LONDON: Printed by Luke Hansard, Great Turnstile, Lincoln's-Inn Fields, AND SOLD BY JOHN WHITE, HORACE'S HEAD, FLEET-STREET.



  • SUMATRA Page 2
  • Mount Ophir Page 3
  • Bencoolen Page 18
  • Natal ibid.
  • Acheen Page 19
  • Empire of Menangecabou ibid.
  • Enganho Island Page 22
  • Java Page 23
  • Prince's Island ibid.
  • Island of Cracatoa Page 24
  • Bantam ibid.
  • Batavia Page 26
  • Jacatra Page 27
  • Balimbuan Page 32
  • Matara ibid.
  • Borneo Page 52
  • Sambaar Point Page 58
  • Island of Salt and Banca ibid.
  • Succadana and Sambas ibid.
  • City of Borneo ibid.
  • Island of Banguey Page 59
  • Island of Balambangan ibid.
  • Zebu Page 60
  • Island of Luconia ibid.
  • City of Manilla Page 62
  • Bashee Islands Page 68
  • Singular Villages ibid.
  • Calamianes Isles Page 71
  • Panay ibid.
  • Mactan Page 73
  • Isle of Mindanao ibid.
  • Lano Lake Page 75
  • Soolo Isles Page 82
  • Celebes or Macassar Page 85
  • City of Macassar Page 89
  • Island of Boutan Page 91
  • Island of Balli Page 92
  • Timorian Chain Page 93
  • Timor Island ibid.
  • Dampier's Bay Page 98
  • De Witts Land Page 99
  • [Page] Endracht's Land Page 100
  • Sharks Bay ibid.
  • Edels Land Page 102
  • Van de Leuwins ibid.
  • Adventure Bay Page 105
  • Cape Hicks ibid.
  • Botany Bay Page 106
  • Port Jackson Page 110
  • Sydney Cove ibid.
  • Norfolk Islands Page 112
  • Lord Howe Island Page 117
  • Broken Bay Page 139
  • Hawkesbury River Page 140
  • Nepean River ibid.
  • Indian Head Page 141
  • Bustard Bay ibid.
  • Keppel's Bay ibid.
  • Endeavour River Page 143
  • Cape Bedford and Cape Flattery Page 144
  • Providential Inlet Page 145
  • Coral Reefs ibid.
  • Endeavour Streights Page 146
  • Carpentaria Page 147
  • Arrou Islands Page 148
  • Banda Islands Page 154
  • Goenong-api Page 159
  • Lontoir Page 160
  • Pulo aya Page 161
  • Poloroon ibid.
  • Amboina Page 166
  • Victoria Castle Page 169
  • Ceram Page 172
  • Manipa and Keylan Page 173
  • Buero Page 174
  • Upper part of the Spicy Sea Page 176
  • Ouby ibid.
  • Lyong, Pulo Pisang, &c. ibid.
  • Mixaol Page 177
  • Ef-be Harbour ibid.
  • Village of Linty ibid.
  • Kanari Islands ibid.
  • Bo and Popo ibid.
  • Isle of Selang Page 178
  • Batchian ibid.
  • Isle of Bally Page 180
  • Bissory Harbour Page 181
  • Island of Tappa ibid.
  • Lalaletta ibid.
  • Harbour of Malaleo ibid.
  • Giaritchas ibid.
  • Island of Matchian ibid.
  • Motir Page 182
  • Tidor ibid.
  • Ternate Page 183
  • Myo and Tyfory Page 184
  • Island of Gilolo Page 193
  • Patany Hook ibid.
  • Morty Page 197
  • [Page]Gibby Page 198
  • Gag Page 199
  • Syang ibid.
  • Ruib ibid.
  • Waglol ibid.
  • Tomoguy ibid.
  • Salwatty Page 200
  • Patanta Page 203
  • Isle of King William Page 204
  • Cockle Isle ibid.
  • Waygiou Page 205
  • Offack Page 206
  • Isles of Yowl ibid.
  • Abdon ibid.
  • Cape of Good Hope Page 207
  • Isle of Yowry ibid.
  • Mountains of Arfak ibid.
  • Manaswary Page 221
  • Port Mansingham Page 222
  • Long Island ibid.
  • Schouten's ibid.
  • Sir George Rook's Page 223
  • Port Montagu Page 223
  • Cape Orford Page 224
  • Cape St. George ibid.
  • Wallis's Isle Page 225
  • Cape Stephens Page 225
  • St. George's Channel Page 226
  • St. John's Island Page 228
  • Gerard Dennis's Page 229
  • Wishart's ibid.
  • Slinger's Bay ibid.
  • Prince of Wales's Isles Page 232
  • Torres's Streights ibid.
  • Cape Waelche Page 233
  • Mackerel Bay ibid.
  • Pulo Sabuda ibid.


  • Page 15. line 14. for cocoa read coco.
  • Page 25. line 17. for independenc. read independency.
  • Page 33. line 25. for million read million of florins.
  • Page 38. line 1. for rostralus read rostratus.
  • Page 61. line 17. for manufactories read manufactures.
  • Page 67. line 26. for one read islands.
  • Page 70. line 20. for Antique Shrike, tab. 114. read Antiguan Shrike, p. 114. t. 70.
  • Page 97. line 13, 14. transpose length and breadth.
  • Page 113. line 1. for somale read female.
  • Page 130. line 15. for Hawksberry read Hawksbury.
  • Page 135. line 19. for large stoaks read largest oaks.
  • Page 191. line 20. for manucodiatae read manucodiata.
  • Page 199. line 20. after Synagee dele the stop.


THOSE who consult the map of this portion of the globe, will instantly perceive the effect of the rapid dis­charge of the waters after the destruction of the old world by the deluge, aided by volcanic fury. Volcanoes, or ves­tiges of volcanoes, are to be seen in most parts to this day; amazing caverns, mountains piled upon mountains, with all the testimonies of the mighty confusion; we know not the ante­cedent form, but it was evidently shattered by that great event. From the top of the bay of Bengal to the very pole, it swept every thing before it, and left a vast expanse of ocean, uninter­rupted by any land, except the diminutive spots of Kerguelin islands, or the lesser speck of Amsterdam and St. Paulo.

FROM Cape Negrais, the southern point of Pegu, the waters seem to have been impelled towards the vast Pacific Ocean. The isles of Andaman and Nicobar first shew that tendency in a slight degree; all the peninsula of Malacca was affected in a higher. The island of Sumatra follows the curvature of that part of the continent. At Java it begins to shew the sury of the [Page 2]attracted course of the waters towards the east. Java, Cumbava, Timor, the Molucca islands, and New Guinea were formed by their influence. At New Guinea the torrent took a southerly direction, and rent into fragments all that part of the primitive world, even to the remotest of the Society islands, which, like the train of a comet, shew the innumerable remnants of land, most evident witnesses of its course. The amazing island of New Holland resisted the force, and continues, more worthy of the name of a continent. New Zealand remains divided from all the rest; to the east is sea as far as America, and remote as the pole itself on the south. The north part of the vast Pacific is contracted by the ap­proximation of Asia and America. The crescent of islands from Alaschka to Kamtschatka mark the antient union of the present continents. The flood formed from the south of Kamtschatka the Kuril isles, Matmay, and Japan, Liqueo and Formosa, the Philippine islands, the great Borneo, and all the groups scattered over the ocean to the north-east, such as the Pelew, the La­drones, and the Carolinas, and the range named after Lord Mul­grave. Such is the hypothetical view of this face of the globe.

Sumatra, SUMATRA. the first island which strikes our eye, bounds the west side of the streights of Malacca. The equator crosses it in the middle, and divides it into almost two equal parts. Acheen head lies in Lat. 5° 33′ north, and Hogs point in 5° 5′ south. The length is about eight hundred miles, and the greatest breadth a hundred and thirty. All the western side is very low, and in­tersected with swamps, insulating certain patches slightly ele­vated. A range of mountains runs through the whole island, much nearer to the western than the eastern coast. In some [Page 3]places they are double and treble, with beautiful vallies between each chain; but, excepting where cleared, both valley and mountain are clothed with shady forests. These chains approxi­mate to the coast on the whole of the western side. At their foot is low, and often swampy land.

SOME of the mountains are of a vast height; Ophir, MOUNT OPHIR. situated immediately under the line, is 13,842 feet high, or two miles one thousand and ninety-four yards. No snow is ever seen on it, yet the inhabitants of all the chains are, like those of other alpine regions, subject to monstrous wens or goitres: this malady owes its origin to the water, or the thick, cold, and foggy vapors which universally arise from the vallies. These people are not infested with any particular disease, the result of the tumors; they enjoy the same health as others; BAD CLIMATE. but the climate of Sumatra near to the sea, or amidst the swamps, is dreadful. "Near Indrapour," says Lind *, ‘is a place where no European can venture to sleep one night on shore during the rainy season without running the hazard of his life, or at least of a dangerous fit of sickness; and at Podang, a Dutch settlement on the same island, the air has been found so bad, that it is commonly called the Plague Coast. Here a thick pestilential vapor or fog arises after the rains, from the marshes, which destroys all the white inha­bitants.’

IN all these chains are numbers of volcanoes, VOLCANOES. which are called by the Malayes, Goonong Appee; they generally smoke, but sel­dom emit flames or lava . I believe no accurate observations have been yet made on their nature, being at a considerable [Page 4]distance inland, and the approach impeded by deep and almost impenetrable forests. Sulphur may be collected in any quantity about their sides.

THE island abounds with minerals. MINERALS. It has been long famous for its gold; GOLD. some is dug out of the earth; but by reason of the unwholesomeness of the climate, no Europeans dare attempt to work, and the natives are too lazy to go to any depth. The greatest part is taken out of the rivers, and washed from the sand and gravel. The amount brought annually to the western parts of Sumatra, does not exceed ten thousand ounces. Menanga­cabow, a central and principal kingdom, has the greatest quan­tity, the richest mines lying within its territory. The Malayes are most skilful artists in works of fillagree, in both gold and silver. Mr. Marsden * gives an ample account of the manufac­ture, which, with the coarsest of instruments, is carried on to the most amazing degree of elegance and perfection. On mention of that gentleman, let me own my obligation to his admirable his­tory of Sumatra, for most of the articles on the subject of that island.

I FIND no mention of any silver being found here; COPPER. but it produces abundance of copper, of the richest kind.

TIN is met with in vast plenty, TIN. chiefly near Palambang, on the east coast, and on the isle of Banka; it is a considerable ar­ticle of trade, and, smelted into small pieces, is exported in great quantities to China.

IRON is found in Menangacabow, IRON. where it is fused for use.

COAL is a production of Sumatra. COAL. Naptha, or earth oil, is [Page 5]another, and is principally used to resist the ravages of the termes, or white ants.

SALTPETRE is procured in abundance out of the vast caverns with which the island is hollowed, and is extracted out of the dung of the swallows called Layang Layang, which build by thousands in the roofs. These seem to be the kind which make the escu­lent nests. The dung extends often twenty feet in breadth, and is from four to six feet in depth.

Napal, or the Steatites earth, forms the basis of the cliffs, and often the beds of the rivers.

I SHALL now pursue the other parts of the natural history, begin with the zoology, and treat of it on the authority of Mr. Marsden, flinging it into a systematic form.

THE Horses are small and hardy; HORSES, COWS, SHEEP. the cows and sheep are also small; the last supposed to be of the Bengal breed.

THE buffalo, BUFFALO. or carbow, the most useful animal of the island, is the beast of draught, and supplies the inhabitants with milk and butter. There are none at present in a state of nature.

DOMESTIC goats are common, and are called Cambing. GOATS. As to the Cambing Ootan, or goat of the woods, of Mr. Marsden, his description is not sufficient for me to ascertain the species: "One," says he *, ‘which I saw, was three feet in height, and four feet in the length of the body. It had something of the gazelle in its appearance; and, excepting the horns, which were about six inches long, and turned back with an arch, it did not much resemble the common goat. The hinder parts were shaped like those of a bear, the rump sloping round off [Page 6]from the back. The tail was very small, and ended in a point. The legs clumsy. The hair along the ridge of the back rising coarse and strong, almost like bristles. No beard. Over the shoulder was a large spreading tuft of greyish hair; the rest of the hair black throughout. The Scrotum globular. Its dis­position seemed wild and fierce, and it is said by the natives to be remarkably swift.’

THE deer seem to be the different sort of axis, DEER. Hist. Quad. i. p. 117. Mr. Marsden names it the Hog-deer, No 59, but certainly not the Baby-rossa, as he supposes it, which we shall hereafter shew to be a hog.

THE wild boar is frequent; WILD BOAR. the domestic is of the kind we call the Chinese.

THE one-horned Rhinoceros is common. RHINOCEROS. Mr. Charles Miller informed me by a friend, that the two-horned, No 80, is some­times seen here.

THE forests abound with elephants: ELEPHANTS. few are applied to use; about ten are kept for state by the king of Acheen; and that faithful traveller, Mr. Forrest *, adds, that the inhabitants of the capital make use of them as horses in their journies into the country. Much of the ivory is sent to China and to Europe. The wild elephants collect in great herds, and are very destructive in the plantations. The natives contrive to poison them, by in­serting a fatal drug into the sugar-canes, split for that purpose.

OF the digitated quadrupeds are found variety of apes: APES. the Gibbon, or long-armed, No 88, in vast multitudes, generally perched by hundreds on the tops of trees, and very seldom de­scending. [Page 7]The Ourang Outang is said to be found in Sumatra, which is probable, as it is met with in the adjacent islands. The pig-tailed Baboon, No 102, is an inhabitant of this country.

AMONG the Battas are numbers of small black dogs, DOGS. with erect ears, which are fattened for food. Wild dogs inhabit all parts of the island.

Tigers are numerous, and very destructive; TIGERS. they annually kill in the pepper country a hundred people; there are even in­stances of their depopulating whole villages; yet the natives will not destroy them, for they hold the doctrine of transmigration, and fear that in the tiger they may hurt the soul of an an­cestor.

HERE are two or three species of lesser kind, called tiger cats.

THE Bear, No 209, is small and black, BEARS. and devours the heart or pith of the coco-palms.

Otters and civets finish the list given us of the rapacious ani­mals of this island. OTTER. Mr. Marsden mentions an animal called a Stinkard, I suppose one of the mephitic weesels.

THE crested Porcupine, No 314, and I think the long-tailed, PORCUPINE. No 316, are found in this country.

Squirrels *, small, and of a dark color, SQUIRREL. inhabit the woods.

Mr. Marsden mentions a Sloth, the two-toed, No 451, SLOTH. and the Armadillo; he names it the Tanqueeling, which is the short-tailed Manis, No 460. As to the Armadillo, the whole tribe is confined to South America.

THE vast Bats, No 495, or No 496, swarm here, BATS. as they do in all the islands. They fly from island to island, and in their [Page 8]passage are often seen dipping into the sea, probably to snatch up the smaller fishes.

IT is very difficult to ascertain the birds; [...]RDS. I can readily suppose them to be the same with those of India, or the neighboring islands. I shall mention only two; one, the scarce species the Argus Pheasant, spoken of before among the Chinese birds *; I here add, that it is very common in the woods of Sumatra, &c.

THE other bird is the Cassowary, Latham, iii. p. 10. tab. 72. This curious genus is related to the Ostrich, but is most local, being confined to the torrid zone, and only to that part which includes this island, Java, Banda, and a few others of this great Archipelago. It runs fast, is very fierce when in the wild state; grunts like a hog, and will kick violently like the Ostrich. Its food is vegetables, but will swallow iron, stones, or any thing that is offered.

I SHALL take notice of only one insect, INSECTS. which is the common bee, the Apis Mellifica, which in these hot countries is left to it­self unhived. Vast quantities of the wax is exported to China, Bengal, and other parts of India; as to the honey it is far inferior to the European kind.

I MAY mention that among the lizards is the Crocodile, CROCODILE. which makes dreadful havock among the bathers, who cannot be per­suaded from the performance of that rite notwithstanding the danger; besides, they look upon these terrible reptiles with a de­gree of respect, probably for the same reason as they do the tiger.

Sumatra still wants its florist. I must content myself with [Page 9]giving a list of such of the vegetable kingdom as contribute to commercial purposes, or to the general use of the natives.

Pepper is the great staple of the island. PEPPER. It was for the sake of that spice that we defied the wretched climate. Mr. Marsden * gives a long and curious account of its cultivation; he also informs us that the white is only black stripped of the outer coat.

THE Piper Betel is cultivated greatly, BETEL. and sent to the coast of Coromandel, and to Telinga, for the purpose of chewing, wrapped round the Areca, as we have already mentioned .

THE Arundo Bambos is very common, BAMBOO. and not only furnishes materials for building the houses, but as I imagine, produces the quantities of canes that are exported from the western side of the island.

THE Calamus Rotang, Rumphius, ROTANG. vol. v. p. 97. tab. 51. and num­bers of the following pages and plates, furnishes annually great cargoes, chiefly from the eastern side of the island, which the Dutch send to Europe, and the country traders to the western parts of India. The specific name (Rotang) signifies in the Malayan language a staff or walking stick; the common thick canes which serve for this purpose, and the small limber canes imported from India, are all varieties of the Calamus Rotang—The former is,

Palmi juncus Calapparius, Var. A. Linn. and is accurately de­scribed by Rumphius, Amb. vol. v. p. 97. The texture of its wood, its leaves and flowering stems, bear a striking resemblance to some species of palm. Hence Rumphius has not unaptly named it Palmi juncus, or Palm rush. Its natural situation is in [Page 10]woody mountanous tracts; there it pervades the highest trees, and interlacing its branches from bough to bough, forms, by its innumerable ramifications and spinous stems, an impenetrable thicket.

IN order to fit this cane for the purpose of a walking stick, a single interstice of sufficient length between two joints is made choice of; this is loaded with a weight, or bound tight to a board, for the space of a month, and also exposed to smoak, to diminish somewhat of its natural pliability.

Rumphius observes, Herb. Amb. vol. 5. p. 100, that no author he had seen described this cane, which he imputes to its growing only in the remote parts of India, and sequestered mountains, rarely visited by Europeans, till they acquired sovereign power over some of the regions.

Laurus Casia *, CASIA. or bastard cinnamon, grows in abundance in the interior parts of the north of the island; it is sometimes fifty and sixty feet high, and two feet in diameter; much of the bark is exported as the true cinnamon; and from the root, a camphor may, as is said, be extracted.

A TREE producing camphor, CAMPHOR. abounds here and in Borneo; it grows near to the sea, and is equal in bulk to our largest oaks, being sometimes fifteen feet in circumference, and a hundred feet high. The timber is excellent for the use of the carpenter, being light and durable, and resists the injury of insects. This valuable drug, Camphor , is as much valued by the Sumatrans as by the Europeans, and serves for medical purposes. It has very [Page 11]long been in use among the Arabs; much is sent to China as well as Europe.

THE Styrax Benzoin of Mr. Jonas Dryander *, BENZOIN. grows chiefly in the Battas country, but not to a great size. The gum is pro­cured by incision, and sent down to the ports in large cakes; a vast quantity is transmitted to Europe, where in Roman Catholic countries it is used as incense; the rest is a most valuable medicine as an expectorant and styptic, and forms the basis of Turlington's balsam. It is burnt in all the Malaye isles to perfume the rooms, to expel the insects, the unwholesome air, and noxious exhala­tions. I am doubtful whether this tree has been well ascer­tained, for Linschotten , who seems well acquainted with it, speaks of it as of vast height and size.

Coffee is cultivated in Sumatra, but, for want of skill, COFFEE. the ber­ries are not in any esteem.

BOTH the Gossypium arboreum and herbaceum, COTTON. may be had here in any quantities, but for want of encouragement, no more is cultivated than serves for the uses of the country.

Bombax Ceiba is planted near every village, and strikes the eye of strangers by its singular form, being in shape of the branches like a dumb waiter; so regularly do they spread one above the other.

EBONY, Diospyros melanoxylon , EBONY. that valued wood for furni­ture, so highly esteemed by our ancestors, is common here. It has been known since the days of Virgil.

India fert ebenum, molles sua thura Sabaei.

[Page 12] Pliny gives us a whole chapter on this wood *; he says it was Trunco enodi materie nigri splendoris, ac vel sine arte protinus jucundi. Virgil was mistaken by confining ebony to India, it was also produced in Aethiopia. Hexodotus (in Thalia) tells us that the Aethiopians paid their tribute every three years in that article to the Persian kings. It was esteemed the most valuable tribute after gold and ivory. Pompey had an ebony tree carried before him in his triumph over Mithridates; yet to this day we have not one to place in our celebrated garden at Kew.

THE Teek , Tectona grandis, TEEK. Tectona grandis, the pride of the eastern forests, grows in the north and east of Sumatra.

THE pines which captain Cook found in the different parts of the south seas are common here, PINES. and are called Arou; they flourish in a light sandy soil, and are the first trees that grow on lands deserted by the sea. At page 70, tab. 51, of the first volume of Captain Cook's second voyage, is some account of this tree, which as yet has not been classically described.

Sandal wood , SANDAL., Pterocarpus Santolinus, both the white and the red, are produced in Sumatra.

THE poisonous Manchineel tree, MANCHINEEL. Hippomane Mancinilla §, §, is common here, as well as in the West Indies, and furnishes a most useful timber, as it resists the attacks of the Termes, or white ants; it is also valuable in works of ornament, the wood being finely veined; but the juice is so noxious, that if any falls on the eyes it will occasion a blindness of many days, and the very drop­pings [Page 13]of the leaves after rain, raise blisters on the skin; standing under its shade for any length of time affects the senses.

ONE of the Sideroxylons, or iron woods, is common here, IRON WOOD. and of great use on account of its extraordinary hardness; it may be the Sideroxylon inerme, Hort. Elth. 357. tab. 265. Hort. Kew. i. 260.

THE pitch called Dammer, DAMMER. mentioned in the article Pulo con­dor, is extracted in abundance from certain resinous trees which go under the common Malayan name of Canari; they grow in vast plenty in the spice islands, but we find that some species have extended far more west. Rumphius describes all of them; but the species productive of this article are the Dammara nigra, vol. ii. p. 160. tab. 52, and the Dammara nigra legitima, 162. tab. 53, quantities are sent to Bengal and other places, for the same uses as pitch and tar are in Europe, and particularly for the ship­ping.

AMONG the trees or vegetables productive of the necessary food for the natives, ESCULENTS. is the Coco palm; rice, the Padda or upland; the common Mayz; Sesamum in great quantities, for the oil it produces, which is used only in burning; Ricinus palma Christi, for the castor oil, grows wild; Costus Arabicus, Amomum zeram­bet, and several others are raised for medicinal purposes. A Rumphius is wanted to pervade the forests of this vast island, and bring to light the numberless hidden treasures it contains, im­portant perhaps in mechanics, medicine, and the luxuries of life.

THE Cycas circinalis, or sago tree *, begins to appear here, but is not in such general use as a food, SAGO. as we shall find it in the [Page 14]more eastern islands: the plenty of rice supersedes the necessity of it in Sumatra. I must not pass over the knowledge that our great traveller Sir John Mandeville * had of this valuable tree, who found it in a great Yle he calls Pathen.

"IN that lond," says that flower of chivalry, ‘growen trees that beren mele, whereof men maken gode bred and white, and of gode savour; and it semethe as it were of whete, but it is not allynges of suche savour. And zif zou like to here how the mele comethe out of the trees, I shalle seye zou. Men hewen the trees with an hachet, alle aboute the fote of the tree, tille that the bark be parted in many parties; and than comethe out therof a thikke lykour, the whiche thei resceyven in ves­selles, and dryen it at the hete of the sonne; and than thei han it to a mylle to grynde; and it becomethe fair mele and white.’

I SHALL conclude this subject with mentioning that on this coast, STRANGE PLANT OF PURCHAS. near Tappanooly, Mr. Charles Miller found the ‘strange plant,’ as Purchas calls it, discovered by Sir James Lancaster on the island of Sombrero, who speaks of it as a tree which shrunk into the ground as soon as it was touched. Wonderful things were related of it by our old navigator. It is named, says Mr. Miller, by the Malayes, Lalan-laut, or sea grass. ‘It is found in sandy bays or in shallow water, where it appears like a slender strait stick, but, when you attempt to touch it, im­mediately withdraws itself into the sand. I could never ob­serve any tentacula; a broken piece near a foot long, which after many unsuccessful attempts, I drew out, was perfectly [Page 15]strait and uniform, and resembled a worm drawn over a knit­ting needle; when dry it is a coral.’

THAT Sumatra was known to the antients is most probable, but that only partially. This, and two others which Ptolemy unites, seem in the opinion of Mr. Caverhill to have been the Sabaddibae of the old geographer. The Mahometan travellers of the year 1173 called it Ramni. They speak of its gold mines, and excellent camphor, and of the inhabitants being cannibals. Marco Polo is very diffuse in his account of this island, which he calls the little Java; he actually travelled over six of its eight kingdoms, and gives various particulars, long since confirmed by the later travellers. He mentions the custom of eating human flesh; he describes the Rhinoceros under the name of Licorne, camphor, sago, the cocoa palms, and the tapping them for the acquisition of the liquor Toddy, so necessary a drink to the inha­bitants.

AFTER a very long interval the Portuguese again discovered Sumatra. PORTUGUESE. Lopez Sequeira, in 1508, by the command of his great master, sailed on a voyage of discovery, and arrived at the port of Pedeer, to the east of Acheen, at the northern end of the island *; there he found ships from Pegu, Bengal, and several other countries. The king, a Mahometan, treated him with much civility. The great Albuquerque visited the island in per­son, and entered into a treaty with the king of Pedeer. The Portuguese afterwards engaged deeply in the wars between the petty monarchs of the country; but I do not find that they ever made any settlement.

[Page 16]THE Dutch followed them in 1595. DUTCH. An account of that voyage may be seen in L'Histoire de la Navigation de L'Inde ori­entale, printed at Amsterdam in 1609. In future I shall, in my references to those voyages, cite them by the name of Nicolas's collection, who was the publisher. At p. 18 is given an account of their first descent, and a plate of the dresses of the inhabitants. The Dutch formed several factories in Sumatra, which flourish to this day; the principal is at Padang, in the neighborhood of the gold country. Their next is at Palanbang, for the sake of the tin which is dug by the natives, and fused on the isle of Banca, on the east side of Sumatra, opposite to the discharge of the river of Palambang. The city stands some miles from the mouth: It once belonged to the king of Bantam in Java, and is even to this day peopled by Javans; but since the Dutch have rendered that monarchy in a manner dependant on themselves, they most probably may be styled its masters. Besides making it the magazine of the tin drawn from Banca, they collect vast quantities of pepper from the neighboring parts. In 1662 this city was attacked by a Dutch fleet sent from Batavia to revenge some most barbarous murders committed on their countrymen, it was strongly fortified with trunks of trees closely put together, and mounted with numbers of cannon. Notwithstanding this, the Dutch succeeded, and burnt the city to the ground.

THE English are at present in possession of the great trade of Sumatra. ENGLISH. The reputation of its vast wealth gave rise to the first voyage ever made by our countrymen to the East Indies. Eliza­beth, in the 43d year of her reign, issued her patent which con­stituted [Page 17]originally the East India company. It is given at length by Purchas *.

IN consequence of this, that able sailor James Lancaster, SIR JAMES LANCASTER. afterwards Sir James, was sent there, and sailed from Torbay on April 2d, 1601. He commanded the Dragon of six hundred tons, and had with him the Hector of three hundred, the Ascen­sion of two hundred and sixty, and one more. Her Highness furnished her general, as he was called, with letters to divers of the eastern potentates, among others, one to the king of Acheen, the chief and first object of the voyage. He did not arrive at Su­matra till May 2d, 1602. The fame of Elizabeth's victories over the Spaniards had reached the king's ears, and in consequence Lancaster was most favorably received; he presented gifts of great value on the part of his mistress, and received others in return. The Portuguese did all in their power to prevent a good under­standing between the English and the king, but to no purpose. Lancaster even made a short cruise, and took a rich ship from Saint Thome on the Coromandel coast, belonging to the Portu­guese, which was deemed a lawful prize, that kingdom being then in possession of our great enemy Philip II. Our general got in part of his lading of pepper in this island; the rest in Ma­lacca; and after obtaining many valuable privileges from the king of Acheen, returned with a most friendly letter from the Sumatran prince. He met with a dreadful storm off Mada­gascar; in the midst of the confusion, he thought of the services he might render to his country by this remarkable notice: ‘The passage to the East Indies lies in 62 degrees 30 minutes, by the [Page 18]north-west on the American side.’ After encountering many difficulties, he anchored safe in the Downs on September 11th 1603. Sir James acquired great wealth and reputation by this voyage, which he lived thirty years after to enjoy, as he well deserved.

WE followed the advantages of this enterprize. The Dutch who had settled themselves in the island, entertained the highest jealousy of our rising commerce, and gave all possible oppo­sition; they even once expelled us from Bantam, where we had a factory. We then turned our thoughts towards Acheen, and met there some of the island chieftains in the year 1685, who invited us to settle on their lands; this, gave rise to our esta­blishment at Bencoolen, BENCOOLEN. which became the supreme factory. The fort called fort Marlborough was founded; we are now the prin­cipal traders in the island, and export from thence annually twelve hundred tons of pepper, the greatest part to Europe, the rest to China. This settlement is unwholesome, the air full of malignant vapors; the mountains continually cloathed with thick heavy clouds, which break out in lightning, thunder, rain, and short-lived storms; the fort is tolerably healthy during the sickly season, and to that place the merchants should make their retreat.

IN the year 1760, the French admiral D'Estaign destroyed this fort, and all our other settlements on the island, in order to drive us from the lucrative pepper trade; but they were soon re-established, and our possessions secured to us in 1763 by the treaty of Paris.

ON the coast of the Battas country are two settlements, NATAL. one at Natal, and another on a small isle in the noble bay of Tappanoly, [Page 19]which penetrates deeply inland, and is capable of containing all the navies of Europe, so as to ride securely in any weather, with such a multitude of harbors that a large ship could remain concealed so as to elude all search. In this bay is found plenty of that enormous shell the Keemo or Chama Gigas *, it is often three foot broad, and of the weight of five hundred pounds; and is taken in deep water, by thrusting a long bamboo between the shells while they are gaping, which close, and then are drawn up; the shell is quite white, and worked by the natives like ivory. The fish weighs often thirty pounds, and is excellent when stewed.

Sumatra is divided into numerous little kingdoms, ACHEEN. but that of Acheen is the most powerful. It once had a strong and nume­rous fleet, with which it contested the superiority of the sea with the adjacent princes. Acheen was the great emporium of the island, and the resort of the Arabs for the gold, camphor, ben­zoin, pepper, and all the commercial productions of the country. The government is entirely feudal, being founded on the Ma­layan plan. As to the genuine Sumatrans they are called Orang Ooloo, or countrymen, from their residence in villages. The Sultan of the empire of Menangecabow, EMPIRE OF MENANGECA­BOW. for a long time reigned lord paramount over all the other princes, who owned their au­thority to be derived from him: at present his real power is not superior to that of a common Rajah; yet still a superstitious re­gard is paid to his person; he is sovereign pontiff; the opinion of his sanctity is supported by the Mahometan priests, and an [Page 20]air of mystery surrounds his court; he issues out dictatorial edicts, which are received with respect; but attended to no far­ther than is consistent with the interests or pleasure of them to whom they are addressed. All the Sumatrans are originally de­rived from the Malayes, or inhabitants of the peninsula of Ma­lacca; when spoken of in this island, the word Malaye implies the Mahometans, who chiefly inhabit the coasts. Mahometanism is the religion of all the Malaye governments; all observe the feudal system, FEUDAL CUSTOM. and commute the punishment of crimes for money, which have their price as customary among the Ger­mans and Britons. Murder, as well as other crimes, having its price; this custom is a dreadful encouragement, particularly since the Daltoos or magistrates receive the ransom. Our factory was desirous of putting a stop to the frequent assassinations, but was told by the Daltoo that he should be a loser, as he got twenty dollars a head when the families prosecuted. Some of these governments are very antient, being formed soon after the first population of the island. Menangecabow is one which received the Mahometan faith in later times from the Malayes of Ma­lacca, who had made a conquest of their antecedent brethren.

IN p. 33 of the preceding volume, I have given the general de­scription of the persons of the Malayes. I cannot help thinking that those of Malacca were a distinct people, who drove the an­tient inhabitants of the peninsula to take refuge in Sumatra, where they retain their language and alphabet, and that the Malayes in future times re-conquered the descendants of these refugees, and each still retain their peculiar language and writing.

[Page 21]I SHALL not attempt to give an account of the various na­tions into which this island is divided: NATIVES OF THE BATTAS. That of the Battas is too remarkable to be overlooked; they are of smaller stature than the rest of the Sumatrans, and their complexions fairer; their religion is paganism, yet from very antient custom they hold in respect the sultan of Menangecabow, in all probability from the period in which both were of the same religion. We have our settlement on their coast, which enabled two of our factory, Mr. Charles Miller and Mr. Holloway, to undertake a journey into the interior parts of the country. I refer my reader for the par­ticular account to the lxviiith volume of the Philosophical Trans­actions. From this expedition is verified the circumstance of the natives being anthropophagi, and eat the flesh of prisoners of war, or of offenders condemned for capital crimes. As soon as the man is put to death, they rush on the body, cut pieces of the yet tremulous limbs, dip it in lemon juice and salt, and eat it with exquisite pleasure. Mr. Miller says, they spake in raptures of the soles of the feet, and palms of the hands, as pe­culiar dainties. Marco Polo * tells us, that in the kingdom of Dragoiam they eat the bodies of their relations and best friends who chance to die, thinking it a peculiar respect to the deceased. They then bury the bones in the caverns of the mountains. Polo mentions this horrid custom in other islands, so that it cer­tainly had spread far more extensively than is imagined. The opinion was generally exploded, till the voyages in our days fur­nished us with several examples; some most dreadful, in which many Europeans fell victims to the cannibal appetite: Even the [Page 22]illustrious Cook found in part a sepulchre in the maws of the inhabitants of the Sandwich islands.

ON the island of Enganho, ENGANHO ISLAND. about ninety miles south of fort Marlborough, are inhabitants of most savage appearance, and of a language unintelligible to the few who have visited the place. It was scarcely known to have been inhabited, as it was long deemed inaccessible by reason of the rocks, and dreadful break­ers. Commodore Beaulieu calls it L'Isle Trompeuse, and adds, that the natives murder all that come on shore. It appears from the East India pilot * to be of a triangular form. Mr. Charles Miller was hardy enough to visit it. He found the men from five feet eight to five feet ten inches high, of a red color, with black strait hair cut short; that of the women long, and rolled into a neat curl on the top of the head. The men went quite naked; the women had no more than a plantain leaf to hide their nakedness; the arms of the men were lances headed with the bone of fish, their canoes made of two boards sewed together, and the seam filled with pitch. Their houses were circular, sup­ported on stakes of iron-wood; they had no sort of fowl, cattle, or rice; they lived on cocoa nuts, sugar canes, and sweet po­tatoes, or fish dried in the smoke. The fish they caught with their lances, or in nets very neatly manufactured by themselves. Their behavior was hospitable, nor did they give any sort of um­brage, till some imprudent conduct on our side excited an alarm. Conch shells, the Murex Tritonis, resounded in all parts of the island, and our people thought fit to make a sudden retreat.

A MOST furious surf rises on great part of the western and [Page 23]southern side of Sumatra, SURF. such as vexes the western coasts of Africa. ‘It begins, says Mr. Marsden *, to assume its form at some distance from the place where it breaks, gradually accumu­lating as it moves forward, till it gains a height, in common, of fifteen to twenty feet, when it overhangs at top, and falls like a cascade, nearly perpendicular, involving itself as it descends; the noise made by the fall is prodigious, and, during the still­ness of the night, may be heard many miles up the country. It forms sometimes but a single range along the shore; at other times, there is a succession of two, three, four, or more, behind each other, extending perhaps half a mile out to sea. The number of ranges is generally in proportion to the height and violence of the surf.’

Java is separated from the island of Sumatra, JAVA. by the narrow streights of Sunda; their depth is from thirty to fifty fathoms, and in some places are no soundings; the voyager is advised of the approach to Java by vast drifts of bamboos, and flocks of the booby , or, according to Mr. Asbeck's reference, the Pelecanus piscator of Linnaeus. The currents are strong in the narrowest part, and from January to April usually run from the westward; the rest of the year from the eastward.

THE streights begin with great breadth between Sumanca bay in Sumatra, and Welcome bay in Java. Sumanca and other peaks mark the former. PRINCE'S ISLAND. Prince's island lies near the Javanese shore, and is known by a small mount called Java head, or the Pico. The latitude of the anchoring place in Kasuarus bay, is 6° 36′ 15″ south. This island is universally wooded, and vegeta­tion [Page 24]advances so rapidly, that notwithstanding what is cut for the use of the shipping, it seems nothing impaired. It has some in­habitants so like in figure, color, manners, and even language, to those of the south sea islands, as greatly to strike Captain Cook, who anchored here in 1780, after having been so long conversant with them. The chief business of the natives is to supply the shipping with fowls, small tortoises, or green turtle, hog deer weighing about forty pounds; monkies, some vegetables, and above all water.

THIS island is as unhealthy as the rest of these fatal coasts; ISLAND OF CRACATOA. which has induced many navigators to prefer taking water at the isle of Cracatoa, a small spot about nine miles in circum­ference, and some leagues to the north-east of Prince's island. In one part is a hot spring, used by the natives as a bath. The island is high, rising gradually from the sea, and covered with trees. In the coral reefs which skirt the shores are plenty of small green turtle.

BETWEEN Hog point in Sumatra, and Cickorang in Java, the streights suddenly contract. In the middle are the small isles, called Midchannel island, the Isle de Milieu, and the rock Le grand Toque. Le Brun * calls the breadth a league and a half. After doubling the point, BANTAM. appears the bay of Bantam, deep, round, and sprinkled over with many small isles; at the bottom is the city, capital of the kingdom. After Sir James Lancaster left Acheen he sailed to this port; the king was one of the Indian mo­narchs whom Elizabeth honored with her correspondence; her letter was graciously received. Lancaster established here our [Page 25]first factory in the Indian seas, and after loading his ship with pepper, took his departure for England.

THE Portuguese visited this coast in the time of the great Albuquerque; PORTUGUESE. the commanders in that expedition were Roderigo Brittio, and Ferdinand Andrada, who took part with one of the princes of the country, engaged in war with the king of Ban­tam, and gained a great victory over his fleet. Not long after George Albuquerque made an attempt to storm Bantam *, but was repulsed with great loss. Lacsemanna, the general of Malacca, the ablest officer of his age, had the most considerable share in the defeat.

AT the first arrival of the Europeans, Java (according to Sir Thomas Herbert ) was under one supreme, the emperor of Ma­tara; next to him was the king of Bantam, whom Sir Thomas only styles a viceroy; possibly at first the government might have been like that of the primaeval establishments of Sumatra, and in after times the delegated powers assumed an independene.

THE subtil Dutch took more efficacious methods to gain footing in the country; DUTCH. after various great events, various quar­rels and reconciliations, by an essential service done in 1680 to one of the monarchs of Bantam, they received from him an exclusive grant of the trade of his kingdom. This they support by a slight armed force; in fact, they are real masters of the island, notwithstanding they pay a pretended respect to the na­tive powers. Before that acquisition of privilege by the Dutch, the English and Danes had very flourishing factories, but both were expelled by the influence of their Batavian rival.

[Page 26] Le Brun * visited this court in 1706, and exhibits a fine pic­ture of the effeminacy of the Oriental monarch, illustrating it with a print. All the attendants were females, even his body guards. One is seen with her musket on her shoulder, others with lances. Dancing girls, and two diminutive dwarfs, perform­ing before his majesty, shew the festivity of the court; let me add that one of the ladies, officers of state, bore the sword, another the golden bowl, and so to the number of ten, each carrying a different badge of state. Near this city he also saw a miracle in this climate; a lady of the age of a hundred-and-thirty.

AFTER passing some leagues to the east, through the group of the Thousand isles, we arrive at the bay of Batavia, amidst others equally numerous, each named by the Dutch in memory of their own country. The traveller would imagine himself in Holland, and more so when he enters the great and magnificent city of Batavia, BATAVIA. seated in a swamp, as like as possible to their boasted capital Amsterdam; but here, overhung with pestilential vapors, that would soon by their fatal effects depopulate the na­tive country, did not the teeming Germany annually pour down the Rhine its thousands to supply the loss, in a place so injudici­ously fixed on through national prejudice. As to the troops, they are picked out of the vagabonds of Amsterdam, and sent to certain death, for in the space of three years, not five survive out of a battalion of an equal number of hundreds. Let Doctor Lind describe the fatal effects of the injudicious selection of situation of this proud capital, on some of the British subjects, who unfortunately put in here: ‘During the sickly season at [Page 27] Batavia, a boat belonging to the Medway, which attended on shore every night, was three times successively manned, not one having survived that service. They were all taken ill in the night, when on shore, or when returning on board, so that the officers were at length obliged to employ none but the natives of the country on that business.’

ON the arrival of the Europeans in this country, JACATRA. a town then called Calappa, and about the year 1607 changed to that of Jacatra, stood on the site of Batavia. The regulus of the place had made an alliance with the English, which gave great umbrage to the Dutch, who had likewise their settlements here, under the protection of a fort or two; the rivals came to action; for a time we had the superiority, and in the year 1619, after a successful battle at sea, compelled the Dutch commodore Koen, to retreat to Amboina; but he soon returned in such force, as to oblige the English, by capitulation, totally to evacuate the place. This was not a national war, but carried on entirely be­tween the two companies.

Koen utterly destroyed the town of Jacatra, FOUNDED IN 1620. and built in its place the present Batavia, on a far more extensive scale. The anniversary is observed in honor of the founder to this day. The streets are regular, each has its canal, which in the dry season emit a most horrid stench, from the filth flung into them, and the closeness of the trees planted on the banks pre­vent the due circulation. No place could possibly be selected more unwholesome; so that what Purchas relates of Bantam, may well be applied to this city, SICKLY CLIMATE. ‘that it is not a place to re­cover [Page 28]men that are sick, but to kill men who come there in health.’ The Jacatra, and other rivers which creep through the city, almost stagnate. A dead buffalo or hog flung into them, is perhaps many days in reaching the sea. These streams pass through a fenny plain, rising from the Blauenberg or blue moun­tains, about forty miles distant. For the benefit of a quick and easy conveyance of such as are in a convalescent state, an excel­lent road is formed for seventy miles, leading from Batavia to the mountains, equal to any turnpike road in England.

Batavia is the seat of the viceroy of the Indies; the Dutch support him with a splendor equal to that of most crowned heads, nor does he go out without his guards, magnificently dressed; this is to instil respect into the natives. The town is prodigiously populous; but neither the public or the private buildings are particularly fine; they possibly are in the same state as they were in the time of Mr. Nieuhoff, who in his tra­vels * has given views of many of both kinds. The whole city is surrounded with gardens for a great distance, and the canals, cut far into the interior of the island, serve to convey all sorts of provisions to market; many forts are dispersed over the country to awe the inhabitants.

THE Chinese, MASSACRE OF THE CHINESE. attracted by the sweets of gain, settled here in vast numbers; they are said to have had, in the year 1726, two thou­sand four hundred houses in the city and suburbs, some of which were the best in Batavia; many of them were levelled to the ground in the infamous massacre of this nation in the year 1740. It began on occasion of the celebration of a festival in [Page 29]honor of their idol, the Jootsje de Batavia, a hideous likeness of the Devil (the Dutch only worshipped him in private); the en­thusiasm of the devotees created disorder; they grew riotous, and a guard sent to restrain their zeal, executed its commission with great vigor, which excited the rage of the Chinese, so that much blood was shed. The governor and council, under pretence of public security, ordered every Chinese to be put to the sword, women and children excepted; reduced to despair, they set fire to their own houses; numbers perished in the flames, and those who rushed out were put to death by the soldiery; above twelve thousand perished in this horrible affair. The Dutch published their account, which is left to the judgment of the reader to be­lieve or disbelieve; they would make the cause to have been a regular conspiracy, yet the governor, two of the counsellors of the Indies, and the attorney general, were deposed and impri­soned; the Dutch certainly thought them guilty. The wealth of the Chinese seems to have been the inducement to the bloody business. The governor's effects, which he was endeavoring to carry to Europe, amounted to half a million sterling. So little were the Dutch apprehensive of any harm from a new coloniza­tion of the Chinese, that they permitted any number which pleased to settle again in Batavia, and multitudes resorted there as if nothing had happened. The governor thought proper to send an apology to the emperor of China, which he received with unconcern, considering that his empire was overcharged with inhabitants, and indifferent to subjects who had deserted the tombs of their ancestors.

THE Chinese seem to have been on the best footing with the [Page 30] Dutch. In 1632, they gave a proof of their respect by having a noble medal struck in honor of the governor, James Speks. On one side is the plan of Batavia; on the reverse a Chinese inscrip­tion, and beneath the following Latin translation:

In perpetuam gratitudinis memoriam
hoc munusculum, nos ciues Chynen
ses Batauiae L. Mq. obtulimus insi
gni heroi Jacobo Spexio India
rum Orientalium Generali Pa
trono nostro obseruando.
Anno 1632 Ady 25 No-
uembris, Batuiae.

Von Loan preserves this mark of gratitude by a figure *.

IN all instances of real rebellions, DUTCH CRUELTY. and of the punishment of the slaves, a spirit of cruelty pervades the Batavians beyond the inhabitants of any other settlements; penetrate but into a grove near Batavia, and hundreds of naked corpses will be seen hang­ing on the trees, by their legs, arms, or necks, all lacerated by the rapacious birds, and emitting the most pestilential stench; no notice is taken of the death of a slave: the Dutchman scarcely ever suffers for any crime. Sir Thomas Herbert is perhaps too severe on this city, when he calls it "a second Sodom."

BESIDES Batavia, the Dutch have numbers of smaller settle­ments on the coast, to collect the rich productions of the island. At Tsierobon is one, which country is governed by a depen­dent sultan. He furnishes them with the productions of his [Page 31]dominions; an immense quantity of rice, coffee, sugar, pepper, cotton, and Areca; all these are bought at the price the con­sciences of the company fix, which is certainly not at the highest rate. False weights are in general use with the company's ser­vants, nor are they in any danger of being called to account, as it tends to the service of their congenial masters. PEPPER. Pepper is the great commodity of the island; Bantam furnishes the Dutch with three millions of pounds annually.

LET us now pass on the the island of Madura, in Lat. 7° south.

THE Dutch picked a quarrel with its prince in the year 1747, PRINCE OF MADURA, HIS TRAGICAL STORY. who, after seeing his country invaded, his subjects massacred, and his own ruin to be certain, collected all his treasures, and with his young son, wives, concubines, and a few select friends, fled to Borneo in hopes of an asylum. He was closely pursued, but by putting into creeks and inlets, for a short time escaped; the unhappy fugitives set sail in the night, and retreated into their hiding places in the day. At length, to their great joy, they saw a ship with English colors. They flung themselves on the pro­tection of the commander, who received the prince and his trea­sure. The Dutch Guarda costa came up with him; as he knew force could not prevale, he by treachery seized on the English captain, put him into irons, nor would he set him at liberty, till the unhappy prince was delivered into the power of his ene­mies. Grown desperate, he barricaded the cabin; it was forced open; jealous of the honor of his women, he stabbed two to the heart; others equally delicate flung themselves over board. Oppressed with numbers, and greatly wounded, the aged sultan was seized, and conveyed to Batavia, and from thence to the [Page 32]wretched island of Robben, near the cape of Good Hope *, where he was living in April 1775, dragging on a miserable being, in the character of a common slave. Whoever wishes to have a fuller account of this tragical and infamous event, may find it patheti­cally told in a voyage to the East Indies, 1747, 1748, published in 1762: the perusal will be a trial of the heart of the reader.

Balimbuan is another little kingdom, SAME OF THE PRINCE OF BALIMBUAN. at the eastern extremity of the island. It seems that the Dutch, apparently without any motives of emolument, attacked also the prince of this country; he defended himself vigorously for two years, was overpowered, himself confined for life in the castle of Batavia, his family torn from him, and sent to keep company with the Madurian prince at Robben island.

Matara, MATARA. the capital of the once potent empire of that name, is in about Lat. 8° 12′, on the south side of Java. Even this em­pire was, after many contests, rendered dependent on the Dutch, who having deposed the usurping sovereign, placed the rightful heir on the throne; but they chose for him his place of resi­dence, secured his allegiance by a citadel, and supplying him with every conveniency for his pleasures, rendered this weak prince entirely subservient to their will. In this part of the island is plenty of Teek, and timber for the building of ships, or for exportation to other parts of India; here they have their docks; besides they carry on great commerce in rice, salt, pepper, and many other valuable productions.

Java wants its Marsden; but with such lights as I can pro­cure, I shall attempt a brief description of this important island. [Page 33] Marco Polo is very concise in his account of it, which he names simply Java *. In his days there was only one monarch. It was greatly frequented by merchants for the sake of the pepper and other spices; he mentions nutmegs, which probably have been since extirpated by the political Dutch. James Bontius, BONTIUS. a physician of great eminence, who flourished here very soon after the foundation of Batavia by Koen, has furnished very good materials for the medical and natural history of the island. It is from a variety of authors I must select accounts relative to other subjects.

Java extends from West Point, in Lat. 6° 36′ south, EXTENT OF JAVA. Long. 121° 33′ from Paris, to East Point, in Lat. 8° 33′ Long. 132°, near seven hundred miles in length. The course is west and east, with an inclination to the south; the greatest breadth is about forty leagues, and nearly of equal diameter, except where the bays make some small contractions.

THE land on the coasts varies; at the western and eastern ex­tremities it is high, but I believe in general the shores are low, swampy, and unhealthy. A lofty chain of mountains runs from west to east through the middle, with numbers of branches issuing from each side to uncertain distances from the sea. Some of the mountains are very lofty, and the air cool and salubrious; among them are very active volcanoes; VOLCANOES. the mountain of Parang is the principal, and said to be very productive of gold; the Dutch spent near a million in attempting the discovery, but were dis­appointed in their search; these mountains produce besides Ru­bies and Sapphires. Earthquakes are frequent and dreadful.

[Page 34]I AM not qualified to give any account of the natives of these Appennines of Java. NATIVES. The general description is, that their faces are flat, their cheeks broad, their hair short and black, their eye­brows large, their eyes very small. They boast that they are de­scended from the Chinese; if true, we may account for the pro­bability of that nation migrating to this island; they may have been from the beginning in the constant habit of frequenting the coasts. The manners of the mountaneers are said to be fierce and barbarous, and their rites idolatrous. The inhabitants of the cities and coasts are Mahometans. Representations of the persons of the Javanese in different characters are given by Mr. Nieuhoff, in his travels *, in Linschotten ; and in the very curious old book of voyages already cited, are numbers of prints, begin­ning at p. 27, and continued to p. 37; and at p. 36 is given the manner of a dance, or rather a mimical representation, exactly like the elegant one at p. 248, plate 16, 17, of the first volume of Captain Cook's last voyage.

Le Brun represents a very curious figure of one of the savage natives of the southern coast: he seemed a fine made man, almost black; his head covered with thick frizzled hair, lips large, nose depressed, body naked, except a cloth round his waste; on the right arm and left leg an ivory ring; his wea­pons were a strong bow, several lances headed with something sharp, and one with a bearded bone, perhaps that of some ray. The painter, however, has certainly got hold of a native of the Papua islands, and not of the south of Java.

IN enumerating the quadrupeds of this island, QUADRUPEDS. I shall omit all [Page 35]which are in common to Sumatra; and that I believe, with very few exceptions, to be the case.

HORSES were found here on its first discovery; HORSES. they are small, but strong and spirited, and run wild among the interior mountains.

OXEN, the same as my Indian, Hist. Quad. p. 20, 21, OXEN. are com­mon, with and without hunches; those without are higher shoul­dered than usual; they are miserably lean, with a finer grain, but less juicy than the European. Mr. Loten told me that wild oxen, of a reddish brown color, with vast horns, and of a great size, are found in Java.

THE African or Cabrito sheep are common, SHEEP. and very bad eating. The broad-tailed is brought from the Cape for sale, and is esteemed excellent.

THE Axis, No 56, is found in this island, DEER. as is the middle sized, No 57.

THE Ribbed Face, No 60, called by the Javans, Muntjak, is reckoned delicate food.

THE little Indian Musk, No 67, and the Guinea, No 68, perhaps a variety, inhabit Java. The Poet-jang of the Javans are caught in snares, brought in cages to market, and sold for the value of two pence halfpenny a piece.

THE one-horned Rhinoceros, No 81, is frequent. RHINOCEROS. As to ele­phants, they are not mentioned by Mr. Nieuhoff, and Bontius even says that they are not found in this island.

THE Sucotyro of the Chinese is engraven by the former *, SUCOTYRO. and thus described: it is of the size of a large ox; has a snout like a [Page 36]hog, two long rough ears, and a thick bushy tail; the eyes placed upright in the head, quite different from other beasts; on the side of the head, next to the eyes, stand two long horns, or rather teeth, not quite so thick as those of an elephant; it feeds on herbage, and is but seldom taken. I have enquired about this animal from Mr. Loten and others, who never heard of it. I suspect Mr. Nicuhoff was imposed on by a fictitious drawing.

THE monkey tribe are very numerous; MONKIES. at their head is the Ourang Outang, common to Sumatra, Borneo, Celebes, and this island. I shall speak more of that species when I reach Borneo. The Egret, No 119, the Monea, No 120, and several other kinds, abound; and Sir Joseph Banks saw near Batavia a great black one, but it ran away before he could ascertain the species.

THAT singular animal the flying Maucauco, MAUCAUCO. No 156, is found here, and is well represented by Bontius. It inhabits also the Phi­lippine isles.

Tigers are found in great numbers in the forests of Java, TIGERS. and annually destroy multitudes who are employed in hunting, or cutting of wood. Bontius, p. 55, says, that Leopards or Pan­thers are less common than the Tiger, but he does not fix the species.

THE Javan Opossum, OPOSSUM. No 219, is well engraven by Le Brun *.

THE Phalanger, No 226, I suspect to be native of the same island.

THE four-toed Weesel, WEESEL. or Surikate, No 257, is another animal of this country.

[Page 37]THE long-tailed Porcupine, No 316, PORCUPINE. is excellently figured by Seba *. Bontius mentions it at p. 54, but his figure is of the Bra­zilian.

HERE are found the Javan Squirrel, No 335, SQUIRRELS. and the Palm, No 346; this lives much among the coco trees; and being very fond of the Sury, or liquor procured from the tree, is called the Suricatsje, or little cat of the Sury, a name improperly given to the Weesel above mentioned. The Plantane Squirrel, No 348, is also very common here, rattling over the dry leaves of the Plan­tane.

THE Sailing Squirrel, No 349, is a very curious species, common to this and other neighboring isles. The Arrow Squirrel is a smaller species, furnished with membranes, and has not yet been engraven.

THE Perfuming Shrew, No 424, is very common.

I PASS over the birds, excepting two, but may observe, PARROTS. that here the Parrot tribe become more numerous. The black Cockatoo, Edw. 316, inhabits Java; it sometimes grows as large as a raven; all the birds of rich plumage begin to increase. In one of those hot days when the fowls of the air fall down, and often perish, unable to respire, that most beautiful small pigeon the black capped, Ind. Zool. tab. viii. was found on the ground. It is a species of such elegance, that I cannot resist mentioning it in its native place. At Amboina I may begin to be more parti­cular; for in the Latitude of the Moluccas nature hath been lavish of her beauties on the feathered class.

[Page 38]THE wonders among the fishes are the Chaetodon Rostralus, FISHES. JACULATOR. or Jaculator, Phil. Trans. vol. liv. 89. tab. 9.; the Sciaena, vol. lvi. 186. tab. 8.; and the Sparus Insidiator of Pallas, Spicil fase. viii. 41. tab. 5. fig. 1.; all remarkable for their method of laying in wait for infects, and by spouting out of their mouths a drop of water, disable the prey from getting out of their reach. In Ba­tavia these fishes are kept in great vases for the amusement of the gentry, by observing the curious oeconomy bestowed on them by nature for the entrapping the infect tribe.

THE Ray, HURS RAY. which furnishes the tuberculated skin called by the English joiners Hurs, and which is also used instead of Shagreen, is caught in these seas; it is of the Whip Ray kind; the slender long tail apterous, and beset with short spiny tubercles. Sir Jo­seph Banks had one brought to him at Batavia, but before he could examine it farther, the incurious cook had prepared it for the pot.

THE great Tunny, GREAT TUNNY. Br. Zool. iii. No 133, the Orcinus of Ron­deletius, extends to this coast. Bontius says, that the Javanese name is Ican Bouda, or the Horse Fish. Our Burbolt, Br. Zool. iii. No 14, is found in the fresh waters of this distant country.

THAT most curious Star Fish the Asterias Echinites, with twenty rays, covered with moveable spines, like the Echini, has been found on the Batavian side of the island. It is finely en­graven by Mr. Ellis, in the 60th table of his Zoophytes, and de­scribed at p. 206.

IN the same sea is found the Gorgonia Umbraculum, ZOOPHYTES. Ellis, 80. tab. 10. That gentleman has in the same work favored us with numbers of the Zoophytes of the Indian seas. I cannot exactly [Page 39]ascertain their places, but think I cannot err in giving them as natives of this great archipelago.

  • Antipathes Ulex, Ellis, 100. tab. 19. fig. 7.
  • Pennatula Argentea, 66. tab. 8. fig. 1. 2.
  • Millepora Caerulea, 142. tab. 12. fig. 4. Streights of Sunda in immense masses.
  • Madrepora Fascicularis, 151. tab. 30.
  • Madrepora Anthrophyllites, 151. tab. 29.
  • Madrepora Fastigiata, 152. tab. 33.
  • Madrepora Hirtilla, 155. tab. 37.
  • Madrepora Aspera, 156. tab. 39.
  • Madrepora Cinerascens, 157. tab. 43.
  • Madrepora Pileus, 159. tab. 45.
  • Madrepora Areolata, 161. tab. 47.
  • Madrepora Meandrites, 161. tab. 48.
  • Madrepora Abdita, 162. tab. 50.
  • Madrepora Foliosa, 164. tab. 52. These last are usually ranked among Marine Fungitae.
  • Madrepora Seriata, 171. tab. 31.
  • Madrepora Porus, 172. tab. 47.

MR. MARTYN, the conchyologist, communicated to me a most curious vermes *, which shall conclude this list. It was fished up off the island of Cassimata, June 30th, 1781, by Captain Young, of the Vansittart; was extremely sensible, and on being touched, assumed the form of a purse.

[Page 40]A FEW singular reptiles merit attention: TESTUDO SQUAMATA. the Testudo Squa­mata, Bontii, 82. Gmel. Lin. 1040, the scaly tortoise, or the Taunah of the Javanese, and Lary of the Chinese, is a species little known; excepting in the great breadth of the body, it has much resem­blance to the Manis; the tail is nearly the length of the body, and covered with scales like those on that animal; the head is small, resembling that of a snake; the belly soft, and easily wounded; it is called Taunah, or the digger, because it forms large burrows in the banks of rivers, where it conceals itself; it feeds on small fishes; is amphibious, like the sea tortoise; a sluggish animal, and, like the rest of its kind, slow of pace. The Chinese physicians make use of the scales in several diseases.

THE Boas serpent has been taken in Java of the length of thirty-six feet. BOAS. I shall give a full account of the manners of this monster of its tribe.

THE Amphisboena is said by Bontius to be a most fatal species. AMPHISBOENA. The Javanese style it Oular Matti, or the worm of death. The species engraven in Bontius seems the same with the Amphishoena Varia of Linnaeus, and of Seba, i. p. 87. tab. 53. fig. 7.

Crocodiles grow here to a vast size; Hamilton killed one in this island of the length of twenty-seven feet.

WHERE seas of glass with gay reflections smile
Round the green coasts of Java's palmy isle;
A spacious plain extends its upland scene,
Rocks rise on rocks, and fountains gush between;
Soft zephyrs blow, eternal summers reign,
And showers prolific bless the soil in vain!
[Page 41]No spicy nutmegs scent the vernal gales,
Nor towering plantain shades the mid-day vales;
No grassy mantle hides the sable hills,
No flowery chaplet crowns the trickling rills;
Nor tufted moss, nor leathery lichen creeps,
In russet tapestry, o'er the crumbling steeps;
No step retreating, on the sand impress'd,
Invites the visit of a second guest;
No refluent fin the unpeopled stream divides,
No revolant pinion cleaves the airy tides;
Nor handed moles, nor beaked worms return,
That mining pass the irremeable bourn.
Fierce, in dread silence, on the blasted heath,
Fell UPAS sits, the HYDRA TREE of death;
Lo! from one root, the envenom'd soil below,
A thousand vegetative serpents grow;
In shining rays the scaly monster spreads
O'er ten square leagues his far-diverging heads;
Or in one trunk entwists his tangled form,
Looks o'er the clouds, and hisses in the storm.
Steep'd in fell poison, as his sharp teeth part,
A thousand tongues in quick vibration dart;
Snatch the proud eagle, towering o'er the heath,
Or pounce the lion as he stalks beneath;
Or strew, as marshall'd hosts contend in vain,
With human skeletons the whiten'd plain.
Chain'd at his root, two scion demons dwell,
Breathe the faint hiss, or try the shriller yell;
[Page 42]Rise fluttering in the air on callow wings,
And aim at insect prey their little stings.

THESE beautiful lines, BOHON UPAS. from a singular and delightful poem, is my introduction to the account of the most violent of poisons, extracted from the celebrated Bohon Upas, of Java; the Arbor Toxicaria, or Ipo of Rumphius, vol. ii. p. 263. tab. 86.; and the Epu of Kaempf. Amoen. Exot. p. 575. I shall extract from the first what he has said respecting this dreadful tree, A DREADFUL POISON. in order to establish the truth of what has been reported of its dire effects, and illustrate the relation with certain melancholy proofs; after which will be given the more than apocryphal tales of the manner of procuring that infernal juice.

THE tree, STRANGE ACCOUNT OF. so long famed in many of the East India islands for the wonderful, and almost incredible effects of its poisonous juice, has hitherto eluded the prying eye of the naturalist; and, con­sequently, its class in the botanical system has never yet been ascertained, notwithstanding the indefatigable researches of Eu­ropeans to obtain full information upon so interesting a subject; all we know for certain of the tree itself is, the figure of its leaf, and fruit, which the learned and accurate Rumphius has exhi­bited in the Herbarium Amboinense. After much entreaty, and persevering application to the Dutch governors of Celebes (the most noted of all the islands of the East Indies for the production of this tree), Rumphius was favored by De Cops, governor of Ma­cassar, with a branch of it, and a specimen of its poisonous juice. An ensign of the army was deputed in form to be the messenger of so rare a present. Of such a penetrating and malignant na­ture [Page 43]was this found to be, that the very touching with the hand the Bamboo in which it was inclosed, occasioned a tingling and numbness like that felt in a limb that had been exposed to in­tense cold, and suddenly brought to the fire.

NATURE has wisely ordained that this baneful tree should be extremely rare, and its situation the most sequestered from the busy haunts of men, amidst mountains of difficult access, and inhabited by the most barbarous tribes; they alone are ac­quainted with the effects that this subtile poison has upon the circumambient air, and such animals as approach its tremendous shade. The atmosphere is here said to be so infected by the de­leterious quality of the effluvia of this pestilential tree, that birds which accidentally perch upon its boughs are seized with torpor, and drop down dead. No man dares approach it without his hands, feet, and head being well shrouded with linen cloths; were this precaution neglected, he would become benumbed, and presently lose the use of his limbs. The dripping of rain water from the tree upon the body, causes it to swell; and should it fall upon the bare head, the loss of all the hair would ensue. No other tree can exist in its vicinity, and the earth be­neath it is parched and withered; so that Death seems emi­nently to have fixed his station here.

IT is no wonder that the love of the marvellous, natural to mankind, has added somewhat to the truly astonishing scenes that the environs of this tree exhibit. Hence the rude nations of this mountanous tract have made it the habitation of a ser­pent, whose eyes glare like fire in the night, and remind us of [Page 44]the fabled gardens of the Hesperides in classic lore, whose sta­tionary centinel was a watchful dragon.

THE Dutch call this tree Macasserne Gift-boom, or Spatten­boom; and in the Malaye language it is termed Caju-Upas, that is to say poison-tree, and the fruit simply Upas. By the people of Macassar, and throughout Celebes, both the tree and its poison are called Ipo.

THE darts to which the natives apply this poison, are a foot or eighteen inches in length, very slender, made of reed, or light wood, and armed with the tooth of the Lamia shark smeared with poison. These are fixed in a tube five or six feet long, and blown by the breath of the assailant with great force to the distance of pistol shot: upon reaching the destined ob­ject, the barbed tooth adheres, and the wood only can be ex­tracted, or sometimes detaches itself, and falls to the ground. The effect of the poison is to produce a sensation of heat in all parts of the body, and oppressive Vertigo in the head, which is presently succeeded by a total debility, and death within the space of half an hour is the certain consequence. Nay so rapid are its effects in some instances, as to prove fatal in less than a quarter of an hour. And farther, so instantaneously does its virus pervade the whole human frame, that by experiments made upon malefactors, it has been proved, that if the thumb or the foot only be wounded by the poisonous dart, and am­putation immediately performed upon the affected member, astonishing to relate! death infallibly ensues.

AFTER a long intercourse, and many bloody contests with the [Page 45]natives of Celebes, which may be stiled the Colchos of India, being an island noted for many other sorts of poison, the Dutch acquired the knowlege of some specifics among the in­digenous plants, which disarmed this tremendous weapon of much of its terrors. Here are said to be two species of the Ipo, distinguished by the names of male and female, and that the poison of the latter is much less efficacious than that of the for­mer, and used chiefly for the destruction of game. The juice is extracted from the tree by piercing the bark of the trunk, and inserting therein long bamboos sharpened at the point. Four or five of these are fixed to one tree, and remain three or four days, that the sap may leisurely distil into them, and when filled they are removed for use.

Mr. N. P. Foersch, a Dutch surgeon stationed at Batavia in 1774, gives the following account of the situation of the tree, and the manner of collecting the poison. The reader is left to form a judgment of the writer's authority, and how far his cre­dulity is to be censured. "It is," says he, ‘seated about twenty­seven leagues from Soura, the seat of the emperor, encircled by high hills and mountains, and the country around, to the distance of ten or twelve miles, has neither tree nor shrub, or even the least plant or grass. I have made the tour all around this dangerous spot, at about eighteen miles distant from the centre, and I found the aspect of the country on all sides equally dreary. The easiest ascent of the hills is from that part where the old ecclesiastic dwells. I had procured a re­commendation from an old Malayan priest, to another priest who lives on the nearest inhabitable spot to the tree, which is [Page 46]about fifteen or sixteen miles distant. The letter proved of great service to me in my undertaking, as that priest is ap­pointed by the emperor to reside there, to prepare for eternity the souls of those who for different crimes are sentenced to approach the tree, and to procure the poison. From his house the criminals are sent for the poison, into which the points of all warlike instruments are dipped. It is of high value, and produces a considerable revenue to the emperor.’

‘THE poison which is procured from this tree, is a gum that issues out between the bark and the tree itself, like the cam­phor. Malefactors, who for their crimes are sentenced to die, are the only persons who fetch the poison; and this is the only chance they have of saving their lives. After sentence is pronounced upon them by the judge, they are asked in court, whether they will die by the hands of the executioner, or whether they will go to the Upas tree for a box of poison. They commonly prefer the latter proposal, as there is not only some chance of preserving their lives, but also a certainty, in case of their safe return, that a provision will be made for them in future by the emperor. They are also permitted to ask a favor from the emperor, which is generally of a trifling nature, and commonly granted. They are then provided with a silver or tortoiseshell box, in which they are to put the poisonous gum, and are properly instructed how to pro­ceed while they are upon their dangerous expedition. Among other particulars, they are always told to attend to the direc­tion of the winds; as they are to go towards the tree before the wind, so that the effluvia from the tree are always blown [Page 47]from them. They are told likewise to travel with the utmost dispatch, as that is the only method of insuring a safe return. They are afterwards sent to the house of the old priest, to which place they are commonly attended by their friends and relations. Here they generally remain some days, in expec­tation of a favorable breeze. During that time, the eccle­siastic prepares them for their future fate by prayers and ad­monitions.’

‘WHEN the hour of their departure arrives, the priest puts them on a long leather cap, with two glasses before their eyes, which comes down as far as their breast; and also pro­vides them with a pair of leather gloves. They are then conducted by the priest, and their friends and relations, about two miles on their journey. Here the priest repeats his in­structions, and tells them where they are to look for the tree. He shews them a hill, which they are told to ascend, and that on the other side they will find a rivulet, which they are to follow, and which will conduct them directly to the Upas. They now take leave of each other; and, amidst prayers for their success, the delinquents hasten away.’

