THE LUCUBRATIONS OF Isaac Bickerstaff Esq


THE LUCUBRATIONS OF Isaac Bickerstaff Esq

Revised and Corrected by the Author.



LONDON, Printed by John Nutt, and sold by John Mor­phew, near Stationers Hall. MDCCXII.



WHEN I first resolved upon doing my self this Honour, I could not but indulge a certain Vanity in dating from this little Covert, where I have frequent­ly had the Honour of your Lord­ship's Company, and received from you very many Obligations. The elegant Solitude of this Place, and [Page] the greatest Pleasures of it I owe to its being so near those Beautiful Man­nors wherein you sometimes reside: It is not retiring from the World, but enjoying its most valuable Bles­sings, when a Man is permitted to share in your Lordship's Conversa­tions in the Country. All the bright Images which the Wits of past Ages have left behind them in their Wri­tings, the noble Plans which the greatest Statesmen have laid down for Administration of Affairs, are equally the familiar Objects of your Knowledge. But what is peculiar to your Lordship above all the illu­strious Personages that have appear­ed in any Age, is, that Wit and Learning have from your Example fallen into a new Aera. Your Pa­tronage has produced those Arts, which before shunned the Com­merce of the World, into the Ser­vice of Life; and it is to you we owe, that the Man of Wit has turn­ed himself to be a Man of Business. The false Delicacy of Men of Ge­nius, [Page] and the Objections which o­thers were apt to insinuate against their Abilities for entring into Af­fairs, have equally vanished. And Experience has shown, that Men of Letters are not only qualify'd with a greater Capacity, but also a grea­ter Integrity in the Dispatch of Bu­siness. Your own Studies have been diverted from being the highest Or­nament, to the highest Use to Man­kind, and the Capacities which would have rendered you the greatest Poet of your Age, have to the Advan­tage of Great Britain been employ'd in Pursuits which have made you the most able and unbiassed Patriot. A vigorous Imagination, an exten­sive Apprehension, and a ready Judg­ment, have distinguished you in all the illustrious Parts of Administra­tion, in a Reign attended with such Difficulties, that the same Talents without the same Quickness in the Possession of them would have been incapable of Conquering. The natural Success of such Abilities has advan­ced [Page] you to a Seat in that illustrious House, where you were received by a Crowd of your Relations. Great as you are in your Honours, and Personal Qualities, I know you will forgive, an humble Neighbour, the Vanity of pretending to a Place in your Friendship, and subscribing himself,

Your Lordship's Most Obliged, and Most Devoted Servant, Richard Steele.


IN the last Tatler I promised some Explana­tion of Passages and Persons mention'd in this Work, as well as some Account of the Assi­stances I have had in the Performance. I shall do this in very few Words; for when a Man has no Design but to speak plain Truth, he may say a great deal in a very narrow Compass. I have in the Dedication of the First Volume made my Acknowledgments to Dr. Swift, whose plea­sant Writings, in the Name of Bickerstaff, crea­ted an Inclination in the Town towards any Thing that could appear in the same Disguise. I must acknowledge also, that at my first entring upon this Work, a certain uncommon Way of Thinking, and a Turn in Conversation peculiar to that agree­able Gentleman, rendered his Company very ad­vantageous to one whose Imagination was to be continually employed upon obvious and common Subjects, though at the same Time obliged to treat of them in a new and unbeaten Method. His Verses on the Shower in Town, and the De­scription of the Morning, are Instances of the Happiness of that Genius, which could raise such Pleasing Idea's upon Occasions so barren to an ordinary Invention.

[Page] When I am upon the House of Bickerstaff, I must not forget that Genealogy of the Family sent to me by the Post, and written, as I since under­stand, by Mr. Twisden, who died at the Battle of Mons, and has a Monument in Westminster-Abbey suitable to the Respect which is due to his Wit and his Valour. There are through the Course of the Work very many Incidents which were written by unknown Correspondents. Of this Kind is the Tale in the Second Tatler, and the Epistle from Mr. Downes the Prompter, with others which were very well received by the Publick. But I have only one Gentleman, who will be nameless, to thank for any frequent Assi­stance to me, which indeed it would have been barbarous in him to have denied to one with whom he has lived in an Intimacy from Childhood, con­sidering the great Ease with which he is able to dispatch the most entertaining Pieces of this Na­ture. This good Office he performed with such Force of Genius, Humour, Wit and Learning, that I fared like a distressed Prince who calls in a powerful Neighbour to his Aid; I was undone by my Auxiliary; when I had once called him in, I could not subsist without Dependance on him.

The same Hand writ the distinguishing Cha­racters of Men and Women under the Names of Musical Instruments, the Distress of the News-Writers, the Inventory of the Play­house, and the Description of the Thermo­meter, which I cannot but look upon as the great­est Embellishments of this Work.

[Page] Thus for I thought necessary to say relating to the great Hands which have been concerned in these Volumes, with Relation to the Spirit and Genius of the Work; and am far from pretending to Modesty in making this Acknowledgment. What a Man obtains from the good Opinion and Friend­ship of worthy Men, is a much greater Honour than he can possibly reap from any Accomplishments of his own. But all the Credit of Wit which was given me by the Gentlemen above-mentioned (with whom I have now accounted) has not been able to attone for the Exceptions made against me for some Raillery in Behalf of that learned Ad­vocate for the Episcopacy of the Church, and the Liberty of the People, Mr. Hoadley. I mention this only to defend my self against the Imputation of being moved rather by Party than Opinion; and I think it is apparent, I have with the ut­most Frankness allowed Merit wherever I found it, though joined in Interests different from those for which I have declared my self. When my Fa­vonius is acknowledged to be Dr. Smalridge, and the amiable Character of the Dean in the Sixty sixth Tatler drawn for Dr. Atterbury, I hope I need say no more as to my Impartiality.

I really have acted in these Cases with Honesty, and am concerned it should be thought otherwise: For Wit, if a Man had it, unless it be directed to some useful End, is but a wanton frivolous Quality; all that one should value himself upon in this Kind is, that he had some honourable In­tention in it.

[Page] As for this Point, never Hero in Romance was carried away with a more furious Ambition to conquer Giants and Tyrants, than I have been in extirpating Gamesters and Duellists And indeed, like one of those Knights too, though I was calm before, I am apt to fly out again, when the Thing that first disturbed me is presented to my Ima­gination. I shall therefore leave off when I am well, and fight with Windmills no more: Only shall be so Arrogant as to say of my self, that in Spite of all the Force of Fashion and Prejudice, in the Face of all the World, I alone bewailed the Condition of an English Gentleman, whose Fortune and Life are at this Day precarious; while His Estate is liable to the Demands of Game­sters, through a false Sense of Justice; and to the Demands of Duellists, through a false Sense of Honour. As to the First of these Orders of Men, I have not one Word more to say of them: As to the latter, I shall conclude all I have more to offer aginst them (with Respect to their being prompted by the Fear of Shame) by applying to the Duellist what I think Dr. South says somewhere of the Lyar, He is a Coward to Man, and a Brave to God.

THE [No 190. TATLER:
From Saturday June 24. to Tuesday June 27. 1710.

— Timeo Danaos & Dona ferentes.

THERE are some Occasions in Life, where­in Regards to a Man's self is the most piti­ful and contemptible of all Passions; and such a Time certainly is when the true publick Spirit of a Nation is run into a Faction against their Friends and Benefactors. I have hinted heretofore some Things which discover the real Sorrow I am in at the Observation, that it is now very much so in Great Britain, and have had the Honour to be pelted with several Epistles to expostulate with me on that Subject. Among others, one from a Person of the Number of those they call Quakers, who seems to admonish me out of pure Zeal and Good-will. But as there is no Character so unjust as that of talking in Party upon all Occa­sions, without Respect to Merit or Worth on the [Page 2] contrary Side, so there is no Part we can act so justifiable as to speak our Mind when we see Things urged to Extremity, against all that is Praise-worthy or valuable in Life, upon general and groundless Suggestions. But if I have talked too frankly upon such Reflections, my Cor­respondent has laid before me, after his Way, the Error of it in a Manner that makes me indeed thankful for his Kindness, but the more inclina­ble to repeat the Imprudence from the Necessity of the Circumstance.

Friend Isaac,

FOrasmuch as I love thee, I cannot any lon­ger refrain declaring my Mind unto thee concerning some Things. Thou didst thy self indite the Epistle inserted in one of thy late Lucubrations, as thou wouldst have us call them: For verily thy Friend of Stone, and I speak according to Knowledge, hath no Fin­gers; and tho' he hath a Mouth, yet speaketh he not therewith; nor yet did that Epistle at all come unto thee from the Mansion-house of the Scarlet Whore. It is plain therefore, that the Truth is not in thee: But since thou wouldst lye, couldst thou not lye with more Discretion? Wherefore shouldst thou insult over the Af­flicted, or add Sorrow unto the Heavy of Heart? Truly this Gall proceedeth not from the Spirit of Meekness. I tell thee moreover, the People of this Land be marvelously given to Change; insomuch that it may lightly come to pass, that before thou art many Years nearer to thy Disso­lution, thou mayst behold him sitting on a high Place whom thou now laughest to Scorn: And then how wilt thou be glad to humble thy self to the Ground, and lick the Dust of his Feet, that thou mayst find Favour in his Sight? If thou didst meditate as much upon the Word as [Page 3] thou dost upon the prophane Scribblings of the wise Ones of this Generation, thou wouldst have remembred what happened unto Shimei, the Son of Gera the Benjamite, who cursed the good Man David in his Distress. David par­doned his Transgression, yet was he afterwards taken as in a Snare by the Words of his own Mouth, and fell by the Sword of Solomon the chief Ruler. Furthermore, I do not remember to have heard in the Days of my Youth and Vanity, when, like thine, my Conversation was with the Gentiles, that the Men of Rome, which is Babylon, ever sued unto the Men of Carthage for Tranquility, as thou dost aver: Neither was Hannibal, the Son of Hamilcar, called Home by his Countrymen, till these saw the Sword of their Enemies at their Gates; And then was it not Time for him, thinkest thou, to return? It appeareth therefore that thou dost prophesy backwards, thou dost row one Way, and look another; and indeed in all Things art thou too much a Time-server; yet seemest thou not to consider what a Day may bring forth. Think of this, and take Tobacco.

Thy Friend, Aminadab.

If the zealous Writer of the above Letter has any Meaning, it is of too high a Nature to be the Subject of my Lucubrations. I shall therefore wave such high Points, and be as useful as I can to Persons of less Moment than any he hints at. When a Man runs into a little Fame in the World, as he meets with a great deal of Reproach which he does not deserve, so does he also a great deal of Esteem to which he has in himself no Pre­tensions. Were it otherwise, I am sure no one would offer to put a Law-Case to me: But be­cause I am an Adept in Physick and Astrology, [Page 4] they will needs perswade me that I am no less a Proficient in all other Sciences. However, the Point mentioned in the following Letter is so plain a one, that I think I need not trouble my self to cast a Figure to be able to discuss it.

Mr. Bickerstaff,

IT is some Years ago since the Entail of the Estate of our Family was altered, by passing a Fine in Favour of me (who now am in Pos­session of it) after some others deceased. The Heirs-General, who live beyond Sea, were ex­cluded by this Settlement, and the whole Estate is to pass in a new Channel after me and my Heirs. But several Tenants of the Lordship perswade me to let them hereafter hold their Lands of me according to the old Customs of the Barony, and not oblige them to act by the Limitations of the last Settlement. This, they say, will make me more popular among my Departments, and the ancient Vassals of the Estate, to whom any Deviation from the Line of Succession is always invidious.

Yours, &c.

YOU have by the Fine a plain Right, in which none else of your Family can be your Competitor; for which Reason, by all Means demand Vassalage upon that Title. The con­trary Advice can be given for no other Purpose in Nature but to betray you, and favour other Pretenders, by making you place a Right which is in you only, upon a Level with a Right which you have in common with others. I am,

Your most Faithful Servant till Death, I. B.

[Page 5] There is nothing so dangerous or so pleasing, as Compliments made to us by our Enemies: And my Correspondent tells me, That though he knows several of those who give him this Coun­sel were at first against passing the Fine in Favour of him; yet is he so touched with their Homage to him, that he can hardly believe they have a Mind to set it aside, in order to introduce the Heirs-General into his Estate.

These are great Evils; but since there is no proceeding with Success in this World, without complying with the Arts of it, I shall use the same Method as my Correspondent's Tenants did with him, in Relation to one whom I never had a Kindness for; but shall, notwithstanding, pre­sume to give him my Advice.

Isaac Bickerstaff Esq of Great Britain, to Lewis XIV. of France.


YOUR Majesty will pardon me while I take the Liberty to acquaint you, that some Passages written from your Side of the Water do very much obstruct your Interests. We take it very unkindly that the Prints of Paris are so very partial in Favour of one Set of Men among us, and treat the others as irrecon­cileable to your Interests. Your Writers are very large in recounting any Thing which re­lates to the Figure and Power of one Party, but are dumb when they should represent the Actions of the other. This is a trifling Cir­cumstance many here are apt to lay some Stress upon; therefore I thought fit to offer it to your Consideration before you dispatch the next Courier.

I. B.

The TATLER. [No 191.
From Tuesday June 27. to Thursday June 29. 1710.

— Propter Vitam vivendi perdere Causas.

OF all the Evils under the Sun, that of ma­king Vice commendable is the greatest: For it seems to be the Basis of Society, that Ap­plause and Contempt should be always given to proper Objects. But in this Age we behold Things for which we ought to have an Abhor­rence, not only received without Disdain, but even valued as Motives of Emulation. This is na­turally the Destruction of Simplicity of Manners, Openness of Heart, and Generosity of Temper. When one gives ones self the Liberty to range, and run over in ones Thoughts the different Ge­nius's of Men which one meets in the World, one cannot but observe, that most of the Indi­rection and Artifice which is used among Men, does not proceed so much from a Degeneracy in Nature, as an Affectation of appearing Men of Consequence by such Practices. By this Means it is, that a cunning Man is so far from being ashamed of being esteemed such, that he secretly rejoices in it. It has been a Sort of Maxim, That the greatest Art is to conceal Art; but I know not how, among some People we meet with, their greatest Cunning is to appear cunning. There is Polypragmon makes it the whole Business of his Life to be thought a cunning Fellow, and thinks it a much greater Character to be terrible than agreeable. When it has once enter'd into a Man's Head to have an Ambition to be thought crafty, all other Evils are necessary Consequences. To [Page 7] deceive, is the immediate Endeavour of him who is proud of the Capacity of doing it. It is cer­tain, Polypragmon does all the Ill he possibly can, but pretends to much more than he performs. He is contented in his own Thoughts, and hugs himself in his Closet, that though he is locked up there and doing nothing, the World does not know but that he is doing Mischief. To favour this Suspicion, he gives Half-Looks and Shrugs in his general Behaviour, to give you to under­stand that you don't know what he means. He is also wonderfully adverbial in his Expressions, and breaks off with a Perhaps and a Nod of the Head, upon Matters of the most indifferent Na­ture. It is a mighty Practice with Men of this Genius to avoid frequent Appearance in Publick, and to be as mysterious as possible when they do come into Company. There is nothing to be done, according to them, the common Way; and let the Matter in Hand be what it will, it must be carried with an Air of Importance, and trans­acted, if we may so speak, with an ostentatious Secrecy. These are your Persons of long Heads, who would fain make the World believe their Thoughts and Idea's are very much superior to their Neighbours, and do not value what these their Neighbours think of them, provided they do not reckon them Fools. These have such a Romantick Touch in Business, that they hate to perform any Thing like other Men. Were it in their Choice, they had rather bring their Pur­poses to bear by over-reaching the Persons they deal with, than by a plain and simple Manner. They make Difficulties for the Honour of sur­mounting them. Polypragmon is eternally busied after this Manner, with no other Prospect than that he is in Hopes to be thought the most cun­ning of all Men, and fears the Imputation of Want of Understanding much more than that of the Abuse of it. But alas! How contemptible is [Page 8] such an Ambition, which is the very Reverse of all that is truly laudable; and the very Contra­diction to the only Means to a just Reputation, Simplicity of Manners? Cunning can in no Cir­cumstance imaginable be a Quality worthy a Man, except in his own Defence, and meerly to con­ceal himself from such as are so; and in such Cases it is no longer Craft, but Wisdom. The monstrous Affectation of being thought artful, immediately kills all Thoughts of Humanity and Goodness, and gives Men a Sense of the soft Affections and Impulses of the Mind (which are imprinted in us for our mutual Advantage and Succour) as of meer Weaknesses and Follies. Ac­cording to the Men of Cunning, you are to put off the Nature of a Man as fast as you can, and acquire that of a Daemon, as if it were a more eligible Character to be a powerful Enemy, than an able Friend. But it ought to be a Mortifica­tion to Men affected this Way, that there wants but little more than Instinct to be considerable in it; for when a Man has arrived at being very bad in his Inclination, he has not much more to do, but to conceal himself, and he may revenge, cheat, and deceive, without much Employment for Understanding, and go on with great Chear­fulness with the high Applause of being a prodi­gious cunning Fellow. But indeed, when we ar­rive at that Pitch of false Taste, as not to think Cunning a contemptible Quality, it is, methinks, a very great Injustice that Pickpockets are had in so little Veneration, who must be admirably well turned, not only for the Theoretick, but al­so the Practical Behaviour of cunning Fellows. After all the Endeavour of this Family of Men, whom we call cunning, their whole Work falls to Pieces, if others will lay down all Esteem for such Artifices, and treat it as an unmanly Quali­ty, which they forbear to practise only because they abhor it. When the Spider is ranging in [Page 9] the different Apartments of his Web, it is true that he only can weave so fine a Thread; but it is in the Power of the meerest Drone that has Wings to fly through and destroy it.

Tho' the Taste of Wit and Pleasure is at pre­sent but very low in this Town, yet there are some that preserve their Relish undebauched with common Impressions, and can distinguish between Reality and Imposture. A Gentleman was saying here this Evening, That he would go to the Play to Morrow Night to see Heroism, as it has been represented by some of our Tragedians, repre­sented in Burlesque. It seems, the Play of Alex­ander is to be then turned into Ridicule for its Bombast, and other false Ornaments in the Thought as well as the Language. The Bluster Alexander makes, is as much inconsistent with the Character of an Hero, as the Roughness of Clytus an Instance of the Sincerity of a bold art­less Soldier. To be plain is not to be rude, but rather inclines a Man to Civility and Deference; not indeed to show it in the Gestures of the Bo­dy, but in the Sentiments of the Mind. It is among other Things from the impertinent Fi­gures unskilful Dramatists draw of the Chara­cters of Men, that Youth are bewildered and pre­judiced in their Sense of the World, of which they have no Notions but what they draw from Books and such Representations. Thus talk to a very young Man, let him be of never so good Sense, and he shall smile when you speak of Sin­cerity in a Courtier, good Sense in a Soldier, or Honesty in a Politician. The Reason of this is, That you hardly see one Play wherein each of these Ways of Life is not drawn by Hands that know nothing of any one of them: And the Truth is so far of the opposite Side to what they paint, that it is more impracticable to live in Esteem in Courts than any where else without Sincerity. Good [Page 10] Sense is the great Requisite in a Soldier, and Ho­nesty the only Thing that can support a Politi­cian. This Way of Thinking made the Gentle­man of whom I was just now speaking say, He was glad any one had taken upon him to depre­ciate such unnatural Fustian as the Tragedy of Alexander. The Character of that Prince indeed was, That he was unequal, and given to Intem­perance; but in his sober Moments, when he had warm in his Imagination the Precepts of his great Instructor, he was a Pattern of generous Thoughts and Dispositions, in Opposition to the strongest Desires which are incident to a Youth and Con­queror. But instead of representing that Hero in the glorious Character of Generosity and Chasti­ty, in his Treatment of the beauteous Family of Darius, he is drawn all along as a Monster of Lust, or of Cruelty; as if the Way to raise him to the Degree of an Hero, were to make his Cha­racter as little like that of a worthy Man as pos­sible. Such rude and indigested Draughts of Things are the proper Objects of Ridicule and Contempt, and depreciating Alexander, as we have him drawn, is the only Way of restoring him to what he was in himself. It is well con­trived of the Players to let this Part be followed by a true Picture of Life, in the Comedy call'd, The Chances, wherein Don John and Constantia are acted to the utmost Perfection. There need not be a greater Instance of the Force of Action than in many Incidents of this Play, where indif­ferent Passages, and such that conduce only to the tacking of the Scenes together, are enlivened with such an agreeable Gesture and Behaviour, as apparently shows what a Play might be, tho' it is not wholly what a Play should be.

The TATLER. [No 192.
From Thursd. June 29. to Saturd. July 1. 1710.

Tecum vivere amem, tecum obeam libens.

SOme Years since I was engaged with a Coach full of Friends to take a Journey as far as the Land's-End. We were very well pleased with one another the first Day, every one endeavouring to recommend himself by his good Humour and Complaisance to the rest of the Company. This good Correspondence did not last long; one of our Party was sowred the very first Evening by a Plate of Butter which had not been melted to his Mind, and which spoiled his Temper to such a Degree, that he continued upon the Fret to the End of our Journey. A Second fell off from his good Humour the next Morning, for no other Reason that I could imagine, but because I chanced to step into the Coach before him, and place my self on the shady Side. This however was but my own private Guess, for he did not mention a Word of it, nor indeed of any Thing else, for Three Days following. The rest of our Company held out very near half the Way, when of a sudden Mr. Sprightly fell asleep; and in­stead of endeavouring to divert and oblige us, as he had hitherto done, carried himself with an unconcerned, careless, drowzy Behaviour, till we came to uur last Stage. There were Three of us who still held up our Heads, and did all we could to make our Journey agreeable; but, to my Shame be it spoken, about Three Miles on this Side Exeter, I was taken with an unaccountable [Page 12] Fit of Sullenness, that hung upon me for above Threescore Miles; whether it were for Want of Respect, or from an accidental. Tread upon my Foot, or from a foolish Maid's calling me The old Gentleman. I cannot tell. In short, there was but one who kept his good Humour to the Land's-End.

There was another Coach that went along with us, in which I likewise observed, that there were many secret Jealousies, Heart-burnings, and Ani­mosities: For when we joined Companies at Night, I could not but take Notice, that the Pas­sengers neglected their own Company, and stu­died how to make themselves esteemed by us, who were altogether Strangers to them; till at length they grew so well acquainted with us, that they liked us as little as they did one another. When I reflect upon this Journey, I often fancy it to be a Picture of Humane Life, in Respect to the several Friendships, Contracts, and Alliances, that are made and dissolved in the several Periods of it. The most delightful and most lasting En­gagements are generally those which pass between Man and Woman; and yet upon what Trifles are they weakened, or entirely broken? Sometimes the Parties fly asunder, even in the Midst of Courtship, and sometimes grow cool in the very Honey Month. Some separate before the First Child, and some after the Fifth; others continue good till Thirty, others till Forty; while some few, whose Souls are of an happier Make, and better fitted to one another, travel on toge­ther to the End of their Journey in a continual Intercourse of kind Offices and mutual Endear­ments.

When we therefore chuse our Companions for Life, if we hope to keep both them and our selves in good Humour to the last Stage of it, we must be extreamly careful in the Choice we make, as well as in the Conduct on our own [Page 13] Part. When the Persons to whom we join our selves can stand an Examination, and bear the Scrutiny, when they mend upon our Acquain­tance with them, and discover new Beauties the more we search into their Characters, our Love will naturally rise in Proportion to their Per­fections.

But because there are very few possessed of such Accomplishments of Body and Mind, we ought to look after those Qualifications both in our selves and others, which are indispensibly ne­cessary towards this happy Union, and which are in the Power of every one to acquire, or at least to cultivate and improve. These, in my Opinion, are Chearfulness and Constancy. A chearful Temper joined with Innocence, will make Beau­ty attractive, Knowledge delightful, and Wit good-natured. It will lighten Sickness, Poverty, and Affliction; convert Ignorance into an amia­ble Simplicity, and render Deformity it self agree­able.

Constancy is natural to Persons of even Tem­pers and uniform Dispositions, and may be ac­quired by those of the greatest Fickleness, Vio­lence and Passion, who consider seriously the Terms of Union upon which they come together, the mutual Interest in which they are engaged, with all the Motives that ought to incite their Tenderness and Compassion towards those who have their Dependance upon them, and are em­barked with them for Life in the same State of Happiness or Misery. Constancy, when it grows in the Mind upon Considerations of this Nature, becomes a Moral Virtue, and a kind of good Na­ture, that is not subject to any Change of Health, Age, Fortune, or any of those Accidents which are apt to unsettle the best Dispositions that are founded rather in Constitution than in Reason. Where such a Constancy as this is wanting, the most enflamed Passion may fall away into Cold­ness [Page 14] and Indifference, and the most melting Ten­derness degenerate into Hatred and Aversion. I shall conclude this Paper with a Story that is ve­ry well known in the North of England.

About Thirty Years ago, a Packet-Boat that had several Passengers on Board was cast away upon a Rock, and in so great Danger of sinking, that all who were in it endeavoured to save themselves as well at they could, though only those who could swim well had a bare Possibility of doing it. Among the Passengers there were Two Women of Fashion, who seeing themselves in such a disconsolate Condition, begged of their Husbands not to leave them. One of them chose rather to die with his Wife, than to forsake her; the other, though he was moved with the ut­most Compassion for his Wife, told her, That for the Good of their Children it was better one of them should live, than both perish. By a great Piece of good Luck, next to a Miracle, when one of our good Men had taken the last and long Farewel in order to save himself, and the other held in his Arms the Person that was dearer to him than Life, the Ship was preserved. It is with a secret Sorrow and Vexation of Mind that I must tell the Sequel of the Story, and let my Reader know, that this faithful Pair who were ready to have died in each others Arms, about Three Years after their Escape, upon some tri­fling Disgust, grew to a Coldness at first, and at length fell out to such a Degree, that they left one another, and parted for ever. The other Couple lived together in an uninterrupted Friend­ship and Felicity; and what was remarkable, the Husband whom the Shipwreck had like to have separated from his Wife, died a few Months after her, not being able to survive the Loss of her.

I must confess, there is something in the Changeableness and Inconstancy of Humane Na­ture, that very often both dejects and terrifies [Page 15] me. Whatever I am at present, I tremble to think what I may be. While I find this Principle in me, How can I assure my self that I shall be always true to my God, my Friend, or my self? In short, without Constancy there is neither Love, Friendship, or Virtue, in the World.

The TATLER. [No 193.
From Saturday July 1. to Tuesday July 4. 1710.

Qui didicit Patriae quid debeat, & quid Amicis,
Quo sit Amore Parens, quo Frater Amandus, & Hospes.
Scribere Personae scit Convenientia cuique.

I Have of late received many Epistles, where­in the Writers treat me as a mercenary Person for some late Hints concerning Matters which they think I should not have touched upon but for sordid Considerations. It is apparent, that my Motive could not be of that Kind; for when a Man declares him self openly on one Side, that Party will take no more Notice of him, because he is sure; and the Set of Men whom he declares against, for the same Reason are violent against him. Thus it is Folly in a Plain-Dealer to ex­pect, that either his Friends will reward him, or his Enemies forgive him. For which Reason, I thought it was the shortest Way to Impartiality, to put my self beyond further Hopes or Fears, by declaring my self, at a Time when the Dis­pute is not about Persons and Parties, but Things and Causes. To relieve my self from the Vexa­tion which naturally attends such Reflections, I came hither this Evening to give my Thoughts [Page 16] quite a new Turn, and converse with Men of Pleasure and Wit, rather than those of Business and Intrigue. I had hardly entered the Room, when I was accosted by Mr. Thomas Dogget, who desired my Favour in Relation to the Play which was to be acted for his Benefit on Thursday. He pleased me in saying it was The Old Batchelor, in which Comedy there is a necessary Circumstance observ'd by the Author, which most other Poets either overlook or do not understand, that is to say, the Distinction of Characters. It is very or­dinary with Writers to indulge a certain Modesty of believing all Men as witty as themselves, and making all the Persons of the Play speak the Sentiments of the Author, without any Manner of Respect to the Age, Fortune, or Quality, of him that is on the Stage. Ladies talk like Rakes, and Footmen make Similes: But this Writer knows Men. which makes his Plays reasonable Enter­tainments, while the Scenes of most others are like the Tunes between the Acts. They are per­haps agreeable Sounds, but they have no Idea's affixed to them. Dogget thanked me for my Vi­sit to him in the Winter, and, after his Comick Manner, spoke his Request with so arch a Leer, that I promised the Drole I would speak to all my Acquaintance to be at his Play.

Whatever the World may think of the Actors, whether it be that their Parts have an Effect on their Lives, or whatever it is, you see a wonder­ful Benevolence among them towards the Inte­rests and Necessities of each other. Dogget there­fore would not let me go, without delivering me a Letter from poor old Downes the Prompter, wherein that Retainer to the Theatre desires my Advice and Assistance in a Matter of Concern to him. I have sent him my private Opinion for his Conduct; but the Stage and the State Af­fairs being so much canvassed by Parties and Fa­ctions, I shall for some Time hereafter take Leave [Page 17] of Subjects which relate to either of them, and employ my Care in the Consideration of Matters which regard that Part of Mankind who live without interesting themselves with the Troubles or Pleasures of either. However, for a meer Notion of the present Posture of the Stage, I shall give you the Letter at large as follows:

Honoured Sir,

FInding by divers of your late Papers, that you are a Friend to the Profession of which I was many Years an unworthy Member, I the rather make bold to crave your Advice, touch­ing a Proposal that has been lately made me of coming again into Business, and the Sub-Admini­stration of Stage Affairs. I have, from my Youth, been bred up behind the Curtain, and been a Prompter from the Time of the Restoration. I have seen many Changes, as well of Scenes as of Actors, and have known Men within my Remembrance arrive to the highest Dignities of the Theatre, who made their Entrance in the Quality of Mutes, Joint-stools, Flower-pots, and Tapestry Hangings. It cannot be unknown to the Nobility and Gentry, That a Gentleman of the Inns of Court, and a deep Intriguer, had some Time since worked himself into the sole Management and Direction of the Theatre. Nor is it less notorious, That his restless Am­bition, and subtle Machinations, did manifestly tend to the Extirpation of the good old British Actors, and the Introduction of foreign Pre­tenders; such as Harlequins, French Dancers, and Roman Singers; which, though they impo­verish'd the Proprietors, and imposed on the Audience, were for some Time tolerated, by Reason of his dextrous Insinuations, which pre­vailed upon a few deluded Women, especially the Vizard Masks, to believe that the Stage was in Danger. But his Schemes were soon [Page 18] exposed, and the Great Ones that supported him withdrawing their Favour, he made his Exit, and remained for a Season in Obscurity. During this Retreat the Machiavilian was not idle, but secretly fomented Divisions, and wrought over to his Side some of the inferior Actors, reserving a Trap Door to himself, to which only he had a Key. This Entrance se­cured, this cunning Person, to compleat his Company, bethought himself of calling in the most eminent of Strollers from all Parts of the Kingdom. I have seen them all ranged toge­ther behind the Scenes; but they are many of them Persons that never trod the Stage before, and so very aukward and ungainly, that it is impossible to believe the Audience will bear them. He was looking over his Catalogue of Plays, and indeed picked up a good tolerable Set of grave Faces for Counsellors, to appear in the famous Scene of Venice Preserv'd, when the Danger is over; but they being but meer Outsides, and the Actors having a great Mind to play The Tempest, there is not a Man of them, when he is to perform any Thing above Dumb Show, is capable of acting with a good Grace so much as the Part of Trincalo. However, the Master persists in his Design, and is fitting up the old Storm; but I am afraid he will not be able to procure able Sailors or experienced Offi­cers for Love or Money.

Besides all this, when he comes to cast the Parts, there is so great a Confusion amongst them for Want of proper Actors, that for my Part I am wholly discouraged. The Play with which they design to open is, The Duke and no Duke; and they are so put to it, that the Master him­self is to act the Conjurer, and they have no one for the General but honest George Powell.

Now, Sir, they being so much at a Loss for the Dramatis Personae, viz. the Persons to enact, [Page 19] and the whole Frame of the House being de­signed to be altered, I desire your Opinion, whether you think it advisable for me to un­dertake to prompt 'em? For though I can clash Swords when they represent a Battle, and have yet Lungs enough left to huzza their Victo­ries, I question, if I should prompt 'em right, whether they would act accordingly. I am

Your Honour's most humble Servant, J. Downes.

P. S. Sir, Since I writ this, I am credibly in­formed, That they design a new House in Lin­colns-Inn-Fields, near the Popish Chapel, to be ready by Michaelmas next; which indeed is but repairing an old one that has already failed. You know the honest Man who kept the Office is gone already.

The TATLER. [No 194.
From Tuesday July 4. to Thursday July 6. 1710.

Militat omnis amans.

I Was this Morning reading the Tenth Canto in the Fourth Book of Spencer, in which Sir Scudamore relates the Progress of his Courtship to Amoret under a very beautiful Allegory, which is one of the most natural and unmixed of any in that most excellent Author. I shall transprose it, to use Mr. Bays's Term, for the Benefit of many English Lovers, who have by frequent Let­ters desired me to lay down some Rules for the Conduct of their virtuous Amours; and shall [Page 20] only premise, That by the Shield of Love, [...] meant a generous, constant Passion for the Person beloved.

When the Fame, says he, of this celebrated Beauty first flew Abroad, I went in Pursuit of her to the Temple of Love. This Temple, continues he, bore the Name of the Goddess Venus, and was seated in a most fruitful Island, walled by Nature against all Invaders. There was a single Bridge that led into the Island, and before it a Castle garrison'd by Twenty Knights. Near the Castle was an open Plain, and in the midst of it a Pillar, on which was hung the Shield of Love; and underneath it, in Letters of Gold, was this Inscription:

Happy the Man who well can use his Bliss;
Whose ever be the Shield, Fair Amoret be his.

My Heart panted upon reading the Inscription: I struck upon the Shield with my Spear. Imme­diately issued forth a Knight well mounted, and compleatly armed, who, without speaking, ran fiercely at me. I received him as well as I could, and by good Fortune threw him out of the Sad­dle. I encountered the whole Twenty succes­sively, and leaving them all extended on the Plain, carried off the Shield in Token of Victo­ry. Having thus vanquish'd my Rivals, I passed on without Impediment, till I came to the outer­most Gate of the Bridge, which I found locked and barred. I knocked and called, but could get no Answer. At last I saw one on the other Side of the Gate, who stood peeping through a small Crevice. This was the Porter; he had a double Face resembling a Janus, and was continually looking about him, as if he mistrusted some sud­den Danger. His Name, as I afterwards learn­ed, was Doubt. Over-against him sat Delay, who entertained Passengers with some idle Story, while they lost such Opportunities as were never [Page 21] to be recovered. As soon as the Porter saw my Shield, he opened the Gate; but upon my en­tring, Delay caught hold of me, and would fain have made me listen to her Fooleries. However, I shook her off, and passed forward till I came to the Second Gate, The Gate of good Desert, which always stood wide open, but in the Porch was an hideous Giant, that stop'd the Entrance: His Name was Danger. Many Warriors of good Reputation, not able to bear the Sternness of his Look, went back again. Cowards fled at the first Sight of him, except some few, who watch­ing their Opportunity, slipt by him unobserv'd. I prepared to assault him; but upon the first Sight of my Shield, he immediately gave Way. Look­ing back upon him, I found his hinder Parts much more deformed and terrible than his Face; Hatred, Murther, Treason, Envy, and Detraction, lying in Ambush behind him, to fall upon the Heedless and Unwary.

I now entered The Island of Love, which ap­peared in all the Beauties of Art and Nature, and feasted every Sense with the most agreeable Objects. Amidst a pleasing Variety of Walks and Allies, shady Seats, and flowry Banks, sun­ny Hills, and gloomy Valleys, were Thousands of Lovers sitting, or walking together in Pairs, and singing Hymns to the Deity of the Place.

I could not forbear envying this happy People, who were already in Possession of all they could desire. While I went forward to the Temple, the Structure was beautiful beyond Imagination. The Gate stood open. In the Entrance sat a most amiable Woman, whose Name was Concord.

On either Side of her stood Two young Men, both strongly armed, as if afraid of each other. As I afterwards learned they were both her Sons, but begotten of her by Two different Fathers; their Names, Love and Hatred.

[Page 22] The Lady so well tempered and reconciled them both, that she forced them to join Hands, tho' I could not but observe, that Hatred turned aside his Face, as not able to endure the Sight of his younger Brother.

I at length entered the Inmost Temple, the Roof of which was raised upon an Hundred Marble Pillars, decked with Crowns, Chains, and Garlands. The Ground was strowed with Flowers. An Hundred Altars, at each of which stood a Virgin Priestess cloathed in White, blazed all at once with the Sacrifice of Lovers, who were perpetually sending up their Vows to Hea­ven in Clouds of Incense.

In the Midst stood the Goddess her self, upon an Altar, whose Substance was neither Gold nor Stone, but infinitely more precious than either. About her Neck flew numberless Flocks of little Loves, Joys, and Graces; and all about her Altar lay scattered Heaps of Lovers, complaining of the Disdain, Pride, or Treachery, of their Mistresses. One among the rest, no longer able to contain his Griefs, broke out into the following Prayer: ‘'Venus, Queen of Grace and Beauty, Joy of Gods and Men, who with a Smile becalmest the Seas, and renewest all Nature; Goddess, whom all the different Species in the Universe obey with Joy and Pleasure, grant I may at last obtain the Object of my Vows.'’

The impatient Lover pronounced this with great Vehemence; but I in a soft Murmur be­sought the Goddess to lend me her Assistance. While I was thus praying, I chanced to cast my Eye on a Company of Ladies, who were assem­bled together in a Corner of the Temple waiting for the Anthem.

The foremost seemed something elder, and of a more composed Countenance than the rest, who all appeared to be under her Direction. Her Name was Womanhood. On one Side of her sat [Page 23] Shamefacedness, with Blushes rising in her Cheeks, and her Eyes fixed upon the Ground: On the o­ther was Chearfulness, with a smiling Look, that infused a secret Pleasure into the Hearts of all that saw her. With these sat Modesty, holding her Hand on her Heart; Courtesie, with a grace­ful Aspect, and obliging Behaviour; and the Two Sisters, who were always linked together, and resembled each other, Silence and Obedience.

Thus sat they all around in seemly Rate,
And in the Midst of them a goodly Maid;
Ev'n in the Lap of Womanhood there sate,
The which was all in Lilly-white array'd,
Where Silver Streams among the Linen stray'd;
Like to the Morn, when first her shining Face
Hath to the Gloomy World it self bewray'd.
That same was fairest Amoret in Place,
Shining with Beauty's Light, and Heav'nly Vir­tue's Grace.

As soon as I beheld the charming Amoret, my Heart throbbed with Hopes. I stepped to her, and seized her Hand; when Womanhood imme­diately rising up, sharply rebuked me for offer­ing in so rude a Manner to lay hold on a Virgin. I excused my self as modestly as I could, and at the same Time displayed my Shield; upon which, as soon as she beheld the God emblazoned with his Bow and Shafts, she was struck mute, and instantly retired.

I still held fast the fair Amoret, and turning my Eyes towards the Goddess of the Place, saw that she favoured my Pretensions with a Smile, which so emboldened me, that I carried off my Prize.

The Maid, sometimes with Tears, sometimes with Smiles, entreated me to let her go: But I led her through the Temple-Gate, where the Goddess Concord, who had favoured my Entrance, befriended my Retreat.

[Page 24] This Allegory is so natural, that it explains it self. The Persons in it are very artfully descri­bed, and disposed in proper Places. The Posts assigned to Doubt, Delay, and Danger, are admi­rable. The Gate of Good Desert has something noble and instructive in it. But above all, I am most pleased with the beautiful Grouppe of Fi­gures in the Corner of the Temple. Among these, Womanhood is drawn like what the Philo­sophers call an Universal Nature, and is attended with beautiful Representatives of all those Vir­tues that are the Ornaments of the Female Sex, considered in its natural Perfection and Inno­cence.

The TATLER. [No 195.
From Thursd. July 6. to Saturd. July 8. 1710.

THE Learned World are very much offend­ed at many of my Ratiocinations, and have but a very mean Opinion of me as a Politician. The Reason of this is, That some erroneously conceive a Talent for Politicks to consist in the Regard to a Man's own Interest; but I am of quite another Mind, and think the first and essen­tial Quality towards being a Statesman is to have a publick Spirit. One of the Gentlemen who are out of Humour with me, imputes my falling into a Way wherein I am so very aukward to a Barrenness of Invention, and has the Charity to lay new Matter before me for the future. He is at the Bottom my Friend, but is at a Loss to know whether I am a Fool or a Physician, and is pleased to expostulate with me with Relation to the latter. He falls heavy upon Licentiates, and seems to point more particularly at us who are [Page 25] not regularly of the Faculty. But since he has been so civil to me as to meddle only with those who are employed no further than about Men's Lives, and not reflected upon me as of the Astro­logical Sect, who concern our selves about Lives and Fortunes also, I am not so much hurt as to stifle any Part of his fond Letter.


I Am afraid there is something in the Suspi­cions of some People, that you begin to be short of Matter for your Lucubrations. Tho' several of them now and then did appear some­what dull and insipid to me, I was always cha­ritably inclined to believe the Fault lay in my self, and that I wanted the true Key to unci­pher your Mysteries, and remember your Ad­vertisement upon this Account. But since I have seen you fall in an unpardonable Error, yea, with a Relapse: I mean, since I have seen you turn Politician in the present unhappy Dis­sentions. I have begun to stagger, and could not chuse but lessen the great Value I had for the Censor of our Isle. How is it possible that a Man, whom Interest did naturally lead to a constant Impartiality in these Matters, and who hath Wit enough to judge, that his Opinion was not like to make many Proselytes? How is it possible, I say, that a little Passion (for I have still too good an Opinion of you to think you was bribed by the Staggering Party) could blind you so far as to offend the very better half of the Nation, and to lessen off so much the Number of your Friends? Mr. Morphew will not have Cause to thank you, unless you give over, and endeavour to regain what you have lost. There is still a great many Themes you have left untouched; such as the ill Manage­ments of Matters relating to Law and Physick, the setting down Rules for knowing the Quacks [Page 26] in both Professions. What a large Field is there left in discovering the Abuses of the College, who had a Charter and Privileges granted them to hinder the creeping in and prevailing of Quacks and Pretenders; and yet grant Licences to Barbers, and write Letters of Recommenda­tion in the Country Towns, out of the Reach of their Practice, in Favour of meer Boys; va­luing the Health and Lives of their Country­men no farther than they get Money by them. You have said very little or nothing about the Dispensation of Justice in Town and Country, where Clerks are the Counsellors to their Ma­sters.

But as I can't expect that the Censor of Great Britain should publish a Letter, wherein he is censured with too much Reason himself; yet I hope you will be the better for it, and think upon the Themes I have mentioned, which must certainly be of greater Service to the World, your self, and Mr. Morphew, than to let us know whether you are a Whig or a Tory. I am still

Your Admirer and Servant, Cato Junior.

This Gentleman and I differ about the Words, Staggering and Better Part; but instead of an­swering to the Particulars of this Epistle, I shall only acquaint my Correspondent, That I am at present forming my Thoughts upon the Founda­tion of Sir Scudamore's Progress in Spencer, which has led me from all other Amusements, to consi­der the State of Love in this Island; and from the Corruptions in the Government of that, to deduce the chief Evils of Life. In the mean Time that I am thus employed, I have given po­sitive Orders to Don Saltero of Chelsea the Tooth-Drawer, and Dr. Thomas Smith the Corn-Cutter of King-street, Westminster, (who have the Mo­desty [Page 27] to confine their Pretensions to Manual Ope­rations) to bring me in, with all convenient Speed, compleat Lists of all who are but of equal Learning with themselves, and yet administer Physick beyond the Feet and Gums. These Ad­vices I shall reserve for my future Leisure; but have now taken a Resolution to dedicate the re­maining Part of this Instant July to the Service of the Fair Sex, and have almost finished a Scheme for settling the whole Remainder of that Sex who are unmarried, and above the Age of Twen­ty five.

In order to this good and publick Service, I shall consider the Passion of Love in its full Ex­tent, as it is attended both with Joys and Inquie­tudes; and lay down, for the Conduct of my Lovers, such Rules as shall banish the Cares, and heighten the Pleasures, which flow from that amiable Spring of Life and Happiness. There is no less than an absolute Necessity that some Pro­vision be made to take off the dead Stock of Wo­men in City, Town, and Country. Let there happen but the least Disorder in the Streets. and in an Instant you see the Inequality of the Num­bers of Males and Females. Besides that the Feminine Crowd on such Occasions is more nu­merous in the open Way, you may observe them also to the very Garrets huddled together, Four at least at a Casement. Add to this, that by an exact Calculation of all that have come to Town by Stage-Coach or Waggon for this Twelvemonth last, Three Times in Four the treated Persons have been Males. This over-stock of Beauty, for which there are so few Bidders, calls for an im­mediate Supply of Lovers and Husbands; and I am the studious Knight-Errant who have suffer'd long Nocturnal Contemplations to find out Me­thods for the Relief of all British Females, who at present seem to be devoted to involuntary Vir­ginity. The Scheme upon which I design to act, [Page 28] I have communicated to none but a beauteous young Lady, (who has for some Time left the Town) in the following Letter:

To Amanda in Kent.


I Send with this, my Discourse of Ways and Means for encouraging Marriage, and re­peopling the Island. You will soon observe, that according to these Rules, the mean Consi­derations (which make Beauty and Merit cease to be the Objects of Love and Courtship) will be fully exploded. I have unanswerably pro­ved, that Jointures and Settlements are the Bane of Happiness; and not only so, but the Ruin even of their Fortunes who enter into them. I beg of you therefore to come to Town upon the Receipt of this, where I pro­mise you, you shall have as many Lovers as Toasters; for there needed nothing but to make Men's Interests fall in with their Inclinations, to render you the most courted of your Sex. As many as love you will now be willing to marry you: Hasten then, and be the honoura­ble Mistress of Mankind. Cassander, and many others, stand in the Gate of Good Descrt to re­ceive you. I am,

Your most Obedient, Most Humble Servant, Isaac Bickerstaff.

