have any Parmesan cheese, scrape about an ounce very fine, and put it in when you pour on your boiling water; it gives it a very high flavor, and is not to be perceived by the taste what it is.

To make Turnip Soup.

Pare a bunch of turnips (save out three or four) put them into a gallon of water, with half an ounce of white pepper, an onion stuck with [Page 61] cloves, three blades of mace, half a nutmeg brui­sed, a good bunch of sweet herbs, and a large crust of bread. Boil them an hour and a half, then pass them through a sieve, clean a bunch of celery, cut it small, and put it into your turnips and liquor with two of the turnips you saved, and two young carrots cut in dice, cover it close, and let it stew; then cut two turnips and carrots in dice, flour them, and fry them brown in butter, with two large onions cut thin, and fried likewise; put them all into your soup, with some vermicelli; let it boil softly till your celery is tender, and your soup is good. Season it with salt to your palate.

To make Soup Meagre.

Take a bunch of celery washed clean, and cut in pieces, a large handful of spinach, two cabbage lettuces, and some parsley; wash all very clean, and shred them small; then take a large clean stewpan, put in about half a pound of butter, and when it is quite hot, slice four large onions very thin, and put into your butter; stir them well to­gether for two or three minutes; then put in the rest of your herbs, shake all well together for near twenty minutes, dust in some flour, and stir them together, pour in two quarts of boiling water, sea­son with pepper, salt, and beaten mace: Chip a handful of crust of bread, and put in, boil it half an hour, then beat up the yolks of three eggs in a spoonful of vinegar, pour it in, stir it for two or three minutes, and then send it to table.

To make Eel Soup.

Take eels according to the quantity of soup you would make; a pound of eels will make a pint of very good soup, so to every pound of eels put a [...]

To make a standing Sauce.

Take a quart of claret, or white wine, put it in a glazed jar, with the juice of two lemons, five anchovies, some whole Jamaica pepper, some sliced ginger, some mace, a few cloves, a little lemon-peel, horse-radish sliced, some sweet herbs, six shalots, two spoonfuls of capers, and their liquor; put all these in a linen bag, and put it into the wine, stop it close, set the vessel in a kettle of hot water for an hour, and keep it in a warm place. A spoonful or two of this liquor is good to any sauce.


To fricasee Lamb Stones and Sweetbreads.

HAVE ready some lamb-stones blanched, par­boiled, and sliced, and flour two or three sweet­breads; if very thick, cut them in two; the yolks of six hard eggs whole, a few pistachio nut kernels, and a sew large oysters; fry all these of a fine brown, then pour away the butter, and add a pint of drawn gravy, the lamb-stones, some aspa­ragus tops of about an inch long, some grated nutmeg, a little pepper and salt, two shalots shred small, and a glass of white wine. Stew all these together for ten minutes, then add the yolks of six eggs beat very fine, with a little white wine, and a little mace; stir all together till it is of a fine thickness, and then dish it up. Garnish with lemon.

To fricasee Chickens.

Half roast the chickens, then having cut them up, as for eating, skin them, and put them into a stewpan with a little white gravy, the juice of a lemon, an anchovy for every chicken, with a suf­ficient quantity of mace and nutmeg grated, and then boil them. Take also the yolks of eggs, as much as necessary, a little sweet cream, and shred parsley; then put them into a stewpan with a lump of butter and a little salt; shake them all the time they are over the fire, but do not let them boil, for that would make them curdle. Serve it up poured upon sippets, and garnish the dish with sliced lemon, or pickled mushrooms.

To fricasee a Hare.

Boil the hare with apples, onions, and parsley; when it is tender, shred it small, then put thereto a pint of red wine, one nutmeg, a little pepper and salt, and two or three anchovies; stir these together, with the yolks of twelve hard eggs shred small; when it is served up, put in as much melted butter as will make it moist. Garnish the dish with some of the bones, and the whites of eggs boiled [...]ard, and cut in halves.

To fricasee Rabbits.

Half roast two young rabbits, then skin and cut them to pieces, using only the whitest parts, which [...]ou must put into a stewpan, with a sufficient quantity of white gravy, a small anchovy, a little onion, shred mace, grated lemon-peel, and nutmeg [...]rated; let it have one boil. Then take a little cream, the yolks of two eggs, a lump of butter, a little juice of lemon, and shred parsley; put them [...] together in a stewpan, and shake them over the [...]re till they are as white as cream; but do not [...] the mixture boil, for it will curdle if it does. Garnish the dish with sliced lemon and pickles.



A Ragout of Snipes.

Take two brace of snipes, clean picked, put piece of butter into a stewpan, and give you snipes a browining; then cut them down the back and press them flat, but do not take out the tail put them into a stewpan with some good gravy, small glass of red wine, a gill of small mushrooms a little beaten mace, and salt: Let them stew [...] or six minutes, then roll a piece of butter in flour. When it is the thickness of cream, skim it clea [...] and dish them up. Garnish your dish with toasted sippets, and orange cut in small quarters.

A Ragout of Eggs.

Boil six eggs hard; then take large mushroom peel and scrape them clean, put them into a sauce pan, with a little salt, cover them, and let the boil; put to them a gill of red wine, a good piece of butter rolled in flour, seasoned with mace and nutmeg; let it boil till it is of a good thickness cut the white of your eggs round so that you do not break the yolks; lay some toasted sippets in your dish, with the yolks of eggs; then pour over your ragout. Garnish your dish with the whites; [...] the flat side uppermost, and a Seville orange be­tween.

To ragoo Sturgeon.

Cut sturgeon into collops, lard, and rub [...] over with an egg, dust on some flour, and fry [...] of a fine brown in lard: As soon as they are [...] put them into a stewpan, with a pint of [...] gravy, some sweet herbs shred fine, some slices lemon, veal sweetbreads cut in pieces, [...] mushrooms, and a glass of white wine; bind with a good cullis till it is of a proper thickness then take off the scum very clean, dish it up, [...] garnish it with barberries and lemon.

To ragoo Oysters.

Open four dozen of the largest Melton oysters, [...] save the liquor; make a thick batter with [...] the yolks of eggs, nutmeg grated, and [...] chopped fine: Dip the oysters into the [...]tter, and then roll them in bread crumbs, and [...] them of a fine brown; when they are fried, [...] them up, and lay them on a drainer before [...] fire; empty your pan, and dust some flour all [...] it, then put in about two ounces of butter: When it is melted and thick, strain in your oyster [...], and stir it well together; put in two ounces [...] Pistachio nuts shelled, and let them boil; then [...] in half a pint of white wine, beat up the yolks [...] two eggs in four spoonfuls of cream, and stir all together till it is of a proper thickness; lay the [...] in the dish, and pour the ragout over. Gar­nish the dish with a Seville orange cut in some [...] quarters.

To ragoo a Piece of Beef, called Beef A-la-mode.

Take a buttock of beef, interlarded with great [...], rolled up with chopped spice, sage, par­ [...], thyme, and green onions; hind it close [...] coarse tape, and put it into a large sauce- [...] —When it is half done, turn it; let it and over the fire on a stove twelve hours. It is [...] to eat cold or hot. When it is cold, slice it [...] thin, and [...]oss it up in a fine ragout of sweet­breads, oysters, mushrooms, and palates.

To ragoo a Breast of Veal.

Put a breast of veal, with an onion, a bundle of [...]eet herbs, a little black pepper and grated nut­meg, a blade or two of mace, and a very little lemon-peel grated into a large stew, and just cover [...] with water; when it grows tender, take it up [...] bone it.

[Page 70] Put the bones into the liquor, and boil them [...] they make good gravy; then strain it off. Add [...] this liquor a quarter of a pint of rich beef gravy half an ounce of truffles and morels, a spoonful [...] catchup, and two spoonfuls of white wine. While these are boiling together, flour the veal, and [...] it in butter till it comes to be of a fine brown; then drain off the butter, and pour the gravy to the veal, with a few mushrooms.

Boil all together till the liquor becomes rich and thick, cut the sweetbread into four, and spread the pieces and forced-meat balls over the dish, having first laid the veal in the dish, and poured the sauce all over it. Garnish with sliced lemon.

To ragoo a Neck of Veal.

Cut it into steaks, flatten them with a rolling­pin, lard them with bacon, and season them with a mixture of salt, pepper, grated nutmeg, mace, lemon-peel and thyme; then dip each steak se­parately in the yolks of eggs. Put all together into a stewpan, over a slow fire, and keep basting and turning the steaks in order to keep in the gravy. When they are done sufficiently, dish them with half a pint of strong gravy, seasoned high, adding mushrooms, pickles, and forced-meat ball dipped in the yolks of eggs. Garnish with stewed and fried oysters.

If you intend a brown ragout, put in a glass of red wine; if a white ragout, put in white wine, with the yolks of eggs beaten up with two or three spoonfuls of cream.

To ragoo a Leg of Mutton.

Take off the fat and skin, and cut the flesh very thin, the right way of the grain. Butter the stewpan, dust it with flour, and put in the meat, with half a lemon and half an onion cut very small, [Page 71] a blade of mace, and a little bundle of sweet herbs, stir it a minute or two; then put in a quarter of a pint of gravy, and an anchovy minced small, mixed with butter and flour. Stir it again for six minutes, and then dish it up.


For Potting Beef.

TAKE a leg of mutton piece of twelve pounds, cut it into pound pieces, and salt it as for collar of beef; let it lie six days, put it in a pan covered with pump-water, and bake it with houshold­bread; when it comes out of the oven, take it put of the liquor, beat it in a stone mortar; then season it with an ounce of pepper, half an ounce of cloves and mace, mix it into a pound of clarified butter, put it close into your pot, and cover it with clarified butter on the top half an inch thick.

To Pot Pigeons, or any other Fowls.

Your pigeons being trussed and seasoned with savory spice, put them in a pot, cover them with butter, and bake them; then take them out and [...]rain them, and when they are cold, cover them with clarified butter. The same way you may pot dish, only bone them when they are baked.

For Potting Tongues.

Take two tongues, salt them with saltpetre, white salt, and brown sugar; bake them tender [Page 72] in pump-water, then blanch them, cut off the roots, and season with pepper and spice. Put them in an oval pot, and cover all over with cla­rified butter.

For Potting a Hare.

Bone your hare, and take away all the skinny part, then put to the flesh some good fat bacon and savory herbs; season it with mace, nutmeg, and pepper, and a little salt, then beat all this fine in a mortar; put it down an hour and a half, and when it comes up, pour out all the gravy, and fill it up with clarified butter.

For Potting Cheshire Cheese.

Put three pounds of Cheshire cheese into a mor­tar, then take a pound of the best fresh butter you can get, pound them together, and in the beating add a glass or two of Canary, and half an ounce of mace, so finely beat and sifted, that it cannot be discerned. When all is well mixed, press it hard down into a pan, cover it with melted butter, and keep it close.

A slice of this upon bread eats very fine.

To collar Pork.

Bone a breast of pork, season it with savory sea­soning, a good quantity of thyme, parsley and sage; then roll it in a nard collar in a cloth, tie it at both ends, and boil it, and, when it is cold, steep it in the savory liquor in which it was boiled.


A Neat's Tongue Pie.

HALF boil the tongues, blanch them and slice them, season them with savory seasoning, sliced lemon, balls, and butter; then close the pie. When it is baked, take gravy and veal sweetbreads, ox palates, and cocks-combs tossed up, and pour them into the pie.

A Lamb Pie.

Season the lamb-steaks, lay them in the pie with sliced lamb-stones and sweetbreads, savory­balls, and oysters. Lay on butter, and close the pie with a lear.

A Lamb Pie with Currants.

Take a leg and a loin of lamb, cut the flesh into small pieces, and season it with a little salt, cloves, mace, and nutmeg; then lay the lamb in your paste, with as many currants as you think proper, and some Lisbon sugar, a few raisins stoned and chopped small; add some forced-meat balls, yolks of hard eggs, with artichoke bottoms, or potatoes that have been boiled and cut in dice, with can­died orange and lemon-peel cut in slices; put butter on the top, and a little water, then close your pie, bake it gently; when it is baked take off the top and put in your caudle made of gravy from the bones, some white wine and juice of le­mon; thicken it with the yolks of two eggs, and a bit of butter. When you pour in your caudle, [Page 74] let it be hot, and shake it well in the pie; then serve it, having laid on the cover.

N. B. If you observe too much fat swimming on the liquor of your pie, take it off before you pour in your caudle.

A Mutton Pie.

Season the mutton steaks, fill the pie, lay on butter, and close it. When it is baked, toss up a handful of chopped capers, cucumbers and oysters, in gravy, with an anchovy and drawn butter.

A Veal Pie.

Raise a high round pie, then cut a fillet of veal into three or four pieces, season it with savory sea­soning, and a little minced sage and sweet herbs; lay it in the pie with slices of bacon at the bottom, and between each piece lay on butter, and close the pie. When it is baked, and half cold, fill it up with clarified butter.

A Hen Pie.

Cut it in pieces, and lay it in the pie; lay on balls, sliced lemon, butter, and close it with the yolks of hard eggs; let the lear be thickened with eggs.

A Chicken Pie.

Take six small chickens, roll a piece of butter in sweet herbs, season and lay them into a cover, with the marrow of two bones rolled up in the batter of eggs, a dozen of yolks of eggs boiled hard, and two dozen of savory balls; when you serve it up, pour in a quart of good white gravy.

A sweet Chicken Pie.

Break the bones of four chickens, then cut them into small pieces, season them highly with mace, cinnamon, and salt; have four yolks of eggs boiled hard and quartered, and five artichoke bottoms, eight ounces of raisins of the sun stoned, eight ounces of preserved citron, lemon, and eringo-roots, of each alike; eight ounces of marrow, four slices of rinded lemon, eight ounces of currants, fifty balls of forced-meat, made as for umble-pie; put sin all, one with the other, but first butter the bot­tom of the pie, and put in a pound of fresh butter on the top lid, and bake it; then put in a pint of white wine mixed with a little sack, and (if you will) the juice of two oranges, sweetening it to your taste. Make it boil, and thicken it with the yolks of two eggs; put it to the pie when both are very hot, and serve it up.

A Turkey Pie.

Bone the turkey, season it with savory spice, and [...]ay it in the pie, with two young fowls cut to pieces, to fill up the corners. A goose pie is made the same way, with two rabbits, to fill it up as afore­said.

A Pigeon Pie.

Truss and season the pigeons with savory spices, and stuff them with forced-meat; lay on lamb-stones, sweetbreads, and butter; close the pie with a lear. A chicken or capon pie may be made the same way.

A Battalia Pie.

Take four small chickens, squab pigeons, and four sucking rabbits, cut them in pieces; and season them with savory spice; lay them in the pie with [Page 76] four sweetbreads sliced, as many sheeps tongue and shivering palates, two pair of lamb-stones twenty or thirty cocks-combs, with savory ball and oysters; lay on butter, and close the pie with a lear.