‘THE worthy old ecclesiastic has assured me that during his residence there for upwards of thirty years, he had dismissed above seven hundred criminals in the manner which I have described; and that scarcely two out of twenty have returned. He shewed me a catalogue of all the unhappy sufferers, with the date of their departure from his house annexed, and a list of the offences for which they had been condemned; to which was added, a list of those who had returned in safety. I after­wards [Page 48]saw another list of these culprits, at the jail-keeper's at Soura Charta, and found that they perfectly corresponded with each other, and with the different informations which I afterwards obtained.’

‘I WAS present at some of these melancholy ceremonies, and desired different delinquents to bring with them some pieces of the wood, or a small branch, or some leaves of this wonderful tree. I have also given them silk cords, desiring them to measure its thickness. I never could procure more than two dry leaves that were picked up by one of them on his return; and all I could learn from him concerning the tree itself, was that it stood on the border of a rivulet, as de­scribed by the old priest; that it was of a middling size; that five or six young trees of the same kind stood close by it; but that no other shrub or plant could be seen near it; and that the ground was of a brownish sand, full of stones, almost im­practicable for travelling, and covered with dead bodies. After many conversations with the old Malayan priest, I ques­tioned him about the first discovery, and asked his opinion of this dangerous tree; upon which he gave me the following answer:’

‘WE are told in our new Alcoran, that above an hundred years ago, the country around the tree was inhabited by a people strongly addicted to the sins of Sodom and Gomorrha; when the great prophet Mahomet determined not to suffer them to lead such detestable lives any longer, he applied to God to punish them; upon which God caused this tree to grow [Page 49]out of the earth, which destroyed them all, and rendered the country for ever uninhabitable.’

‘SUCH was the Malayan opinion. I shall not attempt a com­ment; but must observe that all the Malayans considered this tree as an holy instrument of the great prophet to punish the sins of mankind; and therefore to die of the poison of the Upas is generally considered among them as an honorable death. For that reason I also observed, that the delinquents who were going to the tree, were generally dressed in their best ap­parel.’

‘THIS however is certain, though it may appear incredible, that from fifteen to eighteen miles round this tree, not only no human creature can exist, but that, in that space of ground, no living animal of any kind has ever been discovered. I have also been assured by several persons of veracity that there are no fish in the waters, nor has any rat, mouse, or any other vermin been seen there; and when any birds fly so near this tree that the effluvia reaches them, they fall a sacrifice to the effects of the poison. This circumstance has been ascertained by different delinquents, who, in their return, have seen the birds drop down, and have picked them up dead, and brought them to the old ecclesiastic.’

Mr. Foersch gives us an account of the fatal effects in the fol­lowing melancholy narration. ‘In the year 1776, in the month of February, I was present at the execution of thirteen of the emperors concubines, at Soura Charta, who were convicted of infidelity to the emperor's bed. It was in the forenoon, about eleven o'clock, when the fair criminals were led into an open space within the walls of the emperor's palace. There the [Page 50]judge passed sentence upon them, by which they are doomed to suffer death by a lancet poisoned with Upas. After this the Alcoran was presented to them, and they were, according to the law of their great prophet Mahomet, to acknowlege, and to affirm by oath, that the charges brought against them, together with the sentence and their punishment, were fair and equitable. This they did by laying their right hand upon the Alcoran, their left hands upon their breasts, and their eyes lifted towards heaven; the judge then held the Alcoran to their lips, and they kissed it.’

‘THESE ceremonies over, the executioner proceeded on his business in the following manner:—Thirteen posts, each about five feet high, had been previously erected, to these the de­linquents were fastened, and their breasts stripped naked. In this situation they remained a short time in continual prayers, attended by several priests, until a signal was given by the judge to the executioner, on which the latter produced an in­strument, much like the spring lancet used by farriers for bleeding horses. With this instrument, it being poisoned with the gum of the Upas, the unhappy wretches were lanced in the middle of their breasts, and the operation was performed upon them all in less than two minutes.’

‘MY astonishment was raised to the highest degree, when I beheld the sudden effects of that poison, for in about five mi­nutes after they were lanced, they were taken with a tremor, attended with a subsultus tendinum, after which they died in the greatest agonies, crying out to GOD and Mahomet for mercy. In sixteen minutes by my watch, which I held in my hand, all the criminals were no more; some hours after [Page 51]their death, I observed their bodies full of livid spots, much like those of the Petechioe, their faces swelled, their color changed to a kind of blue, their eyes looked yellow, &c. &c *.’

THIS tree did not escape the notice of our great Sir John Mandeville; he makes the poison produced from it to be taken inwardly. I shall give his words, and also the horrible opinion held at that time, against the Hebraean race, whom he accuses of a design of poisoning all Christendom with this infernal juice. After speaking of the trees of beneficent use, he says , ‘and there ben other trees that beryn venym; azenst the whiche there is no medicyne but on; and that is to taken here propre leves, and stamp hem and tempere hem with watre, and than drynke it; and elle he schalle dye; for triacle will not avaylle, ne non other medicyne. Of this venym the Jewes had let seche of on of here frendes, for to empoysone alle Christiantee, as I have herd hem seye in here confessioune, before here dyenge. But thanked be alle myghty God, thei fayleden of hire purpos; but alle weys thei maken gret mor­tallitee of people.’

IN respect to the other trees and plants of Java, I can only say that they agree with those of Sumatra, and other islands of the great Archipelago. Most will be found in my Flora Indica. Let me only remark, that the earliest Dutch navigators have [Page 52]given tolerable descriptions of several, in the often cited old book published by Nicholas, from p. 39 to p. 42, accompanied with plates as expressive as could be cut on wood.

THE vast island of Borneo is divided from the northern coast of Java by a sound between two and three hundred leagues in breadth. BORNEO. According to M. D'Anville's scale, the island is in length from south to north near three hundred leagues, and its greatest breadth two hundred; the circumference is estimated at two thousand miles; so that it may justly be considered as the greatest island in the world. It is of a pyriform shape; its shores rude, with projecting promontories, and is divided by the equator into two unequal portions. The far greater part of Borneo next to the sea, especially the northern, consists of swamps, co­vered with forests of trees of numberless species and great sizes, which penetrate for scores of miles towards the centre of the island. These unstable muddy flats are divided by rivers, which branch into multitudes of canals, and are the only roads into the interior parts. Lofty mountains are said to rise in the middle of the island; many are volcanic, and often occasion tremendous earthquakes.

THIS great island is little known, except merely on the coasts, and even those remain yet so imperfectly explored, that less can be said of it than of many smaller tracts. So unstable are the swampy out-skirts, that in the attempts to establish factories, the Europeans have been obliged to build them on piles driven into the ground; or, after the manner of the country, to erect in the rivers their houses on posts, fixed to floats formed of bodies of great trees, and those moored by rattans to those growing on shore, to prevent their being carried away by the floods. In [Page 53]such a manner are many of the towns of Borneo constructed; they rise and fall with the tide, which here flows but once in the twenty-four hours, and that only in the day. At spring tide, these towns on the Banjar river experience the rise and fall of twelve feet.

THE whole coasts are in the hands of Malayans, Moors, INHABITANTS. Ma­cassars, and even Japanese, who have perhaps for centuries driven the antient inhabitants into the interior parts. The aborigines are of a black complexion, a middle stature, with long and black hair, and generally better featured than the Guinea Negroes, feeble in their bodies, and very indolent and inactive. The women small, handsome, and of a better color than the men. Their general religion is of a mongrel kind of Mahometanism. These maintain a feudal government under chieftains, mis­called by our sailors, kings. The seat of the principal is at Tatas, near to Bandar Masseen, some miles up the country on the northern side, and seated on a great river, which for many miles is twice as broad as the Thames at Gravesend, and bounded by trees of most stupendous height. It is navigable far beyond Bandar Masseen for the largest ships, and is greatly frequented by the Chinese jonks; the river is called China for that reason. We are not acquainted with the length of its navi­gation; but it rises in the very middle of the island, and runs all the way due south. On this river we attempted to form a settle­ment under the Mr. Cunningham we have before mentioned; but by some imprudencies gave offence to the inhabitants, and the greater part of our people were massacred. The same fate has attended other factories of different European nations who [Page 54]have endeavored to form settlements at Succadana, Samba, and many other places. Tatas has its sultan. These sovereigns com­mand the trade of the island, and furnish the European ships, who happen to arrive, with cargoes of pepper, the staple of the country; that article is brought down from the interior parts, and sold to the Europeans, or to the commercial Asiatic nations.

IT is to Captain Daniel Beeckman that we owe the best ac­count of Borneo; he visited it in the beginning of this cen­tury, and published his account in the year 1718. At p. 36 he gives the following list of the productions of the country, PRODUCTIONS OF. which abounds with pepper, the best dragon's blood, bezoar, most ex­cellent camphor, pine apples, citrons, oranges, lemons, water melons, musk melons, plantains, banana, coco nuts, and all sorts of fruit that are generally found in any part of the East Indies; the mountains yield diamonds, gold, tin and iron; the forests, honey, cotton, deer, goats, buffaloes, wild oxen, wild hogs, small horses, bears, tigers, elephants, and a multitude of monkies.

THE pepper grows far up the country, PEPPER. and is collected by the very poorest people only; they have all the different sorts, black, white, and long.

Sanguis Draconis, SANGUIS DRACONIS. or dragon's blood, is a gum, the exudation of certain trees, of a bloody color. There is a conjecture that this is the Cinnaberis of Dioscorides, lib. v. c. 69. Pliny, lib. xxxiii. c. 7, says that the name is Indian; and then fables, that it is the Sanies of the dragon oppressed by the weight of an ele­phant expiring with the bite, and that the Cinnaberis is the mixed blood of each animal. The antients procured under this notion the real drug, and used it in medicine. It was often adul­terated [Page 55]with the blood of goats; the genuine kind was sold at a great rate.

THE trees or shrubs which we know to produce this medi­cine in our dispensatory are the Dracaena Draco, of which Van­delli has given a good figure in his monograph on the subject. According to Kaempfer, Amoen. Exot. 554, another of the ve­getables it is extracted from is a Palmapinus Rottani Dsierenang, one of the Rotangs described by Rumphius under the name of Palmijuncus Draco, v. p. 115 tab. 58. fig. 1. This grows in the thick and almost impervious forests of Java.

ANOTHER kind is the produce of the Santalum Rubrum, SANDAL WOOD. or Red Sanders; and again, from the Dracoena Terminalis of Lin­naeus, Rumph. iv. p. 18. tab. 34, called in Ternate, Ngassi, or Hassi. This species grows in Borneo, and bears a fruit, says Beeckman, as red as a cherry; the juice, the best in the world, is extracted from the tree, and the color tried by rubbing it on paper. The natives bring it in drops, wrapped in leaves; but are so apt to adulterate it, that we do not chuse to purchase without previous examination.

ANOTHER kind is procured from the Gladiolus Odoratus In­dicus, Rumph. v. p. 185. tab. 73. For further accounts I must re­fer to that Pliny of the Indies in the places cited, to vol. ii. p. 252.; and to Kaempfer, 551 to 557. The drug, from whatso­ever tree or plant it be gotten, maintains its place in our dis­pensatory.

AT times a considerable quantity of gold has been brought here, GOLD. which is found in the mines in the interior parts of the country. Some is melted into bars, and usually adulterated by a [Page 56]cover of base metal. The natives have a very just notion of the lord of the irritamenta malorum, for they say, that the devil is sole master of the gold and diamond mines.

DIAMONDS form another article of commerce, DIAMONDS. but they are far less valuable than those of Golconda.

BEES-WAX, BEES-WAX. in cakes of about thirty-four pounds, is common at Sambas, which being the common money of that part of the island, was wont to be bartered with the Chinese for various ne­cessaries. Pearls of considerable beauty are said to be another article of exchange in the same country.

THE bezoar found in the monkies has a most superstitious value, BEZOAR. and is sold for four or five times its weight in silver.

THE unrefined camphor of Borneo, CAMPHOR. is reckoned superior to any in the world. We are not acquainted with the tree which produces that valuable drug.

THE edible (swallows) nests are found in vast abundance; EDIBLE NESTS. and the Bambu walking canes, form two other articles of trade.

IN the list of quadrupeds is the Ourang Outang; OURANG OUTANG. there ap­pears to be two species, one that never exceeds two feet and an half in height; see Mr. Vosmaer's account, p. 12, tab xiv. xv. and Hist. Quad. i. p. 180. tab. 36. which I have taken the liberty of copying from M. Vosmaer. Mr. Beeckman speaks of some species growing to the height of six feet; he bought a young one, which was stronger than any man in his ship, but it died before it was a year old. Borneo has abundance of these animals. It swarms also with variety of baboons and monkies, so this, [Page 57] Celebes, and another island, may probably have been the insulae Satyrorum of Ptolemy.

THE Ourang Outang is found also in Java; Hamilton * saw one in that island which was four feet high, and mentions a smaller species called Oumpaes. He confirms the account of the grave or melancholy habit of the greater species; of its lighting a fire, and blowing it with its mouth; and of its broiling a fish to eat with its boiled rice, imitative of the custom of the human race.

THE aborigines of Borneo are called Byajos; BYAJOS. they inhabit the interior parts, live under chieftains, and are an independent people, possessing their proper language and religion; the last is called Paganism, yet they pay no respect to idols; but offer sa­crifices of sweet scented wood to one supreme beneficent Deity, who in other worlds rewards the just and punishes the wicked. They marry only one wife, are strictly faithful to their nuptial vows, and have the character of general honesty. Mr. Beeckman makes a different report, but fairly confesses that he received it from the Banjareens, who will not suffer the Europeans to have any intercourse with the natives, and tell many frightful tales of their barbarity. The Byajos often come down the river to the port of Masseen, in ill shaped praws, with gold dust, diamonds, rattans, bezoar, and other articles of commerce, of which the Banjareens are sole factors, and consequently highly interested in keeping the pretended savages from our knowlege.

THE Byajos are taller and stronger than the other inhabitants; they go naked, excepting a small wrapper about their loins; [Page 58]they stain their bodies with blue, and by weights affixed to their ears when young, stretch them till they fall on their shoulders. The chieftains pull out their fore teeth, and substitute others of gold, and by way of ornament fling strings of tigers teeth round their necks and bodies. Their arms are lances and poisoned arrows; some of them lead a piratical life in the great rivers, and are most formidable enemies.

LET me here observe that tigers, TIGERS. those cruel animals, swarm in this island, beyond which they happily cease; nor are they known in any of the islands to the north or to the east of Borneo.

AFTER navigating along the northern coast of the island, we arrive, SAMBAAR POINT. in Lat. 2° 28′, on the point of Sambaar. Between this and the isle of Billetou to the west, is a channel of a hundred and fifty miles in breadth. Near to the west of that island is the small isle of Salt, ISLAND OF SALT AND BANCA. and then the isle of Banca, all belonging to Java.

FROM Sambaar point the coast turns towards the north. In Lat. SUCCADANA AND SAMBAS. 0° 15′ south, is Succadana, and in Lat. 2° north is Sambas, both at times frequented for the sake of commerce. From Tan­jong point the island trends to the north-east. The city of Borneo stands in about Lat. CITY OF BORNEO. 5° 25′ north, on a large river, in the bottom of a bay.

WHEN the famous navigator Von Noort was there in 1601, it consisted of three thousand houses, all built on posts and floating planks, in the manner we have described, so that whenever the sultan chose to change his position, he would move with all his city to another part of the river. Von Noort found this port [Page 59]much frequented by the Chinese, who to this day seem to be the greatest and most constant traders to Borneo of all the Asiatic nations.

FROM Lat. 6° north, to Tangio Sampanmangco, the most nor­thern promontory of Borneo, in Lat. 7°, the coast changes its na­ture, being skirted all the way with a lofty chain of mountains; and within are appearances of others of very uncertain extent; that northern headland has another correspondent, called Inoran­tang, facing likewise the north; between both is the deep bay of Malbordoo, penetrating far to the south; opposite to the last headland is the small island of Banguey, ISLAND OF BANGUEY. lofty and mountanous, as if rent from it by some violent convulsions.

A LITTLE to the west of that island, in Lat. 7° 20′, ISLAND OF BA­LAMBANGAM. is the isle Balambangan, composed of sand and swamps, and famous for the intention of the East India company, in 1773, to form on it a vast emporium of the commodities of China, and of all this great eastern archipelago. We got the cession of this little spot (then uninhabited) from the king of Soolo; we took possession of it at a vast expence, according to Raynal * it cost us £.375,000. A com­pany of European troops, and a number of Seapoys, were detained for the protection of the settlement; and a colony of Malayes from Bencoolen, and another of Chinese, were induced to establish them­selves there. We could not have fixed on a more unwholesome situation; the diseases of the climate attacked both the military and the colonists, and very few survived the sickly season, so that scarcely one in ten outlived the monsoon: the Abbe Raynal asserts that we were attacked, and the factory destroyed, and insinuates it [Page 60]to have been done by the instigation of the Dutch or Spaniards, jealous of their commercial interests in that neighborhood.

AT a small distance to the north, MANILLA I [...]AN [...]S. about Lat. 7°, begins the vast group of the Philippine islands; these are much more pro­bably the Maniolae of Ptolemy, than the lesser Andaman, which D'Anville supposes it to have been. These islands were known to the antients by the Indian name, which is still retained in Manilla; Ptolemy speaks of them as ten islands immediately be­yond the tres insulae Satyrorum, or Borneo, &c. They were first discovered by the great Magellan, who came in sight of them on April 17th 1521, and named them the Archipelago of St. Lazarus. He landed on one of them called Mactan, near to Zebu, where, ac­ording to Pigafetta, a companion and eye witness, he, with eight or nine of his men, was slain in an encounter with the natives.

THE discovery of these islands was completed in 1541, WHEN DISCOVERED. by a Spaniard of the name of Ruy Lopez de Villalobos, who named them the Philippine, in honor of Philip prince of Spain, after­wards Philip II. We chuse to retain the antient name the Ma­nillas.

THE first settlement made by the Spaniards in these islands was not till the year 1565, when Michael Lopez de Lagaspi built a town in the isle of Zebu. ZEBU. He secured it by a small garrison, and then proceeded to the conquest of other islands more worthy of his arms. He sailed into a fine bay in the island of Manilla or Luconia, ISLAND OF LUCONIA. and was, in 1571, the founder of the city of Manilla, so celebrated for its opulence, and for being the common reposi­tory and place of exchange of the productions of both the Indies; [Page 61]one may also say, those of the old and the new world; of Europe, of India, and of China; and in return it receives the silver of Potosi. The indolence of the Spaniards will not suffer these islands to produce any one article of commerce, GOLD. a little gold ex­cepted, brought down the sloods into the channels of the ri­vers. The group certainly contains rich mines of the pretious metal, but as wealth flows in such abundance with very little trouble to the colonists, they will not be at the pains of exploring the veins. Luconia also produces abundance of excellent iron and copper.

THE fruitfulness of soil is a perpetual reproach to the sloth­fulness of its lords. A very few exceptions are to be found; one friend to the island introduced the Coco tree, Theobroma cacao, Catesby, Suppl. tab. 6, which is cultivated with such success, as to become almost the support of the inhabitants, by giving them the favorite food of the Spaniards, chocolate; indigo, INDICO. which grows spontaneously, owes of late years its use in their manu­factories to the sagacity of an individual. It was not till the year 1744, that the sluggish Spaniards ever knew the culture of European grains or esculents. As to the native productions, it possesses every tree or fruit common to the torrid zone, and num­bers probably peculiar to itself, few only of which are brought to view, and that by the industry of a Sonnerat.

THE unwise expulsion of the Jesuits will long retard, pos­sibly for ever prevent, the improvement of the Manilla islands. The domains of that intelligent order were covered with cattle innumerable; their meadows stretched numbers of miles, wa­tered and fertilized by the rivers of the country.

[Page 62] Manilla, CITY OF MANILLA. by being the mere repository of the goods of other nations, grew into a most flourishing city; the streets regular, the churches and publick buildings superb. A splendid luxury pervades every part, in the appearance of dress, and equipage, and inside of the houses of the proud and lazy colonists.

THE port of Manilla is at Cavite, three leagues distant, and is subject to many inconveniences; being greatly infested with the worm, the teredo navalis, which in a little time would render the galleons, and the vessels which trade to Manilla, incapable of keeping the sea; neither is it secure from the north and north­west winds; besides, ships lying there are obliged to send far for water, and to employ for that purpose the flat boats of the country.

THE city of Manilla is fortified, well built, and the streets very regular, but the third part is occupied by convents; the num­ber of christians is computed at about twelve thousand. Gomez Peres de las Marignas surrounded it with walls in 1590.

IT is from hence the great commerce between Manilla and Acapulco, ACAPULCO SHITS. on the coast of Mexico, is carried on, in one and some­times in two ships, sent annually, fitted out at the expence of the king, but freighted by the merchants. They are of an enormous size, heavy and unwieldy, as big as a first rate man of war, and having a complement of twelve hundred men; the lesser is above twelve hundred tons burden, has from three hundred and fifty to six hundred hands, passengers included, and carries fifty guns, but often mounts only thirty-six. It leaves Manilla the middle of July, but does not reach Acapulco till the middle of January. One miracle of this voyage is, that notwithstanding they put on [Page 63]board all the water they can stow, consistent with the full cargo, they depend for a supply from the heavens, between Lat. 30° and 40°, and hazard the most dreadful of deaths, should their ex­pectations be disappointed; when they arrive in these latitudes, they prepare their mats, which they spread to direct the deluge of rain into various vessels, and, wonderful to say, there is not an instance in which their hopes have failed.

Manilla is the great magazine of all the goods of India, China, and Europe, which are laid up here annually to be con­veyed across the Pacific ocean, to supply the wants or luxuries of the new world. "There are," as the editor of lord Anson's voyage informs us, at p. 237, ‘spices, all sorts of Chinese silks and ma­nufactures, particularly silk stockings, of which I have heard that no less than fifty thousand pair were the usual number shipped on board the annual ship; vast quantities of Indian stuffs, as callicoes and chintz, which are much worn in Ame­rica, together with minuter articles, as goldsmiths work, &c. which is principally done at the city of Manilla itself by the Chinese; for it is said there are at least twenty thousand Chinese who constantly reside there, either as servants, manu­facturers, or brokers; all these different commodities are col­lected at Manilla, thence to be transported annually, in one or more ships, to the port of Acapuico in the kingdom of Mexico.

THE return from the new world is only in silver, either in specie or virgin metal; the author of Lord Anson's voyage, con­fesses to only 1,313,843 pieces of eight, and 35,682 ounces of virgin silver, or £.400,000 of our money, having been sound in [Page 64]the Manilla ship, out of which the family have realized their vast-estate. Even when the ship arrives safe, the treasure is of little advantage to the Spaniards; it is instantly dispersed over half the world, to pay for the merchandize of its outward voyage.

THE city of Manilla was besieged and taken by the English in 1762. MANILLA [...] 1762. Our little squadron, under vice admiral Cornish, appeared before it on September 23d, our land forces were under colonel Draper; after a short resistance the city was taken by storm, with as little slaughter as the nature of circumstances would admit. The island of Luconia, and every island dependent on it, surren­dered to our arms; a large sum was accepted to save the place from plunder, hostages given for the payment, and bills drawn by the archbishop or viceroy, which in part were never ac­cepted, and our soldiers and seamen deprived of the reward due to their valor.

THIS archipelago consists of about twelve or thirteen greater islands, with small ones innumerable, divided from each other by narrow channels of very difficult navigation, all of them moun­tanous, and many of them volcanic. Manilla, the largest and most northern, is a hundred and fifteen French leagues in length, not reckoning the peninsula of Camarines, which juts irregularly from the main body, and extends far to the south; Raynal re­presents all the islands as terribly majestic. They are covered with basaltes, with lava, with scoriae, with black glass, with melted iron, with grey and friable stones filled with the wrecks of the animal and vegetable kingdoms, with sulphur kept in a state of fusion by the continual action of subterraneous fires, and [Page 65]with burning waters which communicate with hidden flames. All these great accidents of nature, are the effect of extinguished volcanoes, of some that are still burning, and of others that are forming in these deep cavities, where combustible materials are perpetually in agitation.

EARTHQUAKES are frequent and sometimes tremendous. EARTHQUAKES. Mr. Pye, in the Philosophical Transactions *, gives an account of one of uncommon horror in 1750, which lasted for three months, with almost continual tremblings, and at last broke out in an eruption, from a small island, in the middle of a lake, round which the bottom is unfathomable. The third day after the com­mencement of the eruption, there arose four more small islands all burning; and about a mile distance from one there is a conti­nual fire which issues from the water, where there is no ground for upwards of an hundred fathoms deep.

IT is generally supposed that before the arrival of the Euro­peans, the Chinese had possessed themselves of the sea coasts of these islands. The Japanese also boast of having been once lords of the Philippines, and the vicinity to both those empires may make it probable.

THE Chinese were so numerous in Manilla about the year 1600, CHINESE [...]. as to excite in the Spaniards the greatest fear of the danger arising from any plots they might enter into against the colonists. The Spaniards, assisted by the Japanese and other foreigners, took the usual method of preventing them, by putting no less than twenty-five thousand to the sword; the massacre of these people was far greater than that of Batavia. The Spaniards [Page 66]assert that the Chinese had actually begun to revolt, and had mur­dered several of the Europeans. The Chinese charge the horrible transaction on the Europeans, and say it was excited by their ava­rice, in order to make themselves masters of the rich effects of their countrymen. The emperor sent an embassador to demand satisfaction, and spoke in high terms of the revenge he would take; all ended by a pacification; the Chinese fleets resorted to Manilla in as great a number as ever, and the suburbs were soon re-peopled with inhabitants. The wealth that we are told the Chinese brought into the islands was unspeakable. The Jesuits were expelled the country in 1768, and in the year following, by the bigotry of the governor, every one of the Chinese were ba­nished from the Philippine islands, since which trade and the arts have declined, and depopulation and distress promise to be the consequences of so imprudent a measure.

IN the mountanous parts of the islands are remnants of the original inhabitants, NATIVES. a most singular race of men, who through an excessive love of liberty, have relapsed into a state of na­ture. Those who inhabit the foot of a mountain are mortal enemies to those that reside at the top, and both are equally hated by those who live in the middle; happy picture of enthusiastic independency! They are seen wandering singly amidst the woods, armed with bows and arrows; naked, excepting the skin of a goat flung over their shoulders; they lodge in hollow trees, or hollows of the rocks; have no notion of society, and, like the primaeval inhabitants of the world, ‘Venerem incertam rapientes, more serarum.’

THESE men are strongly made, CURLED HEADED INDIANS. of haggard countenances, black, [Page 67]with curled hair like the negroes, and called by the Spaniards, Negrillos. They certainly are of the same race as the Papuans or people of New Guinea, who might originally have spread themselves over this tract. These curled headed tribes are found in most of the other islands. Navarette mentions other black Indians; the men paint themselves with white, the women with other colors. These, and other Indian people, often descend on the Spanish settlements, and commit horrible murders. Some of them, like the antient Scythians, make drinking cups of the sculls of their enemies.

THERE are other Indians that profess a sort of dependency on the Spaniards, and have an Alcayde among them; yet their manners are barbarous; they are brave, but ferocious; and ap­pear to have been descended from the Malayans, settled here in very early times. They are called Tagalese, and the Negrillos pretend, that they had been originally their slaves. Their arms are bows and arrows; they took part with the Spaniards during the siege of the capital; and ignorant of the laws of nations, slew in the most savage manner our admiral's secretary, carrying a flag of truce, and even the nephew of the Spanish Governor, who attempted to rescue him from their fury. The strength of their arms was satally experienced by that gallant officer major More, who fell transfixed by an arrow in leading our troops to the storm.

I SHALL now mention a few particulars respecting the natu­ral history of the Manillas. NATURAL HISTORY. It is not to be wondered that in one so abundant in volcanoes, there should be found springs of hot water. The most noted is that which appears two leagues from [Page 68] Calamba; the stream which runs from it is of a boiling heat; and raised the liquor in M. de Reaumur's thermometer to the height of 69 degrees, even at the distance of a league from the source. M. Sonnerat observed five shrubs, the roots of which were drenched by the stream, and the top enveloped in the va­por, yet grew with vigor. At the same time the swallows which happened to skim the brook, at the height of seven or eight feet from the surface, fell down motionless.

THE Bashee islands lie midway between Manilla and For­mosa; BASHEE ISLANDS. the middlemost of them is, according to Lord Anson, in Lat. 2° 4′ north. I speak of them here notwithstanding they belong to neither one or the other. Dampier, in the year 1687, being engaged in these seas in a buccaneering expedition, wished for a temporary concealment. He had seen in certain charts, the figure V. which denoted their number *. He sailed to the spot, and found them to correspond in position and number. None of them had names, so he bestowed on them those of Orange, Grafton, Monmouth, Goat, and Bashee, the last from a sort of beer made of the boiled juice of the sugar cane, and some small black berries, which was put into jars to settle, and was thought by our seamen an excellent liquor, capable of giving the pleasure of ebriety, without the bad effects. The natives sold it to them in plenty, for which reason they made it the general name of the islands.

Monmouth and Grafton isles are very lofty, SINGULAR VILLAGES. with a nume­rous succession of precipices one above another. On these the natives build their villages, which affords the singular prospect [Page 69]of three or four rows of small houses, erected on posts, and wattled with boughs. They have no other way of getting to their habitations but by a ladder, which is pulled up after them, if they mean to ascend to the upper villages, or to secure them­selves from an assault. These two islands are the most populous, as they have more of these precipices. Bashee island has but one precipice, and in consequence only one town. Orange is lofty, yet so plain as to furnish no spot sitted for the site of their villages, and is therefore uninhabited.

THE produce of these islands are a few of the tropical fruits, PRODUCE. pine apples, sugar canes, plantains, bananas, calabashes, yams, and potatoes. These are planted in the vallies, which are well watered with small streams; they are also well wooded, but the trees do not grow to any large size. Their animals are hogs and goats in plenty; their poultry sew; among the wild fowl, par­roquets and some other small birds.

THE natives are short and squat, round visaged, NATIVES. with low foreheads and thick eye-brows; short low noses, eyes small and hazel, but larger than those of the Chinese; lips and mouth of a middle size, hair black, thick, lank, and cut short, so as just to cover the ears. The description of these people agrees so exactly with that of the Japanese given by Kaempfer *, that there cannot be any doubt of their origin.

THEIR government is quite patriarchal; GOVERNMENT. their religion has no exterior rites, but probably is mental, as is common with many orientalists. There is no appearance of idols on any of their islands: They certainly have laws; for Dampier saw the crime of thest punished in a young man who was buried alive in the [Page 70]presence of a great multitude assembled on the occasion. Their manners were innoffensive, friendly, and honest, not only among themselves, but to the new visitants, who possibly were the first Europeans they had seen.

IN general the men went naked, excepting the usual wrapper about their loins; some had jackets of plantain leaves; the rudest, says Dampier, of all clothing. The women had a strong thick short petticoat of cotton, made of the lesser cotton plant, the pro­duct of their own isles. Both sexes wore large ear-rings of a yellow metal, which was found in their mountains; it was heavy, and, GOLD. like the paler gold, it faded with time, but the natives re­stored it to its original brightness, by smearing it over with a red earth, and flinging it into a fire till it was red hot. Our na­vigator had no means of proving whether it was gold.

To the women was left the care of the plantations. BOATS. The men were engaged in fishing; they built with much skill their small boats, which resembled the Deal yawls, formed of very narrow planks, fastened with pins and nails. They had also larger boats, which carried forty or fifty men, and were rowed by twelve or fourteen oars on a si [...]e. It seems as if they went to the island of Manilla for their iron; which they manufactured at home. ARMS. From thence they get their other only import, pieces of buffaloes hides, with which they make their defensive armor, or buff coats: their sole offensive weapons are lances headed with iron; all this implies the fear of enemies, and makes it pro­bable that they are subject to the attacks of the piratical Indians.

AFTER this digression, MANILLAS AGAIN. let me return to the great group of the Manillas. The island of Mindora lies south of that of Manilla; and [Page 71]is very lofty and mountanous; many of the natives pay tribute to the Spaniards. Sonnerat * says, that most voyagers assert, that there is a race of men in this island which have tails: the same is feigned of certain people in Borneo, but the fact turns out that they happen to have the Os Coccygis a little more elon­gated than is usual in the human species.

SOUTH of Mindora is the cluster of small isles called the Ca­lamianes, with others still smaller to the east of them. CALAMIANES. The island of Paragua stretches from the Calamianes near seventy leagues in length; and at the southern end approaches the isles of Ba­lambangan off the coast of Borneo. The Spaniards have here some tributary Indians; part of the island is said to be subject to a sultan in Borneo.

ALL these islands form the western boundary of a great gulph: GREAT CENTRAL BAY IN THE MIDST OF THE MANILLAS. The rest of the Manillas, and the Soolo Archipelago, are on the north and east sides; the end of Borneo is on the south. A few small isles are scattered over the middle. To go on with the far­ther account of the island; Manduque, Masbate, and numbers of small isles, fill the part next to Luconia or Manilla. Samal, a large island, faces the ocean on their outside to the east. Its pro­montory, El Spirito santo, is remarkable by the capture of the rich Manilla ship by lord Anson, it being the first of the islands which those vessels make in their course from Acapulco to their port of Manilla.

PANAY-BUGLAS, or isle of Negros, Zebu and Leyte, PANAY. with the lesser isle of Bohol, range nearly east and west, parallel to each other, a little to the south of the preceding. The principal settle­ments [Page 72]of the Spaniards are Ho-Ho and Antigue, in the island of Panay; but off Antigue is the sole anchorage, and that only in the months of November, December, and January. The inha­bitants of this island are infinitely more industrious than those of Luconia; they have a manufactory of handkerchiefs, and a sort of linen composed of cotton, and the fibres of a certain plant of the country; they clothe themselves with the coarser kinds, and dispose of the rest among the neighboring isles. This island is most exuberantly fertile, and very populous; some authors make the numbers of inhabitants to exceed sixteen thousand, and assert that there are fourteen parishes belonging to the monks of St. Augustine, three benefices of seculars, and formerly a col­lege of Jesuits. Notwithstanding the happy soil of Panay, the in­habitants are discouraged from taking advantage of that blessing, by reason of the neglect of the government, which leaves them un­protected against the depredations of the piratical Malayes, who land, plunder, and carry away prisoners all those who cannot escape into the woods. These pirates are Mahometans of Borneo, Mindanao, and other islands between the Manillas and the Mo­luccas. They infest the coasts to a high degree, and will carry away people almost from under the walls of the capital, and sell them for slaves in Borneo, and even in Batavia. They not only seize the smaller fishing vessels, but even ships richly laden.

THE country abounds with deer, ANIMALS. wild hogs, buffaloes, oxen, and horses; the two last run at liberty, and are common to the whole island.

ZEBU is a small island, ZEBU. but remarkable for having been the [Page 73]first which the Spaniards colonized. It is pretended that there were, at the time the Europeans arrived, three thousand families of warlike Indians. The Spaniards have had, wherever they came, a happy talent in reducing the redundancy of people.

HERE, in 1598, Philip erected the town, built by Logaspi, into a city, and dignified it with an episcopal foundation; an Augus­tine, Pietro de Agurto, first filled the see. This island was in­dulged with sending ships to Calao in Peru, but after the Spa­niards had made the conquest of Luconia, and given to its capital the privilege of the Manilla ships, the trade of Zebu declined fast; insomuch that its city is now sunk into a village. The passage from hence to the new world was far more expeditious than that from Manilla, having been performed in two months, and the return in three, and seldom without the discovery of some islands in the vast Pacific.

WE have before said, that on Matta or Mactan, MACTAN. or possibly the Masbate of modern maps, a small adjacent island, Magellan, like his illustrious compeer Cook, met with a premature death from the hands of savages.

THE island of Mindanao, or Magindanao, ISLE OF MINDANAO. is the last and most southern of the great group. Many writers separate Mindanao from the Manilla or Philippine islands, among others our judi­cious countryman Mr. Dalrymple. Though so very near as evi­dently to form one of that vast archipelago, the inhabitants may differ in manners, but the productions of all are nearly similar. The Spaniards have on it some unprofitable settlements, the chief is at Sambouange, in Lat. 6° 54′ N. on the south side of the island. They have fortified it with a citadel of stone and bricks, [Page 74]and with a wooden fort, erected to check the excursion of the corsairs of Yolo; but in vain; they cannot even protect their own subjects who happen to be out of the reach of their cannon.

THE island extends east and west about ninety leagues, EXTENT. is tri­angular, and the shores greatly indented by bays; the circum­ference is said to be about eight hundred miles. It is very moun­tanous; the vallies consist of a rich soil, black, fat, prodigiously fruitful, and finely watered with the purest rills: the sides of the mountains rocky, yet well clothed with trees of large growth. The beauty of scenery in various parts is unspeakable: we are obliged to Mr. Forrest for giving us some idea of it in his Voyage to New Guinea; in plate 19, is a view of Tetyan harbor, of La­bugan, and of the circular harbor of Ubal, in the isle of Bunwoot, on the east side of the bay of Illano, near the great island.

Mindanao is inhabited by several different nations, NATIVES. speaking various languages, governed by sultans or rajahs. Mr. Forrest, and our faithful voyager Dampier, give accurate accounts of the manners of the country, HARAFORAS. but particularly the first. The Hara­foras, the primitive people, now driven into the interior parts, are highly taxed and oppressed by the Mahometan nations who possess the coasts. Dampier * describes what he names the Minda­nayans, properly so called, as men of mean stature, small limbs, strait bodies, little heads, oval faces, flat foreheads, small black eyes, short low noses, pretty large mouths, thin red lips, black teeth, black strait hair, tawny skins, inclining more to brighter yellow than other Indians; and adds, that they are of good un­derstanding, ingenious, and active, when they chuse to exert themselves, otherwise, like all other Indians, extremely indo­lent; [Page 75]stately in their gait, but very civil to strangers; vindictive, and given to the crime of poisoning. The dresses of the inha­bitants is given in one of Mr. Forrest's plates, representing the nuptials of two young people of rank.

THE capital town is on the great bay of Illano, on the south side of the island, in Lat. 7° 20′ the houses, even the palace, are supported on posts, from fourteen to twenty feet high, to keep them clear of the water in the season of inundations. Cap­tain Forrest, in his Voyage to New Guinea *, mentions the Lano, a great lake far inland; LANO LAKE. it is about sixty miles in circum­ference, and in one place some hundred fathoms deep, in others ten, twenty, and thirty; has four islands, and abounds with fish. The inhabitants of its banks are called Illanos, and amount to thirty thousand, intermixed with Haraforas, all of whom are said to be very much civilized.

IN mentioning the productions of this archipelago, PRODUCTIONS. I shall just distinguish the few that, with great uncertainty, are thought pe­culiar to Mindanao. Gold is common to all. It has its saltpetre cave, from which much of that article is extracted; on the roofs are infinite clusters of small bats, the dung of which is supposed to be one cause of the salt; a brook of a most offensive taste and smell, and of a sky blue color, issues from the mountain which incloses the cavern.

THESE islands seem to produce all the animals common to those adjacent with the addition of an ugly hog, QUADRUPEDS. with great knobs over the eyes, evidently my Aethiopian Boar, Hist. Quad. i. No 76; numerous in the woods, and very lean, but sweet.

[Page 76]THE Civet Weesel, i. No 274. The species which produces the perfume is a native of these islands; and the Fossane, No 280, is another species of spotted Weesel.

THE Dugung is a species of Walrus which inhabits these seas; as yet we are acquainted with only the head.

Dampier * mentions a Manatee, which does not weigh above six hundred weight; but he commends the flesh as being very sweet.

THE Birds are all enumerated in the Faunula of my Indian Zoology, BIRDS. and may be known by their trivial names, and re­ferences to M. Sonnerat; yet I shall mention a few distinguished by beauty, or any striking property.

THE White Turtle, Sonnerat, Voy. N. Guinea, tab. 20, is of a most glossy whiteness, with a blood-red spot on the breast, as if it had received a stab in that part. The Quail of Luconia, tab. 24, is the least of the genus, being only four inches long.

THE Shrike, tab. 25, flies swiftly in the air, and can balance itself like a swallow; is an inveterate enemy to the raven, which it never fails to attack, and in the end to put to flight.

THE Antique Shrike, tab. 114, is singular for the great hook of its upper mandible hanging far over the lower.

Parrots are very numerous, and of various species; they en­liven the woods with their brilliant colors, and deafen people by their cries.

THE Jacana, tab. 45, is most remarkable, not only by the vast length of toes and claws, characters of the genus, but by the [Page 77]three slender shafts issuing from the greater feathers of each wing, and extending to the tail, and finished with webs like other feathers.

THE bird called by M. Sonnerat, p. 86. tab. 49, Le Paon Sau­vage de l'isle de Lucon, is evidently a plover; the bill is long, a little thicker near the point; on the head is a very long crest, passing horizontal far beyond the hind part of the head, and ending in a point; things naked far above the knee; it has only three toes, and those are nearly semi-palmated; crest, head, neck, and breast, bright grey, barred with black; the top of the crest quite black; belly white; back, wings, and tail plain brown; length from the tip of the tail to the end three feet. M. Son­nerat says, that this species is found near the Cape of Good Hope; but surely he mistakes the Umbre, Brown's Illustr. tab. 35, for this bird.

Le Secretaire, tab. 50. Latham, i. p. 20. tab. 2, that singular vulture, a compound of many genera, is found here as well as in the Cape of Good Hope.

THE crested Spoonbill, tab. 52, has its head ornamented with a large crest, beginning a little beyond the bill, and falling be­hind the head in a great bush; the feathers have unconnected webs, like the plumes of the Egrets.

IN Panay, is a very small Thrush, tab. 73, not bigger than our Hedge Sparrow, of a most beautiful violet color, blue and black, all changeable; it has a most charming note, for which reason it is called the musician; they live in flocks of thousands, and make their nests in the pigeon-houses.

THE Coliou, tab. 74, and the crested Coliou of Panay, tab. 75, [Page 78]are distinguished by the vast length of their tails; that of the first strait, of the other incurvated.

THE Hornbill, tab. 83. Latham, i. 353; the bill, as usual, great and incurvated, and each mandible marked across with se­veral prominent moldings of a brown color, and the interme­diate furrows pale yellow; the accessory bill is strait, and ends abrupt, about half the length of the real.

THE Philippine Hornbill, Latham, i. 345. Pl. Enl. 873, is black above, white beneath; the bill is vast, with the accessorial bill convex at the top and in front, one third black, the hind part white; this bird is as large as a great fowl, and the beak nine inches long.

THE Manilla Hornbill, Latham, i. 354. Pl. Enl. 891, has a simple bill; the head, neck, breast, and belly are white; be­neath the cheek is a black spot; back and wings black.

THE above, and two species hereafter to be mentioned, are natives of these islands and of the Moluccas; their food is fruit; they inhabit the highest trees, and are the grotesque birds of the Indian archipelagos.

RESPECTING the trees, PLANTS. shrubs, or plants of the Manillas, I must content myself with giving the few engraven by M. Son­nerat, or described by that most industrious naturalist.

THE Sapotte Negro, tab. 14, a species of Achras, is a small tree, with a round green fruit, containing four kernels, in shape of an almond, much admired by the Indians.

THE Berkias, tab. 48, is a shrub bearing a flower of an ele­gant form. Sonnerat puts it under the genus of the Pande­quaqua, [Page 79]a barbarous name. The Chiococca Racemosa, Linn. Suppl. p. 145, a lesser species, is a milky plant, see tab. 19, the juice of which is used by the Indians for healing their wounds. The larger bears an oval fruit full of seed, tab. 43.

Le Rocou, or Atchiote, is a shrub with a small pointed fruit covered with bristles, containing numbers of seeds, which give a beautiful red dye.

THE Ignatia amara, Linn. Suppl. p. 149, which produces the beans of St. Ignatius, of superstitious use, grows in these islands.

THE Cocoa tree, tab. 61. 62. Theobroma cacao. COCOA TREE. I imagine that Linnaeus must have been a great admirer of chocolate, as he names the tree which produces it, Theobroma, or the food of the Gods. This tree is a native of the Antilles, and hotter parts of South America, and has been introduced into these islands by the Spaniards, from the great fondness that nation has for its pro­duce; otherwise they would not have given themselves any trouble about a less favored tree.

THE celebrated bread fruit *, the Soccus Lanosus, granosus, BREADFRUIT. and sylvestris of Rumphius, v. p. 110. 12. 14. tab. 32. 33. 34. Artocar­pus Incisa, G. Forster, Florul. ins. austr. No 332. Plant. Esc. No 1. J. R. Forsteris Genera, 51. tab. 51. 51. a. and Mr. John Ellis, in his monograph on this tree, is frequent in these islands. It begins to appear on the eastern parts of Sumatra, where it is named by the Malayes, Soccum Capas, again in Prince's island, about Bantam, and in Malega, and finally in all the islands to the east, and from thence to Otahcite, and many others in the South Sea.

Dampier, i. 296, first discovered it in Guam, one of the La­drone [Page 80]islands, and gives a very faithful description of the fruit and its uses; Lord Anson, and his great follower Cook, are full of its praises. Of late years we caught the benevolent idea of trans­porting this tree of life to our own islands; captain Bligh had the honor of being the person deputed to convey this manna to our wretched negroes. A Satan counteracted (under the feigned form and name of the most beneficent of sects) this great benefit to our hard-fated brethren; like his great prototype he succeeded in the onset, but the adventure is resumed under the auspices of the same faithful leader, and I hope that I do not make a false prophecy if I presage success.

THIS fruit is the bread of the islands on which it has been be­stowed; it grows on a tree of the size of a middling oak, and to the bulk of a child's head, and even to the diameter of twelve inches. Rumphius distinguishes the varieties into Granosus, Lano­sus, and Soccosus; the first is the parent tree, and has in it seeds. John Reinhold Forster, plate 51. a. gives us an idea of the whole fruit, with the rind hexagonally reticulated; the majority have no seeds, as we find is often the case with the Barberry, and a few other fruits; these, therefore, are incapable of propagation, ex­cept by suckers. In the generality of the islands, the seeded sort is quite lost, the other kind cultivated in orchards. The account of the fruit as given by Dampier, abnormis sapiens, is worthy the reader's attention; ‘When it is ripe it is yellow and soft, and the taste is sweet and pleasant; the natives of this island use it for bread: they gather it when full grown, while it is green and hard; then they bake it in an oven, which scorcheth the rind, and makes it black, but they scrape off the outside black crust, [Page 81]and there remains a tender thin crust, and the inside of it soft, tender, and white, like the crumbs of a penny loaf. There is neither seed nor stone in the inside, but all is of a pure sub­stance like bread; it must be eaten new, for if it is kept above twenty-four hours, it becomes dry, and eats harsh and choaky, but it is very pleasant before it is too stale. This fruit lasts in season eight months in the year, during which time the na­tives eat no other sort of food of bread kind.’

THE fruit which M. Sonnerat, p. 99, calls Le Rima, ou fruit a pain, and which he has engaven in tab. 57. 58. 59. and 60, is the perfect fruit, or soccus granosus. Just beneath the rind is a series of large almond-like kernels, adhering to a central placenta, and of a farinaceous substance, which when roasted eat like ches­nuts. The fruit itself is large and spherical; the natives of the Philippines cut it into slices, dry and eat it like bread; it will keep two years. This is the variety Mr. Ellis calls the Ducdu, and seems to make it a separate species.

A MINUTE orange, tab. 63, ORANGE. resembling the Citrus trifoliata of Linnaeus, is found here; the fruit is very small, of a bright red co­lor. It has no sections, but only one lodgment for the seeds. The pulp is slightly acid, and very agreeable. It may be the Ssi or Karatas Banna of the Japanese, Kaempf. Amoen. Ex. 801. 2. Thunberg, Fl. Japon. 294.

IN Mindanao are found three fruits engraven by M. Sonnerat: the Manssanus or Masson, tab. 94, resembling a Jujube tree; the leaves are alternate, the fruit a berry, covering a hard kernel, containing two nuts of a green color.

THE next is the Menichea rosata, tab. 93. The fruit is be­tween [Page 82]two and three inches long, oval, and containing a large nut.

THE third is La Houette, tab. 90, a very lofty tree.

BETWEEN the south end of Mindanao, SOOLO ISLES. and the north-east point of Borneo, is a chain of small isles, extending about two hundred miles in length, called the Soolo, from the name of the chief island. The principal was about the middle of this cen­tury governed by a sultan, according to M. Sonnerat, the very counterpart of Peter the Great; endowed with the same abilities, the same thirst after knowlege, and the same ambition of ap­plying it to the improvement of his subjects. Like Peter, he quitted his throne, and took to travelling during several years. He went afterwards to Batavia, where he concealed his name and quality, and associated himself with the common sailors to learn their business. He next changed his company for that of the carpenters, to be instructed in their art. He bought tools of all sorts, and instruments of husbandry, and then returned to his throne. Still he wished for more intellectual improvement; sailed for Mecca to learn the law of Mahomet; made himself master of the Arabic tongue, brought home the use of let­ters, and introduced money, the first ever known in the islands.

THIS monarch obtained possession by conquest of a small part of Borneo next to his dominions, which involved him in a quar­rel with some Dutch, who pretended they were allies to the Bornoese. Our prince found he never could be a match for these people without the use of fire-arms. He fitted out a few ships, loaded them with articles of commerce, and sailed to Manilla, in [Page 83]order to supply his wants. The rapacious governor seized on the monarch and all his treasure, under pretence that he intended the conquest of the island. The sultan remonstrated in vain, he endured a long captivity; his subjects, enraged at the treatment their prince had met with, made horrible ravages on the coasts of Luconia. The governor did not dare to complain, as he knew his court would not approve his conduct. He stipulated with the prince that he would restore him to liberty, provided he would consent to establish in his dominions a mission of Jesuits. He refused to comply; the Jesuits, determined on revenge and con­quest, obtained an armament, and taking the Soolo monarch, sailed for Sambouange, and from thence to Soolo, where they landed, and laid siege to the only fort on the island. The warriors of Soolo surprised them, and drove them with disgrace to their ships. At Sambouange he found means to escape on board an English vessel, which conveyed him to Soolo; his subjects crowded to him, and he remounted his throne, to the great joy of his people; he ceded a small island to the English, and declared his ports open to all piratical adventurers, to encourage them to re­venge his cause on the treacherous Spaniards. Mr. Forrest vi­sited this island, and found there an English factor; it was then governed by Israel, son of the captive sultan, who had received his education at Manilla.

MR. Dalrymple visited these islands, and left us some account of their natural history: they are particularly rich in pearls; PEARLS. the banks on which the different shells are found containing those gems are of great extent; the pearl is not confined to one species of shell, Mr. Dalrymple describes several, but as he does not do it [Page 84]scientifically, I am at a loss to define the kinds, except­ing the Mytilus Margaritiferus; every one of these shells have in them two small lobsters, to which the Indians attribute the formation of the pearls. The banks were once pri­vate property, and belonged to several individuals, but by the Mahometan law, they are now common even to strangers. The divers are slaves to the sultan; they seem to be hired out, and to receive a certain portion for their share. Pigafetta, the com­panion of Magellan in his circumnavigation, visited these islands in 1521. He calls Soolo, Zolo, and says from report *, that two pearls had been taken there, the property of the king of Borneo, which were round, and as big as hens' eggs.

THE swallows with edible nests swarm here; they build in caves open at top, but with their sides communicating with the sea beneath its surface. The nests are got by divers, who plunge through the entrance, and rise within the vast caverns, which are inaccessible from above.

THE Upas or poison tree is found in Soolo.

MR. ANIMALS. Foorest has given us a brief account of the animals; the Soolos have plenty of horses, which the ladies of fashion have learned to ride with much grace. Here are abundance of goats and cattle, but the people do not milk the cows; wild hogs swarm, and with the wild elephant do great mischief. The ele­phants are not aboriginal, but bred from some that had been sent as presents to the Soolo princes. The Spotted Deer or Axis is found here.

Soolo is thirty miles long and twelve broad, LENGTH OF SOOLO. and very populous, [Page 85]which obliges the inhabitants to have recourse to agriculture in a far greater degree than others of the adjacent isles; the whole chain is said to have sixty thousand inhabitants: the soil is very fertile, and productive of most of the tropical fruits; teek trees abound here. The rainy season is very uncertain, for which reason the crops of rice cannot be depended on; yams, potatoes, and other esculents, are cultivated to supply the defect. The na­tives have learned the art of engrafting from the Chinese settled among them. Mr. Forrest says that the cinnamon tree is found amongst these islands.

THE Soolos are a polished people, NATIVES. probably from the examples of their two monarchs: both sexes dress with elegance; they are fond of music and dancing. Sultan Israel and his niece, could perform a tolerable minuet, and some of the people of fashion could go down a country dance. They have many slaves, to whom they are said to be very cruel, and besides are reckoned perfidious in their general dealings.

ANOTHER chain of islands, SANGIR. of far greater length than the for­mer, runs from the western cape of Mindanao quite to the most eastern cape of the great island of Celebes; the chief of which is Sangujan or Sangir, between Lat. 3° 30′ and 4° 30′ north; most of them are inhabited, and governed by their chieftains *. The Dutch have now possession of Sangir, and some others, as out­guards to the spicy isles. These, part of Mindanao, the Soolo isles, Borneo, and Celebes, bound a great and open gulph, of clear na­vigation.

Celebes or Macassar extends north and south between Lat.CELEBES OR MACASSAR.[Page 86]55′ north, and Lat. 5° 50′ south; it is of an oblong form, but al­most divided by two deep bays, one, which penetrates far west into the country near the north end; and another which pene­trates still most extensively from the north, running above a hundred and fifty miles due south.

THIS island is prodigiously mountanous, VOLCANOES. and lofty; the mountains increase in height towards the central parts, and are generally richly clothed with wood. In Macassar, as well as in Mindanao, are some active volcanoes. Mr. Dalrymple, in the 29th plate of his elegant views of land, gives a fine idea of the country. Mr. Loten informed me that none of the Indian islands had such grand and beautiful scenery. It abounds with rivers, which spring high in the mountains, and precipitate down vast rocks, among a sylvan scene of lofty and singular trees. The lakes, and more still parts of the rivers, give security to numberless water fowl of the larger and more clumsy kinds, which retire there by fear of the crocodiles, which haunt the lower and marshy parts. Those are not deserted by the lesser palmated birds, such as ducks and teal, which being quick sighted and nimble, easily evade the approach of the enemy.

THIS island was discovered in 1525, by Antonio de Britto and Garcias Henriguez, who at that time commanded in the Moluc­cas. Celebes was reckoned one of the greatest of those islands. The Portuguese established themselves here, and whether their conduct was more moderate than in other places I know not, but they gained the good opinion of the inhabitants, who pre­served towards them the most inviolable fidelity. They kept their ground here till the year 1660, when the Dutch, with a strong [Page 87]squadron, landed and defeated them, and their faithful ally the king of Macassar, a potent prince on the west side of the island, and near the southern end. Here the Portuguese had their colony. The Dutch expelled them, rased their churches to the ground, and seized all the effects of the Jesuits, whom they justly con­sidered as their greatest enemies. The king made one more at­tempt to expel these invaders; but was unsuccessful, and obliged to submit to the Batavian yoke. The English had also for a long time great intercourse with this island, for the sake of the rich productions of the Spicy isles, till at length the subtile Dutch succeeded in preventing all commerce with Macassar. The Dutch have now the monarch of this island, and all its other princes, at their command, so they may more truly be said to be the governors of the country. The Chinese are the only people who are per­mitted to trade here to supply the wants of the islanders. The Macassars have a great commercial fishery around their island; they go in fleets of more than a hundred sail, which consist of proas from twelve to twenty tons burden, and carry from sixteen to twenty men; they go out with one monsoon, and come in with another, and send their fish to the China market; the produce of its own seas not being equal to the demand of that overstocked empire. It is remarkable that all these proas carry Dutch colors. The island itself exports gold, rice, sago, wax, and slaves; but its chief use to the Dutch is to keep other nations at a distance from the great repositories of spices. Our old voyagers seldom failed of touching at Celebes to profit of the trade.

I AM sorry to observe, SLAVES. in the account I meet with of all the islands, even from Sumatra itself, that the infamous slave trade [Page 88]prevales in almost every one. They are either brought to market by the piratical Malayes or Buggesses, who make them one object of their cruizes or petty invasions; or they are kidnapped by the co-inhabitants of the same islands. The Mahometans think they have the same right to hunt down and catch a Pagan, as the gentry of Liverpool or Bristol have to encourage the trepanning of a curled-pated negro: and all these bring them to market with as little remorse. I call as evidence Mr. Marsden *, Captain Forrest , in his voyage to Mergui, and old Dampier . Slaves from Celebes, Mindanao, and even Java itself, are seen at Batavia in numbers incredible; let me do the Batavians the justice to say, that some of their slaves are kept with great neatness, and are instructed in mechanical trades. The Dutchman, fortunately for them, finds it his interest to employ them in the loom, ra­ther than consume them under the pressure of labor, beneath a vertical sun.

OUR able officer, captain Carteret, in his return from his cir­cumnavigation, attempted to put into Macassar, but was repulsed by the jealousy of the Dutch; his distress passed expression; most of his crew near the point of death, by the hardships of his long voyage; nothing could equal the unfeelingness of the Dutchman's heart; there seemed to be little difference in its temper in the year 1768, and that of its rudest days. Mr. Carte­ret, by amazing resolution, at length got leave to anchor and procure refreshments in Bonthain bay, about thirty miles from the capital. There he suffered all kinds of extortion, and ob­served every species of insolence and cruelty to the natives. [Page 89]Phlegmatic constitutions never feel for the suffering of others; their callosity is incorrigible; warm tempers may do wrong, but they soon return to their native milkiness. As to the Dutch, they forced the refreshments from them at a small price, and con­tented themselves with a thousand per cent. profit from our com­mander. What Captain Carteret tells us from p. 622. to p. 648. is worthy of perusal; excepting his voyage, which was most ably written by himself, all the rest of the three volumes is Mr. Hawksworth's compilation, from the journals of the navigators.

MR. Carteret could observe that the city of Macassar, CITY OF MACASSAR. in Lat. 5° 30′, was large, and most delightfully situated. It is said also to be very strong. About Bonthain bay are numerous villages, and the country abounding with provisions and timber.

GREAT quantities of Sualloo, or sea slug, SUALLOO. an animal of the Mollusca tribe, is fished up here, especially about the thirteen small isles called the Pater-nosters, in the streight between Celebes and Borneo; it is supposed to be a species of Actinia, and lies on the sandy bottom, and often on that which is environed with coral rocks. The fishers strike it with four-bearded iron prongs, placed parallel to each other, on the surface of two iron shot, of six or nine pounds weight, fastened to a strong line. This Sualloo sometimes weighs half a pound; numbers of boats with the crew and family on board subsist by this business, and dry it in the smoke. The black or best kind is sold to the Chinese (who use it in their nice dishes) for forty dollars a pecul; whereas the worse or white only brings in four or five.

THE people employed in this fishery are chiefly Badjoos; BADJOOS PEOPLE. they inhabit many of the shores of the smaller islands around the [Page 90]greater; they may be called the Tartars of the Sea; some few are stationary, living in stilted houses close to the water's edge; others live altogether in boats, and with their families shift their quarters and change their residence along with the Monsoons. Mr. Forrest computes that they have about seven hundred boats; and adds, that they live chiefly on fish, have a squealing voice, and most savage appearance. He supposes them to have been originally fugitives from Macassar, Java, and other places.

THE Buggesses, BUGGESSES. or native Macassars, are the bravest people in India; of proved fidelity, if treated with confidence; of the deepest revenge, if insulted. They spread far and wide on the ocean in character of freebooters, and attack vessels with most astonishing desperation, especially when inspired by opium. On land their arms are lances, or slender arrows, pointed with the teeth of fish, dipped in the fatal poison of the Upas tree, which grows in this island. These arrows they blow out of hollow trunks, and hit their mark at a considerable distance. So subtile is the venom, that it almost instantaneously effects de­struction; nor do the Macassars themselves know any remedy. Nicuhoff saw several Dutch soldiers cured by swallowing human dung, by way of a vomit; but others died, notwithstanding the filthy remedy. A certain root is spoken of growing in the island which is used as an antidote.

M. Tavernier was eye-witness to the rapid effect of this poison, EFFECT OF UPAS POISON. which I think too singular to be omitted: "One day," says he *, ‘an Englishman, in heat of blood, had killed one of the king of Macassar's subjects; and though the king had [Page 91]pardoned him, yet both English, Hollanders, and Portugals, fearing if the Englishman should go unpunished, lest the islanders should revenge themselves upon some of them, be­sought the king to put him to death; which with much ado being consented to, the king, unwilling to put him to a lin­gering death, and desirous to shew the effect of his poison, resolved to shoot the criminal himself; whereupon he took a long trunk, and shot him exactly into the great toe of the right foot, the place particularly aimed at: two chirurgeons, one an Englishman and the other a Hollander, provided on purpose, immediately cut off the member; but for all that the poison had dispersed itself so speedily, that the Englishman died at the same time.’

‘ALL the kings and princes of the east are very diligent in their enquiry after strong poisons; and I remember that the chief of the Dutch factory and I tried several poisoned arrows, with which the king of Acheen had presented him, by shoot­ing at squirrels, who fell down dead as soon as ever they were touched.’

Boutan, a small isle near the south-east of Celebes, BOUTAN. is inde­pendent, and has its sultan, who mimics all the state of a greater monarch. Our countryman, Mr. David Middleton *, visited this island in 1609, and there passed a strong intercourse of civilities between him and the reigning prince. Middleton sailed from England with a commercial view; nor would he have been dis­appointed, had not the king's rich magazine of goods been just burnt by his enemies. The natives are like the Mindanayans in [Page 92]shape, and speak the Malaye language. All are Mahometans, as are the people of Celebes: the story is, that a certain king, from the arguments he had heard on the topic of religion from some Christians and Mahometans, took a great dislike to his own, but being unable to determine which to chuse, he convened a general assembly, and after a most fervent prayer to Heaven, resolved to prefer the religion of that party which should first land on his dominions: possibly the Mahometans were in the secret; their missionaries arrived, and the whole island em­braced the doctrine of that sect.

I NOW descend towards the eastern end of Java, and pass through the streights of Balli, which divide Java from the island of that name. ISLAND OF BALLI. The streights are narrow, rapid, and bounded by picturesque hills, many of a conoid form. This is a much-frequented passage.

THE island abounds with every necessary of life, both in the vegetable and animal creation. When the Dutch touched here, in their first voyage of the year 1595, they found it governed by a king, who appeared in great state, was attended by his guards, and drawn in a chariot by milk-white oxen. The great men were carried in their bamboo palanquins, and lived in the highest luxury. The religion was then Paganism; and the women, as in India, devoted themselves to the funeral pile on the decease of their husbands. In Le Promier Livre de Navigations, &c. are some prints * of the customs of the island.

THIS island, SLAVES. and that of Macassar, has the insamy of furnish­ing as many subjects to the slave trade as any part of the known [Page 93]world, excepting Guinea; and they are sold with as little re­morse as in any portion of the hardened universe.

FROM Balli is a long chain of islands (which I shall, TIMORIAN CHAIN. from Timor Laut, call the Timorian chain) running eastward, and ex­tends very near the coasts of New Guinea, inclining a little to­wards the north as they approach that great island. The names of the most considerable are Lomboc, Gumbava, Ende, or Flores; from the last they are broken into smaller isles, such as Solor, Omba, and others, scattered over the sea, or grouped in clusters; Timor Laut and Arrou are the most eastern, and the largest of the latter class.

VERY near to the south side of Omba is the great island of Timor, which points to the south-west; TIMOR ISLAND. and with the adjacent isle of Anamboa, forms a large triangular bason, of which the isle of Sandel Bosche, or sandal wood, is the western side. Timor was discovered in 1522 by the companions of Magellan, who found it full of white sandal wood. They report, that on this archipelago the disease of St. Job (which they interpret the in­famous disease) reigneth more than in any other part of the world. I suspect it to be the horrid disease called by Bontius * the Amboynse Pocken.

THE Portuguese attempted to make themselves masters of this island, but were obliged to abandon their design, by a resistance of twenty years from the brave inhabitants. They had settled on the bay of Cupang; from which they were expelled by the Dutch in 1613, who built a fort named Concordia. They keep this island merely for the sake of making it an out-port to the [Page 94]spicy islands, of which they have the most extreme jealousy; for there is nothing they apprehend so much as the intercourse of other nations with their usurpations in these parts. Timor yields so little profit, that, except for the reason just given, it would have been long since abandoned. LENGTH. The length of this island is near two hundred miles, the breadth about sixty; it is divided into many kingdoms, such as Cupang and others. In Dampier's time there were many Portuguese settlements, or ra­ther of the mixed breed; the principal is at Laphao, on the northern side; but even there he saw but three white men, the rest were copper-colored, with lank black hair; they spoke Por­tuguese, were of the Roman catholick religion, and would be very angry if they were not thought Portuguese, as they value themselves greatly on their mongrel descent.

THE natives are said to be the bravest of any in all this vast archipelago, NATIVES. but at the same time the most savage. They con­ceal their nakedness by a sort of short apron, made of many narrow stripes; have bracelets round their arms, and collars of shells round their necks, and their hair stands erect. Their wea­pons are vast sabres, made of sandal wood; with which, it is said, they can cut a man asunder at one blow. Mr. Nieuhoff * gives the figures of the different wild soldiery of the islands.

CAPTAIN Cook passed under a considerable part of the southern side of Timor, in his return from his first voyage. The land ap­peared very high, mountain above mountain rising in slopes from the sea, chiefly clothed with forests. In some parts were swamps and mangrove-trees; in others cleared land, the marks [Page 95]of inhabitants; and in other places groves and coco-palms, that reached a mile inland, and close to them houses and plantations innumerable.

THE domestic animals of Timor seem to have been introduced there by the Europeans, except the hogs and buffaloes. ANIMALS. Mon­kies are numerous, but I believe very few other native animals. Here are infinite varieties of birds. The woods abound with bees, which produce quantities of honey and wax; and the sea with fishes and shell-fish; and as to the vegetable kingdom, it yields most of the tropical trees, fruits, and plants.


I NOW digress to the stupendous island of New Holland, and fairly confess that the zeal of the zoologist has laid hold of me, and that a desire to investigate so fine a field, has made me wil­lingly submit to the impulse. I shall close the original subject by returning to the Molucca islands, and breathe my last words in their spicy air, or their latitude. Little history is to be expected of the land I now visit; brief accounts of the various discoverers is all that can be given till we arrive on the eastern coast; which the unfortunate acquaintance with in 1770, has peopled with the profligate outcasts of our country, cruelly redeemed from the gibbet to undergo a lingering life of nakedness and famine in this most distant land.

New Holland is in length from the north point, in Lat. VAST EXTENT. 11° to 46° 30′ south, about two thousand miles, and its greatest breadth from its most western part, in Long. 109° 30′, to its most eastern in Long. 152° 30′, about three thousand miles. Its extent in the southern parts is unknown, as much of the western side remains to be discovered. This vast tract proves equal in size (according [Page 98]to the estimate of our later navigators) to all Europe. I see no reason why it should not be called a fifth continent; America itself is but an insulated continent, superior as it may be to that of New Holland.

IN tracing the discovery of that immense region, DISCOVERED IN 1618. I shall begin at the very northern extremity, opposite to the isles of Arrou. The name it bears in that part is Arnheim's Land, and the dis­covery sixed in the year 1648. I shall proceed to the western side, and then surround the country till I arrive at the point I am now leaving.

IN Lat. DAMPIER'S BAY, BY DAMPIER IN 1688. 16° 50′ south, 119° East Long. from London, is land discovered in 1688 by our great navigator Dampier *. Geo­graphers have not even honored the spot with a name; I will therefore style it Dampier's Bay. Our countryman took his de­parture from Timor, and passing by a shoal of sand and rock in Lat. 13° 50′, in water so deep that he could not fathom it with his line, on January 5th he anchored in a deep bay, full of small islands, about two miles from shore. The land was low and even; with dunes at the water edge skirted with rocky points.