The TATLER. [No 196.
From Saturd. July 8. to Tuesd. July 11. 1710.

Dulcis inexperto cultura potentis Amici
Expertus metuit —

THE intended Course of my Studies was al­tered this Evening by a Visit from an old Acquaintance, who complained to me, mention­ing one upon whom he had long depended, that he found his Labour and Perseverance in his Pa­tron's Service and Interests wholly ineffectual; and he thought now, after his best Years were spent in a professed Adherence to him and his Fortunes, he should in the End be forced to break with him, and give over all further Ex­pectations from him. He sighed, and ended his Discourse, by saying, ‘'You, Mr. Censor, some Time ago, gave us your Thoughts of the Beha­viour of great Men to their Creditors.'’ This Sort of Demand upon them, for what they invite Men to expect, is a Debt of Honour, which, ac­cording to Custom, they ought to be most care­ful of paying, and would be a very worthy Sub­ject for a Lucubration.

Of all Men living, I think, I am the most pro­per to treat of this Matter; because in the Cha­racter and Employment of Censor, I have had Encouragement so infinitely above my Desert, that what I say cannot possibly be supposed to arise from Peevishness, or any Disappointment in that Kind which I my self have met with. When we consider Patrons and their Clients, those who receive Addresses, and those who are [Page 30] addressed to, it must not be understood that the Dependants are such as are worthless in their Natures, abandoned to any Vice or Dishonour, or such as without a Call thrust themselves upon Men in Power; nor when we say Patrons, do we mean such as have it not in their Power, or have no Obligation to assist their Friends; but we speak of such Leagues where there are Power and Obligation on the one Part, and Merit and Expectation on the other. Were we to be very particular on this Subject, I take it, that the Di­vision of Patron and Client may include a Third Part of our Nation. The Want of Merit and real Worth will strike out about Ninety nine in the Hundred of these, and Want of Ability in the Patron will dispose of as many of that Or­der. He who out of meer Vanity to be applied to will take up another's Time and Fortune in his Service, where he has no Prospect of returning it, is as much more unjust as those who took up my Friend the Upholder's Goods without paying him for them. I say, he is much more unjust, as our Life and Time is more valuable than our Goods and Moveables. Among many whom you see about the Great, there is a contented well­pleased Set, who seem to like the Attendance for its own Sake, and are early at the Abodes of the powerful, out of meer Fashion. This Sort of Vanity is as well grounded, as if a Man should lay aside his own plain Suit, and dress himself up in a gay Livery of anothers.

There are many of this Species who exclude others of just Expectation, and make those pro­per Dependants appear impatient, because they are not so chearful as those who expect nothing. I have made use of the Penny-Post for the In­struction of these voluntary Slaves, and informed them, that they will never be provided for; but they double their Diligence upon Admonition. Will Afterday has told his Friends, that he was [Page 31] to have the next Thing these Ten Years; and Harry Linger has been Fourteen within a Month of a considerable Office. However, the fanta­stick Complaisance which is paid to them may blind the Great from seeing themselves in a just Light, they must needs (if they in the least re­flect) at some Times have a Sense of the Injustice they do in raising in others a false Expectation. But this is so common a Practice in all the Stages of Power, that there are not more Cripples come out of the Wars, than from the Attendance of Patrons. You see in one a settled Melancholy, in another a bridled Rage, a Third has lost his Memory, and a Fourth his whole Constitution and Humour. In a Word, when you see a par­ticular Cast of Mind or Body, which looks a lit­tle upon the Distracted, you may be sure the poor Gentleman has formerly had great Friends. For this Reason, I have thought it a prudent Thing to take a Nephew of mine out of a Ladies Service, where he was a Page, and have bound him to a Shoemaker.

But what of all the Humours under the Sun is the most pleasant to consider, is, That you see some Men lay as it were a Set of Acquaintance by them, to converse with when they are out of Employment, who had no Effect of their Power when they were in. Here Patrons and Clients both make the most fantastical Figure imagina­ble. Friendship indeed is most manifested in Adversity; but I do not know how to behave my self to a Man who thinks me his Friend at no other Time but that. Dick Reptile of our Club had this in his Head t'other Night, when he said, I am afraid of ill News when I am visited by any of my old Friends. These Patrons are a little like some fine Gentlemen, who spend all their Hours of Gaiety with their Wenches, but when they fall sick, will let no one come near them but their Wives. It seems, Truth and Honour [Page 32] are Companions too sober for Prosperity. It is certainly the most black Ingratitude to accept of a Man's best Endeavours to be pleasing to you, and return it with Indifference.

I am so much of this Mind, that Dick Eastcourt the Comedian, for coming one Night to our Club, tho' he laughed at us all the Time he was there, shall have our Company at his Play on Thursday. A Man of Talents is to be favoured, or never admitted. Let the ordinary World truck for Money and Wares, but Men of Spirit and Conversation should in every Kind do others as much Pleasure as they receive from them. But Men are so taken up with outward Forms, that they do not consider their Actions; else how should it be, that a Man shall deny that to the Entreaties and almost Tears of an old Friend, which he shall solicit a new one to accept of? I remember, when I first came out of Staffordshire, I had an Intimacy with a Man of Quality, in whose Gift there fell a very good Employment. All the Town cry'd, There's a Thing for Mr. Bick­erstaff! When, to my great Astonishment, I found my Patron had been forced upon Twenty Artifices to surprize a Man with it who never thought of it: But sure it is a Degree of Murder to amuse Men with vain Hopes. If a Man takes away another's Life, where is the Difference, whether he does it by taking away the Minutes of his Time, or the Drops of his Blood? But in­deed, such as have Hearts barren of Kindness are served accordingly by those whom they employ, and pass their Lives away with an empty Shew of Civility for Love, and an insipid Intercourse of a Commerce in which their Affections are no way concerned. But on the other Side, How beauti­ful is the Life of a Patron who performs his Du­ty to his Inferiors? A worthy Merchant, who employs a Crowd of Artificers? A great Lord, who is generous and merciful to the several Ne­cessities [Page 33] of his Tenants? A Courtier, who uses his Credit and Power for the Welfare of his Friends? These have in their several Stations a quick Relish of the exquisite Pleasure of doing Good. In a Word, good Patrons are like the Guardian Angels of Plato, who are ever busy, though unseen, in the Care of their Wards; but ill Patrons are like the Deities of Epicurus, su­pine, indolent, and unconcerned, though they see Mortals in Storms and Tempests even while they are offering Incense to their Power.

The TATLER. [No 197.
From Tuesday July 11. to Thursday July 13. 1710.

Semper ego Auditor tantum? —

WHEN I came hither this Evening, the Man of the House delivered me a Book very finely bound. When I received it, I over­heard one of the Boys whisper another, and say, It was a fine Thing to be a great Scholar! What a pretty Book that is! It has indeed a very gay Outside, and is dedicated to me by a very inge­nious Gentleman, who does not put his Name to it. The Title of it (for the Work is in Latin) is, Epistolarum Obscurorum Virorum, ad Dm. M. Or­tuinum Gratium, Volumina II. &c. "The Epi­stles of the Obscure Writers to Ortuinus, &c." The Purpose of the Work is signified in the Dedi­cation, in very elegant Language, and fine Rail­lery. It seems, this is a Collection of Letters which some profound Blockheads, who lived be­fore our Times, have written in Honour of each [Page 34] other, and for their mutual Information in each others Absurdities. They are mostly of the Ger­man Nation, whence from Time to Time Inun­dations of Writers have flow'd, more pernicious to the Learned World than the Swarms of Goths and Vandals to the Politick. It is, methinks, wonderful, that Fellows could be awake, and utter such incoherent Conceptions, and converse with great Gravity like learned Men, without the least Tast of Knowledge or good Sense. It would have been an endless Labour to have ta­ken any other Method of exposing such Imperti­nencies, than by an Edition of their own Works, where you see their Follies, according to the Am­bition of such Virtuosi, in a most correct Edition.

Looking over these accomplish'd Labours, I could not but reflect upon the immense Load of Writings which the Commonalty of Scholars have pushed into the World, and the Absurdity of Parents, who educate Crowds to spend their Time in Pursuit of such cold and sprightless En­deavours to appear in Publick. It seems there­fore a fruitless Labour to attempt the Correction of the Tast of our Contemporaries, except it was in our Power to burn all the senseless La­bours of our Ancestors. There is a secret Pro­pensity in Nature from Generation to Generation in the Blockheads of one Age to admire those of another; and Men of the same Imperfections are as great Admirers of each other, as those of the same Abilities.

This great Mischief of voluminous Follies pro­ceeds from a Misfortune which happens in all Ages, that Men of barren Genius's, but fertile Imaginations, are bred Scholars. This may at first appear a Paradox; but when we consider the talking Creatures we meet in publick Places, it will no longer be such. Ralph Shallow is a young Fellow, that has not by Nature any the least Pro­pensity to strike into what has not been observed [Page 35] and said every Day of his Life by others; but with that Inability of speaking any Thing that is uncommon, he has a great Readiness at what he can speak of, and his Imagination runs into all the different Views of the Subject he treats of in a Moment. If Ralph had Learning added to the common Chit-Chat of the Town, he would have been a Disputant upon all Topicks that ever were considered by Men of his own Genius. As for my Part, I never am teazed by an empty Town-Fellow, but I bless my Stars that he was not bred a Scholar. This Addition, we must consider, would have made him capable of maintaining his Follies. His being in the Wrong would have been protected by suitable Arguments; and when he was hedged in by Logical Terms, and false Appearances, you must have owned your self convinced before you could then have got rid of him, and the Shame of his Triumph had been ad­ded to the Pain of his Impertinence.

There is a Sort of Littleness in the Minds of Men of wrong Sense, which makes them much more insufferable than meer Fools, and has the further Inconvenience of being attended by an endless Loquacity. For which Reason, it would be a very proper Work, if some Well-wisher to humane Society would consider the Terms upon which People meet in publick Places, in order to prevent the unseasonable Declamations which we meet with there. I remember, in my Youth it was an Humour at the University, when a Fel­low pretended to be more eloquent than ordinary, and had formed to himself a Plot to gain all our Admiration, or triumph over us with an Argu­ment, to either of which he had no Manner of Call; I say, in either of these Cases, it was the Humour to shut one Eye. This whimsical Way of taking Notice to him of his Absurdity, has prevented many a Man from being a Coxcomb. If amongst us, on such an Occasion each Man of­fered [Page 36] a voluntary Rhetorician some Snuff, it would probably produce the same Effect. As the Matter now stands, whether a Man will or no, he is obliged to be informed in whatever another pleases to entertain him with, tho' the Preceptor makes these Advances out of Vanity, and not to instruct, but insult him.

There is no Man will allow him who wants Courage to be called a Soldier; but Men who want good Sense, are very frequently not only al­lowed to be Scholars, but esteemed for being such. At the same Time it must be granted, that as Courage is the natural Parts of a Soldier, so is a good Understanding of a Scholar. Such little Minds as these, whose Productions are collected in the Volume to which I have the Honour to be Patron, are the Instruments for artful Men to work with, and become popular with the un­thinking Part of Mankind. In Courts, they make transparent Flatterers; in Camps, ostentatious Bullies; in Colleges, unintelligible Pedants; and their Faculties are used accordingly by those who lead them.

When a Man who wants Judgment is admitted into the Conversation of reasonable Men, he shall remember such improper Circumstances, and draw such groundless Conclusions from their Discourse, and that with such Colour of Sense, as would divide the best Set of Company that can be got together. It is just thus with a Fool who has a Familiarity with Books, he shall quote and recite one Author against another, in such a Man­ner as shall puzzle the best Understanding to re­fute him; tho' the most ordinary Capacity may ob­serve, that it is only Ignorance which makes the Intricacy. All the true Use of that we call Learn­ing, is to ennoble and improve our natural Fa­culties, and not to disguise our Imperfections. It is therefore in vain for Folly to attempt to conceal it self by the Refuge of Learned Languages. Li­terature [Page 37] does but make a Man more eminently the Thing which Nature made him; and Poly­glottes, had he studied less than he has, and writ only in his Mother Tongue, had been known on­ly in Great Britain for a Pedant.

Mr. Bickerstaff thanks Dorinda, and will both answer her Letter, and take her Advice.

The TATLER. [No 198.
From Thursday July 13. to Saturday July 15. 1710.

Quale sit id quod amas celeri circumspice Mente,
Et tua caesura substrahe Colla Jugo.

The History of Caelia.

IT is not necessary to look back into the First Years of this young Lady, whose Story is of Consequence only as her Life has lately met with Passages very uncommon. She is now in the Twentieth Year of her Age, and owes a strict, but chearful Education, to the Care of an Aunt, to whom she was recommended by her dying Fa­ther, whose Decease was hastened by an incon­solable Affliction for the Loss of her Mother. As Caelia is the Offspring of the most generous Pas­sion that has been known in our Age, she is adorned with as much Beauty and Grace as the most celebrated of her Sex possess; but her Do­mestick Life, moderate Fortune, and religious Educaiton, gave her but little Opportunity, and less Inclination, to be admired in publick Assem­blies. Her Abode has been for some Years a con­venient Distance from the Cathedral of St. Paul's, [Page 38] where her Aunt and she chose to reside, for the Advantage of that rapturous Way of Devotion which gives Extasy to the Pleasures of Innocence, and, in some Measure, is the immediate Posses­sion of those Heavenly Enjoyments for which they are addressed.

As you may trace the usual Thoughts of Men in their Countenances, there appeared in the Face of Caelia a Chearfulness, the constant Companion of unaffected Virtue; and a Gladness, which is as inseparable from true Piety. Her every Look and Motion spoke the peaceful, mild, resigning, humble Inhabitant, that animated her beauteous Body. Her Air discovered her Body a meer Ma­chine of her Mind, and not that her Thoughts were employed in studying Graces and Attractions for her Person. Such was Caelia when she was first seen by Palamede at her usual Place of Wor­ship. Palamede is a young Man of Two and twenty, well-fashioned, learned, genteel, and dis­creet, the Son and Heir of a Gentleman of a very great Estate, and himself possessed of a plenti­ful one by the Gift of an Unkle. He became enamoured with Caelia, and after having learned her Habitation, had Address enough to commu­nicate his Passion and Circumstances with such an Air of good Sense and Integrity, as soon obtain'd Permission to visit and profess his Inclinations to­wards her. Palamede's present Fortune and fu­ture Expectations were no Way prejudicial to his Addresses; but after the Lovers had passed some Time in the agreeable Entertainments of a suc­cessful Courtship, Caelia one Day took Occasion to interrupt Palamede in the Midst of a very plea­sing Discourse of the Happiness he promised him­self in so accomplished a Companion, and as­suming a serious Air, told him, there was another Heart to be won before he gained hers, which was that of his Father. Palamede seemed much disturbed at the Overture, and lamented to her, [Page 39] That his Father was one of those too provident Pa­rents, who only place their Thoughts upon bring­ing Riches into their Families by Marriages, and are wholly insensible of all other Considerations. But the Strictness of Caelia's Rules of Life made her insist upon this Demand; and the Son, at a proper Hour, communicated to his Father the Circumstances of his Love, and the Merit of the Object. The next Day the Father made her a Visit. The Beauty of her Person, the Fame of her Virtue, and a certain irresistible Charm in her whole Behaviour on so tender and delicate an Oc­casion, wrought so much upon him, in Spight of all Prepossessions, that he hastened the Marriage with an Impatience equal to that of his Son. Their Nuptials were celebrated with a Privacy suitable to the Character and Modesty of Caelia, and from that Day, till a fatal one of last Week, they lived together with all the Joy and Happi­ness which attend Minds entirely united.

It should have been intimated, That Palamede is a Student of the Temple, and usually retired thi­ther early in a Morning, Caelia still sleeping.

It happened a few Days since, that she followed him thither to communicate to him something she had omitted in her redundant Fondness to speak of the Evening before. When she came to his Apart­ment, the Servant there told her, she was coming with a Letter to her. While Caelia in an Inner Room was reading an Apology from her Husband, That he had been suddenly taken by some of his Acquaintance to dine at Brentford, but that he should return in the Evening, a Country Girl, de­cently clad, asked, If those were not the Cham­bers of Mr. Palamede? She was answered, They were, but that he was not in Town. The Stranger asked, When he was expected at Home? The Ser­vant replied, She would go in and ask his Wife. The young Woman repeated the Word Wife, and fainted. This Accident rais'd no less Curiosity [Page 40] when Amazement in Caelia, who caused her to be removed into the Inner Room. Upon proper Ap­plications to revive her, the unhappy young Crea­ture returned to her self, and said to Caelia, with an earnest and beseeching Tone, Are you really Mr. Palamede's Wife? Caelia replies, I hope I do not look as if I were any other in the Condition you see me. The Stranger answers, No, Madam, he is my Husband. At the same Instant she threw a Bundle of Letters into Caelia's Lap, which con­firmed the Truth of what she asserted. Their mu­tual Innocence and Sorrow made them look at each other as Partners in Distress, rather than Rivals in Love. The Superiority of Caelia's Un­derstanding and Genius gave her an Authority to examine into this Adventure as if she had been offended against, and the other the Delinquent. The Stranger spoke in the following Manner:


If it shall please you, Mr. Palamede having an Unkle of a good Estate near Winchester, was bred at the School there, to gain the more his good Will by being in his Sight. His Unkle died, and left him the Estate, which my Husband now has. When he was a meer Youth he set his Affections on me; but when he could not gain his Ends he married me, making me and my Mother, who is a Farmer's Widow, swear we would never tell it upon any Account whatsoever; for that it would not look well for him to marry such a one as me; besides, that his Father would cut him off of the Estate. I was glad to have him in an honest Way, and he now and then came and stay'd a Night and away at our House. But very lately he came down to see us, with a fine young Gentleman his Friend, who stay'd behind there with us, pretending to like the Place for the Summer; but ever since Master Palamede went, he has attempted to abuse me; [Page 41] and I ran hither to acquaint him with it, and avoid the wicked Intentions of his false Friend.

Caelia had no more Room for Doubt, but left her Rival in the same Agonies she felt her self. Palamede returns in the Evening, and finding his Wife at his Chambers, learned all that had pas­sed, and hastened to Caelia's Lodgings.

It is much easier to imagine than express the Sentiments of either the Criminal or the Injured at this Encounter.

Assoon as Palamede had found Way for Speech, he confessed his Marriage, and his placing his Companion on Purpose to vitiate his Wife, that he might break through a Marriage made in his Nonage, and devote his riper and knowing Years to Caelia. She made him no Answer; but retired to her Closet. He returned to the Temple, where he soon after received from her the following Letter:


YOU, who this Morning were the best, are now the worst of Men who beath vital Air. I am at once overwhelmed with Love, Hatred, Rage, and Disdain. Can Infamy and Innocence live to­gether? I feel the Weight of the one too strong for the Comfort of the other. How bitter, Heaven, how bitter is my Portion? How much have I to say; but the Infant which I bear about me stirs with my Agitation. I am, Palamede, to live in Shame, and this Creature be Heir to it. Farewel for ever.

The TATLER. [No 199.
From Saturd. July 15. to Tuesd. July 18. 1710.

WHEN we revolve in our Thoughts such Catastrophes as that in the History of the unhappy Caelia, there seems to be something so hazardous in the changing a single State of Life into that of Marriage, that (it may happen) all the Precautions imaginable are not sufficient to defend a Virgin from Ruin by her Choice. It seems a wonderful Inconsistence in the Distribu­tion of publick Justice, that a Man who robs a Woman of an Ear-ring or a Jewel, should be pu­nished with Death; but one who by false Arts and Insinuations should take from her her very self, is only to suffer Disgrace. This excellent young Woman has nothing to consolate her self with, but the Reflection that her Sufferings are not the Effect of any Guilt or Misconduct, and has for her Protection the Influence of a Power which, amidst the unjust Reproach of all Mankind, can give not only Patience, but Pleasure to Innocence in Distress.

As the Person who is the Criminal against Caelia cannot be sufficiently punished according to our present Law, so are there numberless unhappy Persons without Remedy according to present Custom. That great Ill which has prevailed a­mong us in these latter Ages, is the making even Beauty and Virtue the Purchase of Money. The Generality of Parents, and some of those of Qua­lity, instead of looking out for introducing Health of Constitution, Frankness of Spirit, or Dignity of Countenance, into their Families, lay out all their Thoughts upon finding out Marches for their Estates, and not their Children. You shall have [Page 43] one form a Plot for the Good of his Family, that there shall not be Six Men in England capable of pretending to his Daughter. A Second shall have a Son obliged, out of meer Discretion, for fear of doing any Thing below himself, follow all the Drabs in Town. These sage Parents meet; and as there is no Pass, no Courtship, between the young Ones, it is no unpleasant Observation to behold how they proceed to Treaty. There is ever in the Behaviour of each something that denotes his Cir­cumstance; and honest Coupler the Conveniencer says, he can distinguish upon Sight of the Parties, before they have opened any Point of their Busi­ness, which of the Two has the Daughter to sell. Coupler is of our Club, and I have frequently heard him declaim upon this Subject, and assert, that the Marriage-Settlements which are now used have grown fashionable even within his Memory.

When the Theatre in some late Reigns owed its chief Support to those Scenes which were written to put Matrimony out of Countenance, and render that State terrible, then was it that Pin-Money first prevailed, and all the other Articles inserted which create a Diffidence; and intimate to the young People, that they are very soon to be in a State of War with each other: Tho' this had sel­dom happened, except the Fear of it had been ex­pressed. Coupler will tell you also, that Jointures were never frequent till the Age before his own; but the Women were contented with the Third Part of the Estate the Law allotted them, and scorned to engage with Men whom they thought capable of abusing their Children. He has also in­formed me, that those who were the oldest Bench­ers when he came to the Temple told him, the first Marriage-Settlement of considerable Length was the Invention of an old Serjeant, who took the Opportunity of Two Testy Fathers, who were ever squabbling to bring about an Alliance be­tween their Children. These Fellows knew each [Page 44] other to be Knaves, and the Serjeant took hold of their mutual Diffidence, for the Benefit of the Law, to extend the Settlement to Three Skins of Parchment.

To this great Benefactor to the Profession is ow­ing the present Price Current of Lines and Words. Thus is Tenderness thrown out of the Question; and the great Care is, What the young Couple shall do when they come to hate each other? I do not question but from this one Humour of Settle­ments, might very fairly be deduced not only our present Defection in Point of Morals, but also our Want of People. This has given Way to such un­reasonable Gallantries, that a Man is hardly re­proachable that deceives an innocent Woman, tho' she has never so much Merit, if she is below him in Fortune. The Man has no Dishonour fol­lowing his Treachery; and her own Sex are so debased by Force of Custom, as to say in the Case of the Woman, How could she expect he would marry her?

By this Means the good Offices, the Pleasures and Graces of Life, are not put into the Ballance: The Bridegroom has given his Estate out of him­self and he has no more left but to follow the blind Decree of his Fate, whether he shall be succeeded by a Sot, or a Man of Merit, in his Fortune. On the other Side, a fine Woman, who has also a Fortune, is set up by Way of Auction; her first Lover has Ten to One against him. The very Hour after he has opened his Heart and his Rent-Roll, he is made no other Use of, but to raise her Price. She and her Friends lose no Opportunity of pub­lishing it to call in new Bidders. While the poor Lover very innocently waits till the Plenipoten­tiaries at the Inns of Court have debated about the Alliance, all the Partisans of the Lady throw Difficulties in the Way, till other Offers come in; and the Man who came first is not put in Posses­sion, till she has been refused by half the Town. [Page 45] If an Abhorrence to such mercenary Proceedings were well settled in the Minds of my Fair Read­ers, those of Merit would have a Way opened to their Advancement: nay, those who abound in Wealth only, would in Reality find their Account in it. It would not be in the Power of their Prude Acquaintance, their Waiters, their Nurses, Cousins and Whisperers, to perswade them, that there are not above Twenty Men in a Kingdom, (and those such as perhaps they may never set Eyes on) whom they can think of with Discre­tion. As the Case stands now, let any one consi­der, how the great Heiresses, and those to whom they were offered, for no other Reason but that they could make them suitable Settlements, live together. What can be more insipid, if not loath­some, than for Two Persons to be at the Head of a Crowd, who have as little Regard for them as they for each other, and behold one another in an affected Sense of Prosperity, without the least Re­lish of that exquisite Gladness at meeting, that sweet Inquietude at parting, together with the Charms of Voice, Look, Gesture, and that general Benevolence between well chosen Lovers, which makes all Things please, and leaves not the least Trifle indifferent.

But I am diverted from these Sketches for fu­ture Essays, in Behalf of my numerous Clients of the Fair Sex, by a Notice sent to my Office in Sheer-Lane, That a blooming Widow, in the Third Year of her Widowhood, and Twenty six of her Age, designs to take a Colonel of Twenty eight. The Parties request I would draw up their Terms of coming together, as having a Regard to my Opinion against long and diffident Settle­ments; and I have sens them the following In­denture:

[Page 46]We John — and Mary — having Estates for Life, resolve to take each other. I John will venture my Life to enrich thee Mary; and I Mary will consult my Health to nurse thee John. To which we have interchangeably set our Hands, Hearts, and Seals, this 17th of July, 1710.

The TATLER. [No 200.
From Tuesday July 18. to Thursday July 20. 1710.

HAving devoted the greater Part of my Time to the Service of the Fair Sex, I must ask Pardon of my Men Correspondents if I postpone their Commands, when I have any from the La­dies which lie unanswered. That which follows is of Importance.


YOU can't think it strange if I, who know little of the World, apply to you for Ad­vice in the weighty Affair of Matrimony, since you your self have often declared it to be of that Consequence as to require the utmost Delibera­tion. Without farther Preface therefore, give me Leave to tell you, that my Father at his Death left me a Fortune sufficient to make me a March for any Gentleman. My Mother (for she is still alive (is very pressing with me to marry; and I am apt to think, to gratify her, I shall venture upon One of Two Gentlemen who at this Time make their Addresses to me. My Request is, that you would direct me in my Choice; which that you may the better do, I shall give you their Characters; and to avoid Confusion, desire you to call them by the Names of Philander and Sil­vius. [Page 47] Philander is young, and has a good Estate; Silvius is as young, and has a better. The for­mer has had a liberal Education, has seen the Town, is retired from thence to his Estate in the Country, is a Man of few Words, and much gi­ven to Books. The latter was brought up un­der his Father's Eye, who gave him just Learn­ing enough to enable him to keep his Accounts; but made him withal very expert in Country Business, such as Ploughing, Sowing, Buying, Selling, and the like. They are both very so­ber Men, neither of their Persons is disagreea­able, nor did I know which to prefer till I had heard them discourse; when the Conversation of Philander so much prevailed, as to give him the Advantage, with me, in all other Respects. My Mother pleads strongly for Silvius, and uses these Arguments, That he not only has the lar­ger Estate at present, but by his good Husban­dry and Management increases it daily; That his little Knowledge in other Affairs will make him easy and tractable; whereas (according to her) Men of Letters know too much to make good Husbands. To Part of this I ima­gine I answer effectually, by saying, Philander's Estate is large enough; That they who think 2000 l. a Year sufficient, make no Difference be­tween that and Three. I easily believe him less conversant in those Affairs, the Knowledge of which she so much commends in Silvius; but I think them neither so necessary or becoming in a Gentleman as the Accomplishments of Philander. It is no great Character of a Man to say, He rides in his Coach and Six, and understands as much as he who follows his Plough. Add to this, That the Conversation of these Sort of Men seems so disagreeable to me, that tho' they may make good Bailiffs, I can hardly be perswaded they can be good Companions. 'Tis possible I may seem to have odd Notions, when I say I am [Page 48] not fond of a Man only for being of (what is called) a Thriving Temper. To conclude, I own I am at a Loss to conceive how good Sense should make a Man an ill Husband, or conversing with Books less complaisant.


The Resolution which this Lady is going to take, she may very well say is founded on Rea­son: For after the Necessities of Life are served, there is no manner of Competition between a Man of Liberal Education and an Illiterate. Men are not altered by their Circumstances, but as they give them Opportunities of exerting what they are in themselves; and a powerful Clown is a Tyrant in the most ugly Form he can possibly appear. There lies a seeming Objection in the thoughtful Manner of Philander: But let her consider which she shall oftener have Occasion to wish, that Philander would speak, or Silvius hold his Tongue.

The Train of my Discourse is prevented by the urgent Hast of another Correspondent.

Mr. Bickerstaff,

THis comes to you from one of those Virgins of Twenty five Years old and upwards, that you, like a Patron of the Distressed, pro­mised to provide for; who makes it her hum­ble Request, that no Occasional Stories or Sub­jects may (as they have for Three or Four of your last Days) prevent your publishing the Scheme you have communicated to Amanda, for every Day and Hour is of the greatest Con­sequence to Damsels of so advanced an Age. Be quick then, if you intend to do any Service for

Your Admirer, Diana Forecast.

[Page 49] In this important Affair, I have not neglected the Proposals of others. Among them is the fol­lowing Sketch of a Lottery for Persons. The Au­thor of it has proposed very ample Encourage­ment, not only to my self, but also to Charles Lil­lie and John Morphew. If the Matter bears, I shall not be unjust to his Merit: I only desire to enlarge his Plan; for which Purpose I lay it before the Town, as well for the Improvement as Encourage­ment of it.

The Amicable Contribution for raising the Fortunes of Ten young Ladies.

Imprimis, It is proposed to raise 100000 Crowns by Way of Lots, which will advance for each Lady 2500 l. which Sum, together with one of the Ladies, the Gentleman that shall be so hap­py as to draw a Prize, (provided they both like) will be entitled to, under such Restricti­ons hereafter mentioned. And in case they do not like, then either Party that refuses shall be entitled to 1000 l. only, and the Remainder to him or her that shall be willing to marry, the Man being first to declare his Mind. But it is provided, That if both Parties shall consent to have one another, the Gentleman shall, before he receives the Money thus raised, settle 1000 l. of the same in substantial Hands, (who shall be as Trustees for the said Ladies) and shall have the whole and sole Disposal of it for her Use only.

Note, Each Party shall have Three Months Time to consider, after an Interview had, which shall be within Ten Days after the Lots are drawn.

Note also, The Name and Place of Abode of the Prize shall be placed on a proper Ticket.

[Page 50] Item, They shall be Ladies that have had a liberal Education, between Fifteen and Twenty three, all genteel, witty, and of unblameable Characters.

The Money to be raised shall be kept in an Iron Box, and when there shall be 2000 Sub­scriptions, which amounts to 500 l. it shall be taken out and put into a Goldsmith's Hands, and the Note made payable to the proper Lady, or her Assigns, (with a Clause therein to hin­der her from receiving it, till the fortunate Person that draws her shall first sign the Note) and so on till the whole Sum is subscribed for: And as soon as 100000 Subscriptions are com­pleated, and 200 Crowns more to pay the Charges, the Lottery shall be drawn at a pro­per Place, to be appointed a Fortnight before the Drawing.

Note, Mr. Bickerstaff objects to the marriage­able Years here mentioned; and is of Opi­nion, they should not commence till after Twenty three. But he appeals to the Learned, both of Warwick-Lane and Bishops­gate-Street, on this Subject.

The TATLER. [No 201.
From Thursd. July 20. to Saturd. July 22. 1710.

IT has been often asserted in these Papers, That the great Source of our wrong Pursuits is the impertinent Manner with which we treat Women, both in the common and important Circumstan­ces of Life. In vain do we say, the whole Sex would run into England, while the Privileges which are allowed them, do no way ballance the [Page 51] Inconveniencies arising from those very Immuni­ties. Our Women have very much indulged to them in the Participation of our Fortunes and our Liberty; but the Errors they commit in the Use of either, are by no means so impartially consi­dered, as the false Steps which are made by Men. In the Commerce of Lovers, the Man makes the Address, assails, and betrays, and yet stands in the same Degree of Acceptance as he was in before he committed that Treachery: The Woman, for no other Crime but believing one whom she thought loved her, is treated with Shiness and In­difference at the best, and commonly with Re­proach and Scorn. He that is past the Power of Beauty, may talk of this Matter with the same Unconcern as of any other Subject: Therefore I shall take upon me to consider the Sex, as they live within Rules, and as they transgress them. The ordinary Class of the Good or the Ill have very little Influence upon the Actions of others; but the Eminent in either Kind are those who lead the World below them. The Ill are employed in communicating Scandal, Infamy, and Disease, like Furies; the Good distribute Benevolence, Friend­ship, and Health, like Angels. The Ill are damped with Pain and Anguish at the Sight of all that is laudable, lovely, or happy. The Virtuous are touched with Commiseration toward the Guilty, the Disagreeable, and the Wretched. There are those who betray the Innocent of their own Sex, and sollicit the Lewd of ours. There are those who have abandoned the very Memory, not only of Innocence, but Shame. There are those who never forgave, nor could ever bear being forgi­ven. There are also who visit the Beds of the Sick, lull the Cares of the Sorrowful, and double the Joys of the Joyful. Such is the destroying Fiend, such the Guardian Angel, Woman.

[Page 52] The Way to have a greater Number of the ami­able Part of Womankind, and lessen the Crowd of the other Sort, is to contribute what we can to the Success of well-grounded Passions; and there­fore I comply with the Request of an enamoured Man in inserting the following Billet:


MR. Bickerstaff you always read, tho' me you will never hear. I am obliged therefore to his Compassion for the Opportunity of imploring yours—I sigh for the most Accomplished of her Sex. That is so just a Distinction of her to whom I write, that the owning I think so is no Distinction of me who write. Your good Qualities are peculiar to you, my Admiration in common with Thousands. I shall be present when you read this, but fear every Woman will take it for her Character, sooner than she who deserves it.

If the next Letter which presents it self should come from the Mistress of this modest Lover, and I make them break through the Oppression of their Passions, I shall expect Gloves at their Nuptials.

Mr. Bickerstaff,

YOU that are a Philosopher know very well the Make of the Mind of Woman, and can best iustruct me in the Conduct of an Affair which high­ly concerns me. I never can admit my Lover to speak to me of Love, yet think him impertinent when he offers to talk of any Thing else. What shall I do with a Man that always believes me? 'Tis a strange Thing, this Distance in Men of Sense; Why do not they always urge their Fate? If we are sincere in our Severity, you lose nothing by at­tempting. If we are Hypocrites, you certainly suc­ceed.

Before I withdraw from Business for the Night, it is my Custom to receive all Addresses to me, that others may go to Rest as well as my self, at least as far as I can contribute to it. When I cal­led to know if any would speak with me, I was informed that Mr. Mills, the Player, desired to be admitted. He was so, and with much Modesty acquainted me, as he did other People of Note, that Hamlet was to be acted on Wednesday next for his Benefit. I had long wanted to speak with this Person, because I thought I could admonish him of many Things which would tend to his Improvement. In the General I observed to him, That though Action was his Business, the Way to that Action was not to study Gesture, for the Behaviour would follow the Sentiments of the Mind.

Action to the Player, is what Speech is to an Orator. If the Matter be well conceived, Words will flow with Ease: And if the Actor is well possessed of the Nature of his Part, a proper Action will necessarily follow. He informed me, That Wilks was to act Hamlet, I desired him, to request of him in my Name, That he would wholly for­get Mr. Betterton; for that he failed in no Part of Othello, but where he had him in View. An Actor's forming himself by the Carriage of ano­ther, is like the Trick among the Widows, who lament their Husbands as their Neighbours did theirs, and not according to their own Sentiments of the Deceased.

There is a Fault also in the Audience which in­terrupts their Satisfaction very much, that is, the figuring to themselves the Actor in some Part wherein they formerly particularly liked him, and not attending to the Part he is at that Time performing. Thus, whatever Wilks, (who is [Page 54] the strictest Follower of Nature) is acting, the vulgar Spectators turn their Thoughts upon Sir Harry Wildair. When I had indulged the Lo­quacity of an old Man for some Time in such loose Hints, I took my Leave of Mr. Mills, and was told, Mr. Elliot of St. James's Coffee-house would speak with me. His Business was to desire I would, as I am an Astrologer, let him know be­fore-hand who were to have the Benefit-Tickets in the ensuing Lottery; which Knowledge he was of Opinion he could turn to great Account, as he was concerned in News.

I granted his Request, upon an Oath of Secrecy, That he would only make his own Use of it, and not let it be publickly known till after they were drawn. I had not done speaking, when he pro­duced to me a Plan which he had formed of keep­ing Books, with the Names of all such Adventu­rers, and the Numbers of their Tickets, as should come to him, in order to give an Hourly Account of what Tickets shall come up during the whole Time of the Lottery, the Drawing of which is to begin on Wednesday next. I liked his Method of disguising the Secret I had told him, and pronoun­ced him a thriving Man who could so well watch the Motion of Things, and profit by a prevailing Humour and Impatience so aptly, as to make his honest Industry agreeable to his Customers, as it is to be the Messenger of their good Fortune.


Ordered, That for the Improvement of the Plea­sures of Society, a Member of this House, one of the most wakeful of the Soporifick Assembly beyond Smithfield-Bars, and one of the Order of Story-Tel­lers in Holborn, may meet and exchange Stale Mat­ter, and report the same to their Principals.

[Page 55] N. B. No Man is to tell above one Story in the same Evening; but has Liberty to tell the same the Night following.

Mr. Bickerstaff desires his Love Correspondents to vary the Names they shall assume in their fu­ture Letters, for that he is overstock'd with Phi­landers.

The TATLER. [No 202.
From Saturd, July 22. to Tuesd. July 25. 1710.

— Est hic,
Est ulubris Animus si te non deficit aequus.

THIS Afternoon I went to visit a Gentleman of my Acquaintance at Mile-End, and passing through Stepney Church-yard, I could not for­bear entertaining my self with the Inscriptions on the Tombs and Graves. Among others, I ob­served one with this notable Memorial:

Here lies the Body of T. B.

This fantastical Desire of being remembered only by the Two first Letters of a Name, led me into the Contemplation of the Vanity and imperfect Attainments of Ambition in general. When I run back in my Imagination all the Men whom I have ever known and conversed with in my whole Life, there are but very few who have not used their Faculties in the Pursuit of what it is impossible to acquire, or left the Possession of what they might have been (at their setting out) Masters, to search for it where it was out of their Reach. In this Thought it was not possible to [Page 56] forget the Instance of Pyrrhus, who proposing to himself in Discourse with a Philosopher, one, and another, and another Conquest, was asked, What he would do after all that? Then, says the King, we will make merry. He was well an­swered, What hinders your doing that in the Con­dition you are already? The restless Desire of ex­erting themselves above the common Level of Mankind is not to be resisted in some Tempers; and Minds of this Make may be observed in every Condition of Life. Where such Men do not make to themselves or meet with Employment, the Soil of their Constitution runs into Tares and Weeds. An old Friend of mine, who lost a Ma­jor's Post Forty Years ago, and quitted, has ever since studied Maps, Encampments, Retreats, and Countermarches, with no other Design but to feed his Spleen and Ill-Humour, and furnish him­self with Matter for arguing against all the suc­cessful Actions of others. He that at his first set­ting out in the World was the gayest Man in our Regiment, ventured his Life with Alacrity, and enjoyed it with Satisfaction, encouraged Men below him, and was courted by Men above him, has been ever since the most froward Crea­ture breathing. His warm Complexion spends it self now only in a general Spirit of Contradiction; for which he watches all Occasions, and is in his Conversation still upon Sentry, treats all Men like Enemies, with every other Impertinence of a speculative Warrior.

He that observes in himself this natural Inquie­tude, should take all imaginable Care to put his Mind in some Method of Gratification, or he will soon find himself grow into the Condition of this disappointed Major. Instead of courting proper Occasions to rise above others, he will be ever studious of pulling others down to him: It being the common Refuge of disappointed Ambition, to ease themselves by Detraction. It would [Page 57] be no great Argument against Ambition, that there are such mortal Things in the Disap­pointment of it; but it certainly is a forcible Ex­ception, that there can be no solid Happiness in the Success of it. If we value popular Praise, it is in the Power of the meanest of the People to disturb us by Calumny. If the Fame of being happy, we cannot look into a Village but we see Crowds in actual Possession of what we seek only the Appearance. To this may be added, that there is I know not what Malignity in the Minds of ordinary Men to oppose you in what they see you fond of; and it is a certain Exception against a Man's receiving Applause, that he visibly courts it. However this is not only the Passion of great and undertaking Spirts, but you see it in the Lives of such as one would believe were far enough re­moved from the Ways of Ambition. The Rural Squires of this Nation even eat and drink out of Vanity. A vain-glorious Fox-hunter shall enter­tain half a County for the Ostentation of his Beef and Beer, without the least Affection for any of the Crowd about him. He feeds them, because he thinks it a Superiority over them that he does so; and they devour him, because they know he treats them out of Insolence. This in­deed is Ambition in Grotesque, but may figure to us the Condition of politer Men, whose only Pur­suit is Glory. When the Superior acts out of a Principle of Vanity, the Dependant will be sure to allow it him; because he knows it destructive of the very Applause which is courted by the Man who favours him, and consequently makes him nearer himself.

But as every Man living has more or less of this Incentive, which makes Men impatient of an unactive Condition, and urges Men to attempt what may tend to their Reputation, it is abso­lutely necessary they should form to themselves an Ambition which is in every Man's Power to [Page 58] gratify. This Ambition would be independent, and would consist only in acting what to a Man's own Mind appears most great and laudable. It is a Pursuit in the Power of every Man, and is on­ly a regular Prosecution of what he himself ap­proves. It is what can be interrupted by no out­ward Accidents, for no Man can be robbed of his good Intention. One of our Society of the Trum­pet therefore started last Night a Notion which I thought had Reason in it. It is, methinks, said he, an unreasonable Thing, that Heroick Virtue should (as it seems to be at present) be confined to a certain Order of Men, and be attainable by none but those whom Fortune has elevated to the most conspicuous Stations. I would have every Thing to be esteemed as Heroick which is great and uncommon in the Circumstances in the Man who performs it. Thus there would be no Virtue in humane Life which every one of the Species would not have a Pretence to arrive at, and an Ardency to exert. Since Fortune is not in our Power, let us be as little as possible in hers. Why should it be necessary that a Man should be rich, to be generous? If we measured by the Quality, and not the Quantity, of Things, the Particulars which accompany an Action, is what should denominate it mean or great. The highest Station of humane Life is to be attained by each Man that pretends to it: For every Man can be as valiant, as generous, as wise, and as merciful, as the Faculties and Opportunities which he has from Heaven and Fortune will permit. He that can say to himself, I do as much good, and am as virtuous, as my most earnest Endea­vours will allow me, whatever is his Station in the World, is to himself possessed of the highest Honour. If Ambition is not thus turned, it is no other than a continual Succession of Anxie­ty and Vexation. But when it has this Cast, it invigorates the Mind, and the Consciousness of [Page 59] its own Worth is a Reward which it is not in the Power of Envy, Reproach, or Detraction, to take from it. Thus the Seat of solid Honour is in a Man's own Bosom, and no one can want Support who is in Possession of an honest Con­science, but he who would suffer the Reproaches of it for other Greatness.

P. S. I was going on in my Philosophy, when Notice was brought me, that there was a great Crowd in my Antichamber, who expected Au­dience. When they were admitted, I found they all met at my Lodgings (each coming upon the same Errand) to know whether they were of the Fortunate in the Lottery which is now ready to be drawn. I was much at a Loss how to ex­tricate my self from their Importunity; but ob­serving the Assembly made up of both Sexes, I signified to them, that in this Case it would ap­pear Fortune is not blind, for all the Lots would fall upon the Wisest and the Fairest. This gave so general a Satisfaction, that the Room was soon emptied, and the Company retired with the best Air, and the most pleasing Grace, I had any where observed. Mr. Elliot of St. James's Cof­fee-house now stood alone before me, and signi­fied to me, he had now not only prepared his Books, but had received a very great Subscription already. His Design was, to advertise his Sub­scribers at their respective Places of Abode, with­in an Hour after their Number is drawn, whether it was a Blank or Benefit, if the Adventurer lives within the Bills of Mortality, if he dwells in the Country, by the next Post. I encouraged the Man in his Industry, and told him, The ready Path to good Fortune, was to believe there was no such Thing.

The TATLER. [No 203.
From Tuesday July 25. to Thursday July 27. 1710.

Ut tu Fortunam, sic nos te, Celse, feremus.

IT is natural for the Imaginations of Men, who lead their Lives in too solitary a Manner, to prey upon themselves, and form from their own Conceptions Beings and Things which have no Place in Nature. This often makes an Adept as much at a Loss when he comes into the World as a meer Savage. To avoid therefore that Inepti­tude for Society, which is frequently the Fault of us Scholars, and has to Men of Understanding and Breeding something much more shocking and untractable than Rusticity it self, I take Care to visit all publick Solemnities, and go into Assem­blies as often as my Studies will permit. This being therefore the first Day of the Drawing of the Lottery, I did not neglect spending a conside­rable Time in the Crowd: But as much a Philo­sopher as I pretend to be, I could not but look with a Sort of Veneration upon the Two Boys which received the Tickets from the Wheels, as the impartial and equal Dispensers of the For­tunes which were to be distributed among the Crowd, who all stood expecting the same Chance. It seems at first Thought very wonderful, that one Passion should so universally have the Pre­eminence of another in the Possession of Men's Minds as that in this Case; all in general have a secret Hope of the great Ticket: And yet Fear in another Instance, as in going into a Battle shall [Page 61] have so little Influence, as that though each Man believes there will be many Thousands slain, each is consident he himself shall escape. This Cer­tainty proceeds from our Vanity; for every Man sees abundance in himself that deserves Reward, and nothing which should meet with Mortification. But of all the Adventurers that filled the Hall, there was one who stood by me, who I could not but fancy expected the Thousand Pounds per An­num, as a meer Justice to his Parts and Industry. He had his Pencil and Table-Book, and was at the drawing of each Lot, counting how much a Man with Seven Tickets was now nearer the great Prize, by the striking out another, and ano­ther Competitor. This Man was of the most par­ticular Constitution I had ever observed; his Pas­sions were so active, that he worked in the ut­most Stretch of Hope and Fear. When one Ri­val fell before him, you might see a short Gleam of Triumph in his Countenance, which imme­diately vanished at the Approach of another. What added to the Particularity of this Man, was, that he every Moment cast a Look, either upon the Commissioners, the Wheels, or the Boys. I gently whispered him, and asked, When he thought the Thousand Pounds would come up? Pugh! says he, Who knows that? And then looks upon a little List of his own Tickets, which were pretty high in their Numbers, and said it would not come this Ten Days. This Fellow will have a good Chance, though not that which he has put his Heart on. The Man is me­chanically turned, and made for getting. The Simplicity and Eagerness which he is in, argues an Attention to his Point; though what he is la­bouring at does not in the least contribute to it. Were it not for such honest Fellows as these, the Men who govern the rest of their Species would have no Tools to work with: For the outward Show of the World is carried on by such as can­not [Page 62] find out that they are doing nothing. I left my Man with great Reluctance, seeing the Care he took to observe the whole Conduct of the Persons concerned, and compute the Inequa­lity of the Chances with his own Hands and Eyes. Dear Sir, said I, they must rise early that cheat you. Ay, said he, there's nothing like a Man's minding his Business himself. 'Tis very true, said I, The Master's Eye makes the Horse fat.