A Lamb-stone and Sweetbread Pie.

Boil, blanch, and slice them, and season them with savory seasoning; lay them in the pie with sliced artichoke bottoms; put on butter, and close the pie with a lear.

A Calf's Head Pie.

Almost boil the calf's-head, take out the bones, cut it in thin slices, season and mix it with sliced shivered palates, cocks combs, oysters, mushrooms, and balls. Lay on butter, and close the pie with a lear.

A Minced Pie.

Shred a pound of neat's tongue parboiled, with two pounds of beef suet, five pippins, and a green lemon-peel; season it with an ounce of spice, a little salt, a pound of sugar, two pounds of currants, half a pint of sack, a little brandy, the juice of a lemon, a quarter of a pound of citron, lemon and orange-peel. Mix these together, and fill the pies.

A Carp Pie.

To a quartern of flour put two pounds of but­ter, rubbing a third part in; make it into paste with water, then roll in the rest of the butter at three times; lay your paste in the dish, put in some bits of butter on the bottom paste, with pep­per and salt; scale and gut your carps, put them in vinegar, water, and salt; then wash them out of the vinegar and water, wipe them dry, and make [Page 77] the following pudding for the belly of the carp: Take the flesh of an eel, cut it small, add some grated bread, two buttered eggs, an anchovy cut small, a little nutmeg grated, with pepper and salt. Mix these together well, and fill the belly of the carp; then make some forced-meat balls or the same mixture, cut off the tail and sins of the carp, and lay in the crust, with slices of fat bacon, a little mace, and some bits of butter; close your pie, and before you see it in the oven, pour in half a pint of claret. Serve it up hot.

An Oyster Pie.

Parboil a quart of large oysters in their own li­quor, mince them small, and pound them in a mortar, with Pistachio nuts, marrow and sweet herbs, an onion, savory seeds, and a little grated bread, or season as afroresaid whole. Lay on butter, close it, and serve it up hot.

A Flounder Pie.

Take twelve large flounders, cut off their tails, [...], and heads, and then season them with pepper and salt, cloves, mace and nutmeg beaten fine. Take two or three eels well cleaned, cut in lengths of three inches, and season as before; then lay [...]our flounders and eels in your pie, and the yolks of eight hard eggs, half a pint of pickled mush­rooms, an anchovy, a little onion, a bunch of sweet herbs, and some lemon-peel grated. You must put three quarters of a pound of butter on the top, with a quarter of a pint of water, and a [...]ill of white wine; then close your pie, and serve it hot, first taking out the onion and bunch of sweet herbs.

A Trout Pie.

Clean, wash, and scale them, lard them with [...]ieces of a silver eel rolled up in spice, and sweet [Page 78] herbs, with bay leaves powdered; lay on and between them the bottoms of sliced artichokes, mushrooms, oysters, capers, and sliced lemon; lay on butter, and close the pie.

An Eel Pie.

Cut, wash, and season them with sweet seasoning, and a handful of currants; butter and close it.— Some omit the currants.

A Lamprey Pie.

Clean, wash, and season them with sweet season­ing; lay them in a coffin with citron and lemon sliced; butter and close the pie.

An Egg Pie.

Shred the yolks of twenty hard eggs, with the same quantity of marrow and beef suet; season it with sweet spice, citron, orange and lemon; fill and close the pie.

An Apple or Pear Pie.

Make a good puff-paste crust, lay some round the sides of the dish, pare and quarter your apples, and take out the cores; lay a row of apples thick, throw in half the sugar you intend for your pie, mince a little lemon-peel fine, throw a few cloves, here and there one, then the rest of your apples, and the rest of your sugar. You must sweeten to your palate, and squeeze in a little lemon-juice. Boil the peeling of the apples and the cores in water, with a blade of mace, till it is very good, strain it, and boil the syrup with sugar till it is rich. pour it into the pie, put on your upper crust, and bake. You may put in a little quince or marmalade, if you please.

Thus make a pear-pie, but don't put in any quinces. You may butter them when they come [Page 79] out of the oven, or beat up the yolks of two eggs, and half a pint of cream, with a little nutmeg, sweetened with sugar; take off the lid, and pour in the cream. Cut the crust in little three-cornered pieces, stick them about the pie, and send it to table.

A Cherry, Plumb, or Gooseberry Pie.

Make a good crust, lay a little round the sides of your dish, throw sugar at the bottom, and lay in your fruit, with sugar on the top. A few red cur­rants do well with them; put on your lid, and bake it in a slack oven.

Make a plumb pie the same way, and also a gooseberry pie. If you would have it red, let it stand a good while in the oven after the bread is drawn. A custard is very good with the gooseberry pie.

Of TARTS, &c.

To make Iceing for Tarts.

Having beat and sifted a quarter of a pound of double refined sugar, put it into a mortar, with two spoonfuls of rose water, and the white of one egg; beat all together for half an hour, and then lay it on your tarts with a feather.

To make Tarts of various Kinds.

When you design to make your tarts in tin patty­pans, first butter the pans, and then lay a thin rich crust all over them; but when you make them in glass or china dishes, you need not put any crust except the upper one; scatter fine sugar on the bot­tom, then put in your fruit, and strew sugar over it. Let your tarts be baked in a slack oven.

If tarts be made of apricots, &c. you must neither pare them, nor cut them, nor stone them, nor use [Page 80] lemon-juice, which is the only material difference between these and other fruit.

Observe, with respect to preserved tarts, only lay in the preserved fruit, and put a very thin crust over them, and bake them as short a time as possible.

To make Puff Paste.

Take a quartern of flour, mix with it half a pound of butter, and make it up into a light paste with water; then roll out your paste, stick pieces of butter all over it, and dust it with a little flour; fold it up, then roll it out again; after this put in more butter, flour it, fold it up, and roll it out; repeat this till your paste is of a proper consistence.

A Paste for Tarts.

Of flour, butter, and sugar, take half a pound each, mix them up together, beat it well with a rolling-pin, and roll it out thin.

A Paste for raised Pies.

You must boil six pounds of butter in a gallon of water, and when it is melted, skim it off into a peck of flour, work it up into a paste, pull it in lumps till it is cold, and make it up in whatever form you please. This is a very good crust for a goose pie.

An excellent Paste for Pattypans.

Take three or four eggs, half a pound of butter, a pound of flour, and two ounces of fine sugar; work it all up into a paste.

A Paste for Custards.

Mix half a pound of flour with three or four spoon­fuls of cream, six ounces of butter, and the yolks of two eggs; when mixed, let it stand a quarter of an hour, then work it up well, and roll it out thin.


General Directions with regard to Puddings.

WHEN you boil puddings, take great care that your bag or cloth be very clean; dip it in hot water, and flour it well. You must always let the water boil before you put in the pudding, and you should frequently move your pudding in the pot, to prevent it from sticking. When your pudding is boiled, just dip it in a pan of clean cold water, then untie the cloth, and the pudding will turn out without sticking to the cloth. In all baked puddings you must butter the pan or dish before your pudding is poured in.

To make a Bread Pudding.

Having cut the crumb of a penny loaf into thin slices, pour over it a quart of boiling milk, cover it up close, and let it stand some hours to [...]oak; then beat it well with some melted butter, the yolks and whites of a few eggs, a little salt, and some grated nutmeg; tie your pudding loose in the cloth, and let it boil about three quarters of an hour: when it is done, lay it in your dish, and pour on it melted butter and sugar. You may, if you please, put some currants in your pudding, before you boil it.

A baked Bread Pudding.

You must put a quarter of a pound of butter into a pint of milk or cream, [...]et it over the fire, [Page 82] and stir it well; as soon as the butter is melted, add to the milk a sufficiency of crumbled bread, three or four eggs, half a pound of currants pick­ed and washed clean, a good deal of sugar, some grated nutmeg, ginger, and a little salt; mix all up together, pour it in a butter'd dish, and send it to the oven.

To make a plain boiled Pudding.

Mix with a pint of milk six eggs well beaten, two or three spoonfuls of flour, some sugar, a little grated nutmeg and salt; put this mixture into a bag or cloth, then put it in your pot, and when it has boiled an hour, serve it up with melted butter over it.

A Batter Pudding.

Take a quart of milk, five or six spoonfuls of flour, six eggs, a little salt and beaten ginger; mix the whole up together, boil it an hour, and send it to table with melted butter and sugar.

A Rice Pudding.

Put half a pound of rice (either ground or other­wise) into three pints of milk, and boil it well; when it is almost cold, mix it with seven or eight beaten eggs, half a pound of butter, some cinna­mon, mace, and nutmeg, and half a pound of sugar; you may either boil or bake it.

A Marrow Pudding.

Slice a penny loaf into a quart of boiling cream or milk; add to it a pound of beef marrow shred fine, the yolks of eight eggs, three spoonfuls of rose-water, a glass of brandy or sack, a quarter of a pound of currants, some candied citron, and lemon sliced thin, grated nutmeg, and sugar; mix [Page 83] all together, and either boil it or send it to the oven to bake. Stick pieces of citron all over the top of your pudding when you serve it up.

A Custard Pudding.

Take the yolks of six eggs well beaten, two spoonfuls of flour, some sugar and grated nutmeg; mix all together in a pint of new milk or cream, and boil it half an hour; when you serve it up, pour in the dish some melted butter mixed with a little white wine. Baked custard pudding is equally good.

To make a baked Apple Pudding.

You must boil your apples tender, and bruise them through a sieve; add to them a quarter of a pound of butter, the yolks of eight eggs, a pound of loaf sugar, a pint of cream, some lemon-juice, and grated nutmeg; mix all together, put a thin puff-paste on the bottom and rims of your dish, pour the pudding in, and let it be baked in a slack oven.

A Lemon Pudding.

First grate the rinds of four lemons, then grate two Naples buiscuits, and mix them with your lemon-peel; add three quarters of a pound of white sugar, the like quantity of melted butter, twelve yolks of eggs and six whites, the juice of two or three lemons, and half a pint of cream or milk, beat the whole up together, lay a thin crust all over your dish, and having put in your pudding, send it to the oven to bake. An orange pudding may be made the same way.

A Steak Pudding.

Take a quartern of flour, and two pounds of suet chopped fine, and mix it up with cold water [Page 84] into a good paste; then season your steaks (which may be either mutton or beef) with pepper and salt, lay them in the crust, and close it up; tie your pudding in a cloth, and put it into the pot. A large steak-pudding takes four or five hours boiling; a small one will be done in three hours.

To make a Tansey Pudding.

To a pint of cream put ten eggs, well beaten, and some grated bread; season it with nutmeg, some sugar, and a little salt; green it well with the juice of tansey and spinach, mix it up together, put it in a stewpan, with a lump of butter, set it over a slow fire, and when it is of a proper thick­ness, put it in a buttered dish, and bake it. Lay sweetmeats over it when you serve it up.

A Sweetmeat Pudding.

Lay a thin paste all over your dish, and cover the bottom with candied orange, citron, and lemon­peel sliced thin; then beat up the yolks of eight eggs with half a pound of melted butter, and seven or eight ounces of sugar; pour this mixture on your sweetmeats, and bake it in a slack oven.

An Almond Pudding.

You must beat a pound of sweet almonds very fine, with a gill of sack, and three or four spoonfuls of rose-water; add near half a pound of sugar, a quart of cream, the yolks of eight eggs, and the whites of four, half a pound of butter melted, two spoonfuls of flour and bread crumbs, some grated nutmeg and cinnamon; mix all well together, and either boil or bake it.

Of CAKES, &c.

To make a good Seed Cake.

TAKE a quartern of flour, two pounds of butter beaten to a cream, a pound and a half of fine sugar, ten yolks of eggs and five whites, some beaten mace, cloves, nutmeg, and cinnamon, three or four ounces of carraway-seeds, half a pint of cream, two or three ounces of candied citron and orange-peel, a little new yeast, and a spoonful or two of rose-water; mix the whole well together, and put it in a tin hoop, which must be papered at the bottom, and buttered; it will take an hour and a half, or two hours in a quick oven. When it is baked, you may ice it over with sugar and the whites of eggs, and then set it again in the oven to harden.

A Pound Cake.

You must beat a pound of butter till it is like fine thick cream, then mix with it twelve yolks of eggs and five whites, a pound of flour, a few carraways, and a pound of sugar; beat it all well together for an hour, then put it in a butter'd pan, and bake it an hour in a brisk-oven. Some people put currants in it.

To make a fine rich Cake.

Take two pounds of fresh butter beat to a cream, a pound of double refined sugar, a quartern and a half of fine flour, a pint of sweet wine, a quart of cream, five or six pounds of currants, a pint of yeast, two nutmegs grated, some candied orange, lemon, and citron, a little orange-flower, or rose-water, some cinnamon, mace, ginger, and cloves; [Page 86] knead the whole well together; then put it into your hoop, and let it bake upwards of two hours.

A good Plumb Cake.

To a pound and half of fine flour, add a pound of currants, half a pound of raisins stoned and chopped small, ten or twelve eggs (but only half the whites) a pound of butter worked to a cream, a gill of white wine or brandy, a pound of sugar, a little orange-flower water, some candied citron. orange, and lemon, a few sweet almonds pounded, a little beaten mace, nutmeg, and cinnamon; when you have beat it all together about an hour, put it in the hoop, and send it to the oven: It will take two hours baking.

Shrewsbury Cakes.

Take half a pound of fine flour, the same quan­tity of butter beat up to a cream, one or two eggs, half a pound of loaf sugar beat and sifted, half an ounce of carraway-seeds, and two spoonfuls of rose-water; mix it all up into a paste, roll it thin, and cut it into little cakes, which must be laid on sheets of tin, and sent to the oven.

To make Gingerbread Cakes.

You must take a pound of sugar, three pounds of flour, a pound of treacle made warm, some beaten mace, nutmeg, and ginger, a pound of melted butter, a gill of cream, and a few coriander seeds; mix all together to the consistence of a paste; roll it out, and cut it into thin cakes, or roll it round in the shape of nuts. Let them be baked in a slack oven on tin plates.

To make Macaroons.

Take a pound of fine sugar, the whites of six or seven eggs, a pound of sweet almonds blanched and pounded, and a spoonful or two of rose-water; beat all well together, shape your cakes on wafer-paper, grate a little sugar over them, and bake them on plates of tin.

To make Biscuits.

Take eight eggs well beaten, put to them a pound of fine powdered sugar, some grated lemon­peel, a little rose-water, an ounce of coriander­seeds, and a pound of flour; mix the whole up together, shape it into biscuits on wafer-paper, in whatever form you please, dust fine sugar over them, and bake them.

To make good Pancakes.