THE inhabitants were the most miserable our countrymen ever saw; NATIVES. without any cloathing, except the rudest cover for their na­kedness, consisting of nothing more than the slip of the rind of a tree for a girdle, and a little grass stuffed into it before as an apron. They were tall, strait, and thin, their limbs very small and long; their heads large, their foreheads round; they had great bottle noses, wide mouths, full lips, and their eyes [Page 99]perpetually winking or kept shut, from their being so greatly annoyed with flies, that from habit they never open them like other people, but are obliged to hold up their heads if they wish to see any thing above their level. They have no beards, and the people of both sexes universally want two of the upper fore teeth, which they draw out; their visages are long; and their general aspect the most disagreable imaginable; their skins are coal black; their hair short and frizzled like the African negroes. They had neither houses or dwellings, but lay in the open air, and associated in companies of twenty or thirty, men, women, and children; their arms were wooden swords and lances; Dampier found many on one of the islands; they had not the appearance even of a canoe, but must have swam from place to place; and as to food, they could only collect the shells and animals flung up by the sea. They were exceedingly timid. Dampier at­tempted to make them work in carrying water to the ship, but they had not strength or dexterity enough to carry as much as a boy of ten years of age.

SEA tortoises and Manatee were found in plenty on the coast, MANATEE. and abundance of fish; the tides rose here about five fathoms.

THE trees were neither large nor numerous; one kind, exuding a red gum like the Sanguis draconis, was frequent; we shall take notice of it hereafter.

G. F. de Witt's Land, in Lat. 19° south, was discovered, DE WITT'S ISLAND. accord­ing to Arrowsmith, in 1616, according to others in 1628.

IN about Lat. 20° Dampier thought he had discovered a streight or passage to the eastward; but in all probability (see his voyage, vol. iii. p. 135) it was no more than a channel be­tween [Page 100]a cluster of islands. From Rosemary islands, a discovery of his in Lat. ENDRACHT'S LAND. 20° 50′, the land turns southerly. Endracht's Land lies just under the tropic of Capricorn, discovered, according to Hawkesworth's map, in 1616.

Dirk Hartog islands and Sharks bay are in Lat. SHARKS BAY. 25°. The land so high as to be seen nine or ten leagues distant. It bore neither shrubs or trees above ten feet high. The prognostics of the approach of land were a sort of grey tern as big as a lap­wing, and like that bird flapping its wings. The eyes encircled with black, the bill red, the tail forked.

SEA snakes appeared in great abundance; SEA SNAKES. one species was four feet long, yellow, with a flat tail, four fingers broad.

THE other was smaller, and round, spotted with black and yel­low. Dampier saw others very long and slender, others as thick as a man's leg, with a red head. This reminds me of the species described by Arrian, in his Periphus Maris Erythroei, to which he gives black skins, and blood-red eyes. I dare say his account is just, only his informer confined the color of the head to the eyes.

ON land was an Avosetta with the head and neck red; AVOSETTA. and a sea pie exactly resembling ours, only those parts were totally black.

Dampier * also discovered a species of Kangaroo, KANGAROO. an animal with very short fore legs, which it went jumping on; but his Guano was an horrible animal, too disgusting even for him to eat, who had been used to food of all sorts, as snakes, alligators, and cro­codiles, so offensive was this in look and smell; his description is so forcible, that we may well give him full credit. ‘At the [Page 101]rump, instead of the tail there, they had a stump of a tail, HORRIBLE LIZARD. which appeared like another head; but not really such, being without mouth or eyes; yet this creature seemed by this means to have a head at each end; and which may be reckoned a fourth difference, the legs also seemed all four of them to be fore-legs, being all alike in shape and length, and seeming, by the joints and bending, to be made as if they were to go in­differently either head or tail foremost. They were speckled black and yellow like toads, and had scales or knobs on their backs like those of crocodiles, plated on to the skin, or stuck into it as part of the skin. They are very flow in motion, and when a man comes nigh them, they will stand still and hiss, not endeavouring to get away. Their livers are also spotted black and yellow; and the body when opened has a very un­savoury smell.’

I HAVE little doubt but that this is the horrible animal figured by Seba * under the name of Salamandra vera Seu Gekko Cey­lonicus. He describes it as most dreadfully venomous, even so as to infect the very waters to such a degree, as to poison any person who is so unfortunate to drink of them.

HE found here green turtle weighing two hundred pounds; and abundance of large sharks, from which he gave name to the bay. In the maw of one he discovered what he calls the head of a Hippopotamus; the hairy lips were sound; and two of the teeth he pulled out were eight inches long, and a little crooked; the rest only four. I must question whether this was the real Hippopotamus, or the Dugon?

[Page 102]COMMODORE Francis Pilstaert, PILSTAERT, IN 1629. being sent on a voyage of discovery with eleven ships, was in 1629 wrecked in the Batavia on this coast near Edels-land, EDELS-LAND. in Lat. 28°. He escaped; returned in a skiff to Batavia; and was obliged to leave several of his crew behind. Part had conspired, and cruelly murdered the rest; but on his coming back to rescue from de­struction those whom he had left, he seized on the miscreants, and gave them into the hands of the executioner.

Van de Leuwins' Land, VAN DE LEU­WINS, IN 1622. in Lat. 33° 40′, was discovered in 1622. From hence the shore runs due east for a course of some hundred miles. PETER NUYTS IN 1627. In 1627 the famous commodore Peter Nuyts sailed along the coast, and made many attempts to land, but was always repulsed. Is not this a proof that the southern shores of New Hol­land possess a superior population, and superior valor in the in­habitants, to all the rest of the known parts of this vast country? The tract is to this day called after his name.

FROM certain islands called St. Francis's and St. Peter's, in Lat. 32° south, Long. 132° east, no farther discoveries have been made. The land is supposed to take a southern curvature, and to contract its breadth gradually. The course is marked with the dotted line, nor do we recover land till we reach the very southern extremity, which spreads to no great breadth; one side ends in South-west Cape, in Lat. 43° 37′, the other in South Cape, in Lat. 43° 42′, and the land from each runs northward.

THIS part of New Holland was discovered in 1642, TASMAN, IN 1642. by Abel Tas­man, who was sent for that purpose by the states; he named it Van Diemen's Land, gave names to several islands and bays, and made some remarks on the country; if he was accurate, [Page 103]they prove a variety in the inhabitants. He says they were a large-made people, of a color between brown and yellow; their hair long, and almost as thick as that of the Japanese, and that like them they combed it up, and fixed it at the top of their heads with a pin. They covered their middle with a mantle, some with a kind of mat, others with a sort of woollen cloth; their ingenuity might reach the fabricating a mat, but I doubt the possibility of the latter.

IN 1773, Tasman, after a long interval, CAPTAIN FURNEAUX, IN 1773. was followed by captain Furneaux, who had been separated from captain Cook, and di­rected his course for the purpose of pursuing the discovery of the Dutch navigator; he fell on the very same country, and found the same bays and headlands observed by Tasman. He saw the land eight or nine leagues distant; it was rather high, broken, and with bold shores, but beaten by a most violent surf: it probably having the whole weight of the Antarctic ocean from the very pole rolling on this great headland.

THE soil here was black, rich, but thin *, SOIL. the sides of the hills covered with trees, and the view greatly beautified by the vast cataracts, tumbling from immense heights, and a rock with fluted pillars, possibly basaltic. Captain Furneaux saw none of the natives, but met with their miserable wigwams, and some bags and nets in which they carried their provisions, and also a stone to strike fire with, and some tinder.

IN January 1777, CAPTAIN COOK, IN 1777. this country was visited in person by our great navigator, who had the good fortune to meet with some of the natives, who came to him with the utmost confidence, and [Page 104]without any sign of fear. NATIVES. They were of the common stature, slender, black, and with hair as frizzled as any negroe, but not distinguished by remarkable thick lips or flat noses, and their features far from disagreeable; their teeth were good, but very dirty; nor did they want any of the upper fore teeth, as Dampier observed in those whom he saw. The hair of these was clotted with a sort of red ointment, and their faces were painted with the same; they had bushy beards on their chins and upper lips, which was another variation from the most northern people, yet the eyes of these were by no means affected like the miserable na­tives of the environs of Sharks bay. The hair of the women was cut or shaven, sometimes wholly, sometimes partially; and some had a circle of hair left, like the tonsure of the Roman catholick clergy. The men were quite naked, the women had the skin of the Kangaroo tied over their shoulders, and round their waists; the skins of both sexes were marked with scars.

THEIR habitations were little wigwams, made of sticks covered with bark; DRYADES. others reminded you of those of the Dryades of the poets: they formed a hollow in the vast trees of the country, to the height of six or seven feet, which they effected by fire; they left so much untouched that the tree grew most luxuriantly, and gave the image of Tasso's enchanted grove: this is the only forest tree of the country; the bark is white, the stem quite strait, and clear of branches to the height of sixty feet; it yielded a transparent gum or resin, and the leaves of the lesser branches had an aromatic smell. The wood is very long and tough, fit for spars, oars, and even masts, for which purpose, could it be made ligther, none would be better.

[Page 105]No other species of quadrupeds were observed here, but the Opossum, Hist. Quadr. No 223, and the Kangaroo, No 229. Captain Cook very humanely turned into the woods a boar and sow pig, which if they escape the sight of the natives for some years, may prove the stocking of the country with animals equally useful to the inhabitants and casual visitants.

ABUNDANCE of fish are found on the coast, as the elephant fish, rays, soles, flounders, and the Atherina Hepsetus *, which extends to our shores.

I SHALL form as complete a list of the birds of this amazing tract, as I may be enabled from the late discoveries, and shall only mention here, as perhaps local, the White Eagle , the Superb Warbler , remarkable for the rich blue of its frontal crest and cheeks, and the Van Diemen's warbler .

THE first port which Captain Cook put into in the voyage of 1777, was Adventure Bay, in Lat. 43° 21′, ADVENTURE BAY. between the Fluted Cape and Cape Frederick Henry. He continued his voyage towards New Zealand. The coast to the north had been explored by Captain Furneaux, who passed in his way southward Maria's island, Schoutens, and other places named by Tasman. As we ad­vance farther north, we find Furneaux's and the Sisters. The last is in Lat. 39° 45′, and Long. 149°, the land from which he bore away for New Zealand.

IN Lat. 38° south, Long. 211°, we arrive off Cape Hicks, 1770. CAPE HICKS. which may be celebrated as the first place ever discovered on the eastern coast of New Holland; this great event took place on April 19th. [Page 106]1770, under the auspices of Captain Cook. It was in this voyage that Mr. Banks (afterwards Sir Joseph) and doctor Solander, were his philosophical companions. TROPIC BIRD. A tropic bird was seen in Lat. 38° 29′, an uncommon sight, as it very rarely exceeds the limits of the tropics. Proceeding northward, he passed by a mountain he called the Dromedary. On the twenty-seventh, he observed the wondering natives collected on the rocks, in admiration of the novel sight; BOTANY BAY. and on the 28th anchored in Botany Bay, of later years well known, as the common retreat of the unfortu­nate brave!

THE natives of these parts differed very little from those ob­served in the more southern latitudes. NATIVES. There can be no doubt but our appearance was very hostile; they were diffident of us to the highest degree, declined all intercourse, and refused all our presents: our navigators certainly did not use the arts of con­ciliating their affections. After frequently treating them with a volley of small shots on their legs, or more muscular parts, we are not to wonder at their dislike to the strangers who had visited their coasts. Their wants, by reason of the happiness of the climate, did not demand cloathing, and their minds were su­perior to the accepting of gew-gaws; but they were frequently pressed by hunger.

IN Endeavour river, they boldly came on board the ship, and seeing plenty of turtle, wished to have a share; they seized on two, trusting to the rites of hospitality, or the justice of partaking of the provisions found in their own seas (to which they had a natural title); instead of that they were roughly treated, and so highly irritated, as to take an instant revenge, by setting fire to [Page 107]the grass that surrounded our tents: they were brave to a degree of temerity; two have been known to oppose the landing of forty of our people: their offensive weapons were swords made of some hard wood, and darts or lances, armed at the end with fishes bones, or the spine of the sting rays; their defensive arms a round buckler. They were painted like the people of Van Diemen's land, and as an additional ornament, had a great bone of some bird stuck through their noses, and another through each car. Mr. Parkinson gives a good representation in plate xxvii. of two of the natives armed for fight, and in the attitude of com­bat: as to cloathing, neither sex made the least attempt to con­ceal their nakedness.

THESE people, savage as they may seem, are not ignorant of the rudiments of drawing; Mr. Phillip * observed on many of the rocks figures of animals, shields, weapons, and even men; and one in particular of a man beginning to dance, and this in rather a superior style: surely it must be admitted that people thus tinctured with a liberal art, are capable of civilization under proper treatment.

WHAT religious rites they have is unknown, but it is evi­dent, from the same authority , that they burn their dead.

THEIR habitations are most miserable; they lie under the pro­tection of some great pieces of bark flung over a ridged frame, made of boughs of trees .

THEIR food are fish, shell fish, or any thing they can collect on the shores. They have a most artless species of canoe, made of bark, stretched on a frame, and tied together at each [Page 108]end; two, sometimes more, will venture in one of them; they keep along the shoals to strike the fish, which appears to be their principal subsistence; they also eat the fowls, or the few quadrupeds they can contrive to take. On many of the tall trees were cut notches in the stems to facilitate their ascent. They seemed to conceal themselves on the top, and by that means surprise the birds as they alight, or catch them at roost; or from this situation, kill with their lances any beast that chances to pass beneath. As to their cookery, they content themselves with eating their meat raw, or at best with giving it a slight broiling over their fires.

THE country is hilly, but not mountanous; part covered with tall trees, quite clear from underwood; in some parts near the shores, were extensive tracts hid by brushwood; and in many places swamps full of the Mangrove, or Rhizophora mangle *. Many rills discharge themselves into Botany bay, but it wanted depth of water to give room for ships of large size. The soil in places was black and fat, and gave Captain Cook reason to believe it would be productive of any sort of grain. The trees were filled with birds of most beautiful colors, particularly those of the parrot tribe. The country abounded with plants, and from that circumstance the harbor was called Botany Bay. All this coast was named New South Wales, from the extreme south to the extreme north; a denomination given near two centuries ago to part of the territories adjacent to Hudson's bay.

IN the year 1787, OUR CON­VICTS SENT THERE. when we began to be at a loss about the disposal of our criminals, legislature was advised to banish into [Page 109]this country, all those who had been by royal mercy re­prieved from death, or who had been convicted of crimes liable only to the punishment of transportation to our late co­lonies.

AN act was passed for that purpose in the same year, and in consequence a fleet was prepared to convey to this distant country as many convicts, as at that time fell under the penalty of the law. The Syrius frigate was fitted out to convoy the governor. The gentleman selected for the arduous charge was captain Arthur Phillip, who had long served in our navy with great credit, GOVERNOR PHILLIP. and for some time was engaged in the service of Portugal, during part of which he with great good conduct and humanity per­formed a duty similar to that his country now committed to him; for he was employed once, if not oftener, in conveying the criminals of that nation to its colonies of the Brazils.

THE governor sailed from Spithead on May 13th, 1787. On June 3d he and his fleet reached Teneriff; on August 5th an­chored off Rio de Janeiro; on October 13th in Table Bay, at the cape of Good Hope, which he left on November 12th in the Supply; reached Botany Bay on January 3d, 1788, having per­formed, in a bad sailer, a voyage of seven thousand miles in fifty­one days; the Syrius and the whole convoy anchored safely in the bay on the 19th and 20th of the same month.

IT is a popular opinion that the expence of transportation of the convicts amounted to three hundred pounds a man, including the provision made for their cloathing and support for some small time after their landing. I was in hopes that two pamphlets, published by Debrett in 1791, 1792, under authority of govern­ment, [Page 110]would have confirmed or refuted the report, especially as one of them pretended to give an account of the expences; but the detail is so very imperfect, that I am not able to satisfy either my own or the reader's curiosity.

MR. Phillip had previously taken a most exact survey of every part of the proposed place of settlement; he found it bad as a port, and from the wet nature of the environs, sus­pected that the air would affect the health of the new co­lonists. He observed that Captain Cook mentioned a bay, in Lat. 33° 5′ south, very little distant from the other, which he had named Port Jackson, PORT JACK­SON. and where he thought there was good anchorage. Mr. Phillip lost no time, but made a thorough ex­amination of that also; he found it equal at least to our celebrated harbor, Milford Haven, in old South Wales. It opens with an ample mouth, and after some space, divides into two most exten­sive meandering branches, with numbers of other small bays, creeks, or coves, pointing again to the right and to the left, so as to form the finest and most secure harbor in the world, capable of containing the navies of Europe itself.

HERE Mr. Phillip determined to establish his colony; SYDNEY COVE. and fixing on a place which he named Sydney Cove, began immedi­ately to trace the outlines of the first street of his intended town. The officers live in huts, but houses are building of brick and stone; the governor is very moderate in that designed for him­self, which contains only six rooms. The land allotted for cul­tivation has been found to be very good, and to return on the first trial two hundred bushels of wheat, and sixty of [Page 111]barley * The destruction made by rats was very great; in a short time they destroyed not less than twelve thousand pounds of flour and rice, brought over with the first transportation. There are also vegetables in plenty, from seeds brought from England. I cannot enter into the account of the whole proceed­ings; by the detail given in the two pamphlets published by J. Debrett, imperfect as they are, may be seen the humanity of government in providing every necessary for the use of the con­victs, yet I fear it has been disappointed in its hopes. The im­mense expence we have been at in sending provisions from hence, from the cape of Good Hope, and from China (notwithstanding the glossing over several particulars) gives reason to imagine that our colony has been at the point of starving.

THE Kangaroo, and others of the Opossum tribe, may be eaten, but those animals, which never were numerous, will soon become extinct in the neighborhood of the colony, and we dare [Page 112]not, for fear of the natives, trespass beyond our bounds; the New Hollanders still continue very hostile. Fish is found in plenty, but the turtle, on which we seemed to have some dependence, is a very precarious article.

THE colony looks up for support to a little spot called Norfolk Island, NORFOLK ISLAND. in Lat. 29° south, Long. 168° east. It contains from twelve to thirteen thousand acres, and does not exceed in circumference sixteen miles, is very mountanous, and covered with a thick wood, choaked up with underwood; it is surrounded with cliffs forty fathoms high, and quite perpendicular, excepting at a few creeks, dignified with the name of bays, to which often a raging surf denies all approach.

THE island is happy in many streams of fine water, some co­pious enough to turn a mill. The mold, in places freed by our people from trees, is the richest and deepest in the world; abun­dance of pumice-stones and porous red lava is scattered over its surface, and even mixed with the soil, giving strong reason to suppose it to have been of volcanic origin.

A SMALL colony was detached, COLONIZED. on February 14th, 1788, from Jackson Port to this island, in hopes of its contributing in time to the support of the parent state. It consisted only of a su­baltern officer, a surgeon, two men who understood the cultiva­tion and dressing of flax, nine male and six female convicts; and over them was appointed Lieutenant King, of the navy, sole go­vernor of this sea-girt reign. With his little colony he passed the singular interval of above two years, till he received, on March 6th, 1790, a mighty reinforcement of two companies of marines, five men and three women from the civil department, [Page 113]and a hundred and sixteen male and sixty-seven female convicts. This detachment sowed wheat and barley from May to August, and got in their harvest in December, which produced twenty­five fold. Mayz succeeds well; the sugar-cane, vines, and oranges thrive exceedingly; and potatoes produce two crops in a year. All kinds of garden plants come to good perfection. The rat (its only quadruped) was at first a pest to the colony. If this isle proves the nursing mother to our establishment at Port Jackson, as the isle of Anglesea, or Môn mam Cymru, is said to have been to Wales, I shall think it the prodigy of the age.

Norfolk island, seated as it is, BIRDS. midway between New Zealand and the New Hebrides, produces the birds of both; but my list will be very small: Parrots and Hawks are found there.

THE noisy Roller * inhabits this isle in great flocks; is a very stupid bird, watches during night, is very restless, and makes the woods resound with its cries: it is nearly of the size of a crow, and wholly black, except the vent, the base, and tip of the tail.

THE bronzed wing Pigeon is of a grey color, with a rich bronzed spot on the wing, varying with red and green.

HERE are variety of small birds, among others some that sing most delightfully, and enliven this sequestered spot: the red­bellied Fly Catcher is one of great beauty; the forehead is white, a white band crosses the wings, all above (besides) is black, the lower part of a rich scarlet.

A MOST curious milk-white Gallinule § A WHITE GALLINULE. in size larger than a dunghill fowl; bill, crown of the head, and irides red.

[Page 114]THE Grey Petrel, PETREL. Latham, vi. 399. Phillip, 161. tab. 25. is of a sooty brown above, and deep ash beneath. The white-breasted, Latham, vi. 400. The Pintado, vi. 401. Edw. 90. is a third. The Shcar Water, Br. Zool. ii. No 258.

THE Diving, vi. 413. dusky above, white beneath, not nine inches long; sits on the water in vast flocks, croaking like frogs and cackling like hens; it dives with amazing agility.

FINALLY, to this class may be added the broad-billed, vi. 414. with distinct nostrils, swarming either among the woods in bur­rows about the roots of trees, or in the crevices of the rocks, making an incessant noise like the former, and at times busied in its nimble divings in quest of food. All these species are to the southern regions what the Auks are to the northern.

I HAVE omitted two British birds frequent in these remoter parts, SKUA. GANNET. the Skua and the variety of the Gannet §, with black fea­thers in the tail, known by the name of Suda Hoieri.

IN respect to quadrupeds there are only two, the Rat and the Flying Squirrel; Hist. Quad. ii. No 352. the membranes extend from leg to leg; the color is grey; a black line extends from the nape, along the middle of the back, to the tail, the farther half of which is black.

THERE is little doubt but all the pelagic birds of these Lati­tudes frequent the coasts, Albatrosses, both the common and the yellow-nosed, and various other species. Our navigators of the year 1774 were the first of the human race who ever landed on this island. The birds which bred on shore, such as the Boobies, [Page 115]and many others, were so tame and stupid as to suffer themselves to be taken by the hand.

LIEUTENANT King, the historian of the isle, TREES. enumerates five species of trees which afford good timber, the Pine, live Oak, a yellow wood, a hard black wood, and one like the English Beech; of these we can only ascertain one, the Cypressus Columnaris *. CYPRESSUS COLUMNARIS.. This magnificent tree grows to the height of a hundred and eighty, and even two hundred and twenty feet, and is from six to nine feet in diameter; eighty feet clear of branches, and with eighty or ninety feet of sound timber : it is as light as the best Norway Deal for masts, and yields a fine turpentine. We are not to wonder at the size, for the forest of the isle had never been disturbed, but by old Time, since its creation.

THE Areca Sapida Solandri is a useful tree, ARECA SAPIDA. for it yields a cabbage like the Areca Oleracea, or cabbage-tree; but Captain Cook compares the taste more to that of an almond than a cab­bage, and adds, that it proved an excellent resource as an esculent. It is the second sort mentioned by Hawkesworth §.

A Fern Tree is mentioned by Captain Phillip, a Dicksonia? which grows even as high as twenty feet, and proves good food for sheep.

A WILD Musa, or plantane, grows in this island; and Mr. Phillip mentions the Supple Jack of the West Indies, SUPPLE JACK. the Paulinia Pinnata of Linnaeus , which is interwoven in all directions, and greatly impedes the progress through the forests.

[Page 116] Blackburnia Pinnata, G. Forster, Flor. Austr. 10. or Ptelea Pinnata, Linn. Suppl. 126. J. R. Forster, Gen. 6.

Gynopogon Stellatum, G. Forster, Flor. Austr. 19. J. R. Forster, Gen. 18.

Gynop. Alyxia, G. Forster, 19.

Bupthalmum Unistorum, ibid. 91.

AN Euphorbia, 90.

Tetragonia Halimifolia, Flor. Austr. 39.

Mesembryganthemum Australe, ibid. 90.

Phormium Tenax, FLAX. 153. Linn. Suppl. 204. Cook's Voy. 2d. p. 96. tab. 96.

THESE are the only plants which the sparing communications of our philosophical travellers will permit us to mention. The last is of the greatest importance to the natives, and may hereafter become so to every nation in Europe, as it produces the best and most tenacious hemp in the world. I shall deliver the descrip­tion and history of it, borrowed from vol. iii. p. 39. of Captain Cook's First Voyage: "There is," says our great navigator, ‘however, a plant that serves the inhabitants instead of hemp and flax, which excels all that are put to the same purposes in the world. Of this plant there are two sorts; the leaves of both resemble those of flags, but their flowers are smaller and their clusters more numerous; in one kind they are yellow, and in the other a deep red. Of the leaves of these plants, with very little preparation, they make all their common apparel; and of these they also make their strings, lines, and cordage for every purpose, which are so much stronger than any thing we can make with hemp, that they will not bear a compa­rison. [Page 117]From the same plant, by another preparation, they draw long slender fibres, which shine like silk, and are as white as snow; of these, which are also surprisingly strong, the finer cloths are made; and of the leaves, without any other preparation than splitting them into proper breadths and tying the strips together, they make their fishing nets; some of which, as I have before remarked, are of an enor­mous size.’

Norfolk Island is peculiarly happy in its climate: CLIMATE. the air is pure, salubrious, and delicious, freed from excessive heat by the constant breezes from the sea; and of so mild a temperature throughout the winter, that there is a perpetual vegetation; crop succeeds crop, and the refreshing showers maintain a con­stant verdure: sometimes there are great droughts. From Fe­bruary to August may be called the rainy season; not that it is regular, for there is sometimes fine weather for a fortnight to­gether, but when the rain does fall, it is in torrents.

ABOUT midway between Norfolk Island and New Holland is Lord Howe Island, LORD HOWE ISLAND. discovered in 1788 by Lieutenant Henry Lidg­bird Ball, a son of the late George Ball, of Irby, in Cheshire, Esquire. This isle is small in extent, in length only seven leagues, and in form of a crescent. In some parts it rises into lofty craggy hills, that called Ball's Pyramid is very singular, formed on one side of Basaltic columns; and so lofty as to be seen at the distance of twelve leagues. Another rock is circular at top, so as to look like a spread fan; the rest so low as to give these rocks the form of islands. Mr. Ball says that it abounds in cabbage-palms, or Areca Sapida, with mangrove-trees, and Man­chineel, [Page 118]or Hippomane Mancinella *, which spread even to the tops of the mountains. Lord Howe Island swarms with birds, such as parrots, parroquets, large pigeons, and several other land birds; also gannets in infinite numbers, rails, white gallinules, like those of Norfolk Isle, and a land fowl of a dusky brown color, with a bill four inches long, feet like a chicken, very fat, and very good food.

THE coast swarms with fish; but what will render this island of unspeakable use to our colonists, are the amazing abundance of turtle which frequent its shores during summer, and may be taken in that season in any numbers; but at the approach of winter they all retire northward. Norfolk Island also abounds with fish, and in the season with very fine turtle.

VIEWS of this singular island is given by Mr. Phillip .


I WILL now continue the subjects of natural history of the great country I have just quitted, collected from the materials furnished by Sir Joseph Banks, by Mr. Phillip, by the surgeon-general Mr. John White, and by others who have accidentally contributed their share. A Faunula, not unacceptable to natu­ralists, will now be given. I never want opportunity when I speak of birds, of making my due acknowledgments to my worthy and ingenious friend Mr. Latham, for the ready means I find from his excellent Ornithology of selecting the various subjects. I shall begin, as usual, with the quadrupeds, and refer for a more ample account to the new edition of my History of [Page 119]Quadrupeds lately published. In all this vast land there does not appear a single species of hoofed animal; none of the ape kind, and very few genera of quadrupeds have been hitherto disco­vered in any one part.

THE New Holland Dog, Hist. Quadr. i. No 158. Phillip, DOG. Botany Bay, 274. tab. 45. White's 280. tab. 57. is a genuine species. The natives are too savage themselves to reclaim any animal into a state of domesticity.

THE genus of Opossum furnishes more species than any other found in this country, OPOSSUM. and some of them of most singular and wonderful kinds. The first I mention is related to the Pha­langer Opossum, No 226. I refer here to Hawksworth, iii. 586. and to the print of the male, tab. 8. p. 108. of vol. ii. of Mr. Cook's last Voyage. It is found in Van Diemens Land, and again about Endeavour river.

THE Vulpine Opossum found near Port Jackson, No 224. Phil­lip, 150. tab. 16. White, 278. tab. 56.

OF the very eccentric species, the Kangaroo, I have to mention; KANGAROO, THE GIGANTIC. first, the gigantic kind described in the Hist. Quad. No 229. To what I collected from voyagers, I have been able to add consider­ably from the sight of the living animal shewn in London in the spring of 1792; possibly the figure in Hist. Quad. tab. lxiv. corrected from the living subject, may be as accurate as any yet given.

THE spotted is an elegant species described in Hist. Quad. No 231. Phillip, 147. tab 15. The color is black, blotched with white; the tail bushy.

THE species called by the historian of New Holland the Kan­garoo rat, p. 277. tab. 47. or Hist. Quad. No 230. is a lesser species, with the habit of the gigantic.

[Page 120] Flying Opossum, FLYING OPOSSUM. Hist. Quad. No 228. Phillip, 297. tab. 54. has membranes extending from leg to leg like a flying squirrel; and the fur most exquisite; it is even compared to that of the Sea Otter of the western parts of North America. Our travellers do not trouble us with the natural history of this, or scarcely any other animal.

THE Spotted Weesel, WEESEL. Hist. Quad. No 272. or Quoll of Hawks­worth, iii. 626. is black, spotted with white. The length from nose to rump is eighteen inches, the tail nearly the same.

WE must now take a great leap to the genus of Ant-eaters. SPINY ANT-EATER. New Holland has furnished us with a most curious kind, see Hist. Quad. ii. No 467. Naturalists Miscellany, vol. ii. tab. 109. The length is one foot; the nose, long, slender, and tubular, the tongue long and slender; the feet extremely broad; and like the fore feet of the mole, adapted to digging. On the fore feet are five toes with blunt flatted nails; on the hind, a short thick thumb, without either nail or claw. The two outer joints of the four toes are furnished with a pointed claw; the two next with blunt claws; the tail very short. The whole upper part of the body, from the hind part of the neck, is covered with strong white spines, exactly like those of the porcupine. The head, and all the under side of the body is coated with short black briftly hairs, the tail very short *. This species was found in the midst of an ant-hill.

A VERY large Bat, perhaps the Ternate, Hist. Quad. ii. No 495, [Page 121]is the only animal that I can with any certainty add to the list of those of this vast extent of country.

AN animal resembling a wolf, was seen by some of the crew of the Endeavour, but they never were able to kill one, so as to form the description.


THE Birds of New Holland are extremely numerous. Besides those to which I can give classical names, are several of New Zealand, which from the short intervening distance between each country, are probably common to both, at least I might venture to place here many of the water fowl, but certainly the Pelagic, of which I may say, as Pliny does of the Cypselli, Hae sunt quae toto mari cernuntur. But to avoid too great an extension of subject, I shall confine myself only to those which inhabit the land, or hover near the coast, symptomatic of its vicinity.


White Eagle, Latham, i. 40. White, 250. tab. 35. FALCON. This hardly deserves to be dignified with that name; it does not exceed in size our hen harrier, and has, like that bird, very slender legs. The plumage is of a snowy whiteness.

Brown Eagle, a large species, mentioned in Cook's last Voyage, i. 109, but not ascertained.

Pied Hawk, Parkinson, 144. The Black and White Falcon, Indian Zool. 33. tab. 11. Hawks are very numerous in New Hol­land; whenever our navigators made a fire in the night, mul­titudes appeared, probably to catch any birds that might be at­tracted by the novelty.

[Page 122] Owl, OWL. with golden irides, seen by Parkinson (p. 145.) in New Holland.

Cockatoo, PARROT. Psittacus Galeritus, Latham, index, i. 109. No 108: white, with a sharp pointed crest, sulphur-colored; the base of the tail of the same color; size of a dunghill cock; most nu­merous and noisy.

Yellow, Cook's last Voyage, i. 109, only mentioned under the name of yellowish parroquets.

Blue-bellied, Phillip, p. 152. Lath. Syn. i. p. 213. 14. Brown's Illustr. 14. tab. 7. Belly of a rich blue.

Tabuan, Phillip, p. 153. Latham, i. 214. A most beautiful kind, with a long cuneiform tail, green and blue; head and breast crimson; back green.

Pennantian, Lath. Syn. p. 61. Phillip, p. 154. tab. 20. An­other long tailed species of great beauty, so named by Mr. Latham.

Crested Parakeet, Lath. Syn. i. p. 250. 51. The crown, sides, and throat yellow; on the head a crest of six slender feathers; predominant color of the rest of the plumage olive brown.

Pacific, Phillip, p. 155.

Pusillus, Latham, index, i. p. 106. White, 262: only seven inches long; body and tail dusky olive; feathers round the base of the bill and tail scarlet.

Banksian Cockatoo, Cook's Voyage, ii. p. 18. Latham vii. 63. tab. 110. A very large Cockatoo: color black; forehead and chin, lesser coverts of wings, and belly, spotted with yellow; tail barred with orange. A magnificent species, called after Sir Joseph Banks.

[Page 123] Ground Parrot, Psittacus formosus, Latham, index, i. 103. Nat. Misc. tab. 228. The color is a fine yellowish green, beauti­fully barred and spotted with black; tail long, sharply cuneiform, of a rich jonquil yellow, fasciated with very numerous bars of jet black. On the front, just above the beak, a small patch of orange­red; beak dusky; legs pale brown; structure of the feet re­markable, viz. much longer, and more delicate than those of any other parrot, and one of the hinder claws long and sharp, not much unlike that of a lark.

NEVER perches on trees, but constantly runs about amongst sedges, &c. and is known by our people in New Holland, by the title of the Ground Parrot, and is reckoned part of the game of the country.

Psittaccous Hornbill, Phillip, 165. tab. 29. Latham, index, SCYTHROPS. i. 141. This is a new genus formed by Mr. Latham: size of a raven; bill very much arched and carinated; orbits naked, ca­runculated. Head, neck, and body, beneath, of a pale grey; above, with the wings and tail, cinereous lead color; tail crossed near the end with a black band.

New Holland, Lath. Syn. vii. p. 72. The bill convex, HORN-BILL. cari­nated, and very gibbous at the base, covered with a bare skin; orbits naked, wrinkled, cinereous; plumage in general dusky; shafts of the wings dusky above, white beneath; size of a Jav.

South Sea Raven, Lath. Syn. i. p. 369. 2. Index, i. 151. CROW. Plu­mage entirely black, feathers on the chin of a singular loose texture.

Carrion, Br. Zool. i. No 75, is found in New Holland, and is most remarkably shy.

[Page 124] White-vented, White's Botany Bay, 251. tab. 36. This species is wholly black, except the vent, the tip of the tail, and the base, which are white. A white spot marks the lower part of the primaries; tail long, and even at the end; size of a magpye. Inhabits Botany Bay.

Yellow-faced, GRAKLE. Lath. Syn. vii. p. 91: orbits of a sine yellow, naked and wrinkled; head, neck, and whole upper part of the body and wings black; the last crossed with a white line; breast and belly white; legs yellow.

Great Brown, KINGS-FISHER. Pl. Enl. 663. Lath. Syn. ii. p. 609. Phillip, 287. tab. 53. This is sometimes found eighteen inches long; the head covered with long feathers erigible at pleasure; white, crossed with dusky lines; a black bed passes from the bill beyond the eyes down the sides of the neck; back dusky; middle of the wings and rump of glossy blue green; tail barred with rust color and purplish black.

THE Sacred, Phillip, 156. tab. 22. Latham, ii. 623. var. D. is common to New Holland and New Guinea. It may be concluded that many birds of the northern part of New Holland, are com­mon to both countries, being so near to each other; crown, hind part of the head, back, wings, and tail blue, tinged with green; all the fore part of the body white; neck encircled with the same color.

Flavigaster, TODUS. Latham, index, i. 268. Bill short; head, throat, and all the upper parts dusky grey; all beneath yellow; length six inches.

Carunculated, BEE-EATER. Phillip, p. 164. tab. 28. Latham, index, i. 276. The cheeks naked; on each side of the throat is a narrow long wattle of an orange color; plumage brown, streaked with white; [Page 125]tail cuneiform, long, dusky, edged and tipped with white; mid­dle of the belly yellow; length fourteen inches and a half.

Horned, Latham, index, i. 276, at the base of the upper man­dible is a short blunt process, like a horn; head and neck thinly cloathed with setaceous feathers; plumage dusky, edged with olive; tail tipt with white; length fourteen inches.

Black, Nigra, Latham, index, i. 296. Plumage black; CREEPER. on the lower parts streaked with white; primaries and tail edged with yellow; tail rounded: length seven inches.


Quail, PARTRIDGE. Br. Zool. i. No 97.

A VERY diminutive quail is found about Botany Bay. The natives catch them in a sort of decoy; they differ only in size from the European kind.

Wattled, Parkinson, 145, who says no more than that it is a bird like the Tetrao, with wattles of a fine ultramarine color; and with black legs and bill.

New Holland, with a black band across its breast. BUSTARD.


GOLDEN-WINGED, White, 149. tab. 8. PIGEON. Pigeons are very nu­merous in New Holland, but no particular description is given us of any one species, except the bronzed, before described at p. 113, and by Mr. White, p. 146. tab. 7, under the name of Golden wing pigeon. It is not improbable, but that this and many other birds are migratory, to and from Norfolk island, and New Zealand.


New Holland, THRUSH. Lath. Syn. iii. 37. 35. The forehead, chin, and throat black; rest of the plumage a bluish lead color; quills and tail dusky, edged with the former color; all the feathers of the tail, except the middle, tipt with white; Van Diemen's Land.

New Holland, FLY-CATCHER. Lath. index, ii. p. 478: dusky above, white be­neath, tail slightly forked; length seven inches.

Soft-tailed, a species extremely singular from the formation of its tail, the shafts of which are merely edged with scattered fila­ments resembling hair. Lin. Trans. iv. p. 240. E.

Red-bellied, Lath. Syn. iii. 343. tab. L. Nat. Misc. tab. 147. E.

Long legged, WARBLER. Lath. vii. 181: legs and bill yellowish; general co­lor brown, under parts whitish; length only three inches; inha­bits Van Diemen's Land.

Superb, Phillip, p. 157; Lath. Syn. iv. p. 501. 137. tab. 53: fore­head and cheeks of the richest caerulean color, from the cheeks a narrow band of the same surrounds the hind part of the neck; belly white, all the rest of the plumage black; tail very long; a most beautiful bird. From Van Diemen's Land, and other parts of New Holland.

Van Diemen's, Lath. Syn. vii. p. 187: with a dusky head; the forehead streaked with white; predominant color brown, in parts mixed with white; edges of the wing feathers tawny, with a spot of the same on each wing; under part of the body white; breast and vent striped with white; length six inches and a half.

Swallow, Nat. Misc. tab. 114. Headand back of a glossy steel hue; throat and breast crimson; belly white, with a black stripe. E.

Striped-headed, MANAKIN. Latham, Syn. iv. p. 526. tab. 54: crown and [Page 127]nape black striped with white; between the bill and eye a yellow spot; hind part of the neck, back, and wings brown; the last marked transversely with a yellow stripe; breast and belly pale yellow; tail very short, black tipt with white. Van Diemen's Land.

Spotted, Naturalists Miscel. vol. iii. tab. 111. The head, nape, wings, and tail black, elegantly spotted with circular white spots; over the eyes a white line; cheeks and sides of the neck marked with a bed of blue grey, barred downward with dusky; throat yellow; belly of a still paler color; back brown; coverts of the tail crimson: a most elegant species.

Crested, Phillip, i. p. 270. tab. 42. GOAT-SUCKER. This is of sombre colors like the European, but diversified: its great distinction is an upright crest of long bristles, rising from the base of the bill. The length of this species is nine inches and a half.


New Holland, Phillip, p. 271. tab. 43. White, CASSOWARY. p. 129. tab. 1. La­tham, index, ii. 665. This is a new species, seven feet high; the crown flat; the head and neck thinly beset with short setaceous feathers, longest on the hind part of the head, forming a sort of crest; throat rather naked, carunculated, and of a bluish color; legs very scaly, and the hind part regularly serrated; on each foot three toes standing forward; wings so short as scarcely to be seen, and without quill feathers. The plumage on the body is a little curled, and of a brown and grey color; each feather is double or united at the base; it is not an uncommon bird in this country; runs so swiftly that no greyhound can overtake it; the flesh is said to taste like beef.



White-fronted, HERON.Phillip, p. 163. The forehead, part of the cheeks and throat are white; the feathers on the lower part of the neck hang long and loose, and are of a reddish cinnamon color; belly of the same color, but lighter; back, wings, and tail bluish ash; primaries and tail almost black; legs yellowish brown; length of the whole bird twenty-eight inches; shot at Port Jackson.

Wood, IBIS. Latham, v. 104. White-headed, Ind. Zool. ii. 47. tab. xi. Dampier, iii. 187. These birds are common to the south­ern parts of North America, to Ceylon, and to New Holland, and are well represented in the Indian Zoology.

Red-necked, PLOVER. Latham, v. 212. The head and neck are black; on each side of the neck is a green chesnut spot, almost meeting behind; plumage ash color above, white beneath; size of a Purre.

British Zool. OYSTER CATCHER. ii. No 213, Arct. Zool. ii. No 406, exactly like the European kind; only those of Van Diemen's Land are entirely black.


American, AVOSETTA. Arct. Zool. ii. No 421. Latham, v. 296. Dampier, iii. p. 85. The head, neck, and breast are of reddish cream color; back black. Inhabits the northern parts of North America, and Sharks bay on the western side of New Holland.

[Page 129]I refer to the ornithology of Norfolk isle, p. 113, for an account of certain other genera, which should follow the former; as possibly being common to both places.

Parkinson, p. 145, described our black-backed gull, GULL. Br. Zool. ii. No 252, among the birds of New Holland.

THE vast Tern called the Caspian, Latham, vi. p. 350, TERN. extends to this country, and reaches northward as high as the mouth of the Ob, where it falls into the frozen ocean.

THE Noddy, Latham, vi. 365; Catesby, i. 88; is frequent in these islands; it is the species with a white forehead, and the rest of the plumage of a sooty brown. It has its name from its stu­pidity, for it will suffer itself to be taken by the hand, on the rocks it breeds on, or when it alights, as it does at amazing distances from land, on the rigging of ships.

Dampier's Noddy of New Holland, Voy. iii. p. 98, and tab. 85, appears by the figure to be another species; the crown, as well as the upper part of the body and wings, are of a dark color; the cheeks and under side white; from the eye to the hind part of the head extends a dusky line. Beneath Dampier's figure of it is that of the common, which may be compared with this.

PELECANS, Latham, iii. 574, are found here in vast abundance, PELECAN. and of gigantic sizes.

THE beautiful crested Pinguin, 561, called by the sailors, PINGUIN. from its action, jumping jack, is common on Van Diemen's Land.

A DUCK, I shall call Parkinson's, see his Voyage, 138, DUCK. is distin­guished by its beauty; the bill is white, the body black, and the Speculum white and green.

Semi-palmated Goose: size of the wild goose; head, neck, and [Page 130]thighs black; belly and rump white; a collar of the same color encircles the lower part of the neck; toes webbed only half way from the base. Described in Dr. Latham's ingenious essay on the Tracheae of Birds: Linn. Trans. iv. p. 103. E.

Lobated, Nat. Misc. 255: distinguishable from all its congeners by the singular black wattle or appendage attached beneath the lower mandible. E.

I SHALL close the list with the Shawian, BLACK-SWAN. or black swan, that rara avis in terris, which I name in honor of the first publisher of the once doubted bird, described and engraven in his elegant work the Naturalist's Miscellany, vol. iii. tab. 108. It is in size su­perior to the white. The bill is of a rich scarlet, near the tip is a small yellow spot. The whole plumage of the most intense black, except the primaries and secondaries, which are white; the eyes black, the feet dusky: it is found in Hawksberry river, and other fresh waters near Broken bay, and has all the graceful actions of the white kind.

THE Testudo midas, TORTOISES. or green turtle, is found on these coasts, and abounds on those of the islands of Norfolk and Howe. The Testudo marina, Raii-Syn. Quadr. 257; or Loggerhead of Catesby, ii. 40; is also frequent. The superior delicacy of the first is owing to its feeding entirely on the marine vegetables; the rankness of the last, to its living on shell fish and Crustacea.

LIZARDS and serpents are very numerous in New Holland: LIZARDS. Mr. White has given several good figures of different species; they are all of the innocent tribe; among the first the Seine-formed lizard, tab. 30, distinguished by its short thick tail; the muri­cated, tab. 31, with rows of sharp pointed scales, and a very long [Page 131]tail; an elegant striped species, tab. 32; and that most singular one the broad-tailed, Nat. Misc. tab. 65. in the same plate, with a spiny ovated flat tail and rough body; the variegated, tab. 38, with a body fifteen inches long, and the tail much longer and angulated. Mr. Phillip has engraven another he calls the laced, tab. 48, forty inches long, tail included, which has its name from the lace-like disposition of the colors.

AMONG the serpents, Mr. White exhibits, in tab. 31, SERPENTS. a small one, a foot long, white, marked with black equidistant bands; another, in tab. 43, of a bluish color; a third, in tab. 45, eight feet long, dusky, varied with spots of yellow; and in tab. 46, are two small snakes, one dusky with small spots of yellow, the other encircled with black and white.

SEA serpents are very frequent in the seas of New Holland, and of various species; all the sea serpents are distinguished by their thin flat tails, and by their having no scales on their belly.

AT p. 100 I have mentioned three species observed by Dam­pier, iii. 90, 93, on the western coast of this country; to them I can add one wholly black, iii. 130. Authors have described others of this singular kind; such is the Coluber laticaudatus of Mus. Ad. Fred. tab. 16. fig. 1. Gmel. Lin. 1106: the belly is dusky, the back and sides fasciated with ash color and brown; perhaps this is the species said to be venomous, for in the upper jaw are two short moveable fangs. Linnaeus marks this species with (♂) his fatal sign. It is found off the coasts of South America, and the isle of Tanga-tabu in the south seas. All these sea snakes seem to be confined to the torrid zone of the Asiatic seas, or to the warmer parts. They are more plentiful about New Guinea and New Holland; their history remains very obscure.

[Page 132]THE Anguis Platuros, Gmel. Lin. 1122; Vosmaer, 6. tab. 2; with a brown back and white belly, and spotted near the tail with black and white, was found by Doctor Forster near the isle of Pines in the south seas. Mr. Vosmaer has engraven, on the same plate, another fasciated with brown and tawny; possibly the same with that described by Dampier, iii. 93.

FISHES are very numerous; FISHES. whales are common, and the Porpesse, Br. Zool. iii. No 25, is universal in the South Sea, and very numerous. I may mention our Dolphin, Br. Zool. iii. No 24, which appears in the distant seas. Here are two very curious small sharks, figured by Mr. Phillip, tab. 51, 52. The first with a strong sharp spine before each dorsal sin; the other spotted, and with its mouth beset with ragged appendages.

HIS bag-throated Balistes, tab. 49, has the appearance of a monster. Mr. White, in tab. 39, represents the granulated.

MR. Phillip gives besides the figure of a fish with a dorsal sin extending the length of the back, and no others except the pec­toral and caudal; he says it is faithfully done; it is spotted with round blue and white spots. The Cyprinaceous Labrus of Mr. White, tab. 50; the doubtful Lophius, tab. 51; the pungent Chaetodon, tab. 39; the southern Cottus, and the flying fish, tab. 52; the fascinated Mullet, and doubtful Sparus, tab. 53.

THE Fistularia Tabacaria, Echineis remora, and the Atherina hepsetus, Br. Zool. iii. No 157. 64, conclude Mr. White's list.

RAYS are very numerous, and of several kinds, in all the shal­lows of this coast; some weigh near three hundred pounds. A species of sting-ray is very common, and furnishes, with its spines, the head of one of the most dreaded weapons of the natives.

Dampier, vol. iii. tab. 3, adds the large species of Tunny, and [Page 133]the Chaetodon, commonly called the Old Wife, and another long fish in tab. i.

I SHALL conclude this account of the fishes with the descrip­tion of a most singular amphibious species: "It was," AMPHIBIOUS FISH. says the historian (Hawksworth, iii. 529) ‘of the most remarkable kind, about the size of a minnow, and had two very strong breast fins; we found it in places that were quite dry, where we sup­posed it might have been left by the tide, but it did not seem to become languid by the want of water, for upon our approach it leaped away, by the help of the breast fins, as nimbly as a frog; neither did it seem to prefer water to land, for when we found it in the water, it frequently leaped out and pursued its way upon dry ground; we also observed, that when it was in places where small stones were standing above the surface of the water, at a little distance from each other, it chose rather to leap from stone to stone, than to pass through the water, and we saw several of them pass entirely over puddles in this man­ner, till they came to dry ground, and then leap away.’

Two crabs are described, of a new species, CRABS. and one of most exquisite beauty; it had all its claws and joints of the most lovely ultramarine color, and the under side of so pure a white, and of so delicate a polish as to resemble the white of the finest por­cellane; the other was marked with blue, but more sparingly, and the back with three brown spots: perhaps these differed only in sex.

WHOSOEVER reads the following meagre Florula of New Hol­land, PLANTS. will be amazed at the few plants which I have been able to [Page 134]ascertain, especially when the numbers of its botanical produc­tions are so highly boasted. Indignant at the concealment, I begin my list.

THE genus of Banksia opens the Florula; under this are seven species:

Banksia serrata, BANKSIA. White, p. 221. tab. 18. 19. 20; in which are expressed bud, flower, and fruit.

Pyriformis, White, tab. 21.

Gibbosa, White, tab. 22. and another species, in the same plate, unascertained.

THIS genus was first named by John Reinhold Forster, in his genera, in honor of Sir Joseph Banks.

To these I add the three following:

Banksia dentata, Linn. Suppl. 127.

Ericaefolia, Linn. Suppl. 127.

Integrifolia, Linn. Suppl. 127.

Casuarina Stricta, Hort. Kew. iii. 320.

Torulosa, Hort. Kew. iii. 320.

THE yellow gum plant of Phillip, YELLOW GUM TREE. p. 60. tab. 3, grows in form of a yucca; has a stem of considerable thickness, scaled regu­larly; the leaves are very long, out of their middle rises the fructification, on a slender stem, twelve or fourteen feet high; of this the natives sometimes make spears. The gum, or rather resin, is dug from under the roots, and is possibly what Tasman calls Gum Lac of the Ground; it also exudes from the body both voluntarily and on incision. Mr. White, p. 235, says it may vie in its properties with the most fragrant balsams, and when burnt smells like balsam of Tolu, or Benzoin. It is a good pectoral me­dicine, [Page 135]and very balsamic. It is not soluble in water, but readily in spirits of wine. The genus is not ascertained.

THE Peppermint Tree, PEPPERMINT TREE. the supposed Eucaliptus obliqua of L'Heretier, Sert. Angl. p. 18, grows to the height of a hundred feet, and thirty in girth *; the leaves are lanceolate and pointed, marked with numerous resinous spots, in which the essential oil resides; the berries grow in clusters, and are open at top. The oil extracted from the leaves is so like that which is drawn from our peppermint, that Mr. White called the tree by that name. The oil has been proved to be more efficacious than any other medi­cine for removing colicky complaints.

THE Tea Tree of the same author, p. 229. tab. 24, TEA TREE. is of the genus of Melaleuca. Mr. White supposes it to be the same with the Camunium of Rumph. Amboin. v. p. 29. tab. 18, which grows in China and Amboina.

THE Sweet Tea is another shrub; SWEET TEA SHRUB. both make a tea not un­pleasant, and this is said to be a good antiscorbutic.

THE Red Gum Tree, or Eucaliptus Resinifera, White, RED GUM TREE. p. 231. tab. 25; grows to the size of our large stoaks; the wood is brittle, and good for nothing but fuel; it contains a vast quantity of red gum, like the gum Kino. Some of our voyagers compare it to gum dragon. A single tree, on incision, will yield sixty gallons. It dissolves almost entirely in spirits of wine, and gives them a red color. In dysenteries (which our convicts were much af­flicted with) it was found full as efficacious as the gum Kino.

MR. Hawksworth, iii. p. 569, has favored us with the secret, HIBISCUS BILIACEUS. that the Hibiscus Biliaceus grows here. It is the Mohoe, or bark tree of the West Indies; Sloane, Jam. i. p. 215. tab. 134. fig. 4; [Page 136]and the Novella and Daun Baru of Amboina; see Rumph. ii. p. 218. tab. 73. This might be a tree of vast service to this country, were its uses known to the poor natives. Those of the South Sea islands make all their cordage, excellent fishing nets, and packthread, of the bark. It is also of great use in cloathing, and may be divided into pieces of any thickness. Specimens, brought over as curiosities, shew the fibrous texture so fine, as to look like an elegant lace. It is found in Jamaica, or other hot parts of America, in most of the South Sea islands, in Su­matra, Celebes, and Amboina.

MR. Hawksworth also tells us, that the only sort of fruit here is one resembling a cherry, but of a very disagreeable taste; it is of the kind called by the Dutch in the East Indies, Pyn Appel Boomen. A wild plantane, very small, full of stones, and well tasted, perhaps the Musa troglodytarum and Pissangbatu of Rumph. Amboin. v. p. 132, and the Musa granulosa of G. Forster, Pl. Esc. p. 31, may be added.

MR. Hawksworth besides informs us, that there was a fruit they called, from the color, a plum, small, and shaped like a flatted cheese; and a third like a purple apple. Let me add the fruit of the Anacardium Orientale, Rumph. Amboin. i. 177. tab. 69, the tree of which, say the voyagers, was never seen by the European botanist. And this is the sum of the knowledge of botany imparted to us.

THE Arum Colocasia, or Cocco Root of the West Indies, is found here; (see Hawksworth, iii. 564. 590.) Rumphius has en­graven it in vol. v. p. 313. tab. 109. It is an eatable root in the Antilles, but does not appear in use in this country. It is also found in Egypt and the Moluccas.

[Page 137]SOME sorts of Palm Trees grow here; the Cabbage, Areca Oleracea? perhaps the Areca Sapida, and the Umbrella Palm, or Corypha Umbraculifera.

A POOR kind of Fig, probably the Ficus Granatum of George Forster, Pl. Esc. 36; and Sydney Parkinson speaks, (p. 144.) of a Cycas Circinalis, or Sago Tree, and a Glycine Rosea.

THE Cabbage Tree, or Areca Sapida, just mentioned (which may be cut through with a single stroke of the axe) is the only tree of any use in building. Miserable consideration! The very largest trees, lofty and spacious as they appear, are, when sawed, so brittle that they fall to pieces. There are, says Mr. White, (p. 179.) only three kinds of timber trees, none of which will float on water. In a word, there seems to be none that can be applied to any purpose but for fuel.

THE attention that Dampier shewed to almost every thing which came in his way, PLANTS OBSERVED BY DAMPIER. is evident by his bringing home from New Holland several specimens of plants. He communicated those to some friend who certainly had much botanical know­ledge, and who described and drew, or caused them to be drawn for him. The descriptions and figures are in the third volume of his voyage, p. 109, &c. I give the list of them in his own words, as I cannot, with certainty, refer them to any modern writer on botany.

  • TAB. 2. fig. 1. Rapuntium Noviae Hollandiae, flore magno coc­cineo.
  • fig. 2. Fucus foliis capillaceis brevissimis, vesiculis mi­nimis donatis.
  • fig. 3. Ricinoides Novae Hollandiae, anguloso crasso folio.
  • [Page 138]TAB. 2. fig. 4. Solanum Spinosum Novae Hollandiae, Phylli foliis subrotundis.
  • TAB. 3. fig. 1. Scabiosa (forte) Noviae Hollandiae, Statices fo­liis subtus argenteis.
  • fig. 2. Alcea Novae Hollandiae, foliis angustis utrinque villosis.
  • fig. 3. a plant of uncertain genus, with leaves re­sembling those of Amelanchier Lob.
  • fig. 4. Dammara ex Nova Hollandia, sanamunda se­cunda Chysii foliis. Perhaps a species of Ca­narium, Linn. See Rumph. Amb. 2. p. 145. et seq.
  • TAB. 4. fig. 1. Equisetum Novae Hollandiae, frutescens foliis lon­gissimis.
  • fig. 2. Colutea Novae Hollandiae, floribus amplis cocci­neis, umbellatim dispositis macula purpurea notatis.
  • fig. 3. Conyza Novae Hollandiae, angustis Rosimarini foliis.
  • fig. 4. Mohoh insulae Timor.

THE figures in tab. 5. are certainly the Fucus natans, Lin. Syst. Pl. iv. p. 564.

NATURE, TREES INTRO­DUCED, &c. it is true, denies this fine climate the fruits of the tropics, or even of the warmer parts of the temperate zone; yet Governor Phillip gives us the comfortable assurance, that all the fruit trees and plants that were brought undamaged from the Brazils and the Cape, prosper here greatly. Oranges flourish, and figs and vines still better. European esculents succeed admi­rably. [Page 139]The cauliflowers and the melons of his Excellency's garden are admirable in their kind.

CLAY is discovered, which makes good bricks; but no lime­stone has as yet been found. As to shell lime, the quantity is so small, that it is impossible to collect sufficient for use. How fatal are these defects to the progress of architecture in Hol­landia Nova. Neither are there any hopes of its becoming a ma­rine power, as it wants timber fit even to build a boat. Norfolk Island, I fear, must not only be its nursing mother, but the re­source for the support of its marine.

MULTITUDES of nuts and fruits of distant regions are fre­quently flung in great abundance on this coast, EXOTIC NUTS, &c. CAST ON SHORE. brought thither by the wind and waves, as those of the Antilles are to the shores of Norway, or the Scottish Hebrides. Among them are cocoa­nuts in abundance; but all are covered with Balani, or other marine productions, a sure sign of the length of the voyage. They are supposed to have been brought by the trade winds, which blow full on this shore, and to have come from Terra del Espirito Santo, or the New Hebrides Islands, visited by Captain Cook in 1774.

LET me now resume the coast. At the small distance of eight miles to the north of Port Jackson is Broken Bay, BROKEN BAY. a name given by Captain Cook, when he passed it by on his departure north­wards. It was examined by Mr. Phillip in March 1788 *, found to be extensive, and to have two mouths; one impeded by a bar, so that the entrance is impervious except by small vessels; the other capable of admitting ships of the greatest burden. The land here was higher than that about Port Jackson, more rocky, [Page 140]but equally covered with timber. Trees of great size grow on the tops of the most inaccessible mountains. The country was populous; and it was observed that most of the women had the two joints of the little finger cut off: most of the men wanted the right front tooth; their septum narium was perforated, and had a bone or stick thrust through it. The want of language kept our voyagers ignorant of the cause of these strange cus­toms. Their skins were singularly scarred from the crown of the head to their feet; the scars prominent, and seemed as if filled with wind.

IN another excursion Mr. Phillip made to this bay, HAWKESBURY RIVER. he disco­vered a very considerable river, which he named the Hawkes­bury; it was from three hundred to eight hundred feet wide, and navigable for the largest merchant ships as far as a hill named Richmond Hill, about forty-five miles from its discharge into the bay: but it is not safe for ships to go so high up, because of the heavy rains; the water rises thirty feet above its usual level; the vessels therefore ought not to approach nearer than fifteen or twenty miles from the foot of the hill, where they may lie secure in fresh water. Richmond Hill is called the head of the river; for there it divides into two branches, grows shallow, and was seen for some way, till lost in the wooded rocks of the country.

ANOTHER river was discovered, NEPEAN RIVER. which Mr. Phillip named the Nepean, from three to four hundred feet broad, which also over­flows its banks in hard rains, to the same height as the former, into which it is supposed to fall. The soil on both these rivers is excellent; the banks well wooded. Wild ducks inhabit these [Page 141]waters in great numbers; and here were first seen the black swans. A cataract at the foot of Richmond hill prevented the party from proceeding any further in boats. That hill is the termination of a chain of mountains, which runs northward, and probably joins those that range nearly parallel to the coast from fifty to sixty miles inland. The difficulty of reaching these hills is very great; for after the first day's journey, is such a succes­sion of ravines, many with sides inaccessible, that our people could not proceed above fifteen miles in five days. They therefore returned to await the arrival of the floods, to swell the Nepean, when they hoped they could reach these mountains by water.

FROM the entrance into Port Jackson, as far as Lat. 25° 3′, INDIAN HEAD. the coast keeps due north; from a point called Indian Head it begins to incline to the west.

A LITTLE farther is Bustard Bay, in Lat. 24° 4′, BUSTARD BAY. which takes its name from a new species of bustard shot there, with a black band across its breast. Its weight was seventeen pounds. It proved excellent eating. Mr. Latham mentions it in vol. vii. p. 227.

AT Keppel's Bay, in Lat. 22° 50′, KEPPEL'S BAY. the coast begins to be filled more or less with islands. In about Lat. 21° 27′ is the bay of Inlets, from the various sounds that seem to penetrate deeply into the land, between the islands. After a long range of coast, partly impeded with isles, and partly free, in Lat. 16° 6′, is cape Tribulation. Off this cape the Endeavour, PROVIDENTIAL ESCAPE. on Sunday June 10th 1770, struck on a coral rock, and remained immoveable, except by that species of motion which ground away the sheathings, [Page 142]and by admitting a torrent of water, threatened speedy destruc­tion to the whole crew. The rising tide, which might remove her out of the present situation, redoubled the anxiety, for pro­bably she would then instantly sink into the depth of ten or twelve fathoms. A thought [...] suggested by Mr. Monkhouse, a young midshipman, saved them from destruction; he advised the dropping a sail, covered with oakum and wool, over the outside, and hauled under the ship's bottom with ropes till it reached the leak; they executed his plan, and from the suction of the sail by the water, into the most dangerous of the leaks, the ship was enabled to keep afloat, when it was re­leased from the rock by the tide, and the redeemed, to get into a secure place to repair the damage. On this critical occa­sion, not an oath was heard among our sailors; the habit of profaneness, however strong, being instantly subdued, by the dread of incurring guilt when death seemed to be so near. A gentleman then aboard mentioned to me one effect of fear, that of being seized with a most intolerable thirst; but as soon as their safety was ensured, their minds and their bodies returned to their wonted tones. No cape or river was distinguished by the title of Providence, or any grateful memorial. Mr. Hawks­worth, in his own mind, seems to have been conscious that some­thing ought to have been said; his wondrous apology in his wondrous preface, is certainly the greatest wonder that the world ever wondered at. In the preface, in the pages xix. xx. xxi. may be seen the strange embarrassments that a good man labors under, when he compliments his patrons with his con­science, and servilely gives up the cause of truth.

[Page 143]A NEIGHBORING river, in Lat. 16° 30′, ENDEAVOUR RIVER. with a fine beach fit for heaving down, and completing the repairs of the battered ship for the pursuit of the voyage, might have received an epithet suitable to the occasion: instead of that we find it only under the cool title of the Endeavour river.

THE natives appeared in this place; their canoes were made of a tree hollowed, like those of Guinea, and other artless parts of the world. These were capable of holding four people.

THE Kangaroo is found here, possibly it extends over every part. The Quolla, Hist. Quad. ii. No 270, was seen here. The com­mon English crow was observed near this river, and a great variety of other birds. On the shores were numbers of the fine green turtles, of vast sizes; and the Gigantic Chamae, which I have before mentioned. Our English Mullet, Br. Zool. iii. No 158, is met with here. In the rivers and salt creeks were alligators or crocodiles.

THE Termes destructor makes its curious nest in the trees of this country. TERMES. A black species, which artfully works out the pith of the branches of a tree, and finds secure shelter in the hollow, were common. Rumphius, ii. 257, found the same species in the branches of the Arbor regis in Amboina.

ANOTHER kind is like the white ant of the East Indies; it forms two sorts of retreats; one of the size of a man's head, suspended in clusters from the boughs of a tree, made of agglu­tinated fragments of vegetables, containing innumerable cells. These are most fully inhabited, and have communications with each other, and the nests themselves with all the rest which are suspended on the same tree. These again have another [Page 144]avenue along the stem, leading to a retreat formed at the root of some tree, but not the same with that which holds their pendulous nests. This is made of earth, and is about six feet high.

A LITTLE to the north of Endeavour river are cape Bedford and cape Flattery; CAPE BEDFORD AND CAPE FLATTERY. off them is a cluster of small isles, and most numerous reefs. Let me here acquaint the reader of the very perilous situation of our illustrious seaman, during his three months navigation. He sailed all that time in a channel bounded by the land on one side, and to the seaward by a reef of rocks, or coral banks, not less tremendous, extending the length of three hundred and sixty leagues. Within this reef he was obliged to anchor at night, with the thunder of the surge foam­ing over it; expecting inevitable destruction from the breaking of the cables, or from the driving of the ship, which she often did to a certain degree. The man at the chains was perpetu­ally heaving out the lead, without omitting it a moment; and under such circumstances did our navigator escape. It was na­tural for him to wish to enjoy the open sea; soon after he left Endeavour river, by ascending a lofty isle, he saw the opening in the reef in Lat. 14° 8′, which with consummate abilities and courage he attempted, and with success. The instant he got beyond the breakers, he met with a rolling sea, and no ground with a hundred and fifty fathoms of line; a certainty he had obtained his wish. The island from which he had made his observation, was one of the three called the islands of Direction, that strangers in future might find the passage.

[Page 145]NEW dangers now awaited him; a vast sea came rolling from the east, and brought him nearer and nearer the perils he sought to shun. The same billow which had washed the side of the ship, broke to a tremendous height upon the adjacent rocks, leaving beneath an unfathomable watery valley, no broader than the base of that single wave. Two light breezes saved them from the jaws of death. After the most arduous ef­forts, they got through another favorable opening in the reef, through which the ship was carried by a current of amazing rapidity. They now exulted in recovering that very situation they had so long labored to extricate themselves from. The opening was not more than a quarter of a mile wide; yet the force of the torrent carried the ship exactly in the mid-way. Here it was impossible not to be grateful to Heaven. Captain Cook called this salutary gap Providential Inlet, PROVIDENTIAL INLET. and this proof of piety remains both in the book, and in the chart. The impiety of expunging it would have been too glaring.

THESE coral reefs are most surprising operations of nature; CORAL REEFS. they rise like a wall almost perpendicularly out of the unfathom­able deep, and at low water are dry in many places; here the enormous waves of the vast southern ocean, meeting with so abrupt a resistance, break with inconceivable violence, in a surf which no rocks or storms in the northern hemisphere can pro­duce.

To form these stupendous works, nature makes use of no other instruments than a little worm, contemptible to vulgar eyes. Well may we join in the fine apostrophe of Pliny, in his [Page 146] tam parvis atque tam nullis, quae ratio, quanta vis, quam inextri­cabilis perfectio!

THESE reefs are composed of various kinds of coral. The Tubipora musica is mentioned among them, and they give shelter to numbers of beautiful shells, and Mollusca; among the former are the Chamae, some so large that two men can scarcely move them.

WITHIN the reef, from the inlet to York Cape, the whole channel is filled with small isles, rocks, or coral rocks.

York Cape is in Lat. 10° 37′ south, the land trends from it fast to the west; the sea to the north-east is full of islands, one beyond the other. These captain Cook called Prince of Wales's Islands, and supposes they reach quite to New Guinea. The passage between New Holland he called Endeavour Streights; ENDEAVOUR STREIGHTS. exulting in having been the first who proved the entire insulation of this vast land. The length of the streights was ten leagues, the breadth about five, except at the north-east end, where they were contracted by the isles to two leagues; the depth from four to nine fathoms, and the tide rose twelve feet. He now hoisted British colours, took possession of the country in the name of his Majesty, and called the isle on which the ceremony was performed, Possession Island; most of the islands were well clothed with herbage and wood, apparently well inhabited; and the natives of both sexes quite naked.

CAPTAIN COOK now pursued his voyage to New Guinea. The distance between the opposite point of New Guinea, and the most northern of New Holland is only two hundred and [Page 147]ten miles. We here nearly rejoin the place we left to perform our circuit of the country. The land on the western extremity of Endeavour streight, and the eastern point of Arnheim Land, forms the entrance into the great gulph of Carpentaria, CARPENTARIA. which runs due south far into the land. It received its name from the Dutch general Carpenter, the zealous promoter of discoveries in these parts about the beginning of the last century.


WE now proceed to the Molucca islands, ARROU ISLES. and taking a course due north, pass between those of Timor-laut and Arrou. The last is the most eastern of the Timorian chain, and forms a group consisting of three or four larger isles, and a multitude of little rocks and reefs closely clustered, adjoining the east end of Arrou proper. We are now arrived within reach of the perfumed air of the Molucca, or famous spicy islands, a land of romance, where nature assumes a new shape in picturesque scenery, and in the beautiful and singular form of numbers of the animal and vegetable creation, whether inhabitants of land or water.