As it is much the greater Number who are to go without Prizes, it is but very Expedient to turn our Lecture to the forming just Sentiments on the Subject of Fortune. One said this Morn­ing, That the Chief Lot he was consident would fall upon some Puppy; but this Gentle­man is one of those wrong Tempers who approve only the Unhappy, and have a natural Prejudice to the Fortunate. But as it is certain that there is a great Meanness in being attacked to a Man purely for his Fortune, there is no less a Mean­ness in disliking him for his Happiness. It is the same Perverseness under different Colours, and both these Resentments arise from meer Pride.

The true Greatness of Mind consists in valuing Men apart from their Circumstances, or accord­ing to their Behaviour in them. Wealth is a Di­stinction only in Traffick; but it must not be al­lowed as a Recommendation in any other Parti­cular, but only just as it is applied. It was very prettily said, That we may learn the little Value of Fortune by the Persons on whom Heaven is plea­sed to bestow it. However, there is not a har­der Part in Humane Life, than becoming Wealth and Greatness. He must be very well stock'd with Merit, who is not willing to draw some Superiority over his Friends from his Fortune; For it is not every Man that can entertain with [Page 63] the Air of a Guest, and do good Offices with the Mien of one that receives them.

I must confess, I cannot conceive how a Man can place himself in a Figure wherein he can so much enjoy his own Soul, and that greatest of Pleasures, the just Approbation of his own Actions, than as an Adventurer on this Occasion, to sit and see the Lots go off without Hope or Fear, perfectly unconcerned as to himself, but ta­king Part in the good Fortune of others.

I will believe there are happy Tempers in be­ing, to whom all the Good that arrives to any of their Fellow-Creatures gives a Pleasure. These live in a Course of substantial and lasting Happi­ness, and have the Satisfaction to see all Men en­deavour to gratify them. This State of Mind not only lets a Man into certain Enjoyments, but relieves him from as certain Anxieties. If you will not rejoice with happy Men, you must re­pine at them. Dick Reptile alluded to this when he said, He would hate no Man out of pure Idle­ness. As for my own Part, I look at Fortune quite in another View than the rest of the World; and, by my Knowledge in Futurity, tremble at the approaching Prize, which I see coming to a young Lady for whom I have much Tenderness; and have therefore writ her the following Let­ter, to be sent by Mr. Elliot with the Notice of her Ticket.


YOU receive at the Instant this comes to your Hands, an Account of your having (what only you wanted) Fortune; and to ad­monish you, that you may not now want every Thing else. You had yesterday Wit, Virtue, Beauty; but you never heard of them till to Day. They say Fortune is blind; but you will find she has opened the Eyes of all your Behol­ders. I beseech you, Madam, make use of the [Page 64] Advantages of having been educated without Flattery. If you can still be Chloe, Fortune has indeed been kind to you; if you are al [...]er­ed, she has it not in her Power to give you an Equivalent.

Some Time ago a Virtuoso, my very good Friend, sent me a Plan of a covered Summer­house, which a little after was rallied by ano­ther of my Correspondents. I cannot therefore defer giving him an Opportunity of making his Defence to the Learned in his own Words.

To Isaac Bickerstaff Esq


I Have been this Summer upon a Ramble to visit several Friends and Relations; which is the Reason I have left you, and our ingenious, unknown Friend of South-Wales, so long in your Error concerning the Grass-plots in my Green-house. I will not give you the Particu­lars of my Gardiner's Conduct in the Manage­ment of my covered Garden, but content my self with letting you know, that my little Fields within Doors, though by their Novelty they appear too extravagant to you to subsist even in a regular Imagination, are in the Effect Things that require no Conjuration. Your Correspondent may depend upon it, that under a sashed Roof, which lets in the Sun at all Times, and the Air as often as is convenient, he may have Grass-plots in the greatest Per­fection, if he will be at the Pains to water, mow, and roll them. Grass and Herbs in ge­neral, the less they are exposed to the Sun and Wind, the livelier is their Verdure. They re­quire only Warmth and Moisture; and if you were to see my Plots, your Eye would soon con­fess, that the Bowling-Green at Marybone wears not half so bright a Livery.

[Page 65] The Motto with which the Gentleman has been pleased to furnish you, is so very proper, and pleases me so well, that I design to have it set upon the Front of my Green-house in Letters of Gold.

I am, Sir, &c.

The TATLER. [No 204.
From Thursd. July 27. to Saturday July 29. 1710.

— Gaudent prae Nomine molles
Auriculae. —

MAny are the Inconveniencies which happen from the improper Manner of Address in common Speech, between Persons of the same or of different Quality. Among these Errors, there is none greater than that of the imperti­nent Use of Title, and a paraphrastical Way of saying, You. I had the Curiosity the other Day to follow a Crowd of People near Billingsgate, who were conducting a passionate Woman who sold Fish to a Magistrate, in order to explain some Words which were ill taken by one of her own Quality and Profession in the publick Mar­ket. When she came to make her Defence, she was so very full of, His Worship, and of, If it should please his Honour, that we could for some Time hardly hear any other Apology she made for her self, than that of attoning for the ill Language she had been accused of towards her Neighbour by the great Civilities she paid to her Judge. But this Extravagance in her Sense of doing Honour, was no more to be wondered at, than that her many [Page 66] Rings on each Finger were worn as Instances of Finery and Dress. The Vulgar may thus heap and huddle Terms of Respect, and nothing bet­ter be expected from them; but for People of Rank to repeat Appellatives insignificantly, is a Folly not to be endured, neither with Regard to our Times or our Understanding. It is below the Dignity of Speech to extend it with more Words or Phrases than are necessary to explain our selves with Elegance: And it is, methinks, an Instance of Ignorance, if not of Servitude, to be redun­dant in such Expressions.

I waited upon a Man of Quality some Morn­ings ago: He happened to be dressing; and his Shoemaker fitting him, told him, That if his Lordship would please to tread hard, or that if his Lordship would stamp a little, his Lordship would find his Lordship's Shoe will fit as easie as any Piece of Work his Lordship should see in England. As soon as my Lord was dressed, a Gentleman approached him with a very good Air, and told him, he had an Affair which had long depended in the Lower Courts, which, through the Inadvertency of his Ance­stors on the one Side, and the ill Arts of their Ad­versaries on the other, could not possibly be set­tled according to the Rules of the Lower Courts: That therefore he designed to bring his Cause be­fore the House of Lords next Session, where he should be glad if his Lordship should happen to be present; for he doubted not but his Cause would be approved by all Men of Justice and Ho­nour. In this Place the Word Lordship was gracefully inserted, because it was applied to him in that Circumstance wherein his Quality was the Occasion of the Discourse, and wherein it was most useful to the one, and most honourable to the other.

This Way is so far from being disrespectful to the Honour of Nobles, that it is an Expedien [...] [Page 67] for using them with greater Deference. I would not put Lordship to a Man's Hat, Gloves, Wig, or Cane; but to desire his Lordship's Favour, his Lordship's Judgment, or his Lordship's Patro­nage, is a Manner of speaking, which expresses an Alliance between his Quality and his Merit. It is this Knowledge which distinguished the Dis­course of the Shoemaker from that of the Gen­tleman. The highest Point of good Breeding, if any one can hit it, is to show a very nice Re­gard to your own Dignity, and with that in your Heart express your Value for the Man above you.

But the silly Humour to the contrary has so much prevailed, that the slavish Addition of Title enervates Discourse, and renders the Appli­cation of it almost ridiculous. We Writers of Diurnals are nearer in our Styles to that of com­mon Talk than any other Writers, by which Means we use Words of Respect sometimes very unfortunately. The Post-Man, who is one of the most celebrated of our Fraternity, fell into this Misfortune Yesterday in his Paragraph from Ber­lin of July 26. Count Wartemberg (says he) Great Chamberlain, and Chief Minister of this Court, who on Monday lest accompanied the King of Prussia to Oranienburg, was taken so very ill, th [...] [...] Wednesday has Life was despaired of; and we had a Report, that his Excellency was dead.

I humbly presume, that it slattens the Narra­tion, to say his Excellency in a Case which is common to all Men; except you would infer what is not to be inferred, to wit, That the Author designed to say, All wherein he excelled others was departed from him.

Were Distinctions used according to the Rules of Reason and Sense, those Additions to Men's Names would be, as they were first intended, sig­nificant of their Worth, and not their Persons; so that in some Cases it might be proper to say, [Page 68] The Man is dead, but his Excellency will never die. It is, methinks, very unjust to laugh at a Quaker, because he has taken up a Resolution to treat you with a Word, the most expressive of Complaisance that can be thought of, and with an Air of good Nature and Charity calls you Friend. I say, it is very unjust to rally him for this Term to a Stranger, when you your selves, in all your Phrases of Distinction, confound Phrases of Honour into no Use at all.

Tom. Courtly, who is the Pink of Courtesy, is an Instance of how little Moment an undistin­guishing Application of Sounds of Honour are to those who understand themselves. Tom. never fails of paying his Obeisance to every Man he sees, who has Title or Office to make him conspicuous; but his Deference is wholly given to outward Considerations. I, who know him, can tell with­in half an Acre how much Land one Man has more than another by Tom's Bow to him. Title is all he knows of Honour, and Civility of Friend­ship: For this Reason, because he cares for no Man living, he is religiously strict in performing what he calls his Respects to you. To this End he is very learned in Pedigree, and will aba [...] something in the Ceremony of his Approaches to a Man, if he is in any Doubt about the bearing of his Coat of Arms. What is the most pleasan [...] of all his Character is, That he acts with a So [...] of Integrity in these Impertinencies; and thoug [...] he would not do any Man any solid Kindness, h [...] is wonderfully just and careful not to wrong h [...] Quality. But as Integrity is very scarce in th [...] World, I cannot forbear having Respect for th [...] Impertinent: It is some Virtue to be bound b [...] any Thing. Tom. and I are upon very goo [...] Terms for the Respect he has for the House [...] Bickerstaff. Tho' one cannot but laugh at his f [...] rious Consideration of Things so little essenti [...] one must have a Value even for a frivolous go [...] Conscience.

The TATLER. [No 205.
From Saturd. July 29. to Tuesd. Aug. 1. 1710.


NAture has implanted in us Two very strong Desires, Hunger for the Preservation of the Individual, and Lust for the Support of the Spe­cies; or, to speak more intelligibly, the former to continue our own Persons, and the latter to in­troduce others into the World. According as Men behave themselves with regard to these Ap­petites, they are above or below the Beasts of the Field, which are incited by them without Choice or Reflection. But reasonable Creatures correct these Incentives, and improve them into elegant Motives of Friendship and Society. It is chiefly from this homely Foundation, that we are under the Necessity of seeking for the agreeable Companion, and the honourable Mistress. By this Cultivation of Art and Reason, our Wants are made Pleasures, and the Gratification of our Desires, under proper Restrictions, a Work no Way below our noblest Faculties. The wisest Man may maintain his Character, and yet consi­der in what Manner he shall best entertain his Friend, or divert his Mistress: Nay, it is so far from being a Derogation to him, that he can in [...]o other Instances show so true a Tast of his Life, or his Fortune. What concerns one of the [...]bove-mentioned Appetites, as it is elevated into [...]ove, I shall have abundant Occasion to discourse [Page 70] of before I have provided for the numberless Crowd of Damsels I have proposed to take Care of. The Subject therefore of the present Paper shall be that Part of Society which owes its Be­ginning to the common Necessity of Hunger. When this is considered as the Support of our Be­ing, we may take in under the same Head Thirst also; otherwise when we are pursuing the Glut­ton, the Drunkard may make his Escape. The true Choice of our Diet, and our Companions at it, seems to consist in that which contributes most to Chearfulness and Refreshment: And these certainly are best consulted by Simplicity in the Food, and Sincerity in the Company. By this Rule are in the first Place excluded from Pretence to Happiness all Meals of State and Ceremony, which are performed in dumb Shew, and greedy Sullenness. At the Boards of the Great, they say, you shall have a Number attending with as good Habits and Countenances as the Guests, which only Circumstance must destroy the whole Plea­sure of the Repast: For if such Attendants are introduced for the Dignity of their Appearance, modest Minds are shocked by considering them as Spectators, or else look upon them as Equals, for whose Servitude they are in a Kind of Suffering. It may be here added, that the sumptuous Side­board to an ingenious Eye has often more the Air of an Altar than a Table. The next absurd Way of enjoying our selves at Meals, is, where the Bottle is ply'd without being called for [...] where Humour takes Place of Appetite, and the good Company are too dull or too merry to know any Enjoyment in their Senses.

Tho' this Part of Time is absolutely necessar [...] to sustain Life, it must be also considered, Tha [...] Life it self is to the endless Being of Man b [...] what a Meal is to this Life, not valuable for [...] self, but for the Purposes of it. If there be an [...] Truth in this, the Expence of many Hours th [...] [Page 71] Way is somewhat unaccountable; and placing much Thought either in too great Sumptuousness and Elegance in this Matter, or wallowing in Noise and Riot at it, are both, tho' not equally, unaccountable. I have often considered these dif­ferent People with very great Attention, and al­ways speak of them with the Distinction of the Eaters, and the Swallowers. The Eaters sacri­fice all their Senses and Understanding to this Ap­petite: The Swallowers hurry themselves out of both, without pleasing this or any other Appetite at all. The latter are improved Brutes, the for­mer degenerated Men. I have sometimes thought it would not be improper to add to my Dead and Living Men, Persons in an intermediate State of Humanity, under the Appellation of Dozers. The Dozers are a Sect, who, instead of keeping their Appetites in Subjection, live in Subjection to them; nay, they are so truly Slaves to them, that they keep at too great a Distance ever to come into their Presence. Within my own Acquain­tance, I know those that I dare say have forgot that they ever were hungry, and are no less utter Strangers to Thirst and Weariness, who are be­holden to Sauces for their Food, and to their Food for their Weariness.

I have often wondered, confidering the excel­lent and choice Spirits that we have among our Divines, that they do not think of putting vici­ous Habits into a more contemptible and unlove­ly Figure than they do at present. So many Men of Wit and Spirit as there are in Sacred Orders, have it in their Power to make the Fashion of their Side. The Leaders in humane Society are more effectu­ally prevailed upon this Way than can easily be imagined. I have more than one in my Thoughts at this Time capable of doing this against all the Opposition of the most Witty, as well as the most Voluptuous. There may possibly be more ac­ceptable Subjects, but sure there are none more [Page 72] useful. It is visible, that tho' Mens Fortunes, Circumstances, and Pleasures, give them Pre­possessions too strong to regard any Mention ei­ther of Punishments or Rewards, they will listen to what makes them inconsiderable or mean in the Imaginations of others, and by Degrees in their own.

It is certain such Topicks are to be touched up­on in the Light we mean, only by Men of the most consummate Prudence, as well as excellent Wit: For these Discourses are to be made, if made to run into Example, before such as have their Thoughts more intent upon the Propriety than the Reason of the Discourse. What indeed leads me into this Way of Thinking, is, That the last Thing I read was a Sermon of the learn­ed Dr. South, upon the Ways of Pleasantness. This admirable Discourse was made at Court, where the Preacher was too wise a Man not to believe, the greatest Argument, in that Place, against the Pleasures then in Vogue, must be, that they lost greater Pleasures by prosecuting the Course they were in. The Charming Discourse has in it whatever Wit and Wisdom can put together. This Gentleman has a Talent of making all his Faculties bear to the great End of his hallowed Profession. Happy Genius! He is the better Man for being a Wit. The best Way to praise this Author is to quote him; and, I think, I may de­fy any Man to say a greater Thing of him, or his Ability, than that there are no Paragraphs in the whole Discourse I speak of below these which follow.

After having recommended the Satisfaction of the Mind, and the Pleasure of Conscience, he proceeds:

An ennobling Property of it is, That it is such a Pleasure as never satiates or wearies; for it properly affects the Spirit, and a Spirit feels no Weariness, as being privileged from the [Page 73] Causes of it. But can the Epicure say so of any of the Pleasures he so much dotes upon? Do they not expire while they satisfy, and after a few Minutes Refreshment determine in Loath­ing and Unquietness? How short is the Inter­val between a Pleasure and a Burthen? How undiscernable the Transition from one to the o­ther: Pleasure dwells no longer upon the Ap­petie than the Necessities of Nature, which are quickly and easily provided for; and then all that follows is a Load and an Oppression. Every Morsel to a satisfied Hunger, is only a new Labour to a tired Digestion. Every Draught to him that has quenched his Thirst, is but a further quenching of Nature, and a Provision for Rheum and Diseases, a Drowning of the Quickness and Activity of the Spirits.

He that prolongs his Meals, and sacrifices his Time, as well as his other Conveniencies, to his Luxury, How quickly does he outsit his Plea­sure? And then, How is all the following Time bestowed upon Ceremony and Surfeit? Till at length, after a long Fatigue of Eating, and Drinking, and Babbling, he concludes the great Work of dining genteely, and so makes a Shift to rise from Table, that he may lie down upon his Bed; where, after he has slept himself into some Use of himself, by much ado he staggers to his Table again, and there acts over the same brutish Scene: So that he passes his whole Life in a dozed Condition, between sleeping and waking, with a Kind of Drowsiness and Con­fusion upon his Senses, which, what Pleasure it can be, is hard to conceive. All that is of it dwells upon the Tip of his Tongue, and within the Compass of his Palate. A worthy Prize for a Man to purchase with the Loss of his Time, his Reason, and himself!

The TATLER. [No 206
From Tuesday Aug. 1. to Thursday Aug. 3. 1710

Metiri se quemque suo Module ac Pede verum est

THE general Purposes of Men in the Conduct of their Lives, (I mean with relatio [...] to this Life only) end in gaining either the Affection or the Esteem of those with whom the [...] converse. Esteem makes a Man powerful in Business, and Affection desirable in Conversation, which is certainly the Reason that very agreeabl [...] Men fail of their Point in the World; and thos [...] who are by no Means such, arrive at it with muc [...] Ease. If it be visible in a Man's Carriage that h [...] has a strong Passion to please, no one is much a [...] a Loss how to keep Measures with him, becaus [...] there is always a Ballance in People's Hands [...] make up with him, by giving him what he [...] wants in Exchange for what you think fit to de [...] him. Such a Person asks with Diffidence, [...] ever leaves Room for Denial by that Softness [...] his Complexion. At the same Time he himse [...] is capable of denying nothing, even what he [...] not able to perform. The other Sort of Man w [...] courts Esteem, having a quite different View, [...] as different a Behaviour, and acts as much by [...] Dictates of his Reason, as the other does by [...] Impulse of his Inclination. You must pay [...] every Thing you have of him. He consid [...] Mankind as a People in Commerce, and ne [...] gives out out of himself what he is sure will [...] come in with Interest from another. All [...] [Page 75] Words and Actions tend to the Advancement of his Reputation and of his Fortune, toward which he makes hourly Progress, because he lavishes no Part of his good Will upon such as do not make some Advances to merit it. The Man who va­lues Affection, sometimes becomes popular; he who aims at Esteem, seldom falls of growing rich.

Thus far we have looked at these different Men, as Persons who endeavour to be valued and be­loved from Design, or Ambition; but they ap­pear in quite another Figure, when you observe the Men who are agreeable and venerable from the Force of their natural Inclinations. We af­fect the Company of him who has least Regard of himself in his Carriage, who throws himself into unguarded Gaiety, voluntary Mirth, and ge­neral good Humour; who has nothing in his Head but the present Hour, and seems to have all his Interests and Passions gratified, if every Man else in the Room is as unconcerned as himself. This Man usually has no Quality or Character among his Companions, let him be born of whom he will, have what great Qualities he please, let him be capable of assuming for a Moment what Figures he pleases, he still dwells in the Ima­gination of all who know him but as Jack such a One. This makes Jack brighten up the Room wherever he enters, and change the Severity of the Company into that Gaiety and good Humour into which his Conversation generally leads them. It is not unpleasant to observe even this Sort of Creature go out of his Character, to check himself sometimes for his Familiarities, and pretend so aukwardly at procuring to him­self more esteem than he finds he meets with. I was the other Day walking with Jack Gainly to­wards Lincoln's-Inn-Walks. We met a Fellow who is a Lower Officer where Jack is in the Di­rection. Jack cries to him, So, How is it Mr — [Page 76] He answers, Mr. Gainly, I am glad to see yo [...] well. This Expression of Equality gave m [...] Friend a Pang, which appeared in a Flush of hi [...] Countenance. Prithee Jack, says I, do not b [...] angry at the Man; for do what you will, th [...] Man can only love you, be contented with th [...] Image the Man has of thee; for if thou aimes [...] at any other, it must be Hatred or Contempt. I went on, and told him, Look'ee, Jack, I have heard thee sometimes talk like an Oracle for half an Hour, with the Sentiments of a Roman, the Closeness of a School-man, and the Integrity of a Divine; but then, Jack, while I admired thee, it was upon Topicks which did not concern thy self, and where the Greatness of the Subject, (ad­ded to thy being personally unconcerned in it) created all that was great in thy Discourse. I did not mind his being a little out of Humour, but comforted him, by giving him several Instances of Men of our Acquaintance, who had no one Quality in any Eminence, that were much more esteemed than he was with very many: But the Thing is, if your Character is to give Pleasure, Men will consider you only in that Light, and not in those Acts which turn to Esteem and Ve­neration.

When I think of Jack Gainly, I cannot but re­flect also upon his Sister Gatty. She is young, witty, pleasant, innocent. This is her natural Character; but when she observes any one ad­mired for what they call a Fine Woman, she i [...] all the next Day womanly, prudent, observing, and virtuous. She is every Moment asked in her prudential Behaviour, Whether she is not well? Upon which she as often answers in a Fret, Do People think one must be always romping, al­ways a Jackpudding? I never fail to enquire o [...] her, If my Lady such a One, that awful Beauty, was not at the Play last Night? She knows th [...] Connexion between that Question and her Chang [...] [Page 77] of Humour, and says, ‘'It would be very well, if some People would examine into themselves as much as they do into others.'’ Or, ‘'Sure there is nothing in the World so ridiculous as an amorous old Man.'’

As I was saying, there is a Class which every Man is in by his Post in Nature, from which it is impossible for him to withdraw to another, and become it. Therefore it is necessary that each should be contented with it, and not endeavour at any Progress out of that Tract. To follow Na­ture, is the only agreeable Course; which is what I would fain inculcate to those jarring Compa­nions, Flavia and Lucia. They are Mother and Daughter. Flavia, who is the Mamma, has all the Charms and Desires of Youth still about her, and not much turned of Thirty: Lucia is bloom­ing and amorous, and but a little above Fifteen. The Mother looks very much younger than she is, the Girl very much elder. If it were possible to fix the Girl to her sick Bed, and preserve the Portion (the Use of which the Mother partakes) the good Widow Flavia would certainly do it. But for fear of Lucia's Escape, the Mother is for­ced to be constantly attended with a Rival, that explains her Age, and draws off the Eyes of her Admirers. The Jest is, they can never be toge­ther in Strangers Company, but Lucy is eternally reprimanded for something very particular in her Behaviour; for which she has the Malice to say, She hopes she shall always obey her Parents. She carried her Passion and Jealousy to that Height the other Day, that coming suddenly into the Room, and surprising Colonel Lofty speaking Rapture on one Knee to her Mother, she clapped down by him, and asked her Blessing.

I do not know whether it is so proper to tell Family Occurrences of this Nature; but we eve­ry Day see the same Thing happen in the publick Conversation in the World. Men cannot be con­tented [Page 78] with what is laudable, but they must have all that is laudable. This Affectation is what de­stroys the familiar Man into Pretences to take State upon him, and the contrary Character to the Folly of aiming at being winning and com­plaisant. But in these Cases, Men may easily lay aside what they are, but can never arrive at what they are not.

As to the Pursuits after Affection and Esteem, the Fair Sex are happy in this Particular, that with them the one is much more nearly related to the other than in Men. The Love of a Wo­man is inseparable from some Esteem of her; and as she is naturally the Object of Affection, the Woman who has your Esteem has also some Degree of your Love. A Man that dotes on a Woman for her Beauty, will whisper his Friend, That Creature has a great deal of Wit when you are well acquainted with her. And if you examine the Bottom of your Esteem for a Woman, you will find you have a greater Opinion of her Beau­ty than any Body else. As to us Men, I design to pass most of my Time with the facetious Harry Bickerstaff; but William Bickerstaff, the most prudent Man of our Family, shall be my Executor.

The TATLER. [No 207.
From Thursd. Aug. 3. to Saturd. Aug. 5. 1710.

HAving Yesterday Morning received a Paper of Latin Verses, written with much Ele­gance in Honour of these my Papers, and being informed at the same Time that they were com­posed by a Youth under Age, I read them with [Page 79] much Delight, as an Instance of his Improve­ment. There is not a greater Pleasure to old Age, than seeing young People entertain themselves in such a Manner as that we can partake of their Enjoyments. On such Occasions we flatter our selves, that we are not quite laid aside in the World, but that we are either used with Grati­tude for what we were, or honoured for what we are. A well inclined young Man, and whose good Breeding is founded upon the Principles of Nature and Virtue, must needs take Delight in being agreeable to his Elders, as we are truly de­lighted when we are not the Jest of them. When I say this, I must confess I cannot but think it a very lamentable Thing that there should be a Necessity for making that a Rule of Life, which should be, methinks, a meer Instinct of Nature. If Reflection upon a Man in Poverty, whom we once knew in Riches, is an Argument of Commi­seration with generous Minds; sure old Age, which is a Decay from that Vigour which the Young possess, and must certainly (if not pre­vented against their Will) arrive at, should be more forcibly the Object of that Reverence which honest Spirits are inclined to from a Sense of be­ing themselves liable to what they observe has al­ready overtaken others.

My Three Nephews, whom in June last was Twelvemonth I disposed of according to their se­veral Capacities and Inclinations, the first to the University, the Second to a Merchant, and the Third to a Woman of Quality as her Page, by my Invitation dined with me to Day. It is my Cu­stom often, when I have a Mind to give my self a more than ordinary Chearfulness, to invite a certain young Gentlewoman of our Neighbour­hood to make one of the Company. She did me that Favour this Day. The Presence of a beauti­ful Woman of Honour, to Minds which are not trivially disposed, displays an Alacrity which is [Page 80] not to be communicated by any other Object. It was not unpleasant to me to look into her Thoughts of the Company she was in. She smiled at the Party of Pleasure I had thought of for her, which was composed of an old Man and Three Boys. My Scholar, my Citizen, and my self, were very soon neglected; and the young Courtier, by the Bow he made to her at her En­trance, engaged her Observation without a Rival. I observed the Oxonian not a little discomposed at this Preference, while the Trader kept his Eye upon his Unkle. My Nephew Will had a Thou­sand secret Resolutions to break in upon the Dis­course of his younger Brother, who gave my fair Companion a full Account of the Fashion, and what was reckoned most becoming to this Com­plexion, and what Sort of Habit appeared best upon t'other Shape. He proceeded to acquaint her, who of Quality was well or sick within the Bills of Mortality, and named very familiarly all his Lady's Acquaintance, not forgetting her very Words when he spoke of their Characters. Be­sides all this, he had a Road of Flattery; and up­on her enquiring what Sort of Woman Lady Love­ly was in her Person, Really Madam, says the Jackanapes, she is exactly of your Height and Shape; but as you are fair, she is a brown Wo­man. There was no enduring that this Fop should outshine us all at this unmerciful Rate, therefore I thought fit to talk to my young Scho­lar concerning his Studies; and because I would throw his Learning into present Service, I desired him to repeat to me the Translation he had made of some tender Verses in Theocritus. He did so, with an Air of Elegance peculiar to the College to which I sent him. I made some Exceptions to the Turn of the Phrases, which he defended with much Modesty, as believing in that Place the Matter was rather to consult the Softness of a Swain's Passion, than the Strength of his Expres­sions. [Page 81] It soon appeared, that Will had out-strip­ped his Brother in the Opinion of our young La­dy. A little Poetry to one who is bred a Scholar, has the same Effect that a good Carriage of his Person has on one who is to live in Courts. The Favour of Women is so natural a Passion, that I envied both the Boys their Success in the Appro­bation of my Guest; and I thought the only Per­son invulnerable was my young Trader. During the whole Meal, I could observe in the Children a mutual Contempt and Scorn of each other, ari­sing from their different Way of Life and Educa­tion, and took that Occasion to advertise them of such growing Distasts, which might mislead them in their future Life, and disappoint their Friends, as well as themselves, of the Advantages which might be expected from the Diversity of their Professions and Interests.

The Prejudices which are growing up between these Brothers from the different Ways of Edu­cation, are what create the most fatal Misunder­standings in Life. But all Distinctions of Dispa­ragement meerly from our Circumstances, are such as will not bear the Examination of Reason. The Courtier, the Trader, and the Scholar, should all have an equal Pretension to the Deno­mination of a Gentleman. That Tradesman who deals with me in a Commodity which I do not understand with Uprightness, has much more Right to that Character, than the Courtier who gives me false Hopes, or the Scholar who laughs at my Ignorance.

The Appellation of Gentleman is never to be affixed to a Man's Circumstances, but to his Be­haviour in them. For this Reason I shall ever, as far as I am able, give my Nephews such Im­pressions as shall make them value themselves ra­ther as they are useful to others, than as they are conscious of Merit in themselves. There are no Qualities from which we ought to pretend to the [Page 82] Esteem of others, but such as render us service­able to them; for Free Men have no Superiors but Benefactors. I was going on like a true old Fel­low to this Purpose to my Guests, when I recei­ved the following Epistle:


I Have yours, with Notice of a Benefit-Ticket of 400 l. per Annum, both enclosed by Mr. El­liot, who had my Numbers for that Purpose. Your Philosophick Advice came very seasonably to me with that good Fortune; but I must be so sincere with you as to acknowledge, I owe my present Moderation more to my own Folly, than your wisdom. You will think this strange till I inform you, that I had fixed my Thoughts upon the 1000 l. a Year, and had with that Ex­pectation laid down so many agreeable Plans for my Behaviour towards my new Lovers and old Friends, that I have received this Favour of Fortune with an Air of Disappointment. This is interpreted by all who know not the Springs of my Heart as a wonderful Piece of Humility. I hope my present State of Mind will grow in­to that; but I confess my Conduct to be now owing to another Cause. However, I know you will approve my taking hold even of Im­perfections to find my Way towards Virtue, which is so feeble in us at the best, that we are often beholden to our Faults for the first Ap­pearances of it. I am,

Your most humble Servant, CHLOE.

The TATLER. [No 208.
From Saturd. August 5. to Tuesd. August 8. 1710.

Si dixeris aestuo, sudat. —

AN old Acquaintanc who met me this Morn­ing seemed overjoyed to see me, and told me, I looked as well as he had known me do these Forty Years: But, continued he, not quite the Man you were when we visited together at Lady Brightly's. Oh! Isaac, those Days are over. Do you think there are any such fine Creatures now living as we then conversed with? He went on with a Thousand incoherent Circumstances, which, in his Imagination, must needs please me; but they had the quite contrary Effect. The Flat­tery with which he began, in telling me how well I wore, was not disagreeable; but his indiscreet Mention of a Set of Acquaintance we had out­lived, recalled Ten Thousand Things to my Me­mory, which made me reflect upon my present Condition with Regret. Had he indeed been so kind as, after a long Absence, to felicitate me up­on an indolent and easy old Age, and mentioned how much he and I had to thank for, who at our Time of Day could walk firmly, eat heartily, and converse chearfully, he had kept up my Pleasure in my self. But of all Mankind, there are none so shocking as these injudicious civil People. They ordinarily begin upon something that they know must be a Satisfaction; but then, for Fear of the Imputation of Flattery, they follow it with the last Thing in the World of which you would be [Page 84] reminded. It is this that perplexes civil Persons. The Reason that there is such a general Outcry amongst us against Flatterers, is, that there are so very few good Ones. It is the nicest Art in this Life, and is a Part of Eloquence which does not want the Preparation that is necessary to all other Parts of it, That your Audience should be your Well-wishers: For Praise from an Enemy is the most pleasing of all Commendations.

It is generally to be observed, that the Person most agreeable to a Man for a Constancy is he that has no shining Qualities, but is a certain Degree above great Imperfections, whom he can live with as his Inferior, and who will either overlook or not observe his little Defects. Such an easy Com­panion as this, either now and then throws out a little Flattery, or lets a Man silently flatter him­self in his Superiority to him. If you take No­tice, there is hardly a rich Man in the World, who has not such a led Friend of small Considera­tion, who is a Darling for his Insignificancy. It is a great Ease to have one in our own Shape a Species below us, and who, without being listed in our Service, is by Nature of our Retinue. These Dependants are of excellent Use on a Rainy Day, or when a Man has not a Mind to dress, or to ex­clude Solitude, when one has neither a Mind to that or to Company. There are of this good-na­tured Order, who are so kind as to divide them­selves, and do these good Offices to many. Five or Six of them visit a whole Quarter of the Town, and exclude the Spleen without Fees from the Families they frequent. If they do not prescribe Physick, they can be Company when you take it. Very great Benefactors to the Rich, or those whom they call People at their Ease, are your Persons of no Consequence. I have known some of them, by the Help of a little Cunning, make delicious Flatterers. They know the Course of the Town, and the general Characters of Persons: By this [Page 85] Means they will sometimes tell the most agree­able Falshoods imaginable. They will acquaint you, that such a One of a quite contrary Party said, that tho' you were engaged in different In­terests, yet he had the greatest Respect for your good Sense and Address. When one of these has a little Cunning, he passes his Time in the ut­most Satisfaction to himself and his Friends: For his Position is never to report or speak a displea­sing Thing to his Friend. As for letting him go on in an Error, he knows Advice against them is the Office of Persons of greater Talents and less Discretion.

The Latin Word for a Flatterer (Assentator) implies no more than a Person that barely con­sents; and indeed such a one, if a Man were able to purchase or maintain him, cannot be bought too dear. Such a one never contradicts you, but gains upon you, not by a fulsom Way of com­mending you in broad Terms, but liking what­ever you propose or utter; at the same Time is ready to beg your Pardon, and gainsay you, if you chance to speak Ill of your self. An old Lady is very seldom without such a Companion as this, who can recite the Names of all her Lovers, and the Matches refused by her in the Days when she minded such Vanities, (as she is pleased to call them, tho' she so much approves the Mention of them.) It is to be noted, that a Woman's Flatterer is generally older than her self, her Years serving at once to recommend her Patroness's Age, and to add Weight to her Complaisance in all other Particulars.

We Gentlemen of small Fortunes are extreme­ly necessitous in this Particular. I have indeed one who smokes with me often; but his Parts are so low, that all the Incense he does me is to fill his Pipe with me, and to be out at just as many Whiffs as I take. This is all the Praise or Assent that he is capable of, yet there are more Hours when I [Page 86] would rather be in his Company than that of the brightest Man I know. It would be an hard Mat­ter to give an Account of this Inclination to be flattered; but if we go to the Bottom of it, we shall find that the Pleasure in it is something like that of receiving Money which lay out. Every Man thinks he has an Estate of Reputation, and is glad to see one that will bring any of it Home to him: It is no Matter how dirty a Bag it is con­veyed to him in, or by how clownish a Messenger, so the Money is good. All that we want to be pleased with Flattery, is to believe that the Man is sincere who gives it us. It is by this one Ac­cident, that absurd Creatures often outrun the more Skilful in this Art. Their Want of Ability is here an Advantage, and their Bluntness, as it is the seeming Effect of Sincerity, is the best Co­ver to Artifice.

Terence introduces a Flatterer talking to a Cox­comb whom he cheats out of a Livelihood, and a third Person on the Stage makes on him this plea­sant Remark, ‘"This Fellow has an Art of making Fools Madmen."’ The Love of Flattery is in­deed sometimes the Weakness of a great Mind; but you see it also in Persons who otherwise dis­cover no Manner of Relish of any Thing above meer Sensuality. These latter it sometimes im­proves, but always debases the former. A Fool is in himself the Object of Pity till he is flattered. By the Force of that his Stupidity is raised into Affectation, and he becomes of Dignity enough to be ridiculous. I remember a Drole, that upon one's saying, The Times are so ticklish that there must great Care be taken what one says in Con­versation; answered with an Air of Surliness and Honesty, If People will be free, let them be so in the Manner that I am, who never abuse a Man but to his Face. He had no Reputation for say­ing dangerous Truths; therefore when it was re­peated, You abuse a Man but to his Face? Yes, says he, I flatter him.

[Page 87] It is indeed the greatest of Injuries to flatter any but the Unhappy, or such as are displeased with themselves for some Infirmity. In this latter Case we have a Member of our Club, that when Sir Jeffery falls asleep, wakens him with Snoring. This makes Sir Jeffery hold up for some Moments the longer, to see there are Men younger than himself among us, who are more Lethargick than he is.

When Flattery is practised upon any other Con­sideration, it is the most abject Thing in Nature; nay, I cannot think of any Character below the Flatterer, except he that envies him. You meet with Fellows prepared to be as mean as possible in their Condescentions and Expressions; but they want Persons and Talents to rise up to such a Base­ness. As a Coxcomb is a Fool of Parts, so is a Flatterer a Knave of Parts.

The best of this Order that I know, is one who disguises it under a Spirit of Contradiction or Re­proof. He told an errant Driveler the other Day, That he did not care for being in Company with him, because he heard he turned his absent Friends into Ridicule. And upon Lady Autumn's dispu­ting with him about something that happened at the Revolution, he replied with a very angry Tone, Pray, Madam, give me Leave to know more of a Thing in which I was actually con­cerned, than you who were then in your Nurse's Arms.

The TATLER. [No 209.
From Tuesd. August 8. to Thursd. August 10. 1710.

ANoble Painter, who has an Ambition to draw an History-Piece, has desired of me to give him a Subject on which he may show the utmost Force of his Art and Genius. For this Purpose I have pitched upon that remarkable Incident be­tween Alexander the Great and his Physician. This Prince, in the Midst of his Conquests in Persia, was seized by a violent Fever; and according to the Account we have of his vast Mind, his Thoughts were more employed about his Recovery as it regarded the War, than as it concerned his own Life. He professed, a slow Method was worse than Death to him, because it was what he more dreaded, an Interruption of his Glory. He desi­red a dangerous, so it might be a speedy Reme­dy. During this Impatience of the King, it is well known that Darius had offered an immense Sum to any who should take away his Life. But Philippus, the most esteemed and most knowing of his Physicians, promised, that within Three Days Time he would prepare a Medicine for him which should restore him more expeditiously than could be imagined. Immediately after this En­gagement, Alexander receives a Letter from the most considerable of his Captains, with Intelli­gence, That Darius had bribed Philippus to poi­son him. Every Circumstance imaginable favou­red this Suspicion; but this Monarch, who did nothing but in an extraordinary Manner, conceal­ed the Letter; and while the Medicine was pre­paring, spent all his Thoughts upon his Behaviour [Page 89] in this important Incident. From his long Soli­loquy he came to this Resolution: ‘"Alexander must not lie here alive to be oppressed by his Enemy. I will not believe my Physician guilty; or, I will perish rather by his Guilt, than my own Diffidence.'’

At the appointed Hour, Philippus enters with the Potion. One cannot but form to one's self on Occasion the Encounter of their Eyes, the Resolu­tion in those of the Patient, and the Benevolence in the Countenance of the Physician. The Hero raised himself in his Bed, and holding the Letter in one Hand, and the Potion in the other, drank the Medicine. It will exercise my Friend's Pencil and Brain to place this Action in its proper Beauty. A Prince observing the Features of a suspected Traytor after having drank the Poison he offer'd him, is a Circumstance so full of Passion, that it will require the highest Strength of his Imagina­tion to conceive it, much more to express it. But as Painting is Eloquence and Poetry in Mecha­nism, I shall raise his Idea's, by reading with him the finest Draughts of the Passions concerned in this Circumstance from the most excellent Poets and Orators. The Confidence which Alexander assumes from the Air of Philippus's Face as he is reading his Accusation, and the generous Disdain which is to rise in the Features of a falsly accused Man, are principally to be regarded. In this Par­ticular he must heighten his Thoughts, by reflect­ing, that he is not drawing only an innocent Man traduced, but a Man zealously affected to his Per­son and Safety, full of Resentment for being thought false. How shall we contrive to express the highest Admiration mingled with Disdain? How shall we in Strokes of a Pencil say, what Philippus did to his Prince on this Occasion? ‘"Sir, my Life never depended on yours more than it does now. Without knowing this Secret, I prepared the Potion, which you have taken as [Page 90] what concerned Philippus no less than Alexander; and there is nothing new in this Adventure, but that it makes me still more admire the Generosity and Confidence of my Master."’ Alexander took him by the Hand, and said, ‘"Philippus, I am con­fident you had rather I had any other Way to have manifested the Faith I have in you, than a Case which so nearly concerns me: And in Gra­titude I now assure you, I am anxious for the Effect of your Medicine, more for your Sake than my own.'’

My Painter is employed by a Man of Sense and Wealth to furnish him a Gallery, and I shall join with my Friend in the Designing Part. It is the great Use of Pictures to raise in our Minds either agreeable Idea's of our absent Friends, or high Images of eminent Personages. But the latter De­sign is, methinks, carried on in a very improper Way: For to fill a Room full of Battle-Pieces, pompous Histories of Sieges, and a tall Hero a­lone in a Crowd of insignificant Figures about him, is of no Consequence to private Men. But to place before our Eyes great and illustrious Men in those Parts and Circumstances of Life wherein their Behaviour may have an Effect upon our Minds, as being such as we partake with them merely as they were Men: Such as these, I say, may be just and useful Ornaments of an elegant Apartment. In this Collection therefore that we are making, we will not have the Battles, but the Sentiments of Alexander. The Affair we were just now talking of, has Circumstances of the highest Nature, and yet their Grandeur has little to do with his Fortune. If by observing such a Piece as that of his taking a Bowl of Poison with so much Magnanimity, a Man, the next Time he has a Fit of the Spleen, is less froward to his Friend or his Servants; thus far is some Improvement.

[Page 91] I have frequently thought, that if we had many Draughts which were Historical of certain Passions, and had the true Figure of the great Men we see transported by them, it would be of the most solid Advantage imaginable. To consider this mighty Man on one Occasion administer to the Wants of a poor Soldier, benummed with Cold, with the greatest Humanity; at another, barbarously stab­bing a faithful Officer: At one Time, so gene­rously chast and virtuous as to give his Captive Statira her Liberty; at another, burning a Town at the Instigation of Thais. This Sort of Changes in the same Person are what would be more bene­ficial Lessons of Morality, than the several Revo­lutions in a great Man's Fortune. There are but One or Two in an Age to whom the pompous In­cidents of his Life can be exemplary; but I or any Man may be as sick, as good-natur'd, as compassio­nate, and as angry, as Alexander the great. My Purpose in all this Chat is, that so excellent a Fur­niture may not for the future have so Romantick a Turn, but allude to Incidents which come with­in the Fortunes of the ordinary Race of Men. I do not know but 'tis by the Force of this senseless Custom that People are drawn in Postures they would not for half they are worth be surprised in. The unparallell'd Firceness of some Rural 'Squires drawn in Red, or in Armour, who never dreamed to destroy any Thing above a Fox, is a common and ordinary Offence of this Kind. But I shall give an Account of our whole Gallery on another Occasion.

The TATLER. [No 210.
From Thursd. Aug. 10. to Saturd. Aug. 12. 1710.

I Did my self the Honour this Day to make a Visit to a Lady of Quality, who is one of those who are ever railing at the Vices of the Age, but mean only one Vice, because it is the only Vice they are not guilty of. She went so far as to fall foul on a young Woman who has had Imputa­tions; but whether they were just or not, no one knows but her self. However that is, she is in her present Behaviour modest, humble, pious, and discreet. I thought it became me to bring this cen­sorious Lady to Reason, and let her see she was a much more vitious Woman than the Person she spoke of.

Madam, said I, you are very severe to this poor young Woman, for a Trespass which I believe Heaven has forgiven her, and for which you see she is for ever out of Countenance. Nay, Mr. Bick­erstaff, she interrupted, If you at this Time of Day contradict People of Virtue, and stand up for ill Women—No, no, Madam, said I, not so fast, she is reclaimed, and I fear you never will be. Nay, nay, Madam, do not be in a Passion, but let me tell you what you are. You are indeed as good as your Neighbours, but that is being very bad. You are a Woman at the Head of a Family, and lead a perfect Town Lady's Life. You go on your own Way, and consult nothing but your Glass. What Imperfections indeed you see there, you immediately mend as fast as you can. You may do the same by the Faults I tell you of, for they are much more in your Power to correct.

[Page 93] You are to know then, that you Visiting Ladies, that carry your Virtue from House to House with so much Prattle in each other's Applause, and tri­umph over other People's Faults, I grant you have but the Speculation of Vice in your own Conver­sations, but, promote the Practice of it in all others you have to do with.