Take eight yolks of eggs and four whites, a pint of cream or milk, three or four spoonfuls of sack, a little sugar, a quarter of a pound of butter melted, half a pint of flour, some grated nutmeg and salt; mix it all together, and pour as much of it into your frying-pan as will make one pancake; shake the pan, and when one side of the pancake is enough, turn it, and do the other side; then take it out, and fry the rest in the same manner. When you dish them up, strew sugar over them.

To make good Fritters.

Add to a pint of thick cream five or six beaten eggs (but leave out three of the whites) a little brandy or sack, some grated nutmeg, cinnamon, ginger, and salt; make this up into a thick batter with flour, then pare and chop a few golden pippins, mix them with the batter, and fry your [Page 88] fritters of a light brown in boiling lard; serve them up with sugar scattered over them. For change, you may put currants in the fritters.


To make fine Cheesecakes.

TAKE three quarters of a pound of butter melted, three or four ounces of sweet almonds blanched and beat fine, the curd of a gallon of new milk, three Naples biscuits grated, the yolks of seven eggs, half a pound of currants, some beaten cinnamon and nutmeg, half a pound of fine sugar, two or three spoonfuls of sack, and a little rose or orange flower water; mix all these well together, have ready some pattypans lined with rich crust, pour some of your mixture into each, and bake your cheesecakes in a gentle oven.

To make Rice Cheesecakes.

To five or six ounces of rice boiled soft, add near half a pound of melted butter, six or seven ounces of loaf sugar, half a nutmeg grated, four yolks of eggs beat up, a glass of brandy or ratafia, half a pint of cream or milk made warm, and a little cinnamon; beat up all together, and bake the cheesecakes in raised crusts or pattypans.

To make Lemon or Orange Cheesecakes.

First boil the rind of two large lemons or oranges, then pound it well in a mortar, with the yolks of half a dozen eggs, half a pound of butter [Page 89] beat to a cream, and about six ounces of fine sugar; mix the whole up together, lay a thin puff-paste in your pattypains, pour into them your mixed ingre­dients, and set them in the oven.

To make common Custards.

You must sweeten a quart of cream or new milk to your palate; then grate in some nutmeg and cinnamon, beat up the yolks of eight eggs with a little rose-water, and stir them into your cream or milk; mix it up well, and bake it in crusts or china cups, or you may put it into a deep china bowl, and set it in a kettle of boiling water, but do not let the water get into the bowl.

To make a Rice Custard.

Boil a quart of cream with some ground rice, a little mace and nutmeg: stir it well together all the while it is boiling, and, when it is enough, sweeten it to your taste, and put in a little orange flower or rose-water. Serve it up either cold or hot.

Almond Custards.

To a quarter of a pound of almonds blanched and pounded, add a quart of cream, two spoonfuls of rose-water, the yolks of four or five eggs, some mace and cinnamon; mix it all together, sweeten it as you like, set it on the sire, and keep stirring it till it is of a proper thickness; then pour it into cups, and send it to table; or you may bake your aimond custards in china cups.

To make Lemon or Orange Cream.

Take the juice of four large lemons or Seville oranges, half a pint of spring water, the whites [Page 90] of five or six eggs, and the yolks of four well­beaten, a pint of cream boiled, and a pound of double refined sugar beaten fine; mix the whole up well together, set it in a tossing-pan over a gentle fire, put into it the peel of one orange or lemon, and keep stirring it one way all the time it is on the fire; when your cream is almost ready to boil, take out the peel, and pour the cream into china bowls, or jelly glasses.

Almond Cream.

First boil a quart of cream with a blade or two of mace, a piece of lemon peel, and some grated nutmeg; then take four ounces of almonds blanched and beat very fine, the whites of eight or nine eggs well beaten, and a spoonful or two of rose-water; mix these up with your cream, sweeten it to your taste, set it over the fire, stir it well till it is thick, and then pour it into glasses.

Whipt Cream.

Take the whites of eight eggs well beat, half a pint of sack, and a quart of good cream boiled; mix it all together, and sweeten it with fine sugar; whip it up with a whisk that has a piece of lemon­peel tied in the middle, skim off the froth, and put the mixture in glasses and basons.

To make a good Syllabub.

Having put a quart of cyder into a china bowl, grate a small nutmeg into it, and sweeten it with double refined sugar; then put into your liquor some new milk, fresh from the cow, and pour over that some nice cream.

To make a Whipt Syllabub.

To half a pint of Canary wine, add half a pound of fine sugar, the whites of three or four eggs, and [...] quart of cream; whip it up with a whisk till it froths, then skim it, and pour it into your syllabub glasses.

To make a Trifle.

Take a deep dish or bowl, cover the bottom with macaroons broke in two, ratafia cakes, and Naples biscuits broke in pieces; just moisten them with a little sack, then make a light boiled custard, and when it is cold put it over your macaroons, &c. and over that pour a fine syllabus.

To make Currant Jelly.

First pick the currants from the stalks, then put them into a stone jar, cover it close, set it in a kettle of boiling water, and when it has boiled about half an hour, take it out, and strain off the juice of your currants; to every quart of juice add a pound and a half of loaf sugar, set it over a brisk clear fire, stir it gently till the sugar is melted, skim it well, and let it boil twenty minutes, or half an hour; then pour your jelly into gallipots, cover each of the pots with paper dipped in brandy, and keep them for use in a dry place.

To make Hartshorn Jelly.

Take half a pound of hartshorn, put it into two quarts of spring water, and let it simmer over a moderate fire till the liquor is reduced to half the quantity, then strain it off, add to it the juice of two or three oranges and lemons, the whites of six eggs well beaten, a little Rhenish or white wine, some lemon-peel cut small, and nine or ten [Page 92] ounces of fine sugar; mix these up with your jelly, give it a boil, strain it through a jelly bag till it is clear, and then pour it into your jelly glasses.

To make Calf's Feet Jelly.

You must boil four calves feet in a gallon of water till it is reduced to two quarts; then strain off the liquor, and let it stand till it is cold; skim off all the fat, clear the jelly from the sediment, and put it into a saucepan, with eight whites of eggs beaten to a froth, a pint of Rhenish or Ma­deira wine, a sufficiency of loaf sugar, the juice of four or five lemons, and some shred lemon-peel; stir all together, and let it boil up; then pass it through your jelly bag till it is quite clear, and fill your glasses with it.

To make Rasberry Jam.

Bruise a quart of rasberries in a pint of currant-jelly, boil them over a slow fire about twenty mi­nutes, stir them all time, and put some sugar to them. When your jam is enough, pour it into your gallipots, cover it close, and keep it for use.

To make Flummery.

Boil a large calf's foot in two quarts of water, then strain the liquor, and put to it half a pint of thick cream, an ounce of bitter almonds, and two ounces of sweet almonds well beat up together; sweeten it with loaf sugar, just give it a boil up, then strain it off, and when cold put it into glasses or cups.

To make a good Sack Posset.

To a pint and a half of cream, or new milk, add a little cinnamon and nutmeg, and two or [Page 93] three Naples biscuits grated; let it boil over a slow fire till it is pretty thick, then put to it half a pint of sack, with a sufficiency of sugar, stir it all together over the fire, and send it to table with dry toast.

To make Wine Whey.

You must put half a pint of white wine, and a pint of milk well skimmed, into a china bowl, and when it has stood a few minutes, pour a pint of hot water over it; let it stand till the curd settles at the bottom, then pour out the whey into another bowl, and mix sugar with it.


To pickle Mushrooms.

PUT the smallest mushrooms you can get into a pan of spring water, then rub them with a piece of flannel dipped in salt, and let them be well washed; set them on the fire in a stewpan of boiling spring water, with a little salt in it, and when they have boiled five or six minutes, take them out, and throw them into a cullender to drain, then lay them between two cloths till they are cold; after which put them into wide-mouthed bottles, with a few blades of mace, some sliced nutmeg, and mutton fat melted; fill up the bottles with distilled vinegar, cork them close, and keep them for use.

To pickle Cabbage.

Having cut off the stalks and outside leaves, out your cabbage in thin slices; mean while make a pickle of vinegar, salt, mace, ginger, cloves, and nutmeg, boil it, and pour it on your cabbage, then put it into stone jars, and cover them close.

To pickle Cucumbers.

Take some small cucumbers fresh gathered, put them in a pan, and pour over them some hot brine; let them stand twenty-four hours close covered, then strain them out into a cullender, and dry them between two cloths. Take some white wine vinegar, and a proper quantity of all-spice, boil it up, and then put your cucumbers in it, with a little salt and a few bay-leaves; let them simmer over the fire in this pickle, then put the cucumbers and liquor into your jars, and tie a bladder over each jar.

To pickle Walnuts.

Put your walnuts in salt and water, in which they must remain several days, then take them out and dry them. Boil some white wine vinegar with mace, cloves, pepper, ginger, nutmeg, and salt, pour it hot over your walnuts, and when they are cold, put them in strong stone jars.

To pickle Onions.

First peel some small onions, then soak them well in brine, and put them into wide-mouthed bottles, with sliced ginger, mace, bay-leaves, and a little sweet-oil; fill the bottles with white wine vinegar, and cork them up close.

To preserve Gooseberries, Cheries, Rasberries, Currrants, Mulberries, &c.

Set your fruit over the fire, in a skillet or pre­serving pan, with a little water, and a good deal of fine sugar; let it boil gently till the syrup is pro­perly thick, then put your fruit and syrup into gallipots or glasses for use.

To keep green Pease all the Year.

Having shelled some fine young peas, let them boil five or six minutes, then throw them into a cullender to drain, dry them well with a cloth, and cover them close in quart bottles.

To candy Orange or Lemon Peel.

First steep your peel well in salt and water, then boil it tender, so as to take away the bitterness. Make a syrup of fine loaf sugar dissolved in water, put your peel into it, and boil it gently, then dry it before the fire, and keep it for use.

To candy Apricots.

Slit your apricots on one side of the stone, and put on them some fine sugar, lay them in a dish, and bake them in a pretty hot oven; then take them out of the dish, and dry them on glass plates in the oven for two or three days.

To dry Peaches.

Having pared and stoned some fine large peaches, you must boil them tender; after which lay them in a sieve to drain, and put them in the saucepan again, with their weight of sugar; boil them till the syrup is thick enough, and let them lie in the sugar all night; then lay them on plates, and dry them throughly in a stove.

To dry Cherries.

Take a sufficiency of fine sugar, put a little water to it, and boil it; stone your cherries, put them in the sugar, give them a boil, and let them stand in the syrup two or three days; then boil your syrup again, and pour it on them; let them stand some time longer, then lay them in a sieve to dry.

To candy Barberries and Grapes.

Take preserved barberries, wash off the syrup in water, and sift fine sugar on them; then let them be dried in the stove, turning them from time to time till they are thoroughly dry. Preserved grapes may also be candied after the same manner.

To candy Angelica.

Gather it in April, and boil it in water till it be tender, then take it up and drain it from the water very well; scrape the outside of it, dry it in a clean cloth, and lay it in the syrup; let it lie three or four days, and cover it close; the syrup must be rich, and keep it hot a good while, but let it not boil; lay it upon a pie plate to let it dry, and keep it near the fire, lest it dissolve.

To preserve Barberries.

Take them ripe and of a good colour, and the sort without stones; then take about three times the weight of them in fine sugar; boil some of the worst of the barberries in spring water, strain it, and take as much of it as will dissolve the sugar; boil it to a syrup, skim it clean, tie the fruit in bunches, and do them as the currants.

To make Marmalade.

To two pounds of quinces, add three quarters of a pound of sugar, and a pint of spring water; put them over the fire, and boil them till they are tender; drain off the liquor, and bruise them; then put them into it again, let it boil three quar­ters of an hour, and put it into your pots or saucers.

To keep French Beans all the Year.

Take young beans, gathered on a dry day, have a large stone jar ready, lay a layer of salt at the bottom, and then a layer of beans, then salt and then beans, and so on till the jar is full; cover them with salt, and tie a coarse cloth over them, and a board on that, and then a weight to keep it close from all air; set them in a dry cellar, and when you use them, take some out, and cover them close again; wash those you take out very clean, and let them lie in soft water twenty-four hours, shifting the water often; when you boil them do not put any salt in the water.

To keep white Bullace.

Gather them when full grown, and just as they begin to turn. Pick all the largest out; save about two-thirds of the fruit; to the other third put as much water as you think will cover them, boil and skim them; when the fruit is boiled very soft, strain it through a coarse hair sieve, and to every quart of this liquor put a pound and a half of sugar, boil it, and skim it very well; then throw in your fruit, just give them a scald, take them off the fire, and when cold, put them into bottles with wide mouths, pour your syrup over, lay on a piece of white paper, and cover them with oil.

To preserve Cherries.

Take two pounds of cherries, one pound and a half of sugar, half a pint of water, melt your sugar in it; when it is melted, put in your cherries; boil them softly at first, then faster, and skim them; take them off two or three times and shake them; put them on again, and let them boil fast. When they are of a good colour, and the syrup will stand, they are enough.

To preserve Mulberries whole.

Set some mulberries over a fire in a skillet or preserving-pan; draw from them a pint of juice when it is strained; then take three pounds of sugar beaten very fine, wet the sugar with the pint of juice, boil up your sugar and skim it, put in two pounds of ripe mulberries, and let them stand in the syrup till they are thoroughly warm; then set them on the fire, and let them boil very gently; do them but half enough, and put them by in the syrup till next day, then boil them gently again; when the syrup is pretty thick, and will stand in round drops when it is cold, they are enough; so put all into a gallipot for use.

To preserve Damsons.

Gather them when dry, full grown, and not ripe; pick them one by one, put them into glass bottles that are very clean and dry, and cork them close with new corks; then put a kettle of water on the fire, and put in the bottles with care; wet not the corks, but let the water come up to the necks; make a gentle fire till they are a little coddled, and turn white; do not take them up till cold, the [...] pitch the corks all over, or wax them close, and set them in a cool dry cellar.

To preserve Currants.

Take the weight of the currants in sugar, pick out the seeds; to a pound of sugar add half a pint of water; let it melt; then put in your currants, and let them do very leisurely; skim them, and take them up; let the syrup boil, then put them on again, and when they are clear, and the syrup thick enough, take them off. When they are cold, put them in glasses.

To preserve Rasberries.

Chuse rasberries that are not too ripe, and take the weight of them in sugar; wet your sugar with a little water, put in your rasberries, and let them boil softly; take heed of breaking them; when they are clear, take them up, and boil the syrup till it be thick enough, then put them in again, and when they are cold, put them up in glasses.


How to chuse Beef.

IF the beef be young, it will be smooth and tender; if old, it generally appears rough and spongy. When it is of a carnation colour, it is a sign of its being good spending meat.

To chuse Mutton.