THE long celebrated Manucodialae, BIRDS OF PARADISE. or birds of paradise, first begin to appear in these islands. These birds, so singular in the structure and disposition of their feathers, so elegant in their form, and so romantic in their history, gave occasion, soon after their discovery, to the supposition of their having been the celebrated Phoenix of the antients. The learned Forster, with his usual depth of judgment, hath collected every thing relating to that ideal bird, [Page 149]in his Latin and German translation of the Indian Zoology, and effectually disproved that the invention originated from any one of this genus. I refer the reader to his disseration, and barely mention, that the antient describers of the Phoenix, give it the form and size of an eagle, with an exquisite richness of coloring; they say that it lived Dclx years, and at the completion of that period, formed its nest with the twigs of the most odoriferous trees, and died upon them. A young one sprung from its re­mains, and conveyed them to Panchaia, the city of the sun, per­formed the funeral rites, and placed them on the altar. Pliny, from whom this relation was taken, adds, that it was reported one had been brought to Rome, but, with his usual good sense, stamps on it the charge of fiction.

NOTWITHSTANDING the remoteness of the native country of this whole genus, I cannot absolutely affirm the impossibility of the antients being acquainted with some of the species. They had from distant times a regular trade with India. Before the days of Ptolemy, they pushed their navigation beyond the peninsula of Malacca to Cattigara, the modern Ponteamas, and the Metropolis Sina, the present Cambodia. Notwithstanding the antients might have penetrated no farther, yet, as the Indians were extremely commercial, the Romans might receive from them accounts of the most distant isles, their commodities, and even their curiosities. The birds of India were known to the Romans; it is possible that they might have seen, or at least heard of those of Paradise: no words could better suit these most sin­gular species, than discolores maxime et inenarrabiles *, birds of [Page 150]different colors, and not to be described; and few are more dif­ficult to be represented in words, than those of this genus.

THE time in which they were brought to Europe was very early, and I suspect long before they were observed by any na­turalists. There is reason to believe that the Turks received them by means of the Arabians, who procured them from India by their commerce on the Red sea or Persian gulph, and sold them for ornaments to the turbans of the great officers of the Janis­saries. Belon first took notice of them, and credulously believed them to have been the Phoenix; in one place he supposes them to have been the Rhyntaces; he justly describes them as forming a vast mass of feathers issuing from a small body, out of which the Arabians had extricated the flesh; which agrees with the usual method of preparation. Nicholas de Nicholai actually gives the figure of a captain of Janissaries ornamented with its plumes: Gesner is the first who caused this bird to be engraven, and his figure and that of Clusius was long copied by succeeding natu­ralists.

FEW birds are more circumscribed in their limits than the Birds of Paradise. They are confined within the Papua islands, and that of New Guinea, and are found only from Latitude 8° south, to Lat. 3° north of the equator, and between Longitude 127 and 140.

SUCH is the general view of these wonderful birds. COMMON. The Paradisea Apoda *, of which there are two varieties called the greater and lesser birds of Paradise, chiefly inhabit the Arrou isles . They are natives of both New Guinea as well as of these islands, are supposed to breed in the first, [Page 131]and to reside there during the wet monsoon, but retire to the Arrou isles, about a hundred and forty miles to the east, during the dry or western monsoons. In the east monsoon they moult their long feathers, but recover them in the west. They always migrate in flocks of thirty or forty, and have a leader, which the inhabitanss of Arrou call the King: he is said to be black, to have red spots, and to fly far above the flock, which never desert him, but settle where he settles. They constantly avoid flying with the wind, which ruffles and blows their loose plumage over their heads, and often forces them down to the ground, from which they are unable to rise without some ad­vantage; hard showers of rain are equally destructive to them. When they are surprised with a strong gale, they instantly soar to a higher region, beyond the reach of the tempest; there they float at ease in the serene sky, on their light flowing feathers, or pursue their journey in security; during their flight they cry like starlings, but in the distress of a storm blowing in their rear, they express it by a note resembling the croaking of ravens.

WHEN they alight, it is on the highest trees, the king taking the lead; they prefer the varinga parvifolia *, on the berries of which these birds and various sorts of parrots feed; some say that they feed on nutmegs, on butterflies, and even small birds; the strength of their claws favors that opinion; yet that circum­stance may also be requisite to birds, which are always to live perched. The natives of Arrou watch their arrival, and either shoot them with blunt arrows, or catch them with bird-lime or [Page 152]nooses; when taken, they will make a vigorous resistance, and defend themselves stoutly with their bills; they are instantly killed, exenterated, and the breast bone taken out, then dried with smoke and sulphur, and exported to Banda, where they are sold for half a rix-dollar, but on the spot for a spike nail, or a bit of old iron. They are exported to all parts of India and to Persia, to adorn the turbans of people of rank, and even the trappings of the horses, as I have before mentioned; they even reach Turkey *.

No birds have ever had so much fable mixed with their history; it was believed, that they remained always floating on the spicy Indian air, and of course not to be in want of legs or feet, of which they were supposed to be destitute; that when they wanted to sleep, they hung themselves by their two long feathers to the boughs of a tree; that they performed the act of love during their flight, and that even ovation, and exclusion of the young was discharged in that element, the male receiving the egg in an orifice nature had given it for that purpose; that they lived on the dew of Heaven, and had no evacuation like other mortal birds. From their being so much conversant in the higher regions, the Portuguese styled them Passaros da sol, or Sparrows of the Sun; the islanders Manu-co-dewata, or the birds of God, and most of the Europeans name them the birds of Paradise. So happily did the opinion work on the little kings of the isles, that seeing them descend (as it often happened) dead from the heavenly regions, they became converts to the truth of the im­mortality of the soul.

[Page 153]THE next that may be supposed to belong to this genus, KING. is chiefly brought from Arrou and Sopelo-o. It is called the King of the Birds of Paradise, and by the people of Arrou, Wowi Wowi. Our classical ornithologists style it, after Linnaeus, Paradisea regia, Le roi des oiseaux de paradis *. I do not know what title it has to King, for it never associates with any other species, never aspires to lofty trees, but flits solitary from bush to bush to feed on berries. It is supposed to migrate to Arrou in the dry monsoon, and to make its nest in New Guinea. It is taken in snares of Gumatty, or with bird-lime prepared from the juice of Sukkom, bread fruit, or artocarpus communis.

NOTWITHSTANDING voyagers give an exact locality to the different species of these birds, I cannot readily assent to the opi­nion, as the whole extent of the residence of the genus is so small, that it is improbable but that each of them must at times trespass beyond their pretended bounds.

THE Arrou islands have been under the jurisdiction of Banda since the year 1623; they are low, flat, and well peopled with blacks. It was reckoned that in 1703, there were about two hundred and forty christians. Off one of the islands is a fishery of small pearl, but the chief trade is Sago; and slaves, which they kidnap in New Guinea, and sell to the Dutch at Banda.

I AM so deficient in materials, that I must hasten to the next isles, or those of Banda; let me premise, that the intervening expanse of water, has sparingly scattered over it several small islands, distant from each other, one of them called by Dam­pier, [Page 154]the Burning Isle, and was, when he passed by it in 1699 *, a most fierce volcano.

THE Banda islands lie in about Lat. 4° 30′ BANDA ISLANDS., south, and are in­cluded under the general name of the Spicy Islands. Their names are Gonnipo, Banda (which gives name to the whole group) Lontare, Poolaway, and Pooloroon. These, and the neighboring Moluccas, were discovered at the same time, in 1511, by Francis Serrano, and Antonio D'Abreau, who were sent on that service by the great Albuquerque; they spent some years in the discovery. The Portuguese, to deter other nations from paying attention to these sources of wealth and luxury, gave out that they were scarcely approachable by reason of the shal­lowness of the seas; Pigafetta disproved the report, by sounding the coasts, and finding a depth of a hundred and two hundred fathoms.

THE Chinese were the first who had made themselves masters of these islands. CHINESE. The Javans and the Malayan Moors next suc­ceeded, and with them were introduced the religion and language of Mahomet, which in these and the Moluccas found their most remote but wonderful extent. PORTUGUESE. The Portuguese arrived after them at the period just mentioned. Argensola represents some of the kings of these little islands as incredibly powerful, and asserts, that they could collectively raise above a hundred and twenty thousand fighting men. The prince of Ternate was the most potent; he was lord of seventy-two isles.

THE Portuguese, by violence or treachery, established them­selves in these valuable possessions. The Spaniards indeed laid [Page 155]clame to them under the false pretence that they were first dis­covered by Magellan; the Spanish fleet, in the reign of Charles V. sailed to the Moluccas: the Portuguese were engaged in war with the king of Ternate, and the monarchs of Tidor and Gilolo, who sided with the Spaniards; but about that time John III. thought proper to make his brother-in-law Charles a present of three hundred and fifty thousand ducats, on condition the Por­tuguese should remain in quiet possession till the sum was repaid. Notwithstanding this, Charles offered them to sale to Henry VII. but the bargain never took place.

IT is ridiculous to consider that Charles V. clamed these islands by virtue of the famous line of demarcation, by which Pope Alexander VI. in 1493, divided, by his infallible power, between the Spaniards and Portuguese, all countries which should be dis­covered on the side of a certain meridian drawn by his holiness from pole to pole, allotting one part to Ferdinand and Isabel of Spain, the other to John II. of Portugal, and their successors *. This Alexander did in hopes of preserving peace in the world, but the effect proved the reverse. I must refer to Osorio, and others who have treated on the subject.

THE Dutch, DUTCH. after some unsuccesful attempts for the discovery of a north-east passage to the East Indies, determined to follow the course of the enterprizing Portuguese. In 1595 they resolved to share in the rich adventure; four ships, with no more than two hundred and forty-nine men, sailed from the Texel on April 2d; they saw the Cape of Good Hope on August 4th; touched at Madagascar, and on January 1st, 1546, reached the streights [Page 156]of Sunda. Near Bantam they met with their antient enemies the Portuguese, who had long been master of these seas; they instantly attacked some of their merchant ships, one of which, burnt by the Portuguese themselves, had fifty tons of cloves on board; another, which they took, had twenty; this foretaste of the riches of the islands, whetted their resolution of pursuing their plan, and of supplanting the tyrants in this invaluable branch of commerce. The second voyage was performed under the conduct of the great Heemskirk in 1598. From Bantam, he sailed with four ships to the very Moluccas, found the most cor­dial reception from the monarchs of Amboina and Ternate, and returned laden with cloves, nutmegs, mace, pepper, and cinna­mon: fleet followed fleet: the Dutch attacked the Portuguese in all parts of the islands, and never desisted till they had, in 1603, completed the conquests of both the Banda and Molucca islands. At this period Portugal was subject to the crown of Spain. In 1605, Philip III. determined to recover these distant territories: he sent his orders to Don Pedro D'Acunha, a gallant officer, go­vernor of the Philippines, to take the command of the expedition. He sailed with a numerous fleet, attacked Ternate, took that island, and in a short space reduced the whole to his master. This conquest was but short lived; the Dutch returned in great force, and favoured by the reguli of the islands, repossessed them­selves of the whole, and to this day remain entire masters of what is justly styled the gold mines of Holland; they immediately destroyed every nutmeg-tree they could find on the adjacent islands, built small forts on every one that lay to the south and to the west, as out posts to prevent the access of other European na­tions, [Page 157]executed with the most cruel rigour all smugglers; and to this day became sole masters of the trade in nutmegs, mace, cloves, and cinnamon.

THE English visited the Spice Islands in the year 1602, ENGLISH. in their first voyage to the East Indies. Sir James Lancaster, during his stay at Bantam *, fitted out a small pinnace, and furnishing it with such articles as he thought would be acceptable to the natives, dispatched it to the Moluccas under the command of Mr. William Starky. The pinnace returned after the departure of Lancaster, and forwarded to England the first cargo of nut­megs and cloves it ever received in a bottom of its own.

IN our second voyage the fleet was commanded by Sir Henry Middleton, knight, who, in 1604, after a month's stay at Bantam, sailed directly for Amboina, leaving two ships to take in a cargo of pepper. From Amboina the admiral went to the Moluccas, and dispatched the other ship, commanded by Mr. Colthurst, to Banda; we are not told the circumstance of this voyage, any more than that Sir Henry returned to England, and that the Dragon, his principal ship, lost by sickness forty-three out of fifty-three men, between Bantam and the Cape.

William Keeling, commander of the expedition which was made in 1667, was the first who began a regular commerce with the Spicy Islands. He reached Banda on February 8th, 1608; de­livered his monarch's, James the First's, letter and presents at Nera, the capital town, and obtained leave to establish a factory at Puloway; he actually built a house, but the jealous Hollanders pulled it down, when Keeling returned to England with a rich [Page 158]cargo of spices. We persisted in our lucrative voyages, and, notwithstanding the numberless obstructions we met with from the Dutch, formed a settlement in these islands. The natives of Banda, on a quarrel with the Dutch, by a formal instrument, made a resignation of their island to us; and those of Lantore did the same. In 1620 Puloroon and Puloway were also added to the British dominions, and our peaceful monarch assumed the title of king of those islands: he also received the most friendly epistles from his brother kings of Ternate, Tidor, and Bantam. The accounts given by old Purchas, vol. i. from p. 701 to 705, are well worth the reader's perusal. These cessions were con­firmed by treaty between James I. and the Dutch in 1619; not­withstanding which, at the very conclusion of a treaty, they de­termined on our expulsion. They attacked with a strong force Lantore and Poleroon; they ravaged the islands, seized our fac­tories and magazines, and after stripping the factors naked, first whipped them, loaded them with irons, and after all massacred them, by flinging them over the walls, and in the most savage manner dragged their remains in chains through the streets. The quantity of spices seized by these barbarians will serve to give an idea of the extent of our commerce: they found in our magazines twenty-three thousand pounds of mace, and a hun­dred and fifty thousand pounds of nutmegs. The narrative of these proceedings are preserved in the eighth volume of Church­hill's Collection, but it is too horrible to be repeated; and the apology of the Dutch so futile and so false as not to merit the recital. Cromwell, in 1654, had the glory of compelling the Dutch to restore to us the island of Poleroon, and to make ample [Page 159]satisfaction for their barbarities at Amboina. As to Poleroon, it was kept but a very short time; for in 1664, in the inglorious reign of his profligate successor, it was taken from us by a single ship.

THE Abbé Raynal gives the following description of these islands: "They seem," says he *, ‘to have been thrown up by the sea, and may with reason be supposed to be the effect of some subterraneous fire. Lofty mountains, the summits of which are lost in the clouds, enormous rocks heaped one upon another, horrid and deep caverns, torrents which precipitate themselves with extreme violence, volcanoes perpetually an­nouncing impending destruction; such are the phaenomena that give rise to this idea, or assist in confirming it.’ By the sequel of my account it will appear that the Abbé's description and inference seem to have been very well founded.

THIS is the general view of them. I collect the following particulars of those of Banda (the Moluccas I reserve till my ar­rival on their coasts): the first called Gonnapo, or Goenong-api, GOENONG-API. in 1621 emitted fire, smoke, and cinder; and had, perhaps, long before left neither woods, fruits, or water. The eruptions have been at times so violent as to carry desolation to part of the neighboring island of Banda, overwhelming the woods and greatest trees, and to fling stones of three or four tons weight from one island to the other. Even in the last year (1791) we are informed, that it made a very considerable cruption. In the Phil. Trans. Abridg. is an account of a most horrible eruption of this mountain in November 1694, attended with noises like the discharge of artillery. It cast up such a quantity of stones as [Page 160]entirely to fill a noted fishing place in the neighboring sea of the depth of forty fathoms, so as to leave it entirely dry. The same volume fully accounts for the appearance of these islands, and the Banda, so graphically described by the French Abbé. In the year 1693 and 1694 several other islands, as if by consent, raged with volcanic fury. The mountains of Celebes, Sorea, Ter­nate, Banda, and Neyra, at one time, cast up fire, lava, ashes, cinders, and boiling water. There was no approaching the water by reason of the excessive heat. In Sorea the ground sunk in, and discovered a great lake.

A fiery deluge, fed
With ever-burning sulphur, unconsum'd:

Which spreading farther and farther, threatening the whole island, terrified the inhabitants so much that they unanimously transported themselves to Banda, leaving their moveables behind for want of vessels. All these islands are subject to terrible earth­quakes, which affect the sea so greatly as particularly to endanger the ships lying at anchor in the fine harbor between this island and Banda. I am not certain that Goenong is inhabited since the dreadful eruption.

Banda is defended by a strong castle. The name of the capital is Nera. A powerful garrison is kept in this island, it being the seat of government, notwithstanding it is not above twelve leagues in circumference.

Lontoir, LONTOIR. the largest of all the group, is inaccessible on most parts, by reason of its lofty precipitous shores; yet the Dutch [Page 161]have given it the additional defence of a castle. It has not a tree on it but which bears fruit, and is particularly productive of nutmegs.

Pulo aya, or Puloway, says my old informant Humphrey Fitzherbert *, ‘is the Paradise of all the rest, entermitting pleasure with profit. There is not a tree on that island but the nutmeg and other delicate fruits of superfluitie, and withall full of pleasant walkes, so that the whole countrey seemes a contriued orchard with varieties. They haue none but raine water, which the keep in jarres and cisternes, or fetch it frome the above-named islands, which is their only defect. The sea shore is so steepe, that it seemeth Nature meant to reserue this island particularly to herselfe. There is but one place about the whole island for a ship to anchor in, and that so dangerous, that he that letteth fall his anchor sel­dome seeth the weighing of it again; besides hee incurreth the imminent dangers of his ship.’

Poloroon, or more properly Poeloron, is the last. POLOROON.. These islands are the antient seats of the nutmegs, NUTMEGS. as the Moluccas were of the cloves. At first they grew spontaneously on most of the neighboring isles, and possibly we shall have occasion to shew, that they spread much farther than is generally known. Marco Polo speaks of the Noix d'Inde, and the des clous de Girosle, or cloves, as being found on the island of Necuram; but where that island stood I am not certain. Originally the Arabs engrossed this rich trade, and conveyed the spices up the Red Sea, and from thence to Alexandria, from whence they were [Page 162]dispersed to all parts of southern Europe. The general original name of the nutmeg-tree is Pata. The Arabs called the fruit Giauz-hant and Gjeu-zottibi, or the aromatic nut; it was never mentioned but by the later Greek writers, who named it [...], and the Latins, nux moschata; so that it was not known till long after the clove. We retain the use of them in our dis­pensatory; they are an agreeable aromatic, and used as astrin­gents in diarrhaeas and dysenteries: even in India they are pre­scribed in the same disorders. Gerard informs us, that in his days they were chewed to correct a bad breath; ‘that it is good against freckles in the face, quickeneth the sight, strengthens the belly and feeble liver; it taketh away the swelling in the spleene, stayeth the laske, breaketh winde, and is good against all cold diseases in the body.’

IT is often used as an aphrodisiac, especially among the Negroes. The Europeans in India apply it as a philtre in cases of love. The eating the raw fruit is often attended with most dangerous consequences; idiotcy, and even phrenzy ensues, and some­times death. This boasted perfumed air, which salutes the voyager at great distances from land, is pregnant with the most fatal diseases. Few countries are so very unwholesome as the Spicy Islands.

As soon as the Dutch made themselves masters of the Banda Islands, they began with extirpating the nutmeg-trees and cloves on all those adjacent, in some by force, in others by employing the natives for hire. Some of the princes of the Moluccas, re­duced by wars, consented to receive pensions for that purpose; the king of Ternate had about six thousand pounds a year, and the [Page 163]monarch of Tidor about five hundred. This treaty has been twice renewed.

WHEN the Dutch first took possession of the islands, they met with some difficulties. The natives were impatient of the yoke, and killed the Governor, William Verhoeven, as they could not see the justice of having their nutmeg-woods robbed by strangers, they thought themselves justified in putting to death any thieves they met within their limits; but the Captain General, the great Koen, came in force in the year 1621, and put a stop to the evil, by the radical cure of a general massacre.

THE white inhabitants, or rather Creoles, and chiefly the out­casts of the world, or refugees of the most abandoned princi­ples, often sent here by their relations, so that Banda itself is called the house of correction. These are the colonists who re­peopled the island, and who get slaves from the neighboring places to cultivate the land. Happily the climate is so un­healthy that very few of these exiles, we may call them, ever return to be a pest to their country or their relations.

IN the Banda group, the nutmeg trees are permitted to grow only on that island, Lontoir, and Pulo aya; the best are those of Lontoir, among the lofty and rocky mountains, and on the edges of the precipices, which makes the gathering of the fruit a work of great danger.

Pulo aya is only two miles long, quite flat, and so destitute of water, either rain or spring, that they are obliged to get it from the neighboring isles, and preserve it in cisterns; yet here grow the loftiest trees, and so productive are they, that the whole [Page 164]world might be supplied from hence. GARDENS OF NUTMEGS. The island seems one beautiful garden of nutmeg trees.

THE trees are loaden with fruit the whole year, either ma­ture or ripening, but it is gathered only at certain times. The principal harvest is in the middle of the rainy season, or in part of July and August, there is another in November, and a third in March and April. The nuts are carried home and cleansed, and the mace carefully taken off with a knife, and exposed to the sun to be dried. The exterior coat is thick, like that of a walnut; the mace is the immediate covering of the nutmeg, and possesses the same virtues. The oil is a well-known article in our shops.

AFTER some time the nutmegs are divided into three heaps; the first consists of the finest and largest, which are sent to the European markets. The next is reserved for that of India; and the third, which is composed of the damaged nuts, is never sent abroad, but reserved for the oil which is expressed from them.

THE green or unripe nuts are frequently preserved with sugar, and disposed of in all parts of India and China; and even some are sent to Europe.

THERE are, besides the genuine species, six others of the wild kind, called Palae, with some distinguishing epithet, and also Palalae. After saying that these trees are of little or no use but for the wood, I refer to Rumphius, who * has given descriptions and plates of the several sorts.

THE references to this plant among the best botanical writers are as follows: Nux myristica femina, Clus. Exot. 13. 14. Nux [Page 165]Moschata, Gerard, 1536. Bauhin, Pinax, 407. Nux Myristica, Rumph. Amb. ii. p. 14. tab. 4. Myristica officinalis, Linn. Supp. 265. Le Muscadier, Sonnerat, N. Guinée, p. 194. tab. 116. 117. 118: and nutmeg tree, Woodville, Medic. Bot. ii. 363. tab. 134.

NUTMEGS are the food of a variety of birds, FOOD OF BIRDS. such as Cock­atoos, different sorts of pigeons, Jaar vogels, or the wreathed Horn-bills, Latham, i. 358. The pigeons are generally supposed to be the disseminators of these valuable spices, and have been absurdly imagined as the only instruments of their propagation; but the nuts grow equally well by the common method of sow­ing. The pigeons pull off the external coat, before they devour the nut; the mace is digested, but the kernel passes through them entire; such as falls among the thick grass, is sure to suc­ceed. By this accident the trees are spread over all the islands, and some which are very distant, so as to elude the utmost dili­gence of the Dutch to effect the total extirpation of the nutmeg.

THE Columba aenea of Linnaeus, Pl. Enl. 164, NUTMEG PIGEON. or the Nutmeg Pigeon of Latham, iv. 636. and var A. 637, Sonnerat, 168. tab. 102, is the first species. The whole upper part of the body is green glossed with gold and copper. A bird of this kind, perhaps a variety, or perhaps of a different sex, was shot by John Reinhold Forster on the island of Rotterdam, with two undigested nutmegs in its craw, a proof how remotely this spice may be disseminated; what folly it is therefore in the Dutch to endeavour to consine it to the narrow bounds of the Mollucca or Banda groups, when the very fowls of the air are able to baffle so unjust a mo­nopoly.

THE next, the White, Latham, 638; Sonnerat. N. Guinée, [Page 166]169. tab. 105, is wholly of a pure white, except the greater feathers of the wings, and the tail, which are black.

LET me question whether (from its name) the Aromatic Pigeon, Latham, iv. 631; Pl. Enl. 163, does not feed on these pretious fruits, and contribute likewise to their dispersion.

Amboina is about 30 leagues to the north-west of the Banda isles. AMBOINA. This is in respect to cloves, what those are in respect to nutmegs. The Dutch have made it the great and sole plantation of that valuable spice. They destroy with the same zeal all that they can find on the islands within their reach, or bribe or compel the natives to do it for them. The governor of Amboina makes annually in great state the tour of the islands, with a fleet of perhaps fifty sail of Corocoros, the vessels of the country, to enforce obedience, and to shew his power to the people, and the inhabitants of the ten islands dependent on it.

SOME gold dust several years ago was observed to be washed down by the mountain torrents; GOLD. it was traced to the source, and the mine discovered. I am not able to give my readers the con­sequences, nor the present state of the produce. This island has also its volcano. The Brimstone mountain called Wawani, in 1695 made a dreadful eruption.

Amboina lies in Lat. 4° 25′ south, and is divided very nearly in two by a long bay, which, with the sea, contracts it into two peninsulas, joined at the eastern end by so very narrow and sandy an isthmus, that small vessels may easily be dragged over. The larger or more northern portion is called Hitoe, the other Ley Timor. The whole island is full of mountains, covered not only with woods of clove trees, but with the richest productions of [Page 167] Flora; for variety and singularity of vegetation, no part of the torrid zone can (in even far greater space) vie with it in num­bers and elegancy. The whole length of the greater portion of this double island, I may call it, is seventy miles. The inter­vening space of water is a most secure and beautiful meandering bay, with numberless streams falling from the hills, a blessing enjoyed by every side of the island. Dampier * tells us, that the sea surrounding it is a hundred fathom deep; the bottom sandy and unfit for anchoring, except at the Ley, at the west end, where it may be done in twenty fathoms.

Amboina was discovered by Antonio d'Abreu , WHEN DIS­COVERED. about the year 1511. It is said to have been even then peopled with Malayans, and possibly some of the Aborigines, represented as a most barba­rous race. Their present religion is Mahometanism mixed with Paganism. By the wooden print given at p. 10. of the old edition of Heemskirk's Voyage, some of the people had no more than a wrapper round their middle, others were cloathed in long garments, and the military in a shirt and sort of short breeches. Their weapons were spears, scymetars, poisoned darts blown out of tubes, and even matchlocks, as early as the year 1598, which last they probably got from the Portuguese, their first masters: their defensive arms were shields, very long and narrow. Nieu­hoff gives a print of an Amboinese soldier in the Dutch service at Batavia: many Amboinese are settled there, and are represented as a most dangerous and turbulent people.

THE conquest of Amboina by the Portuguese arose from this circumstance. CONQUERED BY THE PORTUGUESE. In 1546 Galoun, governor of Ternate, had observed great numbers of small vessels resorting from Java, Macassar, [Page 168]Banda, and even this island, to the Moluccas, for the sake of the cloves. This trade he resolved to suppress; sitted out his fleet; and by his admiral defeated that of the Indians; landed, and forced the natives to submit to his will: and in the year 1564 the sovereignty of Amboina was vested in the Portuguese by the king of the island. Stephen de Sa built a fort there in the same year, and his countrymen kept possession till about 1607, when the Dutch made themselves masters of Amboina, and of all the Spicy Islands. The English laid in their clame for a share of the com­merce, and after many disputes, in 1619 a treaty was signed be­tween the two nations, stipulating that the Moluccas, Amboina, and the Banda isles should be common to both: that the English should have one third of the produce, and the Dutch two, at a fixed price, and that each should contribute to the defence of the islands in proportion to the benefit received. The inquisitive reader may find the whole of this curious treaty in Rymer's Foedera *. It has often been remarked, that after a treaty so well calculated to establish lasting peace and harmony between the two companies, nothing could interrupt those blessings. The reverse took place. The Dutch, actuated by their insatiable avarice, determined, by the most diabolical means, to free them­selves from all competitors. MASSACRE OF THE ENGLISH. They forged a plot of the English against their lives and liberties; but such a plot that none but idiots could have been supposed to have projected. The charge was, that ten factors, and eleven foreign soldiers, were to seize on the castle, garrisoned by two hundred men. A foolish ques­tion asked by an Indian soldier, as to the strength of the place, [Page 169]was the foundation of the tragedy. He was seized, and put to the most exquisite tortures that hell itself could invent; and in his agonies answered the artful interrogatories in the manner the Fiscal could wish. Our countrymen, and the eleven foreign soldiers underwent the same horrid torments, which were continued at intervals during eight days. The means are too dreadful for the humane pen to recite, or the humane ear to bear. The constancy of the poor sufferers was often overcome; they made such answers as they thought would soonest free them from the rack, and which they recanted as soon as the torture ceased. They were then recalled to their torments. At length the record of examination was read, and the greater part were relieved by a speedy execution: those who were reprieved could drag but a miserable life, with mangled bodies or dislocated limbs. The sufferers, before death, were confronted with each other, English with Indians: both be­wailed their infirmity, for accusing the other under the pressure of torture, and mutually exchanged forgiveness. A full account is given of this horrid transaction by the ingenious Campbel *, in his collection of travels; we could well excuse his speaking to our eyes by a most horrible print. The foreign soldiers , from good authority, he supposes to have been Koreans, an adventurous naval people even in that early time.

THE name of the castle, after this cruel deed, VICTORIA CASTLE. was changed to Victoria. Dampier was shewn the place into which the bodies of our unhappy countrymen were thrown, for the savage Dutch did not think them worthy of the rites of burial. The natives who [Page 170]live in the mountains are a brave race of men, disdain a de­pendent life, and never fail to sacrifice the Dutch to their fury, whenever they make their descent from their heights.

BY means of the Arabs, CLOVES. the clove was introduced into Europe by the common passage over the Isthmus of Suez; but before their conquests towards the Indian Archipelago, it was carried to the ports of western Hindoostan, and from thence, by Roman mer­chant ships, to Myoshormus, the great emporium on the Red Sea. I cannot but think that the clove was early known, and that the Garyophyllon of Pliny * was the spice which he might truly say, "tradunt in Indico luco id gigni. Advehitur odoris gratia." The Romans were particularly fond of aromatic perfumes. Pliny may not be over accurate in his description; but he is exact in place and property; and the name, except in one letter, agrees entirely with the Latin retained to this day.

THE native place of the clove is said by Rumphius to have been Machian, one of the Molucca islands, which we shall have occasion soon to mention. The Dutch thought proper to con­fine the growth of them to Amboina, and to extirpate them in every other island in the manner we have related. There are none here growing wild, but all are raised from the seed, and disposed of in plantations. They are also disseminated and pro­pagated by the pigeons, Horn-bills, and Casuary, in the same manner as the nutmegs. Of quadrupeds, hogs and deer are found in this island.

No country was ever so happy in a Florist as Amboina. OF RUMPHIUS. The celebrated George Everard Rumphius, made it his residence a [Page 171]great number of years. He was born in 1627, and became doctor of physic in the university of Hanover. He went over to this island in character of con [...]l and merchant; and applied his leisure moments to the study of botany; but by the vast fruits of his labors, he must be supposed to have dedicated his whole time to that pursuit. Buy his continual researches after plants, and other objects of natural history on this burning soil, he had, at the age of forty-three, the misfortune of losing his sight. Notwithstanding this he persevered in his pursuits, and being deprived of his visual faculties, acquired that of distinguishing plants by the senses of feeling and smell. He formed a Hortus Siccus, in ten folio volumes, and in 1690 dedicated them to the governor and council of the East India Company, who deposited it in the India house of Amsterdam; with them he probably deposited his de­scription of fishes, and other animals of the island. His bota­nical labors were not printed during his life; they had the good fortune to fall into the hands of that able naturalist Doctor John Burman, who published the first volume of the celebrated Herbarium Amboinense in 1740, and completed the whole by the year 1751. It consists of six folio volumes, and an Auctuarium, which are illustrated with seven hundred plates, relative to the subject, besides two portraits, one of Rumphius, in the sixty-eighth year of his age, in a state of blindness. He is represented feel­ing the plants and shells, placed before him on a table; the other portrait is of his publisher, Doctor Burman. I do not know for certain the time of his death; it probably was at Amboina, for he dates the dedication of his Hortus Siccus, from the castle of Victoria, 1690, in the 63d year of his age.

[Page 172]GOVERNOR Loten gave a curious anecdote in respect to the fate of his drawings and description of the fishes of the island. There is reason to suppose that they were sent into the world in 1726, in a work published by Francis Valentyn, a Dutch clergy­man who had resided in the Molucca and Bonda islands. Baron Imhoff, governor general of the Indies, communicated to Mr. Loten his suspicions, that Valentyn got the materials out of the India house by means of his son-in-law, who was first clerk to the secretary of the company; these Valentyn basely applied to his own use, not daring to make the acknowlegement; certain it is, they never could be found, notwithstanding the most diligent search has been made after them. Valentyn's work was pub­lished under the title of India Orientalis antiqua et nova, in five volumes folio. The figures of the fishes lie under the impu­tation of being fictitious, from the extravagancy of their forms; but I am told it is far from being the case, nature having sported wonderfully in the construction of those of the Amboinese seas.

THE other works of the great Rumphius were the imagines piscium testaceorum, first printed at Leyden in 1711, and reprinted in 1739: The figures are finely executed. He might have added crustaceorum, for there are besides in that work numbers of the lobster and crab kind. No sort of letter-press attends this work, except a catalogue of the subjects, with the names in different languages, especially the Indian. From the immensity of his labors, he justly left behind him the title of the Pliny of the Indies.

THE west end of Ceram is at a very small distance from Amboina. CERAM. That island stretches across the channel from east to [Page 173]west, a length of about eighty leagues. Ceram and Buero divide nearly in two equal parts the Spicy sea: this the geographers will find to be a new name, but I think fit to distinguish by that epithet, all the space which comprehends the Banda isles, the Molucca, the Papuan, with Ceram and Buero, the central isles; bounded on the south by the Timorian chain, on the west by Celebes, and on the east by New Guinea. The inhabitants of its water, of the air, and the vegetation of the islands, are all most singular, which make it merit a title of distinction from all the rest of the Indian ocean. The breadth of Ceram is inconside­rable; the land near the sea is low, swampy, and wooded; within, it rises into mountains of great height. It is wonderful how little I can collect concerning this great island; Mr. Forrest says that it produced clove trees, possibly in places inaccessible to the Dutch. On the authority of Rumphius *, we may say that there are vast forests of the Sago tree on this island; the pith is prepared there into bread, and is exported to other places in great quantities; let me add from Dampier , that it is much used in Mindanao, and our honest traveller gives us the process of preparing that useful viand.

Manipa and Keylan are two small islands, but very lofty, MANIPA AND KEYLAN. seated a little to the west of the western end of Ceram. In the time of Dampier they were well inhabited by Malayes; on the first was a Dutch corporal and six soldiers, employed to cut down the clove trees. On Manipa grew abundance of those valuable trees, and also of rice; both which were sent in quantities by the little Dutch garrison to Amboina.

[Page 174]THE island of Buero is a few leagues to the west of Manipa and Keylan; BUERO. the sea round it is of a vast depth, from whence the shore rises gradually, and surrounds the whole island like a steep wall. The mountains seemingly rise to the very sky, and in some parts are so lofty as to aspire above the clouds, and may sometimes be seen at the distance of twenty-eight leagues. The circumference of Buero is about sixty leagues; near the coasts it is extremely well wooded, and productive of most of the tropical trees; a green ebony and an iron wood is mentioned among them. The ground in general is very fertile, but like the other islands much subject to earthquakes.

THE inhabitants are almost black, and both sexes go naked, excepting when a wrapper covers their waists: they were no­minally subject to the king of Ternate; but in 1660 the Dutch built a fort, and compelled all the natives to live about the bay of Keyel, in fourteen villages neatly built of cane; they also compelled them to cut down and burn the woods, and turn them into fields, gardens, and orchards; before that time they lived in the most wretched hovels. They bemoan their dead relations with great lamentations, but after the corpse is buried, they make great rejoicings; they line the graves with brick, and cover them with clay and stones.

IN the mountains are the civet weesel, WEESELS. Hist. Quad. No 274, from which the natives procure the civet, and sell it very cheap. In this island is that very curious hog, called the Babyroussa or horned, No 79, the Sus Babyrussa of Linnaeus, Seb. mus. i. p. 80. tab. 50; Raii. Quad. p. 96; Bontius, fig. 61; Grew, p. 27; Nieu­hoff, p. 195. tab. p. 96; and de Buffon, xii. p. 379.

[Page 175]THE last author, and perhaps a few others, extend this species to Africa, but the kind they mistake it for is my Cape Verd hog, No 77. Linnaeus makes it an inhabitant of Borneo, and Gmelin of Java, and others * of Celebes and Mindanao, but possibly they mistake for it the Aethiopian, which is found in the last : Pliny had certainly heard of it, for he describes some hogs found in India with four horns. In India Cubitales dentium flexus gemini ex rostro, totidem a fronte seu vituli cornua, exeunt, Pilus Aereo similis agrestibus, caeteris niger. As to the [...] of Aelian, de Nat. Anim. lib. xvii. c. 10, it certainly is the Aethio­pian. The species appears to me to be limited to this island, and perhaps is the most local of any of the greater quadrupeds. I am decidedly of opinion that it is found wild in Buero only. It may possibly be domesticated on some adjacent isles. As to those of New Guinea, the Papuan isles, and the Moluccas, I can­not find sufficient authority for their existence in those places: Mr. Forrest never speaks of this singular animal; he gives figures of those of the Papuan isles, but not the least intimation of their differing from other hogs. They are made in their bodies like our common hog, and have not the elegant deer-like form given it by Nieuhoff. They are sometimes kept tame in the Indian isles, live in herds, have a very quick scent, feed on herbs and leaves of trees; never range gardens like other swine; their flesh well tasted. When pursued and driven to extremities, rush into the sea, swim very well, and even dive, and pass thus from isle to isle; in the forest often rest their head, by hooking [Page 176]their upper tusks on some boughs. Their tusks, from their form, useless in fight.

OVER the upper portion of the Spicy sea are scattered several islands, UPPER PART OF THE SPICY SEA. which extend rather irregularly from the isle of Celebes to the coast of New Guinea. I have now before me M. D'An­ville's map, and that of our countryman captain Forrest, who with infinite hazard examined or past by most of the islands of this part of the sea, for the patriotic design of procuring the nutmeg tree for the benefit of our country. I shall add his names to those of the French geographer, as more familiar to us. The most westerly on the coast of Celebes is Bangy; then appears grouped Xulla, Xulla bessy, and a larger, the Xulla Mangoli of D'Anville, and two or three lesser isles. Farther to the east, in Lat. 1° 40′ south, is the long island of Ouby, with the little ones of Tappa, Mya, Lyong, and Gomman, near its coasts. To the east is Mixoal, or Mysol, a triangular isle of some extent. To the north-west is the small isle of Kanari, and north of that are the very small isles of Polo Pisang, Bo, and Popo.

Ouby is one of the larger isles. OUBY. The Datch have a small fort on the west side; the inhabitants of this island are fugitive slaves from Ternate, and other places, who have no communication with any people except some Buggesses, who come in their prows to buy the cloves (which Ouby produces) from the runnaways. The general form of the mountains of this island are given by Mr. Forrest in his fifth plate.

Lyong is a small isle off the east end of Ouby; LYONG, PULO PISANG, &c. to the east of that are to be seen the pretty wooded isles of Liliola, Tapiola, [Page 177]and Pulo Pisang, in Lat. 1° 30′ south, most beautifully covered with trees *.

STILL more to the east of Ouby, MIXAOL: is the triangular island of Mixaol, of a moderate height, even at top , and the shore bold. On the south side is the secure harbor of Ef-be, EF-BE HARBOR: in Lat. 2° 12′ south, with several picturesque islands off the entrance, one in particular, named Crown island, topt with wood. Mysol is well wooded, and water is got there without any difficulty. The village of Linty consists of about thirteen houses, VILLAGE OF LINTY. built in the water upon posts. The island is but very thinly inhabited; the natives reported that the birds of Paradise came there in flocks from the eastward, settled on the trees, and were caught with bird-lime.

THE Kanari islands are a little to the north-west of the western end of Mysol; KANARI ISLANDS. they also are of a moderate height, and tolerably even , covered with wood, and the sides in some places clifty. They take their name from the timber being chiefly of that tur­pentine kind called by Rumphius, § Kanari. He describes, at p. 151, 154, 155, 156, and tab. 48, 49, many more kinds; they grow to a great height; some afford very good masts, and bear an eatable oily nut.

OFF the north-east part is a cluster of little isles, such as the Canister, the long, the round, and the turtle. On the first is a grove of the pine tree, called by the Malayes, Arrou; none of the Kanari isles are inhabited.

Bo and Popo are two clusters of little isles, BO AND POPO. lying in the clear [Page 178]expanse of water, north of the Kanari isles, in Lat. 1° 17′ south. They are well inhabited, and produce plenty of fish, salt, and coco nuts, and the Kima Chama. Almost contiguous to Popo, are nine or ten small low isles, said to be well inhabited, and the residence of a Rajah.

DUE north of Oubi are the celebrated Molucca islands, MOLUCCA ISLANDS. which form a chain from the little isle of Seland, in Lat. 0° 50′ south, to Ternate, in about Lat. 0° 50′ north. Within that space are con­tained the immense treasures of cloves in possession of the Dutch. Their history and fate are so nearly similar to those of Banda, and so intermixed, that we have included them in our account of those islands. The names of the Molucca group, are Ternate, Tidor, Motir, Matchian, and Batchian. M. D'Anville makes these rich islands comprehend the whole from Moratay or Morty, at the north of Gilolo, quite to the Timorian chain; but the above is the true definition of the Molucca isles.

THE small isle of Selang may be spoken of as an appurtenance to Batchian; ISLE OF SE­LANG. it is nearly united to its southern end by a coral reef, which has in the middle a gap of a hundred fathoms in width, and twelve in depth, with a muddy bottom; on each side of the reef is a safe harbor. The island is moderately high, affords good water, and produces nutmeg trees of a great height. Mr. Forrest saw the fruit lying on the ground, and in a state of vegetation. He gives, in plate 5, a plan of the harbor, and a view of part of the island, and of the high wooded hills of La­bukat, on the isle of Batchian.

Batchian is the largest of the Moluccas. BATCHIAN. It is governed by a sultan, the least dependent on the Dutch of any of these Reguli. [Page 179]He is sovereign of Ouby, Ceram, and Goram, an isle in Lat. 4° 5′, to the south-east of Ceram. So prevalent is the Mahometan re­ligion, that there are on this little spot thirteen mosques; this is the most castern extent of the religion of the arch impostor. The inhabitants of all the sultan's dominions are Mahometans; they paid the highest respect to Tuan Hadjee, pilot of Mr. For­rest's vessels, because he was a descendant from an Arabian Scherif. So zealous are they in their religion, that they always go to sea with the Alcoran, and have a place set apart for their devotions called the Koran, as was the case in Mr. Forrest's vessel.

Lasitau * says that there was a total conversion of this island, MOLUCCAS CONVERTED TO CHRISTI­ANITY. and the rest of the Moluccas, to Christianity, by the labors of St. Francis de Xavier: the sultan himself was baptized: but these changes produced civil wars, for whole villages soon abjured the new faith; the Portuguese, as may be imagined, took an active part in behalf of the believers. It is said that as late as the year 1722, the king of Ternate was a Christian, but those of Tidor and Batchian had relapsed into Mahometanism. These three monarchs firmly believe that their ancestors were the wise men of the East, who visited our Savior at Bethlehem, and who are so well known by the name of the three kings of Cologne.

THE Portuguese for a time remained in favor with the na­tives; but unable to bear their habitual tyranny, especially what they suffered in 1530, united in a general league of all the islands against their oppressors.

WE find in Purchas , that the Dutch had a castle on this [Page 180]island in 1621, and that the cloves lay three or four inches thick on the ground, for want of people to gather them.

Batchian rises to a considerable height, swells into waved eminences, and in some parts into hills terminating in points, and well wooded. On the greater part of its coasts, as of all the Moluccas, and other islands in the various Indian archipelago, are prodigious rocks or coral reefs, of infinite variety and beauty.

THE Sooloo, and other fleets which sail annually to cruise among the Philippines, depend solely for their subsistence on the fish, and shell fish, which the reefs afford, and only lay in some rice and sago bread. Mr. Forrest gives a view, in plate 5, of a coral rock off Batchian, and a man gathering the Gigantic Chama. Among other shells there represented, is a figure of a turbinated one of a great size.

I AM uncertain of the number of parts into which this island is divided. In the map, on the western side is streight Labuhat; I do not know whether it penetrates quite through. On this is fort Barnevelt, the fortress that awes the Batchians. A little farther to the north is a great bay, ISLE OF BALLY. with the isle of Bally in the middle, in Lat. 0° 30′ south; it is about two miles round, and well supplied with wood and water. At the bottom of the bay is a very narrow passage, that divides Batchian in two; the northern division is called the isle of Mandioly, the residence of the sultan. The passage widens considerably towards the west, and opens in the streights of Patientia, which divide this island from the great one of Gilolo. I think Mandioly to be the island Fitzherbert, in Purchas, calls old Bachan. The Portuguese and [Page 181] Spaniards established garrisons here, and formed leagues with the natives; but the Dutch in 1610 expelled them, and became successors to their advantages and oppressions.

IN Bissory harbor, in Lat. 0° 18′ south, BISSORY HARBOR. on the western side of the island, is excellent anchorage, in twelve or fifteen fathoms water. The entrance is marked by some elegant little isles, with rocky precipitous bases, and beautiful rounded wooded heads *. This island gave shelter to Mr. Forrest for some time, when the pilot went on a visit to his relation, the sultan Tuan Hadjee.

OFF the north-western end of Mandioly is Tappa, ISLAND OF TAPPA. a small isle, with three large rocks, hollowed into caves, harboring the swal­lows which make the delicious edible nests; it lies only a few minutes to the north of the equinoctial line. Between Tappa and the isle Lalaletta are the streights of that name, LALALETTA: about a mile and a half long, and scarcely forty yards wide, with deep water. A fragrant smell is wafted from the shores. Tappa has also that comfort to mariners, a delicious pond of fresh water. Mr. Forrest gives us a view of these islands and rocks. On the north-west part is the little snug harbor or cove of Ma­laleo, where a ship may lie safe in four fathoms water, HARBOR OF MALALEO. with the cable fastened to trees.

DUE north of Mandioly, in Lat. 0° 25′ north, are the Giaritchas, GIARITCHAS. a cluster of small isles, consisting of rocks of a moderate height, mixed with trees; and about six leagues more to the north is the island of Matchian, ISLAND OF MATCHIAN. one of the little kingdoms of the Mo­luccas, subject to the king of Ternate; it is of a conic form, soars above the clouds, and has not in its whole extent a level [Page 182]place. In 1621, before the Dutch had determined to fix the seat of cloves at Amboina, they had here three factories, and a castle, very difficult of access by sea, placed on one of the rude cliffs which bound the island, and built, after they had dispossessed the Spaniards, in 1609.

Motir is the next, MOTIR. in form, but not in size, resembling the former. Fitzherbert says, ‘That Venus and voluptuousness had here their habitation.’

Tidor is a fine and fertile island, TIDOR. and the seat of a monarch. There were violent wars waged between that prince and the king of Ternate, which the Europeans took advantage of. In the time of Charles V. the Portuguese and Spaniards fought against each other for the possession of these rich spots, and with great animosity; the people of Ternate sided with the first, and those of Tidor and Gilolo with the latter. By the cession of the Moluccas to the Portuguese by Charles, these seas were for a time left in peace. The Dutch next arrived, in 1607, and made a fruitless attack on the Spaniards; they even suffered a signal defeat, in 1610, off this very island; their admiral, Willert, was defeated and slain, and three capital ships taken, by the gallant Spaniard, Don Juan de Sylva; but at length, by the assistance of the king of Ternate, the Hollanders made themselves masters of the fort, and were received by the monarch of Tidor in the most friendly manner. The island had been four times most bar­barously ravaged by the Portuguese and Castilians. The Tidorians naturally considered these new Europeans as their deliverers from most inveterate enemies. Here are twenty-five mosques, the chief of which belongs to the sultan. As to his temporalities, [Page 183]he possesses, besides Tidor, great part of the south and east of Gilolo, and clames the Papuan isles of Waygiou, Mysol, and Patenta.

Ternate is the most northern and most important of all the Moluccas, TERNATE. yet it is not more than eight leagues in circum­ference. Dependent on its monarch are the greatest part of the north of Gilolo, and of the north-east of Celebes; the isle of Morti, that of Batchian and Motir; and several other distant isles, such as Xula, Bucro, Sanguir, and Veranulla, near Am­boina; he had even part of New Guinea, and received a tribute of gold, amber, and birds of Paradise. All these, New Guinea excepted, contribute their quota of militia. Mr. Forrest gives * a regular list of the number formerly furnished, exactly pro­portioned to their size or population, as we do at present in the regulation of the militia to be raised in each British county; the sum total amounted to 90,700. The naval power was also very considerable, and they and the Tidorians have had some well­contested battles with the Europeans. Soon after the arrival of the Portuguese, they burnt at once all the forests of cloves; but they speedily revived with as much vigor as ever. The Portu­guese rendered themselves masters of the island, and built a strong fort. The natives thrice abandoned their country; till at length, desperate with the oppressions of strangers, in 1530 they re­turned in the night, and burnt and destroyed even their own habitations.

THE Dutch, on their arrival, were received as deliverers; but the natives soon discovering that the object of every Eu­ropean [Page 184]was the same, they took to arms, and had a long and severe contest for independency. At length the invaders effected by fraud, what might have cost too dear to obtain by violence. In 1638 they wisely entered into a league with the king of Ternate, and the lesser princes, as we have before mentioned. This treaty has been twice renewed; but in order to enforce the observance, three strong forts, with suitable garrisons, are established in Ternate, and others in the neighboring isles.

THE sultan resides at Ternate in great state, SULTAN. but neither he nor the prince of Tidor are better than fettered monarchs. The Dutch pay to him all external respect, but at the same time curb him in every commercial attempt. If he fits out a proa of any size, the Dutch must know the place of its destination; if bound to any distant parts, for cloth or other species of merchandize, they immediately say they are happy that they can supply him with better from their own magazines, and all is at his service; if his Majesty continues obstinate, they send him a present of the finest callicoes, such as they know will be acceptable to his ladies, and add bribes to his favorite females, who generally di­vert him from his design; if that fails, they always obtain leave to send a trusty officer with the vessel, for the Dutch are studious to avoid an open rupture.

Myo and Tyfory are two small isles to the north-east of Ternate, MYO AND TYFORY. and subject to its sultan; the first is in Lat. 1° 33′. Myo was once inhabited when the Spaniards were possessed of the Mo­luccas; but the Dutch, to prevent the smuggling of spices, re­moved the inhabitants. It has on it many goats, is productive of cloves, and possesses a good harbor. In old times these isles fur­nished [Page 185]their quota of four hundred militia men to the sultan of Ternate.

THE shipping of the Molucca isles consists of a sort of vessels called Corocoro, SHIPPING. with a high arched stem and stern like the point of a half moon; the largest are of about ten tons burden. On each side of the vessel are out-riggers or frames made of timber, intersecting each other, and extending like wings far over the water, of different dimensions, according to the size of the coro­coro. The rowers, or rather paddlers, sit in a most singular manner on the intersections of the suspended frames over the water. In a smooth sea they move with vast swiftness. Mr. Forrest gives figures of several of these singular vessels *; but the most magnificent is a corocoro of Banda, represented at p. 13 of the old Dutch voyages. Some have banks of rowers, like the Roman triremes. M. de Pages gives a curious description and figure of one he saw in the Manilla isles.

No Chinese vessel is allowed to come farther than Macassar. The Sooloos vessels trade to Ternate, but nobody dare send one to Sooloo; in a word, the most jealous attention is paid to the pre­vention of smuggling any of the pretious products of the isles. The Sooloos may possibly be the carriers for the Chinese; their lading consists chiefly of articles from China, and they bring back rice, suallo, shark fins, tortoise shells, some small pearls, and abundance of Loeri parrots.

THE religion of the island is that of Mahomet: here are some mosques, one Dutch church, and the ruins of several once be­longing to the Portuguese; but none are permitted to be used; [Page 186]and the people who call themselves Portuguese, are now as black as the very natives.

IN respect to the nature of the island, it consists of very high land, abounding with good water, which streams from the clouded peaks. Ternate, and every other of the Moluccas, have their volcanoes: in 1693 that of Ternate burnt in a dreadful man­ner; stones and other matters are frequently cast out of the cra­ters, and noises (by the force of fancy compared to the crying of many people) are almost constantly heard within the bowels of the mountains. I think it was at the same time that the moun­tains Kemas, or the two brothers, in the district of Manado, in the isle of Celebes, a part correspondent with Ternate, were blown up with a dreadful noise; the sound, like that of thunder, reached Ternate, attended with great darkness, and the tremendous con­vulsions of an earthquake. Through all these chains of islands, even to Banda, are possibly chambered galleries, which convey the train from isle to isle, whenever the great Author of Nature directs those awful admonitions.

THE list of the quadrupeds of the Moluccas is easily made out: QUADRUPEDS. they have goats, deer, and hogs; but the species of deer are unknown to me.

THE Molucca Opossum; Hist. Quadr. i. No 218. Seb. Mus. i. p. 64. tab. 39; is not only found in these islands, but in those of Arrou; in the former they are called Coes Coes; they are rec­koned delicate eating, and are frequent at the tables of the great, who rear the young in the same places in which they keep their rabbits.

[Page 187]THE great bat called the Ternate, No 495; the Cordated, No 499; Schreber, tab. 48; and the Molucca, No 508, a large­headed species, Schreber, tab. 41, deform, I may say, the spicy air of these countries.

THIS class is numerous, and of singular beauty; BIRDS. for want of further information I must at once pass to the parrot tribe.

HERE are three species of cockatoos; a great one, PARROTS. described by Mr. Latham, i. 256. Pl. Enl. 263. 115. Raii. Syn. Av. 30. Wil. Orn. 112. tab. 15. This is as big as a common fowl, wholly white, except the quil and lateral feathers of the tail, which are sulphur colored.

THE next is the red crested; Latham, i. 257. Pl. Enl. 498. 116. Edw. tab. 160. The under part of the crest is red; the rest of the plumage white.

THE third is the lesser white; Latham, i. 258. Pl. Enl. 14. 118. Edw. 317. This has the under part of the crest sulphur colored, and is less and more docile than the preceding. These birds are found in infinite numbers in all the islands, and deafen people with their screams; yet still, by their snowy plumage, give great spirit to the gloom of the woods.

Gramineous Loeri; Latham, i. 279. Pl. Enl. 862. 132. LOERIS. The least brilliant of any; the crown and primaries pale blue; a black stripe from each eye to the bill; all the rest of the plumage green.

THERE are several other elegant birds, I possibly might add to this division; but as they are given by ornithologists to other islands, I here omit them, notwithstanding my suspicions are strongly [Page 188]in favor of the Moluccas. I would add still greater beauties to the picturesque trees of the islands. The Erythrina Corallo­dendron *, with its elegant coral colored spikes of flowers, are the greatest haunt of these birds. Both contribute to enliven the shores of numbers of the islands. These trees love watery places, and hang waving over the sea. The beautiful birds which inhabit its branches, constitute a valuable article of com­merce; the natives lying in wait for them, catch numbers by twigs limed with the viscus of the Socci-lacte.

THE red Amboina Loeri; Latham, i. 210. Pl. Enl. 248. 88; is the most splendid of the gay kind. The head and body rich scarlet; wings green; back and tail of rich blue.

Red-breasted; Latham, i. 212. Edw. 232. Pl. Enl. 61. 90. The character of this species is a scarlet breast, barred with rich ma­zarine blue. The rest of the colors are of the most vivid brilliancy.

Blue-headed; Latham, i. 212. Pl. Enl. 743. 91. Upper part of the body and tail green; the last very long; two middle feathers far exceed the others in length; breast and belly of rich red, blue, and yellow.

Black crowned; Latham i. 213. Seb. Mus. i. 63. Wings, tail, and upper part of the body, rich blue; under part fine light red.

THE late earl of Orford had a parrot, a true Macaw, which he was certain came from the East Indies; it was as large as the Brasilian; the upper part blue; the lower part of the breast deep [Page 189]yellow. This account was transmitted to Lord Barrington, in a letter from Lord Orford, August 28th, 1786.

Violet, Indian; Latham, i. 217. Pl. Enl. 143. The predominant colors are violet and red; the primaries rich yellow.

Beautiful, Latham, i. 217, composed of the richest colors; back brown, edged with red. Moluccas?

Crimson Loeri; Latham, i. 273. Edw. 170. Pl. Enl. 518. 127. Brown illustr. tab. 6. The head, front of the neck, the breast, back, tail, and wings, except the primaries, crimson; primaries, belly, and hind part of the neck deep blue.

Gilolo Loeri; Latham, i. 274. Sonnerat, 177. Tab. 112. Pl. Enl. 519. 128: entirely scarlet, except a blue spot on the vent, a few black spots on the wings, and the primaries, which are also black.

Scarlet Loeri; Latham, i. 269. 270. No 76. A. B. Edw. 172. Pl. Enl. 216. 123: of transcendent beauty; head and body scarlet; a rich spot of yellow on the back, and on the ridge of each wing; wings and tail of a fine green; primaries black, the rest scarlet.

Grand Loeri; Latham, i. 275. Pl. Enl. 683. Vosmaer, tab. 7; of equal beauty; head, back, and wings, and upper part of the tail rich scarlet; neck, breast, belly, and primaries fine deep blue; vent and tip of the tail yellow; a large species. Vosmaer certainly mistakes Ceylon for its place.

Green and red Loeri; Latham, i. 278. Pl. Enl. 514. 130. Edw. 231. Sonnerat, 174. tab. 108. The head, neck, breast, belly, back, and coverts of wings the richest green; ridge of the wings and primaries fine blue; under coverts of the wings scarlet; on the belly a few blood-red and blue spots.

[Page 190] Molucca; HORN-BILL.Wil. Ornith. tab. xvii. Pl. Enl. 283. 173; the Indian, Latham, i. 351, with a slatted concave plate on the head and bill; and the wreathed, Latham, i. 358; the Jaar Vogel of the Dutch, are found on these islands, and that of Banda. That called the Indian raven of Bontius, described by Mr. Willughby, p. 126, and engraven in tab. xvii. from Bontius, p. 62, is another kind, with a very thick bill, the upper mandible greatly incur­vated; the temples colored like those of the turkey; the head and neck black. Bontius gives us no further description; but says it feeds on the nutmegs, is good eating, and has an aromatic taste. All these birds are very detrimental to the plantations of this rich spice. M. Salerne, p. 91, says it is kept tame, and is very useful in destroying the rats and mice. He confounds the species tab. 283. Pl. Enl. with this kind; see his figure, tab. ix.

THE Moluccas have the short-tailed pie; PIE. Latham, i. p. 399; Pl. Enl. 257. 207; in form but not in color resembling that of Ceylon.

Brown; WOODPECKER. Latham, ii. 577. Pl. Enl. 748. 313. The upper part of the body, wings, and tail, of a brownish black waved with white; beneath whitish, marked with irregular black spots pointing downwards; head full of feathers, dusky, and slightly spotted with white; cheeks white: size of the smaller English spotted wood­pecker.

Ternate; KINGFISHER. Latham, ii. 634. Pl. Enl. 116. 350. The bill and legs of this fine species are scarlet; the head, upper part of the neck, the back and wings of a most rich mazarine blue; from the chin to the vent white; the tail white, and equal at the end; the two mid­dle feathers only are longer than the others by about five inches; [Page 191]they are only webbed near the base, which is white, marked on the outward sides with a pale blue spot; the shafts are naked, and black almost to the ends, which are white, and dilate to the form of a Spatula. This species is of the size of a stare. The natives of Ternate call this bird the Goddess, on account of the exquisite brightness of its colors.

Green-headed; Latham, ii. 620. Pl. Enl. 783. Head green, surrounded with a band of black; back, wings, and tail of the same color; on the two last changing to bluish green; throat and neck white: inhabits Buero.

Molucca; Latham, ii. 684. Le Polochion de Buffon, BEE-EATER. vi. 477. cheeks black; nape mixed with white; general color of the rest of the plumage grey, deepest on the upper part; tail composed of feathers of equal length.

Crested; Latham, ii. 691. Seb. Mus. i. tab. 30. fig. 5. Head, PROMEROPS. throat, and neck of a fine black; head most elegantly crested; wings, tail, and upper part of the body pale chesnut; lower parts light ash; length from tip of the bill to the tail five inches; of the tail fourteen and a half; the two middle feathers fourteen, of the outmost feathers only three. Seba calls it a Manucodiatae, or bird of Paradise.

Amboina; Latham, ii. 741. Seb. Mus. ii. tab. 62. fig. 2. Cucopit, CREEPER. Rumph. v. 113. Head and neck yellow, edged with green; breast of a rich red; wings black, edges of the feathers yellow; rest of the plumage, grey above, green beneath, all most glossy and brilliant. This species has a tubular tongue, and extracts with it the honey of the flowers. It perhaps might be ranged among the Melisugae.

[Page 192] Amboina; THRUSH. Latham. iii. 74. vii. 143. Seb. Mus. 62. fig. 4. Head; upper part of the body, primaries and tail, reddish brown; under side of the tail golden yellow; breast and belly light yellow: rather bigger than a lark; sings finely; flirts its tail quite on the back in the season of love.

Molucca; GROSBEAK. Latham, iii. 141. Pl. Enl. 139. Forehead, front, and sides of the neck, black; hind part of the head, back, and prima­ries brown; breast and belly transversely striped with black and white; tail and its coverts black.

Amboina; TANAGRE. Latham, iii. 244. Seb. Mus. i. tab. 38. fig. 6. Crown black; back variegated with black and blue; cheeks, throat, and breast blue; coverts of the wings blue, marked with a purple spot; belly white; tail brown.

Green Turtle; PIGEON: Latham, iv. 653. Pl. Enl. 653. Forehead and throat cinereous; the predominant color of the rest of the bird a green gold, glossed with copper; on the front of the neck a beautiful violet purple; length only seven inches and three quarters.

THIS makes the sum of the birds I can collect in the islands; the list is small, but their beauty will compensate.

WE know very little of their reptiles. REPTILES. The Boa is found in Ternate, and other of the isles, of a vast size. I suspect also that the Cobra de capello, or Naja, inhabits Amboina. Rum­phius, ii. 131, mentions the Munalatu, a broad-headed serpent, a most dangerous kind; the bite of which excites great heat, and dreadful anxiety; numbers of people die of the consequences; but it is curable with the root of the Soulamoe, or Rex Amaroris, [Page 193]described in the same volume, p. 129. tab. 40. Rumphius also speaks of the Lacerta chalcidica as a very dangerous species of lizard. This possibly is the Anguis quadrupedes of authors, and the Seps of M. La Cepede, i. 433. tab. 31, which is found in Java and Amboina.

As to fishes and shells they are extremely numerous; FISHES. the first very singular in their forms; the last of great beauty.

THE large island of Gilolo or Halamahera is not classed among the Moluccas, but lies nearly contiguous to them, GILOLO. and extends north and south from Lat. 3° 10′ north, to Lat. 0° 50′ south. The equator passes over the lower part. The western side is straight, and runs parallel with those islands, and at the southern end finishes opposite to Batchian, but at the northern extends very far beyond Ternate. On the east side is a branch that points due east, and from the base of that another, due north, leaving between it and the western extent of the island, a bay extremely narrow, but of a vast length, penetrating above half of the length of the whole. Dampier * reckons this among the low islands of the Indian seas; yet in the interior parts it rises into very lofty horns or peaks.

IT is said to have been once governed by one sovereign, a Scherif from Mecca. We have mentioned that the Sultans of Ternate and Tidor, now are masters of a considerable part of Gilolo; the chief towns are Maba, Weda, and Patanay. The last is at the extremity of the eastern branch; it stands on what is called Patany Hook, a point in Lat. 0° 20′ north, PATANY HOOK. three miles in circum­ference, [Page 194]of great strength, faced with precipices; flat at top, con­taining many houses and gardens, and inaccessible unless by ladders.

THIS island abounds with oxen, buffaloes, goats, deer, and wild hogs, but scarcely any sheep.

THE natives have a turn to manufactures, but it is checked by the Dutch; notwithstanding this, they import a great deal of cotton yarn from Balli, and the Buggess country, which they fabricate into cloth.

IN Gilolo, SAGO TREE. in all the Moluccas, and other islands of that district, and even in New Guinea, grows the Rima or Bread Fruit. I have before mentioned that useful tree, the Cycas circinalis, Sago or Libby tree, which appears first in Siam, grows in Sumatra, Borneo, Johor, Java, and Mindanao, is continued through all the islands, and becomes in these countries a vegetable of the first importance, for the subsistence of the inhabitants. It is as wheat to the Europeans, mayz to the Americans, dates to the Arabs, and rice to the Hindoos. The use of rice, the great food of India, ceases; either the ground is unfit for the cultivation, or the natives are too lazy to sow it, when nature offers them a more ready food. The sago trees grow in great numbers in every one of these islands. It sometimes attains the height of thirty feet, and the branches extend twenty; the circumference of the stem is as much as a man can embrace; the head spreads into leaves like a palm, to which genus it bears a great resemblance; but Linnaeus chooses to fling it among the ferns. Rumphius (who is very diffuse in his account of it) places it among the palms, under the name of Sagu, and Palma farinaria *; Mr. Forrest gives [Page 195]the best account of this most necessary article: I shall therefore borrow from him what is to be said on the subject.

‘THE sago or libby tree, has, like the cocoa-nut tree, no dis­tinct bark that peels off, and may be defined a long tube of hard wood, about two inches thick, containing a pulp or pith, mixed with many longitudinal fibres. The tree being felled, it is cut into lengths of about five or six feet; a part of the hard wood is then sliced off, and the workman coming to the pith, cuts across (generally with an adze made of hard wood called a neebong) the longitudinal fibres, and the pith to­gether, leaving a part at each end uncut, so that, when it is excavated, there remains a trough, into which the pulp is again put, mixed with water, and beat with a piece of wood; then the fibres, separated from the pulp, float at top, and the flour subsides. After being cleared in this manner by several waters, the pulp is put into cylindrical baskets, made of the leaves of the tree; and if it is to be kept some time, those baskets are generally sunk in fresh water.’

‘ONE tree will produce from two to four hundred weight of flour; no wonder then if agriculture be neglected, in a country, where the labour of five men, in felling sago trees, beating the flour, and instantly baking the bread, will main­tain a hundred. I have often found large species of the sago tree on the sea-shore, drifts from other countries. The sago, thus steeped in the salt water, had always a four disagreeable smell; and in this state, I dare say the wild hogs would not taste it. The leaf of the sago tree makes the best covering for houses of all the palm kind; it will last seven years. [Page 196]Coverings of the Nipa or common Attop, such as they use on the south-west coast of Sumatra, will not last half the time. When sago trees are cut down, fresh ones sprout up from the roots; the wild hogs frequent the places where sago trees have lately been cut down, and the flour or pith has been taken out; they there feast and fatten on the remains.’

‘WE seldom or never see sago in Europe but in a granulated state. To bring it into this state from the flour, it must be first moistened, and passed through a sieve into an iron pot (very shallow) held over a fire, which enables it to assume a globular form.’

‘THUS all our grained sago is half baked, and will keep long. The pulp or powder of which this is made, will also keep long, if preserved from the air, but, if exposed, it presently turns sour.’

‘THE Papua oven for this flour is made of earthen ware; SAGO OVEN. it is generally nine inches square, and about four deep; it is divided into two equal parts by a partition parallel to its sides; each of those parts is subdivided into eight or nine, about an inch broad (tab. 27.); so the whole contains two rows of cells, about eight or nine in a row. The sago bread, fresh from the oven, eats just like hot rolls. Bread thus baked will keep, I am told, several years; I have kept it twelve months, nor did vermin destroy it in that time.’

OTHER writers who have treated of this useful tree are, Kaempfer, Amoen. Exot. 897; Thunberg, Fl. Jap. 229; Raii. Hist. pl. 1360; Seb. Mus. i. 39. tab. 25; Dampier, i. 310; and G. Forster, Flor. Austr. ins. p. 78, who says it is found in the Friendly Isles [Page 197]and New Hebrides. Rumphius describes some other species of this tree, or of the palm which contains the sago. To that most admirable writer I must refer the reader for a copious history of the valuable nutriment.

ON this tree, perhaps more frequent than any palm, is found lodged in the center of the pith the insect called Curculio Palma­rium, CURCULIO PALMARIUM. Lin. Jacq. Am. 278; Merian, Surin. tab. 48. fig. 3; the Cossus Saguarius of Rumphius, i. 78. 79. 83. tab. 17. Its Cossus, or caterpillar, is esteemed a delicacy among the natives of both Indies, as the Cossi Altiles, or fatted caterpillars, were among the Romans. Pliny, lib. xvii. c. 24, says that the largest and most delicious were those of the oak, which his luxurious country­men fattened with flour.