As for you, Madam, your Time passes away in Dressing, Eating, Sleeping, and Praying. When you rise in Morning, I grant you an Hour spent very well; but you come out to dress in so fro­ward a Humour, that the poor Girl who attends you, curses her very Being in that she is your Ser­vant, for the peevish Things you say to her. When this poor Creature is put into a Way, that Good or Evil are regarded but as they relieve her from the Hours she has and must pass with you. The next you have to do with, is your Coachman and Footmen. They convey your Ladyship to Church. While you are praying there, they are cursing, swearing, and drinking in an Ale-house. During the Time also which your Ladyship sets apart for Heaven, you are to know, that your Cook is sweating and fretting in Preparation for your Dinner. Soon after your Meal you make Visits, and the whole World that belongs to you speaks all the Ill of you which you are repeating of o­thers. You see, Madam, whatever Way you go, all about you are in a very broad one. The Mora­lity of these People it is your proper Business to enquire into; and till you reform them, you had best let your Equals alone; otherwise, if I allow you you are not vitious, you must allow me you are not virtuous.

I took my Leave, and received at my coming Home the following Letter:

Mr. Bickerstaff,

I Have lived a pure and undefiled Virgin these Twenty seven Years; and I assure you, 'tis with great Grief and Sorrow of Heart I tell you, that I become weary and impatient of the Deri­sion of the Gigglers of our Sex who call me old Maid, and tell me I shall lead Apes. If you are truly a Patron of the Distressed, and an Adept in Astrology, you will advise whether I shall or ought to be prevailed upon by the Impertinen­cies of my own Sex, to give Way to the Impor­tunities of yours. I assure you, I am surrounded with both, tho' at present a Forlorn.

I am, &c.

I must defer my Answer to this Lady out of a Point of Chronology. She says, she has been Twenty Seven Years a Maid; but I fear, according to a common Error, she dates her Virginity from her Birth, which is a very erroneous Method; for a Woman of Twenty is no more to be thought chast so many Years, than a Man of that Age can be said to have been so long Valiant. We must not allow People the Favour of a Virtue till they have been under the Temptation to the contrary. A Woman is not a Maid till her Birth-Day, as we call it, of her Fifteenth Year. My Plaintiff is there­fore desired to inform me, whether she is at pre­sent in her Twenty eighth or Forty third Year, and she shall be dispatched accordingly.

A Merchant came hither this Morning, and read a Letter from a Correspondent of his at Milan. It was dated of the 7th Instant. N. S. The following is an Abstract of it. On the 25th of the last Month Five Thousand Men were on their March in the Lampourdan, under the Command of General Wesell, having received Orders from his Catholick Majesty to join him in his Camp with all possible [Page 95] Expedition. The Duke of Anjou soon had Intelli­gence of their Motion, and took a Resolution to decamp, in order to intercept them, within a Day's March of our Army. The King of Spain was ap­prehensive the Enemy might make such a Move­ment, and commanded General Stanhope with a Body of Horse, consisting of Fourteen Squadrons, to observe their Course, and prevent their Passage over the Rivers Segra and Noguera between Larida and Balaguer. It happened to be the first Day that Officer had appeared Abroad after a dangerous and violent Fever; but he received the King's Com­mands on this Occasion with a Joy which sur­mounted his present Weakness, and on the 27th of last Month came up with the Enemy on the Plains of Balaguer. The Duke of Anjou's Rear-Guard consisting of Twenty six Squadrons, that General sent Intelligence of their Posture to the King, and desired his Majesty's Orders to attack them. During the Time which he waited for his Instructions, he made his Disposition for the Charge, which was to divide themselves into Three Bodies; One to be commanded by himself in the Center, a Body on the Right by Count Mau­rice of Nassau, and the Third on the Left by the Earl of Rochford. Upon the Receipt of his Ma­jesty's Direction to attack the Enemy, the General himself charged with the utmost Vigour and Re­solution, while the Earl of Rochford and Count Maurice extended themselves on his Right and Left, to prevent the Advantage the Enemy might make of the Superiority of their Numbers. What appears to have misled the Enemy's General in this Affair was, that it was not supposed practicable that the Confederates would attack him till they had received a Reinforcement. For this Reason he pursued his March without facing about, till we were actually coming on to Engagement. Gene­ral Stanhope's Disposition made it impracticable to do it at that Time, Count Maurice and the Earl [Page 96] of Rochford attacking them in the Instant in which they were forming themselves. The Charge was made with the greatest Gallantry, and the Enemy very soon put into so great Disorder, that their whole Cavalry were commanded to support their Rear-Guard. Upon the Advance of this Rein­forcement, all the Horse of the King of Spain were come up to sustain General Stanhope, inso­much that the Battle improved to a general En­gagement of the Cavalry of both Armies. After a warm Dispute for some Time, it ended in the utter Defeat of all the Duke of Anjou's Horse. Upon the Dispatch of these Advices, that Prince was retiring towards Lerida. We have no Ac­count of any considerable Loss on our Side, except that both those Heroick Youths, the Earl of Roch­ford and Count Nassau, fell in this Action. They were, you know, both Sons of Persons who had a great Place in the Confidence of your late King William; and I doubt not but their Deaths will endear their Families, which were ennobled by him, in your Nation. General Stanhope has been reported by the Enemy dead of his Wounds; but he received only a slight Contusion on the Shoul­der.

P. S. We acknowledge you here a mighty brave People; but you are said to love quarrelling so well, that you cannot be quiet at Home. The Favourers of the House of Bourbon among us affirm, That this Stanhope, who could as it were get out of his sick Bed to fight against their King of Spain, must be of the Antimonarchical Party.

The TATLER. [No 211.
From Saturd. Aug. 12. to Tuesd. Aug. 15. 1710.

— Nequeo monstrare, & sentio tantum.

IF there were no other Consequence of it, but barely that Humane Creatures on this Day as­semble themselves before their Creator, with­out Regard to their usual Employments, their Minds at Leisure from the Cares of this Life, and their Bodies adorned with the best Attire they can bestow on them; I say, were this meer outward Celebration of a Sabbath all that is ex­pected from Men, even that were a laudable Di­stinction, and a Purpose worthy the Humane Na­ture. But when there is added to it the sublime Pleasure of Devotion, our Being is exalted above it self; and he who spends a Seventh Day in the Contemplation of the next Life, will not easily fall into the Corruptions of this in the other Six. They who never admit Thoughts of this Kind into their Imagination, lose higher and sweeter Satisfactions than can be raised by any other En­tertainment. The most illiterate Man who is touched with Devotion, and uses frequent Exer­cises of it, contracts a certain Greatness of Mind, mingled with a noble Simplicity, that raises him above those of the same Condition; and there is an indelible Mark of Goodness in those who sin­cerely possess it. It is hardly possible it should be otherwise; for the Fervours of a pious Mind will naturally contract such an Earnestness and Attention towards a better Being, as will make [Page 98] the ordinary Passages of Life go off with a be­coming Indifference. By this, a Man in the lowest Condition will not appear mean, or in the most splendid Fortune, insolent.

As to all the Intricacies and Vicissitudes under which Men are ordinarily intangled with the ut­most Sorrow and Passion, one who is devoted to Heaven when he falls into such Difficulties is led by a Clue through a Labyrinth. As to this World, he does not pretend to Skill in the Mazes of it, but fixes his Thoughts upon one Certainty, that he shall soon be out of it. And we may ask very boldly, What can be a more sure Consola­tion than to have an Hope in Death? When Men are arrived at thinking of their very Dissolution with Pleasure, how few Things are there that can be terrible to them? Certainly nothing can be dreadful to such Spirits, but what would make Death terrible to them, Falshood towards Man, or Impiety towards Heaven. To such as these, as there are certainly many such, the Gratifications of innocent Pleasures are doubled, even with Re­flections upon their Imperfection. The Disap­pointments which naturally attend the great Pro­mises we make our selves in expected Enjoy­ments, strike no Damp upon such Men, but only quicken their Hopes of soon knowing Joys, which are too pure to admit of Allay or Sa­tiety.

It is thought among the politer Part of Man­kind an Imperfection to want a Relish of any of those Things which refine our Lives. This is the Foundation of the Acceptance which Eloquence, Musick, and Poetry, make in the World; and I know not why Devotion, considered meerly as an Exaltation of our Happiness, should not at leas [...] be so far regarded as to be considered. It is possible the very Enquiry would lead Men into suc [...] Thoughts and Gratifications as they did not expect to meet with in this Place. Many a goo [...] [Page 99] Acquaintance has been lost from a general Pre­possession in his Disfavour, and a severe Aspect has often hid under it a very agreeable Compa­nion.

There are no distinguishing Qualities among Men to which there are not false Pretenders; but tho' none is more pretended to than that of De­votion, there are, perhaps, fewer successful Im­postors in this Kind than any other. There is something so natively great and good in a Person that is truly devout, that an aukward Man may as well pretend to be genteel, as an Hypocrite to be pious. The Constraint in Words and Actions are equally visible in both Cases, and any Thing set up in their Room does but remove the En­deavourers the further off their Pretensions. But however the Sense of true Piety is abated, there is no other Motive of Action that can carry us through all the Vicissitudes of Life with Alacrity and Resolution. But Piety, like Philosophy, when it is superficial, does but make Men ap­pear the worse for it; and a Principle that is but half received, does but distract, instead of gui­ding our Behaviour. When I reflect upon the unequal Conduct of Lotius, I see many Things that run directly counter to his Interest; there­fore I cannot attribute his Labours for the publick Good to Ambition. When I consider his Disre­gard to his Fortune, I cannot esteem him cove­tous. How then can I reconcile his Neglect of himself, and his Zeal for others? I have long suspected him to be a little Pious: But no Man ever hid his Vice with greater Caution than he does his Virtue. It was the Praise of a great Ro­man, That he had rather be, than appear good. But such is the Weakness of Lotius, that I dare say, he had rather be esteemed irreligious, than devout. By I know not what Impatience of Rail­ [...]ery he is wonderfully fearful of being thought [...]oo great a Believer. A Hundred little Devices [Page 100] are made use of to hide a Time of private Devo­tion; and he will allow you any Suspicion of his being ill employed, so you do not tax him with being well. But alas! How mean is such a Be­haviour? To boast of Virtue is a most ridiculous Way of disappointing the Merit of it, but not so pitiful as that of being ashamed of it. How un­happy is the Wretch who makes the most abso­lute and independent Motive of Action the Cause of Perplexity and Inconstancy? How much ano­ther Figure does Caelicola make with all who know him? His great and superior Mind, fre­quently exalted by the Raptures of Heavenly Me­ditation, is to all his Friends of the same Use as if an Angel were to appear at the Decision of their Disputes. They very well understand he is as much disinterested and unbiass'd as such a Be­ing. He considers all Applications made to him, as those Addresses will effect his own Applica­tion to Heaven. All his Determinations are de­liver'd with a beautiful Humility; and he pro­nounces his Decisions with the Air of one who is more frequently a Supplicant than a Judge.

Thus humble, and thus great, is the Man who is moved by Piety, and exalted by Devotion. But behold this recommended by the masterly Hand of a great Divine I have heretofore made bold with.

It is such a Pleasure as can never cloy or overwork the Mind; a Delight that grows and improves under Thought and Reflection; and while it exercises, does also endear it self to the Mind. All Pleasure that affect the Body must needs weary, because they transport; and all Transportation is a Violence; and no Violence can be lasting, but determines upon the Falling of the Spirits, which are not able to keep up that Height of Motion that the Pleasure of the Senses raises them to. And therefore how inevitably does an immoderate Laughter [Page 101] end in a Sigh, which is only Nature's reco­vering it self after a Force done to it: But the religious Pleasure of a well-disposed Mind moves gently, and therefore constantly. It does not effect by Rapture and Extasie, but is like the Pleasure of Health, greater and stronger than those that call up the Senses with grosser and more affecting Impressions. No Man's Body is as strong as his Appetites; but Heaven has cor­rected the Boundlesness of his voluptuous De­sires by stinting his Strengths, and contracting his Capacities.—The Pleasure of the reli­gious Man is an easy and a portable Pleasure, such an one as he carries about in his Bosom, without alarming either the Eye or Envy of the World. A Man putting all his Pleasure into this one, is like a Traveller putting all his Goods into one Jewel; the Value is the same, and the Convenience greater.

The TATLER. [No 212.
From Tuesday Aug. 15. to Thursday Aug. 17. 1710.

I Have had much Importunity to answer the following Letter.

Mr. Bickerstaff,

REading over a Volume of Yours, I find the Words Simplex Munditiis mentioned as a De­scription of a very well dressed Woman. I beg of you, for the Sake of the Sex, to explain these Terms. I cannot comprehend what my Brother means, [Page 102] when he tells me they signify my own Name, which is,

Your humble Servant, Plain English.

I think the Lady's Brother has given us a very good Idea of that elegant Expression, it being the greatest Beauty of Speech to be close and intelli­gible. To this End nothing is to be more care­fully consulted than Plainness. In a Lady's At­tire this is the single Excellence; for to be what some call fine, is the same Vice in that Case, as to be florid is in Writing or Speaking. I have studied and writ on this important Subject till I almost despair of making a Reformation in the Females of this Island, where we have more Beauty than in any Spot in the Universe, if we did not disguise it by false Garniture, and detract from it by impertinent Improvements. I have by me a Treatise concerning Pinners, which I have some Hopes will contribute to the Amend­ment of the present Head-dresses, to which I have solid and unanswerable Objections. But most of the Errors in that and other Particulars of adorning the Head, are crept into the World from the Ignorance of modern Tirewomen; for it is come to that Pass, that an aukward Crea­ture in the first Year of her Apprenticeship, that can hardly stick a Pin, shall take upon her to dress a Woman of the First Quality. However it is certain, that there requires in a good Tire­woman a perfect Skill in Opticks; for all the Force of Ornament is to contribute to the Inten­tion of the Eyes. Thus she who has a Mind to look killing, must arm her Face accordingly, and not leave her Eyes and Cheeks undressed. Ther [...] is Araminta so sensible of this, that she neve [...] [Page 103] will see even her own Husband without a Hood on. Can any one living bear to see Miss Gruel, lean as she is, with her Hair tied back after the modern Way? But such is the Folly of our La­dies, that because one who is a Beauty, out of Ostentation of her being such, takes Care to wear something that she knows cannot be of any Consequence to her Complexion; I say, our Wo­men run on so heedlesly in the Fashion, that tho' it is the Interest of some to hide as much of their Faces as possible, yet because a leading Toast ap­peared with a backward Head-dress, the rest shall follow the Mode, without observing that the Author of the Fashion assumed it because it could become no one but her self.

Flavia is ever well dressed, and always the gentilest Woman you meet: But the Make of her Mind very much contributes to the Ornament of her Body. She has the greatest Simplicity of Manners of any of her Sex. This makes every Thing look native about her, and her Cloaths are so exactly fitted, that they appear as it were Part of her Person. Every one that sees her, knows her to be of Quality; but her Distinction is owing to her Manner, and not to her Habit. Her Beauty is full of Attraction, but not of Al­lurement. There is such a Composure in her Looks, and Propriety in her Dress, that you would think it impossible she should change the Garb you one Day see her in for any Thing so becoming, till you next Day see her in another. There is no other Mystery in this, but that how­ever she is apparelled, she is her self the same: For there is so immediate a Relation between our Thoughts and Gestures, that a Woman must think well to look well.

But this weighty Subject I must put off for some other Matters in which my Correspondents are urgent for Answers, which I shall do where I [Page 104] can, and appeal to the Judgment of others where I cannot.

Mr. Bickerstaff,

TAking the Air t'other Day on Horseback in the Green Lane that leads to Southgate, I disco­vered coming towards me a Person well mounted in a Mask; and I accordingly expected, as any one would, to have been robbed. But when we came up with each other, the Spark, to my greater Surprize, very peaceably gave me the Way; which made me take Courage enough to ask him, if he masqueraded, or how? He made me no Answer, but still continued incognito. This was certainly an Ass in a Lion's Skin; a harmless Bull-Beggar, who delights to fright innocent People, and set them a gallopping. I bethought my self of putting as good a Jest upon him, and had turned my Horse, with a Design to pursue him to London, and get him apprehended, on Suspicion of being a Highway-man: But when I reflected, that 'twas the proper Office of the Magi­strate to punish only Knaves, and that we had a Censor of Great Britain for People of another Deno­mination, I immediately determined to prosecute him in your Court only. This unjustifiable Frolick I take to be neither Wit nor Humour: Therefore hope you will do me, and as many others as were that Day frighted, Justice. I am,

Your Friend and Servant, J. L.

THE Gentleman begs your Pardon, and fright­ed you out of Fear of frighting you; for he is just come out of the Small-Pox.

Mr. Bickerstaff,

YOur Distinction concerning the Time of com­mencing Virgins is allowed to be just. I write you my Thanks for it, in the Twenty eighth Year of my Life, and Twelfth of my Virginity. But I am to ask you another Question, May a Woman be said to live any more Years a Maid than she continues to be courted?

I am, &c.

I Observe that the Post-Man of Saturday last, giving an Account of the Action in Spain, has this elegant Turn of Expression; General Stanhope, who in the whole Action expressed as much Bra­very as Conduct, received a Contusion in his Right Shoulder. I should be glad to know, Whe­ther this cautious Politician means to commend or to rally him, by saying, He expressed as much Bra­very as Conduct? If you can explain this dubious Pharase, it will inform the Publick, and oblige,

Your humble Servant, &c.

The TATLER. [No 213.
From Thursd. Aug. 17. to Saturd. Aug. 19. 1710.

THere has of late crept in among the downright English, a mighty Spirit of Dissimulation. But before we discourse of this Vice, it will be ne­cessary to observe, that the Learned make a Dif­ference between Simulation and Dissimulation. Si­mulation is a Pretence of what is not, and Dis­simulation a Concealment of what is. The lat­ter [Page 106] is our present Affair. When you look round you in publick Places in this Island, you see the Generality of Mankind carry in their Counte­nance an Air of Challenge or Defiance: And there is no such Man to be found among us who naturally strives to do greater Honours and Civi­lities than he receives. This innate Sullenness or Stubborness of Complexion is hardly to be con­quered by any of our Islanders. For which Rea­son, however they may pretend to choose one another, they make but very aukward Rogues; and their Dislike to each other is seldom so well dissembled, but it is suspected. When once it is so, it had as good be professed. A Man who dis­sembles well, must have none of what we call Stomach, otherwise he will be cold in his Pro­fessions of Good-Will where he hates; an Imper­fection of the last ill Consequence in Business. This Fierceness in our Natures is apparent from the Conduct of our young Fellows, who are not got into the Schemes and Arts of Life which the Children of this World walk by. One would think that of Course, when a Man of any Con­sequence for his Figure, his Mien, or his Gravity, passes by a Youth, he should certainly have the first Advances of Salutation; but he is, you may observe, treated in a quite different Manner, it being the very Characteristick of an English Temper to defy. As I am an Englishman, I find it a very hard Matter to bring my self to pull off the Hat first; but it is the only Way to be upon any good Terms with those we meet with: There­fore the first Advance is of high Moment. Men judge of others by themselves; and he that will command with us, must condescend. It moves ones Spleen very agreeably to see Fellows pre­tend to be Dissemblers without this Lesson. They are so reservedly complaisant till they have learned to resign their natural Passions, that all the Steps they make towards gaining those whom [Page 107] they would be well with, are but so many Marks of what they really are, and not of what they would appear.

The rough Britains, when they pretend to be artful towards one another, are ridiculous enough; but when they set up for Vices they have not, and dissemble their Good with an Affectation of Ill, they are insupportable. I know Two Men in this Town who make as good Figures as any in it, that manage their Credit so well as to be thought Atheists, and yet say their Prayers Mor­ning and Evening. Tom. Springly t'other Day pretended to go to an Assignation with a married Woman at Rosamond's-Pond, and was seen soon after reading the Responses with great Gravity at Six of Clock Prayers.

Though the following Epistle bears a just Ac­cusation of my self, yet in regard it is a more ad­vantagious Piece of Justice to another, I insert it at large.

Mr. Bickerstaff,

I Have lately read your Paper, wherein you represent a Conversation between a young Lady, your Three Nephews, and your self; and am not a little offended at the Figure you give your young Merchant in the Presence of a Beau­ty. The Topick of Love is a Subject on which a Man is more beholden to Nature for his Elo­quence, than to the Instruction of the Schools, or my Lady's Woman. From the Two latter, your Scholar and Page must have reaped all their Advantage above him—I know by this Time you have pronounced me a Trader. I ac­knowledge it, but cannot bear the Exclusion from any Pretence of speaking agreeably to a Fine Woman, or from any Degree of Genero­sity that Way. You have among us Citizens [Page 108] many Well-wishers, but it is for the Justice of your Representations, which we, perhaps, are better Judges of than you (by the Account you give of your Nephew) seem to allow.

To give you an Opportunity of making us some Reparation, I desire you would tell your own Way the following Instance of Heroick Love in the City. You are to remember, that somewhere in your Writings, for enlarging the Territories of Virtue and Honour, you have multiplied the Opportunities of attaining to He­roick Virtue, and have hinted, that in whatever State of Life a Man is, if he does Things above what is ordinarily performed by Men of his Rank, he is in those Instances an Hero.

Tom Trueman, a young Gentleman of Eighteen Years of Age, fell passionately in Love with the beauteous Almira, Daughter to his Master. Her Regard for him was no less tender. True­man was better acquainted with his Master's Affairs than his Daughter, and secretly lament­ed, that each Day brought him by many Mis­carriages nearer Bankrupcy than the former. This unhappy Posture of their Affairs the Youth suspected was owing to the ill Manage­ment of a Factor, in whom his Master had an entire Confidence. Trueman took a proper Oc­casion, when his Master was ruminating on his decaying Fortune, to address him for Leave to spend the Remainder of his Time with his Fo­reign Correspondent. During Three Years Stay in that Employment, he became acquaint­ed with all that concerned his Master; and by his great Address in the Management of that Knowledge, saved him Ten thousand Pounds. Soon after this Accident, Trueman's Unkle left him a considerable Estate. Upon receiving that Advice, he returned to England, and deman­ded Almira of her Father. The Father over joy'd at the Match, offer'd him the 10000 l. he [Page 109] had saved him, with the further Proposal of resigning to him all his Business, Trueman re­fused both, and retired into the Country with his Bride, contented with his own Fortune, tho' perfectly skill'd in all the Methods of improving it.

It is to be noted, That Trueman refused Twen­ty Thousand Pounds with another young Lady; so that reckoning both his Self-Denials, he is to have in your Court the Merit of having gi­ven 30000 l. for the Woman he loved. This Gentleman I claim your Justice to; and hope you will be convinced, that some of us have larger Views than only Cash Debtor, per contra Creditor.

Yours, Richard Traffick.

N. B. Mr. Thomas Trueman of Lime-street is en­ter'd among the Heroes of Domestick Life.

Charles Lillie.

The TATLER. [No 214.
From Saturd. Aug. 19. to Tuesd. Aug. 22. 1710.

— Soles & aperta Serena
Prospicere, & certis poteris cognoscere Signis.

IN every Party there are Two Sorts of Men, the Rigid and the Supple. The Rigid are an intractable Race of Mortals, who act upon Prin­ciple, and will not, forsooth, fall into any Mea­sures that are not consistent with their received [Page 110] Notions of Honour. These are Persons of a stub­born, unpliant Morality, that sullenly adhere to their Friends when they are disgraced, and to their Principles, tho' they are exploded. I shall therefore give up this stiff-necked Generation to their own Obstinacy, and turn my Thoughts to the Advantage of the Supple, who pay their Ho­mage to Places, and not Persons; and without enslaving themselves to any particular Scheme of Opinions, are as ready to change their Conduct in Point of Sentiment, as of Fashion. The well­disciplined Part of a Court are generally so per­fect at their Exercise, that you may see a whole Assembly, from Front to Rear, face about at once to a new Man of Power, tho' at the same Time they turn their Backs upon him that brought them thither. The great Hardship these com­plaisant Members of Society are under, seems to be the Want of Warning upon any approaching Change or Revolution; so that they are obliged in a Hurry to tack about with every Wind, and stop short in the Midst of a full Career, to the great Surprize and Derision of their Beholders.

When a Man foresees a decaying Ministry, he has Leisure to grow a Malecontent, reflect upon the present Conduct, and by gradual Murmurs fall off from his Friends into a new Party, by just Steps and Measures. For Want of such No­tices, I have formerly known a very well-bred Person refuse to return a Bow of a Man whom he thought in Disgrace, that was next Day made Se­cretary of State; and another, who after a long Neglect of a Minister, came to his Levee, and made Professions of Zeal for his Service the very Day before he was turned out.

This produces also unavoidable Confusions and Mistakes in the Descriptions of great Mens Parts and Merits. That ancient Lyrick, Mr. D'Urfey, some Years ago writ a Dedication to a certain Lord, in which he celebrated him for the greatest [Page 111] Poet and Critick of that Age, upon a Misinfor­mation in Dyer's Letter, that his noble Patron was made Lord Chamberlain. In short, innume­rable Votes Speeches, and Sermons, have been thrown away, and turned to no Account, meerly for Want of due and timely Intelligence. Nay it has been known, that a Panegyrick has been half printed off, when the Poet, upon the Removal of the Minister, has been forced to alter it into a Satyr.

For the Conduct therefore of such useful Per­sons as are ready to do their Country Service up­on all Occasions, I have an Engine in my Study, which is a Sort of a Political Barometer, or, to speak more intelligibly, a State Weather-Glass, that, by the rising and falling of a certain Magi­cal Liquor, presages all Changes and Revolu­tions in Government, as the common Glass does those of the Weather. This Weather-Glass is said to have been invented by Cardan, and given by him as a Present to his great Countryman and Contemporary Machiavel, which (by the Way) may serve to rectify a received Error in Chronology, that places one of these some Years after the other. How or when it came into my Hands, I shall desire to be excused, if I keep to my self; but so it is, that I have walked by it for the better Part of a Century, to my Safety at least, if not to my Advantage; and have among my Papers, a Register of all the Changes that have happened in it from the Middle of Queen Elizabeth's Reign.

In the Time of that Princess, it stood long at settled Fair. At the latter End of King James the First, it fell to Cloudy. It held several Years after at Stormy; insomuch that at last despairing of seeing any Clear Weather at Home, I follow'd the Royal Exile, and some Time after finding my Glass rise, returned to my native Country with the rest of the Loyalists. I was then in [Page 112] Hopes to pass the Remainder of my Days in set­tled Fair: But alas! during the greatest Part of that Reign, the English Nation lay in a dead Calm, which, as it is usual, was followed by high Winds and Tempests till of late Years: In which, with unspeakable Joy and Satisfaction, I have seen our Political Weather returned to settled Fair. I must only observe, that for all this last Summer my Glass has pointed at Changeable. Upon the whole, I often apply to Fortune Aenaeas's Speech to the Sybil:

— Non ulla Laborum,
O Virgo, nova mi Facies inopinave surgit
Omnia praecepi, at (que) Animo mecum ante peregi.

The Advantages which have accured to those whom I have advised in their Affairs, by Vertue of this Sort of Praescience, have been very consi­derable. A Nephew of mine, who has never put his Money into the Stocks, or taken it out, without my Advice, has in a few Years raised Five hundred Pounds to almost so many Thou­sands. As for my self, who look upon Riches to consist rather in Content than Possessions, and measure the Greatness of the Mind rather by its Tranquility than its Ambition. I have seldom used my Glass to make my Way in the World, but often to retire from it. This is a By-Path to Happiness, which was first discovered to me by a most pleasing Apothegm of Pythagoras: When the Winds, says he, rise, worship the Eccho. That great Philosopher (whether to make his Doctrines the more venerable, or to guild his Precepts with the Beauty of Imagination, or to awaken the Curiosity of his Disciples; for I will not sup­pose what is usually said, that he did it to conceal his Wisdom from the Vulgar) has couched seve­ral admirable Precepts in remote Allusions and mysterious Sentences. By the Winds in this Apo­thegm, are meant State-Hurricanes and popular [Page 113] Tumults. When these arise, says he, worship the Eccho; that is, withdraw your self from the Multitude into Deserts, Woods, Solitudes, or the like Retirements, which are the usual Habitations of the Eccho.

The TATLER. [No 215.
From Tuesday Aug. 22. to Thursday Aug. 24. 1710.

LYsander has writ to me out of the Country, and tells me, after many other Circum­stances, that he had passed a great deal of Time with much Pleasure and Tranquility, till his Happiness was interrupted by an indiscreet Flat­terer, who came down into those Parts to visit a Relation. With the Circumstances in which he represents the Matter, he had no small Provoca­tion to be offended, for he attacked him in so wrong a Season, that he could not have any Re­lish of Pleasure in it; tho', perhaps, at another Time, it might have passed upon him without giving him much Uneasiness. Lysander had, af­ter a long Satiety of the Town, been so happy as to get to a Solitude he extremely liked, and re­covered a Pleasure he had long discontinued, that of Reading. He was got to the Bank of a Ri­vulet, covered by a pleasing Shade, and fanned by a soft Breeze, which threw his Mind into that Sort of Composure and Attention, in which a Man, though with Indolence, enjoys the utmost Liveliness of his Spirits, and the greatest Strength of his Mind at the same Time. In this State, Lysander represents that he was reading Virgil's Georgicks; when on a sudden the Gentleman abovementioned surprised him, and, without any [Page 114] Manner of Preparation, falls upon him at once, ‘'What! I have found you out at last, after searching all over the Wood. We wanted you at Cards after Dinner, but you are much better employed. I have heard indeed that you are an excellent Scholar: But at the same Time, is it not a little unkind to rob the Ladies, who like you so well, of the Pleasure of your Com­pany? But that is indeed the Misfortune of you great Scholars, you are seldom so fit for the World, as those who never trouble themselves with Books. Well, I see you are taken up with your Learning there, and I'll leave you.'’ Ly­sander says, he made him no Answer, but took a Resolution to complain to me.

It is a substantial Affliction, when Men govern themselves by the Rules of good Breeding, that by the very Force of them they are subjected to the Insolence of those who either never will, or never can, understand them. The superficial Part of Mankind form to themselves little Mea­sures of Behaviour from the Outside of Things. By the Force of these narrow Conceptions, they act amongst themselves with Applause, and do not apprehend they are contemptible to those of higher Understanding, who are restrained by De­cencies above their Knowledge from showing a Dislike. Hence it is, that because Complaisance is a good Quality in Conversation, one Imperti­nent takes upon him on all Occasions to com­mend; and because Mirth is agreeable, another thinks fit eternally to jest. I have of late re­ceived many Packets of Letters complaining of these spreading Evils. A Lady who is lately ar­rived at the Bath acquaints me, there was in the Stage-Coach wherein she went down a common Flatterer, and a common Jester. These Gentle­men were (she tells me) Rivals in her Favour and adds, If there ever happened a Case wherein of Two Persons One was not liked more than [Page 115] another, it was in that Journey. They differed only in Proportion to the Degree of Dislike be­tween the Nauseous and the Insipid. Both these Characters of Men are born out of a Barrenness of Imagination. They are never Fools by Na­ture, but become such out of an impotent Ambi­tion of being what she never intended them, Men of Wit and Conversation. I therefore think fit to declare, That according to the known Laws of this Land, a Man may be a very honest Gen­tleman, and enjoy himself and his Friend, with­out being a Wit; and I absolve all Men from ta­king Pains to be such for the future. As the pre­sent Case stands, is it not very unhappy that Ly­sander must be attacked and applauded in a Wood, and Corinna jolted and commended in a Stage-Coach; and this for no manner of Reason, but because other People have a Mind to show their Parts? I grant indeed, if these People (as they have Understanding enough for it) would confine their Accomplishments to those of their own Degree of Talents, it were to be tolerated; but when they are so insolent as to interrupt the Meditations of the Wise, the Conversations of the Agreeable, and the whole Behaviour of the Modest, it becomes a Grievance naturally in my Jurisdiction. Among themselves, I cannot only overlook, but approve it. I was present the o­ther Day at a Conversation, where a Man of this Height of Breeding and Sense told a young Wo­man of the same Form, To be sure, Madam, eve­ry Thing must please that comes from a Lady. She answer'd, I know, Sir, you are so much a Gentleman that you think so. Why, this is very well on both Sides; and it is impossible that such a Gentleman and Lady should do other than think well of one another, These are but loose Hints of the Disturbances in humane Society, of which there is yet no Remedy: But I shall in a little Time publish Tables of Respect and Civility, by [Page 116] which Persons may be instructed in the proper Times and Seasons, as well as at what Degree of Intimacy a Man may be allowed to commend or rally his Companions; the promiscuous Licence of which is at present far from being among the small Errors in Conversation.

P. S. The following Letter was left, with a Re­quest to be immediately answered, lest the Arti­fices used against a Lady in Distress may come into common Practice.


MY elder Sister buried her Husband about Six Months ago; and at his Funeral, a Gentle­man of more Art than Honesty, on the Night of his Interrment, while she was not her self, but in the utmost Agony of her Grief, spoke to her of the Sub­ject of Love. In that Weakness and Distractio [...] which my Sister was in, (as one ready to fall is ap [...] to lean on any Body) he obtained her Promise of Mar­riage, which was accordingly consummated Eleve [...] Weeks after. There is no Affliction comes alone, bu [...] one brings another. My Sister is now ready to Lie-i [...] She humbly asks of you, as you are a Friend to th [...] Sex, to let her know who is the lawful Father of thi [...] Child, or whether she may not be relieved from thi [...] Second Marriage, considering it was promised unde [...] such Circumstances as one may very well suppose sh [...] did not what she did voluntarily, but because s [...] was helpless otherwise. She is advised somethin [...] about Engagements made in Gaol, which she thin [...] the same as to the Reason of the Thing. But, dea [...] Sir, she relies upon your Advice, and gives you h [...] Service; as does

Your humble Servant, Rebecca Midriff

[Page 117] The Case is very hard; and I fear, the Plea she is advised to make, from the Similitude of a Man who is in Duresse, will not prevail. But tho' I despair of Remedy as to the Mother, the Law gives the Child his Choice of his Father where the Birth is thus legally ambiguous.

To Isaac Bickerstaff Esq
The humble Petition of the Company of Linendrapers residing within the Liberty of Westminster;


THat there has of late prevailed among the Ladies so great an Affectation of Naked­ness, that they have not only left the Bosom wholly bare, but lowered their Stays some Inches below the former Mode.

That in Particular, Mrs. Arabella Overdo has not the least Appearance of Linen, and our best Customers show but little above the Small of their Backs.

That by this Means, your Petitioners are in Danger of losing the Advantage of covering a Ninth Part of every Woman of Quality in Great Britain.

Your Petitioners humbly offer the Pre­misses to your Indulgence's Conside­ration, and shall ever, &c.

Before I answer this Petition, I am inclined to examine the Offenders my self.

The TATLER. [No 216.
From Thursd. Aug. 24. to Saturd. Aug. 26. 1710.

— Nugis addere Pondus.

NAture is full of Wonders; every Atom is a standing Miracle, and endowed with such Qualities, as could not be impressed on it by a Power and Wisdom less than Infinite. For this Reason, I would not discourage any Searches that are made into the most minute and trivial Parts of the Creation. However, since the World a­bounds in the noblest Fields of Speculation, it is, methinks, the Mark of a little Genius to be wholly conversant among Insects, Reptiles, Ani­malcules, and those trifling Rarities that furnish out the Apartment of a Virtuoso.

There are some Men whose Heads are so odly turned this Way, that tho' they are utter Stran­gers to the common Occurrences of Life, they are able to discover the Sex of a Cockle, or de­scribe the Generation of a Mite, in all its Circum­stances. They are so little versed in the World, that they scarce know a Horse from an Ox; but at the same Time will tell you, with a great deal of Gravity, That a Flea is a Rhinoceros, and a Snail an Hermaphrodite. I have known one of these whimsical Philosophers who has set a great­er Value upon a Collection of Spiders than he would upon a Collection of Spiders than he would upon a Flock of Sheep, and has sold his Coat off his Back to purchase a Tarantula.

I would not have a Scholar wholly unacquaint­ed with these Secrets and Curiosities of Nature; but certainly the Mind of Man, that is capable of [Page 119] so much higher Contemplations, should not be altogether fixed upon such mean and dispropor­tioned Objects. Observations of this Kind are apt to alienate us too much from the Knowledge of the World, and to make us serious upon Tri­fles, by which Means they expose Philosophy to the Ridicule of the Witty, and Contempt of the Ignorant. In short, Studies of this Nature should be the Diversions, Relaxations, and Amusements; not the Care, Business, and Concern of Life.

It is indeed wonderful to consider, that there should be a Sort of learned Men who are wholly employed in gathering together the Refuse of Na­ture, if I may call it so, and hoarding up in their Chests and Cabinets such Creatures as others in­dustriously avoid the Sight of. One does not know how to mention some of the most precious Parts of their Treasure, without a Kind of an Apology for it. I have been shown a Beetle va­lued at Twenty Crowns, and a Toad at an Hun­dred; But we must take this for a general Rule, That whatever appears trivial or obscene in the common Notions of the World, looks grave and philosophical in the Eye of a Virtuoso.

To show this Humour in its Perfection, I shall present my Reader with the Legacy of a certain Virtuoso, who laid out a considerable Estate in natural Rarities and Curiosities, which upon his Death-Bed he bequeathed to his Relations and Friends, in the following Words:

The Will of a Virtuoso.

I Nicholas Gimcrack being in sound Health of Mind, but in great Weakness of Body, do by this my Last Will and Testament bestow my Worldly Goods and Chattels in Manner follow­ing:

[Page 120] Imprimis, To my dear Wife,

  • One Box of Butterflies,
  • One Drawer of Shells,
  • A Female Skeleton,
  • A dried Cockatrice.

Item, To my Daughter Elizabeth,

  • My Receipt for preserving dead Caterpillars.
  • As also my Preparations of Winter May-Dew, and Embrio Pickle.

Item, To my little Daughter Fanny,

  • Three Crocodiles Eggs.

And upon the Birth of her First Child, if she marries with her Mother's Consent,

  • The Nest of an Humming-Bird.

Item, To my eldest Brother, as an Acknow­ledgment for the Lands he has vested in my Son Charles, I bequeath

  • My last Year's Collection of Grashoppers.

Item, To his Daughter Susanna, being his only Child, I bequeath my

  • English Weeds pasted on Royal Paper. With my large Folio of Indian Cabbage.

Item, To my learned and worthy Friend Dr. Jo­hannes Elscrikius, Professor in Anatomy, and my Associate in the Studies of Nature, as an eternal Monument of my Affection and Friendship for him, I bequeath

  • My Rat's Testicles, and
  • Whale's Pizzle,

To him and his Issue Male; and in Default of such Issue in the said Dr. Elscrickius, then to re­turn to my Executor and his Heirs for ever.

Having fully provided for my Nephew Isaac, by making over to him some Years since

  • A Horned Scarabaeus,
  • The Skin of a Rattle-Snake, and
  • The Mummy of an Egyptian King,

[Page 121] I make no further Provision for him in this my Will.

My eldest Son John having spoken disrespect­fully of his little Sister whom I keep by me in Spirits of Wine, and in many other Instances be­haved himself undutifully towards me, I do dis­inherit, and wholly cut off from any Part of this my Personal Estate, by giving him a single Cockle Shell.

To my Second Son Charles, I give and bequeath all my Flowers, Plants, Minerals, Mosses, Shells, Pebbles, Fossils, Beetles, Butterflies, Caterpillars, Grashoppers, and Vermin, not above specified: As also all my Monsters, both wet and dry, making the said Charles whole and sole Executor of this my Last Will and Testament; he paying, or cau­sing to be paid, the aforesaid Legacies within the Space of Six Months after my Decease. And I do hereby revoke all other Wills whatsoever by me formerly made.


Wheras an ignorant Upstart in Astrology has publickly endeavoured to perswade the World, that he is the late John Partridge, who died the 28th of March, 1708; These are to certifie all whom it may concern, That the true John Partridge was not only dead at that Time, but continues so to this pre­sent Day.

Beware of Counterfeits, for such are Abroad.

The TATLER. [No 217.
From Saturd. Aug. 26. to Tuesd. Aug. 29. 1710.

At (que) Does at (que) Astra vocat crudelia Mater.

AS I was passing by a Neighbour's House this Morning, I overheard the Wife of the Fa­mily speak Things to her Husband which gave me much Disturbance, and put me in Mind of a Character which I wonder I have so long omit­ted, and that is, an outragious Species of the Fair Sex which is distinguished by the Term Scolds. The Generality of Women are by Na­ture loquacious: Therefore meer Volubility of Speech is not to be imputed to them, but should be considered with Pleasure when it is used to ex­press such Passions as tend to sweeten or adorn Conversation: But when, thro' Rage, Females are vehement in their Eloquence, nothing in the World has so ill an Effect upon the Features; for by the Force of it, I have seen the most Amiable become the most Deformed; and she that ap­peared one of the Graces, immediately turned into one of the Furies. I humbly conceive, the great Cause of this Evil may proceed from a false Notion the Ladies have of what we call a Modest Woman. They have too narrow a Conception of this lovely Character, and believe they have not at all forfeited their Pretensions to it, provided they have no Imputations on their Chastity. But alas! the young Fellows know they pick out bet­ter Women in the Side-Boxes, than many of those who pass upon the World and themselves for Mo­dest.

[Page 123] Modesty never rages, never murmurs, never pouts: When it is ill treated, it pines, it be­seeches, it languishes. The Neighbour I men­tion is one of your common modest Women, that is to say, those as are ordinarily reckoned such. Her Husband knows every Pain in Life with her but Jealousy. Now because she is clear in this Particular, the Man can't say his Soul's his own, but she cries, No modest Woman is respected now a-days. What adds to the Comedy in this Case is, that it is very ordinary with this Sort of Women to talk in the Language of Distress: They will complain of the forlorn Wretchedness of their Condition, and then the poor helpless Creatures shall throw the next Thing they can lay their Hands on at the Person who offends them. Our Neighbour was only saying to his Wife, she went a little too fine, when she imme­diately pulled his Periwig off, and stamping it under her Feet, wrung her Hands, and said, Ne­ver modest Woman was so used: These Ladies of irresistible Modesty are those who make Vir­tue unamiable; not that they can be said to be virtuous, but as they live without Scandal; and being under the common Denomination of being such, Men fear to meet their Faults in those who are as agreeable as they are innocent.

I take the Bully among Men, and the Scold a­mong Women, to draw the Foundation of their Actions from the same Defect in the Mind A Bully thinks Honour consists wholly in being brave, and therefore has Regard to no one Rule of Life, if he preserves himself from the Accusa­tion of Cowardize. The froward Woman knows Chastity to be the first Merit in a Woman; and therefore, since no one can call her one ugly Name, she calls all Mankind all the rest.

These Ladies, where their Companions are so imprudent as to take their Speeches for any other than Exercises of their own Lungs, and their [Page 124] Husbands Patience, gain by the Force of being resisted, and flame with open Fury, which is no Way to be opposed but by being neglected: Tho' at the same Time Humane Frailty makes it very hard to relish the Philosophy of contemning even frivolous Reproach. There is a very pretty In­stance of this Infirmity in the Man of the best Sense that ever was, no less a Person than Adam himself. According to Milton's Description of the First Couple, as soon as they had fallen, and the turbulent Passions of Anger, Hatred, and Jea­lousy, first enter'd their Breasts, Adam grew moody, and talked to his Wife, as you may find it in the 359th Page, and 9th Book, of Paradise Lest, in the Octave Edition, which out of He­roicks, and put into Domestick Stile, would run thus:

‘'Madam, If my Advice had been of any Au­thority with you when that strange Desire of Gadding possessed you this Morning, we had still been happy: But your cursed Vanity and Opi­nion of your own Conduct, which is certainly very wavering when it seeks Occasions of being proved, has ruined both your self, and me who trusted you.'’

Eve had no Fan in her Hand to ruffle, or Tucker to pull down, but with a reproachful Air she an­swered:

‘Sir, Do you impute that to my Desire of Gad­ding, which might have happened to your self with all your Wisdom and Gravity?'’ The Ser­pent spoke so excellently, and with so good a Grace, that—Besides, ‘'What Harm had I ever done him, that he should design me any? Was I to have been always at your Side, I might as well have continued there, and been but your Rib still: But if I was so weak a Creature as you thought me, Why did you not interpose your sage Authority more absolutely? [Page 125] You denied me going as faintly, as you say I resisted the Serpent. Had not you been too easie, neither you or I had now transgressed.'’

Adam replied, ‘'Why, Eve. hast thou the Im­pudence to upbraid me as the Cause of thy Transgression for my Indulgence to thee? Thus it will ever be with him who trusts too much to Woman: At the same Time that she refuses to be governed, if she suffers by her Ostinacy, she will accuse the Man that shall leave her to her self.'’

Thus they in mutual Accusation spent
The fruitless Hours, but neither self condemning:
And of their vain Contest appear'd no End.

This to the Modern will appear but a very faint Piece of Conjugal Enmity; but you are to consider, that they were but just begun to be an­gry, and they wanted new Words for expressing their new Passions. But her accusing him of let­ting her go, and telling him how good a Speaker, and how fine a Gentleman the Devil was, we must reckon, allowing for the Improvements of Time, that she gave him the same Provocation as if she had called him Cuckold. The pas­sionate and familiar Terms with which the same Case, repeated daily for so many Thousand Years, has furnished the present Generation, were not then in Use; but the Foundation of Debate has ever been the same, a Contention about their Merit and Wisdom. Our general Mother was a Beauty, and hearing there was another now in the World, could not forbear (as Adam tells her) showing her self, though to the Devil, by whom the same Vanity made her liable to be be­trayed.

I cannot, with all the Help of Science and, Astrology, find any other Remedy for this Evil but what was the Medicine in this first Quarrel; which was, as appeared in the next Book, that [Page 126] they were convinced of their being both weak, but one weaker than the other.