When mutton is old, the flesh, when pinched, will wrinkle, and continue so; if it be young, the flesh will pinch tender, and the fat will easily part from the lean; whereas, when the meat is old, the fat will stick by strings and skins. The flesh of ewe mutton is in general paler than that of wether mutton; it is of a closer grain, and [Page 98] parts more easily. When the flesh of mutton is loose at the bone, and of a pale yellowish colour, it is an indication of its being somewhat rotten.

To chuse Lamb.

If a hind-quarter of lamb has a saint smell under the kidney, and the knuckle be limber, it is stale meat. If the neck vein of a fore quarter be of an azure colour, it is new and good meat; but if greenish, or yellowish, the meat is nearly tainted.

To chuse Pork.

If the pork be old, the lean will be tough, and the fat spongy and flabby; if young, the lean, when pinched, will break between your fingers, and when you nip the skin with your nails, it will make a dent. The skin of pork is in general clammy and sweaty when the meat is stale, but smooth and cool when new. When many little kernels, like hail-shot, are found in the fat of pork, it is then measly.

To chuse Veal.

When the flesh of a joint of veal seems clammy, and has greenish or yellowish specks, it is stale; but when it has not these appearances it is new. The flesh of a female calf is not so red and firm as that of a male calf.

To chuse Bacon.

If the fat is white, oily to the touch, and does not break, the bacon is good, especially if the flesh is of a good colour and sticks well to the bone; but if contrary symptoms appear, and the lean has some yellowish streaks, it is, or soon will be, rusty.

To chuse Hams.

You must run a knife under the bone that sticks out of the ham, and if it comes out pretty clean, and has a nice flavor, the ham is sweet and good; if much dulled and smeared, it is tainted and rancid.

To chuse Venison.

In a haunch or shoulder of venison, put your finger, or a knife, under the bones that stick out, and as the smell is rank or sweet, it is stale or new.

To chuse Turkies, Capons, Geese, Ducks, &c.

If the turkey be young, its legs will be smooth and black, and its spurs short; if it be stale, its eyes will be sunk, and feet dry; if new, the eyes will be lively; and the feet limber.

When a cock or capon is young, his spurs are short, and his legs smooth; if stale. he will have a loose open vent; if new, a close hard vent.

If the bill of a goose is yellowish, and she has but few hairs, she is young; but if her bill and feet are reddish, and she has plenty of hairs, she is an old one. If the goose be fresh, the feet will be limber; if stale, they will be dry.

Wild and tame ducks, if stale, will be dry-footed; if fresh, limber-footed.

To chuse Hares and Rabbits.

A hare, when newly killed, is stiff and whitish; when stale, the body is limber, and the flesh in many parts blackish If the hare he old, the ears will be tough and dry, and the claws wide and ragged; if young, the claws will be [Page 100] smooth, and the ears will tear like a piece of brown paper. Rabbits, when stale, are limber and slimy; when fresh, stiff and white; when young, their claws are smooth; when old, the contrary.

To chuse Salmon, Carp, Tench, Pike, Trout, Whitings, Barbels, Smelts, Shads, Chubs, Ruffs, Mackarel, Herrings, &c.

When these fish are stale, their gills are pale, their flesh soft and clammy, and their eyes dull and sunk; but when fresh, the gills are of a lively shining redness, the eyes bright and full, and the flesh stiff.


FISH in Season.

LOBSTERS, crabs, craw-fish, river craw-fish, guard-fish, mackarel, breams, barbel, roach, sha [...] or alloc, lamprey or lamper-eels, dace, b [...]eak, prawns, and horse-mackarel.

The eels that are taken in running water are better than pond eels; of those the silver ones are most esteemed.


Turbots and trouts, soals, grigs, shaffins and glout, tenes, salmon, dolphin, flying-fish, sheep­head, tollis, both land and sea, stugeon, seal, chub, lobsters and crabs.

Sturgeon is a fish commonly found in the northern seas; but now and then we find them in our great rivers, the Thames, the Severn, and the Tyne.—This fish is of a very large size, and will sometimes measure eighteen feet in length. They are much esteemed when fresh, cut in pieces, and roasted or baked, or pickled for cold treats. The cavier is esteemed a dainty, which is the spawn of this fish. The latter end of this quarter comes smelts.


Cod and haddock, coal-fish, white and pouting hake, lyng, tusk and mullet, red and grey, weaver, gurnet, rocket, herrings, sprats, soles and flounders, plaise, dabs and smeare- [...]abs, eels, chare, skate, thornbacks and humlyn, kinson, oysters and scol­lops, salmon, sea perch and carp, pike, tench, and sea tench.

Skate maids are black, and thornback maids white. Grey bass comes with the mullet.

In this quarter are fine smelts, and hold till after Christmas.

There are two sorts of mullets, the sea mullet and river mullet, both equally good.


Dorey, brill, gudgeons, smelts. crouch, perch, anchovy and loach, scollop and wilks, periwinkles, cockles, muscles, geare, bearbet and hollebet.


Which are yet lasting in JANUARY.

SOME grapes, the Kentish russet, golden, French, Kirton, and Dutch pippins, John ap­ples, winter queenings, the marigold and Hervey apples, pom-water, golden dorset, rennitting, love's pearmain, and the winter-pearmain; winter burga­mot, winter boucretien, winter mask, winter Nor­wich, and great surrin pears. All garden things much the same as in December.

FEBRUARY Fruits which are yet lasting.

The same as in January, except the golden pip­pin and pom-water; also the pomery, and the win­ter peppering and dagobent pear.

MARCH Fruits which are yet lasting.

The golden ducket-dauset, pippings, rennittings, love's pearmain and John apples. The latter bou­cretien and double-biossom pear.

APRIL Fruits which are yet lasting.

You have now in the kitchen garden and orchard, autumn carrots, winter spinach, sprouts of cabbage, and cauliflowers, turnip-tops. asparagu [...], young radishes, Dutch brown lettuce and cresses, burnet, young onions, scallions, leeks, and [...]arly kidney-beans. On hot beds, purslain, cucumbers, and mushrooms. Some cherries, green apricots, and gooseberries for tarts.

Pippins, deuxans, westbury-apple, russeting, gilliflower, the latter bourcretien, oak pear, &c.

MAY, the Product of the Kitchen and Fruit Garden this Month.

Asparagus, cauliflowers, imperial, Silesia, royal and cabbage lettuces, burnet, purslain, cucumbers, nasturtian flowers, pease and beans sown in October, artichokes, scarlet strawberries, and kidney beans. Upon the hot beds, May cherries, May dukes. On walls, green apricots, and gooseberries.

Pippins, deuxans, or John apple, Westbury ap­ples, russeting, gilliflower apples, the codling, &c.

The great karvile, winter boucretien, black Wor­cester pear, surrein, and double blossom pear. Now is the proper time to distil herbs, which are in their greatest perfection.

JULY, the Product of the Kitchen and Fruit Garden.

Roncival and winged pease, garden and kidney­beans, cauliflowers, cabbages, artichokes and their small suckers, all sorts of kitchen and aromatic [Page 107] herbs. Sallads, as cabbage lettuce, purslain, bur­net, young onions, cucumbers, blanched endive, carrots, turnips, beets, Nasturtian flowers, musk­melons, wood-strawberries, currants, gooseberries, rasberries, red and white jannatings, the Margaret apple, the primat russet, summer-green chissel and pearl pears, the carnation morella, great bearer, Morocco, origat, and begarreau cherries. The nut­meg, Isabella, Persian, Newington, violet, muscal and rambouillet peaches. Nectarines, the primo­dial, myrobalan, red, blue, amber, damask pear, apricot and cinnamon plumbs; also the King's and lady Elizabeth's plumbs, &c. some figs and grapes. Walnuts in high season to pickle, and rock sampier. The fruit yet lasting of the last year is, the deuxans and the winter russeting.

AUGUST, the Product of the Kitchen and Fruit Garden.

Cabbages and their sprouts, cauliflowers, arti­chokes, cabbage lettuce, beets, carrots, potatoes, turnips, some beans, peas, kidney-beans, and all sorts of kitchen herbs, radish, horse-radish, cucum­bers, cresses, some tarragon, onions, garlic, rocom­boles, melons, and cucumbers for pickling.

Gooseberries, rasberries, currants, grapes, figs, mulberries and filberts, apples, the winter sove­reign, orange Burgamot, slipper red Catherine, king Catherine, penny Prussian, summer poppening, sugar and louding pears. Crown Bourdeaux, Lavur, Disput, Savoy and Wallacotta peaches, the muroy, tawny, red Roman, little green cluster and yellow nectarines.

Imperial blue, dates, yellow late pear, black pear, white nutmeg pear, great Antony or Turkey and Jane plumbs.

Cluster muscadine and Cornelian grapes.

SEPTEMBER, the Product of the Kitchen and Fruit Garden.

Garden and some kidney-beans, roncival peas, artichokes, radishes, cauliflowers, cabbage lettuce, cresses, cherville, onions, tarragon, burnet, celery, endive, mushrooms, carrots, turnips, skirrets, beets, scorzonera, horse-radish, garlic, shalots, rocombole, cabbage and their sprouts, with savoys, which are better when more sweetened with the frost.

Peaches, grapes, figs, pears, plumbs, walnuts, filberts, almonds, quinces, melons and cucumbers.

OCTOBER, the Product of the Kitchen and Fruit Garden.

Some cauliflowers, artichokes, pease, beans, cu­cumbers, and melons; also July sown kidney-beans, turnips, carrots, parsnips, potatoes, skirrets, beets, onions, garlic, shalots, rocombole, churdones, cresses, cherville, mustard, radish, rape, spinach, lettuce small and cabbaged, burnet, tarragon, blanched celery and endive, late peaches and plumbs, grapes and figs, mulberries, filberts and walnuts; the bul­lice, pines and arbuters, and a great variety of apples and pears.

NOVEMBER, the Product of the Kitchen and Fruit Garden.

Cauliflowers in the green-house, and some arti­chokes, carrots, parsnips, turnips, beets, scorzonera, horse-radish, potatoes, onions, garlic, shalots, ro­combole, celery, parsley, sorrel, thyme, savoury, sweet marjoram dry and clary, cabbages and their sprouts, savoy cabbage, spinach, late cucumbers. Hot herbs on the hot bed, burnet, cabbage lettuce, endive blanched, several sorts of apples and pears.

Some bullice, medlars, arbutas, walnuts, hazle­nuts and chesnuts.

DECEMBER, the Product of the Kitchen and Fruit Garden.

Many sorts of cabbages and savoys, spinach, and some cauliflowers in conservatory, and artichokes in sand. Roots we have as in the last month.—Small herbs on the hot beds for sallads; also mint, tarragon, and cabbage lettuce preserved under glasses; cherville, celery, and endive blanched. Sage, thyme, savory, beet-leaves, tops of young beets, parsley, sorrel, spinach, leeks and sweet-marjoram, marigold-flowers, and mint dried.—Asparagus on the hot bed, and cucumbers on the plants sown in July and August, and plenty of pears and apples.


To wash Muslins.

TAKE your muslin aprons, hoods, or neckcloths, fold them four double, putting the two sel­vages together, then the ends together, and wash it the way the selvage goes, to prevent their f [...]aying [...] then take clear water, let it not be too hot, for that makes them yellow, and strain the water through a cloth; then take the best soap, a small quantity (as your wash is) put it upon a clean stick, beat up your lather, let it not be with a whisk, because it will make the water yellow, and leaves splinters in the water, which will tear the muslins.

After the lather is beat, put in your foulest muslins one by one, till you have put all in, let them stand to soak, then wash them one by one to [Page 110] prevent tearing, whilst the water is warm; then squeeze them between both hands, for fear of leaving the dirty suds in them: As you wash them out, shake them open into a dish; then let your second lather be beat up as your first, only let the water be hotter, but not scalding hot; wash them whilst they are warm, and squeeze them as before; then, as to your third lather, let your water be scalding hot, but not boiling, for that makes the water yellow; then take a small quantity of pow­der-blue, put it in a cup, and put water to it, a little more than will wet it, then shake the cup about, afterwards pour it into the scalding water, and stir it about till it is blue enough; then take soap and beat up your lather as before, and put the yellowest muslins in first, then let them be covered over with a clean cloth: You may wash them out whilst warm, or let them stand all night to clear them.

When you wash them out, take care and wash the blue out, then lay them in clear pump-water; if you have not time to starch them all at once, put no more in your starch than you can finish in one day, for lying in the starch makes them look yellow and streaky. Let them be in water till you have time to finish them; but do not excued two days.

Most starchers boil their muslins, but they should not, because it wears them out; but the scalding and letting muslins lie in the suds do them more good than a boil: Likewise observe never to soap your muslins, for washing out the soap will cause you to fray the muslins.

To rince Muslins before you starch them.

Take pump-water in a clean pan, then take a small quantity of blue in a cup, and put a little [Page 111] pump-water to it, shake it about in the cup, and pour a little of it in the rinsing-water, and stir it about; put your whitest muslins in first, one by one, and in case any blue should settle, rub them with your hand lightly in the water, and it will come off; and if any of your muslins be yellow, you must make the rinsing-water a little bluer: After you have rinsed them, squeeze them one by one, very hard, because they will not take the starch if any water is left in them, and pull them out with dry hands, double them upon a clean dry cloth, in order to starch them. Some people starch them dry; but they ought not, for it makes them yellow and stiff, and is very apt to fray them.

To make Starch for the Muslins.

Take a pint of pump water to a quarter of a pound of starch, put the water in a skillet, and put it over a clear fire till it is luke-warm, then put in your starch, keep it stirring slowly one way till it boils, one boil and no more, then pour it into a pan, cover it with a plate till it is cold; when it is cold, take some upon your hand, and some blue in the other hand, then mix them together, but make it not too blue, for the less blue the better: You need not make any more at a time, keep it not above a week, for that will make your muslins look yellow: Take your muslins doubled as before, one by one, then spread the starch with your hand, but not too thick, first on one side, and then on the other, but not open it; then blue the finest muslins first, and then the thicker, for the starch that comes out of the finest will starch the thick ones; and the same starch that comes out of the muslins will starch aprons, caps and handkerchiefs, for thin starch is best for them, because they must not be too stiff.

[Page 112] When you have starched the muslins, lay them in an earthen dish, kneading them with your dou­ble fist till the starch sticks about your hands, then squeezing them hard, wipe them with a dry cloth, after that open them, and rub them slightly through your hands.

When you have opened them, and rubbed them, take the two ends and so clap them between your hands, pull them out very well, to you and from you, to prevent the fraying. Be sure your hands are dry.

If any of the starch remains on your hands, it will fray the muslin; dry them well, and as you pull them out, hold them against the light to see if they are clapped enough.

