THE HISTORY OF NEWCASTLE upon TYNE.

OR, THE ANCIENT and PRESENT STATE OF THAT TOWN.

By the late HENRY BOURNE, M. A. Curate of ALL-HALLOWS in NEWCASTLE.

—Haec—alias inter Caput extulit Ʋrbes— VIRG. Ecl. 1.

NEWCASTLE upon TYNE: Printed and Sold by JOHN WHITE. M.DCC.XXXVI.

To the Right Worshipful • WALTER BLACKETT, Esq Mayor, , • JOHN ISAACSON, Esq Recorder, , •

Aldermen.

• William Ellison, Esq , • Matthew Fetherstonhaugh, Esq , • Richard Ridley, Esq , • Francis Rudston, Esq , • Nicolas Fenwick, Esq , • William Carr, Esq , • Nathanael Clayton, Esq , • Cuthbert Fenwick, Esq , • Robert Sorsbie, Esq , and • Matthew Ridley, Esq  , and • JOHN WILKINSON, Esq Sheriff;  AND TO THE COMMON-COUNCIL OF THE Town of Newcastle upon Tyne:

This WORK is most humbly Dedicated, By the AUTHOR'S Children,

  • Henry Bourne,
  • Eleanor Bourne.

A LIST OF THE SUBSCRIBERS.

A
  • ALLEN Thomas, Esq
  • Allen, Mr. Richard
  • All good, the Rev. Mr.
  • Anderson, Mr. Joseph
  • Anesley, Mark, Esq
  • Anesley, Mr. William
  • Armstrong, Mr. John
  • Askew, Dr. Adam
  • Atkinson, Mr. Henry
B
  • BELL, Mr. James
  • Bell, Mr. Matthew
  • Biggs William, Esq
  • Binks, Mr. Thomas
  • Blackett, the Right Wor­shipful Walter, Esq MAYOR
  • Blackston, Mr. John
  • Bland, Dr. Dean of Durham
  • Blinkinsop, Mr. William
  • Bolton, Mr. Silvester
  • Boulby, Mr. Adam
  • Bowes George, Esq
  • Bridgman William, Esq
  • Brooke Philip, Esq
  • Browell, Dr.
  • Browell, Mr. Mark
  • Buck, the Rev. Mr. (York)
  • Butler, the Rev. Mr. Benjamin
  • Butler, Mr. Benjamin.
C
  • CALEY, Mr. Samuel
  • Chambers, Mr. Robert
  • Campbell, the Hon. Alexander Hume, Esq
  • Clark, Mr. James
  • Clavering James, Esq
  • Clayton Nathaniel, Esq Alderman
  • Clennell Percival, Esq
  • Clennell Thomas, Esq
  • Colpits, Mr. George
  • [Page]Cooper, Mr. Challoner
  • Coulson, Mr. Henry
  • Cunningham, Mr. of Beadale, Surgeon
  • Cuthbert, the Rev. Mr.
  • Cuthbertson, Mr. George
D
  • DAWSON, Mr. Christopher
  • Dawson, Mr. John
  • Davison William, Esq
  • Dennet Robert, Esq
  • Dick, Mr. Andrew
  • Dockwray, the Rev. Mr. Thomas
  • Dunn, Mr. Anthony
E
  • EDEN, Sir Robert, Bart.
  • Eden, the Rev. Mr.
  • Ellison Henry, Esq
F
  • FAIRLESS, Mr. Edward
  • Farrington, the Rev. Mr.
  • Firebrace, Sir Cordell, Bart.
  • Fenwick Cuthbert, Alderman
  • Fenwick, Mrs. Esther
  • Fenwick the Rev. Mr. George, Vicar of Bolam
  • Fenwick John, Esq of By well.
  • Fenwick, Mr. Thomas
  • Foster, Mr. Henry
  • Foster, Mr. Timothy
  • Foster, Mr. — Jun. of Alnwick
G
  • GAPE, Tho. Esq of St. Alban's.
  • Gent, Mr. Thomas (York)
  • Graham, Mr. William
  • Grey George, Esq
H
  • HALL, the Rev. Dr. Prebendary of Durham
  • Hall Charles, Esq
  • Hall, Mr. James
  • Hanby, Mr. William
  • Harle, Mr. Edward
  • Harper, Mr. William
  • Hawden, Mr. Thomas
  • Hedworth John, Esq
  • Henderson, Mr. William
  • Henzell, Mr. Peregrine
  • Heron, Mr. of London
  • Hildyard, Mr. John, of York
  • Hinkster, Mr. George
  • Hobson, the Rev. Mr. Vicar of Bosall
  • Holden, the Rev. Mr. of Morpeth
  • Hopkins, Mr. Lancaster
  • Huddleston, Mr. John
  • Hudson, Mr. John
  • Hudspeth, Mr. Robert
  • Hull, Mr. John
  • Hunter, Dr. Christopher, of Durham
  • Hunter, Mr.
  • Hutchinson, Mr.
  • Hylton John, Esq of Hylton
J
  • JENNISON Ralph, Esq (Walworth)
  • Johnson, Mr. Richard
  • Johnson, Mr. Robert
K
  • KEMP, Sir Robert, Bart.
  • Kennedy, Mr. Archibald
L
  • LANGSTAFFE, Mr. Joseph
  • Lattany, Mr. Joseph
  • Lawson Robert, Esq of Chirton.
  • Lewen George, Esq
  • Lewin, Mr. Thomas, Barrister at Law
  • Liddell, Sir Henry, Bart.
  • Liddell George, Esq
  • Liddell, Mr. Joseph
  • Linton, Mr. William
  • Lowther, Sir William, Bart.
  • Lowther, Dr.
M
  • MABELL, Mr. Edward
  • Maddison, the Rev. Mr.
  • Marshal, Mr. Thomas
  • Midford, Mr. George,
  • Milbank John, Esq
  • Moncaster, Mr. James
  • Morris, Mr. John
  • Mowbray George, Esq
N
  • NEWTON, Mr. William
  • Nichols Francis, of Lintz Green, in the County of Durham, Esq
O
  • OLIVER, Mr. John
  • Ord, Mr. John
  • Oyston, Mr. Thomas, of Bishop Auckland
P
  • [Page]PAWSON, Mr. John
  • Packer Winchcomb Howard, Esq
  • Peacock, Mr. Joseph
  • Preston, Mr. Cuthbert
  • Probyn, Mr. Henry (London)
  • Pye William, Esq
  • Pye, Mr. John
R
  • RAMSDEN, Mrs. of York
  • Rawling, Mr. Thomas
  • Rawlison Richard, LL. D. F. R. S.
  • Ray, the Rev. Mr. Vicar of Warden
  • Reay Henry, Esq Alderman.
  • Ridley Richard, Esq Alderman
  • Ridley Matthew, Esq Alderman
  • Richardson, Mr. Cuthbert
  • Richardson, Mr. John
  • Robinson, Mr. John
  • Rogers John, Esq
  • Rudd John, Esq
  • Rudston Francis, Esq Alderman
  • Rutter, Mr. Christopher
S
  • SCARBOROUGH, the Right Hon. Richard Earl of
  • Scourfield, Mr. John, of Washington
  • Selby, Mr. William
  • Shaftoe John, Esq
  • Shaftoe, Mrs. Anne
  • Shaftoe, Mrs. Sarah
  • Sharp, the Rev. Dr.
  • Shields, Mr. Thomas
  • Shipley, Mr. Thomas (London)
  • Simpson, the Rev. Mr. John
  • Simpson, Mr. John
  • Smith George, Esq
  • Smith, Mr. Joseph
  • Smith, Mr. Thomas
  • Snowden, Mr. John
  • Soresbie Robert, Esq Alderman
  • Sowerby, Mr. Ralph
  • Spearman Robert, Esq
  • Spoor, Mr. Christopher
  • Stafford, the Rev. Mr.
  • Staples, Mr. Alexander, Bookseller in York
  • Stillingfleet, the Rev. Mr. Robert
  • Steel, Mr. John.
  • Surtees, Mr. Robert.
  • Swaddell, Mrs. Mary
T
  • TALBOT, the Hon. William, Esq
  • Talbot William, Esq
  • Thompson, the Rev. Mr. William, Curate of St. Nicholas
  • Thornton John, Esq
  • Thornton Tempest, Esq of Wakefield
  • Thorold John, Esq Son of Sir John Tho­rold, Bart. of Marston in Lincolnshire
  • Thorsby, Mr. Thomas
  • Toker, Mr. Walter (London)
  • Tomlinson, Mr. Richard
  • Tomlinson Robert, D. D.
  • Trefusis Robert, of Trefusis, Esq
  • Trewit, Mr. William
  • Trinity-House
  • Trotter, Mr. Ralph, of Durham
U
  • VAUGHAN, Mr. Shaftoe
  • Usher, Mr. William
W
  • WALLIS, Mr. Thomas
  • Walph, Mr. Timothy (London)
  • Walton, Mr. Samuel (London)
  • Waring, Mr.
  • Waters, Mr. Henry
  • Waters, Mr. Thomas
  • Watson, Mr. John
  • Weddell, the Rev. Mr.
  • Wheeler Granville, Esq
  • Whitfield Utrick, Esq
  • Widdrington, Mr. John
  • Wilkinson, Mr. Jacob, of South Shields
  • Wilkinson, Mr. John
  • Wilkinson Thomas, Esq of Durham
  • Williams, Mr. Edward
  • Williams, Mr. John
  • Wilson, Mr. Chilton
  • Woodbourne, Mr. Henry, of Wolverston
  • Wrightson William, Esq of Cusworth

THE PREFACE.

I Am sensible that this Performance will come into the World much more imperfect than I at first thought it would. But I have la­bour'd under so many Difficulties in the compiling of it, that when but a few of them are mentioned, I hope for a candid and favourable Judgment.

AFTER I had collected in private what Materials I could, I was then obliged to go publickly in Quest of more. Upon this I publish'd an Advertisement, desiring the Assistance of such as had ancient Writings, or Deeds, or any other Things that might contribute to the helping of the Work.

THIS immediately, occasioned the following Reflecti­ons, that it might be of dangerous Consequence to shew ancient Writings, that He was but a Curate that under­took the Work, that his Abilities therefore of Pocket and [Page vi] Mind must be vastly unequal to such a Task; in short, above 12 Months before the Publication of it, some have made it their Business, (so great has been their Ill-nature and Prejudice) as to take all Ways and Methods of decry­ing it; by Print, by Manuscript, lessening it in all Com­panies to hinder it's Publication, and speaking as freely of of it, as if they were acquainted with every Line of it's Composition, and by a Prophetick Spirit knew it to be as they talk'd of it.

BY these Means I am certain I have been hindred of many Materials.

BUT there are two grand Disappointments I met with in the Compiling of this Performance, which must not be untaken Notice of. The One is my not being so happy as to see Dr. Ellison's Collection of the Antiquities of this Town. A few indeed were sent me, but having the same Copy from Mr. Douglas, they were of no Service; and excepting these I saw no more. 'Tis to be hoped, as the Dr. must have made a large Collection, having been about it, as is said, for many Years; that the present Possessor of them will oblige the Town with the Publication of Them, and cure the Imperfections of the present Performance.

THE other Disappointment is the not Meeting with those large Collections of Sir Robert Shaftoe, taken No­tice of by Bishop Nicholson in his English Historical Library. I endeavoured after a Sight of them, but they were then either lost, or so mislaid, that there was no coming at them.

AND if I add to all this, an Illness of many Months, and which it pleases God still to continue, * which too fre­quently obliges me to trust the Copies of others, and de­pend upon them, I hope a few Errours and Failings will fall gently to my Share.

[Page vii]HOWEVER in the midst of all this Malice and Ill-nature and these Disappointments, there were some so communicative, and generously assisting, as to give all the Help they could. They are the Gentlemen following.

  • MR. JOSUAH DOUGLAS, who assisted me with a great Number of Materials.
  • JOHN MILBANK, Esq who sent me a Manuscript which is frequently mentioned.
  • CHRSTOPHER HUNTER of Durham, M. D. who has obliged me in the kindest Manner, with several curious Manuscripts which are acknowledged in their proper Pla­ces.
  • The Rev. Mr. SMITH of Melsonby, who sent me a Book of antient Deeds and Charters copy'd from one in Ʋniver­sity College in Oxford, relating to some Lands in this Town.
  • JOHN THORNTON, Esq of Nether-witton, who o­bliged me with a Sight of some ancient Writings, parti­cularly the Will of his famous Ancestor Roger de Thornton.
  • ROBERT SHAFTO, of Benwall, Esq who contribu­ted some ancient Writings, particularly One relating to the Chanteries of the Churches of this Town.
The following Gentlemen have also been very kind and ready in assisting me with Books, Transactions, Modern Papers, &c.
  • The Rev. Dr. THOMLINSON, Rector of Whickham.
  • The Rev. Mr. DOCKWRAY, Lecturer of St. Nicholas.
  • [Page viii]The Rev. Mr. LODGE, Master of the Free-School.
  • The Rev. Mr. COWLING, Curate of St. Nicholas.
  • EDWARD COLLINGWOOD, Esq
  • WILLIAM CUTHBERT, Esq
  • JOHN LOWTHER, Esq M. D.
  • GEORGE GREY, Esq
  • Mr. CHARLES CLARK, Jun.
  • Mr. THOMAS WATERS.
  • Mr. CHARLES ATKINSON.
  • Mr. HENRY ATKINSON.
  • Mr. GEORGE CUTHBERTSON.

IT will neither be necessary nor proper for me at this Time to answer the trifling Objections above-mention'd. I shall therefore only add, that I have spared no Pains; but that as in my Health I laid out all my Endeavours, in the Collecting of Materials from all Quarters I could pos­sibly come at any, so I have now finish'd it according to the best of my Abilities and Judgment.

[Page]

  • Close Gate A
  • White Fryer Tower B
  • White Fryer Gate BB
  • Nevil Tower C
  • Westspittle Tower D
  • Stank Tower E
  • Gunner Tower F
  • Forth Gate EF
  • Pink Tower G
  • Westgate H
  • Durham Tower I
  • Herber Tower K
  • Black Fryer Gate L
  • Mordon Tower M
  • Ever Tower N
  • Andrew Tower O
  • Newgate P
  • Bertram Mumboucher Tower Q
  • Ficket Tower R
  • Pilgrim Street Gate S
  • Carliel Tower T
  • Plummer Tower V
  • St. Austin Tower W
  • Corner Tower X
  • Pandon Gate Y
  • Carpenters Tower Z
  • Wall Kell & Habkin Tower
  • Sandgate &c
  • Ratten Rawe 1
  • Fennel Street 2
  • St. John's Church 3
  • An Alma House. 4
  • Westmorland Place 5
  • Back Rawe 6
  • Fouthill 7
  • Batliss Gate 8
  • White Fryers 9
  • Newgate Street 10
  • St. Andrews Church 11
  • High Fryer Chare 12
  • Parn Crock 13
  • Hucksters Booths 14
  • Back gate of the 15
  • Black Fryers 15
  • White Cross 16
  • Fryer Chare 17
  • Vunn [...] Gate 18
  • The Earls Inn 19
  • Bigg Market 20
  • Poultry Market 21
  • Pudding Chare 22
  • Rose mary Lane 23
  • Great Market 24
  • Wooll Market 25
  • Penton Chare 26
  • Yron Market 27
  • Flesh Market 28
  • St. Nicholas Church D
  • Nether Dean Bridge 29
  • Franciscan Fryers AA
  • Upper Dean Bridge 30
  • The Pilgrim's Inn 31
  • Wheat Market 32
  • Painter Hugh 33
  • All Hallows Church 34
  • Dog Bank 35
  • Butcher Bank 36
  • Herb Market 37
  • Fish Market 38
  • Masen Dieu and M
  • Merchant's Court M
  • Guild Hall Y
  • St. Tho [...] ye Mu [...]y [...] Chappel 39
  • The Close 40
  • Mayor's House X.E
  • Sail makers Meeting house FO
  • Yawe [...] Grappe 41
  • The Dark Chare 1
  • Granden Chare 2
  • Blew Anker Chare 3
  • Pepper [...] Chare 4
  • Palester Chare 5
  • Colum's Chare 6
  • Horns by Chare 7
  • Plumber Chare 8
  • Fenwick's Chare 9
  • The Dark Chare 10
  • Bread Garth 11
  • Peacock Chare 12
  • Trinity Chare 13
  • Remcastle Chare 14
  • Broad Chare 15
  • Spicer Aime 16
  • Bourne Bank 17
  • Byker Chare 18
  • Cockis Chare 19
  • Lore Lane 20
  • Minor Chare 42
  • St. Austine Fryers 43
  • Barber Sur [...]ans Hall WH
  • The Hospital of clergy Mens
  • St. Merchant Widows 44
  • M [...]ey's Island 45
  • Stock Bridge 46
  • Fisher gate 47
  • Wall Knoll, 48
  • St. Michael's and Mount 49
  • Gulleram Green 50
  • Cowgate 51
  • Blith's Nook 52
  • Trinity House TXG
  • Duckhill in Bread Chare 53
  • Pants or Fountains P.

THE Ancient and Present STATE OF Newcastle upon Tyne.

CHAP. I. Some Account of the Roman Walls in the Country of the OTTADINI; particularly the Walls of HADRIAN and SEVERUS, which went through this TOWN. The most ancient Name of this TOWN.

IT was about an hundred Years after the Landing of Julius Caesar in this Island, when the Brigantes, a popu­lous and warlike Nation of the Britains, whose Coun­try extended from the North of Humber to the River Tyne, containing the present Counties of Yorkshire, Dur­ham, Lancashire, Westmoreland, and Cumberland, were first assaulted by the Romans. The Britains behaved themselves in the War with great Courage and Reso­lution, 'till at last, in the Reign of Vespasian, the great­est Part of them were conquered. After this in the Reign of Titus, Julius A­gricola, the Lieutenant of Britain, who was at least equally Famous for his Conquests over the Customs and Manners of the Britains, as for his many Victories over them in Battle, did in the third Year of his Lieutenancy make a Discovery of other Parts of this Island, which were not brought under the Roman Yoke. Upon which he marched Northward into the Country of the Ottadini, which extends from the North of Tyne to the River Taus, wa­sting and destroying all before him, 'till he came to the Tay it self. And now according to some was the first Wall made in Britain: But it was not pro­perly [Page 2] a Wall, it was only a Line of Garrisons placed upon that Slip of Land between Edinburgh-Frith and Dun-Britain-Frith, for the Security of what they had already gain'd; and if the Valour of Agricola's Army, and the Renown of the Roman Name could have suffer'd it, there was no Need of a further Search after the Bounds and Limits of Britain. The Friths above-mentioned, called then Glota and Bodotria, might have been very sufficient, being the Arms of two opposite Seas, and only separated by a small Space of Land, which was well fortified with the Roman Garrisons; so that the Romans were Lords of the whole South, and had cast the Enemy as it were into another Island Tacit. in vit. Agricol.. But what could ever bound the Roman Glory, and limit their ne­ver satisfied Ambition? It was not enough that they had intirely secured them­selves for any Attempts of the Caledonians, but They also were to be subdued. This was effected in the 8th Year of Agricola's Lieutenancy in the reign of Domitian.

HOWEVER after this, Cambd. that further Part of the Island was left to the The inha­bitants went naked, had no Houses to live in, nei­ther did they Till the Ground. As one writeth, de praeda & venatione, Frondibus (que) Arborum vi­vant, degent in Tentoriis Nudi & sine calceis. Grey ex Xiphilin'. Barbarians, as neither Pleasant nor Fruitful; but this nether Part was fairly reduc'd to a Roman Province; which was not governed by Consular, or Pro­consular Deputies; but was counted Praesidial, and appropriate to the Cae­sars, as being a Province annex'd to the Empire, after the Division of Pro­vinces made by Augustus, and having Propraetors of its own.

HADRIAN, who was made Emperor about the Year of our Lord 117, made the second Wall. Cambd. He drew a Wall, says Spartian, of eighty Miles in Length, to divide the Barbarians from the Romans; which one may gather, from what follows in Spartian, to have been in the Fashion of a Mural Hedge of large Stakes, fix'd deep in the Ground, and fastned together with Wattles. The same Authority from the Scotch Historian who wrote the Rota Temporum, tells us, that Hadrian did first of all draw a Wall of a prodigious Bigness, made of Turf (of that Height that it look'd like a Mountain, and with a deep Ditch before it) From the Mouth of the Tyne to the River Eske, i. e. from the German to the Irish Ocean. This is supposed to have been done about the Year 123.

THE Cambd. Third Wall was built by Lollius Urbicus, Lieutenant of Britain, un­der Antoninus Pius, about the Year 144, who by his great Success removed back the Bounds to where Julius Agricola had set them, and raised a Wall there.

THE Cambd. Fourth Wall was that of This Empe­ror died at York about the Year 211, Feb. 4th. Severus, which was built about the Year of Christ 210, which extended from Sea to Sea, quite cross the Island. This was a Wall of Stone, built much about the same Place where the Wall of Hadrian was. It had it's Beginning at Bulness on the Irish Sea, and crossing the Island, went as far as Walls-End, a Village about 3 Miles East of Newcastle.

A Cambd. Fifth Wall was built between the two Arms or Bosoms of the Seas for many Miles together, that where the Waters did not defend them, the Wall might be a Security against the Incursions of the Enemy. This Wall was made by Carausius, Governour of Britain, in the Reign of Dioclesian, and stood in the same Place where Lollius Urbicus had built his.

THIS being finished, the Romans left the Britains to their own Valour and Conduct, being called away for the Defence of Gaul; But no sooner were they gone, than their Enemies returned, and slew all before them: Up­on this they sent Ambassadors to Rome to sollicite the Assistance of the Ro­mans, which was granted them. For Valentinian sent three Companies under the Conduct of Gallio of Ravenua, who routed the Enemy and relieved the Province. After this Cambd. p. 86. ex Gild'. they made a Wall of Stone (not raised at the pub­lick and private Costs, as the other was) with the Help of the poor Natives, built after the usual Manner, quite cross the Country from one Sea to ano­ther, by those Cities which were perhaps built there for fear of the Enemy: They exhorted them to be couragious, and left them Patterns to make their Weapons by. Upon the Southren Shore of Britain also, where their Ships [Page 3] lay, (because the barbarous Enemy might enter there) they built Turrets at some Distance from one another, that lookt a long Way to the Sea. And so the Romans intending never to return more, about the Four Hundred Seventy Sixth Year from the coming of Julius Caesar, took their last Farewell.

THIS last Wall, according to Bede, was eight Foot broad and twelve Foot high, and stood in the Place where the Walls of Hadrian and Severus had stood. Cambd. It had great Number of Towers or little Castles, a Mile one from another, called now Castlesteeds; and on the Inside a Sort of fortified little Towns call'd Chesters. The Inhabitants tell you there was also a Brazen Trum­pet or Pipe, (whereof they now and then find Pieces) so artificially laid in the Wall between each Castle and Tower, that upon the Apprehension of Dan­ger at any single Place, by the sounding of it, Notice might be given to the next, then to the Third, and so on.

THESE are all the Walls of the Romans; and that three of them went through this Town is something more than probable. For Severus's Wall was in the Place of Hadrian's, and the last Wall mentioned, in the Place of Severus's, and that last Wall went through this Town. Mr. Camden is so sure of this, that he declares, 'Tis most certain that the Rampier, and afterward the Wall passed through this Town; and that at Pandon-Gate there still remains, as 'tis Thought, one of the little Turrets of that very Wall. There is indeed to this very Day a Part of that Turret in being, above Pandon-Gate, which, as the same Authority justly observed, is different from the Rest both in Fashon and Masonry, and undoubtedly carrys along with it a very great Age.

NEAR this Turret is the Wall-Knoll, a very ancient Place, which our Hi­storian Grey says positively, Was a Part of the Picts-Wall; and indeed the very Name of it speaks as much. For the Word Wall upon the Knoll, which signifies an Hill or Eminence, cannot be understood of any other than the Ro­man-Wall; Because it had this Name from very ancient Times, long before the Building of the Town-Wall, to which it almost adjoins.

A little above this Place is a Tower, commonly call'd the Vide Wall-knoll Tower. Carpenters-Tower. This was one of the Roman-Towers, as was very Visible, before the taking down of the Upper-part of it. Lib. de rebus Novo­cast'. For it was of the same Size, Model, and Stone with the Tower of This Village is now in the Possession of John Ro­gers, Esq of Newcastle, who has tur­ned the inner Part of the Tower into Modern Rooms, but left the Walls of it still intire. Rutchester in Northumberland, which was undoub­tedly one of the Roman Towers, by the Picts-Wall.

IT must also not be omitted, that there is an ancient Tradition among the Inhabitants of this Town, that the Roman-Wall went through the West-Gate, and the Vicar's Garden, along that Ground where St. Nicholas-Church now stands, along Nether-Dean-Bridge, by the Wall-Knoll, Sally-Port, and so on to Walls-End.

NOW to these Reasons and Authorities let us add what Hollins. De­scrip. of Brit. p. 128. Hollinshead says, where he gives an Account of the Course of the Roman-Wall. It begins he says at Bolness upon Burgh, and so he brings it from Place to Place, 'till he brings it to Rutchester, then to Heddon, then to Wallbottle, then to A small Vil­lage about 3 Miles West from Newca­stle, belonging to John Ro­gers, Esq Denton, and to Newcastle, where it is thought St. Nicholas Church standeth on the same.

TO this I shall add the Authority of a Manuscript, I am obliged to a very worthy John-Mil­bank, Esq Gentleman for; Hadrian built a Wall of Turff or Sods, from the Sea-Side beyond Carlisle unto Tinmouth. It was demolished after he was gone, and after him Severus built near the same a Wall of Stone, and made Towers and Watching Places at every Miles End, and a Passage all along by the Help of an Horn, or such an Instrument, that they might speak through the Wall, and tell where the Enemy was. This ended at the River of Tyne near Walls-End. This Authority goes on, I my self have seen it at Thirlwall, and it cometh by Portgate, near Stanchebank, by Halton, near the Long-Lane, where both the Walls are Apparent; as also at Denton, over Bonwell-Hill, down to [Page 4] the Westgate. And he also adds, you may see it down the Hill by Mr. This House was in Pil­grim-street on the West-side, a little before you come to Sil­ver-street. Leonard Carr's House, and over Walker-Moor to It has been a Vulgar Er­ror in many, who from the Name Walls­end, have i­magined that the Wall did actually end at that Vil­lage; but it could never have been so, because that Place is half a Mile from the River Side. It is therefore not presuma­ble that the Romans would have begun or end­ed the Wall but at the Side of the said River, seeing all to the East­ward of this Place, the Ri­ver was the Continuation of the Prae­tentura or Fence, from hindring the northerly In­cursions. The first Track is half a Mile South from Wallsend, near Cou­sins's House, beginning a little to the East of it, at the Side of the River Tyne; and here certainly the 1st Station of Segedunum was originally placed. For 162 Paces a saint Track of the Wall appears running North twelve Degrees and a half Westerly; then forms an Angle, Pointing south westerly for 135 Paces to the above­mention'd Mansion of Cousins's House. About 131 Paces West of this, the Fossa begins to appear pretty distinct, measuring about 20 Foot in Breadth, and a little beyond it, is the Foundation of the Stone Wall, from hence it passes by a few Houses called the Bee-Houses, next through a small Village called Walker: Here the Fosta is 40 Foot broad, beyond which the Foundation of the Stone-Wall appears plain, then it ascends the Byker-Hill, run­ing betwixt the Village of Byker and the Windmill, thence going down the Hill, passes through the Euesburn, crossing the Rivulet there; then I found it ascend the high Ground to the Westward of it, passing by the Mansion House and through the Garden to the Red-Barnes; from thence it is visible through the Fields, going Streight to the Sally-Port Gate of Newcastle. Gordon. Itiner. Septent. p. 70. — This Place where the End of the Wall is, belongs to Mr. Henry Waters of Newcastle. Walls-End.

THUS I think it very clear that these Roman-Walls went through this Town. Let us now see what this Town was in these ancient Times. p. 779 Mr. Cambden gives his Opinion thus: Gateside is commonly believed to be of grea­ter Antiquity than Newcastle it self. And if I should say further, that this and Newcastle (for they seem formerly to have been only one Town parted by the River) were that Frontier-Garrison, which in the Times of the later Emperors was called Gabrosentum, and defended by the second Cohort of the Thraces; and that it retained it's old Name in a due Sense and Signification, notwithstanding this Newcastle has changed it's Name once or twice, I hope it will be no ways inconsistent with Truth. For Gaffr is used by the Britains for a Goat, and Hen, in Composition for Pen, which signifies an Head: And in this very Sense and Meaning it is plainly called Caprae Caput, or Goats-Head by our old Latin Historians.

THUS far this learned Antiquary. But notwithstanding this his Judgment, and that no tollerable Reason can be brought against the two Places having been but one; yet some will still have it, that Gateside, exclusive of Newcastle, is the ancient Gabrosentum, because of it's Name. For my Part I cannot help being of Mr. Cambden's Opinion, and for this, among other Reasons; that if the Name of Caprae Caput discovers the Gabrosentum, then it is more probable that the principal Part of it lay on the North-side of the River than on the South: Because Gabrosentum was one of these Frontier Garrisons, which lay ad Lineam Valli, within the very Range of the Wall. For all these Garrisons ad Lineam Valli, were placed on the same Side of the River with the Wall it self, consequently Gateside could but at most have been a Part of Gabrosentum, and the meanest Part of it too; a Sort of Suburbs to it, as it actually was to this Town of Newcastle, in the Reign of Edward the Sixth, as shall be shown hereafter.

BUT if this is not allowed, (and yet it must be allowed, if Gateside has it's Name from the Gabrosentum) yet most certainly it was a Vide Chap. of the upper Parts of the Town. garrison'd Fort in these very Times. For still there is the Remains of a Roman Turret, and the under Part of one of the Roman Towers to be seen, and the Name of Pandon is no small Corroboration of the Truth of it, as may be seen in our Account of that Place.

THUS I think whatever is boasted of the Antiquity of Gateside, it plainly appears, that if Caprae Caput, or Gateside Points out the ancient Gabrosentum, Newcastle must be her elder Sister; forasmuch as a Town must be earlier than it's Suburbs. And if it does not Newcastle is by Mr. Cambden called the old Gabrocentum where the 2d Cohort of the Thracians lay; but according to the Course of the Forts in the Notitia Imperii, Gabrocentum is the seventeenth Station on the Wall; if therefore we follow the Noticia strictly, Newcastle would rather seem to be the Pons-Aelii, the 2d Station on the Wall, where the Cohort of the Cornovii lay. In this I have the concurring Opinion of the learned and judicious Antiquary Dr. Hunter of Durham. Gord. Itin. Septent. pag. 71. The ancient Orrhea, mentioned by Ptolomy has been thought by some to have been the Original of this Town, but for what Reason I know not. Point it out, it will then be a certain Con­clusion, that there is an indisputable Account of this Town in these very Times of the Romans, which was some Hundreds of Years before Caprae Ca­put, or Gateside is mentioned by the most early of our Latin Historians.

CHAP. II. Of this TOWN, after the Time of the ROMANS.

AFTER the Departure of the Romans, it seems to have chan­ged it's Name, as I shall shew immediately; and probably by the latter Part of it's after Name Monkchester, it was a Place of Defence, or Garrison'd Fort, during the Times of the Saxons and Danes. This Name of Monkchester it retain­ed 'till after the Conquest. Thus we are told from Simeon Dunelmensis, a Monk of the Church of Durham, that New­castle upon Tyne was anciently called Monkchester, civitas Monachorum, or the Town of the Monks, not because it belong'd to the Monks, but because the Monks of those Parts dwelt there.Ex Collect. Mr. J. Dou­glas.

SOME, are of Opinion, that Newcastle got it's Name of Monkchester, because the Monks in Time of Danger came for Protection to it, and not from their inhabiting it. This is quite contrary to the Authority above-mentioned, and all others that I have met with. Mr. Eachard in his History of England says, that Monkchester was so called from certain Monks who lived there in great [Page 6] Austerity and Retirement; and the Monasticon gives us the following Account. In the Year 1074, there was a certain Man in the Province of the Mercians, a Presbyter and Prior of the Monastery of Winchelescumbe, who was a Monk, whose Name was Aldwin: This Man preferr'd a voluntary Poverty and Con­tempt of the World to all it's Honours and Riches; and having learned from the History of the Northumbers, that that Land was formerly famous for Mul­titudes of Monks and religious Men, who tho' in the Flesh, lived not accor­ding to the Flesh, but whilst they were on Earth, had their Conversation in Heaven: He desired greatly to visit the Monasteries of these Places, (tho' He knew they were forsaken and left desolate) and there to lead a poor Life in Imitation of them. Coming therefore as far as the Monastery of Evesham, he made known his Purpose to certain of the Brethren; upon which, two of them associated with him; one of them was named Elfwie, who was a Dea­con, and after that a Priest; The other's Name was Renifrid; he was igno­rant of Letters. These the Abbot gave leave to accompany him, but not 'till he had set Aldwin over them, and committed to him the Care of their Souls. After this, they set forward on their Journey a Foot, having an Ass to carry their Books, Necessaries, and their Sacerdotal Vestments, to celebrate divine Service in. At length they came to York, desiring of Hugh, the Son of Bal­drick, who was then Sheriff, Ut eis du­cem itineris inveniret us­que locum qui Monkce­ster, i. e. Monacho­rum civitas appellatur, nunc Nov­um-Castel­lum nomi­natur. Quo per ductum venientes, ad tempus ibidem sunt morati, ubi nullum anti­quum San­ctorum Chri­sti reperirunt Vestigium. Dugd. Mon. Tom. 1. p. 41. that he would procure them a Guide to Monk­chester, that is, the City of the Monks, which is now called Newcastle, whi­ther being brought by their Guide, they staid a-while, but found not any Remains of it's former Sanctity, no Footsteps of the Religious People who had formerly dwelt there. Walcher Bishop of Durham hearing of this, sent for them, and gave them the Monastery of Jarray, which at that Time was unroof'd, and had scarce any Thing remaining of it's ancient Grandeur.

AND now how long it had been in this desolate Condition we may gather from Mag. Brit. Nov. & An­tiq. ex Hol­bius. Hollingshead. By the Invasion of the Danes, says he, the Churches and Monasteries throughout Northumberland were so waisted and ruined, that a Man could scarcely find a Church standing at this Time in all that Country; and as for those that remained, they were all covered with Broom or Thatch: And as for any Abby or Monastery there was not one left in all the Country; neither did any Man, for the Space of Two hundred Years, take Care for the repairing or building up of any Thing in Decay; so that the People of this County knew not what a Monk meant. And if they saw any, they wonder­ed at the Strangeness of the Sight. One Place there was in this County, fa­mous for being the Habitation of Monks, from whence it was called Monk­chester, but that also was so ruinated and destroy'd, that when the Monks of Mercia (the Monks mentioned before) came to it, they found no Token or Remnant of any Religions Persons who had had an Habitation there; all was defaced and gone.

NOW with respect to Monkchester this seems to be punctually true. For as Hollingshead observes that it was about 200 Years from the Ruin of the Mo­nasteries to this Time after the Conquest Anno 1074; so it must be taken Notice of, that the Danes, in the Year Hollin. 875, which was the 4th of the Reign of King Alured, divided themselves. So that King Haldon with one Part there­of went into Northumberland, and lay in the Winter Season near He sat down with his Men at Tames­mouth, which is be­tween Gate­side and Whickham. Sim. Dunel'. to the River of Tyne, where he divided the Country amongst his Men, and remained there for the Space of two Years, and oftentimes fetched thither Booties and Preys out of the Country of the Scots and Picts.

IT appears then from this, that the Monasteries of Monkchester had been in Ruins about 200 Years, that is to say, from the Year 875 to the Year 1074, the Time of the Coming of the Mercian Monk.

LET us now see if we can form any probable Conjecture when it was first inhabited by Monks, and got the Name of Monkchester. And this I imagine happen'd towards the later End of the 7th Century. For in the Year 635, the Monastical Life was brought in among the Northumbers by Aidan, who was [Page 7] that Year made Bishop of Northumberland, and had his Seat at Lindisfern is a small I­sland on the Northern Shore of England, made only by swelling Tides, for at Ebb it is joined to the main Land of England, by a Ridge of sandy Earth. It is, as we are inform'd called the Holy-Island, from it's first Bishop living in an Holy Society with his Clergy. He dy'd Aug. 31st, Anno 651 and was buried in the Church of Lindisfern. He was succeeded by Finan a Monk of the Monastery of Hy, who died Feb. 12, in the Year 601. Coleman succeeded him, and was Bishop about 3 Years. But being worsted in the Controversy about the keeping of Easter, he gave up his Bishoprick, and left Lindisfern. Tuda suc­ceeded him, and dy'd the same Year he was made. After this the See was vacant fourteen Years, and then fill'd up by Eata in the Year 678, who continued 'till the Year 685, being then chosen to the See of Hagustald. He was succeeded by St. Cuthbert, who was consecrated at York by Theodore, Archbishop of Canterbury upon Easter-Day, which happened March 26. The Archbishop was assisted by seven other Bishops, and King Egfrid, and many of his Nobles were present. When he had been Bishop about two Years, he gave up his Charge, and foreseeing his Death approaching he resigned his Bishoprick, and re­tired to his former Solitude, the Island of Fern, where he died in two Months Time, viz. March the 20th 687, and was buried at Lindisfern. Eadbert was chosen after him, he governed the See about ten Years, and dy'd in the Year 697. Eadfrith or Egfrith succeeded him, who is said to have wrote a very fine Book with his own Hand, containing the Gospels in Latin, which Ethelwold, his Successor, adorned with Gilding and Jewels, Bilfrid the Anchorite painted, and Aldred the Priest enlarged, with an interlineary Version in the Saxon Tongue: My Authority says further, that this very Book is still preserved in the Cotton-Library. — This famous Library had the Misfortune this last Year 1731 to be set on Fire, and part of it, and its Manuscripts were burnt, but we hope this valuable Piece of Antiquity has escape. This Bishop died Anno 721, and was succeeded by Ethelwold, after the See had been vacant near three Years. He died in the Year 740. Keneuif, or Kenulf succeeded him the same Year, who died in the Year 783. Henulf was succeeded by Higbaldus, who died May the twenty fifth, 803. Ecgbert succeeded him, who was consecrated by Eanbald, Archbishop of York, Ean­bert Bishop of Hagustald, and Baldulf, Bishop of Whithern, at Bigwell, June 11th 803. He died Anno 821. Heathured succeeded him, and died Anno 830. Ecgredus was his Successor, who dy'd in the Year 845. He was succeeded by Eanbert, who died in the Year 854. Eardulph succeeded him. This Bishop left Lindisfern in the Year 875, on Account of the Invasion of the Danes, and wan­dered up and down for some Years. At length he and his Company fix'd at Cunacestre (now called Chester in the Street) which is a Village about seven Miles distant from Newcastle, Southward. This was in the Year 883, and there the See continu'd 113 Years. This Bishop died in the Year 900. He was the first of the Bishops of Lindisfern that exercised Episcopal Authority over the See of Hex­am; which he did in the first Year that he settled at Chester: The See of Hexam continued 'till the Reign of King Henry the first, under the Jurisdiction of the Bishops of Lindisfern. Eardulph was succeeded by Cutheard, who died in the Year 915. Tilred succeeded him, and died in the Year 928. Tilred was succeeded by Wigred, who died in the Year 944. Wigred was succeeded by Uhtred, who sat above 3 Years. Senhelm succeeded him; who seems to have been removed from his Bishoprick in the year 957. He was succeeded by Aldred, who died in the year 968. Aldred was succeeded by Elffig, who is also call'd Ellfinus, who died in the year 990. Aldwin succeeded him, and in the year 995 was obliged to remove the Body of St. Cuthbert, and the Clergy that were with him, from Chester to Rippon, because of the Danes; But Things becoming peaceable again, they left that Place about four Months after their coming thither. In their Return, they passed through Durham, which at this Time was a Place wild and not habitable, being all a Wood, full of thick Bushes and Trees, saving only a little Plain upon the Top of the Hill, which was wont to be sowed, and is the very Place where now the Church standeth,) and were mightily taken with the Situation of it. Here Aldwinus first deposited the Body of St. Cuthbert, and resolved to make this Place his Episcopal Seat. Having therefore grubb'd up the Wood, he began to build a Church of Stone,Mag. Britt. p. 742. ex Godwin. and Houses about it for his Company. The Governour of Northumberland, then named Uthred, and the People from the River Coqued to the Tees, came in so rea­dily to his Assistance, and continued their Help so long, that the Wood was soon grubbed up and the Church and Houses finished, insomuch that Aldwin dedicated the Church in the 3d year after he began the Work, upon Sept. the 4th. This was the Beginning of the Church and City of Durham or Dunhelm more properly, which takes it Name from Dun, which signifies a Mountain, and Holm a River-Island in the Saxon Language, because the River Were, with it's circling Stream, washes the Hill on which it stands on all Sides, so that it makes it almost an Island. — Aldwin died in the year 1017, and was succeeded by Eadmund, who was e­lected the year 1020, after the See had been vacant about 3 years, he died Anno 1040, and was buried in the Church of Durham. Eadred succeeded him, but enjoyed that Honour no great while; for in 10 Months time he died, He was succeeded by Egelric, Anno 1049, who built a Church at Chester upon the Street, in Me­mory that the Bishops of Lindisfern had rested themselves there, together with the Body of St. Cuthbert, 118 years, during the Time of the Danish Wars: He resign'd in the year 1056, and was succeeded by Egelwyn, who died in the year 1071. Walter or Walcher succeeded him, who was slain at Gateside (as a shewn in our Account of that Place) May 14th, 1080. After this the See was void for 6 Months; and then on the 9th of November was filled up by William Kairlipho, who died Anno 1095. This Man, as Godwin goes on, pulling down to the Ground the Church of Durham, which Aldwinus had first built, began to erect ano­ther far more magnificent, but lived not to finish it himself, Malcolme, King of Scots, and Purgot Prior of Durham, laid the 3 first Stones, July 30, or (as some deliver Aug. 11.) 1093. This Bishop, after the See, had been vacant 3 years, and 4 Months, was succeeded by Ranulf Flambard, Anno 1099, who died Sept. [...], 1128. Geoffry Rufus was his Successor, who died May the 6th, 1140. After him succeeded, William de Sancta Barbara, who died Nov. 14, 1153. He was succeeded by Hugh Pudsey. Vid. in Regu. Reg. Au. 1195. Lindisfern, [Page 8] Hexam is a Town about 16 Miles West of Newcastle. It was in the Times of the Romans, as Cambden says, the Axelodinum, where lay the 1st Co­hort of the Spaniards. It had among the Saxons the Name of Hextoldesham, from the Rivulet Hextold, which runs by it. In the year *Dugd. Vol. II. pag. 70. 674, Etheldreda, Wife to King Egfrid, assign'd it for an Episcopal See to St. Wilfrid, who built here a Church, and dedicated it to St. Andrew the Apo­stle. The Order of it's Bishops is as follows; 1st Eata, who is also reckon'd the 3d or rather the 4th of that See, he was ordained Bishop of Hexam at York, by Theodore, Archbishop of Canterbury, Anno 678, and gover­ned that See three years whilst he was Bishop of Lindisfern. In the year 681 Tumbert the 2d Bishop was conse­crated; but he was deposed the same year, St. Cuthbert was chosen into his Place; but being better pleased with the Situation of Lindisfern; Bishop Eata, in respect to him, left the See of Lindisfern, and became the 4th Bi­shop of Hexam. The 5th was St. John of Beverly, who was Bishop about the year 685, He continued Bishop about one year, and was then translated to York. After the Translation of John, King Alfrid restored the Church of Hexam to Wilfrid the 6th Bishop, who died Anno 709. St. Acca succeeded him, who was the 7th Bishop, he was depriv'd in the year 733; he died Nov. 20, Anno 740, and was buried, as is said, near the Consistory of the Church of Hexam. Frithubertus the 8th Bishop succeeded Acca, and came to the See Anno 735; he died Anno 766. Alkmundus the 9th Bishop succeeded him, Anno 767, and died Sept. the 7th, 781. Tilbert the 10th was the next Bishop; he died 789, and was buried in his own Church. To him succeeded Ethelbert the 11th Bishop; he died October 16, 797, and was buried in the Church of Hexam. Heardred 12 succeeded him; who died in the year 800. To him succeeded Eanberth 13th Bishop; who died Anno 806. To him succeeded Tidferth, the 14th Bishop; who died about the year 821. After this, the See of Hexam, because of the Danish Wars, lay neglected for above 63 years together. But at length it was united with Lindisfern, under Eardulph, the 15th Bishop of Lindisfern. This happened in the year 883. Under this Jurisdiction it continued 'till the Reign of King Henry the 1st, when the Town of Hexam and the Church, Anno 1113, were taken from the Diocess of Durham and given to that of York, the King be­ing highly displeased with Ranulph Bishop of Durham. Ex. Mag. Brit. p. 737.This Church at the Time it was built, was supposed to exceed all the Churches on this Side the Alps, for it's Pillars, Porches, and Allies leading round it; afterwards in the Time of Bishop Acca, that Bi­shop superadded to the Buildings of his Church many Decorations and curious Works; he got from all Parts some Relicks of the Apostles and Martyrs, and erected several Altars in Reverence to them, and for that End made distinct Porches in the Walls of the Church. He also with great Diligence and no small Charge, gathered the Histories of of their Sufferings, with many Volumes of Ecclesiastical Writers, and of them he made a very large Library. He also provided several sacred Utensils, as Flaggons, Cups, Pattens, Candlesticks, and other Vessels of the like Nature, which belong to the Service of God. He also brought a famous Chorister who had been taught to sing in the Church of Canterbury, whose Name was Maban, to instruct those of his Church of Hexam. Mag. Brit. ex Bed. lib. 5. c. 21. He is also said to have gilded the Walls with Gold and Silver, and covered the Altars with Purple and Silk. That Part of this Church which is now standing (for the West End of it, is intirely demolished) is still grand and noble, and speaks what it was in ancient Days. About 3 years ago it was repair'd by Contribution, no small Part of which was raised in the Town of Newcastle. — This Church was honoured with the Sepulchre of the good King Alfwold, who was murder'd by Sigga, (a certain Nobleman) at Silcester, Some Remains of which Place are yet to be seen on the West Side of the North Tyne, in the Grounds belonging to Walwick Grainge, be­tween that Place, and the Roman Wall. Rich. and lies buried under the Arch, at the South End of the North East Isle; a Monu­ment is erected since the Foundation, in Honour of that Prince. Rich. p. 61. **Stav. p. 173. ex Ri­chard. Pri. Hagulst. de Stat. Eccl. Stavely in his History of Churches gives us the following Account. That Privilege which I read to have been granted unto the Church of the once eminent Monastery of Hagulstad is very re­markable: That is, there were 4 Crosses set up at a certain Distance from the Church, in the four Ways leading thereto. Now if any Malefactor flying for Refuge to that Church, was taken or Ap­prehended within the Crosses, the Party that took or laid hold on him there, did forfeit Two hun­dredh; (in Hundredh viii. Librae continentur) If he took him within the Town, then he forfeited Four Hundredh; if within the Walls of the Church Yard, then Six Hundredh; if within the Church, then Twelve Hundredh; if with­in the Doors of the Quire, then Eighteen Hundredh; besides Penance, as in case of Sacriledge; but if he presum'd to take him out of the Stone Chair near the Altar, called Fridstol, or from amongst the Holy Relicks behind the Altar, the Of­fence was not redeemable with any Sum; but was then become sine emendatione Botolos (i. e. Bootles, vid. Gloss. W. Somner) and nothing but the utmost severity of the offended Church was to be expected, by a dreadful Excommuni­cation, beside what the secular Power would impose, for the presumptuous Misdemeanour. The Canons Dug. Mon. Vol. II. p. 91. Regular of this Church, which were appointed by Thomas the 2d, Archbishop of York about the year 1109, continued 'till they were displaced by King Henry the 8th, Anno 1539. when the Revenues of the Monastery was valued at 122 l. 11 s. 1 d. It was of the Augustine Order. Several Rents were paid to it out of the Town of Newcastle. — It is still very stately and magnificent, and by far exceeding any Thing in that Town. It is now inhabited by Sir Edward Blacket, Bart. but is the Property of Walter Blacket, Esq Among the eminent Persons of this Place, I meet with two in particular. Stephen. ad­dit. Vol. 1. p. 203. The 1st is John of Hexam born in that Place, and first Monk, then Prior of the Monastery there. He was a Man, grave, modest, meek, courteous, assable, yet severe and rigid in punishing the Faults of those under his Charge; learned and eloquent, and a diligent Searcher of History and Antiquities, and tho' he taught Philosophy and Divi­nity publickly in his Monastery, yet in private He, as much as Time would permit, read Historians, and particularly venerable Bede. He made an Addition of 25 Years to the History of Simeon of Durham, beginning at the 9th Year of King Henry the 2d, and proceeding to the first of King Richard, calling it an History of 25 Years. He also writ of Signs and Comets: A Discription of the Scottish War: Sermons, and some other Things; and flourish'd in 1190. The other is Richard of Hexam, first Monk, and then Prior of that Monastery, educated there in Monastical and School Learning, and in all Sorts of Piety; so diligently imitated his Master, John, Prior of that Place, that he suc­ceeded him in that Employment, and in Teaching. When made Prior, he in all Things most exactly copy'd after his said Master; for tho' he in publick taught his Brethren Philosophy and Divinity; yet in private he read History, and accu­rately writ the Affairs of his Time, especially in England, by the Titles, The Actions of King Stephen; The Acti­ons of King Henry the 3d, and proceeding to the 1st of King Richard; The War of the Standard; A short Chro­nicle from Adam to Henry the Emperor; Of the State and Bishops of the Church of Hexam. He died and was buried in his Monastery, about the year 1192. Hexam was made a Bishoprick in the Year 678, and had Eata for its first Bishop; Churches and Monasteries were built in several Places, and Religion [Page 9] flourished in this whole Kingdom. This Account Hollingshead gives in the following Words: Great Numbers of Persons daily offered themselves to be baptized, insomuch that within the Space of 7 Days (as is left in Writing) Aidan christned 15 Thousand Persons, of the which no small Part forsaking the World, betook themselves to a Solitary kind of Life. Thus by continual Preaching the Gospel in that Country, it came to pass in the End, that the Faith was generally received of all the People; and such Zeal to advance the Christian Religion daily increased amongst them, that no where could be found greater. Hereupon were no small Number of Churches built in all Pla­ces abroad in those Parts by Procurement of King Oswold, all Men liberally consenting (according to the rated Substance) to be Contributors towards the Charges. By this Means the Kingdom of the Northumbers flourish'd, as well in Fame of Increase of Religion, as also in civil Policy and prudent Ordinances.

When now it is considered that the Business of Religion went on so Brisk­ly throughout the whole Kingdom of the Northumbers; it is rational to sup­pose that this Place, as it was not only convenient for the monastical Life as to Retirement, but also a Security to it too, (being at that Time a garrison'd Fort) was certainly as early inhabited by the Monks as the abovementioned Time; and besides if we consider the Veneration it is mention'd with by many Historians for the severe rigid Lives of it's Monks; how it was the most emi­nent Place in the North, for the monastical Life, so very famous on that ac­count, as to change it's former Name to that of Monkchester: There can scarce be allowed it a later Time to arrive at such a Pitch of Eminency and Glory. Before the Name of Monkchester, I imagine, from it's being a Place of For­tification, that it had the Name of Chester, as Weremuth was the original Name of that Place, but was afterwards called Monkweremuth, from the Monks inha­biting there. It seems all along to have been a Place of Defence and Fortifi­cation. It was the Ancient Gabrosentum, according to Mr. Cambden; or as o­thers more justly imagine the Pons Aelii of the Romans; was a garrison'd Fort, 'till inhabited by the Monks; and was such from the Time of the Monks 'till the Conquest.

THE Name of Monkchester continued 'till the Building of the Castle, and after that, from the Building of it, it got the Name of New-castle: The Oc­casion of which was this. Malcolme King of Scotland having entred with his Army into the Confines of England, came with it into Northumberland, and waisted and plundered the whole Country as far as the River Tyne; the Con­queror being all the while in Normandy, and also his Son Robert Curtois. But no sooner were the King and his Son come into England, than Robert was sent with an Army against Malcolme to drive him out of the Country. The Scots being appriz'd of this, retir'd into their own Country, and Robert with his Army encamp'd upon the Banks of the Tyne, where he built the Castle to de­fend these Northern Parts from the Incursions of the Scots, for the Mag. Brit. p. 608. Poly. virg. &c. Future. The Chronicle of Mailros says, that the Conqueror sent his Son Robert into Scotland, against Malcolme, in the Year 1080, who, having done nothing, up­on his return, built the New-castle. From hence it is easy to conclude, that the Castle was founded the same Year, towards the latter End of it. For Dugdale tells us in his Monasticon, that Anno Do­mini MLXXX Rex Williel­mus Autum­nali Tempo­re Rober­tum Fillium suum contra Malcomum misit; sed cum perve­nisset ad Eg­glesbreth, nullo conse­cto negotio, reversus Ca­stellum No­vum super flumen Ty­nae condidit. Dug. Mon. Tom. 1. p. 42. King William in the Year 1080, about the Time of Autumn, sent his Son Robert into Scotland against Malcolme. But having got as far as Egglesbreth, he returned (having done no Exploit) and built the New-castle upon the River Tyne.

THUS the Town lost it's Name of Monkchester for that of Newcastle, which it retains to this Day. But however by the building of the Castle it lost nothing else; for the Building of the said Castle did not destroy or take away the Right or Interest which the Towns-men had before; but that still remained as before.

AFTER this the Town grew more populous, and increas'd in Trade and Wealth; had great Privileges granted them by the Kings, built Churches, Monasteries, Walls, Bridges, &c. as shall be seen in the following Treatise.

CHAP. III. Of the WALLS of this TOWN.

NEW CASTLE is seated on the Northern Bank of the Ri­ver Tyne; and is bounded on the East by the Land of By­ker; on the West by the Lands belonging formerly to the Prior of Tinemouth; on the North by the Lands of Kenton, and Coxlodge, and on the South by the County of Durham.

IT is surrounded with a Stone-Wall, which at the Time it was built, and for many Ages after, was undoubtedly of very great Strength. This has several Gates belonging to it, Round Towers, and Square Turrets, which shall by and by be considered. On the Out-side of it is a Ditch or Trench, and on the Inside it is ramper'd with Earth.

Grey.THE Cause of Building this great Wall was the often Invasion of the Scots into this Place and Country; they continually infested it and the rich Monasteries in these Northern Parts; the religious Houses of this Town, and the adiacent Places being above Forty.

SOME are of Opinion, that the Walls were begun in the Reign of King Henry the Third. But the Author just now mentioned, imagines Them to have been earlier. King John, he says, gave great Priviledges to this Town, and probably the New-gate, and Walls thereabout, were built in his Time; the North Part of the Wall being the oldest, and of another Fashion than the other Walls.

IN the Reign of King Henry the 3d, the same Author says, the West part of the Wall was built; but I am rather inclined to believe, that that Part of the Wall was not built 'till the Reign of Edward the 1st. The Wall from [Page 11] the Time it was begun, went on but slowly 'till this Reign, when an Acci­dent hapned, which revived the former Fears of the Towns-Men, and put them in Mind of the neglected Wall, which, 'till that Time had got no far­ther than Ever-Tower, as appears by the old Part of the Wall, ending there­abouts. The Accident was this, Cambden. in the Reign of Edward the 1st, a very rich Burgher being carried off a Prisoner by the Scots, out of the Middle of the Town, first paid a round Ransom himself, and afterwards began the 1st For­tifications of the Place.

IT is true, that this Accident was the Occasion of carrying on the Wall; but Mr. Cambden is mistaken in saying it occasioned the Beginning of it. For it was begun some Years before the Reign of Edward the 1st. For from New­gate to the Ever-Tower as has just now been observed, is a Work older, and vastly different from what the Wall is from Ever-Tower towards the West-gate. This Wall, leading to the West-gate, was it which was begun in the Reign of Edward the 1st, for in this Reign it was, (when Leave was granted to the preaching Friers to break out that Little Gate which now leads into the Wardens-Close, then their Garden, that this Wall was called the Vid. Dur­ham-Tower and Black-Friers. New-Wall; and surely a New-Wall, will imply that there was an Old one before, was the thing itself not still a Matter of Fact as it really is to any Observer.

HOW long the Walls were a Building, or who they were in particular that contributed towards the Building of them, is a Matter pretty much in the Dark. However, 'tis Gardiner, chap. 4. This Au­thor, whose Name was Ralph Gar­diner, liv'd at Chirton, a Village East of Newca­stle, near the Town of Shields, which Village is now in the Possession of Robt Law­son and Ed­ward Col­lingwood. Esqrs. He was a bitter Enemy to this Town, and did all the Mischief to it that lay in his Power, as appears in every Page of his Book. In which are Numbers of Falsities. supposed, that King Edward the 1st, was a Contri­butor to them. The Names of some of the Round-Towers also give us some Light, which to this Day do seemingly bear the Names of their ancient Foun­ders, which may in some Measure occasion a Guess at the Time of their Buil­ding.

THE Town, after the compleating of the Walls, was divided into 24 Wards, according to the Number of the Gates, and round Towers in the Wall, which Towers and Gates were wont be defended in Times of Hostili­ty with the Scots, by the particular Wards appropriated to them.

THE 1st Gate I shall begin with is the Close-gate, which is so called, be­cause it stands in a narrow Street called the Close, it had in Ward, from the Close-gate upon the South-rawe, so going Eastward unto the Javil-grippe, but nothing of Javil-grippe, then going Westward upon the North unto the Close-gate.

FROM the Close-gate there are Stairs leading up to a Round-Tower called the White-Fryer-Tower. This Tower had in Ward, from the East-end of Bailiff-gate, opposite to the Javil-grippe, with all that dwell upon the High-Stairs in the Close, unto and with the West-side of these Stairs that lead unto the South-Postern of the Castle, with all Javil-grippe Eastward, and from the Javil-grippe to the South-rawe of the Close, and with all the Bridge-End.

THIS Tower, with the Wall leading to the little Gate, (commonly called the Postern-gate, but originally the Gate of the White-Fryers, or White-Fryer-gate) were together with the Gate itself, probably built by the White-Fryers; for the White-Fryers were situated in the South-west-end of the Street of West-gate, in the same Grounds were are now the Houses of Mr. Anderson, George Grey, Esq and others. And as it is reasonable to believe, that what­ever Religious House, or Nobleman, built a Tower or Piece of the Wall, that it would be built chiefly for their own Security; so the Buildings now mentioned, being so situated as I have just now observed, are a Proof that the White-Fryers were the Founders. And if it be considered that the White-Fryers were See White-Fryers. founded by King Edward the 1st, in whose Reign the above-mentioned Accident happened, which occasioned a fresh Beginning of Building of the Wall; it will appear still more probable, that these Fryers were the Builders. It may indeed be said, that as they were sounded in this [Page 12] Reign, it can't be imagin'd they had sufficient Riches for such an Un­dertaking. This is readily granted, but when it is considered, that these Fry­ers were newly founded by King Edward the 1st, that they were the first of that Order that had been in this Place, that they were Carmelites, or original­ly coming from Mount Carmel in Syria, and that the Prayers of all Monaste­ries were thought more particularly available for the Souls in Purgatory; it will follow I think rationally, that they were more able then to do such a Thing by getting the Contributions of others, than they could have been of themselves 200 Years after. The Name given to these Walls is also another Argument; it is more probable, that the White-Fryer-Tower, the Wall and Gate now mentioned, were so called, (as other Towers were) from their Foun­ders, than from their bare Situation. For the Walls behind the Black-Fryers are not called after their Name, because they were not built by them, but by King Edward the 1st, as shall be shewn below.

THIS Tower is now the Meeting-House or Hall of the Company of Ma­sons.

GREY in mentioning the Ports or Gates of Newcastle, says, there were be­sides These, Postern-Gates belonging to the Religious Houses; I have met with no more than three, and this White-Friers-gate is undoubtedly one of them. It seems to be much of the same Kind with that which leads into the Warden's-Close. It has been an Out-let to the Fryers, that they might walk to the Forth and the neighbouring Fields; and that it might be of Use and Service to the Castle, in Times of Hostility with the Scots. I imagine it was out at this Gate, that the Townsmen made that famous Sally, mention'd by Grey, who says, that in the Reign of Edward the 3d, See a more perfect Ac­count in the Year of the Mayors, 1342. Three hundred valiant Men issued out of the Town through a Postern-gate, and came suddenly in the Night up­on a great Army of the Scots, which lay in the West Part of the Town, and raised the Army, put them to flight, and took Earl Murray Prisoner in his Tent, and others.

THE next Round Tower to White-Fryer-gate is Denton-Tower, or Nevil-Tower, which had in Ward all the Hairy-Hugh, on the South Side of the White-Fryers, with all the Houses standing there, upon the Burn-bank, betwixt the Fryer-Kirk, and a Burne, unto the Stone Bridge in Bailiff-gate, with all Bailiff-gate, upward that same Rawe unto Denton-Chare, with Denton-Chare.

WHY it was called Denton-Tower, I can give no Reason, unless it was from it's having in Ward the Lane called Denton-Chare; but it has the Name of Nevil-Tower, from the Nevil Family of Raby who built it, which Family was honoured with the Title of Earl in the Reign of Richard the 2d, Ralph Nevil Lord of Raby, being created Earl of Westmoreland, in the 21st of that Reign: His House in West-gate, called Westmoreland-place, which shall be con­sidered when we treat of that Street, had this Tower built behind it for it's Security and Defence. The Tower is now the Hall of the Wallers, Brick-layers and Plaisterers, and was repair'd by them Anno Dom' 1711, Richard Flet­cher, and William Johnson, Wardens.

THE next Round Tower is West-spittle-Tower, which had in Ward the Side upon the West Rawe under the Castle Moat, from the Castle-gate, so down­ward on that Rawe, to and with a great Waste belonging to Laurentius Acton, opposite to a Corner Shop of a Chauntery in St. John's Kirk, next the Pant; also from that Pant upwards upon the East-Rawe in the Side, with the South Kirk-Style of St. Nicholas, by the East-Side of St. Nicholas.

THIS Tower has it's Name from St. Mary the Virgin's Hospital, which was otherwise called West-spittle, to which it almost adjoins; it must have been built by the Master and Brethren of that Hospital for the same Reasons that the other two Towers before-mentioned were built by their supposed Founders.

[Page 13]THE Tower next to this has the Name of Stank-Tower. It had in Ward all Now called Back-rawe. Gallowgate; opposite to the Castle-Yates, so going Northward, from the East-end of Gallowgate, upwards that same Rawe, unto the East-end of Den­ton-Chare, with the Iron-market, with all the Houses opposite to the Iron-market, down to St. Nicholas Pant, as their Doors open towards the Iron-market, or towards the Pant, or towards St. Nicholas Kirk-Yard.

GUNNER-TOWER, is the next; it had in Ward, from All-Hallow-Pant, beside Cordiner, so going downward the same Rawe towards Cale-Cross, and so going upwards by that Flesher-Rawe, unto Painter-hugh beside Swin-burne-place, unto a Place called Pencher-place, beyond Painter-Heugh, as it stan­deth beyond Lorkburne.

BETWEEN this Tower, and one next to it, is a Postern which leads to the Forth. It was made Anno 1705, when Thomas Wass, Esq was Mayor, Matthew Matfin, Esq Sheriff. There is also another Passage from it into Westgate.

PINK-TOWER. This Tower had in Ward in the Close, from the High-Stairs that lead from the South Postern of the Castle towards the Close, so going Eastward on that same Rawe, by the North-side of Sandhill, unto and with St. Mary-lane, with the Houses upon the Corner, called St. Mary-Lands in All-hallow-kirk, and so going upwards all the West-rawe in the Side, to a great Waste upon the Castle-hugh, sometimes call'd old Laurentius Acton's Waste, opposite to the Pant at Lorkburne.

WEST-GATE, is the next, which is the High-way West into the Counties of Northumberland and Cumberland, and is Grey. said to have been built by Roger de Thornton, in Memory that he came from the West-country, according to the old saying,

At the West-gate came Thornton in,
With a Hap, and a Half-penny, and a Lamb-skin.

THIS Gate had in Ward from the Vennel that leads into White-Fryer-Kirk, so going upon the West Rawe of Westgate, unto the Westyate, with all that dwell without that Yate. Also from the West-end of Denton Chare, so going upward upon the East-Rawe of Westgate unto the Westyate, with all that dwell in St. John's Kirk-yard, and with all that dwell from the said Kirk unto the West-gate. It is now the Hall of the House-Carpenters.

DURHAM-TOWER is the next, and it had in Ward from St. John's Chare to going upward by Urd-place, upon the West-Rawe of Beer-market, unto the Shod-Frier-Chare, with all the Shod-Frier Chare.

HEBER-TOWER is the next; it had in Ward all the Meal-market from Denton-Chare, to Pudding-Chare, with all Pudding-Chare and St. John's Chare.

THIS Tower is now the Hall of the Armourers, Curriers and Felt-makers, who were made one Fellowship in the 36th of Henry the 8th. They were order­ed to associate themselves in the Feast of Corpus Christi, and go together in Procession, as other Mysteries, and sustain the Charges of the Lights Pageant, and Place, on the same Feast; according to old ancient Custom. And the Ordinance therein was to be devised by Their Wardens when the Hour was assigned, upon Pain to lose and forfeit one Pound of Wax, to be applied to the Use of the whole Fellowship of the said Occupations. The best Account I have met with of these kind of Plays, is of one that was play'd in the City of Coventry. Step. 1st V. p. 138. Before the Suppression of Monasteries, the City of Coventry was very famous for the Pageants that were played therein upon Corpus Christi Day, which occasioning very great Confluence of People to it from far and near, was of no small Benefit thereto; which Pageants being acted with migh­ty State and Reverence by the Franciscan-Fryers, had Theatres for the several Scenes very large and high, placed upon Wheels, and drawn to all the emi­nent [Page 14] Parts of the City, for the better Advantage of Spectators: and contain'd the Story of the old and new Testament, compos'd into old English Rhimes, as appears by an ancient Manuscript, entitl'd Ludus Corporis Christi, or Ludus Coventriae, that is, The Play of Corpus Christi, or The Play of Coventry. in Bibl. Cotton. sub Effigie Vesp. D. 8.

A Specimen of them is as follows;
Vexillator I.
NOW Gracyous God groundyd of all Goodness,
As thy grete Glorie nevyr begynnyng had;
So You succour and save all those that sytt and sese
And Lystenyth to our Talking with Sylens stille and sad
For we purpose no pertly Stylle in yis prefe,
The Pepyl to plese with Pleys full Glad.
Now Lystenyth us lonly both mar and lesle
Gentillys and ȝemanry off Goodly Liff Lad
Yis Tyde,
We xall ȝou shewe as that we can,
How this yis a Werd first began,
And how God made bothe Mold and Man,
If that ȝe will abyde.
Vexillator 2.
IN the first Pagent we yeuke to play,
How God dede make Yowe his owyn Myth,
Hevyn so clar upon the first Day,
And therein he sett Angell full Bryth
Thou Angell with Song yis no nay,
Xall worchep God as it is ryth;
But Lucyfer, that Angel so gay
In such Pompe Yan is he Pyth.
And sett in so grete Pride
That Goddys sette te Gynnyth to take,
Hese Lordys per Hymself to make
But Yan be fallyth aftend full Blake
From Hevyn to Helle to a—bide, &c.

A little beyond this Tower, opposite to the Monastery of the Black-Friers is a little Gate in the Wall, which I imagine to be one of those which Grey calls Postern-Gates. It leads into the Warden's-Close, and was made in the Reign of King Edward the 1st. The Black Fryers petition'd the King, he being then at Durham, that they might have a Passage though his New Wall into their Garden, which was accordingly granted. The original Grant is still in Being, with the King's Seal at it, in the Hands of Mr. Joshua Douglas, who obliged me with the following Copy of it.

EDWARDUS Dei gratia Rex Angliae Dominus Hiberniae Dux Aquitaniae Omnibus ad quos presentes Literae perveniunt salutem.

Sciatis quod de nostra Gratia speciali concessimus dilectis nobis Fratribus praedica­toribus de Novo Castro super Tynam, quod per medium Novum Murum circum­agentem Villam praedictam, quem per medium Gardini Praedictorum Fratrum fieri opertebit, ut dicti facere possint quandam strictam Portam ad ingressum in Gardinum suum habend' Portam sust' sibi & successoribus suis tenere in perpetuum. Dum tamen Porta illa ad voluntatem nostram, Vicecomitis Northumbriae aut Constabuli nostri ibid' qui pro tempore fuerit, obstruatur. In cujus Rei Testimonium has Literas no­stras fieri Patentes; Tests me ipso apud Dunelm' decimo octavo die Septembris, An­no Regni nostri Octavo.

MORDEN-TOWER had in Ward both the East-Raw of Spurrior-gate, Sadler-gate, and over Flesh-shambles, from the North-West Kirk-Stile of St. Nicholas unto Fish-shambles, and the said Raws opened either to the Cloth-market, or the Meal-market. This Tower was granted to it's Companies Anno 1619. The Ordinary was granted them 1536. In that it is order'd, that they shall go in Procession on Corpus Christi Day, and maintain the Play of the Three Kings of Colleign. In the Year 1700, this Tower was by the Plumb­ers, Glaziers, &c. made a beautiful Hall.

[Page 15] EVER-TOWER, which is now the Hall of Colliers and Carriage-Men, with Pavers, had in Ward the Shod-Frier-Yate, so going up that Raw beside White-cross unto Newgate, with all the Darnecrook, and with all the Gallow-gate without Newgate, unto the Barriers, as Men go to the Gallows.

ANDREW-TOWER, so called, because it is almost contiguous to St. Andrew's Church, had in Ward from the Great Nun-gate, so upwards upon that East-Rawe, unto a Burn, beside Lam-place that runs to Lorkburne, with all the Cockstale-Booths, and with all the West-Rawe of Sidgate without New-gate from Gallows-gate unto the Water-Mill beside St. James's Kirk.

NEWGATE had in Ward all Ratten-Rawe, as it opens towards the Pil­lory in Cloth-market, with them that dwell in the North of St. Nicholas upon that East-Rawe of the Cloth-market, unto the Over-dean-bridge end.

THIS Gate of all the others is not only the strongest, but also the most ancient. It is of the same Masonry and way of Building with that Part of the Wall which leads to Westgate Westward, as far as Ever-Tower, which is visibly the oldest Part of the Wall. From this Gate is a Causey that lead­eth to the Town-moor, and towards the North Parts of Northumberland and Scotland; it is now, and has been many Years a Prison for Debtors and Grey. Fel­lons. The new Buildings on each Side of it were built, the one Anno 1702, William Ramsey, Esq Mayor, William Boutflower, Esq Sheriff; the other Anno 1706, Sir Ralph Carr, Mayor, William Ellison, Esq Sheriff.

BERTRAM-MUMBOUCHER-TOWER. From Newgate towards the East we pass to the Tower of Bertram Mumboucher, which was so called from Bertram Mumboucher the Founder of it, Ex Fuller Wor. who was High-Sheriff of the County of Northumberland, in the 49th of Edward the 3d, and in the 1st, 2d, and 3d of the Reign of Richard the 2d.

This Tower has to Ward all the West-end of Over-dean-bridge with the Shops between the Fish-shambles and the Beer-market, and from the same Bridge-end unto the Great Nun-gate.

FICKET-TOWER had in Ward from Whelpington-barn, beside the Great Cross standing within Maudlin-Barras without the New-yate, so com­ing upon the East-Rawe of Sidgate, without the New-yate, unto the New-yate, and also within the New-yate, and so going up the East-Rawe Southward unto a Burne beside Lam-place, that runneth towards Lorkburn, with all Grey-Frier-Chare from the Barras over against Ficket-Tower, and their North Kirk Door of the said Fryery West-ward, and no further Eastward in that Lane.

PILGRIM-STREET-GATE had it's Name from the Pilgrims who were wont to lodge in that Street, and go out of that Gate when they came to visit the Shrine of the Virgin Mary at Gesmunde; to which Place with great Confluence and Devotion they came from all Parts of this Land in these Times of Superstition. It is now the Hall of the Company of Joy­ners, who repair'd it 1716, Thomas French and Paul Cook being Wardens. This Gate had in Ward without the same Gate beginning at the great waste Barn, call'd Emeldon-barn, opposite to the Maudlins, coming downward and inward upon that West-Rawe of Pilgrim-street-yate, within the Yate, and with­in the Yate unto All-Hallow-Pant, besides Cordiner's-place beside the South-Kirk Stile of All-Hallow's Kirk, with all Painter-hugh, and with all Neither-dean-bridge, and with all the North-end of Upper-dean-bridge, both Sides thereof from Lorkburn Eastward to Pilgrim-street, with Pencher-rent, and in Grey-Fryer Lane from Ficket-Tower Eastward.

THE Tower next to this Gate is that in the Corner of the Carliol Croft, now the Hall of the Weavers who repair'd it Anno 1682. It got it's Name very probably from it's Founder: For the Carlills or Carliols were seve­ral [Page 16] of them Magistrates of Newcastle: and as this appears probable from the Name, so it is also equally probable that the Founder of this Tower had his House somewhere at the Head of Pilgrimstreet, nigh his own Tower, as Ne­vel's Tower was behind his House; and that the Field called vulgarly Carling Croft, had it's Name of Carliol Croft, being at that Time of Day the Property of this Founder. The last Mayor of this Town of that Name, before the Completion of the Walls, was Nicholas de Carliol in the 2d Year of Edward the 3d, so that this Tower could not be much later in Building, to say the least of it's Antiquity imaginable; but it is rather probable it was built a good while earlier. It has to Ward all the East Raw of Pilgrim-street within the Yate, and without the Yate, from and with the Maudlins, so coming inward upon the East-Raw, unto the Austin-Chair.

CARLILL-CROFT-TOWER, otherwise called Plummer-Tower, it has in Ward from the Austin-Chare in Pilgrim-street, upon that East-raw of Pil­grim-street, unto the Kirk-Garth of All-Hallows, with all Temple-Gate, other­wise called All-Hallows-Gate, beneath All-Hallow Kirk, unto a Burn called Cogo, with all Cowgate and other Places between Cogo and the King's Wall unto the Stone-Brigg over Pandon-Burn, also upon the Sandhill on the East Side of Lorkburne, beginning at the Barber's-Shop upon the Corner, in Booth's-Rent, over-against the Mason-Dieu, so going up that East-Side of Lorkburne, all that Rawe towards Cale-Cross, to and with the Corner called Oliver-Rent, and so upward, all that Corner unto the North-End of Grindon-Chare.

AUSTIN-TOWER; this Tower was built by the Fryers of St. Augu­stine, commonly called Austine-Fryars, and has its Name from them. It stands opposite to the Monastry that built it, as the White-Fryer-Tower and Wall does to that of the White-Fryers, and West-Spittle-Tower to that of St. Mary the Virgin, or the West-Spittle. It seems to have been built in the Reign of Ed­ward the first.

IT has in Ward from the North-end of Grindon-Chare, so up that South-Raw of the Neither All-Hallow's-Bank unto Galeway-Rent with them that Dwell in Brown-Chare, Grindon-Chare, Tud's-Chare, Norham-Chare, Philip's-Chare, Shipman's-Chare, Oliver-Chare, Galeway-Chare, with half of the Fryer of Austin. This Tower is now the Hall of the Ropers, and was repair'd at the Charge of the Company, 1698, John Langlonds, and John Dawson being Wardens.