If it were possible that the Beauteous could but rage a little before a Glass, and see their pret­ty Countenances grow wild, it is not to be doubt­ed but it would have a very good Effect; but that would require Temper: For Lady Firebrand, upon observing her Features swell when her Maid vexed her the other Day, stamped her Dressing-Glass under her Feet. In this Case, when one of this Temper is moved, she is like a Witch in an Operation, and makes all Things turn round with her. The very Fabrick is in a Vertigo when she begins to charm. In an In­stant, whatever was the Occasion that moved her Blood, she has such intolerable Servants, Betty is so aukward, Tom can't carry a Message, and her Husband has so little Respect for her, that she, poor Woman, is weary of this Life, and was born to be unhappy.

Desunt Multa.


The Season now coming on in which the Town will begin to fill, Mr. Bickerstaff gives Notice, That from the first of October next, he will be much wit­tier than he has hitherto been.

The TATLER. [No 218.
From Tuesday Aug. 29. to Thursday Aug. 31. 1710.

Scriptorum Chorus omnis amat Nemus & fugit Urbe [...]

I Chanced to rise very early one particular Morning this Summer, and took a Walk into the Country to divert my self among the Fields and Meadows, while the Green was new, and the Flowers in their Bloom. As at this Season of the Year every Lane is a beautiful Walk, and every Hedge full of Nosegays, I lost my self with a great deal of Pleasure among several Thickets and Bushes that were filled with a great Variety of Birds, and an agreeable Confusion of Notes, which formed the pleasantest Scene in the World to one who had pass'd a whole Winter in Noise and Smoak. The Freshness of the Dews that lay upon every Thing about me, with the cool Breath of the Morning, which inspired the Birds with so many delightful Instincts, created in me the same Kind of animal Pleasure, and made my Heart overflow with such secret Emotions of Joy and Satisfaction as are not to be described or ac­counted for. On this Occasion I could not but reflect upon a beautiful Simile in Milton:

As one who long in populous City pent,
Where Houses thick, and Sewers, annoy the Air,
Forth issuing on a Summer's Morn, to breath
Among the pleasant Villages, and Farms
Adjoin'd, from each Thing met conceives Delight:
The Smell of Grain, or tedded Grass, or Kine,
Or Dairy, each rural Sight, each rural Sound.

[Page 128] Those who are conversant in the Writings of po­lite Authors, receive an additional Entertainment from the Country, as it revives in their Memories those charming Descriptions with which such Authors do frequently abound.

I was thinking of the foregoing beautiful Si­mile in Milton, and applying it to my self, when I observed to the Windward of me a black Cloud falling to the Earth in long Trails of Rain, which made me betake my self for Shelter to a House which I saw at a little Distance from the Place where I was walking. As I sat in the Porch, I heard the Voices of Two or Three Persons, who seemed very earnest in Discourse. My Curiosity was raised when I heard the Names of Alexander the Great and Artaxerxes; and as their Talk seemed to run on ancient Heroes, I concluded there could not be any Secret in it; for which Reason I thought I might very fairly listen to what they said.

After several Parallels between great Men, which appeared to me altogether groundless and chimerical, I was surprized to hear one say, That he valued the Black Prince more than the Duke of Vendosme. How the Duke of Vendosme should become a Rival of the Black Prince's, I could not conceive: And was more startled when I heard a Second affirm with great Vehemence, That if the Emperor of Germany was not going off, he should like him better than either of them. He added, That tho' the Season was so changeable, the Duke of Marlborough was in blooming Beau­ty. I was wondering to my self from whence they had received this odd Intelligence, especial­ly when I heard them mention the Names of se­veral other great Generals, as the Prince of Hesse, and the King of Sweden, who, they said, were both running away. To which they added, what I entirely agreed with them in, That the Crown of France was very weak, but that the Mareschal [Page 129] Villars still kept his Colours. At last one of them told the Company, If they would go along with him, he would show them a Chimney-Sweeper and a Painted Lady in the same Bed, which he was sure would very much please them. The Shower which had driven them, as well as my self, into the House, was now over: And as they were passing by me into the Garden, I asked them to let me be one of their Company.

The Gentleman of the House told me, if I de­lighted in Flowers, it would be worth my while, for that he believed he could show me such a Blow of Tulips as was not to be matched in the whole Country.

I accepted the Offer, and immediately found that they had been talking in Terms of Garden­ing, and that the Kings and Generals they had mentioned were only so many Tulips, to which the Gardiners, according to their usual Custom, had given such high Titles and Appellations of Honour.

I was very much pleased and astonished at the glorious Show of these gay Vegetables, that arose in great Profusion on all the Banks about us. Sometimes I considered them with the Eye of an ordinary Spectator as so many beautiful Objects, varnished over with a natural Gloss, and stained with such a Variety of Colours, as are not to be equalled in any artificial Dyes or Tinctures. Sometimes I considered every Leaf as an elabo­rate Piece of Tissue, in which the Threads and Fibres were woven together into different Confi­gurations, which gave a different Colouring to the Light as it glanced on the several Parts of the Surface. Sometimes I considered the whole Bed of Tulips, according to the Notion of the greatest Mathematician and Philosopher that ever lived, as a Multitude of Optick Instruments, designed for the separating Light into all those various Co­lours of which it is composed.

[Page 130] I was awakened out of these my Philosophical Speculations, by observing the Company often seemed to laugh at me. I accidentally praised a Tulip as one of the finest that I ever saw; upon which they told me, 'twas a common Fool's-Coat. Upon that I praised a Second, which it seems was but another Kind of Fool's-Coat. I had the same Fate with Two or Three more; for which Reason I desired the Owner of the Garden to let me know which were the finest of the Flowers, for that I was so unskilful in the Art, that I thought the most beautiful were the most valua­ble, and that those which had the gayest Colours were the most beautiful. The Gentleman smiled at my Ignorance: He seemed a very plain honest Man, and a Person of good Sense, had not his Head been touched with that Distemper which Hippocrates calls the [...], Tulippomania; insomuch that he would talk very rationally on any Subject in the World but a Tulip.

He told me, That he valued the Bed of Flowers which lay before us, and was not above Twenty Yards in Length, and Two in Breadth, more than he would the best Hundred Acres of Land in England; and added, That it would have been worth twice the Money it is, if a foolish Cook-Maid of his had not almost ruined him the last Winter, by mistaking an Handful of Tulip-Roots for an Heap of Onions, and by that Means (says he) made me a Dish of Porridge, that cost me above 1000 l. Sterling. He then showed me what he thought the finest of his Tulips, which I found received all their Value from their Rarity and Oddness, and put me in Mind of your great For­tunes, which are not always the greatest Beau­ties.

I have often looked upon it as a Piece of Hap­piness, that I have never fallen into any of these fantastical Tasts, nor esteemed any Thing the more for its being uncommon and hard to be met [Page 131] with. For this Reason, I look upon the whole Country in Spring-time as a spacious Garden, and make as many Visits to a Spot of Daizies, or a Bank of Violets, as a Florist does to his Bor­ders and Parterres. There is not a Bush in Blos­som within a Mile of me which I am not ac­quainted with, nor scarce a Daffodil or Cowslip that withers away in my Neighbourhood with­out my missing it. I walked Home in this Tem­per of Mind through several Fields and Meadows with an unspeakable Pleasure, not without re­flecting on the Bounty of Providence, which has made the most pleasing and most beautiful Ob­jects the most ordinary and most common.

The TATLER. [No 219.
From Thursd. Aug. 31. to Saturd. Sept. 2. 1710.

— Solutos
Qui captat Risus Hominum, Famam (que) Dicacis.
Affectat, niger est, hunc, tu Romane, caveto.

NEver were Men so perplexed as a select Com­pany of us were this Evening with a Cou­ple of professed Wits, who through our ill For­tune, and their own Confidence, had thought fit to pin themselves upon a Gentleman who had owned to them that he was going to meet such and such Persons, and named us one by one. These pert Puppies immediately resolved to come with him, and from the Beginning to the End of the Night entertained each other with Imperti­nencies, to which we were perfect Strangers. I am come Home very much tired; for the Affli­ction [Page 132] was so irksome to me, that it surpasses all other I ever knew, insomuch that I cannot re­flect upon this Sorrow with Pleasure, though it is past.

An easy Manner of Conversation is the most desirable Quality a Man can have; and for that Reason Coxcombs will take upon them to be fa­miliar with People whom they never saw before. What adds to the Vexation of it is, that they will act upon the Foot of knowing you by Fame, and rally with you, as they call it, by repeating what your Enemies say of you; and court you, as they think, by uttering to your Face at a wrong Time all the kind Things your Friends speak of you in your Absence.

These People are the more dreadful, the more they have of what is usually called Wit: For a lively Imagination, when it is not governed by a good Understanding, makes such miserable Ha­vock both in Conversation and Business, that it lays you defenceless, and fearful to throw the least Word in its Way, that may give it new Matter for its further Errors.

Tom. Mercett has as quick a Fancy as any one li­ving; but there is no reasonable Man can bear him half an Hour. His Purpose is to entertain, and it is of no Consequence to him what is said, so it be what is called well said; as if a Man must bear a Wound with Patience, because he that pushed at you came up with a good Air and Mien. That Part of Life which we spend in Company, is the most pleasing of all our Mo­ments; and therefore I think our Behaviour in it should have its Laws as well as the Part of our Being, which is generally esteemed the more im­portant. From hence it is, that from long Expe­rience I have made it a Maxim. that however we may pretend to take Satisfaction in sprightly Mirth and high Jollity, there is no great Pleasure in any Company where the Basis of the Society [Page 133] is not mutual Good-Will. When this is in the Room, every trifling Circumstance, the most mi­nute Accident, the Absurdity of a Servant, the Repetition of an old Story, the Look of a Man when he is telling it, the most indifferent and the most ordinary Occurrences, are Matters which produce Mirth and good Humour. I went to spend an Hour after this Manner with some Friends who enjoy it in Perfection whenever they meet, when those Destroyers above-mentioned came in upon us. There is not a Man among them has any Notion of Distinction of Superiori­ty to one another, either in their Fortunes or their Talents, when they are in Company. Or if any Reflexion to the contrary occurs in their Thoughts, it only strikes a Delight upon their Minds, that so much Wisdom and Power is in Possession of one whom they love and esteem.

In these my Lucubrations, I have frequently dwelt upon this one Topick. It would make short Work for us Reformers, for it is only Want of making this a Position that renders some Cha­racters bad, which would otherwise be good. Tom Mercett means no Man Ill, but does Ill to every Body. His Ambition is to be witty; and to carry on that Design, he breaks through all Things that other People hold Sacred. If he thought Wit was no Way to be used but to the Advantage of Society, that Sprightliness would have a new Turn, and we should expect what he is going to say with Satisfaction instead of Fear. It is no Excuse for being mischievous, that a Man is mischievous without Malice; nor will it be thought an Attonement that the Ill was done not to injure the Party concern'd, but to di­vert the Indifferent.

It is, methinks, a very great Error, that we should not profess Honesty in Conversation as much as in Commerce. If we consider, that there is no greater Misfortune than to be ill re­ceived [Page 134] where we love the turning a Man to Ridi­cule among his Friends, we rob him of greater Enjoyments than he could have purchased by his Wealth; yet he that laughs at him, would per­haps be the last Man who would hurt him in this Case of less Consequence. It has been said, the History of Don Quixote utterly destroyed the Spi­rit of Gallantry in the Spanish Nation; and I be­lieve we may say much more truly, that the Hu­mour of Ridicule has done as much Injury to the true Relish of Company in England.

Such Satisfactions as arise from the secret Com­parison of our selves to others, with relation to their inferior Fortunes or Merit, are mean and unworthy. The true and high State of Conver­sation is when Men communicate their Thoughts to each other upon such Subjects, and in such a Manner, as would be pleasant if there were no such Thing as Folly in the World; for it is but a low Condition of Wit in one Man which de­pends upon Folly in another.

P. S. I was here interrupted by the Receipt of my Letters, among which is one from a Lady, who is not a little offended at my Translation of the Discourse between Adam and Eve. She pre­tends to tell me my own, as she calls it, and quotes several Passages in my Works which tend to the utter Disunion of Man and Wife. Her Epistle will best express her. I have made an Extract of it, and shall insert the most material Passages.

I suppose you know we Women are not too apt to forgive: For which Reason, before you concern your self any further with our Sex, I would advise you to answer what is said against you by those of your own. I inclose to you Business enough till you are ready for your Pro­mise of being witty. You must not expect to say what you please, without admitting others to take the same Liberty. Marry come up! [Page 135] You a Censor? Pray read over all these Pam­phlets, and these Notes upon your Lucubra­tions, by that Time you shall hear further. It is, I suppose, from such as you that People learn to be Sensorious, for which I and all our Sex have an utter Aversion, when once People come to take the Liberty to wound Reputa­tions—

This is the main Body of the Letter; but she bids me turn over, and there I find—

Mr. Bickerstaff,

If you will draw Mrs. Sisly Trippit according to the inclosed Description, I will forgive you all.

To Isaac Bickerstaff Esq
The humble Petition of Joshua Fairlove of Stepney;


THat your Petitioner is a general Lover, who for some Months last past has made it his whole Business to frequent the By-Paths and Roads near his Dwelling, for no other Purpose but to hand such of the Fair Sex as are obliged to pass through them.

That he has been at great Expence for clean Gloves to offer his Hand with.

That towards the Evening he approaches near London, and employs himself as a Convey towards Home.

Your Petitioner therefore most humbly prays, That for such his humble Services, he may be allowed the Title of an Esquire.

Mr. Morphew has Orders to carry the proper In­struments, and the Petitioner is to be hereafter writ to upon gilt Paper, by the Title of Joshua Fairlove Esq

The TATLER. [No 220.
From Saturd. Sept. 2. to Tuesd. Sept. 5. 1710.

Insani sanus Nomen ferat, aequus iniqui,
Ultra quam satis est, Virtutem si petat ipsam.

HAving received many Letters filled with Compliments and Acknowledgments for my late useful Discovery of the Political Barome­ter, I shall here communicate to the Publick an Account of my Ecclesiastical Thermometer, the latter giving as manifest Prognostications of the Changes and Revolutions in Church, as the for­mer does of those in State, and both of them be­ing absolutely necessary for every prudent Subject who is resolved to keep what he has, and get what he can.

The Church Thermometer, which I am now to treat of, is supposed to have been invented in the Reign of Henry the Eighth, about the Time when that Religious Prince put some to Death for owning the Pope's Supremacy, and others for denying Transubstantiation. I do not find, how­ever, any great Use made of this Instrument till it fell into the Hands of a learned and vigilant Priest or Minister, (for he frequently wrote him­self both one and the other) who was some Time Vicar of Bray. This Gentleman lived in his Vi­caridge to a good old Age; and after having seen several Successions of his neighbouring Clergy either burnt or banish'd, departed this Life with the Satisfaction of having never deserted his [Page 137] Flock, and died Vicar of Bray. As this Glass was first designed to calculate the different De­grees of Heat in Religion, as it raged in Popery, or as it cooled and grew temperate in the Refor­mation, it was marked at several Distances, after the Manner our ordinary Thermometer is to this Day, viz. Extream Hot sultry Hot, very Hot, Hot, Warm, Temperate, Cold, just Freezing, Frost, hard Frost, great Frost, extream Cold.

It is well known, that Toricellius, the Inventor of the common Weather-Glass, made the Experi­ment in a long Tube which held Thirty two Foot of Water; and that a more modern Virtuoso finding such a Machine altogether unweildy and useless, and considering that Thirty two Inches of Quicksilver weigh'd as much as so many Foot of Water in a Tube of the same Circumference, invented that fizeable Instrument which is now in Use. After this Manner, that I might adapt the Thermometer I am now speaking of to the present Constitution of our Church, as divided into High and Low, I have made some necessary Vari­ations both in the Tube and the Fluid it contains. In the first Place, I ordered a Tube to be cast in a Planetary Hour, and took Care to seal it Her­metically, when the Sun was in Conjunction with Saturn. I then took the proper Precautions about the Fluid, which is a Compound of Two very different Liquors; one of them a Spirit drawn out of a strong heady Wine; the other a parti­cular Sort of Rock Water, colder than Ice, and clearer than Chrystal. The Spirit is of a red fiery Colour, and so very apt to ferment, that unless it be mingled with a Proportion of the Water, or pent up very close, it will burst the Vessel that holds it, and fly up in Fume and Smoak. The Water on the contrary is of such a subtle piercing Cold, that unless it be mingled with a Proportion of the Spirits, it will sink through almost every Thing that it is put into, and seems to be of the [Page 138] same Nature as the Water mentioned by Quintus Curtius, which, says the Historian, could be con­tained in nothing but in the Hoof or (as the Ox­ford Manuscript has it) in the Skull of an Ass. The Thermometer is marked according to the following Figure, which I set down at length, not only to give my Reader a clear Idea of it, but also to fill up my Paper.

  • Ignorance.
  • Persecution.
  • Wrath.
  • Zeal.
  • Moderation.
  • Lukewarmness.
  • Infidelity.
  • Ignorance.

The Reader will observe, that the Church is placed in the Middle Point of the Glass, between Zeal and Moderation, the Situation in which she always flourishes, and in which every good Eng­lishman wishes her who is a Friend to the Con­stitution of his Country. However, when it mounts to Zeal, it is not amiss; and when it sinks to Moderation, is still in a most admirable Temper. The worst of it is, that when once it begins to rise, it has still an Inclination to ascend, insomuch that it is apt to climb from Zeal to Wrath, and from Wrath to Persecution, which al­ways ends in Ignorance, and very often proceeds from it. In the same Manner it frequently takes its Progress through the lower Half of the Glass; and when it has a Tendency to fall, will gradual­ly descend from Moderation to Lukewarmness, and [Page 139] from Lukewarmness to Infidelity, which very often terminates in Ignorance, and always proceeds from it.

It is a common Observation, that the ordinary Thermometer will be affected by the breathing of People who are in the Room where it stands; and indeed, it is almost incredible to conceive how the Glass I am now describing will fall by the Breath of a Multitude crying Popery; or on the contrary, how it will rise when the same Multi­tude (as it sometimes happens) cry out in the same Breath, The Church is in Danger.

As soon as I had finished this my Glass, and ad­justed it to the above-mentioned Scale of Reli­gion, that I might make proper Experiments with it, I carried it under my Cloak to several Coffee-houses, and other Places of Resort about this great City. At St. James's Coffee-house, the Li­quor stood at Moderation; but at Will's, to my extream Surprize, it subsided to the very lowest Mark on the Glass. At the Grecian, it mounted but just one Point higher; at the Rainbow, it still ascended Two Decrees: Child's fetched it up to Zeal, and other adjacent Coffee-houses to Wrath.

It fell into the lower Half of the Glass as I went further into the City, till at length it set­tled at Moderation, where it continued all the Time I stay'd about the Change, as also whilst I passed by the Bank. And here I cannot but take Notice, that through the whole Course of my Remarks, I never observed my Glass to rise at the same Time that the Stocks did.

To compleat the Experiment, I prevailed upon a Friend of mine, who works under me in the Occult Sciences, to make a Progress with my Glass through the whole Island of Great Bri­tain; and after his Return, to present me with a Register of his Observations. I guessed before­hand at the Temper of several Places he passed through, by the Characters they have had Time [Page 140] out of Mind. Thus that facetious Divine, Dr. Ful­ler, speaking of the Town of Banbury near a Hundred Years ago, tells us, it was a Place fa­mous for Cakes and Zeal, which I find by my Glass is true to this Day as to the latter Part of this Description; though I must confess, it is not in the same Reputation for Cakes that it was in the Time of that learned Author; and thus of other Places. In short, I have now by me, di­gested in an Alphabetical Order, all the Counties, Corporations and Boroughs, in Great Britain, with their respective Tempers, as they stand re­lated to my Thermometer: But this I shall keep to my self, because I would by no Means do any Thing that may seem to influence any ensuing Elections.

The Point of Doctrine which I would propa­gate by this my Invention, is the same which was long ago advanced by that able Teacher Ho­race, out of whom I have taken my Text for this Discourse: We should be careful not to over­shoot our selves in the Pursuits even of Virtue. Whether Zeal or Moderation be the Point we aim at, let us keep Fire out of the one, and Frost out of the other. But alas! the World is too Wise to want such a Precaution. The Terms High-Church and Low-Church, as commonly used, do not so much denote a Principle, as they distin­guish a Party. They are like Words of Battle, that have nothing to do with their original Sig­nification, but are only given out to keep a Body of Men together, and to let them know Friends from Enemies.

I must confess, I have considered with some lit­tle Attention the Influence which the Opinions of these great National Sects have upon their Pra­ctice; and do look upon it as one of the unac­countable Things of our Times, that Multitudes of honest Gentlemen, who entirely agree in their [Page 141] Lives, should take it in their Heads to differ in their Religion.

The TATLER. [No 221.
From Tuesday Sept. 5. to Thursday Sept. 7. 1710.

— Sicut meus est Mos,
Nescio quid meditans Nugarum, & totus in illis.

AS I was this Morning going out of my House, a little Boy in a black Coat delivered to me the following Letter. Upon asking who he was, he told me, that he belonged to my Lady Gim­crack. I did not at first recollect the Name; but upon Enquiry, found it to be the Widow of Sir Nicholas, whose Legacy I lately gave some Account of to the World. The Letter ran thus:

Mr. Bickerstaff,

I Hope you will not be surprised to receive a Letter from the Widow Gimcrack. You know, Sir, that I have lately lost a very whim­sical Husband, who I find, by one of your last Weeks Papers, was not altogether a Stranger to you. When I married this Gentleman, he had a very handsome Estate; but upon buying a Set of Microscopes, he was chosen a Fellow of the Royal Society; from which Time I do not remember ever to have heard him speak as other People did, or talk in a Manner that any of his Family could understand him. He used, however, to pass away his Time very in­nocently in Conversation with several Mem­ber; [Page 142] of that learned Body; for which Reason I never advised him against their Company for several Years, till at last I found his Brain was quite turned with their Discourses. The first Symptom which he discovered of his being a Virtuoso, as you call him, poor Man! was about Fifteen Years ago, when he gave me positive Orders to turn off an old Weeding-Woman that had been employed in the Family for several Years. He told me at the same Time, that there was no such Thing in Na­ture as a Weed, and that it was his Design to let his Garden produce what it pleased; so that you may be sure it makes a very pleasant Show as it now lies. About the same Time he took a Humour to ramble up and down the Country, and would often bring Home with him his Pockets full of Moss and Pebbles. This you may be sure gave me a heavy Heart; though at the same Time I must needs say, he had the Character of a very honest Man, notwithstanding he was reckon'd a little weak, till he begun to sell his Estate, and buy those strange Baubles that you have taken Notice of. Upon Midsummer-Day last, as he was walking with me in the Fields, he saw a very odd coloured Butterfly just before us. I observed, that he immediately chan­ged Colour, like a Man that is surprised with a Piece of good Luck, and telling me that it was what he had looked for above these Twelve Years, he threw off his Coat, and followed it. I lost Sight of them both in less than a quarter of an Hour; but my Husband continued the Chace over Hedge and Ditch till about Sun-set; at which Time, as I was afterwards told, he caught the Butterfly, as she rested her self upon a Cab­bage, near Five Miles from the Place where he first put her up. He was here lifted [Page 143] from the Ground by some Passengers in a very fainting Condition, and brought Home to me about Midnight. His violent Exer­cise threw him into a Fever, which grew upon him by Degrees, and at last carried him off. In one of the Intervals of his Di­stemper, he called to me, and after having excused himself for running out of his E­state, he told me, That he had always been more industrious to improve his Mind than his Fortune; and that his Family must ra­ther value themselves upon his Memory as he was a wise Man, than a rich one. He then told me, That it was a Custom a­mong the Romans, for a Man to give his Slaves their Liberty when he lay upon his Death-Bed. I could not imagine what this meant, till after having a little composed himself, he ordered me to bring him a Flea which he had kept for several Months in a Chain, with a Design, as he said, to give it its Ma­numission. This was done accordingly. He then made the Will, which I have since seen printed in your Works Word for Word. On­ly I must take Notice, that you have omitted the Codicil, in which he left a large Concha Veneris, as it is there called, to a Member of the Royal Society, who was often with him in his Sickness, and assisted him in his Will. And now, Sir, I come to the chief Bu­siness of my Letter, which is, to desire your Friendship and Assistance in the Disposal of those many Rarities and Curiosities which lie upon my Hands. If you know any one that has an Occasion for a Parcel of dry'd Spiders, I will sell them a Pennyworth. I could like­wise let any one have a Bargain of Cockle-Shells. I would also desire your Advice, whe­ther I had best sell my Beetles in a Lump, or by Retail. The Gentleman above-mentioned, [Page 144] who was my Husband's Friend, would have me make an Auction of all his Goods, and is now drawing up a Catalogue of every Particu­lar for that Purpose, with the Two following Words in great Letters over the Head of them, Auctio Gimcrackiana. But upon talking with him, I begin to suspect he is as mad as poor Sir Nicholas was. Your Advice in all these Particulars, will be a great Piece of Charity to,

Your most humble Servant, Elizabeth Gimcrack.

I shall answer the foregoing Letter, and give the Widow my best Advice, as soon as I can find out Chapmen for the Wares which she has to put off. In the mean Time, I shall give my Reader the Sight of a Letter which I have re­ceived from another Female Correspondent by the same Post.

Good Mr. Bickerstaff,

I Am convinced by a late Paper of yours, that a passionate Woman (which among the common People goes under the Name of a Scold) is one of the most unsupportable Creatures in the World. But alas! Sir, What can we do? I have made a Thou­sand Vows and Resolutions every Morning to guard my self against this Frailty, but have generally broken them before Dinner, and could never in my Life hold out till the Second Course was set upon the Table. What most troubles me is, that my Husband is as patient and good-natured as you [...] own Worship, or any Man living can be. Pra [...] give me some Directions, for I would observe th [...] strictest and severest Rules you can think of to cu [...] [Page 145] my self of this Distemper, which is apt to fall into my Tongue every Moment. I am,

Your most humble Servant, &c.

In Answer to this most unfortunate Lady, I must acquaint her, That there is now in Town an ingenious Physician of my Acquaintance, who undertakes to cure all the Vices and Defects of the Mind by inward Medicines, or outward Applica­tions. I shall give the World an Account of his Patients and his Cures in other Papers, when I shall be more at Leisure to treat upon this Subject. I shall only here inform my Correspondent, That for the Benefit of such Ladies that are troubled with virulent Tongues, he has prepared a Cold Bath, over which there is fastened, at the End of a long Pole, a very convenient Chair, curious­ly gilt and carved. When the Patient is seated in this Chair, the Doctor lifts up the Pole, and gives her Two or Three total Emersions in the Cold Bath, till such Time as she has quite lost the Use of Speech. This Operation so effectually chills the Tongue, and refrigerates the Blood, that a Woman, who at her Entrance into the Chair is extreamly passionate and sonorous, will come out as silent and gentle as a Lamb. The Doctor told me, he would not practise this Expe­riment upon Women of Fashion, had not he seen it made upon those of meaner Condition with very good Effect.

The TATLER. [No 222.
From Thursday Sept. 7. to Saturday Sept. 9. 1710.

— Chrysidis Udas
Ebrius ante Fores extinct a cum Face cantat.

WHereas by Letters from Nottingham we have Advice, That the young Ladies of that Place complain for Want of Sleep, by rea­son of certain riotous Lovers, who for this last Summer have very much infested the Streets of that eminent City with Violins and Bass-Viols, between the Hours of Twelve and Four in the Morning, to the great Disturbance of many of Her Majesty's peaceable Subjects. And whereas I have been im­portuned to publish some Edict against these Mid­night Alarms, which, under the Name of Sere­nades, do greatly annoy many well-disposed Per­sons, not only in the Place above-mentioned, but also in most of the Polite Towns of this Island.

I have taken that Matter into my serious Con­sideration, and do find, that this Custom is by no means to be indulged in this Country and Cli­mate.

It is indeed very unaccountable, that most of our British Youth should take such great Delight in these Nocturnal Expeditions. Your robust true-born Briton, that has not yet felt the Force of Flames and Darts, has a natural Inclination to break Windows; while th [...]se whose natural Rug­gedness has been soothed and softened by gentle Passion, have as strong a Propensity to languish under them, especially if they have a Fidler be­hind [Page 147] them to utter their Complaints: For as the Custom prevails at present, there is scarce a young Man of any Fashion in a Corporation who does not make Love with the Town-Musick. The Waits often help him through his Courtship; and my Friend Mr. Banister has told me, he was proffered Five hundred Pounds by a young Fellow to play, but for one Winter under the Window of a Lady that was a great Fortune, but more cruel than or­dinary. One would think they hoped to conquer their Mistresses Hearts as People tame Hawks and Eagles, by keeping them awake, or breaking their Sleep when they are fallen into it.

I have endeavoured to search into the Original of this impertinent Way of making Love, which, according to some Authors, is of great Anti­quity. If we may believe Monsieur Dacier and other Criticks, Horace's Tenth Ode of the Third Book was originally a Serenade. And if I was disposed to show my Learning, I could produce a Line of him in another Place, which seems to have been the Burthen of an old Heathen Sere­nade.

" — Audis minus & minus jam
Me tuo tongas pereunte Noctes,
Lydia, Dormis?

But notwithstanding the Opinions of many lear­ned Men upon this Subject, I rather agree with them who look upon this Custom, as now practi­sed, to have been introduced by castrated Musici­ans, who found out this Way of applying them­selves to their Mistresses at these Hours, when Men of hoarser Voices express their Passions in a more vulgar Method. It must be confessed, That your Italian Eunuchs do practise this Manner of Court­ship to this Day.

But whoever were the Persons that first thought of the Serenade, the Authors of all Countries are unanimous in ascribing the invention to Italy.

[Page 148] There are Two Circumstances which qualified that Country above all other for this Midnight Musick.

The first I shall mention, was the Softness of their Climate.

This gave the Lover Opportunities of being Abroad in the Air, or of lying upon the Earth whole Hours together, without Fear of Damps or Dews; but as for our Tramontain Lovers, when they begin their Midnight Complaint with,

My Lodging it is on the cold Ground,

We are not to understand them in the Rigour of the Letter, since it would be impossible for a Bri­tish Swain to condole himself long in that Situa­tion without really dying for his Mistress. A Man might as well serenade in Greenland as in our Re­gion. Milton seems to have had in his Thoughts the Absurdity of these Northern Serenades in the Censure which he passes upon them:

— Or Midnight Ball,
Or Serenede, which the Starv'd Lover sings
To his proud Fair, best quitted with Disdain.

The Truth of it is, I have often pitied, in a Win­ter Night, a Vocal Musician, and have attributed many of his Trills and Quavers to the Coldness of the Weather.

The second Circumstance which inclined the Lalians to this Custom, was that Musical Genius which is so universal among them. Nothing is more frequent in that Country, than to hear a Cobler working to an Opera Tune. You can scarce see a Porter that has not one Nail much longer than the rest, which you will find, upon Enquiry, is cherished for some Instrument. In short, there is not a Labourer, or Handicraft Man, that in the Cool of the Evening does not relieve himself with Solo's and Sonnata's.

[Page 149] The Italian fooths his Mistress with a plaintivee Voice, and bewails himself in such melting Mu­sick, that the whole Neighbourhood sympathizes with him in his Sorrow.

Qualis Populea maerens, Philomela, sub Umbra
Flet Noctem, Rame (que) sedens miserabile Carmen
Integrat, & late moestis Loca Quaestibus implet.

On the contrary, our honest Countrymen have so little an Inclination to Musick, that they sel­dom begin to sing till they are drunk, which also is usually the Time when they are most disposed to serenade.

The TATLER. [No 223.
From Saturd. Sept. 9. to Tuesd. Sept. 12. 1710.

For when upon their ungot Heirs,
Th' Entail themselves and all that's theirs,
What blinder Bargain e'er was driv'n,
Or Wager laid at Six and Seven,
To pass themselves away, and turn
Their Children's Tenants e're they're born?

I HAVE been very much sollicited by Cla­rinda, Flavia, and Lysetta, to reassume my Discourse concerning the Methods of disposing honourably the unmarried Part of the World, and taking off those Bars to it, Jointures and Settle­ments, which are not only the greatest Impedi­ments towards entring into that State, but also the frequent Causes of Disturst and Animosity in it after it is consummated. I have with very much Attention consider'd the Case; and among all the [Page 150] Observations that I have made thro' a long Course of Years, I have thought the Coldness of Wives to their Husbands, as well as Disrespect from Chil­dren to Parents, to arise from this one Source. This Trade for Minds and Bodies in the Lump, without Regard to either, but as they are accom­panied with such Sums of Money, and such Par­ceis of Land, cannot but produce a Commerce between the Parties concerned suitable to the mean Motives upon which they at first came to­gether. I have heretofore given an Account, that this Method of making Settlements, was first in­vented by a griping Lawyer, who made Use of the covetous Tempers of the Parents of each Side to force Two young People into these vile Mea­sures of Diffidence, for no other End but to en­crease the Skins of Parchment, by which they were put into each other's Possession out of each other's Power. The Law of our Country has given an ample and generous Provision for the Wife, even the Third of the Husband's Estate, and left to her good Humour and his Gratitude the Expectation of further Provision; but the fantasti­cal Method of going further, with relation to their Heirs, has a Foundation in nothing but Pride and Folly: For as all Men wish their Children as like themselves, and as much better as they can possi­bly, it seems monstrous, that we should give out of our selves the Opportunities of rewarding and discouraging them according to their Deserts. This wise Institution has no more Sense in it, than if a Man should begin a Deed with, ‘"Whereas no Man living knows how long he shall conti­nue to be a reasonable Creature, or an honest Man: And whereas I B. am going to enter in the State of Matrimony with Mrs. D. therefore I shall from henceforth make it indifferent to me, whether from this Time forward I shall be a Fool or a Knave: And therefore in full and per­fect [Page 151] Health of Body, and as sound Mind, not knowing which of my Children will prove bet­ter or worse, I give to my First-born, be he per­verse, ungrateful, impious, or cruel, the Lump and Bulk of my Estate, and leave one Year's Purchase only to each of my younger Children, whether they shall be brave or beautiful, modest or honourable, from the Time of the Date hereof wherein I resign my Senses, and hereby promise to employ my Judgment no further in the Di­stribution of my Worldly Goods from the Day of the Date hereof, hereby further confessing and covenanting, that I am from henceforth married, and dead in Law.'’

There is no Man that is conversant in modern Settlements, but knows this is an exact Transla­tion of what is inserted in these Instruments. Men's Passions could only make them submit to such Terms; and therefore all unreasonable Bar­gains in Marriage ought to be set aside, as well as Deeds extorted from Men under Force or in Prison, who are altogether as much Masters of their Actions as he that is possess'd with a violent Passion.

How strangely Men are sometimes partial to themselves, appears by the Rapine of him that has a Daughter's Beauty under his Direction. He will make no Scruple of using it to force from her Lo­ver as much of his Estate as is worth 10000 l. and at the same Time, as a Justice on the Bench, will spare no Pains to get a Man hanged that has taken but a Horse from him.

It is to be hoped, the Legislature will in due Time take this Kind of Robbery into Considera­tion, and not suffer Men to prey upon each other, when they are about making the most solemn League, and entring into the strictest Bonds. The only sure Remedy is to fix a certain Rate on every Woman's Fortune; one Price for that of a Maid, [Page 152] and another for a Widow: For it is of infinite Advantage, that there should be no Frauds or Un­certainties in the Sale of our Women.

If any Man should exceed the settled Rate, he ought to be at Liberty after Seven Years are over, by which Time his Love may be supposed to abate a little, if it is not founded upon Reason, to re­nounce the Bargain, and be freed from the Settle­ment upon restoring the Portion; as a Youth mar­ried under Fourteen Years old may be off if he pleases when he comes to that Age, and as a Man is discharged from all Bargains but that of Mar­riage made when he is under Twenty one.

It grives me when I consider, that these Re­straints upon Matrimony take away the Advan­tage we should otherwise have over other Coun­tries, which are sunk much by those great Checks upon Propagation, the Convents. It is thought chiefly owing to these that Italy and Spain want above half their Complement of People. Were the Price of Wives always fixed and settled, it would contribute to filling the Nation more than all the Encouragements that can possibly be given to Fo­reigners to transplant themselves hither.

I therefore, as Censor of Britain, till a Law is made, will lay down Rules which shall be obser­ved with Penalty of degrading all that break them into Pretty Fellows, Smarts, Squibs, Hunt­ing Horns, Drums, and Bagpipes.

The Females that are guilty of breaking my Orders, I shall respectively pronounce to be Kits, Hornpipes, Dulcimers, and Kettle-Drums. Such Widows as wear the Spoils of one Husband I will bury, if they attempt to rob another.

I ordain, That no Woman ever demand one Shilling to be paid after her Husband's Death, more than the very Sum she brings him, or an Equivalent for it in Land.

[Page 153] That no Settlement be made, in which the Man settles on his Children more than the Reversion of the Jointure, or the Value of it in Money; so that at his Death he may in the Whole be bound to pay his Family but double to what he has receiv'd. I would have the eldest, as well as the rest, have his Provision out of this.

When Men are not able to come up to those Settlements I have proposed, I would have them receive so much of the Portion only as they can come up to, and the rest to go to the Woman by Way of Pin-Money, or Separate Maintenance. In this, I think, I determined equally between the Two Sexes.

If any Lawyer varies from these Rules, or is above Two Days in drawing a Marriage Settle­ment, or uses more Words in it than one Skin of Parchment will contain, or takes above Five Pounds for drawing it, I would have him thrown over the Bar.

Were these Rules observed, a Woman with a small Fortune, and a great deal of Worth, would be sure to marry according to her Deserts, if the Man's Estate were to be less incumbered in Pro­portion as her Fortune is less than he might have with others.

A Man of a great deal of Merit, and not much Estate, might be chosen for his Worth; because it would not be difficult for him to make a Settle­ment.

The Man that loves a Woman best, would not lose her for not being able to bid so much as ano­ther, or for not complying with an extravagant Demand.

A fine Woman would no more be set up to Auction as she is now. When a Man puts in for her, her Friends or her self take Care to publish it; and the Man that was the first Bidder is made no other Use of but to raise the Price. He that [Page 154] loves her, will continue in Waiting as long as she pleases, (if her Fortune be thought equal to his) and under Pretence of some Failure in the Rent-Roll, or Difficulties in drawing the Settlement, he is put off till a better Bargain is made with ano­ther.

All the rest of the Sex that are not rich or beau­tiful to the highest Degree are plainly Gainers, and would be married so fast, that the least charm­ing of them would soon grow Beauties to the Bat­chelors.

Widows might be easily married, if they would not, as they do now, set up for discreet, only by being mercenary.

The making Matimony cheap and easy, would be the greatest Discouragement to Vice: The li­miting the Expence of Children would not make Men ill inclined, or afraid of having them in a regular Way; and the Men of Merit would not live unmarried, as they often do now, because the Goodness of a Wife cannot be ensured to them; out the Loss of an Estate is certain, and a Man would never have the Affliction of a worthless Heir added to that of a bad Wife.

I am the more serious, large, and particular on this Subject, because my Lucubrations designed for the Encouragement of Virtue, cannot have the desired Success as long as this Incumbrance of Set­tlements continues upon Matrimony.

The TATLER. [No 224.
From Tuesday Sept. 12. to Thursday Sept. 14. 1710.

Materiam superabat Opus. —

IT is my Custom, in a Dearth of News, to en­tertain my self with those Collections of Ad­vertisements that appear at the End of all our publick Prints. These I consider as Accounts of News from the little World, in the same Manner that the foregoing Parts of the Paper are from the great. If in one we hear that a Sovereign Prince is fled from his Capital City, in the other we hear of a Tradesman who hath shut up his Shop, and run away. If in one we find the Victory of a General, in the other we see the Desertion of a private Soldier. I must confess, I have a certain Weakness in my Temper, that is often very much affected by these little Domestick Occurrences, and have frequently been caught with Tears in my Eyes over a melancholy Advertisement.

But to consider this Subject in its most ridicu­lous Lights, Advertisements are of great Use to the Vulgar: First of all, as they are Instruments of Ambition. A Man that is by no Means big enough for the Gazette, may easily creep into the Advertisements; by which Means we often see an Apothecary in the same Paper of News with a Plenipotentiary, or a Running-Footman with an Ambassador. An Advertisement from Pickadilly goes down to Posterity, with an Article from Ma­drid; and John Bartlett of Goodman's-Fields is ce­lebrated in the same Paper with the Emperor of [Page 156] Germany. Thus the Fable tells us, That the Wren mounted as high as the Eagle, by getting upon his Back.

A Second Use which this Sort of Writings have been turned to of late Years, has been the Manage­ment of Controversy, insomuch that above half the Advertisements one meets with now-a-Days are purely Polemical. The Inventors of Strops for Razors have written against one another this Way for several Years, and that with great Bitterness; as the whole Argument pro and con in the Case of the Morning-Gowns is still carried on after the same Manner. I need not mention the several Proprie­tors of Dr. Anderson's Pills; nor take Notice of the many Satyrical Works of this Nature so fre­quently published by Dr. Clark, who has had the Confidence to advertise upon that learned Knight, my very worthy Friend, Sir William Read: But I shall not interpose in their Quarrel; Sir William can give him his own in Advertisements, that, in the Judgment of the Impartial, are as well penn'd as the Doctor's.

The Third and last Use of these Writings is, to inform the World where they may be furnished with almost every Thing that is necessary for Life. If a Man has Pains in his Head, Cholicks in his Bowels, or Spots in his Clothes, he may here meet with proper Cures and Remedies. If a Man would recover a Wife or a Horse that is stolen or stray'd; if he wants new Sermons, Electuaries, Asses Milk, or any Thing else, either for his Body or his Mind, this is the Place to look for them in.

The great Art in writing Advertisements, is the finding out a proper Method to catch the Reader's Eye; without which, a good Thing may pass over unobserved, or be lost among Commissions of Bankrupt. Asterisks and Hands were formerly of great Use for this Purpose. Of late Years, the N. B. has been much in Fashion; as also little Cuts and Figures, the Invention of which we must a­scribe [Page 157] to the Author of Spring-Trusses. I must not here omit the blind Italian Character, which be­ing scarce legible, always fixes and detains the Eye, and gives the curious Reader something like the Satisfaction of prying into a Secret.

But the great Skill in an Advertiser is chiefly seen in the Style which he makes use of. He is to mention the universal Esteem, or general Reputa­tion, of Things that were never heard of. If he is a Physician or Astrologer, he must change his Lodgings frequently, and (tho' he never saw any Body in them besides his own Family) give pub­lick Notice of it, For the Information of the Nobility and Gentry. Since I am thus usefully employ'd in writing Criticisms on the Works of these diminu­tive Authors, I must not pass over in Silence an Advertisement which has lately made its Appea­rance, and is written altogether in a Ciceronian Manner. It was sent to me, with Five Shillings, to be inserted among my Advertisements; but as it is a Pattern of good Writing in this Way, I shall give it a Place in the Body of my Paper.

THE highest compounded Spirit of Lavender, the most glorious (if the Expression may be used) enlivening Scent and Flavour that can pos­sibly be, which so raptures the Spirits, delights the Gust, and gives such Airs to the Countenance, as are not to be imagined but by those that have tried it. The meanest Sort of the Thing is admi­red by most Gentlemen and Ladies; but this far more, as by far it exceeds it, to the gaining among all a more than common Esteem. It is sold (in neat Flint Bottles fit for the Pocket) only at the Golden-Key in Warton's-Court near Holborn-Bars, for 3 s. 6 d. with Directions.

At the same Time that I recommend the several Flowers in which this Spirit of Lavender is wrap­ped up, (if the Expression may be used) I cannot [Page 158] excuse my Fellow-Labourers for admitting into their Papers several uncleanly Advertisements, not at all proper to appear in the Works of polite Wri­ters. Among these I must reckon the Carminitive Wind expelling Pills. If the Doctor had called them only his Carminitive Pills, he had been as cleanly as one could have wished; but the Second Word entirely destroys the Decency of the First. There are other Absurdities of this Nature so very gross, that I dare not mention them; and shall therefore dismiss this Subject with a publick Ad­monition to Michael Parrot, That he do not pre­sume any more to mention a certain Worm he knows of, which, by the Way, has grown Seven Foot in my Memory; for, if I am not much mi­staken, it is the same that was but Nine Foot long about Six Months ago.

By the Remarks I have here made, it plainly ap­pears, that a Collection of Advertisements is a kind of Miscellany; the Writers of which, contra­ry to all Authors, except Men of Quality, give Money to the Booksellers who publish their Co­pies. The Genius of the Bookseller is chiefly shown in his Method of ranging and digesting these little Tracts. The last Paper I took up in my Hands, places them in the following Order:

  • The True Spanish Blacking for Shoes, &c.
  • The Beautifying Cream for the Face, &c.
  • Pease and Plaisters, &c.
  • Nectar and Ambrosia, &c.
  • Four Freehold Tenements of 15 l. per Annum, &c.
  • *⁎* The Present State of England, &c.
  • (inverted †)† Annotations upon the Tatler, &c.
  • A Commission of Bankrupt being awarded against B. L. Bookseller, &c.

The TATLER. [No 225.
From Thursday Sept. 14. to Saturday Sept. 16. 1710.

— Si quid novisti rectius istis
Candidus imperti, si non, his utere mecum.