If any thing looks shining, that is the starch, you must rub it over gently; when they are clap­ped enough, you will observe them to fly asunder, and not stick to your hands; but observe to clap very thick, and very hard, for if you let them dry they will be limber, so that when you see no shining, they are clapped enough. You must never clap them single, for that frays and tears them; neither clap by the fire, except in frosty weather, for that spoils the colour.

For the ironing of muslins, pull them out dou­ble on the board, as smooth and even as you can, and so on till you finish about six one upon ano­ther; then, with your box-iron, iron the under two first, because that is the driest, and should be pretty dry, but not quite dry, that you may iron them even, and prevent fraying. Let fine plain muslin be ironed upon a soft woollen cloth; but if you have any that is coarse or thick, you must first iron them upon a damp cloth, and then after­wards upon your ironing-cloth, the wrong side.

As for lawns, in the washing and rinsing, do them as you do muslins; make a very thin starch, [Page 113] but not water starch; dip them in, and squeeze them out hard, wipe them with a dry cloth very hard, and clap them carefully, for they are very apt to slip; then fold them up, and put them into a dry pan when they are clapped enough: If you touch them with any wet, it will leave a sort of thick look, and so will muslins. You may iron them on a damp cloth like the muslins, but not with too hot an iron; and also iron them on the wrong side, as you do the thick muslins.

You must not starch with starch left from other things, therefore make fresh as before, and see that the same be a little matter bluer than be­fore.

As for night-caps, aprons, &c. you must starch them in very thin starch, which comes from the muslins; but it must be thicker than water starch, a small matter of clapping serves them; but ob­serve that they are clear; you must also pull them out towards the gathers, to prevent the fraying them. Every way double them, and lay them on the board as even as you can, and let them lie till they are pretty near dry; then put them even, and iron them on the wrong sides.

To do lace the best way, you must sew tape to each side of the lace, then wash it amongst other muslins, or by itself, in three lathers, and if it looks not white, put it into warm butter-milk, and let it lie a day, then hang it to dry, and then wash it out in two or three lathers, but the lathers must be blue, after which take it out, and pin it upon your board by the tapes very even; then take muslins the length of the lace, and dip it in water starch, and so lay it upon the lace till it dries; observe not to squeeze any of the starch out of the muslin.

When the lace is dry, take off the tapes; after which pick the purls and the foot very tenderly.

[Page 114] If you open the purls, you must make a round hardish pillow, and lay paper on it, which will shew the purls the plainer; afterwards lay the lace upon the paper, and, with a long slender nee­dle, with a bit of wax at the head, you may easily open them, if they are well picked out at first; after you have opened them, lay them upon a board, with a muslin over them, and iron them with an iron not too hot.


To take Iron Moulds, or Stains of Claret, Ink, &c. out of Muslins, Table Linen, &c.

IF your muslins be iron-moulded, take a chaf­fing-dish of clear coals, set a plate over it with some sorrel in it, then put some salt upon the plate; afterwards take some more sorrel in a bit of muslin, and squeeze the juice upon it; let it lie till it is very hot, then take the stained place and squeeze it very hard; then take fresh sorrel and salt, and use it as before, till the stain is gone out; the mi­nute you see the stain is out, wash it in three or four lathers, till it has done looking green.

To get Spots of Ink out of Linen.

Take the linen, and let that part of it that the ink has fallen upon lay all night in vinegar and salt; the next day rub the spots well with it, as if you were washing in water, then put fresh vine­gar and salt, and let it lie another night, and the next day rub it again, and all the spots will disappear.

How to get the Stains of Fruit out of Linen.

Rub all the stains very well with butter, then put the linen into scalding hot milk; let it lie and steep there till it is cold, and rub the stained places in the milk till you see they are quite out.


Be careful in chusing the oldest soap you can, for that which is new-made, not only spoils the colour of the linen, but also does not go so far.

How to wash Silk Stockings.

Make a strong lather with soap, and pretty hot, then lay the stockings on a table, take a piece of very coarse rough cloth, roll it up, and rub them with it as hard as you can, turning them several times from one side to the other, till they have passed through tree lathers; then rinse them in three or four waters, till not the least tincture of the soap remains; and when you find them quite clear, hang them up to dry, without wringing, wrong side outwards. When they are about half dry, take them down, and pull them out with your hands into shape; let them lie a while, and [...] smooth them with your iron on the wrong­side.


To make a fine Pomatum for the Skin.

HAVING cut two pounds of hog's-lard into thin slices, wash it clean, and let it soak in old water eight or ten days, changing the water [Page 116] once a day; then melt it over a slow fire, and skim off any impurity that rises to the top; when melted, pour it into cold water, wash it clea [...] with rose-water, and then rub your skin with it.

To remove Freckles.

Mix three or four spoonfuls of bean-flour water with the same quantity of elder flower water, and add a spoonful of oil of tartar; when the mixture has stood two or three days, and is properly settled, rub a little over your face, and let it dry upon it.

To take off red Spots from the Face.

Place a lemon before a slow fire, in a flat earthen plate, to receive the liquor that sweats out of it; when all the juice is out, pour it into a glass to cool, and then rub the face with a few drops of it. This is an effectual method for removing all kinds of red spots.

To remove Wrinkles.

Take two ounces of the powder of myrrh, and lay it in a small fire shovel till it is thoroughly hot; then take a mouthful of white wine, and let it [...] gently upon the myrrh, which will smoke up; you must then immediately hold your face over it, so as to receive as much of the smoke as possible; if you hold your face over till the whole is wasted, it will have a wonderful effect; but if that it too painful, you may cover your face with a cloth.

To conceal deep Marks occasioned by the Small Pox

You must boil an ounce of spermaceti in a [...] of Malmsey till it is entirely dissolved; add to it the juice of a house-leek, and that of plantain leaves, with half an ounce of peach-kernels▪ when it is all well mixed together, you must set it [Page 117] to cool; then strain it through a fine cloth, and when you rub the face with it, let it be gently warmed.

To make a fine Washing Powder.

Take three or four ounces of the flour of French barley, two ounces of the oil of sweet almonds, six drachms of benjamin, a handful of the leaves of white roses, half an ounce of spermaceti, an ounce of white chalk powdered, a quarter of an ounce of white tartar, and one scruple of the oil of cloves and lavender; mix all these together, and beat them to powder in a mortar.

To make a Perfume to carry in your Pocket.

Take two scruples of the flowers of benjamin, half a scruple of the flowers of roses, one scruple of orange-peel, some grated nutmeg, a scruple of the essence of cinnamon and orange, half an ounce of jessamine butter, and a few grains of musk and amber; beat all these in a mortar till they are properly mixed, then put the powder in a box.

To make fine Wash-Balls.

Mix two ounces of sanders with the same quantity of cloves, four pounds of the best white soap cut in small pieces, and twenty grains of musk; dissolve the whole in rose-water, and then make it up into balls.

To make the Hands soft and white.

First beat in a mortar two ounces of blanched almonds, with four ounces of the flowers of beans; add to them four ounces of Castile soap, with a pint of rose-water; then mix them all up together, and when you use them for your hands, moisten them with warm milk.

To make an excellent Wash for the Teeth.

Mix an ounce of bole armoniac in a gill of Hungary water; put this into a quart of claret with two ounces of honey, a dram of allum, an ounce of myrrh, and ten grains of salt of vitriol; then let this mixture stand to settle. When you use it, put a spoonful of it into a cup of water, wash your teeth with it every morning, and it will preserve them clean and white.

To make a swarthy Complexion very agreeable.

First sift the flour out of half a peck of wheat bran; then put to the bran seven or eight new-laid eggs, and six pints of white-wine vinegar; when it is well mixed up, let it distil over a slow fire. After it has stood a day to settle, rub your face with it every day for a fortnight, and then it will look extremely fair.

Receipt to thicken the Hari, and make it grow on a bald Part.

Take roots of a maiden vine, roots of hemp, and cores of soft cabbages, of each two handfuls; dry and burn them; afterwards make a lye with the ashes. The head is to be washed with this lye three days successively, the part having been previ­ously well rubbed with honey.

A Receipt to clean the Teeth and Gums, and make the Flesh grow close to the Root of the Enamel.

Take an ounce of myrrh in fine powder, two spoonfuls of the best white honey, and a little green [...] sage in fine powder; mix them well together, and rub the teeth and gums with a little of this balsam every night and morning.



To make Currant Wine.

LET your currants be gathered when perfectly ripe; strip them from the stalks, put them in a large pan with some water, and bruise them with a wooden pestle; let them stand in the pan twenty­four hours, then strain off the liquor. To every gallon of this liquor add three pounds of loaf sugar, and to every six gallons put a quart of brandy; stir it well together, put it in a cask, and let it stand three or four months, then bottle it off for use.

To make Raisin Wine.

First boil nine or ten gallons of spring water for an hour, then put six pounds of Malaga raisins to every gallon; let them remain in the water about ten days, and you must stir them every day; then strain the liquor off, squeeze the juice out of the raisins, mix both liquors well together, and put your wine in a barrel, stop it up close, let it stand about four months, and then put it in bottles.

To make Gooseberry Wine.

Bruise your gooseberries in a tub with a mallet, squeeze out all the juice, and put to it a sufficient quantity of water and loaf sugar; mix it up well [...]ill the sugar is melted, then put it into a cask, and when it has stood three or four months, bottle it off, putting a small lump of sugar in each bottle.

To make Orange Wine.

Take six whites of eggs well beat, fifteen pounds of loaf sugar, and six gallons of spring water; boil all together about three quarters of an hour, and take off the scum as it rises. When it is cold, mix with it five or six spoonfuls of yeast, five ounces of the syrup of lemon or citron, and the juice and rinds of between thirty and forty oranges; let it work two days, then oput it into a cask with one quart of Rhenish or Mountain wine, and after two or three months bottle it off.

To make good English S [...]ck.

To every gallon of water put a handful of fen­nel roots, and to every quart a sprig of rue; let these boil half an hour, then strain off the liquor, and add to every gallon three pounds of honey; boil it about two hours, and clear it of scum.— When cold, turn it into a cask, and, after it has stood several months, bottle it.

To make Shrub.

Take half a gallon of brandy, add to it a pint of new milk, the juice of six lemons, or Seville oranges, and the rinds of three; let it stand twenty-four hours, then put to it a pound and a half of fine sugar, and three pints of white wine; mix it up well, strain it through a flannel bag till it is clear, and bottle it for use.

To make Rasberry Brandy.

Bruise a quantity of rasberries, and strain the juice from them; to each quart of juice, put [...] quart of good brandy; then boil some water with a sufficiency of double refined sugar, and mix it with the brandy and ra [...]erry juice; stir it well together, and let it stand in a stone jar, close [...] [Page 123] covered, above a month, then pour it off into your bottles.

To make Cherry Brandy.

Stone and mash eight pounds of black cherries, and put to them three quarts or a gallon of the best brandy; sweeten it to your palate, cover it up close in a proper vessel, and when it has stood a month, clear it of the sediment, and bottle it off.

To make excellent Milk Punch.

Take a quart of new milk, a quart of brandy, half a pint of lemon juice, two quarts of warm water, and some sugar; mix all together, strain it through a flannel bag, and bottle it. This will keep upwards of a fortnight.

To make Rasberry Wine.

Take red rasberries when they are nearly ripe, clean the husks and stalks from them, soak them in fair water, that has been boiled and sweetened with loaf sugar, a pound and a half to a gallon; when they have soaked about twelve hours, take them out, put them into a fine linen pressing-bag, press­out the juice into the water, then boil them up to­gether, and scum them well twice or thrice over a gentle fire; take off the vessel, and let the liquor cool, and when the scum rises, take off all that you can, and pour the liquor into a well-seasoned cask, or earthen vessel; then boil an ounce of mace in a pint of white wine, till the third part be consumed, strain it, and add it to the liquor; when it has well settled and fermented, draw it off into a cask, or bottles, and keep it in a cool place.

To make Morella Wine.

Take two gallons of white wine, and twenty pounds of Morella cherries; take away the stalks, [Page 124] and so bruise them that the stones may be broken: Press the juice into the wine, and add of mace, cinnamon, and nutmeg, an ounce of each, tied in a bag, grosly bruised, and hang it in the wine when you put it in the cask.

To make Elder Wine.

When the elder-berries are ripe, pick them, and put them into a stone jar; fet them in boiling water, or in a slack oven, till the jar is as warm as you can well bear to touch it with your hands; then strain the fruit through a coarse cloth, squeezing them hard, and pour the liquor into a kettle. Put it on the fire, let it boil, and to every quart of liquor add a pound of Lisbon sugar, and skim it often; then let it settle, pout it off into a jar, and cover it close.

To make Cowslip Wine.

Take five pounds of loaf sugar, and four gallons of water, simmer them half an hour to dissolve the sugar; when it is cold, put in half a peck of cowslip-flowers, picked and gently bruised; then add two spoonfuls of yeast, and beat it up with a pint of syrup of lemons, and a lemon-peel or two. Pour the whole into a cask, let them stand close stop­ped for three days, that they may ferment; then put in some juice of cowslips, and give it room to work; when it has stood a month, draw it off into bottles, putting a little lump of loaf sugar into each.

To make Mead.

To thirteen gallons of water put thirty pounds of honey, boil and scum it well, then take rosemary, thyme, bay-leaves, and sweet briar, one handful altogether; boil it an hour, put it into a tub with a little ground malt; stir it till it is new milk warm; [Page 125] strain it through a cloth, and put it into the tub again; cut a toast, and spread it over with good yeast, and put it into the tub also; and when the liquor is covered over with yeast, put it up in a barrel; then take of cloves, mace, and nutmegs, an ounce and a half; of ginger sliced an ounce; bruise the spice, tie it up in a rag, and hang it in the vessel, stopping it up close for use.

To make Balm Wine.

Take a peck of balm leaves, put them in a tub or large pot, heat four gallons of water scalding hot, then pour it upon the leaves, and let it stand all night; in the morning strain them through a hair sieve; put to every gallon of water two pounds of fine sugar, and stir it very well; take the whites of four or five eggs, put them into a pan, and whisk it very well, before it be over hot; when the scum begins to rise take it off, and keep it skimming all the while it is boiling; let it boil three quarters of an hour, and then put it into the tub; when it is cold put a little new yeast upon it, and beat it in every two hours, that it may head the better; so work it for two days, then put it into a sweet vessel, bung it close, and when it is fine bottle it.

To make Birch Wine.

Take your birch water and clear it with whites of eggs; to every gallon of water take two pounds and a half of fine sugar; boil it three quarters of an hour, and when it is almost cold put in a little yeast; work it two or three days, then put it into the barrel, and to every five gallons put in a quart of brandy, and half a pound of stoned raisins. Be­fore you put up your wine, burn a brimstone match in the barrel.

To make Elder Flower Wine.