CORNER-TOWER had in Ward all the House-side upon the Key, as their Doors open Southward towards the King's Wall upon the Key-side from the Stone Stairs beside the Common; so going East-ward upon the Key-side, to the South-end of Broad-Chare-Yate, in the said King's Wall.

PAMPEDEN-YATE is so called from the Ancient Town of Pampeden, where was the Picts-Wall, and a Roman Turret, part of which is still to be seen. Out of this Gate is a Causey that goeth into a Place of Recreation and Perambulation, called the Shields-Field, and a Way to a Village called Walls-end is a Village Fast from Newcastle about three Miles; nigh it was the Station of the 1st Cohort of the Fraxagi as the Liber notitiarum says, which calls the Place itself Vindobola, or as Antoninus names it, Vindomora, which last seems in the Pro­vincial Language of the Britons to have signified the Walls-end, as the later does the Rampier's-end. For they anci­ently named a Wall Mur, and a Ditch or Rampier Gual, or Val, or Bal. Cambden. But with this a late ingenious Author cannot agree, because Mr. Cambden brings no Proof from Inscriptions, and also because Pancirolus, in the same Notitia places Vindomora at the ninth Station per Lineam Valli, where the fourth Cohort of the Galli lay, and which appears by Inscriptions to have been the Little Chesters upon the Wall; He con­cludes therefore, that where the Wall begun, which has already been shown, the first Station of Segedunum was cer­tainly placed. Gord. Irinerar. Septontion. p. 70. The present Wals-end is a very agreeable Place, having about it very good Grounds, and in it some beautiful Houses and Gardens. Some of the Possessors of which, are Mr. Henry Waters of Newcastle Hoastman, Mr. Charles Atkin­son of Newcastle, Hoastman, Mr. Thomas Waters of Newcastle, Merchant, Mr. James Monkcaster of New­castle, Merchant, Mr. William Dixon of Newcastle, Brewer, &c. There is a Chapel belonging to this Village, which is very inconveniently situated, on the Top of an Hill, the present Incumbent is the Reverend Mr. Thomas Dockwray, Lecturer of St. Nicholas in Newcastle. Wals-end, [Page 17] by Bede, Villa ad Murum, This is cer­tainly a Mi­stake. For according to Mr. Camb­den, that was Wall-town, which from the a­greeableness of the Name, and (as he goes on) it's 12 Miles Dist­ance from the Eastern Sea, was the Roy­al Burrow, which Bede calls ad mu­rum. But the learned Dr. Smith upon this Passage of Bede is of another Opi­nion. He says, it is commonly supposed to be Walton, but this, he adds, can't be true. For it answers not the Di­stance at which Bede places the ad murum from the Sea. But Wallbottle, both as to it's Name, and as to it's Di­stance, which is not far from New­castle, and from the Sea about 12 Mi­les, will an­swer exactly well. But be this is it will, certain it is, that the ad murum is fa­mous on Ac­count that Si­gebert King of the East-Saxons, and Penda King of the Mer­cians, toge­ther with his whole Train of Courtiers and Atten­dants were baptised in it by the Bishop Finanus. —One Matilda, of this Village of Walls-end, had some Lands in Pampeden confirmed to her at a Court held at Byker, Anno 1285. In a Charter of William de Carilepho, Bishop of Durham, which he granted to the Monks, we have menti­on made of this Place. For the Bishop is said to have given this and Willington to the Monks. Ultra ampnem Ti­nam duas villas Wyllynton & Walleshend cum suis Appendiciis. and so into Tinemouth-shire. This Gate had in Ward from Galeway-Rent in Cross-gate, beside All-Hallow Pant, both the Rawes of that Cross-gate, so going-Eastward down to the Pant called Broad-Chare Pant, with Bell-place that standeth upon the Pant; and with all the Broad-Chare, and Narrow-Chare, otherwise called Collier-Chare, with Michael-place, cutting upon the West-side of Pandon-bourne.

WALL-KNOWL-TOWER and HABKIN-TOWER, are now but one Ward, and they have in Ward from the Broad-Chare part, beside Bell-place, so going to a Burn called Cogo, both the Towers unto the South-side Cogo-Burn, as it runneth beside the Stone Brig unto Pandon-Burn, from Pandon-yate, to the Sand-gate either in Pandon or Fisher-gate, or in other Places from the said Burn Eastward, with the Wards, with all that dwell upon North Rawe in Sandgate.

THIS Tower commonly called the Carpenters Tower, because the Com­pany of Carpenters or Ship-wrights meet in it, was one of the Towers of the Old Romans. This Company in the Year 1716, built upon the under Part of it a very grand and stately Square-Tower, adorn'd at the Top Cor­ners with 4 fair Turrets built in the form of a Lanthorn.

Lib. de Reb. Novocast'.BUT before the taking down the Top of the old Tower, it was much of the same Size, Model, and Stone with the Tower of Routchester in Northum­berland, which was certainly one of the Towers belonging to the Picts-Wall.

THERE is under it an ancient Postern-gate, which leads into the Field called the Garth-Heads, the most part of which was last Year enclosed and turned into Garden-ground, by Richard Ridley, Esq the Owner of it.

FROM Sandgate, which is so called because, it was built upon the Sand, or the River-side, is a Wall, having many little Gates in it, extending itself as far as the Merchant's Hall, along the Street called the Key-side.

IT must not be forgot what is mentioned in the Manuscript of Mr. John Milbank, that between every one of these Towers, there were for the most Part 2 Watch-Towers made square, with the Effigies of Men cut in Stone up­on the Tops of them, as tho' they were watching, and they were called Gar­ret, which had Square Holes over the Walls to through Sones down.

WHEN these Walls were finished is not exactly found. Grey Grey 7. seems to think they were finished some little Time before the Reign of Henry the 6th.

BUT this I imagine is a Date too late for the finishing of them; for Henry the 4th, in the 4th Year of his Reign, Aug. 16, granted at the Castle of Port-tefract, that all Fines, Redemptions, Amerciaments, Issues, Forfeitures and Profits, as well of Pleas as that of Justices of the Peace, &c. be received by the Mayor and Burgesses of this Town and their Officers, for supporting, amending, and repairing the Walls, Bridges and Gates of the Town. The Walls then in this Reign must have been compleated, forasmuch as they then probably wan­ted Repairs.

BUT further had Grey remembered his own Story above-mention'd, of the 300 valiant Men, that issued out at the White-fryer-gate, and put the Scottish Army to flight, he would surely have concluded that the Walls were finished before that Accident, which hapned in the Reign of Edward the 3d. Certain­ly the Scottish Army, which is said to have been a great one, would not have [Page 18] lodged without the Town if they could have lodged in it, and what should hinder their lodging in it, but the Walls of the Town well guarded? I con­clude therefore that the Walls of the Town at the latest were compleated in the Reign of King Edward the 3d, before the Year 1342 for it was in this Year that this Transaction hapned.

AFTER they were finished, it Grey 27. was famous for being a Bullwark against the Scots, all the Power of Scotland could never win it, but of late, viz. in the Time of the Civil Wars, being assisted by the English, it was stormed, and our Churches and Houses defaced, and the Ornaments of both taken away.

IT is now going fast into Ruins, several of the Turrets and some of the round Towers being fallen; but the Towers which stand, together with some lit­tle Parts of the Wall adjoining to them, are kept in good Repair by their respective Companies.

THE Circumference of this Wall, from the Close-gate, to the same, is two Miles and 175 Yards.

CHAP. IV. WEST-GATE.

THIS Street has it's Name from it's being on the West Part of the Town.

FROM the Gate Eastward is a Little Street called Ratten-Rawe, at the End of which is a narrow Passage, turning up to the North, which leads to the Monastery of the Black-Fryers.

Sect. I. Of the BLACK-FRYERS.

THE Dominicans commonly called Black-Fryers, Preaching-Fryers, and Ja­cobine Fryers, came over into England in the Year of our Lord Fuller C. Hist. 1221, or as others say, 1217, and had their first Residence in Oxford, they were a Prior and 12 Brethren; their Prior's Name was Gilbert de Fraxineto; the Name of the Order was taken from St. Dominick, born at Cologona in Spain: Of this Order were no sewer than fourscore famous English Writers.

De reb. Novocast'.This Monastery was founded by Sir Peter Scott, who was the first Mayor of Newcastle, Anno 1251, and Sir Nicholas Scott his Son, who was one of the 4 Bailiffs of the Town, 1254, 1257, and Capital Bailiff, 1269; but the Site of it was given by 3 Sisters, whose Names have long since been ingratefully buried in Oblivion.

WHEN was the particular Time of it's Building, I have met with no Ac­count; but it is not difficult to give a probable Guess; the Order itself of the Dominicans or Black-Fryes came into England, as is mentioned above, in the Year 1221; consequently it must have been founded after that Time: And that it must have been founded some Years before the Year 1280, is plain to a Demonstration. For in that Year, which was the Eight of Edward the First, the Black-Fryers had Licence from the King to break a Door through this New Wall, Vid. Town Wall. into their Garden; which proves them a regular settled Body at that Time; and therefore that their Priory was built some Years before that Licence.

[Page 20] Black-Fryers. Grey 20.WE are told, that this Monastery was in old Time called the Grey-Fryers; which in my Opinion is a Thing highly Improbable; for the Grey-Fryers, or Franciscans, came not into England 'till about the Year 1224; and if as I have proved above, the Black-fryers were a Settled Body some Years before the Year 1280; how is it possible to have been called of old Time the Grey-Fryers? This is therefore a Mistake, and beside, the Dominicans came into England be­fore the Franciscans or Grey-Fryers, and therefore more probably were sooner in this Place.

IT has been a very stately and Beautiful Building, as appears by the present Remains of it. The Area or Grass-plat is about 87 Foot in Length, and as many in Breadth; on the East Side of it was the Chapel, which is now the Hall of the Company of Smiths in this Town. On the West-side of it is a curious Old Well, which served the Monastery with Water, called our Lady's Well. On the South may still be seen the Ruins of a curious Front, on which Side is the Hall of the Cordwainers, in which I saw a Pair of winding Stairs, which they told me (before they were walled up) led by a Vault as far as the Nunnery of St. Bartholomew. On the North of it were their Gardens, a Part of which was the Warden's Close, before the Building of that Part of the Towns-wall. This appears by the Charter granted to this Monastery in the Reign of Edward the first, about breaking out that Narrow-Gate in the Wall between Westgate and Newgate; in which Grant it is said, that the Wall went through the Middle of their Garden. This Monastery was dependant upon the Priory of Tinmouth.

IN the Reign of Edward the 2d, the Brethren of this Monastery had Li­cense granted them for the Building of a Drawbridge, beyond the New Ditch of the Castle.

WHO were the Priors of this Monastery, what eminent Men belonged to them, or what Things were transacted by them from their Beginning 'till their Dissolution, were Things undoubtedly preserved among themselves whilst they were a Body; but, after their Surrender, were either destroy'd, or have not yet come to Light.

ONE of the Priors of this Monastery was one Richard Marshall. I take this Gentleman to have been the last Prior of this Monastery, for in the 28th of Henry the 8th, a Grant of a Tenement, nigh the White-Cross, (signed by Fryer Richard Marshal, Dr. and Prior; and Fryer David Simpson, and Fryer John Sowrby) was given to Anthony Godsave, upon his paying to the said Pri­ory or Monastery 9 s. per Ann. This Grant is now in the Possession of Mr. Thomas Marshal, of Newcastle, Joyner, who purchased this Tenement, and has lately rebuilt it. He pays the same Rent to the Town of Newcastle, which the Tenement pay'd to the Monastery.

ABOUT 2 Years after the Signing of this Deed, in January the 30th of this Reign this Monastery surrendered; it consisted of a Prior, and Twelve Fryers.

THE Nature of surrendering was this, according to Bishop Burnet, who says, Burnet's Records, p. 146. at the surrendring of Monasteries and Abbies, &c. there was generally a Confession along with the Surrender. Few of them are remaining, the fol­lowing one is one of the Six the Bishop had seen, and is a Copy from him, Pag. 150. Coll. Rec.

FORASMUCH as we the Prior and Fryers of this House of Carmelites in Stamford, commonly called the White-Fryers, in Stamford, in the Coun­ty of Lincoln, do profoundly consider, that the Perfection of Christian living doth not consist in same Ceremonies, wearing of a White Coat, disguising of our selves after strange Fashions, Dockying and Becking, wearing Scapulars and Hoods, [Page 21] and other like papistical Ceremonies, wherein we have been most principally practised, and Nose-led in Time past; but the very true Way to please God, and to live a true Chri­stian Man, without all Hypocrysie and feigned Dissimulation, is sincerely declared to us by our Master Christ, his Evangelists and Apostles; being minded hereafter to follow the same, conforming ourselves to the Will and Pleasure of our Supreame-head, under God, on Earth, the King's Majesty, and are not to follow henceforth the superstitious Traditions of any Forensecal Potentate or Power, with mutual Assent and Consent, do submit ourselves unto our said Sovereign Lord, and with the like Assent and Con­sent do surrender, &c. Sign'd by the Prior, and Six Fryers.

WHAT became of the Brethren of this our Fryery, after their Surrender, what they had allowed them annually for a Maintenance, or whether they had any Thing allowed at all, I have no where met with. Some Account indeed I meet with afterwards of the Prior himself, but none of the Fryers. It is this which follows.

Collier Eccl. Hist. Vol. II p. 302. RICHARD Marshal, Prior of the Black-Fryers in Newcastle, about the Year 1551, went into Scotland and preach'd at St. Andrews, that the Pater Noster should be addressed to God, and not to the Saints. Some Doctors of the University being disgusted at this Assertion, prevailed with one Tofts, a Grey-Fryer, to undertake to prove that the Pater-Noster might be said to the Saints; whose Ignorance in doing the same was so manifest, that he became the common Jest, and quitted the Town.

AFTER the Surrender of the Monastery on Jan. the 10th, 30th of Henry the 8th, the Black-Fryers was granted to the Town of Newcastle, in Conside­ration of 53 l. 7 s. 6 d. The annual Value of it, was 2 l. 19 s. 6 d.

The King says in the Grant, that He gives to the Mayor and Burgesses of Newcastle, the whole House and Site, lately a Priory, or a House of Bre­thren, called vulgarly the Black-Fryers in Newcastle upon Tyne; The Chapel, Houses, Edifices, Gardens, &c. the Hall, two Chambers, a Chamber called the Cross-Chamber, and the two Gardens, with their Appurtenances, and the whole Close within the West-gate, and another Close near the Site of the said Priory on the North. And a Close containing 3 Acres, and a House in the same Close without the Walls of the said Town, and a House called the Gate-house, situated near the Street.

IT also appears from the Grant, that the King reserved to himself and Suc­cessors, the Bells and Lead that was upon the Church belonging to this Fryery, and the other Buildings of it; the Lead in the Gutters, together with the Stones and Iron of the Church, &c.

THE Nine Crafts of this Town had their Meeting-houses or Halls in it, and still have, except two of them, the Taylors and the Cordwainers, who have be­stowed these upon some poor Widows, and got themselves others in other Places. These Halls are of great Service to this ancient Building, in preserv­ing it from an entire Ruin. Such is the Hall of the Smiths, which was re­paired by them in the Year 1709, John Kellet, Thomas Turner, Jonathan Gib­son, Roger Haddock being Wardens; The Hall of the Dyers, The Hall of the Bakers and Brewers, which was repair'd Ann' 1711, Christopher Rutter, Lionel Dixon, William Dove, John Make-piece, being then Wardens: These Halls are on the East-side of the Fryery. Such also are those on the West-side of it, viz. the Hall of the This Company has be­longing to it, an ancient Manuscript, beautifully wrote, in Old English Rhime; it relates to our Saviour's Sufferings. I take it to be the play they were obliged by their Ordinary to maintain on the Feast of Corpus Christi. Sadlers, which was repair'd by them in the Year 1729, Cuthbert Berkley and Matthew Anderson, Wardens; and the Hall of the Skinners and Glovers, which was repaired by them in the Year, 1712, John Emmerson, Robert Barnes, Robert Shutt, Philip Smith being Wardens. Such are those al­so on the South-side of it, viz. the Cordwainer's Hall, which was turned into Appartments for three Widows, in the Year 1729, John Wheatley and George [Page 22] Alder being Wardens; the Hall of the Butchers, and the Hall of the Tanners, was repair'd in the Year 1717, Thomas Anderson, William Harrison, Thomas Dixon, William Slaiter then Wardens.

BY Means of these Halls, there is still some Visage of the Fryery remain­ing, which had otherwise been intirely in the Dust. 'Tis a Pity that those People who are permitted by the Companies to reside in some of those Rooms are not threatned into more Cleanliness, and that the Companies themselves are not at the Expence of repairing the Area; were these Things done, it would be a Beautiful Piece of Antiquity, and an Entertainment to the Cu­rious, from whencesoever they came.

Sect. II The VICARAGE.

IN coming back by the narrow Lane which led to the Black-fryers, we face a little Street called Fennel Street, which leads into Westgate; a Street more retired than any other in this Town; there being no Artificers or Me­chanicks in this Street, nor any Market. It is chiefly inhabited by the Clergy and Gentry; and indeed it seems all along to have been inhabited by such more than by others. In some Writings above 400 Years old, we meet with the Names of some Clergy-men who lived in this Street, viz. Robertus de Gonwerton, Thomas Abelot, &c. not to mention those who belonged to the Monasteries and Hospitals; and Grey tells us, that the Men who lived in this Street in his Time, had Employment for both Town and Country, he says also that in old Time the Earl of Westmoreland had his House in this Street.

AT present several of the Houses in it, are large and beautiful; such are the Houses of the Lady Clavering, of Utrick Whitfield, Esq Thomas Ord, Esq Mr. Abraham Dixon, &c. in the Upper Part of it; and of George Grey, Esq and others adjoining to him in the lower Parts of it.

ON the North Side of this Street, a little above St. John's Church, is the Vicarage House, the Dwelling of the Vicars of Newcastle. It stands, at least e­qually pleasant with the other Houses in this Place, being situated in the mid­dle of Fields and Gardens, and more retir'd, being at some Distance from the Street.

WHO it was that built this House, I have not been able to learn; but 'tis not improbable that it was the Town of Newcastle, who has been al­ways famous for it's Generosity to it's Clergy; as the Vicarage itself in par­ticular must always acknowledge. It is at present more beautiful and conve­nient than it was wont to be, having been repair'd and enlarged in the Year 1694, by the Rev. and Worthy Dr. Ellison, the then Vicar.

THERE is a Hall belonging to this House, built in a very grand and state­ly Manner, according to the Hospitality of the Times it was built in. In particular, it was the Place where the Vicars of Newcastle were wont to en­tertain the inferiour Officers of Churches, the Clarks, Sextons, &c. at the Season of Christmas. If I am not very much mistaken, there are many still living, who remember this laudable Custom.

The Garden belonging to this House, tho' beneath some others in this Street for Art and Curiosity, and Beauty of Flowers; yet in this it glories above all the others, that the Roman-Wall, which was undoubtedly one of the great Works of the Roman Empire, is said to have passed through the middle of it.

Sect. III. Of St. JOHN's CHURCH.

THIS Church is situated almost close to the Vicarage. It is dedicated to St. John the Baptist; but who was the Founder I never met with: I am inclinable to believe it was founded by the Towns-people, notwithstanding a Conjecture of an Anonymous Gentleman, which is, that Robert Rhodes was the Builder of this Church. But this I think is impossible; for the earliest he can be supposed to have lived, is about the Year 1430, in the Reign of Henry the 6th, when John Rhodes, who was perhaps his Father, was Mayor; whereas it is certain this Church was built at least an Hundred Years before. For the Grant of Adam of Durham, to the the Priest of St. Thomas the Martyr's Chan­tery in this Church, bears Date the 26th of March, 1319, in the Reign of Edward the 2d; consequently then the Church must have been in being at this Time, and so could not have been built by Robert Rhodes. Nay, in a Charter dated 1287, belonging to the Rev. Mr. Smith of Melsomby, to whom I have been obliged for a Sight of a great many Writings, I meet with these Words, Venellum quo itur ad Ecclesiam Sancti Joannis. So that this Church was still earlier in Being, viz. in the 15th of Edward the 1st. However, it is supposed that the Steeple of this Church was either built, or at least beautified by him, as also the South-Cross of the Church; for his Coat of Arms, as also these Words, Orate pro Anima Roberti Rhodes, are upon both of them; which indeed makes it somewhat probable.

THIS Church, as Grey informs us, was commended by an Arch-Prelate of this Kingdom, because it resembleth much a Churches were usually built in form of the Cross, to represent and comme­morate the Cross on which our Lord died. Cross; which indeed it does more than any other in this Town.

THERE were three Chanteries consisted of Salaries al­lowed to one or more Priests to say daily Masses for the Souls of their deceased Founders, and their Friends. These were Adject­ives, not able to stand of themselves, and therefore united (for their better Support) to some parochial, Collegiate, or Cathedral Church. Ful. Ch. Hist. p. 350. Chanteries belonging to this Church, one of which was the Chantery of Sciant presentes, &c. quod Ego Adam de Dunelm', Burgensis Villae Novi Castri super Tynam, &c. pro sa­lute Animae meae, & pro animabus Rogeri patris mei, &c. hac presenti Carta Mea confirmavi Domino Ro­gero de Burneto Capellano — Singulis diebus ad altare Beati Thomae Martyris in Ecclesia Parochiali Sancti Joannis de Novo-Castro divina Celebraturo; totum illud messuagium, &c. Et volo quod post decessum meum, Major & Ballini praedictae villae Novi-Castri, quicunquae pro tempore suo fuerint, habeans Jus patronatus dictae Cantariae, & quod ipsi nun cum quatuor de Prebioribus & Discretioribus hominibus Parochiae praedictae ad hoc E­loctis possint ad dictam Cantariam, quotrescunque ipsam Vacatam contingat, vtrum capellanum Honestum, Discre­tum, er Honestum eligere & instituere, &c. St. Thomas the Martyr, which was founded about Anno 1319, in the Reign of Edward the 2d. For Adam of Durham, Burgess of this Town, (according to the Opinion of the Times he liv'd in) for the Sake of his own Soul, and the Souls of his Father Roger, and Agnes his Mother, &c. gave an annual Salary to Such Priests as have the Addition of Sir before their Christian Name, were Men not graduated in the Uni­versity; being in Orders, but not in Degrees; whilst others intitled Masters, had commenced in the Arts. Note, that generally Founders of Chanteries preferred Priests not beneficed to those Places, as best at Leisure constantly to attend the same. Fuller C. Hist. p. 352. Sir Roger de Burneton, the Chantry-Priest, for cele­brating Divine Service every Day, at the Altar of St. Thomas the Martyr, in this Church. I take this Chantry to have been situated on the North Side of the said Church, extending as far as, and adjoining close to, the North-Cross of the Church.

WHEN this Priest of the Chantry dyed, another was to be chosen (after the Decease of the Benefactor Adam) by the Mayor and Bailiffs of this Town for the Time being, together with four of the most discreet, and judicious Men of the Parish of St. John elected for that Purpose. The Mayor, &c. had [Page 24] also the Power of turning out the Priest of this Chantry,St. JOHN's Church. and putting another in his stead, if he neglected his Duty upon any Canonical Impediment, be­yond 40 Days. If he was taken with a Fit of Sickness, he was obliged to provide another at his own Expence to wait upon the Altar. They had a Power also of turning him out, and putting another in his Stead, if any Scan­dalous Crime was proved upon him.

THIS Writing was sealed by the Seal of the Benefactor, and the Common Seal of the Town of Newcastle; and Witnessed, by Richard de Emelden, then Mayor, Thomas de Frismarisco, Richard de Acton, William de Burneton, Gilbert de Hankyn, Bailiffs of the Town, Sir Nicholas Scot, Knight, Nicholas de Car­leol, Thomas de Carleol, Peter Graper, &c.

THE yearly Value of this Chantry was 4 l. 3 s. which was raised out of certain Tenements in the Sandhill and Westgate.

ANOTHER Chantry belonging to this Church, was that of our Lady, founded by Edward Scott, in the Reign of Edward the 3d; the yearly Value of which was 4 l. 4 s. 4 d. which arose out of Tenements in the Sandhill and Westgate.

THE 3d Chantry was that of the Holy Trinity, founded by John Dalton, William Atkinshawe, and Andrew Accliffe, Clerks; the yearly Value of which was 5 l. 13 s. 4 d. which arose out of Tenements in Westgate, Side, without Westgate, and a Close without Westgate.

I have been told, that the Painted Glass on one of the South Windows of the Quire of this Church, had on it the Representation of the Trinity. It does indeed still resemble some such Thing, but, if the Knowledge of it was need­ful, it might be Queried whether it ever was any such Representation.

THERE is another Thing at the Top of this Quire, which tho' little known, is yet of greater Certainty; and that is, the Funnel, or Wood Box, in the Form of a Spout, which hangs from the Top of this Quire. This was a Conveyance for an Artificial Dove, on the Day of Pentecost, in the Times of Popery, to represent the Descent of the Holy Ghost. That there were such Things in Churches, tho' in none that I know of in this Town, but this; is Matter of Fact. For thus we are told, that Bee-Hive of the Romish Church. Geo. Geld­ing, p. 207. on Whitsunday the Papists be­gin to play a new interlude. For then they sent down a Dove out of an Owl's Nest, devised in the Roof of the Church. But first they cast out Rosin and Gunpowder with Wild-fire, to make the Children afraid; and that must needs be the Holy Ghost, which cometh with Thunder and Lightning.

THERE was formerly an Organ in this Church. This appears from the last Will and Testament of Mr. John Wilkinson, Merchant of this Town, who was one of the Ancestors of the present Mr. John Wilkinson Merchant, to whom I am obliged for a Sight of this Will. It bears Date Feb. 1, 1570, and has these Words, I, Iohn Wylkinson, &c. commend my Soule unto Almyghtie God, and my Bodye to be buryed in Saincte Iohn-Church, on the Northe Syde of the same Church, nygh where the Organes doithe stande. A little below this he thus orders, I wyll have the dyvyne Service at the Daye of my Buryal, according to the Lawes and Custome of this Realme. Item I wyll have delt and gevyn to the Poore the Daye of my Buryal, fortye Shillings. Item I will that myne Executors shall in the Daye of my Burial make a Dynner for my Brethren the Aldermen, and for my Neighbour-heade in the Myddle-Streete, &c.

M. S. Mil­bank.IN the Year 1639, when the Scots sought to deface the ancient Monu­ments, and said they were Papistry, and Supestition, they began with the Spoon of this Church's Font, and broke it all to Pieces. It had been given by one John Bertram. For there was written about it; For the Honour of God and St. John, John Bertram gave this Font Stone. Cuthbert Maxwell, a [Page 25] Mason, observing the Barbarity of the Scots, came in Haste to St. Nicholas, and saved the Spoon of that Font in it's Vestry, and also that of All-hallows. He lived, after the King return'd, to set them up again.

THE Porch of this Church was rebuilt in the Year 1710, Thomas Fletcher; Robert Percival, John Quincy, John Fairlam being then Church-wardens. In the Year 1723, the Steeple was new pointed at the Expence of the Corpora­tion, Matthew Featherstone, Esq being then Mayor; and the same Year was the Body of the Church pointed at the Charge of the Parishioners. There are two Galleries in this Church; one on the West-End of the Church, and the other on the North-Side. The Latter Gallery was built in the Year 1710, for 33 Persons, by Mr. Robert Percival, Pin-maker, of this Parish, who was a great Lover of the Church, and an industrious Promoter of every good De­sign towards Her. In the Year 1707, when the Parishioners took down the 3 old Bells belonging to this Church, and contributed to the 6 they have at present; Mr. Percival contributed three Pounds. In the Year 1710 he beau­tified the Altar at his own Expence. He dyed on the 8th of February, 1729, and lest by his last Will and Testament to the Parish of St. John for ever; a House which stands in the Wool-market, which is let at the yearly Rent of 20 l.

THE Communion Table of this Church was given by Mr. Robert Crow, Mer­chant, Anno 1712.

MR. Robert Rymer of this Town left to this Church in the Year 1722, a large Flaggon, a Chalice, and a Plate, all of Silver, valued at 60 l. to be used at the Holy Communion.

LEGACIES left to the POOR of this Parish, are these following.

HENRY Hilton of Hilton, Esq left 4 l. Yearly for Ninety Nine Years. He dy'd in February, 1640.

SIR William Blackett, Bart, left 2 l. yearly for ever, to be paid on the 1st of December, out of a House at the Tyne Bridge-end: To be distributed by the Minister.

 l.s.d.
Sir Alexander Davison020000
Mr. William Carr010000
Sir Thomas Davison010000
Sir Mark Milbank030000
Mr. John Rumney030000
 100000

ALL these are paid out of the Town Chamber, the one half at Michaelmas and the other half at Lady-day.

ISABEL the Wife of William Wrightson, Esq left 50 l. the Interest paid yearly out of the Town's Chamber on the 30th of September.

MR. Aldworth left 1 l. to be paid out of Lands in Oakwell-gate, yearly, for Ever.

NICHOLAS Ridley, Esq left 1 l. to be paid out of Lands in Heaton, year­ly, for Ever.

[Page 26]MR. Thomas Davison left 1 l. 6 s. 8 d. to be paid out of the Merchant's Company, yearly, for Ever.

MR. Timothy Davison left 1 l. 5 s. to be paid out of the Merchant's Com­pany, yearly, for Ever.

MATTHEW White, Esq left 1 l. to be paid out of a House in Pilgrim-street, yearly, for Ever.

MR. William Carr left 1 l. 2 s. 4 d. to be paid out of Houses in Westgate, yearly, for Ever.

MR. William Harrison left 50 l. the Interest paid out of the Town's Cham­ber, yearly, for Ever.

MARGARET Percival. Widow, left a House in the Back-row (in the same Parish) Lett at the yearly Rent of 3 l. 7 s. 6 d.

MR. Robert Percival left a House in the Wool-market, (after the Death of his Daughter in Law) Lett at the yearly Rent of 20 l.

BURIED in this CHURCH. Near the Altar Table.

SEpulchrum Roberti Fenwick Mercatoris, & Dorotheae vxoris ejus Suo­rumque Filiorum & Filiarum, Ille Obijt Sept die Octav. A0 D. 1689. Aetatis Suae 61. Robert Filius natu maximus Obijt 23 die Martii 1690 Illa Obit 15 Julii 1701 Petrus Potts Geners Annam Filiam eorum natu maxi­ma Duxit Vxorem Exqua Liberos Suscepit Quorum Sex Sibi Fuere Superstites (viz) Dorothea, Jana, Maria, Petrus, Robertus, Johannes; Illa Obijt 30 April A. D. 1719. Aetatis Suae 63.

THE Burial Place of Mr. John Bell, Merchant Adventurer, and Margaret his Wife. Margaret Bell dy'd the 21st of November, 1710; Aged 55. John Bell dy'd the 22d of June, 1716; Aged 62.

Sepulchrum Radulphi Scourfeild Gennerosi qui obijt Februarij 16th 1675 Et Jane Uxoris ejus quae obijt Maij 120 1689. Quorum filius Radulphus Scourfeild Armiger de Comitatu Northumbriae quondam Vicecomes Obijt Sep­tembris 1st 1728.

THE Burial Place of John Clutterbuck, Gent. and Barbara his Wife, and their Children. Hannah buried July the 16th, 1683. Catherine buried July 23, 1683. James buried April 3d, 1692. Barbara his Wife buried Sept. 2d, 1695. Richard their Son departed the 9th of Nov. 1702. He departed the 3d of July 1717.

In the CHANCEL.

THIS is the Burial Place of Thomas Errington, Merchant Adventurer. These Words are writ about the Arms cut upon the Stone;

  • Remember Death
  • God's Word ne'er shun
  • With Wings Time slieth
  • Whilst Glass doth run.

THE Burial Place of William Wallas Mercer, and Merchant Adventurer [Page 27]of England, He departed this Life the 23d Day of Sept. 1664. William Wallas Son of the said William, departed this Life the 11th Day of January, Anno 1688. Aetatis Suae 23.

THE Burial Place of Charles Clark Barbar Chyrurgeon; He departed the 2d of August, 1667. Margaret his Wife, departed this life the 30th Day of March 1683. At the Bottom of the Arms,

De Pretient Dei.

THE Burial Place of the Rev. Matthew. Forster, Lecturer of this Church, who dy'd October the 23d, 1723. Aged 46.

OSWOLD Chayter, Lining Weaver, 38 Year Clerk of this Church, de­parted to the Mercy of God July 21, A. D. 1623. Aged 68 Years.

HERE lieth the Body of John Dixon, Plummer, who died April the 12th, 1728. Aged 42.

NORTH ISLE.

LYES the Body of John Wilkinson, Merchant Adventurer.

THE Minister of the Church is the Curate and Lecturer of it. He is Cu­rate to the Vicar, for which he receives 3 l. per Annum, and the Surplice-Fees; and Lecturer to the Corporation, for which he receives 90 l. per. Annum. The other Minister of this Church is the Assistant Curate, who is paid by the Minister himself.

I have not been able to collect more of the Ministers and Curates of this Pa­rish, than these following.

ROBERT Urguart, who suffered in the Beginning of the Civil-Wars. He afterwards went beyond the Seas, turn'd Papist, and dyed in a Convent.

JOHN Shaw. He was the Son of a Clergyman, born at Bedlington, was first of Queen's College; from whence he removed to that of Brazen-Nose in Oxford. In the Year 1645, he was both instituted and inducted to the Re­ctory of Whalton, but not permitted to enjoy it. However, with much ado he afterwards got the Church of Bolton in Craven in Yorkshire: Which being but half the Value of Whalton, they allowed him to keep it.

IN 1661 he returned to Whalton; was made Preacher also of the Parish Church of St. John's in Newcastle; twice chosen a Member of the Convocati­on for Yorkshire; and if I mistake not, served once for the Clergy of the Arch­deacoury of Northumberland. He was a Man of good Learning and of an un­blameable Life, a strict Observer of the Orders of the Church: Somewhat warm in his Temper; equally zealous against Popery and Presbytery, with it's Brood of Sectaries; as appears by his Writings: The Gout confin'd him to his House, and at last to his Bed, some Years before his Death. He bore his Affliction with Christian Fortitude; being patient, resign'd, and chearful un­der it; more solicitous for God's Church than for himself, and died in a good old Age, in the Year 1689. I had almost omitted to say, that he was impri­soned no less than four Years by the Rebels.

[Page 28]HE lies buried near the Altar, with this Inscription on his Tomb-stone.

  • Hic
  • Quod Remanet
  • Johannis Shaw
  • Hujus Ecclesiae Pastoris;
  • Deo, Ecclesiae,
  • Patriae Regi,
  • Piè Fidelis.
  • Obijt Maij 220 A. D. 1689.
  • Aetatis Suae 77.

ANTHONY Proctor was his Curate, who was buried at St. Nicholas's Nov. 7. 1688.

ANDREW Bates, A. M. Minister. He was of the Family of the Bates's of Northumberland. He was a Man of good sound Principles, and an excel­lent Parish Priest; being very diligent in his Parish, in taking Care of the Poor and visiting the Sick.

MR. Bullock was Curate to him, who was succeeded by John Potts, A. B. of St. John's Coll. Camb.

MATTHEW Forster, A. M. of St. Peter's Coll. Camb. A Worthy gene­rous Man, who delighted in good Works, and Acts of Charity. He dy'd Oct. 23, 1723.

JOSEPH Carr, M. A. of Trinity Coll. Camb. was his Curate after the Decease of Mr. Potts abovementioned.

HENRY Featherstone-Haugh, B. D. of St. John's College, Camb. succeed­ed Mr. Forster as Lecturer. He was removed from St. John's to the After­noon Lectureship of All-Hallows, Sept. 27, 1731.

JOHN Thompson, A. M. of St. John's College Camb. is the present Assistant Curate.

THE Curate or Minister of this Church has paid him annually from the Crown 5 l.

THE Town of Newcastle was wont to give to this Church at Easter 15 Gallons of Wine.

THE Weekly Prayers of this Church are on Wednesday, Friday, and Sa­turday: On the two former Days in the Morning, at 9-o'Clock, and at 2 in the Afternoon; On the latter at Two in the Afternoon.

THE Sacrament is administred at this Church every third Sunday of the Month.

The CHARITY-SCHOOL of this Parish.

THE Charity-School of St. John's consists of Forty four poor Boys, but no Girls, and was endowed by the late Mr. John Ord, in the Year 1705, which Matter was transacted between him and Dr. Thomlinson, whom he con­sulted and made privy to his Design, but enjoyn'd to Secrecy; and the Foun­der [Page 29] of that School was not known 'till after his Death. He gave towards supporting it a large Close without Pilgrim-street-gate, called Great Magdalen Close, alias the Mill-Close, which is held by Lease of the Master and Brethren of St. Mary Magdalen Hospital, under the Rent of 4 l. per Annum. The Close is Lett at 25 l. so that the neat Rent to the School is only 21 l.

MRS. Margaret Allgood, Widow, by Will dated the 15th of July 1707, devised to this School 100 l. to be put out at Interest, and which is accord­ingly put out at Interest for the Benefit of this School.

AND there is annually raised by Subscription towards the Maintenance of this School 33 l. 14 s.

THE Master's Salary is 24 l. per Annum and 40 s. for teaching the Boys to sing, and 16 s. per Annum for Pens, Ink, and Paper.

THE Subscriptions were raised to cloath the Boys, and to bind them out Apprentices; but the Endowment being short of paying the Master, part of the Subscriptions are applied that Way.

THE School-house was provided by, and is repaired at, the Expence of the Corporation.

THE Boys are supplied with Hose, and Shoes twice a-Year, (to wit) Mid­summer and Christmas, and with a Coat, Shirts, Bands, and Cap, once a-Year only, at Midsummer.

THE Anniversary Sermon is preached on the Sunday next after the 24th Day of June, being the Feast of St. John Baptist.

THE School is to be governed by the Heir of Mr. John Ord, the Mayor of Newcastle, the Vicar, the Forenoon Lecturers of All-hallows, St. John's, and St. Andrews, and the Afternoon Lecturers of St. Nicholas and All-hallows, or any five of them, and they have the chusing of a Master.

THE Rules and Orders for the better governing of the School, and dire­cting the Choice of a Master, and his Qualifications, were made by Mr. Ord the Founder, and approved by Dr. Thomlinson, to whom he communicated his Thoughts from Time to Time by Letter, and those Letters, with the Do­ctor's Answers, are transcribed in the School-Books.

SUBSCRIBERS Names.
 l.s.d.
LADY Clavering020200
Mrs. Swinbourn010000
George Grey, Esq010000
John Bacon, Esq010000
Thomas Ord. Esq010000
Mr. Charles Clarke010000
Mr. Richard Coates, by Will010000
Mr. James Bell010000
The Lady of Cuthbert Fenwick, Esq010000
Mr. James Ilderton010000
Mr. George Anderson010000
Mr. William Wharton010000
The Rev. Mr. Fetherston-haugh001200
Mr. Henry Wilkinson001000
Mr. Ralph Fetherstone001000
Mr. Anthony Proctor001000
Brought from the other Side150400
The Rev. Mr. Edmund Lodge000500
The Rev. Mr. James Ferne000500
Mr. Thomas Milbourn000500
Mr. Lionel Dixon000500
COMPANIES.
Bakers and Brewers011000
Taylors010000
Barber-Chirurgions010000
Sadlers010000
Plumbers and Glaziers, &c.010000
Skinners010000
Cord wainers010000
Tanners010000
House-Carpenters010000
Rope-makers010000
Smiths010000
Joyners010000
Slaters010000
Butchers010000
Bricklayers010000
Hatters010000
Weavers010000
 331400

Sect. IV. St. MARY's Hospital.

OPPOSITE to St. John's, on the other Side of the Street, is the Hos­pital of St. Mary the Virgin, which contains two Foundations, an Old one,Lib. Cart. and a New one; as they were call'd upon the Founding of the latter. The old one must have been founded, not many Years after the Nunnery of St. Bartholomew, which was founded by King Henry the First: For in a Char­ter granted by King Henry the Second, to the Nuns of St. Bartholomew, there is mention made of St. Mary's in this Town, as may be seen in our Account of these Nuns. But this Conjecture will be more confirm'd, if it be consider'd that a Charity was bestow'd on this Hospital by the Lord Walter de Bolbeck, (as is mention'd below) who,Gib. Camb. p. 855. as we are told, in a Charter dated the first Year of King Stephen, convey'd some Lands to the Church of Winchester. If this was the same Walter with him below, and there appears nothing to the con­trary; then it is a strong Reason, that this Hospital was founded in King Henry the First's Reign. The latter Hospital and Chapel, were founded by one Ego Ase­lack de Kil­lynghowe fundavi Ho­spitale San­cta' Mariae Virginis & Capellam super Ter­ram meam, in Novo Ca­stello super Tynam, & ibi posui duos fratres regulares & unum Capellanum ad serviandum Deo & pauperibus; reddidi meipsum Deo & Beatae Mariae & Fratribus eju [...]dem Hospitalis ibidem Deo serventibus, ad Hospitandum Pauperes, & egenos Clericos, & Peregrinos transeuntes pro Salute animae. Patris mei, Matris meae, & omnium per­tinentium, & pro salute animarum Omnium Hospitalis Benefactorum. Lib. Cart. Aselack of Killinghow or Killingworth, as he himself acknowledges in his Char­ter for that Purpose: I Aselack of Killinghowe have founded the Hospital and Chapel of St. Mary the Virgin, upon my own Land, for Two Brethren to be Regulars, and one Chaplain to serve God and take Care of the Poor.

WE learn also from the same Charter, that the Founder devoted himself to God and Religion, as he himself says, (according to the Way of that Age) I render my self to God, and the Blessed Virgin Mary; and the Brethren of the same Hospital there serving God; to do Works of Hospitality to the Poor, [Page 31] the Needy Clergy and Pilgrims. And this, he says, he does for his own Soul,St. MARY's Hospital. for the Soul of his Father and Mother, and his other Relations; together with the Souls of all the Benefactors of the Hospital.

SOME of the Witnesses to this Foundation Charter, were Gilbert, Parson of Eland, Richard, Parson of Standfordham, Waldon Parson of Newburne, Eusta­chius, Parson of Benton.

THE particular Time when it was founded can't be exactly learned; there being no Date at the Charter. But it is probable from a Charter of King Richard the First, that it was founded some little while before he began to Reign; for when he confirms the Sciatis me dedisle & concessisse Domino & Sanctae Ma­riae & San­ctimoniali­bus de Novo Castello, pro salute Ani­mae meae & antecesso­rum meo­rum, Aselack Burgeum me­um de Novo Castello, &c. Lib. Cart. Foundation of Aselack, he speaks of him as then living, otherwise he would not call him his Burgess of Newcastle, as he does in the Charter.

WE meet also with an Account of a Third Foundation belonging to this Hospital, which Account is this. The Hospital of our Lady, called Westgate Spittle, was founded by the Inhabitants of Newcastle, for a Master and Chaplain to say Divine Service for 6 Bede Folks in the Alms-house, and to lodge Poor and way-faring People, and to bury such as hapned to die there, and to distribute yearly Nine Chaldron of Coals among poor People. The yearly Value of this was 33 l. 15 s. De Rebus Novocast'.

AFTER the founding of this Hospital and Chapel, there were several Dona­tions and Charities bestowed upon it, as had been before upon the old one; some of the Benefactors of both which, and Masters among a large Number which might be mentioned, are these following.

Benefactors.Mayors.Other Witnesses.Masters.
Robert de Heddon, Clerk, gave by the Will and Con­sent of his Lord Walter de Bolbec, a yearly Sum, on Condition that the Frater­nity would pray for the Souls of his Lord and his Ance­stors; and also for his own Soul and his Ancestors: This was confirmed by the said Lord to this Hospital.It is no small Confir­mation of the Conjecture above-mentioned, the An­tiquity of this Hospital, from the Donation of Wal­ter de Bolbeck, that there is no mention made here of the Mayor of Newcastle; which is a Proof that this Donation was before the Time of Mayors, and con­sequently that this Hospital was founded at the Time supposed,Reginold de Benwell. John Morress. And several others. 
Julian, Daughter of Ag­nes Blanch, gave a Charity to this Hospital, that her Soul and the Souls of her Ancestors might be pray'd for, and that she might be entit'led to a Lodging in the said Hospital when she came to Town.Henry de Carliol, Mayor, about the Year 1257, in the Reign of Hen. 3d.Adam Clerious. Thomas de Carliol John Flemmynge. John Sante. Bailiffs of the Town.Robert Lacy was now Rector of the Hospital.
Martin Corman gave a Messuage to it for the Sake of Charity, as he himself says in his Grant, and for the Sake of his Soul.To this Writing was an­nexed the Seal of the Town of Newcastle, Henry of Car­liol being Mayor that Year, which probably was the Year 1259, the 6th Year of his Mayoralty, for he was Mayor 10 years toge­ther.Robert de Mitford, who was probably one of the Northumberland Family of that Name, was Witness to this Deed; as was also Adam de Blakedene. 
Roger de Quintingham.Nicholas Scott, 1269.Gilbert de Tindale. Robert Scott. 
Nicholas Essot.Hugo de Carliol, 1292.William de Oggel. Walter de Cowgate.Hugo de Pandon Magister, 1292.
Robert Tunmbysiman and Matilda his Wise.Peter le Graper, 1305.Nicholas Scott. Walter de Cowgate. Richard Emmelden.Hugo de Pandon.
William Herringe.Richard de Immelden.Thomas de Morpeth.James Magister, 1317.

[Page 32]THERE were a great many more BENEFACTORS which would be te­dious to mention here, such as Alan de Wylam, Alan de Gateside, John Porter, Thomas de Gosforth, Radulphus de Causi, William Son of Robert de Corbrigg, Gilbert de Mora, &c.

BESIDES the Masters already mentioned, I meet with one Radulphus, Master, but at what Time is not said.

SIMON was Master 1251.

ANOTHER Simon was Master in the Year 1264.

ROBERT Lacy being Master between them.

JOHN Norrys was Master about the Year 1267.

JAMES, Master 1333.

ROBERT Morden was Master about the Year 1371.

WILLIAM de Burnham, 1401.

JOHN Colman, 1415.

JOHN Fitzherry was Master about the Year 1444.

BOBERT Davell was Master about the Year 1534.

JOHN Raynes was Master 1575.

HENRY Dethick, L. L. D. 1581.

HENRY Ewbank, Clerk, 1590, he resign'd 1615, Oct. 18.

EDWARD Wigham was Master 1627.

JOHN Bewick was Master 1669.

EDWARD the Third sent Letters Patents to this Hospital, to Compen­sate for the Losses it had sustained by the frequent Incursions of the Scots in these Days; and therefore gave them Liberty to receive to the Value of a hundred Shillings; tam in Feodo suo quam in alieno.

RICHARD de Bury Bishop of Durham, granted a Confirmation of all Lands, Rents, Rights, Privileges, &c. belonging to St. Mary's in Westgate; it was given at Gateside, Jan. 8, 1335, in the Second Year of his Consecration.

IN the Year 1444, when William Harding was Mayor, we have an Account of the Things belonging to this Hospital, some of which were as follows.

Imprimis, Tres Calices Deaurati, &c.

THREE Chalices gilded with Gold, one intire Vestment of Bloody Velvet, woven about with Goldon Fringe, with one Cap, one Casule, three Albs, for the Principal Festivals.

ALSO one Cap of Cloth of Gold of red Colour, wrought with Golden Ima­ges, with one Casule, three Albs.

Item, One Cap, of a Black Colour, woven with Dragons and Birds in Gold.

[Page 33] Item, One Single Vestment wrought in with Peacocks with a Corporal belong­ing to the same.

Item, Another Single Vestment for the Priest, only of White, border'd about with Roses, and with a Corporal belonging to it.

Item, another Single Vestment for the Presbyter of a Bloody Colour, with a Corporal belonging to the same.

Item, another Vestment for the Presbyter of Cloth of Gold.

Item, another Vestment of Cloth of Gold interwoven with Leopards and Birds.

Item, One Hood or Cap, one Casule, one Alb, with a Stole.

Item, One Single Vestment for one Priest in the Hands of John Fitzherry the present Master.

Item, One Single Vestment for the Priest of St. Nicholas.

Item, One Hood.

Item, A Cover of Bloody Velvet for a Sepulchre.

Item, Two Casules, the middle Part of the Casule of white Colour.

ALSO one Hood of a red Colour for an Ornament to the Altar of St. Ni­cholas.

ALSO TWO Linen Cloaths of a red Colour for the Side Ornament of the Altar.

ALSO One Frontale of Sathan of a Bloody Colour, woven with golden I­mages for the Altar.

Item, One Quadrigessimal Vale of Linen Cloth of white Colour, with a red Cross below in the same.

Item, One Table set apart as an Ornament for the Linen of the Altar.

Item, One Table gilded, with the Image of the blessed Virgin Mary.

Item, Two Tables with the Pax, one of them gilded and beset with pre­cious Stones, &c.

IN the 24th of the Reign of Queen Elizabeth, the Hospital of St. Mary in Westgate, and St. Mary Magdalene without Pilgrim-street-gate, were granted to Theophilus Adams and James Woodshaw, under the yearly Rent of 3 s. 4 d.

IN the 9th of King James the First, a Charter was granted for the Hospi­tal of St. Mary the Virgin.

THE Grammar-School of this Town, which is now at West-spittle, was ori­ginally founded by Thomas Horsly, who was Mayor of Newcastle, in the Year of our Lord 1525. By his last Will he devised all his Lands in Newcastle, af­ter the Death of him and his Wife, to erect a Grammar-School, which was to be free for any one within and without the Town, in the Manner directed by the said Will.

[Page 34]BUT in the Year 1559 it was removed from St. Nicholas's Church-yard, (from that House which is on the North Side of the Church, over that Place where the Privy now is,M. S. Mil­bank. where it had been from the Time of it's Institution) to the West-spittle. The Reason of which was this, Queen Elizabeth ordain­ed and granted, that within this Town of Newcastle, and the Liberties there­of, there should be erected, and for ever there be, one Free Grammar School, which should be a Free Grammar-School of Queen Elizabeth in Newcastle, and should consist of one Master and Scholars, to be instructed in the same, and that they, the Master and Scholars of the same, should for ever be one Body Corporate in Law, Fact, and Name, by the Master and Scholars of the Free Gram­mar-School, of Queen Elizabeth in Newcastle upon Tyne, &c. and by that Name should have perpetual Succession, and should be in perpetual Times to come able and capable in the Law, of having, purchasing, &c. Lands, Tenements, &c. to them and their Successors, in Fee-simple, or for Term of Years, so they exceed not the yearly Value of 40 l. and so they were not holden of the said Queen, her Heirs and Successors in chief, nor by Knight-Service. And that the Mayor and Burgesses of Newcastle, and their Successors, or the greater Part of them, &c. should have Power to make an honest, learned and discreet Man to be the First and Modern Usher in the said School, there to continue during the good Pleasure of the said Mayor and Burgesses, &c. and that if the said Ma­ster and Usher should die or leave the said School, &c. then they might chuse other Men to be Master and Usher, &c.

IT is very probable that the Town of Newcastle, who always presented a Master to this Hospital, as it did to St. Mary Magdalen's and St. Thomas the Martyr upon Tyne-Bridge, did at this Time make the Master of the Grammar-School, Master also of the Hospital. Grey tells us, that the first Master of the head School, was the Rev. Master Robert Fowberry, a learned and painfull Man, to indoctrinate Youth in Greek and Latin: To be sure he was the first Ma­ster after the Removing of the School to the West-spittle. For undoubtedly there were Masters before that, as the School was so much earlier founded; And accordingly in the Manuscript above-mentioned, 'tis said, that when Mr. Burras gave over the the Free-School in St. Nicholas Church-yard, the Mayor and 24 more sent for Mr. Fowberry to Hull, and he came and first taught in the Writing-School, until the Chapel of St. Mary's Hospital was made into a School-house, and the Election-house was at the East-end of it, which had been the Vestry; But Sir George Selby who was then Mayor, set up his Arms on the East-Window, made a Traverse over it, and sent to London for 24 Chairs of Mustinie Leather, and there is the Election, tho' the Mayor lays down his Staff in the old School.

THE Masters of this Hospital and School since Robert Fowberry, M. A. 1599, are

EDWARD Wigham, Clerk.

FRANCIS Grey, Clerk, 1630.

Walk. Suff. Clergy. AMOR Oxley had the Free-School of Newcastle upon Tyne, in the Time of the Great Rebellion, and was both Sequestred and Plunder'd.

NICHOLAS Hall, B. D. 1649.

JOHN Bewick, Clerk, 1669.

RICHARD Garthwaite, M. A. 1671.

JOHN Cotterell, M. A. 1690.

THOMAS Rud, M. A. 1699. now Rector of Washington, in the County of Durham.

[Page 35] JAMES Jurin, M. A. 1709/10; now M. D. and F. R. S.

THE present Master of this Hospital is the Rev. Dr. Thomlinson, D. D. Prebendary of St. Paul's in London, and Rector of Whickham in the County of Durham, near Newcastle upon Tyne; who is also Master of the Chapel of St. Thomas the Martyr, upon the Bridge-end, and the Hospital of St. Mary Magdalen, at the Barras-bridge. He became Master in the Year, 1715. The present Master of the School is the Rev. Mr. Edmund Lodge, who has under him Two Ushers; the Rev. Mr. James Ferne, and the Rev. Mr. George Carr. The three last mentioned Gentlemen have each of them Appartments where the Hospital was; which is a pleasing Situation, and in some of the best Air of this Town. There is also in this Place a Writing-School, erected by the Town for the Children of Freemen: The present Master, Mr. Henry Benson, has also an Appartment here.

THE Town allows to the Master 50 Pounds per Annum.

TO the first Usher 35 Pounds per Annum.

TO the second Usher 32 Pounds 10 Shillings per Annum.

THE Writing Master is allowed 35 Pounds per Annum.

THIS Town allows to every one who goes from the Grammar-School, to either University, 5 Pounds per Annum.

IN our Lady's Chapel, which still carrys it's Name along with it, having the Effigies of the Virgin Mary, with her Son upon her Knees, at the East-end of it, is now the Place of Electing Mayors, Aldermen, Sheriffs, and the o­ther Officers of the Town, and is therefore now called the Election-House; but formerly the Mayor was chosen in the Writing-School. This is constant­ly done the Monday after Michaelmas Day, which is therefore in this Town called Michaelmas Monday.

Sect. V. EARL of WESTMORELAND's House.

NEXT to St. Mary's, on the same Side of this Street, is a very old Buil­ding, which was lately the Dwelling-house of Sir Robert Shaftoe, Kt. Recorder of this Town, now the Property and Dwelling-house of Mr. Charles Clark, Junr. It has the Magnificence and Grandure of Antiquity in it's Looks, but what it has been formerly I could never find out. Grey tells us, That in this Street the Earl of Westmoreland had his House, which indeed is true. It was built by the Baron of Bywell and Bolbeck, about the 9th of Edward the Third. Much about the same Time he built a House within the Bounds of the Castle, for the Defence of it, as may be seen in our Account of the Castle. This House in Westgate was called Bolbeck-Hall; but afterwards, upon it's Founder's being created Earl, which was in the Reign of Richard the Second, in the Year 1398, when Ralph Nevil, Lord of Raby was created Earl Mar­shall, it got the Name of Westmoreland-Place in Wesgate. Some have conje­ctured, that Sir Robert Shafto's House, above-mentioned, was part of it, and [Page 36] indeed it looks much liker a Part of such a Building,E. Westmor­land's house. than any other Thing remaining thereabouts. I am sure much more so than the House which is supposed to have been it, which I am told was the House opposite to the West End of Denton-Chair, which the Rev. Mr. Cowling lately lived in, and which belongs to Mr. Ord.

HOWEVER, be this as it will, whether it was this House now mention­ed, or whether Westmoreland-Place reached from this House to Sir Robert Shafto's, including it, which some have conjectured; yet this is certain, that it must have been hereabouts: for Nevil Tower is directly behind this Piece of Ground we are speaking of, which is a sure Token this must be the very Place, because, whoever in the Town built a Tower at their own Expence, it was generally nigh them for their own Security. Thus the White-Fryers; the Brethren of St. Mary's Hospital; the Brethren of St. Austin, &c. Built their Towers over against their Monasteries, for their own Safe-guard and Se­curity. But what I think puts it out of Dispute, that Sir Robert Shafto's House was no Part of it, is that in the Eleventh of Queen Elizabeth, upon the Attainder of Charles, Earl of Westmoreland, this House where Mr. Cow­ling lived, was in Charge, which the other never was, before the Auditors; and in the Third of Charles the First, was sold to the Citizens of London.

Lib. de re­bus Novo­cast.IT was afterwards in the Tenure of James Bertram, and after that in the Tenure of Robert Bertram.

OPPOSITE to this House, is a Chair or Lane, called Denton-Chair, which leads into the Groat-Market, Middle-street, &c.

THIS Street is continued 'till you come to the Street leading Westward to the Postern, and Eastward to the Back-raw: From thence the Street changes it's Name, and is called Tuthill, 'till you come to the Tuthill Stairs, which lead into the Close.

Sect. VI. BAILIFF GATE.

ON the East-Side of this Street, is a Street facing the West-side of the Castle, called Bailiff Gate, which is said to have got it's Name from the Coming of the Fellons, of the County of Northumberland, along that Street at­tended by the County Bailiffs. They came, as is said, to the Westgate, then down an old Way, close by the Out-side of the Town-Wall, and so in at the White-Fryer Gate, from whence they went along Bailiff Gate, and so were conveyed in at the Postern-Gate, on the West-Side of the Castle, opposite to this Street of Bailiff Gate. This is only Traditional, and has been therefore deny'd by the Town of Newcastle. Grey's Account is, That at this Gate the Prisoners were brought in, who were taken in Times of Hostility with Scot­land, and carry'd from thence privately into the Castle, where the Goal for the County is now.

THE same Author also tells us, that this Street of Bailiff Gate, formerly belonged to the Castle and County of Northumberland. But I imagine, had this been true, the King would long ago have had his Right. The Town of [Page 37] Newcastle indeed has sometimes been made uneasy about that,Bailiff-gate. but still had it surer fixed to her, as her undoubted property.

IN the Year 1649, the Year after the King was beheaded, there was a Sur­vey taken of Bailiff Gate, &c.

IN the Year following, April 25th, 1650, an Order was sent down for an­nulling and vacating the Survey made, &c. which was as follows;

25th April, 1650. At the Committee of Parliament in removing Obstructions, in the Sale of the Honours, &c. of the late King, Queen, and Prince.

WHEREAS the Mayor, Burgesses, and other the Inhabitants of the Town of Newcastle upon Tyne, did prefer their Petition unto this Committee, complaining, that certain Persons employed for the Common Wealth, have returned a Survey to their Trustees, for Sale of the late King's Lands, of and concerning di­vers Lands, Tenements, and Hereditaments within the said Town of Newcastle, and Precincts thereof, to the Value of 2000 l. 3 s. 4 d. per Annum, for which they have paid only a Fee Farm Rent to the Crown; and in which the Petitioners declare, they had an indoubted Inheritance: Further complaining, that the Premisses in Question, were not in the Possession of the Crown, Anno 1635, neither was there returned any special Matter in the Survey, whereby to entitle the late King to the same: The Petitioners being the undoubted Proprietors and Owners of the Things in Question. And whereas upon reading of the said Petition, and the Certificate of the Trustees and Survey, made in pursuance of an Order of this Com­mittee, grounded upon the said Petition, and the hearing of this Cause this Day be­fore the Committee, concerning the Premisses in Question, in the Presence of Council for the Common Wealth, as also the Council in behalf of the said Town: The Coun­cil in behalf of the Common Wealth did acknowledge, that the said Survey was returned without any just Grounds: And forasmuch as the Council for the said Town of Newcastle were ready to produce their Charters and Evidences, whereby to make it evidently appear, that the Inheritance of the Premisses in Que­stion, have been for 300 Years and upwards in the Possession of the Petitioners and their Predecessors. It is therefore this Day order'd by the Committee, that the Original Survey returned of divers Messuages, Lands and Tenements, and Here­ditaments, within the Town of Newcastle upon Tyne, and Precincts thereof, held by the said Town, now remaining with the Trustees, Surveyor, and Register, for Sale of the said Lands, be annull'd and void; and is hereby vacated, and that no fur­ther Sale, or other Proceedings he had, or made thereupon; and that an Entrance of this Order be made upon the said Survey, and a Memorandum be made thereupon: That the said Survey is vacated, to the Intent that the Mayor, Burgesses, and o­ther Inhabitants of the said Town of Newcastle, may not for the Future be questi­oned or molested concerning the Premisses mentioned in the said Survey; and the Transcript of this Order be likewise entred with the said Trustees, and Contracters for Sales of the said Lands.

  • JAMES CHALONER,
  • NATH. RICH.
  • JOHN GARLAND,
  • THO. LISTER,
  • JO. JONES.

AT the East-End of this Street, upon the Right Hand, is a Way to the Long Stairs, which lead into the Close, and on the left you go to the Side, and St. Nicholas Church, &c.

THE South Side of this Street is mostly the Property of Mr. Joshua Douglas.

White-fryers.Sect. VII.

LOWER down a little, almost at the End of the Street, on that same Side of the Street, where are the Houses of George Grey, Esq Mr. An­derson, &c. was the House of the Carmelites, or White Fryers.

THE Carmelites are so named from Mount Carmel in Syria: They were first brought into England by Ralph Freeborne, and by him placed near Alnwick, at a Place called Holm in a Wilderness; which was in his Opinion likest to Mount Carmel in Syria, the Place they came from. The first Provincial of this Order was Ralph Freeborne himself, who began his Rule in the Year 1240, and ruled 14 Years. He lies buried at Alnwick. Fuller's Hist. of Ab­bies.

Speed.THis Monastery was founded by King Edward the First, and dedicated to St. Mary. I have met with little else relating to them, except that they were a Prior, seven Fryers, and two Novices, and that they surrendred Jan. 10th, 30th of Henry the Eighth: It was valued at 9 l. 11 s. 4 d.

THERE are not now the least remains of this Priory to be seen, except a small Part of the ancient Building facing the White-Fryer Tower Walls.

KING Henry the Third, by his Letters Patents, dated the 20th of No­vember, in the 51st Year of his Reign, at the Instance of Robert de Bruce, de­dit Fratribus de Penitentia, I Christi quandam Placeam Vocatam Constable Cal­garth, in Villa Novicastri super Tinam, & quae contigua erat Clauso & Placeae Dictorum Fratrum in eadem Villa.

THIS Place called Calgarth, which the above-mentioned King gave to the Brethren of the Pennance of Jesus Christ; otherwise called Brethren of the Sack, was supposed by Sir John Fenwick, to be in the Close of the White-Fryers, late in the Holding of Sir Ralph Delaval, then called by the Name of Domus Fratrum de Penetentia I Christi. P. 13. de Reb. Nov.

FROM the White-Fryery, this Street leads to the Tuthill Stairs, which is a Passage into the Street called the Close.

CHAP. V. NEWGATE-STREET. Of the upper and higher Parts of this Street, towards the North.

THE old Part of Newgate, together with that Part of the Wall, leading as far as Ever-Tower, being visibly older than the other Towers, and the Rest of the Wall; is a sure Sign that when the Walls were began, this Part of the Town was then inhabited.

IT is probable that hereabouts was the ancient Monkche­ster, where the Monks and religious Men inhabited. This appears from a Place in this Street, viz. That Row of Houses which stands almost in the Middle of the Street, called to this Day the Huckster's Booths: For the People who dwelt in these Houses, were Hucksters, and supplied the Religious Houses with Provisions. There is a Tradition still among the Inha­bitants of this Part of the Town, That in old Times there were many Mar­kets between the Newgate and the White-Cross; nay, some of them, according to the Tradition they have received, will Point out the very Ground where such and such Markets were.

NOW this, I think, is a sufficient Proof that these Upper Parts of the Town were first inhabited by the Monks, the Lower Parts, as far as the Ca­stle Yard, were the Habitations of the Town's People: The Castellum, or For­tification having been thereabouts, from the Beginning of Hadrian's Wall, as we are inform'd, by a Mr. Horse­ly of Mor­peth, who dy'd a few Months ago, a little before the publishing of his Roma­na Britannia, the Book re­ferr'd to. This Gentle­man was of he was of the Publick Grammar-School of this town, and afterwards studied in one of the Scotch Colleges. He was Ma­ster of Arts there, and Fellow of the Royal Society. He is supposed to have been equally Knowing with any in his Time, in the British Roman Antiquities. Rom. Britt. 132. late ingenious Author. He says there must have been a Station in this Town, for these Reasons: If we consider the Importance of this Place, it's Distance from the first Station at the End of the Wall, and the Turns the Wall makes, (especially at the East Side of the Town) in Or­der to it's passing through the Heart of it; we can scarce Question but there has been a Station here: And it's old Name of Monk-Chester seems to put it out of Doubt. The former Part of the Name is taken from the Settlement of the Monks in this Place, and the latter Part from the Word Castra, which is a pretty sure Mark of a Station: Besides the Name Newcastle, (given first [Page 40] to the Castle it self, and then to the Town) has been thought to imply (as in other Instances) that there was an old Vid. Chap. of the Castle. Castle or Fort there before, and near the Place where the new One was erected. And as this Newcastle was built by Robert, Son of William the Conqueror, the old Castle must have been undoubtedly Roman. And some Years ago, a Coin of Vespasian was found near the Castle, as I was told by the Person himfelf that found it.

THE same learned Author goes on thus: The next Thing is to determine the Boundaries and Situation of this Station, which I persuade my self may be done. I hinted before that there was a Traditionary Account of the Walls passing through St. George's Porch, near the North West Corner of St. Ni­cholas Church. But it is certain that the Line of the Wall lies a little to the North of this End of the Church, and I think has not touched this Porch, tho' it comes near it. And therefore I conjecture, that the Wall which has passed through this Porch, must have been the East Rampart of the Station; for the Supposition will reconcile these seemingly differing Accounts: And if a Line be erected Perpendicular to that of Severius's Wall, so as to pass thro' that Porch, and be continued along the Brow of the Hill, at the Head of the Side, 'till it meet the Line of Hadrian's Vallum, near the East End of Balygate, and not far from the Castle. This Line seems to answer so well in Respects, that I cannot much Doubt it's having been the Eastern Limits of the ancient Station: For this brings the Station near to the Castle, which probably has been built a little more to the South East, in order to bring it nearer to the Top of a Steep Hill. And fixing the Eastern Boundary of the Station here, leaves a Plain and Level Area for the Station it self, and with­out it, a Descent towards the South and the River, for the Town to stand upon, which might extend it self to the Bridge, supposing the ancient Bridge to be near the same Place where the present one stands: From which Bridge the ancient Town and Station might probably take the Name of Pons-Aelii This Eastern Boundary of the Station must at that Time have been near­er the River, than it is now now; since 'tis certain, that the River formerly flowed farther up towards this Part of the Town. The Position of the Ea­stern Rampart of the Station being thus determined, the other Boundaries may be also defined; for the Distance here between the Lines of the Walls seems to be about six Chains; and it is not much to be questioned, but the two Walls here, (as in other Cases they frequently did) have fallen in with the Northern and Southern Ramparts of the Station; so that these six Chains have been the Breadth of the Station. And if we suppose the Station to have been of a middle Size, we must make it a Square, and allow six Chains for the length of it. If at this Distance another Line be drawn equal and Parallel to the former, and between the Lines of the Wall, it will be the Western Boun­dary of the Station, as the two respective Parts of the two Walls make the Northern and Southern Limits. And upon this Supposition, a Line drawn from the Foot of the Flesh-market to Baily-gate, near the east End of it, will be the Eastern Limits of the ancient Station. That Part of the Vallum which reaches from Baily-gate to Mr. Ord's House, will be the Southern Limit; and a Line drawn from hence, to that Part of the Line of Severus's Wall, which is about thirty Yards East from the End of Rosemary-lane, must be the We­stern Boundary, and the Part of Severus's Wall included between this and the Foot of the Flesh-market, remains for the Line of the Northern Rampart.

Sect. I. Of St. ANDREW'S CHURCH.

NIGH to Newgate, on the West-side of the Street, is St. Andrews Church. This is questionless the oldest Church of this Town, not only from it's [Page 41] Situation, which is that Part where was principally the ancient Monkchester; St. Andrew's Church. but also from the Model and Fashion of it's building, it appearing in these Things older than the others.

De Reb. Novocast'.IT is supposed to have been built by one of the Kings of Scotland. David King of Scots is mention'd in particular as it's Founder; but for what Rea­son I know not. Indeed, that David, who dy'd in the Year 1153, was a great Benefactor to Churches and Religious Houses, and he is said in particular to have founded in this Town Collier Ec­cles. two Religious Houses, but there is not a Word of his being the Founder of St. Andrew's, which in all Probability would as soon have been taken Notice of, and handed down to Posterity, had it been true; as the Building of two Religious Houses. But besides, if St. Andrew's be the oldest Church in this Town, and this I think ought to be allowed for the Reasons already given, as also from the constant Tradition of it's being so, then it is undoubtedly older than St. Nicholas's, and if so, it must have been built before the Time of Henry the First; for St. Nicholas's was built in that Reign, at latest; and therefore it will follow, that this Church of St. Andrew's was built before David King of Scots was born.

I am therefore rather inclinable to believe, that it was founded by the Town's People, and the Religious Houses, which at that Time of Day were chiefly in those higher Parts of the Town.

THERE were three Chanteries belonging to this Church; one of which was dedicated to our Lady, which was of the Yearly Value of 6 l. 12 s. 10 d. No Deed of Foundation is shewed, but however it must at least have been founded in the Reign of Edward the First; for in the latter End of that Reign, in a Charter which one Roger Amyas granted to one Stephen—, it is order­ed, that he shall have such a particular Booth for the Term of 30 Years: Pro­vided he pay so much to the Tyne Bridge, and to the Altar of St. Mary in the Church of St. Andrew's in Newcastle upon Tyne.

IT had a House of Seven Shillings per Annum belonging to it; it abutted on the North, next to the New-gate and on the East on the High-street, on the West on St. Andrew's Church-yard, and on the South on a Tenement, which in the Nineteenth Year of the Reign of Queen Elizabeth belonged to Robert Hallyman.

THERE belonged also to this Chantery a House, and a Rig lying in the Croft, value 6 s. 8 d.

ANOTHER was the Chantery of the Trinity, which was of the yearly Va­lue of 4 l. 2 s. 10 d. There is no Deed of Foundation to be seen of it; But however to give some Account of it's Founder, it may not be amiss to Copy what I writ a few Years ago on Parchment, and presented to the Church of St. Andrew's.

To the Rev. Mr. John Ellison, Minister, And To the Church-Wardens of St. ANDREW's in Newcastle upon Tyne,Mr. Christopher Rutter, , • Mr. Fenwick Lambert, , • Mr. Thomas Shevil. , and • Mr. Percival Bell. 

GENTLEMEN,

I Had the Curiosity lately to search among the Old Writings in your Vestry, for that famous Indulgence, which is said to have been Vid. Grey. p. 12. granted to your Church by the Pope for Nine thousand Years to come; but found no such Thing.

[Page 42]THERE is however another Indulgence which discovers a Piece of Anti­quity, relating to your Church, which I chused to acquaint you with in this Manner, that the ancient Name of a Part of your Church, now worn out of the Memories of our Towns-men, and almost intirely lost, might again be brought to light.

THIS Indulgence was granted in the Reign of King Richard the Second, in the Year 1392, an Age in which Indulgencies were common, and when they were of Particular Service towards the Building or repairing of Chur­ches. For at that Time of Day, when the Building, or repairing, or adorn­ing of a Church was requisite, an Indulgence was granted for such a Term of Years or Days, to all such as would be assisting in the Things aforesaid; by which Means many Churches have been built, repair'd and beautified, and accordingly this Indulgence of yours was granted partly for the same End, that the Church of St. Andrew's might be kept in sufficient Repair: For it promi­ses an Indulgence or Pardon for Qui ad re­parationem, seu orna­mentum sive emendatio­nem Eccle­siae Sancti Andreae vil­lae Novoca­stri super Tynam, lin. 50 Indul. — Quadraginta dies Indul­gentiae con­cedimus. 40 Days to every one, who shall con­tribute towards the repairing or beautifying of the Church of St. Andrews in Newcastle upon Tyne; and then follows the Antiquity design'd.

THAT whoever Ac Capellae Sanctae Tri­nitatis in parte Aqui­lonari ejus­dem Eccle­siae aurum argentum, &c. Lin. 60 Indulg'. offers or sends, or Causes to be sent to the Chapel of the Holy Trinity in the Northern Part of the same Church, either Gold, Silver, Vest­ments, Books, Chalices, or any other Ornaments, which are wanting to the aforesaid Chapel, or Altar, or Image of the Holy Trinity, which is in the same Chapel. — Or who shall fall down upon their Knees before the Image of the Holy Trinity, aforesaid, and pray for the Health of Sir Adam de Athol, Knt as long as he lives, and for his Soul after his Decease, and for the Soul of the Lady Mary his Wife, whose Body lies buried in the same Chapel of the Holy Trinity, shall, as often as they perform those Things, or any of the Things before-mention'd, have the Benefit of a Forty Days Indulgence.

NOW from this it is observable, that that waste Place in the Northern Isle, which opens into the Quire must be the Chapel here spoken of. For there lies the Body of Sir Adam's Wife, which is said in the Indulgence to be buried in the Et pro Anima Do­minae Mariae sponsae suae cu­jus Corpus in eadem Capel­la sanctae Tri­nitatis Qutes­cit. Lin. 9. Indulg. Chapel of the Holy Trinity; as also the Body of Sir Adam himself. The Building itself is after the Manner of Chapels, which were added to parish Chur­ches; and it is still observable, that at the Top of the North Window in the Chapel there seems to be a Picture of the Holy Trinity, represented according to the Superstition of these Times by the face of an old Man, our Saviour upon the Cross, and the Figure of a Dove; it having been always Customary in these Times, not only to have the Image of the Saint set up to whom the Church was dedicated, but also to adorn the Windows with it.

I am of Opinion, that Sir Adam de Athol himself was the Founder of this Chapel, and my Reasons for it are these,

1st, It was customary formerly for People of better Figure, to build a small Chapel, at a convenient Part of their parish Church, that they might have a convenient Place to Worship God in, or that it might be a burial Place for them and their Families. Now it is evident, that this Chapel of the Holy Trinity is such a one. For if you suppose the Chapel away, the Church it­self will appear exactly uniform; which shews the Chapel has been added to the Church; and as Sir Adam and his Lady are buried in it, is pretty clear that They were the Founders. It may also be presumed, that He built it, be­cause it seems to have been built when Sir Adam liv'd: For it is said in the Indulgence to want Books, Chalices, Vestments, &c. which implies it, at that Time, to have been a new Chapel. And besides, Indulgences were gran­ted towards the adorning of Churches or Chapels, immediately after they were built. This Chapel was therefore built a little before the granting of this In­dulgence, which was when Sir Adam was living. And as his Wife was then [Page 43] dead and buried in this Chapel; so she seems to have been the first that was buried in it, and consequently her Husband must have built it.