THE Hours which we spend in Conversation are the most pleasing of any which we en­joy; yet, methinks, there is very little Care ta­ken to improve our selves for the frequent Repe­tition of them. The common Fault in this Case, is that of growing too intimate, and falling into displeasing Familiarities: For it is a very ordinary Thing for Men to make no other Use of a close Acquaintance with each other's Affairs, but to teaze one another with unacceptable Allusions. One would pass over patiently such as converse like Animals, and salute each other with Bangs on the Shoulder, sly Raps with Canes, or other robust Pleasantries practised by the rural Gentry of this Nation: But even among those who should have more polite Idea's of Things, you see a Set of People who invert the Design of Conversa­tion, and make frequent Mention of ungrateful Subjects; nay, mention them because they are ungrateful; as if the Perfection of Society were in knowing how to offend on the one Part, and how to bear an Offence on the other. In all Parts of this populous Town you find the merry World made up of an active and a passive Companion; one who has good-nature enough to suffer all his Friend shall think fit to say, and one who is re­solved to make the most of his Good-humour to show his Parts. In the Trading Part of Mankind, [Page 160] I have ever observed the Jest went by the Weight of Purses, and the Ridicule is made up by the Gains which arise from it. Thus the Packer al­lows the Clothier to say what he pleases, and the Broker has his Countenance ready to laugh with the Merchant, tho' the Abuse is to fall on him­self, because he knows that, as a Go-between, he shall find his Account in being in the good Graces of a Man of Wealth. Among these just and punctual People, the richest Man is ever the bet­ter Jester; and they know no such Thing as a Person who shall pretend to a superior Laugh at a Man, who does not make him Amends by Op­portunities of Advantage in another Kind: But among People of a different Way, where the pretended Distinction in Company is only what is raised from Sense and Understanding, it is very absurd to carry on a rough Raillery so far, as that the whole Discourse should turn upon each others Infirmities, Follies, or Misfortunes.

I was this Evening with a Set of Wags of this Class. They appear generally by Two and Two; and what is most extraordinary, is, that those very Persons who are most together, appear least of a Mind when joined by other Company. This Evil proceeds from an indiscreet Familiarity, whereby a Man is allowed to say the most gra­ting Thing imaginable to another, and it shall be accounted Weakness to show an Impatience for the Unkindness. But this and all other Devia­tions from the Design of pleasing each other when we meet, are derived from Interlopers in Society, who want Capacity to put in a Stock among re­gular Companions, and therefore supply their Wants by stale Histories, sly Observations, and rude Hints, which relate to the Conduct of others. All Cohabitants in general run into this unhappy Fault; Men and their Wives break into Re­flections, which are like so much Arabick to the rest of the Company; Sisters and Brothers often [Page 161] make the like Figure from the same unjust Sense of the Art of being intimate and familiar. It is often said, such an one cannot stand the Mention of such a Circumstance: If he cannot, I am sure it is for Want of Discourse, or a worse Reason, that any Companion of his touches upon it.

Familiarity, among the truly Well-bred, never give Authority to trespass upon one another in the most minute Circumstance, but it allows to be kinder than we ought otherwise presume to be. Eusebius has Wit, Humour, and Spirit; but there never was a Man in his Company who wished he had less, for he understands Familiarity so well, that he knows how to make Use of it in a Way that neither makes himself or his Friend con­temptible; but if any one is lessened by his Free­dom, it is he himself, who always likes the Place, the Diet, and the Reception, when he is in the Company of his Friends. Equality is the Life of Conversation; and he is as much out who assumes to himself any Part above another, as he who considers himself below the rest of the Society. Familiarity in Inferiors is Sauciness; in Superiors, Condescension; neither of which are to have Being among Companions, the very Word implying that they are to be equal. When therefore we have abstracted the Company from all Considerations of their Quality or Fortune, it will immediately appear, that to make it happy and polite, there must nothing be started which shall discover that our Thoughts run upon any such Distinctions. Hence it will arise, that Be­nevolence must become the Rule of Society, and he that is most obliging, must be most diverting.

This Way of Talking I am fallen into from the Reflection that I am wherever I go entertained with some Absurdity, Mistake, Weakness, or ill Luck of some Man or other, whom not only I, but the Person who makes me those Relations has a Value for. It would therefore be a great Be­nefit [Page 162] to the World, if it could be brought to pass that no Story should be a taking one, but what was to the Advantage of the Person of whom it is related. By this Means, he that is now a Wit in Conversation, would be considered as a Sprea­der of false News is in Business.

But above all, to make a Familiar fit for a Bo­som Friend, it is absolutely necessary that we should always be inclined rather to hide than rally each others Infirmities. To suffer for a Fault, is a Sort of Attonement; and no Body is concerned for the Offence for which he has made Repara­tion.

P. S. I have received the following Letter, which rallies me for being witty sooner than I designed; but I have now altered my Resolution, and intend to be facetious till the Day in October heretofore mentioned, instead of beginning for that Day.

Mr. Bickerstaff,

BY your own Reckoning, you came Yesterday about a Month before the Time you looked your self, much to the Satisfaction of

Your most Obliged Humble Servant, Plain English.

Advices from Madrid of the 8th say, the Duke of Anjou, with his Court, and all the Councils, were preparing to leave that Place in a Day or Two, in order to remove to Valladolid. They add, That the Palace was already unfurnished, and a Declaration had been published, importing, That it was absolutely necessary, in the present Conjuncture of Affairs, that the Court were ab­sent for some Time from Madrid, but would re­turn [Page 163] thither in Six Weeks. This sudden Depar­ture is attributed to the Advice, That the Portu­guese Army was in Motion to enter Spain by Bra­ganza, and that his Catholick Majesty was on the March with a strong Detachment towards Castille. Two Thousand Horse were arrived at Agreda, and 'tis reported they were to join the rest of the Body, with the King, and advance to Callaiatud, on their Way to Madrid, whilst Gene­ral Staremberg observed the Enemy on the Fron­tier of Navarre. They write from Bayonne, That the Duke of Vendosme set forwards to Spain on the 14th.

The TATLER. [No 226.
From Saturd. Sept. 16. to Tuesday Sept. 19. 1710.

— Juvenis quondam, nunc Faemina Caeneus,
Et Fato in veterem rursus revoluta Figuram.

IT is one of the Designs of this Paper to trans­mit to Posterity an Account of every Thing that is monstrous in my own Times. For this Reason I shall here publish to the World the Life of a Person who was neither Man nor Woman, as written by one of my ingenious Correspon­dents, who seems to have imitated Plutach in that multifarious Erudition, and those occasional Differtation, which he has wrought into the Bo­dy of his History. The Life I am putting out, is that of Margery, alias John Young, commonly known by the Name of Dr. Young, who (as the Town very well knows) was a Woman that practised Physick in Man's Clothes, and after ha­ving [Page 164] had Two Wives and several Children, died about a Month since.


I Here make bold to trouble you with a short Account of the famous Dr. Young's Life, which you may call (if you please) a Second Part of the Farce of the Sham Doctor. This perhaps will not seem so strange to you, who (if I am not mistaken) have somewhere men­tioned with Honour your Sister Kirleus as a Practitioner both in Physick and Astrology: But in the common Opinion of Mankind, a She-Quack is altogether as strange and astonishing a Creature as the Centaur that practis'd Physick in the Days of Achilles, or as King Phys in the Rehearsal. Aesculapius, the great Founder of your Art, was particularly famous for his Beard, as we may conclude from the Behaviour of a Tyrant, who is branded by Heathen Histo­rians as guilty both of Sacrilege and Blasphe­my, having robbed the Statue of Aesculapius of a thick bushy Golden Beard, and then alledged for his Excuse, That it was a Shame the Son should have a Beard when his Father Apollo had none. This latter Instance indeed seems some­thing to favour a Female Professor, since (as I have been told) the ancient Statues of Apollo are generally made with the Head and Face of a Woman: Nay, I have been credibly informed by those who have seen them both, that the famous Apollo in the Belvidera did very much re­semble Dr. Young. Let that be as it will, the Doctor was a Kind of Amazon in Physick, that made as great Devastations and Slaughters as any of our chief Heroes in the Art, and was as fatal to the English in these our Days, as the famous Jean d' Arc was in those of our Forefathers.

I do not find any Thing remarkable in the Life I am about to write till the Year 1695, at [Page 165] which Time the Doctor, being about Twenty three Years old, was brought to Bed of a Ba­stard Child. The Scandal of such a Misfor­tune gave so great Uneasiness to pretty Mrs. Peg­gy, (for that was the Name by which the Doctor was then called) that she left her Fami­ly, and followed her Lover to London, with a fixed Resolution some Way or other to recover her lost Reputation: But instead of changing her Life, which one would have expected from so good a Disposition of Mind, she took it in her Head to change her Sex. This was soon done by the Help of a Sword and a Pair of Breeches. I have Reason to believe, that her first Design was to turn Man-Midwife, having her self had some Experience in those Affairs: But thinking this too narrow a Foundation for her future Fortune, she at length bought her a Gold Button Coat, and set up for a Physician. Thus we see the same fatal Miscarriage in her Youth made Mrs. Young a Doctor, that former­ly made one of the same Sex a Pope.

The Doctor succeeded very well in his Busi­ness at first, but very often met with Accidents that disquieted him. As he wanted that deep magisterial Voice which gives Authority to a Prescription, and is absolutely necessary for the right Pronouncing of those Words, Take these Pills, he unfortunately got the Nickname of the Squeaking Doctor. If this Circumstance alarmed the Doctor, there was another that gave him no small Disquiet, and very much diminished his Gains. In short, he found him­self run down as a superficial prating Quack, in all Families that had at the Head of them a cautious Father, or a jealous Husband. These would often complain among one another, that they did not like such a Smock-faced Physician; though in Truth had they known how justly he deserved that Name, they would rather have [Page 166] favoured his Practice, than have apprehended any Thing from it.

Such were the Motives that determined Mrs. Young to change her Condition, and take in Marriage a virtuous young Woman, who lived with her in good Reputation, and made her the Father of a very pretty Girl. But this Part of her Happiness was soon after destroyed by a Distemper which was too hard for our Physician, and carried off his first Wife. The Doctor had not been a Widow long, before he married his Second Lady, with whom also he lived in very good Understanding. It so hap­pened, that the Doctor was with Child at the same Time that his Lady was; but the little ones coming both together, they passed for Twins. The Doctor having entirely establish­ed the Reputation of his Manhood, especially by the Birth of the Boy of whom he had been lately delivered, and who very much resembles him, grew into good Business, and was particu­larly famous for the Cure of Venereal Distem­pers; but would have had much more Practice among his own Sex, had not some of them been so unreasonable as to demand certain Proofs of their Cure, which the Doctor was not able to give them. The florid blooming Look, which gave the Doctor some Uneasiness at first, in­stead of betraying his Person, only recommend­ed his Physick. Upon this Occasion I cannot forbear mentioning what I thought a very a­greeable Surprize in one of Moliere's Plays, where a young Woman applies her self to a sick Person in the Habit of a Quack, and speaks to her Patient, who was something scandalized at the Youth of his Physician, to the following Purpose—I begun to practise in the Reign of Francis I. and am now in the Hundred and fifti­eth Year of my Age; but, by the Vertue of my Medicaments, have maintained my self in the [Page 167] same Beauty and Freshness I had at Fifteen. For this Reason Hippocrates lays it down as a Rule, That a Student in Physick should have a sound Constitution, and a healthy Look; which in­deed seem as necessary Qualifications for a Physician, as a good Life, and virtuous Beha­viour, for a Divine. But to return to our Sub­ject. About Two Years ago the Doctor was very much afflicted with the Vapours, which grew upon him to such a Degree, that about six Weeks since they made an End of him. His Death discovered the Disguise he had acted un­der, and brought him back again to his former Sex. 'Tis said, that at his Burial the Pall was held up by Six Women of some Fashion. The Doctor left behind him a Widow, and Two Fa­therless Children, if they may be called so, be­sides the little Boy before-mentioned. In rela­tion to whom we may say of the Doctor, as the good old Ballad about The Children in the Wood says of the Unnatural Unkle, that he was Father and Mother both in one. These are all the Circumstances that I could learn of Doctor Young's Life, which might have given Occasion to many obscene Fictions: But as I know those would never have gained a Place in your Paper, I have not troubled you with any Impertinence of that Nature; having stuck to the Truth ve­ry scrupulously, as I always do when I sub­scribe my self,

Your, &c.

I shall add, as a Postcript to this Letter, that I am informed, the famous Saltero, who sells Cof­fee in his Musaeum at Chelsea, has by him a Cu­riosity which helped the Doctor to carry on his Imposture, and will give great Satisfaction to the curious Inquirer.

The TATLER. [No 227
From Tuesd. Sept. 19. to Thursd. Sept. 21. 1710.

Omnibus invideas, Zoile, nemo tibi.

IT is the Business of Reason and Philosophy to sooth and allay the Passions of the Mind, or turn them to a vigorous Prosecution of what is dictated by the Understanding. In order to this good End, I would keep a watchful Eye upon the growing Inclinations of Youth, and be parti­cularly careful to prevent their indulging them­selves in such Sentiments as may imbitter their more advanced Age. I have now under Cure a young Gentleman, who lately communicated to me, that he was of all Men living the most mise­rably envious. I desired the Circumstances of his Distemper; upon which, with a Sigh that would have moved the most inhumane Breast, ‘'Mr. Bickerstaff, said he, I am Nephew to a Gen­tleman of a very great Estate, to whose Favour I have a Cousin that has equal Pretensions with my self. This Kinsman of mine is a young Man of the highest Merit imaginable, and has a Mind so tender, and so generous, that I can observe he returns my Envy with Pity. He makes me upon all Occasions the most obliging Condescensions: And I cannot but take Notice of the Concern he is in to see my Life blasted with this racking Passion, though it is against himself. In the Presence of my Unkle, when I am in the Room, he never speaks so well as he is capable of, but always lowers his Talents and Accomplishments out of Regard to me. [Page 169] What I beg of you, dear Sir, is to instruct me how to love him, as I know he does me: And I beseech you, if possible, to set my Heart right, that it may no longer be tormented where it should be pleased, or hate a Man whom I can­not but approve.’

The Patient gave me this Account with such Candour and Openness, that I conceived imme­ [...]iate Hopes of his Cure; because in Diseases of [...]he Mind, the Person affected is half recovered [...]hen he is sensible of his Distemper. Sir, said I, [...]he Acknowledgment of your Kinsman's Merit is [...] very hopeful Symptom; for it is the Nature of [...]ersons afflicted with this Evil, when they are in­ [...]urable, to pretend a Contempt of the Person [...]nvied, if they are taxed with that Weakness. A [...]an who is really envious, will not allow he is [...]o; but upon such an Accusation is tormented [...]ith the Reflection, that to envy a Man is to al­ [...]ow him your Superior. But in your Case, when [...]ou examine the Bottom of your Heart, I am apt [...]o think it is Avarice, which you mistake for En­ [...]y. Were it not that you have both Expectations [...]rom the same Man, you would look upon your [...]ousin's Accomplishments with Pleasure. You [...]hat now consider him as an Obstacle to your [...]nterest, would then behold him as an Ornament [...]o your Family. I observed my Patient upon this [...]ccasion recover himself in some Measure; and [...]e owned to me, that he hoped it was as I ima­ [...]ined; for that in all Places but where he was his [...]ival, he had Pleasure in his Company. This [...]as the first Discourse we had upon this Malady; [...]nd I do not doubt but, after Two or Three [...]ore, I shall by just Degrees soften his Envy into [...]mulation.

Such an Envy as I have here described, may [...]ossibly creep into an ingenuous Mind; but the [...]nvy which makes a Man uneasy to himself and [...]hers, is a certain Distortion and Perverseness of [Page 170] Temper, that renders him unwilling to be pleas'd with any Thing without him that has either Beau­ty or Perfection in it. I look upon it as a Distem­per in the Mind, (which I know no Moralist that has described in this Light) when a Man cannot discern any Thing which another is Master of that is agreeable. For which Reason, I look up­on the good-natured Man to be endowed with a certain discerning Faculty which the Envious are altogether deprived of. Shallow Wits, superficial Criticks, and conceited Fops, are with me so ma­ny blind Men in respect of Excellencies. They can behold nothing but Faults and Blemishes, and indeed see nothing that is worth seeing. Show them a Poem, it is Stuff; a Picture, it is Daubing. They find nothing in Architecture that is not ir­regular, or in Musick that is not out of Tune. These Men should consider, that it is their Envy which deforms every Thing, and that the Ugli­ness is not in the Object, but in the Eye. And as for nobler Minds, whose Merits are either not discovered, or are misrepresented by the envious Part of Mankind, they should rather consider their Defamers with Pity than Indignation. A Man cannot have an Idea of Perfection in ano­ther, which he was never sensible of in himself. Mr. Lock tells us, That upon asking a blind Man, What he thought Scarlet was? He answered, That he believed it was like the Sound of a Trumpet. He was forced to form his Conceptions of Idea's which he had not, by those which he had. In the same Manner, ask an envious Man, What he thinks of Virtue? He will call it Design: What of Good­nature? And he will term it Dulness. The Diffe­rence is, That as the Person before-mentioned was born blind, your envious Men have con­tracted the Distemper themselves, and are trou­bled with a Sort of an acquired Blindness. Thus the Devil in Milton, tho' made an Angel of Light, could see nothing to please him even in Para­dise, [Page 171] and hated our First Parents, though in their State of Innocence.

The TATLER. [No 228.
From Thursday Sept. 21. to Saturday Sept. 23. 1710.

— Veniet Manus, Auxilio quae
Sit mihi —

A Man of Business who makes a publick En­tertainment, may sometimes leave his Guests, and beg them to divert themselves as well as they can till his Return. I shall here make use of the same Privilege, (being engaged in Matters of some Importance relating to the Family of the Bickerstaffs) and must desire my Readers to en­tertain one another till I can have Leisure to at­tend them. I have therefore furnished out this Paper, as I have done some few others, with Letters of my ingenious Correspondents, which I have Reason to believe will please the Publick, as much as my own more elaborate Lucubra­tions.


I Have long been of the Number of your Ad­mirers, and take this Opportunity of telling you so. I know not why a Man so famed for Astrological Observations may not be also a good Casuist, upon which Presumption, 'tis I ask your Advice in an Affair that at present puzzles quite that slender Stock of Divinity I am Master of. I have now been some Time in Holy Orders, and Fellow of a certain College [Page 172] in one of the Universities; but weary of that unactive Life, I resolve to be doing Good in my Generation. A worthy Gentleman has lately offer'd me a fat Rectory, but means, I perceive, his Kinswoman should have the Benefit of the Clergy. I am a Novice in the World, and con­fess, it startles me how the Body of Mrs. Abi­gail can be annexed to Cure of Souls. Sir, would you give us in one of your Tatlers the Original and Progress of Smock-Simony, and shew us, that where the Laws are silent, Men's Consciences ought to be so too; you could not more oblige our Fraternity of young Divines, and among the rest,

Your humble Servant, High-Church

I am very proud of having a Gentleman of this Name for my Admirer, and may some Time or other write such a Treatise as he mentions. In the mean Time I do not see why our Clergy, who are very frequently Men of good Families, should be reproached, if any of them chance to espouse a Hand-Maid with a Rectory in Commen­dam, since the best of our Peers have often join­ed themselves to the Daughters of very ordinary Tradesmen upon the same valuable Considera­tions.

Honoured Son,

I Have now finished my Almanack for the next Year, in all the Parts of it except that which concerns the Weather; and you having shewn your self, by some of your late Works, more Weatherwise than any of our modern Astrologers, I most humbly presume to trouble you upon this Head. You know very well, that in our ordinary Almanacks the Wind and Rain, Snow and Hail, Clouds and Sun-shine, have their proper Seasons, and come up as regularly [Page 173] in their several Months as the Fruits and Plants of the Earth. As for my own Part, I freely own to you, that I generally steal my Weather out of some antiquated Almanack, that foretold it several Years ago. Now, Sir, what I hum­bly beg of you is, that you would lend me your State Weather-Glass, in order to fill up this vacant Column in my Works. This, I know, would sell my Almanack beyond any other, and make me a richer Man than Poor Robin. If you will not grant me this Favour, I must have Recourse to my old Method, and will copy after an Almanack which I have by me, and which I think was made for the Year when the great Storm was. I am,

The most humble of Your Admirers, T. Philomath.

This Gentleman does not consider, what a strange Appearance his Almanack would make to the Ignorant, should he transpose his Weather, as he must do, did he follow the Dictates of my Glass. What would the World say to see Sum­mers filled with Clouds and Storms, and Winters with Calms and Sun-shine, according to the Va­riations of the Weather, as they might acciden­tally appear in a State Barometer? But let that be as it will, I shall apply my own Invention to my own Use; and if I do not make my Fortune by it, it will be my own Fault.

The next Letter comes to me from another Self-interessed Solicitor.

Mr. Bickerstaff,

I Am going to set up for a Scrivener, and have thought of a Project which may turn both to your Account and mine. It came into my [Page 174] Head upon reading that learned and useful Pa­per of yours concerning Advertisements. You must understand, I have made my self Master in the whole Art of Advertising, both as to the Style and the Letter. Now if you and I could so manage it, that no Body should write Adver­tisements besides my self, or print them any where but in your Paper, we might both of us get Estates in a little Time. For this End I would likewise propose, that you should enlarge the Design of Advertisements, and have sent you Two or Three Samples of my Work in this Kind, which I have made for particular Friends, and intend to open Shop with. The First is for a Gentleman, who would willingly marry, if he could find a Wife to his Liking; the Second is for a poor Whig, who is lately turned out of his Post; and the Third for a Person of a contrary Party, who is willing to get into one.

WHereas A. B. next Door to the Pestle and Mortar, being about 30 Years old, of a spare Make, with dark-coloured Hair, bright Eye, and a long Nose, has Occasion for a good-hu­mour'd, tall, fair, young Woman, of about 3000 l. Fortune: These are to give Notice, That if any such young Woman has a Mind to dispose of her self in Marriage to such a Person as the above­mentioned, she may be provided with a Husband, a Coach and Horses, and a proportionable Settle­ment.

C. D. designing to quit his Place, has great Quantities of Paper, Parchment, Ink, Wax, and Wafers to dispose of, which will be sold at very reasonable Rates.

E. F. a Person of good Behaviour, Six Foot high, of a black Complexion and sound Princi­ples, wants an Employ. He is an excellent Pen­man and Accomptant, and speaks French.

The TATLER. [No 229.
From Saturday Sept. 23. to Tuesday Sept. 26. 1710.

Quesitam Meritis sume Superbiam.

THE whole Creation preys upon it self: E­very living Creature is inhabited. A Flea has a Thousand invisible Insects that teaze him as he jumps from Place to Place, and revenge our Quarrels upon him. A very ordinary Microscope shows us, that a Louse is it self a very lousy Creature. A Whale, besides those Seas and O­ceans in the several Vessels of his Body, which are filled with innumerable Shoals of little Ani­mals, carries about it a whole World of Inhabi­tants; insomuch that, if we believe the Calcula­tions some have made, there are more living Creatures which are too small for the naked Eye to behold about the Leviathan, than there are of visible Creatures upon the Face of the whole Earth. Thus every nobler Creature is as it were the Basis and Support of Multitudes that are his Inferiors.

This Consideration very much comforts me, when I think on those numberless Vermin that feed upon this Paper, and find their Sustenance out of it: I mean, the small Wits and Scribble [...] that every Day turn a Penny by nibbling at [...] Lucubrations. This has been so advantageou [...] [...] this little Species of Writers, that, if they [...] me Justice, I may expect to have my Statue [...] [Page 176] in Grub-street, as being a common Benefactor to that Quarter.

They say, when a Fox is very much troubled with Fleas, he goes into the next Pool with a lit­tle Lock of Wool in his Mouth, and keeps his Body under Water till the Vermin get into it, after which he quits the Wool, and diving, leaves his Tormentors to shift for themselves, and get their Livelihood where they can. I would have these Gentlemen take Care that I do not serve them after the same Manner; for though I have hitherto kept my Temper pretty well, it is not impossible but I may some Time or other disap­pear; and what will then become of them? Should I lay down my Paper, What a Famine would there be among the Hawkers, Printers, Booksellers, and Authors? It would be like Dr. B—s's dropping his Cloak, with the whole Congregation hanging upon the Skirts of it. To enumerate some of these my doughty Antago­nists, I was threatened to be answered Weekly Tit for Tat: I was undermined by the Whisperer, haunted by Tom. Brown's Ghost, scolded at by a Female Tatler, and slandered by another of the same Character, under the Title of Atalantis. I have been annotated, retattled, examined, and condoled: But it being my standing Maxim never to speak ill of the Dead, I shall let these Authors rest in Peace, and take great Pleasure in thinking that I have sometimes been the Means of their getting a Belly full. When I see my self thus surrounded by such formidable Enemies, I often think of the Knight of the Red Cross in Spencer's [...] of Error, who after he has cut off the Dra­ [...]'s Head, and left it wallowing in a Flood of [...] sees a Thousand monstrous Reptiles making [...] Attempts upon him, one with many Heads, [...] with none, and all of them without [...]

[Page 177]
The same so sore annoyed has the Knight,
That well nigh choaked with the deadly Stink,
His Forces fail, ne can no longer fight;
Whose Courage when the Fiend perceived to shrink,
She poured forth out of her Hellish Sink
Her fruitful cursed Spawn of Serpents small,
Deformed Monsters, foul, and black as Ink;
Which swarming all about his Legs did crawl,
And him encombred sore, but could not hurt at all.
As gentle Shepherd in sweet Even-tide,
When ruddy Phoebus gins to welk in West,
High on an Hill, his Flock to viewen wide,
Marks which do bite their hasty Supper best;
A Cloud of combrous Gnats do him molest,
All striving to infix their feeble Stings
That from their Noyance he no where can rest;
But with his clownish Hands their tender Wings
He brusheth oft, and oft doth mar their Murmur­ings.

If ever I should want such a Fry of little Au­thors to attend me, I shall think my Paper in a very decaying Condition. They are like Ivy a­bout an Oak, which adorns the Tree at the same Time that it eats into it; or like a great Man's Equipage, that do Honour to the Person on whom they feed. For my Part, when I see my self thus attacked, I do not consider my Antago­nists as malicious, but hungry, and therefore am resolved never to take any Notice of them.

As for those who detract from my Labours without being prompted to it by an empty Sto­mach, in Return to their Censures I shall take Pains to excel, and never fail to perswade my self, that their Enmity is nothing but their E [...] or Ignorance.

Give me Leave to conclude, like an old [...] and a Moralist, with a Fable:

The Owls, Bats, and several other B [...] [...] Night, were one Day got together in [...] [Page 178] Shade, where they abused their Neighbours in a very sociable Manner. Their Satyr at last fell upon the Sun, whom they all agreed to be very troublesome, impertinent, and inquisitive. Upon which the Sun, who overheard them, spoke to them after this Manner: Gentlemen, I wonder how you dare abuse one that you know could in an Instant scorch you up, and burn every Mother's Son of you: But the only Answer I shall give you, or the Revenge I shall take of you, is, to shine on.

The TATLER. [No 230.
From Tuesd. Sept. 26. to Thursd. Sept. 28. 1710.

THE following Letter has laid before me ma­ny great and manifest Evils in the World of Letters which I had overlooked; but they open to me a very busy Scene, and it will require no small Care and Application to amend Errors which are become so universal. The Affectation of Politeness is exposed in this Epistle with a great deal of Wit and Discernment; so that whatever Discourses I may fall into hereafter up­on the Subjects the Writer treats of, I shall at present lay the Matter before the World without the least Alteration from the Words of my Cor­respondent.

To Isaac Bickerstaff Esq


[...]ere are some Abuses among us of great Con­ [...]quence, the Reformation of which is pro­ [...] [...]our Province; though as far as I have been [...]ant in your Papers, you have not yet con­sidered [Page 179] them. These are the deplorable Igno­rance that for some Years hath reigned among our English Writers, the great Depravity of our Tast, and the continual Corruption of our Style. I say nothing here of those who handle particu­lar Sciences, Divinity, Law, Physick, and the like; I mean the Traders in History and Poli­ticks, and the Belles Lettres; together with those by whom Books are not Translated, but (as the common Expressions are) Done out of French, La­tin, or other Language, and Made English. I can­not but observe to you, that till of late Years, a Grubstreet Book was always bound in Sheep-skin, with suitable Print and Paper, the Price never a­bove a Shilling, and taken off wholly by com­mon Tradesmen or Country Pedlars; but now they appear in all Sizes and Shapes, and in all Places: They are handed about from Lap-fulls in every Coffee-house to Persons of Quality; are shewn in Westminster-Hall and the Court of Re­quests. You may see them gilt and in Royal Paper of Five or Six Hundred Pages, and rated accordingly. I would engage to furnish you with a Catalogue of English Books published within the Compass of Seven Years past, which at the first Hand would cost you a Hundred Pounds, wherein you shall not be able to find Ten Lines together of common Grammar or common Sense.

These Two Evils, Ignorance and Want of Tast, have produced a Third; I mean the continual Corruption of our English Tongue, which, with­out some timely Remedy, will suffer more by th [...] false Refinements of Twenty Years past, tha [...] [...] hath been improved in the foregoing Hu [...] And this is what I design chiefly to [...] upon, leaving the former Evils to your A [...] version.

But instead of giving you a List of [...] Refinements crept into our Language [...] send you the Copy of a Letter I recei [...] [...] [Page 180] Time ago from a most accomplished Person in this Way of Writing; upon which I shall make some Remarks. It is in these Terms:


I Cou'd n't get the Things you sent for all a­bout Town—I thôt to ha' come down my self, and then I'd h' bôt 'um; but I ha'n't don't, and I believe I can't d't, that's Pozz—Tom begins to gi'mself Airs, because he's going with the Plenipo's—'Tis said, the French King will bamboozl' us agen, which causes many Spe­culations. The Jacks and others of that Kidney are very uppish, and alert upon't, as you may see by their Phizz's—Will Hazzard has got the Hipps, having lost to the Tune of Five Hundr'd Pound, thô he understands Play very well, no body better. He has promis't me upon Rep, to leave off Play; but you know 'tis a Weakness he's too apt to give into, thô he has as much Wit as any Man, no body more. He has lain incog ever since—The Mob's very quiet with us now—I believe you thôt I banter'd you in my last like a Country Put—I sha'n't leave Town this Month, &c.

This Letter is in every Point an admirable Pat­tern of the present polite Way of Writing, nor is it of less Authority for being an Epistle: You may gather every Flower in it, with a Thousand more of equal Sweetness, from the Books, Pam­ [...]lets, and single Papers, offered us every Day in [...] Coffee-houses: And these are the Beauties in­ [...]ced to supply the Want of Wit, Sense, Hu­ [...] and Learning, which formerly were look­ [...] [...]n as Qualifications for a Writer. If a [...] Wit, who died Forty Years ago, were [...] [...]om the Grave on Purpose. How would [...] [...]le to read this Letter? And after he had [...] [...]ugh that Difficulty, how would he be [Page 181] able to understand it? The first Thing that strikes your Eye, is the Breaks at the End of almost every Sentence, of which I know not the Use, only that it is a Refinement, and very frequently practised. Then you will observe the Abbrevia­tions and Elisions, by which Consonants of most obdurate Sound are joined together, without one softening Vowel to intervene; and all this only to make one Syllable of Two, directly contrary to the Example of the Greeks and Romans, alto­gether of the Gothick Strain, and a natural Ten­dency towards relapsing into Barbarity, which delights in Monosyllables, and uniting of Mute Consonants, as it is observable in all the Nor­thern Languages. And this is still more visible in the next Refinement, which consists in pro­nouncing the first Syllable in a Word that has many, and dismissing the rest; such as Phizz, Hipps, Mobb, Pozz, Rep, and many more, when we are already overloaded with Monosyllables, which are the Disgrace of our Language. Thus we cram one Syllable, and cut off the rest, as the Owl fattened her Mice after she had bit off their Legs, to prevent them from running away; and if ours be the same Reason for maiming our Words, it will certainly answer the End, for I am sure no other Nation will desire to borrow them. Some Words are hitherto but fairly split, and therefore only in their Way to Perfection; as Incog, and Plenipo: But in a short Time, 'tis to be hoped, they will be further dock'd to Inc. and Plen. This Reflection has made me of late Years very impatient for a Peace, which I believe would save the Lives of many brave Words, as well as Men. The War has introduced abun­dance of Polysyllables, which will never be able to live many more Campaigns. Speculations, Operations, Preliminaries, Ambassadors, Pallisa­does, Communication, Circumvallation, Battalions, as numerous as they are, if they attack us too [Page 182] frequently in our Coffee-houses, we shall certain­ly put them to Flight, and cut off the Rear.

The Third Refinement observable in the Letter I send you, consists in the Choice of certain Words invented by some pretty Fellows, such as Banter, Bamboozle, Country Put, and Kidney, as it is there applied, some of which are now strug­gling for the Vogue, and others are in Possession of it. I have done my utmost for some Years past to stop the Progress of Mobb and Banter, but have been plainly born down by Numbers, and betrayed by those who promised to assist me.

In the last Place, you are to take Notice of cer­tain choice Phrases scattered through the Letter, some of them tolerable enough, till they were worn to Rags by servile Imitators. You might easily find them, though they were not in a dif­ferent Print, and therefore I need not disturb them.

These are the false Refinements in our Style which you ought to correct: First, by Argument and fair Means; but if those fail, I think you are to make Use of your Authority as Censor, and by an Annual Index Expurgatorius expunge all Words and Phrases that are offensive to good Sense, and condemn those barbarous Mutilations of Vowels and Syllables. In this last Point, the usual Pretence is, That they spell as they speak: A noble Standard for Language! To depend up­on the Caprice of every Coxcomb, who because Words are the Cloathing of our Thoughts, cuts them out and shapes them as he pleases, and changes them oftner than his Dress. I believe all reasonable People would be content that such Refiners were more sparing in their Words, and liberal in their Syllables: And upon this Head, I should be glad you would bestow some Advice upon several young Readers in our Churches, who coming up from the University full fraight [Page 183] with Admiration of our Town Politeness, will needs correct the Style of their Prayer-Books. In reading the Absolution, they are very careful to say Pardons and Absolves; and in the Prayer for the Royal Family, it must be endue'um, enrich'um, prosper'um, and bring'um. Then in their Ser­mons they use all the modern Terms of Art, Sham, Banter, Mob, Bubble, Bully, Cutting, Shuf­fling, and Palming; all which, and many more of the like Stamp, as I have heard them often in the Pulpit from such young Sophisters, so I have read them in some of those Sermons that have made most Noise of late. The Design, it seems, is to avoid the dreadful Imputation of Pedantry; to shew us, that they know the Town, understand Men and Manners, and have not been poring upon old unfashionable Books in the Uni­versity.

I should be glad to see you the Instrument of introducing into our Style that Simplicity which is the best and truest Ornament of most Things in Life, which the politer Ages always aimed at in their Building and Dress, (Simplex Munditiis) as well as their Productions of Wit. 'Tis mani­fest, that all new affected Modes of Speech, whe­ther borrowed from the Court, the Town, or the Theatre, are the first perishing Parts in any Language; and, as I could prove by many Hun­dred Instances, have been so in ours. The Wri­tings of Hooker, who was a Country Clergyman, and of Parsons the Jesuit, both in the Reign of Queen Elizabeth, are in a Style that, with very few Allowances, would not offend any present Reader; much more clear and intelligible than those of Sir H. Wootton, Sir Rob. Naunton, Osborn, Daniel the Historian, and several others who writ later; but being Men of the Court, and af­fecting the Phrases then in Fashion, they are of­ten either not to be understood, or appear perfect­ly ridiculous.

[Page 184] What Remedies are to be applied to these Evils, I have not Room to consider, having, I fear, already taken up most of your Paper. Be­sides, I think it is our Office only to represent A­buses, and yours to redress them. I am with great Respect,

Your, &c.

The TATLER. [No 231.
From Thursd. Sept 28. to Saturd. Sept. 30. 1710.

Principiis obsta —

THere are very many ill Habits that might with much Ease have been prevented, which, after we have indulged our selves in them, be­come incorrigible. We have a sort of Proverbial Expression, of taking a Woman down in her Wed­ding Shoes, if you would bring her to Reason. An early Behaviour of this Sort, had a very re­markable good Effect in a Family wherein I was several Years an intimate Acquaintance.

A Gentleman in Lincolushire had Four Daugh­ters, Three of which were early married very happily; but the Fourth, though no Way inferior to any of her Sisters, either in Person or Accom­plishments, had from her Infancy discovered so imperious a Temper, (usually called a High Spi­rit) that it continually made great Uneasiness in the Family, became her known Character in the Neighbourhood, and deterred all her Lovers from declaring themselves. However, in Process of Time, a Gentleman of a plentiful Fortune and [Page 185] long Acquaintance, having observed that Quick­ness of Spirit to be her only Fault, made his Ad­dresses, and obtained her Consent in due Form. The Lawyers finished the Writings, (in which, by the Way, there was no Pin-Money) and they were married. After a decent Time spent in the Father's House, the Bridegroom went to prepare his Seat for her Reception. During the whole Course of his Courtship, though a Man of the most equal Temper, he had artificially lamented to her, that he was the most passionate Creature breathing. By this one Intimation, he at once made her understand Warmth of Temper to be what he ought to pardon in her, as well as that he alarmed her against that Constitution in him­self. She at the same Time thought her self high­ly obliged by the composed Behaviour which he maintained in her Presence. Thus far he with great Success soothed her from being guilty of Violences, and still resolved to give her such a terrible Apprehension of his fiery Spirit, that she should never dream of giving Way to her own. He returned on the Day appointed for carrying her Home; but instead of a Coach and Six Horses, together with the gay Equipage suitable to the Occasion, he appeared without a Servant, mounted on the Skeleton of a Horse which his Huntsman had the Day before brought in to feast his Dogs on the Arrival of their new Mistress, with a Pillion fixed behind, and a Case of Pi­stols before him, attended only by a Favourite Hound. Thus equipped, he in a very obliging (but somewhat positive) Manner desired his La­dy to seat her self on the Cushion; which done, away they crawled. The Road being obstruct­ed by a Gate, the Dog was commanded to open it: The poor Cur looked up and wagged his Tail; but the Master, to shew the Impa­tience of his Temper, drew a Pistol and shot him dead. He had no sooner done it, but he [Page 186] fell into a Thousand Apologies for his unhappy Rashness, and begged as many Pardons for his Excesses before one for whom he had so profound a Respect. Soon after their Steed stum­bled, but with some Difficulty recovered: How­ever, the Bridegroom took Occasion to swear, if he frighted his Wife so again, he would run him through: And alas! the poor Animal being now almost tired, made a second Trip; imme­diately on which the careful Husband alights, and with great Ceremony first takes off his La­dy, then the Accoutrements, draws his Sword, and saves the Huntsman the Trouble of killing him: Then says to his Wife, Child, prithee take up the Saddle; which she readily did, and tug­ged it Home, where they found all Things in the greatest Order, suitable to their Fortune and the present Occasion. Some Time after the Fa­ther of the Lady gave an Entertainment to all his Daughters and their Husbands, where, when the Wives were retired, and the Gentleman pas­sing a Toast about, our last married Man took Occasion to observe to the rest of his Brethren, how much, to his great Satisfaction, he found the World mistaken as to the Temper of his Lady, for that she was the most meek and hum­ble Woman breathing. The Applause was re­ceived with a loud Laugh: But as a Tryal which of them would appear the most Master at Home, he proposed they should all by Turns send for their Wives down to them. A Servant was dis­patched, and Answer was made by one, Tell him I will come by and by; another, That she would come when the Cards were out of her Hand; and so on. But no sooner was her Hus­band's Desire whispered in the Ear of our last married Lady, but the Cards were clapped on the Table, and down she comes with, My Dear, would you speak with me? He receives her in his Arms, and after repeated Caresses tells her [Page 187] the Experiment, confesses his good Nature, and assures her That since she could now command her, Temper, he would no longer disguise his own.

I received the following Letter, with a Dozen of Wine, and cannot but do Justice to the Li­quor, and give my Testimony; That I have tried it upon several of my Acquaintance, who were given to impertinent Abbreviations, with great Success.

Mr. Bickerstaff,

I Send you by this Bearer, and not per Bearer, a Dozen of that Claret which is to be sold at Gar­raway's Coffee-house on Thursday the Fifth of Octo­ber next. I can assure you, I have found by Ex­perience the Efficacy of ic, in amending a Fault you complain of in your last. The very first Draught of it has some Effect upon the Speech of the Drinker, and restores all the Letters taken away by the Elisions so justly complained of. Will Hazzard was cured of his Hypochondria by Three Glasses; and the Gentleman who gave you an Account of his late Indisposition, has in publick Company, after the First Quart, spoke every Syllable of the Word Plenipotentiary.

Your, &c.

The TATLER. [No 232.
From Saturd. Sept. 30. to Tuesd. Octob. 3. 1710.

I Have received the following Letter from my unfortunate old Acquaintance the Uphol­sterer, who, I observed, had long absented him­self [Page 188] from the Bench at the upper End of the Mall [...] Having not seen him for some Time, I was in Fear I should soon hear of his Death, especially since he never appeared, though the Noons have been of late pretty warm, and the Councils at that Place very full from the Hour of Twelve to Three, which the Sages of that Board employ in Conference, while the unthinking Part of Man­kind are eating and drinking for the Support of their own private Persons, without any Regard to the Publick.


I Should have waited on you very frequently to have discoursed you upon some Matters of Moment, but that I love to be well informed in the Subject upon which I consult my Friends be­fore I enter into Debate with them. I have there­fore with the utmost Care and Pains applied my self to the reading all the Writings and Pam­phlets which have come out since the Trial, and have studied Night and Day in order to be Ma­ster of the whole Controversy: But the Authors are so numerous, and the State of Affairs alters so very fast, that I am now a Fortnight behind­hand in my Reading, and know only how Things stood Twelve Days ago. I wish you would enter into those useful Subjects; for, if I may be allowed to say so, these are not Times to jest in. As for my own Part, you know very well, that I am of a publick Spirit, and never regarded my own Interest, but looked further; and let me tell you, that while some People are minding only themselves and Families, and o­thers are thinking only of their own Country, Thing go on strangely in the North. I foresee very great Evils arising from the Neglect of Transactions at a Distance; for which Reason I am now writing a Letter to a Friend in the Country, which I design as an Answer to the [Page 189] Czar of Muscovy's Letter to the Grand Signior concerning his Majesty of Sweden. I have en­deavoured to prove, that it is not reasonable to expect that his Swedish Majesty should leave Bender without Forty Thousand Men; and I have added to this, an Apology for the Cossacks. But the Matter multiplies upon me, and I grow dim with much Writing; therefore desire, if you have an old green Pair of Spectacles, such as you used about your Fiftieth Year, that you send them to me; as also, that you would please to desire Mr. Morphew to send me in a Bushel of Coals on the Credit of my Answer to his Cza­rian Majesty; for I design it shall be printed for Morphew, and the Weather grows sharp. I shall take it kindly if you would order him also to send me the Papers as they come out. If there are no fresh Pamphlets published, I compute that I shall know before the End of next Month what has been done in Town to this Day. If it were not for an ill Custom lately introduced by a certain Author, of talking Latin at the Begin­ning of Papers, Matters would be in a much clearer Light than they are: But to our Com­fort, there are solid Writers who are not guilty of this Pedantry. The Post-Man writes like an Angel: The Moderator is fine Reading! It would do you no Harm to read the Post-Boy with Attention; he is very deep of late. He is In­structive; but I confess a little Satyrical: A sharp Pen! He cares not what he says. The Exa­miner is admirable, and is become a grave and substantial Author. But above all, I am at a Loss how to govern my self in my Judgment of those whose whole Writings consist in Interro­gatories: And then the Way of answering, by proposing Questions as hard to them, is quite as extraordinary. As for my Part, I tremble at these Novelties; we expose, in my Opinion, our Af­fairs too much by it. You may be sure the [Page 190] French King will spare no Cost to come at the reading of them. I dread to think if the Fable of the Black Birds should fall into his Hands. But I shall not venture to say more till I see you. In the mean Time,

I am, &c.

P. S. I take the Bender Letter in the Exami­ner to be spurious.

This unhappy Correspondent, whose fantastical Loyalty to the King of Sweden has reduced him to this low Condition of Reason and Fortune, would appear much more monstrous in his Mad­ness, did we not see Crowds very little above his Circumstances from the same Cause, a Passion to Politicks.

It is no unpleasant Entertainment to consider the Commerce even of the Sexes interrupted by Difference in State Affairs. A Wench and her Gallant parted last Week upon the Words Unli­mited and Passive: And there is such a Jargon of Terms got into the Mouths of the very silliest of the Women, that you cannot come into a Room even among them, but you find them divided in­to Whig and Tory. What heightens the Humour is, that all the hard Words they know, they cer­tainly suppose to be Terms useful in the Disputes of the Parties. I came in this Day where Two were in very hot Debate, and one of them pro­posed to me to explain to them what was the Dif­ference between Circumcision and Predestination. You may be sure I was at a Loss; but they were too angry at each other to wait for my Explana­tion, but proceeded to lay open the whole State of Affairs, instead of the usual Topicks of Dress, Gallantry and Scandal.

I have often wondered how it should be possible that this Turn to Politicks should so universally prevail, to the Exclusion of every other Subject out [Page 191] of Conversation; and upon mature Consideration, find it is for Want of Discourse. Look round you among all the young Fellows you meet, and you see those who have least Relish for Books, Com­pany, or Pleasure, though they have no Manner of Qualities to make them succeed in those Pur­suits, shall make very passable Politicians. Thus the most barren Invention shall find enough to say to make one appear an able Man in the Top-Cof­fee-houses. It is but adding a certain Vehemence in uttering your self, let the Thing you say be never so flat, and you shall be thought a very sensible Man, if you were not too hot. As Love and Honour are the noblest Motives of Life; so the Pretenders to them, without being animated by them, are the most contemptible of all Sorts of Pretenders. The unjust Affectation of any Thing that is laudable, is ignominious in Proportion to the Worth of the Thing we affect: Thus, as Love of one's Country is the most glorious of all Passions, to see the most ordinary Tools in a Na­tion give themselves Airs that Way, without any one good Quality in their own Life, has something in it Romantick, yet not so ridiculous as odious.


Mr. Bickerstaff has received Silvia's Letter from the Bath, and his Sister is set out thither. Tom. Frontley, who is one of the Guides for the Town, is desired to bring her into Company, and oblige her with a Mention in his next Lampoon.

The TATLER. [No 233.
From Tuesd. Octob. 3. to Thursd. Octob. 5. 1710.

— Sunt certa Piacula, quae te
Ter pure Lecto poterunt recreare Libello.