Morty, MORTY. an island that nearly divides the mouth of the long bay at the north of Gilolo, rises with great beauty out of the sea; it is particularly noted for the sago trees; is thinly inhabited, but much frequented by parties from Gilolo, for the sake of cutting the trees for the pith; the Dutch, therefore, to prevent the smuggling of the spices, constantly keep some of the country vessels cruizing between the two islands. Morty belongs to Ter­nate.

WE now arrive at the Papuan Islands, PAPUAN ISLANDS. the group which lies between Patany Point and New Guinea (they take their name from the land of Papua, or New Guinea), and as low as the island of Ceram. The names of the principal are Waggiou, Gammon, Patanta, Salwatty, and Myxoal, surrounded by others, small, and of little note, unless by being the places where the adventurous Forrest touched in his voyage in search of the nutmeg trees. [Page 198]He had the double hazard of falling into the hands of the Dutch, or perishing by the fury of the wild natives; but the first he fortunately escaped; and by his own prudent and conciliating behavior (added to his having a crew entirely Indian, excepting two), he sailed not only unmolested, but even befriended, by these apparent barbarians.

THE most western of these islands is Gibby, GIBBY. under the equator, to the south-east of Patany Hook, and about six leagues distant. Its length is four or five leagues, its breadth small, and its ap­pearance like two hills divided by a low isthmus, and full of in­habitants. VISITED BY THE FRENCH. The French, actuated by the laudable spirit of im­proving their colonies by the introduction of nutmeg trees, made more than one voyage for the procuring that valuable spice. The first was in the year 1769, in which the celebrated natu­ralist M. Sonnerat, and the more celebrated philosopher M. Le Poivre, embarked and sailed from the isle of France. They stu­diously concealed the names of the islands they visited, and the means they used to accomplish the ends of their mission. M. Son­nerat went a second time, in 1771; has published the account of his voyage, but has given us only a description of the more cu­rious birds, and of the Papuans, the natives of the isles, and of New Guinea. The French touched at the island of Gibby, which they call Gweby. During their stay there they were visited by the rajah or prince of Patany, the sultan of Tidor, and even received an embassy from one whom they stiled the emperor of Salwatty. They were most respectfully treated by these poten­tates; and by the friendship of the prince of Patany, obtained the object of the voyage. They carried forty thousand nutmeg [Page 199]trees to the island of Bourbon, and others were sent to the isle of France; another cargo was sent to the isles of Sechelles. If I recollect right, we found on the Grenades nutmeg trees, when we took those islands, which had been planted by the French. Those which had been transported to the isle of France bore fruit, but, I believe, not to that perfection as they do in their native soil.

Gag is a small uninhabited island, in Lat. 0° 18′ south, GAG. but has the advantage of a safe bay, of fresh water, and of timber, which induces people to touch there. Syang, SYANG. another little isle north of the line, in Lat. 0° 30′, has also both wood and water; Captain Forrest procured the last by observing, that on cut­ting a tree he calls the Arrow Plant, that water distilled from it; he then dug, and found a spring. On a little sandy isle called Pulo eye he met with the eggs of the turtle, directed to them by the marks of the sins on the sand.

OTHER small isles, that lie a little to the north and to the south of the line, in about Long. 127° east from Greenwich, may be mentioned, to shew the indefatigable industry of our country­men: such are Ruib and Een, or fish isle, to the north; RUIB. and to the south is Waglol, a small flat isle, the residence of a synagee. WAGLOL. or chieftain, of the country, distinguished by having half his coat, and long drawers, clouded with red, white, and yellow; the other half with blue, white, and green; the turband was of white calico, pinked; the clouded part of the dress was Hin­doostan calico, dyed by the natives of the Moluccas. Some of these chieftains are men of most polished manners.

Tomoguy, and the two islands of Patang and Pally, TOMOGUY. form between them the safe harbor of Manafuin; a streight four [Page 200]miles long, with a mud bottom. Piamis and Tamuay are isles of no note, SALWATTY. still more south; but Salwatty, the most remote of the Papuas, and of a considerable size, is divided from the coast of New Guinea by the narrow streight of Galoway. It is of a lozenge shape, very populous, and governed by a rajah. In 1770 the rajah, with more than a hundred of the Papuan boats, from that island, Arrou, and Myxoal, made the tour of the isles, and sailed up the streights which divide Gilolo from Batchian. The Dutch, apprehensive of some mischief, made their chieftains presents of cloth, &c. Their stay was short, for after fishing and hunting a few days, they dispersed and went home, the rajah excepted, who, with a few of his people, remained behind, without offering the least offence. The Dutch treacherously inveigled him to Ternate, and even made him a present of a bag of dollars, to be laid out in any of the European articles he chose out of their magazines. He entered the fort with a few of his men, and was immediately in­formed that he was a prisoner. His people instantly gave signs of running a muck to save their master, or to sell their own lives dearly. The generous rajah whispered to them an order of for­bearance, and to endeavor their own escape, which they ef­fected. The prince gave up his cris, and was soon transported to the Cape, to join the miserable exiles on Robben Island.

THE Dutch might have some cause for their fears, it being customary for the Papuans of New Guinea and Salwatty to as­semble in great numbers in the months of March and April (when the seas are generally smooth), and make war on Gilolo, Ceram, Amboina, and as far as Aulla Bessi. In 1765 they plun­dered [Page 201]the isle of Amblou, near Buero, and carried away many of the inhabitants.

THE Papuans, the inhabitants of these isles, PAPUAN PEOPLE. and of the land of Papuas, or New Guinea, and (according to Mr. Forrest, p. 68.) the internal parts of the Moluccas, are a most singular race of men, of a horrible appearance and great ferocity; brave, says M. Son­nerat, lovers of war, cruel, suspicious, and treacherous. Mr. Forrest saw them frequently, but his account of them is brief; they behaved to him easy and familiar, and even furnished him with fish, or such provisions their islands afforded. Forrest con­ciliated their affection. It is highly probable that Sonnerat re­ceived his accounts from some Europeans who had provoked them by their insults. They live chiefly on fish or turtle, of which they have abundance, and neglect every species of agri­culture. When they want bread, they carry live turtle, and sausages made of their eggs, dried fish, &c. to the island of Waggiou, where they exchange them for sago, baked or fresh. Their own isles furnish the trees in quantity; but so lazy are they, that they very seldom will give themselves the trouble of cutting them down. They also bring with them tortoise-shell and suallo, which they sell to the Chinese whom they find trading in the different islands. Their wives and children accompany them in these voyages, which are performed in boats like those we call punts, square at each end, and furnished with an out-rigger of a single frame; they row with very broad oars. They take with them their bows, arrows, and lances; and for fishing are provided with a small round net, distended at the end of a pole, of the same kind as our English landing net. Add to this two or three [Page 202]fox-looking dogs, for the purpose of pursuit by sea or land; for the Papuans have a most singular water chase, which is that of hogs; WATER CHASE OF HOGS. they follow those animals as they are swimming among the small islands, and shoot them with their arrows, or transfix them with spears. The swine swim in a line, and the hindmost hogs rest their snouts on the backs of the preceding. Mr. Forrest * gives us a representation of this kind of hunting, and also of the persons, boats, and the naval apparatus of these sportsmen. They are excellent archers; their arrows are often six feet long; the bow is generally of slit bamboo, and the string of split rattans.

THE aspect of these people is frightful and hideous; FORM OF THE PAPUANS. the men are stout in body, their skin of a shining black, rough, and often disfigured with marks like those occasioned by the leprosy; their eyes are very large, their noses flat, mouth from ear to ear, their lips amazingly thick, especially the upper lip; their hair woolly, either a shining black or fiery red: M. Son­nerat imagines the last to be owing to some powder. It is dressed in a vast bush, so as to resemble a mop; some are three feet in circumference, the least two and a half; in this they stick their comb, consisting of four or five diverging teeth, with which they occasionally dress their frizzled locks, to give them a greater bulk; they sometimes ornament them with feathers of the birds of Paradise; others add to their deformity by boring their noses, and passing through them rings, pieces of bone, or sticks; and many, by way of ornament, hang round their necks the tusks of boars. The heads of the women are of less size than those of the men, and in their left ear they wear small brass rings. [Page 203]The men go naked, excepting a small wrapper round their waists, made of the fibres of the coco. The women use a covering, in general of the coarse Surat baftas, tucked up behind, so as to leave their bodies and thighs exposed to view. The children have no sort of cloathing.

ON an isle in Lat 3° 44′, WOMEN. Schouten observed that the women were more hideous than the men; their face resembled that of a monkey; their breasts hung down to their middle; their sto­machs enormously large, and their limbs most disproportionally slender; one squinted; a second had an arm monstrously swelled; a third, a leg; in short, there was not one but had some defect that indicated an unwholesome climate. Such is the account given in * Les Navigations aux Terres australes.

OFF the north-west part of Salwatty is the long isle of Patanta, PATANTA. divided from the former by a narrow but long passage, called Pitt's streights; Mr. Dalrymple gives views of both of the islands. The land is high on each side, but that of Patanta remarkably so; the mountains are double and treble, and rise above each other into most exalted summits, ending in points, or in rounded forms, and quite cloathed with fine woods.

Dampier, in 1699, sailed between the north side of Patanta and the adjacent island, through a streight seen in the maps under the name of the new Passage; Dampier mistook the isle of Patanta for the extreme north-west part of the Papuas land, or New Guinea, and passed under cape Monkaite, the most westerly point of Patanta, which he supposes to have been the cape Maho of the Dutch. Immediately afterwards he fell in with some small islands, [Page 204]which he named Cockle isle, ISLE OF KING WILLIAM. Pigeon isle, and king William's isles Mr. Dalrymple, in his view of headlands, gives a point on the last the title of cape Maho; that judicious writer makes king Wil­liam's island the northern boundary of the new streight, or as he names it Dampier's streight; king William's island is very moun­tanous and woody, and greatly resembling that of Patanta. Dampier visited a small low island, off the western part of king William's, which he called Pigeon isle, from its swarming with a species of those birds.

THE third he named Cockle isle, COCKLE ISLE. from the number of the Chama Gigas of Linnaeus, which he found on the coral rocks. This monstrous shell is described by Rumphius, tab. 47. fig. E; Bonanni, lib. ii. tab. 88; Seb. iii. tab. 86. fig. i; Argenville, tab. 23. fig. E; Born, p. 80; Da Costa, Conchyl. tab. 7. fig. 4; and Chemnitz, vol. vii. tab. 9. fig. 495. Dampier calls them cockles; he says that at first he could get only small ones of ten pounds weight, but afterwards his men brought him a single shell that weighed two hundred and fifty-eight pounds, VAST CHAMAE. so that the pair must have weighed five hundred and sixteen pounds, exclusive of the fish, which in some weighs thirty pounds. This is esteemed very good stewed, and, with the Sago bread of these islands, may at any time be a sure relief to navigators. By reason of the size of these shells, it is unsafe to attempt taking them into a small canoe: the method of managing them in such circumstances, is to put a pole into the gaping shell, which instantly closes, and holds so fast that it may be drawn up to the surface of the water; the fish, on being stabbed with a cutlass, dies immediately, and may be taken out, and the shells dropped into the sea. M. Da Costa [Page 205]says that sometimes a pair of shells weigh six and even seven hun­dred pounds. Mr. Gmelin * relates that the fish is large enough to feed a hundred and twenty men, and that the shells are able to snap a cable in two, or to cut off a man's hand! the last I can credit, possibly the first is an exaggerated proof of their strength.

MR. Born, p. 81. (from Davila) informs us, that from the li­gament of the hinge is made a gem called Pavonium by litho­logists.

NORTH of Patanta is a narrow anonymous isle, lying midway, and at but a small distance from it, that of Gammon, situated near to Waygiou, one of the greatest of the Papuan isles. WAYGIOU. On the south this is divided by two great bays, which penetrate deeply into the country; the northern side is gently incurvated, and bends at each end towards the south; the equator passes over the middle of the island. The land is very lofty, and the moun­tains divide frequently into peaks, the loftiest of which is dis­tinguished by the name of the Buffalo's Horn. The island is faid to be forty leagues in circumference, to be governed by chieftains, and to contain a hundred thousand inhabitants, who are perpetually at war with each other. On the south side are two very good harbors, Piapis and Offak. Mr. Forrest gives plans of them in his ninth plate, and of the picturesque harbor of Rawak, in plate 10. In the same, and also in tab. 9, are views of the island itself.

BESIDES the little isles, such as Ruib, Een, and others, to the north and north-west of the harbor of Piapis, are several which [Page 206]are to be found to the north-east of that of Offak, OFFAK. and among them is Manouanan *, an island of a middling height, preci­pitous on the sides.

THE group of the little isles of Aiou or Yowl, ISLES OF YOWL. are in about Lat. 0° 38′ north, at some distance to the north-north-east of Manouanan, and inclosed in regular reefs ; the number of islands is sixteen. In the lesser cluster is included Aiou Baba, or Father Aiou, the largest of the whole, and of the height of more than five hundred feet, and about five miles in circumference; all the other islands, except Abdon and Konibar, are low.

IN the greater group are Abdon, ABDON.Konibar, and several others of lesser note: the reef here forms a very considerable bed, run­ning from north to south, but the reef itself must be passed in order to get at the isles. Abdon is in Lat. 0° 36′ north. The soil on this island and Aiou Baba is rich, and rudely planted with Papaws trees, or Carica Papaya , lime trees, or Citrus limon, and Capsicum, or Cayenne pepper; Konibar with yams, potatoes, and sugar canes. On Aiou Baba is a pool of fresh water; that ar­ticle is to be found by digging, even on the low grounds. The seas abound with fish, turtle, and Suallo, which the Papuans sell to the Chinese, who must always be furnished with Dutch passes. Let me not leave these little isles, without saying that Mr. For­rest met with the utmost hospitality from the natives, and from the Moodoos, LAND OF PAPUAS. or chieftains, even a species of politeness. These islands command a view of the lofty mountains of the land of Papuas, or New Guinea.

HERE the reader may be told that this country was discovered [Page 207]in 1528, WHEN DIS­COVERED. on the day of the Epiphany, by Don Alvar de Saavedra, who sailed from a port in Mexico, by order of the great Ferdi­nando Cortez, who was instigated to it by an ecclesiastic of the name of Juan d'Arragzaga, in order to promote a farther know­lege of the spicy isles. He reached the Moluccas, where he found some remains of the fleet of Magellan; from Tidor, he took his departure on his return to Mexico, and fell in with the Papuan isles, and the land of Papua itself, which he called New Guinea, on the mistaken opinion that it lay in the same meri­dian circle as the African Guinea.

THE first remarkable place on this part of that vast island is the cape of Good Hope *, CAPE OF GOOD HOPE. lying very nearly under the equator, it is to be seen at the distance of thirty-six miles, sloping down to the very water. Abundance of drift wood was observed, not only here, but about New Britain, and all the islands to the north.

THE whole coast continues very lofty, and the land a vast suc­cession of mountain above mountain, richly cloathed with woods. The little isle of Yowry, in Lat. 0° 15′ south, Long. 130° 45′ east, ISLE OF YOWRY. has behind it a safe harbor, and on it the nutmeg tree; farther is the land of Dory, with a small hooked promontory of the same name, and within that, in Lat. 0° 21′ south, Long. 131° east, is the harbor, of an appearance most uncommonly beautiful and pic­turesque, bounded by ranges of mountains rising above each other to amazing heights, and finely wooded. MOUNTAINS OF ARFACK. Those of Arfack are the most distant from the coast, and appear to soar above [Page 208]the rest. Numbers of fires were seen, possibly made by the mountaneers.

THE shores were planted with coco palms, PAPUAN HOUSES. and varied with the grotesque inhabitants, and their singular habitations, built over the water on stages erected on posts, far projecting into the bay, and constructed exactly like some of the stairs on the river Thames. A few yards from this is another stage in deeper water, on which stands a small more elevated hut; the first tenement is the largest, and contains fourteen cabins (some are lesser) seven on a side, besides a common hall. In the last the women sit, some making mats, others pots out of the ductile clay, which they afterwards burn with dry grass or brush wood; the women do most of the work; they often are seen with an axe pre­paring the timber for the stages, while the men indulge in in­dolence, or preparation for the chase of wild hogs. The mar­ried people, with their families, live apart from the batchelors in the greater houses; the batchelors in those on the end of the stage; such is said to be the case with the Battas on Sumatra, and the Moroots on Borneo. The frontispiece to Mr. Forrest's book gives a full idea of these tenements, and the surrounding scenery, and in tab. 12. is a beautiful view of the entrance, with one of those little round-headed button-shaped islands, covered with wood to the water edge, and which characterise the archi­pelagos of these parts of the Indian seas.

IN the inland part of the country is a race of men called Haraforas, HARAFORAS. who are a sort of gardeners, and cultivate the plan­tanes, and some other esculents; these they supply the Papuas with, by a certain tenure; for if a Papuan presents a Harafora [Page 209]with an axe or chopping knife, his lands and labor are subject to a tax for ever to the donor. If the Harafora loses his axe, he is still subject to the tax; if he breaks or wears it out the Papuan must supply him with another, or the tax ceases. The Haraforas wear long hair, but are Pagans like the Papuans. They live in trees, which they ascend by a long notched pole, which they draw after them to prevent surprise.

I CAN give no account of the religious rites of either of these people. TOMBS. The Papuans form tombs of the rude coral rock; Mr. Forrest saw one with the wooden figure of a child about eight years old, completely dressed; a real scull, with a wooden head, was placed in the upper part.

THEIR commerce is chiefly with the Chinese; COMMERCE. from them they purchase their iron tools, chopping knives, and axes, blue and red baftas, China beads, plates, basons, &c. The Chinese carry back Misory bark, which they get to the eastward of Dory, at a place called Warmasine or Warapine, it is worth thirty dollars a pecul on Java. They trade also in slaves, ambergris, Suallo, or sea slug, tortoise-shell, small pearls, black Loeries, large red Loeries, birds of Paradise, and many kinds of dead birds which the Papuans have a particular way of drying. As to the Mi­sory bark, the Chinese carry it to the island of Java, and sell it to the natives, who reduce it to powder, and rub their bodies with it, as the Gentoos on the Coromandel coast do with the sandal wood.

AFTER this extract, let me observe how very prevalent is the infamous trassic in our fellow creatures, for it reaches possibly to the remotest part of New Guinea. The man I mention at p. 34 of [Page 210]this volume, engraven by Le Brun, was one of six seized on the coast of New Guinea in 1706, by the commander of the Vink, a Dutch ship, who brought them to Batavia, where they were treated with great humanity; it having been the design of the Dutch to send them back to their own country, in order to conci­liate the affections of the natives. The Papuans trade in their brother Papuans, and carry them to any chance customers they may meet with. Captain Forrest met with a boat with only four men, two of which were slaves for sale; each had round his neck a rattan collar, with a log of wood cut into the form of a sugar loaf, and of five or six pound weight, pendant behind. These were offered very cheap to the captain, but he declined the purchase. He seems to have been before provided, for he tells us * he bought a linguist at Yowl.

I AM reminded of the ornithology of New Guinea and the Papuan islands, by the curious birds, which make another article of commerce; nature here grows voluptuously rich in the forms of various of the feathered tribe which wanton in its spicy air. BIRDS OF PARADISE. The birds of Paradise, The grand Promerops, and a few other species, are distinguished by some eccentricity of plu­mage. I shall continue my account of the former as the most eminent, and refer to p. 148 for the preface to the genus, and history of the first species. I shall resume the subject with the Shague, SHAGUE. a smaller bird of Paradise , differing from the former chiefly in size; it has all the characters of the common, but its colors are less bright; the back is of a greyish yellow, bill lead color.

[Page 211]THIS inhabits the Papuan isles only; a chain which extends from the south end of Gilolo, to the west extremity of New Guinea. They never migrate, but roost on the loftiest trees of the most mountanous parts of the country, and are likewise said to have their king or leader. They are shot with blunt arrows by the natives of Mixoal; others say, that when the natives observe where they come to drink, they poison the water with the Cocculi Indici, which so stupifies them that they are caught readily. They love to feed on the fruit of the Tshampedeh, which they pierce with their bills, and extract the kernel. The natives pre­serve them by drawing the entrails, and searing the inside with a hot iron, after which they put them in the hollow of a bam­boo for their security. The Papuans call them Shag or Shague. They differ from the former in being residentiary birds, other­wise I might have been tempted to have joined this and the former as varieties. They likewise might clame the title of Manu-co Dewata, for like the preceding, they aspire to the heavenly regions. A fable (not unlike part of that of the Phoe­nix) is related of this species, that when it finds its end approach­ing, it soars directly up to the sun, till exhausted with its flight, it falls dead upon the earth.

Magnificent; de Buffon, iii. 166. Pl. Enl. 631. Sonn. N. Guinée, MAGNIFICENT. 163. tab. 98. Latham, ii. 477. tab. xix; inhabits New Guinea; I shall not trouble the reader with description, but refer to the beautiful figure given by Mr. Latham.

Crested; Manucodiata cirrhata, Aldr. lib. xii. c. 25. p. 401; CRESTED. with a long black bill somewhat hooked; at the junction of the bill, the feathers were yellow; head, neck, and wings black; near [Page 212]the nape of the neck a crest composed of stiff yellow bristles, rather than feathers, three inches high; length, to the end of the wings, eighteen inches: most probably an inhabitant of New Guinea, but seems unknown since the days of Aldro­vandus.

Gorget; GORGET.Latham, ii. 478. tab. xx. This was undescribed till Mr. Latham favored us with an account of it; he supposes it to be the same with one mentioned by captain Forrest, p. 140, who says that the Alfoories, or inhabitants of the mountains in Mixoal, shoot these birds, and sell them to the people of Tidore.

Superb; SUPERB.Sonn. N. Guinée, 157. tab. 96. De Buffon, iii. 169. Pl. Enl. 632. Latham, ii. 479. The Black, Forrest, 139. An in­habitant of New Guinea, its history unknown. M. Sonnerat places a small bird in its claws, so one may conclude it to be a rapacious species, but it is a most elegant kind; the long feathers springing from the shoulder are best expressed in the figure given in Les Planches Enluminces: in Mr. Sonnerat they are left quiescent.

Furcated; FURCATED.Latham, ii. 480. 2d paragraph. Lev. Mus. with the head wholly black; the wings had been cut off, but near their origin rises a tuft, like those of the preceding, on the upper part of the belly.

Six-wired; SIX-WIRED.L'oiseaux de Paradis a gorge d'or; Sonn. N. Guinée, 158. tab. 97. Le Siselet, ou manucode a six filets; de Buffon, iii. 171. Pl. Enl. 633. Latham, ii. 481. Size of a turtle. The long shaft­less feathers on each side of the neck, make it the most singular species of any we are acquainted with.

Damasked blue green; DAMASKED BLUE GREEN.Latham, ii. 482. Sonnerat, 164. tab. 99. [Page 213] Pl. Enl. 634. This species has none of the eccentric feathers of the others, yet each feather on the head and body appears curled at the edges. The color is that of damasked steel, re­flecting blue, green, and purple. The feathers in the bird de­scribed by Mr. Sonnerat, lie quite close on each other; length sixteen inches.

Golden; Edw. 112. Latham, ii. 483. GOLDEN. This species is of a bril­liant gold color; throat of a velvet black; edge of the wings and tail black.

White; Forrest, 140. Latham, index, p. 197. WHITE. These are very uncommon; one is said to be quite white, the other black and white: found only in the Papuan islands, especially in Waggiou.

White-winged; Latham, vii. Supp. 92. Its general color is black; WHITE­WINGED. about the neck glossed with copper; primaries white, edged with black; the middle feathers of the tail twenty inches long, the exterior only seven.

I NOW pass to another genus which produces species inferior only to the preceding. The Grand of Mr. Latham, ii. p. 695. GRAND PROMEROPS. Le grand Promerops de la Nouvelle Guinée; Sonn. Voy. p. 166. pl. 101. Pl. Enl. 639. Le grand Promerops a paremens frisès; Buf. Ois. vi. p. 472.

THE extravagancy of the plumage is admirably expressed in the figure referred to; the size is that of a middle sized pigeon; the tail is most enormous; the middle feathers being two feet four inches long.

THE rayed is the other species; New Guinea, brown; Latham ii. 694. Le Promerops brun de la Nouvelle Guinée; Sonn. Voy. 164. tab. 100. Le Promerops brun a ventre rayèe; Buf. Ois. vi. p. 471. [Page 214]pl. 22. Promerops de la Nouvelle Guinée; Pl. Enl. 638. The tail of this species is also long, but far inferior to that of the other, which is a chef d'oeuvre of nature in its kind.

THESE birds being peculiar to the land of Papua or New Guinea, I have, out of all system, began with them. I now re­sume the regular order, and go on with the first proper genus of the list.

New Guinea; PARROT. Sonnerat, 174. tab. 108. Latham, i. 296: with upper mandible pale yellow, lower black; head, neck, breast, coverts of wings, and the tail of a bright grass green; primaries of an indigo color, inner coverts carmine: inhabits New Guinea.

Papuan Loeri; Latham, i. 215. Sonn. N. Guinće, iii. 175: with red bill and legs; head, neck, and breast of a lively carmine color. On the hind part of the head is an oblong transverse spot, of a most striking blue above, and violet black beneath; on the middle of the neck behind is another of a violet black; wings short, and of a gay green; back, between the shoulders, of the same color; the rest of the back is ornamented with a stripe of bright blue quite to the tail, bounded on each side by lively red. On each side of the breast, and beneath the thighs, is a spot of bright yellow; upper part of the belly and vent feathers red; middle of the belly blue. The tail is for two thirds of its length green, lower part yellow: two of the middle feathers exceed the others greatly in length. This also is a native of the Papuan isles.

Great-billed Loeri; de Buffon, vi. 122. Pl. Enl. 713. Latham, i. 178: with a bill of a blood red, most disproportionably large; head blue; neck of a bright green, glossed with gold; back of [Page 215]a sea blue; breast and belly yellow, shaded with green; coverts [...] wings black, edged with yellow; primaries glossed with sky blue and green; tail azure, tipt with yellow; length above fourteen inches. Inhabits New Guinea.

Black Loeri; Latham, i. 221. Sonnerat, 175. tab. 110: with a dusky bill; whole plumage black, with the gloss of metallic blue, and the appearance of velvet; tail below of a sordid green; legs dusky. Inhabits New Guinea and the Papuan isles.

Gueby Loeri; Latham, i. 219. Pl. Enl. 684. Sonnerat, 174. tab. 109: with a pale red bill; head, neck, breast, belly, vent, and middle of the back rich scarlet; behind each eye an oblique stroke of black; breast, hind part of neck, and the belly, crossed with short semilunar spots of dark violet; coverts of wings scarlet; the lower irregularly spotted with black; primaries and secondaries black, varied with a few red spots; a great trian­gular spot of dark violet marks the farther parts of the wings about the scapulars, and covers the adjacent part of the back; tail of a copper color; length about nine inches. Inhabits Gueby, between Gilolo and New Guinea.

Gilolo Loeri; Latham, i. 274. Sonnerat, 177. tab. 112. Pl. Enl. 519: with the whole plumage scarlet, except the first primaries, and the ends of the others, which are black; on the coverts are two blue spots, and on the vent another; tail of a sine carmine, the end chesnut. Inhabits Gilolo.

IT may be observed that the name of Loeris is given to such parrots as have the bill weaker, less crooked, and more sharp pointed than the others; which have a more lively look, greater alacrity and suddenness in their movements; their voice more [Page 216]piercing, and the note having some similitude to the word Lori [...] they learn to speak with amazing facility, and will repeat words even at the first hearing. They are also to an individual natives of the Molucca isles or New Guinea.

New Guinea CROW.; Dampier's Voy. iii. 187; with the outside of the feathers black, their insides white; in size and form resembling the English crows, and the white color imperceptible, unless the feathers are examined. Inhabits Pulo Sabuda, an isle on the coast of New Guinea.

Barred; JACKDAW. Choucas de la Nouvelle Guinée; de Buffon, iii. 80. Pl. Enl. 629. Latham, i. 381: with a strong black bill; from the forehead a black stroke passes beneath, and beyond each eye; head, neck, and upper part of back cinereous; breast, belly, lower part of back, and rump, white barred with black; tail, wings, and legs black; length near thirteen inches. Inhabits New Guinea; has the appearance of a Jackdaw.

Grey; Le choucari de la N. Guinée; de Buffon, iii. 81. Pl. Enl. 630: with a small black spot beginning at the bill, and surround­ing the eyes; head, neck, wings, back, and tail of a deep cine­reous grey, declining into dirty white on the breast and belly; legs cinereous; length above eleven inches: found in New Guinea.

Pied ROLLER.; Latham, i. 415. Pl. Enl. 628. The bill strong and thick; head, neck, and upper part of the back black; primaries and tail black, and most remote tertial; the exterior feathers of the last tipt with white; rest of the plumage white; length thirteen inches.

[Page 217] Great Brown; has been mentioned at p. 124, KING-FISHER. among the birds of New Holland.

The Spotted; Sonnerat, 171. tab. 107; or the New Guinea, Latham, ii. 614; is most remarkable in its colors, being black, universally marked on head, back, wings, and tail, with small round spots of white; and on the neck, breast, and belly, with short downward streaks of the same color. On the sides of the cheek is a large elegant pear-shaped white spot, and be­neath that, another exactly circular. This species is as large as a crow.

New Guinea; Latham, iv. 789. Sonnerat, 170. tab. 105. QUAIL. This is a dwarf species, of half the size of the English Quail; color brown; coverts of the wings edged with dirty yellow; primaries black.

Great crowned; Latham, iv. 620. Edw. 338. PIGEON. Columba Coro­nata; Lin. 282. Pl. Enl. 118. Sonnerat, 169. tab. 104. The head of this species is adorned with a vast superb circular crest of fea­thers, standing erect, and composed of loose unconnected webs of a fine pale bluish ash; the eyes lodged in a shuttle-shaped band of black; the lesser coverts of the wings, and upper part of the back of a dark reddish purple; the first greater coverts white, edged with red. All the rest of the plumage, wings, and tail, of the color of the crest.

THIS is the giant of the kind, MANNERS. being equal in size to a com­mon turkey. It has been misnamed a pheasant, but besides the generical marks, it has the manners of a pigeon, billing, inflat­ing its breast, and cooing; but the last (as might be expected from the bulk) is so sonorous, as to approach, when in fulness [Page 218]of love, the sound of bellowing; at which season it brings its head to its breast, and emits its amorous note. They soon grow tame, and take to the food which is placed before them; they are pugnacious, and will strike a hard blow with their wings, which are armed with a horny excrescence. It is said that they are kept in the East Indies in the court yards as domestic poultry. They have been brought alive to France, where the female has formed its nest in a tree in the Menagery, and laid eggs, but they never produced young. They breed in their native country on the highest trees, and lay a very large egg. Our authority, Dampier, saw a bird of this kind shot on the coast of New Guinea as big as the largest dunghill cock. M. Bougainville met with them in the same country; they alarmed his crew by the loud­ness of their note, who mistook it for a savage roaring of the natives. It is a species very local, confined to New Guinea, Pulo, Sabuda, a small isle off the same country, and Tomoguy another. The Molucca people call them Mulutu, the Papuas Manipi. M. Sonnerat gives them the name of Goura; the Dutch stile it the Kroon vogel or Crown bird. Sonnerat denies that these birds are natives of Banda, and asserts that they are only brought there, and purchased by the Dutch.

Papuan; Latham, iv. 532. Pl. Enl. 707. The head and whole upper part of the body, wings, and tail black, the lower white, with an orange spot on the middle of the belly.

New Guinea HERON.; Latham, v. 71. Pl. Enl. 926. The whole of this species is black. Length only ten inches.

Patagonian; PINGUIN. Latham, vi. 563. Pl. Enl. 975; Sonnerat, 179. tab. 113; Phil. Trans. lviii. 91. tab. 5; Gen. Birds, p. 66. tab. 14. [Page 219]I refer the reader to the Philosophical Transactions for my ac­count of this gigantic species. The figure there is bad, taken from an ill-stuffed skin; that in my Genera of Birds excellent, done from one taken from the life by Doctor Forster. This spe­cies extends from near the equator to the most frozen regions of the south.

Collared; Latham, vi. 571; Sonnerat, 181. tab. 114. This species has the neck, and all the upper part of the body black; in front of the neck is a collar of white, reaching only half round; the eyes surrounded with a naked skin of blood red; breast and belly white: length eighteen inches.

Papuan; Latham, vi. 565; Sonnerat, 181. tab. 115. The head and whole upper part of the body black; the hind part of the head marked with a white spot; breast and belly white: length two feet and a half.

I WILL conclude this incomplete list by saying, that the cir­cumambient seas of New Guinea, as well as the Spicy Sea, have all the pelagic birds of the tropical regions, PELAGIC BIRDS. TROPIC BIRDS. besides those which wander within them from the north and from the south. Tropic birds are here seen hovering at amazing heights, or darting on the flying fishes, driven out of their element by the pursuit of the Bonito, Albicore, and other of their congenial enemies; sometimes resting on the water, or on the backs of the sleeping tortoises, stupidly suffering themselves to be taken by the navigators who happen to pass by. They breed in several places within the Tropics, in the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, both on the ground, and in trees along with the frigates, and in such numbers, that the [Page 220]trees are loaden with these picturesque birds in a most singular manner.

THE frigate birds appear gliding in the air at times at stu­pendous heights, FRIGATE. and often making the clouds their place of rest, sustaining themselves long motionless on their vast expanse of wing. Then, from a situation so lofty as to render them scarcely visible, will, by virtue of their penetrating eyes, see and dart down on a fish with astonishing rapidity, and with their prey as suddenly regain their former aerial situation. Gulls are often their at­tendants, and dispute the booty with them.

Petrels of different kinds are seen skimming the surface; PETRELS. some are accustomed to snatch the fishes as they pass along; others, collected in multitudes, suddenly dart in concert beneath the water for their food, rise again, and repeat their exercises in long succession.

Pelecans, PELECANS. and the duller Corvorants, keep near to the shores. The Pelecans are often seen in the air shifting from place to place; their snowy color, and vast bulk of body, and expanse of wing, render them astonishing objects; they fly, like wild geese, in wedge-shaped phalanxes, and afford a most amusing variety in the animated atmosphere.

THE fin-winged Pinguins keep erect on the shore, PINGUINS. till, com­pelled by hunger, they are driven in search of food into the sea. Their rapid diving is among the wonders; they are seen be­neath the transparent waves darting after their prey with all the swiftness of the Albicore or Bonito.

WATER spouts are phaenomena most frequent in these seas; WATER SPOUTS. [Page 221]they appear hanging out of the clouds in a funnel shape, the base uppermost, but at times assume different forms. Let me speak to the eyes, by referring to Phil. Trans. Abridg. ii. 104. tab. p. 164; vol. iv. part 2d, p. 103. tab. 1; vol. viii. 655. tab. 6; to Gentil's Voy. ii. tab. 9; but above all, to Thevenot, Engl. Trans. folio, p. 185, in which their shapes and progress are variously re­presented, either rising in a thick column from the sea, or fal­ling from the clouds, to the terror of the mariners, who expect to be overwhelmed by the quantity and weight of water, an accident that never has been well proved to have happened. Dampier, who was most conversant in maritime phaenomena of any man in his, or perhaps any other time, confesses he never knew of any damage done by a water spout except once *; and that appears to have been by the cause, and not by the spout itself, which fell into the sea, near the ship, with a vast noise and agitation of the water: the mizen mast, fore mast, and boltsprit were snapped short off; but this injury arose entirely from the rage of the whirlwind which formed the spout: its first blast blew the ship all along on one side, and almost overset her; then suddenly whirling round with the same fury, very nearly overset her on the contrary side. Sailors are always full of terrors at the appearance of spouts; they discharge cannon into them, in order to break and make them fall at a distance, but never with effect. The experienced Dampier concludes with saying, "that the fright was always the greatest harm."

I NOW resume the element of earth. Off the harbor of Dory extends the island of Manaswary; it is about five miles in com­pass, [Page 222]and full of trees. Here Captain Forrest accomplished the end of his mission; he found on it abundance of nutmeg trees *, and paid five pieces of baftas, his promised reward, to any person who discovered them. The fruit was pendent on the old trees, and the young plants growing under their shade. He took up above a hundred, put them into baskets with earth round them, and then hastened on his return to Balambangan.

CAPTAIN FORREST finished his voyage at port Mansingham, PORT OF MANSINGHAM. at a very small distance from Dory harbor. The land from that port recedes deeply to the south, and forms a large bay, gra­dually narrowing to the bottom. In Mr. Arrowsmith's map the lower part is under the suspicion of being an island; it is marked on each side with double dotted lines, expressive of streights, which opens southerly towards the Arrou isles. The promon­tory of Dory and Geetvinks Point are the two horns of this bay. Long Island lies at a small distance to the north of Geetvinks Point; LONG ISLAND. SCHOUTENS'. and in Lat. 0° 46′ S. is Schouten's, named in honor of the great circumnavigator who discovered it in 1616. It is about twenty leagues in length, high and fertile, populous, and the inhabitants an active race. The coast extends far to the east. Off it is a succession of small isles, several of them volcanic, and called by Schouten, Vulcans, and by Dampier, burning isles. Jamna and Moa are other small islands, JAMNA AND MOA well inhabited, and abounding with cocoa nuts and various fruits. Captain Forrest gives us two prints representing the natives and their canoes: their hair is flatted on the top of the head; some decorate it with a feather, and others bind a wreath round their temples [Page 223]and head. They wear great ear-rings, and bones stuck through their ears and nostrils. Men women and children go armed with bows and arrows.

AFTER proceeding along the coast farther eastward, the dis­coveries of our famous navigator Dampier thicken on us; an archipelago appears with the Crown Island, that of Sir Robert Rich, another long island, Sir George Rooke's, and several others, SIR G [...] ROOKE many of which were active volcanoes.

IN Lat. 1° 18′ S. Dampier discovered a new land to the north, divided from New Guinea by a streight from six to seven leagues wide, each side marked by a lofty cape; to one he gave the name of King William's, to that on the north side Cape Anne, and within each was a very high mountain, sloping gradually to the sea; the mountains and lower lands finely cloathed with trees, intermixed with beautiful Savannas of the most flourishing verdure. NEW BRITAIN. This northern land he named New Britain.

WE will follow his track as far as will prove it to be an island, or possibly more than one. Let me observe, that Dampier's approach was the reverse from that which we now take. In Lat. 6° 10′ south, he put into a bay named by him Port Montagu. PORT MONTAGU. The country was mountanous, wooded, full of rich vallies and pleasant streams of fresh water. The trees were of various kinds, some in flower, others bore berries, and others large fruits, and cocoa palms in abundance, but the nuts were small; here were also yams, and other good esculent roots, and ginger. The quadrupeds were hogs and dogs; possibly it was from hence that the South Sea isles were stocked with those animals, [Page 224]being the nearest place they could be supplied from. Among the birds were parrots, cockatoos, pigeons, crows, and abun­dance of other species. There was also fish in plenty. How unfortunate were our convicts, that this rich island was not thought of as the place of their involuntary retreat.

A VERY little to the north of Montagu Bay was discovered, in 1767, another streight, of small breadth, but which severs New Britain into two islands, leaving the northern the largest. It was not Dampier's fortune to discover it; he passed it by, and, in Lat. 5° 25′ south, CAPE ORFORD. saw a headland he named Cape Orford. The country continued very mountanous, full of people; the men armed with lances, their head gay with feathers; the women had no sort of ornaments, and nothing to hide their nakedness except a bunch of green leaves behind and before. There were tame hogs in great abundance, which ran about near the hovels of the natives.

WITHIN cape Orford was an inlet, which Dampier supposing to be a great bay, named by him that of St. George, and a cape on the northern side, in Lat. 5° south, Long. 152° 19′ east, corre­spondent to cape Orford, CAPE ST. GEORGE. he called cape St. George. These two headlands proved the distinguishing mark of the entrance into a streight, which divided New Britain into a second island. This discovery was made by that able officer Captain Carteret, Sep­tember 9th 1767, on his disastrous return from the South Seas. When he got into St. George's bay, he found so strong a current to the north-west, that he could not return to pursue Dampier's track. Captain Carteret, soon after he doubled cape St. George, met with several islands in the southern side of the streights; [Page 225]the nearest, about three leagues from the cape, he named Wallis's, which lay before an harbor he called Gower's. WALLIS'S ISLE. The island was lofty, well wooded, and inhabited; farther on were two coves, with fresh water rivers falling into their bottom. About four leagues from Wallis's isle, still to the west, was a good harbor, on which was bestowed the respectable name of the dis­coverer; across it lay Cocoa-nut isle. On this coast were trees of enormous growth, all the kinds of palms, the betel tree, aloes, bamboos, rattans, a fruit the sailors call a Jamaica plumb, and probably many of the tropical fruits and plants; he also found the nutmeg tree in plenty; possibly this place is its most remote situation to the north.

THE country abounded with land birds, seemingly the same with those of New Britain; among them was a large black bird, that made a noise like the barking of a dog, which I suppose to have been a Buceros.

MR. Carteret pursued his own discovery, and sailed directly westward. NEW IRELAND. He gave the name of New Ireland to the island on the northern side, and distinguished three capes on the southern by the names of Buller, Palliser, and Stephens. CAPE STEPHENS. Between cape Palliser and cape Stephens, is an island, to which Mr. Carteret gave the name of the Duke of York's, quite level, deliciously cloathed with lofty woods in the inland parts, and near the shore planted with cocoa groves, intermixed with the houses of the islanders.

TO the east of cape Stephens, is in mid-channel an isle he called the isle of Man. Cape Stephens is the supposed most ex­treme western point of New Britain; all that side, as far as cape [Page 226] Gloucester, still remains undiscovered. A little to the south of cape Stephens are three singular hills, the Mother and Daugh­ters, and behind them a vast volume of smoke arose, out of one of the numerous volcanic hills of the country. The land, like the rest of New Britain, was very lofty and wooded, with many clear spots, the signs of plantations, and frequent fires, the marks of inhabitants. The general breadth of these streights are about fifteen leagues *; no bottom was found with a line of a hundred and forty fathoms. Captain Carteret modestly declined giving his own name to this important discovery, but called it St. George's channel; ST. GEORGE'S CHANNEL. the streights properly end at cape Ste­phens. As soon as that promontory is passed, there is one ex­panse of sea, probably quite to New Guinea, but the name of St. George's channel is continued along the shores of New Ireland, to its western extremity, where it is broken into a smaller isle, named by our navigator Hanover, and the extreme point, in Lat. 2° 29′ south, Long. 148° 27′ east, queen Charlotte's foreland; the approach to it is through a narrow passage, between an isle called Sandwich, and New Ireland. The land of Hanover isle is high, finely covered with trees, mixed with plantations, exhi­biting a most beautiful landscape.

THE whole length of St. George's channel, LENGTH OF. from cape St. George to queen Charlotte's foreland, is three hundred miles; that of New Ireland, from cape St. George to cape Biron, the western extremity, is two hundred and forty miles; cape Biron is possibly the same with that we see in Dampier's map under the name of cape Solomaswar. As to the form of New Ireland, [Page 227]it is extremely narrow the whole way; the greatest part runs north-west, but towards the east end, reverts and bends like a hook to the south, terminating in cape St. George.

BEYOND these was a group of small isles Mr. Carteret named the Admiralty, in Lat. 2° 18′ south, Long. 146° 44′ east. By the views of them they appear less elevated than Hanover isle, and we may collect, from the multitudes of canoes that sallied out to attack our commander, that they must be very populous; they were manned with people nearly black, with woolly heads. The natives were very hostile, NATIVES. and flung with great force lances headed with flint; they chewed betel, went quite naked, but their bodies were ornamented with shells, their faces streaked with white, and their heads as finely powdered with white powder as an English beau ready for a Bal parè. One of their canoes, apparently the least, was taken, yet it mea­sured full fifty feet in length. In it were specimens of their arts, such as earthen pots, in which they dressed their victuals, and a quantity of matting which served for sails and awnings; there were besides cocoa nuts, and other fruits unknown to our people.

SOME of the canoes of New Ireland were ninety feet long, CANOES. formed out of a single tree; a proof of the vigorous growth of timber in this country; they were manned by three and thirty men, black and woolly headed, but they had not the thick lip or flat nose; in ornaments and powdering they resembled the for­mer; some had cock's feathers in their heads, a proof that they did not want poultry. They had lances by way of arms, and cord­age and fishing nets very skilfully manufactured; all this coun­try [Page 228]is probably well inhabited, and very fertile in trees and fruits; the sea abounding in turtle and fish. The very distressed state of Captain Carteret and his crew, is the sad but true apo­logy for our wanting, from his able pen, a fuller account of this interesting island.

ON July 5th 1768, M. Bougainville anchored in the same bay as Captain Carteret did, and named it Port Praslin. He observed here the pepper plant, and found wild hogs, numbers of birds, and among others the great crowned pigeon; variety of snakes, scorpions, and the singular insect the walking leaf.

AMONG the serpents was the sea snake, of that species which, at p. 131, is suspected to have been poisonous; this was verified here. A sailor was bitten as he was hawling the Seine, he was very soon affected with violent pains all over his body; his side (the part on which he received the wound) became livid, and swelled greatly, the blood taken from him appeared dissolved: he suffered much for five or six hours; at length, by the assistance of the Venice treacle, or Theriaca Andromachi, with flower de luce water, he fell into a violent perspiration, and was quite cured *. The natives of Otaheite assert that the bite is mortal.

Dampier coasted the whole northern side. Captain Carteret, in his approach to the eastern end, fell in with a group of little isles, to which he gave the name of the nine isles. He passed between two larger, the more southern he called Lord Anson's; the more northern, Sir Charles Hardy's, in Lat. 4° 50′ south, was flat, verdant, and appeared well inhabited. He soon after saw St. John's isle, ST. JOHN's ISLAND, &c. discovered by Schouten, and seen by Dampier. [Page 229]It is nine or ten leagues round, rises into high hummocks full of lofty trees, with plantations and groves near the shores, and seemingly very populous. We now fall in with Dampier, with cape St. Mary's, in Lat. 5° 2′ south. The country was mounta­nous, high, and wooded, with many points of land running into the sea, forming between them as many fine bays. Here a man of large size approached the ship, and spoke a language different from those Dampier had before seen. Proceeding north-west­ward, the whole extent of New Ireland, or the coast opposite to St. George's channel (afterwards traced by Captain Carteret) ap­pears before us. At some distance from it is a chain of isles, of which St. John's may be deemed one. They had been all named by the Dutch. Antony Cave's is lofty. GERARD DENNIS's. Gerard Dennis's is the next, fourteen or fifteen leagues in circumference; high, wooded, and mountanous, thick set with plantations, and full of cocoa trees. The shape was irregular, full of points, forming sandy bays; the ground cleared for plantations, and the soil of a brownish red color. The next island, named Wishart's, WISHART'S. resembled the preceding. Dampier also discovered two other islands some­what farther to the west: One, ten leagues long, he named Ma­thias; like many others, mountanous and woody, mixed with Savannas, and cleared land; and near that a low and plain island, cloathed with tall and large trees, as close to each other as they could stand. This he called the squally, from the violent gales he met with off the coast.

IN respect to the north shore of New Ireland, I find that our navigator attempted to touch at only one place, which he named Slinger's bay. This country seems prodigiously populous; SLINGER'S BAY. his [Page 230]ship was surrounded with prows filled with men, who assaulted him with stones flung out of engines; and the shores were lined with the natives from end to end. NATIVES. All the inhabitants of this, and the adjacent isles, were a warlike race, hostile to strangers, and very suspicious. They were tall, even above the size of the common race of men, strong, and well made, had curled short hair, often shaved in different forms, and stained with white, red, and yellow; their heads were round faces broad; they had great bottle noses, and substances stuck through the gristle, passing from cheek to cheek. Their weapons were lances, swords, slings, and bows and arrows; their speech clear and dis­tinct. All these are the same kind of people, from the remotest of the Papuan isles to this island; varying a little in the dressing of their hair, and other trifling matters.

THEIR prows were very neatly built, PROWS. with out-riggers on one side; the head and stern elevated, and most ingeniously carved with figures of fish, fowl, and on one was a man's head, done most surprisingly well, considering the rude in­struments of stone they had to work with; for they seemed ignorant of the uses of iron; their paddles were very neat; and they made their way with amazing swiftness through the water.

A VERY legendary tale is told, in L'Histoire de Navigations aux Terres Australes *, respecting the origin of the Negro race in these Asiatic isles, which is first met with in some of the Manillas, continued through the Papuan isles and New Guinea, and even through New Holland. I have mentioned them before in my [Page 231]account of the Manillas, and if I recollect right, one of these islands is called the isle of Negroes, from its being inhabited by a curled headed people.

I NOW return from cape Biron, or Solomaswar, taking a course due south, along the western coasts of the isles of New Britain. Near the extreme western part of the farthest is an headland, called by Dampier, Cape Gloucester. At a small distance to the west is a little island, which at the time our navigator passed it, was a raging volcano. It flung up columns of flame twenty or thirty yards high, attended with a noise like thunder, followed by an overflowing of red-hot lava, which ran down the sides of the mountain till it reached the sea. This continued two days and nights, or as long as this tremendous phaeno­menon continued in sight.

I NOW repass Dampier's streights eastward, and turn to the south. In Mr. Arrowsmith's excellent map of the world, New Guinea is continued by dotted lines, farther to the east; and on the south side, near the extremity of that line, the uncertainty is taken away by a tract of land discovered by M. de Bougainville in 1768, which he named La Louisiade, and the extreme eastern point Le Cap de la Deliverance, in memory of his narrow escape from a violent tempest. The great bay which he calls Le Golfe de la Louisiade is just to the south of the cape. Such a confusion, occasioned by the fears and distresses of the great French navigator, is so apparent in this part of his voyage, that nothing more can be collected respecting this portion of New Guinea.

[Page 232]WE must therefore steer along another dotted line till we arrive at Prince of Wales's islands, PRINCE OF WALES'S ISLES. Lat. 10° 33′ south, Long. 142° east. The largest is long and narrow, and lies parallel with the coast. This part of the sea between New Guinea and New Hol­land is called Torres's streights, TORRES'S STREIGHTS. for having been passed in 1606 by Don Baes de Torres, admiral under Fernandez Quiros; corre­spondent to them, beyond another set of islands, named also the Prince of Wales's, is the Endeavour streight, passed, as I have before mentioned, by our boasted Cook.

IN proceeding along the coasts, I find names of places, but nothing more. Captain Cook, on his quitting the coast of New Holland, crossed the intervening water, and touched in Lat. 6° 15′ at a place on this side of New Guinea, to which he has neither left a name, nor yet even the mark of landing in his chart. We are told that it lay sixty-five leagues to the north-east of Waelche cape. The country was low, but covered with such a luxuriancy of wood and herbage as scarcely can be conceived; and among them such numbers of aromatic trees, as perfumed the air even at a distance from shore. The natives were hostile, went quite naked, and had much the appearance of the New Hollanders. They shouted defiance, and from a short stick or hollow cane they swung in their hands, FIRE-ARMS. was emitted flashes of fire, exactly like the effect of gunpowder; these explosions were innocent, nor could our navigators ever learn the cause. After each explo­sion, which was done by a single man, his companions flung their bearded darts. All that we learn farther of this country is, that it produced sine cocoa-nuts, plantanes, and bread fruit.

[Page 233]CAPE Waelche or Walsh, the most western point of this coast, CAPE WAELCHE. lies in Lat. 8° 32′ south, Long. 137° east. From hence the land runs strait, inclining to the north-east, when it takes another turn towards the north-west. The space between the trendings is occupied by the tract, marked in Mr. Arrowsmith's map as pervious by two streights. The Arrou isles lie trans­verse, at some distance from this part of New Guinea.

FARTHER to the north-west, nearly parallel to the end of Ceram, is Freshwater bay, in Lat. 1° 33′ south. This was visited by Dampier in 1699. The country was wooded and mounta­nous, like the other parts of New Guinea, and the trees of great size; here his people killed one of those magnificent pigeons called the crowned. The bay received its name from the plenty of fresh water; and another, a little farther north, was called Mackerel bay, from the great quantity of that fish, MACKEREL BAY. or one resem­bling it, which was taken there.

OPPOSITE to this bay, in Lat. 2° 43′ south, is Pulo Sabuda, PULO SABUDA. a lofty island, about three leagues long and two broad, not far from the coast of New Guinea; it is in general rocky, but so mixed with rich yellow and black soil, as to be productive of many of the tropical fruits and trees. The sago tree and the Jacca are found there. The natives gave Dampier two or three nutmegs, seemingly fresh gathered; but he could not tell whe­ther they were the produce of the isle or of New Guinea. The inhabitants do not seem to be aboriginal. They are tawny, have long black hair, and differ little from the Mindanayans, and the people of the other eastern isles; the women wear a callico co­vering; [Page 234]the men go almost naked, and are very skilful in striking fish; they have great boats in which they often visit New Guinea, where they procure slaves, beautiful parrots, &c. which they carry to Goram, and exchange for callicoes. They keep many of the poor Papuans for their own use to do the laborious work. This island has the same birds as the main land, and bats of an enormous size.

I CANNOT quit this part of the coast without mentioning a singular communication made to Captain Forrest (p. 149.) by the natives of Ess-be in the island of Mixoal, that on the coast of New Guinca, not far from a gulph about a day's sail from Wanim or Onin, a place about twenty leagues from the north­east of the isle of Goram, was a set of people who wore large turbans. He imagines them to have been the posterity of a colony of Arabs. ARABS. If this is true, their discovery will be just as important to the world as that of the race of Owen Gwynedd, long lost to the Britons, till it has been lately credited that they still exist in America, under the title of Padoucas or Welsh In­dians.

THAT the western side of New Guinea (probably all parts, PLENTY OF NUTMEGS. if properly examined) abound with nutmeg trees, is very certain. A Portuguese ship, which was forced by a storm from its anchor­age at Timor, was driven to this coast, and there anchored in order to repair the damage she had received. The captain, during the interval, procured a sufficient loading of nutmegs, with which he sailed directly to Macao, and sold them, without ever return­ing to his former place of destination.

[Page 235]FROM Mackerel bay, the coast trends to the north-west as far as the streights of Galowa and Salwatty island. From thence it turns to the north-east, terminating at the Cape of Good Hope. Thus have I performed the circuit of the great island, and con­cluded this the last great labor of my life.