BUT my last Reason, I think, makes it amount to a Demonstration. It may be observed in all Indulgences of this Kind, that it was not only requir'd of the People to offer Church Ornaments, but also to put up Prayers for the Founder. Thus for Instance; in an Indulgence granted in the Reign of King Henry the Eighth for the Repairing and Maintaining of the Church and Convent at Kirby Belers in the County of Leicester, it was not only required that Money should be given, but that they should also say a Stavely Ch. Hist. pa. 100. Pater Noster with an Ave for the Souls of Sir Roger Beler and Alyce his Wife, Founder and Foundress.

NOW from hence it is plain, that Sir Adam and his Lady must have been the Founder and Foundress of this Chapel, because they alone are men­tioned in this Indulgence, and Prayers were to be put up for them, as they were for Sir Roger and his Lady just now mentioned.

THUS I think I have found out the ancient Name of your Chapel, and who was the Founder it. It may perhaps be somewhat Satisfactory to those who are curious in those Things, may retrieve the antient Name of your Cha­pel, and establish the deserved Remembrance of it's Founder. But be this as it will; as I have only these Things in View in making these Observations; so I hope you'll be so good as to accept of them, and allow them a Place a­mong the Parchments of your Church.

I am, Gentlemen, Your most humble Servant, Henry Bourne.

THE Indulgence on which these Observations are founded are granted by Oswald, the Bishop of Candida casa, which is in Gallaway in Scotland; it is dated at York 1392, the 12th Year of his Consecration.

THE 3d Chantery belonging to this Church was dedicated to St. Thomas. This I learn from an Account I have met with of a House in this Street, which is said to have belonged to the Chantery of St. Thomas, in the Church of St. Andrew's.

IT bounder'd on the West by St. Andrew's Church end, and on the North by a House, which in the Reign of Q. Elizabeth was in the Possession of Richard Atkinson, and on the East by the High-street, and on the South against the Church-Style. It was valued at ten Shillings per Annum.

THAT there was such a Chantery in St. Andrew's (notwithstanding the two former are supposed to be all belonging to this Church) is further evident, because I meet also with an Account which says, that the Chantery of St. Thomas in St. Andrew's, had an Orchard belonging to it, which paid a yearly Rent of Three Shillings and Four Pence to it; but where it stood is not men­tioned. It was occupied by Sir Robert Brandlin.

THAT there were Lands belonging to the Chantery of St. Mary in this Church, which were situated in this Street, is certain. But where to fix them at this Time of Day is pretty Difficult. But wherever they were situa­ted, [Page 44] there was an House situated near them, which paid to the Priory of Hex­ham Six Shillings per Annum.

THIS is mention'd when Rowland was Prior, in the Year 1490, in the Reign of Henry the 7th.De Reb. Novocast'.

I meet with no account of the Lands belonging to the Chantery of the Tri­nity, except that of an House, situated in a Place called le Cow-garth in this Newgate-street, which paid one Shilling per Annum to this Chantery, and a Tenement in Westgate which paid 4 s. 4 d.

THE Altar of this Church is very pretty and decent, it was beautified a few Years ago at the Charge of the Parish.

THERE is at the West-end of this Church a Beautiful Gallery, which was built in the Year 1711, at the Charge of the Parish. In the Year 1726, the Old Porch was taken down, and the present one built,

  • Mr. Christopher Rutter
  • Mr. Fenwick Lambert
    • Church-wardens.
  • Mr. Thomas Shevil
  • Mr. Percival Bell Church-wardens.

IN the Year 1726, the old Bells were taken down, and the present 6 were procured by a Collection made in the Town for them. The Corporation gave towards them 50 l. They are exceeding Tunable, and have a soft melodious Sound.

THE Floor of the Body and the Isles of this Church, were flagg'd in the Year 1707, which before they never had been.

BURIED in this CHURCH. In the Chancel, near The Altar.
  • JAMES Ogle of Causey-Park, Esq upon whose Tomb-stone, which is of Marble, is the following Inscription.
  • Hic Jacet Jacobus Ogle de Causey-Park in Comitatu Northumb. Armiger. Antiquitate Domus, Ut pote ex prenobili Baronia Ogle, de Ogle Stirpe Recta Linea Oriundus, vere clarus; Sed invicta in perduelles, Grassentibus nuperis Civilibus Bellis, animi Magnitudine, Constantia in Regem etiam in Tristissimo Authoritatis Deliquio Fidelitate in Superiores Observantia, in Pace Comitate, in Inferiores Benignitate, quae omnia Justissimo Titulo sua vocare poterat, Multo Illustrior. Obij Dec. 4 die Anno (que) Dom. 1664.
  • THOMAS Harrison, Barber Surgeon, who died Feb. 24th, 1679.
  • THOMAS Bednel, 14 July, 1701.
  • CHRISTOPHER Barker, Octob. 26, 1718.
  • ROBERT Tod, Oct. 5, 1730.
In TRINITY-CHAPEL.
  • SIR Adam de Athol, and his Wife Mary, under a very large Stone; which has originally been plated very curiously with Brass. The Remains of their Effigies are still to be seen. He is pictured at length in Armour, having a Sword on his left Side, and a Dagger on his Right. Her Effigies hath no thing remaining of it, but from the Shoulders upwards. The Arms of both their Families are still to he seen on the Tomb-stone.

    [Page 45]WHAT remains of the Inscription, is this, Hic Jacent Dominus Adamarus de Atholl, Miles, & D'na Maria, Uxor ejus quae obiit Quarto decimo Die Men­sisAnno Domini Millesimo TricentesimoAnimarum propitietur.

    THE remaining Part of the Date is broken of: However Grey, in his Ac­count of this Stone, tells us, It was in the Year 1387, which is very proba­bly the Time that his Wife died; for it is a Mistake that he died then, as appears by the Indulgence above-mentioned.

  • JOSHUA Twizell, June 23d, 1718.
  • THOMAS Winship, Tanner, September 2d, 1695.
  • CHRISTOPHER Rutter, Baker and Brewer, March 17th, 1714.
  • MRS. Elizabeth Davison, Mother of Mr. Thomas Davison, January 20th, 1724, aged 84 Years.
  • NICHOLAS Fenwick, Merchant, 14th December, 1725.
  • MR. John Dawson, Taylor.
  • MRS. Barbara Davison, January 8th, 1730.
NORTH ISLE.
  • ROBERT Mills, House-Carpenter.
SOUTH ISLE.
  • DOROTHY Harrison, May 27th, 1702.

LEGACIES left to the POOR of the Parish of St. ANDREWS.

LEFT by Sir William Blackett, Bar't, One Thousand Pounds, the Profits, &c. of the Whole, in three Parts, equally to be divided, and yearly to be disposed off at Christmas, as followeth, viz.

ONE third Part to binding of Apprentices to Trades.

ONE other third Part to poor House-holders.

THE remaining other Third to a School-Master to teach 30 Children.

 l.s.d.
LEFT by Madam Margaret Allgood, in Moneys, now in the Hands of Mr. John Ord, the Sum of1000000
PAYING yearly to the Church-Wardens at Christmas the Sum of0060000
LEFT by Mr. Thomas Davison, to be yearly paid in De­cember, out of the Merchant's Company0010000
LEFT by Mr. Timothy Davison, to be yearly paid at Chri­stmas, for 15 poor Freemen or Widows, not Merchants; out of the Merchants Company, the Sum of0010000
LEFT by Mr. Andrew Aldworth, to be paid at the Feast of St. Andrew yearly, out of a House in Akewell-gate, in the Pos­session of Edward Wetherly, the Sum of0010000
LEFT by Henry Hilton, Esq to be paid yearly at Christ­mass, for four poor Widows, the Sum of0040000
PAID out of the Town of Newcastle, at two Payments, viz. half at Michaelmas, and half at Lady-day0040000
The NAMES of such who pay out Rents.
 l.s.d.
JOHN Barnes10000
Mrs. Harrison00304
Robert Bell10400
Mary Bell01000
John Dawson01600
Robert Bell00410
Widow Oliver Darn Crook00308
Widow Dixon Darn Crook00504
Anthony Hixon, Huxter-Booths00208
John Stobbart Big-market00409
John Makepeace Big-market00409
Mrs. Cooke, Groat-Market01304
Mr. Pigg00006
Robert Davison Pilgrimstreet00200
Nicholas Waugh Pilgrimstreet00400
William Varey00200
Mrs. Fetherstone, Pilgrim-gate00200
Nicholas Robson00300
Richard Kirkhouse00300
William Stephenson, Sidgate00200
Widow Tate00206
Widow Forster00206
Robert Armstrong00300
Richard Robinson00304
John Stephenson00400

CHARITY-SCHOOL.

THE Charity-School of this Parish was founded by Sir William Blackett, Bart. and the first Boy entred the School in January 1707/8: The Num­ber of Boys it was founded for is Thirty. About the Year 1719, the late Sir William Blackett, the Son of the Founder, began the Cloathing of them.

THE Vicar of this Town, and the Church-Wardens have a Power of putting in the Master of this School, if their Choice is approved of by the Heir at Law.

THE Sallary of the Master is 20 l. per Ann. but out of it he pays School-Rent.

MINISTERS.

THE Minister of this Church is, as the Minister of St. John's, Curate and Lecturer. As Curate, the Vicar pays him 3 l. per Annum, and as Lecturer he is paid by the Town 100 l. per Annum. The other Minister is the Assistant, and is paid by the Minister of the Parish.

THE Register of this Church has been so badly kept, that I meet with the Names of none of it's Ministers in it but one, viz. one Stephen Dockwray, An­no 1656; who succeeded him I know not, but one Pottinger was Minister here, and I remember Mr. Richards and Mr. Shadford.

JOHN Ellison, A. M. of University-College, Oxon. the present Minister.

Curates I am told, were Mr. Perkins, Mr. Straghan, Mr. Stoddard, Mr. Lyon, Mr. Simkoe.

[Page 47] WILLIAM Wilkinson, the present Assistant Curate, A. M. of Christ-College, Camb.

THE Crown pays to the Minister of this Parish Five Pounds two Shil­lings and Six-pence per Annum.

THE Town was wont to give to this Church 12 Gallons of Wine every Year at Easter.

THE Town allows the present assistant Curate of this Church 10 Pounds per Annum for reading Prayers to the Prisoners in Newgate.

THE Prayers of this Church in the Worky-days are on Wednesday and Fri­day in the Morning.

THE Sacrament is administer'd here every 4th Sunday in the Month.

Sect. II.

ON the East-side of this Street, near the New-gate, is a Tenement which was given by Mrs. Alice Belaysys to University-College in Oxford. The Site of it is thus describ'd; Situatum est infra praedictam villam juxta Novam Portam ejusdem villae in quo quidem Tenement' Thomas Gray Lidster modo inha­bitat, (viz.) Inter Tenementum Roberti Daunt ex parte Boreali, & vicum Ducen­tem ad fratres minores ab Ecclesia Sancti Andreae ex parte australi; But the same Writing goes further, ac Tria Tenementa & duo Tofta, inde in simul situantur in eodem vico ducente a dicta Ecclesia Sancti Andreae usque Fratres praedictos, &c.

OPPOSITE to St. Andrew's Church is a Lane, which leads to Pilgrim­street Gate, called the High-fryer-chare, because of a Fryer which was in it, and because it is higher up in the Town than the other Fryer Chare.

IN coming down this Street Southward from the Church of St. Andrew's, on the Right-hand, is an ancient Street called Darn-crook; in which Street were some Wastes and House belonging to the Nuns of St. Bartholomew, as there were in almost every Street in the Town. Opposite to this Place, on the East-side of this Street of Newgate is a little running Water which goes into Lorkburne. This little Bourn is taken Notice of in the Account of the Ward belonging to Ficket-Tower, and is called there, a Bourn beside Lam-place, that runneth towards Lorkburne. To this Bourn it is, that the Prisoners belonging to Newgate, have Liberty to walk during the Time they are not confin'd to the Goal.

FROM thence, going still Southward, the Street changes it's Name from Newgate to Huxter's -Booths; for thereabouts it was that the Huxters lived, as has been observed above, who supply'd the Religious-houses, and the other Peo­ple of this Part of the Town with Provisions. A Part of these Houses are still to be seen, they stand by themselves almost in the middle of the Street, nigh the White-cross. Grey says, That this Part of the Town was in his Time called the Huxters-Booths; that is, as I understand him, from the Bourn above­mentioned, to those Houses.

OPPOSITE to the Booths was a great Gate that led into the Black-fryers. It was situated between the House of William Wilkinson, Smith, and the House of Elizabeth Bell, Widow. The Place now is the Entrance of a Garden be­longing to Mr. Nicholas Baily of Newcastle. This I think is evident from a Grant of a Tenement from the Black-fryers, now in the Hands of Mr. Tho. Mar­shall, [Page 48] of this Town; wherein in describing the Situation of the Tenement, are these Words; Sicut jacet in villa antedicta prope crucem vulgariter vocatam Whytt­cross inter magnam portam praedictorum Fratrum e Regione praedictae crucis ex parte Boreali, &c. The Tenement described is the House lately rebuilt by Mr. Mar­shall aforesaid. Since this Conjecture from the Writing above-mentioned, I have met with the Manuscript of Mr. Milbank, which very much corroborates it. The Words are these; the Gate-way to this House was from the White­cross, and was called when our Author liv'd, Wind's -hole. The way was a narrow Lane to the Fryery, which in his Time was joining to Mr. Brandling's Ground, whereupon there was, (and still is) a Mill.

THE Business and Trade of this upper Part of the Street, is chiefly that of the Tanners.

WHITE-CROSS.

FROM the Huxters Booths to almost the Nun-gate, the Street changes it's Name again, for the Name of the White-Cross, because of a Cross which stood there; to which, from the Huxster's Booths, was the ancient Market of this Town, as there is at this Day at the Cale-Cross. This Cross was pulled down that very Night after Sir George Selby dyed, and King James, of Sacred Memory, March 24.Milbank, M. S.

ON the Place where the Cross stood was a Cistern for receiving of that Water, which goes by the Name of the New-Water. This was lately pulled down, and there is now in the Place where the Cross was, a Pillar of Stone­work. The Street hereabouts is wide and spacious, and having in it several good Buildings; such are the Houses of William Carr, Esq Thomas Clennell, Esq &c. There are four Fairs kept in this Street in the Year, one at Lammas for Horses, and another at St. Lukesmass for Horses: The other two are for Black-Cattle, the one on All-Souls Day, and the other at Martinmas.

NEAR the Cross is a Lane called the Low-fryer-chare; it got the Name of Fryer-chare from it's being situated near the Black-fryers, and of the Low-fryer-chare; because it is not so high up the Town as the other Fryer-chare.

IT was also called formerly Shod-fryer-chare, because the Black-fryers were also called Shod-fryers.

Sect. III. NUNN-GATE.

FROM the White-cross Southward the Street leads to the Nun-gate, which gives Name to a small Part of the Street thereabouts.

THIS Gate was not the Great-gate of the Nunnery, but a back Passage to it; for Nunnery was situated lower down, as may still be seen by the Ruins of some old Walls in their Garden: Probably it was situated about the Place where Mr. Hebdon, a few Years ago built a large House, which is built upon the same Ground where the old stone House stood, inhabited by Mr. Green, which seem'd to have been built out of the Ruins of this Nunnery. Here it was that King Speed Hist. Henry, the First founded the Hospital of St. Bartholomew the Apostle, for the Nuns of Newcastle. In H. Rex, &c. Sciatis me concessisse & Charta confirmasse monialibus Sancti Bartholomei de Novo Castello super Tynam omnes Donationes, quae eis rationabiliter factae sunt: Videlicet, Ecclesiam Sancti Bartholomei, & Hospitale Sanctae Mariae de prae­dicto Castello & Terram, &c. Et XX acras de scala & IX Tosta & Horseyol, & duos Solidos de Gatis­heved & omnia alia quae eis Rationabiliter data sunt vel Dabuntur. Quare volo & firmiter precipio, &c. Test' Will. de Mandavilla, Reginald. de Curtnay, Willielmo de Scuttevilla, Thomas de Bardulf, Robert de Scute­villa, Richard Gosfard. a Charter granted them some Time [Page 49] after they were founded,Nuns of St. Bartholow. which I take to be a Charter of King Henry the Second's, they had all the Things bestowed upon them, confirmed: The 20 Acres mentioned in the Charter I have not been able to find out. A Manu­script of Mr. Joshua Douglas's says, that probably all that Side of the Street, from the Nuns to Newgate, belonged to these Nuns, for their Garden reaches to High-fryer-chare. This indeed is highly propable, for the nine Tofts or Crofts confirmed to them in this Charter, seem to be a good Proof of the Truth of it.

IN the Garden which belong'd to them, call'd still the Nun's -Garden, is a low Square Vale, at the South West Corner of which Tradition says, there is a Vault, which leads to the Black-fryers. Mr. Richmond, the present Stew­ard of Mr. Blackett, told me, he had seen the Entrance into it; but that now it was fill'd up with Earth.

De rebus Novocast'. STELLA, an ancient Village, situated on the South of the River Tyne, belonged to the Nuns of this Hospital,

ON September the 12th, 2d of Charles the Second, after the Death of Sir Nicholas Tempest, of Stella, of the County of Durham, Knight and Baronet, it was found that he dyed possessed of the Manour of Stella, in the Parish of Ryton, in the County of Durham, which had been Part of the Lands of the House or Monastery of St. Bartholomew in Newcastle upon Tyne. The following Writing, for which I am obliged to the worthy Dr. Hunter, of Durham, and from which I had this Confirmation, is as follows.

120 Die Septemb. Anno 20 Caroli Regis Compertum post Mortem Nicholai Tempest, de Stelley, in Com' Dunelm' Milit' & Baronet' Quod fuit Seissatus de & in Manerio de Stellingley, al's Vocat' Stelley, situat' Stant' & existen' prope aquam de Tyne in Parochia de Ryton, in Ep'tu Dunelm' cum suis Juribus, Membris & Pertinenciis Universis: Ac de omnibus terris arabilibus Pratis, Pas­cuis, Pasturis, Boscis, Subboscis, Communiis, Piscationibus, Mineris Carbonum, infra solum & Fundum ibidem comoditatibus, Prosicuis, emolumentis, & aliis advantagiis, eidem Manerio de Stellingley, al's Stelley, pertinentibus Vel Ullo modo Spectanti­bus Nuper parcello Possessionum Domus five Monasterii S. Bartholomei infra Villam Novi Castri super Tinam Dissoluti.

THERE were, as is observed above, Wastes and Houses, in the Side, in Pilgrim-street, in the Flesh-market, Oat-market, Darncrook, and almost all the Town over, which belonged to the Nuns. The Piece of Ground above the Town-moor, called from them the Nun-moor, belonged to them. Mr. Riddle's House and Chapel in Gateside, (commonly called Gateside-house) was, according to some, a Sort of Infirmary for the Nuns of this Hospital.

DR. Smith, in his Ecclesiastical History of Bede Ubi nulla remanent antiqui mo­nasterii Ut­tani: vestigia Resentio­ris quidem, Pulcherri­niam vide­mus Capel­lum vix ad­huc Ruinis Succumben­tem. Tra­ditio est, cel­lam fuisse sanctimoni­alium No­vocast rentium, licet ejus Historiam apud Autores vix inveneris. Smith in Not' Bed. lib. 3. C. 21. says, that in Gateside there are no Footsteps remaining of the ancient Monastery of Uttanus; but of a more Modern one, we see a most beautiful Chapel, which is not as yet in Ruins. There is a Tradition that this was a Cell of the Nuns of Newcastle, tho' we cannot readily Quote any Authority for it.

THE Tradition mention'd by these Gentlemen appears somewhat probable, for in the Charter before-metioned the Nuns of St. Bartholomew received two Shillings annually from this Cell.

IT is also not improbable but St. Mary's Hospital in Westgate, was also a Cell to this Nunnery: It appearing plainly from the Charter above, that St. Mary's was dependant on it.

[Page 50]AND it's said in Leland, that the Hospital of St. Mary in Newcastle upon Tyne was given to the Use of these Nuns. Lel. Vol. 1. p. 41.

IT appears also from the Charter just above-mentioned, that among the other Things confirmed to this Hospital, the Church of St. Bartholomew was one. I may be ask'd therefore where this Church was Situated. In answer to this I dare venture to say, that there never was any such Church in this Town; I mean a Parish Church: And therefore it must have been the Church or Chapel belonging to this Hospital; and consequently must have been seated where the Hospital was. And this appears to be the rather true, because we have no other mention made of their Chapel, and because when it is mention'd in the Charter it is said to be given them, that they may serve God in it.

IN the Year 1355, Thomas Hatfield, Bishop of Durham, confirmed to the Nuns of this House, the Abbess they had elected; her Name was Alice Davill. She had been not duly elected, and therefore he made the Election void; but however, as she was a Person the Convent very much approv'd of, the Bishop of his special Favour order'd her to preside over them.

THIS was granted at Aukland, May the 9th, in the Tenth Year of his Consecration.

DR. Hunter of Durham obliged me with the following Copy of the Bishop's Grant.

THOMAS permissione divina Dunelm' Episcopus Religiosae mulieri Dominae Aliciae Davill salutem gratiam & Benedictionem. Licet Electionem quam di­lectae Filiae moniales & Conventus Domus seu Prioratus S. Bartholomei in villa Novi Castri super Tynam nostrae Dioces' de Te in Priorissam earundem & Domus suae praedictae fecerant; propter peccatum in forma ejusdem Cassaverimus, justitia sua­dente Considerantes tamen quod praedictae moniales in Te tanquam habilem & idoneam ad regimen Prioratus praedicti Direxerant vota sua, Te in Priorissam Domus praedi­ctae de nostra speciali gratia, praeficiamus & ordimamus, Tibi (que) curam & regimen ejus­dem committimus, cum suis juribus & pertinentiis universis, In cusus Rei, &c. Dat' in Manerio nostro de Aukland die nono Mensis Maii Anno Dom' 1355, Et nostrae Consecrationis Decimo.

IN the Year [...]ladox Firm. Burg. p. 4. 1486, the Prioress and Convent of St. Bartholomew, granted Land to Thomas Lokwood and his Heirs, ad Feodi Firmum.

AGNES Lawson, the last Prioress, surrendred up this Convent the 3d of January, 154 [...], 31st Henry 8th, and had a Pension of 6 l. per Annum allowed. It was valued 26th of Henry 8th at 36 l. 10 s. per Ann. Dugdale 37 l. 4 s. 2 d.

IT was after this in the Hands of the Lady Gaveere, who sold it to Mr. Robert Anderson, who pulled down all the Houses therein; it being a Recep­ticle for Scots and Unfreemen, and he bought it on Purpose to dislodge them. He also bought the Garden, and after having raised the Dean that went thro' it, he made it a very pleasant Place; it was from Corner to Corner Eleven Score Yards.Milbank M. S.

IT is now the Property of Walter Blackett, Esq and is a very delightful Meadow.

Sect. IV. SCOTCH INN.

OPPOSITE to this Nunnery, on the West-side of the Street, is an an­cient Building with a large Gate, which has formerly been a Piece of stately Workmanship. De rebus Novocast'. This Sir Robert Shaftoe, Recorder of this Town, was of Opinion, was the House of the Earls of Northumberland, and was cal­led the Earls Inn. Grey says it was called the Scotch Inn; because it was there that the Kings, Nobility, and Lards of Scotland lodged in Time of Truce or League with England.

THIS Street from the Scotch Inn, or thereabouts, takes the Name of the Bigg and Oat-market; because in the Middle of it is kept a Market of Bigg and Oats every Tuesday and Saturday. Here the Street is broader than almost a­ny Street in the whole Town, and adorn'd with good Houses: At the End of it Southward, is a very great Market for Poultry, which gives the Name of the Pullen-market to this Part of the Street.

CHAP. VI. Of the Division of this Street.

HAVING now got as far as the End of the broad Part of this Street, we have the Breadth of it divided into Three Streets. The first Street, or that on the Right Hand, is called the Meal-market, the Oatmeal-market, or Groat-mar­ket, because of the Oatmeal, which is sold there every Day of the Week, but more especially on the Saturday's. What Name it had formerly, or whether it ever had any other, I cannot say; but this is certain, that it has re­tained it's present Name above two hundred Years.

AT the Upper-end of this Street, or the North-end of it, is the Post-house of this Town, which is adorned with a pretty Area of a Quadrangular Figure, together with a good Garden: It belongs to Mr. James Bell, the present Post-Master.

AS you descend from this End of the Street, you turn the Corner of this House upon the Right Hand, into a Lane called the Pudding-chare, or as I have seen it in some ancient Writings Budding-chare, which leads into West­gate. There were three Houses in this Lane which paid an Annual Rent to the Chantry of the Holy Trinity in St. John's Church; one paid 20 d. per Ann. another 2 d. and the third 4 d. The Lane called Rosemary-lane, which turns upon the Right Hand as you go down this Chare into Westgate, was former­ly called St. John's Chare; because it led from the Pudding-chare to St. John's Church.

IN this Lane there is a Waste, which belong'd to the Nuns of St. Bartholo­mew, boundering on the West on the Common Gutter, and on the North on the Chantery Lands.

THIS Waste is the Ground where are now the Gardens of Mr. James Bell, Post-master, and the old Houses on the North of these Gardens, now the Property of Mr. Ralph Trotter, are the Chantery Lands here mentioned.

[Page 53]OVER against the South-end of this Lane, which so leads to St. John's Church, is an ancient Alms-house, in which live seven poor People, who have a small Allowance at Christmas from the Town.

HAVING past the East-end of the Pudding-chare, we go Southward, which leads into the Body of the Meal-market, aforesaid.

THERE is little in this Street worth taking Notice of; the Houses ge­nerally are very ancient and mean, the few good ones are one which was built the last Year by Mr. Prior of this Town, Cooper, an ancient Inhabitant in this Street; and another the House below it, which belongs to Mr. William Harrison, Dyer, which was formerly the Dwelling-house of Timothy Robson, Esq Alderman of this Town, and sometime Mayor; and some few others.

IN the Reign of Queen Elizabeth a House in this Street belonging to one William Penrith, whose Site is now lost, paid an annual Rent to the Chante­ry of our Lady in the Parish Church of Long-benton.

Rom. Bri­tann. p. 132.THE late Mr. Horsely tells us of another House in this Street, in the laying of the Foundation of which, about 15 or 16 Years since, the Masons struck upon the Roman Wall at each of the Side Walls, so that the Building stands cross the Roman Wall. But where the Site of it is he does not say.

TOWARDS the lower end of this Street is a large open, where is a Mar­ket every Saturday for Wool, below this again a Lane leading into Westgate, called Denton-chare.

PASSING by the East-end of this Chare, we come to the ancient Iron-Mar­ket, which was opposite to St. Nicholas Church, in that Piece of Ground lead­ing to the Side, from the House of Mr. Charles Clark, and from below the Shop of the late Mr. John Kellot, Smith.

ANOTHER Street which the broad Street of the Big-market is divided in­to is the Middle-street, so called because it stands in the Middle of the Streets in this Part of the Town; for it has on the East-side of it the Flesh-market and Pilgrim-street, and on the West, the Oatmeal-Market, and Westgate.

THIS Street bore anciently three Names, the upper Part of it was called Skinner-gate, the lower Part of it Spurrier-gate and Sadler-gate.

IT is a Street as it was in Grey's Time, where all Sorts of Artificers have Shops and Houses.

WE come now to the 3d Street, (viz.) the Flesh-market, at the upper-end of which is the Upper-dean-bridge, so called because of the two Bridges which cross this Dean or Rivulet, which runs into Lorkburne, this is that which is the higher or upper one.

HAVING passed by the West-end of this Bridge we go Southward into the Flesh-market.

GREY tells us, ‘that when the Good-men of this Town began to trade and venture beyond the Seas, they built many Ships, and procured a Char­ter from the Kings of England to carry Fells beyond Seas, and to bring in foreign Commodities. The Staple was then at Antwerp in Brabant, called Commune totius Europae Emporium. The Charter of the Merchant Adventurers was the first Charter that was granted by any King to any Town.’

‘AFTER this Grant this Town flourished in trading, built many fair Houses in the Flesh-market, then called Cloth-market. The Merchants had [Page 54] their Shops and Ware-houses there, in the Back-parts of their Houses: The River of Tyne flowed and ebbed, where Boats came up with Commodities; which Trade of Merchandizes continued many Years.’

‘IN this Street the Mayors, Aldermen, and richest Men of the Town lived.’

PART of the present Flesh-market was called the Cloth-market, and part of it the Flesh-market and Fish-market. An Anonymous Authority says, that in Pil­grim-street was the Market for Fish, that came up to the Nether-dean-bridge. But this in my Opinion is a Mistake. For in the Ward belonging to Mor­den-Tower, part of it is over the Flesh-shambles from the North West Church Stile of St. Nicholas, unto the Fish-shambles. Consequently the Fish that came up to the Nether-dean-bridge must have been sold in the Flesh-market, not in Pilgrim-street. The Shops of this Street are at present the Shops of Artificers, and the Houses either chiefly Coffee-houses or Taverns, or Ale-houses.

IN some ancient Writings belonging to that worthy Gentleman The Rev. Mr. Smith of Melsonby, I find that several Houses in this Street paid an an­nual Rent to University College in Oxford; one of them in particular nigh the Church Yard paid 6 s. in the Year 1304, and so did many Houses in the o­ther Streets of this Town to the same College. Several of these were the Gift of the Lady Ann Bellasys to this College, An. 1444.

THE Flesh-market in this Street, which is held every Saturday, is a very great Market, not only as it supplies the Town in a great Measure, but as it also furnishes the Country for several Miles round. Besides there are several Thousands of People belonging to the Coal-Works, such as Staith-Men, Wag­goners, Pit-Men, Wrights, Keel-Men, &c. all which for the most part have their Provisions from this Market.

THE Provision also for Ships, is got from this Market. And this indeed must be very considerable, when there will be sometimes 3 or 4 hundred Sail in at a Time.

THERE are 2 Fairs kept in this Market every Year for 8 Days together, the one begins upon Lammas Day, or the First of August, which Grey calls a remarkable Time of the Year, but why he calls it so, he gives no Account. This Fair is in some Measure of an ancient standing. For we meet with some Account of it in the Reign of King John, mentioned in a Charter of another of our Kings. The Words are these, Insuper cum Dicti Burgenses per Chartam praefati Joannis Regis habeant in dicto Burgo unam feriam singulis annis per duos dies duraturam, viz. in vigilia & in die Sancti Petri ad Vincula, &c.

NOW from this it appears that King John granted to the Town of New­castle, Lammas Fair, which he order'd should be held on the Eve of St. Peter ad Vincula, and upon the Day it self. Blount in Verb. I suppose Grey calls it a remark­able Time of the Year, as well because it is called Lammas Day as because it is called St. Peter advincula. As it is Lammas Day, it is a remarkable Time of the Year, for it is called Lambmas because Lambs were not then fit to eat, they were grown too big: aliter from the Sax. III asmaesse q. d. Loaf­mas, because on that Day the English made an Offering of Bread made with new Wheat. On this Day it was, that Tenants that held Lands of the Cathe­dral Church of York (which is dedicated to St. Peter ad Vincula) were bound by their Tenure to bring a Live Lamb into the Church at High-mass on that Day.

IT is also a remarkable Time, as it is St. Peter ad vincula, and as it is called the Gule of August, from the Latin Gula, a Throat. The Reason is set down in Durand's Rationale (Lib. 7. c. 19.) who says, that one Quirinus, a Tribune, hav­ing a Daughter that had a Disease in her Throat, went to Alexander, then Pope [Page 55] of Rome, the 6th from St. Peter, and desired of him to borrow, or to see the Chains, that St. Peter was chained with under Nero; which being obtained, the said Daughter kissing the Chains, was cured of her Desease, and Quirinus with his Family baptized. Tunc dictus Alexander Papa hoc Festum in Calendis augusti celebrandum instituit, & in honorem beati Petri Ecclesiam in Urbe Fabrica­vit, ubi vincula ipsa reposuit, & ad Vincula nominavit, & in calendis augusti dedi­cavit. In qua, Festivitate Populus illic ipsa vincula hodie Osculatur. So that this Day being before called only the Calends of August, was upon this Occasion termed indifferently either St. Peter's Day ad Vincula, from the Instrument that wrought the Miracle; or the Gule of August from that Part of the Virgin whereon the Miracle was wrought. Blount in verb.

AFTER this Fair granted by King John, it was by a succeeding King, or­dered to begin at the same Time, and to continue 28 Days. When it was reduced to the Time above-mentioned I have not met with.

THE other Fair held in this Market is at St. Lukesmas, it was granted to the Town in the Reign of Henry the 7th. During the Time of these Fairs there is a Court of Pye-powder. All the Privileges and Power that a Court Leet can have, is granted to this Court. Grey 17.

TOWARDS the South-end of this was a large Cross, with a lead Cistern at the Top of it to hold the Water, called the New-water; which was pulled down about 3 Years ago. Beyond this, at the End of this Street is the Cor­diners Meeting-house.

CHAP. VII. Of St. NICHOLAS Church.

AT the End of the Flesh-market, on the South-side of the Cordiners Meeting-house, just now mentioned, stands the Church of St. Nicholas. It is a very grand and magnifi­cent Building, being in length 79 Yards, two Foot, three Quarters; in breadth 24 Yards, two Foot, three Quarters; and of an Height equal and proportionable. Who it was founded by I have no where met with, but if a Conjecture may be made, it was perhaps founded by Henry the First: But be this as it will, it is certain it is as old as his Days. For Henricus Rex, Angliae Archiepisco­po Ebor' & E­piscopo Du­nelm' & Vi­cecomiti de Northumber­landa Salu­tem. Sciatis me dedisse & concessisse Deo & San­ctae Mariae de Cairlelia & Canonicis e­jusdem loci, Ecclesiam de Novo Castello super Tynam & Ecclesiam de Newburna & Ecclesia quas Ricar­dus de aurea Valle de me tenet' post obitum ejus, & Ricardus, & Clerici qui ipsis Ec­clesiis deser­viunt, recog­noscant de Canonicis ipsius & fa­ciant eis ser­vitium quod mihi facere solebant & Post obitum eorum redigantur Ecclesiae in Manus Canonicorum. Ita quod Clerici qui eis De­serviant, habeantinde Necessaria & Canonici habeant reliquum. Dugdal. Monast. P. 2. p. 73. it was this King that gave it to the Church and Canons of St. Mary's of Carlisle; and al­so at the same Time the Church of Newburn.

IN a Book belonging to the Vestry of St. Nicholas, it is said to be founded in the Year 1091; but what Authority this Account depends upon, I know not; however it is somewhat probable.

THE ordering of the Vicarage was not 'till some Years after. The King indeed in his Charter makes a general Provision of what is necessary for the Minister of this Church, but does not say what that is. This was done by Hugh Pudsey, Bishop of Durham, as Thomas Hatfield, one of his Successors gave it under his Episcopal Seal at Auckland, June 6th, 1360. For having searched the Register of Hugh, his Predecessor, he found, that he with the Con­sent of the Prior, and Convent of Carlisle, order'd the Vicarage of St. Nicholas in Newcastle upon Tyne, on the Day before the Conversion of St. Paul, or January 24th, 1194, and gave the Vicar, for the Time being, a Portion, or Maintenance, viz. all the Fruits, annual Profits, Oblations, Obventions whatso­ever, of what Kind or Thing soever they were, belonging to the Church of St. Nicholas, except the great Tythes belonging to the same Church.

THIS Account I am obliged to Dr. Hunter of Durham for, who favoured me with the following Transcript from Bishop Hatfield's Register.

THE Steeple of this Church is in Height 64 Yards, one Foot, three Quar­ters. It is supposed, as to it's Model, to be the most curious in the whole Kingdom: It is adorned with 13 Pinacles, and a large and beautiful Lanthorn, which stands upon two very bold Arches of Stone, and at the Top of the said Lanthorn stands the tall Spire, by much the largest belonging to the Stee­ple. On the Corners of the old Tower, upon which stands the said beautiful Structure, are four Images, one at each Corner, cut at length in Stone. 'Tis said that Ben Johnson, the Poet, made the following Lines upon it.

My
Ex Grey.
Altitude High, my Body, four Square,
My Foot in the Grave, my Head in the Air,
My Eyes in my Sides, five Tongues in my Womb.
Thirteen Heads upon my Body, four Images alone;
I can direct you where the Wind doth stay,
And I tune God's Precepts twice a-Day.
I am seen where I am not, I am heard where I is not,
Tell me now what I am, and see that you miss not.

IT is said, and indeed confessed, that Robert Rhodes was more probably the Builder of this Steeple than any other Person: His Name being at the Bottom of the Belsry.

Orate pro anima Roberti Rhodes.

BUT who this Robert Rhodes was, is more uncertain. Grey tells us, that Ro­bert de Rhodes was the Lord Prior of Tinmouth, in Henry the 6th Days. And an Anoymous Authority seems to suggest, that this Robert Rhodes was one of the Bishop of Durham's Justices; because in a Register at Durham, there is mention made of Robert Rhodes, ab Anno 1486, ad An' 1537, and Agnes his Wife.

BUT neither of these seem to me to be the true one. I am rather inclina­ble to believe, that one Robert Rhodes, Esq who lived in this Town in the Reign of Henry the 6th was the true Person. We meet with this Gentleman's Name in an Inquisition that was taken at the Castle of Newcastle, in the 25th of Henry the 6th, 1447; for two of the Gentlemen present were Roger Thorn­ton, the Son of the famous Benefactor of that Name, and Robert Rhodes, and they were also first mentioned after the Mayor.

Lib. de Reb. 11.IN the Year 1451, we meet again with the same Person, who together with the said Roger Thornton, by an Instrument bearing the same Date, con­veyed some Houses for the Use of a Chantery Priest to pray for the Soul of [Page 58] William Johnson. We have also a further Account of this Gentleman in the Year 1500, for an Instrument bearing that Date informs us, that the Mayor and Inhabitants of Newcastle, gave a Tenement to a Priest to live in, who was to pray for the Soul of Robert Rhodes and Agnes his Wife, at the Altar of St. John the Baptist, and John the Evangelist in St. Nicholas Church.

NOW when it is considered that this Robert Rhodes, I am speaking of, was so great a Man in this Town, that he lived in the same Reign in which Grey acknowledges the Lanthorne to have been built, namely in the Reign of Hen. the 6th, and that he was so commemorated by the Mayor and Inhabitants af­ter his Decease, I dare say it will appear much more probable that he was the Builder than either of the others.

THERE might indeed be, and probably there was a Robert Rhodes, Prior of Tinmouth, in the Reign of Hen. the 6th, but I never met with any Bene­factions of the Priors of Tinmouth to the Town of Newcastle. They were on the contrary mortal Enemies to this Place, and always jealous of it's encreas­ing Glory. As to the other Robert Rhodes, one of the Bishop's Justices, he was alive in the Year 1537, which was the 29th of Henry the 8th, and so comes too late to build a Steeple in the Reign of Henry the 6th. I have been told by a worthy Gentleman, and one who is curious in these Things, that this Robert Rhodes, so taken Notice of by this Town, was Escheator.

THERE is a traditional Story of this Building I am now treating of, which may not be improper to be here taken Notice of. In the Time of the Civil Wars, when the Scots had besieg'd the Town for several Weeks, and were still as far as at first from taking it, the General sent a Messenger to the May­or or of the Town, and demanded the Keys, and the Delivering up of the Town, or he would immediately demolish the Steeple of St. Nicholas. The Mayor and Aldermen upon hearing this, immediately ordered a certain Number of the chiefest of the Scottish Prisoners to be carried up to the Top of the old Tower, the Place below the Lanthorne, and there confined; after this they returned the General an Answer to this Purpose, That they would upon no Terms de­liver up the Town, but would to the last Moment defend it: That the Steeple of St. Nicholas was indeed a beautiful and magnificent Piece of Architecture, and one of the great Ornaments of their Town; but yet should be blown into Attoms before ransom'd at such a Rate: That however, if it was to fall, it should not fall alone; that the same Moment he destroyed the beautiful Structure, he should Bath his Hands in the Blood of his Countrymen; who were placed there on Purpose either to preserve it from Ruin, or to die along with it. This Message had the desired Effect. The Men were there kept Prisoners during the whole Time of the Siege, and not so much as one Gun fired against it.

THERE were only five Bells originally belonging to this Church, but of late Years the Number is encreas'd to Eight. The great Bell, call'd the com­mon Bell, was sent to Colchester to be new cast in the Year 1615, it weighed 3129 lb. They are very large ones, have a bold and noble Sound, and yet exceedingly sweet and Harmonious. The three latter Bells were given to this Church by the Corporation.

IN the Year 1723, William Ellison, Esq Mayor, and Robert Sowersby, Esq Sheriff, the Steeple was repaired at the Expence of the Corporation.

AT the North Door of this Church, it is observable, that the large Flagg which is the first Step into the Church, is cut all along the Surface with un­even Lines, in Imitation of the Waves of the Sea. This is a silent Remem­brancer of the Saint the Church is dedicated to; for St. Nicholas, the Bishop of Myra, who lived in the Time of Constantine the Great, is so famous among some for his Miracles and Apparitions by Sea, that he has merited the Title of the Patron of the Sailors.

[Page 59]THERE were no fewer than 9 Chanteries belonging to this Church, which are valued at 48 l. 4 s. 6 d. per Annum.

THE Chantery of St. John the Baptist, and St. John the Apostle, was on the In Eccle­sia Sancti Nich. de di­cta villa No­vicastri ad altare Bore­ale Joannis Baptistae & Joannis A­post. & E­vangel. lib. Cart. p. 121. North-side of the Church. It is said to have been founded by Robert Rhodes and Agnes his Wife, and licensed by King Henry the 6th. If there be any Truth in this, it is that he was a third Founder. He allowed a Priest 7 l. 7 s. 10 d. per Annum to pray for his Soul, and the Soul of his Wife; and the Town of Newcastle, as it is said above, out of Respect to his Memory, gave the Priest a House to live in; but it's a Mistake that this Chantery was not founded before, for Richard de Emeldon who had been above 12 Times Mayor of Newcastle, was permitted by Letters Patents from King Edward the 3d, to build upon a Piece of vacant Ground, over against the Chapel of St. Thomas the Martyr, that he might present it to Three Chaplains, to procure their Prayers for him whilst he was living, and after he was dead, and also for the Souls of his Wives and his Father and Mother, &c. every Day at the Al­tar in St. Nicholas, which was dedicated to John the Baptist, and John the Apostle and Evangelist. This Gentleman died about the 6th or 7th of the Reign now mentioned, as is clearly gathered from the Authority above; and the Letters in which this Chantery is mentioned bear Date the 6th of this Reign: and therefore it is a Mistake to suppose this Chantery founded in the Reign of Henry the 6th, which was almost an hundred Years after.

THE Priests set a-part to attend this Altar, were every Day to pray for his Soul, and the others above-mentioned; and by an Order from the Then Ri­chard, Lord Bishop of Durham, the Chaplains for the Time being, were obli­ged on the Anniversary Day of his Death, every Year for Ever, to celebrate his Memory with a Solemn tolling of the Bells, and devoutly singing by Note in the Evening of the Anniversary, and on the Anniversary itself, and solemnly to sing Mass for the Soul of Richard himself, and the Souls above-mentioned, and the Souls of all the Faithful departed. And after Mass, one of the Chaplains was to distribute among an hundred and sixty poor People, the Sum of Six Shillings and Eight-pence, and this annually for ever. This, together with several o­ther Things, was ordered by Richard, Bishop of Durham, in the 3d Year of his Consecration, Anno 1335, which was, with all other Things mentioned in the Charter, confirmed by Edward the 3d, in the 10th Year of his Reign.

THUS then it appears that this Chantery is of a much older Date than the Reign of Henry the Sixth. But this is not all; Richard de Emeldon, was but a second Founder of this Chantery: It boasts still an higher Antiquity, and is said to have been founded by Laurence of Durham, who was Prior of Durham in the Year 1149, which, by the way, is a further Proof of our Conjecture of this Church's being founded by King Henry the First, or in that Reign at latest.

2. THE Chantery of St. Catherine was founded by William Johnson and I­sabel his Wife, in the Reign of Edward the Third; it's yearly Value was 6 l. 15 s. Roger Thornton, the Son of Roger the great Benefactor, in a Deed dated December the 20th, 1451, is made, together with some others, a Trustee by a Feoffment of Roger booth, the surviving Feoffee of William Johnson, who gave the Lands and Tenements therein mentioned, for the better Support of a Perpetual Chaplain to attend the Chantery of St. Catherine, which is said to be ab Alano-Durham ab antiquo sundat:

IN the Reign of King Henry the 6th, one Robert Mitford was the Chap­lain of this Chantery, who succeeded Peter Angram, a former Chaplain.

3. ANOTHER Chantery of St. Catherine, was founded by Nicholas and John Elliker. The Deed of Foundation is said to have been imbezeled by Richard Wallas, late Incumbent there: The yearly Value 3 l. 14 s. 8 d. which arose [Page 60] out of certain Tenements situated in the Close, Castle-mote, in the Side, and in Sandgate.

4. THE Chantery of St. Peter and St. Paul, was founded by Adam Henro­ther, and Allan Hilton, and licenced by King Henry the Fourth; the yearly Value 4 l. 13 s. 4 d. which arose from some Tenements in the Close, Side, and Westgate.

5. THE Chantery of St. Thomas, was founded by John Thapecape, and li­cenced by Edward the Third; the yearly Value of it was 4 l. 12 s. 6 d.

6. THE Chantery of our Lady, whose Deed of Foundation is said to have been imbezeled by Thomas Ireland, late Incumbent there. But however we may give some Guess at the Time of it: For Lib. Cart. p. 48. there is mention made of it, and of two Shillings a Year given to it, in a Charter which was signed by Nicholas de Carleol, then Capital Bailiff of the Town, in the Year 1328; and in the Year 1305, Peter Graper, then Mayor of the Town, gave Et cuidam Capellano celebranti divina ad al­tare Beatae Mariae Virgi­nis in Eccle­sia Beatae Nicholai de Novo Ca­stro duos So­lidos argenti &c. Lib. Cart. two Shil­lings a Year to the Chaplain that waited upon the Altar of the blessed Vir­gin Mary, in the Church of St. Nicholas. So that it must at latest have been founded in the Reign of King Edward the First. That large Porch on the South-side of the Church, or the South-Cross of the Church, as it is called, is the Chantery of St. Mary's; the yearly Value of it was 5 l. 16 s.

7. STEPHEN Whitgray, and Mary his Wife, founded the Chantery of St. Margaret, in the South-side of the Church of St. Nicholas, in the Reign of Richard the Second. I take that Square Place, called Bewick's Burial-place, now the Burial-place of Utrick Whitfield, Esq near the Porch-Door of this Church, to have been this Chantery.

THEY constituted John de Etell, Chaplain of this Chantery, to pray for their Souls, and the Souls of the faithful departed. The Value of this Chan­tery was 10 Marks yearly, which was raised out of certain Tenements, viz. out of one near the Cale-cross, and from a Tenement which paid somewhat to the Chantery of St. Eligie, in the Church of All-Hallows in this Town; and from another Tenement near the Cale-Cross, which lay near Grundon-chare; and from another Tenement over-against St. Nicholas Church; and from ano­ther Tenement in Hackergate, near the Chapel of All-Saints; and from a Te­nement near Kirk-chare; from a Tenement in Pampedon; from a Tenement in Broad-chare; from a Garden near Pampedon-burne; from a Tenement in Cale­garth in Broad-chare, &c.

THE Chaplain of this Chantery, after the Decease of the Founder, was to be chosen by the Vicar of St. Nicholas, the Mayor and Bailiffs of this Town, and Four of the honest Parishioners of St. Nicholas. Witnesses of this Char­ter, were Laurentius de Acton, Mayor of this Town, Henry de Carliol, Thomas de Gryndon, John de Newbiggyng, John de Appreton, Bailiffs, Thomas de Hering­ton, John de Coket. Given at Newcastle the 20th of April, Anno Dom. 1394, in the 17th of Richard the Second.

8. THE Chantery of St. Cuthbert, was founded by Thomas Harrington and William Redmarshall, in the Reign of Richard the Second; yearly Value 7 l. 3 s. 2 d. which was raised out of certain Tenements situated in the Sandhill, Side, and Close.

9. THE Chantery of St. Loye, was founded by Robert Castell, in the Reign of Edward the Third: Yearly value 4 l. 10 s. which arose from Tenements in the Close, Westgate, and from a Close without the West-gate, called Goose-green-close.

THE Font belonging to this Church has either been built or repair'd by Robert Rhodes the Builder of the upper Part of the Steeple; for his Coat of Arms (and probably his Wife's too) is quartered on the Basis of it.

[Page 61]ON the North-Isle, answering to the Nave or Body of this Church is a large Gallery, which is chiefly for the Use of the Boys of the Grammar School. At the East-end of which an Addition was made to it by the Rev. Dr. Tom­linson, for the Use of his Successor, the Lecturer of St. Nicholas, and his own Family.

IN the Rood-loft, or the Gallery which seperates the Chancel from the Nave of the Church, now called the Organ-loft, is a Double Organ.

ON the North-side of this Organ, is a Porch called Saint George's Porch, which was built, as Grey informs us, by one of the Kings of this Land. It has undoubtedly been one of the ancient Chanteries; for several of them were si­tuated thereabouts, between the Gallery and this Porch; as some others of them were in St. Mary's Porch, or the South Cross of the Church. It hath under it a Vault, and there is on the North Windows the Head of the King, the Father of the Lady which St. George delivered from the Dragon.

ON the East Windows is still remaining some of the painted Glass. There is particularly the Picture of Saint Laurence, and some Skin-marks, and Coats of Arms. It has been a beautiful little Place: It is ceiled at the Top, and has been surrounded with carv'd Work in Wood; some of which still remains, to speak the Curious Art and commendable Expence of the Days of old.

THE Chancel of this Church is a very noble and stately one. The Altar was in the Year 1712, very sumptuously and yet decently adorn'd. At the [...] Top, is the Word Jehovah, and under that, in a Glory, a Part of the Name of Lord which he himself proclaimed before Moses. The Lord God merciful and gracious. What is below that again, see in the Altar of All-hallows.

The PLATE for the Altar.

TWO Flaggons; Three Challices and Covers; Three Salvers; A small Spoon Drainer.

ON the South Side of the Chancel is the Vestry, above which is the Library. The Keeper of which is the Rev. Mr. Stoddard, Assistant Curate of this Church.

IN this are several good Books, and some Manuscripts: But it is not at pre­sent any way comparable to what it will be hereafter, either for Variety or Number of Books of all Kinds of Learning; The worthy and learned Dr. Tomlinson, being expected to leave at his Death, to this Library, his whole Study, which is perhaps (considering the vast Number of Books, their be­ing so well chosen, so neatly and curiously Bound, their great Variety, being of all Manner of Subjects, treating of all Arts and Sciences) a Library out­done by few private Gentlemen in the Kingdom.

Grey 10.IN this Church are many sumptuous Windows, but that in the East sur­passeth all the Rest in Height, Largeness, and Beauty. This Author says, that there were in this Window the Twelve Apostles, and the seven Deeds of Charity: I suppose he Means, painted upon the Glass. He tells us also, that this Window was built by the Beneficent Roger Thornton, the Elder, and that there was this Inscription on it. Orate pro anima Rogeri de Thornton, & pro animabus Filiorum & Filiarum. At present there is nothing remaining of these Pictures, but two Heads, which, if we may Judge of the Rest by them, will speak them to have been very Tall, and curiously done: The Inscription is intirely gone.

AN Indulgence of 40 Days was granted by twelve Foreign Bishops, 1359, and confirmed by Thomas Hatfield, Bishop of Durham, to all such (having re­pented and confessed their Sins) as performed the following Things, viz. If [Page 62] they came to this Church to Mass, to Prayers Morning or Evening, or other Divine offices, on the Feast of it's Patron, and the others below written, viz. on the Feast of Christmas-day, the Circumcision, the Epiphany, Easter-Eve, the Ascension, Pentecost, Trinity, Corpus Christi, the Invention and Exaltation of the Holy Cross, St. Michael the Arch-Angel, the Nativity and Decollation of John the Baptist, the blessed Apostles Peter and Paul, and all other Apostles and E­vangelists; the Commemoration of All-Souls, and on the Feast of the Dedica­tion of the said Church of St. Nicholas; and also on the Feasts of St. Stephen, Lawrence, George, Martin, Dionysius, Blasius, Mary Magdalen, Catharine, Aga­tha, Margaret, and in the Octaves of all Feasts, and on every Lord's -Day and Sabbath through the Year. They also were intitled to this Indulgence who follow'd the Body of Christ, and the Holy-Oyl, when they were carryed to the the Sick; or who went round the Church-yard, praying all the while for the Dead; Those also were intitled who assisted in the Repairing of the said Church, or Gifted it with Lamps, Books, Chalices, Vestments, or any other necessary Or­naments; or gave, or left to it by Will, Gold, Silver, or any Part of their Substance: Those also shared in it, who on the Sundays said their Prayers when the Bell rung at High Mass, at the consecrating of the Body of Christ; and lastly those who devoutly prayed for the Soul of Catherine de Camera, whose Body was buried in the said Church, and for the healthful Estate of John de Camera, Gilbert de Dukesfield, and Agnes his Wife, as long as they lived, and for their Souls when they were dead.St. Nicho­las Vestry.

Some of the Inscriptions on the Tombs, Monuments and Graves of this Church.

The East-End.

ON the North-East Corner of the Church, is the Tomb of Sir George Selby. His Effigies and that of his Lady are at length, resting upon Pil­lows, with uplifted Hands. On the South of the Tomb are the Effigies of his Children in a Posture of Prayer, kneeling with raised Hands. Upon a Marble Stone, placed in the Wall, a little above the Tomb, is the following Inscription,

Georgius Selby Eques auratus ab antiqua & clara Selbeiorum de Selby in Comitat' Ebor. Familia oriundus, quater hujus villae preator, Vicecomes Co­mitat' Palat' Dunelm'. Serenissimi Regis Jacobi Hospitio & Servitio Nobilita­tus. Ob Lautum certe & affluentem perpetuo apparatum, & Liberalissimae Mensae communicationem merito passim celebratissimus. Margaretae Uxoris Joannis Selby de Twisell Militis filiae consorcio apprime Faelix. Ex qua sus­cept' quinque filios, immatura morte Sublatos & sex filias superstites; Quatuor ante illius obitum nuptas; Margaretam primam Gulielmo Balasys de Morton, Elizabetam Secundam Joanni Delavale de Dissington, Equitibus Auratis; Bar­baram tertiam Roberto Delavale Haeredi Radulphi Delavale de Seaton Equitis Aurati, Isabellam quartam Patricio Curwen de Workington Armigero, & duas innuptas Dorotheam & Mariam, per totum Vitae Cursum Lautissima usus fortuna. In hoc vere beatus, quod sub indubitata Spe plenae peccatorum om­nium remissionis, & suae ad eternam vitam Resurrectionis, spiritum in manus Domini commendavit in coque placide obdormivit 300 Martij 1625 An' Aetatis 68. Corpus Sepultum jacet in Crypta sub hoc Tumulo charae uxoris cura extructa.

Amoris, Honoris & Memoriae ergo.
Under the Coat of Arms. — Mortuus vivo.

Within the Pallisadoes, upon a Flat Marble Stone — t [...]u have Mercy of the Sowlle of George Selbe Merchant Adventurer sometime Alderman of this Town, and Margaret his Wife, and their Children.

[Page 63]

In the Margin on his SideAnno 1542.
on her SideAnno 1562.

IN the North-side of the Middle Porch, under the grand Eastern Window, are the Nitches of several pulled out Statues; on the South-side of it is the Monument of George Carr, with this Inscription

Orate pro Anima Georgij Car quondam Majoris istius villae qui obijt Anno Domini Millesimo CCCC Cujus animae Propitietur Deus.

THE Effigies of him and his Wife are at length, resting on Pillows with their Hands raised. Above them is an arched Canopy, with a defaced Inscri­ption; but a Manuscript in this Church tells us that the Words were

For George Car's Sawil his Wyffes and Chylders Sawlls all and to make a solem Dyrge Mass with all-his Bruchern in the Qwyre and Dirsse to sing as apecyth in his Writing of Rimae:

AT the Feet of the Effigies are the Ruins of a large Image of our Saviour upon the Cross, with an Inscription equally dark as the other, but said to be this

Our Lady prays him to say at the Day.

WHEN the Scots took the Town they plundered the Churches, and these and many more were defaced; for they broke down the Carved Work thereof with Axes and Hammers.

IN the North-side of the South-East-Porch, is a very pretty Monument commemorating the Wife of William Wrightson, Esq

NEAR this Place lies the Body of Isabel, the Wife of William Wrightson, Esq one of the Burgesses in several Parliaments for this Town and County of Newcastle upon Tyne, she died the 13th of March, 1716.

ALMOST contiguous to this, is the beautiful Monument of Mr. Matthews the 1st Husband of Isabel before-mention'd, he dy'd April 6, 1697.

THE Burial Place of Timothy Davison, Alderman, sometime Mayor of this Town and Governour of the Merchant's Company, and Elizabeth his Wife, by whom he had Issue 16 Children, of which survived them 6 Sons and four Daughters; she departed this Life the 10th Day of September, 1694, and he the 20th Day of December 1696, in the 55th Year of his Age.

HERE lyeth the Body of Robert White, Merchant, he departed October, 1644.

THE Burial Place of Sir Ralph Jennison of Elswick, in the County of Nor­thumberland, Knt. sometime Mayor of this Town. Obijt tertio die Aprilis An­no 1701, Aetat. suae 88.

THE Burial Place of Mr. John Stephenson, Merchant Adventurer, who died the 20th of April 1725.

ROBERT Bulman, Feltmaker, 16 May, 1716. Rachael his Daughter, who was Wife of William Henderson, Upholster, died 22d of Aug. 1730.

THE Burial Place of John Ogle, Esq his Daughter Mary Lisle, Relict of Robert Lisle, of Hazon, Esq dyed 19th December, 1728.

ROGER Rawe, twice Mayor of this Town, 1596.

ROBERT Barker, sometime Mayor of this Town, and his four Wives; he departed the 4th of August, 1588.

[Page 64] RALPH Cocke, Esq Alderman, and sometime Mayor of this Town, 27 Jan. 1652, his four Daughters survived him, and Judith his Wife, viz. Do­rothy, Jane, Ann, Barbary: The Wives of Mark Milbank, William Carr, Tho­mas Davison, Henry Marley, Merchants.

ROBERT Jennison, Merchant, 27 October, 1668.

FRANCIS Brandling.

WILLIAM Carr, Merchant Adventurer, and Jane his Wife, by whom he had Issue 11 Children; he departed April 14th, 1660; she departed Jan. 31, 1666.

BARTRAM Anderson, Merchant Adventurer, June 24, 1605.

JESU have Mercy of the Sawlles of Hendry Anderson, M. A. sometime May­or of this Town, 1562.

ISABELL Anderson, his Wife, was buried under the next Stone to him; she dyed in August, 1582.

BERTRAM Anderson, Merchant Adventurer, August, 1606.

MARK Shafto, Merchant Adventurer, sometime Mayor of this Town, April, 1593.

UNDER the same lye — Shafto, who dyed December, 1581, and Robert Shafto, Alderman, of this Town, who dyed September, 1623.

JESU have Mercy of the Soul of Mark.

SIR Peter Riddell, Knight, Twice Mayor of this Town, 18th April, 1641.

LANCELOT Hodgshon, 1667; Margaret, his Wife, Daughter to Sir Thomas Haggerston, Baronet, departed 1663.

SOUTH-ISLE.

IN this Isle, opposite to the Altar, against the Wall of the Church, is a beautiful and curious Monument of William Hall, Esq sometime Mayor of this Town, and Jane, his Wife, which was erected in Commemoration of them, by Sir Alexander Hall, Knight, their only surviving Son. At the Top of the Monument is the Arms of their Family, with an Angel on each Side of them. The Body of the Monument has on each Side of it a Pillar, of the Corinthian Order; between which is the Representation of a Desk, with open Books upon it, and he on the one Side of it, and his Wife on the other, in the Posture of Prayer, kneeling before it, with their folded Hands upon the Books: Below this are the Effigies of their Children, in the same Posture; one of which is represented kneeling alone, at one Side of a Desk, with an o­pen Book upon it; and other Five on the other Side of it, kneeling one af­ter another: The Former, I take to be design'd for their Son, the other for their Daughters. Below these again, is the following Inscription; Gulielmus Hall, Armiger quondam Major hujus villae & Jana Uxor ejus Charissima; fae­lice prole ditati, Juxta hoc Monumentum in Domino requiescunt. Ille vicesimo Octavo die Julii Anno Domini 1631, Aetatis suae 63. Illa duodecimo die Augusti Anno Domini 1613, Aetatis 36. In quorum memoriam Alexander Hall eques [...]ratus unicus corum filius superstes hoc merito posuit.

WILLIAM Bonner, sometime Sheriff of this Town, Jan. 22. 1626.

JAMES Coward Glasier.

WILLIAM Grey, Esq 1707.

[Page 65] GEORGE Dawson, Alderman.

EDWARD Johnson, Alderman, and sometime Mayor, March 12, 1726, aged 69.

JESU have Mercy on the Sowlle of Edward Surtis, Merchant-Adventurer.

THOMAS Gibson, Mason, Feb. 7th, 1699.

PRAY for the Sawlle of John Todd, Mer. Ad. and Elizabeth, his Wiyf, Daughter was unto Wm. — Merchant, and his Children.

IN this Isle against one of the Pillars is a Marble Monument with this In­scription.

  • Memoria
  • Patricii Crowe
  • olim de
  • Ashlington Armigeri.
  • Cujus Corpus haud procul
  • Marmore Isto Sepultum Jacet.
  • Obijt die Januarij
  • Tricesimo Primo
  • Anno Domini
  • M:D:CXCIV.

MR. Chapman's Stone, Mr. Wilkinson's Place, Henry Chapman, Merchant Ad­venturer, Alderman, and 4 Times Mayor of this Town; Alderman likewise of the famous City of London, and one of the Commissioners for the Realm of England to treat with Commissioners of Scotland for the Wealth of both Kingdoms; departed to the Mercy of God the 1st of April, 1623.

ROGER, Jane, Susannah, and Thomas, the Children of James Clevering, Merchant Adventurer, and sometimes Mayor of this Town: Roger departed 1592, Jane 1592, Susannah 1599, Thomas 1602.

MICHAEL Kirlair, Mer. Ad. 31 July 1620.

THOMAS Bowes, Mer. Ad. he departed 1593, his Wife Agnes, 1624.

HENRY Bowes, Mer. Ad.

ROBERT Bower, Mer. Ad. 1621.

WILLIAM Johnson, Alderman and sometime Mayor, departed 1678.

ROBERT Ledgard, Draper.

WILLIAM Sheerwood, Mer. Ad.

THIS is the new burial Place of Alderman Sowerbie.

HUMPHRY Pibus, Mer. Ad. April 1691.

HIS Daughter Elizabeth, was the Wife of John March, Vicar of this Town, she departed in April 1680; he the 2d of December 1692.

ROBERT Hessilrigg, March 28, 1728.

RICHARD Wright, Sheriff, 1671.

THIS is now the burial Place of Mr. Roger Wilson, Merchant.

[Page 66]A Stone dated 1531.

WILLIAM Jackson, sometime Sheriff, 1630.

ON the North-side of this South-Isle, at the South-end of the Organ Gal­lery is the Monument of the Family of the Maddisons. It is very beautifull, sumptuous, and magnificent. The Statues are so devoutly postur'd on bended Knees, with uplifted Hands, that whilst we view them with our outward Eyes, we are inwardly struck with a Religious Awe, and secret Wishes after Piety and Devotion.

AT the Top of it, which is pretty high, are three Statues; that on the West in a sitting Posture, with a Cross in the left Hand, and a Book in the Right, is the Representation of Faith; that on the East in a sitting, expect­ing Posture, with an Anchor at her Feet, is the Representation of Hope, and that in the standing Posture, with a Flaming Heart in her Hand, (the Emblems of Action, and Fervency and Love) is the Representation of Charity. Above the Statue on the East, is Memorare Novissima, and above that on the West, Memoriae sacrum.

BELOW these three Statues, is the Body of the Monument, having in it 6 large and beautiful Statues, three Men and three Women, on their bended Knees, with folded Hands in the Posture of Prayer; who these are designed for may be easily learned from the Inscriptions below; the Lady of the West­end, which has on the right Hand of her a Pillar of the Corinthian Order, is E­lizabeth the Wife of Henry Maddisson; The Gentleman next to her is Henry her Husband; for he is cloathed in the Scarlet-Gown of the Aldermen of New­castle, because he was sometime Mayor of this Town. Next to him is his Fa­ther Lionel Maddison, cloathed in the same Manner (for he was thrice Mayor of this Town) kneeling before a Desk, with an open Book on it; on the o­ther Side of this Desk is his Wife Jane, kneeling in the same Manner, with her face to him; next to her, is their Son John, who died in the Expediti­on to Cadix, and who is therefore cloathed in Armour. Then we have the op­posite Pillar of the Corinthian Order, on the other Side of which is the Effigies of one of Henry's Daughters, probably Barbara, who dyed at the Age of 17 Years, as is said on an adjoining Stone.

The Inscription. Here rests in Christian Hope the Bodies of Lionel Maddison, Son of Row­land Maddison, of the County of Durham, Esq and of Jane his Wife; she died July the 9th, 1611, he having been thrice Mayor of this Town, depar­ted December 6th, 1624, aged 94 Years, he lived to see his only Son Henry Father to a fair and numerous Issue; here interr'd also are the Bodies of Hen­ry Maddison, and Elizabeth his Wife, Daughter of Robert Barker of this Town, who lived together most comfortably 40 Years, he was sometime Mayor of this Town, and having lived in good Name and Fame 60 Years, deceased in the true Faith of Christ the 14th of July 1634. Elizabeth his only Wife, had Issue by him ten Sons, (viz.) Sir Lionel Maddison, Knight, Sir Lionel Maddison, Knight, Ralph, Robert, William, Henry, Peter, George, Timothy, and Thomas, and Six Daughters, Jane, Susan, Elizabeth, Barbara, Eleanor, and Jane, all the Sons at his Death were living; but John who died in his Expedition to Cadix. She lived his Widow 19 Years, died 1653.

Below the Inscription, under Elizabeth is ‘Animae super Aethera vivunt.’

Under Henry and Lionel, ‘Decus vitae est Honorata Mors.’

[Page 67] Under Jane and John, ‘Beati mortui in Domino moriuntur.’

And under Barbara, ‘Serius aut metam Properamus a unam.’

THE smaller Statues surrounding the Tomb, are designed for the Children of the Family.

THE whole is surrounded with a strong Iron Rail, as being one of the greatest Monumental Ornaments of the Church.

THIS Tomb was about two Years ago clean'd and beautified at the Ex­pence of Mr. Robert Percival, whom we have commemorated amongst the Benefactors of St. John's Church.

LIONEL Maddison, Mer. Ad. Mayor of this Town, July 1624.

JANE Tempest, Wife of William Tempest, Esq second Son of Sir Nicholas Tempest, Knt. and Bart, and Daughter to Henry Maddison, sometime Mayor, departed 29th December 1616, Aetat. 20.

BARBARA Maddison, Daughter of the said Henry Maddison, 1617, aged 17 Years.

On Mr. Forster's Stone.

Ive kept the Faith a good Fight fought have I,
My God and Sovereign serv'd here quartered lie;
With Dust disbanded 'till the last Trump hence,
Rally these Atombs by it's Influence,
Then with the Loyal Bands received I may
A Crown of Glory for the general pay.

THOMAS Loraine, Esq his Epitaph. About the Border,

Hic jacet Thomas Loraine olim de
Kirkharle Armiger qui obijt vicessimo
quarto die Octobris, Aetatis suae 35 Anno Domini
MDCXLIX.

Upon the Copper Plate,

Ite precor, Musae, vos & Dolor iste requirit
Iste Labor circum tempora Taxus eat
Plangite Solicitis Moerentia Pectoni Palmis
Rumpat & Ornatus quique [...] suos
Publica quippe vocat clamantia publica virtus
Hujus erat [...] hic Dolor [...] minor
Fata Magistratum rapiunt cum ferrea Regnum
Debilitant Mundum cum rapuere bonos
Et bonus & Laurus modo cum decesserit orbis
Non satis ad Fletus, si Lachrimarit, erit.

St. MARY's PORCH.

P. M.

ALEXANDRI Davison Equitis Aurati & Annae Filliae Radulphi Cocke, ejus Conjugis Charissimae.

Ex qua Filios quinque, Thomam equitem auratum; Radulphum Davison de Thornley, Samuelem Davison de Wingate Grange, Josephum Centurionem cordatum (in hujus oppidi contra Scotos Rebelles propugnatione strenui ad mortem us (que) Dimicantem hic juxta tumulatum) Edwardum Mercatorem Caelibem, defunctum,

Filias etiam Binas
Barbaram primo Radulpho Calverley
deinde Thomae Riddell de Fenham in Comitatu Northumbriae Equitibus auratis,
ac Margaretam Henrico Lambton, armigero Enuptas, Suscitavit.
Qui quidem Alexander Grassante tunc conjuratione perfidissima,
Optimo Regi, Causae (que) Regiae semper
Fidelissimus
Gravem rei familiaris Jacturam Maximo animo perpessus,
tandem (que) in hujus Novicastri obsidione cum Scotorum Rebellium exercitu
irruenti magnanimiter Confligens,
Novissimum Spiritum (octogenarius fere) fortiter effudit.
Undecimo die Mensis Novembris anno ab Incarnatione Domini 1644 hoc mo­numentum posuit Thomas Primogenitus
Eques Auratus
M. S.

Egregio Adolescenti Thomae Hamiltono, animi Indole, forma Corporis & robore praecaeteris insigni, Domini Patricii Hamiltonii a Preston filio dignissi­mo a nobilissima familia Hadingtonia oriundo, Centurioni sub Domino Alex­andro Leslaeo Exercitus Scoticani Faederis Imperatore, excellentissimo Domino Alex. Hamiltonus Rei Tormentariae praefectus, Avuunculus Maerens posuit,

Cum totius exercitus Panctu Maximo obijt Anno Domini 1640 Octobris 29.

Aetatis suae 20.
The Motto of the Coat of Arms above,
Mihi Palma Cupressus.

SIR Richard Stote's Burial Place.

Quinto Die Februarii Anno, 1615 Richardus Stote quondam hujus Villae Mercator obijt.

Decimo sexto Die Aprilis Anno 1589 Hellinor Uxor ejus 2, ex hac vita decessit.

In Sacra Memoria Parentum suorum Edvardus Stote hoc Monumentum posuit.

Richardus Stote, Miles, Serviens Domini Regis Caroli Secundi ad Legem objit vicessimo quinto die Decembris. Anno Domini 1682.

Near this Place is interr'd the Body of Joseph Huddldleston late Citizen and Fishmonger of London, (Second Son of Andrew Hudleston of Huttonjohn in the County of Cumberland, Esq) who departed this Life the 14th of June Anno Dom' 1679. He married Mary Daughter of John Emmerson, Merchant, some­time Mayor of this Town, and by her had issue Joseph (who dy'd in his In­fancy) and Dorothy who survives.

[Page 69]UNDER the South Window of this Porch lies the Effigies of a Man, at his full length with his Legs across, and his Dog at his feet, having his Escutcheon of Arms and Sword. This we are inform'd was the Fashion of burying those only, who took upon them the Cross, and were mark'd with the Badge of the Cross, for sacred Warfare, in recovering the Holy-Land from the Turks.

HE is supposed to have been one of the Family of the Scroopes.

JOHN Lawson, Esq of Cramlington in the County of Northumberland, 5th Nov. 1680.

ANTHONY Isaacson, Esq

ROBERT Roddam, Alderman, and sometime Mayor of this Town, July 1682.

JONATHAN his Son, sometime Mayor of Newcastle, dyed 21st August, 1712. he left Issue by Jane his Wife a Son and a Daughter.

THE Burial Place of Paul Cook, Joyner.

JOHN Emmerson, sometime Mayor, dy'd

THOMAS Jennison, sometime Mayor, departed, December, Anno 1676.

ISABEL Riddel, 1663.

RICHARD Huddleston and Elizabeth his Wife, he dy'd June 1707, she 1730, aged 82 Years.

CHRISTOPHER Nicholson, Alderman, departed 29th Sept. 1670, in the 68th Year of his age.

AGAINST the Wall stands a Monument of Michael Welden, Son of Mi­chael Welden of Welden, Esq and Sarah his Wife, who departed this Life 3d Ap. 1680.

St. MARGARET's Chantery.

THE Burial Place of the Family of the Bewicks.

West-End of the CHURCH.

THE Burial Place of William Errington, Master and Mariner.

JOHN Gill.

WILLIAM Boutflower, Merchant Adventurer.

In the MIDDLE-ISLE.

THE Burial Place of William Rutter, Merchant Adventurer.

At the East-End of the MIDDLE-ISLE.

RICHARD Wright, Merchant Adventurer, and sometime Sheriff, depar­ted this Life, 5th May 1671.

[Page 70] CUTHBERT Ellison, Merchant Adventurer. Now the Burial Place of Mr. Richard Wall, descended from the Elder Brother of Robert and Benjamine Ellison.

THE Burial Place of Robert Ellison, Merchant Adventurer, sometime She­riff, he dyed Jan. 12th, 1677.

THE Burial Place of Benjamine Ellison, who departed this Life 25th June, 1676.

ABRAHAM Anderson, Merchant.

JOSEPH Ellison, Merchant, who dyed 21st of Jan. 1686.

In the NORTH-ISLE.

THOMAS Partis, Tobacconist, who died 9th May, 1684.

THE Burial Place of Roger Ive, Citizen and Stationer of London, who died 6th August 1675.

ROGER Procter, Merchant Adventurer, who died 20th Nov. 1664. Now Mr. Mallburne's Burial Place.

JOHN Winship, Tanner, 1607.

AGAINST the North-wall a Monument of Major Robert Bugg, Citizen and Habberdasher of London, who died 22d May 1688.

GEORGE Winfield, Merchant Adventurer, Alderman, and twice Mayor, died 18th Nov. 1684.

MICHAEL Hall, Gentleman, 25th July 1647.

NICHOLAS Stricker, who died Aug. 5th, 1689.

BARBARA Riddell, Wife to William Riddell, Merchant, and sometimes Mayor, 1627.

St. GEORGE's PORCH.

SAMUEL Gill, Esq who died 26th Oct. 1720.

WILLIAM Warriner, 1706.

Marlay, Esq 1676. Now Mr. Perith's.

ANOTHER of John Marlay, Merchant, who departed October 1561.

UNDER which lyes also William Marlay, who departed 16th Jan. 1609.

AND also Sr. John Marley, Knight, Son of William, who had been 5 Times Mayor, and departed Anno 1673, aged 83 Years and 3 Days.

JESU have Mercy on George Byrde's Soul, is on the Border of Matsen's Stone.

MATTHEW Matsen, Merchant Adventurer, died 1st October 1697.

TIMOTHY Robson, Alderman, twice Mayor, departed 30th Dec. 1700.

[Page 71]THE Burial Place of George Heron, Merchant. On the Top of which Stone is, Jesu have Mercy on the Soul of John Ord.

ON the Wall a handsome Marble Monument, on which is the following Inscription;

Hic Sitae sunt exuviae
Roberti Shafto Equitis aurati,
Nee non ad legem Servientis
Et hujus Municipij, Propraetoris
In Desideratissimi Patris Memoriam
Hoc Mamor Posuit Unicus Defuncti silius
Marcus Shafto de Whitworth
In Comitatu Dunelmen Arm.
Obijt Maij XXI
A.D. M:DCCV
Vixit annos LXXII.