WHEN the Mind has been perplexed with anxious Cares and Passions, the best Me­thod of bringing it to its usual State of Tranqui­lity, is, as much as we possibly can, to turn our Thoughts to the Adversities of Persons of higher Consideration in Virtue and Merit than our selves. By this Means all the little Incidents of our own Lives, if they are unfortunate, seem to be the Ef­fect of Justice upon our Faults and Indiscretions. When those whom we know to be excellent and deserving of a better Fate are wretched, we cannot but resign our selves, whom most of us know to merit a much worse State than that we are placed in. For such and many other Occasions, there is one admirable Relation which one might re­commend for certain Periods of one's Life, to touch, comfort, and improve the Heart of Man. Tully says, somewhere, The Pleasures of an Hus­bandman are next to those of a Philosopher. In like Manner one may say, (for methinks they bear the same Proportion one to another) the Pleasures of Humanity are next to those of Devotion. In both these latter Satisfactions, there is a certain Humiliation which exalts the Soul above its ordi­nary State. At the same Time that it lessens our Value of our selves, it enlarges our Estimation of others. The History I am going to speak of, is [Page 193] that of Joseph in Holy Writ, which is related with such Majestick Simplicity, that all the Parts of it strike us with strong Touches of Nature and Compassion, and he must be a Stranger to both who can read it with Attention, and not be over­whelmed with the Vicissitudes of Joy and Sor­row. I hope it will not be a Prophanation to tell it ones own Way here, that they who may be unthinking enough to be more frequently Readers of such Papers as this than of Sacred Writ, may be advertised, that the greatest Pleasures the Ima­gination can be entertained with are to be found there, and that even the Style of the Scriptures is more than Humane.

Joseph, a beloved Child of Israel, became invi­dious to his elder Brethren, for no other Reason but his superior Beauty and Excellence of Body and Mind, insomuch that they could not bear his growing Virtue, and let him live. They there­fore conspire his Death; but Nature pleaded so strongly for him in the Heart of one of them, that by his Perswasion they determined rather to bury him in a Pit, than be his immediate Execu­tioners with their own Hands. When thus much was obtained for him, their Minds still softened towards him, and they took the Opportunity of some Passengers to sell him into Egypt. Israel was persuaded by the Artifice of his Sons, that the Youth was torn to Pieces by Wild Beasts: But Joseph was sold to Slavery, and still exposed to new Misfortunes, from the same Cause as before, his Beauty and his Virtue. By a false Accusation he was committed to Prison, but in Process of Time delivered from it, in Consideration of his Wis­dom and Knowledge, and made the Governor of Pharaoh's House. In this Elevation of his For­tune, his Brothers were sent into Egypt to buy Ne­cessaries of Life in a Famine. As soon as they are brought into his Presence, he beholds, but he beholds with Compassion, the Men who had sold [Page 194] him to Slavery approaching him with Awe and Reverence. While he was looking over his Bre­thren, he takes a Resolution to indulge himself in the Pleasure of stirring their and his own Af­fections, by keeping himself concealed, and exa­mining into the Circumstances of their Family. For this End, with an Air of Severity, as a watch­ful Minister to Pharaoh, he accuses them as Spies, who are come into Egypt with Designs against the State. This led them into the Account which he wanted of them, the Condition of their ancient Father and little Brother, whom they had left be­hind them. When he had learned that his Bro­ther was living, he demands the bringing him to Egypt, as a Proof of their Veracity.

But it would be a vain and empty Endeavour to attempt laying this excellent Representation of the Passions of Man in the same Colours as they appear in the Sacred Writ in any other Manner, or almost any other Words, than those made use of in the Page it self. I am obliged therefore to turn my designed Narration rather into a Com­ment upon the several Parts of that beautiful and passionate Scene. When Joseph expects to see Benjamin, How natural, and how forcible is the Reflection, This Affliction is come upon us in that we saw the Anguish of our Brother's Soul without Pity? How moving must it be to Joseph to hear Reuben accuse the rest, that they would not hear what he pleaded in Behalf of his Innocence and Distress? He turns from them and weeps, but commands his Passion so far as to give Orders for binding one of them in the Presence of the rest, while he at Leisure observed their different Sentiments and Concern in their Gesture and Countenance. When Benjamin is demanded in Bondage for stealing the Cup, With what Force, and what Resignation does Judah address his Brother?

In what Words shall I speak to my Lord; with what Confidence can I say any Thing? Our Guilt [Page 195] is but too apparent, we submit to our Fate. We are my Lord's Servants, both we and he also with whom the Cup is found. When that is not accep­ted, How pathetically does he recapitulate the whole Story? And approaching nearer to Joseph, delivers himself as follows; which, if we fix our Thoughts upon the Relation between the Plea­der and the Judge, it is impossible to read with­out Tears.


Let me intrude so far upon you even in the high Condition in which you are, and the miserable One in which you see me and my Brethren, to in­form you of the Circumstances of us unhappy Men that prostrate our selves before you. When we were first examined by you, you enquired, (for what Reason my Lord enquired we know not;) but you enquired whether we had not a Father or a Brother? We then acquainted you, that we had a Father, an old Man, who had a Child of his old Age, and had buried another Son whom he had by the same Woman. You were pleased to command us to bring the Child he had remaining down to you: We did so, and he has forfeited his Liberty. But my Father said to us, You know that my Wife bare me Two Sons, one of them was torn in Pieces: If Mischief befal this also, it will bring my Grey Hairs with Sor­row to the Grave. Accept, therefore, Oh my Lord! me for your Bond-man, and let the Lad return with his Brethren, that I may not see the Evil that shall come on my Father. Here Joseph's Passion grew too great for further Disguise, and he reveals himself with Exclamations of Transport and Tenderness.

After their Recovery from their first Astonish­ment, his Brethren were seized with Fear for the Injuries they had done him; but how generously does he keep them in Countenance, and make an [Page 196] Apology for them: Be not angry with your selves for selling me hither; call it not so, but think Pro­vidence sent me before you to preserve Life.

It would be endless to go through all the Beau­ties of this sacred Narrative; but any who shall read it, at an Hour when he is disengaged from all other Regard or Interests than what arise from it, will feel the alternate Passion of a Father, a Brother, and a Son, so warm in him, that they will incline him to exert himself (in such of those Characters as happen to be his) much above the ordinary Course of his Life.

The TATLER. [No 234.
From Thursd. Octob. 5. to Saturd. Octob. 7. 1710.

I HAVE Reason to believe, that certain of my Contemporaries have made Use of an Art (I some time ago professed) of being often design­edly dull; and for that Reason shall not exert my self when I see them lazy. He that has so much to struggle with as the Man who pretends to cen­sure others, must keep up his Fire for an Onset, and may be allowed to carry his Arms a little carelesly upon an ordinary March. This Paper therefore shall be taken up by my Correspon­dents, Two of which have sent me the Two fol­lowing plain, but sensible and honest Letters, upon Subjects no less important than those of Education and Devotion.


I Am an old Man, retired from all Acquain­tance with the Town, but what I have from your Papers (not the worst Entertainment of [Page 197] my Solitude;) yet being still a Well-wisher to my Country and the Commonwealth of Learn­ing (a qua, confitcor, nullam Aetatis meae Par­tem abhorruisse;) and hoping the plain Phrase in Writing that was current in my younger Days would have lasted for my Time, I was startled at the Picture of modern Politeness (transmit­ted by your ingenious Correspondent), and grie­ved to see our Sterling English Language fallen into the Hands of Clippers and Coyners. That mutilated Epistle, consisting of Hippo, Rep's, and such-like enormous Curtailings, was a mortify­ing Spectacle, but with the Reserve of Comfort to find this, and other Abuses of our Mother-Tongue, so pathetically complained of, and to the proper Person for redressing them, the Cen­sor of Great Britain.

He had before represented, the deplorable Ig­norance that for several Years past has reigned amongst our English Writers, the great Depravity of our Taste, and continual Corruption of our Style: But, Sir, before you give your self the Trouble of prescribing Remedies for these Distempers, (which you own will require the greatest Care and Application) give me Leave (having long had my Eye upon these Mischiefs, and Thoughts exercised about them) to mention what I hum­bly conceive to be the Cause of them, and in your Friend Horace's Words, Quo Fonte derivata Clades in Patriam Populumque fluxit.

I take our corrupt Ways of Writing to pro­ceed from the Mistakes and wrong Measures in our common Methods of Education, which I al­ways looked upon as one of our National Grie­vances, and a Singularity that renders us no less than our Situation,

— Penitus toto divisos Orbe Britannos.

This puts me upon consulting the most celebra­ted Criticks on that Subject, to compare our Pra­ctice [Page 198] with their Precepts, and find where it was that we came short or went wide.

But after all, I found our Case required some­thing more than these Doctors had directed, and the principal Defect of our English Discipline to lie in the Initiatory Part, which, altho' it needs the greatest Care and Skill, is usually left to the Conduct of those blind Guides, viz. Chance and Ignorance.

I shall trouble you with but a single Instance, pursuant to what your sagacious Friend has said, That he could furnish you with a Catalogue of English Books, that would cost you a Hundred Pounds at first Hand, wherein you could not find Ten Lines together of common Grammar; which is a necessary Consequence of our Mismanagement in that Province.

For can any Thing be more absurd than our Way of Proceeding in this Part of Literature? To push tender Wits into the intricate Mazes of Grammar, and a Latin Grammer? To learn an unknown Art by an unknown Tongue? To carry them a dark Round-about Way to let them in at a Back-Door? Whereas by teaching them first the Grammar of their Mother-Tongue, (so easy to be learned) their Advance to the Grammars of Latin and Greek would be gradual and easy; but our precipitate Way of hurrying them over such a Gulph, before we have built them a Bridge to it, is a Shock to their weak Understandings, which they seldom, or very late, recover. In the mean Time we wrong Nature, and slander Infants, who want neither Capacity nor Will to learn, till we put them up­on Service beyond their Strength, and then in­deed we baulk them.

The Liberal Arts and Sciences are all beauti­ful as the Graces; nor has Grammar (the se­vere Mother of all) so frightful a Face of her Own; 'tis the Vizard put upon it that scares [Page 199] Children. She is made to speak hard Words, that to them sound like Conjuring. Let her talk intelligibly, and they will listen to her.

In this, I think, as on other Accounts, we shew our selves true Britains, always overlook­ing our natural Advantages. It has been the Practice of wisest Nations to learn their own Language by stated Rules, to avoid the Confu­sion that would follow from leaving it to vul­gar Use. Our English Tongue (says a learned Man) is the most determinate in its Constru­ction, and reducible to the fewest Rules What­ever Language has less Grammar in it, is not in­telligible; and whatever has more, all that it has more is superfluous; for which Reasons he would have it made the Foundation of learning Latin, and all other Languages.

To speak and write without Absurdity the Language of one's Country, is commendable in Persons of all Stations, and to some indispensi­bly necessary; and to this Purpose, I would re­commend above all Things the having a Gram­mar of our Mother-Tongue first taught in our Schools, which would facilitate our Youths learning their Latin and Greek Grammars, with spare Time for Arithmetick, Astronomy, Cos­mography, History, &c. that would make them pass the Spring of their Life with Profit and Pleasure, that is now miserably spent in Gram­matical Perplexities.

But here, methinks, I see the Reader smile, and ready to ask me, (as the Lawyer did Sexton Diego on his bequeathing rich Legacies to the Poor of the Parish. Where are these mighty Sums to be raised?) Where is there such a Grammar to be had? I will not answer, as he did, Even where your Worship pleases. No, it is our good Fortune to have such a Grammar, with Notes, now in the Press, and to be published next Term.

[Page 200] I hear it is a chargeable Work, and wish the Publisher to have Customers of all that have Need of such a Book; yet fancy that he can­not be much a Sufferer, if it is only bought by all that have more Need for it than they think they have.

A certain Author brought a Poem to Mr. Cow­ley, for his Perusal and Judgment of the Perfor­mance, which he demanded at the next Visit with a Poetaster's Assurance; and Mr. Cowley, with his usual Modesty, desired that he would be pleased to look a little to the Grammar of it. To the Grammar of it! What do you mean, Sir? Would you send me to School again? Why Mr. H—, Would it do you any Harm?

This put me on considering how this Voyage of Literature may be made with more Safety and Profit, Expedition and Delight; and at last, for compleating so good a Service, to request your Directions in so deplorable a Case; hoping that, as you have had Compassion on our over-grown Coxcombs in Concerns of less Consequence, you will exert your Charity towards Innocents, and vouchsafe to be Guardian to the Children and Youth of Great Britain in this important Affair of Education, wherein Mistakes and wrong Mea­sures have so often occasioned their Aversion to Books, that had otherwise proved the chief Or­nament and Pleasure of their Life. I am with sincerest Respect,

Your, &c.
Mr. Bickerstaff,

I Observe, as the Season begins to grow cold, so does People's Devotion; insomuch that instead of filling the Churches, that united Zeal might keep one warm there, one is left to freeze [Page 201] in almost bare Walls, by those who in hot Wea­ther are troublesome the contrary Way. This, Sir, needs a Regulation that none but you can give to it, by causing those who absent them­selves on Account of Weather only this Winter­time, to pay the Apothecaries Bills occasioned by Coughs, Catarrhs, and other Distempers contracted by sitting in empty Seats. Therefore to you I apply my self for Redress, having got­ten such a Cold on Sunday was Sevenight, that has brought me almost to your Worship's Age from Sixty within less than a Fortnight. I am

Your Worship's in all Obedience, W. E.

The TATLER. [No 235.
From Saturd. Octob. 7. to Tuesday Octob. 10. 1710.

Scit Genius natale Comes qui temperat Astrum.

AMong those Inclinations which are common to all Men, there is none more unaccounta­ble than that unequal Love by which Parents di­stinguish their Children from each other. Some­times Vanity and Self-love appear to have a Share towards this Effect; and in other Instances I have been apt to attribute it to meer Instinct: But however that is, we frequently see the Child that has been beholden to neither of these Im­pulses in their Parents, in spight of being neg­lected, snubbed, and thwarted at Home, acquire a Behaviour which makes it as agreeable to all the rest of the World, as that of every one else of [Page 202] their Family is to each other. I fell into this Way of Thinking from an Intimacy which I have with a very good House in our Neighbourhood, where there are Three Daughters of a very different Character and Genius. The eldest has a great deal of Wit and Cunning; the Second has good Sense, but no Artifice; the Third has much Vi­vacity, but little Understanding. The First is a fine, but scornful Woman; the Second is not charming, but very winning; the Third no Way commendable, but very desirable. The Father of these young Creatures was ever a great Pretender to Wit, the Mother a Woman of as much Coquet­try. This Turn in the Parents has biassed their Affections towards their Children. The old Man supposes the eldest of his own Genius, and the Mother looks upon the youngest as her self re­newed. By this Means, all the Lovers that ap­proach the House are discarded by the Father for not observing Mrs. Mary's Wit and Beauty, and by the Mother for being blind to the Mien and Air of Mrs. Biddy. Come never so many Preten­ders, they are not suspected to have the least Thoughts of Mrs. Betty, the middle Daughter. Betty therefore is mortified into a Woman of a great deal of Merit, and knows she must depend on that only for her Advancement. The middle­most is thus the Favourite of all her Acquaintance as well as mine, while the other Two carry a certain Insolence about them in all Conversations, and expect the Partiality which they meet with at Home to attend them wherever they appear. So little do Parents understand that they are of all People the least Judges of their Children's Merit, that what they reckon such is seldom any Thing else but a Repetition of their own Faults and Infirmities.

There is, methinks, some Excuse for being par­ticular, when one of the Offspring has any Defect in Nature. In this Case, the Child, if we may so [Page 203] speak, is so much the longer the Child of its Pa­rents, and calls for the Continuance of their Care and Indulgence from the Slowness of its Capaci­ty, or the Weakness of its Body. But there is no enduring to see Men enamoured only at the Sight of their own Impertinencies repeated, and to ob­serve, as we may sometimes, that they have a se­cret Dislike of their Children for a Degeneracy from their very Crimes. Commend me to Lady Goodly; she is equal to all her own Children, but prefers them to those of all the World beside. My Lady is a perfect Hen in the Care of her Brood; she fights and squabbles with all that ap­pear where they come, but is wholly unbiassed in dispensing her Favours among them. It is no small Pains she is at to defame all the young Wo­men in her Neighbourhood by Visits, Whispers, Intimations, and Hearsays; all which she ends with thanking Heaven, that no one living is so blessed with such obedient and well inclined Chil­dren as her self. Perhaps, says she, Betty cannot dance like Mrs. Frontinett, and it is no great Mat­ter whether she does or not; but she comes into a Room with a good Grace; though she says it that should not, she looks like a Gentlewoman. Then if Mrs. Rebecca is not so talkative as the mighty Wit Mrs. Clapper, yet she is discreet, she knows better what she says when she does speak. If her Wit be slow, her Tongue never runs before it. This kind Parent lifts up her Eyes and Hands in Congratulation of her own good Fortune, and is maliciously thankful that none of her Girls are like any of her Neighbours: But this Preference of her own to all others, is grounded upon an Impulse of Nature; while those who like one be­fore another of their own, are so unpardonably unjust, that it could hardly be equalled in the Children, though they preferred all the rest of the World to such Parents. It is no unpleasant Entertainment to see a Ball at a Dancing-School, [Page 204] and observe the Joy of Relations when the young Ones, for whom they are concerned, are in Mo­tion. You need not be told whom the Dancers belong to. At their first Appearance the Passion of their Parents are in their Faces, and there is al­ways a Nod of Approbation stolen at a good Step, or a graceful Turn.

I remember among all my Acquaintance but one Man whom I have thought to live with his Children with Equanimity and a good Grace. He had Three Sons and One Daughter, whom he bred with all the Care imaginable in a liberal and ingenuous Way. I have often heard him say, He had the Weakness to love one much better than the other, but that he took as much Pains to cor­rect that as any other Criminal Passion that could arise in his Mind. His Method was, to make it the only Pretension in his Children to his Favour to be kind to each other; and he would tell them, That he who was the best Brother, he would reckon the best Son. This turned their Thoughts into an Emulation for the Superiority in kind and tender Affection towards each other. The Boys behaved themselves very early with a Manly Friendship; and their Sister, instead of the gross Familiarities and impertinent Freedoms in Behaviour, usual in other Houses, was always treated by them with as much Complaisance as any other young Lady of their Acquaintance. It was an unspeakable Pleasure to visit or sit at Meal in that Family. I have often seen the old Man's Heart flow at his Eyes with Joy upon Occasions which would appear indifferent to such as were Strangers to the Turn of his Mind; but a very slight Accident, wherein he saw his Children's Good-Will to one another, created in him the God-like Pleasure of loving them, because they loved each other. This great Command of him­self, in hiding his first Impulse to Partiality, at last improved to a steady Justice towards them; [Page 205] and that which at first was but an Expedient to correct his Weakness, was afterwards the Mea­sure of his Virtue.

The Truth of it is, those Parents who are in­terested in the Care of one Child more than that of another, no longer deserve the Name of Pa­rents, but are in Effect as childish as their Chil­dren, in having such unreasonable and ungovern­ed Inclinations. A Father of this Sort has degra­ded himself into one of his own Offspring; for none but a Child would take Part in the Passions of Children.

The TATLER. [No 236.
From Tuesday Octob. 10. to Thursday Octob. 12. 1710.

Nescio qua natale Solum Dulcedine Mentem
Tangit, & immemorem non sinit esse sui.

I Find in the Registers of my Family, that the Branch of the Bickerstaffs, from which I am de­scended, came originally out of Ireland. This has given me a Kind of natural Affection for that Country. It is therefore with Pleasure that I see not only some of the greatest Warriors, but also of the greatest Wits, to be Natives of that King­dom. The Gentleman who writes the following Letter is one of these last. The Matter of Fact contained in it is literally true, tho' the diverting Manner in which it is told may give it the Colour of a Fable.

To Isaac Bickerstaff Esq at his House in Great Britain.


FInding by several Passages of your Tatlers, that you are a Person curious in Natural Knowledge, I thought it would not be unac­ceptable to you to give you the following Histo­ry of the Migration of Frogs into this Country. There is an ancient Tradition among the wild Philosophers of the Kingdom, That this whole Island was once as much infested by Frogs, as that wherein Whittington made his Fortune was by Mice. Insomuch that it is said, Mackdonald the First could no more sleep by reason of these Dutch Nightingales, (as they are called at Paris) than Pharaoh could when they croaked in his Bed-Chamber. It was in the Reign of this great Monarch that St. Patrick arrived in Ire­land, being as famous for destroying Vermin as any Rat-catcher of our Times. If we may be­lieve the Tradition, he killed more in one Day than a Flock of Storks could have done in a Twelvemonth. From that Time for about Five hundred Years, there was not a Frog to be heard in Ireland, notwithstanding the Bogs still remained, which in former Ages had been so plentifully stocked with those Inhabitants.

When the Arts began to flourish in the Reign of King Charles the Second, and that great Mo­narch had placed himself at the Head of the Royal Society, to lead them forward into the Discoveries of Nature, it is said, That several Proposals were laid before his Majesty for the importing of Frogs into Ireland. In order to it, a Virtuoso of known Abilities was unanimously elected by the Society, and intrusted with the whole Management of that Affair. For this End he took along with him a sound Able-bo­died Frog, of a strong hale Constitution, that [Page 207] had given Proofs of his Vigour by several Leaps which he made before that Learned Body. They took Ship, and sailed together till they came within Sight of the Hill of Hoath, before the Frog discovered any Symptoms of being in­disposed by his Voyage: But as the Wind chop­ped about, and began to blow from the Irish Coast, he grew Sea-sick, or rather Land-sick; for his learned Companion ascribed it to the Particles of the Soil with which the Wind was impregnated. He was confirmed in his Con­jecture, when, upon the Wind's turning about, his Fellow Traveller sensibly recovered, and continued in good Health till his Arrival upon the Shore, where he suddenly relapsed, and ex­pired upon a Ring's-End Car in his Way to Dub­lin. The same Experiment was repeated seve­ral Times in that Reign, but to no Purpose. A Frog was never known to take Three Leaps upon Irish Turf, before he stretched himself out and died.

Whether it were that the Philos;ophers on this Side the Water despaired of [...]ocking the Island with this useful Animal, or whether in the following Reign it was not thought proper to undo the Miracle of a Popish Saint, I do not hear of any further Progress made in this Af­fair till about Two Years after the Battle of the Boyne.

It was then that an ingenious Physician, to the Honour as well as Improvement of his Native Country, performed what the English had been so long attempting in vain. This learned Man, with the Hazard of his Life, made a Voyage to Leverpool, where he filled several Barrels with the choicest Spawn of Frogs that could be found in those Parts. This Cargo he brought over very carefully, and afterwards disposed of it in several warm Beds that he thought most capable of bringing it to Life. The Doctor was [Page 208] a very ingenious Physician, and a very good Protestant; for which Reason, to show his Zeal against Popery, he placed some of the most promising Spawn in the very Fountain that is dedicated to the Saint, and known by the Name of St. Patrick's Well, where these Animals had the Impudence to make their first Appearance. They have since that Time very much increased and multiplied in all the Neighbourhood of this City. We have here some curious Enquirers into Natural History who observe their Motions, with a Design to compute in how many Years they will be able to hop from Dublin to Wex­ford; tho', as I am inform'd, not one of them has yet passed the Mountains of Wicklow.

I am further informed, that several Grasiers of the County of Cork have entered into a Pro­ject of planting a Colony in those Parts, at the Instance of the French Protestants: And I know not but the same Design may be on Foot in other Parts of the Kingdom, if the Wisdom of the British Nation do not think fit to prohibit the further Importation of English Frogs. I am,

Your most humble Servant, T. B.

There is no Study more becoming a rational Creature, than that of Natural Philosophy; but as several of our modern Virtuoso's manage it, their Speculations do not so much tend to open and enlarge the Mind, as to contract and fix it upon Trifles.

This in England is in a great Measure owing to the worthy Elections that are so frequently made in our Royal Society. They seem to be in a Con­federacy against Men of polite Genius, noble Thought, and diffusive Learning; and chuse into their Assemblies such as have no Pretence to Wis­dom, but Want of Wit; or to natural Know­ledge, [Page 209] but Ignorance of every Thing else. I have made Observations in this Matter so long, that when I meet with a young Fellow that is an humble Admirer of the Sciences, but more dull than the rest of the Company, I conclude him to be a Fellow of the Royal Society.

The TATLER. [No 237.
From Thursd. Octob. 12. to Saturd. Octob. 14. 1710.

In nova fert Animus mutatas dicere Formas
Corpora. —

COming Home last Night before my usual Hour, I took a Book into my Hand, in or­der to divert my self with it till Bed-time. Mil­ton chanced to be my Author, whose admirable Poem of Paradise Lost serves, at once, to fill the Mind with pleasing Idea's, and with good Thoughts, and was therefore the most proper Book for my Purpose. I was amusing my self with that beautiful Passage in which the Poet re­presents Eve sleeping by Adam's Side, with the Devil sitting at her Ear, and inspiring evil Thoughts under the Shape of a Toad. Ithuriel, one of the Guardian Angels of the Place, walking his Nightly Rounds, saw the great Enemy of Mankind hid in this loathsome Animal, which he touched with his Spear. This Spear being of a Celestial Temper, had such a secret Virtue in it, that whatever it was applied to, immediately flung off all Disguise, and appeared in its natu­ral Figure. I am afraid the Reader will not par­don me if I content my self with explaining the [Page 210] Passage in Prose, without giving it in the Author's own inimitable Words:

— On he led his radiant Files,
Dazzling the Morn: These to the Bower direct,
In Search of whom they sought. Him there they found,
Squat like a Toad, close at the Ear of Eve;
Essaying by his devilish Art to reach
The Organs of her Fancy, and with them forge
Illusions as he list, Phantasms and Dreams;
Or if, inspiring Venom, he might taint
The Animal Spirits (that from pure Blood arise
Like gentle Breaths from Rivers pure) thence raise
At least distemper'd, discontented Thoughts,
Vain Hopes, vain Aims, inordinate Destres,
Blown up with high Conceits, ingendring Pride.
Him thus intent, Ithuriel with his Spear
Touch'd lightly; for no Falshood can endure
Touch of Celestial Temper, but returns
Of Force to his own Likeness. Up he starts,
Discover'd and surpriz'd. As when a Spark
Lights on a Heap of nitrous Powder, laid
Fit for the Tun, some Magazine to store
Against a rumour'd War, the smutty Grain,
With sudden Blaze diffus'd, inflames the Air;
So started up in his own Shape the Fiend.

I could not forbear thinking how happy a Man would be in the Possession of this Spear; or what an Advantage it would be to a Minister of State, were he Master of such a White Staff. It would let him discover his Friends from his Enemies, Men of Abilities from Pretenders: It would hin­der him from being imposed upon by Appea­rances and Professions, and might be made use of as a Kind of State Test, which no Artifice could elude.

These Thoughts made very lively Impressions on my Imagination, which were improv'd, in­stead of being defaced by Sleep, and produced in me the following Dream: I was no sooner fallen [Page 211] asleep, but, methoughts, the Angel Ithuriel ap­peared to me, and with a Smile that still added to his Celestial Beauty, made me a Present of the Spear which he held in his Hand, and disappear­ed. To make Trial of it, I went into a Place of publick Resort.

The first Person that passed by me, was a Lady that had a particular Shyness in the Cast of her Eye, and a more than ordinary Reservedness in all the Parts of her Behaviour. She seemed to look upon Man as an obscene Creature, with a certain Scorn and Fear of him. In the Height of her Airs I touched her gently with my Wand, when, to my unspeakable Surprize, she fell upon her Back, and kick'd up her Heels in such a Man­ner, as made me blush in my Sleep. As I was hasting away from this undisguised Prude, I saw a Lady in earnest Discourse with another, and overheard her say with some Vehemence, Never tell me of him, for I am resolv'd to die a Vir­gin! I had a Curiosity to try her; but as soon as I laid my Wand upon her Head, she immediately fell in Labour. My Eyes were diverted from her by a Man and his Wife, who walked near me Hand in Hand after a very loving Manner. I gave each of them a gentle Tap, and the next Instant saw the Woman in Breeches, and the Man with a Fan in his Hand. It would be tedious to describe the long Series of Metamorphoses that I entertained my self with in my Night's Adven­ture, of Whigs disguised in Tories, and Tories in Whigs; Men in Red Coats that denounced Ter­ror in their Countenances, trembling at the Touch of my Spear; others in Black with Peace in their Mouths, but Swords in their Hands. I could tell Stories of Noblemen changed into Usurers, and Magistrates into Beadles; of Free-Thinkers into Penitents, and Reformers into Whoremasters. I must not however omit the Mention of a grave Citizen that passed by me with an huge Clasped [Page 212] Bible under his Arm, and a Band of a most im­moderate Breadth; but upon a Touch on the Shoulder, he let drop his Book, and fell a picking my Pocket.

In the general I observed, that those who ap­peared good, often disappointed my Expectation; but that on the contrary, those who appeared ve­ry bad, still grew worse upon the Experiment; as the Toad in Milton, which one would have thought the most deformed Part of the Creation, at Ithuriel's Stroke, became more deformed, and started up into a Devil.

Among all the Persons that I touched, there was but one who stood the Test of my Wand; and after many Repetitions of the Stroke, stuck to his Form, and remained steady and fixed in his first Appearance. This was a young Man who boasted of foul Distempers, wild Debauches, In­sults upon holy Men, and Affronts to Religion.

My Heart was extremely troubled at this Vi­sion: The Contemplation of the whole Species, so entirely sunk in Corruption, filled my Mind with a Melancholy that is inexpressible, and my Discoveries still added to my Affliction.

In the Midst of these Sorrows which I had in my Heart, methoughts there passed by me a Cou­ple of Coaches with Purple Liveries. There sate in each of them a Person with a very venerable Aspect. At the Appearance of them, the People who were gathered round me in great Multi­tudes divided into Parties, as they were disposed to favour either of those reverend Persons: The Enemies of one of them begged me to touch him with my Wand, and assured me, I should see his Lawn converted into a Cloak. The opposite Par­ty told me with as much Assurance, That if I laid my Wand upon the other, I should see his Garments embroidered with Flower-de-Luces, and his Head covered with a Cardinal's Cap. I made the Experiment, and to my great Joy, saw [Page 213] them both, without any Change, distributing their Blessings to the People, and praying for those who had reviled them. Is it possible, thought I, that good Men, who are so few in Number, should be divided among themselves, and give better Quarter to the Vicious that are in their Party, than the most strictly Virtuous who are out of it? Are the Ties of Faction above those of Religion?—I was going on in my Soli­loquies, but some sudden Accident awakened me, when I found my Hand grasped, but my Spear gone. The Reflection on so very odd a Dream made me figure to my self, What a strange Face the World would bear, should all Mankind appear in their proper Shapes and Characters, without Hypocrisy and Disguise? I am afraid, the Earth we live upon would appear to other in­tellectual Beings no better than a Planet peopled with Monsters. This should, methinks, inspire us with an honest Ambition of recommending our selves to those invisible Spies, and of being what we would appear. There was one Circum­stance in my foregoing Dream which I at first intended to conceal; but upon second Thoughts, I cannot look upon my self as a candid and im­partial Historian, if I do not acquaint my Reader, that upon taking Ithuriel's Spear into my Hand, though I was before an old decrepid Fellow, I appeared a very handsome, jolly, black Man. But I know my Enemies will say, this is praising my own Beauty, for which Reason I will speak no more of it.

The TATLER. [No 238.
From Saturd. Octob. 14. to Tuesd. Octob. 17. 1710.

— Poetica surgit
Tempestas —

STorms at Sea are so frequently described by the ancient Poets, and copied by the Moderns, that whenever I find the Winds begin to rise in a new Heroick Poem, I generally skip a Leaf or Two till I come into Fair Weather. Virgil's Tempest is a Master-piece in this Kind, and is in­deed so naturally drawn, that one who has made a Voyage can scarce read it without being Sea­sick.

Land Showers are no less frequent among the Poets than the former, but I remember none of them which have not fallen in the Country; for which Reason they are generally filled with the Lowings of Oxen, and the Bleatings of Sheep, and very often embellished with a Rainbow.

Virgil's Land Shower is likewise the best in its Kind: It is indeed a Shower of Consequence, and contributes to the main Design of the Poem, by cutting off a tedious Ceremonial, and bringing Matters to a speedy Conclusion between Two Po­tentates of different Sexes. My ingenious Kins­man Mr. Humphry Wagstaff, who treats of every Subject after a Manner that no other Author has done, and better than any other can do, has sent me the Description of a City Shower. I do not question but the Reader remembers my Cousin's Description of the Morning as it breaks in Town, [Page 215] which is printed in the 9th Tatler, and is another exquisite Piece of this Local Poetry:

Careful Observers may foretel the Hour
(By sure Prognosticks) when to dread a Show'r:
While Rain depends, the pensive Cat gives o'er
Her Frolicks, and pursues her Tail no more.
Returning Home at Night, you'll find the Sink
Strike your offended Sense with double Stink.
If you be wise, then go not far to dine,
You'll spend in Coach-hire more than save in Wine.
A coming Show'r your shooting Corns presage,
Old Aches throb, your hollow Tooth will rage.
Sauntring in Coffee-house is Dulman seen;
He damns the Climate, and complains of Spleen.
Mean while the South rising with dabbled Wings,
A Sable Cloud athwart the Welkin flings,
That swill'd more Liquor than it could contain,
And like a Drunkard gives it up again.
Brisk Susan whips her Linen from the Rope,
While the first drizzling Show'r is born aslope.
Such is that Sprinkling which some careless Quean
Flirts on you from her Mop, but not so clean.
You fly, invoke the Gods; then turning, stop
To rail; she singing, still whirls on her Mop.
Not yet, the Dust had shun'd th'unequal Strife,
But aided by the Wind, fought still for Life;
And wafted with its Foe by violent Gust,
'Twas doubtful which was Rain, and which was Dust.
Ah! where must needy Poet seek for Aid,
When Dust and Rain at once his Coat invade;
His only Coat, where Dust confus'd with Rain
Roughen the Nap, and leave a mingled Stain.
Now in contiguous Drops the Flood comes down,
Threat'ning with Deluge this devoted Town.
To Shops in Crowds the daggled Females fly,
pretend to cheapen Goods, but nothing buy.
[...]he Templer spruce, while ev'ry Spout's a-broach,
[...]tays till 'tis fair, yet seems to call a Coach.
[Page 216] The tuck'd-up Sempstress walks with hasty Strides,
While Streams run down her oil'd Umbrella's Sides.
Here various Kinds by various Fortunes led,
Commence Acquaintance underneath a Shed.
Triumphant Tories, and desponding Whigs,
Forget their Fewds, and join to save their Wigs.
Box'd in a Chair the Beau impatient sits,
While Spouts run clatt'ring o'er the Roof by Fits;
And ever and anon with frightful Din
The Leather sounds, he trembles from within.
So when Troy Chair-men bore the Wooden Steed,
Pregnant with Greeks, impatient to be freed.
(Those Bully Greeks, who, as the Moderns do,
Instead of paying Chair-men, run them thro'.)
Laoco'n siruck the Outside with his Spear,
And each imprison'd Hero quak'd for Fear.
Now from all Parts the swelling Kennels flow,
And bear their Trophies with them as they go:
Filth of all Hues and Odours seem to tell
What Street they sail'd from, by their Sight and Smell.
They, as each Torrent drives, with rapid Force,
From Smithfield or St. Pulchre's shape their Course,
And in huge Constuent join'd at Snow-Hill Ridge,
Fall from the Conduit, proue to Holborn-Bridge.
Sweepings from Butchers Stalls, Dung, Guts, and Blood,
Drown'd Puppies, stinking Sprats, all drench'd in Mud,
Dead Cats and Turnip-Tops come tumbling down the Flood.

The TATLER. [No 239.
From Tuesd. Octob. 17. to Thursd. Octob. 19. 1710.

— Mecum certasse feretur.

IT is ridiculous for any Man to criticise on the Works of another, who has not distinguished himself by his own Performances. A Judge would make but an indifferent Figure who had never been known at the Bar. Cicero was reputed the greatest Orator of his Age and Country before he wrote a Book De Oratore; and Horace the great­est Poet before he published his Art of Poetry. This Observation arises naturally in any one who casts his Eye upon this last mentioned Author, where he will find the Criticisms placed in the latter End of his Book, that is, after the finest Odes and Satyrs in the Latin Tongue.

A Modern, whose Name I shall not mention, because I would not make a silly Paper sell, was born a Critick and an Examiner, and, like one of the Race of the Serpent's Teeth, came into the World with a Sword in his Hand. His Works put me in mind of the Story that is told of a Ger­man Monk, who was taking a Catalogue of a Friend's Library, and meeting with a Hebrew Book in it, entered it under the Title of, A Book that has the Beginning where the End should be. This Author, in the last of his Crudities, has amas­sed together a Heap of Quotations, to prove that Horace and Virgil were both of them modester Men than my self, and if his Works were to live as long as mine, they might possibly give Poste­rity a Notion, that Isaac Bickerstaff was a very [Page 218] conceited old Fellow, and as vain a Man as either Tully or Sir Francis Bacon. Had this serious Wri­ter fallen upon me only, I could have overlook­ed it; but to see Cicero abused, is, I must confess, what I cannot bear. The Censure he passes upon this great Man runs thus; The Itch of being very Abusive, is almost inseparable from Vain-Glory. Tully has these Two Faults in so high a Degree, that nothing but his being the best Writer in the World can make Amends for them. The scurrilous Wretch goes on to say I am as bad as Tully. His Words are these; And yet the Tatler, in his Paper of Sep­tember 26, has out-done him in both. He speaks of himself with more Arrogance, and with more Inso­lence of others. I am afraid by his Discourse, this Gentleman has no more read Plutarch than he has Tully. If he had, he would have observed a Pas­sage in that Historian, wherein he has with great Delicacy distinguish'd between Two Passions which are usually complicated in Humane Nature, and which an ordinary Writer would not have thought of separating. Not having my Greek Spectacles by me, I shall quote the Passage Word for Word as I find it translated to my Hand. Nevertheless, tho' he was intemperately fond of his own Praise, yet he was very free from envying others, and most li­berally profuse in commending both the Ancients and his Contemporaries, as is to be understood by his Wri­tings; and many of those Sayings are still recorded, as that concerning Aristotle, That he was a River of flowing Gold: Of Plato's Dialogue, That if Jupi­ter were to speak, he would discourse as he did. Theophrastus he was wont to call his peculiar De­light; and being asked, Which of Demosthenes his Orations he liked best? He answered, The longest.

And as for the Eminent Men of his own Time, ei­ther for Eloquence or Philosophy, there was not one of them which he did not, by writing or speaking fa­vourably of, render more illustrious.

[Page 219] Thus the Critick tells us, That Cicero was ex­cessively vain-glorious and abusive; Plutarch, that he was vain, but not abusive. Let the Reader be­lieve which of them he pleases.

After this he complains to the World, that I call him Names; and that in my Passion I said, He was a Flea, a Louse, an Owl, a Bat, a small Wit, a Scribbler, and a Nibbler. When he has thus be­spoken his Reader's Pity, he falls into that admi­rable Vein of Mirth, which I shall set down at length, it being an exquisite Piece of Raillery, and written in great Gaiety of Heart. After this List of Names, (viz. Flea, Louse, Owl, Bat, &c.) I was surprised to hear him say, that he has hitherto kept his Temper pretty well; I wonder how he will write when he has lost his Temper? I suppose, as he now is very angry and unmannerly, he will then be ex­ceeding courteous and good-humoured. If I can out-live this Raillery, I shall be able to bear any Thing.

There is a Method of Criticism made Use of by this Author, (for I shall take Care how I call him a Scribbler again) which may turn into Ridicule any Work that was ever written, wherein there is a Variety of Thoughts: This the Reader will observe in the following Words; He (meaning me) is so intent upon being something extraordina­ry, that he scarce knows what he would be; and is as fruitful in his Similes, as a Brother of his whom I lately took Notice of. In the Compass of a few Lines he compares himself to a Fox, to Daniel Burgess, to the Knight of the Red Cross, to an Oak with Ivy about it, and to a great Man with an Equipage. I think my self as much honoured by being joined in this Part of his Paper with the Gentleman whom he here calls my Brother, as I am in the Beginning of it, by being mentioned with Horace and Virgil.

It is very hard that a Man cannot publish Ten Papers without stealing from himself; but to show you that this is only a Knack of Writing, and that [Page 220] the Author is got into a certain Road of Criticism, I shall set down his Remarks on the Works of the Gentleman whom he here glances upon, as they stand in his 6th Paper, and desire the Reader to compare them with the foregoing Passage upon mine.

In Thirty Lines his Patron is a River, the Primum Mobile, a Pilot, a Victim, the Sun, any Thing, and Nothing. He bestows Increase, conceals his Source, makes the Machine move, teaches to steer, expiates our Offences, raises Vapours, and looks larger as he sets.

What Poem can be safe from this Sort of Criti­cism? I think I was never in my Life so much offended as at a Wag whom I once met with in a Coffee-house: He had in his Hand one of the Miscellanies, and was reading the following short Copy of Verses, which, without Flattery to the Author, is (I think) as beautiful in its Kind as any one in the English Tongue.

Flavia the least and flight est Toy
Can with resistless Art employ.
This Fan in meaner Hands would prove
An Engine of small Force in Love;
But she with such an Air and Mien,
Not to be told, or safely seen,
Directs its wanton Motions so,
That it wounds more than Cupid's Bow;
Gives Coolness to the matchless Dame,
To ev'ry other Breast a Flame.

When this Coxcomb had done reading them, Heyday! says he, What Instrument is this that Flavia employs in such a Manner as is not to be told, nor safely seen? In Ten Lines it is a Toy, a Cupid's Bow, a Fan, and an Engine in Love. It has wanton Motions, it wounds, it cools, and in­flames.

Such Criticisms make a Man of Sense sick, and a Fool merry.

[Page 221] The next Paragraph of the Paper we are talk­ing of, falls upon some Body whom I am at a Loss to guess at: But I find the whole Invective turns upon a Man who (it seems) has been impri­soned for Debt. Whoever he was, I must hear­tily pity him; but at the same Time must put the Examiner in Mind, that notwithstanding he is a Critick, he still ought to remember he is a Chri­stian. Poverty was never thought a proper Sub­ject for Ridicule; and I do not remember that I ever met with a Satyr upon a Beggar.

As for those little Retortings of my own Ex­pressions, of being dull by Design, witty in October, shining, excelling, and so forth; they are the com­mon Cavils of every Witlin, who has no other Method of showing his Parts, but by little Varia­tions and Repetitions of the Man's Words whom he attacks.

But the Truth of it is, the Paper before me, not only in this Particular, but in its very Essence, is like Ovid's Eccho:

— Quae nec reticere loquenti,
Nec prior ipsa loqui didicit. —

I should not have deserved the Character of a Censor, had I not animadverted upon the above­mentioned Author by a gentle Chastisement: But I know my Reader will not pardon me, unless I declare, that nothing of this Nature for the future (unless it be written with some Wit) shall divert me from my Care of the Publick.

The TATLER. [No 240.
From Thursd. Octob. 19. to Saturd. Octob. 21. 1710.

Ad Populum Phaleras. —

I DO not remember that in any of my Lucu­brations I have touched upon that useful Sci­ence of Physick, notwithstanding I have declared my self more than once a Professor of it. I have indeed joined the Study of Astrology with it, be­cause I never knew a Physician recommend him­self to the Publick who had not a Sister Art to embellish his Knowledge in Medicine. It has been commonly observed in Compliment to the Inge­nious of our Profession, that Apollo was God of Verse as well as Physick; and in all Ages the most celebrated Practitioners of our Country were the particular Favourites of the Muses. Poetry to Physick is indeed like the Gilding to a Pill; it makes the Art shine, and covers the Severity of the Doctor with the Agreeableness of the Com­panion.

The very Foundation of Poety is good Sense, if we may allow Harace to be a Judge of the Art.

Scribendi recte sapere est, & Principium, & Fons.

And if so, we have Reason to believe, that the same Man who writes well can prescribe well, if he has applied himself to the Study of both. Be­sides, when we see a Man making Profession of Two different Sciences, it is natural for us to be­lieve he is no Pretender in that which we are not Judges of when we find him skilful in that which we understand.

[Page 223] Ordinary Quacks and Charlatans are throughly sensible how necessary it is to support themselves by these collateral Assistances, and therefore al­ways lay their Claim to some supernumerary Ac­complishments which are wholly foreign to their Profession.

About 20 Years ago, it was impossible to walk the Streets without having an Advertisement thrust into your Hand of a Doctor who was arrived at the Knowledge of the Green and Red Dragon, and had discovered the Female Fern Seed. No Body ever knew what this meant; but the Green and Red Dragon so amused the People, that the Doctor li­ved very comfortably upon them. About the same Time there was pasted a very hard Word upon every Corner of the Streets. This, to the best of my Remembrance, was ‘TETRACHYMAGOGON.’ Which drew great Shoals of Spectators about it, who read the Bill that it introduced with un­speakable Curiosity; and when they were sick, would have no Body but this learned Man for their Physician.

I once received an Advertisement of one who had studied Thirty Years by Candle-light for the Good of his Countrymen. He might have studied Twice as long by Day-light, and never have been taken Notice of: But Lucubrations cannot be over-valued. There are some who have gained themselves great Reputation for Physick by their Birth, as the Seventh Son of a Seventh Son; and others by not being born at all, as the Unborn Doctor, who, I hear, is lately gone the Way of his Patients, having died worth Five Hundred Pounds per Annum, though he was not born to a Halfpenny.

My ingenious Friend Doctor Saffold, succeeded my old Contemporary Doctor Lilly in the Studies both of Physick and Astrology, to which he ad­ded [Page 224] that of Poetry, as was to be seen both upon the Sign where he lived, and in the Bills which he distributed. He was succeeded by Doctor Case, who erased the Verses of his Predecessor out of the Sign-Post, and substituted in their Stead Two of his own, which were as follow:

Within this Place
Lives Doctor Case.