  • CANNA Indica, Syst. Pl. i. p. 2. Fl. Coch. i. 13. Fl. Zeyl. 1. Can­nacorus, Rumph. Amb. v. p. 177. t. 71. f. 2. Katu Bala, Rheed. Mal. ii. p. 85. l. 43. Flowering Reed, Gerard, 39. Outlines of the Globe, i. p. 316.—Inhabits all parts of India, is found also in Africa and South America. Called Indian Shot, from the form of the seeds, of which the Catholics, and the Mahometan negroes, make rosaries.
  • RENEALMIA exaltata, Linn. Suppl. 79. Globba Sylvestris, major et minor, Rumph. Amb. vi. 140. tab. 62, 63. Grows in the wet fields of Celebes, and, rarely, behind Victoria castle, in Amboina. The fruit is of little use, but for its perfumed scent; is greedily eaten by the green parrots. The form of that of the Sylvestris of sin­gular growth. All the species given by Rumphius have the Ternatic name of Globba.
  • MYROSMA Cannaefolia, Linn. Suppl. 80. Narukila, Rheed. Mal. ii. 67. tab. 34.
  • AMOMUM Zingiber, Syst. Pl. i. 2. Fl. Zeyl. 3. Zingiber Maius, Rumph. Amb. v. p. 156. t. 66. f. 1. Inschi, Rheed. Mal. ii. p. 21. t. 12. Outlines, i. p. 141. Gerard, 61.—Common to the hotter parts of Africa, par­ticularly on the Red Sea, on the Troglodytic coast, the inhabitants of which were called by the Arabs, Zingi, from whom the plant de­rived its name. It was also brought from the neighboring Bar­baria, as appears from Galen, lib. vi. Medic. Simpl.
  • AMOMUM Zerumbet, 3. Fl. Zeyl. 2. Fl. Coch. i. 3. Lampucium, Rumph. Amb. v. p. 148. t. 61. f. 1. Katou-Inschi-kua, Rheed. Mal. ii. p. 27. t. 13. Zerumbeth seu Zedoaria rotunda, Gerard, 34.
  • [Page 238]AMOMUM Cardamomum, Syst. Pl. i. 4. Fl. Zeyl. 4. Fl. Coch. i. 4. Car­damomum minus, Rumph. Amb. v. p. 152. t. 65. f. 1. Elettari, Rheed. Mal. ii. p. 9. t. 6. Sonnerat, ii. 240. tab. 136. Gerard, C. minus, 542. Cardamomum. Plinti, lib. xii. c. 7. Outlines, i. p. 141.—In use among the antients, Gerard prescribes them in sack to cure the ague, and to warm the cold and feeble stomach.
  • AMOMUM Granum Paradisi, 3. Grana Paradisi Officinarum, Bauh. Pin. 413. Roseum, Pl. of Coromandel, ii. tab. 126. Elettari, Rheed. Mal. ii. t. 6. Gerard, 1542.
  • COSTUS Arabicus, 3. Fl. Zeyl. v. Costus Arabicus, Bauh. Pin. 36. Tsiana kua, Rheed. Mal. ii. p. 15. t. 8. Gerard, 1620. Outlines, i. 25. —The Costus is now expelled from our dispensatory. The root was highly esteemed by the antients, and sold at a high price, be­ing used in medicine, and as a rich ointment. The best was brought from Patala, near the mouth of the Indus, and from Persia. Horace speaks of the Achaemenius Costus among the highest luxuries. Pliny describes its qualities, Radix gustu servens, odore eximio, frutice alias inutile. Bontius speaks in high terms of its virtues, which he expe­rienced in India.
  • MARANTA Galanga, 4. Galanga, Rumph. Amb. v. p. 143. t. 63. Amo­mum Galanga, Fl. Coch. i. 7.—Once in our dispensatory as a bitter, but now omitted. Grows every where in wet places from Hindoostan to China, and in all the isles. The roots are jointed, and surrounded with circular striae; are hot, bitter, and sharp; much used in India to promote the appetite, and more for that purpose than for me­dicine. Of this plant is made the Bocassan, composed of a sort of shell-fish steeped in vinegar, and the pickle called Achar, as famous as the Garum of the Romans. These are much in use on the Ma­labar coast.
  • MARANTA Malaccensis, Rumph. v. 177. tab. 71. fig. 1.
  • CURCUMA rotunda, 5. Fl. Zeyl. 6. Fl. Coch. i. 11. Curcuma, Rumph. Amb. v. p. 168. t. 68? Manja-kua, Rheed. Mal. ii. p. 19. t. 10. Outlines, i. p. 216.—Root consists of clusters of jointed parts, to which are connected small oval appendages; the roots are of the richest golden color. Grows in Hindoostan, Java, Balli, and Ceram. Keeps its place in our dispensatory.
  • CURCUMA longa, 5. Fl. Zeyl. 7. Rumph. Amb. v. p. 162. t. 67. Fl. Coch. i. 11. Manjella-kua, Rheed. Mal. ii. p. 21. t. 11. Long-rooted Turmeric, [Page 239]Woodville, Med. Bot. ii. 359. Gerard, 33. 1631. Crocus Indicus, Saffran de tierra. Cyperus Indicus, Dioscorides, lib. i. c. 4.—The root retained in our dispensatory, and prescribed in the jaundice and other visceral chronical obstructions. Is the richest of yellow dyes, but no art can give it durability. It enters into the composition of that filthy ingredient in the dishes of our orientalists, Curry, or Karri, powder. Its roots are also much used as a food in India and many of the islands. Bontius, c. 39. speaks highly in its praise, not only for its virtue in visceral complaints, but for its efficacy in female disorders; and also for its excellency in promoting parturition. The Malayans call it Borbori, which properly signifies an ointment made of the root.
  • KAEMPFERIA Galanga, Syst. Pl. i. 5. Flor. Zeyl. 8. Sonchorus, Rumph. Amb. v. p. 173. t. 69. f. 2. Katsjula kelengu, Rheed. Mal. ii. p. 81. t. 41. Outlines, i. 207.
  • KAEMPFERIA rotunda, 5. Fl. Zeyl. 9. Woodville, ii. 360. Zedoaria Rotunda, Bauh. Pin. 36. Malan-kua, Rheed. Mal. ii. p. 17. t. 6. Gerard, 34.—The root round. Supposed to have been used in antient medicine, and still preserves a place in the British Pharmacopoeia.
  • BOERHAAVIA diffusa, 7. Fl. Zeyl. 10. Tatu-dama, Rheed. Mal. vii. p. 105. t. 56. Brown Jam. 123.
  • NYCTANTHES Arbor Tristis, Syst. Pl. i. 15. Fl. Zeyl. ii. Myrto similis, Bauh. Pin. 469. Mania Pumeran, Rheed. Mal. i. p. 35. t. 21. Rai. Hist. p. 1698. Gerard, 1527. Outlines, i. p. 216.
  • NYCTANTHES Arbor Sambac, 15. Fl. Zeyl. 12. Bauh. Pin. 398. Flos Manoiae, Rumph. Amb. v. p. 52. t. 30. Arabian Pipe, Gerard, 1400. No 3. —Rumphius styles this the noblest of Indian flowers, not on account of its beauty, but its exquisite scent. Like others of the genus, it opens in the night, and emits an unparalleled fragrancy. It is the delight of all ranks of people; is gathered and worn by the youth of both sexes, braided in their hair, or elegantly scattered over their dress.
  • NYCTANTHES undulata, 15. Rai. Hist. 1601. Tsieregam Mulla, Rheed. Mal. vi. p. 97. t. 55.—Grateful as the former for its admirable scent, which it never loses, and has a perpetual succession of flowers.
  • [Page 240]NYCTANTHES hirsuta, 15. Rava Pow, Rheed. Mal. iv. p. 99. t. 48. Rai. Hist. 1602. Sonnerat, ii. 228. tab. 128.—A lofty tree with a thick stem. Flowers extremely fragrant.
  • NYCTANTHES angustifolia, 16. Katu-pitsiegam Mulla, Rheed. Mal. vi. p. 93. t. 53. Raii. Hist. 1602.—Grows in the sandy soil near Cranganor.
  • NYCTANTHES elongata, Linn. Suppl. p. 82. Berg. Act. Ang. lxi. p. 289. tab. xi.— A tedious description without any history.
  • NYCTANTHES acuminata, Rumph. Amb. iv. p. 87. t. 39.
  • NYCTANTHES triflora, Burm. Ind. iv. t. 2.
  • SCHREBERA Swietenoides, Pl. of Coromandel, ii. 101.
  • JASMINUM officinale, Syst. Pl. i. 16. Fl. Coch. i. 24. Bauh. Pin. 397. Gerard, 892.—The common Jasmine, for which we are beholden to India. The use of its flowers in medicine now omitted in our dis­pensatory.
  • JASMINUM grandiflorum, 16. Bauh. Pin. ii. p. 101. Rai. Hist. 1600. Pitsie­gam Mulla, Rheed. Mal. vi. p. 91. Outlines of the Globe, i. p. 217.
  • JASMINUM Azoricum, 16. Fl. Zeyl. 13. Burman Zeyl. 127. tab. 58. fig. 1. Outlines, i. p. 217.
  • JASMINUM odoratissimum, 17. Mill. Dict. n. 5.
  • CHIONANTHUS Zeylonica, 20. Fl. Zeyl. 14. Burm. Zeyl. 31.
  • DIALIUM Indicum, 21. Cortex Papetarius, Rumph. Amb. iii. p. 212. t. 137.—Grows to be a lofty tree.
  • JUSTICIA Adhatoda, 40. Flor. Zeyl. 16. Malahar Nut, Miller Dict. No 4. Kew Garden, i. p. 28.—Inhabits Malabar and Ceylon, yet will live in England in the common green-house. In gardens since 1699. Once supposed to bear the leaf and nut of the Betel chewed by the Orientalists. Ray, in Hist. Pl. iii. 651. says that Ahotoda signifies in the Malabar a medicine used to bring away a dead foetus.
  • JUSTICIA acaulis, Linn. Suppl. p. 84. Pl. of Cor. ii. 127.
  • JUSTICIA ciliaris, Linn. Suppl. p. 84. Burm. Zeyl. 88. t. 38.
  • JUSTICIA Tranquebarensis, Linn. Suppl. p. 85.
  • [Page 241]JUSTICIA Gandarussa, Linn. Suppl. p. 85. Rumph. Amb. iv. p. 70. t. 28.
  • JUSTICIA Echolium, Syst. Pl. i. 40. Fl. Coch. i. 29. Carim Curini, Rheed. Mal. ii. p. 31. t. 20. Outlines of the Globe, i. p. 217.
  • JUSTICIA betonica, 40. Flor. Zeyl. 18. Bem-Curini, Rheed. Mal. ii. p. 126. t. 21.
  • JUSTICIA picta, 41. Fl. Coch. i. 29. Folium Bracteatum, Rumph. Amb. iv. p. 73. t. 30. Tsiude Maram, Rheed. Mal. vi. t. 60.—Is a middle­sized tree. There are two varieties, the white and the red; the first with leaves beautifully blotched with white in the middle. The ele­gant leaves of the white are used to ornament the tables and couches at nuptial feasts.
  • JUSTICIA infundibuliformis, 41. Manja-kurini, Rheed. Mal. ix. p. 121. t. 62.
  • JUSTICIA procumbens, 43. Fl. Zeyl. 19.
  • JUSTICIA repens, 44. Fl. Zeyl. 20.
  • JUSTICIA Echioides, 44. Fl. Zeyl. 21.
  • JUSTICIA nasuta, 45. Pulcolli, Rheed. Mal. ix. p. 135. t. 69.
  • JUSTICIA Moretiana, Rumph. Amb. vi. 53. t. 23. fig. 1.
  • JUSTICIA purpurea, Syst. Pl. i. 45. Rumph. Amb. vi. p. 51. t. 22. f. 1. Fl. Coch. i. 31.
  • JUSTICIA bivalvis, 45. Adel-odagam, Rheed. Mal. ix. p. 81. t. 43.
  • JUSTICIA gangetica, 46. Carua Caniram, Rheed. Mal. ix. p. 109. t. 56.
  • DIANTHERA Malabarica, Lin. Suppl. 85. Cara Carinam, Rheed. Mal. v. 9. p. 109. t. 56. Justicia, Mal. Hort. Kew. i. 27.
  • GRATIOLA rotundifolia, Syst. Pl. i. 47. Tsianga-puspam, Rheed. Mal. ix. p. 111. t. 57.
  • GRATIOLA byssopoides, 48. Pl. of Cor. ii. 128. Fl. Coch. i. 26.
  • GRATIOLA virginica, 48. Tsieria Maya Nari, Rheed. Mal. ix. p. 165. t. 85.
  • GRATIOLA juncea, Pl. of Cor. ii. 129.
  • UTRICULARIA caerulaea, Syst. Pl. i. 52. Fl. Zeyl. 23. Nelipu, Rheed. Mal. ix. p. 137. t. 70.
  • [Page 242]UTRICULARIA stellaris, Linn. Suppl. 86.—Inhabits the rice grounds of India.
  • VERBENA Indica, Syst. Pl. i. 52. Mill. Dict. n. 9.
  • SALVIA Indica, 65. Jacq. Hort. t. 78. Mill. Dict. n. 9.
  • THOUINIA nutans, Linn. Suppl. p. 89.
  • GLOBBA longa, Syst. Pl. i. 74. Rumph. vi. 134. tab. 60.
  • GLOBBA crispa, Rumph. 137. tab. 61. fig. 1. 2. Amomum villosum, Fl. Coch. i. 4.
  • GLOBBA vivisormis, Syst. Pl. i. 74. Rumph. 138. tab. 59. fig. 2.
  • GLOBBA marantina, 73. Mantissa, 170.
  • PIPER nigrum, Syst. Pl. i. 75. Fl. Coch. i. 37. Fl. Zeyl. 26. P. Ro­tundifolium nigrum, Bauh. Pin. 411. Melago Codi, Rheed. Mal. vii. p. 23. t. 12. Outlines, i. 137. Gerard, 1538. Arrian, 173. Woodville, iii. 513.
  • PIPER caninum, Rumph. v. 49. tab. 28. fig. 2.—Grows in long clusters of very small round fruit, of no use.
  • PIPER betle, Syst. Pl. i. 75. Fl. Coch. i. 39. Fl. Zeyl. 27. Betela Codi, Rheed. Mal. vii. p. 29. t. 15. Gerard, 1541.
  • PIPER malamiris, 75. Fl. Zeyl. 26. Sirium, Rumph. Amb. v. p. 336. t. 116. f. 2. Amalago, Rheed. Mal. vii. p. t. 16.—Cultivated from Hin­doostan quite to China. The fruit very slender, about two inches and a quarter long.
  • PIPER macropiper, Rumph. v. 46. tab. 28. fig. 1.—The fruit extremely slender, of the length of four inches. Grows in Java, Am­boina, &c.
  • PIPER siriboa, Syst. Pl. i. 76. Fl. Zeyl. 29. Siriboa, Rumph. Amb. v. p. 340. t. 117. f. 2.—This species bears fruit six inches long, is peculiar to the Moluccas, is a very strong pepper. This and the [Page 243]preceding much used in chewing with the Pinanga, or nut of the Areca palm.
  • PIPER longum, Syst. Pl. i. 76. Fl. Zeyl. 30. Bauh. Pin. 412. Rumph. Amb. v. p. 333. t. 116. f. 1. Cattutirpali, Rheed. Mal. vii. p. 27. t. 14. Outlines, viii. 49. Gerard, 1539. Arrian, 170. Transt.— Our common long pepper.
  • PIPER decumanum, 76. Sirium decumanum, Rumph. Amb. v. p. 45. t. 27.— The leaves extremely large, and heart-shaped, often a foot in length. The fruit very slender, and four inches long. The twigs used against the power of magic.
  • PIPER peltatum, 75. Rumph. Amb. vi. p. 133. t. 59. f. 1.
  • PIPER cubeba, Linn. Suppl. p. 90. Gerard, 1548.—Inhabits Java, also Guinea. Inferior in its powers to the common pepper. Gerard gives the figure of the berry.
  • OLAX Zeylanica, 92. Fl. Zeyl. 34. Outlines of the Globe, i. p. 217. scandens, Pl. of Cor. ii. 102.
  • TAMARINDUS Indica, 92. Fl. Coch. ii. 488. Fl. Zeyl. 14. Rumph. Amb. ii. p. 90. t. 23. Rai. Hist. 1748. Ballampulli, Rheed. Mal. i. p. 39. t. 23. Gerard, 1607. Bauh. Pin. 403. Outlines of the Globe, i. p. 217.
  • RUMPHIA Amboinensis, 92. Rai. Hist. 156. Tsiem-tani, Rheed. Mal. iv. p. 25. t. 11. Named in honor of the great florist of the island of Amboina.
  • ROTALA verticillaris, 94. Mant. 175.
  • IXIA Chinensis, 98. Fl. Coch. i. 46. Ralemcanda-Schularmandi, Rheed. Mal. ii. p. 73. t. 37.
  • COMMELINA vaginata, 115. Mant. 177.
  • COMMELINA Benghalensis, 113. Fl. Coch. i. 49. Burm. Zeyl. 70.
  • COMMELINA nudiflora, 115. Fl. Zeyl. 31.
  • [Page 244]COMMELINA cucultata, Syst. Pl. i. 115. Fl. Coch. i. 49. Burm. Ind. xviii. t. 7. f. 3.
  • COMMELINA spirata, 116. Mant. ii. p. 176.
  • HIPPOCRATEA Indica, Pl. of Cor. ii. 130.
  • XYRIS Indica, Syst. Pl. i. 116. Fl. Zeyl. 35. Katsjiletri-pullo, Rheed. Mal. ix. p. 139. t. 7.
  • SCHOTNUS niveus, 120. Pee-mottenga, Rheed. Mal. ii. p. 99. t. 53.
  • SCHOTNUS lithospermus, Rumph. Amb. vi. p. 16. t. 6. f. 2.
  • SCHOTNUS paniculatus, Rumph. Amb. vi. p. 22. t. 8. f. 1.
  • SCHOTNUS coloratus, Syst. Pl. i. 120. Fl. Coch. i. 52. Gramen capitatum, Rumph. Amb. vi. p. 8. t. 3. f. 2.—According to the Malayes, a stalk of this grass sent to any person denotes that the bearer is a restless fellow, and does not know what to do with himself.
  • CYPERUS haspan, 124. Fl. Zeyl. 37.
  • CYPERUS esculentus, 124. Dulcis, Rumph. vi. tab. 3. fig. 1.—An European species.
  • CYPERUS rotundus, 124. Fl. Coch. i. 53. Fl. Zeyl. 36.
  • CYPERUS difformis, 125. Pluk. alm. t. 317. f. 5.
  • CYPERUS iria, 125. Iria, seu Balari, Rheed. Mal. xii. p. 105. t. 56.
  • CYPERUS elatus, 125. Fl. Coch. i. 54. Amoen. Acad. iv. p. 301. Sloan. Jam. p. 36.
  • CYPERUS pumilus, 128. Fl. Coch. i. 54. Pluk. alm. 179. t. 191. f. 8.
  • CYPERUS triflorus, 128. Mant. 180.
  • CYPERUS monti, Lin. Suppl. 102. Fl. Coch. i. 53. Mant. p. 102.
  • CYPERUS distans, Lin. Suppl. 103. Mant. p. 103.
  • SCIRPUS trigynus, Syst. Pl. i. 130. Mant. 180.
  • SCIRPUS articulatus, 130. Tsieli, Rheed. Malah. xii. p. 135. t. 71.
  • SCIRPUS capillaris, 135. Burm. Zeyl. 108. t. 47. f. 2.
  • [Page 245]SCIRPUS dichotomus, Syst. Pl. i. 136. Fl. Zeyl. 40.
  • SCIRPUS echinatus, 136. Fl. Zeyl. 38.
  • SCIRPUS miliaceus, 137. Fl. Coch. i. 55. Burm. Ind. t. 9. f. 2.
  • SCIRPUS cyperoides, 137. Koll-pullu, Hort. Malab. xii. p. 119. t. 63.
  • SCIRPUS luzulae, 139. Pluk. Mant. 97. t. 417. f. 3.
  • SCIRPUS corymbosus, 139. Kadira-pullu, Rheed. Mal. xix. p. 97. t. 43.
  • SCIRPUS squarrosus, 140. Motta-pulla, Rheed. Mal. xii. p. 72. t. 38. Rue­nacu, Rheed. Mal. xii. p. 72. t. 36.
  • SCIRPUS intricatus, 140. Scirpus capitatus, Burm. Fl. Ind. p. 21.
  • SCIRPUS michelianus, 141. Bauh. Hist. ii. p. 523.
  • SCIRPUS ciliaris, 141. Mant. 182.
  • SCIRPUS cephalotus, 142. Brown. Jam. 129.
  • SCIRPUS grossus, Lin. Suppl. 104.
  • KYLLINGA monocephala, Lin. Suppl. 104.
  • KYLLINGA triceps, Lin. Suppl. 104.
  • KYLLINGA panicea, Lin. Suppl. 105.
  • KYLLINGA umbellata, Lin. Suppl. 105.
  • NARDUS ciliaris, Syst. Pl. 145.
  • NARDUS Indica, Lin. Suppl. 105. Fl. Coch. i. 56. Outlines, i. 133.
  • NARDUS Thomaea, Lin. Suppl. 105.
  • POMMEREULLA cornucopiae, Lin. Suppl. 105.
  • BOBARTIA Indica, Syst. Pl. i. 145. Fl. Coch. i. 58. Fl. Zeyl. 41.
  • SACCHARUM spontaneum, 147. Fl. Coch. i. 65. Rheed. Mal. xii. p. 85. t. 46.
  • SACCHARUM officinarum, 147. Fl. Coch. i. 66. Rumph. Amb. v. p. 186. t. 74. f. 1. Outlines of the Globe, i. p. 146.
  • [Page 246]SACCHARUM spicatum, Syst. Pl. i. 147. Fl. Coch. i. 67. Tieria kuron­pullu, Rheed. Mal. xii. p. 117. Rumph. Amb. vi. p. 17. tab. 7. f. 2. A.
  • PHALARIS zizanoides, 151. Fl. Coch. i. 62. Mant. 183.
  • PASPALUM scrobiculatum, 152. Mant. 29.
  • PANICUM polystachion, 153. Fl. Coch. i. 58. Gramen caricosum alterum, Rumph. Amb. vi. p. 17. t. 7. f. 2. B.
  • PANICUM glaucum, 153. Fl. Zeyl. 44.
  • PANICUM Italicum, 154. Fl. Coch. i. 58. Rumph. Amb. v. p. 202. t. 75. f. 2.
  • PANICUM crus corvi, 154. Fl. Coch. i. 59. Scop. Carn. ii. n. 71.
  • PANICUM colonum, 155. Gramen articulatum, Rumph. Amb. vi. p. 13. t. 5. f. 3.
  • PANICUM brizoides, 155. Pluk. alm. 174. t. 191. f. 1.
  • PANICUM dimidiatum, 156. Burm. Ind. 25. t. 8. f. 3.
  • PANICUM hirtellum, 156. Burm. Ind. t. 12. f. 1.
  • PANICUM conglomeratum, 156. Mant. 324.
  • PANICUM lineare, 158. Burm. Ind. 25. t. 10. f. 2.
  • PANICUM distachyon, 158. Mant, 138.
  • PANICUM compositum, 159. Fl. Zeyl. 42.
  • PANICUM ramosum, 159. Mant. 29.
  • PANICUM miliaceum, 160. Fl. Coch. i. 59. Bauh. Pin. 26. Theatr. 502.
  • PANICUM arborescens, 161. Fl. Zeyl. 43.—Equal in height to the tallest trees, yet not thicker than a goose's quill. Outlines of the Globe, i. p. 217.
  • PANICUM curvatum, 161. Syst. Nat. xii. p. 730.
  • PANICUM patens, 162. Hippogrostis Amboinensis, Rumph. Amb. vi. 14. t. 5. f. 3. Tsiama pullu, Rheed. Mal. xii. p. 75. t. 41.—The common food of horses, cows, and sheep in Amboina.
  • PANICUM brevifolium, 162. Stum. Jam. i. p. 115. t. 72. f. 3.
  • PANICUM elatius, Lin. Suppl. 107.
  • PANICUM helvolum, Lin. Suppl. 107.
  • [Page 247]ALOPECURUS hordeiformis, Syst. Pl. i. 166. Fl. Coch. i. 60. Pluk. Alm. 177. t. 119. f. 1.
  • MILIUM cimicinum, 168. Mant. 184.
  • AGROSTIS matrella, 172. Mant. 185.
  • AGROSTIS Indica, 176. Sloan. Jam. 35. Hist. i. p. 115. t. 73. f. 1.
  • AGROSTIS radiata, 177. Fl. Coch. i. 63. Brown. Jam. 137.
  • AGROSTIS tenacissima, Lin. Suppl. 107.
  • POA amabilis, Syst. Pl. i. 188. Fl. Zeyl. 46.
  • POA Malabarica, 189. Burm. Ind. t. 11. f. 2.
  • POA Chinensis, 189. Fl. Coch. i. 69. Burm. Ind. t. 11. f. 3.
  • POA tenella, 189. Gramen sumi, Rumph. Amb. vi. t. 4. f. 3. Tsiama pullu, Rheed. Mal. xii. p. 75. t. 4.
  • POA Amboinensis, 191. Phoenix Amboinica montana, Rumph. Amb. vi. p. 19. t. 7. f. 3.
  • POA punctata, Lin. Suppl. 109.
  • UNIOLA mucronata, Syst. Pl. i. 196.
  • DACTYLIS lagopoides, 197. Burm. Ind. t. 10. f. 1.
  • CYNOSURUS corocanus, 200. Rumph. Amb. v. p. 203. t. 76. f. 2. Tsitti­pullu, Rheed. Mal. xii. p. 149. t. 78.
  • CYNOSURUS Indicus, 201. Gramen vaccinum femina, Rumph. Amb. vi. p. 10. t. 4. f. 2. Kauara-pullu, Rheed. Mal. xii. p. 131. t. 69.
  • CYNOSURUS Aegyptius, 200. Bauh. Pin. 7.
  • CYNOSURUS Indicus, 200. Rumph. Amb. vi. p. 10. tab. 4. f. 2.
  • STIPA arguens, 220. Gramen arguens, Rumph. Amb. vi. p. 15. t. 6. f. 1.
  • STIPA spinifex, 220. Cyperus littoreus, Rumph. Amb. vi. p. 6. t. 2. f. 2.
  • ARUNDO bambos, 227. Fl. Coch. i. 70. Ily, Rheed. Mal. i. p. 25. tab. xvi. Bambos Arundinacea, Pl. of Cor. i. 79. where it is [Page 248]attached to the class of Hexandria Monogynia. Outlines of the Globe, i. p. 142.
  • ARUNDO donax, Syst. Pl. i. 227. Fl. Coch. i. 69. Hort. Cliff. 26. Os­beck's Travels, i. 25.—This is the Kaneh of the Hebrews. My friend the Rev. Samuel Dickinson's remarks on this article are worthy the reader's attention. ‘This species grows in the warmer parts of Eu­rope, and also in India and China, and is much used for walking sticks and fishing rods. This is a fragile staff, and the only cane in use that has that property. Upon an accidental bruise it will break in shivers. It is the Kaneh of the Hebrews; and from its brittle quality we see the propriety of Rabshakah's allusion, 2 Kings, xviii. 21. ‘Now behold thou trustest upon the staff of this bruised reed (kaneh), even upon Egypt, on which if a man lean, it will go into his hand and pierce it; so is Pharaoh king of Egypt unto all that trust on him.’ The Hebrew word having been introduced not only into the Greek and Latin, but most of the modern languages of Europe. The Spaniards call it Cannas, and the Italians Canna. It gave the name of Cane to all the sticks which resembled it, when they were first imported by the Dutch, &c. from the East Indies.’
  • ARUNDO phragmites, 227. Common reed, Gerard, 36. Rumph. Amb. iv. p. 20. t. 5.
  • ANTHISTERIA ciliata, Lin. Suppl. 113.
  • ARISTIDA arundinacea, Syst. Pl. i. 230. Mant. 186.
  • ARISTIDA hystrix, Lin. Suppl. 113.
  • ROTTBOLLA compressa, Lin. Suppl. 114.
  • ROTTBOLLA dimidiata, Lin. Suppl. 114.
  • ROTTBOLLA exaltata, Lin. Suppl. 114.
  • ROTTBOLLA corymbosa, Lin. Suppl. 114.
  • LOLIUM distachion, Syst. Pl. i. 213. Mant. 187.
  • HORDEUM nodosum, 237. Rai. Ang. iii. p. 397. t. 20. f. 2.
  • [Page 249]ERIOCAULON quinquangulare, Syst. Pl. i. 243. Fl. Zeyl. 48.
  • ERIOCAULON sexangulare, 243. Fl. Zeyl. 49. Burm. Ind. t. 9. f. 4.
  • ERIOCAULON setaceum, 244. Fl. Coch. i. 77. Fl. Zeyl. 50. Tsieru-kotsijelleti pullu, Rheed. Mal. xii. p. 129. t. 63. Rumph. Amb. vi. p. 17. tab. 7. f. 1.
  • HOLOSTEUM hirsutum, 246. Amoen. Acad. iii. p. 21.
  • MOLLUGO oppositifolia, 248. Fl. Zeyl. 52.
  • MOLLUGO pentaphylla, 248. Fl. Zeyl. 51.
  • MONETIA barlerioides, L'Heretier Stirp. nov. 1. Lycium Indicum, Sch. Thes. i. p. 21. tab. 13. f. 2. Hort. Kew. i. 160.
  • SCABIOSA atropurpurea, Syst. Pl. i. 283. Clus. Hist. ii. p. 3.
  • HEDYOTIS fruticosa, 289. Fl. Zeyl. 63. Burm. Zeyl. 227. t. 107.
  • HEDYOTIS auricularia, 289. Fl. Zeyl. 64. Muriguti, Rheed. Mal. x. p. 63. t. 32.
  • HEDYOTIS herbacea, 289. Fl. Coch. i. 98. Flor. Zeyl. 65.
  • HEDYOTIS maritima, Lin. Suppl. 119.
  • HEDYOTIS pumila, Lin. Suppl. 119.
  • HEDYOTIS graminifolia, Lin. Suppl. 119.
  • SCABRITA scabra, Syst. Pl. i. 290. Linn. Pfl. Syst. iii. p. 89.
  • GYROCARPUS Jacquini, Pl. of Cor. i. 1. Le Brun's Voy. ii. p. 257.
  • SPERMACOCE hispida, Syst. Pl. i. 290. Burm. Zeyl. 163. t. 20. f. 3.
  • SPERMACOCE articularis, Lin. Suppl. 120. Rumph. Amb. v. 6. p. 25. t. 10.
  • [Page 250]SPERMACOCE stricta, Lin. Suppl. 120. Rumph. Amb. v. 6. p. 25.
  • SPERMACOCE procumbens, Sp. corymbosa, Spec. Pl. ii. p. 149.
  • KNOXIA Zeylonica, Syst. Pl. i. 298. Fl. Zeyl. 400. Rai. Sup. 246.
  • IXORA coccinea, 311. Fl. Coch. i. 95. Fl. Zeyl. 22. Flamma sylvarum, Rumph. Amb. iv. p. 105. t. 46. Lohetti, Rheed. Mal. ii. p. 17. t. 13. Outlines of the Globe, i. p. 218.
  • IXORA alba, 311. Fl. Coch. i. 96. Rheed. Mal. ii. p. 19. t. 14.
  • PAVETTA Indica, 312. Flammula sylvarum, Rumph. Amb. iv. p. 107. t. 47. Rai. Hist. 1581. Pavette, f. Malleomothe, Rheed. Mal. v. p. 19. t. 10. Outlines, i. p. 218.
  • CANSIERA scandens, Pl. of Cor. ii. 103.
  • CALLICARPA Americana, Syst. Pl. i. 313. Fl. Coch. i. 88. Catesb. Carol. ii. p. 47. t. 47.
  • CALLICARPA tomentosa, 314. Spec. Pl. ii. p. 172. Fl. Zeyl. 59. Outlines, i. p. 218.
  • EXACUM sessile, 318. Fl. Zeyl. 61.
  • EXACUM pedunculatum, 318. Pluk. Mant. 43. t. 343. f. 3.
  • EXACUM punctatum, Lin. Suppl. 124.
  • CISSUS vitiginea, Syst. Pl. i. 328. Fl. Coch. i. 105. Fl. Zeyl. 60. Rumph. Amb. v. 446. t. 164.
  • CISSUS quadrangularis, 329. Fl. Coch. i. 106. Funis quadrangularis, Rumph. Amb. v. p. 83. t. 44. f. 2.
  • CISSUS trifoliata, 330. Fl. Coch. i. 105. Rumph. Amb. v. p. 447.
  • SAMARA lecta, 333. Fl. Zeyl. 469. Outlines, i. p. 218.
  • SIRIUM Myrtisolium, 335. Linn. Psl. Syst. iii. p. 128. Pl. of Cor. i. tab. 2.—White and yellow Sanders, or Sandal Wood, so esteemed for its fragrance. Grows to perfection on the Malabar coast.
  • LUDWIGIA oppositifolia, Syst. Pl. i. 336. Fl. Zeyl. 66.
  • LUDWIGIA erigata, 336. Mant. 40.
  • OLDENLANDIA repens, 337. Fl. Coch. i. 98. Crusta ollae minima, Rumph. Amb. vi. p. 460. t. 170.
  • [Page 251]OLDENLANDIA biflora, Syst. Pl. i. 338. Fl. Zeyl. 68.
  • OLDENLANDIA umbellata, 338. Fl. Zeyl. 67. Pl. of Cor. i. 3.—Indian Madder pro­duces a fine yellow dye.
  • OLDENLANDIA paniculata, 338. Fl. Coch. i. 99. Burm. Zeyl. 161. t. 71. f. 2.
  • OLDENLANDIA stricta, 339. Pluk. Mant. ix. t. 332. f. 2.
  • OLDENLANDIA hirsuta, Linn. Suppl. 127.
  • AMMANNIA octandra, Linn. Suppl. 127.
  • AMMANNIA pinnatifida, Linn. Suppl. 127.
  • ELEAGNUS latifolia, Syst. Pl. i. 343. Fl. Coch. i. 113. Fl. Zeyl. 58.
  • SANTALUM album, 344. Fl. Coch. i. 109. Woodvile's Med. Bot. iv. 136. Bauh. Pin. 392. Rumph. Amb. ii. p. 42. t. 11. Outlines, i. 140. Syrium myrtifolium?
  • SALVADORA Persica, 347. Pl. of Cor. i. 26.
  • CANTHIUM parvifolium, Pl. of Cor. i. 51.—Its thorny branches consti­tute an excellent fence. The fruit and leaves are edible.
  • GYROCARPUS sacquini, Pl. of Cor. i. tab. 1.—The wood is much used in India, on account of its lightness; to make rafts or catamarans.
  • ILEX Asiatica, Syst. Pl. i. 354. Lin. Sup. 11.
  • COLDENIA procumbens, 355. Fl. Zeyl. 69. Rai. Sup. 281.
  • HELIOTROPIUM Indicum, Syst. Pl. i. 380. Fl. Coch. i. 126. Fl. Zeyl. 70.
  • HELIOTROPIUM parviflorum, 380. Fl. Zeyl. 470. Rai. Sup. 271.
  • BORAGO Indica, 397. Fl. Zeyl. 71.
  • BORAGO Zeylanica, 398. Burm. Ind. 41. t. 14. f. 2.
  • TOURNEFORTIA argentea, Lin. Sup. 133. Rumph. Amb. iv. p. 119. t. 55.
  • CYCLAMEN Indicum, Syst. Pl. i. 415. Fl. Zeyl. 401.
  • [Page 252]MENYANTHES Indica, Syst. Pl. i. 416. Fl. Zeyl. 72. Nymphaea ceramica, Rumph. Amb. vi. p. 173. t. 72. f. 3. Nedel ambel, Rheed. Mal. ii. p. 55. t. 28.
  • MENYANTHES cristata, Pl. of Cor. ii. 105.
  • HOTTONIA Indica, Syst. Pl. i. 417. Tsiunda Tsiera, Rheed. Mal. xii. p. 71. t. 36.
  • OTHIORHIZA munges, 426. Fl. Zeyl. 402.
  • AZALEA Indica, 428. Rai. Hist. 1895.
  • PLUMBAGO Zeylonica, 430. Fl. Zeyl. 73. Tumba codiveli, Rheed. Mal. x. p. 15. t. 8.
  • PLUMBAGO rosea, 430. Radix vesicatoria, Rumph. Amb. v. p. 453. t. 168, Schetti-codiveli, Rheed. Mal. x. p. 17. t. 9.
  • PORANA volubilis, 433. Burm. Ind. 51. t. 21. f. 1.
  • CUSCUTA reflexa, Pl. of Cor. ii. 104.
  • CONVOLVULUS medium, Syst. Pl. i. 436. Fl. Coch. i. 130. Tala-neli, Rheed. Mal. ii. p. 113. t. 55.
  • CONVOLVULUS hederaceus, 436. Hort. Cliff. 67.
  • CONVOLVULUS obseurus, 437. Fl. Coch. i. 131. Dill. Elth. 98. t. 83. f. 95.
  • CONVOLVULUS angularis, 437. Burm. Ind. 46. t. 19. f. 2.
  • CONVOLVULUS batatas, 438. Fl. Coch. i. 131. Rai. Hist. 728. Bauh. Pin. 91. Rumph. Amb. v. p. 367. t. 130. Kappa-kelengu, Rheed. Mal. vii. p. 95. t. 50.—This plant is much cultivated in the southern parts of Europe; the root is sweet and nourishing.
  • CONVOLVULUS Malabaricus, 439. Fl. Coch. i. 132. Kattu-kelengu, Rheed. Mal. ii. p. 105. t. 51.
  • CONVOLVULUS anceps, 439. Mant. 43.
  • CONVOLVULUS peltatus, 440. Rumph. Amb. v. 428. t. 157.
  • CONVOLVULUS turpethum, 440. Fl. Zeyl. 74. Bauh. Pin. 149. Outlines, i. p. 218.
  • [Page 253]CONVOLVULUS sericeus, Syst. Pl. i. 440. Burm. Ind. 44. t. 17. f. 1.
  • CONVOLVULUS vitifolius, 442. Burm. Ind. 45. t. 18. f. 1.
  • CONVOLVULUS paniculatus, 443. Modecca, Rheed. Mal. viii. p. 39. t. 20.
  • CONVOLVULUS reptans, 446. Olus vagum, Rumph. Amb. v. p. 419. t. 155. f. 1.
  • CONVOLVULUS hirtus, 447. Mill. Dict. n. 10.
  • CONVOLVULUS Indicus, Rumph. Amb. v. p. 432. t. 158.
  • CONVOLVULUS pes caprae, Syst. Pl. i. 447. Fl. Coch. i. 134. Fl. Zeyl. 75. C. marinus, Rumph. Amb. v. p. 433. t. 159. f. 1. Schouanna-adamboe, Rheed. Mal. ii. p. 117. t. 57.
  • CONVOLVULUS sublobatus, Lin. Sup. 135.
  • CONVOLVULUS maximus, Lin. Sup. 137. Tiru Tali, Rheed. Mal. v. 11. p. 109. t. 53.
  • IPOMOEA quamoclit, Syst. Pl. i. 448. Fl. Coch. i. 137. Fl. Zeyl. 77. Flos cardinalis, Rumph. Amb. v. p. 421. t. 155. f. 2. Bauh. Pin. 398. Tsiura-cranti, Rheed. Mal. ii. p. 123. t. 60. Outlines, i. p. 218.
  • IPOMOEA bona nox, 450. Bauh. Pin. 296. Munda valli, Rheed. Mal. ii. p. 103. t. 50.
  • IPOMOEA campanulata, 450. Fl. Coch. i. 138. Adambae, Rheed., Mal. ii. p. 175. t. 56.
  • IPOMOEA hastata, 451. Burm. Ind. 50. t. 18. f. 2.
  • IPOMOEA hepaticifolia, 452. Fl. Zeyl. 79. Burm. Ind. 50. t. 20. f. 2.
  • IPOMOEA pes tigridis, 452. Fl. Zeyl. 79. Pulli Schouadi, Rheed. Mal. ii. p. 121. t. 59.
  • NAUCLEA orientalis, 473. Fl. Coch. i. 174. Fl. Zeyl. 53. Katu Tsiaca, Rheed. Mal. iii. p. 29. t. 33. Bancalus, Rumph. Amb. iii. p. 84. t. 55.
  • NAUCLEA parvifolia, Pl. of Cor. i. 52.
  • NAUCLEA cordifolia, Pl. of Cor. i. 53.
  • NAUCLEA purpurea, Pl. of Cor. i. 54.
  • RONDELETIA Asiatica, Syst. Pl. i. 474. Fl. Zeyl. 80. Cupi, Rheed. Mal. ii. p. 37. t. 23. Rai. Hist. 1494.
  • [Page 254]VALLARIS pergulanus, Rumph. v. t. 7. v. 28. p. 51.
  • SCAEVOLA Lobelia, Syst. Pl. i. 476. Fl. Zeyl. 313. Buglossum littoreum, Rumph. Amb. iv. p. 116. t. 54.
  • PSYCHOTRIA Asiatica, 477. Brown. Jam. 160. t. 17.
  • PSYCHOTRIA serpens, 477. Linn. Pflanz. Syst. iii. p. 169.
  • PSYCHOTRIA herbacea, 478. Karinta-kali, Rheed. Mal. x. p. 41. t. 21.
  • MORINDA Umbeliata, 485. Fl. Coch. i. 173. Fl. Zeyl. 81. Rancudus an­gustifolia, Rumph. Amb. iii. p. 157. t. 198. Outlines, i. p. 218.
  • MORINDA citrifolia, 488. Fl. Coch. i. 174. Fl. Zeyl. 82. Rancudus latifolia, Rumph. Amb. ii. p. 158. t. 99. Coda-pilaua, Rheed. Mal. i. p. 97. t. 52. Rai. Hist. 1442.
  • MUSSAENDA Frendosa, 489. Fl. Coch. i. 188. Fl. Zeyl. 84. Folium principissae, Rumph. Amb. iv. p. 111. t. 51. Belilla, Rheed. Mal. ii. p. 27. t. 18. Rai. Hist. 1493. Outlines, i. p. 219.
  • MIRABILIS jalapa, 490. Fl. Coch. i. 123. Fl. Zeyl. 85. Bauh. Pin. 168. Cius. Hist. ii. p. 87. Rumph. Amb. v. p. 253. tab. 89. Outlines, i. p. 219.
  • DATURA metel, Syst. Pl. i. 498. Fl. Coch. i. 135. Fl. Zeyl. 86. Di­alba, Rumph. Amb. v. p. 242. t. 87. Hummatu, Rheed. Mal. ii. p. 47. t. 28. Gerard, 348. fig. 1.
  • DATURA ferox, 497. Gerard, 348. Rai. Hist. 748.
  • PHYSALIS angulata, 509. Fl. Coch. i. 164. Fl. Zeyl. 97. Bauh. Pin. 166.
  • PHYSALIS pubescens, 509. Fl. Coch. i. 164. Moris. Hist. iii. p. 527. f. 13. t. 3. f. 24.
  • PHYSALIS minima, 509. Pee-inota, inodien, Rheed. Mal. x. t. 140. f. 71.
  • PHYSALIS alkekengi, 508. Fl. Coch. i. 164. Rumph. Amb. vi. p. 60. tab. 26. [...]. 1.
  • SOLANUM Melongena, 515. Fl. Coch. i. 161. Bauh. Pin. 167.
  • SOLANUM ly [...]op [...]n, 513. Fl. Coch. i. 161. Rumph. v. p. 410. t. 154. f. 1.
  • [Page 255]SOLANUM insanum, Syst. Pl. i. 516. Bauh. Pin. 167. Trongum hortense' Rumph. Amb. v. p. 238. t. 85. Outlines, i. p. 219.
  • SOLANUM ferox, 516. Ana Schunda, Rheed. Mal. ii. p. 65. t. 35.
  • SOLANUM Indicum, 518. Fl. Coch. i. 162. Fl. Zeyl. 94. Hort. Cliff. 61.
  • SOLANUM nigrum, 514. Fl. Coch. i. 160. Nelen tsjunda, Rheed. Mal. x. p. 105. t. 75.
  • SOLANUM album, Fl. Coch. i. 159. Rumph. Amb. v. p. 241.
  • CAPSICUM baccatum, 521. Fl. Coch. i. 157. Rumph. Amb. v. p. 247. t. 88. f. 2.
  • CAPSICUM grossum, 522. Bauh. Pin. 103.
  • CAPSICUM frutescens, 522. Fl. Coch. i. 158. C. Indicum, Rumph. Amb. v. p. 247. t. 88. f. 1, 3, 4. Outlines, i. p. 219.
  • STRYCHNOS nux vomica, 522. Fl. Zeyl. 91. Bauh. Pin. 301. Rai. Hist. 1814. Caniram, Rheed. Mal. i. p. 67. t. 37. Fl. Coch. i. 154. Pl. of Cor. i. tab. 4.—The wood of this tree is very useful, and constitutes one of the cures for the bite of venomous snakes, but is not so powerful as the Nagamusadie, the true Lignum colubrinum. Rai. Hist. 1661. Outlines, i. p. 219.
  • STRYCHNOS potatorum, Lin. Sup. 148. Pl. of Cor. i. tab. 5.—The ripe seeds of this plant are dried, and used for cleansing muddy water; being rubbed round the inside of the vessel, a sediment is soon deposited, and the fluid rendered clear and transparent.
  • STRYCHNOS colubrina, Syst. Pl. i. 523. Bauh. Pin. 301. Modira caniram, Rheed. Mal. vii. p. 10. t. 5. Rai. Hist. 1807. Rumph. Amb. ii. c. 46. t. 37.
  • IGNATIA amara, Lin. Suppl. 149.
  • CORDIA myxa, Syst. Pl. i. 529. Rai. Hist. 1555. Vidi moram, Rheed. Mal. iv. p. 77. t. 37.
  • CORDIA spinescens, 530. Mant. 206.
  • CORDIA monoica, Pl. of Cor. i. 58.
  • CORDIA sebestena, 530. Nouella nigra, Rumph. Amb. ii. p. 226. t. 75.
  • [Page 256]TECTONA grandis, Lin. Sup. 151. Theka Tekka, Rheed. Mal. iv. p. 57. t. 27. Hort. Kew. i. 260. Outlines of the Globe, i. p. 81. tab. iv. Pl. of Cor. i. tab. 6. Satus, Rumph. Amb. iii. p. 34. tab. 18.
  • SIDEROXYLON spinosum, Syst. Pl. i. 538. Caro-moelli, Rheed. Mal. v. p. 77. t. 39. Rai. Hist. 1634.
  • SIDEROXYLON tomentosum, Pl. of Cor. i. 28.
  • RHAMNUS Lineatus, Syst. Pl. i. 544. Fl. Coch. i. 197. Burm. Zeyl. 188. t. 88. Outlines, i. p. 220.
  • RHAMNUS napeca. 545. Fl. Zeyl. 87. Vidara littorea, Rumph. Amb. ii. p. 119. t. 37.
  • RHAMNUS jujuba, 545. Fl. Coch. i. 195. Fl. Zeyl. 89. Malus Indica, Rumph. Amb. ii. p. 117. t. 36. Perim toddal, Rheed. Mal. iv. p. t. 41.
  • RHAMNUS oenoplia, 545. Fl. Zeyl. 88.
  • RHAMNUS circumscissus, Lin. Suppl. 152.
  • RHAMNUS soporifer, Fl. Coch. i. 196.
  • ANTHERURA rubra, Fl. Coch. i. 178. Rumph. Amb. iii. p. 211. tab. 136.
  • VENTILAGO Maderaspatana, Pl. of Cor. i. tab. 76.
  • BUTNERIA herbacea, Pl. of Cor. i. tab. 29.
  • CEANOTHUS Asiaticus, Syst. Pl. i. 550. Fl. Zeyl. 98.
  • MANGIFERA Indica, 563. Fl. Coch. i. 198. Fl. Zeyl. 471. Manga domestica, Rumph. Amb. i. p. 93. t. 25. Rai. Hist. 1550 Mao, f. Mau, f. Manghos, Rheed. Mal. iv. p. 1. t. 1, 2. Outlines, i. p. 220. —The unripe fruits are pickled; the ripe luscious, and highly fragrant.
  • MANGIFERA piunata, Lin. Suppl. 156.
  • MANGIFERA saetida, Fl. Coch. i. 199. Rumph. Amb. i. p. 98. tab. 28.—A large tree, producing a bitter unwholesome fruit.
  • [Page 257]AQUILICIA sambucina, Syst. Pl. i. 568. Frutex aquosus femina, Rumph. Amb. iv. p. 103. t. 44.
  • HEDERA terebinthinacea. Linn. Zeyl. 624. Burm. Zeyl. 28.
  • VITIS Indica, Syst. Pl. i. 569. Fl. Coch. i. 192. Fl. Zeyl. 99. Scembra Valli, Rheed. Mal. vii. 11. t. 6.—From its berries is distilled an agreeable fermented liquor.
  • VITIS trifolia, 570. Folium Caussonis, Rumph. Amb. v. p. 450. t. 166. f. 2.
  • VITIS heptaphylla, 570. Mant. 212.
  • ACHYRANTHES aspera, 574. Fl. Zeyl. 105. Auricula canis, mas, Rumph. Amb. vi. p. 17. t. 12. f. 1. Cadeli, Rheed. Mal. x. p. 155. t. 78.
  • ACHYRANTHES sanguinolenta, Rumph. Amb. vii. p. 60. t. 27. f. 2.
  • ACHYRANTHES muricata, Rumph. Amb. v. p. 235. t. 83. f. 2.
  • ACHYRANTHES lappacea, Syst. Pl. i. 575. Fl. Zeyl. 103. Wellia Codiveli, Rheed. Mal. x. t. 59.
  • ACHYRANTHES hispida, Cauda felis, Rumph. Amb. iv. p. 82. t. 35.
  • ACHYRANTHES spiciflora, Cauda felis agrestis, Rumph. Amb. iv. p. 84.
  • ACHYRANTHES Corymbosa, Syst. Pl. i. 576. Fl. Zeyl. 100.
  • ACHYRANTHES prostrata, 576. Auris canina, femina, Rumph. Amb. vi. p. 26. t. 11.
  • ACHYRANTHES alternifolia, Lin. Suppl. 159. Burm. Zeyl. xvii. t. 4. f. 2.
  • ACHYRANTHES patula, Lin. Suppl. 160.
  • CELOSIA margaritacea, Syst. Pl. i. 577. Fl. Coch. i. 293. Bauh. Pin. 121. Belutta adeca manian, Rheed. Mal. x. p. 77. t. 39.
  • CELOSIA coccinea, 578. Bauh. Pin. 121.
  • CELOSIA castrensis, 578. Fl. Coch. i. 202. Amaranthus vulgaris, Rumph. Amb. v. p. 236. t. 84.
  • CELOSIA lanata, 579. Fl. Zeyl. 102.
  • CELOSIA nodiflora, 579. Fl. Zeyl. 101.
  • ILLECEBRUM brachiatum, 580. Mant. 213.
  • [Page 258]ILLECEBRUM sanguinolentum, Syst. Pl. i. 580. Verbena rubra, Rumph. Amb. vii. p. 60. t. 27. f. 2.
  • ILLECEBRUM lanatum, 580. Fl. Coch. i. 201. Scherubala, Rheed. Mal. x. p. 75. t. 29.
  • ILLECEBRUM Benghalense, 582. Mant. 213.
  • ILLECEBRUM monsoniae, Lin. Suppl. 161. Pluk. alm. xi. t. 334. f. 2.
  • ILLECEBRUM sessile, Syst. Pl. i. 584. Fl. Coch. i. 202. Fl. Zeyl. 116. Coluppa, Rheed. Mal. x. p. 21. t. 9. Olus squillarum, Rumph. Amb. vi. p. 37. t. 15. f. 1.
  • CINCHONA excelsa, Pl. of Cor. ii. tab. 106.
  • PAEDERIA foetida, Syst. Pl. i. 589. Convolvulus foetidus, Rumph. Amb. v. p. 436. t. 160.
  • CARISSA carandas, 589. Rumph. Amb. vii. p. 57. t. 25. Pl. of Cor. i. tab. 77.—The fruit much esteemed for conserves and pickles.
  • CARISSA spmarum, 590. Spina spinarum, Rumph. Amb. vii. p. 76. t. 19. f. 1.
  • CERBERA manghas, 591. Fl. Coch. i. 168. Flor. Zeyl. 106. Bauh. Pin. 440. Rai. Hist. 1552. Arbor lactaria, Rumph. Amb. ii. p. 243. t. 81. Odollam, Rheed. Mal. i. p. 71. t. 39. Outlines, i. p. 220.
  • GARDENIA florida, 592. Fl. Coch. i. 183. Cotsjopiri, Rumph. Amb. vii. p. 26. t. 14. f. 2.
  • GARDENIA gummifera, Linn. Suppl. 164.—From the bark and leaves distilling a gum very like the gum Elemi.
  • GARDENIA Thunbergia, Linn. Suppl. 162. Berkius, Sonnerat, N. Guinea, 48. tab. xvii.
  • VINCA rosea, Syst. Pl. i. 594. Fl. Coch. i. 196. Mill. Dict. n. 3. pusilla, Linn. Suppl. 166.
  • ARDISIA solanacea, Pl. of Cor. i. tab. 27.
  • NERIUM oleander, Syst. Pl. i. 594. Fl. Coch. i. 141. Fl. Zeyl. 108. Bauh. Pin. 464. Areli, Rheed. Mal. ix. p. 1. t. 1, 2. Outlines, i. p. 221.
  • [Page 259]NERIUM Zeylanicum, Syst. Pl. i. 595. Burm. Zeyl. 23. t. 12. f. 2.
  • NERIUM divaricatum, 595. Fl. Coch. i. 142. Fl. Zeyl. 109.
  • NERIUM antidysentericum, 595. Fl. Coch. i. 142. Fl. Zeyl. 107. Codaga pala, Rheed. Mal. i. p. 85. t. 47.
  • NERIUM tinctorium, Oriental Repert. 39. tab. ibid. Outlines, ii. p. 319.—Dis­covered by Doctor Wil. Roxburgh.
  • PLUMERIA obtusa, Syst. Pl. i. 599. Fl. Coch. i. 144. Rumph. Amb. iv. p. 85. t. 38.
  • ECHITES caudata, 597. Burm. Ind. 68. t. 26.
  • ECHITES scholaris, 597. Lignum scholare, Rumph. Amb. ii. p. 246. t. 82.
  • ECHITES spinosa, Carandus, Rumph. vii. p. 57. t. 25.
  • EHRETIA aspera, Pl. of Cor. i. tab. 55.
  • EHRETIA laevis, Pl. of Cor. i. tab. 56.
  • EHRETIA buxifolia, Pl. of Cor. i. tab. 57.
  • TABERNAEMONTANA alternifolia, Syst. Pl. i. 600. Curutu-pala, Rheed. Mal. i. p. 83. t. 43. Rai. Hist. 1751.
  • TABERNAEMONTANA bufulina, Fl. Coch. i. 145. Rumph. Amb. iv. p. 133. tab. 67.
  • CEROPEGIA candelabrum, Syst. Pl. i. 601. Fl. Coch. i. 140. Niota-nio­dem-valli, Rheed. Mal. ix. p. 27. t. 16.
  • CEROPEGIA biflora, 601. Fl. Zeyl. 46.
  • CEROPEGIA bulbosa, Pl. of Cor. i. tab. 7.
  • CEROPEGIA acuminata, Pl. of Cor. i. tab. 8.
  • CEROPEGIA tuberosa, Pl. of Cor. i. tab. 9.
  • CEROPEGIA juncea, Pl. of Cor. i. tab. 10.—The four preceding species are esculent.
  • [Page 260]PERGULARIA glabra, Syst. Pl. i. 602. Flos pergulanus, Rumph. Amb. v. p. 51. t. 29. f. 2.
  • PERIPLOCA Indica, 603. Fl. Zeyl. 412.
  • PERIPLOCA esculenta, Linn. Suppl. 168. Pl. of Cor. i. tab. 2.—Eaten by the Cin­galese; by cattle only in the Decan.
  • APOCYNUM fruteseens, Syst. Pl. i. 607. Fl. Zeyl. 114.
  • APOCYNUM reticulatum, 607. Fl. Coch. i. 208. Olus crudum, Rumph. Amb. v. p. 75. t. 40.
  • ASCLEPIAS gigantea, 608. Fl. Zeyl. 112. Ericus, Rheed. Mal. ii. p. 53. t. 31.
  • ASCLEPIAS volubilis, Linn. Suppl. 170.
  • ASCLEPIAS asthmatica, Linn. Suppl. 171. Fl. Zeyl. n. 490.
  • ASCLEPIAS lactifera, Syst. Pl. i. 611. Fl. Zeyl. 111.
  • HERNIARIA lenticulata, 616. Bauh. Pin. 281.
  • STERIS savana, 629.
  • STAPELIA adscendens, Pl. of Cor. i. tab. 30.
  • ULMUS integrifolia, Pl. of Cor. i. tab. 78.—A large tree, grows in the mountains of the Circars. Its wood used for various purposes.
  • GOMPHRENA globosa, Syst. Pl. i. 630. Fl. Coch. i. 218. Fl. Zeyl. 115. Flos globosus, Rumph. Amb. v. p. 289. t. 100. f. 2. Wadapu, Rheed. Mal. x. p. 73. t. 37.
  • GOMPHRENA hispida, 630. Nin-angani, Rheed. Mal. ix. p. 141. t. 72.
  • NAMA Zeylanica, 633. Fl. Zeyl. 117. t. 2.
  • GENTIANA heteroclita, 646. Mant. 560.
  • [Page 261]GENTIANA verticillata, Linn. Suppl. 174.
  • HYDROCOTYLE Asiatica, Pes equinus, Rumph. Amb. v. 455. t. 169, f. 1.
  • SIUM ninsi, Syst. Pl. i. 694. Kaempf. Amoen. 817. t. 818.
  • SEMECARPUS anacardium, Linn. Suppl. 182. Bauh. Pin. 571. Pl. of Cor. i. tab. 12.—Called marking nut by the English, as being applied to that purpose.
  • RHUS cominia, Syst. Pl. i. 730. Malago maram, Rheed. Mal. v. p. 49. t. 25. Cobbe, 730. Fl. Zeyl. 441.
  • XYLOPHYLLA longifolia, 740. Rumph. Amb. vii. p. 19. t. 12.
  • PHARNACEUM mollugo, 744. Burm. Ind. 31. t. 5. f. 4.
  • PHARNACEUM depressum, 745. Mant. 562.
  • PHARNACEUM distichum, 746. Mant. 221.
  • BASSELLA rubra, 748. Fl. Zeyl. 119. Rheed. Mal. vii. p. 45. t. 24. Gandola rubra, Rumph. Amb. v. p. 417. t. 154.
  • BASSELLA lucida, 748.
  • BASSELLA alba, 748. Gandola alba, Rumph. Amb. v. 417. t. 154. f. 2.
  • EVOLVULUS gangeticus, Syst. Pl. i. 750. Amoen. Acad. iv. p. 306. n. 121.
  • EVOLVULUS alsinoides, 750. Fl. Zeyl. 76. Vistnu-clandi, Rheed. Mal. ii. p. 131. t. 64.
  • EVOLVULUS tridentatus, 751. Rheed. Mal. ii. p. 133. t. 65.
  • EVOLVULUS emarginatus, Linn. Suppl. 186. Burm. Ind. 77. t. 30.
  • [Page 262]ARALIA Chinensis, Syst. Pl. i. 752. Fl. Coch. i. 234. Frutex aquosus mas, Rumph. Amb. iv. 103. t. 45.
  • DROSERA Indica, Syst. Pl. i. 768. Fl. Zeyl. 121. Araca-puda, Rheed. Mal. x. t. 20.
  • CRASSULA scutellaria, Scutellaria prima, Rumph. Amb. iv. p. 75. t. 30.
  • GISEKIA pharnacioides, Syst. Pl. i. 768. Murray, Com. Nou. G [...]tt. t. 3. p. 67. t. 2. f. 1.
  • BAMBOS arundinacea, Pl. of Cor. i. 79. See p. 247.
  • BAMBOS stricta, Pl. of Cor. i. 80.
  • BROMELIA ananas, Syst. Pl. ii. 6. Ananassa, Rumph. Amb. v. 227. t. 81. Outlines, i. p. 221.
  • BROMELIA sylvestris, Fl. Zeyl. 131. Pandanus verus, Rumph. Amb. iv. 139. t. 74.
  • BURMANNIA disticha, B. spica gemina, Burm. Zeyl. 50. t. 20. f. 1. Fl. Zeyl. 128.
  • TRADESCANTIA Malabarica, Syst. Pl. ii. 11. Tali-pulli, Rheed. Mal. ix. p. 123. t. 63.
  • TRADESCANTIA Axillaris, 11. Nir-pulli, Rheed. Mal. x. p. 28. t. 13. Pl. of Cor. ii. tab. 107.
  • TRADESCANTIA cristata, 12. Fl. Zeyl. 32. Rai. Hist. 566.
  • TRADESCANTIA papilionacea, 12. Burm. Ind. 17. t. 7. f. 11.
  • TRADESCANTIA tuberosa, Pl. of Cor. ii. 108.
  • TRADESCANTIA paniculata, Pl. of Cor. ii. 109.
  • PONTEDERIA ovata, Syst. Pl. ii. 13. Narnkilo, Rheed. Mal. ii. p. 67. t. 34.
  • [Page 263]PONTEDERIA vaginalis, Syst. Pl. ii. 13. Olus palustre. Rumph. Amb. vi. p. 178. t. 75. f. 1. Carimbola, Rheed. Mal. xi. t. 91. f. 4. Pl. of Cor. ii. 110.
  • PONTEDERIA hastata, 14. Fl. Zeyl. 129. Carimgola, Rheed. Mal. ii. p. 91. t. 44. Lin. Suppl. p. 192. Pl. of Cor. ii. 111.
  • PANCRATIUM zeylanicum, 21. Fl. Zeyl. 126. Lilium Indicum, Rumph. Amb. vi. p. 161, t. 70. f. 2. Catulli-pola, Rheed. Mal. ii. t. 40. Outlines, i. p. 221.
  • PANCRATIUM amboinense, 23. Cepa sylvestries, Rumph. Amb. vi. t. 70. f. 1.
  • CRINUM asiaticum, 23. Fl. Coch. i. 244. Fl. Zeyl. 127. Radix toxicaria, Rumph. Amb. ii. p. 155. t. 69. Belletta pola, taly, Rheed Mal. ii. p. 75. t. 38. L'Heritier Sert. Angl. 8. Outlines, i. p. 222.
  • CRINUM nervosum, L'Heritier Sert. Angl. 8. Caepa Sylvestris, Rumph. Amb. vi. 160. t. 70. f. 1.
  • AMARYLLIS orientalis, Syst. Pl. ii. 27. Mill. Dict. p. 11.
  • AMARYLLIS latifolia, L'Heritier Sert. Ang. 14. Rheed Mal. xi. 77. t. 39.
  • AMARYLLIS Zeylanica, L'Heritier Sert. Ang. 14. Rumph. Amb. v. 306. t. 105.
  • AMARYLLIS sarniensis, Syst. Pl. ii. 27. Fl. Coch. i. 247.
  • GLORIOSA duperba, 49. Fl. Zeyl. 122. Mendoni, Rheed. Mal. vii. t. 107. f. 57. Outlines, i. p. 222.
  • LEONTICE Leontopetaloides, 67. Amoen. Act. viii. p. 211. t. 113.
  • ASPARAGUS falcatus, 69. Fl. Zeyl. 123.
  • ASPARAGUS sarmentosus, 71. Fl. Zeyl. 124. Schadaueli Kelangu, Rheed. Mal. x. p. 19.
  • DRACAENA Draco, 71. Bauh. Pin. 503. Clus. Hist. i. p. 1.
  • DRACAENA terminalis, 72. Terminalis alba, Rumph. Amb. iv. p. 79. t. 34.
  • DRACAENA ensifolia, 72. Fl. Coch. i. 243. Rumph. Amb. v. p. 145. t. 73.
  • DRACAENA graminifolia, 72. Terminalis rubra sylvestris, Rumph. Amb. iv. 81. t. 34.
  • DRACAENA ferrea. 72. Fl. Coch. i. 242. Rumph. Amb. iv. p. 79. tab. 34. f. 2.
  • [Page 264]CURCULIGO orchioides, Pl. of Cor. i. tab. 13.
  • POLIANTHES tuberosa, Syst. Pl. ii. 76. Fl. Coch. i. 253. Bauh. Pin. 47. Amica nocturna, Rumph. Amb. v. p. 285. t. 98. Outlines, i. p. 222.
  • ALETRIS hyacinthoides, 82. Fl. Zeyl. 130. Katu kapel. Rheed. Mal. xi. p. 83. t. 42.
  • ALOE perfoliata, 84. Fl. Coch. i. 252. Rheed. Mal. ii. p. 7. t. 3.
  • AGAVE vivipara, Aloe Americana, Rumph. v. p. 273. t. 94.
  • CALAMUS rotang, Syst. Pl. ii. 93. Fl. Zeyl. 468. Bauh. Pin. 405. Isieru. Isiurel, Rheed. Mal. xii. p. 121. t. 64, 65. Rumph. Amb. v. p. 97. t. 51. Outlines, i. p. 222.
  • CAPURA purpurata, 107. Mant. 225.
  • LORANTHUS pentandrus, 109. Mant. 63.
  • LITCHI Chinensis, Sonnerat. 11. 23. tab. 129.—A native of China; culti­vated in Bengal; esteemed a delicious fruit.
  • ORYZA sativa, Syst. Pl. ii. 113. Fl. Coch. i. 266. Bauh. Pin. 24.
  • FLAGELLARIA indica, Syst. Pl. ii. 124. Fl. Coch. i. 262. Fl. Zeyl. 133. Palmijuncus brevis, Rumph. Amb. v. p. 120. t. 59. f. 2. Panambu­valli, Rheed. Mal. vii. p. 99. t. 53.
  • APONOGETON monostachyon, Linn. Suppl. 214. Parva Kelanga, Rheed. Mal. ii. p. 31. t. 15. Pl. of Cor. i. 81.—Roots taste like potatoes.
  • [Page 265]SAURURUS natans, Syst. Pl. ii. 138. Parya Kelanga, Rheed. Mal. xi. p. 31. t. 15.
  • OSBECKIA Chinensis, Syst. Pl. ii. 145. Fl. Coch. i. 181. Rai. Suppl. App. 236.
  • OSBECKIA zeylanica, Linn. Suppl. 215.
  • ALLOPHYLUS zeylanicus, 155. Fl. Zeyl. 140.
  • MIMUSOPS elengi, 156. Fl. Zeyl. 138. Rai. Hist. 1564. Flos cuspidum, Rumph. Amb. ii. p. 189. t. 63. Rheed. Mal. i. p. 34. t. 20 Outlines, i. p. 222. Pl. of Cor. i. tab. 14.
  • MIMUSOPS Kauki, 156. Fl. Zeyl. 137. Rumph. Amb. iii. p. 19. tab. 8.
  • MIMUSOPS hexandra, Pl. of Cor. i. tab. 15.
  • JAMBOLIFERA pedunculata, Syst. Pl. ii. 156. Fl. Coch. ii. 283. Fl. Zeyl. 139. Jambolana, Rumph. Amb. i. p. 131. t. 42. Bauh. Pin. 460. Outlines, i. p. 222.
  • GUAREA trichilioides, 157. Brown. Jam. 279.
  • AMYRIS protium, Syst. Pl. ii. 159. Tingulong, Rumph. Amb. vii. p. 54. t. 23. f. 1.
  • AMYRIS ambrosiaca, Linn. Suppl. 216. Fl. Coch. i. 283.
  • COMBRETUM decandrum, Pl. of Cor. i. tab. 59.
  • GRISLEA tomentosa, Pl. of Cor. i. tab. 31.
  • ROXBURGHIA gloriosiodes, Pl. of Cor. i. tab. 32.
  • MOLINAEA canescens, Pl. of Cor. i. tab. 60.
  • ORNITROPHE serrata, Pl. of Cor. i. tab. 61.
  • DODONAEA viscosa, Syst. Pl. ii. 162. Fl. Zeyl. 141. Cariophyllaster litoreus, Rumph. Amb. iv. p. 110. t. 50.
  • [Page 266]LAWSONIA inermis, Syst. Pl. ii. 163. Fl. Zeyl. 135. Pontaletsce, Rheed. Mal. iv. p. 117. t. 57. Bauh. Pin. 476.
  • LAWSONIA spinosa, 163. Fl. Coch. i. 281. Fl. Zeyl. 134. Mail. anschi, Rheed. Mal. i. p. 73. t. 40.
  • LAWSONIA falcata, Fl. Coch. i. 282. Rumph. Amb. vi. p. 58. tab. 25. f. 1.
  • MEMECYLON capitellatum, Syst. Pl. ii. 163. Fl. Zeyl. 136.
  • MEMECYLON edule, Pl. of Cor. i. tab. 82.—Its berries are eaten by the natives.
  • DAPHNE pendula, Smith. Pl. Ic. t. 34. Icapolia composita, Lin. Suppl. 409.
  • SCHMIEDELIA racemosa, Syst. Pl. ii. 201. Burm. Ind. 81. t. 32. f. 1.
  • POLYGONUM orientale, Syst. Pl. ii. 208. Schouanna modela muccu, Rheed. Mal. xii. p. 147. t. 76. (non) 77.
  • POLYGONUM Chinense, 211. Fl. Coch. i. 297. Burm. Ind. 90. t. 30. f. 3.
  • POLYGONUM perfoliatum, 212. Fl. Coch. i. 298. Burm. Ind. 90. t. 31. f. 2.
  • PAULLINIA asiatica, 216. Fl. Zeyl. 143. Kaka-toddali, Rheed. Mal. v. p. 81. t. 41.
  • CARDIOSPERMUM halicacabum, 220. Fl. Coch. i. 294. Fl. Zeyl. 142. Bauh. Pin. 743. Rumph. Amb. vi. p. 60. t. 24. f. 2.
  • SAPINDUS Saponaria, 220. Fl. Coch. i. 193. Rumph. Amb. ii. p. 134.
  • SAPINDUS trifoliatus, 221. Fl. Zeyl. 603. Paerinsii. s. Vercaepaelongi, Rheed. Mal. iv. p. 43. t. 1.
  • SAPINDUS rubiginosa, Pl. of Cor. i. tab. 62.
  • [Page 267]LAURUS cinnamomum, Syst. Pl. ii. 225. Fl. Coch. i. 305. Fl. Zeyl. 145. Bauh. Pin. 408. Katou Karua, Rheed. Mal. v. p. 105. t. 53. Outlines, i. p. 222.
  • LAURUS cassia, 225. Fl. Zeyl. 146. Carna, Rheed. Mal. i. p. 107. t. 59. Outlines, i. p. 227.
  • LAURUS camphora, 226. Fl. Coch. i. 306. Camphora officinarum, Bauh. Pin. 500. Outlines, iii. p. 214.
  • LAURUS culilaban, 226. Cortex Caryophylloides, Rumph. Amb. ii. p. 65. t. 14.
  • LAURUS malabratum, Sindor, Rumph. ii. c. 23. p. 69.
  • LAURUS indica, 227. Fl. Coch. i. 311. Rumph. Amb. iii. p. 68. t. 42.
  • ANACARDIUM occidentale, Fl. Zeyl. 165. Fl. Coch. i. 304. Bauh. Pin. 512. Cassuirum, Rumph. Amb. i. p. 177. t. 69. Kapa-maua, Rheed. Mal. iii. p. 65. t. 54. Outlines, i. p. 227.
  • CASSYTA filiformis, Syst. Pl. ii. 230. Cuscuta, Rumph. Amb. v. p. 491. t. 184. f. 4. Acatsia valli, Rheed. Mal. vii. p. 83. t. 44.
  • CASSYTA corniculata, 231. Cassutha cornea, Rumph. Amb. vii. c. 59. p. 52.
  • RHEUM undulatum, Hort. Kew. ii. 21. Rumph. Amb. vi. 148. c. 39. Outlines, iii. 171.
  • SOPHORA tomentosa, Syst. Pl. ii. 241. Fl. Zeyl. 163. Rai. Hist. 1720.
  • SOPHORA heptaphylla, 242. Fl. Zeyl. 164. Anticholeriea, Rumph. Amb. iv. p. 60. t. 22. Outlines, i. p. 227.
  • BAUHINIA scandens, 245. Folium linguae, Rumph. Amb. v. p. 1. t. 1. Naga-mu-valli, Rheed. Mal. viii. p. 57. t. 29.—A tree about twenty-four feet high.
  • [Page 268]BAUHINIA variegata, Syst. Pl. ii. 246. Chouana mandaru, Rheed. Mal. i. p. 57. t. 32. Rai. Hist. 1751.—A tall tree.
  • BAUHINIA purpurea, 247, Rheed. Mal. i. p. 59. t. 33. Rai. Hist. p. 1751.
  • BAUHINIA tomentosa, 247. Fl. Zeyl. 147. Chanschena pou, Rheed. Mal. i. p. 63. t. 35. Rai. Hist. 1752. Outlines, i. p. 228.—About twelve feet high.
  • BAUHINIA acuminata, 247. Fl. Zeyl. 148. Velutta mandaree, Rheed. Mal. i. p. 61. t. 34. Rai. Hist. 1751.—A low tree. Rheed gives to two of this genus the name of Flos St. Thomae, as stained with the blood of the apostle. Sonnerat, ii. 228. tab. 128. has the figure of a tree with that title; he says that the flowers are very fragrant.
  • CASSIA diphylla, 249.
  • CASSIA absus, 249. Fl. Zeyl. 153. Bauh. Pin. 332.
  • CASSIA tagera, 249. Rheed. Mal. ii. p. 103. t. 52. Rai. Hist. 1743.
  • CASSIA tora, 250. Fl. Coch. i. 322. Fl. Zeyl. 152. Rai. Hist. 1743.
  • CASSIA bicapsularis, 250. Mill. Dict. n. 7.
  • CASSIA obtusifolia, 251. Gallinaria rotundifolia, v. 283. t. 97. f. 2. Rumph. Amb. v. p. 283. t. 97. f. 2.
  • CASSIA fistula, 252. Woodvile. iii. 449. Fl. Zeyl. 149. Bauh. Pin. 405. Rumph. Amb. ii. p. 83. t. 21. Conna, Rheed. Mal. i. p. 37. t. 21.
  • CASSIA planisiliqua, 252. Flos flavus, Rumph. Amb. iv. 63. t. 27.
  • CASSIA alata, Lin. Suppl. 254. Herpetica, Rumph. Amb. vii. p. 35. t. 18.
  • CASSIA sophera, Syst. Pl. ii. 255. Fl. Coch. i. 324. Fl. Zeyl. 150. Bauh. Pin. 352. Gallinaria acutifolia, Rumph. Amb. v. p. 283. t. 97. f. 1. Ponnan Tongera, Rheed. Mal. ii. p. 101. t. 52.
  • CASSIA auriculata, 255. Fl. Zeyl. 151.
  • CASSIA javanica, 256. Bauh. Pin. 403.
  • CASSIA nictitans, 257. Amoena maesta, Rumph. Amb. vi. 147. t. 67. f. 1.
  • CASSIA mimosoides, 257. Fl. Zeyl. 154.
  • CASSIA precumbens, 257. Fl. Coch. i. 324. Gestreckte Cassie, Linn. Pstan­zensyst, iii. 527.
  • [Page 269]MARSANA buxifolia, Sonnerat, ii. 245. tab. 131.—A shrub six or seven feet high.
  • POLNCIANA bijuga, Syst. Pl. ii. 258. Fl. Coch. i. 319. Crista pavonis, Rumph. Amb. iv. p. 53. t. 20. Jacq. Am. 123.
  • POINCIANA pulcherrima, 258. Fl. Coch. i. 319. Rai. Hist. 981. Tsietti mandaru, Rheed. Mal. vi. p. 1. t. 1. Flos Pavonis, Merian Surin. 45. Jacq. Am. 122.—A thriving shrub of great beauty: its flowers large and of a fine red and yellow; common to East and West-Indies.
  • POINCIANA elata, 258. Fl. Coch. i. 320. Fl. Zeyl. 159.
  • CAESALPINIA sappan, 259. Fl. Coch. i. 320. Fl. Zeyl. 158. Bauh. Pin. 393. Lignum Sappan, Rumph. Amb. iv. p. 56. t. 21. Tsiam pangam, Rheed. Mal. vi. p. 3. t. 2. Pl. Cor. i. tab. 16.— A wood of the highest use in dying.
  • GUILANDINA bonduc, 260. Fl. Zeyl. 157. Frutex globulorum, Rumph. Amb. v. p. 89. t. 48. Outlines, i. p. 228.
  • GUILANDINA bonducella, 260. Fl. Coch. i. 325. Fl. Zeyl. 156. Globuli majores, Rumph. Amb. v. p. 92. t. 49. f. 1. Caretti, Rheed. Mal. ii. p. 35, t. 22.
  • GUILANDINA nugae, 261. Nugae sylvarum, Rumph. Amb. v. p. 94. t. 50.
  • GUILANDINA moringa, 261. Fl. Zeyl. 155. Bauh. Pin. 416. Morungu, Rheed. Mal. vi. p. 19. Rumph. Amb. i. p. 184. t. 74, 75.
  • SWIETENIA febrifuga, Pl. of Cor. i. tab. 17.
  • SWIETENIA chloroxylon, Pl. of Cor. i. 64.—The wood of both the above ex­tremely useful for common purposes.
  • GOETNERA racemosa, Pl. of Cor. i. tab. 18.—A plant cultivated for its beauty.
  • CYNOMETRA cauliflora, Syst. Pl. ii. 263. Fl. Zeyl. 166. Cynomorium, Rumph. Amb. i. p. 163. t. 42.
  • CYNOMETRA ramiflora, 263. Fl. Zeyl. 167. Cynomorium sylvestre, Rumph. Amb. i. p. 164. t. 63. Tripa, Rheed. Mal. iv. p. 65. t. 31. Rai. Hist. 1675.
  • [Page 270]PROSOPIS spicigera, Syst. Pl. ii. 267. Burm. Ind. 102. t. 25. f. 3. Pl. of Cor. i. tab. 63.
  • CHALCAS paniculata, 268. Camunium, Rumph. Amb. v. p. 26. t. 17.
  • MURRAYA exotica, 268. Lin. Pfl. Syst. iii. p. 541.
  • BERGERA Kaenigii, 268. Pl. of Cor. ii. tab. 112.—A principal ingredient in Curry.
  • ADENANTHERA pavonina, 269. Fl. Zeyl. 160. Coralaria parvifolia, Rumph. Amb. iii. p. 173. t. 109. Mandsiadi, Rheed. Mal. vi. p. 25. t. 14. Rai. Hist. 1752.
  • ADENANTHERA falcata, 269. Clypearia alba, Rumph. Amb. iii. p. 176. t. 111.
  • TURRAEA virens, 271. Smith. Pl. Ic. x. Lin. Mant. ii. 237.
  • MELIA azederach, 271. Fl. Coch. i. 329. Fl. Zeyl. 162. Rai. Hist. 1546. Bauh. Pin. 415.
  • MELIA azadirachta, 272. Fl. Zeyl. 161. Bauh. Pin. 416. Aria Bepou, Rheed. Mal. iv. p. 107. t. 52.
  • TRIBULUS lanuginosus, 277. Fl. Zeyl. 168.
  • LIMONIA monophylla, 279. Fl. Coch. i. 333. Burm. Zeyl. 143. t. 65. f. 1. Outlines, i. p. 228. Pl. of Cor. i. 83.
  • LIMONIA pentaphylla, Pl. of Cor. i. tab. 84.
  • LIMONIA arborea, Pl. of Cor. i. tab. 85.
  • LIMONIA crenulata, Pl. of Cor. i. tab. 86.
  • LIMONIA trifoliata, Syst. Pl. ii. 279. Burm. Ind. 103. t. 35. f. 1.
  • LIMONIA acidissima, 279. Fl. Zeyl. 175. Anisifolium, Rumph. Amb. ii. t. 43. Catu, Tsieru Naregam, Rheed. Mal. iv. t. 14.
  • GETONIA floribunda, Pl. of Cor. i. tab. 87.
  • JUSSIEVA repens, Syst. Pl. ii. 281. Fl. Zeyl. 169. Nir Carambu, Rheed. Mal. ii. p. 99. t. 51. Rai. Hist. 1510.
  • JUSSIEVA erecta, 282. Fl. Zeyl. 170. Herba vitiliginum, Rumph. Amb. vi. 49. t. 21. f. 1.
  • [Page 271]JUSSIEVA tenella, Syst. Pl. ii. 282. Burm. Ind. 103. t. 34. f. 2.
  • JUSSIEVA suffruticosa, 282. Rumph. Amb. vi. t. 41. Carambu, Rheed. Mal. ii. p. 55. t. 49. Rai. Hist. 1510.
  • QUISQUALIS Indica, 283. Rumph. Amb. v. p. 71. t. 38.
  • DAIS octandra, 284. Burm. Ind. t. 33. f. 2.
  • MELASTOMA aspera, 286. Fl. Zeyl. 172. Fragarius ruber. Rumph. Amb. iv. p. 135. t. 71. Katou Kadali, Rheed. Mal. iv. p. 91. t. 43. Rai. Hist. 1493.
  • MELASTOMA Malabathrica, 286. Fl. Zeyl. 171. Kedali, Rheed. Mal. iv. p. 87. 42. Fragrarius niger, Rumph. Amb. iv. p. 137. t. 72.
  • MELASTOMA octandra, 287. Fl. Zeyl. 173.
  • MELASTOMA crispata, 288. Funis muraenarum, Rumph. Amb. v. p. 66. t. 35.
  • TRIANTHEMA decandra, Syst. Pl. ii. 307. Burm. Ind. 110. t. 31. f. 3.
  • BANISTERIA Benghalensis, 372. Fl. Zeyl. 176.
  • BANISTERIA tetraptora, Sonnerat, ii. 238. tab. 135.—A small tree of the Malabar coast. Cultivated by the Indians, to adorn their idols with the flowers.
  • ERYTHROXYLON monogynum, Pl. of Cor. i. tab. 88.
  • AVERRHOA bilimbi, Syst. Pl. ii. 325. Fl. Coch. i. 354. Fl. Zeyl. 177. Bilinbingum teres, Rumph. Amb. i. p. 118. t. 36. Bilimbi, Rheed. Mal. iii. p. 55. t. 45, 46. Rai. Hist. 1449. Outlines, i. p. 228.
  • AVERRHOA Carambola, 375. Fl. Coch. i. 354. Fl. Zeyl. 178. Bauh. Pin. 433. Prunum stellatum, Rumph. Amb. i. p. 115. t. 35. Rheed. Mal. iii. p. 51. t. 43, 44. Rai. Hist. 1449.
  • [Page 272]AVERRHOA acida, Syst. Pl. ii. 375. Fl. Zeyl. 179. Neli poli, Rheed. Mal. iii. p. 57. t. 47, 48. Rai. Hist. 1450. Cheramela, Rumph. Amb. vii. p. 34. t. 33. f. 2.
  • SPONDIAS mombin, 375. Mill. Dict. n. 1.
  • COTYLEDON lasciniata, 378. Fl. Coch. i. 352. Planta anatis, Rumph. Amb. v. p. 275. t. 95.
  • OXALIS sensitiva, 390. Fl. Coch. i. 352. Fl. Zeyl. 180. Herba sentiens, Rumph. Amb. v. p. 301. t. 104. f. 2. Bauh. Pin. 259. Todda vaddi, Rheed. Mal. ix. p. 33. t. 19.
  • OXALIS corniculata, Fl. Coch. i. 350. Oxys lutea Indica, Rumph. Amb. v. p. 277.
  • PHYTOLACCA icosandra, Syst. Pl. ii. 407. Mill. Dict. t. 207.
  • BASSIA longifolia, Syst. Pl. ii. 412.
  • BASSIA latifolia, Pl. of Cor. i. tab. 19.
  • RHIZOPHORA conjugata, Syst. Pl. ii. 413. Fl. Zeyl. 181.
  • RHIZOPHORA gymnorhiza, 413. Fl. Coch. i. 364. Mangium celsum, Rumph. Amb. iii. p. 102. t. 68. Candel, Rheed. Mal. vi. p. 57. t. 31, 32. Rai. Hist. 1769.
  • RHIZOPHORA candel, 413. Tsierou Kandel, Rheed. Mal. vi. p. 63. t. 35. Rai. Hist. 1770.
  • RHIZOPHORA corniculata, 413. Rumph. Amb. iii. p. 117. t. 77.
  • RHIZOPHORA mangle, 414. Bau. Hist. i. p. 415. Mangium calendarium, Rumph. Amb. iii. p. 108. t. 71, 72. Peekandel, Rheed. Mal. vi. p. 91. t. 34. Rai. Hist. 1770.
  • RHIZOPHORA cylindrica, 414. Karil kandel, Rheed. Mal. vi. p. 59. t. 33. Rat. Hist. 1770. Mangium minus, Rumph. Amb. iii. p. 106. t. 69.
  • RHIZOPHORA caseolaris, 414. Fl. Coch. i. 363. Rumph. Amb. iii. p. 111. t. 73. 74.
  • [Page 275]RHIZOPHORA corniculata, Syst. Pl. ii. 413. Mangium fruticosum corni­culatum, Rumph. Amb. iii. p. 117. t. 77.
  • GARCINIA mangostana, 416. Rumph. Amb. i. p. 132. t. 43. Outlines, iii. p. 40.
  • GARCINIA cornea, 417. Lignum corneum, Rumph. Amb. ii. p. 55. t. 30.
  • GARCINIA celebica, 416. Mangostana celebica, Rumph. Amb. i. p. 134. t. 44.
  • CRATAEVA tapia, 419. Fl. Zeyl. 211. Nurruala, Rheed. Mal. iii. p. 49. t. 22. Rai. Hist. 1644. Outlines, i. p. 228.
  • CRATAEVA marmelos, 419. Fl. Zeyl. 212. Bauh. Pin. 425. Bilanus, Rumph. Amb. i. p. 197. t. 81. Coualam, Rheed. Mal. iii. p. 37. t. 37.
  • TRIUMFETTA Bartramia, 420. Fl. Zeyl. 174. Lappago Amboinica, Rumph. Amb. vi. p. 59. t. 25. f. 2.
  • TRIUMFETTA annua, 421. Mill. Ic. 199. t. 29.
  • PORTULACCA meridiana, Linn. Suppl. 248.
  • LYTHRUM pemphis, Linn. Suppl. 249. Forst. Gen. n. 34. t. 34.
  • EUPHORBIA antiquorum, Syst. Pl. ii. 435. Fl. Coch. i. 365. Fl. Zeyl. 199. Schadidacalli, Rheed. Mal. ii. p. 81. t. 42. Outlines, i. 228.
  • EUPHORBIA nereifolia, 437. Fl. Coch. i. 366. Fl. Zeyl. 200. Ligularia, Rumph. Amb. iv. p. 88. t. 40. Ela Calli, Rheed. Mal. ii. p. 83. t. 43.
  • EUPHORBIA tiraculli, 438. Fl. Coch. i. 366. Fl. Zeyl. 197. Ossifraga lactea, Rumph. Amb. vii. p. 62. t. 29. Tiru Calli, Rheed. Mal. viii. t. 44.
  • EUPHORBIA hypericifolia, 440. Mill. Dict. n. 31.
  • EUPHORBIA hirta, 441. Fl. Zeyl. 197. Esula esculenta, Rumph. Amb. vi. p. 54. t. 23. f. 2.
  • EUPHORBIA pilulifera, 441. Amoen. Acad. iii. p. 115.
  • EUPHORBIA thymifolia, 441. Fl. Zeyl. 198.
  • [...][Page 276] EUPHORBIA parviflora, Syst. Pl. ii. 442. Burm. Zeyl. 224. t. 105. f. 2.
  • TACCA pinnatisida, Lin. Suppl. 251. Fl. Coch. i. 368. Tacca sativa, Rumph. Amb. v. p. 324. t. 112.
  • GLINUS dictamnoides, Syst. Pl. i. 458. Burm. Ind. 113.
  • PSIDIUM pyriferum, Syst. Pl. i. 473. Fl. Coch. i. 378. Fl. Zeyl. 192. Cuiavus domestica, Rumph. Amb. i. p. 140. t. 47. Pela, Rheed. Mal. iii. p. 31. t. 34. Outlines, i. p. 228.
  • PSIDIUM pomiferum, 474. Fl. Coch. i. 379. Bauh. Pin. 437. Cuiavus agrestis, Rumph. Amb. i. p. 142. t. 4. Malacca-pela, Rheed. Mal. iii. p. 33. t. 35.
  • PSIDIUM cujavillus, Burm. Ind. 114. Rumph. Amb. i. p. 145. t. 49.
  • EUGENIA Mallaccensis, Syst. Pl. ii. 474. Fl. Coch. i. 374. Bauh. Pin. 441. Fl. Zeyl. 187. Jambosa domestica, Rumph. Amb. i. p. 121. t. 37, 38. Nati Schanibu, Rheed. Mal. i. p. 29. t. 18. Rai. Hist. 1748. Outlines, i. p. 229.—Rumphius thinks the fruit of this species the best in India next to the Mangostan, and of the greatest use to the natives, and most refreshing. The tree grows to the size of an apple-tree, and the fruit cuts like an apple.
  • EUGENIA jambos, 474. Bauh. Pin. 441. Jambosa Sylvestris alba, Rumph. Amb. i. p. 127. t. 39. Malacca Schambu, Rheed. Mal. i. p. 27. t. 17. Rai. Hist. 1478.—The timber naturally grows crooked, is therefore much used in the isles for ribs for ships. The fruit seldom eaten.
  • EUGENIA aquea, Rumph. i. 126. tab. 38. fig. 2.—The fruit small, of a cherry redness, divided externally into rounded segments. Is very weak in flavor.
  • EUGENIA uniflora, Syst. Pl. ii. 475. Fl. Zeyl. 189. Mich. Gen. 226. tab. 108. Pis. 117. t. 44.
  • [Page 277]EUGENIA acutangu [...]a, Syst. Pl. ii. 476. Fl. Coch. i. 375. Fl. Zeyl. 190. Butonica terrestris rubra, Rumph. Amb. ii. p. 181. t. 115. Tsiera samstravadi, Rheed. Mal. iv. p. 51. t. 7.
  • EUGENIA nigra, Rumph. i. 125. tab. 38. fig. 1.—The fruit is pear shaped, and in color like a ripe mulberry, is so rich and juicy and vinous as to be preferred by some to the domestic kind. Grows to the size of our walnut trees.
  • EUGENIA racemosa, Syst. Pl. ii. 476. Fl. Zeyl. 191. Rumph. Amb. iii. p. 181. t. 116. Rheed. Mal. iv. p. 11. t. 16. Rai. Hist. 1479.
  • MYRTUS cumini, 478. Fl. Zeyl. 185. Jambosa ceramica, Rumph. Amb. i. p. 130. t. 41.
  • MYRTUS Zeylanica, 479. Fl. Coch. i. 382. Fl. Zeyl. 182. Outlines, i. p. 229.
  • MYRTUS androsaemoides, 479. Fl. Coch. i. 382. Fl. Zeyl. 184.
  • MYRTUS caryophyllata, 480. Fl. Zeyl. 183.
  • MYRTUS leucadendra, Sp. Pl. 67. Arbor alba, Rumph. Amb. ii. p. 72. t. 16.
  • MYRTUS saligna, Arbor alba minor, Rumph. Amb. ii. p. 76. t. 17. f. 2.
  • MYRTUS communis, Myrtus amboinensis, Rumph. Amb. ii. p. 77. c. 27.
  • MYRTUS angustifolia, Rumph. Amb. iii. 74. c. 41.
  • PUNICA granatum, Syst. Pl. 476. Fl. Coch. i. 383. Malum granatum, Rumph. ii. p. 94. t. 24. f. 1. Outlines, i. p. 229.
  • CRATAEGUS indica, Syst. Pl. ii. 494. Fl. Coch. i. 391. Burm. Ind. 117.
  • SESUVIUM portucalastrum, Syst. Pl. ii. 496. Halimus indicus, Rumph. Amb. v. p. 165. t. 72. f. 1.
  • [Page 278]RUBUS parvifolius, Syst. Pl. ii. 533. Fl. Coch. i. 398. Rumph. Amb. v. p. 88. t. 47. f. 1.
  • RUBUS pyrifolius, Smith. Pl. Ic. Fas [...]. iii. p. 61.
  • RUBUS clongatus, Smith. Pl. Ic. Fas [...]. iii. p. 62.
  • RUBUS Moluccanus, Sp. Pl. 707. Rubus Moluccanus latifolius, v. 88. t. 47. f. 2.
  • CAPPARIS Zeylanica, Syst. Pl. ii. 564. Fl. Coch. i. 403. Fl. Zeyl. 210.
  • CAPPARIS sepiaria, 564. Pluk. alm. 27. t. 338. f. 3.
  • CAPPARIS baducca, 564. Rheed. Mal. vi. p. 105. t. 57.
  • CAPPARIS grandis, Lin. Suppl. 263.
  • CAPPARIS horrida, Lin. Suppl. 264.
  • CAMBOGIA gutta, Syst. Pl. ii. 576. Fl. Coch. i. 406. Fl. Zeyl. 195. Coddam-pulli, Rheed. Mal. i. p. 41. t. 24. Carpapuli, Bauh. Hist. i. p. 137. Rai. Hist. 1661. Blackwal, t. 392. Outlines, i. p. 229.
  • MYRISTICA officinalis, Linn. Suppl. 265. Sonnerat Voy. t. 116, 117, 118. Rumph. Amb. ii. p. 24. t. 5. Outlines of the Globe, iv. p. 161. Nux myristica, Rumph. Amb. ii. 14. c. 5. Woodville Mel. Bet. ii. 363.
  • NYMPHOEA lotus, Syst. Pl. ii. 579. Fl. Zeyl. 194. Ambel, Rheed. Mal. xi. p. 51. t. 26. Outlines, i. p. 230.
  • NYMPHOEA nelumbo, 579. Fl. Coch. i. 416. Fl. Zeyl. 193. Taratti, Rumph. Amb. vi. p. 168. t. 73. Tamara, Rheed. Mal. xi. p. 59. t. 30. Outlines, i. 24. 230.
  • TREWIA nudiflora, 581. Canschi, Rheed. Mal. i. p. 76. t. 42.
  • [Page 279]MAMMEA asiatica, Syst. Pl. ii. 582. Osb. It. 272.
  • OCHNA squarrosa, 582. Fl. Zeyl. 209. Outlines, i. p. 230. Pl. of Cor. i. 89.
  • CALOPHYLLUM inophyllum, 583. Fl. Zeyl. 101. Rintangor maritima, Rumph. Amb. ii. p. 211. t. 71. Rheed. Mal. iv. p. 76. t. 38. Rai. Hist. 1525. Outlines, i. p. 230.
  • CALOPHYLLUM calaba, 583. Fl. Zeyl. 202. Tsierou prima, Rheed. Mal. iv. p. 81. t. 39.
  • ELAEOCARPUS serrata, 586. Fl. Zeyl. 206. Ganitrus, Rumph. Amb. iii. p. 60. t. 131. Perin-Kara, Rheed. Mal. iv. p. 51. t. 24. Rai. Hist. 1546. Outlines, i. p. 230.
  • DELIMA sarmentosa, 587. Fl. Zeyl. 205. Peripu, Rheed. Mal. vii. t. 34.
  • VATERIA indica, 587. Fl. Zeyl. 204. Poenoe, Rheed. Mal. iv. p. 33 t. 15. Outlines, i. p. 231.
  • LAGERSTROEMIA indica, 588. Fl. Coch. i. 415. Tsjikin, Rumph. Amb. vii. p. 61. t. 28.
  • LAGERSTROEMIA reginae, Pl. of Cor. i. 65. Adamboe, Rheed. Mal. iv. p. 45. tab. 20. 21.
  • LAGERSTROEMIA parviflora, Pl. of Cor. i. 66.
  • CARYOPHYLLUS aromaticus, Syst. Pl. ii. 590. Fl. Coch. i. 406. Bauh. Pin. 410. Rumph. Amb. ii. p. 3. t. 1, 2, 3. Outlines, iv. 170.
  • CORCHORUS olitorius, 606. Fl. Zeyl. 213. Bauh. Hist. 317.
  • CORCHORUS tridens, 606. Burm. Ind. 123. t. 37. f. 2.
  • CORCHORUS tapsularis, 607. Fl. Coch. i. 408. Fl. Zeyl. 214. Gania sativa, Rumph. Amb. v. p. 212. t. 78. f. 1. Outlines, i. p. 231.
  • [Page 280]MAHWAH Hamiltonia, Asiatic Researches, i. p. 300. Outlines, ii. p. 319.— A tree discovered in Bahar by Lieut. Charles Hamilton, in 1785. Its timber very useful in building. An excellent eating oil expressed from the fruit.
  • STRATIOTES alismoides, Syst. Pl. ii. 623. Fl. Zeyl. 223. Ottel-ambel, Rheed. Mal. xi. p. 95. t. 46.
  • STRATIOTES acoroides, 268. Acorus marinus, Rumph. Amb. vi. p. 191. t. 75. f. 2. Outlines, i. p. 231.
  • DILLENIA indica, Syst. Pl ii. 624. Songium, Rumph. ii. p. 14. t. 45. Syalita, Rheed. Mal. iii. p. 39. t. 38, 39. Rai. Hist. 1707.
  • DILLENIA pentagyna, Pl. of Cor. i. 20.
  • LIRIODENDRON lillifera, Fl. Coch. i. 424. Sp. Pl. 755. Sampacca mon­tana, ii. p. 204. t. 69.
  • MICHELIA champaca, Syst. Pl. ii. 627. Fl. Coch. i. 425. Fl. Zeyl. 144. Sampacca, Rumph. Amb. ii. p. 199. t. 67. 68. Rheed. Mal. i. p. 31. t. 19. Rai. Hist. 1641.
  • MICHELIA Tsiampaca, 627. Sampaca sylvestris, Rumph. Amb. ii. p. 202. t. 68.
  • UVARIA Zeylanica, 627. Fl. Coch. i. 426. Fl. Zeyl. 224. Funis musarius, Rumph. Amb. v. p. 78. t. 42. Narum-panel, Rheed. Mal. ii. p. 11. t. 9. Rai. Hist. 1636.
  • UVARIA altissima, Uv. longifolia, L'Arbre de Nature, Sonnerat, ii. 233. tab. 131.—Poon tree. Mast tree. Outlines of the Globe, i. p. 83. tab. 5.
  • UVARIA cerasoides, Pl. of Cor. i. 33.—The wood useful for many purposes; its berries, though very astringent, are eaten by the natives.
  • [Page 281]UVARIA suberosa, Pl. of Cor. i. 34.—The wood of this species is of a chocolate color, durable, elastic, and much in use.
  • UVARIA tomentosa, Pl. of Cor. i. 35.
  • UVARIA lutea, Pl. of Cor. i. 36.
  • ANNONA asiatica, Syst. Pl. ii. 630. Fl. Coch. i. 428. Fl. Zeyl. 225. Outlines, i. p. 231.
  • ANNONA squamosa, 629. Fl. Coch. i. 427. Brown. Jam. 256. Anona tuberosa. Rumph. Amb. i. p. 138. t. 46.
  • ANNONA reticulata, Sp. Pl. 757. Amona, Rumph. Amb. i. p. 136. t. 45.
  • ATRAGENE Zeylanica, Syst. Pl. ii. 641. Fl. Zeyl. 226. Amoen. Acad. i. p. 105.
  • TEUCRIUM asiaticum, Syst. Pl. iii. 16. Mant. 80.
  • NEPETA Malabarica, 33. Moris. Hist. iii. p. 415.
  • NEPETA Indica, 34. Katu-kurka, Rheed. Mal. x. t. 90.
  • MENTHA auricularia, 41. Flor. Zeyl. 411. Majorana foetida, Rumph. Amb. vi. p. 41. t. 16.
  • MENTHA perilloides, 47. Flor. Zeyl. 225. Cottam, Rheed. Mal. x. p. 153. t. 77.
  • PERILLA ocymoides, 47. Sp. Pl. ii. p. 832.
  • BALLOTA disticha, 63. Fl. Zeyl. 24. Rai. Hist. 1872.
  • PHLOMIS Zeylanica, 71. Fl. Zeyl. 227. Herba admirationis, Rumph. Amb. vi. p. 39. t. 16. f. 1.
  • PHLOMIS Indica, 72.
  • PHLOMIS nepetifolia, 72. Lin. Suppl. 274.
  • [Page 282]MOLUCCELLA spinosa, Syst. Pl. iii. 74. Bauh. Pin. 229.
  • OCYMUM thyrsiflorum, 92. Mant. 84.
  • OCYMUM gratissimum, 93. Fl. Coch. ii. 448. Burm. Zeyl. 174. t. 80. f. 1.
  • OCYMUM album, 93. Mant. 85.
  • OCYMUM basilicum, 93. Fl. Coch. ii. 449. Bauh. Pin. 226. Basilicum in­dicum hortense, v. 263. t. 92. f. 1.
  • OCYMUM minimum, 93. Fl. Coch. ii. 449. Bauh. Pin. 226. Ocymum citratum, v. 266. t. 92. f. 2.
  • OCYMUM sanctum, 94. Mant. 85. Hort. Kew. ii. 321.
  • OCYMUM tenuiflorum, 94. Basilicum agreste, Rumph. Amb. v. t. 92. f. 2.
  • OCYMUM polystachion, 95. Mant. ii. p. 567. Hort. Kew. ii. 321.
  • OCYMUM menthoides, 95. Fl. Zeyl. 229. Mentha crispa, v. 267. t. 93. f. 2.
  • OCYMUM scutellarioides, 95. Maiorana rubra, Rumph. Amb. v. p. 291. t. 101.
  • OCYMUM capitellatum, Lin. Suppl. 276.
  • OCYMUM prostratum, Syst. Pl. iii. 96. Mant. 566.
  • OCYMUM molle, Hort. Kew, ii. 352.
  • SCUTELLARIA Indica, Syst. Pl. iii. 100. Serratula amara, v. 459. t. 170. f. 1.
  • RHINANTHUS Indica, Syst. Pl. iii. 108. Fl. Zeyl. 238.
  • GERARDIA delphinifolia, 121. Amoen. Acad. iv. p. 318. Pl. of Cor. i. 90.
  • CELSIA cretica, 281. Moris. Hist. ii. p. 488.
  • TORENIA asiatica, 143. Kaka-pu, Rheed. Mal. ix. p. 103. t. 53.
  • BIGNONIA Indica, 159. Fl. Coch. ii. 460. Fl. Zeyl. 236. Palega Paianelli, Rheed. Mal. i. p. 77. t. 43. Outlines, i. p. 232.
  • BIGNONIA cheloncides, Lin. Suppl. 282. Padri, Rheed. Mal. vi. p. 47. t. 26.
  • [Page 281]BIGNONIA spathacea, Lin. Suppl. 283. Lignum equinum, Rumph. Amb. iii. p. 73. t. 46. Niir Pongelion, Rheed. Mal. vi. p. 53. t. 29.
  • GMELINA Asiatica, Syst. Pl. iii. 162. Fl. Coch. ii. 456. Fl. Zeyl. 230. Rumph. Amb. ii. p. 127. t. 40.
  • PREMNA integrifolia, 163. Folium hirci, Rumph. Amb. iii. p. 208. t. 133.
  • PREMNA serratifolia, 164. Fl. Zeyl. 416.
  • CAPRARIA crustacea, 169. Caranasci minus, Rumph. Amb. v. p. 491. t. 170. f. 3.
  • CAPRARIA humills, Hort. Kew. ii. 354.
  • BUCHNERA Asiatica, Syst. Pl. iii. 179. Syst. Veg. 478.
  • BUCHNERA cordifolia, Lin. Suppl. 287.—Found at Tanjore, near the edges of gardens.
  • OROBANCHE oeginetia, Syst. Pl. iii. 185. Tsiam Cumuli, Rheed. Mal. ii. p. 97. t. 47. Aeginetia Indica, Pl. of Cor. i. 91.
  • THUNBERGIA fragrans, Pl. of Cor. i. t. 67.
  • SESAMUM orientale, Syst. Pl. iii. 188. Fl. Coch. ii. 464. Bauh. Pin. 27. Schit elu, Rheed. Mal. ix. p. 105. t. 54. Outlines, i. p. 232.
  • SESAMUM Indicum, 188. Rumph. Amb. v. p. 204. t. 76. f. 1.
  • RUELLIA tentaculata, 191. Amoen. Acad. iv. p. 320.
  • RUELLIA ciliaris, 191. Fl. Coch. ii. 462. Burm. Ind. 135. t. 42. f. 1.
  • RUELLIA crispa, 192. Osbeck. It. 240.
  • RUELLIA repanda, 192. Prunella Molucca, Rumph. Amb. vi. p. 30. t. 13. f. 13.
  • RUELLIA alternata, Burm. Ind. 135. Prunella Molucca Silvestris, Rumph. Amb. vi. p. 30.
  • RUELLIA ringens, 192. Fl. Zeyl. 234. Upudali, Rheed. Mal. x. p. 125. t. 64.
  • RUELLIA antipoda, 192. Fl. Coch. ii. 462. Fl. Zeyl. 235. Crusta ollae, Rumph. Amb. v. p. 460. t. 170. f. 2. Peetianga-pulpani, Rheed. Mal. ix. p. 115. t. 59.
  • RUELLIA difformis, Lin. Suppl. 289. Nir Schulli, Rheed. Mal. ii. p. 89. t. 46.
  • [Page 282]RUELLIA balsamica, Lin. Suppl. 289.
  • RUELLIA uliginosa, Lin. Suppl. 290.
  • RUELLIA repens, Syst. Pl. iii. 193. Burm. Ind. 135. t. 41. f. 1.
  • BARLERIA longifolia, Syst. Pl. iii. 193. Amoen. Acad. iv. p. 320.
  • BARLERIA hystrix, 193. Hystrix frutex, Rumph. Amb. vii. p. 22. t. 13.
  • BARLERIA prionitis, 194. Fl. Zeyl. 231. Coletta-veetla, Rheed. Mal. ix. p. 77. t. 41.
  • BARLERIA buxifolia, 194. Caraschulli, Rheed. Mal. ii. p. 91. t. 47.
  • BARLERIA cristata, 194. Moris. Hist. iii. p. 429. f. 11. t. 23. f. 7.
  • BARLERIA longiflora, Lin. Suppl. 290.
  • OVIEDA mitis, Syst. Pl. iii. 196. Burm. Ind. t. 43. f. 1.
  • VOLKAMERIA inermis, 197. Fl. Coch. ii. 471. Fl. Zeyl. 231. Jasminum litoreum, Rumph. Amb. v. p. 86. t. 46. Nir-nolsiit, Rheed. Mal. v. p. 97. t. 49.
  • VOLKAMERIA scandens, Lin. Suppl. 292.
  • VOLKAMERIA serrata, Syst. Pl. iii. 197. Mant. 90.
  • VOLKAMERIA petasites, Fl. Coch. li. 472. Petasites agrestis, Rumph. Amb. iv. p. 108. t. 49.
  • CLERODENDRUM infortunatum, Syst. Pl. iii. 197. Fl. Coch. ii. 471. Fl. Zeyl. 232. Peragu, Rheed. Mal. ii. p. 41. t. 25. Rai. Hist. 1571.
  • CLERODENDRUM fortunatum, 198. Burm. Ind. 137.
  • CLERODENDRUM calamitosum, 198. Burm. Ind. 137. t. 44.
  • CLERODENDRUM phlomidis, Linn. Suppl. 292.
  • CLERODENDRUM paniculatum, Syst. Pl. iii. 198. Burm. Ind. 137. t. 45. f. 1.
  • VITEX trifolia, 199. Fl. Coch. ii. 474. Fl. Zeyl. 413. Lagondium vulgare, Rumph. Amb. iv. p. 48. t. 18. Caranosi, Rheed. Mal. ii. p. 13. t. 10. Rai. Hist. 1575.
  • VITEX negundo, 199. Fl. Zeyl. 414. Logondium litoreum, Rumph. Amb. iv. p. 50. t. 19. Bemnosi, Rheed. Mal. ii. p. 15. t. 11. Rai. Hist. 1575.
  • VITEX pinnata, 200. Fl. Zeyl. 415.
  • [Page 283]VITEX leucoxylon, Lin. Suppl. 293.
  • VITEX altissima, Lin. Suppl. 294.
  • AVICENNIA tomentosa, Syst. Pl. iii. 200. Fl. Zeyl. 57. Bauh. Pin. 511. Oepta, Rheed. Mal. iv. p. 95. t. 45.
  • COLUMNEA longifolia, 202. Babel. Tsiuli, Rheed. Mal. ix. p. 169. t. 87.
  • ACANTHUS ilicifolius, 203. Fl. Coch. ii. 455. Rai. Hist. 1766. Aquifolium Indicum, Rumph. Amb. vi. p. 163. t. 71. Paina Schylli, Rheed. Mal. ii. p. 93. t. 48.
  • ACANTHUS maderaspatensis, 203. Burm. Ind. 130. t. 42. f. 2.
  • PEDALIUM murex, 203. Fl. Zeyl. 440. Kaku-Taly, Rheed. Mal. x. p. t. 72.
  • ANASTATICA Syriaca, Syst. Pl. iii. 211. Bauh. Pin. 484.
  • SISYMBRIUM Indicum, Syst. Pl. iii. 259. Burm. Ind. 140.
  • CLEOME fruitcosa, Syst. Pl. iii. 291. Burm. Ind. t. 46. f. 3
  • CLEOME heptaphylla, 291. Burm. Zeyl. 215.
  • CLEOME pentaphylla, 291. Fl. Coch. ii. 482. Fl. Zeyl. 239. Rai. Hist. 859. Bauh. Pin. 326. Capa-veela, Rheed. Mal. ix. p. 43. t. 24.
  • CLEOME icosandra, 292. Fl. Coch. ii. 483. Fl. Zeyl. 240.
  • CLEOME viscosa, 293. Fl. Zeyl. 241. Aria-veela, Rheed. Mal. ix. p. 41. t. 23.
  • CLEOME dodecandra, 293. Fl. Zeyl. 242.
  • CLEOME monophylla, 295. Fl. Zeyl. 243. Tsieru-veela, Rheed. Mal. ix. p. 63. t. 34.
  • [Page 284]CLEOME capensis, Syst. Pl. iii. 296.
  • CLEOME felina, Lin. Suppl. 300.
  • CLEOME tenella, Lin. Suppl. 300.
  • WALTHERIA Indica, Syst. Pl. iii. 302. Burm. Zeyl. 149. t. 68. Ind. p. 142.
  • MELOCHIA concatenata, 305. Fl. Zeyl. 247.
  • MELOCHIA corchorifolia, 305. Fl. Coch. ii. 494. Fl. Zeyl. 246. Tsieru-uren, Rheed. Mal. ix. p. 143. t. 73.
  • MELOCHIA supina, 306. Mill. Dict. n. 5.
  • CONNARUS monocarpos, Syst. Pl. iii. 306. Fl. Zeyl. 248.
  • HUGONIA mystax, 307. Fl. Zeyl. 249. Rai. Hist. 1570. Modira canni, Rheed. Mal. ii. p. 29. t. 19.
  • PENTAPETES phoenicea, Syst. Pl. iii. 330. Fl. Coch. ii. 497. Flos impius, Rumph. Amb. v. p. 288. t. 100. f. 1. Siamin, Rheed. Mal. x. p. 1. t. 1.
  • PENTAPETES suberifolia, 331. Fl. Zeyl. 250.
  • PENTAPETES acerifolia, 331. Amoen. Acad. i. p. 407.
  • BOMBAX pentandrum, Syst. Pl. iii. 332. Fl. Coch. ii. 504. Fl. Zeyl. 220. Bauh. Pin. 430. Eriophoros javana, Rumph. Amb. i. p. 194. t. 80. Pania. Paniala, Rheed. Mal. iii. p. 59. t. 49, 50, 51. Outlines, i. p. 232.
  • [Page 285]BOMAX gossipinum, Syst. Pl. iii. 333. Sonnerat, ii. 235. tab. 133.
  • BOMAX ceiba, 333. Fl. Zeyl. 221. Bauh. Pin. 430.
  • SIDA spinosa, 334. Fl. Zeyl. 254. Rumph. Amb. vi. t. 18. f. 1.
  • SIDA alba, 334. Dill. Elth. 214. t. 171. f. 210.
  • SIDA rhombifolia, 334. Fl. Zeyl. 252.
  • SIDA alnifolia, 335. Fl. Coch. ii. 502. Fl. Zeyl. 253.
  • SIDA retusa, 335. Silagurium, Rumph. Amb. vi. p. 44. t. 19.
  • SIDA scoparia, Fl. Coch. ii. 504. Silagurium longifolium, Rumph. Amb. vi. p. 44. t. 18. f. 2.
  • SIDA cordifolia, Syst. Pl. iii. 336. Fl. Coch. ii. 503. Dill. Elth. 211. t. 171. f. 209.
  • SIDA abutilon, 338. Bauh. Pin. 316.
  • SIDA asiatica, 338. Fl. Zeyl. 520. Abutilon hirsutum, Rumph. Amb. iv. p. 29. t. 10. Beloeroe, Rheed. Mal. vi. p. 2. t. 4.
  • SIDA indica 339. Fl. Coch. ii. 503. Rumph. Amb. iv. p. 31. t. 11. Bauh. Pin. 316.
  • SIDA unilocularis, L'Heretier Stirp. 117. Pluckn. Phyt. t. 132. f. 2.
  • MALVA tomentosa, Syst. Pl. iii. 343. Fl. Coch. ii. 514. Fl. Zeyl. 255.
  • MALVA gangetica, 343. Pluk. Phyc. 74. f. 6.
  • MALVA moschata, 349. Bauh. Pin. 316.
  • URENA sinuata, 354. Fl. Coch. ii. 507. Fl. Zeyl. 257. Uren, Rheed. Mal. x. p. 3. t. z.
  • URENA lobata, 354. Fl. Coch. ii. 507. Lappago amboinica, vi. p. 59. t. 25. f. 2.
  • GOSSYPIUM arboreum, 356. Fl. Coch. ii. 506. Latifolium, Rumph. Amb. iv. p. 37. t. 13. Cudupariti, Rheed. Mal. i. p. 55. t. 31. Outlines, i. 233.
  • GOSSYPIUM religiosum, 356. Pluk. Alm. 172. t. 188. f. 2.
  • GOSSYPIUM herbaceum, 355. Fl. Coch. ii. 505. Rumph. Amb. iv. p. 33. t. 12. Outlines, i. p. 233.
  • [Page 286]HIBISCUS populneus, Syst. Pl. iii. 358. Fl. Coch. ii. 509. Fl. Zeyl. 258. Rai. Hist. 1069. Novella litorea, Rumph. Amb. ii. p. 224. t. 74. Bupariti, Rheed. Mal. i. p. 57. t. 29. Outlines, i. p. 232.
  • HIBISCUS tiliaceus, 358. Fl. Coch. ii. 509. Rai. Hist. 1070. Novella, Rumph. Amb. ii. p. 218. t. 73. Rheed. Mal. i. p. 53. t. 30.
  • HIBISCUS rosa sinensis, 359. Fl. Coch. ii. 510. Fl. Zeyl. 260. Flos oestivalis, Rumph. Amb. iv. p. 24. t. 8. Scheru-pariti, Rheed. Mal. ii. p. 25. t. 16.
  • HIBISCUS hirtus, 359. Pluk. Alm. 14. t. 254. f. 3.
  • HIBISCUS mutabilis, 360. Fl. Coch. ii. 511. Flos hoarrius, Rumph. Amb. iv. p. 27. t. 9. Hina pariti. Rheed. Mal. vi. p. 66. t. 38, 39, 40, 41.
  • HIBISCUS ficulneus, 361. Fl. Zeyl. 269.
  • HIBISCUS sabdariffa, 361. Fl. Zeyl. 262. Rai. Hist. 1900. Bauh. Pin. 317.
  • HIBISCUS cannabinus, 362. Burm. Zeyl. 134. Ind. 152.
  • HIBISCUS surattensis, 363. Fl. Coch. ii. 512. Fl. Zeyl. 264. Herba crinium, Rumph. Amb. iv. p. 46. t. 6. Narinam poulli, Rheed. Mal. vi. p. 75. t. 44.
  • HIBISCUS manihot, 363. Burm. Fl. Ind. p. 152. Dill. Elth. 189. t. 156. f. 189.
  • HIBISCUS abcimoschus, 363. Fl. Zeyl. 261. Bauh. Pin. 317. Granum moscha­tum, Rumph. Amb. iv. p. 38. t. 15. Cattu gasturi, Rheed. Mal. ii. p. 71. t. 38.
  • HIBISCUS esculentus, 364. Burm. Ind. 153.
  • HIBISCUS vitifolius, 364. Fl. Zeyl. 265. Katu Beloeren, Rheed. Mal. vi. p. 79. t. 46. Rai. Hist. 1880.
  • HIBISCUS Zeylanicus, 365. Fl. Zeyl. 266.
  • HIBISCUS micranthus, Linn. Suppl. 308.
  • HIBISCUS rigidus, Linn. Suppl. 310.
  • HIBISCUS phoeniceus, Linn. Suppl. 310. Jacq. Hist. iii. p. 11. t. 14.
  • MESUA ferrea, 369. Fl. Zeyl. 203. Nagassarium, Rumph. Amb. vii. p. 3. t. 2. Rheed. Mal. iii. p. 63. t. 53. Rai. Hist. 1680. Out­lines, i. p. 233.
  • [Page 287]BARRINGTONIA speciosa, Linn. Suppl. 312. Butonica, Rumph. Amb. iii. p. 179. t. 114. Commersona, Sonnerat N. Guinea, tab. 8, 9. Outlines i. 233.—Found in the Moluccas and thence to Otaheite.
  • SARACA Indica, Syst. Pl. iii. 376. Burm. Ind. 85. t. 25. f. 2.
  • POLYGALA theezans, Syst. Pl. iii. 387. Burm. Ind. 154.
  • POLYGALA Chinensis, 388. Brown. Jam. 287.
  • POLYGALA triflora, 391. Fl. Zeyl. 269.
  • POLYGALA glaucoides, 391. Fl. Zeyl. 270.
  • POLYGALA ciliata, 391. Fl. Zeyl. 268.
  • DALBERGIA lanceolaria, Linn. Suppl. 316.
  • DALBERGIA latifolia, Pl. of Cor. ii. t. 113.—Known in India under the name of Black wood, and is much used for furniture. Its color is a greyish black, elegantly diversified with light veins, and capable of receiving a high polish.
  • DALBERGIA paniculata, Pl. of Cor. ii. t. 114.—Grows to a large tree.
  • DALBERGIA rubiginosa, Pl. of Cor. ii. t. 115.
  • ABRUS precatorius, Syst. Pl. iii. 393. Fl. Coch. ii. 520. Fl. Zeyl. 284. Rumph. Amb. v. p. 57. t. 32. Konni, Rheed. Mal. viii. p. 71. t. 39.
  • PTEROCARPUS draco, 394. Lingoum, Rumph. Amb. ii. p. 205. t. 70. Outlines, i. p. 233.
  • PTEROCARPUS santalinus, Linn. Suppl. 318. Santalum rubrum authorum, Rumph. ii. 47. Woodville. Med. Bot. iv. p. 109. Outlines, i. 141.
  • PTEROCARPUS marsupium, Pl. of Cor. ii. t. 116.—Its hard wood, approaching an orange color, is applied to many useful purposes.
  • [Page 288]ERYTHRINA corallodendrum, Syst. Pl. iii. 395. Fl. Coch. ii. 519. Fl. Zeyl. 275. Mouricou, Rheed. Mal. vi. p. 13. t. 7. Gelala litorea, Rumph. Amb. ii. p. 239. t. 76. Outlines, i. p. 234.
  • ERYTHRINA picta, 396. Gelala alba, Rumph. Amb. ii. p. 234. t. 77.
  • ASPALATHUS Indica, 414. Fl. Zeyl. 271. Manelli, Rheed. Mal. ix. p. 69. t. 37.
  • CROTOLARIA juncea, 420. Tandela-cotti, Rheed. Mal. ix. p. 47. t. 36.
  • CROTOLARIA retusa, 420. Fl. Zeyl. 276. C. major, Rumph. Amb. v. p. 278. t. 96. f. 1. Tandale-cotti, Rheed. Mal. ix. p. 54. t. 25.
  • CROTOLARIA verrucosa, 421. Fl. Zeyl. 277. Rai. Hist. 1893. Pee-tandale-cotti, Rheed. Mal. ix. p. 53. t. 29.
  • CROTOLARIA luburnifolia, 422. Fl. Zeyl. 278. Rai. Hist. 1893. Nella-tendale­cotti, Rheed. Mal. ix. p. 49. t. 27.
  • CROTOLARIA quinquefolia, 423. Wellia-tandale-cotti, Rheed. Mal. ix. p. 51. t. 28.
  • CROTOLARIA linifolia, Linn. Suppl. 322.
  • CROTOLARIA heterophylla, Linn. Suppl. 323.
  • PHASEOLUS vulgaris, Syst. Pl. iii. 441. Fl. Coch. ii. 527. Bauh. Pin. 339. Outlines, i. p. 234.
  • PHASEOLUS farinosus, 442. Mill. Dict. n. 4.
  • PHASEOLUS caraculla, 444. Rai. Hist. 1890.
  • PHASEOLUS nanus, 444. Rai. Hist. 885. Bauh. Pin. 339.
  • PHASEOLUS radiatus, 444. Fl. Coch. ii. 529. Fl. Zeyl. 281. P. minimus, Rumph. Amb. vi. p. 386. t. 139. f. 2.
  • PHASEOLUS max, 444. Fl. Zeyl. 280. Cadelium, Rumph. Amb. v. p. 388. t. 140.
  • PHASEOLUS mungo, 445. Fl. Coch. ii. 530. Pluk. Alm. 290.
  • PHASEOLUS sphoerospermus, 445. Brown. Jam. 392.
  • PHASEOLUS marinus, Phaseolus maritimus, Rumph. Amb. v. 391. c. 34.
  • PHASEOLUS aconitifolius, Linn. Suppl. 325.
  • PHASEOLUS parana rubra, Rumph. Amb. v. 9. c. 5.
  • [Page 289]PHASEOLUS Lobus litoralis, Rumph. Amb. v. 10. c. 6. Cacara pilosa, Rumph. Amb. v. p. 392. c. 35.
  • DOLICHOS sinenses, Syst. Pl. iii. 446. Fl. Coch. ii. 530. Rumph. Amb. v. p. 375. t. 134.
  • DOLICHOS unguiculatus, 446. Fl. Coch. ii. 531. Cacara nigra, Rumph. Amb. v. 381. t. 138.
  • DOLICHOS tetragonolobus, 447. Fl. Coch. ii. 532. Lobus quadrangularis, Rumph. Amb. v. p. 374. t. 133.
  • DOLICHOS pruriens, 447. Fl. Coch. ii. 533. Cacara-pruritus, Rumph. Amb. vi. p. 393. t. 142. Naicorana, Rheed. Mal. viii. p. 61. Fl. Zeyl. 539. Outlines, i. p. 234.
  • DOLICHOS scaraboeoides, 449. Fl. Coch. ii. 534. Fl. Zeyl. 282.
  • DOLICHOS bulbosus, 449. Cacara bulbosa, Rumph. Amb. v. p. 373. t. 132.
  • DOLICHOS trilobus, 449. Fl. Coch. ii. 535. Burm. Ind. 160. t. 50. f. 1. Phaseolus trilobus, Hort. Kew. iii. p. 30.
  • DOLICHOS purpureus, 450. Fl. Coch. ii. 534.
  • DOLICHOS lignosus, 450. Phaseolus perennis, Rumph. Amb. v. p. 378.
  • DOLICHOS ensiformis, 451. Fl. Coch. ii. 531. Lobus machoeroides, Rumph. Amb. v. p. 376. t. 135. f. 1.
  • DOLICHOS soia, 451. Fl. Coch. ii. 537. Fl. Zeyl. 534. Kaempf. Amoen. 837. t. 838.
  • DOLICHOS catiang, 451. Fl. Coch. ii. 538. Phaseolus minor, Rumph. Amb. v. p. 383. t. 139. Peru, Rheed. Mal. iii. p. 75. t. 41.
  • DOLICHOS biflorus, 451. Fl. Coch. ii. 537. Pluk. Alm. 291. t. 213. f. 4.
  • DOLICHOS albus, Fl. Coch. ii. 534. Cacara alba, Rumph. Amb. v. p. 280. t. 137.
  • GLYCINE triloba, 453. Burm. Ind. 162. t. 50. f. 1.
  • GLYCINE javanica, Syst. Pl. iii. 453.
  • GLYCINE labialis, Linn. Suppl. 325.
  • GLYCINE suaveolens, Linn. Suppl. 326.
  • [Page 290]CLITORIA ternatea, Syst. Pl. iii. 456. Fl. Zeyl. 283. Flos caeruleus, Rumph. Amb. v. p. 56. t. 31. Schonga-cuspi, Rheed. Mal. viii. p. 69. t. 38.
  • LATHYRUS odoratus, 465. Comm. Hort. ii. p. 219. t. 80.
  • ARACHIS hypogaea, 438. Fl. Coch. ii. 522. Chamoebalanus Japonica, iv. 426. t. 156.
  • CYTISUS caian, 482. Fl. Coch. ii. 565. Fl. Zeyl. 354. Thora paeru, Rheed. Mal. vi. t. 13. Phaseolus balicus, Rumph. Amb. v. p. 377. t. 135. f. 2.
  • ROBINIA mitis, 486. Fl. Coch. ii. 555. Burm. Ind. 163.
  • AESCHYNOMENE grandiflora, 498. Rai. Hist. 1734. Turia, Rumph. Amb. i. p. 188. t. 76. Agaty, Rheed. Mal. i. p. 95. t. 51.
  • AESCHYNOMENE arborea, 499. Mill. Dict. n. 3.
  • AESCHYNOMENE aspera, 499. Fl. Zeyl. 298. Rai. Hist. 982.
  • AESCHYNOMENE Indica, 499. Caiatus, Rumph. Amb. iv. p. 64. t. 24. Neli-tali, Rheed. Mal. ix. p. 31. t. 18.
  • AESCHYNOMENE pumila, 500. Fl. Zeyl. 551. Niti-toda-valli, Rheed. Mal. ix. t. 20.
  • AESCHYNOMENE coccinea, Linn. Suppl. 330. Toeri Mera, Rumph. Amb. i. p. 190. t. 77.
  • HEDYSARUM nummularifolium, Syst. Pl. iii. 501. Fl. Zeyl. 288.
  • HEDYSARUM moniliferum, 501. Burm. Ind. t. 52. f. 3.
  • HEDYSARUM styracifolium, 501.
  • HEDYSARUM reniforme, 501. Fl. Coch. ii. 545. Burm. Ind. t. 52. f. 1.
  • HEDYSARUM sororium, 501. Burm. Ind. 161. t. 50. f. 2.
  • HEDYSARUM gangeticum, 502. Fl. Coch. ii. 547. Phaseolus montanus, Rumph. Amb. vi. p. 146. t. 66.
  • HEDYSARUM maculatum, 502. Fl. Zeyl. 290.
  • HEDYSARUM latebrosum, 502. Mant. 270.
  • HEDYSARUM vaginale, 503. Fl. Zeyl. 287.
  • HEDYSARUM triquetrum, 503. Fl. Coch. ii. 547. Fl. Zeyl. 286. Phaseolatus montanus, 7. Rumph. Amb. vi. p. 146.
  • [Page 291]HEDYSARUM strobiliferum, Syst. Pl. iii. 503. Fl. Zeyl. 287. t. 3.
  • HEDYSARUM diphyllum, 504. Fl. Coch. ii. 548. Fl. Zeyl. 291. Nelam-mari, Rheed. Mal. ix. p. 161. t. 82.
  • HEDYSARUM pulchellum, 504. Fl. Coch. ii. 548. Fl. Zeyl. 292. Outlines, i. p. 235.
  • HEDYSARUM spartium, 504. Burm. Ind. 166. t. 51.
  • HEDYSARUM lineatum, 505. Burm. Ind. t. 53. f. 1.
  • HEDYSARUM retroflexum, 505. Mant. 103.
  • HEDYSARUM umbellatum, 505. Fl. Zeyl. 293. Folium crocodili, Rumph. Amb. iv. p. 112. t. 52.
  • HEDYSARUM gyrans, Linn. Suppl. 332.
  • HEDYSARUM biarticulatum, Syst. Pl. iii. 505. Fl. Zeyl. 296.
  • HEDYSARUM heterocarpon, 506. Fl. Zeyl. 298.
  • HEDYSARUM viscidum, 506. Fl. Zeyl. 295.
  • HEDYSARUM hamatum, 509. Amoen. Acad. v. p. 403.
  • HEDYSARUM triflorum, 509. Fl. Coch. ii. 549. Fl. Zeyl. 297.
  • HEDYSARUM crinitum, 515. Fl. Coch. ii. 550. Burm. Ind. t. 53.
  • HEDYSARUM linifolium, Linn. Suppl. 331.
  • INDIGOFERA trifoliata, Syst. Pl. iii. 516. Amoen. Acad. iv. p. 327.
  • INDIGOFERA enneaphylla, 517. Burm. Ind. 168. t. 55. f. 1.
  • INDIGOFERA glabra, 518. Fl. Zeyl. 274. Nir-nulli, Rheed. Mal. ix. t. 67.
  • INDIGOFERA hirsuta, 519. Fl. Zeyl. 272. Kattu tagera, Rheed. Mal. i. p. 55. t. 30.
  • INDIGOFERA anil, 520. Mant. 272.
  • INDIGOFERA tinctoria, 520. Fl. Zeyl. 273. Indicum, Rumph. Amb. v. p. 220. t. 80. Ameri, Rheed. Mal. i. p. 101. t. 54. Outlines, i. p. 235.
  • INDIGOFERA disperma, 520. Syst. Nat. iii. p. 232.
  • INDIGOFERA argentea, 521. Mill. Dict. i.
  • INDIGOFERA trita, Linn. Suppl. 335.
  • [Page 292]BUTEA frondosa, Pl. of Cor. i. t. 21. Rheed. Mal. vi. p. 29. tab. 16, 17. —This tree exudes a bright red gum, which Dr. Roxburgh con­cludes may be hereafter useful in medicine.
  • BUTEA superba, Pl. of Cor. i. t. 22.—A climbing shrub, adorned with pendent flowers of the richest scarlet.
  • CYLISTA scariosa, Pl. of Cor. i. t. 92.
  • CYLISTA villosa, Syst. Pl. iii. 522. Fl. Zeyl. 299.
  • CYLISTA maxima, 523. Fl. Zeyl. 300.
  • CYLISTA purpurea, 523. Fl. Zeyl. 301.
  • CYLISTA tinctoria, 523. Fl. Zeyl. 302.
  • CYLISTA senticosa, 523. Fl. Zeyl. 303.
  • PSORALEA corylifolia, 545. Burm. Ind. t. 49.
  • PSORALEA pentaphylla, 545. Hort. Ups. 225.
  • TRIFOLIUM M. Indica, 546. Fl. Coch. ii. 541. Fl. Zeyl. 552. Rai. Hist. 951.
  • TRIGONELLA Indica, 573. Fl. Zeyl. 285.
  • THEOBROMA augusta, Syst. Pl. iii. 583. Syst. Nat. iii. p. 233.
  • CITRUS aurantium, Syst. Pl. iii. 585. Fl. Coch. ii. 569. Fl. Zeyl. 304. Bauh. Pin. 436. Outlines, i. p. 235.
  • CITRUS limon, Sp. Pl. 1100. Limonellus cum varietatibus, Rumph. Amb. ii. p. 106. t. 29.
  • CITRUS decumanus, Syst. Pl. iii. 585. Fl. Coch. ii. 570. Limo decumanus, Rumph. Amb. ii. p. 96. t. 24. f. 2.—The Shaddock.
  • CITRUS trifoliata, 585. Sp. Pl. 1101. Kaempf. Amoen. p. 801. t. 802.
  • GLABRARIA tersa, Syst. Pl. iii. 586. Fl. Coch. ii. 576. Lignum loeue minus, Rumph. Amb. iii. p. 71. t. 44.
  • [Page 293]DURIO zibethinus, Syst. Pl. iii. 587. Rumph. Amb. i. p. 99. t. 29.
  • MELALEUCA leucadendra, 587. Fl. Coch. ii. 573. Arbor alba cayputi, Rumph. Amb. ii. p. 172. t. 16.
  • MELALEUCA virgata, Forst. Gen. n. 36. Myrtus Amboinensis, Rumph. Amb. ii. p. 77. t. 18.
  • CARTHAMUS tinctorius, Syst. Pl. iii. 697. Fl. Coch. ii. 587. Cnicus Indicus, Rumph. Amb. v. 215. t. 79.
  • SONCHUS Indica, Mant. 278.
  • CAESULIA axillaris, Pl. of Cor. i. t. 93.
  • SPILANTHUS pseudo acmella, Syst. Pl. iii. 701. Fl. Zeyl. 308.
  • SPILANTHUS acmella, 702. Fl. Zeyl. 309. ABCdaria, Rumph. Amb. vi. p. 145. t. 65.
  • BIDENS pilosa, 705. Fl. Coch. ii. 596. Agrimonia Molucca, Rumph. Amb. vi. p. 38. t. 15. f. 2.
  • CACALIA sonchifolia, 709. Fl. Coch. ii. 59. Fl. Zeyl. 305. Muel Schaui, Rheed. Mal. x. p. 135. t. 68. Sonchus Amboinensis, Rumph. Amb. v. p. 297. t. 103. f. 1
  • CACALIA incana, 710.
  • ETHULIA conyzoides, 712.
  • ETHULIA sparganophora, 712. Vaill. Act. 368.
  • ETHULIA divaricata, 713. Burm. Ind. 176. t. 58. f. 1.
  • ETHULIA bidentis, 713. Mant. 110.
  • EUPATORIUM Zeylanicum, 715. Fl. Zeyl. 306.
  • ARTEMISIA maderaspatana, Syst. Pl. iii. 746. Nelampala, Rheed. Mal. x. p. 97. t. 49.
  • [Page 294]ARTEMISIA vulgaris, Syst. Pl. iii. 744. Fl. Coch. ii. 602. Artemisia latifolia, Rumph. Amb. v. p. 261. t. 91. f. 2.
  • BACCHARIS Indica, 769. Sonchus javanicus, Rumph. Amb. v. 297. c. 77.
  • CONYZA scabra, 772. Mant. 113.
  • CONYZA bifoliata, 773. Pluk. Alm. 140. t. 177. f. 1.
  • CONYZA pubigera, 773. Fl. Coch. ii. 604. Sonchus volubilis, Rumph. Amb. v. p. 299. t. 103. f. 2.
  • CONYZA anthelmintica, 774. Fl. Zeyl. 418. Cattu Schiragam, Rheed. Mal. ii. p. 39. t. 24. Rai. Hist. 1443.
  • CONYZA balsamifera, 774. C. odorata, Rumph. Amb. vi. t. 24. f. 1.
  • CONYZA cinerea, 775. Fl. Zeyl. 419. Olus scrophinum, Rumph. Amb. vi. t. 14. f. 1.
  • CONYZA decurrens, 777.
  • CONYZA aurita, Linn. Suppl. 367.
  • ERIGERON obliquum, Syst. Pl. iii. 784. Mant. 573.
  • SENECIO pseudo China, 789. Dill. Elth. 345. t. 258. f. 335. Mill. Dict. n. 2.
  • INULA Indica, 826. Burm. Zeyl. 124. t. 55. f. 2.
  • CHRYSANTHEMUM Indicum, 848. Fl. Coch. ii. 616. Matricaria sinensis, Rumph. Amb. v. p. 259. t. 91. f. 1. Tsiettil pu, Rheed. Mal. x. t. 44. Fl. Zeyl. 421.
  • ECLIPTA Prostrata, 874. Fl. Coch. ii. 618. Dill. Elth. 139. t. 113. f. 138.
  • ECLIPTA latifolia, Linn. Suppl. 378.
  • VERBESINA lauenia, Syst. Pl. iii. 877. Fl. Zeyl. 310. Putumba, Rheed. Mal. x. p. 125. t. 63.
  • VERBESINA bislora, 877. Eclipta, Rumph. Amb. vi. p. 43. t. 13. f. 1. Val­liamanga mati, Rheed. Mal. x. t. 79.
  • [Page 295]VERBESINA aquatilis. Seruaneum aquatile, Rumph. Amb. v. 423. c. 53. calendulacca, Syst. Pl. iii. 877. Fl. Coch. ii. 619. Fl. Zeyl. 311. Pee caioni, Rheed. Mal. x. p. 83. t. 42.
  • VERBESINA bosvallea, Linn. Suppl. 379.
  • HIPPIA integrifolia, Linn. Suppl. 389.
  • ELEPHANTOPHUS scaber, Syst. Pl. iii. 943. Anaschouadi, Rheed. Mal. x. p. 13. t. 7.
  • SPHAERANTHUS Indicus, 944. Fl. Zeyl. 312. Adaca manien, Rheed. Mal. x. p. 85. t. 43.
  • SPHAERANTHUS Africanus, 945. Burm. Ind. t. 60. f. 2.
  • SPHAERANTHUS Chinensis, 945. Mant. 119.
  • VIOLA enneasperma, Syst. Pl. iii. 969. Fl. Zeyl. 317. Nelam-parenda, Rheed. Mal. ix. p. 117. t. 60.
  • IMPATIENS latifolia, 971. Valli-onapu, Rheed. Mal. ix. p. 91. t. 48.
  • IMPATIENS oppositifolia, 971. Fl. Zeyl. 314. Kondam-pallu, Rheed. Mal. ix. p. 57. t. 31.
  • IMPATIENS cornuta, 971. Fl. Zeyl. 316.
  • IMPATIENS balsamina, 971. Fl. Coch. ii. 626. Lacca herba, Rumph. Amb. v. p. 274. t. 90. Rheed. Mal. ix. p. 101. t. 52.
  • IMPATIENS tristora, 972. Fl. Zeyl. 315.
  • [Page 296]ORCHIS susannae, Syst. Pl. iv. 5. Fl. Coch. ii. 638. Rai. Suppl. 558. Flos susannae, Rumph. Amb. v. 286. t. 99. f. 2.
  • ORCHIS cubitalis, 8. Fl. Zeyl. 320. Flos triplicatus, Rumph. Amb. vi. 115. c. 13.
  • ORCHIS strateumatica, 15. Fl. Zeyl. 319.
  • ORCHIS plantaginea, Pl. of Cor. i. t. 37.
  • EPIDENDRUM vanilla, Syst. Pl. iv. 35. Bauh. Pin. 404.
  • EPIDENDRUM flos äeris, 35. Kaempf. Amoen, 868. t. 869. f. 1.
  • EPIDENDRUM tesselatum, Pl. of Cor. i. t. 42.
  • EPIDENDRUM tenuifolium, Syst. Pl. iv. 35. Rheed. Mal. xii. p. 11. t. 5.
  • EPIDENDRUM spatulatum, 35. Ponnampou marauara, Rheed. Mal. xii. p. 7. t. 3. Angraecum album minus, Rumph. Amb. vi. p. 941. t. 44. f. 1.
  • EPIDENDRUM furvum, 36. Rumph. Amb. vi. p. 104. t. 46. f. 1. Thalia marauara, Rheed. Mal. xii. t. 4. Ep. praemorsum, Pl. of Cor. i. t. 43.
  • EPIDENDRUM ovatum, 37. Rumph. Amb. vi. p. 111. t. 51. f. 2. Anantali, marauara, Rheed. Mal. xii. p. 15. t. 7.
  • EPIDENDRUM articulatum. Herba supplex quinta, Rumph. Amb. vi. p. 111. t. 51. f. 2.
  • EPIDENDRUM caninum, Syst. Pl. iv. 38. Angraecum caninam, Rumph. Amb. vi. p. 105. t. 47. f. 1.
  • EPIDENDRUM aloifolium, 38. Kansuram, marauara, Rheed. Mal. xii. p. 17. t. 8.
  • EPIDENDRUM pendulum, Pl. of Cor. i. t. 44.
  • EPIDENDRUM scriptum, Syst. Pl. iv. 39. Angraecum scriptum, Rumph. Amb. vi. p. 95. t. 42.
  • EPIDENDRUM retusum, 39. Ansieli marauara, Rheed. Mal. xii. p. 1. t. 1.
  • EPIDENDRUM amabile, 39. Angraecum album maius, Rumph. Amb. vi. p. 99. t. 43.
  • [Page 297]EPIDENDRUM tuberosum, Syst. Pl. iv. 40. Fl. Coch. ii. 639. Angraecum terrestre primum, Rumph. Amb. vi. p. 112. t. 52. f. 1.
  • LIMODORUM virens, Pl. of Cor. i. t. 38.
  • LIMODORUM recurvum, Pl. of Cor. i. t. 39.
  • LIMODORUM nutans, Pl. of Cor. i. t. 40.
  • STILAGO bunius, Syst. Pl. iv. 44. Bunius sativus, Rumph. Amb. iii. p. 204. t. 151.
  • NEPENTHES destillatoria, Syst. Pl. iv. 45. Fl. Zeyl. 321. Cantharifera, Rumph. Amb. v. p. 121. t. 59. f. 2. Outlines, i. p. 236. t. ix.
  • GLUTA Benghas, Syst. Pl. iv. 46. Linn. Pl. Syst. iv. p. 446.
  • ARISTOLOCHIA Indica, Syst. Pl. iv. 59. Fl. Coch. i. 646. Fl. Zeyl. 323. Catelae-vegon, Rheed. Mal, viii. p. 48. t. 25. Radix puloronica, Rumph. Amb. v. p. 476. t. 177.
  • PISTIA stratiotes, Syst. Pl. iv. 62. Fl. Zeyl. 322. Kodda-pail, Rheed Mal. xi. p. 63. t. 32. Plantago aquatica, Rumph. Amb. vi. t. 74. Rai. Hist. 1324.
  • SCOPOLIA composita, Linn. Suppl. 409.
  • [Page 298]KLEINHOVIA hospita, Syst. Pl. iv. 63. Cati-marus, Rumph. Amb. iii. p. 177. t. 113. Outlines, ii. p. 131.
  • HELICTERES baruensis, 63. Pluk. Alm. 181. t. 245.
  • HELICTERES Isora, 64. Fructus regis, Rumph. Auct. Amb. 32. t. 17. f. 1. Isora murri, Rheed. Mal. vi. p. 55. t. 30.
  • GREWIA orientalis, Syst. Pl. iv. 67. Fl. Zeyl. 324. Rheed. Mal. v. p. 91. t. 46. Rai. Hist. 1624. Frutex ceramicus, Rumph. Amb. iv. p. 124. t. 60.
  • GREWIA microcos, 67. Fl. Zeyl. 207. Schageri-cottam, Rheed. Mal. i. p. 105. t. 56.
  • GREWIA asiatica, 67. Fl. Zeyl. 208. Sonnerat, ii. 244. tab. 138.—A shrab grows near Surat. Cultivated about Pondicherri. The berries well tasted and refreshing.
  • GREWIA salvifolia, Linn. Suppl. 409.
  • ARUM pentaphyllum, Syst. Pl. iv. 69. Fl. Coch. ii. 652. Moris. Hist. iii. p. 540. f. 13. t. 5. f. 27.
  • ARUM macrorrhizum, 70. Fl. Zeyl. 327.
  • ARUM colocasia, 69. Fl. Coch. ii. 653. Atum aegyptiacum, Rumph. Amb. v. 313. t. 109.
  • ARUM esculentum, 70. Fl. Coch. ii. 654. Caladium aquatile, Rumph. Amb. v. 818. t. 110. f. 1.
  • ARUM divaricatum, 70. Fl. Zeyl. 325. Nienschena major, Rheed. Mal. xi. p. 39. t. 20.
  • ARUM indicum, Fl. Coch. ii. 655. Arum Indicum sativum, Rumph. Amb. v. p. 308. c. 81.
  • [Page 299]ARUM sagittifolium, Syst. Pl. iv. 70. Fl. Coch. ii. 653. Arum silvestre, Rumph. Amb. v. 310. c. 82.
  • ARUM trilobatum, 70. Fl. Coch. ii. 652. Fl. Zeyl. 326. Arisarum amboinicum, Rumph. Amb. v. p. 320. t. 110. fig. 2.
  • ARUM ovatum, 72. A. aquaticum, Rumph. Amb. v. p. 312. t. 108. Karin­pola, Rheed. Mal. xi. p. 45. t. 23.
  • DRACONTIUM spinosum, 74. Fl. Zeyl. 328. Mill. Dict. 3.
  • POTHOS scandens, 76. Fl. Coch. ii. 650. Fl. Zeyl. 329. Rumph. Amb. v. p. 483. t. 181. f. 1, 2, 3. Ana-parua, Rheed. Mal. vii. t. 40.
  • POTHOS pinnata, 77. Adpendix laciniata, Rumph. Amb. v. p. 489. t. 183. fig. 2.
  • CASUARINA equisetafolia, Linn. Suppl. 412. Fl. Coch. ii. 671. Ca­suarina littorea, Rumph. Amb. iii. p. 86. t. 57.
  • ARTOCARPOS incisa, Linn. Suppl. 412. J. R. Forster, Gen. 51. tab. 5. 52. G. Forster, Fl. Ins. Aust. No. 332. Pl. Esc. 43. Le Rima ou Fruit de Pain. Sonnerat Voy. t. 57, 58, 59, 60. Outlines, i. 239.
  • ARTOCARPOS Soccus lanosus, Rumph. Amb. i. p. 110. t. 32.
  • ARTOCARPOS Soccus granosus, Rumph. Amb. i. p. 112. t. 33.
  • ARTOCARPOS sylvestris, Rumph. Amb. i. p. 114. t. 34.
  • ARTOCARPOS integrifolia, Linn. Suppl. 412. Outlines, i. 237. ii. 321.
  • ARTOCARPOS Soccus arboreus major, Rumph. Amb. i. 104. t. 30.
  • ARTOCARPOS arboreus minor, Rumph Amb. i. p. 107. t. 31.
  • [Page 300]COIX lachryma, Syst. Pl. iv. 97. Fl. Coch. ii. 673. Bauh. Pin. 258. Rumph. Amb. v. p. 191, t. 75. Catriconda, Rheed. Mal. xii. p. 133. t. 70. Outlines, i. p. 240.
  • CAREX Indica, 105. Mant, 574.
  • CAREX lithosperma, 115. Calamagrostis, Rumph. Amb. vi. p. 16. t. 6. f. 2. Kaden-pullu, Rheed. Mal. xii. p. 89. t. 48.
  • TRAGIA volubilis, 118. Funis urens, Rumph. Amb. v. p. 13. t. 9.
  • TRAGIA involucrata, 119. Fl. Zeyl. 34. Schorigeram, Rheed. Mal. ii. p. 72. t. 39. Rai. Hist. 160.
  • TRAGIA mercurialis, 119. Fl. Zeyl. 334. Pee-cupameni, Rheed. Mal. x. t. 82.
  • TRAGIA chamaelea, 120. Fl. Zeyl. 335. Codi avanacu, Rheed. Mal. ii. p. 63. t. 34. Rai. Hist. 1170.
  • HERNANDIA sonora, 120. Fl. Zeyl. 423. Arbor regis, Rumph. Amb. ii. p. 257. t. 85. Outlines, i. p. 240.
  • HERNANDIA ovigera, 121. Arbor ovigera, Rumph. Amb. iii. p. 193. t. 123.
  • PHYLANTHUS niruri, 121. Fl. Zeyl. 331. Herba moeroris alba, Rumph. Amb. vi. p. 41. t. 17. Rheed. Mal. x. p. 29. t. 15. Outlines, i. p. 240.
  • PHYLANTHUS urinaria, 122. Fl. Coch. ii. 677. Fl. Zeyl. 332. Rumph. Amb. vi. p. 41. t. 17. f. 2. Tsieru Kirganeli, Rheed. Mal. x. p. 8. t. 16.
  • PHYLANTHUS maderaspatensis, 123. Forskaehl. Aegypt. vi. p. 159.
  • PHYLANTHUS emblica, 123. Fl. Coch. ii. 677. Bauh. Pin. 445. Rumph. Amb. vii. p. 1. t. 1. Nelli-camarum, Rheed. Mal. i. p. 69. t. 38. Rai. Hist. 1156.
  • PHYLANTHUS racemosus, Linn. Suppl. 415.
  • [Page 301]PHYLANTHUS bacciformis, Linn. Suppl. 415.
  • SERPICULA verticultata, Linn. Suppl. 416.
  • CICCA disticha, Syst. Pl. iv. 125. Mant. 124. Linn. Suppl. 416.
  • URTICA balearica, 129. Blackw. t. 321. f. 1.
  • URTICA alienata, 131. Fl. Zeyl. 371.
  • URTICA interrupta, 133. Fl. Coch. ii. 682. Fl. Zeyl. 336. Rumph. Amb. vi. t. 20. Batti Schorigeram, Rheed. Mal. i. p. 75. t. 40.
  • URTICA nivea, 133. Fl. Coch. ii. 683. Rameum majus, Rumph. Amb. v. 214. t. 79. f. 1.
  • URTICA fruticosa, Linn. Suppl. 417.
  • URTICA stimulans, Linn. Suppl. 418.
  • MORUS Indica, Syst. Pl. iv. 135. Fl. Coch. ii. 679. Fl. Zeyl. 337. Rumph. Amb. vii. p. 8. t. 5. Tinda, parua, Rheed. Mal. i. p. 87. t. 49. Outlines, i. p. 140.
  • NEPHELIUM lappaceum, Syst. Pl. iv. 136. Mant. 125.
  • XANTHIUM orientale, 137. Mill. Dict. n. 2.
  • AMARANTHUS melancholicus, 143. Mill. Dict. n. 2.
  • AMARANTHUS tricolor, 143. Fl. Coch. ii. 685. Bauh. Pin. 121.
  • AMARANTHUS polygamus, 143. Fl. Coch. ii. 685. Blitum indicum album, Rumph. Amb. v. p. 23 [...]. tab. 82. f. 1.
  • AMARANTHUS gangeticus, 144.
  • AMARANTHUS mangostanus, 144. Amoen. Acad. iv. p. 294.
  • AMARANTHUS oleraceus, 145. Fl. Coch. ii. 686.
  • [Page 302]AMARANTHUS polygonoides, Syst. Pl. iv. 146. Brown. Jam. 184.
  • AMARANTHUS flavus, 147.
  • AMARANTHUS candatus, 148. Fl. Zeyl. 563. Bauh. Pin. 120.
  • AMARANTHUS tristis, 144. Fl. Coch. ii. 686. Blitum indicum secundum, Rumph. v. 231. t. 82. f. 2.
  • AMARANTHUS spinosus, 148. Fl. Coch. ii. 687. Fl. Zeyl. 338. Blitum spinosum, Rumph. Amb. v. p. 231. t. 83. f. 1.
  • LEEA [...]quata, 149. Mant. 124.
  • ZIZANIA terrestris, Syst. Pl. iv. 151. Katou-Tsjolam, Rheed. Mal. xii. p. 113. t. 60.
  • GUDTTARDA speciosa, Syst. Pl. iv. 152. Brown. Jam. 205. t. 20. f. 1.
  • AILANTHUS excelfa, Pl. of Cor. i. tab. 23.—An immense tree. The wood light, and chiefly used for the purpose of making rasts.
  • SACITTARIA obtusifolia, Syst. Pl. iv. 155. Culitimara, Rheed. Mal. xi. p. 93. t. 45.
  • [Page 303]BEGONIA obliqua, Syst. Pl. iv. 156. Empetrum acetosum, Rumph. Amb. v. p. 457. t. 169. f. 2.
  • BEGONIA isopetra, Smith. Pl. Ic. xliii.
  • QUERCUS molucca, Syst. Pl. iv. 160. Rumph. Amb. iii. p. 85. t. 56.
  • CUPRESSUS pendula, L'Heretier Stirp. 15. Mill. Dict. n. 3.
  • PLUKENETIA volubilis, Syst. Pl. iv. 181. Sajor volubilis fructibus corni­culatis, Rumph. Amb. i. p. 194. t. 79. f. 2.
  • ACALYPHA Virginica, 182. Fl. Zeyl. 342.
  • ACALYPHA Indica, 181. Fl. Zeyl. 341. Rai. Hist. 1854. Cupameni, Rheed. Mal. x. p. 161. t. 18.
  • CROTON variegatum, 183. Rumph. Amb. iv. p. 65. t. 25.
  • CROTON benzoe, 184. Mant. 297.
  • CROTON tiglium, 186. Fl. Coch. ii. 714. Fl. Zeyl. 343. Granum-moluc­cum, Rumphh. Amb. iv. p. 98. t. 42. Cadel. auanacu, Rheed. Mal. ii. p. 61. t. 75. Rai. Hist. 167. 1855.
  • CROTON lacciferum, 187. Fl. Coch. ii. 714. Fl. Zeyl. 344. Halecus terrestris, Rumph. Amb. iii. p. 197. t. 127. Outlines, 1. p. 241.
  • CROTON aromaticum, 187. Fl. Coch. ii. 715. Fl. Zeyl. 345. Halecus littorea, Rumph. Amb. iii. p. 197. t. 126.
  • CROTON moluccanum, 188. Fl. Coch. ii. 716. Fl. Zeyl. 346.
  • CROTON hastatum, 189. Burm. Ind. p. 305. t. 63. f. 2.
  • CROTON spinosum, 189. Fl. Zeyl. p. 238.
  • CROTON urens, 189. Pluk. Alm. 320. t. 120. f. 6.
  • IATROPHA moluccana, 191. Fl. Zeyl. 348.
  • RICINUS communis, 194. Fl. Coch. ii. 716. Fl. Zeyl. 339. R. albus, Rumph. Amb. iv. p. 92.
  • [Page 304]RICINUS tanarius, Syst. Pl. iv. 194. Fl. Coch. ii. 717. Tanarius miner, Rumph. Amb. iii. p. 190. t. 121.
  • RICINUS mappa, 194. Folium mappae, Rumph. Amb. iii. p. 190. t. 121.
  • STERCULIA, Balanghas, 195. Fl. Zeyl. 350. Clompanus minor, Rumph. Amb. iii. p. 169. t. 107. Cavalam, Rheed. Mal. i. p. 89. t. 49. Rai. Hist. 1754. Outlines, i. p. 241.
  • STERCULIA, foetida, 195. Fl. Coch. ii. 719. Fl. Zeyl. 349. Clompanus major, Rumph. Amb. iii. p. 168. t. 107. Karil, Rheed. Mal. iv. p. 75. t. 36. Rai. Hist. 1564. Sonnerat, ii. 234. tab. 132. Outlines, i. p. 241.
  • STERCULIA, plantanifolia, Linn. Suppl. 423.
  • STERCULIA, urens, Pl. of Cor. i. 24.
  • STERCULIA, colorata, Pl. of Cor. i. 25.
  • GNETUM gnemon, Syst. Pl. iv. 197. Gnemon domestica, Rumph. Amb. i. p. 181. t. 71.
  • TRIGOSANTHES nervifolia, Syst. Pl. iv. 199. Tota piui, Rheed. Mal. viii. p. 33. t. 17.
  • TRIGOSANTHES cucumerina, 199. Fl. Coch. ii. 722. Pacta valam, Rheed. Mal. viii. p. 39. t. 15.
  • MOMORDICA balsamina, 200. Bauh. Pin. 306.
  • MOMORDICA charantia, 200. Fl. Coch. ii. 724. Fl. Zeyl. 351. Amara Indica, Rumph. Amb. v. p. 410. t. 151. Pandipauel, Rheed. Mal. viii. p. 18. t. 10.
  • MOMORDICA luffa, 201. Fl. Coch. ii. 724. Fl. Zeyl. 352. Perola, Rumph. Amb. v. p. 405. t. 148.
  • MOMORDICA cylindrica, 201. Fl. Coch. ii. Rai. Suppl. 332.
  • MOMORDICA trifoliata, 201. Poppya sylvestris, Rumph. Amb. v. p. 414. t. 152. f. 2.
  • CUCURBITA lagenaria, 202. Fl. Coch. ii. 728. Rumph. Amb. v. 397. t. 144.
  • [Page 305]CUCURBITA pepo, Syst. Pl. iv. 203. Fl. Coch. ii. 728. Pepo Indicus, Rumph. Amb. v. 398. t. 45.
  • CUCURBITA Citrullus, 204. Fl. Coch. ii. 730. Anguria Indica, Rumph. Amb. v. 400. t. 146.
  • CUCUMIS acutangulus, 205. Fl. Coch. ii. 727. Petola, Rumph. Amb. v. 408. t. 149.
  • CUCUMIS anguinus, 207. Petola anguina, Rumph. Amb. v. p. 407. t. 148.
  • CUCUMIS melo, 205. Fl. Coch. 726. M. vulgaris, Bauh. Pin. p. 310. No. 1.
  • CUCUMIS flexuosus, 207. Bauh. Pin. 310.
  • CUCUMIS maderaspatanus, 207. Fl. Coch. ii. 727. Fl. Zeyl. 356.
  • BRYONIA palmata, 208. Fl. Zeyl. 353.
  • BRYONIA grandis, 208. Fl. Coch. ii. 731. Vitis alba Indica, Rumph. Amb. v. p. 448. t. 166. f. 1.
  • BRYONIA cordifolia, 208. Fl. Zeyl. 354.
  • BRYONIA laciniosa, 208. Fl. Zeyl. 355.
  • BRYONIA scabrella, Linn. Suppl. 424.
  • SICYOS garcini, Syst. Pl. iv. 210. Burm. Ind. 311. t. 57. f. 3.
  • ANDRACHNE fruticosa, Syst. Pl. iv. 211. Mant. 128.
  • PANDANUS odoratissimus, Linn. Suppl. 424. Kaida, Rheed. Mal. ii. p. 1. t. 1. ad 8. Pandanus, Rumph. Amb. iv. p. 139. t. 74. ad 81. Fl. Zeyl. p. 54. Outlines of the Globe, i. p. 241. Pl. of Cor. i. tab. 94, 95, 96.—The white petals of this elegant plant pro­duce the sweetest and most powerful of perfumes.
  • PANDANUS humilis. Fl. Coch. ii. 740. Rumph. Amb. iv. p. 143. t. 76.
  • PANDANUS loevis, Fl. Coch. ii. 741. Rumph. Amb. iv. p. 147.
  • [Page 306]SALIX tetrasperma, Pl. of Cor. i. tab. 97.
  • CATURUS, spicistorus, Syst. Pl. iv. 239. Watta Taly, Rheed. Mal. v. t. 62. Cauda felis agrestis alba, Rumph. Amb. iv. p. 84. t. 37.
  • CANARIUM commune, Syst. Pl. iv. 248. Canarium, Rumph. Amb. ii. p. 145. t. 47.
  • CANARIUM sylvestre, Rumph. Amb. ii. p. 155. t. 49.
  • CANARIUM decumanum, Rumph. Amb. ii. p. 166. t. 55.
  • ANTIDESMA alexiteria, Syst. Pl. iv. 249. Fl. Zeyl. 357. Neolietali, Rheed. Mal. iv. p. 19. t. 56. Rai. Hist. 1616.
  • ANTIDESMA acida, Retz. Obs. v. p. 30. n. 87.
  • CANNABIS sativa, 251. Fl. Coch. ii. 756. Rumph. Amb. v. p. 208. t. 77.
  • ZANONIA Indica, 252. Penar-valli-mascula, Rheed. Mal. viii. p. 39. t. 49.
  • FEUILLEA trilobata, 253. Amoen. Acad. iii. p. 423.
  • SMILAX zeylanica, Syst. Pl. iv. 255. Fl. Zeyl. 364. China amboinensis, Rumph. Amb. v. p. 457. t. 161.
  • [Page 307]SMILAX China, Syst. Pl. iv. 256. China radix, Bauh. Pin. 896. Rumph. Amb. p. 72. t. 30.
  • FERREOLA hexifolia, Pl of Cor. i. 45.—A hard and useful wood. Its berries edible.
  • DIOSCOREA pentaphylla, Syst. Pl. iv. 260. Fl. Zeyl. 363. Rumph. Amb. v. t. 127. Nureni-kelenga, Rheed. Mal. vii. p. 67. t. 35.
  • DIOSCOREA triphylla, 260. Rumph. Amb. v. t. 128. Tsiageri nuren, Rheed. Mal. vii. p. 63. t. 33.
  • DIOSCOREA aculeata, 260. Fl. Coch. ii. 768. Rumph. Amb. v. t. 126. Kattu­kalengu, Rheed. Mal. vii. p. 71. t. 37.
  • DIOSCOREA alata, 260. Fl. Coch. ii. 765. Ubium digitatum, Rumph. Amb. v. 350. t. 121.
  • DIOSCOREA bulbifera, 261. Fl. Zeyl. 359. Rumph. Amb. v. t. 124. Katu­katsül, Rheed. Mal. vii. p. 69. t. 36.
  • DIOSCOREA sativa, 261. Fl. Zeyl. 358. Rumph. Amb. v. t. 180. Mu-kelengu, Rheed. Mal. viii. p. 97. t. 51. Outlines, i. p. 242.
  • DIOSCOREA oppositifolia, 261. Fl. Coch. ii. 765. Fl. Zeyl. 361. Rumph. Amb. v. t. 120.
  • DIOSCOREA villosa, 261. Ubium nummularium, Rumph. Amb. v. 444. c. 63.
  • CARICA papaya, Syst. Pl. iv. 267. Fl. Coch. ii. 772. Fl. Zeyl. 365. Rumph. Amb. i. t. 50, 51. Papaya maram, Rheed. Mal. i. p. 23. t. 13. f. 1. Outlines, i. p. 242.
  • MENISPERMUM cocculus, Syst. Pl. iv. 273. Bauh. Pin. 511. Tuba baccifera, Rumph. Amb. v. p. 35. t. 22. Natsiatam, Rheed. Mal. vii. p. 1. t. 1.
  • MENISPERMUM crispum, 273. Funis quadrangularis, Rumph. Amb. v. p. 83. t. 44. f. 2.
  • [Page 308]MENISPERMUM hirsutum, Syst. Pl. iv. 273. Pluk. Amalth. 61. t. 384.
  • MENISPERMUM flavum, Sp. Pl. 1468. Tuba flava, Rumph. Amb. v. p. 38. c. 20.
  • MENISPERMUM myosotoides, Syst. Pl. iv. 273. Burm. Ind. 316.
  • [...]ACOURTIA sepiaria, Pl. of Cor. i. tab. 68.
  • [...]ACOURTIA sapida, Pl. of Cor. i. tab. 69.
  • EMBRYOPTERIS glutinifera, Pl. of Cor. i. tab. 70.
  • CLUTIA retusa, Syst. Pl. iv. 287. Fl. Zeyl. 967. Scherunam-cottam, Rheed. Mal. ii. p. 23. t. 18. Rai. Hist. 1623.
  • CLUTIA eluteria, 287. Fl. Zeyl. 366.
  • CLUTIA stipularis, 288. Mant. 127.
  • MUSA paradisiaca, Syst. Pl. iv. 295. Fl. Zeyl. 368. Rumph. Amb. v. p. 125. t. 60. Bauh. Pin. 508. Bata, Rheed. Mal. i. p. 17. t. 12, 13, 14. Outlines, i. p. 242.
  • MUSA sapientum, 295. Bauh. Pin. 580. Trew Ehret. iv. tab. 21, 22, 23.
  • MUSA troglodytarum, 296. Fl. Coch. ii. 792. M. uranoscopus, Rumph. Amb. v. p. 137. t. 61.
  • SPINIFEX squarrosus, 298. Fl. Coch. ii. 794. Ilu-mullu, Rheed. Mal. xii. p. 75.
  • [Page 309]ANDROPOGON caricosum, Syst. Pl. iv. 299. Gramen caricosum, Rumph. Amb. v. p. 17. t. 17.
  • ANDROPOGON contortum, 299. Moris. Hist. iii. p. 180. f. 8. t. 4. Linn. Sup. Pl. p. 432.
  • ANDROPOGON cymbarium, 301. Mant. 303.
  • ANDROPOGON prostratum, 301. Mant, 304.
  • ANDROPOGON schoenanthus, 302. Fl. Coch. ii. 793. Fl. Zeyl. 465. Schaenanthum amboinicum, Rumph. Amb. v. 181. t. 72.
  • ANDROPOGON barbatum, 304. Mant. 302, 588.
  • ANDROPOGON nardus, 304. Fl. Zeyl. 45. Arundo farcta, Rumph. Amb. iv. p. 22. t. 6.
  • ANDROPOGON fasciculatum, 305. Brown. Jam. 365.
  • ANDROPOGON squarrosum, Linn. Suppl. 433.
  • HOLCUS spicatus, Syst. Pl. iv. 306. Bauh. Pin. vii. Theatr. 522. Rai. Hist. 1908.
  • HOLCUS sorghum, 307. Bauh. Hist. ii. p. 447. Sorgum, Rumph. Amb. v. p. 194. t. 75. f. 1.
  • HOLCUS saccharatus, 308. Fl. Coch. ii. 792. Rumph. Amb. v. t. 75.
  • HOLCUS latifolius, 310.
  • HOLCUS pertusus, 310. Mant. 301.
  • APLUDA mutica, 311.
  • APLUDA aristata, 311. Amoen. Acad. iv. p. 303.
  • APLUDA digitata, Linn. Suppl. 434.
  • ISCHAEMUM muticum, Syst. Pl. iv. 312. Tagadi, Rheed. Mal. xii. p. 91. t. 49.
  • CENCHRUS lappaceus, 313.
  • CENCHRUS muricatus, 313. Mant. 302.
  • CENCHRUS granularis, 315. Mant. 575. Manisurus granularis, Pl. of Cor. ii. tab. 118.
  • [Page 310]AEGILOPS exaltata, Syst. Pl. iv. 317. Mant. 575.
  • MANISURIS myurus, 318. Pl. of Cor. ii. tab. 117.
  • PARIETARIA Indica, 321. Crataeogonum, Rumph. Amb. vi. t. 10. f. 1.
  • TERMINALIA catappa, 326. Rumph. Amb. i. p. 174. t. 68. Adamaram, Rheed. Mal. iv. t. 5. Rai. Hist. 1521.
  • TERMINALIA benzoin, Linn. Suppl. 434.
  • OPHIOXYLON serpentinum, Syst. Pl. iv. 329. Flor. Zeyl. 398. Radix mustelae, Rumph. Amb. vii. p. 129. t. 16. Tiouanna, Rheed. Mal. vi. p. 87. t. 7. Outlines, i. p. 244.
  • GOUANIA tiliaefolia, Pl. of Cor. i. 98.
  • CELTIS orientalis, Syst. Pl. iv. 334. Fl. Zeyl. 369. Mallam toddali, Rheed. Mal. iv. p. 83. t. 40. Outlines, i. p. 244.
  • MIMOSA nodosa, 338. Fl. Coch. ii. 798. Burm. Zeyl. 192. Ind. 222. Outlines, i. p. 244.
  • MIMOSA bigemina, 339. Fl. Zeyl. 218. Katou-conna, Rheed. Mal. vi. p. 21. Rai. Hist. 1746.
  • MIMOSA cineraria, 341. Brown. Jam. 252.
  • MIMOSA casta, 342. Burm. Ind. 222.
  • MIMOSA entada, 343. Flor. Zeyl. 219. Entada, Rheed. Mal. ix. p. 151. t. 67.
  • MIMOSA procera, Pl. of Cor. ii. tab. 121.
  • MIMOSA amara, Pl. of Cor. ii. tab. 122.
  • MIMOSA dulcis, Pl. of Cor. i. tab. 99.—Its pods are eaten by the natives.
  • MIMOSA xylocarpa, Pl. of Cor. i. tab. 100.
  • MIMOSA scandens, Syst. Pl. iv. 343. Fl. Coch. ii. 788. Faba marina, Rumph. Amb. v. p. 5. t. 4. Fl. Zeyl. 644. Perim Kaku-Valli, Rheed. Mal. viii. p. 59. t. 32, 33, 34.
  • MIMOSA virgata, 344. Fl. Zeyl. 505. Nitu todda, Rheed. Mal. ix. p. 35. t. 20.
  • [Page 311]MIMOSA vaga, Syst. Pl. iv. 346. Fl. Coch. ii. 799. Hort. Cliff. 209.
  • MIMOSA cinerea, 348. Fl. Zeyl. 215.
  • MIMOSA horrida, 349. Pluk. Alm. iii. tab. 121. fig. 4.
  • MIMOSA latronum, Linn. Suppl. 438.
  • MIMOSA cornigera, Linn. Suppl. 438. Syst. Pl. iv. 348.
  • MIMOSA caesia, Syst. Pl. iv. 352. Fl. Zeyl. 217.
  • MIMOSA pennata, 352. Fl. Coch. ii. 802. Fl. Zeyl. 216.
  • MIMOSA intsia, 352. Rheed. Mal. iv. t. 122.
  • MIMOSA tenuifolia, Syst. Veg. p. 771.
  • MIMOSA grandiflora, L'Heritier Sert. Angl. p. 30. tab. 42.
  • MIMOSA odoratissima, Linn. Suppl. 437. Pl. of Cor. ii. 120.
  • MIMOSA eburnea, Linn. Suppl. 437.
  • MIMOSA cornigera, Linn. Suppl. 438.
  • MIMOSA natans, Linn. Suppl. 439. Fl. Coch. ii. 654. Pl. of Cor. ii. 119.
  • MIMOSA catechu, Linn. Suppl. 439. Woodville, Med. Bot. 101. t. 66.
  • GLEDITSCHIA inermis, Syst. Pl. iv. 355. Duhamel, Arb. i. p. 266.
  • DIOSPYROS hirsuta, Linn. Suppl. 440.
  • DIOSPYROS ebenum, Linn. Suppl. 440. D. melanoxylon, Pl. of Cor. i. t. 46.—The true ebony.
  • DIOSPYROS montana, Pl. of Cor. i. tab. 48.
  • DIOSPYROS sylvatica, Pl. of Cor. i. tab. 47.
  • DIOSPYROS chloroxylon, Pl. of Cor. i. tab. 49.
  • DIOSPYROS cordifolia, Pl. of Cor. i. tab. 50.
  • DIOSPYROS hebenaster, Rumph. Amb. iv. p. 78. t. 33.
  • [Page 312]PANAX fruticosum, Syst. Pl. iv. 363. Fl. Coch. ii. 806. Scutellaria tertia, Rumph. Amb. iv. p. 78. t. 33.
  • PISONIA inermis, 361. Katu-kava-walli, Rheed. Mal. vii. p. 33. t. 17.
  • FICUS nymphoeifolia, Syst. Pl. iv. 365. Mill. Dict. 9.
  • FICUS religiosa, 365. Fl. Coch. ii. 817. Fl. Zeyl. 372. Arbor conciliorum, Rumph. Amb. iii. p. 142. t. 91. Arealu, Rheed. Mal. i. p. 47. t. 27. Outlines, i. 244.
  • FICUS benjamina, 366. Itty-alu, Rheed. Mal. i. p. 45. t. 26. Varinga parviflora, Rumph. Amb. iii. p. 139. t. 90.
  • FICUS benghalensis, 366. Fl. Coch. ii. 817. Caprificus amboinensis, Rumph. Amb. iii. 145. c. 7. Peralu, Rheed. Mal. i. p. 49. t. 28.
  • FICUS indica, 366. Fl. Coch. ii. 818. Katou alou, Rheed. Mal. iii. p. 73. t. 57. Rai. Hist. 1347. Varinga latifolia, Rumph. Amb. iii. p. 127. t. 84. Outlines of the Globe, i. p. 207. 244.
  • FICUS racemosa, 367. Grostularia domestica, Rumph. Amb. iii. p. 136. t. 87, 88. Altyalu, Rheed. Mal. i. p. 43. t. 25. Rai. Hist. 1434.
  • FICUS glomerata, Pl. of Cor. ii. tab. 123.
  • FICUS oppositifolia, Pl. of Cor. ii. tab. 124.
  • FICUS comosa, Pl. of Cor. ii. tab. 125.
  • FICUS falcata, Thunberg, p. 5.
  • FICUS punctata, Thunberg, p. 5.
  • FICUS reflexa, Thunberg, p. 5.
  • FICUS drupacea, Thunberg, p. 6.
  • FICUS reticulata, Thunberg, p. 6.
  • FICUS sinuata, Thunberg, p. 6.
  • [Page 313]FICUS hispida, Linn. Suppl. 442.
  • FICUS heterophylla, Linn. Suppl. 442. Rheed. Mal. iii. p. 83. tab. 62.
  • FICUS microcarpa, Linn. Suppl. 442.
  • FICUS carica, Syst. Pl. iv. 364. Fl. Coch. ii. 816.—The common fig was probably introduced from Europe.
  • FICUS toxicaria. 368. Burm. Ind. 226.
  • FICUS pumila, 368. Fl. Coch. ii. 819. Varinga repens, Rumph. Amb. iii. p. 134. t. 85.
  • FICUS septica, Fl. Coch. ii. 819. Ficus septica, Rumph. Amb. iii. 153. t. 96.
  • FICUS ampelos, Syst. Pl. iv. 367. Folium politorium, Rumph. Amb. iv. 128. t. 63.
  • FICUS retusa, 367. Mant. 129.
  • FICUS teregam. Caprificus aspera, Rumph. Amb. iii. 150. c. 9.
  • FICUS pertusa, Rheed. Mal. iii. p. 69. tab. 56.
  • FICUS peru teregam, Caprificus viridis, Rumph. Amb. iii. 152. c. 10.
  • CYCAS circinalis, Syst. Pl. iv. 374. Fl. Zeyl. 393. Rai. Hist. 1360. Olus Calappoides, Rumph. Amb. i. p. 86. t. 22, 23. Rheed. Mal. iii. p. 9. t. 13, 21. Sago, Outlines, i. p. 245. iv. p. 194.
  • OPHIOGLOSSUM pendulum, 377. Scolopendra major, Rumph. Amb. vi. p. 84. t. 37. f. 3.
  • OPHIOGLOSSUM scandens, 378. Fl. Coch. ii. 825. Fl. Zeyl. 374. Adiantum volubile, Rumph. Amb. vi. p. 75. t. 32. f. 2. Tsieru-valli-panna, Rheed. Mal. xii. p. 65. t. 33. Outlines, i. p. 247.
  • OPHIOGLOSSUM flexuosum, 378. Fl. Zeyl. 375. Adiantum volubile majus. Rumph. Amb. vi. p. 75. t. 32. Valli-panna, Rheed. Mal. xii. p. 6. t. 32.
  • OPHIOGLOSSUM circinatum, Burm. Ind. 228. Adiantum volubile polypoides, Rumph. Amb. vi. p. 76. t. 33.
  • [Page 314]OPHIOGLOSSUM vulgatum, Syst. Pl. iv. 377. Ophioglossum simplex, Rumph. Amb. vi. p. 152. t. 68. f. 2.
  • OSMUNDA Zeylanica, 378. Fl. Zeyl. 373. Ophioglossum laciniatum, Rumph. Amb. vi. p. 153. t. 68. f. 3.
  • ACROSTICHUM lanceolatum, Syst. Pl. iv. 384. Fl. Coch. ii. 826. Fl. Zeyl. 380. Tiri-panna. Rheed. Mal. xii. p. 141. t. 33.
  • ACROSTICHUM heterophyllum, 384. Fl. Coch. ii. 826. Fl. Zeyl. 378. Rheed. Mal. xii. p. 87. t. 29.
  • ACROSTICHUM digitatum, 386. Fl. Zeyl. 379.
  • ACROSTICHUM siliquosum, 389. Fl. Zeyl. 376. Millefolium aquaticum, Rumph. Amb. vi. p. 17. t. 74. f. 1.
  • ACROSTICHUM thalictroides, 389. Fl. Zeyl. 377. t. 4.
  • PTERIS piloselloides, 392. Fl. Coch. ii. 833.
  • ASPLENIUM nidus, 402. Moris. Hist. iii. p. 558. f. 14. t. 1. f. 15.
  • POLYPODIUM phymatodes, 411. Fl. Coch. ii. 827. Burm. Zeyl. 196. t. 86.
  • POLYPODIUM quercisolium, 414. Fl. Zeyl. 382. Bauh. Pin. 359. Rumph. Amb. vi. p. 78. t. 36. Panna kelengo-maraua, Rheed. Mal. xii. p. 23. t. 11. Outlines, i. p. 247.
  • POLYPODIUM auriculatum, 416. Fl. Zeyl. 383.
  • POLYPODIUM unitum, 416. Burm. Zeyl. 98. t. 44. f. 1.
  • POLYPODIUM parasiticum, 419. Kari-welli-panna, Rheed. Mal. xii. p. 35. t. 17.
  • POLYPODIUM decussatum, 427.
  • POLYPODIUM speluncae, 428. Fl. Coch. ii. 831. Fl. Zeyl. 384.
  • POLYPODIUM simplex, Burm. Ind. 235. Lonchitis amboinica rubra, Rumph. Amb. vi. p. 70. t. 30. f. 1.
  • ADIANTUM philippense, Syst. Pl. iv. 429. Pet. Gaz. viii. t. 4. f. 4.
  • ADIANTUM caudatum, 430. Fl. Coch. ii. 823. Burm. Zeyl. viii. t. 5. f. 1.
  • TRICHOMANES polypodioides, 435.
  • [Page 315]ARICHOMANES adiantoides, Syst. Pl. iv. 436. Fl. Zeyl. 385.
  • ARICHOMANES tenuifolia, Burm. Ind. 237. Dryopteris campestris, Rumph. Amb. vi. p. 77. t. 34. f. 2.
  • MARSILEA minuta, Syst. Pl. iv. 438. Burm. Ind. 237. t. 62. f. 3.
  • YCOPODIUM nudum, Syst. Pl. iv. 440. Dill. Musc. 468. t. 64. f. 4.
  • YCOPODIUM phlegmaria, 440. Fl. Coch. ii. 837. Equisetum arboreum, Rumph. Amb. vi. p. 91. c. 63. Fl. Zeyl. 386. Rai. Hist. 1582. Rheed. Mal. xii. p. 27. t. 14.
  • YCOPODIUM cernuum, 444. Fl. Zeyl. 387. Bellon-patsia, Rheed. Mal. xii. p. 73. t. 39.
  • YCOPODIUM bryopteris, 444. Moris. Hist. iii. p. 62. 8. f. 15. t. 7. f. 51.
  • YCOPODIUM plumosum, 447. Dill. Musc. p. 171. t. 66. f. 10.
  • YCOPODIUM ornithopodioides, 447. Fl. Zeyl. 388.
  • YCOPODIUM canaliculatum, 447. Cingulum terrae, Rumph. Amb. vi. p. 87. t. 40. f. 1.
  • JUNGERMANNIA asplenioides, Syst. Pl. iv. 503. Dill. Musc. 483. t. 69. f. 6.
  • LICHEN suciformis, 540. Bauh. Pin. 365.
  • LICHEN capillaris, Muscus capillaris, Rumph. Amb. vi. p. 89. t. 40. f. 2.
  • LICHEN crocatus, Syst. Pl. iv. 540.
  • LICHEN usnea, 559. Dill. Musc. 71. t. 14. f. 31. and t. 54. f. 10.
  • LICHEN rocella 558. Fl. Coch. ii. 843. Rumph. Amb. vii. p. 181. t. 76. f. 3.
  • [Page 316]FUCUS flavus, Linn. Suppl. 452.
  • FUCUS pinnatus, Linn. Suppl. 452.
  • FUCUS natans, Syst. Pl. iv. 564. Fl. Coch. ii. 845. Sargassum pelagium amboinicum, Rumph. Amb. vi. p. 188. t. 76. f. 1.
  • FUCUS granulatus, 572. Fl. Coch. ii. 846. Sargassum littoreum, Rumph. Amb. vi. p. 190. t. 76. f. 2.
  • LYCOPERDON pistillare, Syst. Pl. iv. 625. Mant. 313.
  • BORASSUS flabelliformis, Syst. Pl. iv. 632. Fl. Coch. ii. 758. Fl. Zeyl. 395. Rai. Hist. 1366. Ampana, Rheed. Mal. i. p. 13. t. 10. Lontarus domestica, Rumph. Amb. i. p. 45. t. 10. Outlines, i. 247. Pl. of Cor. i. tab. 71, 72.
  • CORYPHA umbraculifera, 633. Fl. Zeyl. 394. Rai. Hist. 1368. Codda­pana, Rheed. Mal. iii. p. 1. t. 1. f. 2. Saribus, Rumph. Amb. i. p. 42. t. 8. Outlines, i. p. 248.
  • CORYPHA nypa, Fl. Coch. ii. 694. Rumph. Amb. i. p. 69. t. 16.
  • COCOS nucifera, Syst. Pl. iv. 633. Fl. Zeyl. 391. Calappa, Rumph. Amb. i. p. 1. t. 1, 2. Tenga, Rheed. Mal. i. p. 1. t. 1, 2, 3, 4. Outlines, i. p. 247. Pl. of Cor. i. 73.
  • PHOENIX daclylifera, 634. Fl. Zeyl. 390. Bauh. Pin. 506. Rai. Hist. 1352. Outlines, i. p. 248.
  • PHOENIX farinifera, Pl. of Cor. i. tab. 74.
  • ARECA catechu, Syst. Pl. iv. 636. Fl. Coch. ii. 695. Fl. Zeyl. 392. Rai. Hist. 1363. Bauh. Pin. 510. Pinanga, Rumph. Amb. i. p. 26. t. 4. Pl. of Cor. i. tab. 75.
  • [Page 317]ARECA sylvestris, Fl. Coch. ii. 568. Pinanga oryzaeformis, Rumph. Amb. i. p. 40. t. 5. f. 6.
  • ELATE sylvestris, Syst. Pl. iv. 636. Fl. Zeyl. 397. Rai. Hist. 1364. Katou indel, Rheed. Mal. iii. p. 15. t. 22, 23, 24, 25. Outlines, i. p. 249.
  • CARYOTA urens, 637. Fl. Zeyl. 396. Rai. Hist. 1365. Seguaster major, Rumph. Amb. i. p. 64. t. 14. Schunda-panna, Rheed. Mal. i. p. 15. t. 11. Outlines, i. p. 249.