MATTHEW Jefferson, sometime Mayor of this Town, departed March 1st, 1687.

In the QUIRE.

THE Burial Place of Nicholas Ridley, Esq twice Mayor of this Town, and Governour of the Merchant's Company, and Martha his Wife, by whom he had Issue 9 Children, viz, John, Mary, Richard, Ann, Nicholas, Edward, Ann, Martha and John: He departed this Life the 22d. of January 1710, John their eldest Son dyed April the 14th, 1686.

M. S.
Janae
Yeldardi Alvey
Hujus Ecclesiae Vicarii
Uxori Lectiss. & dilectiss. Decem Liberorum
Utrius (que) Sexus aequaliter Faecundae Matri
Cultu in Deum,
Obsequio in Maritum
Pietate in prolem, dilectione in Proximum
Charitate in Pauperes, ad exemplum celebri,
Quae Postquam 34 Aetat. Ann.
Complevisset
Pie & Placide in Domino
Obdormivit
Denata est tempore Antelucano Magni
Paschatis sesti 1643
Maritus maerens hoc in amoris aeternum
Duraturi Testimonium merito
Posuit.

Radulphus Jennison quondam Major hujus Oppidi qui tempore Praeseturae suae e vivis decessit Anno Domini 1597 hoc tumulo sepultus Jacet.

Prudens, Pacificus I argus justus (que) pius (que)
Sydera qui quaerit, sis Ubi quaerit Ubi
Jacet & hic Robertus Filius ejus, quandam
Theologiae Doctor & Minister verbi Dei.

[Page 72]MR. Thomas Robinson's Burial Place.

Here Lyeth buried under this Stone
Of John Bennet both body and bone
Late of these North Parts, Master of the Ordinance,
Which deceased by God's Providence,
The Eight Day of the Month of July,
In perfect Faith Love and Charity;
A thousand five hundred sixty and Eight
Whose Soul to Heav'n he trusted went streight
Through God's great Mercy, Bloodshed and Death
Which only he trusted to during his Breath,
So trust we his Wife and Children that caused this
And Captain Carvel, a Friend of his.

HERE lyeth the Body of Sir William Blacket, Bart. Alderman and some­time Mayor of this Town, and Burgess in Parliament for this Corporation, and Dame Elizabeth his Wife, by whom he had Issue 9 Children, of which survived him 3 Sons and 3 Daughters, viz. Edward, Michael, William, Eli­zabeth, Isabel and Christian; she departed this Life the 7th of April, 1674, and he the 16th of May, 1680. Michael his Son, sometime Alderman, depar­ted this Life the 26th Day of April, 1683; who had Elizabeth only, she de­parted this Life the 12th Day of January, 1677.

THE Burial Place of John Rumney, Merchant.

THE Burial Place of William Jennison, Merchant Adventurer.

WILLIAM, Isabel, Edward, Christian, Michael, John, William, and Chri­stopher, the Children of William Blacket, Alderman, and Elizabeth his Wife. John buried the 4th of May, 1654, William buried the 9th of August, 1954, Christopher buried the 8th Day of July, 1678.

IN this North Part of the Church of St. Nicholas was a Shrine of Henry Earl of Northumberland, who in the 4th of Henry the 7th was Lieutenant of Yorkshire, and being commanded by the King to levy those Monies which were then extorted from the Country to carry on the War of Britany; the Vulgar conceiving him to be the Cause of that Task, tumultuously murdered him at Cockledge, near Threske, eighteen Miles north of York, upon the Day of St. Vitalis the Martyr; whereupon he was buried at Beverley, where he hath a stately Monument, but much defaced. This is Shrine at present much more so, being no where to be met with; bul Grey tells us, that in this Part of the Church there was such a Monument in his Time, that was made in Memory of him in his own Country; he having a House in this Town and Parish, and that Part of the Inscription upon it was, Orate pro anima Hemici Percy 4 Northumbriae qui per Rebbelium Manus occabuit, &c.

THE Milbank Manuscript says it was in the north Corner of the Church: That it was a Monument of Wood; on which was painted an old Man, our Saviour on his right Hand, and the Virgin Mary on his Left. There came a Labil from her Mouth, but what it was this Authority had forgot; but that from our Saviour's was Quaeso Patri sac, qued rog it mea Mater.

THEN followed some Latin Verses, done in the rhiming Way of the Monks, but they are so dark and obscure, that little can be made of them. the Manuscript goes on; When Mr. William Selby was buried, this Monu­ment was removed out of that Corner, and Sir George Selby did set his mag­nificent Tomb there. Alter that it was placed against the Wall, next to Sir George's Tomb, and so continued 'till Mr. Lane. Hodshon got leave of Vicar Nailor to remove it and place his Father. Where it is now I know not.

[Page 73] Grey tells us, that the Parson of the Town is the Bishop of Carlisle, who hath his Vicar or Substitute. How this Bishop came to have this Living in his Gift, I have shewed in the Beginning of our Account of this Church.

UPON this Church depend the other Churches; for the Vicar has Dues from them all: And yet they are each of them a distinct Parish from St. Ni­cholas.

THIS Vicarage is reckoned 150 l. per Ann. and the Corporation makes an annual Addition of 90 l. per Ann. to it, which was granted by this generous and worthy Body, that the Vicar might live in a more plentiful and hospitable Manner than he could otherwise do. The Vicar's Assistant in this Church is the Curate of it; who is stiled in an ancient Writing the Parish Priest, absque Impedimento Vicarii aut Presbyteri Parochialis. Lib. Cart. 124. He receives from the Vicar 4 l. per Ann. from the Town 35 l. per Ann. and from the Crown 6 l. 16 s. 8 d. besides the stated Fees of the Church.

IN the Year 1724, the upper Clerk of this Church dy'd (for it had been the Custom to have two) Upon which it was thought more beneficial to the Parish to have an Assistant to the Curate, which was accordingly done in the Month of October, the same Year. His Salary arises from the Fees of the Clerkship. The Lecturer of this Church, whose Duty is to preach on the Sunday afternoon, has a Salary of 100 l. per Ann. paid him by the Corporation.

ALL the Vicars, Curates, and Lecturers of this Church, that I have met with, are these following,

Magister Joannes de Hirlaw Vicarius in the Reign of Edward 3d.

MATTHEW Bolton, 1374.

NICHOLAS de S. 1401.

ROGERUS de Thresh, 1418.

JOHN Heyworth, 1436.

WILLIAM Clym, 1438.

THOMAS Harelred, 9th Hen. 7th.

JOHN Sanderson before the Year 1532.

JOHN Heron, Ob. 1543. he alienated the Tythe of Cramlington, for a Cheese, and a Couple of Capons to be tendred May the 9th, in St. Nicholas Church Porch.

HENRY Aglionby, 1543.

WILLIAM Purge, 1549.

WILLIAM Salkeld, A. M. Sepult. August 25, 1568.

JOHN Magrey, 1568.

RICHARD Holdsworth, 1585, he was buried at St. Nicholas, Sept. 5, 1594.

THE Worshipful Dr. Morton, Archdeacon of Durham, and Vicair of New­castle, was buried at Newcastle, July 18th, 1620.

[Page 74] HENRY Pool, Vicar, was buried at St. Nicholas's, Sept. 3d, 1623.

DR. Jackson, Vicar, he left the Vicarage, and dyed in the South of England, Anno 1640, Eachard the Historian gives this Character of him.

‘DR. Thomas Jackson, the Ornament of the University of Oxford, was President of Corpus Christi College, and Dean of Peterborough, he was a Man of great Piety and Worth, Industry and Ability, a great Master of the Fathers, and profoundly read in Theology, as appears from his many learned Treatises.’

YEILDARD Alvey, Vicar, was buried at St. Nicholas, 1648, he succeeded in the Vicarage of Newcastle in the Year 1630, when the most learned Dr. Jackson was elected President of Corpus Christi College, in Oxford, his Suf­ferings began very early in the Troubles,Vide Ann. 1645. as I find by a Letter of his, writ­ten to his Grace the Archbishop of Canterbury, and dated from York, Oct. 16, 1640, wherein he sets forth what he then had suffer'd, in the following Manner. I am for the present outed of all my spiritual Promotions, to the yearly Value of 300 l. and have most of my moveable Goods seized upon by the Rebels, be­ing forc'd (upon some threatning Speeches given out by them, that they would deal more rigourously with me than others) suddenly to desert all, and to provide for the Safety of my self, Wife, and seven Children, by a speedy Flight in the Night-time; how they would have dealt with me they have since made evident, by their harsh dealing with two of my Curates, whom I left to officiate for me in my Absence; who have not only been interrupted in reading Divine Service; but threatn'd to be Pistol'd, if they would not desist from the Execution of their Office: And whereas I had lately purchased 60 Pounds per Annum in Northumberland, and hoped to have been supplied that Way in these calamitous Times, 'till I might with Safety re­turn; they have, since I presented my Petition to his Majesty, seized upon that also, and commanded my Servant to be accountable to them for it: This is my Case at this Time. Afterwards, as might be expected, it was far worse, for, as I am otherwise inform'd he was not only pull'd out of this Pulpit by two Holy Sisters, but imprison'd at Newcastle, at Holy-Island, and at Norwich; his Fa­mily increas'd under his Troubles, if I mistake not, to ten Children, (for so many I find his Wife bore him in all) which were reduced to great Streights, and subsisted in good measure by Charity; I perceive by the Letter above­mentioned, that he had been active as well as passive in the Service of his Ma­jesty; by both which Means he had so far recommended himself to the Fa­vour and Esteem of that Prince, that he had design'd some Reward for him, which in all Probability the Rebellion prevented the King from bestowing. Nor did Mr. Alvey live to receive it from his royal Son, on the Restoration, for his Death happened in the Year, 1648, and was hastened, as 'tis thought, by his Sufferings. He was a very Honest Good Man, and a true Son of the Church of England; as, I am told, appears by a little Tract which he wrote, and which I have not yet been able to get a Sight of, intitled, The Humble Confession and Vindication of them who suffer'd much, and still suffer, under the Name of Malignants and Delinquents, Publish'd in 1647.

DR. Robert Jenison, 1645, buried at St. Nicholas, November 8, 1652.

SAMUEL Hammond, 1652, he left the Vicarage upon the Restoration.

JOHN Knightbridge.

THOMAS Nayler, 1662, buried at St. Nicholas, April 15th, 1679.

JOHN March, Vicar, B. D. he was born in this Town. He was an ad­mirable Scholar, a Man of strict Piety, and a most powerful Preacher. The last Sermon he preached was in the Epistle to the Hebrews, 2d Chap. V 3d. How shall we escape if we neglect so great Salvation? He preached it on the Sun­day Morning, and on the Sunday following was buried.

[Page 75]THIS Sermon, together with eleven more, were published and recommen­ded to the World by Dr. Scot, the Author of the Christian Life. There were several other Sermons of his published in his Life-time, (viz.) one intitled The false Prophet unmask'd, or, The Wolf strip'd of his Sheep's Cloathing, preached on the 30th of January, 1683, before the Mayor and Aldermen of this Town, and dedicated to them, another on the 30th Jan. 1676/7, dedicated to the May­or and Magistrates. Another upon the 29th May, 1684, dedicated also to them, &c. He was buried at St. Nicholas, Dec. 4, 1692.

LEONARD Welstead, Vicar, was buried at St. Nicholas's, Nov. 15th, 1694.

NATHANIEL Ellison, D. D. Vicar, died May 4th, 1721, and was buried at. St. Nicholas's. He was born in this Town. He was a Man of good Lear­ning, and an exemplary Life; and was looked upon to be one of the best of Parish Priests, for his Constancy and Usefulness in Preaching; he was besides Vicar of Newcastle, Archdeacon of Stafford, Rector of Whitburne, in the Country of Durham, and Prebendary of Durham.

IN the Year 1700, he Publish'd at London a Sermon preached before the Mayor and Magistrates of this Town at St. Nicholas's Church, October 8th, 1699, being the Sunday after the Election of the Mayor. It was Entituled, The Magistrates Obligation to punish Vice.

IN the Year 1701, his Sermon of Confirmation, preached June 23, 1700, before the Lord Crew, Bishop of Durham, at St. Nicholas's Church in this Town, was printed at London.

IN the Year 1710 he printed his Sermon at London, which was preached at Ali-hallows Church, on All-Saints Day, 1709, at the Opening of a Charity-School in that Parish. It is Entitled, The Obligations and Opportunities of do­ing Good to the Poor.

WILLIAM Bradford, M. A. of Bennet College, Cambridge, succeeded Dr. Ellison in this Vicarage. He was Son to Samuel, the late Bishop of Rochester. He dyed July 15th, 1728. in the 32d Year of his Age, and was buryed in Westminster Abbey. A little before his Death he was preferr'd to the Archdea­conry of Rochester. He was universally beloved, being a Man of great Hu­manity and Condescention, and of an open generous Temper; and very much lamented at his Death on account of these, and his many other good Qualities. He was succeeded in the Vicarage by

THOMAS Turnor, A. M. of St. John's College, in Cambridge, the present Vicar.

The CURATES.

CHRISTOPHER Forster, Curate, 1629

NICHOLAS Stote, 1663.

RALPH Astell, 1667.

WlLLIAM Drake, 1678, A. M.

FRANCIS Woodmas, M. A. afterwards Vicar of Bedlington, famous for his Skill in the Greek Tongue.

MICHAEL Fenwick, M. A. afterwards Rector of Long-Newton, in the County of Durham.

[Page 76] EDMUND Lodge, removed to the Mastership of the Grammar School of this Town, 1716, and was succeeded by

JOHN Cowling, M. A. of St. Peter's College, Cambridge, the present Curate.

LECTURERS.

THOMAS Stephenson resigned 1639.

JOHN Bewick, 1639.

DR. George Wishart, 1643.

CUTHBERT Sydenbam and William Durant, 1645.

CUTHBERT Sydenbam, alone, 1648.

JOHN Tylesley removed.

JOHN Knightbridge, 1656.

DR. Wishart again 1660.

HE was a Native of the Kingdom of Scotland; and was by the House of Commons (June 18th, 1642) resolved unfit to be Lecturer of St. Nicholas; and soon after, as I presume, turned out of that Place. He was plunder'd al­so, and suffer'd a long and tedious Imprisonment, in the nastiest Part of the Tolbooth at Edinburgh, called the Thieves-hole. After his Sequestration, having returned into his own Country, he became Minister of the Church of St. An­drew; at length accompanied the noble Marquiss of Montross in his Conquest of Scotland, and upon the Declension of that immortal Person, became Chap­lain to the Queen of Bohemia. On the Restoration of his Majesty he return­ed to his Lecture of Newcastle, where he continued in great Esteem and Ve­neration for his unspotted Loyalty, until 1662, at which Time he was promo­ted to the Bishoprick of Edinburgh, where he dyed about the middle of the Year, 1671. He was a Person of great Religion, and very charitable to the Poor; and having been a Prisoner, he was always careful at each Dinner that he made, to send the first Dish from his Table to the Prisoners. He wrote the Compleat History of the Wars, &c. under the Marquiss of Montross.

JOHN Bewick again, 1662.

WILLIAM Mair, 1671.

JOHN March, afterwards Vicar, 1676.

JOHN Rawlet, M. A. 1679. He was a very pious and Charitable Man. He seem'd to have imitated the Example of Onesiphorus to St. Paul, in mak­ing it his Business to find out the Sick and Needy, that he might have the Pleasure and Happiness of assisting them. For he sought them out very diligently and found them, and therefore the Lord will shew Mercy unto him in that Day.

HE printed several Things. In the Year 1682, his Sacramental Covenanting, at London. His Solomon's Prescription against the Plague, in the Year 1685. His Dialogue between two Protestants, in answer to a Popish Catechism, called a Short Catechism against all Sectaries. A Book of Divine Poems, &c.

JONATHAN Davison, 1686.

GEORGE Tully, M. A. 1687.

ROBERT Tomlinson, D. D. 1695; Now Rector of Whickham.

[Page 77] THOMAS Dockwray, M. A. of St. John's College, Cambridge, 1724, the present Lecturer.

THE Lecturer of this Church is also the Holyday Lecturer, for which this Town allows 20 l. per Annum.

IN these Weeks in which are no Holydays, there is a Catechetical Lecture in this Church, for the Instruction of the Boys of the Grammar School, and those of the Charity Schools, who are examined in their Turns.

THIS is done by the Vicar, the Morning Lecturer of All-hallows, the Le­cturer of St. John's, and the Lecturer of St. Andrew's, in their Order.

THIS Cathechetical Lecture ceases during the Seasons of Advent and Lent, because during these Times, there is a Sermon in this Church twice a Week, on the Wednesday, and Friday, which is preached by the whole Clergy of Town, every one preaching in his Turn and Order.

MORNING and Evening Prayers are every Day read at this Church, at 10 in the Morning and 3 in the Afternoon. The Sacrament of the Lord's Supper is administred here every first Sunday in the Month.

THE Town was wont to make a Present to this Church of 13 Gallons of Wine every Year at Easter.

LEGACIES left to the POOR of the Parish of St. NICHOLAS.

LEFT by Thomas Davison, Esq yearly to be paid in December, as follow­eth, viz.

 l.s.d.
OUT of a House at the Foot of the Side, the Sum of010300
OUT of a House near the Sandhill Corner000700
OUT of a House on the Sandhill000906
OUT of a House on the Long-Stairs000400
 020306

LEFT by William Carr, Esq to be paid at 2 Payments, (viz.) St. Eleanor Day, being the 3d Day of May, and St. Martin's Day, the Bishop, in Winter, as followeth,

OUT of a House in the Bigg-Market,010608
OUT of a House in Gunner-ward001304
 020000

LEFT by Mr. Andrew Aldworth, to be paid at the Feast of St. Andrew.

OUT of a House in Akewelgate010000

LEFT by Sir William Blacket, Bart, to be paid in December,

OUT of a House at the Bridge-end020000
LEFT by Mr. Robert Ellison the Sum of330608

THE Interest yearly to be paid to the Vicar and Church-wardens.

THIS was put into the Hands of John Bourne upon his own Bond, who failing, both Principal and Interest were lost. The last Interest was paid A. D. 1708.

LEFT by Henry Hilton, of Hilton, Esq by his last Will, dated Feb. 26th, 1640, yearly to be paid at Michaelmas, the Sum of060000
REDUC'D by Act of Parliament to040000

LEFT by Sir Alexander Davison, Sir Thomas Davison, William Carr, Esq Mark Milbank, Esq John Rumney, Esq and Sir Mark Milbank, to be paid at two Payments, viz. Lady-day and Michaelmas, as followeth.

Lady-day Payment.
SIR Alexander Davison010000
SIR Thomas Davison001000
WILLIAM Carr, Esq001500
MARK Milbank, Esq011000
JOHN Rumney, Esq010500
SIR Mark Milbank030000
Michaelmas the same Payments for each.
LEFT by John Jefferson the Sum of020000

THIS is paid yearly in March, by his Executors, as followeth, viz.

MR. Matthew Bowes001304
MRS. Mary Varnel001304
MRS. Elizabeth Brumell001304

LEFT by Timothy Davison, Esq yearly to be paid in December,

OUT of the Merchant's Company010500

LEFT by Mrs. Jane Brokesby a Quit-rent of 20 s. per Ann. out of Houses in Trinity-Chare, now held by Mr. Fenwick and others.

ALSO 50 l. out of her Lands in Forest-hill, to secure the Payment of 3 l. per Annum; the said Sum of 4 l. per Annum to be distributed at 20 s. per Quarter.

LEFT by Nicholas Ridley, Esq yearly to be paid in December,

OUT of Grounds in Heaton, the Sum of011000

LEFT by Joseph Atkinson, Esq the Sum of 50 l.

[Page 79]

THE Interest yearly to be paid on Sept. 30th021000

LEFT by Matthew White, Esq yearly to be paid in December,

OUT of a House in Pilgrim-street, lately in the Possession of Thomas Marshall, the Sum of011000

LEFT by Isabel Wife of William Wrightson, Esq the Sum of 50 l.

THE Interest yearly to be paid on Sept. 30021000

LEFT by Leonard Wetherly, Gent, the Sum of 20 l.

THE Interest yearly to be paid on Sept. 11th010000

LEFT by Mr. Richard Randal the Sum of 7 l.

LEFT by Mrs. Ann Davison the Sum of 200 l. The Interest of which to be distributed at two Doles, 5 l. each, (viz.) on St. Thomas's Eve, and on the 7th of February.

LEFT by Mr. William Harrison the Sum of 50 l.

THE Interest yearly to be paid on St. Andrew's Day021000

LEFT by Mrs. Margaret Ramsey the Sum of 20 l.

THE Interest to be yearly distributed for ever010000

LEFT by Mr. James Coward the Sum of 20 l.

THE Interest to be yearly distributed for ever010000

MRS. Eleanor Allan of the Town and County of Newcastle upon Tyne, Widow, did by a Deed of Gift, bearing Date Feb. 20th, 1705, assign a Farm­hold and Tenant-right, in Walls-end, in the County of Northumberland, held under the Dean and Chapter of Durham, of the yearly Value 61 l. 19 s. 5 d. to Trustees, in Trust to herself for Life, and after her Death (which hap­pened Jan. 21st 1708) for setting up a School for teaching 40 Boys and 20 Girls, of the Parish of St. Nicholas, and Chapelry of St. John; which was accordingly done, A. D. 1709. The Boys are taught to read, write, and cast Accompt; and after they have for that End been a sufficient Time in the School, they are, by the Trustees for the said School, put out to some Trade, or put to Sea, and have 40 s. a-piece allow'd them for that Purpose, as also a Bible and Common-Prayer bound up together; a whole Duty of Man, and Mr. Lewis's Explanation of the Church Catechism. The Girls are taught to read, write, few and knit, and when they are perfect therein, they are put out to Trades, or to Service; and have 20 s. allow'd them, with a Bible, Whole Duty of Man, and Catechism, as the Boys. The Boys are taught by a Ma­ster, who has a Salary of 25 l. per Ann. and 20 s. for Coals. The Girls are taught by a Mistress, who has 10 l. per Ann. and 10 s. for Coals.

A. D. 1718. The Inhabitants, of the Parish of St. Nicholas resolv'd upon an annual Subscription for Cloathing the poor Children belonging to the said School, and they are accordingly cloathed new every Year upon the first Day of May.

THIS Charitable Foundation hath received some Addition, by the gene­rous Benefaction of some other well disposed Christians; for A. D. 1723 Mr. [Page 80] Gilbert Campel, Inn-holder, in the said Parish, left by his Last Will 20 l. and Mr. Samuel Nichols, Organist of the Parish Church of St. Nicholas, left in the same Year 10 l. both which Sums of Money are order'd to be put out at Interest, for the Benefit of this School.

MRS. — Chisholm, Widow of the Rev. Mr. Chisholm, of Wooler, in the County of Northumberland, did A. D. [...], pay to the Corporation of Newcastle, the Sum of 500 l. to receive the Interest of the same to herself for Life, and after her Death to go to the Use of this School for ever.

NETHER-DEAN-BRIDGE.

DIRECTLY opposite to the East Window of St. Nicholas Church is the Nether-dean-bridge, which you descend into by some Stairs, that lead from the Church-yard.

IT is called so, because it goes over the Dean or Syke lower down the Town than the other Bridge; for as the Higher-bridge has the Name of the Upper-dean-bridge, because it is higher in the Town, so this being lower in the Town, has the Name of the Nether-dean-bridge. It is a little narrow Lane which leads into Pilgrim-street. Formerly, when the Merchants had their Shops and Ware-houses in the Flesh-market, the River ebb'd and flow'd above this Bridge, and the Boats came under it with the Wares and Commodities of the Mer­chants. But it is chiefly Famous because the Roman Wall went along it. It came from the Vicar's Garden, through the Body of St. Nicholas Church, then along this Street, and so on into Pandon.

As you descend the Stairs afore-mention'd into this Lane, there is an Alms-house on the left Hand for two or three poor Women, but it has no Allow­ance.

CHAP. VIII. Of PILGRIM-STREET.

THIS Street got it's Name from the Pilgrims, who came from all parts of this Kingdom to worship at our Lady's Chapel at Gesmond, or Jesu­munde, or as it is called in some ancient Writings Je­sumuth, is it pleasant Vil­lage, on the North-East of Newca­stle, Distant from it about 2 Miles; it appertained to the Barony of Robert de Gaugy, as appears by a Certificate given in the Third of Hen. the 3d. of such Manours, as his Barony did consist of, for which he was obliged to the Service of Three Knights Fees. Mag. Brit. Vol. 3. Adamus de Athol, who lies buried in the Chapel of the Holy Trinity, in St.Andrew's Church, lived in this Village, and is called Dominus de Jesmond: The Orde's Family was also in Possession of it. There are still to be seen the Ruins of the Chapel and Hospital of our Lady in this Village. The Hospital is now a Dwelling-house; but the Chapel is chang'd into something worse, being turn'd into a Stable. I am told, and it is very probable, that this Chapel and Hospital are at present the Property of Mr. Robert Andrew of Gateshead. Gesmond.

THERE was an Inn in this Street, which the Pilgrims in their Journey were wont to call at, which occasioned their constant coming up this Street, and so it got it's Name of Pilgrim-street, as the Inn did that of the Pilgrims Inn. As you descend this Street, you have on the left Hand a Passage to the Carliol-croft, which is a large Field (formerly the Property of the Carliols, now of John Rogers, Esq) bounded on one Side with the Town's Walls, and on the other by the Gardens on this Side of Pilgrim-street.

ON that Side of it, next the Town-Wall is a very agreeable Walk, gene­rally frequented in a Summer's Evening by the Gentry of this Part of the Town; The Prospect of the Gardens, some of which are exceeding Curious, afford­ing a good deal of Pleasure.

THERE is a Passage from this Field into the Manour-Chare.

[Page 82] In the Year 1351, Sir In the 23d, 24th, and 25th of Edward the First, Robert de Hilton, of Hilton, in the County Palatine of Durham, had Summons to Parliament amongst the Ba­rons of this Realm; and in the 4th of Edward the 2d was in that Expedition then made into Scotland. This Robert married Margaret, one of the Three Coheitesses to Marmaduke de Thwenge, and left issue Two Daugh­ters his Heirs, viz. Isabel, married to Walter de Pen­wardyn, and Maud to Hotham. After this, there is mention made of Alexander de Hilton, who in the 7th of Edward the Third, served in the Scottish Wars with Ralph Lord Nevil, and had Sum­mons to Parliament in the 6th and 9th of Edward the Third, but no longer. This is in all Probability the same Alexander with him above mentioned. The present Gentlemen, John Hilton, Esq a regular Descendant of this ancient Family, lives in the Place of his Ancestors, which he has adorned and Beautified beyond what was done in past Ages; in particular the Chapel, famous in this Country for it's Irish-Wood, is so furnished with Place and Books, and other Necessaries, that it Merits the Character of a very beautiful Cha­pel. This Family is the ancientest in England, that bears a Coat of Arms. Alexander of Hilton, and Matilda his Wife, the two Patrons of the Chapel of Ges­monde, presented to it one Sir William of Heighington to be Chap­lain, who was accordingly instituted by Thomas Hatfield, Bishop of Durham, and after that inducted; as was attested at Auckland, June the 12th, 1351. But on the 27th of the Month following he gave it up, declaring he had no right or Title to it. The Copy of the Original of this Account I had from Dr. Hunter of Durham, and is as follows.

UNiversis S. Matris filiis, ad quos praesentes, Literae pervene­rint. Thomas permissione Divina Dunelm' Episcopus salu­tem in amplexibus Salvatoris. Noverit Universitas Vestra quod nos dilectum nobis in Christo Dom' Willielmum de Heighyngton Capellanum ad Liberam Capellam de Jesmuth infra Parochiam Novocastri Dunelm' Dioces' situatam, ad quam per Dom' Alex­andrum, de Hilton Militem & Matildam Uxorem ejus veros Pa­tronos ejusdem nobis presentatus existit, admissimus & ipsum in capellanum perpetuum ejusdem Canonice instituimus in eadem, ipsum (que) Corporalem possessionem ejusdem induci fecimus, cum suis juribus & pertinentiis universis. In cujus rei Testimoni­um Sigillum nostrum fecimus hiis aponi. Dat' apud Auckland, 120 Die Mensis Junii Ao Dom' 1351, & nostrae consecrationis septimo.

Memorand' quod 27 die Mensis Julii Anno Dom' 1351 infra Manerium de Auckland, Dictus Dominus Willielmus renunciavit omni Juri & omnimodi auctoritati quod & quam in praedicta Capella vel ad eam habuit, seu quovis modo habere poterit in futurum, asserens se nullum habuisse unquam nec habere titulum in hac parte.

To this Village it was that a great Number of the People of Newcastle, headed by some of the Aldermen, and principal Men of the Town, came to kill the Prior of Tinmouth, in the first of the Reign of King Henry the Eighth; as may be seen in that Year.

In the 3d of Edw. 6th, the Town got a Grant of the Chapel of the Blessed Mary of Jesmond, and some Messuages and Lands in Jesmond; under an annual Rent of 3 s. 4 d. payable out of some Lands in old Heaton, and the Chapel or Chantery of St. Laurence, with the Messuages called St. Laurence and Little St. Anne's Close, and Lands in Byker, then in the Possession of Henry Winklive, and Lands in Killingworth, then in the Possession of John Humley, an annual Rent 4 s. payable oat of the Lands of the then Christopher Mitford, in Old-Heaton.

These were granted in Consideration of 144 l. 13 s. 4 d.

In the same Year the Mayor and Burgesses granted the Hospital of the Blessed Mary of Jesmond, with the Lands and Grounds belonging to it, to Sir John Brandling, his Heirs and Assigns for ever.

The Gentleman of this Place at present is William Coulson, Esq who lately built a very pretty House, and accommodated it with Gardens.

St. Mary's Well in this Village, which is said to have had as many Steps down to it, as there are Articles in the Creed, was lately inclos'd by Mr. Coulson for a Bathing-Place; which was no sooner done than the Water left it. This occasioned strange Whispers in the Village and the adjacent Place. The Well was always esteemed of more Sanctity than common Wells, and therefore the Failing of the Water could be looked upon its nothing less than a just Revenge for so great a Prophanation. But alas! the Miracle's at an End, for the Water returned a-while ago in as great Abundance as ever.

Sect. I.

ON the Right-hand, as you descend from this Gate of Pilgrim-street, is the High-Frier-Chare, which leads into Newgate-street. There was in this Lane a Fryery, which occasioned it's Name.

IT was situated somewhere about Ficket-Tower, which is the next round Tower to Pilgrim-gate.

THIS appears from the Account of the Ward belonging to this Tower, a Part of which is as follows; It shall have to Ward, &c. with all Grey-Fryer-Chare, from the Barras, opposite to the Ficket-Tower, and the North Kirk Door of the said Fryery, Westward, and no farther Eastward in that Lane.

GREY in this Part of the Town says, that in the Upper-part of this Street is a Princely House, built out of the Ruins of the Black-Fryers.

THIS is contrary to the Authority above, where it is called the Grey-Fryer-Chare.

[Page 83]AND besides it is contrary to several ancient Writings, which call this Chare Vicus qui ducit ad Fratres minores, or the Chare of the Vide Newgate. Grey-Fryers, so that it is as great a Mistake to place the Black-Fryers here, as to say the Grey-Fryers were placed in Westgate. Their Situation, according to the Authority above, must have been in the Garden of Walter Blacket, Esq in that Part of it which is opposite to Ficket-Tower, and the rest of that Garden must have been the Garden and other Conveniencies of this Monastery. This House was founded by the Family of the Carliols, in the Reign of King Henry the 3d, for they were (as appears from ancient Writings) a Regular and well settled Body in the Year 1267.

THEY were originally Merchants of this Town, and afterwards landed Men.

TWO of this Family succeeded Peter Scott, (who was the First Mayor of Newcastle, and Mayor for three Years) from the Year 1254, to the Year 1269.

THIS Situation is also confirmed by the Milbank Manuscript which says, that this Fryery was near to Pilgrim-street-gate, and that there is a little Lane be­tween it and the Walls, wherein there is an Alms-house; but now both the Fryery and it are converted to private Uses.

THIS Alms-house flourished as late as Queen Mary's Days, for 'tis said in a Writing belonging to Mr. Richard Wall of this Town, the Proprietor of these Houses, that in the Year 1555/6, in the Reign of Philip and Mary it was inha­bited by poor Religious Women; Inhabitant nuncPauperes mulieres Deo servientes.

THE Grey-Fryers, or as they are properly called the Franciscans, received their Name from St. Francis, born in the Dutchy of Spoletum in Italy, who was canonized by Pope Gregory the Ninth; about two Years after whose Death the Franciscans came into England, and one Diggs, (Ancestor of Sir Dudley Diggs) bought for them their first Seat in Canterbury.

THIS Order for School Divinity beat all other Orders, and had a Curious Library in London (built by Richard Whittington) in that Age, costing 550 l. They afforded in England 110 learned Writers. Fuller.

WHILST this Order flourish'd in England, this Province was divided into 7 Pacts or Districts called Custodies, because each of them was governed by the Provincial, who had charge of them all, by a particular superior, called Custos, or Keeper, who had the Power over all the Convents within his District or Custody. The 7 Custodies are as follows, The Custody or Wardenship of London had nine Convents, That of York seven Monasteries, That of Cambridge seven Monasteries, That of Newcastle nine Monasteries (viz.) The Custody or Wardenship of Newcastle of the English Province of the Franciscans, Grey-Fryers, or Fryers Minors, had nine Monasteries.

  • NEWCASTLE Monastery in Northumberland dedicated to St. Francis.
    • DUNDEE,
    • DUMFRIES
    • HADDINGTON
    Monasteries in Scotland.
  • CARLISLE Monastery Cumberland.
  • HARTLEPOOL Monastery in the Bishoprick of Durham.
  • [Page 84] BERWICK Monastery in Northumberland.
  • ROSEBURG Monastery in Scotland.
  • RICHMOND Monastery in the County of Richmond in Yorkshire.

THIS Monastry of Newcastle was conventual, but Henry the 7th made them Observants, Observant, is a Branch of the Fran­ciscans, which are Minores tam Obsrevantes quam Con­ventuales & Capuchini. These we find spoken of Anno 25. Hen. 8. c. 12. who are cal­led Obser­vants, be­cause they are not com­bin'd together in any Cloister, Con­vent or Cor­poration, as the Conven­tuals are, but only by them­selves to ob­serve the Ru­les of their Order, and more strictly than the Conventu­als do; and upon a singu­larity of Zeal seperate themselves from them, living in cer­tain Places of their own chusing, of whom you may read Hospinian de Orig. & Progress' Monachatus cap. 38. fol. 878. and therefore by Harpsfield is said to be built by him. Stephens, 2 Addit. Vol. 2d.

AMONGST the learned Men of this Order, we meet with those of New­castle.

JOHN Scotus alias Duns, or Duns Scotus; there was much Controversy whether he was an English-Man, a Scot, or an Irish-Man. He was a Man of a mean Fortune, of a Wit made for Learning, and wonderful Subtle and Sharp. When he had studied some Years with great Advantage at Oxford, he returned into Northumberland, his native Country, as some will have it, and took upon him the Habit of St. Francis at Newcastle. Being afterwards sent to Oxford, he again fell to his Studies with great Vehemency, 'till he ar­rived to be Doctor and Professor of Divinity. Thus he 1st expounded the Master of Sentences at Oxford; and afterwards, in the Year 1304, being ap­pointed Professor at Paris, by the General of the Order, in the Chapter in Toulouse, he there taught a Course of Divinity. Thirdly, he did the same at Cologne with wonderful Applause; at which Time there arose at Cologne the Controversy about the Conception of the Blessed Virgin Mary, whether she was conceived in original Sin or not? All the followers of Albertus Magnus af­firm'd, that she was; Scotus and his Adherents positively asserted the contrary. Here it was that he gained the Title of Dr. Subtilis; he publish'd a Lecture on Genesis. Commentaries on the Gospels in 4 Books. Several Books on the Epi­stles of St. Paul. Sermons of Saints, and of Particular Times. Two or three Pieces on the Master of Sentences. Quodlibets. Theological Disputations, Of the Knowledge of God. Of the Perfection of States. On all Aristotle's Works; and many other Things. Addit. Seph. Vol. I. p. 98.

HE dy'd miserably, 1309, being taken with an Apoplectick Fit, and too hastily buried: For, Nature having too late wrought through the Distemper, he vainly mourn'd for Assistance, 'till, at last, beating his Head against the Tomb-stone, he dash'd out his Brains, and so expir'd. Whereupon a certain Italian wrote thus of him;

Quaecunque humani suerant, jurisque Sacrati
In dubium veniunt cuncta vocante Scoto
Quid? quod & in debium illius sit vita vocata
Morte illum simili ludificante Strophâ.
Quum non ante virum vita ingularat adempta
Quam vivus Tumulo conditus ille foret.
What sacred Writings or prophane can shew,
All Truths were (Scotus) call'd in doubt by you,
Your Fate was doubtful too: Death boasts to be
The first that chous'd you with a Falacy;
Who, least your Subtle Art your Life should save,
Before she struck, secur'd you in the Grave.

THAT he was born here in England I affirm upon the Authority of his own Manuscript Works in the Library of Merton-College, Oxford, which con­cludes thus, ‘Explicit Lectura, Subtula, &c.

[Page 85]HERE ends the Lecture of John Duns, called Doctor Subtilis in the Uni­versity of Paris, who was born in a certain Hamlet in the Parish of Emeldon, called Dunston, in the County of Northumberland, belonging to the House of the Scholars of Merton-Hall. Gib. pag. 860.

HUGH of Newcastle, is so call'd, that being the Place of his Birth: he was commonly Sirnamed the Scholastick Doctor; he was a Franciscan, and a diligent Follower, and zealous Defender of John Scotus; he took upon him the Habit at Newcastle; he was one of the Fourteen about Scotus's Tomb; he publish'd some Things on the Master of Sentences, of the Last Judgment, of the Victory against Antichrist; he lived about the Year 1320. Stephens's 1st Add. Vol. P. 99.

MARTIN Alnwick, of the Town of that Name in Northumberland, took the Habit of St. Francis, at Newcastle, in his Youth; being afterwards sent to study Philosophy and Divinity at Oxford, he acquired notable Knowledge in both, and was made Doctor of Divinity, and Reader of the same among his own Brethren; he writ Disputations on the Master of Sentences, and died in the Monastery at Newcastle. He flourished about 1336, 1st Addit. Vol. P. 99.

THE Franciscans of Newcastle were prevailed upon to surrender (for the Ab­bies above the Value of two hundred Pounds, were not within the Statute of Suppressing, as were the lesser Abbies) on January the 9th, in the 30th Hen. 8th, it consisted of a Warden, eight Fryers, and two Novices.

Sect. II

THE House Grey mentioned, was built out of the Ruins of this Fryery; except the North and South Ends of it, which were built by Sir Wm. Blacket, Bart, the Grand Father of the present Possessor Walter Blacket, Esq

THE Authority above says also, that it is a Princely House, and indeed it is no less than very stately and magnificent; being supposed the most so of any House in the whole Kingdom, within a walled Town. It is surrounded with a vast Quantity of Ground; that Part of it which Faces the Street, is thrown into Walks and Grass Plats, beautified with Images, and beset with Trees, which afford a very pleasing Shade: The other Part of the Ground on the West Side of it, is all a Garden, exceedingly neat and curious, adorned with many and the most beautiful Statues, and several other Curiosities.

BUT this House is not more remarkable or memorable, upon any Account, than for it's having been the Lodgings of King Charles the First, whilst he was Prisoner at this Town.

ON this same Side of the Street, a little below the House now mentioned, is the Upper-Dean-Bridge, which leads into the Middle-street, Pullen-market, Flesh-market, &c. From hence downwards is the most beautiful Part of the Street, the Houses on each Side of it being most of them very pretty, neat, and regular; such are the Houses of Mr. Edward Harl, Mr. Thomas Biggs, John Rogers, Esq Thomas Clennell, Esq Nicholas Fenwick, Esq Nathaniel Clay­ton, Esq Edward Collingwood, Esq Mr. Perith, Mr. John White, John Ogle, Esq Mr. Thomas Waters, Matthew White, Esq &c. But there is one House in particular, which must be distinguished from the others for it's great Anti­quity, and that is the House above-mentioned, called the Pilgrim's Inn: It is on the West Side of the Street, and adjoins to the North Side of the House [Page 86]of Mr. Edward Callingwood, just now mentioned, and is exactly 116 Yards one Foot, from the Southmost Corner of Upper-Dean-Bridge: It is holden of the Dean and Chapter of Durham, and belongs at present to Mr.James Hargrave.

Sect. III.

BELOW this House, on the other Side of the Street, is a Lane called, Manour Chare, which leads from Pilgrim-street to St. Austin Fryers.

A little below the East-end of this Chare, on the Right Hand, is the Tay­lors Meeting-house: It was formerly at the very End of the Chare, in that House which Fronts Pilgrim-street, which by the Marks still remaining of a large Window, seems to have been a Chapel, as well as by the Tradition of the People thereabouts. There is a Writing in the Custody of this ancient Fraternity, which I have copied for the Curiosity of it, and is as follows.

TO THE WORSHIP OF GOD, and the Sustentation of the Procession of Corpus Christi Plays in the Town of Newcastle upon Tyne, after the laudable and antient Custom of the said Town; and for the avoiding of Disention and Dis­cord that hath been amongst the Crafts of the said Town, as of Manslaughter and Murder, and other Mischiefs in Time coming, which hath been lately attempted a­mongst the Fellowship of the said Crafts of the Taylors of the said Town: And to in­duce Love, Charity, Peace, and right amongst the said Fellowship from henceforth, the Eight Day of October, in the Year of our Lord GOD 1536, it is assented, agreed, and fully concluded, and accorded by all the whole Fellowship of the said Craft of Taylors then being, and that in Time to come, shall abide and dwell in the said Town of Newcastle, Robert Brandling, then Mayor, John Wren, Sheriff, Thomas Horsley, James Lawson, Gilbert Middleton, Henry Ainsley, Peter Chater, and Andrew Bewick, Aldermen, and Sir Thomas Tempest, Knt. Re­corder of the said Town; that is to say, First, it is agreed and ordained, that every Man that has been an Apprentice in the said Town, and has fully served his Years of Apprenticohood, by the Purport of the Taylors register and record of his Master, shall be admitted to set up Shop of Taylors Craft and Work, paying at the Begin­ning, after the old Use and Custom to the Fellowship of the said Craft, a Pot of Oyl to the said Fellowship, and Yearly to the Stewards of the said Fellowship, Thir­teen Pence to our Lady Light, whilst he shall be of Power, and Dwelling in the said Town, or within 12 Miles of the same; Thirteen Pence to the Play every Year, when it shall be played; and that every Steward, Apprentice, Journeyman, or Hireman, working by the Week Four Pence a Year; and that every Hireman by the whole Year, or half Year, Three Pence to the Play every Year, when it shall be played.

ALSO, it is ordained, that every Man of the same Craft, Born and Free with­in the said Town of Newcastle, that was never an Apprentice in the said Town, shall be admitted to set up Shop of Taylors Craft within the same Town, for Forty Pounds, and to pay one Pound of Wax to the Fellowship of the said Craft, and a Pot of Oyl at his first Admittance; saying also Thirteen Pence to the Lady Light, Eight Pence to the Play, as is aforesaid: And if any of the said Fellowship would take excess for their Hand Labour, or if any will not give them a reasonable Rate for their Hand Labour, the said Twelve Sworn Men shall ponder and assess, duly and truly the Hand Labour, at reasonable Prices for their Work; And that none of the said Fellowship Work in their Craft upon the Saturday after Eight of the Clock at Evening, and keep Holy the Sunday, the Vigils, and Festival Days, upon Pain of Six Pound of Wax for every Default.

[Page 87] ALSO, it is ordained, that every Man of the said Fellowship, upon Corpus Christi Day, shall come to the Procession of the Time assigned, and if he come not to the Fellowship before the Procession past, to pay a Pound of Wax; and if he come not before the Procession be ended, to pay two Pound of Wax. Also that he come in his Livery, if he be warned so to do, upon Pain of a Pound of Wax: And also that none of the said Craft shall have Livery, nor go in Procession with the said Fellowship, before he hath holden Shop in the said Town by a whole Year; to the intent, that his good Conditions and Demeanours shall be known.

ALSO, it is ordained, that he that pays not his Yearly Thirteen Pence to our Lady Light, upon St. John's Day in May, he shall pay a Pound of Wax to the same Light, over and above the said Thirteen Pence; and if he pay it not by Corpus Christi Day, then we and Fellowship following, if he be of Power so to do; and that amongst the Fellowship well known, he to be discharged of his Livery, or to make reasonable Fine for it.

ALSO, it is ordained, that all the Taylors now in Being, and that in Time com­ing, shall be dwelling as Fellows in the said Town, shall every Year, at the Feast of Corpus Christi Day, go together in a Livery, and play their Play, at their own Costs, after the Ordinance of their Stewards.

ALSO, it is ordained that every Brother of the said Fellowship come in his Li­very, when he shall be warned by their Beadle; that is to say, to the Procession upon Corpus Christi Day, St. John in May, the Day that the Plays shall be play'd, and upon the Day of their general Meeting; and that the Fellowship dispose them to have a Mass and a Dirge for the Brethren of the said Fellowship, and other Meetings to be assigned; and that at the Even of the Day of the making of the same, shall a Dirge be done, and a Mass for the Brethren of the said Fellow­ship; and likewise shall a Dirge be done, and a Mass upon the Morn for all the Brethren and Sisters of the said Fellowship, passed, present: And that he that is of the said Craft, and not admitted to their Fellowship, who for any Cause induceing him, will have the Fellowship assembled, shall pay to their Beadle Two Pence for assembling them.

ALSO, it is ordained, that when any Man of the Livery of the said Fellowship dyes, their Light shall go a-fore him to the Church at his Burial, and abide in the Church lighted the Mass Time, and whilst he be buried; And if there be a Dirge done, the Light not to be lighted at the Dirge Time: And when a Man's Wife of the said Livery dyes, the half of the Light shall go before her, in the said Form; and if the whole Light go a-fore her, then to pay Forty Pence to the said Fellowship, for the burning of the Light and warning it, and that the Stewards shall be there to govern the Light: And if any of the said Fellowship, reasonably warned to be there, abide not while the Mass be done, he shall pay a Pound of Wax, if he has not a reasonable excuse, to be allowed by the Stewards. And when any of the said Li­veries shall be Wedded, if any of the said Fellowship, reasonably warned to be there, comes and abides not while the Mass is done, he shall pay a Pound of Wax, unless that he have a reasonable Excuse to be found, at the Discretion of the Stewards.

MOREOVER, if it happens that any of the said Fellowship, being in the Li­very, do Dye, and his good Friends will cause a Mass and a Dirge to be done for him, of their proper Cost, every Year of the Day of their Burial: If it please the said Friends of the said Brother, so Dead, to warn the Stewards; then the Beadle shall go to all the Brethren of the said Craft and Livery, and warn them to be at the Mass and Dirge, if it be done on one Day of their Livery, and them to abide the Dirge and Mass Time, upon Pain of Three Pence, without a reasonable Ex­cuse provable; and if the Dirge be done the Night a-fore, to be at the Mass on the Morrow, and at the Dirge at their Pleasure.

IN WITNESS whereof to the said whole Fellowship and Brethren of the said Craft, severally have set their Seals, and the said Mayor and Sheriff have set their Seals of Office, and likewise the said Alderman to this Ordinance have set their [Page 88] Seals, and written their own Names with their own Hand, the last Day of Janu­ary, and in the Twenty Eighth Year of the Reign of our Sovereign Lord King Henry, after the Conquest of England, the Eighth.

A little below this Hall of the Taylors, and the Appurtenances thereof, was probably the House of Laurentius Acton, which border'd on the South, upon the House of the present Mr. Thomas Waters. This Laurentius was Mayor of Newcastle 1433, 1435, 1436, 1437, in the Reign of Henry the 6th. Opposite to this House of Laurentius Action, is the Market for Wheat and Rye, every Tuesday and Saturday.

BELOW this again are three narrow Lanes, two on the West-side of the Street, and one on the East: Those on the West are the Nether-Dean-Bridge, leading into St. Nicholas Church-yard, which has been spoken of before, and the Painter-Hugh, or as it is called in a Writing, as old as Edward the Third's Reign, Payntourhogh, which leads into the Street called the Side. It is from Pilgrim-street a very great Descent into the Side; but it is made tollerably easy, by having Stairs on one Side of it. It seems to have got it's Name from the River flowing by the Bottom of it up to the Nether-Dean-Bridge, &c. For Hugh signifies a Steep-Hill, or Bank, and Painter is a Term made use of by the Sailors for a Rope, which they fasten the Boat with. This Street therefore was called the Painter-Hugh, because it was the Hugh which the Painters were made fast to.

ONE William Porter had a House at the End of this Street, which he granted to John de Chambers, a Burgess of this Town, in the Reign of King Edward the Third, Anno 1361, on Condition that he paid to the Prioress and Convent of Lambly, eighteen Shillings per Annum.

THE other Lane or Street, on the East of this Street, is Silver-street, close by the North-side of All-hallows Church-yard; it leads into Pandon. It is said, but very improbably, to have got it's Name of Silver-street, because of the Fish-market, which was kept a little below it, at the Stock-Bridge. It was anciently called All-Hallowgate, for All-Hallowgate is said to be Ex parte Boreali Ecclesiae omnium Sanctorum; it was also called Temple-gate. Mr. Nicholas Lamb, whose House is in this Street, finds it called Jewgate, in his Writings; but when, or for what Reason it bore that Name, I know not.

WE come now to the Church of All-Hallows, which stands a little below Silver-street, and on the same Side of the Street with it, viz. at the very Bot­tom of this Pilgrim-street.

Sect. IV. Of ALL-HALLOWS CHURCH.

WHO this Church was founded by, I have met with no Account, nor any of the Time it was built in; only this is certain, it must have been built before the Year 1286, but how long before, I know not. For in that Year I meet with an Account of Mr. Smith, P. 245. the Church-yard of All-Hallows, which is a plain Proof that the Church was then in Being.

GREY is of Opinion that it was dedicated to All-Hallows, or All-Saints, from the ancient Name of that Part of the Town Pampedon, which he says was so called from [...]; imagining, I suppose, that it was so cal­led [Page 89] of the Romans, All-Hallows Church. (who inhabited this Part of the Town) after the Temple at Rome, the Pantheon, which was dedicated to all the Gods.

THIS Church is seated upon a Hill, which is much about the same Height with the Situation of St. Mary's in Gateshead, and upon the same Line with it.

IT is not so long as St. Nicholas, being only 55 Yards, one Foot, a Quar­ter long; but it is broader, as being 25 Yards, two Foot broad. The Steeple is but or a mean Height, being a Square Tower, with only one Spire arising from it. The Bells belonging to this Church were founded in the Year 1696. They were cast out of the Metal of that famous Statue of King James the Second, which stood on the Sand-Hill. They were founded in the Ground belonging to St. Austin Fryers, in that Part of it, which is in the Back-side of the Hospital of the Holy Jesus. Their Sound is not so Melodious as the o­thers in this Town, but the Note is exceedingly exact, and more tuneful than the others.

WHATEVER Robert Rhodes did to this Steeple, his Name is under the Bel­fry of it, as at St. Nicholas. In one of the Registers belonging to this Church of All-Hallows, we have the following Account. About the Round where the Bells are drawn up into the Bell-house in the Steeple, there is written, Orate pro anima Roberti Rhodes. His Arms are also without, at the East-end of the Church, on the Breast of an Angel; which, as I take it, is a Tyger, or Grey-hound on a Chief, and three Annulets on the Escutcheon. The like is in St. Nicholas Church, &c. In St. John's also, on the Out-side of the South Porch, over-against the Alms-house, there is on a Square, Orate pro anima Roberti Rhodes. I have also seen the same in Tinmouth Castle in a Round, on the North-side, after you are within the Gate, upon the Wall; which be-like was in some Part of that great Church, when it was a Cell of St. Alban's.

UPON the East-end of the Chancel, in the South-east Window, there was the Picture of our Saviour at large, but in the Time of the Rebellion it was wholly taken away.

NEXT to it, as you go up the South-side; there was the Picture of a Boy standing upon chequer'd Pavement, as it seemed, and on the Glass under him,

Like as the Jamen moist and cold,
Is full of Tempest Day by Day,
So is one Child of ten Years old,
Hath no Understanding, but all on Play.

THE same Authority adds, I suppose the rest of the Months were also in this Window in former Times, but I have seen it only; and it was taken a­way also in the Time of the Rebellion.

IN the Window above the South Door, which leads into the Quire, to­wards the Porch, were the Pictures of Roger Thornton's Children, Two Men and Three Women Kneeling at Altars. There remain now only Two of the Women.

THERE are higher up this Isle, in the Windows towards the Porch some Characters, one is like an (I) with an (S) through it, and other Three Chara­cters, which are the Merchants Skin-mark, for they are but a little Different from the Skin-mark, which is upon the Stone of Christopher Elmer. It is a Token that some Merchant was a Benefactor to the Church, and perhaps some Part of the South Wall of the Church: I take it to be the Skin-mark of Roger Thornton, for the very same is in the Chantery of St. Peter, over-against his Tomb.

TRADITION says, that from the West-end of the Vestry to the Porch, the old South Wall was taken away, and rebuilt further into the Church-yard [Page 90] by Roger de Thornton. That the old Wall was farther into the Church than the Wall now is, is plain from the Piece of it now remaining, which is on the East-end of the Vestry; and I think the Pictures in the Windows a­bove-mentioned, is a good Confirmation of the Truth of the Tradition of the Builder. In that Window next the Porch Door, but one, there have been the Pictures of the Twelve Apostles. There are now only remaining St. Matthew, St. James the Less, St. Andrew, St. Philip, St. James Major, and another.

THERE are three Galleries in this Church, one on the West-end, and, another on the East-end of the Nave, and the other in the North-Isle. That on the West-end was built in the Year 1712. The Organ which was plac'd in the middle of it was built at the same Time. It is a very long Gallery, and by much the most beautiful in the Church. On the North-end of it are the Seats of the Children belonging to the Charity-School. The Gallery on the West-end, is called the Butchers Gallery.

THE other Gallery on the North-Isle is the Sailors Gallery. It is said in a Memorandum made at the Bottom of it, to have been built and finished by the Trinity-house in Newcastle upon Tyne, in the Year 1618, John Holbourne then Master. It was beautified in the Year 1720, Robert Bailiff being then Ma­ster, with three or four Devices on the South-side of it. One Pannel has the Picture of St. Paul's Shipwreck; another, our Saviour's being asleep in the Storm; then there is the Arms of the Trinity-house; another Draught is that of our Saviour's taking Peter by the Hand when he was sinking in the Waves; and the other is that of Jonah vomited up upon the dry Land.

THE Chancel of this Church stands upon a large Vault, which consists of a pretty long Entrance, arched at the Top, and of a pretty large Square Room, with a curious Pillar in it, which is the grand Support of eight large Stone Arches. The Entrance into this vault is in the Church-yard, on the North-side of it.

AS you enter into the Chancel from the Nave of the Church, you have on the left Hand of you, an old Pair of Stairs, to which are adjoining the Stairs of the Butchers Gallery: These Stairs formerly led into the same Place, but then it was into a Gallery different from what the Butchers Gallery is now. They led into a Loft or Gallery called the Rood Loft.

THE Rood was an Image of our Saviour upon the Cross, made generally of Wood, and placed on a Loft made for that Purpose, just over the Passage out of the Church into the Chancel; out of this Mystery, they say, that the Church represents the Church Militant, and the Chancel the Church Triumphant; and who will pass out of the Former into the Latter, must go under the Rood Loft, that is, they must go under the Cross, and suffer Affliction. This Image was wont to have the Virgin Mary on one Side of it, and St. John on the o­ther. Stavely, C. Hist. P. 199.

A few Years ago the Chancel was beautifyed. It is pannel'd round with Wainscot. The Table is a large curious Marble Stone, which was given to the Church for that Use by an unknown Hand. On the large Pannel, im­mediately above the Altar, is this Figure; ‘I. H. S.’ or, Jesus Hominum Salvator: Above that again is the Picture of a Dove, cu­riously carved in Wood; and above that again, in a Golden Glory, is the great Name of God [...], which signifies his most absolute self Existence: He was, and is, and is to come.

THIS is to point out, by way of Emblem, the Persons of the Trinity. God the Father, by the Word JEHOVAH, he having order'd Moses, when [Page 91] he went to the Israelites, to bring them out of Egypt; to say, I Exod. iii. 14. AM hath sent thee, or the Lord Jehovah, who exists eternally, or always is. The Dove is the Emblem of the Holy Ghost; for he is said to have descended in a bodily Shape like a Mark iii. 16. Dove. And the Letters with the Cross in the Middle of them, Point out the second Person of the glorious Trinity, who dyed upon the Cross for the Sins of the World.

ON the Top of the East-end of the Altar, above the Things now menti­oned, are the Representations of Three large Candles, which are an Emblem of the Light of the Vid. Vulg. Antiquit' P. 133. & Wheatley Com. Pray­er. Pa. 109. Gospel, which either is, or shou'd be read at the Altar.

ON the South-side of the Altar is a Prothesis, or Side-Altar, that the Priest, according to the Rubrick, may more conveniently Place the Elements upon the Altar.

PLATE belonging to ALL-HALLOWS, and their Inscriptions.

The greater Flaggon.

IN usum Ecclesiae Omnium Sanctorum apud Novicastrenses Lagenam hanc dono dedit MICHAEL MIDFORD Mercator, in Testimonium Pieatis erga Deum & Patriam. An. Sal. MDCXCVIII.

Underneath that,

Calix Benedictionis cui Benedicimus, nonne Communicatio Sanguinis Christi est?

The lesser Flaggon.

D [...]o O. M. & Omnium Sanctorum Sacello Dicat Consecrat (que) This Gen­tleman was the Town's Physician, and had a Salary allow­ed him from the Corpora­tion. He was confessed a Man very knowing in his Profession, and of great Piety and Re­ligion. The Rev. Mr. T. Atherton, his Son, B. D. who was born in this Town, and Educated at the great School here, Fellow of Christ Col­lege in Cam­brid [...]e. and for many years the chief Tutor of that Society, is now Rector of Little Canfield in Essex. The Place of Town's Physician, was after the Death of Dr. Atherton disposed of, and still is, to such a Number of Surgeons to attend the Poor, as the Mayor for the Time being thinks proper. Whilst I am upon this, and commemorating a worthy Physician of this great Town, I must not omit to observe that this Place was probably never better served this Way, than at present. The following Gentlemen, viz. John Lowther, Esq M. D. of Sidney College in Cambridge; Adam Askne, M. D. of St. John's College in Cam­bridge; William Cowper, M. D. of Leyden; Cuthbert Lambert, M. D. educated at D [...]way in France; are Men eminent in their Profession, and shine among the Crowd of those who always frequent a Place so populous. H. Atherton, M. D. Dec'r 25, 1697.

Two Challices mark'd A.S.H. with Covers.

Church Wardens, 1628.
  • Robert Blenkinsop,
  • Laurence Carr,
  • Wm. Gibson,
  • Wm. Duxfield,

Two other Callices, which have been gilded with Gold, with Covers, 1571.

A Silver Dish, Weighing 34, 14. Gilded with Gold.

Dicavit Deo Ecclesae O'ium Sanctorum infra Villam Novicastri super Tinam, Anno Salutis, 1718.

Two Salvers mark'd A.S.H. with this Inscription, Corpus meum hoc est.

  • Neman Shafto, Church Wardens, 1629.
  • Robert Young, Church Wardens, 1629.
  • Hen. Rowcastle, Church Wardens, 1629.
  • Tho. Roderforth, Church Wardens, 1629.

[Page 92]THERE were Seven Chanteries belonging to this Church. The Chantery of St. Thomas; The Chantery of our Lady; The Chantery of St. John, the Evangelist; The Chantery of St. Peter; The Chantery of St. Catherine; The Chantery of St. Elgie or St. Loye, and the Chantery of St. John the Baptist and St. John the Evangelist.

1. THE Chantery of St. Thomas was founded by John Puthore, Clerk, the Yearly Value 4 l. 8 s. 4 d.

2. The Chantery of our Lady, no Deed of Foundation to be shewn; 4 l. 5 s. 10 d.

3. THE Chantery of St. John the Evangelist, founded by Richard Willisby and Richard Fishlake; the Deed of Foundation is lost; which arose out of some Tenements situated in the Sandhill and Side; 4 l. 15 s. 4 d.

4. THE Chantery of St. Peter is that waste Place above the Vestry, oppo­site to the Tomb of Roger de Thornton. This was founded by the said Roger de Thornton, as appears from the Licence granted to the said Roger Vide Foun­dation of St. Catherine's Hospital. Licentiam Dedimus praefato Ro­gero quod ipse quan­dam Can­tariam de Uno Capellano Divina ad Altare Beati Petri in Ca­pella omni­um Sancto­rum celebra­turo, &c by King Henry 4th. It was erected about the Year 1411, that he might be pray'd for whilst he liv'd, and his Soul when he was dead (by a Priest set a-part for that Purpose) together with the Souls of his Father and Mother; and Angnes his Wife, and also of his Ancestors and his Children, and the whole Company of the Faithful departed, as is mentioned in the King's Grant to him.

ON the East-end of this Chantery there are still remaining the Pictures of St. Lewis, St. Barbara, and St. Elisabeth.

THE yearly Value of this Chantery was 6 l.

5. THE Chantery of St. Catherine was founded in the Reign of Edward the Third, by Robert of Chirton, Burgess of Newcastle, and Marriot his Wife, who was the Daughter and Heirefs of Hugh Hankyn and Beatrix his Wife; The yearly Value of it, 5 l. 3 s. 8 d. All-Hallows Vest.

IN the Book above-mentioned, belonging to the Church of All-Hallows, we are told, that there is at the South-East End of the Church, upon the Out-side, a fair E and F, and on each of them half a Catherine-Wheel; but what they signify no Man living knoweth. At present there is no such Thing. Whose Name the Letters were placed for, I believe it is indeed impossible for any Man living to tell: But as for the Catherine-Wheels, it is easy to conclude that they are plac'd on the South-East end of the Church to signify that St. Catherine's Chantery or Altar was under the South-East Window.

6. THE Chantery of St. Loye or St. Elgie, founded by Richard Pickering in the Reign of Edward the 3d, the yearly Value 3 l. 8 s. 4 d.

JOHN Dent, Esq by Deed dated 12th of Feb. in the 35th Year of Hen. the 6th, granted an annual Rent of 8 s. issuing out of his Houses, to Richard Doxforth the then Priest of this Chantery.

7. THE Chantery of St. John the Baptist, and St. John the Evangelist by John Ward. 7 l. 15 s. 8 d.

AMONGST the Chanteries of this Church we meet with none of the Holy Trinity; but in the 16th of the Reign of King Hen. the 8th, after the Mari­ners became a Body, and their House was called the Trinity-house, we find an Altar in it dedicated to the Trinity; for in one of their Writings 'tis said, that Thomas Hebborne should be Partaker of all Masses, Good-Prayers, and Suffrage, which should afterwards be celebrated, said, and done by the Chaplain and Priest [Page 93] of the said Fraternity within the Trinity-house, and at the Trinity-Altar within the Church of All-Hallows for evermore.

I know not where to fix the Place of this Altar, any more than I can fix particularly, the Places of some of the ancient Chanteries; except it was, as some will naturally Conjecture, in the Porch behind their Gallery. And yet there are some Reasons against this Supposition; For this Porch was a Chan­tery, they had only an Altar; and as a Chantery, it must have been filled with a Priest, who had an Altar to himself and consequently their Altar must have been some where else. If it be said that they perhaps built this Porch, I an­swer, that if they had done so, it would have been called a Chantery not on­ly an Altar. Besides, the Building is visibly older than their Chapel, their Priest, or their Altar. For they can scarce be supposed to have had any one of the Three, before the Beginning of the Reign of King Henry the Eighth, and that's a Date too late for so old a Piece of Building.

Of the Burial Places and Monuments in the South-Isle; some of which are these following.

NIGH the Church Porch is a large Blue Stone, the Burial Place of Mr. William Milbourne, Hoastman, who dyed in the Year 1662. This Stone formerly belonged to St. Austin's Fryery, and was removed from thence by Thomas Ledger, when he was Mayor, in the Time of the Civil Wars. He brought it to St. Nicholas Church, and order'd one Milbourne, a Mason, to e­rase the ancient Inscription. But [...]inding no Room to lay it where his Fa­ther was buried in St. Nicholas, he sold it to the Mason, who sold it again, to the Person whose Name it still b [...]ars.

HENRY Milbourne; Hoastman, 1 [...]98.

JOHN Binks, Master and Mariner. Dorothy, his Wife departed, March the 11th, 1722.

MARCUS Browellus, Generos' Attorn [...]t' de Banco, Soc' Hospit' Furni­val, Lond' Hoc sibi et suis posuit, et caelis Parata Aeterna Mansio.

Ipse Obiit secuudo Die Novembris, Anno Domini, 1729.

STEPHEN Coulson, Merchant Adventur [...], married Mary, Daughter of Mr. Henry Waters, Hoastman: She departed, July the 6th, 1728. He the above named Stephen Coulson, Esq Alderman, and sometime Mayor of this Town, departed this Life, October 25th, 1730.

SEPULCRUM Wolstani Paston.

WILLIAM Harrison, Hoastman, July 10th, 1721.

AS you go from the South-Isle into the Body of the Church, there is a large Blue Stone, which was the Stone of Christopher Elmer, as appears from the Beginning of the present Inscription.

ANOTHER Authority in this Church, calls this Stone an ancient Stone, and says the ancient Inscription was, Jesus have Mercy of the Souls of Chri­stopher Elmer, his Wife and Children, and of all Souls, Mercy, Mercy, Lord.

THERE was on it the Elmer's Arms, the Merchants Arms, and his Skin Mark which was ✚ 4

JOHN Henzell, 1725.

[Page 94]THE Burial Place of John Morris, Hoastman.

SUB hoc Marmore tumulantur Exuviae Edwardi Collingwood, de Byker, Armigeri Northumbrae Vice comitis Anno 1699. Qui obijt 11mo Aprilis, 1701, Anno (que) Aetatis 71. Una cum Uxoris Annae Exuvijs, Quae obijt 30 Novembris, 1694, per quam Hos habuit liberos, Radulphum, & Martinum Mortuos, Edvardum & Dorotheam Superstites.

DOROTHEA Collingywood, Vita decessit duodecimo die Decembris, 1701. & hic Sepulta. Gulielmus Filius Secundus dicti Edvardi Filij obijt Secundo Die Martij, 1709. Edvardus Filius obijt primo Die Martij, 1720. Maria Filia Natu Prior Dicti Edvardi Filij obijt Decimo Die Junij, 1724. Maria Filia Gulielmi Bigg Generosi Uxor dicti Edvardi Filij obijt duodecimo Die Octobris, 1727, Quinque Enixa Liberos, viz. Edvardum, Mariam, Annam, Isabellam, & Gulielmum, Isabella Filia Natu minima dicti Edvardi, Filii obijt nono die Octobris, 1728.

AT the East-end of this Tomb of the Family of the Collingwood's, under a Stone with a Latin Inscription on it, which formerly belonged to one Blount, lies interr'd the Body of Margaret Bourne, Wife of Henry Bourne, Curate of this Church of All-Hallows. She dyed August the 8th, 1727, in the 30th Year of her Age.

[...]
D. O. M.
M. S.
THOMAE HOCKIN,
Gen' & ROGERI CLARKE,
Proponetis ejus Devonia nati una
Eodem (que) die Sept. Scilt. Octo Salutis
Anno MDCLXVIII. Aetatis Autem
Thomae LXX. Rogeri XIX.
Novocastro super Tinam,
Invicem moriere.
JOHANNES CLARKE,
Posteriori patruus
Utrique charus.
H. M. M.
Hie cecidêre duo, queis
Non Separavit amata
Sors eadem vivis thalamo
Morientibus Urna.

NEAR to this Monument of Thomas Hockin, is an old Stone, with this In­scription upon it.

Here lieth Buried under this Stone,
The Right Worshipful Mr. Robert Ellison,
Merchant Adventurer, of this Town Twice
Right Mayor he was
All worldly Pomp for ever thus must pass.
Elisa, his Wife, his Children, and Friends him by,
With all shall rise at the last Cry.
One Thousand six hundred seventy and seven,
The last of January he went to Heaven.

SEVERAL Years ago the Church Wardens were desired by one Matthew Blount, to sell this Stone; but they loathed the Request, because it bore the Name of a Mayor of Newcastle, which they knew, after the Sale of it, would not be long there.

[Page 95] JOHN Armorer, Hoastman,

CHRISTIAN Bulman, Oct. 8. 1723.

RALPH Soursby Merchant Adventurer.

NEAR the Quire-Door is an old Stone, which formerly belonged to Mr. Robert Brandling; upon which was the Brandling's Arms, with this Inscripti­on.

Here lyeth laid under this Place,
Robert Brandling, Merchant Adventurer, by God's Grace,
Margaret, his Wife, and Children dear,
In fear of God they lived here.
Like as the Brand doth flame and burn,
So we from Death to Life must turn.

MR. Nicholas Fenwick had this Stone given him by one Mr. Brandling, who lived at Ipswich, and caused the said Inscription to be obliterated; after that he set upon it the Arms of the Fenwicks.

NIGH to this is another Stone belonging to the same Family of the Fen­wicks.

CHARLES Atkinson, Hoastman.

THERE is an old Stone which lies between the Vestry and Quire-Door, with it's Inscription erased. It belonged to Alderman Leonard Carr, who gave 5 l. yearly for ever to the Poor of this Parish, and appointed it out of divers Houses in the Butcher-bank. He was an Alderman of the Town before the Rebellion, and turned out by the Rebels.

HE deserves a better Monument.

OPPOSITE to the Vestry, on the South-side of the Altar, is a large Stone of that Kind call'd Touch-stone, raised above the Level of the Church. It is covered with Brass on the Top of it, which has cut in it the Effigies of Ro­ger Thornton, and his Wife, and also the Pictures, of the Apostles and other Saints, together with the Arms of his own Family, and that of the Family of the Lamleys. Because the Arms of the Lumleys are on the Tomb, along with Thornton's Arms, it has been conclud­ed, that the Daughter of this Roger married into this Family; but this is a grand Mistake. This Roger died in the Year 1429. in the Reign of Hen. the 6th. Whereas Sir George Lumley, who married Elizabeth, the Daughter of Roger Thornton, died in the 23d of Hen. the 7th, 1508. It was therefore Roger Thornton's Grand-Daughter, the Daughter of his Son Roger Thornton, that was married into this Family. Dugdale in his Bar. Lumley, gives the following Account. Thomas Lumley, having been summoned to Par­liament from the first of Edward 4th to the 12th of Hen. 7th inclusive, by Reason he had married a Bastard Daugh­ter of King Edward the 4th, departed this Life, leaving Issue George his Son and Heir, which George took to Wife Elizabeth, one of the Daughters and Heirs of Roger Thornton, Esq a very wealthy Merchant of New­castle upon Tyne, by whom he had the Lordships of Witton, in Com' Northumbr' Lulworth and the Isle in the Bishoprick. This Roger founded the House of White-fryers in Newcastle. But after this Marriage, possessing these Land, in the Right of his Wife, there happened great Suits, and sharp Contests, between Giles Thornton, a Bastard Son to the said Roger, and him, concerning the Inheritance of them: In which Quarrel this George kill'd the same Giles, in the Ditch at Windsor-Castle. This George lies interr'd amongst his Ancestors in Chester Church, in the County of Durham; He had Issue­ly the Daughter of Roger Thornton, Sir Thomas Lumley; he died Anno 23 Hen. 7. John Thornton of Netherwittton, Esq is a Descendant of this Family of the Thornton's of Newcastle, and a very regular Possessor and Proprietor of the Manour of Witton.

The Inscription upon the Stone is as follows.

Hic jacet Domisella Agnes quondam Uxor Rogeri Thornton, quae obijt in Vigelia sanctae Katerinae, Anno Domini MCCCCXI propitietur Deus. Amen.

[Page 96]Hic jacet Rogerus Thornton Mercator Novicastri super Tinam qui obijt Anno Domini Millesimo CCCCXXIX & iii Die Januarii.

AS he was in his Life-time a great Benefactor to Churches, Religious Houses, the Poor, &c. so he forgot them not in his last Moments, as appears by his last Will and Testament. Vide Anno Christ. 1429.

JOHN Gibson, Merchant Adventurer, dy'd 17th of Feb. 1594.

WILLIAM Robinson, Goldsmith, 1652.

WILLIAM Ramsey, sometime Mayor of this Town, 1653.

WILLIAM Ramsey, Jun. sometime Mayor of this Town, 1716.

Vivimus & Vitae Mors mala Fausta Subit

GEORGE Bulman Baker and Brewer. 1710.

Nought can exempt from Death's Imperial Hand;
When it arrests the Soul at God's Command;
Each State and Sex, as well the High as Low,
Must once salute the Grave and thither go.

RALPH Grey Merchant Adventurer, sometimes Sheriff of this Town, May 30, 1666, aged 82.

The East End of the CHURCH.

HENRY Rawlin Merchant Adventurer, Alderman, and sometime Mayor of this Town, May 8th, 1666.

Sepulchrum Richardi Burdus, Obijt 20th Dec. 1719.

JESUS be merciful to the Souls of Richard Borrel, his Wife and Children he Obijt 20 Nov. 1508. This is also the burial Place of Mr. Abraham Dixon, Master and Marriner, who dy'd Nov. 11. 1700.

THOMAS Andrew, 5 Oct. 1708.

THOMAS Wallis's burial Place, Shipwright.

MATTHEW White, Esq twice Mayor of this Town, Governour of the Merchant's and Hostman's Companies. He had Issue 10 Children, Nicholas, Margaret, Elizabeth, Martha, Nicholas, Matthew, Mary, Isabel, Robert, and Jane. He departed Oct. 10, 1716.

WILLIAM Aubone, Esq Merchant Adventurer, Alderman, and some­time Mayor of this Town, Sept. 20, 1700.

On Marble on the Wall.

UNDER the adjacent Marble is inter'd the Body of Thomas Wrangham, the famous and beloved Ship-builder of this Town, he married Jane the Daugh­ter of Mr. Robert Carr, by whom he left Issue two Sons and one Daughter; Thomas, William, and Jane. He built Five and Forty Sail of Ships, and dyed of a Feaver in the 42d Year of his Age, May the 26th, 1689. He was a Man of a most generous Temper, of a plain and unaffected Conversation, and a sin­cere and hearty Lover of his Friend.

[Page 97] Statutum est omnibus semel mori.

THE Stone of the Wrangham's belong'd formerly to the Family of Mr. Ro­bert Babington, and had his Arms on it.

About a Blue Stone is inscrib'd,
All Worldly Pomp away doth Pass,
Like fading Flowers, and wither'd Grass.
George Borne, Cooper, and his Wives,
When Death doth end all mortal Strifes,
Trust by the precious Death and Blood-shedding
Of Christ, to have Life everlasting.

THE Date of this is worn off, but I meet with him in the Quality of Church-Warden of All-Hallows, in the Year 1578.

In the NORTH-ISLE.

JOHN Cosyn, Draper and Alderman, died the 21st of March, Anno Dom' 1661.