To twelve gallons of water, put thirty pounds of single loaf-sugar, boil it till two gallons be wasted, scumming it well; let it stand till it be as cool as wort, then put in two or three spoonfuls of yeast; when it works, put in two quarts of blossoms, pick'd from the stalks, stirring it every day till it has done working, which will not be under five or six days; then strain it, and put it into the vessel: After it is stopped down, let it stand two months, and then, if fine, bottle it.

To make Apricat Wine.

Take three pounds of sugar, and three quarts of water, let them boil together, and skim it well; then put in six pounds of apricots, pared and stoned, and let them boil till they are tender; then take them up, and when the liquor is cold bottle it up. You may, if you please, after you have taken out the apricots, let the liquor have one boil with a sprig of flowered clary in it; the apricots will make marmalade, and are very good for present spending.

To make Damson Wine.

Gather your damsons dry, weigh them and bruise them with your hand; put them into an earthen stein that has a faucet, and a wreath of straw before the faucet; add to every eight pounds of fruit a gallon of water; boil the water, skim it, and put it to your fruit scalding hot; let it stand two whole days; then draw it off, and put it into a vessel fit for it, and to every gallon of liquor put two pounds and a half of fine sugar; let the vessel be full, and stop it close; the longer it stands the better; it will keep a year in the vessel; bottle it out. The [Page 127] small damson is the best. You may put a very small lump of double-refined sugar in every bottle.

To make Sage Wine.

Take four handfuls of red sage, beat it in a stone mortar like green sauce, put it into a quart of red wine, and let it stand three or four days close stop­ped, shaking it twice or thrice, then let it stand and settle, and the next day, in the morning, take of the sage wine three spoonfuls, and of running water one spoonful, fasting after it one hour or better; use this from Michaelmas to the end of March; it will cure any achs or humours in the joints, dry rheums, keep off all diseases to the fourth degree; it helps the dead palsy, and convulsions in the sinews, sharpens the memory, and from the begin­ning of taking it will keep the body mild, strengthen nature, till the fulness of your day be finished; nothing will be changed in your strength, except the change in your hair; it will keep your teeth sound that were not corrupted before; it will keep you from the gout, the dropsy, or any swellings of the joints or body.

To make Quince Wine.

Take your quinces when they are thorough ripe, wipe off the fur very clean; then take out the cores, bruise them as you do apples for cyder, and press them, adding to every gallon of juice two pounds and a half of fine sugar; stir it together till it is dissolved; then put it in your cask, and when it has done working, stop it close; let it stand till March before you bottle it. You may keep it two or three years, and it will be the better.

To make Lemon Wine.

Take six lemons, pare off the rind, cut them, squeeze out the juice, steep the rind in the juice and put to it a [Page 128] quart of brandy; let it stand in an earthen pot close stopt three days; then squeeze six more, and mix with two quarts of spring water, and as much sugar as will sweeten the whole; boil the water, lemons, and sugar together, letting it stand till it is cool; then add a quart of white wine, and the other lemon and brandy; mix them together, and run it through a flannel bag into some vessel; let it stand three months, and bottle it off; cork your bottles very well, and keep it cool; it will be fit to drink in a month or six weeks.

To make Barley Wine.

Take half a pound of French barley and boil it in three waters, and save three pints of the last water, and mix it with a quart of white wine, half a pint of borage water, as much clary water, a little red rose-water, the juice of five or six lemons, three quarters of a pound of fine sugar, and the thin yellow rind of a lemon; brew all these quick together, run the liquor through a strainer and bot­tle it up; it is pleasant in hot weather, and very good in fevers.

To make Plumb Wine.

Take twenty pounds of Malaga raisins, pick, rub, and shred them, and put them into a tub; then take four gallons of fair water, boil it an hour, and let it stand till it is blood warm; then put it to your raisins; let it stand nine or ten days, stirring it once or twice a day; strain out your liquor, and mix with it two quarts of damson-juice; put it in a vessel, and when it has done working, stop it close; at the end of four or five months bottle it.

To make Palermo Wine.

Take to every quart of water a pound of Malaga raisins, rub and cut the raisins small, and put them [Page 129] to the water, and let them stand ten days, stirring once or twice a day: You may boil the water an hour before you put it to the raisins, and let it stand to cool; at ten days end strain out your liquor, and put a little yeast to it, and at three days end put it in the vessel, with one sprig of dried worm­wood; let it be close stopped, and at three months end bottle it off.

To make Clary Wine.

Take twenty-four pounds of Malaga raisins, pick them and chop them very small, put them in a tub, and to each pound a quart of water; let them steep ten or eleven days, stirring it twice every day; you must keep it covered close all the while; then strain it off, and put it into a vessel, and about half a peck of the tops of clary, when it is in blos­som; stop it close for six weeks, and then bottle it off; in two or three months it is fit to drink. It is apt to have a great settlement at bottom, therefore it is best to draw it off by plugs, or tap it pretty high.

To make Orange Wine with Raisins.

Take thirty pounds of new Malaga raisins, pick them clean, and chop them small; you must have twenty large Seville oranges, ten of them you must pare as thin as for preserving. Boil about eight gallons of soft water, till a third-part be consumed; let it cool a little, then put five gallons of it hot upon your raisins and orange-peel; stir it well to­gether, cover it up, and when it is cold, let it stand five days, stirring it up once or twice a day; then pass it through a hair sieve, and with a spoon press it as dry as you can; put it in a rundlet fit for it, and add to it the rinds of the other ten oranges, cut as thin as the first then make a syrup of the juice of twenty oranges, with a pound of white [Page 130] sugar. It must be made the day before you turn it up. Stir it well together, and stop it close. Let it stand two months to clear, then bottle it up. It will keep three years, and is better for keeping.

To make Frontiniac Wine.

Take six gallons of water, twelve pounds of white sugar, and six pounds of raisins of the sun cut small; boil these together an hour; then take of the flowers of elder, when they are falling and will shake off, the quantity of half a peck; put them in the liquor when it is almost cold; the next day put in six spoonfuls of syrup of lemons, and four spoonfuls of [...]le yeast; two days after put it in a vessel that is fit for it; when it has stood two months, bottle it off.

To make English Champaign, or the fine Currant Wine.

Take to three gallons of water nine pounds of Lisbon sugar; boil the water and sugar half an hour, skim it clean, then have one gallon of cur­rants picked, but not bruised; pour the liquor boiling hot over them, and, when cold, work it with half a pint of yeast two days; pour it through a flannel or sieve; then put it into a barrel fit for it, with half an ounce of isinglass well bruised; when it has done working, stop it close for a month, then bottle it, and in every bottle put a very small lump of double refined sugar: This is excellent wine, and has a beautiful colour.

Mountain Wine.

Pick out the stalks of your Malaga raisins, chop them small, and add five pounds to every gallon of cold spring water, let them steep a fortnight or [Page 131] more, squeeze out the liquor, and barrel it in a vessel fit for it; first fume the vessel with brimstone. Don't stop it close till the hissing is over.

To make Gilliflower Wine.

To three gallons of water put six pounds of the best powder sugar; boil the water and sugar to­gether for the space of half an hour, keep scumming it as the scum rises; let it stand to cool: Beat up three ounces of syrup of betony, with a large spoon­ful of ale-yeast, put it into the liquor, and brew it well together; then having a peck of gilliflowers, cut from the stalks, put them into the liquor, let them infuse and work together three days covered with a cloth; strain it, and put it into a cask, and let it settle for three or four weeks, then bottle it.

To recover Wine that is turned sharp.

Rack off your wine into another vessel, and to ten gallons put the following powder: Take oyster­shells, scrape and wash off the brown dirty outside of the shell, and dry them in an oven till they will powder; put a pound of this powder to every nine or ten gallons of your wine; stir it well together, and stop it up, then let it stand to settle two or three days, or till it is fine. As soon as it is fine, bottle it off, and cork it well.

To fine Wine the Lisbon Way.

To every twenty gallons of [...] take the whites of ten eggs, and a small handful of salt; beat them together to a froth, and mix them well with a quart or more of the wine; then pour the wine and the whites into the vessel, stir it well, and in a few days it will be fine.

To clear Wine.

Take half a pound of hartshorn, and dissolve it in cyder, if it be for cyder, or Rhenish wine for any other liquor. This is quite sufficient for a hogshead.


Rosa Solis.

TAKE rosa solis, clean picked, four hand­fuls, nutmegs, carraway and coriander-seeds, mace, cloves, cinnamon, each half an ounce; gin­ger, cardamums, zedoary, calamus aromaticus, each a dram and a half; cubebs, yellow saunders, each half a dram; red saunders an ounce, liquorice two ounces, red rose-leaves dried a handful, best brandy a gallon: Infuse for some days, and strain off the clear liquor, in which dissolve white sugar twelve ounces.

Another Way.

You must take of rosa solis, cleansed, four hand­fuls; of cinnamon, nutmegs, carraway and corian­der seeds, each one ounce; cloves, mace, ginger, each three drams; cardamums, cubebs, zedoary, calamus aromaticus, each a dram; red roses dried an ounce, liquorice two ounces, raisins stoned half a pound, cochineal, saffron; each one dram; best brandy one gallon: Infuse for eight days, and strain it, to which add loaf sugar twelve ounces.

To make Spirit of Carraway.

To a quart of true spirit of sack put two pounds of good smooth-sugar'd carraways, bruise them, and put them into a bottle, with a grain of the best am­bergrease; pour the spirit on them, and seal the cork very close; set it in the sun for a month, strain it off, and keep it always close stopt for use. One spoonful does often give ease in the cholic.

Black Cherry Water Cordial.

Take two quarts of strong claret, and four pounds of black cherries, full ripe, stamp them, and put them to the wine, with one handful of balm, and as much carduus, half as much mint, and as many rosemary-flowers as you can hold in both your hands, three handfuls of clove July-flowers, two ounces of cinnamon cut small, one ounce of nutmegs; put all these into a deep pot, let them be well stirred to­gether, then cover it so close that no air can get in; let it stand one day and a night, then put it into your still, which you must also paste close, and draw as much as runs good; sweeten it with sugar-candy to your taste. 'Tis good in any melancholy, or for the vapours.

A very rich Cherry Cordial.

Take a stone pot that has a broad bottom, and a narrow top, and lay a layer of black cherries, and a layer of very fine powdered sugar; do this till your pot is full: Measure your pot, and to every gallon it holds put a quarter of a pint of true spirit of wine. You are to pick your cherries clean from soil and stalks, but not wash them. When you have thus filled your pot, stop it with a cork, and tie first a bladder, then a leather over it; and if you fear it is not close enough, pinch it down close, and [Page 134] bury it deep in the earth six months or longer; then strain it out, and keep it close stopped for your use. 'Twill revive, when all other cordials fail.

Dr. Stephens's Water.

You must take wild camomile, lavender, wild marjoram, mint, pellitory of the wall, thyme, red roses, refemary, and sage, each two handfuls; anni­seeds, fennel seeds, cinnamon, galangal, ginger, grains of Paradice and nutmeg, of each six drams; bruise all these ingredients, and put them into two gallons of canary or claret; let them infuse for 24 hours, and then distil them off gently, the first and second runnings each by itself. Broken leaf gold is commonly put in this.

Aqua Mirabilis.

Take cloves, mace, nutmegs, cinnamon, carda­mums, cubebs, galangals, and melliot flowers, of each two ounces; cowslip flowers, rosemary flowers, and spear mint, of each four handfuls; a gallon of the juice of calendine, a gallon of brandy, a gallon of canary, and a gallon of white wine; infuse them for twelve hours, and distil them off in a gen­tle sand heat.

Clary Water.

Having a quart of borrage water, put it in an earthen jug, and fill it with two or three quarts of clary flowers, fresh gathered; let it infuse an hour over the fire in a kettle of water, then take out the flowers, and put in as many fresh flowers, and so do for six or seven times together; then add to that water two quarts of the best sack, and a gallon of fresh flowers, and two pounds of white sugar candy, beaten small, and distil all off in a cold still; mix [Page 135] all the water together when it is stilled, and sweeten it to your taste with the finest sugar: Cork the bot­tles well, and keep it cool.

Citron Water.

Take thirty fresh lemon-peels, figs fourteen pounds, proof spirits three gallons, water as much as is necessary: Infuse and distil, make it up high proof, and dulcify with double-refined sugar, two pounds and a half for use.

Another Way.

Take best lemon-peel bruised, eighteen ounces, orange-peel nine ounces, nutmegs, bruised, one quarter of a pound, strong proof spirits three gal­lons, water two gallons; macerate, distil, and dul­cify with double-refined loaf sugar, two pounds for use.


Take three gallons of melasses brandy, nuts two ounces and an half, bitter almonds one pound and a half; bruise them, and infuse them in the brandy, adding ambergrease three grains, mixed with fine Lisbon sugar three pounds; infuse all for seven or eight days, and then strain off for use.

Orange Flower Brandy.

Take a gallon of French brandy, and put it in a bottle that will hold it, then boil a pound of orange-flowers a little while, and put them to the brandy, save the water, and with that make a syrup to sweeten it.

Of Brewing Strong OCTOBER BEER.

CARE, in the first place, must be taken that the malt be very clean, and when it is ground, it should stand four and twenty hours at least in the sacks.

The quantity is five quarters of malt to three hogsheads of beer, and eighteen pounds of hops, unless the malt be pale dried, then there must be added three or four pounds more.

The choice of liquor for brewing is of consider­able advantage, the softest and cleanest water is the best.

You are to boil your first liquor, adding a hand­ful or two of hops to it, then, before your strike it over to your malt, cool it in as much liquor as will bring it to a temper, not to scald the malt; for it is a fault not to take the liquor as high as possible, but not to scald.

The next liquors do the same.

And, indeed, all your liquors ought to be taken as high may be, that is, not to scald.

When you let your wort from your malt into the under-back, put to it a handful or two of hops, it will preserve it from that accident which brewers call, Blinking or Foxing.

In boiling your worts, the first wort boil high or quick; for the quicker the wort is boiled the better it is.

The second boil more than the first, and the third or last more than the second.

In cooling, lay your worts thin, and let each be well cooled, and care must be taken in letting them down into the tun, that you do it leisurely, to the end, that as little of the foeces, or sediment, as [Page 137] possible, may pass with it, which causes the fer­mentation to be fierce or mild, for,

Note, There is in all fermented liquors salt and sulphur, and to keep these two bodies in a due pro­portion, that the salt does not exalt itself above the sulphur, consists a great Part of the art in brewing.

When your wort is first let into your tun, put but a little yeast to it, and let it work by degrees quietly, and if you find it works but moderate, whip in the yeast two or three times or more, till you find your drink well fermented, for without a full opening of the body by fermentation, it will not be perfectly fine, nor will it drink clean or light.