  • ABRUS Page 287
  • Acalypha Page 303
  • Acanthus Page 283
  • Achryranthes Page 257
  • Acrostichum Page 314
  • Adenanthera Page 270
  • Adiantum Page 314
  • Aegilops Page 310
  • Aeschynomene Page 290
  • Agave Page 264
  • Agrostis Page 247
  • Ailanthus Page 302
  • Aletris Page 264
  • Allophyllus Page 265
  • Aloe Page 264
  • Alopecurus Page 247
  • Amaranthus Page 301
  • Amaryllis Page 203
  • Ammannia Page 251
  • Amomum Page 237
  • Amyris Page 265
  • Anacardium Page 267
  • Anastatica Page 283
  • Andrachne Page 305
  • Andropogon Page 309
  • Annona Page 279
  • Antherura Page 256
  • Anthisteria Page 248
  • Antidesma Page 306
  • Apluda Page 309
  • Apocynum Page 260
  • Aponogeton Page 264
  • Aquilicia Page 257
  • Arachis Page 290
  • Aralia Page 262
  • Ardisia Page 258
  • Areca Page 316
  • Aristida Page 248
  • Aristolochia Page 297
  • Artemisia Page 293
  • Artocarpus Page 299
  • Arum Page 298
  • Arundo Page 247
  • Asclepias Page 260
  • Aspalathus Page 288
  • Asparagus Page 263
  • Asplenium Page 314
  • Atragene Page 279
  • Averrhoa Page 271
  • [Page] Avicennia Page 283
  • Azalca Page 252
  • Baccharis Page 294
  • Ballota Page 279
  • Bambos Page 262
  • Banisteria Page 271
  • Barleria Page 282
  • Barringtonia Page 287
  • Basella Page 261
  • Bassia Page 272
  • Bauhinia Page 267
  • Begonia Page 303
  • Bergera Page 270
  • Bidens Page 293
  • Bignonia Page 280
  • Bobartia Page 245
  • Boerhavia Page 239
  • Bombax Page 284
  • Borago Page 251
  • Borassus Page 316
  • Bromelia Page 262
  • Bryonia Page 305
  • Buchnera Page 281
  • Burmannia Page 262
  • Butea Page 292
  • Butneria Page 256
  • Cacalia Page 293
  • Caesalpinia Page 269
  • Caesulia Page 293
  • Calamus Page 264
  • Callicarpa Page 250
  • Calophyllum Page 277
  • Cambogia Page 276
  • Canarium Page 306
  • Canna Page 237
  • Cannabis Page 306
  • Cansiera Page 250
  • Canthium Page 251
  • Capparis Page 276
  • Capraria Page 281
  • Capsicum Page 255
  • Capura Page 264
  • Cardiospermum Page 266
  • Carex Page 300
  • Carica Page 307
  • Carissa Page 258
  • Carthamus Page 293
  • Caryophyllus Page 277
  • Caryota Page 317
  • Cassia Page 268
  • Cassyta Page 267
  • Casuarina Page 299
  • Caturus Page 306
  • Ceanothus Page 256
  • Celosia Page 257
  • Celsia Page 280
  • Celtis Page 310
  • Cenchrus Page 309
  • Cerbera Page 258
  • Ceropegia Page 259
  • Chalcas Page 270
  • Chionanthus Page 240
  • Chrysanthemum Page 294
  • Cicca Page 301
  • Cinchona Page 258
  • Cissus Page 250
  • Citrus Page 292
  • Cleome Page 283
  • Clerodendrum Page 282
  • Clitoria Page 290
  • Clutia Page 308
  • Cocos Page 316
  • Coix Page 300
  • [Page] Coldenia Page 251
  • Columnea Page 283
  • Combretum Page 265
  • Commelina Page 243
  • Conna [...]us Page 284
  • Convolvulus Page 252
  • Conyza Page 294
  • Corchorus Page 277
  • Cordia Page 255
  • Corypha Page 316
  • Costus Page 238
  • Cotyledon Page 272
  • Crassula Page 262
  • Crataegus Page 275
  • Crataeva Page 273
  • Crinum Page 263
  • Crotolaria Page 288
  • Croton Page 303
  • Cucumis Page 305
  • Cucurbita Page 304
  • Cupressus Page 303
  • Curcuma Page 238
  • Curenligo Page 264
  • Cuscuta Page 252
  • Cycas Page 313
  • Cyclamen Page 251
  • Cylista Page 292
  • Cynometra Page 269
  • Cynosurus Page 247
  • Cyperus Page 244
  • Cytisus Page 290
  • Dactylis Page 247
  • Dais Page 271
  • Dalbergia Page 287
  • Daphne Page 266
  • Datura Page 254
  • Delima Page 277
  • Dialium Page 240
  • Dianthera Page 241
  • Dillenia Page 278
  • Dioscorea Page 307
  • Diospyros Page 311
  • Dodonaea Page 265
  • Dolichos Page 289
  • Dracaena Page 263
  • Dracontium Page 299
  • Drosera Page 262
  • Durio Page 293
  • Echites Page 259
  • Eclipta Page 294
  • Ehretia Page 259
  • Elate Page 317
  • Eleagnus Page 251
  • Elephantophus Page 295
  • Elaeocarpus Page 277
  • Embryopteris Page 308
  • Epidendrum Page 296
  • Erigeron Page 294
  • Eriocaulon Page 249
  • Erythrina Page 288
  • Erythroxylon Page 271
  • Ethulia Page 293
  • Eugenia Page 274
  • Evolvulus Page 261
  • Eupatorium Page 293
  • Euphorbia Page 273
  • Exacum Page 250
  • Ferreola Page 307
  • Feuillea Page 306
  • Ficus Page 312
  • Flacourtia Page 308
  • Flagellaria Page 264
  • Fucus Page 316
  • [Page]Gaertnera Page 269
  • Galega Page 292
  • Garcinia Page 273
  • Gardenia Page 258
  • Gentiana Page 260
  • Gerardia Page 280
  • Getonia Page 270
  • Gisekia Page 262
  • Glabraria Page 292
  • Gleditschia Page 311
  • Glinus Page 274
  • Globba Page 242
  • Gloriosa Page 263
  • Gluta Page 297
  • Glycine Page 289
  • Gmelina Page 281
  • Gnetum Page 304
  • Gomphrena Page 260
  • Gossypium Page 285
  • Gouania Page 310
  • Gratiola Page 241
  • Grewia Page 298
  • Grislea Page 265
  • Guarea ibid.
  • Guettarda Page 302
  • Guilandina Page 269
  • Gyrocarpus Page 251
  • Hedera Page 257
  • Hedyotis Page 249
  • Hedysarum Page 290
  • Helicteres Page 298
  • Heliotropium Page 251
  • Hernandia Page 300
  • Herniaria Page 260
  • Hibiscus Page 286
  • Hippia Page 295
  • Hippocratea Page 244
  • Holcus Page 309
  • Holosteum Page 249
  • Hordeum Page 248
  • Hottonia Page 252
  • Hugonia Page 284
  • Hydrocotele Page 261
  • Jambolifera Page 265
  • Jasminum Page 240
  • Jatropha Page 303
  • Ignatia Page 255
  • Ilex Page 251
  • Illecebrum Page 257
  • Impanens Page 295
  • Indigosera Page 291
  • Inula Page 294
  • Ipomoea Page 253
  • Isenaemum Page 309
  • Jungermannia Page 315
  • Jussicua Page 270
  • Justicia Page 240
  • Ixia Page 243
  • Ixora Page 250
  • Kaempferia Page 239
  • Kleinhovia Page 298
  • Knoxia Page 250
  • Kyllinga Page 245
  • Lagerstroemia Page 277
  • Lathyrus Page 290
  • Laurus Page 267
  • Lawsonia Page 266
  • Leca Page 302
  • Leontice Page 263
  • Lichen Page 315
  • [Page] Limodorum Page 297
  • Limonia Page 270
  • Liriodendrum Page 278
  • Litchi Page 264
  • Lolium Page 248
  • Loranthus Page 264
  • Ludwigia Page 250
  • Lycoperdon Page 316
  • Lycopodium Page 315
  • Lythrum Page 273
  • Mahwah Page 278
  • Malva Page 285
  • Mammea Page 277
  • Mangisera Page 256
  • Manisuris Page 310
  • Maranta Page 238
  • Marsana Page 269
  • Marsilea Page 315
  • Melaleuca Page 293
  • Melastoma Page 271
  • Melia Page 270
  • Melochia Page 284
  • Memecylon Page 266
  • Men [...]spermum Page 307
  • Mentha Page 279
  • Menyanthes Page 252
  • Mesua Page 286
  • Michelia Page 278
  • Milium Page 247
  • Mimosa Page 310
  • Mimusops Page 265
  • Mirabilis Page 254
  • Molinaea Page 265
  • Mollugo Page 249
  • Molucella Page 280
  • Momordica Page 304
  • Monetia Page 249
  • Morinda Page 254
  • Morus Page 301
  • Murraya Page 270
  • Musa Page 308
  • Mussaenda Page 254
  • Myristica Page 276
  • Myrosma Page 237
  • Myrtus Page 275
  • Nama Page 260
  • Nardus Page 245
  • Nauclea Page 253
  • Nepenthes Page 297
  • Nepeta Page 279
  • Nephelium Page 301
  • Nerium Page 258
  • Nyctanthes Page 239
  • Nymphaea Page 276
  • Ochna Page 277
  • Ocymun Page 280
  • Olax Page 243
  • Oldenlandia Page 250
  • Ophioglossum Page 313
  • Ophiorhiza Page 252
  • Ophioxylon Page 310
  • Orchis Page 296
  • Ornitrophe Page 265
  • Orobanche Page 281
  • Oryza Page 264
  • Osbeckia Page 265
  • Osmunda Page 314
  • Ovieda Page 282
  • Oxalis Page 272
  • Paederia Page 258
  • Panax Page 312
  • [Page] Pancratium Page 263
  • Pandanus Page 305
  • Panicum Page 246
  • Parietaria Page 310
  • Paspalum Page 246
  • Pavetta Page 250
  • Paullinia Page 266
  • Pedalium Page 283
  • Pentapetes Page 284
  • Pergularia Page 260
  • Perilla Page 279
  • Periploca Page 260
  • Phalaris Page 24 [...]
  • Pharnaccum Page 261
  • Phaseolus Page 283
  • Phlomis Page 279
  • Phoenix Page 316
  • Phylanthus Page 300
  • Physalis Page 254
  • Phytolacca Page 272
  • Piper Page 242
  • Pisonia Page 312
  • Pisia Page 29
  • Plukenetia Page 303
  • Plumb [...]go Page 252
  • Plumeria Page 250
  • Poa Page 247
  • Poinciana Page 269
  • Polianthes Page 264
  • Polygala Page 287
  • Polygonum Page 266
  • Polypodium Page 314
  • Pomereulta Page 245
  • Pontederia Page 262
  • Porana Page 252
  • Portulacca Page 273
  • Pothos Page 299
  • Premna Page 281
  • Prosopis Page 270
  • Psidium Page 274
  • Psoralea Page 292
  • Psychotria Page 254
  • Pteris Page 314
  • Pterecarpus Page 287
  • Punica Page 275
  • Quercus Page 303
  • Quisqualis Page 271
  • Renealmia Page 237
  • Rhamnas Page 256
  • Rheum Page 267
  • Rhinanthus Page 280
  • Rhizophora Page 272
  • Rhus Page 261
  • Ricinus Page 303
  • Robinia Page 290
  • Rondeletia Page 253
  • Rottbolla Page 248
  • Rotala Page 243
  • Roxburghia Page 265
  • Rubus Page 276
  • Ruellia Page 281
  • Rumphia Page 243
  • Saccharum Page 245
  • Sagittaria Page 302
  • Salix Page 306
  • Salvadora Page 251
  • Salvia Page 242
  • Samara Page 250
  • Santalum Page 251
  • Sapindus Page 266
  • Saraca Page 287
  • Saururus Page 265
  • [Page] Scabiosa Page 249
  • Scabrita ibid.
  • Scaevola Page 254
  • Schmiedelia Page 266
  • Schoenus Page 244
  • Schrebera Page 240
  • Scirpus Page 244
  • Scopolia Page 297
  • Scutellaria Page 280
  • Semecarpus Page 261
  • Senecio Page 29
  • Serpicula Page 301
  • Ses [...]mum Page 281
  • Sesa [...]ium Page 275
  • Sicyos Page 305
  • Sida Page 285
  • Sideroxylon Page [...]6
  • Sirium Page 250
  • Sisymbrium Page 283
  • Sium Page 261
  • Smilax Page 306
  • Selanum Page 254
  • Sonchus Page 293
  • Sophora Page 267
  • Spermacoce Page 249
  • Sphaeranthus Page 295
  • Spilanthus Page 293
  • Spinifex Page 308
  • Spondias Page 272
  • Stap [...]lia Page 260
  • Sterculia Page 304
  • Steris Page 260
  • Stilago Page 297
  • Stipa Page 247
  • Stratiotes Page 278
  • Strychnos Page 255
  • Swietenia Page 269
  • Tabernaemontana Page 259
  • Tacca Page 274
  • Tamarindus Page 243
  • Tectona Page 256
  • Terminalia Page 310
  • Teucrium Page 279
  • Theobroma Page 292
  • Thouinia Page 242
  • Thunbergia Page 281
  • Torenia Page 280
  • Tournesortia Page 251
  • Tradescantia Page 262
  • Tragia Page 300
  • Trewia Page 276
  • Trianthema Page 271
  • Tribulus Page 270
  • Trichomanes Page 314
  • Trifolium Page 292
  • Trigonella ibid.
  • Trigosanthes Page 304
  • Triumfetta Page 273
  • Turraea Page 270
  • Vallaris Page 254
  • Vateria Page 277
  • Ventilago Page 256
  • Verbena Page 242
  • Verbesina Page 294
  • Viola Page 295
  • Vinca Page 258
  • Vitis Page 257
  • Vitex Page 282
  • Ulmus Page 260
  • Uniola Page 247
  • Volkameria Page 282
  • Urena Page 285
  • Urtica Page 301
  • Utricularia Page 241
  • Uvaria Page 278
  • Xanthium Page 301
  • Xylophylla Page 261
  • Xyris Page 244
  • Zanonia Page 306
  • Zizania Page 302
  • Page 244. line 1. for cucultata read cucullata.
  • Page 251. line 16. for sacquini read saequini.
  • Page 263. line 19. for duperba read superba.
  • Page 266. line 8. dela Jeapolia, &c.
  • Page 269. line 25. for Goetnera read Goertnera.
  • Page 285. line 1. for Bomax read Bomlax.
  • Page 202. line 7. for vilosa read GALEGA villosa.