HERE lyeth interr'd the Body of George Morton, Draper, Alderman, and twice Mayor of this Town, he departed this Life the 26th Day of November, Anno Dom' 1693.

THIS John Cosyn, as well as Mr. Rawlin, (whose Monument is over-against his in the South Corner) was an Alderman in the Time of the Rebellion, of whom Sir George Baker said, they were not truly Justices, tho' in the Place of Justices. This Cosyn was the first Exciseman that ever was in this Town, and a Captain against the King; yet upon his Stone Mr. Pringle (as they say) cau­sed this to be written,

A Conscience pure, unstain'd with Sin
Is Brass without, and Gold within.

BUT some took Offence and said thus,

A Conscience Free he never had,
His Brass was naught, his Gold was bad.
Milbank.

THE Burial Place of Henry Waters, Hoastman, and Dorothy his Wife, she departed 24th of Feb. 1719.

GARRET Cocke, 1637.

ROBERT Young, Merchant Adventurer, 1670.

Post mortem aeternitas.

JOHN Johnson, Hoastman.

ROBERT Cook Master and Mariner, Nov. 1673.

Sepulchrum Thomae Potts, Gen. et Margarettae uxoris.

WILLIAM Liddel, 1580.

[Page 98] THOMAS Brown, Non mortuus sed Dormio:

WILLIAM Dawson, 1707.

THOMAS Crawforth, 1690.

MICHAEL Clerk.

THOMAS Dawson, Ropemaker.

THE Burial Place of Thomas Monkhouse, Tin-Plate Worker.

JOHN Colvil, Baker and Brewer, 1689.

TIMOTHY Rawlet, Hoastman.

JESUS have Mercy on the Soules of John Hodshon Taylor, Margaret his Wife, and their Children; he departed the 11th of Nov. 1505.

JOSEPH Colepits Hoastman, 27 May, 1729, aged 41 Years.

ROBERT Watson, 1724.

CUTHBERT Snow, 16 Aug. 1694.

SEAMEN'S Porch.

JAMES Brankstone, 23 Nov. 1727.

WILLOUGHBY Hall, Shipwright.

JACOBUS Metham Generosus vitam pro aeternitate mutavit 23 Apr. 1684. Willielmus Bigg Generosus, et Johannes Hindmarch, Armig: Humanae sortis et fragelitalis memores, hoc sibi suisque Deo volente supremum in Terris posue­runt domicilium, usque Festum Resurrectionis mortuorum alta Pace Gauden­dum

Maxima nosce mori vitae est Sapientia, vivit
Qui moritur, sivis vivere, Disce mori.
23 April 1684.

THE Burial Place of Thomas Airey, Hoastman.

THE Burial Place of Richard Hinkster, and Jane his Wife.

JOHN Green, Confectioner, 13 May, 1681.

ANN Colvil, Oct. 12, 1686.

West-End of the CHURCH.

Hic jacet Corpus Esther Starkin quae obijt 22 Oct. 1681.

JOHN Addison, Fuller and Dyer.

GEORGE Graham, 28 December 1727, aged 82.

THERE is a Stone near the Font, which has many Years been supposed to be [Page 99] very ancient. There was nothing to be seen upon it, but the 4 Evangelists, one at each Corner; It is the blue Stone at the East-side of the Font. It has on it at present the Name of Ridley.

In The MIDDLE-ISLE.

WILLIAM Stephenson Ropemaker's Burial Place.

THOMAS Allison's Burial Place.

GEORGE Mitford, Barber Surgeon, and Jane his Wife.

HENRY Towart, Master and Mariner, his Burial Place.

CHANCEL.

RALPH Fell, Merchant Adventurer, 11th Feb. 1680.

JOHN Simpson Hoastman, and Jane his Wife their Burial Place. In this Grave of theirs was buried their eldest Son Anderson, so called as being a De­scendant of the worthy and loyal Family of the Anderson's of Braidley, who suffer'd so much in the Time of the Civil Wars, in Defence of their King and Country. He dyed May the 17th Anno 1730, in the 21st Year of his Age. He was a Youth of fine Parts, and good Learning, a great deal of Sweetness of Temper, and strict Religion.

THERE is in this Part of the Church a very large Stone, insculp'd with Brass, of which several Years ago no more could be read than hic Tumulatus — dono dei datus mitis clero — promotor Ecclesiarum. My Authority imagines this to be the Burial Place of Robert Rhodes. He says, the Picture upon the Stone was very like that of Roger Thornton; all the Difference is, that the Gown of this Picture is not so deep as that of Thornton's. He conjectures it to be the burial Place of Robert Rhodes; because of the Words Promotor Ecclesiarum, lib. All-Hall'. The Words Promotor Ecclesiarum are not now to be found. How­ever, had they been there still, I think they are but a weak Argument to prove that Robert Rhodes was buried here, when it is considered that he founded a Chantery in St. Nicholas, that his own Soul, and his Wife's might be prayed for. For People were generally buried in the same Church, and near the very Place, where they erected a Chantery or an Altar.

BUT whoever it is, this I think may be safely concluded from the Gran­deur of the Grave Stone, that he was some wealthy Person; and from his be­ing Promotor Ecclesiarum, that he was also Religious.

THE Effigies is very Tall, and is surrounded with very curious Pictures of the Saints, and some other Things; but the Brass is now tearing off, and going very fast into Ruin. It is a pity it should not have more care taken of it, as it is an Ornament to the Church, and the Monument of it's Benefactor. The Promoters of Churches should be always remember'd with the most grate­ful Respect, that they may be shining Lights to the most distant Ages.

I shall close the Monuments of this Church with an Epitaph, said to have been made upon Robert Wallas, formerly Clerk of this Church.

Here lies Robin Wallas,
The King of good Fellows;
Clark of All-Hallows,
And a Maker of Bellows:
[Page 100]He Bellows did make 'till the Day of his Death,
But he that made Bellows could never make Breath.

LEGACIES left to the POOR of ALL-HALLOWS Parish in Newcastle upon Tyne.

 l.s.d.
LEFT by Mr. Thomas Smith, Shipwright, yearly for Ever, to be paid at Easter, out of several Houses, the Sum of041810
LEFT by Mr. Cuthbert Woodman, Weaver, yearly for Ever, to be paid at Easter, out of a House in Pilgrim-street, opposite to the Manour Chare-head, the Sum of001200
LEFT by Mr. Robert Anderson, per Ann. which has not been paid since 1651, the Sum of050000
LEFT by Sir Alexander Davison, yearly for Ever, to be paid out of the Town's Chamber, at two Payments, viz. Michaelmas and Ladyday, the Sum of020000
SIR Thomas Davison010000
MR. Mark Milbank030000
MR. William Carr011000
SIR Mark Milbank060000
MR. John Rumney021000
 160000
LEFT by Mr. Andrew Aldworth, out of Houses in Akewell-gate, due on St. Andrews's -day, the Sum of010000
LEFT by Mr. Leonard Carr, per Ann. out of several Houses in the Butcher-Bank050000
LEFT by Henry Hilton, Esq 6 l. per Ann. now reduced by Act of Parliament to040000
LEFT by Mr. William Carr, yearly for Ever, to be paid at Easter, out of several Houses010606
LEFT by Mr. William Gibson, Merchant, per Ann. out of a House in Cowgate, now in the Possession of Mrs. Carr, not been paid for several Years010000
LEFT by Mr. John Cosyns, Draper, the Sum of two Shillings per Week, which is Weekly to be distributed in Bread to such poor People of the said Parish as come to hear the publick Or­dinances of God every Lord's-day, which he charg'd upon the Fleece Tavern by the Key, and amounts per Ann. to050400
LEFT by Mr. David Sheavil, Surgeon, per Ann. out of se­veral Houses040000
LEFT by Mr. Tho. Davison, to be paid yearly in the Month of December, out of the Merchants Company011000
LEFT by Sir William Blacket, Bart. per Ann. out of a House at Tyne-Bridge-End, the Sum of020000
LEFT by Mr. John Collier, Shipwright, per Ann. to be paid at Christmas; the Sum of030000
LEFT by Mr. Richard Hutchinson, Rope-maker, per Ann. out of an House on Sandhill050000
LEFT by Mr. George Collingwood, House-Carpenter, per Ann. to be given to two poor Widows, who are to have it but once, so that all the poor Widows in the Parish may in turns enjoy the same; due at Martinmas, and distributed by the Minister and Church-wardens020000
LEFT by Timothy Davison, Esq paid out of the Merchants Company, to be distributed amongst credible Freemen, or Free­men's Widows (not of the Merchant's Company) yearly in De­cember010500
LEFT by Henry Holmes, Esq per Ann. to be made at two several Payments, viz. three Pounds the Monday after Christmas Day, and three Pounds the Monday after Easter Day, the Sum of060000
LEFT by Nicholas Ridley, Esq per Ann. and charged upon his Lands in Heaton, to be given eight Days before Easter010000
LEFT by Robert Fenwick, Esq per Ann. and charged upon the Angel Inn, to be paid at Christmas040000
LEFT by Mr. John Bee, Master and Mariner, per Ann. char­ged upon his two Messuages and Shop, by the Key, to be di­stributed by the Minister, for the Time being, at Christmas060000
LEFT by Matthew White, Esq per Ann. and charged upon an House in Pilgrim-street, to be distributed upon Christmas Day, or the Day after, among ten poor House-keepers011000
LEFT by Mrs. Isabel, Wife of William Wrightson, Esq per Ann. the Interest yearly to be distributed on September 30th500000
LEFT by Mr. William Harrison, Hoastman, per Ann. the Interest yearly to be distributed on St. Andrew's Day1500000
LEFT by Mrs. Margaret Ramsey, per Ann. the Interest yearly to be distributed200000
LEFT by Mr. Edward Potts, Shipwright, per Ann. the In­terest yearly to be distributed200000
LEFT by Mrs. Anne Handcock, per Ann. the Interest to be distributed by the Church-wardens to such poor People as are constant frequenters of divine Worship500000

All-Saints CHARITY-SCHOOL in Newcastle upon Tyne, was set up by a Voluntary SUBSCRIPTION, in the Year of our Lord, 1709, and has been continued ever since on the same Footing; and further supported by several acciden­tal Contributions.

The NAMES of the SUBSCRIBERS, and Sums subscribed when the SCHOOL was Founded.
 l.s.d.
ROBERT Fenwick, Esq Mayor, per Annum40000
John Cuthbert, Esq Recorder20000
Mrs. Phaebe Blakiston20000
Matthew White, Esq20000
Mr. William Wrightson20000
Mr. Henry Milburn20000
Mr. Henry Reay20000
Mr. John Baxter10000
Mr. Thomas Robinson10000
John Rogers, Esq50000
Mr. George Nixon10000
Mr. William Raper10000
Mr. Joseph Green10000
Mr. William Harrison, Senior10000
Mr. Lionel Dixon01000
Mr. John Anderson01000
Mr. Lionel Forster01000
Mr. Edward Brumwell10000
Mrs. Jane Binks01000
Mr. Robert Vipont01000
Mr. John Maddison10000
Mr. Edward Grey10000
Mr. Henry Waters10000
Mr. John Johnson10000
Mr. Francis Armorer10000
Mr. Luke Conyers01000
Mr. John Story10000
M,. Jeremiah Cook10000
Mr. Thomas Turner10000
Mr. Thomas Campion10000
Mr. John Binks01000
Mr. Jonathan Tyzack01000
Mr. Perigrine Henzell01000
Mr. Bartholomew Kent01000
The Reverend Mr. Leonard Shafto20000
The Reverend Mr. Charles Ward20000
Mr. Robert Webster01000
Mr. Lionel Colepits10000
Mr. Thomas Wallis01000
Mr. Matthew Bell10000
Mrs. Dorothy Dawson10000
Mrs. Julian Hindmarsh11000
Brought over511000
Mr. Mark Browell10000
Mr. Edward Colvill10000
Mr. Richard Burdus01000
Mr. George Hinckster01000
Mr. Gerrard Robson10000
Mr. Matthew Dale01000
Mr. William Harrison, Junior10000
Mr. John Simpson10000
Mr. Thomas Allan, Senior10000
Mr. Thomas Allan, Junior10000
Mr. Henry Atkinson10000
Mr. Timothy Rawling10000
Mr. William French01000
Mr. Ellis Inchball01000
Mr. Ralph Reed10000
Mr. Charles Atkinson20000
Mr. William Green10000
Mr. Tobias Blakiston10000
Mr. John Swaddell10000
Mr. James Taylor10000
Mr. Samuel Joblin10000
Mr. James Dawson, Yarmouth10000
Mr. Jonathan Rodam10000
Mr. Robert Shafto01000
Mr. Thomas Elliot01000
Mr. George Hankin01000
Mrs. Frances Reed01000
Mr. Henry Dent01000
Mrs. Mary Harrison01000
Mr. George Iley10000
Mrs. Barbary Nicholls20000
Mr. John Campbell10000
Mr. Lancelot Cramlington10000
Robert Eden, Esq20000
 830000
The Names of the SUBSCRIBERS, and Sums by each paid in the Year 1731.
 l.s.d.
WALTER Blacket, Esq50000
Nicholas Fenwick, Esq70000
Matthew White, Esq20000
Henry Reay, Esq20000
John Rogers, Esq50000
Mr. William Dixon01000
Mr. John Maddison11000
Mr. Thomas Binks00500
Mr. Henry Waters30000
Mrs. Mary Johnson11000
Mr. Francis Armorer, Senior11000
Mr. John Story10000
Mrs. — Andrews01000
The Reverend Mr. Farrington20000
Brought over321500
The Reverend Mr. Shafto20000
Mr. George Colepitts11000
Mr. Ralph Sowerby11000
Mr. Matthew Bell11000
Mr. Thomas Wallis11000
Mrs. Julian Hindmarch11000
Mrs. Jane Rodam11000
Two Mrs. Browells11000
Mr. John Simpson11000
Thomas Allan, Esq20000
Mr. Lionel Allan11000
Mr. Henry Atkinson10000
Mr. John Morris11000
Mr. Charles Atkinson20000
Mr. John Colvill11000
The Trinity House60000
Matthew Fetherston, Esq20000
Mr. Henry Coulson20000
Mr. Thomas Dennet, London10000
The Butchers Company60000
The Shipwrights Company30000
The Surgeons Company11000
The Rope-makers Company11000
Mr. Thomas Wass11000
Edward Collingwood, Esq11000
Mr. Joseph Smith11000
Mr. John Anderson11000
Mr. George Simpson11000
Mrs. Anne Harrison01000
Mr. Cuthbert Nicholson01500
Mr. Thomas Shafto11000
The Reverend Mr. Maddison01500
Mr. John Burfield01500
Mr. Christopher Dawson11000
Mr. Joseph Liddell11000
Mr. Francis Armorer, Junior11000
Joseph Ledgard, Esq11000
 970000
Money collected at All-Saints Church when the annual Ser­mons were preached for the Benefit of the Charity-Chil­dren.
    l.s.d.
Anno1709THE Rev.Dr. Ellison151006
1710Mr. Shafto160200
1711Mr. Charles Ward230900
1712Mr. Wilcox240702
1713Mr. Cuthbert Ellison221604
1714Mr. Shadforth251700
1715Mr. Browell2619
1716Mr. Farrington201200
1717Mr. Chilton230109
  Brought over1981411½
1718Mr. John Ellison210606¾
1719Mr. Cowling200205
1720Mr. Dockwray191406
1721Mr. R. Cuthberts171108
1722Mr. Sharp270300
1723Dr. Mangey220406¾
1724Mr. Bourne211008
1725Mr. Bradford171402
1726Mr. William Hall150306
1727Mr. Fetherston171909½
1728Mr. Thompson160410
1729Mr. Turnor170805¾
1730Mr. Sacker230409½
1731Dr. Banson231805½
1732Mr. Turnor161607½
  4961811¾
Accidental CONTRIBUTIONS.
   l.s.d.
Anno1709FROM unknown Hands, by the Rev. Mr. Char. Ward030309
1711Mr. Alderman Whinfield's Legacy yearly031604
1712The Town of Newcaste towards Building a Gallery for the Charity Children in all Saints Church150000
 From unknown Hands by the Rev. Mr. Char. Ward020900
1713Mr. Thomas Campion's Legacy200000
 Mr. William Harrison's ditto200000
1714Madam Rogers500000
 Mr. Thomas Wass050000
 Mr. Michael Bland020700
 The Coopers Company001000
1715Mrs. Mayor's Legacy020000
 The Surgeons Company010000
 Edward Collingwood, Esq001500
 The Rev. Mr. Farrington001500
1716Madam Nichols Legacy100000
 Mr. Edward Slater001500
 The Rope-makers Company011000
 Mr. Alderman Ramsey's Legacy500000
 Mr. Alderman Atkinson's Legacy yearly051400
1717From Stockholm and Yarmouth, by Mr. Ja. Dawson110000
 From a Person who desired not to be Nam'd500000
1718Mr. Samuel Green's Legacy1000000
 Some Company at the king's-head by Mat. White, Esq001600
1719Mr. Thomas Elliot's Legacy1000000
1720Mr. Thomas Burdus's ditto100000
 Mrs. Ramsey's ditto250000
1721Mr. James Clay's ditto050000
 From a Person which desired not to be Nam'd200000
 Mr. Tyzack's Legacy050000
1722Capt. James Taylor's Legacy500000
 Mrs. Mary Lane050000
1724Mrs. Mary Collingwood's Legacy010000
 Brought over5771101
1724Mrs. Mary Jackson's ditto050000
 Mrs. Christian Bulman's ditto200000
 Mrs. Spearman's ditto100000
1728Mrs. Isabel Collingwood ditto010100
1729Mr. Joseph Colpitts ditto200000
 Mrs. Reed's ditto500000
 Mr. Thomas Bates ditto500000
 Mr. Alderman Coulson's ditto500000
  7831201

THERE are 41 Boys taught to read, write, and cast Accounts, by John Davenport, the present Master: And 17 Girls are taught to read, knit, sew, make, and mend their own Cloaths, by Hannah Johnson, the present Mistress.

THESE Children have Coats and Caps once a Year, and Shoes, Stock­ings, Shirts, and Bands twice a Year: And at their leaving the School, they have Forty Shillings each to put them out Apprentice, or equip them for Services, and each of them a Bible, with the Common-Prayer, a Whole Duty of Man, and Lewis's Catechism.

THE Magistrates of Newcastle gave a Room, wherein the Girls are taught, and contributed towards Building a Gallery in All-Saints Church for the Chil­dren, and likewise gave Ground, whereon to build a School for the Boys, and a House for the Master: The Charge of which was defrayed out of se­veral Legacies left to the School.

TWO Hundred Thirty Four Boys and Girls have been in all put out since the School was set up.

IN the Year 1728, some Gentlemen of this Parish founded a Lecture by Subscription, for the Instruction of the People in the Rubrick and Liturgy of the Church. It was settled upon Henry Bourne, the Curate of this Church, and was opened on Low-Sunday the said Year. It is held every other Sunday in the Summer at 6-o'Clock in the Evening, and continues from Low-Sunday, 'till the Sunday after Holy-Cross, or the 14th of September.

The FOUNDERS and BENEFACTORS Names at the opening of it.
  • CUTHBERT Fenwick, Esq Mayor.
  • SIR WILLIAM Blacket, Bart.
  • RICHARD RIDLEY, Esq
  • NICHOLAS Fenwick, Esq
  • HENRY Reay, Esq
  • STEPHEN Coulson, Esq
  • EDWARD Collingwood, Esq
  • THE REV. Mr. Bradford, Vicar of Newcastle.
  • MR. John Simpson
  • MR. Charles Atkinson
  • MR. Joseph Liddell
  • MR. Henry Waters
  • MR. George Hinkster
  • MR. Joseph Colepitts
  • MR. John Morris
  • MR. Joseph Smith
  • MR. James Hargrave
  • [Page 107] THOMAS Hindmarsh, Esq
  • MRS. Alice Colepitts
  • MR. Ralph Sowerby
  • MR. William Selby
  • MR. John White
  • MR. Francis Armorer
  • MR. Thomas Allison

SINCE then Mr. Henry Coulson, Mr. George Mitford, Mr. Richard Johnson, Mr. Thomas Hall, Mr. William Trotter have encreased the Number of Sub­scribers.

THE Curate of this Church is the Minister of it. The Vicar pays him 4 l. per Annum, and the Crown 5 l. The rest of his Income arises from the Sur­plice Fees, Register, &c. It was formerly the Custom to have two Clerks for this Church. But in the Year 1708, it was thought more convenient for the Parish, and less Burthensome to the Minister (who had one of the largest Cures in the Kingdom to manage) to have an Assistant; accordingly Abraham Wil­cox, M. A. was put into the Clerk's Place, which was vacant by the Death of John Pinkney, and was allow'd the Fees of the Clerk for Weddings, Bu­rials and Christnings; which amounts to 50 l. per Annum: Mr. Wilcox was succeeded by Ambrose Fenwick, M. A. afterwards Vicar of Standfordham; He by William Hall, &c.

THERE are other two Clergymen belonging to this Church, which are Lecturers, and paid by the Town; the one for Preaching in the Morning has 100 l. per Annum, and the other for Preaching in the Afternoon 100 l. per An­num.

ALL the Ministers of this Church I have been able to collect are these fol­lowing.

The CURATES.
  • SAMUEL Barker, 1617.
  • ROBERT Bonner, 1639. He was both sequestred and imprison'd for his Loyalty in the Civil Wars.
  • ROWLAND Salkeld, 1660.
  • TIMOTHY Fenwick, 1672.
  • RALPH Grey
  • JOSEPH Bonner, afterwards Vicar of Bolam.
  • PETER Straughan, 1695.
  • ANTHONY Procter, 1697.
  • RICHARD Musgrave, A. B. 1703.
  • CUTHBERT Ellison, A. M. of Lincoln College, in Oxford, the present Vicar of Stannington.
  • HENRY Bourne, M. A. of Christ Col. Cambridge, 1722. The present Curate.
Morning LECTURERS.
  • [Page 108]Durant R. Predeux in the Time of the Civil Wars.
  • LEONARD Shafto, A. M.
  • WILLIAM Mair.
  • NATHANIEL Ellison, M. A. afterwards Vicar of St. Nicholas.
  • NATHANIEL Chilton, A. M.
  • LEONARD Shafto, A. M. He was also Rector of Gateshead, he was a very useful Preacher, a Man of great Generosity and Hospitality, a hearty and sincere Friend, and one of extensive Charity and Benevolence. He died Au­gust 27, 1731, and was buried in Gateshead Church.
  • Sept. 27, 1731. Hugh Farington, M. A. formerly Fellow of St. John's Col. in Camb. succeeded him, who is the present Lecturer.
Afternoon LECTURERS.
  • THOMAS Knaggs, A. M.
  • RALPH Emmerson, A. M.
  • CHARLES Ward, A. M. an excellent Preacher.
  • HUGH Farrington, A. M.
  • HENRY Fetherstonhaugh, B. D. late Fellow of St. John's Col. Camb. the present Afternoon Lecture.

THERE are Prayers at this Church every Day at 10-o'Clock in the Mor­ning, and 4 in the Afternoon. The Sacrament is administred at this Church every second Sunday in the Month. It was formerly usual for the Town to present this Church, at the High Festival of Easter, with twenty one Gallons of Wine.

OPPOSITE to the West Stairs of this Church is an Alms-House, which was in good Repair, as we are informed by the Milbank Manuscript, about 100 Years ago, at which Time the Church-Wardens allowed them 20 s. per Annum, for Coals for four Women. It is now in very bad Repair, and go­ing fast into Ruins. At present the People in it, are allowed eight Chaldron of Coals per Annum, and three Shillings per Quarter by the Church-wardens.

ON the South-side of this Church are two Pair of Stairs; those opposite to the Quire-Door lead into a narrow Street called the Dog-bank; but former­ly, as appears by some ancient Writings, Silver-street: The other Pair lead into the Butcher-Bank, which is a narrow Street, and a great Descent. It is mostly inhabited by Butchers, who have their Shops and Houses there. In this are many narrow Lanes called Chares, which lead into the Key-side. This leads into the Street called the Side, and into the Sand-hill. It was called formerly All-Hallows Bank.

CHAP. IX. Of the CASTLE-YARD.

IN order now to go regularly down into the lower Parts of the Town, let us set off from the South-side of the Steeple of St. Nicholas, which leads dire­ctly to the Top of the Street called the Side. Whilst I am here I can't help observing, that were the Hou­ses belonging to Mr. Partis, &c. which are situated from the Porch Door of St. Nicholas, to the said Street, taken away, the Belfry and Steeple would look much more grand and magnificent; and whereas this Great Ornament of the Town is now almost hid as a Traveller comes up this Street, it would then be wholly expos'd, and strike the Beholders with Awe and Wonder.

AFTER you have crossed the upper Part of this Street, there is a Passage leading to Bailiff-Gate, which has a Turn upon the Left-hand, that goes into the Castle-yard, the Place where is situated the Castle of this Town.

[Page 110]BEFORE the Conquest the old Round Tower was probably in Being, and was the old Castle, or Fort of Monkchester; and after the Conquest, when the other Castle was built, it was called, (to distinguish it from the old Castle) the New-Castle, which in a small Time after gave Name to the whole Place. Some­thing to this Purpose are these two or three Words about it, in the Manu­script of John Milbank, Esq That this new Castle may be distinguished from the old one. The Use of this Tower, as the same Authority informs us, was made to secure the Pass to the Bridge in former Times.

THIS new Castle was built by Robert Curthois, the Son of William the Con­queror in the Year 1080 as has been before observed. But notwithstanding this, and that it gives a new Name to the Place, yet whatever Priviledges be­longed to Monkchester (for so the Town was then called) continued with it, nor did the Castle impair them in the least.

De reb. Novocast.IT has been a Building of very great Strength, and very fit for what it was design'd, and yet in the Reign of King John we have an Account of it's being repair'd by that King, and that he was obliged in the making of a Ditch to destroy divers Houses, for which he satisfied the Owners, as may be seen in our Account of that King's Charter to this Town.

THE first Account we meet with of it after it was built, is of it's being be­sieged by William Rufus. For Robert Mowbray, Earl of Northumberland, having opposed him, he came down and laid Siege to the Castle, and con­quer'd Newcastle; upon which Robert fled, and absconded in Bamburgh-Castle; but was afterwards taken by the King's Party, and carried Prisoner to Windsor.

AMONG several Rents and Revenues arising to this Castle, the following were some.

THE Barony of the William Herron, Hen. I. eum Feost: Herons, which contain'd One Wil­liam regular­ly descended from this William died in the 25th of Edward the 1st, and left no Male Issue; so that Emelin, his only Daughter, was the Heir of the Barony. She married into the Family of John Lord D' Arcy, and transferr'd this Manour of Haddeston and divers others into that Family. Lord D' Arcy abovementioned, dy'd possess'd of this Manour at Nor­ton in Lincolnshire, 30th Edward the 3d. In the 1st of Hen. IV. Thomas Lord Lumley died pos­sess'd of it, and left it to Sir John Lumley his Brother. This Family is so named from Lomley a Town situated on the Bank of the River Were, where their Seat was. They are descended from Liulph, a Person of great Nobility in the Time of King Edward the Confessor, who married Algitha the Daugh­ter of Aldred, Earl of Northumberland. Sir George Lumley, Knight, he that married the Grand-daughter of Roger Thornton of this Town, was in great repute in the County of Durham, in the Reign of Edward the 4th, being High Sheriff in the 2d of that Reign; in the 6th, Knight of the Shire; in the Year 8, High Sheriff again, in which Office he continued three Years more. But none of this great and ancient Family was ever higher in the Esteem of his Prince, none in greater Repute in his Country, than is the present noble Successor, Richard, Earl of Scarborough, who is also Viscount Lumley and Waterford, Baron Lumley of Lumley, Master of the Horse to his Majesty, Lord Lieutenant of the Counties of Durham and Northumberland, Knight of the most Noble Order of the Garter, one of his Majesty's most honourable Privy-Council, &c. Haddeston, Chirton, This Village is about two short Miles distant from the Town of Newcastle. How it came out of the Hands of this Family of the Herons, is not known. But in the 11th of Edward the 2d, it was the Lordship of Jeffrey de Scrope, of Masham in Yorkshire. After him Ralph, Lord Graystake, was Lord of it. In the Reign of K. Henry the 6th, this Manour was in the Possession of William Fitz Hugh, who dy'd and left it to his Son Henry. It is now in the Possession of Mr. Tho. Bigg and Mrs. Jane Sanderson, who have there a House and Garden, at which they reside in the Summer Season. Lit­tle-Benton, Coldwell, This Place in latter Ages was the Seat of the Wodrington's, who in the Reigns of Henry 6th, Edward 4th, and Henry 8th, were High Sheriff's of Northumberland. Swinburne, and Flatford paid for Castle-ward and Cor­nage;

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[Page 111]THE Hen. I. Simonem de Devilstone, Feof: Barony of Dilstone, containing Dilston, a small Vil­lage, stand­ing on the South-side of the Tyne, call'd in old Books and ancient Records, Devilstone, from a small Brook running on the West-side of it whose Name Bede says was Devilsburn, and emptying itself into Tyne. The Barony in which it stands takes it's Name from it, and is at this Day called the Barony of Devilstone. We have not yet met with the Origi­nal Barons of it. We observe a Family in our ancient Histories, bearing the Surname of Deivill or Deiville, which might probably be Owners of the Manour of Devilstone, i. e. the Town of Devils, for John Deiville was Governour of Scarborough Castle in Yorkshire, and built a Castle of his own at a certain Place called the Hode in that County; but having no ground for this Conjecture in History, we shall leave it to the Reader to accept, or reject it, tho' the Name being a little Unusual, and looking as if its Original were derived from the Evil Spirit that bears that Name, we thought fit to give some Account of it. Bede in the same Place, viz. lib. 3. c. 1. tells us, that here it was that S. Oswald, armed with the Chri­stian Edith, slew in a fair Field Cedwell the Briton, a wretched Tyrant, who had before slain Two Kings of Northumberland, Osrick King of the Deirans and Eanfrid of the Bernicians, and miserably wasted their Coun­try: But the Author of the Additions of Cambden contradicts Mr. Cambden, and tells us, that all the Latin Copies of Bede, that he had seen, say, That Oswald's Victory was obtain'd in loco qui Lingua Anglorum Denisesburn vocatur, i. e. in the Place called by the English Deniesburn, and the Saxon Copies of King Al­fred's Paraphrase have Denisses, Deni, ces and Denises burna, And the Saxon Chronicle hath not made any Mention of this Story. Sir Francis Ratcliffe, or Radelive, Bart. descended of the ancient Family of Ratcliff's Earls of Sussex, who was made a Baron of this Realm, March 7, 1687-8 did bear the Title of Baron of Dilston, Viscount Ratcliff and Langley, and Earl of Derwentwater in Cumberland. He died anno 1696-7, and was buried in the Church of this Place. The last Earl of this Family was James Ratcliffe. He was beheaded on Tower-Hill, Anno 1715. for being concerned in the Rebellion of that Year. Devil, or Dilstone, Corbidge, a Town situated upon the North Bank of the River Tine; which takes it's Name from the Bridge laid there over that River for Traffick into the Southern Parts of the County, and the rest of England, and the ancient Roman Name found in Antonine's Itinerary, called Corstopitum or rather Corstopilum (as it is read in the Edition of H. Surita) which, as Henry of Huntington testifies was for Brevity Sake called Cure or Cor. Here, according to the Description of Ptolomy was the Curia Ottodinorum, i. e. The Court of the Ottodini or Northumbrians. The Manour of this Town, 8 Ed. 2. or soon after, was purchased by Henry Percy, a weal­thy Northumbrian, who was then in great favour with that Prince. He, making a Settlement of his Great Estate in the 7th of Edw, the 3d, gave two Parts of this Manour to his Son and Heir Henry Percy, which he then was in Possession of, and the third Part after the Death of Hawise, the Widow of John Clavering, who held it then in Dower; but this Henry died seized of the whole Manour, Feb. 26, 26 Edw. 3. and left it with other great Estates to his Son and Heir of the same Name, who accordingly soon after the Livery of his Lands, saving to his Mother Idonea her reasonable Dower, who had assigned her for it among other Lordships this of Corbridge, which was not long come into his Possession; but it was settled upon his Death upon his secured Wife Joan for her Dower, How this Manour was alienated in the same Reign we cannot discover; but do find 10 Rich. 2d. that Alice the Widow of Ralph Lord Nevil of Raby had for her Dowry among other Manours and Rents, Twenty Pounds per ann. out of his Manour of Corbrigge. At this Day there is nothing remarkable in this Town but the Church and a little Tower-house, fitted up and inhabited by the Vicars of the Place; yet there are so many Ruins of ancient Buildings, as prove it once to have been a large and spacious Town. King John supposing that either an Earthquake or some sudden Invasion might be the Cause of so great Desolations, and the Inhabitants had no Time or Way to remove their Wealth, did not doubt but he might find a great Deal of Treasure upon a diligent Search; but Fortune fauoured his Attempt no more than it did Nero's in his Enquiries after the concealed Riches of Dido at Carthage, for he found nothing but Stones mark'd with Brass, Iron and Lead. The Vicarage of this Town being [...] all a Value, as not to be a suitable Maintenance for the Minister, the Dean and Chapter of Carlisle, since the Re­storation of King Charles II. made an Augmentation to it of 20 lib. per annum. But tho' King John discovered nothing considerable here, yet there was found out accidentally about 40 Years ago, a Thing very remarkable. The Bank of a small Torrent, which comes down from the Wall's Side by this Town, being worn away by some impetuous Land floods, the Skeleton of a Man appeared of a very extraordi­nary and prodigious Size, the Length of his Thigh bone was within a very little of Two Yards, and the Skull, Teeth, and other Parts proportionably monstrous; so that by a fair Computation, the true Length of the whole Body may be will reckoned at Seven Yards. Some Parts of it were in the Possession of the right Honourable the late Earl of Derwentwater at Dilston, in 1695, who was much pleased with the Rarity; but his Lordship not having Notice of it, 'till it was in a great Measure squandred away, and lost by the careless Discoverers, he could not by all his Inquiries make it so compleat, as any that have a Regard to such Curiosities could hearti­ly wish it were: But since there was not found here an intire Skeleton, but Great Numbers or Strata of Teeth and Bones of a very extraordinary Size, and withal a Sort of Pavement, or Foundation of Stone running along with these Strata; and since here hath an Altar inscribed to Hercules been digged up, what if we should affirm that these are the Teeth and Bones of Oxen, and other like Creatures, which were sa [...]rificed at the Temple dedicated to Hercules, standing in this Place, Ex Mag. Brit. Corbrigg, Togeston, &c. paid to the Castle;

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[Page 112]THE Barony of Whalton, Hwanton or Qualton, a large Manour with many Fees thereunto belonging, as the Manours of Lington, Linton, &c. It was the Estate anciently of Robert de Cramavil, which he held for himself and his Heirs by the Service of three Knight's Fees; but because he did not make Performance to King John of what he expected, the King seized his Estate, and Reg. 7. bestowed this Manour upon Robert Fitz Roger, in whose Posterity it continued 'till John Fitz Robert, who (leaving the old Fashion of framing Sirnames out of the Christian Names of their Fathers, as his Ancestors had done, and was hitherto used by many Families) laid aside the Name of Fitz Robert, and at the Command of King Edward the 1st took the Name De Clavering, dying without any Legitimate Issue, he settled great Part of his Estate on King Edward the 1st, and his Heirs; and the rest was either sold in his Life-time, or left to his own Heirs. This Ma­nour, by what Title we know not, is found to be in the Family of the Scroops of Masham, for 13 Ed. 3d, Sir Geffery Scroop, Banneret, died seized of this Manour of Whalton, with many other Estates, which he left to his Son and Heir Henry, in whose Posterity (who were summoned to Parliament from the 8th of Henry IV to the 9th of Henry VIII.) It continued 'till Geffrey Lord Scroop dying in that Year without Issue, his three Si­sters became his Heirs. Ex Mag. Brit. Mr. John Shaw, Minister of St. John's in Newcastle, was Rector of this Place in the Times of the late Re­bellion. He was instituted and inducted into his Living in 1645, but not permitted to enjoy it; however he was allowed to have the Church of Bolton in Yorkshire, and held it 'till the Restoration of King Charles, when he came into Possession of Whalton. He was a Person of Eminency for his Conduct as well as Learning, and was several Times chosen to represent the Clergy of those Parts in the Convocation. He died in a good old Age in 1689. His Writings shou'd have been commemorated before, they are these following. The Pourtraiture of the primitive Saints in their Actings and Sufferings, according to Saint Paul's Canon, Heb. xi. one Part whereof, to Verse 23. was preached at Newcastle 1652. The other, from Verse 22 to the End, was preached at the same Place in 1659. Both which were afterwards published in Quarto. Origo Protestantium, or an Answer to a Popish Manuscript of N. Ns. that would fain make the Protestant Catholick Religion bear Date at the very Time when the Roman Popish commenced in the World, wherein Pro­testancy is demonstrated to be elder than Popery. Lond. 1677 and 79. Quarto. Answer to the Jesuit's Letter— Printed with the former Book, and the Jesuit's Letter with it. No Reformation of the established Religion. Lond. 1685. Octavo. Walton given by King John to Robert Son of Roger, and confirm'd by his Charter, contain'd Walton, Ripplingdon, Newham, Denton, Newbiggin, Kenton is a pleasant Village about two Miles West of Newcastle. It seems to have got its Name from its Situation; for it stands upon a Hill, and so is a Town that one may Ken from far, or see at a good Distance. In the Reign of Edward II. in the Year 1313, when the Battle of Bannockburn was fought, one Sir John de Kenton Knight▪ was High Sheriff of Northumberland. It has been in the Possession of several good Families, and is now chiefly belonging to Walter Blacket, Esq The Road to this Village from the Town-moor, has on each Side of it Fields so well cultivated, and Hedges so adorn'd with Plantations, that in the Summer-season it is a most pleasing Walk. Kenton, Gosford, the Barony of Richard sur Tees, or upon the Teas, because his Seat was upon the Bank of that River, a Person of great Repute in the Reign of King Henry I. Gosford, and Fawden; and also Ogle, or as we find it in old Writings, Oggil or Oggle, the Lordship and Seat of a Family that took their Name from it, being called de Oggle. Of this Family our Histories mention John de Oggil in 49 Hen­ry III. who, for adhering to the rebellious Barons of that Reign had his Lands extended; but his Descendants recovered their Estate, and Robert de Oggle in 15 Edward III. obtained a Licence to make a Castle of his Manour-house at Oggle, and to have free Warren in all his Demesne Lands within his Lordship of Oggle, &c. in this County. This Robert married Helena Bertram, the sole Daughter and Heir of Sir Robert Bertram Knight, Baron of Bothail, by whom he had Issue Robert, who died before his Father, but left a Son Robert, who after his Grandmother's Death doing his Homage had Livery of her Lands and Castle at Bothal. He in his Life-time settled his Inheritance descended to him from his Ancestors, upon his eldest Son Sir Robert Oggle, and his Heirs,; and for Want of them, upon his younger Son John, whom he sirnamed Bertram, to whom he gave his Barony of Bothal-Castle. His Grandson Robert being a firm Adherent to the York-Interest, was by King Edward IV. advanced to the Dignity and Degree of a Baron of this Realm, by a Summons to his first Parliament, Reg. 1. His Posterity being further enriched by the Marriages with the Heiresses of Alan, Heton, and Alexander Kirby, for several Generations enjoyed his Honouur and this Manour, with his other Estates; but Issue-male sailing in Cuthbert Lord Ogle, Katharine, who at length became his sole Heir by the Death of her elder Sister Joan, who was married to Edward Talbot, a younger Son of George Earl of Shrewsbury, but died without Issue, and was married to Sir Charles Cavendish of Welbeck Knight, is 4th Car. I. made by Letters Patent Baroness of Ogle of this Place. Her Son William having been made knight of the Bath in 1610, at the Creation of Henry Prince of Wales, was afterwards advanced to the Degree of a Baron, by the S [...]le and Title of the Lord Ogle, in 1620. He in the great Breach between King Charles I. and his Parliament, endeavoured to support his Royal Master in his Authority and Power, and did many signal Things for that End, as raising Forces, fortifying the Town of Newcastle and Tinmouth, defending York, &c. which Ser­vices, tho' not crowned with the desired Success, yet were of so great Merit with King Charles II. at his Re­storation, that he created him Earl of Ogle and Duke of Newcastle in 1664. The Title of the eldest Son of this Family in his Father's Life-time, is Earl of Ogle, by the Courtesy of England. Mag. Brit. Nathaniel Ogle, Esq whose beautiful Seat is at Kirklaw in Northumberland, is a Descendant of this an­cient Family of the Ogles. Oggle, Burndon, Hor­ton [Page 113] with Sticklaw and Hereford and Widdring­ton, Wid­drington-Castle, or Woddring­ton, the Seat and Manour of an ancient and worthy Family of that Name, which had often signali­zed their Va­lour in the War against the Scots, and long flourish'd in great Repute in these Northern Parts, for Roger de Wid­drington, was High Sheriff of this County, 36 Ed. 3d, as was John de Witherington, 11 Hen. 4th, and the same, or another of his Name, 4 Hen. 6. Roger Wodrington the 10th and 28th of the same Reign; Gerhard Wod­rington, 5th Edw. 4th, John de Wodrington nine Years together in the same Reign, and John de Wodrington, 32 Hen. 8th, 6th Edw 4th, and 1st Eliz. But the Person which hath the most enobled this Family, was Sir William Wod­rington, Knt. who having been High Sheriff in this County, 12th Car. 1st, was created a Baronet, July 9th, 1642; and having by the breaking out of the Civil War, or soon after, raised a considerable Power for his Majesty's Service, which he put under the Conduct of William Cavendish then Earl (but after Duke) of Newcastle, as General, whereby he had his Share in the Honour of those many Victories that General obtained at Tadcaster, Yarm, Seacroft, Tan­kersly, Leeds, Hallifax, Rotheram, Sheffield, Chesterfield, Gaynsborough and Lincoln, but chiefly at Bradford in Yorkshire, against the numerous Forces of the rebellions long Parliament; he was in Consideration of his good Services thus done for the Royal Cause, advanced to the Honour of a Baron of this Realm, by the Title of Lord Witherington of Blankney, the Estate which came to him by Mary his Wife, the sole Heir of Sir Anthony Thorold, Knt. of that Place in Lincolnshire. He left several Sons, of whom William succeeded in his, P [...]ea [...]e and Honour, and his Grandson William now enjoys them. This Place was forfeited to the Crown Anno 1715, the Lord of it being concerned in the Rebellion that was that Year raised against the King. He suffer'd not along with the Earl of Derwentwater, Lord Kenmuir, &c. but was graciously pardoned, and is alive at this Day. Wodrington, paid for Castleward and Cornage;

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THE Barony of Henzerus. Primus Hugonem de Bolbeck, Feos. Bolbeck, containing Stifford, Brumhall, Slavely, Shotton, Heddon on the Wall, Part of the Manour of Hugh de Bolbeck, who descended by the Mother's Side from the Noble Barons of Mont [...]chet. He had no Issue Male, but left four Daughters, Coheirs of his large Barony and Estate, viz. Philippa married to Roger de Lancaster, Margery to Nicholas de Corbet, and afterwards to Ralph Lord Graystock, (as Mr. Cambden says) But Sir William Dugdale, Baron, 452. tells us, that it was Ralph, the Son of William Lord Grimthorp; Alice to Walter de Huntercumbe, and Mand, some Years after to Hugh de la Val, or as Cambden, J. Lovel. In an Original Charter, dated 1 Steph. whereby some Lands are conveyed to, and settled on the Church of Winchester, subscribed by a great many Barons, we have Signum Walteri de Bolbec, Bar. Seld. Tit. Hon. Par. 2. c 5. p. 571. one Isabel de Bolebec, first Countys of Oxford, foun­ded a Convent of Dominicans in that City. Heddon of the Wall, Hedwin East, Thornton, Whitchester, Haughton, Of BENWALL. Mr. Cambden speaking of Chester on the Street, says, he supposes it to have been the Condercum, where upon the Line of the Wall, the first Win [...] of the Astures kept Garrison in the Roman Times, as the Notitia tells us. And this he conjestures, because in the Saxon, Chestre is called Concester, and because it is but a few Miles from the Wall. But others are of Opinion, that Benwall, a Village about two Miles West of New­castle, was the ancient Condercum, because of the Antiquity of the Place, and its Nearness to the Wall; the Notitia described the Condercum, as upon the Line of the Wall. This indeed seems rather probable. For if a Place is said to be situated ad lineam valli, one would think it should not be far from the Wall, however not in the wrong Side of Tine. The Places of the Roman Garrisons ad lineam Valli, as far as I can iudge, have always been in these Counties which the Roman Wall past through; but no Body seen yet found out the least Footsteps of it in the County of Durham. In this Village were lately found several Mens with Coins in them, which were most of them broken and squander'd about by the ignorant Diggers; but one of them being preserved, was given to the Library at Dur­ham, where it remains very intire. The Prior of Tinmouth was went to spend some Part of the Summer at this Village. It is now the Property of Robert Shafto Esq and has been of his Ancestors for many Years; the old Tower of Benwell-Hall was the Place where the Prior resided, and the Chapel, which Mr. Shafto opens, and supplies, for the Good of the People of his Village, was the Prior's domestick Chapel. This Place is much frequented in the Summer-Season for its pleasing Situation and agreeable Distance from the Town, and at all Seasons for the Hospitality of the wor­thy Proprietor. Ben­well, Elswick is a Village distant a short Mile from Newcastle, it is situated on the North-side of the Tyne, up­on the Brow of an Hill, not far from the River. It is exceedingly agreeable and pleasant in the Summer, having about it some of the richest Grounds, whose Hedges are mostly beset with Trees. It is a Place much frequented in the Summer-Season by the Town's People. Ralph Jenison, Esq Member of Parliament for the County of Northumberland, is the present Possessor of it. Elswick, Angerton, Hertbourne, Middleton, Morel, Burneton, Beril, Fenwick, the Manour and Estate of the eminent and valiant Family of the Fenwicks, whose Seat is here called Fenwick-Hall. Many of this Family have been Men of Note in the Reigns of our first Norman Kings; for John de Fenwick was High Sheriff for this County, 48 Edward III. and again (or it was another of the same Name) and Richard II. Henry de Fenwick, 6 Henry VI. Roger de Fenwick, 9 Henry VII. Ralph de Fenwick, Esq 7th Henry VIII. William Fenwick, 20th 31st of Elisabeth, and Sir John Fenwick, knight; the w [...]th Tear of King James I. Sir John Fenwick his Grandson, was beheaded in the Reign of King William. Fen­wick [Page 114] Matifin-East-Hawkwell Shalow, Middleton-South, Cambhow, Hert-Weigh-Hawick, Kirkherle, Rocheley, Newton-Grange, and the Moiety of Bywell, paid

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THE Barony of Bolam, a small Vil­lage, of which Mr. George Forster was Minister. He was turned out in 1646, and severely fined for not resigning without Opposition; but was allow'd for Fifths 4 l. 6 s. 8 d. which was ill pail; but not being sufficient to maintain his Family,Joan Rex Feofalio. he took a Farm, and he was plunder'd of his Hay and Corn, and had been imprisoned, but he got Bail. He lived to 1660, when he was restored, and died aged 81. The Reverend Mr. George Fenwick, of Christ College Cambridge, is the present Vicar. Bolam, containing Bolam, Litedon, Burneton, Thornbury, Cupum, Parvam, Wittington, Hayden, Belson, Bradeford, Denum, Trewick and Tunstal, paid

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THE Barony of Henry I. Richardum de Gaugye Feof. Gaugye, containing Ellingham, Cramlington, the Manour and Estate of Robert de Gaugi, a great Man in the Reign of King John, and by him entrusted with the Government of divers Castles at Times, to defend them against the rebellious Barons, which he did faithfully and to his own Advantage; for 3d Henry III. it was certified, that the Barony of this Robert (now as we conceive, called the Barony of Caugif, for Gaugi) in this County, consisted of this and divers other Manours, which he held of the King by the Service of three Knights Fees. This Manour is now the Property of Robert Lawson, Esq of Chirton. Crawlington, Heaton is a small Village distant from Newcastle about a Mile and a Half Eastward. It has been handed down by Tradition to the present Day, that it was a Place of Retreat for King John when he came into this Country, and there are still to be seen the Ruines of an ancient Building, now in the possession of Richard Ridley, Esq which carries the Name of King John's Palace. Whatever Truth there may be in this Tradition, this is certain, that there is in the said Gentleman's Ground on the North-side of this old Building, the Remains of a Fortification, which 'tis natural to conjecture, was built for the Safety and Security of this House, and con­sequently this House must have been of some great Distinction. And when it is further considered, that this Village of Heaton is a Part of the Barony of Robert de Gaugy, it may not be improbable to conclude, that this ancient Building has in some Measure been what Tradition says it was. For Robert de Gaugy was a great Man in the Reign of King John, and was entrusted by him (as has just now been observed) with the Government of divers Castles at Times, to defend them against the rebellious Barons, which he did faithfully and to his own Advantage; for in the 3d of Henry III. it was certified, that the Barony of this Robert in this Coun­ty, consisted of this and the other Manours, which he held of the King by the Service of Three Knights Fees. This Robert therefore might have had his own House here upon this Part of his Barony; and as he was so faithful a servant to King John, and entrusted by him with Matters of such great Concern, it is not impro­bable but when the King came to these Parts, he lodged at this House; and this perhaps was the Reason of its getting the Name it hears at this Day. This is its ancient Grandeur; its present is, the House and Family of the worthy Gentleman above mentioned; it was built in the Year 1713, it is a beautiful House, and so situated, that on the West it overlooks the Town-Moor, Fenham, and Part of the Lands of the Prior of Tinmouth; on the East it faces the Sheilds Road; on the North it has a most agreeable Prospect to the Windings of the Ouse-Burn, of its Woods and Banks, and of the Villages situated on it. On the South it faces the River Tine. Its Conveniencies and Beauties a­bout it, are on the West-side a Fish-Pond, Groves, Wilderness, Gardens, Avenues, and Numbers of Plan­tations. On the East a very large and beauteous Quadrangle, whose Walls are shaded with the choicest Fruit-Trees, and whose Area is adorn'd with Variety of Knots and Flowers. In this Area, at a due Distance, are two Images tall as the Life, which declare the Hand of a curious Statuary. On the North are Gardens and Plantations, and on the South an Area Adorned with Images and a pleasing Gravel-Walk, beset with Trees and bordered with Flowers. This Gentleman the Possessor was eldest Son to Nicholas Ridley, Esq who was born at Hardriding, in the Parish of Haltwhistle, the ancient Mansion-house of the Family of the Ridleys; where is still to be seen above one of the old Doors, the Date of the Year of its Building, which was earlier than the Conquest, and the initial Letters of the Name of the Builder, N. R. This Nicholas was of the younger Branch of the Ridleys of Wilmotes-Wike; the Seat as Mr. Cambden says, of the worshipful Family of the Ridleys, which is a pretty large Castle on the South-side of Tine, and very ancient, as appears from several Things about it. A little above this, upon the Banks of the Tine, is the Estate of Mr. Nicholas Ridley, the younger Son of the said Gentleman. This Nicholas, Senior, was twice Mayor of Newcastle, in the Year 1688, and in the Year 1706, and was esteemed a Man of great Honour and Integrity, and an excellent Magistrare. By his last Will and Testament, dated 7th December 1710, he gave and bequeathed to the Poor of the Parish of Haltwhistle 40 s. per annum, out of a little Farm or Tenement called Waggtail-Hall. He also gave a Rent-Charge of 4 l. and 10 s. per an­num to the Poor of Newcastle upon Tine, and 50 l. to the Poor of the City of Carlisle. Which said Charities he order'd to be distributed every Year to the more aged and infirm, eight Days before Christmas. He left also 20 l. to the Poor of the Township of Hexham. He died January 22d 1710, and hes buried in St. Nicholas in this Town, at the Entrance into the Chancel from the Body of the Church. Of this younger Branch was John Ridley of Hardriding, Esq who was Major of a Regiment in the Army of the right Honourable William Marquis of Newcastle, for the Service of King Charles I. Besides the Gentlemen of this Family already mentioned, we shall only take Notice of the two Persons following. Nicholas Ridley, first Bishop of Rochester, and then Bishop of London. He was born here, and being edu­cated in Grammar at Newcastle upon Tyne, and in academical Learning in both Universities, where he took his Doctor's Degree, was first made Master of Pembroke-Hall in Cambridge, then Chaplain to King Edward VI. and at length Bishop. He was a Person small in Stature but great in Learning, and a profound Divine, of whom Dr. Caius says, that quo viro nihil integrius & egregiis Dotibus ornatius, being Good as well as excel­lently endowed. He wrote many Things against the Popish Doctrines, and at length confirmed his Writings with Sufferings, being burnt near Baliol-College in Oxford, Anno 1555, 2d & 3d Phil, & Mar. He had a Hand in compiting the Common-Prayer-Book, now in Use in the Church of England. Thomas Ridley, Doctor of the Civil Law in Cambridge; he was the Son of Lancelot Ridley, and Grand­son of Nicholas Ridley, Esq he was educated in Grammar at Eaton, and in academical Learning at King's College, Cambridge, where he was Fellow. Afterwards he became a School-master at Eaton, one of the Ma­sters in Chancery, when he was Knighted, Chancellor to the Bishop of Winechester, and Vicar General to Doctor George Abbot, Archbishop of Canterbury. He was a general Scholar, and wrote a View of the Civil and Ec­clesiastical Law. He dy'd Jan. 23, 1628, and was buried four Days after in the Parish Church of St. Bennet, near St. Paul's Wharf, London, We meet with one Mark Ridley, a Physician, a Person of that Note, as to be one of the eight Pricipals of the College of Physicians, and a Writer; but we do not find that he was of this Family at Wilmotes-wick. Mag. Britt. Heaton, [Page 115] Hartelaw, Vide Chap. VIII. of Pilgrim-street. Jesumuth and Whitby paid

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THE Barony of Marley, alias Morlaw, alias Roger de marly post Con­questum. Morpeth, containing Morpeth, a Marlet-Town standing upon the Wentsbeck, which runs thro' the Middle of it almost; for the Body of the Town is seated on the Northern Bank of it, and the Church on the Southern; near to which stands on a shady Hill the Castle, which, together with the Town come from Roger de Merlat, or Merley, in whose Family it had been for some Successions, to the Lords of Graystocke, by the Marriage of William Graystocke to Mary, one of the Daughters and Co-heirs of the said Roger. His Grandfather of the same Name 1 Johan. by paying a Fine of 20 Marks, and two good Palsreys, obtained a Licence for holding a Market and Fair at this his Manour of Morpeth. Roger Bertram, another Baron of these Parts, finding that the Market at Mor­peth proved a Detrement to his Marlet at Mitford, impleaded this last Roger in the County-Court of Northum­Berland for Damages; but King Henry III. Reg. 34, being acquainted with it, sent his Precept to the She­riff, prohibiting him to go further in that Suit, because it belonged not to his Jurisdiction. This Manour continued some Time in the Family of Graystocke, but Issue-male failing, it past by the Female-Heirs to the Barons Dacres of Gillesland in Cumberland, by which their Estate was greatly enlarged; for the Barony of Morpeth consesteth not only of the Castle and Lordship of the Town, but has many Villages Members of it, as Grimwest, Ulweham, Hebscot, Schillington, Twisel, Salwick, two Duddens, Clisten, Cladwell, Stanington, Shotton, Blakedon North and South, Wideslad, Killingwith, Benton and Waver. This Estate continued some Generations in that Family of the Dacres; but at length Issue-male failing, it came by Elisabeth, Sister and Co-heir of George last Lord Dacre, to her Husband the Lord William Howard of Naworth, third Son of Thomas Du [...]e of Norfolk, whose Grandson Charles was soon after the Restoration created Lord Dacres of Gillesland, Viscount Morpeth, and [...]ar [...] of Carlisle, which Honours were inherited by his Son Edward, and are new en [...]oyed by his Grandson Charles, the third Earl of Carlisle of that Family, whose eldest Son Henry hears the [...]terary Title of Henry Viscount Morpeth. The present State of this Town is this: It is a Corporation, governed by two Bailiffs, annually chosen by the Freemen, and send Burgesses to Parliament, but not of many Years standing. It hath a very good Market on Wednesday weekly, for Corn, Cattle, and all necessary Provisions, and a Fair yearly on [...] It is a Post Town, and a good Thorough-fare, lying about 4 Farlo [...]s on the Road. The Castle is in Ruins, as most of all the other Castle's in the Nation are. Here was anciently an Hospital for inform People, on which William de Merley, a great Man in his Time, bestowed a Caru [...]ata of Island, but not finding any Mention of it in the Monathcon, nor in Mr. Speed's Catalogue from Leland, we suppose in was dissolved long before the gene­ral Supprem [...]m by King Henry VIII. Nothing more is recorded of this Place, so far as we can discover, but that Elisabeth, the Wife of William Lord Grayflock, had for her Dowry an assignation of this Manour of Morpeth, among other Estates; and that is the Tear of our Lord 1215, the Townsmen themselves burnt is in par [...] Spite to King John. This Place is famous for being the Birth-Place of two eminent Physicians, viz. William Turner, bred in the Universiry of Cambridge, where he became an excellent Latinish, Grecian, Poet and Orator; be being a very zealous Protestant, and writing several Books in Defence of the reformed Doctrine, was very much molested for the same by Bishop Gardiner, and others then in Power, who kept him long in Pri­son: but having estated by a wonderful Providence, be fled beyond Sea. At Ferrara in Italy he commenced Do­ [...]r of Physick, gaining his Degree there with general Applause. He went afterwards into Germany, and there lived in great Gredit and Practice, and died there (as is conjectured) in Queen Mary's Reign. He wrote a great Herbal, a Book of Physick for the English Gentry; as also several Treaties about Plants, Fishes, Stones. Metals, &c. He was worthy (says Dr. Fuller) of our special Notice, because he was both a Confessor and a Physician, Qualification which we observe not to meet every Day in the same Person. And Thomas Gibson, who flourished at the same Time, and was so eminent in his Profession, that Bale gives him an higher Character than the former. viz. that he did Aegritndinum fanasiones incredibiles, i. e. incredible Cures of Diseases. He was a zealous Opposer of the Popish Doctrines, and wrote several Books against them, and among others, one entituled. The Treasons of the Prelates since the Conquest; yet not forgetting [...] Profession, for he wrote upon the Nature of Herbs. He was alive in the last Year of Queen Mary, for Bale sendeth forth a hearty Prayer to God for the Continuance of his Health and Happiness, he being not only his Friend, but so useful in his Generation. Morpeth, [Page 116] Grimnest Membrum suum, Newham, Hebscot, Shillington, Tuysell, Saltwick, Dud­den-East, Dudden-West, Clyfton, Caldwell, Stannington, Shotton, Blakedon is a small Village seven Miles North of New­castle. It stands upon the great Road to Mor­peth; what it was for­merly I have little Know­ledge. In the Reign of King Henry III. and Edward I. we meet with one A­dam de Blakedon, and John de Blakedon, who were Bailiffs of Newcastle. At present it is the Seat of Matthew White, Esq Son of Matthew White, Esq who was twice Mayor of Newcastle, and Governor of the Merchants and Hoastmans Companies. Since the present Gentleman was the Possessor of it, it vastly surpasses what it was formerly; and whether we consider the Stateliness of the House, the Grandeur of the Avenue, the Beauty of the Gardens, or the Art and Ornaments of the curious Fish-Pond, we shall find them ex­ceeded by few in the whole Country. Blakeden, Wetteslade North, Wetteslade South, Killingworth, Benton was formerly the Manour and Estate of Sir Philip Somerville of Wickmore in Staffordshire, 29 Edward III. and was found by an Inquisition taken of his Estate at his Death, which happened in that Year. The Church with certain Lands in this Parish he gave to Baliol-College in Oxford, for the perpetual Mainte­nance of six Scholars there, to be elected out of it and the neighbouring Towns. He being desirous to have all the Fellows subject to one Form of Government, made them new Statutes in some things, contradicting the old ones given them by Devorgilla, the Relict of John Baliol their Founder. About the Reign of Richard I. one Eustachius, Parson of Benton, was one of the Witnesses to the Deed of Foun­dation to the Hospital of St. Mary the Virgin in Westgate. Roger Bertram de antiquo Feosamento. Benton and Walker paid

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For Cornage000708

The Barony of Bothal, the Lordship of Richard Bertram, who being a devout Man (as those Times went) gave two Shares, i. e. two third Parts of the Titles of it to the Monks of Tinmouth. His Son Robert obtained of Rich­ard I. that this Manour and its Dependants should be made a Barony, by the Name of the Barony of Bothal, as it is at this Day called. It lies upon the German Ocean on the East-shore, between the Rivers Lyne and Wentsbeck. This Robert held this Barony of the King in Capite, by the Service of three Knights Fees, as his Ancestors had done formerly for the said Lands, being de veteri Feofamento, and paying yearly for the Guard of the Castle at Newcastle upon Tine, for Coinage 5 l. 15 s. 4 d. To this Robert succeeded his Son Roger, who obtained a Charter for free Warren for all his Demesne Lands here; and at Hepburn in this County his Heirs enjoyed this Barony for some Successions, without making any Addition to its Grandeur; but Robert Ber­tram, being in the Reign of King Edward III. constituted Sheriff of Northumberland, and Governor of New­castle upon Tine, obtained Licence of that King to make a Castle of his Manour-House at Bothal, which ac­cordingly he did; and there are some considerable Remains of it to this Day. This Robert left no Issue-male, and therefore his Daughter and Heir Helen being married to Sir Robert Ogle, Knight, tranferred this Barony to his Family. His Son Robert after the Death of his Mother obtained this Barony, and settled it soon after upon his younger Son John, whom he Surnamed Bertram, from his Mother, being desirous that his own Estate should go in his own Name, and so gave it to his eldest Son Robert Ogle. He suffer'd his Brother John to enjoy the Bertram-Estate quietly; but his Son Robert having obtained Livery of the Lands of his Inheritance, by Colour thereof, did forcibly, with two hundred Men, possess himself of the Castle and Manour of Bothal; but upon Complaint made to the Parliament by John Bertram, it was ordered that a Writ should be sent to the sheriff of Northumberland, to require all those who were in the Possession of the Castle to depart from it, that it might be restored to John the Complainant, and commanded Robert to appear at Westminster on a certain Day, to make Answer to the King for his Misdemeanour. This John Bertram, who was afterwards Knighted, was several Times Sheriff of Northumberland, in the Reign of King Henry VI. and his Posterity flourished, and had the Title of Lords Ogle, 'till the latter End of Queen Elisabeth's Reign, when Male-Issue failing in Cuthbert Lord Ogle, Katharine, his Daughter and Heir, married to Sir Charles Cavendish, Knight of Walbeck in Nottinghamshire, and carried the Estate and Title of Ogle into that Family; but the Name of Bertram is not forgotten, for it is a common Christian Name in those Northern Parts. Some think the Name of Ferdinando is derived from it. Bothal, containing Bothal cum membris suis, viz. Whe­worth, Newmore, Oldmore, Peggesworth, Hebborne, Fenrother, Tricklington, E­resden, Longhirst cum membris suis, & Nishenden veteri morae, or the old Moor, and Eringdon paid

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The Barony of Delaval containing Blackalladay, Seton, a principal Manour of the Barony of Delaval, held of King Henry III. by Eustace Delaval, by the Service of two Knights Fees, de veteri Feofamento; his Heir was Hugh Delaval. I am told, the present Possessor Francis Blake Delaval, Esquire, it obliged to finish, or expend so much yearly to­wards the finishing of the sumptuous Building in that Place, which is so much the Wonder and Admiration of all the Country. It was begun by the late Admiral Delaval, Anno [...] It seems for Grandeur and Magni­ficence, for Strength and Continuance, to vie with the ancient Northumbrian Castles, and to last the Days of the most distant Ages. Secton cum membris suis, [Page 117] Newsum, and Dissington paid

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For Castle-ward020608
For Cornage000303

The Barony of Rosse, containing Werke, the Castle and Manour of which was held in the Reign of King Hen. II. Reg. 31, by Hugh de Nevil, by the Name of the Honour de Werch, who accoun­ted to that King for the Farm of it that Year, at 5 l. 10 s. 6 d. and in the 34th year of the King at 13 l. 1 s. 6 d. at which Time by that King's Com­mand it was given to Ro­bert de Ross, of Helmesley in Yorkshire; he gave it to his younger Son Robert de Ross, 2d Hen. III. to hold it in Barony of the King by the Service of two Knights Fees, as his Father and Predecessors had done. This Barony had many Towns and wordships belonging to it. This Robert being constituted Chief Justice of the King's Forests in Derby, Cumberland, this County, &c. had free Warren granted him in all his Demesne Lands here, and divers others of his Manours in this County. 36 Hen. III. But 39th Hen. III. he delivered up this Castle into the King's Hands, who being advancing with an Ar­my against the Scots, did not think it safe to suffer so strong a Fort out of his own Power; but upon the King's Return it was yielded up to him again the next year. Afterwards the King began a Suit against him, for the Title of his Castle of Werke; but he in his Defence producing his elder Brother William for Warranty, the King upon mature Advice, with such Noblemen as were of his Council, discerning, that he had a good Right to it, quitted his Claim to him. This Robert, not long after this, fell in Love with a Scotch Woman, and having a Mind to get her for his Wife; not only joined himself with the Scots, but endeavoured to engage his Kinsman on their Side, viz. William de Ros, of Hemlake, who detesting such Treachery, dissuaded him from it, but not being able to prevail, advertised the King of it, and obtain'd a sufficient Force to defend this Castle, that it should not be surrendred to the Scots. Robert being thus disappointed, took a Body of Men out of the Garrison of Rox-borough, and invading the Borders with Banners display'd, burnt Prestten, and this Town, and then joining himself with William Wallis, the famous Scotch General committed great Spoils upon the English in these Nor­thern Parts. His Estate was for these Rebellions Actions consiscated, but after his Death, restored to his Daugh­ter and Heir, Margaret de Ross, upon an Allegation, that he had, before his Death, come to an Accord, with John Comin of Badenagh, for himself and all his Arms with him, to be safe as to Life, Liberty, and Estate. How she married we find not, but it appears that Sir John Montacute, afterwards Earl of Salisbury, was in the Possession of this Castle and Manour upon the Death of Margaret his Mother, who had it, and divers other Estates for her Dowry. Mr. Cambden tells us, that in his Time they were the Estate of the Greys, a Family of Note for their Valour, of whom William Grey was in the Reign of King James I. advanced first to the Degree of a Baronet, and within a few years after to the Honour of a Baron, by the Title of Lord Grey of Werke, viz. 11 Feb. 21 Jac. I. and to the Heirs Male of his Body. He married Anne, the Daughter, and one of the Coheirs, of Sir John Wentworth of Gosfield, in Essex; and there fixed his Seat, in which his Posterity sometime resided, 'till Ford, Lord Grey, sold it, &c. No Castle-ward or Cornage was paid for this Barony; but yet it belonged to the Castle of Newcastle, as appears by an Inquisition taken at Newcastle, 9th Edw. III. for that the Lord of Werke was enjoyned to build an House within the Liberty of the said Castle for the more safe keeping of it. Werk, Mindram, Karham, Prestfen, Ma­nilawe, Dunum, Palwister, Shotton, Killom, Holthall, Newton, and the other Newton, Langeton, Lilleburn, Hilderton, Weperden, Russenden, Tithington, But­lisden and the Moiety of Glattendon.

THE Barony of Bywell, a Barony and Castle, held of the King, viz. Richard I. by Hugh de Baliol, the Son of Eustace de Baliol, by the Service of five Knights Fees, and to find 30 Soldiers (Mr. Cambden says to pay 30 Knights Fees) for the Guard of Newcastle upon Tyne, as his Ancestors had done from the Time of King William Rusus, by whom they were enfeoff'd of the Barony as the Record expresseth it. In later Times, John Nevil, Lord Raby, who died at Newcastle upon Tyne, Oct. 17th, 12th Rich. II. was found to be possessed among other Estates of this. Here was a fair Castle in Mr. Cambden's Days, and below it a most beautiful Wear for the catching of Salmon, and in the Middle of the River stand two firm Pillars of Stone, which formerly supported the Bridge. John Fenwick, Esq descended from the ancient Family of the Fenwicks of Fenwick Hall, who was High-Sheriff of the County of Northumberland, Anno 1728, is the present Possessor of this Place. Bywell, containing Newbigging, Woodhorn, Lynmouthe, Hyrste, Hallywell, Lynton Ellington, cum Cresswell & Ayden Membris suis, By­chefield, Iaglym, Blackheddon, Samfordham, Newton-west, Newton-east, Scheel­linge, Ovington, Ovingham, Milkylleye, Whitlye, Falderlye, Bromley, Appleby, the Moiety of Bywell, Slokefield, Swinburne-east, Swinburne-west, Ryhill.

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THE Barony de Copun paid001304

THUS far the Baronies. But besides these Rents, there were Houses, Yards and Gardens, &c. which paid to it.

IN the 9th of Edward III. an Inquisition was taken at this Town, where­by it was found, That at the Time of the Battle of Vide Speed 1314. Bannockburn, which was in the Year 1313, when John de Kenton Knight was High Sheriff of Northum­berland, the Castle and all Edifices about it were in good Repair; That after that Time, Nicholas Scot, Adam de Swinburn, William Riddel, Joannes de Fen­wick, [Page 118] Cuthbert de Boroughdon, Joannes de Fenwick, Joannes de Wodhorne, Joan­nes de Lilleburne, Willielmus de Tyndale, Roger Manduit, and Robertus Darreius were High Sheriffs of Northumberland. During which Time it is affirmed, the Great tower, and also the lesser ones of the said Castle, the Great Hall, with the King's Chamber adjoining to it, together with divers other Cham­bers below in Queens Mantle, and the Buttry-Cellar and Pantry; The King's Chappel within the Castle, a certain House beyond the Gate, which is called the Checker-house, with the Bridges within and without the Gate, with three Gates and one Postern, are 300 l. worse than they were. They say also, that there are in the Custody of Roger Manduit, late High Sheriff, 420 Fother of Lead. They say also, that it was thought highly necessary, that the Baron Heron of Haddeston, the Baron of Walton, Lord Robert of Clifford of the new Place, chief Lord of the Barony of Gaugie, the Lords of the Barony of [...] and Devilston, that the Lord of Werk upon Tweed, the Lord of the Barony of Bolbeck, alias Bywell, the Baron of Bothal; and Lastly, the Baron of Delaval should build each of them a House within the Liberties of the Castle for the Defence of it. The House of the Baron of Werk was built over the Postern.

THERE were two great strong Walls which surrounded the Castle. The interior Wall was of no great Distance from the Castle itself, as may be still seen in several Places. The exterior Wall surrounds the Verge of the Castle Bounders. From this outer Wall were four Gates, the Great Gate and three Posterns. The North-side of the Castle is the main Gate, called now the Black Gate. It has had two Port-Cullicesses, one without the Gate, as may be still seen, and another within it at a little Distance from it, the Ruins of which were to be seen a few Years ago. There still remains a Piece of the old Wall, which shews its Situation to have been where that House is, which was lately purchased by Mr. Jasper Harrison; the Shop belonging to this House was dugg (as I was informed) out of the Wall just now mentioned. On the East-side of the Castle there was a Postern, which led down to the Street called the Side, which is still to be seen; it was once called (but ma­ny Years after it was in Decay) the Waist of Laurentius Acton. On the South-side of the Castle is another Gate, which leads down the Castle-stairs to the Street called the Close: This was called the South Postern. There is an old Building upon it, which was the County-Goaler's House. On the West­side was the Postern facing Bailiff-Gate, now the Dwelling-house of James Lidster.

THERE is an House in the Yard, where they say was the Chapel of the Garrison, which is called the Chapel-house to this Day; it stands North-east from the Chapel; its common Name now is the three Bulls Heads.

21st September 1 mo Hen. VII. per Lit. Pat. then dated at Westminster, the Office of Constable of the Castle of Newcastle was granted to William Case, Esq during Life, with the Wages and Fees then belonging, and of ancient Time accustomed, de reb. 47.

15th February, 9th Hen. VH. per Lit. Patent. then dated at Westminster, this Office being then void, by the Death of Sir Robert Multon Knight, the same was granted to Roger Fenwick, Esq for the King's Body for his Life, together with the Wages and Fees of 20 l. per annum, to be yearly received out of the Issues, Profits and Revenues of the said County of Northumberland, coming by the Hands of the Sheriff of the said County, with all Manner of Profits, &c. de Reb. P. 47. Ibid.

NOT any Letters Patents of the Office of Constable since the last above mentioned; for the Custody of the Castle (as supposed) was committed to the Sheriffs of Northumberland for several Years.

IN the 31st Elizabeth, the same Power and Liberty was given to the Ma­gistrates [Page 119] of Newcastle, in the Castle-Garth; as in other Parts of the Town of Newcastle.

AN Inquisition in the Reign of James I. says, that the ancient Castle, be­longing to the King, situated within the Walls of Newcastle upon Tine, be­longs to the County of Northumberland, and is surrounded with a great Stone-Wall. That below the Castle there is a great Hall, where the County of Northumberland holds their Assizes. There is also a great Tower, full of Chinks, under which are two Vaults, which are the Places where the Pri­soners of the County of Northumberland are kept, which are within the Circuit of the Castle itself.

AND that there is in Being the exterior Wall of the Castle, which begins North of the Castle, about six Yards from the Great Gate, which leads into the Castle-yard; and so goes on eastward and southward by the Back of some Houses in the Side. Then it goes westward by the Back of some Houses in the Sand-hill; then it crosses the Castle-stairs, which lead to the Street called the Close, and from thence behind the Houses, even to the upper Pinion-Ga­vel of the House of James Clavering Alderman, which is about nine Yards distant from the long Stairs, where the said ancient Wall, on account of its Decay, does no farther appear; but yet the Bounds and Limits of the Castle go through the middle Part of a House, extending itself even to the Channel in the long Stairs. Then it goes along the Channel upwards on the Outside of the new Wall, which was built to enclose the The high and great Heap, viz. the Dunghill on the West­side of the Castle, was taken away by Sir John Marley Mayor, and his Adhe­rents, to ram­part the Town-Walls against the Parliament and Com­monwealth, Dunghill. From thence it goes to the Corner of the House of [...] and thence by the Back-part of the House of [...] where the ancient outward Wall begins. This ancient outward Wall of the Castle contains by Measure three Acres of Ground and one Rood.

IN the 18th of this King's Reign, another Inquisition was held at New­castle about the Castle, wherein Complaint was made of the Dunghill men­tioned in the Bounds of the Castle, that it had increased to such a Bigness, that it was in Length 98 Yards, the Depth of it was 10 Yards, and the Breadth of it 32 Yards; which being such a prodigious Weight upon the Wall on the West-side of the Castle (which Wall was in Length 40 Yards, in Height 10 Yards, in Breadth 2 Yards) that a great Part of it is intirely thrown down and subverted to the great Detriment of the Strength of the Castle. The Damage was computed at 120 l.

IT was also by this same Inquisition complained of, that the great square Tower was full of Chinks and Crannies; and that one Third of it was almost taken away: That all the Lead and Covering which it had of old was im­bezled and carried of, insomuch that the Prisoners of the County of Northum­berland were most miserably lodged, by reason of the Showers of Rain falling upon them. They computed the Charge of repairing it would be 809 l. 15 s. 0 d.