When you cleanse, do it by a cock from your tun, placed six inches from the bottom, to the end that most of the sediment may be left behind, which may be thrown on your malt to mend your small-beer.

When your drink is tunned, fill your vessel full; let it work at the bung hole, and have a reserve in a small cask to fill it up, and do not put any of the drink, which will be under the yeast after it is worked over, into your vessels; but put it by itself into another cask, for it will not be so good as your other in the cask.

This done, you must wait for the finishing the fermentation; then stop it close, and let it stand till the Spring, for brewing ought to be done in the month of October, that it may have time to settle and digest all the winter season.

In the Spring you must unstop your vent-hole, and thereby see whether your drink doth ferment or not; for as soon as the warm weather comes, your drink will have another fermentation, which, when it is over, let it be again well stopped, and stand till September, or longer, and then peg it if you find it pretty fine, the hop well rotted, and of a good taste for drinking.


Another Way to brew Ale.

Allow five bushels and a half of malt to half a hogshead of ale; put into your mashing-tub forty-five gallons of liquor, because, one-third part of the liquor will be soaked up by the malt, and a sixth-part will waste in boiling. For the second wort, put but a little more liquor than you intend to make drink; and, if you have a large quantity of malt, you may make a third wort, putting in liquor, ac­cording to the quantity you would have.

Another Way of brewing Strong and Small Beer.

Let the water boil before you put it into the mashing-vat, and let it stand till the steam is off about one hogshead of water; then take your malt, and strew it in with a hand-bowl, another keeping it stirring till it grows thick; then put in more water and malt as before, till you have got your quantity; reserve some malt to cover the top about one inch thick; let it stand three hours, then draw it off at the bottom, and pour it in at the top till it runs fine; put your hops to the fine liquor, and keep them stirring till your liquor is ready to boil, then put them into the copper.

Twenty bushels of malt will make two hogsheads of strong, and four of small beer: Ten pounds of hops are sufficient. Or twenty bushels of malt will make four hogsheads of good ale, and two of small beer; but then you must put but eight pounds of hops to it, and let it not boil above an hour and an half.

Of cleaning and sweetening Casks.

If your cask is a butt, then, with cold water first rinse out the lees clean, and have ready boiling or very hot water, which put in, and with a long stale, and a little birch fastened to its end, scrub [Page 141] the bottom as well, as you can: At the same time let there be provided another shorter broom of about a foot and a half long, that wich one hand may be so employed in the upper and other parts as to clean the cask well: So in a hogshead or other smaller vessel, the one handed short broom may be used with water, or with water and sand, or ashes, and be effectually cleansed; the outside of the cask, about the bung-hole, should be well washed, least the yeast, as it works over, carries some of its filth with it.

But to sweeten a barrel, kilderkin, firkin, or pin, in the great brewhouses, they put them over the copper-hole for a night together, that the steam of the boiling water, or wort, may penetrate into the wood; this way is such a furious searcher, that un­less the cask is new hooped just before, it will be apt to fall in pieces.

Another Way.

We take a pottle, or more, of stone lime, and put it into the cask; on this pour some water, and stop it up directly, shaking it well about.


Having got a long linen rag, dip it in melted brimstone, light it at the end, and let it hang pen­dant with the upper part of the rag fastened to the wooden bung; this is a most quick sure way, and will not only sweeten, but help to fine the drink.


Or, to make your cask more pleasant, you may use the vintner's way, thus: Take four ounces of stone brimstone, one ounce of burnt allum, and two ounces of brandy; melt all these in an earthen [...] [Page 144] it three pails of water; bung it immediately with a wood or cork bung, and shake it well about for a quarter of an hour, and let it stand a day and night, and it will bring off the red colour, and alter the taste of the cask very much.

To fine, relish, and strengthen Amber Beer.

Take one gallon of wheat flour, six pounds of molossus, four pounds of Malaga raisins, one gallon of malt spirits, free of any burnt or other ill tang, and two small handfuls of salt. Make all up into dumplings, and put them into the bung-hole of the cask or butt. It will cause a fermentation, there­fore do not stop up too soon.

To cure a Butt of Ropy Beer.

Mix two handfuls of bean-flour with one handful of salt, and it will answer the end very well.

Another Way.

Take some hops that have been well infused, or stewed on purpose two hours; mix these with the wort they were stewed in, and some other strong wort, and put into your beer.

Another Way.

Beat an ounce of allum very fine, and mix it with two handfuls of horse-bean flour, and put it into your cask.

To feed a Butt of Beer.

Bake a rye loaf, of two-pence price, with a pretty deal of nutmeg in it; then cut it in pieces, and put it in a bag of hops with some wheat, and put them altogether into your cask.

To cure Musty Drink.

Run it through some hops that have been boiled in strong wort, and afterwards work it with two-parts new drink to one of the musty old; this is called Vamping, and is a cure for musty, fox'd, or stinking beer.

To feed and give a fine Flavour to a Barrel of Beer.

Put six sea-biscuits into a bag of hops, and put it altogether into the cask.

To fine Drink in twenty-four Hours.

Put a piece of lime, made from soft, not hard, chalk, about as big again as a hen's egg, which will disturb the liquor, and cause it afterwards to be fine, and draw off brisk at the last, though flat be­fore; this quantity will do for a kilderkin.

To recover a Kilderkin of stale Small Beer.

Put two ounces of good hops, and one pound of mellow fat chalk, broke into about six pieces, into the bung-hole, and immediately stop it up close. In three days you may tap it, and it will prove sound and pleasant to the last.


To make Sherbet.

HAVING pounded calves feet with part of a fillet of veal, cleared from the fat, put them into a [Page 146] pot, with a proportionable quantity of water and white-wine; let them boil for a considerable time, and take off the scum carefully. When your meat comes to rags, and there is only left a third part of the broth, strain it through a cloth, and skim off all the fat with two or three feathers. Afterward turn the whole mess into a pan, with a stick of cinnamon, two or three cloves, a little lemon-peel, and as much sugar as will serve to make it a pleasant liquor. Let all boil together; clarify it with the white of an egg whip'd, and pass it through the straining-bag.— When this liquor is to be kept for a long time, it is requisite to allow two pounds of sugar for every quart of broth, or juice of meat, observing for the rest the former directions: But at last the liquor is to be boiled to its pearled degree, and put into bottles.


To make White Metheglin.

YOU must take sweet-marjoram, sweet-briar buds, strawberry-leaves and violets, of each two handfuls; double violets (if they are to be had) broad thyme, borage, and agrimony, of each two handfuls; six or eight tops of rosemary, the seeds of carraways, coriander and fennel, of each four spoonfuls, and six or eight large blades of mace. Boil all these ingredients in sixteen gallons of water for three quarters of an hour or better, scum and strain the liquor, and having stood till it is luke­warm, put to it as much of the best honey as will make it bear an egg the breadth of a six-pence above the water; then boil it again as long as any scum will rise, and set it to cool; when it is almost cold, put in a pint of new ale yeast, and when it has worked till you perceive the yeast to fall, turn it up, and suffer it to work in the cask till the yeast is done rising, fill it up every day with some of the same liquor, stopping it up. Put into it, in a bag, [Page 147] a couple of nutmegs sliced, a few cloves, mace and cinnamon, all unbruised, and a grain or two of musk.


To make Cyder.

GET apples so thoroughly ripe, that they will easily fall by shaking the tree; the apples proper are Pippins, Pomewaters, Harveys, or other apples of a watery juice; either grind or pound them, and squeeze them in a hair-bag; put the juice up into a seasoned cask.

The cask is to be seasoned with a rag dipped in brimstone, tied to the end of a stick, and put it in burning into the bung-hole of the cask, and when the smoak is gone, wash it with a little warm liquor, that has run through a second straining of the murc, or husk of the apples.

Put into the cask, when the cyder is in, a bit of paste made of flour, and tied up in a thin rag; let it stand for a week, and then draw it off from them the less into another seasoned cask.

Some advise to put three or four pounds of raisins into a hogshead, and two pounds of sugar to make it work the better.

To make Royal Cyder.

When the cyder is fine and past its fermen­tation, but not stale, put to each gallon of cyder a pint and a half of brandy, or spirits drawn off from cyder, and also half a pint of cyder sweets to every gallon of cyder, more or less, according to the tartness or harshness of the cyder. The spirits [Page 148] and sweets must be mixed together, and mixed with an equal quantity of the cyder, and then they are to be put into the cask of cyder, and all stirred to­gether with a stick at the bung-hole for a quarter of an hour, and the bung-hole must be well stopped down, and the cask rolled about ten or twelve times to mix them well together. Let it stand for three or four months, and you may either draw it or bot­tle it off.

To recover any Cyder that is decayed, although it be quite sour.

From ahogshead of pale sour cyder draw out as much as by boiling with six pounds of brown sugar candy will make a perfect syrup. Let the syrup stand till it is thoroughly cold, pour it into the hogshead, and stop it very close. This will raise a fe [...]mentation, but not a violent one. There must be room in the vessel for the cyder to work, and in a few days it will be fit to drink.

To make Cyderkin, or Water Cyder.

After paring half a bushel of apples, core them, and boil them in a barre [...] of water, till one third part is consumed; strain it, and put the liquor to a bushel or more of ground or stamp'd apples unboiled; let them stand to digest for twenty-four hours, press out the liquor, and put it into casks; let it ser­ment, then stop it up close, but give it vent fre­quently, that it may not burst the cask; and when it has stood till it is fine, you may either draw or bottle it.


Take sixty-three gallons of water, that has been boiled to the consumption of a third-part, brew it [Page 149] according to art with seven bushels of wheat malt, of oatmeal and ground beans a bushel each. When it is tunned, let not the hogshead be too full at first, and as soon as it begins to work, put into it of the inner rind of fir three pounds, tops of fir and birch one pound; Carduus Benedictus, three hand­fuls, flowers of Rosa Solis, a handful or two; bur­net, betony, marjoram, avens, penny-royal, wild thyme of each a handful and a half; of elder­flowers, two handfuls or more; seeds of cardamum bruised, three ounces; barberries bruised, one ounce: Put the herbs and seeds into the vessel when the liquor has wrought a-while; and, after they are added, let the liquor work over the vessel as little as may be. Fill it up at last, and when it is stop­ped, put into the hogshead ten new-laid eggs un­broken or cracked. Stop it up close, and drink it at two years end.

English brewers use cardamum, ginger, and sas­safras, instead of the inner rind of fir; also the rinds of walnuts, madder, red-saunders, and ele­campane. Some make it of strong beer and spruce beer, and where it is designed chiefly for its phy­sical virtues, some add water-cresses, brook-lime, and wild parsley, with six handfuls of horse-radish rasped to every hogshead, according to their parti­cular inclination or fancy.

To make Orgeat.

Take two ounces of melon-seeds, half an ounce of pompion-seeds, and half an ounce of Jordan almonds, blanched, with six or seven bitter almonds: Beat the whole compound in a mortar, and reduce it to a paste, so as to leave no clods, sprinkling the same now and then with five or six drops of orange-flower water, to hinder it from turning to o [...]l: When your seeds and almonds are thoroughly stamped, add thereto half a pound of sugar, which is to be likewise well pounded with your paste; [Page 150] then slip the said paste into two quarts of water, and let it steep therein: Afterwards put in about a spoonful of orange-flower water, and pass the liquor through a straining-bag, pressing the gross substance very hard, so as nothing may be left therein; you may also pour in a glass of new milk. Lastly, turn your liquor into two bottles, and set it by to cool.


A good Electuary for an Asthma.

TAKE four cloves of garlic, roast them till they are soft; then bruise out the pulp, and put it into six spoonfuls of honey, two spoonfuls of the powder of elecampane, liquorice, anniseeds, and coriander-seeds, all finely powdered, of each one spoonful and a half; mix all well together, and take the bigness of a nutmeg morning and night.

A Bolus for an Asthma.

You must take a dram of sperma-ceti, half a scruple of lac-sulphuris, volatile salt of amber five grains, conserve of hips one scruple, balsam of Peru ten drops, and syrup of saffron sufficient to make a bolus.

A Dose for an Ague.

Give as much Virginia snake-root, dried and powdered, as will lie upon a shilling, in a glass of sherry or sack, just before the cold fit begins; use this two or three times till the ague is gone.

To prevent a Relapse of the Apoplexy.

Once every third day, at about four o'clock in the morning, take two scruples of Pilla Cochia the greater, and sleep after them; repeat it six times.

A sneezing Powder for the Apoplexy.

Take one dram of the root of white hellebore, two drams of the flowers of lilies of the valley; mix, and reduce them to a powder, and blow it up the nostrils with a quill.

The following Glister is good in an Apoplexy, Lethargy, Coma, or Palsy.

Get pellitory of Spain, half an ounce; coloquin­tida (tied up in a rag, or else it will gripe) half a dram; rue, two handfuls; boil it in water to twelve ounces; strain it, and add three ounces of crocus metallorum; tincture of castor, half an ounce; salt gem, and oil of amber, of each two drams, and mix all together.

If it stay not with the patient, it must be repeat­ed; for it is no unusual thing in these cases for glisters to slip away presently, by reason that the intestines having their fibres benumbed, and para­lytically relaxed, lose their retentive faculty.

A Drink for any Inward Bruise or Wound.

Take one handful of each of the following herbs, viz. wormwood, comfrey, throatwort, wood betony, plantane, mugwort, bonewort, scabious, avens, wild honey-suckle, agrimony, bramble-buds, cinquefoil, spearmint, sanicle, whitebottle, ribwort, daisy-roots, dandelion, bugloss, and hauthorn-buds: Put to these herbs two quarts of white-wine, and a gallon of [Page 152] running water, and boil it till it is half wasted; then strain it, and add to it a quart of honey; let that boil in the liquor some time: When it is cold, bottle it very close, and keep it for use. It will keep for many years, and is necessary for all fami­lies; two or three spoonfuls of it to be taken morning and night. It is really good for fores, wounds, and hurts, new or old, in men, women, or children: Its virtues of that kind are too long to mention. It has broken and brought away inward imposthumes.

A certain Cure for the Bite of a Mad Dog, by Dr. Mead.

Let the patient be blooded at the arm nine or ten ounces: Then take of the herb called in Latin, Lichen Cereneus Terrestris, in English, Ash-colour'd Ground Liverwort, cleaned, dried, and powdered, half an ounce; of black pepper powdered, two drams. Mix these well together, and divide the powder into four doses, one of which must be taken every morning fasting, for four mornings succes­sively, in half a pint of cow's milk warm. After these four doses are taken, the patient must go into the cold-bath, or a cold spring or river, every morn­ing fasting, for a month: He must be dipt all over, but not stay in (with his head above water) longer than half an minute, if the water be very cold. After this he must go in three times a week for a fortnight longer.