  • ANT-EATER, spiny Page 120
  • Ape, Gibbon Page 6
  • Ape, pig-tailed baboon Page 7
  • Bat, Ternate Page 7, 120, 187
  • Bat, cordated ibid.
  • Bat, Molucca ibid.
  • Bear, black Page 7
  • Boar, wild ibid.
  • Buffalo Page 5, 72
  • Deer, axis Page 6, 35
  • Deer, hog ibid.
  • Deer, ribbed face ibid.
  • Deer, Indian musk ibid.
  • Dog, New Holland Page 119
  • Dugung Page 76
  • Elephant Page 6
  • Goat Page 5
  • Hog, ugly Page 75
  • Hog, wild Page 72
  • Hog, Babyroussa Page 174
  • Horse Page 5
  • Kangaroo Page 100
  • Kangaroo gigantic Page 119
  • Kangaroo spotted ibid.
  • Kangaroo rat ibid.
  • Maucauco, flying Page 36
  • Monkey, ourang outang ibid.
  • Monkey, egret ibid.
  • Monkey, monea ibid.
  • Opossum, savan ibid.
  • Opossum, phalanger ibid.
  • Opossum, vulpine Page 119
  • Opossum, flying Page 120
  • Opossum, Molucca Page 186
  • Otter Page 7
  • [Page] Ourang Outang Page 7, 36, 56
  • Ox, Indian Page 35, 72
  • Porcupine, crested Page 7
  • Porcupine, long-tailed Page 37
  • Rat Page 114
  • Rhinoceros, one-horned Page 6, 38
  • Sheep, African Page 55
  • Shrew, perfuming Page 37
  • Sloth, two-toed Page 7
  • Squirrel Page 7
  • Squirrel Javan Page 37
  • Squirrel plantane ibid.
  • Squirrel palm ibid.
  • Squirrel sailing ibid.
  • Squirrel flying Page 114
  • Succotyro Page 35
  • Tiger Page 7, 36
  • Weesel, four-toed Page 36
  • Weesel, civet Page 76
  • Weesel, fossane ibid.
  • Weesel, spotted Page 120


  • AVOSETTA, American Page 128
  • Bee-eater, carunculated Page 124
  • Bee-eater, horned Page 125
  • Bee-eater, Molucca Page 191
  • Bustard, New Holland Page 125
  • Cassowary Page 8
  • Cassowary New Holland Page 127
  • Coliou Page 77
  • Coliou crested ibid.
  • Creeper, black Page 125
  • Creeper, Amboina Page 191
  • Crow, South-Sea raven Page 123
  • Crow, carrion ibid.
  • Crow, white-vented Page 124
  • Crow, New Guinea Page 216
  • Duck, Parkinson's Page 129
  • Duck, semi-palmated ibid.
  • Duck, lobated Page 130
  • Eagle, white Page 121
  • Eagle, brown ibid.
  • Falcon, white Page 121
  • Fly catcher, red-bellied Page 113, 126
  • Fly catcher, New Holland Page 126
  • Fly catcher, soft-tailed ibid.
  • Frigate birds Page 220
  • Gallinule, white Page 113
  • Gannet Page 114
  • Goat-sucker, crested Page 127
  • Grakle, yellow-faced Page 124
  • Grosbeak, Molucca Page 192
  • Gull, black-backed Page 129
  • Hawk, pied Page 121
  • Heron, white-fronted Page 128
  • Heron, New Guinea Page 218
  • Hornbill Page 78
  • Hornbill Philippine ibid.
  • [Page] Hornbill, Manilla Page 78
  • Hornbill, New Holland Page 123
  • Hornbill, Molucca Page 190
I. J.
  • Jacana Page 76
  • Jackdaw, barred Page 216
  • Jackdaw, grey ibid.
  • Ibis, wood Page 128
  • King's-fisher, great brown Page 124, 217
  • King's-fisher, sacred Page 124
  • King's-fisher, Ternate Page 190
  • King's-fisher, green-headed Page 191
  • King's-fisher, spotted Page 217
  • Manakin, stripe headed Page 126
  • Manakin, spotted Page 127
  • Oyster-catcher Page 128
  • Owl, New Holland Page 122
  • Paradise, birds of Page 148
  • Paradise, common Page 150
  • Paradise, king of Page 153
  • Paradise, shague Page 210
  • Paradise, magnificent Page 211
  • Paradise, crested ibid.
  • Paradise, gorget Page 212
  • Paradise, superb ibid.
  • Paradise, surcated ibid.
  • Paradise, six-wired ibid.
  • Paradise, damasked blue-green ibid.
  • Paradise, golden Page 213
  • Paradise, white ibid.
  • Paradise, white-winged Page 213
  • Parrot, cockatoo Page 122
  • Parrot, yellow ibid.
  • Parrot, blue-bellied ibid.
  • Parrot, Tabuan ibid.
  • Parrot, Pennantian ibid.
  • Parrot, crested parakeet ibid.
  • Parrot, pacific ibid.
  • Parrot, Pusillus ibid.
  • Parrot, Banksian cockatoo ibid.
  • Parrot, ground Page 123
  • Parrot, red-crested cockatoo Page 187
  • Parrot, lesser white cockatoo ibid.
  • Parrot, gramineous loeri ibid.
  • Parrot, red Amboina loeri Page 188
  • Parrot, red-breasted ibid.
  • Parrot, blue-headed ibid.
  • Parrot, black-crowned ibid.
  • Parrot, violet Indian Page 189
  • Parrot, Gilolo loeri Page 215, ibid.
  • Parrot, crimson L. ibid.
  • Parrot, scarlet L. ibid.
  • Parrot, grand L. ibid.
  • Parrot, green and red L. ibid.
  • Parrot, New Guinea Page 214
  • Parrot, Papuan Loeri ibid.
  • Parrot, great-billed L. ibid.
  • Parrot, black L. Page 215
  • Parrot, Gueby L. ibid.
  • Partridge, quail Page 125
  • Partridge, wattled ibid.
  • Pelecan Page 129, 220
  • Petrel Page 114
  • Petrel grey ibid.
  • Petrel white-breasted ibid.
  • Petrel Pintado ibid.
  • Petrel shearwater ibid.
  • Petrel diving ibid.
  • [Page] Petrels, broad-billed Page 114
  • Pheasant, argus Page 8
  • Pie, short-tailed Page 190
  • Pigeon, bronze-winged Page 113, 125
  • Pigeon, nutmeg Page 165
  • Pigeon, white turtle Page 76
  • Pigeon, green turtle Page 192
  • Pigeon, great-crowned Page 217
  • Pigeon, Papuan Page 218
  • Pinguin, fin-winged Page 220
  • Pinguin, crested Page 129
  • Pinguin, Patagonian Page 218
  • Pinguin, collared Page 219
  • Pinguin, Papuan ibid.
  • Plover, red-necked Page 128
  • Promerops, crested Page 191
  • Promerops, grand Page 213
  • Promerops, rayed ibid.
  • Quail, Luconia Page 76
  • Quail, New Guinea Page 217
  • Roller, noisy Page 113
  • Roller, pied Page 216
  • Scythrops, psittaceous hornbill Page 123
  • Shrike Page 76
  • Shrike Antiguan ibid.
  • Spoonbill, crested Page 77
  • Swan, black Page 130
  • Tanagre, Amboina Page 192
  • Tern, Caspian Page 129
  • Tern, noddy ibid.
  • Tern, Dampier's noddy ibid.
  • Thrush, musician Page 77
  • Thrush, New Holland Page 126
  • Thrush, Amboina Page 192
  • Todus, flavigaster Page 124
  • Tropic bird Page 219
  • Turtle, white Page 76
  • Vulture, le secretaire Page 77
  • Warbler, long-legged Page 126
  • Warbler, superb ibid.
  • Warbler, swallow ibid.
  • Warbler, Van Diemen's ibid.
  • Woodpecker, brown Page 190


  • ABDON Page 206
  • Acapulco ships Page 62
  • Acheen Page 19
  • Acheen head Page 2
  • Admiralty Isles Page 227
  • Amboina Page 166
  • Amboina when discovered Page 167
  • Amboina conquered by the Portuguese, ibid.
  • Amboina massacre of the English at, Page 168
  • Amphibious fish Page 133
  • Amphisboena Page 40
  • Ant eater Page 120
  • Arabs of New Guinea Page 234
  • Arfak, mountains of Page 207
  • Arrou Islands Page 148
  • Babyroussa hog Page 174
  • Badjoos, a people Page 89
  • Balambangan, island of Page 59
  • Balimbuan, prince of, his tragical story Page 32
  • Balli island Page 92
  • Balli slaves at ibid.
  • Bally, island of Page 180
  • Banda Islands Page 154
  • Banda conquered by the Chinese ibid.
  • Banda conquered by the Portuguese ibid.
  • Banda visited by the Dutch Page 155
  • Banda visited by the English Page 157
  • Banguey, island of Page 59
  • Bantam Page 24
  • Bashee Islands Page 68
  • Bashee produce of Page 69
  • Bashee natives of ibid.
  • Bashee government ibid.
  • Bashee boats of Page 70
  • Bashee arms ibid.
  • Batavia Page 26
  • Batavia once Jacatra Page 27
  • Batavia founded in 1620 ibid.
  • Batavia a sickly climate ibid.
  • Batavia massacre of the Chinese at Page 28
  • Batchian Page 178
  • Bats, vast Page 7
  • Battas, nation of the Page 21
  • Bears Page 7
  • Bee Page 8
  • Bencoolen Page 18
  • Birds of Sumatra Page 8
  • Birds of Manilla Islands Page 76
  • [Page] Birds of Nerfolk Islands Page 113
  • Birds of New Holland Page 121
  • Birds of Paradise Page 148, 210
  • Birds of the Moluccas Page 187
  • Birds of New Guinea Page 210
  • Bissory Harbour Page 181
  • Bo Page 177
  • Boas, serpent at Java Page 40
  • Bohon Upas Page 42
  • Bohon a dreadful poison ibid.
  • Bohon strange account of ibid.
  • Bontius, James Page 33
  • Borneo Page 52
  • Borneo inhabitants of Page 53
  • Borneo productions of Page 54
  • Borneo city of Page 58
  • Botany Bay Page 106
  • Botany natives of ibid.
  • Botany our convicts sent there Page 108
  • Bougainville, M Page 231
  • Boutan Island Page 91
  • Bread fruit Page 79
  • Britain, New Page 223
  • Broken Bay Page 139
  • Buero Page 174
  • Bustard Bay Page 141
  • Byajos, people Page 57
  • Calamianes isles Page 71
  • Cape Bedford and Flattery Page 144
  • Cape Good Hope Page 207
  • Cape Hicks Page 105
  • Cape Orford Page 224
  • Cape Saint George ibid.
  • Cape Stephens Page 2 [...]5
  • Cape Waelche Page 233
  • Carpentaria Page 147
  • Castle Victoria Page 169
  • Cavite Port Page 62
  • Celebes or Ma [...]assar Page 85
  • Celebes volcanoes, at Page 86
  • Celebes city of Page 89
  • Celebes natives Page 90
  • Ceram Page 172
  • Chamae, vast Page 204
  • Chinese, massacre of, at Batavia Page 28
  • Chinese, massacre of, at Manilla Page 65
  • Cloves first introduced into Europe Page 170
  • Coal Page 4
  • Cocoa tree Page 79
  • Cockle Isle Page 204
  • Commerce of the Papuans Page 209
  • Copper Page 4
  • Coral reefs Page 145
  • Coral wonderous ibid.
  • Cracatoa, island of Page 24
  • Crocodiles of Java, of a vast size Page 40
  • Curcul [...]o palmarium, insect Page 197
  • Dampier's Bay Page 98
  • Darwin, quoted Page 40
  • De Witt's Land Page 99
  • Dory harbour Page 221
  • Dutch cruelty Page 30
  • Earthquakes, tremendous Page 65
  • Edel's land Page 102
  • Edible nests Page 56
  • Ef-be harbour Page 177
  • Endeavour river Page 143
  • Endeavour streights Page 146
  • Endrachts land Page 100
  • Enganho Island Page 22
  • [Page] English, massacre of, at Amboina Page 168
  • Escape, providential Page 141
  • Fire arms of Torres's streights Page 232
  • Fishes of Java Page 38
  • Fishes of N. Holland Page 132
  • Fishes amphibious Page 133
  • Fishes of the Moluccas Page 193
  • Flax Page 116
  • Formation of the isles Page 1
  • Forest, captaih Page 222
  • Gag Page 199
  • Gardens of Nutmegs Page 164
  • George, St. Cape Page 224
  • George, Channel Page 226
  • Gerard Dennis's Island Page 229
  • Giaritchas Page 181
  • Gibby Page 198
  • Gibby visited by the French ibid.
  • Gilolo Page 193
  • Goat, Sumatran Page 5
  • Goenong-api Page 159
  • Gold Page 4, 61
  • Good Hope, Cape of Page 207
  • Governor Philip Page 109
  • Gum tree, red Page 135
  • Haraforas, a people Page 74, 208
  • Harbour, Bissory Page 181
  • Harbour, Malaleo ibid.
  • Hawkesbury river Page 140
  • Hibiscus biliaceus Page 135
  • Hick's cape Page 105
  • Hogs, water chace of Page 202
  • Hogs, horned Page 174
  • Holland, New Page 97
  • Howe, L. Island Page 117
  • Jamna Page 222
  • Java Page 23
  • Java visited by the Portuguese Page 25
  • Java Dutch ibid.
  • Java Pepper, great commodity of Page 31
  • Java extent of Page 33
  • Java volcanoes at ibid.
  • Java natives of Page 34
  • Java quadrupeds ibid.
  • Java birds of Page 37
  • Java fishes of Page 38
  • Java reptiles of Page 40
  • Indian head Page 141
  • Indians, curled headed Page 66
  • Indigo Page 61
  • Insulae satyrorum Page 60
  • John, St. Island Page 228
  • Ireland, New Page 225
  • Kanari Islands Page 177
  • Kangaroo Page 100
  • Kangaroo the gigantic Page 119
  • Keppel's Bay Page 141
  • Keylan and Manipa Page 173
  • Lalaletta Page 181
  • Lancaster, sir James Page 17
  • Lano Lake Page 75
  • Linty, village of Page 177
  • [Page] Lizard, horrible Page 101
  • Long Island Page 222
  • Lontoir Page 160
  • Lord Howe Island Page 117
  • Louisiade, La Page 231
  • Luconia, island of Page 60
  • Lyong Page 176
  • Macassar, or Celebes Page 85
  • Mackerel Bay Page 233
  • Mactan Page 73
  • Mactan Magellan killed there ibid.
  • Madura, prince of, his tragical story Page 31
  • Mala [...]co harbour of Page 181
  • Manchi [...]eel tree Page 12
  • Manilia Islands Page 60
  • Manilia when discovered ibid.
  • Manilia city of Page 62
  • Manilia taken in 1762 Page 64
  • Manilia earthquakes at Page 65
  • Manilia Chinese, massacre of at ibid.
  • Manilia natives of Page 66
  • Manilia great central bay in the midst of the Page 71
  • Manilia quadrupeds of the Page 72, 75
  • Manilia birds of the Page 76
  • Manilia Plants of the Page 78
  • Manipa and K [...]ylan Page 173
  • Mansingham port Page 222
  • M [...]tara Page 32
  • Matchian Page 181
  • Menangecabow, empire of Page 19
  • Mindanao, isle Page 73
  • Mindanao, extent of Page 74
  • Mindanao, natives of ibid.
  • Mixaol Page 177
  • Moa Page 222
  • Molucca Islands Page 178
  • Molucca Islands, inhabitants of, con­verted to Christianity Page 179
  • Molucca Islands, shipping of Page 185
  • Molucca Islands, quadrupeds of Page 186
  • Molucca Islands, birds of Page 187
  • Molucca Islands, reptiles of Page 192
  • Molucca Islands, fishes of Page 193
  • Montague port Page 223
  • Morty Page 197
  • Motir Page 182
  • Mount Ophir Page 3
  • Mountains of Arfak Page 207
  • Myo Page 184
  • Natal Page 18
  • Negro, or a [...] headed race in the Manilla isles Page 66
  • Negro, in the Papuan Page 202
  • Nepean river Page 140
  • New Britain Page 223
  • New Guinea, see Papuas Land.
  • Holland Page 97
  • Holland vast extent of ibid.
  • Holland discovered in 1618 Page 98
  • Holland sea snakes at Page 100
  • Holland visited by Pilstaert in 1629 Page 102
  • Holland by Van de Leuwin in 1622 ibid.
  • Holland by Peter Nuyts in 1627, ibid.
  • Holland by Tasman in 1642 ibid.
  • Holland by Captain Furneaux in 17 [...]3 Page 103
  • Holland by Captain Cook in 1777 ibid.
  • Holland soil of ibid.
  • Holland natives of Page 98, 104
  • Holland habitations of the natives, Page 104
  • Holland quadrupeds of Page 119
  • Holland fish of Page 132
  • [Page] New Holland, faunula of Page 118
  • New Holland, birds of Page 121
  • New Holland, reptiles of Page 131
  • New Holland, plants of Page 133
  • New Ireland Page 225
  • New Ireland natives of Page 227
  • New Ireland canoes of ibid.
  • Norfolk Island Page 112
  • Norfolk Island colonized ibid.
  • Norfolk Island birds of Page 113
  • Norfolk Island trees of Page 115
  • Norfolk Island climate Page 117
  • Nutmegs Page 161
  • Nutmegs gardens of Page 164
  • Nutmegs food of birds Page 165
  • Nutmegs pigeon ibid.
  • Nutmegs plenty of at New Guinea Page 234
  • Nuts, exotic, cast on shore Page 139
  • Offak Page 206
  • Ophir Mount, in Sumatra Page 3
  • Orange, minute Page 81
  • Orford, Cape Page 224
  • Ouby Page 176
  • Ourang Outang Page 56
  • Palambang city Page 16
  • Panay Page 71
  • Papuan islands Page 197
  • Papuan people Page 201
  • sorm of the Page 202
  • Papuas Land, or New Guinea Page 206
  • Papuas Land, when discovered ibid.
  • Papuas Land, houses of the natives Page 208
  • Papuas Land, tombs of Page 209
  • Papuas Land, birds of Page 210
  • Paradise, birds of Page 148, 210
  • Patanta Page 203
  • Patany hook Page 193
  • Pearls Page 83
  • Pepper Page 31
  • Peppermint tree Page 135
  • Philip, governor Page 109
  • Pigeon, nutmeg Page 165
  • Pigeon, great, crowned Page 217
  • Plants of Sumatra Page 9
  • Plants strange, of Purchas Page 14
  • Plants of the Manillas Page 78
  • Plants of New Holland Page 133
  • Plants observed by Dampier Page 137
  • Poloroon Page 161
  • Popo Page 177
  • Port Jackson Page 110
  • Port Mansingham Page 222
  • Port Montagu Page 223
  • Prince's Island Page 23
  • Prince of Wales's islands Page 232
  • Promerops, grand Page 213
  • Providential escape Page 141
  • Providential inlet Page 145
  • Pulo aya Page 161
  • Pulo Pisang Page 176
  • Pulo Sabuda Page 233
  • Quadrupeds of Sumatra Page 5
  • Quadrupeds of Java Page 34
  • Quadrupeds of the Manillas Page 72
  • Quadrupeds of New Holland Page 119
  • Quadrupeds of the Moluccas Page 186
  • Red gum tree Page 135
  • Rhinoceros, one-horned Page 35
  • [Page] River Hawkesbury Page 140
  • River Nepean ibid.
  • River Endeavour Page 143
  • Rooke, Sir George's, Island Page 223
  • Rotang, or Rattan, history of Page 9
  • Ruib, Isle Page 199
  • Rumphius Page 170
  • Sabadibae of Ptolemy Page 15
  • Sago tree Page 194
  • Sago oven Page 196
  • St. George's Channel Page 226
  • St. George's Channel length of ibid.
  • Salt and Banca Islands Page 58
  • Salwatty Page 200
  • Sambaar Point Page 58
  • Sangir Isle Page 85
  • Schouten's Island Page 222
  • Selang, Isle of Page 178
  • Serpents Page 131
  • Serpents sea Page 100
  • Sharks Bay ibid.
  • Shipping of the Moluccas Page 185
  • Slaves, trade in Page 87, 209
  • Slinger's Bay Page 229
  • Slinger's Bay natives of Page 230
  • Slinger's Bay prows of ibid.
  • Spicy Islands Page 148
  • Spicy Sea, upper part of the Page 176
  • Soolo isles Page 82
  • Soolo pearls sound at Page 83
  • Soolo animals of Page 84
  • Soolo length of ibid.
  • Soolo natives of Page 85
  • Streights of Endeavour Page 146
  • Streights Torres's Page 232
  • Sualloo, what Page 89
  • Succadana and Sambas Islands Page 58
  • Succotyro animal Page 35
  • Sumatra Page 2
  • Sumatra bad climate Page 3
  • Sumatra volcanoes at ibid.
  • Sumatra minerals of Page 4
  • Sumatra quadrupeds of Page 5
  • Sumatra birds of Page 8
  • Sumatra plants of Page 9
  • Sumatra trees of Page 11
  • Sumatra Dammer, pitch at Page 13
  • Sumatra discovered by the Portuguese Page 15
  • by the Dutch Page 16
  • by the English ibid.
  • Sumatra feudal custom at Page 20
  • Sumatra furious surf at Page 22
  • Supple jack Page 115
  • Swan black Page 130
  • Syang Page 199
  • Sydney Cove Page 110
  • Tappa, island of Page 181
  • Tappanooli Page 14
  • Tea shrub, sweet Page 135
  • Tea tree ibid.
  • Teek tree Page 12
  • Termes ants Page 143
  • Ternate Page 183
  • Ternate Sultan of Page 184
  • Tidor Page 182
  • Tigers Page 36, 54
  • Timorian chain Page 93
  • Timorian length of Page 94
  • Timorian natives of ibid.
  • Timorian animals of Page 95
  • Tin Page 4
  • Tombs of the Papuans Page 209
  • Tomoguy Page 199
  • Torres's Streights Page 232
  • Trees of Norfolk Island Page 115
  • [Page] Tropic bird Page 106
  • Tyfory Page 184
U. V.
  • Van de Leuwin's Land Page 102
  • Van Diemen's Land ibid.
  • Victoria Castle Page 169
  • Village of Linty Page 177
  • Villages, singular Page 68
  • Upas tree, in Java Page 42
  • Upas tree, poisonous effect of it Page 90
  • Upas tree, in Macassar ibid.
  • Volcanoes at Sumatra Page 3
  • Volcanoes at Java Page 33
  • Volcanoes at Bandu Isles Page 159
  • Volcanoes at the Moluccas Page 186
  • Volcanoes at Celebes Page 86
  • Volcanoes at New Guinea Page 222
  • Volcanoes at New Britain Page 226
  • Waelche, Cape Page 233
  • Waygiou Page 205
  • Waglol Page 199
  • Wales, Prince of, Island Page 232
  • Wallis's Isle Page 225
  • Water spouts Page 220
  • William, King, Isle of Page 204
  • Wishart's Island Page 229
  • Women, hideous, in the Papuan Islands, Page 203
  • Yellow gum tree Page 134
  • Yowl, Isle of Page 206
  • Yowry, Isle of Page 207
  • Zoophytes Page 38

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