IT has been a Building of great Strength, and no little Beauty; the vast Thickness of the Walls speaks the one, and the Ruines of some curious Workmanship speaks the other. The grand Entrance into the Castle was at the Gate facing the South, which leads up a Pair of Stairs (which still shew the Magnificence of the Builder) to a very stately Door of curious Masonry. The Room this leads into, has its Floor broken down close to the Castle-Wall, as indeed all the other Floors are to the Top of the Castle; so that ex­cepting the Floor above the County-Goal, there is not one left, tho' there have been five Divisions or Stories of the Castle besides this. This floored Room which I was told was lately flagg'd by the Order of William Ellison, Esq Alderman, when he was last Mayor in the Year 1723, seems to me without any Doubt, to have been the common Hall of the Castle, because on the North-side of the same Room there is an Entrance by a Descent of some Steps into a Room, where is the largest Fire-place I saw in the Castle, which plainly speaks it to have been the Kitchen. At the End of this there are se­veral [Page 120] Stairs, which lead into a Place under the Kitchen, which I think goes down as low as the Bottom of the Castle. This I take to have been a Cel­lar, as I do also that little dark Place on the right Hand coming up again, to have been a Sort of a Pauntry.

THE Door I mentioned just now on the East of the Castle, which leads to the first broken down Floor, is because of it's Grandeur and Beauty, an Argument that this Room has been the most stately one in the whole Castle; another Reason for it's being so, is because of the Windows which gave Light into it. Those of them that face the East are the most beautiful of the whole Castle; besides, on the South of this Room there is an Entrance into a Sort of a Parlour or withdrawing-Room, which has a Fire Place in it; which has been a Piece of curious Workmanship, as is visible to this Day; and this Place has no Communication with any Part of the Castle but this Room. On the North-side of this Room, is a Door leading into an Apartment, where stands a Well of a considerable Depth, it was 18 Yards before we touch'd the Surface of the Water; which seems to have been placed there on purpose for the more immediate Service of this Room: There are some little Basons on the Top of the Well, with Pipes leading from them, which conveyed Water to different Appartments of the Castle; This is plain from what may be obser­ved in the County Goal, at the Bottom of the Castle; the round stone Pillar in it, having an Hollow in the Middle, of a Foot wide, with a lead Spout in the Side of it.

IN the Inquisition made in the 9th of Edward 3d abovementioned, among other Things that were complained of for being neglected, one was Capella Do­mini Regis infra Castrum. This Chapel I have been told, stood on that Part of the Castle Yard, where the Moot-hall is; but upon Searching, I found it in the Castle itself according to the Account of it just now mentioned. The Door of it is at the Bottom of the South Wall of the Castle, adjoining to the Stairs which lead into the State Chamber. It has been a Work of great Beau­ty and Ornament, and is still in the midst of Dust and Darkness, by far the most beautiful Place in the whole Building; the Inside of it being curiously adorned with Arches and Pillars. It is easy to observe the different Parts of it, the Entrance, the Body of it, and the Chancel; on the left Side of the En­trance you go into a dark little Room, which undoubtedly was the Vestry. The full Length of it is 15 Yards, the Breadth of it is 6 Yards and half. It had 3 or 4 Windows towards the East, which are now all filled up, nor is there any Light but what comes in at a little Cranny in the Wall.

Nicholas de Byker Tenet terras suas ut faciat districtiones ad Ward' Novi Ca­stelli super Tynam faciend' & pro deb' Domini Regis inter Tynam & Cocket, &c. And then my Authority goes on to say, that the Manour of Byker was Sir Ralph Lawson's Knight, deceased, after of Henry Lawson, Esq his Son, and now of his eldest Son, who without all Question is Bailiff by Inheritance of the said Castle, and is to levy these Castle-ward Cornage, and other Rents, Issues, Fines, and Amerciaments, belonging to the said Castle. And as he goes on, the Constable of the Castle, when that Office is settled, may ap­point the learned Stewards to keep Courts, and then the Officers for the said Castle will be compleat. Besides the Rents above-mentioned, a great Num­ber of Houses, Yards, and Gardens paid to it.

IN the 17th of James I. 1619, a Grant was made of the Scite and De­mesnes of the Castle to Alexander Stephenson, Esq who was succeeded by one Patrick Black, who died, and left it in the Possession of his Wife. After that one James Langton, Gent. claimed Patrick Black's Right, but by Virtue of what is not known.

THE Liberties and Privileges of the Castle extends Northwards to the Ri­ver of Tweed, and Southward to the River of Tees.

[Page 121]IT is reported, that underneath that House which was anciently the Coun­ty Goal, is a Vault which leads to the Castle. There is indeed a large Door still to be seen, which perhaps was the Entrance into it; and Mr. George Grey, the present Possessor of the House, told me that it was certainly so, be­cause he had put down thro' his own Floor a Bailiff's Rod to the very End, and could find no Bottom.

A Manuscript I have often had Occasion to mention gives us the following Account of the Castle-Yard.

THE Way thro' the Yard begins at the Castle-Yate, and when I was young, there was no Houses in it but the House of one Thomas Southern, and the House of one Green; these Houses were near the Gate before you came into the Ca­stle-yard; and there was in the Garth a House, wherein the Goaler of the Ca­stle dwelt, and a House wherein William Robinson dwelt, who was Deputy Herrald under Norroy, King at Arms. This Man wrote in a Book the Arms of all the Mayors of this Town, from Laurentius Acton, until his Time. And when I was Chamberlain of the Town, which was about the Time of Sir Nicholas Cole's being Mayor in the Year 1640, it was then in the Town's Chamber; when Trollop built the Town-Court, he borrow'd it, but would ne­ver restore it.

THESE were all the Houses at that Time; but since then Mr. Bulmer, he took a Garth behind his House in the Side, and built a Stable in it, and had a Garden in it; and also George Hayroy took from thence to the Moat-hall, and built Houses upon it: He was a Butcher, but not a Freeman, and these took their Lands and Houses of Alexander Stephenson, a Scottish Man, who came in with King James, for he begg'd the Castle of the King. He was one of his Close-Stool. This Man began to build the Castle-Gate, but it was finished by one John Pickle, who made it in the Fashion it is now, and kept a Tavern in it; and then one Jordan a Scotsman and Sword-Kipper, built the House on the South-side of the Gate, and lived in it; and Thomas Reed, a Scotch Pedlar, took a Shop in the North-side of the Gate.

AT present there are a good many Shops and Houses belonging to it, in and about it.

CHAP. X. Of the lower Parts of the TOWN.

HAVING now considered the Castle, and what belongs to it, we return back to the Side, the Street from which we entred the Castle-yard.

Sect. I The SIDE.

THIS Street is from the Head of it, to the Stairs on the left Hand, a very great descent, and lies narrow, untill you come to the middle of it, from which Place it opens in a spacious Breadth, and so continues to the Sandhill. It is from the one end to the other fill'd with Shops of Merchants, Goldsmiths, Milliners, Uphol­sters, &c. The East-side of this Street, from the Upper Part of it to All-hallow Pant, was called Cordiner, or Cordwainer Rawe.

ABOVE the middle of the Street are Stairs leading up to the Castle-yard, which was the Eastern-Postern of the Castle, and after called the Waste of Laurentius Acton, as appears from the Account of Gunner Tower; and our Towns-man, Grey, says, that in the Middle of this Street is an antient Stone-House, an Appendix to the Castle, which in former Times belonged to the Lord Lumley, before the Castle was built, or at least coetany with the Castle.

ON the other Side of this Street, opposite to the Waste now mentioned, is a Corner Shop, which formerly belong'd to a Chantery in St. John's Church. On the same Side of this Street, almost opposite to this Eastern-Postern of the Castle, is a short narrow Lane, (which formerly seems to have gone by the Name of Vide Gun­ner-Tower. Swinburn-place) which leads by Stairs into a dark narrow Lane which faces the Painter Heugh that leads into Pilgrim-street. On the North­end of this Lane there was a Place called Vide Gun­ner-Tower. Pencher Place, perhaps the whole Lane was called so. It goes as far as the Nether-dean-bridge, under which is now a Ware-house of Mr. James Moncaster, Merchant. Under this I am [Page 123] told the Rings are still to be seen that the Boats were fastned to, which brought up the Merchant Goods, when the Merchants had their Shops in the Flesh-market. On the South it leads to the Side.

THE Pant standing near the Shop of Mr. Robert Makepeice, is undoubted­ly that which went by the Name of All-Hallow-Pant; The other Side of the Street from All-Hallow-Pant to the Cale-Cross, was formerly divided by the coming up of the River, which was called Lorkburn, and the East of it had the Name of Flesher-Raw: because I suppose the Butchers had their Shops there, as well as on the Butcher-Bank: The West bore the Name of the Side. Af­ter that, Lorkburn was cover'd with Flags at the Top, and made one Street, which all goes by the Name of the Side. In the Year 1696 Lorkburn was arch'd at the Top, and pav'd over.

WE come now to the Cale-Cross, so called because of the Cale or Broth which was sold there in former Times. This seems to have been it's original Name, for I meet with it in the Reign of King Richard the Second, as may be seen in the Account of St. Margaret's Chantery in St. Nicholas, and also in a Writing dated Edward the Third. What Grey says of it is still just, that it is a fair Cross, with Columns of Stone Hewn, covered with Lead: There is at the Top of it a Cistern which holds the New-Water. Here is sold Milk, Eggs, Cheese, Butter, &c.

FROM the Cross the Street has the Name of Cale-Cross, 'till you come to the Sandhill, which leaving the Butcher-Bank that leads to All-Hallow's Church on the left Hand, you come immediately to

Sect. II. SANDHILL.

THE Sandhill is so called, because it was formerly a Hill of naked Sand, when the Tide was out. For formerly the Tyne overflowed all this Place. After it was taken in it became Part of the Town: That Part of it on the West-side of Lorkburn, was a Place of Pleasure and Recreation for the Towns-People. For in the Reign of Richard the 2d, a Proclamation was made, com­manding to remove all Merchandise from a certain Common Place, in Newcastle called Sandhill, where the Inhabitants were wont to assemble for their Recrea­tion.

IT is a spacious Place, and adorned with Buildings very high and state­ly, whose Rooms speak the Ancient Grandeur, being very large and Magni­ficent. It is now that Part of the Town where the chief Affairs of Trade and Business are transacted. The Shops in this Street are almost altogether those of Merchants, which have many of them great Conveniencies of Lofts, Garners and Cellars.

HERE is the Market for Fish, Herbs, Bread, Cloth, Leather, &c. which for the one Part of Things, viz. those to be wore, is kept every Tuesday and Saturday; for Things to be eat, every Day.

[Page 124]ON the South-side of the Street, is the ancient Hospital called the Hospitale Novicastri super Ty­nam in Co­mitatu Nor­thumbriae vocatum Thornton's Hospital. Licentia Henrici Re­gis Quarti Rogero de Thornton concessa pro fundatione ejusdem. Rex, &c. Sciatis quod de gratia no­stra specialis & considera­tione cujus­dam summae Pecuniae no­bis in came­ra nostra, per dilectum nobis Roge­rum nuper solutae, con­cessimus & Licentia de­dimus, &c. praesato Ro­gero, quod ipse quod­dam Hospi­pitale in Ho­nore Sanctae Katharinae, in quodam Messuagio suo per ip­sum sum Rogerum in parte nuper edificato in quodam loco vocato, Le Sandhill, in villa nostro Novi Castri super Tynam, continente C. Pedes in Longitudine, XL Pedes in Latitudine de uno Capellano divina in­fra Hospitale praedictum, pro Salubri statu ipsius Rogen dum vixeret, & pro anima sua cum ab hac luce migraverit, ac animabus patris & matris ipsius Rogeri, & Agnetis nuper uxoris ejus; necnon antecestorum & liberorum suorum, ac omnium fidelium desunctorum singulis diebus celebraturo; ac de novem viris & quaruor Faeminis pauperibus in eodem Hospitale continue residentibus jaxta ordinationem ipsius Rogeri vel executorum suorum in hac parte faciendam, de novo facere, creare, sundare, & stabilire possit in per­petuum: Et quod Hospitale illud, Hospitale per se privatum & incorporatum existat in perpetuum, ac etiam quod capellanus Hospitalis praedicti, qui pro tempore suerit, sit custos ejusdem Hospitalis; ac quod idem Capellanus Custos & praedicti viri & Faeminae, Fratres & Sorores Hospitalis Sanctae Katherinae, vocati Thornton's Hospital in Novo Castro super Tinam, nuncupatur quodque custos Fratres & Soroves & corum Successores per nomen custodis Fratrum & Sororum Hospitalis Sanctae Katherinae, vocati Thornton's Hospital, in Novo Castro super Tynam, sint personae capaces & habiles ad omnimoda terras, tenementa, redditus & servicia ac alias possessones quascumque de quibusdam personis adquirendas, capiendas & recipiendas, te­nendas sibi & successoribus suis, custodibus Fratribus, & Sororibus, Hospitalis predicti in perpetuum, Li­cenna Regia inde primitus optenta. Necnon quod idem custos, &c. fint personae habiles ad alios impla­ciandos & ab aliis implacitari & ad desendendum in quibuscunque placitis & querelis per nomen custodis Fratrum & Sororum Hospitalis Sanctae Katherinae vocati Thornton's Hospital in Novo Castro super Tynam. Et quod licet unum commune Sigillum pro negotiis & agendis ejusdem Hospitalis deserviturum in perpe­tuum, Et ulterius, &c. Licentiam dedimus, &c. praefato Rogero quod ipse quandam cantariam de uno Ca­pellano divina ad altare Beati Petri in capella Omnium Sanctorum in villa praedicta pro statu & animabus praedictis singulis diebus celebratur juxta ordinationem ipsius Rogeri vel executorum suorum in hac parie faciendam, scilicet sacere fundare & stabilire possit in perpetuum. Concessimus etiam, &c. praefato Roge­ro quod ipse messuagium suum praedictum cum pertinentiis, quod de nobis teneat in Burgagio, postquam Hospitale praedictum, sic factum fundatum & stabilitum suerit dare possit & assignare praefatis custodi Fratribus & Sororibus Hospitalis praedicti habendum & tenendum sibi & successoribus suis, tam pro Inha­bitatione fua, quam in [auxilium] sustentationis suae in perpetuum concessimus insuper, &c. eldem Rogero quod ipse Heredes assignati, vel executores sui terras Tenementa & redditus cum pert' ad valorem x l. per Annum tam ea quae de nobis tenentur in Burgagio quam ea quae de nobis non tenentur acquirere & praefatis Custodi Fraeribus & sororibus Hospitalis praedicti ac capellano Cantariae predictae cum sic facta fundata & stabilita fuerit, juxta diferetionem & limitationem suam divisam, & proportionabiliter dare assignare & con­cedere possint habend' &c. in perpetuum, &c. T. Rege apud Westin. x Junii. Maison Dieu, or, the House of God. It was founded by that great Benefactor Roger Thornton, in the Reign of King Henry the Fourth, upon the Death of his Wife, for a Chaplain to pray for the Soul of the said Roger, as long as he lived, and after he was dead, and for the Souls of his Father and Mother, and Agnes his late Wife, &c. This Priest was called the Guardian or Keeper of the said Hospital, because of the Care he had over nine poor Men and four poor Women, who resided there. These poor People were called the Brethren and Sisters of St. Katharine's, Hospital; for to this Saint was the Hospital dedicated.

IN the 34th of Henry VI. Roger Thornton granted to the Mayor and Com­munity of Newcastle, the Use of the Hall and Kitchen belonging to the Hos­pital of the blessed Katharine the Virgin on the Sandhill.

IN the Year 1629, Sir Richard Lumley, in Consideration of 100 l. con­vey'd to the Mayor and Burgesses of Newcastle, and their Successors for ever, all that Building of Stone covered with Lead, standing near to the Water of Tine, and to the East-part of the Town's Chamber, being about 16 Yards in Length, and anciently Part of the Hospital of St. Katharine the Virgin.

Grey.UPON this Building stands the stately Court of the Merchant-Adventurers of the Old Staple, resident at that flourishing City of Antwerp in Brabant; since removed to the more northern Provinces under the States. Their Char­ters are ancient, their Privileges and Immunities great; they have no Depen­dence upon London, having a Governor, twelve Assistants, two Wardens and a Secretary. The present Governor is Richard Ridley, Esq Alderman of this Town, who has been Governor of this Company for many Years.

THIS Room in ancient Times, as we are inform'd by the Milbank Ma­nuscript, was given to the Town for a young Couple, when they were mar­ried, to make their Wedding-dinner in, and receive the Offerings and Gifts of their Friends; for at that Time Houses were not large. 'Tis true indeed, the Houses in the Flesh-market, which were built many Years before this up­on [Page 125] the Sandhill, had most of them Rooms near as stately, if not altogether as stately as this Room is; but then they were the Houses of the Great Mer­chants and Aldermen of the Town. So that the Tradition of this Room may be true enough.

THIS Hall is adorn'd with the Arms of several generous Benefactors, and some of the most curious carv'd Work in Wood. Here it is that for some Years by past, the annual Feast of the Sons of the Clergy has been held.

ADJOINING to the West End of this ancient Building, was the Town-Court, which was built by that worthy Man Roger Thornton. This was pull'd down and the present one erected Anno 1658. Alderman Weimoth by Will, dated the 11th of April, gave 1200 l. towards it, and the Town was at the rest of the Charge, which amounted to above 10000 l. Mr. Joshua Douglas the Town-Clerk accounts for it in this Manner.

 l.s.d.
IN the Year 1659, in October, the Town paid Robert Trollop for building the Court97710000
IN the Year 1660, there is order'd more in Full5000000
THE Purchase-Money paid Phineas Allen, for Part of the Ground where the Court is built, which had Houses on it but were then pull'd down.   

TROLLOP had, as Mr. Douglas also acquaints us, 50 l. for setting up the King's Arms in the Court and Bridge, and 50 more for finishing them, and making the Conduit on the Sandhill.

THIS Building, as to its Form and Model, is of great Beauty, and withal very sumptuous. That Part of it, which is the Court itself, is a very stately Hall, whose lofty Cicling is adorn'd with various Painting, and its Floor laid with checker'd Marble. On the East end of it is a Dial, and the Entrance into the Merchants Court. On the West are the Benches, where the Magi­strates sit, raised considerably above the Floor of the Court, above which are the Pictures of King Charles II. and King James II. large as the Life. On the North a Gallery for Spectators; and on the South the Windows, which are very pretty, particularly that Window which is a Katharine-Wheel, in which is a large Sun-dial of painted Glass, with this Motto, Eheu Fugaces! Under this is a large Balcony, which overlooks the River. Here it is that the Mayor and Sheriff keep their Courts, and the Judges at Lammas hold the Assize. Here is kept the Guilds, the Court of Admiralty, &c.

ON the North-side of this Hall is a magnificent Entrance into a Passage, which leads into a large Room called the Town's Chamber. Here it is that the Mayor transacts the common Business of the Town. Here the Common Council is held, where the Mayor sits on a Bench distinguishable from the others, the Aldermen on each Side of him, the Common Council below upon Chairs placed on each Side the Room, and separated from the Benches, as the Court itself is separated from the Benches there. And here upon the Days of Rejoicing, the State Holidays, the Mayor not long ago entertained the Ma­gistrates and Burgesses with a Banquet of Wine, &c. to which they were wont to come from the Mayor's House with great Pomp and Solemnity. At the West-end of the Room is a small Apartment, or withdrawing Room, where the Magistrates upon Occasion retire, where the ancient Records of the Town are kept, &c. Under this Court and Chambers are the Weigh-house and Town-house. The former is for weighing all Sorts of Commodities; for in the Reign of King Henry VI. Brass Weights according to the Stand­art were sent to this Town. The latter is the Place where the Clerk of the Chamber and the Chamberlain are to receive the Revenues of the Town for Coal, Salt, Ballast, Grind-Stone, &c.Grey.

[Page 126]BEFORE I leave this Street, I must by no Means omit the Effigies of King James II. which stood here, as I have been told, on that Side of the Bull-ring next the Court-stairs. By the Account I have had (for I never saw the Statue itself, nor the Picture of it) it must have been a very curious Work. The King's Picture on Horseback was cast in Copper large as the Life; the Horse stood upon his Hind-Feet, raised upon a Pedestal of white Marble, which was surrounded with Iron-Pales. It cost the Town 1700 l. and was confess'd the most beautiful and curious of its Kind that was in the whole Kingdom. Certainly it was a great Ornament to the Town, and 'tis therefore great Pity it is not still in Being, tho' it was the Statue of an un­fortunate King. But there is no Bounds to the heady Proceedings of a fu­rious Mob; it drives all before it, without either Reason or Reflection, and bears no Regard to Things either Civil or religious. Such a one I am told was this, that pull'd down the noble Statue; a few Soldiers, as drunk with Loyalty as with Liquor, assisted by the busy hot-headed Genius of Sandgate, having provided Ropes for that Purpose, pull'd it down, dragg'd it from thence to the Key, and threw it into the River. This was in the Year 1688; it was afterwards taken up again, and Part of it cast into a Set of Bells, which now belong to All-Hallows in this Town.

Sect. III. The CLOSE.

ON the East of this Street is the Entrance to the Key-side, which shall be spoken hereafter. On the West is the Close, to which as you go along, you pass by the North-side of the Chapel of St. Thomas the Martyr; and on the other Side opposite to this Chapel, an ancient House which is said to be built by Richard de Emmeldon, Mayor of Newcastle, for three Priests to pray for his Soul. I take it to be nigh those Stairs which lead up to the Half-Moon, the ancient outward Fortification.

FROM hence going on still Westward, you cross over the North-end of the Tine-bridge, and so pass into the Street called the Closs. It answers its Name exactly well, for it is but narrow and close too. It was formerly that Part of the Town where the principal Inhabitants liv'd, Sir John Marly, Sir William Blacket, Sir Mark Milbank; and the Houses of many other Gentle­men of Figure are still remembred by the ancient Inhabitants. And indeed however the Street itself may be, however mean the Fronts of the Houses are, within they speak Magnificence and Grandeur, the Rooms being very large and stately, and for the most Part adorn'd with curious Carving. The Earl of Northumberland's House was in this Street; it was that House which has at its Entrance a great Gate, besides which there is a large round Ball of Stone, the House on this Side Mr. Thorp Stewart's. In the lower Part of this Building, towards the Water, are very manifest Tokens of its Antiquity

OF late Years these Houses have been forsaken, and their wealthier Inha­bitants have chosen the higher Parts of the Town.

ON the right Hand as you enter the Street from the Tine-Bridge, are Stairs which lead into the Castle-yard, which were the Southern Postern of the Castle, and are called the Castle-stairs. On the same Side a little further along, are other Stairs, which are called the Long Stairs, which lead up to the Bailiff-Gate, Backraw, Castle-yard, Side, &c. almost opposite to which is a small [Page 127] Key, called Javel-Gripp. Somewhat further along are other Stairs on the same Side of the Street, leading to West-gate, which are called Tudhill-Stairs. Perhaps it is not amiss to tell you what I have been somewhere inform'd of, that the pro­per Name of it should be Tout-hill, from the touting or winding of a Horn upon it, when an Enemy was at Hand. What makes me the more incline­able to believe this Tradition to be true, is, that Cornage was paid to the Castle, as may be seen in our Account of it. Now Cornage comes from the Word Cornagium, (from Cornu a Horn) and was a Kind of grand Serjeanty: The Service of which Tenure was to blow a Horn, when any Invasion of the Scots was perceived; and by this many Men held their Land Northward, a­bout the Picts Wall. Cambd. Britan. 609 Pag. and Littleton, Fol. 35.

ALMOST opposite to these Stairs is the House of the Mayors of New­castle, where they reside during the Year of their Mayoralty. It is a Build­ing grand and stately; and considering the Place it stands in, is very orna­mental. As the Mayors of Newcastle have such continual Business at Court, tho' the Situation is not so pleasing as that of the upper Part of the Town, it is yet more advantageous, as it is nigher the Court.

BEYOND this House a little Way, still going on Westward, is the Gate belonging to this Street, called the Close-Gate. The Town-wall descends from the West-Friar Tower, down a dangerous Pair of Stairs, upon a very steep Bank, to this Gate, from which it goes Southward to the Water-side, where is an old Tower, now the Hall of the Sail-makers.

WITHOUT this Close Gate is a Way to the Forth, a Place of Recreation.

IN the Close were many Houses, which pay an annual Rent to the Master and Brethren of St. Mary the Virgin.

THIS Street is commemorated in many ancient Writings for a Mill, which (in ancient Times, long before these were drawn) was wont to stand upon the Hoga, that is, upon the Bank without the Close-Gate. In a Grant from the Master and Brethren of St. Mary's in West-gate, it is permitted to the Parties concern'd, that they have quandam placeam terrae in Vico quoe voca­tur le Closs, sicut se extendit in longitudine de Hoga, ubi antiquum molidinum solebat stare, usque ad aquam Tinae, & quantum de Tina acquirere poterit.

Sect. IV. TINE-Bridge.

IN coming into the Close, we cross'd the End of the The Bridge is of great Antiquity, undoubtedly as old as the Times of the Romans. There must have been a Communication between this and the other Side of the River; and therefore there was a Necessity for it. The ingenious Mr. Horsley, p. 104, says, I think there are some certain and visible Remains of a military Way on Gateshead-Fell, pointing directly towards the Part, where I suppose the Station has been at Newcastle, and coming, as I apprehend, from Chester le Street. Dr. Hunter as­sured me, he had also observ'd visible Remains of such a Way. And it is the common Opinion, that there has been a military Way from Chester to Newcastle; this Way tends towards the Place where the Bridge now is. There must then have been a Bridge in the Roman Times over the River Tine, near the Place where the present Bridge stands. Tine-Bridge, let us now return and consider it a little. It has been a Query, whether the Bridge was originally of Wood or Stone; but I think it is altogether need­less; all the Bridges in England were originally of Wood. In the Reign of [Page 128] Richard I. Philip Bishop of Durham sent to the Burgesses of Gate-Side a Grant of Forestage, in which are these Words: And it shall be lawful for every Bur­gess to give Wood to whomsoever he will, to be spent about the River of Tine, without any Licence. This I imagine has been for the building of Keys, and especially for the repairing of the Bishop's Part of the Bridge, which is a fur­ther Proof, that this Bridge, which was the original one, was Wood. But what I think puts it beyond Dispute, is, that according to Matthew Paris, it was burnt in the Year 1248, together with a great Part of the Town.

AFTER this Misfortune hapned, the Town, who repairs two Thirds of the Bridge, and the Thomas Ruthall, Bi­shop of Dur­ham, in the Reign of Henry VII. built or re­pair'd the third Part of the Bridge o­ver the River Tine, to­ward the South. Good­win. Bishop the other, laid out their Endeavours to raise up another Bridge of Stone. Accordingly the Bishop of Durham sent out Indul­gences, and the Town procured other Bishops to do the same, to all those that would assist either with Money or Labour in the erecting of it. By which Means they got such a Sum as was sufficient.

THE Archdeacon of Northumberland wrote to the Clergy of his Archdea­conry, and desired them to assist the Work of the Bridge as much as they could, telling them, their venerable Father the Lord Bishop of Durham by his Letters Patents, had commanded them without any Let or Delay, to go about the Affair of Indulgences, and that they were to prefer the Episcopal Indulgences to others. And what arose from them was to be given to the Master of the Bridge, who was then Laurentius, for the Use of the Bridge. Lib. Cart.

IN like Manner the Official of Carlisle promised an Indulgence of 10 Days to any one, that would assist the repairing of Tine-Bridge.

WALTER Bishop of Rochester on the 8th of the Ides of September, in the Year of our Lord 1277, granted an Indulgence of 20 Days to all that bestowed Part of the Substance GOD had given them, to the repairing of the Tine-Bridge, or would assist the repairing of it, by working at it with their own Hands.

IT is supposed by some, that William St. Barbara sent the following Indul­gence; but that can't be, for he liv'd a great while before the Bridge was built. It was therefore Walter Bishop of Durham, who in the 8th Year of his Pontificate sent it, dated at Weremouth.

Walte­rus Dei gra­tia, Dunelm. Epis. dilectis in Christo Filiis, Archi­diacon. Of­ficialibus, Decan. Par­sonis, Vica­riis, ceteris­que Eccle­siarum Prae­latis, per Dioc. Dunel­mens. constitutis, Salutent a [...]ter-nam. Quoniam, ut ait Apostolus, omnes stabimus ante tribunal Domini nostri Jesu Christi, receptare prout in corpore gessimus, sive bonum sive malum: oportet nos diem messionis extremae, misericordiae operi­bus praevenire, ac aeternorum intuitu seminare in terris, quod, reddente Domino, cum multiplicato fructu recolligere debeamus in Coelis, firmam spem fiduciamque renentes. Quoniam qui seminat in pace, pace & metat, & qui seminat in benedictionibus, de benedictionibus & metat vitam aeternam. Cum igitur Pons de Tina nimia indigeat reparatione, nec sine [...] Largitionibus valeat sustentari; vobis mandamus, subditis vestris moneatis, & efficaciter inducatis, ut de bonis à Deo colla­tis, pias Elcemosynas ac grata Caritatis subsidia ad hoc studeant erogare, ut per subventionem suam opus hujusmodi valebat conseminari. Hos autem de dei omnipotentis misericordia, ac beatorum Petri & Pauli Apostolorum ejus meritis & intercessione consici, qui ad dicti Pontis reparationem & sustentationem de bonis a Deo collatis pie contulerint, viginti dies diminuta sibi penitentia miserecorditer Relaxamus. Dat' apud Wearem' xiiijo Kalend' Octob' Pontis' nost' anno octavo. WALTER, by the Grace of GOD, to his beloved Sons in Christ, to the archdeacons, Officials, Dean, Parsons Vicars, and to the other Pre­lates of Churches in the Diocess of Durham, eternal Health.’

‘FORASMUCH as the Apostle says, that We must all stand before the Judgment-seat of Christ, to receive as we have done in the Body, whether it be good or bad; we ought to prevent the Day of the last Harvest, by doing Works of Mercy, and looking towards heavenly Things, and to sow on Earth what we shall reap in Heaven, with manifold Fruit, holding a firm Hope and Trust; Because he that sowes in Peace shall reap in Peace, and he that [Page 129] soweth in Blessings, shall of Blessings also reap, and shall reap eternal Life. Seeing then that the Tine-Bridge wants Abundance of Repairs, and cannot be sustained without large Alms, we command to admonish those that are under you, and efficaciously bring them to give Alms of the Things which GOD hath bestowed on them; and that for the Sake of Charity they would bestow on the Work what they can, that by their own Aid and Assistance a Work of this Kind may be restored: And relying on the Mercy of the Omnipotent God, and on the Merits and Intercession of the blessed Apostles Peter and Paul, we release all those our Parishioners, truly repenting and confessing, who shall piously contribute of the Things GOD hath sent them, to the repairing and sustaining the said Bridge, we mercifully release them from the smallest Penance, for twenty Days to come.’

SEWALDUS Archbishop of York, on the Ides of September, in the Year of our Lord 1257, granted an Indulgence of 30 Days to come to every one that bestowed any Thing towards the Building and repairing of Tine-Bridge.

ANDREW, Bishop of Cathness in Scotland, gave Liberty by a Grant to col­lect Alms throughout his whole Diocess, for the repairing of the Tyne-Bridge.

THE Bishop of Waterford in Ireland granted also to those that would assist the repairing of the Tyne-Bridge in Newcastle upon Tine, a Promise of being prayed for in the Cathedral Church of the Holy-Trinity in Waterford, and in the other Churches of his Diocess, and also an Indulgence for 10 Days.

AMONGST the many Benefactors occasioned by these Means, are these following.

JOHN the Son of Decanus, and Bartholomew the Son of William, Son of Benedict, Guardians of the Alms collected for the Support of the Tine-Bridge, with the Council and Assent of the Mayor, Bailiffs and Burgesses, confirmed to Gervasius the Son of Ralph, that whole Land with every Thing belonging to it, in the Fields of Jesemuthia, which Henry de Bulmar, and Ralph gave, and by their Carts confirmed to the said Tine-Bridge, &c. on Condition that he ren­der'd to the said Tine-Bridge, one Plank, or Six Shillings annually at the Feast of St. Michael, Adam de Jesumuthia was the first Witness to this Grant.

ADAM of Jesumuthia granted to GOD, and to the Tine-Bridge, on Ac­count of the Soul of William de Greenville and the Souls of his Ancestors, part of the Ground in the Land of Jesumuth.

SOME of the Witnesses to this Chart were Gilbert de Valle, Adam de Ples­sy, Gilbert de Oggell, William de Byker, Elge de Gosford.

RICHARD de Northesold, and Hugh of London, gave nine Shillings and six Pence, out of certain Lands lying in the vico fori to the repairing of the Bridge. One Stephen of Benwell is mention'd in this Grant, as having Land adjoining to that out of which this Money is granted.

SOME of the Witnesses to this Grant were Thomas Carliol, then Mayor of the Town, &c. J. Lindisay, Bail' Robert de Mitford, Adam de Blakedon.

NICHOLAS de Saws gave to the Reparation of the Bridge, when Ni­cholas Scot was Mayor, and Adam de Blakedon, Laurentius Custos pontis, & San­cti Thome, 1269.

SOME other Benefactors occasioned by the same Means, viz.

PETER de Graper, Adam Son of Henry de Carliol, Burgess of Newcastle, Nicholas Son of Adam de Carliol, Burgess of Newcastle, Henry Lewyn, Joannes Aurisaber, Robert de Valenceves, and Emma his Wife, Henricus, Gervasius, John de [Page 130] Burneto, St. Thomas's Chapel. John Brune, Joannes Page, Richard de Cromclif, Roger Amyas, Anno 1292, William of Salisbury, 1315, Ralph Brydock of Gateside, 1323, Simon de Shotton, Robert de Seaton, Henry Gategang Parson de Emildon, 1251. In the Year 1255, Henry de Carliol, then Mayor, Robert Valesine gave an annual Rent to the Support of the Tine-Bridge, and to a Chaplain to put up Prayers for the Souls of himself, his Father, and Emma his late Wife, in the Chapel of St. Thomas the Martyr.

Laurentius de Moreton and Alice his Wife of this Town, granted a Messuage in Pampeden to John de Brinklawe of Newcastle, and his Wife; on Condition that they paid to the Guardian or Master of the Bridge 4 s. at the Terms a­greed upon, and gave to them and their Heirs one Et nobis & Heredibus nostris unam Rosam ad Festum Nati­vitatis Sancti Joannis Bap­tistae. Lib. Cart. p. 55. Rose at the Feast of the Nativity of St. John Baptist.

FOR the Collection of these Alms, and receiving them, there was one con­stituted the Custos or Guardian of the Bridge, which was sometimes also the Master of St. Thomas the Martyr, as may be observed in the Account of those Charities.

IN the 43d of Edward the 3d, an Inquisition was made, whereby it was found, that the Bridge was so decay'd, that 1000 l. would not repair it; and that 20 Marks belongs to the said Bridge, and to the Chapel of St. Thomas the Martyr, built upon the same, 10 whereof was paid to the Master of the said Chapel, for himself, and his Clerk, and the remaining ten Marks to the Bridge Master Builder.

THIS Bridge, after it was repaired, stood upon 12 bold Arches, but now there are only 9, the rest being turned into Cellaring, at the Building of the Keys. It is a pretty Street, beset with Houses on each Side for a great Part of it. In the Entrance from the North into it, stands the Chapel of St. Tho­mas the Martyr, sometime Archbishop of Canterbury, so called, because it was dedicated to him. Who the Founder of it was I have never been able to learn, nor the Time of it's Building; but it must have been after the Year 1171, the Year when the Martyr suffer'd, and it must have been built before the Year 1248, because then it was in being.

IN this Chapel were Three Chanteries.

THE Chantery of St. Anne in the Chapel of St. Thomas upon Tine-Bridge, was founded by William Herryng, valued at 4 l. 17 s. and arose out of certain Tenements on the Sandhill.

THE Chantery of our Lady in the said Chapel: No Deed of Foundation to be shewed, but the Incumbent now being is Resident upon the same, and he and his Predecessors, some say, always presented by the Mayor of Newcastle for the Time being, and Christopher Threkeld Patron, valued at 4 l. 3 s. 6 d. which arose out of certain Tenements in the Close and Side.

ANOTHER Chantery of our Lady founded by George Carr, Merchant, of Newcastle; but never Licenced, valued at 5 l. 6 s. 8 d. out of the Sandhill and the Side.

SOME of the Masters of the Chapel are these following.

WILLIAM de Stanhope custos Capellae Sancti Thomae Martyris Anno 1297, & 1289.

NICHOLAS de Stockton Magister Capellae beati Thomae Martyris, 1341.

IN the Reign of Edward the third, anno 1347, William Spynn was Capella­nus Custos Capellae Sancti Thomae Martyris, and Guardian of the Alms for the [Page 131] Support of the Tine-Bridge. In this Year by the Consent of the Mayor and Bailiffs and Common Council of Newcastle upon Tine, he confirmed by his own Charter to Gilbert de Mitford, Burgess of Newcastle, the middle Cellar of the three which are under the Chapel, on Condition that he paid annually fourteen Shillings at the Feast of St. Martyn in the Winter, &c. to the said Master, &c. This Grant was sealed with the Town's Seal, and signed by Pe­ter Grasser, Mayor, William de Acton, Hugo de Angreton, Hugo de Carliol, & John de Emeldon, Bailiffs.

WE meet him also 1352.

JOHN Croft, Custos, Edw. 4th's Reign, anno 1405; Master also in the Year 1411.

THOMAS Scot Custos Capellae, &c. in the Reign of Hen. 7, anno 1498.

32d Hen. 8th, John Brandlin, Clericus Master.

ST. Mary Magdalen's Hospital was annexed to the Chapel of St. Thomas the Martyr, at the Bridge-end, and consists of a Master and three poor Brethren, to be free Burgesses of this Town, each Brother to have 3 l. 6 s. 3 d. per annum; and the Curate for reading Prayers, and one Sermon in the Year, has 4 l. 6 s. 8 d. and the Collecter of the Rents about 1 l. 17 s. 6 d. The whole Rental is 29 l. 7 s. 8 d.

THIS Grant or Charter was renewed in the Reign of King James the first, whereby Robert Jennison is declared the first Master, perhaps Mr. Robert Bonner was second, upon whose Death Mr. Thomas Davison was chosen 1675, qui obiit 1715.

THE present Master is the Rev. Dr. Thomlinson.

THIS Chapel was lately beautified and Pewed, and on Sunday the 10th of September 1732, (the whole Body of the Magistrates coming to it with the usual Solemnities and Formalities) was set apart by the Corporation for a Chapel of Ease to the Church of St. Nicholas. The Sermon in the Morning was preached by the Rev. Mr. Vicar; that in the Afternoon by the Rev. Mr. Clayton. The officiating Ministers are the Rev. Mr. Cowling, who preaches on the Sunday Morning, and the Rev. Mr. Cuthberts, and the Rev. Mr. Clay­ton, on the Sunday Afternoon alternately.

A little beyond this is a large and strong Building, which Grey informs us, was built a little before the Writing of his History, upon an Arch of the Bridge, and used for a Magazine for the Town. Under this are the Shops of Francis Rudston, Esq Alderman, and Mr. William Sorsby. There is very visible above this Gate-way, the Remains of a Port Cullice. After the Restoration, the Picture of King Charles the 2d, was set up on the South side of this Buil­ding, with this Motto under it, Adventus Regis, Solamen Gregis; The coming of the King, is the Comfort of the People. It was wont to look exceedingly beautiful, and in coming along the Bridge from the South, was a very wor­thy and conspicuous Ornament to the Town; but of late it is pretty much obscur'd with Dust, if not defac'd with the Weather, through the Want of being put into a little Order and Regularity.

ON the North-side of this Building is an Account of it's being repair'd in the Year 1713. Henry Reay, Esq Mayor; Joseph Green, Esq Sheriff.

AFTER you come from under the Gateway of the Magazine, there is an open on the Bridge on either Side. Over the one of these it was that surpri­zing Accident happened to Mr. Anderson, a Merchant and Alderman this [Page 132] Town: As he was looking over the Bridge talking with a Friend, he finger'd a Ring he had on (as People frequently do when they are thoughtful) which before he was aware, fell into the River, and was given entirely over for lost. Sometime after one of his Servants having bought a Salmon in the Market, found the very Ring in the Belly of the Fish, and restored it to his Master. Herodotus gives the like Account in the 3d Book of Polycrates King of Samos, who was at that Time esteem'd one of the Favourites of Fortune, which as my Authority observes, may satisfy us of the Truth of Solomon's saying, There is no new Thing under the Sun.

THIS Gentleman was Mayor of Newcastle, and was Ancestor of the present Mr. Abraham Anderson Merchant, on the Sandhill. The said Fran­cis Anderson made his Estate to his Son Henry Anderson, who was the Father of the said Abraham's Grandfather. The Estate and Ring have been in the Family ever since, and are now in the Possession of the said Abraham. I my self saw this Ring about 4 Months ago. The Impression the Seal gives is that of Soloman and the Queen of Sheba. On the Inside of the Ring, just under the Signet, is the Picture of a Salmon, in Commemoration of the Fish and the Transaction, on the one Side of which is the Letter F, and on the other the Letter R, in Commemoration of the Person. It is a Curiosity so great, that not only the whole Kingdom can't show the like of it; but the whole World beside, nay the World itself never, that we know of, had the like Transaction but once before, viz. that before-mentioned. The Gentleman therefore who has this valuable Jewel in his Possession, ought to have the ut­most Care of it upon many Accounts, and as none of the least, that it is a Credit to his Family, as well as to the Town.

A little further, about the middle of the Bridge is a large old Tower, which they call the Tower of the Bridge, where leud and disorderly Persons are kept 'till they are examined by the Mayor, and brought to due Punishment, ex­cept the Crime be of a very gross Nature, and then are removed to Newgate and there continue 'till the Assizes. Beyond this a little is the Blue-Stone, which gives the Name of the Blue-Stone to that Part of the Bridge. Here is the Bounds of Newcastle Southwards. Beyond this, the other Part of the Bridge belongs to the County Palatine of Durham, and is repaired by the Bishop. At the End of the Bridge, which leads into Gateside, is another Tower, where has been a Draw-bridge.

Sect. V. Of the KEYSIDE.

ABOVE when I mentioned the Sandhill, I took Notice, that on the East it leads to the Key-side, which is a long Wharf or Key for Ships and other Vessels. It is built upon the Sand, as indeed all the lower Parts of the Town have been. Through this Street goes the remaining Part of the Town-wall, which is continued from the East-end of the Merchants Court to Sand­gate Gate, which make in some Manner two Streets, the Inside and Outside of the Key. On the Top of this Wall is a Walk along it, as is along the other Walls of the Town; and at the Bottom of it are a great many Gates, which are called Water-gates. These in the Reign of King James I. Anno 1616, were ordered to be locked up every Night, except one or two to stand open, for the Masters and Seamen to go to and fro to their Ships. This was done, to prevent Servants casting Ashes and other Rubbish into the River; and those two Gates were watched all Night long.

[Page 133]THIS Key extends in Length from East to West 103 Rods.

THIS Street is chiefly inhabited by such as have their Living by Shipping, such as Merchants, Hostmen, Brewars, &c. As it is the great Place of Re­sort for the Business of the Coal-trade (the grand Support of this Town and Country, and many other Places also) and likewise for many other Things; it is not much to be wondred at, if in going along it, you see almost, no­thing but a whole Street of Sign-posts of Taverns, Ale-houses, Coffee-houses, &c.

AFTER you pass the Custom-house, where the King's Customs are received, which is at the West-end of this Street, as you go along eastward, you meet with a great many narrow Chairs or Lanes. These have so many Times changed their Names, and in all Probability will so often do it, that it is to little Purpose at present to mention them. There is however Grundon-Chair, which I meet with in a Writing of several hundred Years old; as also the Name of the Broad Chair, of a very ancient Standing, and the Name of ano­ther in a Writing, drawn in the Reign of Henry VI. which, had it been worth remembring, would in all Probability have been forgot long before now. But which of the others went formerly by the Names of Brown-Chair, the Chair of Nicholas de Salicibus, Tod's Chair, Norham Chair, Philip's Chair, Shipman Chair, Oliver Chair, Galway Chair, we are altogether in the dark. There is one more ancient Name of a Chair in this Street, which is the Kirk-Chair, or the Way or Lane they generally went to Church by from the Key­side. This I take to be that Chair, which now goes by the Name of Fen­wick's Entry, because its Situation answers so exactly to the Church-yard, the Top of this Chair being almost upon a Line with the Stairs that lead up to the Church. This Lane is much the neatest of the whole Street, having in it several good Houses, which are kept in a different Order from the Generality of the House in those narrow Lanes. In the upper Part of it is the Dwel­ling-house of Cuthbert Fenwick, Esq Alderman of this Town, who is the Proprietor of the whole Entry.

AT the Key itself is a very safe Station for Ships, where they lye free and secure from the greatest Dangers of Wind and Water, where they unload their Wares and Commodities, their Wood, Deal; and by a Crane, their Wines, Flax, and all heavier Commodities.

CHAP. XI. Of Pandon or Pampedon.

HAVING done with what was anciently called Newcastle, we come now to describe the ancient Town of Pampedon, which was a Town of itself distinct from Newcastle; but was united to it in the Reign of Edward I. Vide anno 1299. There is some Doubt about the Reason of the Name, some imagining it came from Pandana, one of the Gates of Rome, which was so called, quia semper paterit, because it stood always open. But I dare say, this could ne­ver give Name to the Town of Pandon, which being in all Probability a Roman Place of Defence, was rather obliged to be always shut. Others imagine it came from Pandara, a Scottish Virgin Saint; but for what Reason they know best. For my Part I never saw one yet; and perhaps for good Reason. For if I mistake not, this Town had the Name of Pandon, before there ever was a Saint in that Kingdom. I am therefore in­clinable to believe, that it got its Name from the Romans who lived in it, who, as Grey agrees, called it Pampedon or Pantheon, because perhaps some Building was erected here in this Place, in Imitation of the Pantheon at Rome (this Wall being the utmost Confines of the Roman Empire) which was built in Honour of all the Gods. And as this Wall was the utmost Bounds of the Roman Empire, therefore there might be such a Temple in this Place, to remind the Romans of the necessary Assistance of all the Gods, to preserve the Bounds of the Roman Empire. The late Rom. Brit. p. 131. Mr. Horsley will have the latter Syllable of this Word to come from the Word Deen, which signifies a Hollow, or a Brook, because such is the Place. But with this I cannot agree; the Deen could not have that Weight with it, as to give Name to the whole Place; or should that be allowed, how is the former Part of the Name accounted for? It retains therefore (as Grey justly observes) its Name, without much Alteration, since the Romans resided in it. After the Departure of the Ro­mans, as the same Authority gives out, the Kings of Northumberland kept their Residence in it, and had their House now called Pandon-Hall. It was a safe Bulwark, having the Picls Wall on the North-side, and the River Time on the South. This Place of Pandon is of such Antiquity, that if a Man would express an ancient Thing, it is a common Proverb, As old as Pandon-Gate. Thus far this Author.

Sect. I. Of the MANOUR-CHARE.

BUT to treat of some Particulars of this ancient Town, we shall begin then at the Manour-Chare, which leads from Pilgrim-street to St. Austin Fryers. This Chare which leads from Pilgrim-street to Jesus Hospital, and from thence to the Head of the Broad-Chare, was in ancient Times called Cowgate. This is plain from an ancient Writing in the Possession of Mr. Tho­mas Waters, in Pilgrim-street, dated Feb. 20, in the 5th Year of Edward the 4th, where are these Words, describing the Situation of the House he pos­sesses at present: Prout jacet in vico Peregrinorum infra villam Novicastri super Tynam inter Tenementum nuper Laurentii de Acton ex parte Boreali, & Tenementum nuper Thomae Clerk, ex parte Australi, & extendit in Longitudine a via Regia ante, usque vicum quondam vocatum Cowgate, modo vocatum Austyn-Chare, retro. In the Reign of Edward the 4th it had the Name of Austyn-Chare, as appears al­so from this Writing: Now it has the Name of Manour-Chare which some imagine to be given from the Word Minor or Minorites, or Franciscans; but unless they can prove that the Fryery of the Franciscans was situated here, they never can prove that the Chare was so called from them; and this is scarce possible to be done. For we have already shewn that the Minorites or Franciscans had their House in another Part of the Town, viz. in the High-Fryar-Chare; this is also clearly proved from the several Writings of the Com­pany of Taylors, that this Place was formerly called Cowgate, and afterwards called the Frear-Chare, or St. Austin Frear-Chare. These Writings of theirs also mention an Alms-house, which went by the Name of Ward's Alms-house, situated in this Chare, I supposed it was situated at the Bottom of Mr. Wa­ter's Garden, for I have heard some old People say, they remember thereabouts the Ruins of an Alms-house.

Cowgate the ancient Name of the Street, is still continued in one Part of it, viz. from the Foot of Silver-street, to the Head of the Broad-Chare.

HAVING come down this Lane from Pilgrim-street, we come to three different Ways; that on the Right leads down into Pandon; that on the Front leads into the Town's Hospital; and that on the Left, into St. Austin-Fryers, and Carliol-Croft.

Sect. II. Of St. AUSTIN-FRYERS.

THE left-hand Passage has still the Remains of a large Gate, which has been one of the Gates leading to St. Austin-Fryers, which, (having past this Gate) is a little above upon the Right Hand. There is still a compleat Quadrangle, to be seen, the South-side of which has undoubtedly been the Chapel. This seems to have been the ancient Building, for Grey seems to [Page 136] speak of some sumptuous Additions that were made to it. In succeeding A­ges, says he, it was inlarged and beautified with stately Buildings, Cloysters, and a Fair Church. The Kings of England since the Conquest, kept House in it, whence they came with an Army Royal against Scotland; and since the Suppression of Monasteries, made a Magazine and Store-house for the North Parts. Now of late that Princely Fabrick is demolished, and laid level with the Ground. The Pride, Covetousness, Luxury and Idolatry of these Hou­ses brought a sudden Ruin upon themselves and Houses.

THE same Authority tells us also, that there was an antient Religious House founded by the Kings of Northumberland, and that several of them were bu­ried here; but it cannot be true that they built any Thing for the St. Au­stin Fryers, for they came not into England 'till long after the Conquest, in the Year 1252. Then it was that Lanfrank of Milan, the first General of the Eremites of St. Austin, sent some of them into England to seek a Dwelling for themselves. The Augustin Fryers held their first House given them in Wales, at a Place called Wood-house which before had belonged to the Family of the noble Family of the Turburvills. Afterward Humphry Bohun, Earl of Here­ford and Essex, in the Year of our Lord 1253, gave them a House and beau­tiful Church, remarkable for a Spire of wonderful Workmanship, in Lon­don; which is now partly a Meeting-house for the German Protestants who have settled in London.

Anno 1377, the Augustin Fryers obtained Leave to eat Flesh, upon Condi­tion that they should keep the Fast of the Fryers Minors before Christmas. Stephen. ad. Vol. 2d. 221.

WHAT Year this House was founded in, or this Order came to this House, I have no where met with, but the Augustines are said to have been founded by the Lord Ross, De rebus Novocast'. the Baron of Werk, which I am inclinable to believe very true, for in the 11th of Edward the Second, 1317. I find mention made of some Lands in Cowgate, belonging to the Brethren of St. Austin, which were given them by William Ross who was Baron of Werk. How much earlier than this King's Reign this Monastery was founded, I have not been able to learn. But it's probable it was sometime in the Reign of Edward the 1st, and this I think is out of Dispute now, for since this Conjecture of my own, I received a Letter from the Rev. Mr. Wearing, of Bampton in Westmoreland, with the following Account. King Edward the First, in the 19th Year of his Reign, gave Leave to one John de Capella, to give and assign a Messuage of his in Penrith, to the Prior and Fryers of the Order of St. Augustine, in the Town of Newcastle upon Tyne.

THEY surrendred on the 9th of Jan. 30 Hen. 8.

THE inclosed Ground all round it, where is now the Pasture of Nathaniel Clayton, Esq Alderman, the Surgeons-Hall, the Hospitals, &c. did undoubt­edly belong to them, and were their Gardens.

THIS House is now turned partly into a Work-house, for the Employment of the Poor; Part of it is turned into a House of Correction, a Dunghill, &c. Here is the Charity-School of the Parish of All Hallows, which was built Anno 1723, and an House for the Master to live in, which was built the same Year.

THE Bells of All Hallows were cast in this Place, which since the Decay of the Monastery, was called rhe Artillery-yard, from the Townsmens perform­ing there the Exercise of the Pike and Gun.

BEFORE I have done with this Monastery, it may not be amiss to men­tion a Passage in Milbank's Manuscript, which came to my Hands since the compiling of this Antiquity. The Author of it says, "When I was young, [Page 137] (which was, as I take it, about the First of King James I. Reign) ‘there were Cloysters in this Monastery, and a fair Church. A Scot did beg it of King James; after that took the Lead off it and sold it; but it was cast a­way before it came to its Market. He sold also some Stones to Sir Peter Riddel, who with them built the South-End of his fine House; but now it belongs to Captain Dykes, and his Posterity hath no right.’

Sect. III. Of JESUS HOSPITAL.

HAVING thus done with what relates to the Passage above mentioned on the left Hand, let us enter that on the Front. And this is what the People call the Town's Hospital, but its true Name is Jesus Hospital, for it was dedicated to the Holy Jesus. You ascend to it by Stairs from the high Street, and then enter into a pleasing Field, on the North-side of which is the said Hospital. It is three Story high, and the Under-story is adorned with Piazza's, which are about 60 Yards in Length, and make a very agreeable Walk. About the Middle of the Piazza's is the Entrance into the second and third Stories; and over against this Entrance is a Fountain (very much beautified) for the Use of the Hospital.

THIS new Hospital, commonly called the Town's Hospital in the Manours, dedicated to the Holy Jesus, was founded, erected, and endowed, at the Charge of this Corporation Anno 1681, T. Robson Mayor., for a Master, and thirty nine poor Freemen, or Freemens Widows.

THE Town allows them quarterly 20 s. and the Master 30 s.

TOWARDS the Bottom of this Field is another Hospital, erected for six poor Widows of Clergymen and Merchants, which was endowed by the Cha­rity of Mrs. Anne Davison, Widow of Mr. Benjamin Davison, Merchant, and erected by the Corporation of Newcastle, Nathaniel Clayton, Esq Mayor, Thomas Wasse, Esq Sheriff, Anno 1725.

THEY have to subsist on 40 s. per Quarter each.

Sect. IV. Of the BARBER-SURGEONS Hall.

ON the East of this same Field is the Hall of the Barber-Surgeons, which was rebuilt by them in the Year 1730.

IT is a very beautiful one, and not a little sumptuous; it stands upon tall Piazza's, under which is a very spacious Walk. There is before it a fine Square, divided into four Areas or Grass-Plats, surrounded with Gravel-Walks, each of which is adorned with a Statue. The First of the two next the [Page 138] Hall is the Figure of Aesculapius placed upon a tall Pedestal, upon one Side of which is the Motto [...]. In the Area, oppposite to this, is the Figure of Hippocrates, who bears an open Book, with these Words in it [...], and on the one Side of the Pedestal [...] [...], These were set up in the Year 1710, John Shaw and Robert Golightly Stewards.

ON the other two Grass-Platts are the Figures of Medicus Pergameus or Galen, and Medicus Spagyricus or Paracelsus, which were erected 1712, Robert Golightly and William Handby Stewards. I am inform'd by one of this Com­pany, that in a little Time, the Wall at the Foot of the Garden will be taken away, and instead thereof will be Iron-Rails. It will shew the Hall and Gardens to some Advantage, but be rather too great an Ornament for such a dirty Part of the Town.

THERE are besides this Square two other Gardens for Herbs, which to­gether with the Hall and Garden we have been speaking of, are attended by a Gardner, who lives there for that Purpose.

Sect. V. Of WARD's Alms-house, ALVEY's Island, PANDON Hall.

WE now turn to the right Hand, and descend the Chair towards Pan­don, and pass by Mr. Waters's Garden, at the End of which was Ward's Alms-house, above mentioned, of which I have lately met with the following Account from the Milbank Manuscript. ‘The chief Alms-house in the Town is the Ward's, near the Manour; the Mills at Pandon-gate should give them, as I remember, 20 s. per annum, to buy them Coals; but old Mr. Brandling pulled off the Lead, on purpose to expel the poor People, which he did. The Mills are now fallen into one Homers's Hand, and so is lost for ever. I have seen the Writings, and know it.’ Below this is a narrow Passage which leads into the Carliol Croft. Below this again is a Place, which was formerly called the Island, as says Tradition. It was so called, because in former Times, when the Tide flow'd up to the Stock-bridge, there was thereabout a Hill of Sand, which at the Tide's leav­ing of it, appeared like an Island. They call it at present Alvey's Island, be­cause it belong'd to one of that Name. It is the very Place, on which stands the House, Cellars, and Malting of Mr. George Hinkster, which are bounded on the West, North and South by the King's Street, and on the East by a waste Piece of Ground, of the Lady Goldsburgh, which was formerly called the Stones.

OPPOSITE to the South Front of this House was the ancient Building, viz. Pandon-hall, above mentioned, but now rebuilt in some Measure. There are still remaining many ancient Walls and Parts of this Building; it was of con­siderable Bigness, having been according to Tradition, on its North-front in Length from the Stockbridge to Cowgate; and on its West-front in Length from its North-west Corner, beyond that Lane that leads into Blyth's Nook.

IT is of great Antiquity, being built in the Times of the Heptarchy; for it was the House of the Kings of Northumberland, who liv'd in it, for which Reason it was call'd Pandon-hall.

Sect. VI. Of FISHERGATE and WALL-KNOWL.

FROM hence we go Eastward unto Pandon-Bridge, which is called the Stock-Bridge. It was undoubtedly of Wood in ancient Times, tho' we meet with an Account of its being Stone, when Thomas de Carliol was Mayor, which was in Edward I. Time at latest. To this Place it was that the Fishermen brought up their Fish, and sold them here, as Grey observes from Tradition. But to confirm this beyond the Force of Tradition; it must cer­tainly have been true, that the Fish-market was here, because the Street you go into when you have past Pandon-Bridge, was formerly called Fisher-gate. Now this is plain from an ancient Writing, which was drawn when Henry le Scot was Mayor of this Town, about the Year 1287. I shall give my Au­thority at large, because there depends upon it some other Things besides this.

THE Writing is a Conveyance of some Land which is thus described.

QUAE extendit in longitudine à communi via super le Wall-Knoll, in australem. Partem domûs Fratrum de monte Carmel, usque ad communem viam quae solebat du­cere versus Fishergate, i. e.

WHICH Land extends itself from the Street of the Wall-Knoll, to the South-side of the Monastery of the Carmelites, even to the High-way, which formerly led to Fishergate.

NOW it is certain, this Monastery was at the Top of the Wall-Knoll; the Remains of it are still in Being, and shall be by and by further consider'd. It is also certain from this ancient Writing, that a Way led from the South-side of the said Monastery to Fishergate; therefore this Street must be Fishergate, because the common Way here spoken of could lead to no other Place. I take this common Way to have been those Stairs beside Mr. Green's House at the Stockbridge, which lead up to the Gardens there, and which, were it not a Wall, would lead directly from this Street to the Remains of this Mo­nastery.

AS we go along from the Stockbridge, we meet two Streets, one on the left Hand, and the other on the right. That on the left Hand is called the Wall-Knoll, which, as it is a very great Ascent and high Hill from Fishergate, so it seems to me to have this Name from the Roman Wall going along it; for the Word Knoll signifies an Hill or Eminence, as I gather from the Lord Bishop of London's Note in Cambden upon Sevenoke in Kent, who says, On the East-side of it standeth Knowll, so called, because it is seated upon a Hill. And Grey says also positively, that it was Part of the Picts Wall.

AT the upper End of the Street above mentioned, towards the Carpenters The fol­lowing Play coming too late to my Hands to be inserted in its proper Place, I am obliged to mention it here. It is intituled, NOAH's ARK; or, The SHIPWRIGHTS ancient PLAY, or DIRGE.Deus incipitur.ERE was this World that I have wrought.No Marvel it is if I do show;Their Folk in Earth I made of Nought,Now are they fully my Foe.Vengeance now will I doOf them that have grieved me ill,Great Floods shall over them go,And run over Hoope and Hill.All Mankind dead shall be,With Storms both stiff and steer;All but Noah my Darling free,His Children and their Wives,Ever more yet they trow'd in me,Save therefore I will their Lives.Henceforth my Angel free,Into Earth look what thou would,Greet well Noah in this Degree,Sleeping thou shalt him find:Bid him go make a ShipOf stiff Board and great,Although he be not a Wright.Therefore bid him not lett,He shall have Wit at Will,Be that he come thereto;All Things I him fulfill,Pitch, Tar, Scam and Rowe.Bid him in any Manner of Thing,To Ship when he shall walk,Of all kine Kind of Beast and Fowl,The Male and Female with him he take.Bid him go provey, say so,In Ship that they not die,Take with him Hay, Corn and Straw,For his Fowl and his Fee.Henceforth my Angel freeTell him this for certain;My Blessing with thee be,While that thou come again.Angelus dicat.Waken Noah, to me take tent.Noah bid, if thou hear this Thing,Ever whilst thou live thou shall repent.Noah respondit.What art thou for Heaven's King,That wakens Noah off his Sleeping,Away I would thou went.Angelus dicat.It is an Angel to thee sent,Noah, to tell thee hard Tiding;For every Ilk a Wight for Warks wild,And many fowled in Sins fair,And in Felony fowly filled;Therefore a Ship thou dight to steer,Of true Timber highly railed,With thirty Cubits in Defence.Look that she draw when she is drest,And in her Side a Door thou shear,With Fenesters full fitly fest,And make Chambers both more and less,For a Flood that up shall burst;Such a Flood in Earth shall be,That every like Life that hath Life-ward,Beast and Body with Bone and Blood,They shall be stormed through Stress of Storm;Albeit thou Noah and thy Brood,And their three Wives in your Hand,For you are full righteous and good,You shall be saved by Sea and Land,In the Ship ere you enter out,You take with you both Ox and Cow;Of ilk a Thing that Life has lent,The Male and Female you take with you.You fetch in Fother for your Freight,And make good Purveiance for you prove,That they perish not in your Sight;Do Noah as I have bidden thee now.Noah respondit.Lord be then in this Stead,That me and mine will save and shield;I am a Man no worth at Need,For I am six hundred Winters old,Unlusty I am to do such a Deed,Worklooms for to work and weeldFor I was never since I was born,Of Kind of Craft to burthen a Boat;For I have neither Ryff nor Ruff,Spyer, Sprund, Spront, no Sprot.Christ be the Shaper of this Ship,For a Ship need make I must.Even wo worth thou fouled Sin,For all too dear thou must be bought,God for Thanks he made Mankind,Or with his Hands that he them wrought;Therefore or ever you blind,You mind your Wife, and turn your Thought,For of my Work I will begin,So well were me were all forth brought.Deabolus intrat.Put off Harro, and wele away,That ever I uprose this Day;So may I smile and say,I went, there has been none alive,Man, Beast, Child nor Wife,But my Servants were they;All this I have heard say,A Ship that made should be,For to save with owten Nay,Noah and his Meenye;Yet trow I they shall be,Thereto I make a Vow,If they be never so slee,To taynt them yet I trow.To Noah's Wife will I wynd,Gare her believe in me;In Faith she is my Friend,She is both whunt and slee,Rest well, rest well, my own Dereday.Uxor Noah dicat.Welcome, fewsthere, what is thy Name,Tyte that thou tell me.Deabolus dicat.To tell my Name I were full loath,I come to warn thee of thy Skaith,I tell thee secretly,And thou do after thy Husband read,Thou and thy Children will all be dead,And that right hastily.Uxor dicat.Go Devil, how say, for Shame.Deabolus dicat.Yes, hold thee still le Dame,And I shall tell how;I swear thee by my crooked Snout,All that thy Husband goes aboutIs little for thy Profit;Yet shall I tell thee how,Thou shall weet all his Will;Do as I shall bid thee now,Thou shalt weet every Deal.Have here a Drink full good,That is made of a mightful Main,Be he hath drunken a Drink of this,No longer shall he learn.Believe, believe, my own dear Dame,I may no longer bide,To Ship when thou shall sayre,I shall be thy Side.Noah dicat.This Labour is full greatFor like an old Man as me,Lo, lo, fast I sweat,It trickles at our myn ee;Now Home will I wende,My weary Bones for to rest,For such Good as God hath sent,There I get of the best.Rest well Day, what Chear with thee.Uxor dicat.Welcome, Noah, as might I theeWelcome to thine own Wayns.Sit down here beside me,Thou hast full weary Baynes:Have eaten, Noah, as might I thee,And soon a Drink I shall give thee,Such Drink thou never none afore.Noah dicat.What the Devil what Drink is it,By my Father's Soul I have nere lost my Wit.Uxor dicat.Noah, bode you tell me whereabout you wends,I give God a Vow, we two shall nere be Friends.Noah dicat.O Yes Dame could thou layneI would thee tell my Wit.How Good of Heaven an Angel sent,And bad me make a Ship,This World he will fore doeWith Storms both stiff and steer sell,All but thee and me, our Children and Wifes.Uxor dicat.Who Devil made thee a Wright,God give him Evil to fayreOf Hand to have such slight,To make Ship less or more perfect,Men should have heard wide whereWhen you began to smite.Noah dicat.Yes Dame it is God's will,Let be so thou not say,Go make an End I will,And come again full throng.Uxor dicat.By my Faith I no rakeWhether thou be Friend or Foe,The Devil of Hell thee speed,To ship when thou shalt go.Noah dicat.God send me Help in high,To clink you Nail tooGod send me help in high,Your Hand to hold again,That all may well be done,My Strokes be not in Vain.Angelus dicat.God hath thee Help hither send,Thereof be thou right bold,Thy Strokes shall fair be kend,For thou thy Wife has cowld.Noah dicat.Now is this Ship well madewithin and without thinks me,Now home then will I wendTo fetch in my Money,Have good day both old and young,My Blessing with you be.Deabolus dicat.All that is gathered in this Stead,That will not believe in me,I pray to Dolphin Prince of dead,Scald you all in his LeadThat never a one of you thrive, nor thee.FINIS. Amen. Tower, are still to be seen the Remains of the Hospital of the Carmelites or [Page 140] [Page 141] White Fryers. The East of their Church is still standing, to the repairing of which Roger Thornton left in his Will two fother of Lead; this Hospital be­ing dedicated to St. Michael, gave the Name to it of St. Michael's on the Mount.

IT is said by Dugdale in his Baron. Lumley, that the Roger Thornton he is there speaking of, was the Founder of the House of the White Fryars in New­castle. But this Roger can scarce be the Founder of it, for I have proved him to be the younger Roger; and it was taken Notice of above, that Roger the Elder left Two Fother of Lead to it when he died, so that if either of them be the Founder, it must be the Elder, rather than the Younger that Dugdale speaks of.

BUT I believe it will be a difficult Matter, upon Examination, to prove either the Father or the Son the Founder of it, for it boasts a greater Anti­quity: For this Domus Fratrum de Monte Carmel, is mentioned in an ancient Writing which was drawn when Henry le Scot was Mayor, about the Year 1287, in the Reign of Edward the 1st, as is said above, and therefore it must at that Time have been in being; but the Elder of them was not Mayor of Newcastle, 'till 114 Years after this; so that it is impossible he should be the Founder, and therefore much less his Son. They might, and probably they [Page 142] both of them were great Benefactors, or second Founders to it, and so have been esteemed each of them Founders themselves.

THEY surrender'd at the same Time with the Rest: Sometime after they surrender'd, King Henry the 8th made a present of this Priory and its Re­venues, together with some other Lands belonging to other religious Houses, lying in Newcastle upon Tyne, to Sir John Gresham, Alderman of the City of London, and Richard Billing ford, Gent. who 21st of February, 2d Edward the 6th, conveyed them to William Dent, of this Town, Gentleman. What they conveyed was as follows.

THE House or Priory of St. Michael de Wall Knoll, with the Things fol­lowing belonging to it, This Or­chard and Garden were undoubtedly the Gardens of Swaddle, Green, Grey, &c. all that Ground which de­scends into Fisher-gate. a Garden and Orchard, about an Acre of Ground; a Close, about 4 Acres, near the Walls of the Town, 34 Messuages, three Gar­dens, and one Close; also a Close called Colerigges, and four Les Rigges in the Sheild Field; also 17 more Messuages in the Town and Suburbs, belonging to the Monastry of Tinmouth; also four Tenements and a Garden, in this Town, belonging to the Monastry of Alnwick; also three Houses belonging to the Nuns of Halystone or Holy­stone, a Vil­lage in Nor­thumberland where in the Infancy of the English Church, Pau­linus is said to have bap­tized many thousands Halystone; also six Houses, in this Town, belonging to Newminster; also a House, in this Town, belonging to the Monastry of Blanchland; toge­ther with every Thing belonging to the said Monastries in this Town of Newcastle upon Tyne.

IN the 24th of Queen Elizabeth, this William Dent, Alderman, and Wil­liam his Son, conveyed this Priory, together with an House and Orchard, and a Garden, containing an Acre of Ground, to William Jenison, then Mayor of Newcastle, and Richard Hodgshon, Alderman.

Sect. VIII. Of CROSSWELL-GATE, BYKER-CHARE.

ABOVE when we went from Fishergate-street, we met two Streets, that on the Left Hand we have already treated of: The other, I imagine, is that which formerly went by the Name of Crosswell-gate, which is often mentioned in ancient Writings. It is reported that the Dwelling-house of Roger Thornton was in this Street. Whatever Truth is in this, it is certain, that many Houses in this Street pay an Annual Rent to the Lord Scarborough to this Day, into whose Family the Grand-daughter of Roger Thornton was mar­ryed. There are in this Street several Lanes or Allies, the first we meet with in going along from Fishergate, is a Place called, at present, Blyth's Nook: It is built over Pandon Burne. The next is a narrow Lane leading to the Burne Bank, a Place by which Pandon Burne runs into the Tyne. It lies very low, and before the Heightning of the Ground with Ballast, and the Building of the Wall and Key, was often of great Hazard to the Inhabitants; once in particular a most melancholy accident happen'd in this Place, in the Year 1320, the 13th of Edward the 3d, the River of Tyne over-flowed so much, that 120 Laymen, and several Priests, besides Women, were drowned; and as Grey says, 140 Houses were destroyed. Compleat Hist. Eng. Vol. 1st. P. 235.

BEYOND this again is a Chare called Byker Chare, which seems by the a­ged Look of several of the Buildings, those especially at the North-end of the Chare, where is the House of Mr. Henry Atkinson, Hoastman, to be of great Antiquity: Perhaps it got the Name of Byker-Chare, from one Robert [Page 143] de Byker and Laderine, his Wife, who had Lands in Pandon, &c. See Anno 1299.

BEYOND this again is Cocks Chare, Love-lane, &c. where are some Houses which deserve a better Situation.

Sect. IX. COWGATE, TRINITY-HOUSE, BROAD-CHARE.

WHEN we came to Pandon-Hall, we went Eastward into Pandon; it remains now, that we go Southward from the same Place. Leaving then Silver-street on the Right Hand, we come into Cowgate, which has been a Part of the Town where some eminent Men have lived in; such as Gilbert de Cowgate, Walter de Cowgate, &c. who were Men of Fortune and Estate. Going forward, we pass by Blythe Nook on the Left Hand, and the Dog-Bank on the Right, and then we come to the Broad Chare; a little below the En­trance of which, is the Trinity House; which according to some was a Mo­nastry, dedicated to the Holy Trinity. This Order of the Trinity House was founded by St. John de Matha and St. John de Valois, in the Year 1198, in the Popedom of Innocent III. The End of its Institution was the Redemp­tion of Captives. In the Year 1224, a Monastry was founded for this Order in Kent. What Time this Monastry of the Trinity (if there was such a one) was founded in this Town, we are intirely in the Dark: Only it was said by some, that Laurentius of Newcastle, was its Founder. If this be true, it is not improbable but it was Laurentius Acton, who was Mayor of this Town in 1435 and 1436, &c.

WE are also equally at a loss as to its Situation: For Bishop Burnet, in his Collection of Records, P. 146, says, It was on the Wall-knoll, in Newcastle; and that they surrender'd January 10th, 30th of Henry the 8th. If it was here, I know of no Place to fix it in, but where the Carmelites were, and this could never be. I am therefore inclinable to believe, that this Monastry means that of the Carmelites, and through a Mistake is called that of the Trinity.

BUT be that as it will, it is certain that this Place called the Trinity House, was no Religious House: For it is said in our Account below, to have been called of old Time Dalton's Place. And besides, had it been this Religious House, the Mariners could not have got Possession of it 'till its Suppression, which was on the 10th of January, 30th of Henry the 8th; whereas it was conveyed to them the 20th of Henry the 7th, as the following Account testi­fies.

A Writing in the Custody of the Brethren of the Trinity-House, dated the 4th Day of January, the 20th of the Reign of Henry the 7th, which gives an Account of a Messuage and Garden, which was convey'd by one Ralph Heb­borne, of Hebborne, of Northumberland, Esq to the Fraternity of the Mariners. It is the Place where is now the Trinity House, which was in old Time called Dalton's Place.

IN the same Writing it is order'd, that the aforesaid Messuage, &c. shall be repair'd for Ever by the common Purse of the Brotherhood; that in some convenient Part of it should be an Hall for the Fellowship to meet in, at all [Page 144] Times convenient, for the observing of their Rules, &c. and that in the Re­sidue of the same, there should be certain Lodgings order'd for such of the said Fellowship, as afterwards should fall into Poverty, or be not able to sustain themselves: Those they held during the Term of their Lives, and then were succeeded by others in the like necessitous Circumstances. It was also order­ed in this Writing, that within the said Messuage, there should be a Chappel and a Priest, to sing and say Mass, and other Divine Service therein, as should be appointed by the Aldermen, and Wardens of the said Fraternity, for the Time being. That the Priest and the said poor Persons so admitted, should pray for the good Estate of the said Ralph Hebborne, Master John Hebborne, George Hebborne, and for the Masters Souls, and for the good Estate of the said Fellowship, and for the Souls of such of the same Fellowship as be depar­ted, or hereafter should depart to the Mercy of God; and also for the Souls of John Dalton, sometime Owner of the said Messuage, his Ancestors Souls, and all Christian Souls.

ONE Part of this Writing was to be put in a Chest, belonging to the Fellowship, and kept by them; the other was to be kept in a Chest for that purpose, in the Vestry of All-Hallows in this Town, in the Custody of the Church-Wardens, for the Time being, for Ever.

THIS was further confirm'd to the Fraternity of the Trinity House, by Tho­mas Hebborne, Son of the said Ralph Hebborne, on the 9th of September, in the 16th of the Reign of King Henry the 8th, upon the Conditions following, viz. That the Fellowship should pay to the said Thomas Hebborne, his Heirs or Assigns, within the Town of Newcastle, on the Vigil of the Apostles, Peter and Paul, in the Month of June, a Pottle of Wine, if it be demanded yearly, for Evermore. That the said Thomas Hebborne should be made a Brother of the Fraternity, and Partaker of all Masses, good Prayers and Suffrage, which should afterwards be celebrated, said and done by the Chaplain and Priest of the Fraternity, within the Trinity House, and at the Trinity Altar within the Church of All-Hallows, for Evermore; with such Obsequies and Funeral Ce­remonies, as usually were done at the Burial of any Brother of the same Fra­ternity, if the said Thomas departs within this Town of Newcastle. The Priest of the Trinity House at this Time, was one Sir Robert Ellison.