N. B. The Lichen is a very common herb, and grows generally in sandy and barren soils all over England. The right time to gather them is in the months of October or November.

Some advise, that as soon as possibly it can be done, the wound may be burnt with a hot iron; by which, part of the venom may be exhaled, and the [...]e prevented from spreading itself any farther, [Page 153] which good effect is very likely to follow from the pursing up the small vessels, and the coagulation of the adjacent fluids.

A Plaister for the Breast, to dissolve curdled Milk.

Take sperma-ceti, one ounce; white wax, two ounces; galbanum, strained with vinegar, half an ounce; oil of elder, as much as will be sufficient to make a plaister; it is proper for all tumours of the breast, occasioned by the curdling of the milk, and is good in white soft swellings, or the evil in the breast, or any hard tumour in any part of the body.

A Plaister to break a Sore-breast.

Seeth a lily-root and piece of leaven in milk till the root be soft; lay it plaister-wise to the part, morning and evening, as hot as you can bear it.

A Cerecloth for Swellings in the Breast.

Make a cerecloth of oil of linseed and yellow wax, and apply it to the part, first anointing it with linseed-oil.

To heal a Breast when broken.

Take a good handful of parsley, and a good slice of the fat of bacon, and stamp them together; put to it the yolk of an egg, and spread it plaister-wise upon a cloth, and lay it upon the breast.

An excellent and tried Remedy for Burns.

Take two parts of the oil of walnuts, and one of honey; mix them well together over a gentle fire, and when they are thoroughly incorporated, dip a feather in the mixture, and anoint therewith the [Page 154] part affected, so as the ointment may touch it im­mediately, and then strew on it some powder of ceterach, or spleen-wort, and keep the part quiet, and defend it from the air.

For Burns and Stenching of Blood.

For stenching of blood, there are but few medi­cines which exceed the colcother [...]f vitriol, whether washed and freed from its salt, or not washed. It is but a common thing, but will do more than a thousand much more enobled.

A Family Ointment for Chilblains, Kibes, Whitloes, Felons, &c.

Take May butter, seven ounces; wax, resin, of each four ounces; crude honey, ten drams; wheat flour, six drams: Mix them, and spread it upon leather; apply it to the part affected; change it twice a day till it begins to grow well. It also warms, loosens, discusses, cleans, [...]ipens, and digests, and is of known service in the speedy curing of felons and whitloes in the fingers; it is of singular use to abate inflammations, and bring swellings to ripeness and maturity.

For the Cholic.

Slice one ounce of the very best rhubarb you can get into a quart of sack; let it infuse twelve hours at least; then drink four large spoonfuls, and fill your bottle up again: Drink this quantity once a day, for six weeks or two months, at least. When your rhubarb has lost its virtue, you must put fresh. This has cured some people, who could not find ease in opiates, nor the Bath; it must be constantly con­tinued till the bowels and blood are strengthened: It has done such marvellous cures, even where lau­danum [Page 155] has failed, that it cannot be sufficiently commended.

An infallible Cure for a Consumption.

Take half a pound of raisins of the sun stoned, a quarter of a pound of figs, a quarter of a pound of [...], half an ounce of Lucatella's balsam, half an ouncce of powder of steel, half an ounce of flour of [...]campane, a grated nutmeg, one pound of double-refined sugar, pounded: Shred and pound all these together in a stone mortar; pour into it a pint of [...] oil by degrees; eat a bit of it four times a [...], the bigness of a nutmeg; every morning drink [...] of old Malaga sack, with the yolk of a new­ [...] egg, and as much flour of brimstone as will lie [...] a six-pence; the next morning as much flour [...] elecampane, alternately.

To cure a Cough and Shortness of Breath.

Take elecampane-roots, boil them very tender, [...] pulp them fine through a sieve; take their [...] in the pulp of coddled pippins; if you have [...]ound weight of both together, boil it in a pint [...] half of clarified honey for half an hour; then [...] one ounce of powder of liquorice, and as much [...] of anniseeds; mix all well together, and [...] a dram morning and night, and in the after­noon. It is an excellent medicine in an asthma.

For a Hooping Cough, very good.

When you have got a quart of spring-water, put [...] a large handful of chin-cups that grow upon [...], and a large handful of unset hyssop; boil it [...] pint, strain it off, and sweeten it with sugar­ [...]. Let the child, as oft as it coughs, take two [...]nfuls at a time.

An excellent Powder for Convulsion Fits.

Get two drams of piony roots; misletoe of the oak, one dram; prepared pearl, white amber pre­pared, and coral prepared, of each half a dram bezoar, two grains, and five leaves of gold; make all these into a very fine powder, and give as much of it as will lie on a three-pence to a child of a month old, and proportionable to a bigger; mix it up with a spoonful of black-cherry water, which sweeten with the syrup of black cherries: Take it three days together, at every change of the moon to prevent returns.

A Cure for the Cramp.

Take a handful of the herb called perriwinkle some of it bears a blue flower, and some white and also take a good handful of rosemary tops, put them into a pewter dish, and set them upon coals dry them, and turn them very often, and when they are very hot, lay them upon the place that is taken with the cramp, and bind a cloth upon the when you go to bed, and this will help you; take off in the morning, and lay on fresh at night.

A good Remedy for the Corns.

Get the yeast of beer, not ale, and spreading upon a linen rag, or other cloth, apply it to [...] part affected, renewing it once every day.

An excellent Purging Ale for the Dropsy.

Sena, four ounces; sassafras and tartar, of [...] two ounces; jalap and liquorice, of each one ounce; rhubarb, coriander, and anniseed, of each one ounce; polypodium, eight ounces; broom [...] one quart, and one ounce of cloves; put all [...] [Page 157] bag, with some little weight to sink it: Take sca­bious and agrimony, of each three handfuls; of the roots of daneswort, one handful; raisins of the sun stoned, one pound, with a little ginger: Put these ingredients into sweet ale-wort, when you put in your hops, and let all boil together half an hour; then pour it scalding hot on your bag of drugs: When it is cold enough, set it to work with yeast: When it has done working, stop it up for twelve days, or a fortnight: Hang the bag of drugs in the vessel. Drink a large glass of this in the morning, and at four in the afternoon, unless you find it works too much at first; if so, lessen your dose; but take it daily, till you have taken all.

Another Medicine for the Dropsy.

Take broom, and burn it by itself in a clean oven, shift the ashes from the stalks and coals that are not quite consumed, and put two full pounds of these ashes into a quart bottle; pour on old hock till the bottle is up to the neck; take care it is not too full; if it has no room to ferment, it will be apt to split the bottle: Digest it in hot ashes by the fire, or in the sun, and shake it often; when it has stood three or four days, pour off a quart of the clear lye; if it is perfectly fine, decant again and again till it is so; fill up your bottle again with hock, and do as before, till the strength of the ashes be out. Drink this first, and at four or five in the afternoon; continue it for some time, and it will carry off the dropsical humours. While you take it, let the meat you eat be dry roasted, and your drink strong ale or wine.

To cure Deafness.

Take an equal quantity of good Hungary water, and oil of bitter almonds; beat them together, and [Page 158] drop three drops in the ears going to bed; stop them with black [...], and repeat this nine nights at least.

For a Pain in the Ear.

Get the juice of mountain sage, oil of fennel, oil of bitter almonds, and oil of olives, an equal quantity of each, and mix them well together; drop into the pained ear three drops for three nights. It will ease and draw out any imposthume, if that be the cause.

For an Earwig having got into the Ear.

Get rue, and beat it in a mortar; then strain off the juice, and put it into the ear; then lie down to rest on the contrary ear, and when you awake the juice will come out, and the ear-wig will be dead.

The juice of wormwood, of southernwood, and rue, an equal quantity put into the ear, will all kill any vermin that has got into it. The stems of coffee have often relieved a deafness that has been occasioned by the wax becoming too hard, which they will soften and set free.

Dr. Willis's Specific for the Epilepsy.

Take the roots of male piony, dried and powder­ed, from one dram to two or three twice a day, [...] the following tincture:

Take leaves of misleto of the oak, two drams, piony roots sliced, half an ounce; castor, a dram; let them be put in a close vessel with betony water or simple water and white-wine, of each one pound, salt of misleto of the oak, or the common misleto two drams; digest them in a close vessel, in a [...] heat for two days. Take three ounces with the powder above-mentioned.

A Draught for the Epilepsy.

Get powder of wild valerian root, one dram and a half; penny-royal water, and black-cherry water, of each one ounce and a half; syrup of pionies, two drams; mix them, and make a draught.

A Drink for the King's Evil and Cancer.

Take guaiacum, one ounce; sassafras, sarsapa­rilla, sharp-pointed dock, and daisy-roots, of each half an ounce; arch-angel flowers, and millepedes, of each two large spoonfuls; ground-ivy, and herb-Robert, of each one handful: Bruise and shred all these ingredients, and put them to steep one night in three pints of good clear new ale; strain it, and drink no other drink for six weeks, spring and fall. You may do a larger quantity at a time for man or woman; but you must not infuse too much at a time, because the herbs are apt to change it; at the same time, if the swellings are painful, anoint with juice of rue, prepared as follows:

Take two spoonfuls of juice of rue, as much sal­lad-oil, beat them well together; then set it over the fire, and let it boil slowly half an hour; add two ounces of bees-wax, let it boil a little with this: Pour it out, and keep it close covered. It is an incomparable ointment to use all the time you take the diet-drink.

The red Powders for Fevers, Small-Pox, or Surseits.

Take of carduus, rue, red sage, lilies of the val­ley, tormentil, pimpernel, dragon, betony, angeli­ca, cabious, speedwell, of each one handful; worm­wood, [Page 158] [...] [Page 159] [...] [Page 160] half a handful; agrimony, verum, of each a quarter of a handful: Shred the herbs very small, and infuse them in two quarts of white-wine, in a jug, which you must stop very close, and set nine days in the sun: Then strain the wine from the herbs, and infuse the same quantity of fresh herbs in the same wine; let it stand as before nine days more: Then take a pound of bole-armoniac, finely powdered, and put as much of the wine (after it is a second time pressed out) as the powder will take up, and set it in the sun to dry; and as it dries up, put in more of the wine, stirring it two or three times a day till all the wine is dried up in the powder, so as to be fit to work like paste: Then put to it of diacodium and mithridate, one ounce each; half an ounce of cochineal; of powder of red coral and prepared saffron, an ounce each; forty grains of bezoar; of powder of crabs-eyes, burnt hartshorn, and prepared pearl, an ounce each: Mix these in the last wetting, and work them all to­gether; make them into balls, when well mixed, and dry them in the sun. Take forty or fifty grains of this for a cose. Drink mace ale after it.

A cooling Drink in a Fever or Pleurisy.

Put an ounce of pearl-barley into three pints of water, shift it twice; beat half an ounce of almonds, with a bit of lemon-peel, and a spoonful or two of the water; when they are very fine, wash the al­mond-milk through your sieve, with three pints of barley-water; in the last boiling of this you may put melon-seeds and pumpion-seeds, of each half an ounce; white poppy-seeds, half a dram; when these, are well boiled, mix the liquor with the almonds, and strain all; sweeten it with syrup of lemons for a fever, or syrup of maiden-hair, and drink four ounces every three or four hours.

A speedy Remedy for Fits of Vomiting.

Having got a large nutmeg, grate one half of it, and toast the flat side of the other 'till the oily part begins to sweat out; then clap it to the pit of the patient's stomach as hot as can be endured, and keep it on whilst it continues warm, and then, if need be, put on another. This is recommended by the famous Mr. Boyle.

To stop a Vomiting.

Take lemon-juice, half an ounce; salt of worm­wood a scruple; and a little white sugar: Mix, and make a Draught, to be repeated two or three times a day.

To stop a Vomiting, and strengthen the Stomach.

Take spearmint, barley, and cinnamon waters, of each three ounces; plegue water, two ounces; salt of wormwood, a dram; lemon-juice, one ounce; three leave of gold; confection of hyacinth, two drams; syrup of red poppies, an ounce and a half: Mix, and give four spoonfuls every four hours, shaking the phial.

For Vomiting and violent Looseness in a Child.

Bleed three times, and apply a cupping-glass to the navel. Take the red tops of gil-go-by-the-ground, dry them, and mix them with honey: It is good for any hoarseness: The tops are to be had in May, June, or July.

A good Powder for Worms.

Take an ounce of worm-seed, and half an ounce of rhubarb, beat both to a fine powder, and take a [Page 162] quarter of an ounce of prepared coral; mix all three together, and let the child take as much of this as will lie on a shilling, for three mornings together, drinking a small glass of warm ale after each dose.

A Receipt to cure Worms.

Bruise a pound of worm-seed, and put it into a arge still of spearmint, and draw it off as long as it runs good: Let the child drink three spoon [...]uls of this nine mornings running.

To stanch Blood in a Wound.

Take an ounce of copperass, made into fine pow­der, and half an ounce of bole armoniac powdered, and mingle them together, and cast some of this powder into the wound, and it will staunch the blood.

For Wounds in the Head.

If these are attended with con [...]usion, it may be proper to shave the adjoining parts. Some make use only of warm wine, oil, vinegar, or oxycrate, to embrocate them, or rub in. If the wound be recent, simple, and made by a sharp instrument, it may be immediately stitched up, and covered with Emplastr. de Minio; and this method is sometimes successful, even tho' the skull itself be cut, provided no ill symptoms indicate a contrary method.


BEFORE we conclude this Work, we think it may not be improper to give our readers some General Rules in Cookery.

  • I. In all soups you must observe not to put in your thickening, 'till your herbs are very tender.
  • II. When you boil any greens, first soak them near two hours in water and salt, or else boil them in water and salt in a copper by themselves, with a great quantity of water: Boil no meat with them for that discolours them.
  • III. Use no iron pans, &c. for they are not proper; but let them be copper, brass, or silver.
  • IV. When you fry any Fish, first dip them in yolks of eggs, and fry them rather in a stew-pan over the fire, and that will make them of a light gold colour.
  • [Page 164] V. White sauces being now more generally used than brown; these are chiefly to be made so with cream, and adding a little Champaign or French white wine, and butter rolled up in flour.
  • VI. Parboil all your meats that you use for fri­casees, or else stewing them too long on the fire will make them hard.
  • VII. In roasting or boiling, a quarter of an hour to every pound of meat, at a steady fire, is the best rule that can be given to do it to perfection.
  • VIII. When you beat almonds, always put in orange flower-water, or rose-water, to prevent their turning to oil, which they are subject to.
  • IX. When you dress mutton, pigeons, &c. in blood, always wring in some lemon-juice, to keep it from changing.
  • X. When you grill any thing, let it be over a stove of charcoal, rather than sea-coal; it makes it eat sweeter and shorter; turn your meat very often.

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