TO this Writing was annex'd the Seal of the Town of Newcastle, and the Names of the Mayor, Sheriff, and Aldermen.

On Oct. the 5th, 28 Hen. 8. Light-houses were permitted to be built by the Trinity-house, to found, edify, make and build two Towers; that is to say, one on the North Part of Shields, in the Entrance of the Har­bour, and a­nother upon the Hill.KING James the 1st, in the third Year of his Reign, granted to the Ma­ster, Pylots, and Seamen of Newcastle, a Charter.

SEVENTEENTH of October 1664, King Charles the 2d, granted them an­other Charter.

AND a Third was granted them 26th of July 1687, by King James the 2d.

IN a Manuscript I have frequently mentioned, it is said that the Trinity House in the Broad Chare, was held by the Masters and Mariners of this Town of the Andersons, by giving them a red Rose at Christmas, which Bartram Anderson turned to Wine, and then sold it to Sir Ralph Jenison, and it adds, how they agree I know not. It is at present a very pretty Building, consist­ing of a handsome Square, very Monastick in it's Aspect, having it's Appart­ments or Lodgings for the Inhabitants, a very neat Chappel, and a magnificent Hall. It maintains 14 Persons, allowing every one a Chamber, eight Shillings per Month, Coals and Cloathing. There are also 15 extra Persons, which have allowed them, some more, some less.

LEAVING this House of the Marriners, we go down the Broad Chare, without any Thing remarkable, 'till you come to the Key-side; about the Middle of it is a Square, which goes by the Name of Stony-hill, nigh it a Lane, called Spicer-lane, which also leads on to the Key.

CHAP. XII. Of the Suburbs, and other out Places.

Sect. I. Of the FORTH.

WITHOUT the Close-Gate is a pretty long Street, with Houses on each Side; which goes as far as a Dike called Skinner-Bourne, where are of late Years a Factory belonging to Mr. Thomlinson, a Pot-House to Mr. Joseph Blenkinsop and Ralph Harl, and a Glass-House to Mr. Dagney, and Company; from thence Northward at the Top of the Hill is the Place called the Forth, anciently called the Frith, which lies without the Walls of the Town, and abutts on the South on a certain little Close called Goose-green-Close, then it extends it­self to a Close called Dove-cote-Close, and from thence Westward by the fur­thest Ditch of the Close, which lies contiguous to the Corner of the Hedge, which is next to the Common Way which leads into the Forth. Then by and over the Common Way to the little Rivulet or Syke of Water in the Bottom of the Valley, and so passing the Syke, you go upwards to the Close called Goose-green-Close. The Forth contains 11 Acres of Ground. It was surveyed by Order of the Parliament, in the Year 1649, and valued at 12 l. per Annum.

IT was valued Tythe-free. The Town pay'd 4 l. per Annum to the King for it.

HOW it comes to be called Forth or Frith, I can only conjecture. The Word Blount Law Dictio­nary in verb. Frith. Forth or Frith, as it is anciently called, comes from the Saxon Word Frith, which signifies Peace. For the English Saxons held several Woods to be sacred, and made them Sanctuaries. From this Definition of the Word, it may be no improbable Conjecture that the ancient Saxons inhabiting about the Parts of the Wall where the Town now is, gave the Name of Frith to [Page 146] this Place, as it was perhaps endowed with gloomier Shades and darker Re­cesses, the awful Excitors of Heathen Superstition, than other Places about the Town were.

IN the Reign of King Henry III. a Licence was granted to the Townsmen of Newcastle, bearing Date Dec. 23d of his Reign to dig Coals and Stones, &c. in this Place called the Forth. And here it was as some think, or rather as others, in the Castle Leases that the first Newcastle Coals were wrought.

IT seems to have been all along a Place of Pleasure and Recreation. For it was an ancient Custom for the Mayor, Aldermen, and Sheriff of this Town, accompanied with great Numbers of the Burgesses, to go every Year at the Feasts of Easter and Whitsuntide to the Forth, with the Maces, Sword and Cap of Maintenance carried before them. Undoubtedly the vast Concourse of both young and old at this Place at these Seasons of the Year, rather than at any other about this Town, is the remains of this ancient Custom.

AFTER the building of the Castle it is said (but without any just Autho­rity) that the Forth was anciently a Fort belonging to the Castle.

IN the Year [...] , Part of it was turned into a pretty large Bowling-Green; which was adorn'd with a broad Gravel Walk and a double Row of Trees around it. It is at present a mighty pretty Place, exceeding by much any Common Place of Pleasure about the Town. On the East-side of it, you have a Prospect of Part of the Town's Wall, through which is the Common Passage to and from this Place under a shady Walk of Trees; on the West you View the Grounds of the Village of Elswick, which have a gentle ascent to the Village itself; a Place at the proper Season of the Year much frequen­ted by the Town's People, for its pleasing Walk and rural Entertainment.

FROM this Quarter we view also as we do from the South, the Banks of the River Tyne, together with their Villages. On the North is an House of Accommodation.

GREY says that it was given to the Townsmen for their Services, by Edward III. Whereas it seems to have been theirs in the Reign of Hen. III. However if the other Conjecture be true, I verily believe it was given to the Town for that memorable Victory obtain'd by the Townsmen, when the Earl of Murray was taken Prisoner, which is commemorated in Anno Christi, 1342.

Sect. II. Of WARDEN-CLOSE.

FROM hence we proceed to the West-gate, which gives Name to a little Village within the Bounds of the County of Northumberland, from whence still going on by the Out-side of the Town's Wall, we come to the Warden's-close. It seems to be called the Warden's-close, because it belong'd to the Wardens of the Priory of Tinmouth. For Grey tells us he had his House, Garden, and Fish-Pond, &c. here. This indeed is not improbable, for the Monastery of the Black-Fryers was dependant upon the Priory of Tinmouth: And we are sure that this Close was Part of the Garden belonging to the Black-Fryers in former Times. And there are still the seeming Remains of Fish-Ponds, Gar­dens, &c.

[Page 147]AT the Top of this Field towards the North, is a Field call'd the Shoulder of Mutton Close, because it is in the Shape of a Shoulder of Mutton, which must formerly have been Part of the Warden's-close. In this is a Cistern of Water, which a curious Friend of mine imagines, supplyed the Black-Fryers. This perhaps may be true enough. The Well belonging to this Monastry may pro­ceed from it. But I take its grand Use to have been to supply with Water the Fish-Ponds and Gardens just now mentioned.

Sect. III. Of NEWGATE Suburbs.

THE Suburbs out of Newgate Grey informs us, were ruined in the late Civil Wars. However the Street Gallowgate, (so called because of the Way that the Malefactors of the Town of Newcastle go to the Gallows, which is situated in a very low Place called the Gallows-hole) Is become again a very tollerable Street, and a very pleasant Place, having in it some good Houses, which are situated in Gardens and Fields. At the Top of this Street is a Lane which leads to the West-gate, Quarry-house, &c. it borders upon a Field called the Shoulder of Mutton Close.

Sect. IV. Of the CASTLE LEASES, TOWN MOOR, &c.

OPPOSITE to this Lane is the Castle Leases, called anciently the Castle Field, a large Piece of Ground belonging to the Town, containing 141 Acres 12 Perches: Grey informs us, that Tradition said it was the Gift of King John to the good Men of Newcastle. However this be, it is certain that it had been the Town's immemorially or Time out of Mind, in the Reign of King Edward III. For in the 31st of that Reign the Town of Newcastle took an Inquisition in the Castle Field on a Palm Sunday Eve, the 31st Year of King Edward III. desiring the Confirmation of the Castle Moor and Field, and the Privileges belonging to them: And the King by his Letters Patents dated at Westminster, confirmed to the Burgesses of Newcastle the other Charters they had obtain'd, and also confirmed to them the Possession of the Castle Moor, Concessi­mus pro no­bis & here­dibus nostris quod predi­cti Burgenses & eorum he­redes habe­ant & te­neant mo­ram & ter­ras predictas Lib. Cart. p. 11. and Castle Field; they having belong'd to this Town immemorially at this Time: He also, as appears by the said Charters, confirmed to the Burgesses of this Town, and their Heirs, the Liberty of digging Coals, Stone, and all other Advantages arising from the said Castle Moor.

THIS Place was formerly the Inheritance of divers Persons, Owners there­of, who were accustomed from ancient Time, to take the fore Crop thereof yearly, at or before Lammas-Day, and after that, by an ancient Custom, all the Burgesses of this Town used to put in their Kine, and used the same in pa­sturing of them 'till Lady-day in Lent yearly, and then to lay the same for Meadow again 'till Lammas.

[Page 148]IN the Year 1679, when George Morton was Mayor, the Town purchased the Sweepage of the Castle Leases for the Benefit of the Burgesses.

IN the 33d of Charles II. a Licence was granted the Mayor and Burgesses to purchase the Sweepage of the Castle Leases.

THE Grounds of it abut on the said Castle Moor on the East and North Parts, upon the Highway leading to Kenton on the West, and on the other Way leading to the said Castle Moor on the South.

WHEN the Parliament took an Inquisition of it, the Forth and Town Moor in the Year 49, were valued at 27 l. per Annum.

THE Mill in the Castle Leases, commonly called Chimley Mill, upon the Syke or Rivulet called Bailiff-Burn, and the other Mill called Little Mill, were at the same Time valued at 10 l. per Annum each.

THIS Ground was always valued Tythe-free.

ON the West and North of the Castle Leases lies the Town-Moor. It is a very spacious Piece of Ground, containing 1037 Acres, one Rood, two Per­ches. It was originally a Wood, very famous for Oak Trees, out of which have been built many hundred of Ships, and all the Houses of the old Town of Newcastle.

THIS Moor, together with the Castle Leases, or Castle Lizards, called an­ciently the Castle Moor, and Castle Field, were the Right of the Town of Newcastle, and had been so Time out of Mind, as has been just now observed in the Reign of King Edward III. who in his Charter of the Town, dated the Tenth of May, in the 31st Year of his Reign, confirmed the Holding and Possessing of it, and the Working of Coals, Stones, &c. in it; together with all the Profits arising from it (in the same Manner he had confirmed all the Immunities and Privileges, which had been granted by the Kings, his Predecessors.) to the Burgesses of Newcastle.

THE ancient Bounds of the Town-Moor, which are the same to this Day, and answer still in every Particular, are thus described in the Charter above-mentioned.

ET quia ex parte Dilectorum Nobis Burgensium ejusdem Villae Nobis est Suppli­catum, ut cum Mora & Terra Vocatae Castle-Field & Castle-Moor, ex parte Bore­ali Dictae Villae Novicastri de quadam Placea Vocata Inglesdick Versus Orientem Per Metas Positas Usque ad Quandam Placeam Vocatam Le Thornbusk Juxta Crucem [& Deinde per Certas [Divisas & Metas Positas Versus Dictam Villam Novicastri Usque] Furcas] & sit inter Postos Furcarum; Ita quod Una Postis Fiat in Marchia Inter Terram Prioris de Tynemouth & Terram Dictae Villae No­vicastri & sit Usque Le Quarldike & Deinde per Viam Usque ad candem Villam Novicastri, sunt terra & solum Dictae Villae Novicastri Pertinentia ad eandem Vil­lam a tempore quo non extat Memoria.

THE Substance of which is, it Bounders on a certain Street or Causeway, called Gingler-Dyke, and Bounders to a Street or Cause-way called Thorn­busk, besides the Cross; and from thence to the Bounders set towards the Town of Newcastle, unto a Gallows set between the Trees or Posts of the Gall-house; so that one Post is placed and set in the Marches, between the Fields and Lands of the Prior of Tinmouth, and the Fields and Grounds of Newcastle; and so extendeth unto the Quarrel-Dyke, and from thence unto the King's-Street, and so on unto the said Village.

IT is the Opinion of Grey some, that this large Piece of Ground was the Gift of Adam de Athol, of Gesmond, to the Town: But if the Town of Newcastle [Page 149] had an Immemorial Right to the Town-Moor, in the Days of Edward III. and this is proved from his Charter above-mentioned; then it is very impro­bable that Adamarus de Athol, of Gesmunde, should be the Donor of it. For this De reb. Novicast. p. 9. Adam was High Sheriff of the County of Northumberland, in the Fifth of Richard II. and was living in the Year of our Lord 1392, as appears by an Indulgence of 40 Days granted to the Church of St. Andrew's, which was in the Proceedings upon a Dispute, about 30 Years after, relating to the Town-Moor. It is declared, that the Town-Moor had belonged to the Town of Newcastle immemorially, or Time out of Mind: But how can it be said to be in the Possession of the Town for so long a Time, when he himself, who gave it, lived thirty Years after this Declaration? And if he did so; no doubt but several others liv'd so long too. Either then the Town was not at the Time of this Dispute immemorially in the Possession of this Ground, or this Adamarus de Athol, was not the Donor of it. Again, had he been the Donor of it, he must have been 120 Years old at his Death; that is to say, he liv'd thirty Years after this Dispute, and Ninety before to make it immemorial; (which is the least Time that can be allow'd to make any Thing so) so that these two put together will make that Number of Years at his Death. It is not indeed in this Age of the World impossible for a Man to live so long, but yet it is highly improbable. There are few come to this Age, and when they do, they are look'd upon as so many great Exceptions to the general Rule of the Ages of Men; and then their Ages stand upon Record to succceed­ing Generations; and no doubt, had this been true of Adam de Athol, it wou'd at least have been mention'd upon his Tomb-Stone, but we find no such Thing. Nay, should we allow, for the Sake of making him the Donor, that he really lived 120 Years; yet after all, this grand Absurdity would fol­low, that if the Town, when this Dispute happen'd, had had it immemorially; he must have made a Present of it on the very Day he was born.

FOR these Reasons therefore it's impossible he should be the Donor of it, but some of his Ancestors of the same Name might: And this is the rather to be imagin'd, because Tradition says, it was Adam de Athol, of Jesumund, hand­ing down the Name to this Day. As then he was of the same Name, and undoubtedly a great Benefactor to this Town, so the good Deeds of some of his Ancestors might have been ascribed to him through Mistake, and so be handed down to this present Day. There was one Adam de Jesumuthia, or Gesmund, who order'd that one Good-Plank, or Six-Shillings, should be given annually (as may be seen in the Account of the Tyne-Bridge) for the Repara­tion of the Bridge. Perhaps it was him, for the Bridge was burnt in the Reign of Henry III. in the Year 1248, and immediately they set about the Repair of it, and this Adam was one of the Benefactors to it. If then Tra­dition says true, that Adam de Jesmund was the Donor of the Town-Moor to the Town, this is probably the very Man, and whether he gave it before the Burning of the Bridge, or at the Time of his Benefaction to the Bridge; yet in the Thirty first of Edward III. it would undoubtedly have been the Town's immemorially, which is a good presumptive Proof of this Conjun­cture, that this was the very Man. Be this as it will, it is certain that it had been the Town of Newcastle's Time out of Mind in the Thirty first Year of Edward III. and was then confirm'd to them, as has been observed above; in our Account of the Castle Leases.

TWO Fairs are kept upon this Moor, on the First of August, and Eigh­teenth of October, of which the Tolls, Booths, Stallage, Pickage, and Courts of Pic-powder, to each of the Fairs, were reckoned worth communibus Annis 12 l. in Oliver's Time.

IN the Survey made of the Town-Moor, in the troublesome Times, it was reported that the Coal Mine, or Colliery, in the Town-Moor, extended it self under the Superficies of the Town-Moor one hundred Acres, and that the Value of it was to the Town 35 l. per Annum.

[Page 150]IT is the Pasture for the Cows belonging to the Freemen of Newcastle.

IT is much frequented by the Gentry of this Town, and others for Exer­cise and Health; it being (that Part of it especially call'd the Cow-hill,) a Place of the most wholesome Air about the Town.

Of the NUN-MOOR.

THE Nun-Moor is that large Piece of Ground that lies on the West of the Town-Moor, between the Thorn-Bush and the Hedge that separates from it the Grounds of Kenton.

RICHARD I. confirm'd to St. Mary's and the Nuns of Newcastle, what­soever had been given them by Asalack, the Founder of that Hospital; (as is observable in his Charter of the Founding of St. Mary's) whatever belonged to him, as well in Land as in Money, or Houses; whatever he had acquired and obtained, both within and without the Town of Newcastle, all these he confirmed; and he himself also gave them two Carucates of Land of his own, that they might pray for his Soul. This is supposed to be the Charter for the Confirmation of Nun-field, or as it seems to have been otherwise called Nun-house, in the Town-Moor. And if this Conjecture be true, it is clear that this Asalack gave the Nun-Moor to the Nuns of St. Bartholomew, and not as is commonly reported Adam de Athol. These Nuns were the Occasion of it's being intituled Nun-field, or Nun-house, or the Nun-Moor, as it is called at this Day.

IN the Fourth of the Reign of Henry VII. Dame Joan, Prioress of the Monastry of St. Bartholomew the Apostle, in Newcastle upon Tyne, and Con­vent of the same, granted a Lease of the Nun-Moor for an hundred Years to the Mayor, Sheriff, Aldermen, and Commonality of this Town, under the year­ly Rent of one Pound three Shillings and four Pence. Hence it is plain that this Moor belonged to those Nuns, and took it's Name from them.

IN the Eleventh of Henry VIII. there was an award between the said Priory and Convent, and William Bennet, Esq Owner of Kenton, about the Bounders of it.

IN the Thirty sixth of the same Reign, it was granted to John Broxholm, in Consideration of 1122 l. 15 s. 6 d. and was conveyed by those claiming un­der him to the Mayor and Burgesses of Newcastle upon Tyne.

THIRTY Seventh Hen. VIII. upon an Inquisition then taken and returned into the Exchequer of Lands, belonging to Religious Houses, Nun-moor is cer­tified to be within the County of Northumberland.

THE other Parts of the Suburbs out of Newgate is a Street that reaches as far as the Barras-bridge, called Sidgate, which consists of Houses very indiffe­rent, most of which are inhabited by poor People; but very sweetly situated, having the Leases or Gardens behind them.

Sect. V. Of the Suburbs of PILGRIM-STREET.

WE come now to the Suburbs of Pilgrim-street gate; which were also ruinated in the late Civil Wars. But at present it is a very well built Street, having in it some very pretty Houses, such as are the Houses of Mr. John Stephenson, Merchant, Mr.John Morris, Hoastman, and several be­longing to Mr. William Graham, &c.

THIS Street is the most Pleasant Situation of any within or without the Town.

IT stands as it were in the middle of Gardens and Shady Fields, which make it a delicious Place in the Summer Season.

IN the upper Part of it, nigh the Barras-bridge, are to be seen the Remains of the Hospital dedicated to St. Mary Magdalen, which was vulgarly called, the Maidlein's. It was seated at the Summit of an Hill, beneath which is the Well called St. Mary Magdalen's Well, so named from the Hospital, as are al­so several Fields which to this Day are called the Maidlin Meadows.

IT was founded by King Henry I. for a Master, Brethren and Sisters to re­ceive Leprous Folks, and since that Sickness abated, for the poor of the Town in Time of Pestilence. Fourteen within the House were allowed every one a Room, 8 s. per Month, Coals, and Fifteen without, some 8 s. per Month, some 5 s. some 2 s. 6 d.

ONE Johannes de bland obiit die mensis proximo ante festum Sancti Mi­chaelis arch­angeli, hora nona illius diei, anno Domini mil­lesimo Tri­centesimo septuagesi­mo quarto. Cujus cor­pus huma­tum est jux­ta summum altere ex parte Borea­li cancella­rii, in Ca­pella Beatae Mariae Mag­dalenae. Lib. Cart. John Bland was the Master of this Hospital in the Reign of Edward III. he was a Man of a fair Character, and good Reputation. It is recorded of him, that he died the Day before the Feast of St. Michael the Archangel, or on the 28th of September, in the ninth Hour of that Day, in the Year of our Lord 1374. His Body was buried nigh the High-Altar, on the North side of the Chancel, in St. Mary Magdalen's Chapel.

HE was a great Benefactor to this Hospital, as appears from his Charity and Generosity in the first Year of his Mastership. For whereas Laurentius Acton had the said Hospital in perpetuum, for himself, his Heirs and Assigns, this worthy Man paid for his own Right 40 Marks to the said Laurentius, and the said Laurentius had the first Fruits belonging to the said Hospital, which yearly amounted to the Sum of 200 Marks.

ONE Richard Sperman had an annual Pension from the said Hospital of 8 Marks, which Pension the abovementioned Gentleman in the 2d Year of his Mastership bought out for the said Hospital.

HE also the same Year freed the said Hospital from an annual Pension, which was payable to Hugo de Mitford.

THE same Master of this Hospital, in this same Year following, built in the said Hospital a Consistory, a Stable, and a Bier, and made in the Quire two New Windows facing the South of the said Chapel, besides a Number of other good and generous Charities which he bestowed upon this Hospital.

[Page 152]THE same Gentleman proves judicially in the King's Court, that the Mayor and Commonalty of Newcastle upon Tine, did assign, present, and in­duct the Master of the said Hospital. He was Master of the said Hospital about five Years.

IN the Reign of our Lord 1564, in the 6th of Queen Elizabeth, one Edmund Wiseman, Servant to the right Honourable Sir Nicholas Bacon, Knight, and Keeper of the Great Seal of England, obtained by the Procurement of one Cuthbert Bewick, a Burgess and Merchant of this Town of Newcastle, a Pre­sentation from the Queen, of the Hospital of St. Mary Magdalen, lying with­out the Wall of Newcastle; of which Hospital the Mayor and Burgesses of this Town were the true and very Patrons, and had till then presented Time out of The West-Spittle, the Hospital cal­led the Mag­dalens, and the Chapel of St. Thomas the Martyr, have been given by the Mayor and Burgesses of Newcastle, Time out of Mind. Mind. By Virtue of this Presentation from the Queen, James Bi­shop of Durham would have inducted the said Wiseman (in the Year afore­said, betwixt Lammas and Martinmas) into the Possession of the said Hospi­tal; but the Mayor and Aldermen of the Town having Respect to the Defence of their Patronage, would in no wise permit the said Bishop to give Induction therein: For the Hospital of St. Mary Magdalen was a Donative, and not a Benefice inductible by any Bishop.

IN the Year 1569, 15th February, the Mayor and Burgesses of Newcastle granted the next Presentation of St. Mary Magdalen, commonly called the Maid [...]enes, to Henry Anderson, Robert Mitford, and Christopher Mitford.

IN the Account of Ficket-Tower, there is Mention made of a Great Cross, standing within Maudlin-Barras; and in the Milbank Manuscript it is said, At the End of the Barras-Bridge before the Chapel stood a stately Cross firm and compleat, and This Pigg was a Rebel, a very great Enthusiast, a Monument of his whimsi­cal Head is that Stone-Pillar, a lit­tle North of the three Mile Bridge, which every deservedly to this Day, bears the Title of Pig's Folly. John Pigg in the Time of the Rebellion took it down, and called it Idolatry, and thought to make his own Use of it; but it was broke by some who hated it should be prophaned. This Hospital at the Suppres­sion was valued at 9 l. 11 s. 4 d.

LEAVING St. Mary Magdalens, we go forward to the End of this Street, which together with the End of the Street leading from Newgate, meets at the Barras-Bridge.

HOW it comes by the Name of Barras-Bridge, Grey gives us no Account. Others have imagined it to be so called, from a Person of that Name, who was its Builder or Benefactor. This Conjecture in my Opinion is a grand Mistake; for we have just now mentioned the Maudlin-Barras, and therefore the Word Barras must imply something else. The Manuscript above men­tioned speaking of the Antiquity of St. Andrew's Church, gives this as a Reason of its being the oldest in Town, because it is next the Barras, which hath been the ancient Barracado of the Town. So then according to this Ac­count, it got its Name from the Word Barracado. This also in my Opinion is a Mistake. For the Word Barrows (for so it should be spell'd) signifies the same as Tinnuli, Hillocks, and sometimes Graves and Sepulchres: And when it is considered, that the Hospital of St. Mary Magdalen was founded for the Reception of Leprous Folks, it is easy to see, that the Maudlin-Borrows are the Tombs or Burial-Places of those that died of the Leprosy in that Hospi­tal; and since the Burial-place it self was nigh to the Bridge, the Bridge got thence the Name of the Barrows-Bridge. The Barras mentioned in the Ac­count of Ficket-Tower are the same Thing; nothing else but the Burial-place of the Franciscan Friars.

THE Place of the Maudlin Barrows I take to be the sick Man's Close; for as after the abating of the Leprosy, this Hospital was obliged to take the Poor of the Town in during the Time of the Pestilence; so I question not, but those that died were buried in the ancient Burial-place or Barrows of the Hospital. And since we are certain they were buried in the sick Man's Close, we may [Page 153] be therefore almost certain, that the sick Man's Close was the Barrows of this Hospital.

THE Barrows-Mill belong'd to the black Friars; and in the Year 1558, paid a Rent to the Town of Newcastle of 2 s. per annum. Lib. Cart. p. 43.

THE Chapel on the other Side the Barrows-Bridge was dedicated to St. James the Apostle, and was anciently called St. See An­drew Tower. James's Kirk. I suppose it was a Chapel of Ease to St. Andrew, for Jesmond and Sandiford, and other Out-parts of that Parish.

Sect. VI. Of the Suburbs of PANDON.

THE Suburbs out of Pandon-Gate are but very few Houses; but there are Gardens all the Way up the Causeway; two of them are those of Mr. John Simpson and Mr. Charles Atkinson. This Way was within these four Years the pleasantest Entrance into the Town of Newcastle, having Gardens on each Side, beset with Trees of so large a Size and Shade, that they covered the Street itself in several Places. These were cut down for a little unpossest Money, and the greatest Beauty of the Street lost.

THERE are in this Street two or three Passages, leading to different Places, which it may not be amiss to mention. After you are out of Pandon-gate, there is one on the left Hand leading to Pandon-Dean, a very Romantick Place, full of Hills and Vales, through which runs Pandon-Burn. It is a very entertaining Walk in the Summer to Magdalen-Well. A little above this is another very narrow Passage on the right Hand, bordering upon Mr. Harrison's Garden, which leads to a Place called the Garth-Heads, which was a Place of Pleasure and Recreation; but of late it was taken in, and made a common Gar­den of, by Richard Ridley, Esq the Proprietor of it.

HAVING past this Lane, we proceed till we come to the Top of this great Ascent (for such indeed is this Street) and there we meet with two Ways; the one leads to the Shield-Field, the Property of Mr. Charles Clark of New­castle, which has been already mentioned; and the other to Owse-Burn, which is at present a large Village, occasioned by the Coal-works of Richard Ridley and Matthew White, Esqs &c.

IT takes its Name from the Burn that runs through it. The Banks of this Burn are in many Places terribly high, in all Places beautifully Roman­tick.

BEFORE we come to the Suburbs of Sandgate, we must not omit to men­tion the Keelmens Hospital; it is situated some Distance East of the Town's Wall, between the Carpenters Tower and Sandgate. It is a square Building, done in the Form of Monasteries and Colleges, having its low Walk round it, in Imitation of Cloysters. The Area in the Middle of it, is about 83 Foot broad, and about 97½ Foot long. There are upwards of fifty Chambers in it. Who it was built by, may be learned from the Inscription above the En­trance of it, which is as follows: The Keelmens Hospital, built at their own Charge, Anno Domini 1701, Matthew White, Esq Governour, Mr. Edward Grey, Mr. Edward Carr, Stewards of the Hoastmens Company for the Time be­ing, [Page 154] and Trustees for this Hospital. I have been told, that Dr. Moor, one of the late Bishops of Ely, upon going down the River in the Town's Barge with the Magistrates, observed it, and made Enquiry after it. And being told, that it was built by the Keelmen themselves (every one allowing towards it a Penny a Tide) he said, that he had heard of, and seen many Hospitals, the Works of rich Men; but that was the first he ever saw or heard of, which had been built by the Poor. 'Tis a great Pity that the Design of its Building is not throughly answer'd; but there are some Miscreants, who would rather starve in Sickness or old Age, than not guzzle a Penny in their Health and Youth.

Sect. VI. Of the Suburbs of SANDGATE.

THE Suburbs of Sandgate (excepting some Houses nigh the Walls of the Town) we are informed escap'd the Fury of the Civil Wars. This Street has it's Name from it's Situation, which is upon the Sand. For this whole Street as well as the Sandhill, and all the lower Parts of the Town in ancient Times was the Common Sand or Shore of the River.

THIS Street has in it a vast Number of narrow Lanes on each Side of it, which are crouded with Houses. It is chiefly inhabited by People that work upon the Water, particularly the Keelmen. The Number of Souls in this Street and the Lanes belonging to it, is computed to several Thousands.

ABOUT the middle of this Street is an open Place called the Squirrel, from a little Brook of that Name, which runs through it into the River Tyne, which was the ancient Bounds of the Town of Newcastle. From this, as far as the House of Mr. Jeremiah Cook, Shipwright, is the Street of Sandgate, then we enter St. Ann's Street, (so called from the neighbouring Chapel) which leads us on to the Ropery, which is a long and pleasant Walk, giving an agreeable Prospect of the River, and a great Part of the Town and Neighbouring Places. What this Ropery was formerly, Grey gives us the best Account. Below East, says he, is the Ballast-Hill, where Women upon their Heads car­ried Ballast, which was taken forth of the small Ships which came empty for Coals; which Place was the first Ballast Shore out of the Town; since which Time, the Trade increasing, there are many Ballast Shores below the Water, on both Sides of the River; much the same Account is given of this, in the Manuscript so frequently mentioned; the Hoastmen got Leave at first to lead Coals above the Bourn, and that occasioned their Delivery of Ballast upon the Lime-Kiln Road, and the Women bore the Ballast upon their Heads, and made the Ballast-Hills; for the Town had procured all that Shore of the Lords of Byker for that Use, and to build Lime-Kilns upon.

ON the North of this Ropery stands the Chapel of St. Ann, which is a a Chapel of East to the Church of All-hallows, which tho' pretty large is yet much too little for the Parish, it being perhaps one of the largest Parishes in the whole Kingdom.

WHEN it was originally built I have met with nothing that gives any Ac­count. after the Reformation it was neglected and came into Decay; but the Town in the Year 1682. repair'd it, and settled a Lecturer there, to preach in the Morning, and to expound the Catechism every Sunday Afternoon; which the Town allow'd 30 l. per Annum for; at the Opening of it, after it was repaired, the Rev. Mr. March, then Vicar of the Town, preached the first [Page 155] Sermon, in it, which was Printed, and Intitled, Th' Encaenia of St. Ann's Cha­pel in Sandgate.

IT has at present two Lecturers, which are paid by the Town, the Rev. Mr. Clayton, and the Rev. Mr. Maddison; to the former the Town pays 40 l. per Annum, and to the latter 50 l.

BELOW this to the Glass-house-bridge are the Houses of Ship-Wrights, and Master-Builders, such as Mr. Thomas Wallas, Mr. Roger Durham, Mr. John Lattany, Mr. Cuthbert Preston, &c.

THE Glass-house-bridge, so called because of the Glass-houses which are al­most contiguous to it, was originally a Wood-Bridge, as the Bridge higher up the Bourn was, 'till within these 6 or 7 Years; but in the Year 1669, when Ralph Jenison, Esq was Mayor, it was made of Stone by Thomas Wrang­ham, Ship-Wright, on Account of Lands which the Town let him; The Passage however over it was very difficult and uneven 'till the Year 1729, When Stephen Coulson, Esq was Mayor, it was made level and commodious both for Horse and Foot.

ON the other Side of the Bridge are the Glass-houses, which in Grey's Time served most Part of the Kingdom with Window-Glass.

SOMETIME in the Reign of Queen Elizabeth came over to England from Lorrain, the Henzels, Tyzacks and Tytorys. The Reason of their coming hither was the Persecution of the Protestants in their own Country, of whose Per­suasion they were. They were by Occupation Glass-makers. At their first coming to this Town they wrought in their Trade at the Close-gate, after that they removed into Staffordshire, from whence they removed again and settled upon the River Side at the Place called from their abiding in it the Glass-houses. Deservedly therefore have so many of these Families been named Peregrines from the Latin Word Peregrinus which signifies a Pilgrim or a Stranger.

HAVING at last settled here they became very numerous, and generally married into each others Families to preserve the three Names of Henzel, Ty­zack and Tytory. But the latter of them within this Few Years became ex­tinct. There are of the Tyzacks several remaining; but the Henzels are most numerous.

AS you go from the Glass-house, you come now to the Glass-houses, a large Village, and pass by the Western Glass-house, then to the Crown-Glass-house, then to the middle Bottle-house, then to the middle Broad-house, then to the castern Glass-house. Nigh this last is the House of the late Mr. Peregrine Henzel, the principal Person then remaining of his Family, and one of the Chief Owners of these Works.

FROM hence we pass over the Grounds of St. Laurence, to a Place consi­sting of several Houses, which from a Chapel here situated, dedicated to St. Laurence, is called St. Laurence's Glass-house, or Mushroom-Glass-house; there is also here a Bottle Glass-house, now held under the Town by Mrs. Middle­ton, of which Richard Ridley, Esq is an Owner.

ST. Laurence's Chapel, or Chantery as it is called, is said to have been built by one of the Earls of Northumberland. No Doubt that Prayers might be put up for his Soul, and the Souls of his Family.

AT the Reformation it had Fate of many Chapels of the like Kind; to have its Revenues disposed of, and itself left to fall into Ruins.

IT was dependant upon the Priory of St. John's of Jerusalem. It was gran­ted [Page 156] to the Town in the 3d of Edward VI. among other Things, in Conside­ration of 144 l. 13 s. 4 d.

Anno Dom' 1558, The Rents of St. Laurence, as follow.
 l.s.d.
ST. Laurente taken by Lease by John Laverock71000
THE Fishery of St. Laurence, taken by [...] Mitford11304
A Close called St. Ann's Close01200
A Close called the Conny Close11304

A Cottage in Kittingworth, in the Tenure of John of Killingworth, and cer­tain Lands in Heaton belonging to St. Laurence. Lib. Cart. 44.

NIGH this Chapel of St. Laurence is one of the Waggon Ways, and Steaths of Richard Ridley, Esq for his Colliery at Byker.

ONE of the Andersons procured a Shore from the Chapel of St. Laurence, un­to the Gate that runneth down the River, towards Lawson's Land, which was filled by Womens Heads. Milbank.

Sect. VIII. Of the Town's BOUNDERS.

THE Town Bounders by Land from a small Brook, or Course of Water, called the Swerle, in Time past in the County of Northumberland, and now in the Town of Newcastle, on the West-side of the aforesaid Town, along by the Shore of the Water of Tyne, unto the Fields of the Town of Elswick, in the aforesaid County of Northumberland, by and along the Fields of the Town of Elswick, aforesaid, unto the Fields of the Town of Fenham was hereto­fore a Village very pleasant and beautiful on Account of it's much Wood; but now much more so be­cause of the very fine House and Gardens of Thomas Ord Esq This Village, or the Royalty of it, belong­ed to the Pri­ory of St. John of Je­rusalem, for we meet with a Receipt from the Prior to the Town of Newcastle, for the Coal Mines of Fenham. Fenham, in the afore­said County of Northumberland, and so toward the North unto the Fields of the Town of Kenton in the aforesaid County of Northumberland, and along by those Fields unto the Town of The Estate of William Carr, Esq Coxlodge, in the aforesaid County of North­umberland, and so towards the East of the Fields of the Town of Jesmund in the aforesaid County, and by and along the same Fields of Jesmund towards the South, unto a certain Bridge called Barras-bridge, in the aforesaid County of Newcastle upon Tyne, and from the same Bridge in and through a certain Lane in the aforesaid County of Northumberland and Newcastle, leading towards the East to another Bridge called Sandiver Bridge, in the aforesaid County of Northumberland; and from the same Bridge towards the South, in and through a certain Field called Shield-Field, in the aforesaid County of Northumberland and Newcastle, unto a certain Lane or Street in the same County, leading to the aforesaid Water or River of Tyne.

THE additional Bounders are mention'd in the second and third Years of King Edward VI.

THE Circumference of the Town's Bounders is 10 Miles and 50 Yards.

CHAP. XIII. Of the River TYNE.

IT remains now that we speak of the River The Tyne seems to have been original­ly as to the Name of it, Vedra. For the River Ve­dra is the only River taken Notice of by Ptolo­my in these Parts; and we all know that in these Parts the Ri­ver Tyne is the most con­siderable. There is in­deed a Tyne mentioned by Ptolomy, but that is situated between the Tay and Forth, in Scotland; but neither can that be it, it is too inconsiderable: Nor lastly can it be the River Were, tho' there is a nigher Affinity in Sound between Vedra and Were, than between Vedra and Tyne. For the Vedra is mention'd by Ptolomy as the most considerable River, and 'tis confessed that the Tyne is more so than the Were, or if the Were has any Claim to the Name of Vedra it is only in Conjunction with the River Tyne. Perhaps, says Mr. Horsley, p. 103. Vedra has been the Name of the Tyne and Were. The Tract that now has between the two Rivers, and is bounded on each Side by them, is now called Werewickshire. Tyne, which is indeed a River to be out-done by few in the whole Kingdom, whether you respect it's Haven, it's Com­modities, it's Privileges, which have been frequently mentioned, the Prospect of it's Fields, it's Woods and Villages, &c. As to the Haven, it is so deep as to carry Vessels of a considerable Burthen, and of that Security, that they are not in Danger either of Storms or Shallows, save that within a little of the Bar of Tinmouth (which are called by the Sailors the Black-Middens, which are very dangerous;) but to prevent any Mischiefs which may happen to Ships in the Night Time from them, there are two Light-houses maintain'd by the Trinity-House, in New­castle, and near them in the Year 1672, was built a Fort, called Clifford's Fort, which effectually commands all the Vessels that enter the River. Mag. Brit. Vol. 3. p. 607.

MR. Cambden observes that this Town of Newcastle, for it's Situation and plenty of Sea-Coal, so useful in itself, and to which so great a Part of Eng­land and the low Countries are indebted for their good Fires, is thus com­mended by Johnson in his Poems on the Cities of Britain;

[Page 158]

Novum Castrum

Rupe sedens Celsâ, rerum aut miracula spectat
Naturae, aut solers distrahit illa aliis.
Sedibus Aethereis quid frustra quaeritis ignem?
Hunc alit, hunc terra suscitat ista sinu.
Non illum torvo terras qui turbine terret;
Sed qui animam Terris, detque animos animis.
Eliquat hic ferrum, aes, hic aurum ductile fundit.
Quos non auri illex conciet umbra animas?
Quin (aiunt) auro permutat Bruta metalla;
Alchimus hunc igitur praedicat esse Deum.
Si Deus est, ceu tu dictas, Divine Magister,
Haec quot alit? Quot alit Scotia nostra Deos,

Newcastle

From her high Rock great Nature's Works Surveys,
And kindly spreads her Goods through Lands and Seas.
Why seek ye Fire in some exalted Sphere?
Earth's Fruitful Bosom will supply you here.
Not such whose horrid Flashes scare the Plain,
But gives enliv'ning Warmth to Earth and Men.
Ir'n, Brass and Gold it's melting Force obey;
(Ah! who's e'er free from Gold's almighty Sway?)
Nay into Gold 'twill change a Baser Ore,
Hence the vain Chymist deifies its Power:
If't be a God, as is believ'd by you,
This Place and Scotland more than Heaven can shew.

IT is observable in this Place when the Coal Trade is brisk, that all other Business is so too; and when it is otherwise, through the Contracts of the Coal Owners, or of the Masters, that there is a certain Deadness in all Tra­fick. It is the Money arising from the Coal Trade, that almost entirely Cir­culates in this great Town and adjacent Country.

IT has been observed by Fleetwood Preciosum Chronicon 118. p. some, that Sea Coal has not been in Use above 150 Years, at least not in London; and that when we meet with Coals in old Accounts, it is meant of Charcoal. I can scarce be of this Opinion, if it was but for what the said Authority himself acknowledgeth, viz. that Carbo Ma­rinus, or Sea Coal, is mentioned in Matthew Paris. And in the 1st of Edward III. there is mention made de Carbonibus marithnis, of Sea Coals and the Mea­sure of them.

HOWEVER this be, nigh this Town of Newcastle Coals were work'd very early, in a Charter of King Hen. III. dated Dec. 1, 23d of that King's Reign, Licence was granted to the Town of Newcastle, to dig Coals in the Castle-Field and the Frith.

IN the Year 1421, the 9th of Hen. V. Two-pence per Chaldron being paid to the King for all Coals sold at the Port of Newcastle, to People not enfran­chised; it was enacted that the Keels should be of the Burthen of 20 Chal­drons, and no more, according to Custom; some being of the Burthen of 22, and some of 24 Chaldrons built, to defraud the King of his Customs, and that the Keels should be sealed by the King's Officers. De. reb. 39.

[Page 159]QUEEN Elizabeth demanding of the Town the Arrear of 2 d. per Chaldron, which had been neglected for many Years; the Town begg'd her Majesty that these Arrears might be forgiven, and to grant them a Gardner Queen Eliz, Charter. Charter to incor­porate a new Fraternity or Brother-hood, to be called Free Hoastmen, for the selling and vending of all Coals to Shipping. And in Consideration thereof they would pay to her Majesty and her Successors, 12 d. for every Chaldron exported from thenceforth to the free People of this Nation; this was taken into Consideration and granted.

IN the Year 1644, in the Time of the Civil War, the City of London re­ceived a great Advantage by this Town's being taken; for almost two Years by-past, the poorer Sort of People had been almost starved, Coals hav­ing risen to the Price of 4 l. per Chaldron, a Price never known before that Time.

THIS Place is generally computed to vend upwards of 300,000 Chaldrons a-Year. There are likewise vast Exportations of Lead, Salt, Salmon, and Grindstones, which last Commodity, as Grey says, and is still true, are con­veyed to most Parts of the World; according to the Proverb, A Scott, a Rat, and a Newcastle Grindstone you may find all the World over.

IT is not in my Power to describe the Number of Arts and curious Ma­chineries that are used in this Affair of the Coal Business; the sinking of Pits, Winning of Coals, Fire-Engines, Waggon-Ways, the Waggons, their ma­naging of them, the Staiths, &c. deserve a more skilful Pen. Thus much however I may venture to say, that those Waggon-Ways, a small Part of the whole Coal Works, may vie with some of the great Works of the Roman Empire.

The Right and Title of the Mayor and Burgesses of the Town and County of the Town of Newcastle upon Tyne, to the Soil, and also to the Conservation of the River of Tyne.

1st, By Prescription.

THE said Mayor and Burgesses have time out of Mind enjoyed the Soil of the said River or Tyne: And all Shores or Keys built upon the said River, are by Virtue of Leases from the said Mayor and Burgesses.

AND they the said Mayor and Burgesses have also time out of Mind enjoy­ed the Conservation of the said River of Tyne.

AND for Conservation and Preservation thereof, there has also time out of Mind been holden before the Mayor and Aldermen of the said Town every Monday a Court, in which Court Enquiry is made after the due Conser­vation and Preservation of the said River of Tyne, by a Jury sworn to present all Nusances done therein, who make Presentments thereof in Writing; whereupon the Offenders are summoned, and if Guilty are punished by Fine or Imprisonment.

BUT formerly there has been another Custom for punishing such Offenders as appears by the following Testimonial.

[Page 160]

A Testimonial of John Philips's and William Goodwin's cutting each a Purse in the Town's Chamber, for casting Ballast in the River of Tyne.

Villa Novicastri super Tynam.WHEREAS Information upon Oath was given, that John Philips Master of the Mary of Hull, and William Goodwin, Master of the Elizabeth of Wisebidge, did the 5th of this Instant cast Ballast within the 14 Fathom deep, between Sowter and Hartley, to the Damage of the River. They the said Persons being called before us, the Mayor, Aldermen and Chamberlains, with the Master of the Trinity-house, who was then present in the Town Chamber, and did there acknowledge and confess the said offence, and did lay down 5 l. a Piece, which was put into two Purses, which they cut, ac­cording to the ancient Custom of this Corporation in such Cases.

  • Henry Dawson, Mayor.
  • Leonard Carr
  • Robert Shafto
  • Thomas Ledgard
  • Thomas Bonner
  • William Dawson
  • George Dawson
  • Ralph Fell, Master of the Trinity-house.
  • Phineas Allin Chamberlains.
  • Thomas Welsh
  • Thomas Young
  • Christopher Ellison
  • Thomas Goftyn

THIS ancient Custom of cutting a Purse, &c. was confirmed Anno 1616, by an Order of the King and Council.

THEY the said Mayor and Burgesses have also Time out of Mind had a Water Bailiff, who is a sworn Officer, and other Officers whose offices are to search out offences done in and upon the said River of Tyne, and to exe­cute the Orders of the said Court.

AND they the said Mayor and Burgesses have also always cleansed the Port from Rubbish, Ballast, and Sand, either brought in by Storms or otherwise, into the said River of Tyne.

THE Trinity-house of this Town (which is a Fraternity of Mariners, Free of the said Town) are also frequently employed in discovering Offences done to the said River of Tyne; and where there are dangerous Places in the said River, Buoys and Lights are set, and Persons employed and paid by the said Trinity-House, for looking to, and taking Care of them.

2dly, By Acts of Parliament.

IN an Act of Parliament made in the 21st Hen. VIII. Chap. 18. there is an Express Clause, which gives the Mayor and Burgesses Authority to pull down all Wears, Gores, and Engines, in the River of Tyne, between Spar­row-Hawk, and Hedwin-Streams, and in the Preamble of the said Act, it is de­clared, that the Soil of the River of Tyne, &c. has been Time out of Mind, enjoyed by the Town of Newcastle in their Demesne as of Fee in Right of the Crown.

AND also in another Act of Parliament made the 2d of Edward VI. (not printed) It is declared, that for the Maintenance of the said Town of New­castle upon Tyne, and for the Preservation of the Port and said River of Tyne, all the Sands, called Shores are settled on the Town.

[Page 161]AND also by Letters Patents, 31 Eliz. which confirm to the Mayor and Burgesses of the said Town of Newcastle upon Tyne, their Customs which they had by Prescription or otherwise. It is in particular granted to them, to have Jurisdiction of a great many Statutes mention'd in that Charter, and amongst other Statutes, the Statute 34 Hen. VIII. chap. 9. which concerns the Con­servation and Preservation of Rivers.

3dly, By Judgments, Records, Inquisitions, Judgment in Quo Warranto, Verdicts at Law, Decrees in the Court of Exchequer; and

UPON one Decree there is a perpetual Injunction, which was afterwards confirmed in the House of Lords on an Appeal.

JUDGMENT in Parliament 34 Ed. I. where the Prior of Tinmouth having Lands adjoyning to the said River of Tyne at North-Shields, and having built a Shoar there, within the Flood Mark; it was adjudged that it should be re­moved at the Cost of the Prior. It may not be amiss to give some Account of this Trial.

The Contents mentioned In a Plea, at Westminster, in the 20th Year of Edward I. Between the King, and the Burgesses of Newcastle, and The Prior of Tinmouth

Quod Do­minus Rex habere de­beat totum Portum in aqua de Tyne a mari usque ad locum qui dicitur Hed­win-streams, &c.1st, The whole Port in the Water of Tyne; 2d, His Ovens at Newcastle; The King Dues. 3d, For every Quarter of Corn there baked; 4th, of Custom; 5th, the King, looseth at North-Shields for the Issues of Baking per Annum 10 l. and by the Forestalling of the Market there 20 l. The said Prior also taketh the Wreck of the Sea, which specially belongs to the King.

THE King could also take two Tunn of Wine to be chosen behind and before, and every Tunn of Wine for 20 s. of every Ship of Herrings 100 Her­rings, &c. all which the said Prior takes at Shields and else where, by which Means the King lost his Prises and Customs due to him; because the same, Merchandizes came not intirely to his due Port of Newcastle.

THE Prior also built 4 Ovens at Tinmouth, which were rented at 5 l. 6 s. 8 d. per Ann. and kept a Market on the Lord's Day at Tinmouth. It was also ob­jected to him, that the whole Country and the Mariners applied themselves, and sold their Goods and Merchandizes at Shields, to the King's great Detri­ment, he receiving no Toll nor other Profits for the same.

THE King ought to have the Towage of Ships and Boats, greater and smaller, in the River of Tyne, in going up to Newcastle, and down to the Sea, freely over any Lord's Land, &c. The King ought to have in his Port 4 d. for every Boat that has an Oar, and 1 d. for every lesser one that has none.

In Answer,

THE Prior said, the Premises did only touch his free Tenement, and he answered, that as for the Wreck of the Sea, the Forestalling of Merchandi­zes, &c. He and his Predecessors had them by Charter of King John, Grand­father of King Edward I. and so he proceeds to his new Town of Shields.

[Page 162]HE said also that he had no Market or Oven at Shields. But as to the Fish­ers and buying of Fish, he saith, that his Predecessors in their Times have al­ways had their own Fishers fishing in the same Water, for the Maintenance of their House, Toll free, &c. because the Port of the Water of Tyne doth especially and entirely belong to the King, and that they (meaning the Prior and Convent of Tinmouth) have had certain their Tenants of Shields with their Boats within their Demesnes.

AND as for the Market at Tinmouth, he said he claimed none there; but he had a Tumbrel, and had hired Fishers, Brewers and Bakers, and also Sham­bles there.

AS to the Charge of Towage he said, that he never hindered those that exercised any such Office in the Water of Tyne adjacent to his Land, save only at Elstwick or Astwick.

HE said moreover, that before and at the Time of making King Richard's Charter, which was before any Liberties granted to Newcastle by King John, the Priors of this House took and had all the Premises freely and quietly, &c. by virtue of Custom of Liberties granted to them by their said Charter by Land and Water, whereof he found his Church seized, &c.

WHEREUPON he demanded Judgment.

THOSE who prosecuted for the King said, that the Charter was worth nothing. As to the Wreck of the Sea, they said, no sooner had the Ships applied themselves out of the great Sea into the said Port, and there had the Misfortune to break, then the said Prior taketh the Goods of such broken Ships, both swimming and therein abiding, and Converts them to his own Use; and that the then Prior was seized of ten Tuns of Wine, out of a cer­tain Ship of Peter of Appleby Burgess of York, wrecked in the said Water.

AND as to the charging or discharging of Ships and of Merchandizes, &c. they said, that whereas the said Port of Tyne is only the King's, as often as the Prior should do so, the King was manifestly injured, being then, and al­ways before in Seizin and Possession of the said Port.

AS to the Town of Shields, they said, that whatsoever small dwelling Houses there had been there, &c. the said Prior (that then was) caused there to be made 26 Houses upon the King's Soil; because they are comprehended within the flowing and Inundation of the Sea, and they demanded the Record of Ju­stice, that the said then Prior alledged that the King therein hath no soil, &c. but that it merely belong'd to him, even to the This is sup­posed to be the Low-Water Mark. Fill of the Water.

THEY also said, that in those Houses at Shields, there were Fishers and Brewers, and Victuallers, &c. so rich that they were able to give Loading and Victuals for 100 or 200 Ships, which ought to apply themselves at New­castle upon Tyne, and there buy their Victuals for the bettering the said Town. Whereupon they said, that the said Prior is the only Occupier of the King's Soil, and the only Taker away of the said King's Town of Newcastle; and that he the said Prior had 16 Fishers or more, with great Boats, fishing in the Sea yearly for Traffick's Sake only, and not for Maintenance of his House; where­of the King received neither Toll nor Custom.

THEY said also, that the said Prior and his Men come out with their Hor­ses and Carriages, and out of such Ships as came thither got Necessaries for themselves, so that most Times Ships and Boats return empty and half laden to other Ports than to Newcastle, aforesaid, whereby the King cannot receive his due Prises and Customs.

[Page 163]AND after they said that John of the Vale, I suppose, De le Val, being Judge Itinerant, 7 Edw. I. It was then reported by the Jury, that the Prior of Tin­mouth built a Town upon the Bank of the Water of Tyne on one side, and the Prior of Durham levied or built another on the other Side, where no Towns ought to be, unless Lodges only for Fishermen; and that the Fishermen have there sold their Fishes, which ought to have been sold at Newcastle, to the great Hurt of the said Town, and Loss of the King's Prises: And that both the said Priors of Tinmouth and Durham, have caused to be made Brewers, and Fishers, having great Ships, whereas they ought to have but Boats, and have caused Bread to be baked there, which ought to have been baked at New­castle.

IT is inhibited and forbidden the said Prior of Tinmouth, that from thence­forth he should not hold, or cause to be held a Market or Fair in the afore­said Places, and was determined that the Port within the Water of Tyne, from the Sea to Heddon Streams, is the free Port of the King and his Heirs with it's Prises, Customs, Towages, Tonages, with all other Profits and Commodities incident and belonging to the same, &c. and that neither at Tinmouth nor at Shields Ships are to be laden or unladen.

IT was also ordered that 4 Ovens at Tinmouth should pay Damages 5 Marks, and those that took Tonnage and make Forestal, &c. and as to the Wrecks of the Sea, &c. that the King and his Heirs should have them for ever here­after; as to the Markets and Fairs, that there be not at Tinmouth or Shields any Market or Fair, and that neither at Tinmouth or Shields there be any Sale of Things saleable, as in Meats, Drinks, or any other Things whatsoever, whereby the King, his Heirs and Successors may be made the Worse.

IT was also ordered, that the Keys and other Things levied and raised by the said Prior within the Flood Mark on the King's Soil, should be removed at the Costs of the said Prior.

Close Roll, 12 Ed. II. Membran. 26. It is recited that the King had given Power and Authority to John Earl of Hamstead, to examine and remove Nu­sances done to the River of Tyne, and was pleased to recal it, because it was a Prejudice to what the Mayor of Newcastle claimed and enjoyed in the Time of his Predecessors.

BY an Inquisition 4th Jan. 25 Hen. VI. the Jury upon their Oath found, that beyond the Memory of Man, the Town of Newcastle upon Tyne, had, and held of our Sovereign Lord the King, and all his Predecessors, as Bur­gesses of the said Town (when there was no Mayor), and as Mayor and Bur­gesses of the said Town (when there was a Mayor), the said Town and Wa­ter of Tyne, and the Soil of the said Water of Tyne, wherever it was covered, from a Place called Sparrow Hawk in the Sea, unto a Place called Hedwin Streams; and that the same, with the Appurtenances were Parcel of the Li­berties and free Customs of the said Town, and were held under a Fee-Farm, saving the King's Rents, Prises, and Assessments in the Port of the said Town.

THEN they find and set forth Kng John's Charter, and Confirmation.

AND divers other Customs and Privileges belonging to the said Town, are there mentioned, expessed and set forth.

IN a Quo Warranto, 5 Car. I. Michaelmas Term, in the King's Bench, the Prescription for Conservation of the River Tyne is allowed.

BY the Pleadings in a Decree in the Exchequer, Michaelmas Term, 5 Car. I. Mayor and Burgesses of Newcastle upon Tyne, Plaintiffs, Robert Johnson De­fendant; and another 10 Car. I. Mayor and Burgesses of Newcastle upon Tyne [Page 164] Plaintiffs, and [...] Hilton, Defendant, the Conservancy of the said River of Tyne is acknowledged to be in the said Mayor and Burgesses, between Spar­row-Hawk and Hedwin Streams.

Michaelmas 12. Car. I. Decree in the Exchequer against one Anthony Erring­ton, for erecting certain Buildings on certain Waste Grounds on the South Side of the Street called Sandgate, within the Flood Mark of the River of Tyne.

Trin. 1694, Bill in the Exchequer, Mayor and Burgesses of Newcastle, Plain­tiffs, against Dean and Chapter of Durham, and Samuel Shepherd, Defendants, a Trial at Law on the said Bill was directed by the said Court of Exchequer, on these two Issues following; that the Defendants could not lawfully erect and use a Ballast Key or Wharf, at Westoe or Jarrow-Slake, without the Li­cence of the Mayor and Burgesses of Newcastle.

THAT the erecting a Ballast Key at Westoe, or Jarrow-Slake by the De­fendants would be a Damage to the River.

18 Junii, 1697. Verdict on both Issues for the Plaintiffs.

26 Jan. 1697, after this Trial, the Court of Exchequer did order, adjudge and decree, that a perpetual Injunction should be awarded under the Seal of the Court, to quiet the Plaintiffs in the Possession of their Franchises, Liber­ties, Powers and Privileges, and to stop the Defendants from erecting any Bal­last Shore or Wharfe in Westoe or Jarrow-Slake, unless cause should be shewn on Monday 15 [...] l697, which Cause being continued on the Paper of Causes from Time to Time, after several Debates and Hearings, Feb. 10, 1697, the whole Court delivered their Opinion at large, that the Bill was a proper Bill, and the Issues apt and proper Issues in this Case, and declared they were fully satisfied with the Trial at the Bar: Thereupon it was finally ordered, adjudged and decreed by the Court, that the Defendants, and every of them, should be, and were thereby constrained from making and erecting any Bal­last Key or Wharf at Westoe or Jarrow-Slake, and that a perpetual Injuncti­on should be granted to stop the Defendants, and every of them, their Suc­cessors, Executors and Assigns, and all Persons claiming under them, from making, setting up, or erecting any Ballast Key or Wharf there, at any Time or Times hereafter.

17 Martii, 1697, Dean and Chapter of Durham, and Samuel Shepherd, pe­titioned and appealed to the House of Lords against this Decree.

7 Maij 1698, On hearing Council at the Lords Bar, on the Petition and Appeal, it was ordered and adjudged by the Lords Spiritual and Temporal in Parliament assembled, that the said Petition and Appeal of the Dean and Chapter of Durham, should be dismissed the said House, and that the Order and Appeal from which they appealed should be confirm'd.

IN the 22d James I. a Person was sued for Building some Houses in Sand­gate, within the Flood-Mark of the River Tyne, the Consequence of which was, the Defendant was obliged to pull down the said Houses at his own Ex­pence.

IN the Year 1631, the Sheriff of Durham was ordered by the King and Council to apprehend Offenders damaging the River Tyne, and carry them be­fore the Mayor and Aldermen, Conservators of the said River.

September 9, 1665, Sir Francis Anderson had granted to him a Lease for 1000 Years, from the Mayor and Burgesses of Newcastle upon Tyne, of all that Par­cel of Ground within the Territories of Winlington, between High and low-Water Mark, in length from East to West 1254 Yards, and in Breadth from [Page 165] low-Water Mark, in length from East to West One Thousand Two Hun­dred Fifty Four Yards, and in Breadth from low-Water Mark One Hundred and Twenty Yards, with Liberty to build Keys and cast Ballast, upon paying 2 d. per Ton for all Ballast cast thereon.

THE Bounds of the River Tyne, belonging to the Town of Newcastle, have been from the Day they had any Charter to this Day, from the Sparrow-Hawk to Hedwin Streams, which is about 14 Miles.

TO begin at Hedwin Streams, and so go down the River, taking Notice of the Villages, &c. 'till we come to the Bridge. Hedwin is a Village situated on the North Side of the River seven Miles: It seems to have been original­ly a Roman Station, for the Word in the Saxon signifies a Military Wing, and the Roman Wall goes close by it.

RYTON, a Village situated on the South side of the Tyne, distant about 7 Miles from Newcastle, is adorned with a fair Church, which had the Ho­nour to have for its Rector the very learned Dr. Cave, who was succeeded in it by Malin Sorsbie, Master of Arts, a religious Man, and an excellent Scho­lar. He was Father to the present Alderman Sorsbie, late Mayor of this Town. The next Incumbent of this Church was Dr. Finny, who built the stately Par­sonage House there; and the present one the Rev. Mr. Secker.

NEWBURN is a Village distant fron Newcastle about 4 Miles, and situ­ated on the North side of the Tyne. It is of great Antiquity, as appears from the following Relation.

COPSI, the first Earl of Northumberland, after the Conquest, was consti­tuted such by the Conqueror, for that Part of the Province that lyeth North of the River: Whereupon he drove Osulph, whom Merker, the younger Son to Algar, Earl of Chester, the last Earl of Northumberland had substituted there.

AT length Osulph, whom he had so driven, being necessitated to betake himself to the Woods and Deserts for Refuge, gathered some Strength, and forcing Copsi, for Safeguard, to fly to the Church of Newburne, set it on Fire, and when Copsi (to save himself from the Flames) came out, did cut off his Head at the very Door, on the 4th of the Ides of March, in the 5th Week after he had the Administration of these Parts; but the very next Autumn this Osulph was himself slain by the Hands of a Robber. Bar. Dugdale, p. 54. Vol. 1.

KING Henry I. granted the Church of this Place to St. Mary's of Carlisle, and the Canons of the same.

WALDENUS Parsona de Newburne, was one of the Witnesses to the Foundation Charter of St. Mary's in Westgate, about the Reign of Richard I.

THIS Manour belong'd to the Crown, 'till Robert Fitz Roger, sirnamed de Clavering, from his Manour of Clavering in Essex, obtained a Grant of it from King John, Reg. 5. To hold to him by the Service of one Knight's Fee, which upon levying the Scutage of Wales, 13 John, he paid. His Po­sterity enjoy'd this Manour long after, for Robert de Clavering, who had Sum­mons to Parliament from the 23 of Edward I. to 3 Ed. II. died possessed of this Manour of Newburne, and left it to his Son and Heir John de Clavering, who despairing of having any Issue Male, settled this Manour, and some o­thers, by Way of Feossinent, upon one Stephen de Trafford, to the Intent that the said Stephen should reconvey them to the said John, to hold for Life, with the Remainder to King Ed. I. and his Heirs. The King soon after it came to him, gave it to Henry Percy, the Ancestor of the Earls of Northumberland, [Page 166] in whose Family we find it 42 Edw. III. for Henry Earl of Northumberland died about that Time seized of this Manour, with divers other Estates, and leaving his Wife Joan surviving, this Lordship with its Members, was assign­ed to her for her Dowry among several others. After her Decease it continu­ed in the Percy's Family divers Successions, and was in the 5 Hen. V. settled upon Elizabeth, the Relict of Henry Earl of Northumberland surnamed Hotspur for Life, and after her Decease passed to her Son Henry, who died seized of it, and other great Estates, 33 Hen. VI. fighting for whom he lost his Life at the Battle of St. Albans in Hertfordshire. King Edward IV. having by this Victory gained a sure Possession of the Throne, Henry Earl of Northumber­land, his Son and Successor, lost his paternal Estate, by being attainted in Parliament, 1 Edward IV. and as the major Part of his Estate was given by that King to his Brother George Duke of Clarence, as is above specified, so this Manour of Newburn, and Newburn-Haven, were granted to Sir Robert Ogle, in Consideration of his many faithful Services, being soon after made a Baron of the Realm.

DR. Smith, late Bishop of Carlisle, finding the Vicarage of this Place to be small, and not able to maintain a Minister, made an Augmentation of 25 l. a Year to it since the Restoration of King Charles II. Magn. Britan. Vol. 3. p. 673.

THIS Manour is now Part of the Estate of his most noble Grace, Charles Duke of Somerset.

THE next Village to it is Stella, a little below Newburn, on the other Side the Water. Here is a magnificent House and Gardens, which belonged to the Lord Widdrington, which became forfeited to the Crown in the Year 1715, for his entring into the Northumberland Rebellion. This Place origi­nally belonged to the Nuns of Newcastle; it is now chiefly inhabited by Coal-Workers, and has Staiths in it.

THERE are many other Villages on the Sides of this River, such as Blaiden, Lemmington, Swalwel, Delaval, Redheugh, &c. Several of them have Staiths belonging to them, such are the Staiths of the Lady Clavering, Sir Henry Liddel, Baronet, Richard Ridley, Esq George Liddel, Esq Edward Wortley Montague, Esq George Bowes, Esq George Pitt, Esq George Malliber, Esq Mr. John Simpson and Mr. Joseph Ledger.

THERE is a little Island in the Midst of the River, called, The King's Meadows, which is a delicious Place, and a great Ornament to the Ri­ver.

LET us now come below Bridge, to take Notice of a few Things there. Gateshead presents itself first, a Town in the Bishoprick of Durham; it stands on the South-side of the Tyne, opposite to Newcastle, and is a Place of great Antiquity. Mr. Cambden thinks it a Place of equal Antiquity with Newcastle, because of it's ancient Name Gabrosentum; but I have already proved it more rational to believe it to have been only it's Suburbs.

THERE was an ancient Monastry here in the Time of Bede; which was the Monastry of Utanus, it was where Mr. Riddle's House, or Gateshead House is as it now stands.

ON the 14 of May, 1080, Walter Bishop of Durham was murdered at this Place. The Occasion of it was, this Walter attending more wordly Affairs than the Charge of his Flock, gave himself altogether to Temporal Business, wherein he wholly occupied himself. He bought of the King the Earldom of Northumberland, and then making himself a secular Judge, took upon him to sit in the Court, and to determine all Causes at his Pleasure, dealing withal very corruptly, and taking still the Course that might be most for his own [Page 167] Gain. Hereupon he greatly enriched his own Coffers, but purchased unto him­self extreme Hatred amongst the Common People, which was his Destruction in the End. There was a certain Gentleman, of great Account, named Leul­fus, that married Algitha, the Daughter of Aldred, sometime Earl of Nor­thumberland, from whom the Lord Lumley that now liveth is lineally descend­ed. This Leulfus, to the end he might live near the Church in his latter Time, and for very Devotion, came to Durham to dwell there, and kept Company very much with the Bishop, who loved him entirely, for many good Parts he saw in him, as namely, his Wisdom in discerning, his Equity in deciding, and his Discretion in ordering and handling such Causes as he committed unto him; in which Respect also he used him very familiarly, employed him often, and gave him what Countenance he could. Now, you shall understand, that unto the same Bishop belonged two Men, unto whom for the most Part he committed the ordering of all his Affairs; Leofwyn or Leobwyn his Chaplain, whom he trusted with all Houshold-Matters, and Gil­bert, a Kinsman of his own, that dealt in his Causes of Temporal Govern­ment. In their Offices they behaved themselves so, as the Bishop had Cause to commend their Diligence, but to blame their Rashness and Wilfulness in many Things, which notwithstanding he bore withal, either because their Industry and Care of his Affairs, so blinded his Eyes, as he could not espy their Misbehaviour otherwise, or else being loath to detest them whom he had once advanced. These Men, and especially Leofwyn, did greatly envy the Credit that Leulfus had gotten with the Bishop, and every where opposed themselves against him, not only in Words, traducing his Actions, but in Deeds also, thwarting and crossing his Endeavours, whereby it came to pass, that many Jars fell out between them. One Day amongst the rest, a Court being held in the Presence of the Bishop, Leofwyn or Leobwyn (for so also I find him called) according to his wonted Manner, gave Leulfus ill Speeches, which he not enduring to bear, as heretofore he had done (furor fit saepius lae­sa patientia) answered this sawcy Chaplain somewhat more roundly than he had been accustomed. Whereupon he rose straight from the Court in great Indignation (Leofwyn I mean) and calling Gilbert aside, with little ado per­suaded him to carry a certain Number of armed Men to the House where Leulfus lay, and in a Night to kill him; which indeed he performed with great Cruelty, murdering not only the innocent Gentleman himself, but also his Servants and whole Houshold. The News of this horrible and outragi­ous Cruelty coming unto the Ears of the Bishop, amazed him very much, and suspecting it was done by the Advice of Leofwyn, turning about unto him: O Leofwyn, saith he, thou hast already slain me by thy Tongue. So not doubting it would breed much Danger unto him, he got into his Castle, and presently dispatched Messengers unto the Friends and Kindred of Leulfus that was slain, protesting, that the Fact was committed without his Knowledge; that he was marvellous sorry for it; and if any Man suspected him, would be ready to submit himself to any Order of Law, whereby he might clear him­self. Herewith they seemed to be satisfied; but for Conclusion of a firm Peace amongst them, it was thought fit they should meet and consider of the Matter. They met at a Place called Goats-Head; the Bishop for his better Safe-guard betook himself unto the Church with his Company; the People (whereof an infinite Number were gathered together) abode without. Mes­sages a while past between them; but the more the Matter was debated (be­ing very odious of itself) the more the People were incensed. At last it was told them, how not only Leofwyn, but also Gilbert had been harboured in the Bishop's House, and afforded Countenance by him since the Murder; which being once heard (and it was true enough) they all cried out, it was mani­fest that the Bishop was the Author of this Fact. It is furthermore delivered by Matthew Paris, that the Bishop not only before this, amongst many intol­lerable Exactions laid upon the Country by him, had commanded the Sum of 400 l. to be levied at this Time. That being also remembred, while as all the People stood in a murmuring, doubting what Course to take, one of some special Regard amongst them slept up, using these Words, Short read, Good read, slay ye the Bishop. Hereupon, without more ado, they ran all unto the [Page 168] Church, killed so many of the Bishop's Retinue as they found without Doors, and with horrible Noise and Outcries, bid him and his Company to come out unto them. Too late then he repented, that he had committed himself unto the Fury of a discontented Multitude, with whom he knew himself before that Time nothing gracious. But to make the best of a bad Match, and to try all Means of ridding himself from the Danger imminent, he persuaded his Kinsman Gilbert, there present, to go forth unto them, if happily his Death (which doubtless he had deserved) might satisfy their Fury, and purchase Safety unto his Lord and Master. Gilbert was content, and issuing out, with divers of the Bishop's Company, were all slain, except only two Englishmen, Servants unto the Bishop (all the rest were Normans). They being not yet satisfied, he besought Leofwyn (whose Life he knew well was principally sought) to go out also. But he utterly refused so to do. The Bishop there­fore going unto the Church-door, entreated them not to take his Life from him, protesting himself to be utterly guiltless of the Blood of Leulfus; and shewed them at large, how dangerous it would be to them in particular, and what Inconvenience would follow to the whole Country in general, if they should defile their Hands in shedding his Blood, an unarmed Priest, a sacred and consecrated Bishop, their Ruler, their Governor, their Magistrate. Hoping, Lastly, That his very Countenance, his Gravity, his Age, and the Sight of his Person might move them to Compassion (for he was indeed a very reve­rend Man to see to, very tall of Stature, Head and Beard as white as Snow, his Face fresh and well coloured, and every Way very personable, he went out, carrying a green Branch in his Hand, that so he might testify his Desire of Peace. When he saw that all this availed not, and the People ran furiously upon him, he cast his Gown over his own Head, in like Sort as we read Ju­lius Caesar did in the like Case, and permitting himself to their Fury, with in­numerable Wounds was pitifully massacred, together with all his People and Retinue, to the Number of an hundred; only Leofwyn yet remained within the Church, and being often called, would not come forth; so they set the Church on Fire. Not enduring the Fire, he leaped out of a Window, and was immediately hewn into a thousand Pieces. The Monks of Yarrow came and fetched away the Bishop's Body (which they found stark naked) and could hardly know it for the Multitude of Wounds; they carried it to their Monastery, from whence it was conveyed to Durham, and there buried on the South-side of the Chapter-house, but secretly, for Fear of the Murderers, that roved up and down the Town, and once assaulted the Castle. When they found that they could not prevail there, they dispersed themselves, and for the most Part came to evil and unhappy Ends. The King in the mean Time hearing of this Tumult, sent his Brother Odo Bishop of Bayan, with many of his Nobles, and a great Army, to take Punishment of this Murder, which while they sought to revenge, they brought the whole Country to Desolation. Those that were guilty prevented the Danger toward them by Flight, so as few of them could be taken; of the rest that stayed at Home, some were unjustly executed, and the rest compelled to ransom themselves to their utter impoverishing and undoing. The chiefest Doer in this Outrage, was one Eadulsus, sirnamed Rus, descended of the Earls of Northumberland, who (as some say) slew the Bishop with his own Hands, and afterwards by the just Judgment of God, was himself slain by a Woman, and his Body, tho' once buried in the Church of Godworth, was taken up by the Command­ment of Turgost, Prior of Durham, and forbidden Christian Burial. At this Time Odo took away from the Church of Durham certain Ornaments of great Value, amongst which is especially remembred a certain Crosier of inestimable Price. In this Bishop's Days, and by his Endeavour, secular Clerks were dis­placed, and the Church of Durham replenished with Monks, the Pope, the King, and the Archbishop allowing this Alteration, Goodwyn, Fol. 637.

AFTERWARDS this Church was new built, and placed where it now stands: For, according to Tradition, it stood before in the Field below where Brick-Kilns now are.

[Page 169]THIS Church of St. Mary's, Gateshead, is in the Gift of the Bishop of Durham; but once, during the Vacancy of the See, it was given to Robert de Plesuys; the Value of it then was 26 Marks per Annum.

IT is at present a very neat pretty Church, being exceeding well pew'd, having a small Organ, and a Ring of eight Bells, which were last Year founded by Contribution, &c.

IT has had several worthy Men its Ministers, such were Dr. Laidler, John Cave, M. A. Dr. Tully, Dr. Pickering, Leonard Shafto, M. A. The Reve­rend Mr. Stilling fleet, who was inducted Anno 1731. removed to Ryton in 1733, and is succeeded in this Church by Mr. Lamb the present Incumbent.

THERE belonged to this Church the Hospital of St. Edmund, which was founded by Nicholas Bishop of Durham, as appears by the following Charter, and Order for its Foundation and Government.

Fundatio Hospitalis S. Edmundi apud Gatesheved.

OMnibus praesens Scriptum visuris vel audituris, Bertramus Prior & Conventus Dunelmensis Ecclesiae, aeternam in Domino Salutem: Noveritis Nos Cartam venerabilis Patris nostri D. Nicholai, Dei gratia, Dunelmensis Episcopi, in haec verba inspexisso: Omnibus Christi fidelibus, praesentem Cartam inspecturis vel audituris, Nicholaus, Deigratia, Dunelmensis Episcopus, aeternam in Domino salu­tem. Sciatis Nos de assensu Capituli nostri concessisse, dedisse, & hac Carta nostra confirmasse, Deo, & beato Edmundo Confessori, & quatuor Capellanis, in Capella quam construximus apud Gatesheved, in honorem ejusdem, Deo ibidem in perpetuum servituris, totam villam de Ulkistan, tam in dominicis quam in servitiis, Villanis & eorum sequelis, cum bosco & cum molendino, cum secta & soca, & cum omnibus a­liis pertinentiis suis, sine aliquo retenimento. Dedimus autem & concessimus eisdem Capellanis, & successoribus suis, in perpetuum, totum vetus Dominium de Gatesheved, cum omnibus pertinentiis suis, & cum Boskello quod vocatur Benchelm, continente quadraginta & tres Acras per istas divisas, viz. inter terram arabilem S. Trinita­tis & viam, quae ducit usque Farnacres tendente ad pratum. Dedimus & concessimus eisdem Capellanis, & eorum successoribus, in perpetuum, viginti & novem Acras ter­rae de Eschaeta nostra, cum pertinentiis suis in Aluresacyres, habendas & tenendas Deo, & beato Edmundo Confessori, & dictis Capellanis, & eorum successoribus, in perpetuum, de Nobis & successoribus nostris, in liberam, puram, & perpetuam Ele­mosinam, sicut aliqua Elemosina liberius vel quietius dari potest vel teneri. Sed ne ista nostra Collatio, in tam pios usus facta, speciem alienationis continere videatur, in compensationem tam modici damni subscripta Ecclesiae Dunelmensi reversura, quae qui­dem propriis sacultatibus & industriis adquisivimus, eidem Ecclesiae nostrae in perpe­tuum adsignavimus, viz. sexdecim acras terrae cum pertinentiis, in Steindrop, una cum Advocatione Ecclesiae ejusdem, & sexdecim acras terrae cum pertinentiis in Win­ston, una cum Advocatione Ecclesiae ejusdem. Item quinque Bovatas terrae cum per­tinentiis in Thymelby, cum Bosco, & cum Homagio & servitio Wil. de Kolevile & heredum suorum in cadem, in perpetuum. Item triginta & quinque acras terrae, cum pertinentiis, in Creyk, emptas de Roberto de Raskelf. Item totam villam de Herdwyck, juxta Stockton, quam emeramus de Galrido de Herdwyck, excepto valore excambii, quod ei fecimus in Dominio nostro de Bradewood. Item quadraginta Marcas annuas de Ecclesiis venerabilis fratris Domini Sylvestri, Karlconensis Epis­copi, & Prioris ejusdem, in Northumbria, toto tempore ipsius Episcopi, & post ejus cessionem, vel decessum, sexaginta Marcas. Item Advocationem Ecclesiae de Stam­fordham in Northumbria. Quare volumus & firmiter praecipimus, quod praedicti Capellani, & eorum successores, qui pro tempore fuerint, totam praedictam villam de Ulkistan, tam in dominicis quam in servitiis, villanis & corum sequelis, cum bosco & cum molendino, cum secta & soka, & cum omnibus aliis pertinentiis suis, & totum vetus Dominium de Gatesheved, cum omnibus pertinentiis suis, & cum praefato Boskello quod vocatur Benchelm, & etiam praedictis viginti & novem acris terrae cum pertinentiis in Alursacress, habeant & retineant in liberam, puram & perpetuam E­limosnam, [Page 170] in omnibus & per omnia, sicut praedictum est in perpetuum. In cujus rei testimonium, praesenti scripto sigillum nostrum fecimus apponi. Testibus Dominis & Magistris Johanne de Rumesbye, Philippo de S. Helena, Willielmo de Bloke­lepo, Odone de Kyllenny, Willielmo de Hurtheworth, Johanne Forti, Gal­frido de Forseth, Marco de Sancta Cruce, Ricardo de Farnham, Roberto de Sancto Albano, Johanne le Grass, Roberto de Bokynham, Rogero de Ponte curvo, Johanne Cilet, Waltero Seilby, Rogero de Winton Capellano, Henrico de Sumero, Willielmo de Sadberge, Ricardo Basseth, Willielmo de Karlawc, Radulpho Fermin Clerico, & multis aliis.

NOS ergo dictam Cartam dicti venerabilis Patris nostri Domini Nicholai Dei gratia, Dunelmensis Episcopi, ratam & gratam in omnibus habentes ipsam Sigilli nostri munimine duximus confirmandam. [...] Teste Capitulo nostro.

Ordinatio Hospitalis Sancti Edmundi in Gatesheved.

OMnibus hoc scriptum visuris vel audituris, Bertramus Prior & Conventus Dunelmensis Ecclesiae salutem aeternam in Domino. Noveritis Nos Cartam venerabilis Patris nostri Domini Nicholai, Dei gratia, Dunelmensis Episcopi, in haec verba inspexisse. Omnibus sanctae Matris Ecclesiae filiis, ad quos praesens scriptum pervenerit, Nicholaus, Divina Gratia, Dunelmensis Episcopus, salutem in Domino sempiternam. Etsi ascripti obsequiis Creatoris ipsius proferre laudes in pace deberent & quiete, inimicus tamen, qui huic adversatur nomini, zizaniam non cessans seminare per ministros suos, & excrescentem malitiam secularem ad hoc sedulo suas vires ponit ingenii, ut, quod ad laudem Dei & Divini nominis cultum fidelium de­votio ordinaverit, ad nihilum redigat, & irremediabili confusione perfundat: Hujus Nos astutae calliditati occurrere cupientes remedio salutari, ne incertus aut inordina­tus vivendi modus sempiternum inducat torporem, statuimus & ordinavimus, ut in Capella, quam apud Gatesheved ad honorem Domini nostri Jesu Christi, in nomine beati Edmundi Confessoris, & gloriosi pontificis Cuthberti, fundavimus, dedicavimus, & dotavimus, pro salute animae nostrae, predecessorum & successorum nostrorum, qua­tuor Sacerdotes bonae vitae & conversationis honestae sint perpetuis temporibus mini­strantes, viz. Presbyter, cui custodiam contulimus Capellae antedictae, & omnium spectantium ad eandem, quamdiu vixerit, cum tribus aliis Sacerdotibus eidem Presby­tero associandis; tali vero adjuncto tenore, ut diebus singulis, in perpetuum, matu­tinas & caeteras horas canonicas simul cantent, ac per unum sacerdotem de die, per alium de beata Virgine, per tertium, de beatis Confessoribus Edmundo & Cuthberto, quartum vero, pro anima nostra, predecessorum & successorum nostrorum, & o­mnium fidelium desunctorum, quatuor missae quotidie celebrentur, cum Commendatione, Placebo & Dirige. Praedicti vero quatuor Sacerdotes in eadem mensa comedent, & in eadem Camera quiescent, nisi alicujus infirmitas ad tempus inter illos aegrotum manere non permittat. Praedicti vero tres Sacerdotes praedicto Magistro domus & suis succes­soribus erunt obedientes, & ab co singillatim, viginti solidos sterlingorum, una cum mensa honorabili percipient annuatim, ad providendum sibi in Vestibus & aliis neces­sariis. Si quis illorum, diabolico instinctu incontinens, vagabundus, aut alias vivens inordinate, & per Magistrum, qui pro tempore fuerit, monitus, in malitia perdura­verit, per eundem Magistrum absque requisitione Superioris amoveatur; quo amoto, si­ne majore dispendio alius Sacerdos substituatur. Ad haec quidem capellam Trinitatis, & ad sustentationem ibidem neque seculariter neque religiose viventium assignata fuerit sustentatio modica & exilis, ut intelligatur quam bonum actu & quam jucundum ha­bitare Fratres in unum, de Consensu Prioris & Conventus Dunelmensis, & illorum, qui ibidem habitare consueverant, capellam praedictam cum suis pertinentiis capellae praenominatae quam fundaverimus, praesata auctoritate consolidavimus. Ordinavi­mus etiam & statuimus, ut Episcopi Dunelmenses, qui pro tempore fuerint, sint Pa­troni, Advocati, & Defensores praedicti loci, & omnium spectantium ad cundem, & quod per ipsos Magistri perpetuis temporibus instituantur, Presbyteri tamen & suo prospectu in loco praedicto residentes. Si tamen Magister aliquis sive Custos institutus in regiminé Domus negligeus fucrit, aut alias inutilis inveniatur, per Episcopum Du­nelmensem qui pro tempore fuerit amoveatur, & idoneus sine mora Regimini Domus praeficiatur. Si vero custodum aliquis qui praedictae Domui laudabiliter praefuerit in­tantam [Page 171] debilitatem morbo incidiat vel Aetate, quod propter ipsius impotentiam Alius i­bidem praeficiatur; Amotus a Regimine ex causa honesta de bonis Domus in vitae ne­cessariis sustentetur, dum tamen aliunde non habeat unde possit sustentari, & hoc idem de Sacerdotibus observetur, qui casus inciderint antedictos. Si autem bona ad susten­tationem praelibatam a nobis assignata eidem pia Fidelium consideratione praedicto lo­co assignanda, ad uberiora bona facienda suffecerint in Elemosinis & operibus mi­sericordiae. Qui Regimini domus deputatus fuerit taliter studeat erogare, ut in di­serati judicii examinatione ut fidelis Dispensator a Judice supremo cum electis ex fructu bonorum operum vitam capiat sempiternam. Nulli ergo homini liceat hanc Ordinationem nostram infringere, vel ei ausu temerario contraire; Si quis autem hoc attemptare praesumpserit indignationem Omnipotentis Dei & Sanctae Genetricis ejusdem, & Sanctorum confessorum Edmundi & Cuthberti & omnium Sanctorum noverit se incursurum. Et ad majorem Securitatem hujus tenoris, Nos Ergo dictam Ordinationem dicti venerabilis Patris Dom'i Nicholai divina gratia Dunelmensis Episcopi gratam & ratam in omnibus habentes ipsam sigilli nostri munimine duximus confirmandam. Teste Capitulo Nostro.

Creatio Jo. de Appilby in Magistrum Hospitalis S. Edmundi per Tho. Hatfield Dunelm' Episc.

THomas Permissione Divina Dunelmensis Episcopus, dilecto nobis in Christo filio Magistro Johanni de Apilby Jurisperito salutem, gratiam & benedictionem. Tuis meritis exigentibus Nos (que) ad id moventibus Virtutum gratiis quibus te novimus insigniri, Te in Magistrum, Rectorem, & Custodem perpetuum Domus seu Hospitalis de Gatesheved nostrae Dioces. vacantis & ad Collationem seu Provisionem nostram pleno jure spectantis praefecimus, Te (que) per Annuli nostri traditionem praesentialiter in­vestimus de eadem, Administrationem tibi omnium bonorum dictae Domus plenam & liberam committentes. In cujus. — &c. Dat' in manerio nostro de Aukland die 20 mensis August, A. D. 1353. & Consecrat. nostrae 9.

Compert' quod Isabella quae fuit Uxor Joh. de Birkley obiit seisata in Dominio suo de uno messuagio & Sexaginta acras terrae in Kyoleche quae tenetur de magistro Hos­pitalis S. Edmundi in Gatesheved.

PHILIP Bishop of Durham, in the Reign of Henry II. granted to the Burgesses of Gateshead several Privileges, as appears by what follows.

PHILIP by the Grace of God Bishop of Durham, to all Men of the whole Bishoprick, and of his Brotherhood in all England, he saluteth.

Know ye, that we have granted, and by his present Deed have granted to our Burgesses of Gatesheved, full Liberty of Forestage, yielding in every half Year, from Pentecost to the Feast of St. Martin; for a Wheye or Ox, the which goes to Grass, 2 d. and for a Horse 2 d. and for every Hog 1 d. in re­spect of all Things that they have to proper and necessary Uses; saving these prohibited. Neither shall it be lawful for any Forester within the Meats that are appointed within our Forest and Burrough to Tax Lands upon any Burgess, or upon any Manner of Thing of the said Borough, or upon any Oxen, or any other their Cattle, or by any Ways to hinder them, either of their Wood, Tim­ber, or any other Things. And if any Suit or Trouble shall be between the Foresters and Burgesses, it shall be determined in the said Burrough, if it may be; if not, then in our Presence it shall be determined. And the Cattle of any Burgess shall not be carried out of the said Burrough, but there shall be reple­vied, if the same may be replevied. To the same Burgesses it shall be lawful to have Herbage, and lying Turfs and Bruery to their own proper Uses, where­soever they are accustomed to have the same, so that they sell us Part thereof. And if any Burgess do dig Turfs for his Chimney, not having Oxen; if for the Leading of Turfs they shall be forced to have Oxen, nevertheless in giving for all or every Ox, which they shall need 2 d. of Forestage, they shall be freed. And it shall be lawful for every Burgess to give Wood to whomsoever he will, [Page 172] to be spent about the River of Tyne, without any Licence; but not to sell any without Licence of the Foresters. And no Forester shall disturb any Mer­chandize that cometh within the said Meat. And every Burgess of Gatesheved shall have of his Burgage the same Liberty, which the Burgesses of Newcastle have of their Burgages. And whithersoever the Burgesses of Gatesheved, or their Cattle, shall come within our Land, in the Peace of God and Blessed St. Cuthbert, they shall pass, that no Man to them shall do any Injury, or any De­mand or Exaction of them shall require. We do grant also to the same Bur­gesses, that they shall have Common of Pasture and like Parts of Feeding to all their Houses, and all Commodities which they ought to have of Subtwell Meadows, as they were wont to have; as in Deeds of good Memory of our Predecessors reasonably is contain'd.

IN the 7th of Edward VI. the Mayor and Burgesses of Newcastle peti­tioned the King, that the Town of Gatesheved in the County of Durham, ad­joining to their Corporation, only the River of Tyne between, being popu­lous, and without Government, and often committing many Outrages in their Town, and then got over the Water into the Town of Gatesheved unpunished; and that often they cast Rubbish into the River; and also that the Bridge went to Decay very much, which belonged to that Town; humbly beseech­ing, That his Majesty would be graciously pleased, to incorporate that Town with them, under their Government, with all its Members, and Salt-mea­dows, and Park; and that it might be quite taken from the County of Dur­ham, and all the People therein to become subordinate to their Laws.

WHEREUPON it was enacted, the whole Town of Gatesheved, with the Salt-Meadows, the whole Water and Bridge, with all the Liberties there­unto belonging (except the Common which should remain to the Inhabi­tants) should be incorporated with Newcastle, and disjoined from the County of Durham, as Newcastle was from Northumberland by Charter, Gardener, p. 169.

FIRST Mary, so soon as Bishop Tunstal was created Bishop of Durham, he petitioned her Majesty, to restore Gatesheved to the County of Durham again, and that the said Act 7th Edward VI. might be repealed; and it was repealed accordingly, and enacted, that the Town of Gatesheved should be free from the Corporation of Newcastle, &c. Gardener, p. 175.

ON the same Side of the Tyne, a little below, are the Fields called the Salt-Meadows.

IN going down the Water, we meet with several Staiths, such are the Staith of Richard Ridley, Esq and Matthew White, Esq at the Glass-House Bridge; the Staiths of Richard Ridley, Esq at St. Lawrence and St. Peter's Keys, of Walter Blacket, Esq and Mr. John Wilkinson; of Francis Rudston, Esq and of Edward Wortley Montague, Esq We meet also with several Keys, such are Winkemley, Bill-Key, Willington-Key, Hebbourn-Key, &c.

WE meet also with several Villages, such are Dents-Hole, St. Anthon's, Snowdon's Hole, Howdon Panns, Jarroiv, &c.

WHEN the Hoastmen renewed their Charter, they had Licence to send Coals above the Bill, and Mr. Coal procured a Shore at Friar-Goose, Mr. Hen­ry Chapman procured a Shore upon Hewith-Grounds; and Mr. Robert Brand­ling with much ado got Leave to build a Shore upon his own Ground at Fel­lin. In the mean time, the Tenants of the Dean and Chapter at Durham, took Liberty to throw their Ashes into the River, which did much Damage to the Bar. Upon this Mr. Leonard Carr, and Mr. Cuthbert Bewick com­plained, and the Town caused them to lay them upon the Land, of which they have made mighty Heaps.

[Page 173]WHEN King James I. came to the Crown, he was pleased to be bounti­ful to his Countrymen; amongst the rest, Sir Henry Gibb being one of his Officers, he bestowed upon him the Lordship of Jarrow and he would have procured a Shore there to cast Ballast; but altho' he had the Favour of the King, yet the Town used such Means, and gave such Reasons to his Majesty and the Council, that they found it detrimental to the Town, and espe­cially to the River, so that he was utterly hindred and disappointed.

BUT after the Death of King Charles I. Thomas Bonner, and Robert Elli­son got in to be Magistrates; and these Men having gotten Wealth and Increase by the Rebellion, did purchase Jarrow; and what could not be done before in a lawful Time, they did bring to pass at this unlawful Juncture, building a Shore, and casting Ballast, to the great Detriment of the River: And hav­ing the Town at Command, Mr. Bonner bought St. Anthony's, and Robert Ellison bought Hebbourn, and there they both built Shores, and got the Allowance of the Common Council, when they were beyond Resisting: And since that, Mr. Carr, a Man that deserved well of his present Maje­sty [CHARLES II.] and the Town, hath procured, that his Brother Ellison (for old Ellison's Son married his Sister) should have Liberty to e­rect his Shore to a great Length, which in Time will utterly overthrow our Navigation; for they will damn out the In-draught, which maketh Rivers far off the Sea be walled out; it will go by, and not come in: And some ancient and discreet Masters of Ships have said, They have not left a Birth to save their Ships in, when any Land-stood or Storm happens in the River. Mil­bank.

THE next Place Jarrow, or Girwy, as it was anciently called, which is a small Village on the South Side of Tyne, about 4 Miles distant from Newca­stle, famous for a Monastery of learned Men, but more so for the Birth, Life, and Death of venerable BEDE; so named for his singular Sanctity, who was born of mean Parents, and at seven Years of Age deliver'd to the holy Abbot St. Benedict to be educated in his Rule, and being come to Age he professed a Monastick Life in the Abbies of Weremouth, and Girwy, where he became by his constant Application to his Studies, so compleat a Scholar, that few in that Age, (which bred many very learned Men) were to compare to him, for he was perfectly knowing in the Greek and Latin Tongues, and no less perfect in Poetry, Rhetorick, Logick, Physicks, Metaphysikcs, Astronomy, Arithmetick, all Ecclesiastical Calculations, Musick, Geometry, Cosmogra­phy, History, Philosophy, and Divinity. In short, he had an exact Know­ledge of all commendable Sciences, insomuch that William of Malmsbury thus describes him. He was a Man that may more worthily be admired than com­mended; for he was born in an extream Corner of the World, yet the Light of his Learning spread over all Parts of the Earth, he continued a most dili­gent Learner 'till he was thirty Years of Age, after which being ordained Priest, he betook himself to Teaching and Writing. All the Hours he had to spare from the Monastical Excerises of Prayer, and Singing in the Choirs by Day and Night (in which he was constant and very devout) he most dili­gently spent in his Studies, so that his Life was a continual Intercourse be­tween Devotion and Study, he never repairing to his Study 'till he had been at Prayers, nor ever went to Prayers but from his Studies, by which continual Application he penetrated into all Sciences. In his continual Deportment he was so grave and serious, that the Title of Venerable was bestowed on him while he lived, and ever continued to him after his Death. It appears from History that he had at one Time those great Lights of the Church, Alcuinus, Preceptor to the Emperor Charlemaign, and Claudius and Clemens, the Foun­ders of the Universities of Paris and Pavia for his Scholars.

THIS Character is fully verified by the Books of all Sorts of Learning writ by him. At the End of his Works he gives us a modest account of his own [Page 174] Life, together with a Catalogue of his Principal Works. Henry of Hunting­ton gives us also a large Catalogue of his Writings, too long to be set down here: Yet we cannot omit some of the Principal Works, viz.

AN incredible Number of Treatises upon all Parts of the Old and New Testament, many of which are still to be found in the Bodleian Library at Oxford.

ABOVE an hundred Homilies, and many Pieces of Divinity and Devotion.

A Small Book of the Holy-Land.

A Chronicle from the Creation.

A Book of the Writers of the Church.

A Martyrology.

AN Epitome of the English History.

OF the Scituation and wonderful Things of Great Britain.

THE Lives of many holy Men and Abbots, with many others of all Sorts of Learning.

THIS most excellent Person, being grown old in the Study of Learning, and all Christian Virtues, grew weak and decripit for a Time, and at length on the Tuesday before Ascension, his Distemper grew so heavy upon him, that Nature yielded to it, and he died on Ascension Day, in the seventy second Year of his Age; But others say the Ninetieth, Anno 734, and was buried in his Monastery, but afterwards his Body was translated to Durham. Magn' Brit' vol 3d, p. 750.

NOR is it to be admired that he should become so learned in his Monastery, for in former Ages the greater Monasteries were like Universities, wherein not only Humanity, but all the Liberal Sciences, Philosophy, and Divinity were taught; in the Year 697, he received Deacons Orders from the Hands of John Bishop of Hexham afterwards called St. John of Beverley, and in the Year 706 he was ordained Priest by the same Bishop.

AMONG the several Ways of accounting for his Epithet of Venerable, it has always been esteemed the most pleasing, though perhaps not the most true Account, of what is said to have happened after his Death, viz. that one of his Scholars designing to make his Epitaph in Hexameter Verse, which began thus, Hac sunt in Fossa, and was willing to make it end Presbiteri ossa; But it would not do, at last being tired out he fell asleep, and in the Morning to his great Surprize he found it stand thus,

Hac sunt in Fossa, Bedae venerabilis Ossa.

Here lies entomb'd within these Stones,
Of Venerable Bede the Bones.

Portus Ecfridi sinus qui a Tina ad Girwi pene­trat. Pene­trabat & interius usque ad Bilton, pene tres Pass. millibus Super Girwi, quo Antiquitus & Naviculae per­venerunt. Fluviolus hunc sinum intrat. ANNO Higbaldi 7. (viz. 788.) Dum Pagani portum Ecfridi Regis, hoe est Girwi, vastantes, monasterium ad ostium Tini amnis depraedentur, dux co­rum ibidem crudeli nece interiit. Leland's Collection, Vol. II. p. 328.

[Page 175]In English thus.

Ecfrid's Ha­ven is a Gulf which pene­trates from the Tyne to Girwi. It penetrated al­so more in­ward as far as Bilton, al­most 3000 Paces above Girwi, where also little Sloops or Ships formerly came. A Ri­vulet enters Gulf.IN the Seventh Year of Higbald, (viz. 788.) whilst the Pagans laying waste the Haven of King Ecfrid, that is Girvi [Jarrow] Pillage the Monastery at the Mouth of the River Tyne [Tinemouth], their General there suffered a cruel Death.

DUGDALE in his Monasticon, speaking of Jarrow Monastery, and of the Abbot St. Benedict allows venerable Bede to be educated by him, but complea­ted his holy Works und Ceolfrid: He says too, that this Monastery was so rui­ned by the Danes entering the Tyne, that scarce the Footsteps of it remained.

THIS Monastry was valued at the Suppression at 38 l. 14 s. 4 d.

THERE are still some Ruins of the Monastery to be seen, and upon the Church Wall, when and by whom founded, may be learnt from this Inscrip­tion, which is legible to this Day in the Church Wall.

  • Dedicatio Basilicae
  • S. Pauli VIII. K. L. Maii
  • Ann. XUI. Ecfridi Reg.
  • Ceofridi A BB. Ejusdem (que)
  • Eccles. Deo Auctore
  • Conditoris Anno IIII.

NOW the great Churches when the saving Light of the Gospel began to Shine abroad in the World (for it is not impertinent to note thus much) were called Basilicae, because the Basilicae of the Gentiles, namely those state­ly Buildings where the Magistrates held the Courts of Justice, were converted to Churches by the Christians; whence Ausonius, Basilica olim negotiis plena, nunc votis, i. e. the Basilica full of Business heretofore, but now of De­votion or else, because they were built in an oblong Form as the Basilicae were.

IN the Inscription the XUI should be XU. for King Elfrid reigned no more than 15 Years; and so (indeed) Sir James Ware has given it in his Notes upon Bede's History of the Abbots of Weremouth. But it ought not from this Inscription to be inferred that Ceolfrid was the Founder of this Monastry, since it appears from Bede's Account, that he was only constituted first Abbot of the Place by Benedictus Biscopus who sent him hither (with a Colony of Se­venteen Monks) from Weremouth. Cambden's Britan' p. 780 and 784.

IN this Church is to be seen a very ancient Chair which (Tradition says) was the Chair of venerable Bede.

THE present Vicar of Jarrow is the Rev. Mr. Robert Wilson.

SOME Years ago, upon the Banks of the Tyne was discovered a Roman Altar, the Figure and Description whereof take here as it was delivered to the Royal Society, by the ingenious and learned Dr. Lister.

[Page 176]

Fig. 1.

Fig. 5.

Fig. 2.

Fig. 3.

Fig. 4.

I have, says he, in his Letter to the Royal Society, with much Trouble, got into my Hands a Piece of Roman Antiquity, which was but a very few Years ago discovered upon the South-bank of the River Tyne, near Sheilds, in the Bishoprick; it is a very large and fair Roman Altar, of one intire Stone; but after all my Cost and Pains, I am very sorry to find the Inscription very ill defaced, and much of it is not legible, and I believe it has been also much mishandled by those who have endeavoured to read it; whereas if the Remain­der of the Letters had been exactly measured, and the Face blacked, and light­ly washed off again, as in Prints, some Things more might have been spelled.

As to the Nature of the Stone itself, it is of a coarse Rag, the same with that of the Pyramids at Burrow-Briggs; it is four Foot high, and was ascended to by Steps, which appeareth in all the Sides; but the Front has two Square-holes near the Bottom, which let in the Irons that joined it to the Steps.

I have carefully designed it on all its Sides, and given the Plan of the Top also, which if you please, we will survey in Order.

1. THE Back-side, opposite to the Inscription, on which is engraven in Bass-Relief, a Flower-Pot, furnished I suppose, with what best pleased the [Page 177] Stone-Cutter; for these Men needed not be more curious than the Priests themselves, who were wont to make Use of Herbs next Hand, to adorn the Altars, and therefore Verbenae is put for any Kind of Herb; yet if we will have it resemble any Thing with us, I think it is most like, if not truly Nym­phaea, a known and common River Plant.

2. ONE of the Sides; which is somewhat narrower than the Front or Back, On this are engraved in Bass-Relief, the cutting Knife (Cecespita) and the Ax (securis); the Knife is exactly the same with that on the other Altar, formerly by me mentioned in the Philosophical Collections of Mr. Hook; but the Ax is different, for here it is headed with a long and crooked Point, and there the Head of the Ax is divided into three Points.

3. The other Side, on which are engraved after the same Manner, an Eure (Urceolus) and a Ladle which serves for a Sympullum. This I call rather a Laddle than a Mallet, it being perfectly Dish-wife, and hollow in the Middle, altho' Cambden is of another Opinion in that elegant Sculpt of the Cumberland Altar; and the very same Utensil I have seen and noted on the Ickley Altar, which is yet extant at Middleton-Grange, near that Town; but the Stone which Cambden says supports a Pair of Stairs there (as at this Day it does in the very Road) is but an ill Copy of it, and not the Original.

4. THE Plan of the Top, which is cut in the Figure of a Bason (Disons or Lana) with Ansae on each Side, consisting of a Pair of Links of a Chain, which rest upon, and fall over two Rowles; and this was the Hearth.

5. THE Front, which hath an Inscription in nine Lines in Roman Letters, each Letter a little more than two Inches deep of our Measure, now remain­ing as in the prefixed Sculpture, Fig. 5. which I would read thus: Dis, De­abusque Matribus, pro Salute M. Aurelii Antonii Augusti Imperatoris votum sol­vit lubens merito ob reditum.

The Deae Matres are well interpreted by Seldon. It is much his Safety and Return both vowed, should be so separated in the Inscription; but I have not Gruter by me, to compare this with the like. Caracalla say the Histo­rians, Ziphilinus, Herodianus, &c. after his Father's Death at York, took upon him the Command of the Army alone, and the whole Empire; he went alone against the Enemy, who were the Caledonii, inhabiting beyond the Wall which his Father had built, he made Peace with them, received their Hostages, slighted their fortified Places, and returned. And this seems to be confirmed by the Inscription; for undoubtedly, upon this last Expedition alone, without his Brother Gera and Mother, was this Altar erected to him alone, at a Place about two Sta­tions on this Side the Wall; so that the Vow might be as well understood of his Return from this Expedition, as for his Sasety and Return to Rome, which methinks should be true, or his Mother and Brother Geta would scarce have been left out, at least so early, for yet the Army declared for them both, according to their Father's Will.

FURTHER, it seems also to have been erected by those who flattered him, and who were afterwards killed by him; and for this Reason, the Per­sons who dedicated it, seem to me to be Purposely defaced, the sixth and seventh Lines of the Inscription being designedly cut away by the Hollowness of them, and there not being the least Sign of any Letter remaining. And this I sup­pose might be Part of their Disgrace, as it was usual to deface and break the Statues and Monuments of Persons executed, of which this Monster made strange Havock; and since worn Inscriptions admit of various Readings, be­cause some Letters are worn out, and some more legible, whereby unpreju­diced People may conceive them diversly; I will therefore tell you another reading, Part of these two first Lines, which I do not disallow, but that it will agree well enough with the History of Severus, tho' his Apotheosis, or so­lemn [Page 178] Dedication was not performed till he came to Rome, in the Manner of which funeral Pomp Herodian is very large; it was of that excellent Antiqua­ry Dr. Johnson of Pomfret.

CONSERVATO RI. B. PRO SAL. &c.

Which shews the Height of Flattery of those Times; so that they paid their Vows to the lately dead Father the Conservator of Britain, for the Safety of the Son: And the Story tells us, how gladly he would have had him made a God long before, even with his own Hands. Cambden Britan. in the Addi­tions to Durham, p. 784.

BELOW this are the Towns of Shields, one on the North Side of the Ri­ver, and the other on the South. That on the North Side in the Reign of Ed­ward the 1st, (when the Contest was between the Town of Newcastle, and the Prior of Tinmouth) was a Place where only 5 or 6 Fisherman had their Cottages, and it's but of late Years that it became a large Town and so popu­lous. The Church-belonging to this Place was begun to be built in 1659.

SOUTH Shields is more famous for making Salt than North Shields, there being much the greater Number of Salt Pans; it is also a pretty large Town, and has a Church which going to decay, is about to be rebuilt. It is a Cha­pelry to Jarrow, and dedicated to St. Hilda.

WE come now to the Mouth of the River Tyne, which is a Haven so deep as to carry Vessels of a considerable Burthen, and of that Security, that they are not in Danger either of Storms or Shallows, save that within less than half a Mile of the Bar of Tinmouth, (which is a Sand that lies cross the River's Mouth, not above 7 Foot deep at Low-Water) you meet with many Rocks which are called by the Sailors the Black Middens, which are very dangerous, but to prevent any Mischiefs which may happen to them in the Night Time, there are two Light-houses, maintained by the Trinity-house in Newcastle, and near them in the Year 1672, was built a Fort, called Clifford's -Fort, which effe­ctually commands all the Vessels that enter the River.

LELAND in the 4th Volume of his Collections, gives us the following most valuable Remark of a Roman Station on the South Side of the Tyne, the Place of the Birth of King Oswyn, for says he.

E Regione Tinemuthae suit Urbs vastata a Danis Ursa nomine, Ubi natus erat Oswinus Rex.

TINMOUTH called by the Britains, Pen Ball Cragg. i. e. the Head of the Rampire upon the Rock, from whence some maintain, that the Ditch reached as far as this Place, if the Wall did not; Mr. Cambden says, that he will not gainsay this Opinion, but adds, that he dares confidently Affirm, that this Place in the Time of the Romans was called Tunacellum, which signifies as much as the Promontory of Tuna or Tina, where the first Cohort (called Aelia Classica, because it was first raised by Aelius Hadrianus, as the Name seems to import) was in pay for Sea Service; for the Romans had their Naves Lusoriae, or light Frigates in their border Rivers both for the suppressing the Excursions of the neighbouring Enemy, and making Incursions upon him, as may be seen in the Codex Theodosii, under the Title De Lusoriis Danubii, i. e. Light Vessels on the Danube.

UNDER the Saxon Heptarchy this Place was called Tunaceltep, not as Bede affirms, from the Abbot Tunna, a mere romantick Story, which, if we recommend to the Reader, it must be only for his Diversion, and not for any Truth in it, but from it's Situation on the River Tyne. Here was anciently [Page 179] a little Monastery, which was frequently plundered by the Danes, while the Saxons ruled. Magn. Britan. p. 693.

AFTER the Decease of Oswyn, those that had killed him brought his Bo­dy to the Mouth of the River Tyne, and there buried it in the Oratory of St. Mary's, in the Year 631.

IN this Place a Number of illustrious Persons had gathered together, who in a regular Order attended divine Worship; who thereby acquired such Ho­nour and Esteem, that when any one died of more than ordinary Reputation, whose Funeral was to be solemnized with more than common Honour, he was usually buried here.

THIS Monastery was destroyed by Hinguar and Hubba. The Monks through Fear of Persecution, fled to a certain little Church of their own, which St. Cuthbert had dedicated; but the Danes finding them out, burnt it and all that were in it.

AFTER that William the Conqueror had given to Robert Mowbray the County of Northumberland, the Earl shewed a deal of Respect to St. Oswyn, and the Church he was buried in (for the Church was founded within the Precincts of his Castle). He gifted it with a Number of Lands, and placed in it Monks which came from St. Albans, and yet it is said by some that Tosti Earl of Northumberland laid the Foundation of this Monastery; but it's much more probable it was the former, because he brought the Monks from St. Albans; but it will appear a great deal more likely when we come to the following Grant or Charter of William Rufus, for making of it a Cell to Willielmus Rex Anglo­rum T. Ar­chiepiscopo & W. Dunel­mensi Epis­copo, & om­nibus Baro­nibus suis Francis & Anglis salu­tem. Sciatis me dedisse & concessisse Deo & San­cto Albano Ecclesiam de Tynmotha & omnia quae ad eam per­tinent in ter­ris & Deci­mis & con­suetudinibus in Nort de Tyne & in Suth de Tyne, & in Anglia, cum omni­bus quae Ro­bertus Comes Northumber­land, & sui homines de­derant san­cto Oswino antiquam mihi soris fa­ctus esset. Et volo & pre­cipio ut San­ctus Albanus habeat praedictam Ecclesiam cum omnibus ad eam pertinentibus cum pace & honore & omni consuetudine jure perpetuo Testibus Eudone Dapifew, & P. de Valonis, apud Novum Castrum. St. Albans, because that he says, cum omnibus quae Robertus Comes Northumberland & Homines sui dederant sancto Oswino, &c.

KING Henry I. confirmed all that had been given to this Monastery, that is, what had been given by Robert Mowbray, namely, the Tythes of Colebridge, Ovington, Wylam, Newburn, Dissington, Calverdon, Elstwye, Bothall, Werk­worth, Anebell, Roubyr, and Wullour.

DAVID King of Scots in a Charter dated in the Year 1138, granted to the Church of St. Mary and St. Oswyn, the Martyr of Tynemouth, and all be­longing thereto his Peace for ever, the Peace of his Son, and that of all his Ser­vants, threatning all those who should act otherwise with the Loss of his Fa­vour for ever; on Condition the Religious of this Monastery prayed for the Souls of his Father and Mother, and of King Alexander his Brother, who to this Church had granted a firm Peace, and for the Soul of Matilda Queen of England, his Sister, and for the Souls of all his Ancestors and Successors.

KING Henry II. gave to it Egleringham, Bewick and Lilleburn.

KING John confirmed to this Church all their Possessions, being the Town of Tinmouth, Seaton, Preston, Chirton, and another Chirton, Millington, Whitley, Erdeston, Backwell, and another Backwell, Seghal, Morton, Bebesete, Disslington, and another Disslington, Wulsington, Bewick, Egelingham, Lilleburn, Anibel, Hovekslaw, Estwick, Wylum, Weltedane, and Half the Town of Cop­un, Carleberry, and Morton in Haliwerkstock, and the Land of Royely, and De­muni; also the Churches of Tinmouth, Wodeburn, Whalton, Bolum, Bewick, Egelingham, Kertburn, and Cunesline; likewise Hereford upon Blyth, and the Tithe of Hyrenes, Middleton upon Theyse, Corbigg, Rouber, Werkewuril, Wol­lour, and Newburn, with all the Mills.

THE Grant of Richard Bertram confirms the Grant of the Tithe of Bo­thal. [Page 180] The Charter of King Edward III. restores and confirms to this Mo­nastery all its Privileges, Immunities, and Possessions. Dugdale p. 42.

THIS Monastery being afterwards fortified, and turned into a strong Hold, was called Tinmouth-Castle; which Name it still bears, and as such, glories both of its Stateliness and Strength; (for as an ancient Author speaks) it is inaccessibly seated upon a very high Rock towards the Ocean on the East and North, and elsewhere, so well mounted, that a slender Garrison may make it good. For this Reason, Robert Mowbray, Earl of Northumberland, when he practised with certain Noblemen to dethrone William Rufus (because he had not rewarded him according to his Expectation, for slaying Malcom King of Scots, and his Son) but was set upon by the King before Things were ripe for Rebellion, chose this Castle for his chief Hold, and maintained it for some Time against the King and his Forces; but being at length brought into great Straits by the Besiegers (as Rebels seldom meet with Success) he fled, and betook himself to the adjoining Monastery, which was accordingly com­monly reputed an holy and inviolable Sanctuary; nevertheless he was carried off thence, and afterwards, in a long and noisome Imprisonment, justly suf­fered Death for his Treason. Magn. Britan. Vol. 3. p. 694.

JOHN of Whethamstede, thirty third Abbot of St. Albans, was so called from the Place of his Birth, a Village near St. Albans; but the Name of his Fa­mily was Bostock; he was a Monk of the Priory of Tinmouth, and gave, after he came to be Abbot, a Chalice of pure Gold, and of great Weight, to that Priory; his Character can't be better drawn up, than in Stephen's Monasti­con, from whence we have this Account:

Contegit iste lapis venerabilis ossa Joannis
Wethamstede, Abbas hic qui fuit ejus in annis,
Ter doctus, doctos & amans, &c.

That is: This Stone covers the Bones of the Venerable John Wethamstede, who was Abbot here in his Time, most learned, a Lover of learned Men, and kind to them. He did not connive at any Faults in the Clergy; he was as zealous as Phineas against lewd Persons, and as John against Adulterers, and even as Pe­ter against Simoniacks. He was so great a Repairer of old tatter'd Houses and Marks, that none past exceeded him in that Particular, or is there any equal to him. He is recorded to have left behind him Ten thousand Marks clear. Do you the Convent of St. Albans hourly pray for the Soul of him that loved you.

THIS famous Monastery, which was of the Benedictines Order, and con­sisted of a Prior and fifteen Monks, was suppress'd Jan. 12th, in the 30th Henry VIII. It was valued at 397 l. 10 s. 5 d. per annum.

KING Henry VIII. converted the Castle into a Defence and Fortification against foreign Invasions.

THE Ruins of the Monastery are still to be seen in the Castle, near which also was the Parish-Church; but that being gone much to Decay, and the Parishioners in the late Civil Wars being often debarred of the Liberty of a free Resort to it, another was begun to be re-built in the Year 1659; and be­ing afterwards finished, was consecrated by Bishop Cosins in the Year 1668. In the former Church we may suppose it was, where Malcom King of Scots, slain with his Son Edward Prince of Scotland, by Robert Mowbray Earl of Northumberland, was buried. This King Malcom had barbarously plundered and ravaged these Northern Parts five Times, once in Edward the Confes­sor's Days, twice in the Conqueror's, and twice in William Rufus's; in the last of which Invasions he met with his Fate, by that just Providence, who often retaliates Wrongs in the Place they are done, as he found; for he was killed in this Country, where he had slain and destroyed many: But King [Page 181] William did not prosecute his Revenge further, as he might have done with Success, but established his Son on his Throne, notwithstanding the Endea­vours and Design of his Uncle Donald to deprive him of it, which he had done, had not King William aided him to obtain it.

JOHN of Tinmouth was born in this Town, and is said to have been the Vicar of it, but afterwards became a Benedictine Monk in the Abbey of St. Albans; he was a most virtuous Person, and excellently learned, entirely ad­dicted to the Study of the Holy Scriptures, and of sacred History. He ga­thered the Lives and Actions of the Saints of England, Wales, Scotland and Ireland, with great Judgment and indefatigable Labour, which Work he en­tituled, Sanctilogium servorum Dei, i. e. The sacred History of the Servants of GOD. Nor did he deserve less Commendation for his Expositions of the Holy Scripture, in which he not only explains the literal Sense, but the mo­ral, allegorical, and tropological; his Commentaries were upon all the Books from Genesis to the Kings inclusive. He wrote also other Books, as Church-Lessons, The Golden History, and a Supplement to the same, an Appendix to his Martyrology, &c. He flourished about the Year 1366.

THE Church has perhaps been a Building of as much Art and Curiosity, as any one in the whole Kingdom; nay, when we behold it at present, in the Midst of Ruins, we are struck with Aw, and the utmost Veneration; whether it is a Reflection on the extensive Charity of ancient Days, the sur­prizing Fineness of the Masonry, or whether there is something naturally moving in those ancient Remains; but so it is, that it never fails to command a solemn Aw, and a silent Commiseration.

TINMOUTH at present is a pretty large Village, and is much resorted to in the Summer-Season, it having the Prior's Haven in it, which is a most convenient retired Place for Bathing.

CHAP. XIV. Of the Government of the Town.

WHATEVER Government was in this Town in the Times of the Saxons and Danes; it is certain, after the Conquest it was governed by Bailiffs; for tho' the Ca­stle had Privileges of its own, yet it left those of the Town as they were, and without any Damage, as shall by and by be shewn. In the mean Time let us consider a few Things relating to this Place.

1066. TOSTON, Earl of Northumberland, Son of the great Earl Godwin, and Brother of Harold, having by his great Cruelties and many Acts of Injustice highly exasperated the Northumbrians, they took up Arms against him, and expelled him Northumberland, in 1063, in the Reign of Edward the Confessor. Harold being ordered to go and chastize them, and restore his Brother, and understanding that they had no design of withdrawing their O­bedience from the King, but only from an unjust and cruel Governour, who exercised over them a Tyrannical Power, he not only interceeded for their Pardon, but procur'd them Morkard, Son of Alfgar, Duke of Mercia, for their Governour. Toston, highly incensed at his Brother's Proceedings, and not having it in his Power to vent his Fury on him, he turned it on some of his Domesticks, whom he caused to be cut in Pieces, then to be barrel'd up, and sent to his Brother for a Present. After so barbarous an Action, not da­ring to stay any longer in England, he retired into Flanders to Earl Baldwin his Father-in-law. Upon Harold's being made King, after the Death of Ed­ward, Toston, in 1066, with some Ships, probably given him by the Earl of Flanders, infested the English Coasts, and plunder'd the Isle of Wight. From whence he went and landed some Troops at Sandwich; but being inform'd the King was marching towards him, he set sail for the North, and entring the Humber with his little Fleet, he made a descent on Yorkshire, and committed vast Ravages. But Morkard coming upon him unawares, being then got into Lincolnshire, put his little Army to Flight, and compelled him to betake him­self to his Ships: Being drove by contrary Winds on the Coasts of Norway, he applied himself to Harold Harfager King of that Country, and by many Arguments represented to him how easy it was to conquer England, and add that Crown to his own. The King of Norway, whose Ambition was easily persuaded by the other's Arguments, accompanied with Earl Toston, put to [Page 183] Sea with a Fleet of 500 Sail, and entered the Tyne. After having sack'd the Countries on both Sides the Tyne, they put to Sea, and entring the Humber, landed their Forces on the North Side, and ravag'd the Country with iriex­pressible Cruelties. Harold march'd against them with all the Expedition pos­sible, and came up with them at Stanford-bridge, on the River Derwent, a lit­tle below York. Here a most bloody Battle was sought, which lasted from seven in the Morning 'till three in the Afternoon, wherein Harfager and Toston were both slain, and Harold obtain'd a compleat Victory. This Battle was fought October 5th, 1066, but nine Days before the Battle at Hastings. Vide Malmsbury and M. Paris.

WILLIAM the Conqueror laid waste the whole Province of Northumber­land. Sax. Chron. p. 174.1069

MALCOLME, King of Scots, came into England with a great Army,1079 and laid waste the Land of the Northumbrians, as far as the River Tyne, and slew many Hundreds of Men; and carried of them to their Own Country a great deal of Riches and Treasure, beside Captives. Gib. Sax. Chron. p. 180.

THE Castle was founded as has been before observed by Robert the Son of the Conqueror.1080

ROBERT Mowbray Earl of Northumberland, revolting against King Wil­liam Rufus, the King went and besieged him in Banborrough Castle.1095 Some­time after, Mowbray going out upon a false Information, had the Misfortune to fall into the Hands of the Besiegers. Odericus Vitalis says, Some Soldiers belonging to Newcastle upon Tyne promis'd to give him Entrance into that Town, if he would come thither privately with a few Followers. Upon which he went out one Night with 30 Soldiers, but being betrayed by his own Men, was pursued and taken by the Garrison of Malvoisin, i. e. bad Neighbour, be­ing a Fortress built by the King near Banborrough, and so called by him, be­cause it took away all Possibility of throwing any Succours into the Castle.

IN this King's Reign, Malcolme III. King of Scotland, came to Gloucester to the King, to commune with him about sundry Matters, that related to the Peace of both Realms; but not being received and entertained in the pom­pous Manner he expected; he returned into his own Nation in Displeasure, and immediately getting his Army together, entred England, and destroyed the Country as far as Alnwick Castle, which he besieged and so straightned, that it was upon the very Point of Surrendering; a Soldier having promi­sed to deliver up the Keys upon the Top of his Spear, which while he pre­tended to do, he stabbed the King with it. At the same Time Robert Mow­bray, Earl of Northumberland, lay in Ambush for the Return of the Scots, who upon the Loss of their King, lest the Siege, and being going home­ward fell into the Ambush, and were many of them slain, and amongst them Edward Prince of Scotland. Thus did Providence revenge upon King Mal­colme, the many Ravages and Cruelties he had exercised upon the English, in this King's, his Father's, and the Confessor's Reign. He was buried at Tin­mouth, and his Son by the Aid of William Rufus obtained his Throne. Magn' Britan. Vol. III. p. 623.

AGAS, Mother to Margaret, Queen of Scotland, and Christian, her Sister, became Nuns at Newcastle upon Tyne, after that King Malcolme was killed at Alnwick.

WILLIAM King of Scots entred into England, having many Flemings with him, and won the Castles of Appelby and Burgh, and after he won Prude­how Castle, Robert de Stoteville, Randolph de Mandeville, Bernard Baliol, (of whom Bernard's Castle took it's Name) and William de Vesy, came to New­castle, and took King William Prisoner, and sent him to London; and King Henry took William with him into Normandy, and imprisoned him in Ro­an.

[Page 184]KING William was afterwards delivered at York for the Ransom of 4000 l. — Souldiers of the King's going with him again towards Scotland, fought with the Commons of the Town of Newcastle at the Very Bridge for certain Displeasures; and there was Sir John Perith, Knt. slain, and other Esquires belonging to the Constable and Marshal. Leland's Coll. Vol. II. p. 531, 532, 533, 550.

1136IN the Second Year of King Stephen, many of the English out of hatred to him secretly invited David King of Scotland, to revenge the Injuries done to the Empress Matilda, who was his Neice, and to whose Succession both Ste­phen himself, and he, had sworn in the Reign of her Father, Henry the first, upon which David suddenly invaded the Frontiers, and as the Chronicle of Mailross acquaints us, miserably waisted all Northumberland, and took both Car­lisle and Newcastle, which he filled with Garrisons. Against those King Stephen marched with a powerful Army; and concerning this War, there are divers Reports, yet all agree, that in no long Time, a Peace was concluded, by which David still enjoy'd Carlisle, and his Son Henry the Earldom of Huntington, for which he did Homage to King Stephen; but his Father refused to do the same, alledging, that he had already given his Faith to the Empress Matilda. Eachard.

Oct. 25th, 1154, the King dy'd, and was succeeded by Hen. II.

1156THIS King made at Chester a very Advantageous Treaty with Malcolm, King of Scotland, who yielded up to him Carlisle, Newcastle upon Tyne, and Bamborough-Castle, resting satisfied with the Earldom of Huntington, which Prince Henry his Father had held. Paris. Hovden. The Restitution of these Places, says Rapin, was doubtless no more than what was just; since David, Grandfather to Malcolme, had caused them to be adjudg'd to him by Treaties, at a Time when Stephen minded more his own private Interest, than the pub­lick Good of the Kingdom; but in all Appearance, Henry's great Power con­tributed more than any Thing else to the bringing the King of Scotland, to this Temper.

AFTER these Things, we meet with some Accounts of this Place; for we are told, that King Henry II. confirm'd their Estates to them, and ex­empted them from Tolls and Duties: It is therefore a Mistake in some, who say, the Town had no Privileges till the Reign of King John. And besides, in the third of King John's Reign, which was above ten Years before the Town had a Charter from that King, the Town had great Privileges; for the Men of Newcastle upon Tyne (as is mentioned in that Year in the great Roll of Northumberland) paid 100 Marks and 2 Palfreys: So having the Town in their Hands by the old Farm, to wit (as is there said) 50 l. and 10 s. of Increase, for Confirmation of their Liberties, which they had by the Charter of Henry the King's Father. De reb. Novocast.

1173IN the Controversy between King Henry II. and his ungrateful Son Henry, Roger Mowbray and Hugh Bigot procured William King of Scots to invade England; upon which the Scots King laid Siege to Carlisle; but not taking it in so short a Time as he expected, he past into Northumberland, which (as the Mailross Chronicle inform us) he destroy'd in a great Measure, and butcher'd Numbers of its Inhabitants. After this he sat down before Alnwick, with a Design to take it; in the mean Time, Robert de Stateville, Ralph Glanvel, William Vesy, Bernard Baliol, and Ordinet Umfreville, who lay then at New­castle with a Force of 400 Men, heard that the Scots King besieged this Town; whereupon they resolved to try the Chance of War, and raise the Siege; but before they could arrive there, the Scots King despairing to take it, broke up the Siege, and suffer'd his Men to plunder the open Country. Whilst they were doing this, the English came suddenly upon them, and after a short Re­sistance, took the King of Scots himself, and some others, and returned to Newcastle with a triumphant Joy. Mag. Brit. Vol. 3. p. 624.

[Page 185]THE King dy'd July 6th, and was succeeded by his Son Richard. 1189

HUGH de Pudsey Bishop of Durham, 1192 created Earl of Northumberland, the 8th of that Honour.

THIS Bishop died March the 3d.1195

PHILIP de Pictavia, or of Poitiers, a Favourite of King Richard, 1195 was elected in his Stead, December 30th, 1195, and was this Year, May the 12th, consecrated by the Pope.

ON April the 6th, the King died, and was succeeded by his Brother John. 1199

PHILIP Bishop of Durham died;1207 he was a great Heartner of the King against the Pope, for which the Pope excommunicated him, together with the King. He died before he was absolv'd, April 22d. This Bishop by the Licence of King Richard, set up a Mint at Durham 1196, and began to coin Money.

KING John commanded William King of Scots, 1209 to meet him at Newcastle, and they met each other at Boyelton. Then the King of Scots went on, and the King of England came as far as Norham; and in going and returning, bore his own Expences at Alnwick. A little after they both came to Newcastle, where they had a Conference; but they parted, without doing the Business they came about.

THIS King in the 14th Year of his Reign,1212 granted and confirmed to the Burgesses of Newcastle upon Tyne, and to their Heirs, the Town and all Things belonging to it, to Fee-farm (on Condition that they paid him and his Heirs an hundred Pounds per annum, viz. at Easter 50 l. and the other 50 at the Feast of St. Michael) except the Rents, Prizes, and Leases, in the Part of the said Town, which he reserved for himself. He Praetere concessimus eis, & char­ta nostra confirma­mus pro no­bis & haere­dibus nostris centum & decem solid. &c. ad divi­dendum & assignandum illis qui re­ditus suos a­miserunt oc­casione Fos­sati & novae Operationis factae subter Castrum versus a­quam, &c. Lib. Cart. p. 1. also granted to them an hundred and ten Shillings and Sixpence of Rent of Escheat, to be divided amongst those People who lost their Rents, on account of the Ditch and the new Work, which was carried on under the Castle towards the Ri­ver. This was order'd to be so divided, that they were to receive of it in Proportion to their Loss; those who had received the greater Loss, were to receive more; and those less, who had less Damage.

THE same Charter also exempts the good Men of the Town of Newcastle from the Power of the Sheriff or Constable, in Matters relating to them­selves. He gave them also many other Immunities and Privileges for their faithful Services to him (as his Charter to them expresses) among which this was one, that no Burgess of the Town of Newcastle should be seized without the said Burgh for the Non-payment of any Dobt, unless he was the capital Debtor.

ALEXANDER King of Scots with his whole Army, on the 17th Ca­lends of November, began to besiege Norham-Castle;1215 they continu'd the Siege 40 Days, and then returned Home re insectâ.

15 KALENDS this same King took Homage of the Barons of Northum­berland at Felton, which was so resented by the King,1216 that he came with an Army, and wasted Northumberland with Fire and Sword, and some of the Southern Parts of Scotland. On the 3d of the Ides of January, he burnt the Village of Werk, on the 5th he burnt Alnwick; on the 7th he burnt Mitford and Morpeth; on the 17th Kalends of February, he burnt Roxburgh, &c. Chron. de Mailross.

THIS Year the King died, after a very troublesome Reign, and was suc­ceeded [Page 186] in the Throne by Henry his eldest Son, who was only nine Years old when he was crown'd at Gloucester, which was on October the 3d.

Henry III.THE See of Durham was long void after the Death of Philip; but Richard de Marisco, 1217 Lord Chancellor of England, Dean of Salisbury, and Archdeacon of Northumberland, an old Courtier, was this Year thrust into the See by Gualo the Pope's Legate, and consecrated by the Archbishop of York, June 22.

1226He died at Peterborrow-Abbey May the 1st, as he was travelling to London.

1228 RICHARD Poor, Bishop of Salisbury, was translated to Durham; he was a Man of rare Learning in those Times, and of notable Integrity for his Life and Conversation. Being apprehensive of his Death, he preached to his People, and acquainted them with it for 2 Days together, and then setting his House in order he went to his Prayers; and as Mat. Paris tells us, when he came unto these Words, in pace in id ipsum Dormiam & Requiescam, he gave up the Ghost. He dy'd April 15, 1237.

1234THE King confirmed to the Burgesses of this Town, whatsoever had been granted to them by his Father King John. His Charter to them is dated at Westminster, July the 2d.

1236THE King of England and Alexander King of Scots had a Conference at Newcastle. Chron. de Mailros.

1239THE King by his Letters Patents under the Great Seal of England, dated at Westminster, Dec. 1, upon the Good Men of the Town of Newcastle's Sup­plication, gave them Licence to dig Coals and Stones in the Common Soil of that Town, in the Place called Castlefield and the Frith.

THIS King was petitioned again by the Burgesses of this Place, to grant them all the Stones and Coals belonging to the Frith, which was granted them.

1241 NICHOLAS de Farnham made Bishop of Durham.

1244AT this Time there were in the Court of England many seditious Persons, who endeavoured to break the Peace of the 2 Sister Kingdoms, particularly one Walter Bisset, who infused the Poison of Dissention into the Breast of King Henry, and the Lord Ingelram, whose Daughter Alexander King of Scots, had married. The Chron. de Mailros. King of England had got as far as this Town with his Ar­my and the King of Scots as far as Pontisland with his Army. But they came to no Battle: For at the Instance chiefly of the Archbishop of York, and some of the Nobility, a Peace was agreed upon at Newcastle upon Tyne, on the Eve of the Assumption. Before we leave this, it must not be forgot what Rapin takes Notice of, that Alexander submitted to the same Homage, that he him­self and his Ancestors had paid, and a good Understanding between the two Kings was perfectly restor'd. Before they parted, a Marriage was agreed up­on between Alexander's eldest Son of the same Name with himself, and Mar­garet, Henry's eldest Daughter.

The King's Letter upon it.

REX omnibus, &c. Salutem. — Noverit Universitas vestra quòd Sacramen­tum, quod dilectus Frater & Fidelis noster Richardus Comes Pictaviae & Cor­nubiae fecit apud Novum Castrum super Tinam, pro pactionibus, inter nos & Re­gem Scotiae; factis, ibidem confirmandis, idem Comes praedictum Sacramentum fecit per praeceptum nostrum. Et ei firmiter praecipimus quod dictum sacramentum suum inviolabiliter observet. Teste Rege apud Novum Castrum super Tinam, 13 die Augusti. Rymer Foeder. Tom. 1. p. 429.

[Page 187]THE Tyne Bridge and a great Part of the Town was burnt. Mat. Paris. 1248.

NICHOLAS Farnham obtain'd Licence of the Pope to resign his Bi­shoprick.1249.

WALTER de Kirkham made Bishop in his Room.1250.

MAYORS and BAILIFFS.

Anno Christi.Mayors.Bailiffs.
Henry III. 1251.Petrus Scott
  • Hen. de Karle
  • Tho. de Merchingle
  • Steph. de Lindesey
  • Robt. de Galesmith

    This Year the Town of Newcastle had it's first Mayor, viz. Peter Scott. The Word Mayor signifies the chief Magistrate of a City. It was anciently called Meyr, from the British Word Miret, i. e. Custodire to keep or protect. Richard I. Anno 1189, chang'd the Bai­liffs of London into a Mayor. The Bailiffs of this Town were not changed 'till this Year. The 1st Mayor, Sir Peter Scott, was a very wealthy Person. He was the Founder, together with his Son, Sir Nicholas Scott, of the Monastery of the Black-Fryers, in this Town.

1252.The same.The same.
1253.The same.
  • Henry de Karle
  • Tho. de Karle
  • Roger de Finctor
  • Adam Clircus
1254.Hen. Carleiol.
  • Robert de Waletus
  • Tho. de Carleol
  • Nich' de Wainford
  • Nicholas Scott
1255.The same.
  • Richard de Layhaye
  • Barthol' Clircus
  • Tho. de Karle, Jun'
  • Walter de Ponte
1256.The same.The same.
1257.The same.
  • Nich. Scot
  • Adam Clircus
  • Tho. de Murchingle
  • Johan. Sant
1258.The same.The same.
1259.The same.
  • Tho. de Karle
  • Joan. Withowle
  • Ada. de Blagedene
  • John Sant
1260.The same.The same.
Walter de Kirkham Bi­shop of Dur­ham dy'd in the Month of August. He was Bishop 11 Years, and was succeeded by Robert Stichell.
1261.The same.The same.
1262.The same.
  • Ada. Clircus
  • Ada. de Blagedene
  • Nich. Scott
  • William Tunock
1263.The same.The same.
This Year a Blazing Star appeared, and continued for the Space of three Months. In a Charter dated the 49th of Henry III. we have an Account that the Town's Seal was impress'd upon Green-Wax, and that the Inscription was, SVP TINAM ✚ COMMVNE SIGILLVM NOVI CASTRI. * Smith, M. S.
1264.Tho. Carleol
  • Rob. Mitford
  • Joannes de Flemming
  • Hen. de Scott
  • Hen. de Burneton.
1265.The same.The same.
1266.The same.The same.
1267.The same.
  • Joan. Filius Rogeri
  • John Flemming
  • Hen. Scot
  • Hen. de Burton
1268.The sameThe same.
1269.Nich. Scott
  • Hen. de Karle
  • Ada. de Blagedene
  • Tho. de Karle
  • Tho. de Karle Jun.
1270.The sameThe same.
1271.Tho. de Karle
  • Hug. de Merchingle
  • Robert de Lindsay
  • Tho. de Karle Jun.
The King died this Year, and Prince Edw. who was just return'd from the Holy Land was crowned in August following.
1272.
The sameThe same.
Edward I. 1273.The same.
  • Hugo de Merchingle
  • Hen. de Burneton
  • Tho. de Jun'
  • Rob. de Lindisay
Robert Sti­chell, Bishop of Durham died August the 4th, and was succeeded the same Year byRobert de Insula.
1274
The same.
  • John de Flemming
  • Jo. Santmarays
  • Ad. de Blagedene
  • Rich. de Lay-hay
Great Earth­quakes, Lightnings and Thunderings with a Blazing Star, and a Comet in the Appearance of a great Dragon, which made many Men afraid. Town's List.
1275
Joan. filius Rogeri
  • Rob. de Mitford
  • Joan. de Darnton
On St. Nicho­las Even were great Earth­quakes, Lightnings, and Thunder, with a great Dragon and a blazing Star. No doubt, this was the same mentioned in the year before.
1276
Tho. de Carliolo
  • Joan. fil. Rog.
  • Henricus Scot
1277.Tho. Karle
  • William
  • Tho de Karle Jun.
  • Hen. Scot.
1278.Joan. filius Rog.
  • Hug. de Merchingle
  • Ro. de Lindesey
  • Joannes le Flemmyng
1279.Tho. de Karle
  • Rich. de Hay
  • Hen. de Burneton
  • Hugo de Merchingle
  • Rich. fil. Rogeri
This year, Sep. the 18th the King gave Leave to the Black-Fryers [...] this Town, to make the LittLe-gate, called the Gate of the Warden's-Close, in the Town-Wall. Vide Chap. Town-Wall.
1280
Joan. fil. Rogeri
  • Rich. de Lay-hay
  • Hen. de Burneton
  • Joan. Flemmyng
  • Joan. Gadrick
1281.Joan. fil. Rog. miles
  • Robt. de Mitforde
  • Rich. fil. Rogeri
  • Robt. de Lindsey
  • Johan. le Scot.
1282.Robert' Mitford
  • Jo. de Blamarge
  • Joan. de Lindsaye
  • Adam de Pampdon
  • Joan. le Scot
Robert de Insula, Bi­shop of Dur­ham, died June the 13th, and was succeeded by Anthony Beake, whom the Pope made Patriarch of Jerusalem.
1283
W. de Hawkwell
  • Tho. de Witham
  • William de Ogle
  • Joan. de Heyton
1284.The same.
  • Joan. Flands
  • Joan. le Eschot
  • Ad. de Pampeden
  • Ro. de Lindesay
1285.The same.The same. The same
1286.Hen. le Scot
  • Joan. Flemmyng
  • Hugh de Carliol
  • Joan. le Scot
  • Hen. de Le
1287.Hen. Scot.
  • Joan de Blagedene
  • Peter. Draper
  • Tho. de Tindale
  • Joan. Surreys
1288.The same.
  • Joan. Flemming
  • Rich. fil. Rogeri
  • Jo. le Scot
  • Hug. de Carle
    So hot a Sum­mer that ma­ny died with the Extremity of the Heat.
1289.The same.
  • Tho. de Tindale
  • Petr. Draper
  • Hen. de Karle
  • William de Ogle
    Great hail fell in England which raised the Price of Wheat in particular from 5 d. a Bushel to 16 d. and so it increased yearly, 'till at last it was sold for xx s. a Quarter.
1290.The same.The same.
1291.Hugo de Carliol
  • Roger Tunnock
  • Pet. Sampson
    The King ba­nish'd the Jews and gave them wherewith to bear their Charges, 'till they were out of the Kingdom. The Number was 15009 Persons.
  • Hen. le Hay
  • Alex. le —
1292.Hugo de Carliol
  • Joan. de Surreys
  • Wm. de Ogle.

    After King Edward I. had determi­ned the Right to the Crown of Scotland to be in John Baliol, Baliol was crown'd at Scone with the usual Formalities, and all the Scotch Lords took their Oath to him, except Robert Bruice, who was absent. Which done, he came to Newcastle upon Tyne, and did there, on the 26th of December, Homage to King Ed­ward: ‘My Lord Ed­ward King of England, superiour Lord of the Kingdom of Scotland; I John King of Scotland, become your Liege Man for the whole Kingdom of Scotland, with it's Appurtenances; which Kingdom I claim, hold, and ought of Right to hold, for me and my Heirs, Kings of Scotland, Hereditarily of you and your Heirs, Kings of England, and shall bear Faith to you, and your Heirs, Kings of England, of Life and Limb, and ter­rene Honour against all Men. Rapin. & compleat Hist. of Eng. V. 1. p. 195.

    Upon this Occasion the King wrote the following Letters at this Town.

    REX & superior Dominus Regni Scotiae, venerabilibus in Christo patribus, Wet R. Sancti Andrea & Glasguen, Episcopis, & Dilectis & fidelibus suis Johanni Comyn, Jacobo Senescallo Scotiae, & Briano filio Alani, nuper Custodibus praedicti Regni Scotiae, Salutem.

    Mandamus vobis quos omnes Rotulos de placitis & querelis quibuscunque coram vobis habitis & pla­citatis de Tempore quo nos ad hoc deputarimus in eodem Regno dilecto & fideli nostro J. Regi Scotiae sine dilatione Liberatis, & hoc nullatenus omittatis. In cujus, &c.

    Teste Rege apud Novum Castrum super Tynam, quarto die Januarii. Rym. Foed. Tom. 2. p. 602.

    REX & superior Dominus Regni Scotiae, dilecto & Fideli suo Waltero de Huntercumbe Custodi Terrae de Man, Salutem.

    Quia de gratia nostra speciali, Reddidimus dilecto & fideli nostro Johanni Baliolo, Regi Scotiae, talem sei­sinam Terrae de Man, cum pertinentiis qualem Alexander ultimus Rex Scotiae antecessor suus, cujus Haeres ipse est, habuit de eadem terra, die quo obiit.

    Salvo jure nostro, & alterius cujuscun (que) & salvis nobis & Haeredibus nostris, exitibus, Wardis Marita­giis, Releviis, Eschaetis Finibus, Amerciamentis, arreragiis firmarum & Reddituum, quae tempore feisinae nostrae ejusdem terrae acciderunt.

    Et Salvis nobis & Haeredibus nostris cognitionibus placitorum & Articulorum Quorumcun (que) de Ballivis & ministris ibidem de tempore praedicto, una cum cognitione Transgressionis, impositae Duncano de Malesly, & Judiciorum super iisden reddendorum executionibus.

    Et similiter quod omnia judicia Seifinae nostro tempore, per Ballivos & ministros nostros, in eadem ter­ra reddita, teneantur, & executioni demandentur.

    Vobis Mandamus, quatenus praesato Regi seisinam terrae praedictae; cum suis pertinentiis, in forma prae­dicta, liberari faciatis; salvo jure nostro & alterius cujuscun (que) Teste Rege apud Novum Castrum super Tynam, quinto die Januarii.

  • Samp. le Cuttellns
  • Walter de Cowgate
1293.The same.The same.
1294.Hugo de
  • Robertus de Mitford
  • Tho. de Whickham
  • William de Ogle
  • Joannes de Heaton
1295.Hugo de Carleolo
  • Joan de Surties
  • Samps. de Carleolo
  • William de Ogle
  • Walter de Cowgate

After King Edward had declared War against Scotland, he advanced to Newcastle, and made it the chief Rendezvous of his Forces. Rapin. The Story at large is this. King John of Scotland having in Contempt of King Edward disseised Magdulph Earl of Fife, and imprison'd him; Magdulph complain'd to King Edward, who order'd King John to appear before him; but upon this Summons he appeared not. Upon this the King sent out a second Writ, ordering him to appear before him 15 Days after Michaelmas, which was obey'd. Being come before him, he seem'd not so sensible of the King's Su­periority, as he had been before; which was judged a Contempt and Disobedience, and that three of his principal Castles in Scotland should be seized. But before the Pronunciation of the Sentence, He came before the King and his Council, and made Supplication to the King with his own Mouth; the King receiving this, with the Advice of his Council, and the Consent of Magdulph, granted his Prayer, and gave him Day untill his Parliament af­ter Easter. But that Parliament was not holden that Day; however the Suit between the King of Scots and, Magdulph was continued, and prorogued to the next Parliament, which was summoned to be holden at St. Ed­mund's-Bury, on the Feast of St. Martin in the Winter, in the year 1295.

The Day being come, the King was present, and Magdulph strenuously prosecuted his Plea. But the King of Scot­land instead of appearing in Person, sent the Abbot of Abirbrothock, and other Noblemen of that Kingdom, with not only frivolous excuses, but to demand Satisfaction of King Edward for many and great Injuries, Oppressions, and Grievances, sustained by the Scots from his Subjects. King Edward 's Answer was, That for certain Cau­ses he was coming toward the North Parts, and that the King of Scots should then have sufficient Recompence to his own Content. And then appointed him a Day to meet him at Newcastle upon Tyne, viz. The 1st day of March next following, and ordered the Abbot and those with him, to give Notice to their King that he should then personally appear. In the mean Time the King had certain Intelligence that the King of Scots with his Pre­lates, Earls, Barons, &c. had entred into a Confederacy with France; so that the King of England upon this Account also, toward the Time appointed prepared for his Journey to Newcastle, and sent before him the Abbot of Newminster and Wellebeck to the King of Scots, to give him Notice of the Adjournment and Time of his coming.

On the 1st of March, 1296, the King was at Newcastle, and staid there many Days, expecting the King of Scots; he came not; the King of England removed nearer to Scotland, and came to Bamburgh, where he also summon'd him and expected him: He neither came, nor sent to excuse himself, but returned the Homage and Fealty for Himself and all his Kingdom to King Edward, by an Instrument or Writing, and defied him. After this he summon'd him again, but he would not appear; nay instead of that they proceed to Arms, enter England, plunder, burn, waste, kill and destroy wherever they come.

To obviate these Insolencies, and chastise them according to their Deserts, King Edward entred Scotland on Wednesday in Easter Week, besieged and took Berwick Castle with a great Slaughter of the Scots; from thence he sent Part of his Army to reduce the Castle of Dunbarr, lately revolted, which was done, by the Death and Destruction of a great many Scots. Ten thousands, says my Author, seven Barons, an hundred Knights, and thirty one Esquires were taken in the Castle; the Army coming to relieve it, Twenty two thousand of them were slain. From thence King Edward marched to Edinburgh, which Castle he took in eight Days. From thence he marched to Sterlin, where the King of Scots, and many of his great Men, sent to beg his Mercy. He order'd them to meet him some few Days after at Brechin, where they submitted to his Mercy and Favour, without making any Terms or Conditions whatever.

This done, King Edward caused the Stone used by the Kings of Scotland as a Throne, to be brought to West­minster, appointed John Warren Earl of Surrey and Sussex, Governour of Scotland, Hugh de Cressingham, Treasurer, and William Ormsby, Justiciary, sent King John Baliol to the Tower of London, where he was decently attended; and the Noblemen of Scotland, which he brought into England, were forbidden to pass the River Trent, under forfeiture of their Heads. Brady. Contin. Hist. Eng. p. 38.

1296
  

The Scots de­spising their Oaths of Ho­mage and Fealty enter'd England, Burning and wasting the Country, staying the People, and destroying all before them, upon which the King sent his Summons to 200 Earls, Barons, Knights, Abbots and others, to be ready at Newcastle upon Tyne on St. Nicholas Day, or the 6th of December, with their Service of Horse and Arms to go with his Son against the Scots, to suppress their Rebellion, and desend his own Kingdom. Brad. Contin. p. 61.

This year dy'd at Newcastle upon Tyne, William Heron, Son of John Heron, who in the 32d Hen. III. was constituted Governour of Bamburgh Castle; and soon after of the Castles of Pickering, and Scarborough in Yorkshire. He held a Barony in the County of Northumberland by the Service of one Knight's Fee, as his Ancestors had done since the Conquest.

1297
Joan. Scot
  • Tho. de Tindale
  • William de Ogle
  • J. fil. Ad. de Blagdene
  • Pet. Draper.
1298.The same.The same. The same.

The Scots un­der the com­mand of William Wallas, and Robert Bruice, laid Waste all Northumberland; then went to Carlisle; but the Inhabitants knowing their Design before, had so fortified themselves, that they could not Master them; then they went to Newcastle, where they pull'd down and burnt the Town. Which Compliment was return'd much about the same Time, by Robert Clifford, who at the Head of some People of the Diocesses of Durham and Car­lisle went another Way into Scotland, as far as Roxburgh, and laid all Waste before him. Polyd. Virg. pag. 340.

1299.The same.The same. The same.

King Edwardus Dei Gratia Rex Angliae, &c. Sci­atis quod dedimus, &c. dilectis Burgensibus & probis hominibus Villae Novi Castri super Tynam omnes terras & Tenementa cum pertinentibus in Pampeden in Byker juxta praedictam villam Novi­castri, &c. & quod praedicta Villa Novi­castri & terra & tenementa praedicta in Pam­peden de caetero sint unus Burgus, &c. Ed­ward the 1st in a Charter dated at York on the 20th Day of December, in the 27th Year of his Reign, granted to the Burgesses and good Men of Newcastle upon Tyne, the Town of Pam­peden, that it and Newcastle might ever after become one Town.

There is in this Charter mention made of one Robert de Byker and Laderane his Wife, they seem to have been Peo­ple of great Figure at this Time of Day, probably they were Lord and Lady of the Mannor of Byker, and had their Town's House in or near that Part of Pandon, called Byker Chare. They had Lands in Pandon in Byker, which they gave to the Crown, which Lands at the Incorpora­tion of the two Towns just now mentioned, were annexed by the King as Part and Parcel of Newcastle.

1300.The same.The same. The same.
1301.The same.The same. The same.
1302.The same.The same. The same.
1303.The same.The same. The same.
1304.Peter Graper.
  • Nich. de Carliol
  • Richard de Emeldon
  • Tho. de Frismarisco
  • Joan. Corane
1305.Peter Graper.
  • Nich. Scott
  • Tho. de Frismarisco
  • Nich. de Carleol
  • William de Oggle
1306.Rich. de Emeldon
  • Nich. Scott
  • William de Oggle
  • Adam. de Gallowaie
  • Tho. de Frismarisco
    The King di­ed July the 7th, and in the Feb. fol­lowing his Son Edward was crown'd.
Edward II. 1307.The same.
  • de Acton
  • William de
  • Adam —
  • Tho. Frismarisco
1308.Nich. de Carliol
  • Tho. de Frismarisco
  • Tho. de Tindale
  •  
  • Ad. de Dunelm
    This was pro­bably Adam of Durham, who founded the Chantry of St. Thomas the Martyr, in St. John's Church, in the year 1319.
1309.The same.
  • Tho. de Frismarisco
  • Tho. de Tindale.
  • Gilbert de Flemming
  • Ad. de Dunelm
    Duns-Scotus died a misera­ble Death, being taken with an Apoplectic Fit, and too hastily buried. He was a Northumbrian born, and took upon him at Newcastle the Habit of St. Francis. Vile Franciscan Fryers.
1310.The same.
  • Tho. de Carliol
  • Tho. de Tindale
  • Gilbert Flemming
  • Adam de Dunelm
1311.Rich. Emeldon
  • Th. fil. Hu. de Carliol
  • Ad. de Dunelm
    Anthony Beake Bishop of Durham dyed March the 28th and was succeeded by Richard Kellow.
  • Th. de Frismarisco

The Lords and other great Men of the Realm being highly provok'd at the Pride and Insolence of Pierce Gaveston, the King's great Fa­vourite, whom he had rais'd to the highest Honours and Preferments, entred into a Confederacy to remove him from the King's Person, and banish him the Kingdom. The great Earl of Lancaster, (Son of Prince Edmund, and Grandson of Henry III.) was chosen their General; who by common Consent sent to the King then atYork, petitioning him either to deliver Earl Gaveston to them, or oblige him to quit the Kingdom, according to the Late Ordinances. The King took small Notice of their Supplications, left York, and repaired to Newcastle, where he continued for a considerable Space. Upon which the Lords, with what Forces they could raise, march'd with all Speed towards Newcastle, not that they would offer Injury, or create Trouble to their Sovereign, but only Earl Gaveston, and judge him according to the Laws they made by common Agreement. Upon their Approach, the King and Gaveston immediately fled to Tinmouth; and tho' tne Queen, then great with Child, with Flood of Tears, begg'd of him not to leave her in that Place, he without any Pity took Shipping, and salt'd with his Favourite toScarborough, commanding the Garrison of the Castle to protect him, while he repair'd into War­wickshire. The Earl of Lancaster having possessed himself of Newcastle, sent Messengers to the Queen atTin­mouth to comfort her, faithfully promising That he would not give over his Pursuit, 'till he had remov'd Gaveston from the King; excusing himself from not coming to her in Person, left for her Sake he should incut the King's Indignation. The Barons who had enter'd Newcastle the same Day the King went from thence, had seized all that he and his Favourite had left there, the Hurry wherein they went off not having given them leave to take any Thing with them. In Gaveston's Baggage were sound a great many Jewels, which for the most part belonged to the Crown, and of which an exact Inventory was taken, that an Account might be given of them hereafter: They were accordingly restored to the King afterGaveston was beheaded. Rapin.

It appears by several Records, that there has been an ancient Custom within the said Town of Newcastle upon Tyne, of acknowledging Fi