He is said to have got more by this Distich, than Mr. Dryden did by all his Works. There would be no End of enumerating the several imaginary Per­fections and unaccountable Artifices by which this Tribe of Men ensnare the Minds of the Vulgar, and gain Crowds of Admirers. I have seen the whole Front of a Mountebank's Stage from one End to the other faced with Patents, Certificates, Medals, and Great Seals, by which the several Princes of Europe have testified their particular Re­spect and Esteem for the Doctor. Every great Man with a sounding Title has been his Patient. I be­lieve I have seen Twenty Mountebanks that have given Physick to the Czar of Moscovy. The Great Duke of Tuscany escapes no better. The Elector of Brandenburg was likewise a very good Patient.

This great Condescension of the Doctor draws upon him much Good-Will from his Audience; and it is Ten to One, but if any of them be trou­bled with an aching Tooth, his Ambition will prompt him to get it drawn by a Person who has had so many Princes, Kings, and Emperors, under his Hands.

I must not leave this Subject without observing, that as Physicians are apt to deal in Poetry, Apo­thecaries endeavour to recommend themselves by Oratory, and are therefore without Controversy the most eloquent Persons in the whole British Na­tion. I would not willingly discourage any of the Arts, especially that of which I am an humble Pro­fessor; but I must confess, for the Good of my [Page 225] native Country, I could wish there might be a Sus­pension of Physick for some Years, that our King­dom, which has been so much exhausted by the Wars, might have Leave to recruit it self.

As for my self, the only Physick which has brought me safe to almost the Age of Man, and which I prescribe to all my Friends, is Abstinence. This is certainly the best Physick for Prevention, and very often the most effectual against a present Distemper. In short, my Recipe is, Take nothing.

Were the Body Politick to be physick'd like particular Persons, I should venture to prescribe to it after the same Manner. I remember when our wholeIsland was shaken with an Earthquake some Years ago, there was an impudent Mountebank who sold Pills which (as he told the Country People) were very good against an Earthquake. It may perhaps be thought as absurd to prescribe a Diet for the allaying Popular Commotions, and National Ferments. But I am verily perswaded, that if in such a Case a whole People were to en­ter into a Course of Abstinence, and eat nothing but Water-gruel for a Fortnight, it would abate the Rage and Animosity of Parties, and not a lit­tle contribute to the Cure of a distracted Nation. Such a Fast would have a natural Tendency to the procuring of those Ends for which a Fast is usually proclaimed. If any Man has a Mind to enter on such a voluntary Abstinence, it might not be improper to give him the Caution of Py­thagoras in particular:

Abstine a Fabis.
' Abstain from Beans.

That is, say the Interpreters, Meddle not with Elections, Beans having been made Use of by the Voters among the Athenians in the Choice of Ma­gistrates.

The TATLER. [No 241.
From Saturd. Octob 21. to Tuesd. Octob. 24. 1710.

A Method of spending one's Time agreeably is a Thing so little studied, that the common Amusement of our young Gentlemen (especially of such as are at a Distance from those of the first Breeding) is Drinking. This Way of Entertain­ment has Custom of its Side; but as much as it has prevailed, I believe there have been very few Companies that have been guilty of Excess this Way, where there have not happened more Acci­dents which make against, than for the Continu­ance of it. It is very common that Events arise from a Debauch which are fatal, and always such as are disagreeable. With all a Man's Reason and good Sense about him, his Tongue is apt to utter Things out of meer Gaiety of Heart which may displease his best Friends. Who then would trust himself to the Power of Wine, without saying more against it, than that it raises the Imagination, and depresses the Judgment. Were there only this single Consideration, That we are less Masters of our selves when we drink in the least Proportion above the Exigencies of Thirst; I say, were this all that could be objected, it were sufficient to make us abhor this Vice. But we may go on to say, that as he who drinks but a little is not Ma­ster of himself, so he who drinks much is a Slave to himself. As for my Part, I ever esteemed a Drunkard of all vicious Persons the most vicious: For if our Actions are to be weighed and consi­dered according to the Intention of them, what can we think of him who puts himself into a Cir­cumstance [Page 227] wherein he can have no Intention at all, but incapacitates himself for the Duties and Of­fices of Life, by a Suspension of all his Faculties. If a Man considered, that he cannot under the Op­pression of Drink be a Friend, a Gentleman, a Ma­ster, or a Subject; that he has so long banished himself from all that is dear, and given up all that is sacred to him, he would even then think of a Debauch with Horror: But when he looks still further, and acknowledges, that he is not only expelled out of all the Relations of Life, but also liable to offend against them all, What Words can express the Terror and Detestation he would have of such a Condition? And yet he owns all this of himself who says he was drunk last Night.

As I have all along persisted in it, that all the Vicious in general are in a State of Death, so I think I may add to the Non-Existence of Drunk­ards, that they died by their own Hands. He is certainly as guilty of Suicide who perishes by a slow, as he that is dispatched by an immediate, Poison. In my last Lucubration I proposed the general Use of Water-gruel, and hinted, that it might not be amiss at this very Season: But as there are some, whose Cases, in regard to their Families, will not admit of Delay, I have used my Interest in several Wards of the City, that the wholesome Restorative above-mentioned may be given in Tavern Kitchens to all the Mornings Draught Men within the Walls when they call for Wine before Noon. For a further Restraint and Mark upon such Persons, I have given Orders, that in all the Offices where Policies are drawn upon Lives, it shall be added to the Article which prohibits that the Nominee should cross the Sea, the Words, Provided also, That the above-mention­ed A. B. shall not drink before Dinner during the Term mentioned in this Indenture.

I am not without Hopes but by this Method I shall bring some unsizeable Friends of mine into [Page 228] Shape and Breath, as well as others who are languid and consumptive into Health and Vigour. Most of the Self-Murderers whom I yet hinted at, are such as preserve a certain Regularity in taking their Poison, and make it mix pretty well with their Food: But the most conspicuous of those who destroy themselves, are such as in their Youth fall into this Sort of Debauchery, and contract a certain Uneasiness of Spirit, which is not to be diverted but by Tippling as often as they can fall into Company in the Day, and conclude with downright Drunkenness at Night. These Gen­tlemen never know the Satisfaction of Youth, but skip the Years of Manhood, and are decrepid soon after they are of Age. I was Godfather to one of these old Fellows. He is now Three and Thirty, which is the Grand Climacterick of a young Drunkard. I went to visit the crazy Wretch this Morning, with no other Purpose but to rally him under the Pain and Uneasiness of being sober.

But as out Faults are double when they affect others besides our selves, so this Vice is still more odious in a married than a single Man. He that is the Husband of a Woman of Honour, and comes Home overloaded with Wine, is still more con­temptible in Proportion to the Regard we have to the unhappy Consort of his Bestiality. The Ima­gination cannot shape to its self any Thing more monstrous and unnatural than the Familiarities between Drunkenness and Chastity. The wretch­ed Astraea, who is the Perfection of Beauty and In­nocence, has long been thus condemned for Life. The Romantick Tales of Virgins devoted to the Jaws of the Monsters, have nothing in them so terrible as the Gift of Astraea to that Bacchanal.

The Reflection of such a Match as spotless In­nocence with abandoned Lewdness, is what puts this Vice in the worst Figure it can bear with Re­gard to others; but when it is looked upon with Respect only to the Drunkard himself, it has De­formities [Page 229] enough to make it disagreeable, which may be summed up in a Word, by allowing, that he who resigns his Reason, is actually guilty of all that he is liable to from the Want of Reason.

P. S. Among many other Enormities, there are Two in the following Letters which I think should be suddenly amended; but since they are Sins of Omission only, I shall not make Remarks upon them till I find the Delinquents persist in their Errors; and the inserting the Letters themselves shall be all their present Admonition.

Mr. Bickerstaff,

SEveral that frequent Divine Service at S. Paul's, as well as my self, having with great Satis­faction observed the good Effect which your Animadversion had on an Excess in Performance there; it is requested, that you will take Notice of a contrary Fault, which is the unconcerned Silence, and the motionless Postures of others who come thither. If this Custom prevails, the Congregation will resemble an Audience at a Play-house, or rather a dumb Meeting of Qua­kers. Your censuring such Church-mutes in the Manner you think fit, may make these Dis­senters join with us, out of Fear lest you should further animadvert upon their Non Conformity. According as this succeeds, you shall hear from,

Your most humble Servant, B. B.
Mr. Bickerstaff,

I Was the other Day in Company with a Gen­tleman, who, in reciting his own Qualifica­tions, concluded every Period with these Words, The best of any Man in England. Thus for Exam­ple: He kept the best House of any Man in Eng­land; he understood this, and that, and t'other, [Page 230] the best of any Man in England. How harsh and ungrateful soever this Expression might sound to one of my Nation, yet the Gentleman was one whom it no Ways became me to inter­rupt; but perhaps a new Term put into his By-Words (as they call a Sentence a Man particular­ly affects) may cure him. I therefore took a Resolution to apply to you, who, I dare say, can easily perswade this Gentleman (whom I cannot believe an Enemy to the Union) to mend his Phrase, and be hereafter the wisest of any Man in Great Britain. I am,

Your most humble Servant, Scoto Britannus.


Whereas Mr. Humphrey Trelooby wearing his own Hair, a Pair of Buck-Skin Breeches, a Hunting-Whip, with a new Pair of spurs, has complained to the Censor, That on Thursday last he was defrauded of Half a Crown, under Pretence of a Duty to the Sexton for seeing the Cathedral of St. Paul, London: It is hereby ordered, That none hereafter require above Sixpence of any Country Gentleman under the Age of Twenty five for that Liberty; and that all which shall be received above the said Sum of any Person for beholding the Inside of that Sacred Edifice, be forthwith paid to Mr. John Morphew for the Use of Mr. Bickerstaff, under Pain of further Censure on ike above-mentioned Extortion.

The TATLER. [No 242.
From Tuesday Oct. 24. to Tursday Oct. 26. 1710.

— Quis iniquae
Tam patiens Urbis, tam ferreus ut teneat se?

IT was with very great Displeasure I heard this Day a Man say of a Companion of his with an Air of Approbation, You know Tom never fails of saying a spightful Thing. He has a great deal of Wit, but Satyr is his particular Talent. Did you mind how he put the young Fellow out of Counte­nance that pretended to talk to him? Such imper­tinent Applauses, which one meets with every Day, put me upon considering what true Raillery and Satyr were in themselves; and this, me­thought, occurred to me from Reflection upon the great and excellent Persons that were admi­red for Talents this Way. When I had ran over several such in my Thoughts, I concluded, (how­ever unaccountable the Assertion might appear at first Sight) that Good-Nature was an essential Quality in a Satyrist, and that all the Sentiments which are beautiful in this Way of Writing must proceed from that Quality in the Author. Good-Nature produces a Disdain of all Baseness, Vice, and Folly, which prompts them to express them­selves with Smartness against the Errors of Men, without Bitterness towards their Persons. This Quality keeps the Mind in Equanimity, and ne­ver lets an Offence unseasonably throw a Man out of his Character. When Virgil said, He that did not hate Bavius might love Maevius, he [Page 232] was in perfect good Humour, and was not so much moved at their Absurdities, as passionately to call them Sots or Blockheads in a direct In­vective, but laughed at them with a Delicacy of Scorn, without any Mixture of Anger.

The best good Man, with the worst-natured Muse, was the Character among us of a Gentleman as famous for his Humanity as his Wit.

The ordinary Subjects for Satyr are such as in­cite the greatest Indignation in the best Tem­pers, and consequently Men of such a Make are the best qualified for speaking of the Offences in Humane Life. These Men can behold Vice and Folly when they injure Persons to whom they are wholly unacquainted, with the same Severity as others resent the Ills they do themselves. A good-natured Man cannot see an over-bearing Fellow put a bashful Man of Merit out of Coun­tenance, or outstrip him in the Pursuit of any Advantage; but he is on Fire to succour the Op­pressed, to produce the Merit of the one, and confront the Impudence of the other.

The Men of the greatest Character in this Kind were Horace and Juvenal. There is not, that I remember, one ill-natured Expression in all their Writings, not one Sentence of Severity which does not apparently proceed from the contrary Disposition. Whoever reads them, will, I be­lieve, be of this Mind; and if they were read with this View, it may possibly perswade our young Fellows, that they may be very witty Men without speaking ill of any but those who deserve it: But in the Perusal of these Writers it may not be unnecessary to consider, that they lived in very different Times. Horace was inti­mate with a Prince of the greatest Goodness and Humanity imaginable, and his Court was formed after his Example: Therefore the Faults that Poet falls upon were little Inconsistencies in Behaviour, false Pretences to Politeness, or im­pertinent [Page 233] Affectations of what Men were not fit for. Vices of a coarser Sort could not come un­der his Consideration, or enter the Palace of Au­gustus. Juvenal on the other Hand lived under Domitian, in whose Reign every Thing that was great and noble was banished the Habitations of the Men in Power. Therefore he attacks Vice as it passes by in Triumph, not as it breaks into Conversation. The Fall of Empire, Contempt of Glory, and a general Degeneracy of Manners, are before his Eyes in all his Writings. In the Days of Augustus, to have talked like Juvenal had been Madness, or in those of Domitian like Horace. Morality and Virtue are every where re­commended in Horace, as became a Man in a po­lite Court, from the Beauty, the Propriety, the Convenience, of pursuing them. Vice and Corruption are attacked by Juvenal in a Style which denotes, he fears he shall not be heard without he calls to them in their own Language, with a bare-faced Mention of the Villanies and Obscenities of his Contemporaries.

This accidental Talk of these Two great Men runs me from my Design, which was to tell some Coxcombs that run about this Town with the Name of Smart Satyrical Fellows, that they are by no Means qualified for the Characters they pretend to, of being severe upon other Men, for they want Good-Nature. There is no Founda­tion in them for arriving at what they aim at; and they may as well pretend to flatter, as rail agreeably without being Good-Natured.

There is a certain Impartiality necessary to make what a Man says bear any Weight with those he speaks to. This Quality, with Respect to Men's Errors and Vices, is never seen but in Good-natured Men. They have ever such a Frankness of Mind, and Benevolence to all Men, that they cannot receive Impressions of Unkind­ness without mature Deliberation; and writing [Page 234] or speaking ill of a Man upon Personal Conside­ratious, is so irreparable and mean an Injury, that no o [...] [...]ssessed of this Quality is capable of do­ing it. But in all Ages there have been Interpre­ters to A [...]rs when living, of the same Genius with the Commentators, into whose Hands they fall when dead. I dare say, it is impossible for any Man of [...]e Wit than one of these to take any of the F [...] and twenty Letters, and form out of them a Name to describe the Character of a Vicious Man with greater Life, but one of these would immediately cry, Mr. such a one is meant in that Place. But the Truth of it is, Sa­tyrists describe the Age, and Backbiters assign their Descriptions to private Men.

In all Terms of Reproof, when the Sentence appears to arise from Personal Hatred or Passion, it is not then made the Cause of Mankind, but a Misunderstanding between Two Persons. For this Reason, the Representations of a Good-na­tured Man bear a Pleasantry in them, which shows there is no Malignity at heart, and by Consequence are attended to by his Hearers or Readers because they are unprejudiced. This Deference is only what is due to him; for no Man thoroughly nettled can say a Thing general enough to pass off with the Air of an Opinion declared, and not a Passion gratified. I remem­ber a humorous Fellow at Oxford, when he heard any one had spoken ill of him, used to say, I won't take my Revenge on him till I have forgiven him. What he meant by this, was, that he would not enter upon this Subject till it was grown as indifferent to him as any other; and I have, by this Rule, seen him more than once triumph over his Adversary with an inimitable Spirit and Humour; for he came to the Assault against a Man full of sore Places, and he himself invulnerable.

[Page 235] There is no Possibility of succeeding in a Sa­tyrical Way of Writing or Speaking, except a Man throws himself quite out of the Question. It is great Vanity to think any one will attend a Thing because it is your Quarrel. You must make your Satyr the Concern of Society in ge­neral, if you would have it regarded. When it is so, the Good-Nature of a Man of Wit will prompt him to many brisk and disdainful Senti­ments and Replies, to which all the Malice in the World will not be able to repartee.

The TATLER. [No 243.
From Thursd. Octob. 26. to Saturd. Octob. 28. 1710.

Insert se Septus Nebulâ, mirabile dictu
Permedios, miscotqua Viris, neque cernitur ulli.

I Have somewhere made Mention of Gyges's Ring, and intimated to my Reader, that it was at present in my Possession, though I have not since made any Use of it. The Tradition con­cerning this Ring is very Romantick, and taken Notice of both by Plato and Tully, who each of them make an admirable Use of it for the Ad­vancement of Morality. This Gyges was the Ma­ster Shepherd to King Candaules. As he was wandering over the Plains of Lydia, he saw a great Chasm in the Earth, and had the Curiosity to enter it. After having descended pretty far into it, he found the Statue of an Horse in Brass, with Doors in the Sides of it. Upon opening of them, he found the Body of a dead Man big­ger than ordinary, with a Ring upon his Fin­ger, [Page 236] which he took off, and put it upon his own. The Virtues of it were much greater than he at first imagined; for upon his going into the As­sembly of Shepherds, he observed, that he was invisible when he turned the Stone of the Ring within the Palm of his Hand, and visible when he turned it towards his Company. Had Plato and Cicers been as well versed in the Occult Sciences as I am, they would have found a great deal of Mystick Learning in this Tradition; but it is impossible for an Adept to be understood by one who is not an Adept.

As for my self, I have with much Study and Application arrived at this great Secret of ma­king my self invisible, and by that Means con­veying my self where I pleased; or to speak in Rosycrucian Lore, I have entered into the Clefts of the Earth, discovered the Brazen Horse, and robbed the dead Giant of his Ring. The Tradi­tion says further of Gyges, that by the Means of this Ring he gained Admission into the most re­tired Parts of the Court, and made such Use of those Opportunities, that he at length became King of Lydia. For my own Part, I, who have always rather endeavoured to improve my Mind than my Fortune, have turned this Ring to no other Advantage than to get a thorough Insight into the Ways of Men, and to make such Obser­vations upon the Errors of others as may be use­ful to the Publick, whatever Effect they may have upon my self.

About a Week ago, not being able to sleep, I got up and put on my magical Ring, and with a Thought transported my self into a Chamber where I saw a Light. I found it inhabited by a celebrated Beauty, though she is of that Species of Women whith we call a Slattern. Her Head­dress and one of her Shoes lay upon a Chair, her Petticoat in one Corner of the Room, and her Girdle that had a Copy of Verses made upon [Page 237] it but the Day before, with her Thread Stock­ings, in the middle of the Floor. I was so foo­lishly officious, that I could not forbear gather­ing up her Cloaths together to lay them upon the Chair that stood by her Bed-side, when, to my great Surprise, after a little Muttering, she cried out, What do you do? Let my Petticoat alone. I was startled at first, but soon found that she was in a Dream; being one of those who, to use Shakespear's Expression, are so loose of Thought, that they utter in their Sleep every Thing that passes in their Imagination. I left the Apartment of this Female Rake, and went into her Neigh­bours, where there lay a Male-Coquet. He had a Bottle of Salts hanging over his Head, and upon the Table, by his Bed-side, Suckling's Poems, with a little Heap of Black Patches on it. His Snuff Box was within Reach on a Chair: But while I was admiring the Disposition which he made of the several Parts of his Dress, his Slumber seemed interrupted by a Pang, that was accompanied by a sudden Oath, as he turned himself over hastily in his Bed. I did not care for seeing him in his nocturnal Pains, and left the Room.

I was no sooner got into another Bed-Chamber, but I heard very harsh Words uttered in a smooth uniform Tone. I was amazed to hear so great a Volubility in Reproach, and thought it too cohe­rent to be spoken by one asleep; but upon look­ing nearer, I saw the Head dress of the Person who spoke, which shewed her to be a Female with a Man lying by her Side broad awake, and as quiet as a Lamb. I could not but admire his exemplary Patience, and discovered by his whole Behaviour, that he was then lying under the Dis­cipline of a Curtain-Lecture.

I was entertained in many other Places with this Kind of Nocturnal Eloquence, but observed, that most of those whom I found awake, were [Page 238] kept so either by Envy or by Love. Some of these were sighing, and others cursing, in Soliloquy; some hugged their Pillows, and others gnashed their Teeth.

The Covetous I likewise found to be a very wakeful People. I happened to come into a Room where one of them lay sick. His Phy­sician and his Wife were in close Whisper near his Bed-side. I overheard the Doctor say to the poor Gentlewoman, he cannot possibly live till Five in the Morning. She received it like the Mistress of a Family prepared for all Events. At the same Instant came in a Servant Maid, who said, Madam, The Undertaker is below according to your Order. The Words were scarce out of her Mouth, when the sick Man cried out with a fee­ble Voice, Pray, Doctor, how went Bank-Stock to Day at 'Change? This melancholy Object made me too serious for diverting my self fur­ther this Way: But as I was going Home, I saw a Light in a Garret, and entering into it, heard a Voice crying, And, Hand, Stand, Band, Fann'd, Tann'd. I concluded him by this and the Furni­ture of his Room to be a Lunatick; but upon li­stening a little longer, perceived it was a Poet, writing an Heroick upon the ensuing Peace.

It was now towards Morning, an Hour when Spirits, Witches, and Conjurers are obliged to re­tire to their own Apartments, and feeling the In­fluence of it, I was hastening Home, when I saw a Man had got half Way into a Neighbour's House. I immediately called to him, and turn­ing my Ring, appeared in my proper Person. There is something Magisterial in the Aspect of the Bickerstaffs, which made him run away in Confusion.

As I took a Turn or Two in my own Lodging, I was thinking, that, old as I was, I need not go to Bed alone, but that it was in my Power to marry the finest Lady in this Kingdom, if I [Page 239] would wed her with this Ring. For what a Figure would she that should have it make a Visit, with so perfect a Knowledge as this would give her of all the Scandal in the Town? But instead of en­deavouring to dispose of my self and it in Matri­mony, I resolved to lend it to my loving Friend the Author of the Atalantis, to furnish a new Secret History of Secret Memoirs.

The TATLER. [No 244.
From Saturd. Octob. 28. to Tuesd. Octob. 31. 1710.

Quid voveat dulci Nutricula majus Alumno,
Quam sapere & fari ut possit que sentiat? —

IT is no easy Matter when People are advancing in any Thing, to prevent their going too fast for want of Patience. This happens in nothing more frequently than in the Prosecution of Stu­dies. Hence it is, that we meet Crowds who attempt to be eloquent before they can speak. They affect the Flowers of Rhetorick before they understand the Parts of Speech. In the or­dinary Conversation of this Town, there are so many who can, as they call it, talk well, that there is not One in Twenty that talks to be un­derstood. This proceeds from an Ambition to excel, or, as the Term is, to shine, in Company. The Matter is not to make themselves under­stood, but admired. They come together with a certain Emulation, rather than Benevolence. When you fall among such Companions, the safe Way is to give your self up, and let the Orators declaim for your Esteem, and trouble your self [Page 240] no further. It is said, that a Poet must be born so; but I think it may be much better said of an Orator, especially when we talk of our Town-Poets and Orators; but the Town-Poets are full of Rules and Laws, the Town-Orators go thro' thick and thin, and are, forsooth. Persons of such eminent natural Parts and Knowledge of the World, that they despise all Men as unex­perienced Scholasticks who wait for an Occasion before they speak, or who speak no more than is necessary. They had half perswaded me to go to the Tavern the other Night, but that a Gentle­man whispered me, Prithee, Isaac, go with us; there is Tom Varnish will be there, and he is a Fellow that talks as well as any Man in Eng­land.

I must confess, when a Man expresses himself well upon any Occasion, and his falling into an Account of any Subject arises from a Desire to oblige the Company, or from Fulness of the Cir­cumstance it self, so that his speaking of it at large is occasioned only by the Openness of a Companion; I say, in such a Case as this, it is not only pardonable, but agreeable when a Man takes the Discourse to himself; but when you see a Fellow watch for Opportunities for being Copious, it is excessively troublesome. A Man that stammers, if he has Understanding, is to be attended with Patience and good Nature; but he that speaks more than he need, has no Right to such an Indulgence. The Man who has a De­fect in his Speech takes Pains to come to you, while a Man of a weak Capacity with Fluency of Speech triumphs in out-running you. The Stammerer strives to be fit for your Company; the loquacious Man endeavours to show you, you are not fit for his.

With Thoughts of this Kind do I always enter into that Man's Company who is recommended as a Person that talks well; but if I were to [Page 241] chuse the People with whom I would spend my Hours of Conversation, they should be certain­ly such as laboured no farther than to make themselves readily and clearly apprehended, and would have Patience and Curiosity to understand me. To have good Sense, and Ability to express it, are the most essential and necessary Qualities in Companions. When Thoughts rise in us fit to utter, among familiar Friends there needs but very little Care in cloathing them.

Urbanus is, I take it, a Man one might live with whole Years, and enjoy all the Freedom and Improvement imaginable, and yet be insen­sible of a Contradiction to you in all the Mi­stakes you can be guilty of. His great good Will to his Friends has produced in him such a general Deference in his Discourse, that if he differs from you in his Sense of any Thing, he introduces his own Thoughts by some agreeable Circumlocution, or he has often observed such and such a Circumstance that made him of ano­ther Opinion. Again, where another would be apt to say, This I am confident of, I may pretend to judge of this Matter as well as any Body; Urbanus says, I am verily perswaded, I believe one may conclude. In a Word, there is no Man more clear in his Thoughts and Expressions than he is, or speaks with greater Diffidence. You shall hardly find one Man of any Consideration, but you shall observe one of less Consequence form himself after him. This happens to Urba­nus; but the Man who steals from him almost every Sentiment he utters in a whole Week, dis­guises the Theft, by carrying it with quite a dif­ferent Air. Umbratilis knows Urbanus's doubt­ful Way of Speaking proceeds from Good-Nature and Good-Breeding, and not from Uncertainty in his Opinions. Umbratilis therefore has no more to do but repeat the Thoughts of Urbanus in a positive Manner, and appear to the Undiscern­ing [Page 242] a wiser Man than the Person from whom he borrows: But those who know him, can see the Servant in his Master's Habit; and the more he struts, the less do his Clothes appear his own.

In Conversation, the Medium is neither to af­fect Silence or Eloquence; not to value our Ap­probation, and to endeavour to excel us who are of your Company, are equal Inquiries. The great Enemies therefore to good Company, and those who transgress most against the Laws of Equali­ty, (which is the Life of it) are, the Clown, the Wit, and the Pedant. A Clown, when he has Sense, is conscious of his Want of Education, and with an aukward Bluntness hopes to keep himself in Countenance, by overthrowing the Use of all polite Behaviour. He takes Advantage of the Restraint good Breeding lays upon others not to offend him to trespass against them, and is under the Man's own Shelter while he intrudes upon him. The Fellows of this Class are very frequent in the Repetition of the Words, Rough and Manly. When these People happen to be by their Fortunes of the Rank of Gentlemen, they defend their other Absurdities by an imper­tinent Courage; and to help out the Defect of their Behaviour, add their being dangerous to their being disagreeable. This Gentleman (though he displeases, professes to do so, and knowing that, dares still go on to do so) is not so painful a Companion as he who will please you against your Will, and resolves to be a Wit.

This Man upon all Occasions, and whoever he falls in Company with, talks in the same Circle, and in the same Round of Chat which he has learned at one of the Tables of this Coffee-house. As Poetry is in it self an Elevation above ordinary and common Sentiments, so there is no Fop is so very near a Mad-man in indifferent Company as a Poetical one. He is not apprehensive that the [Page 243] Generality of the World are intent upon the Bu­siness of their own Fortune and Profession, and have as little Capacity as Curiosity to enter into Matters of Ornament or Speculation. I remem­ber at a full Table in the City, one of these ubi­quitary Wits was entertaining the Company with a Soliloquy (for so I call it when a Man talks to those who do not understand him) con­cerning Wit and Humour. An honest Gentle­man who sate next to me, and was worth Half a Plumb, stared at him, and observing there was some Sense as he thought, mixed with his Impertinence, whispered me, Take my Word for it, this Fellow is more Knave than Fool. This was all my good Friend's Applause of the wittiest Man of Talk that I was ever present at, which wanted nothing to make it excellent but that there was no Occasion for it.

The Pedant is so obvious to Ridicule, that it would be to be one to offer to explain him. He is a Gentleman so well known, that there is none but those of his own Class who do not laugh at and avoid him. Pedantry proceeds from much Reading and little Understanding. A Pe­dant among Men of Learning and Sense, is like an ignorant Servant giving an Account of a polite Conversation. You may find he has brought with him more than could have en­tered into his Head without being there, but still that he is not a Bit wiser than if he had not been there at all.

The TATLER. [No. 245.
From Tuesd. Octob. 31. to Thursd. Nov. 2. 1710.

THE Lady hereafter mentioned having come to me in very great Hast, and paid me much above the usual Fee as a Cunning-Man to find her stolen Goods, and also having approved my late Discourse of Advertisements, obliged me to draw up this, and insert it in the Body of my Paper.


WHereas Bridget Howd'ee, late Servant to the Lady Fardingale, a short, thick, live­ly, hard-favoured Wench, of about Twenty nine Years of Age, her Eyes small and bleared, her Nose very broad at Bottom, and turning up at the End, her Mouth wide, and Lips of an un­usual Thickness, Two Teeth out before, the rest black and uneven, the Tip of her Left Ear being of a Mouse-Colour, her Voice loud and shrill, quick of Speech, and something of a Welch Ac­cent; withdrew her self on Wednesday last from her Ladyship's Dwelling-House, and, with the Help of her Consorts, carried off the following Goods of her said Lady, viz. A thick wadded Callico Wrapper, a Musk-coloured Velvet Mantle lined with Squirrel-Skins, Eight Night-Shifts, Four Pair of Silk-Stockings curiously derned, Six Pair of Laced Shoes, new and old, with the Heels of half Two Inches higher than their Fel­lows; a Quilted Petticoat of the largest Size, and one of Canvas with Whalebone Hoops; Three Pair of Stays, boulstered below the Left [Page 245] Shoulder; Two Pair of Hips of the newest Fa­shion, Six round-about Aprons with Pockets, and Four striped Muslin Night-Rails very lit­tle frayed; a Silver Pot for Coffee or Choco­late, the Lid much bruised; a broad-brim'd flat Silver Plate for Sugar with Rhenish Wine, a Silver Ladle for Plumb-Porridge; a Silver Cheefe-Toaster with Three Tongues, an Ebony Handle, and Silvering at the End; a Silver Posnet to but­ter Eggs; One Cawdle and Two Cordial-Water Cups, Two Coco Cups, and an Ostridge's Egg, with Rims and Feet of Silver; a Marrow Spoon, with a Scoop at the other End; a Silver O­range Strainer, Eight Sweetmeat Spoons made with Forks at the End, an Aggat-Handle Knife and Fork in a Sheath, a Silver Tongue-Scraper, a Silver Tobacco-Box, with a Tulip graved on the Top; and a Bible bound in Shagreen, with gilt Leaves and Clasps, never opened but once. Also a small Cabinet, with Six Drawers inlaid with red Tortoise-shell, and Brass gilt Ornaments at the Four Corners, in which were Two Lea­ther Forehead-Cloths, Three Pair of oiled Dog­skin Gloves, Seven Cakes of Superfine Spanish Wool, half a Dozen of Portugal Dishes, and a Quire of Paper from thence; Two Pair of brand­new Plumpers, Four Black-lead Combs. Three Pair of fashionable Eye-brows, Two Sets of Ivory Teeth, little the worse for wearing, and One Pair of Box for common Use; Adam and Eve in Bugle-Work, without Fig-Leaves, upon Canvas, curiously wrought with her Ladyship's own Hand; several Filagrain Curiosities; a Cro­chet of 122 Diamonds, set strong and deep in Silver, with a Rump Jewel after the same Fa­shion; Bracelets of braided Hair, Pomander, and Seed-Pearl; a large old Purple Velvet Purse embroidered, and shutting with a Spring, con­taining Two Pictures in Miniature, the Features visible; a broad thick Gold Ring with a Hand in [Page 246] Hand graved upon it, and within this Posie, While Life does last, I'll hold thee fast; another set round with small Rubies and Sparks, Six want­ing; another of Turkey Stone cracked through the Middle; an Elizabeth and Four Jacobus's, one Guinea the first of the Coin, an Angel with a Hole bored through, a broken Half of a Spanish Piece of Gold, a Crown-Piece with the Breeches, an old Ninepence bent both Ways by Lilly the Almanack-maker for Luck at Langteraloo, and Twelve of the Shells called Black-moor's Teeth; one small Amber Box with Apoplectick Balsam, and one Silver gilt of a larger Size for Cashu and Carraway-Comfits, to be taken at long Ser­mons, the Lid enamelled, representing a Cupid fishing for Hearts, with a Piece of Gold on his Hook; over his Head this Rhime, Only with Gold you me shall hold. In the lower Drawer was a large new Gold Repeating Watch, made by a Frenchman; a Gold Chain, and all the proper Appurtenances hung upon Steel Swivels, to wit, Lockets with the Hair of dead and living Lovers, Seals with Arms, Emblems and Devices cut in Cornelian, Aggat, and Onyx, with Cupids, Hearts, Darts, Altars, Flames, Rocks, Pickaxes, Roses, Thorns, and Sun-Flowers; as also Va­riety of ingenious French Motto's; together with Gold Etuys for Quills, Scissars, Needles, Thim­bles, and a Spunge dipped in Hungary Water, left but the Night before by a young Lady going upon a Frolick Incog. There was also a Bundle of Letters, dated between the Years 1670 and 1682, most of them figned Philander, the rest Strephon, Amyntas, Corydon, and Adonis; to­gether with a Collection of Receipts to make Pastes for the Hands, Pomatums, Lip-Salves, White Pots, Beautifying Creams, Water of Talk, and Frog Spawn Water; Decoctions for clearing the Complexion, and an approved Medicine to procure Abortion.

[Page 247] Whoever can discover the aforesaid Goods, so that they may be had again, shall have Fifty Gui­nea's for the Whole, or proportionable for any Part. N. B. Her Ladyship is pleased to promise Ten Pounds for the Packet of Letters over and above, or Five for Philander's only, being her First Love. My Lady bestows those of Strephon to the Finder, being so written, that they may serve to any Woman who reads them.


As I am Patron of Persons who have no other Friend to apply to, I cannot suppress the follow­ing Complaint.


I Am a Black-moor Boy, and have, by my Lady's Order, been christened by the Chap­lain. The good Man has gone further with me, and told me a great deal of good News; as, that I am as good as my Lady herself as I am a Christian, and many other Things; But for all this, the Parrat who came over with me from our Country is as much esteemed by her as I am. Besides this, the Shock-Dog has a Collar that cost almost as much as mine. I de­sire also to know, whether now I am a Chri­stian, I am obliged to dress like a Turk, and wear a Turbant. I am,

Your most humble Servant, POMPEY.

The TATLER. [No 246.
From Thursday Nov. 2. to Saturday Nov. 4. 1710.

— Vitiis nemo sine nascitur, optimus ille
Qui minimis urgetur. —

WHen one considers the Turn which Con­versation takes in almost every Set of Ac­quaintance, Club or Assembly, in this Town or Kingdom, one cannot but observe, that in spight of what I am every Day saying, and all the Mo­ral Writers since the Beginning of the World have said, the Subject of Discourse is generally upon one another's Faults. This in a great Measure proceeds from Self-Conceit, which were to be endured in one or other individual Person; but the Folly has spread it self almost over all the Species; and one cannot only say, Tom, Jack, or Will, but in general, That Man is a Coxcomb. From this Source it is, that any Excellence is faintly received, any Imperfection unmercifully exposed. But if Things were put in a true Light, and we would take Time to consider that Man in his very Nature is an imperfect Being, our Sense of this Matter would be immediately altered, and the Word Imperfection would not carry an unhinder Idea than the Word Humanity. It is a pleasant Story, that we, forsooth, who are the only imperfect Creatures in the Universe, are the only Beings that will not allow of Imperfection. Some Body has taken Notice, that we stand in the Middle of Existencies, and are by this one Circumstance the most unhappy of all others. The Brutes are guided by Instinct, and know no [Page 249] Sorrow; the Angels have Knowledge, and they are happy; but Men are govern'd by Opinion, which is I know not what Mixture of Instinct and Knowledge, and are neither indolent nor happy. It is very observable, that Criticks are a People between the Learned and the Ignorant, and by that Situation enjoy the Tranquility of neither. As Criticks stand among Men, so do Men in ge­neral between Brutes and Angels. Thus every Man as he is a Critick and a Coxcomb, till im­proved by Reason and Speculation, is ever for­getting himself, and laying open the Faults of others.

At the same Time that I am talking of the Cruelty of urging People's Faults with Severity, I cannot but bewail some which Men are guilty of for want of Admonition. These are such as they can easily mend, and no Body tells them of; for which Reason I shall make Use of the Penny-Post, (as I have with Success to several young Ladies about turning their Eyes, and holding up their Heads) to certain Gentlemen whom I remark ha­bitually guilty of what they may reform in a Moment. There is a fat Fellow whom I have long remarked wearing his Breast open in the Midst of Winter, out of an Affectation of Youth. I have therefore sent him just now the following Letter in my Physical Capacity.


FRom the Twentieth Instant to the First of May next, both Days inclusive, I beg of you to button your Wastcoat from your Collar to your Wastband. I am

Your most humble-Servant, Isaac Bickerstaff, Philomath.

There is a very handsome well-shaped Youth that frequents the Coffee-houses about Charing-Cross, [Page 250] and ties a very pretty Riband with a Cross of Jewels at his Breast. This being something new, and a Thing in which the Gentleman may offend the Heralds-Office, I have addressed my self to him as I am Censor:

Dear Countryman,

WAS that Ensign of Honour, which you wear, given you by a Prince or a Lady that you have served? If you bear it as an absent Lover, please to hang it on a black Riband; if as a rewarded Soldier, you may have my Licence to continue the red.

Your Faithful Servant, Bickerstaff, Censor.

These little Intimations do great Service, and are very useful, not only to the Persons them­selves, but to inform others how to conduct them­selves towards them.

Instead of this honest private Method, or a Friendly one Face to Face, of acquainting People with Things in their Power to explain or amend, the usual Way among People is to take no No­tice of Things you can help, and nevertheless exposs you for those you cannot.

Plumbeus and Levis are constantly in each others Company: They would, if they took pro­per Methods, be very agreeable Companions; but they so extravagantly aim at what they are unfit for, and each of them rallies the other so much in the wrong Place, that instead of doing each other the Offices of Friends, they do but in­struct the rest of the World to laugh at them with more Knowledge and Skill. Plumbeus is o [...] a saturnine and sullen Complexion; Levis, of a mercurial and airy Disposition. Both these Gen­tlemen have but very slow Parts, but would mak [...] a very good Figure, did they pursue what they ought. If Plumbeus would take to Business, h [...] [Page 251] would in a fews Years know the Forms of Orders so well, as to direct and dictate with so much Ease, as to be thought a solid, able, and at the same Time, a sure Man of Dispatch. Levis, with a little Reading and coming more into Company, would soon be able to write a Song, or lead up a Country-Dance. Instead of these proper Pur­suits, in Obedience to their respective Genius's, Plumbeus endeavours to be the Man of Pleasure, and Levis the Man of Business. This appears in their Speech, and in their Dress: Plumbeus is ever egregiously fine, and talking something like Wit; Levis is ever extremely grave, and with a silly Face repeating Maxims. These Two pardon each other for affecting what each is incapable of, the one to be wise, and the other gay; but are ex­tremely critical in their Judgments of each other in their Way towards what they pretend to, Plumbeus acknowledges Levis a Man of a great Reach, because it is what Plumbeus never cared for being thought himself, and Levis allows Plumbeus to be an agreeable Rake for the same Reason. Now were these dear Friends to be free with each other as they ought to be, they would change Characters, and be both as commendable, instead of being as ridiculous, as their Capacities will admit of.

Were it not too grave, all that I would urge on this Subject is, that Men are bewildered when they consider themselves in any other View than that of Strangers, who are in a Place where it is no great Matter whether they can, or unreasona­ble to expect they should, have every Thing about them as well as at their own Home. This Way of Thinking is, perhaps, the only one that can put this Being into a proper Posture for the Ease of Society. It is certain, this would reduce all Faults into those which proceed from Malice or Dishonesty: It would quite change our Manner of beholding one another, and nothing that was [Page 252] not below a Man's Nature would be below his Character. The Arts of this Life would be pro­per Advances towards the next; and a very good Man would be a very fine Gentleman. As it now is, Humane Life is inverted, and we have not learned half the Knowledge of this World before we are dropping into another. Thus, instead of the Raptures and Contemplations which natural­ly attend a well-spent Life from the Approach of Eternity, even we old Fellows are afraid of the Ridicule of those who are born since us, and ashamed not to understand, as well as peevish to resign, the Mode, the Fashion, the Ladies, the Fiddles, the Balls, and what not. Dick Reptile, who does not want Humour, is very pleasant at our Club when he sees an old Fellow touchy at being laughed at for any Thing that is not in the Mode, and bawls in his Ear, Prithee don't mind him; tell him thou art mortal.

The TATLER. [No 247.
From Saturd. Nov. 4. to Tuesd. Nov. 7. 1710.

Aedepol, uae nos aeque sumus omnes invisae
Viris Propter paucas, quae omnes faciunt dignae ut videa­mur male.

MY Brother having written the above Piece of Latin, desired me to take Care of the rest of the ensuing Paper. Towards this he bid me answer the following Letter, and said, No­thing I could write properly on the Subject of it would be disagreeable to the Motto. It is the Cause of my Sex, and I therefore enter upon it [Page 253] with great Alacrity. The Epistle is literally thus:

Mr. Bickerstaff,

I Presume to lay before you an Affair of mine, and begs you'le be very sinceir in giving me your Judgment and Advice in this Matter, which is as followes:

A very agreeable young Gentleman, who is endowed with all the good Quallities that can make a Man compleat, has this long Time maid Love to me in the most passionat Manner that was posable. He has left nothing unsaid to make me belive his Affections real; and in his Letters expressed himself so hansomly, and so tenderly, that I had all the Reason imaginable to belive him sinceir. In short, he positively has promised me he would marry me: But I find all he said nothing; for when the Question was put to him, he wouldn't; but still would con­tinue my Humble Servant, and would go on at the ould Rate, repeating the Assurences of his Fidelity (and at the same Time has none in him). He now writs to me in the same endear­ing Style he ust to do, would have me spake to no Man but himself. His Estate is in his oune Hand, his Father being dead. My Fortune at my oune Disposal, (mine being also dead) and to the full answers his Estate. Pray, Sir, be in­geinous, and tell me cordially, if you don't think I shall do my self an Injurey if I keep Company or a Corospondance any longer with this Gentleman. I hope you'le faver an honest North Briton (as I am) with your Advice in this Amoure; for I am resolved just to folow your Directions. Sir, you'le do me a sensable Plea­sure, and very great Honour, if you'le pleas to insirt this poor Scrole, with your Answer to it, in your Tatler. Pray fail not to give [Page 254] me your Answer; for on it depends the Hap­piness of

Disconsolat Almeira.

I Have frequently read over your Letter, and am of Opinion, that as lamentable as it is, it is the most common of any Evil that attends our Sex. I am very much troubled for the Ten­derness you express towards your Lover, but rejoice at the same Time that you can so far surmount your Inclination for him as to resolve to dismiss him when you have my Brother's Opinion for it. His Sense of the Matter, he de­sired me to communicate to you. Oh Almei­ra! The common Failing of our Sex is to value the Merit of our Lovers rather from the Grace of their Address, than the Sincerity of their Hearts. He has expressed himself so handsomely! Can you say, that after you have Reason to doubt his Truth? It is a very melancholy Thing, that in this Circumstance of Love (which is the most important of all others in Female Life) we Women, who are, they say, always weak, are still weakest. The true Way of va­luing a Man, is to consider his Reputation among the Men: For Want of this necessary Rule towards her Conduct, when it is too late, we find our selves married to the Outcasts of that Sex; and it is generally from being dis­agreeable among Men, that Fellows endeavour to make themselves pleasing to us. The little Accomplishments of coming into a Room with a good Air, and telling while they are with us what we cannot hear among our selves, usually make up the whole of a Woman's Man's Merit. But if we, when we began to reflect upon our Lover, in the first Place considered what Figures they make in the Camp, at the Bar, on the 'Change, in their Country, or at Court, we should [Page 255] behold them in quite another View than at pre­sent.

Were we to behave our selves according to this Rule, we should not have the just Imputa­tion of favouring the silliest of Mortals, to the great Scandal of the wisest, who value our Fa­vour as it advances their Pleasure, not their Reputation. In a Word, Madam, if you would judge aright in Love, you must look upon it as in a Case of Friendship. Were this Gentleman treating with you for any Thing but your self, when you had consented to his Offer, if he fell off, you would call him a Cheat and an Impostor. There is therefore nothing left for you to do, but to despise him and your self for doing with Re­gret.

I am, MADAM, &c.

I have heard it often argued in Conversation, that this Evil Practice is owing to the perverted Tast of the Wits in the last Generation. A Li­bertine on the Throne could very easily make the Language and the Fashion turn his own Way. Hence it is, that Woman is treated as a Mistress, and not a Wife. It is from the Writings of those Times, and the traditional Accounts of the De­bauches of their Men of Pleasure, that the Cox­combs now-a-days take upon them, forsooth, to be false Swains and perjured Lovers. Methinks I feel all the Woman rise in me, when I reflect upon the nauseous Rogues that pretend to deceive us. Wretches, that can never have it in their Power to over-reach any Thing living but their Mistresses! In the Name of Goodness, if we are designed by Nature as suitable Companions to the other Sex, Why are we not treated accordingly? If we have Merit, as some allow, Why is it not as base in Men to injure us as one another? If we are the Insignificants that others call us, Where is [Page 256] the Triumph in deceiving us? But when I look at the Bottom of this Disaster, and recollect the many of my Acquaintance whom I have known in the same Condition with the Northern Lass that occasions this Discourse, I must own I have ever found the Perfidiousness of Men has been ge­nerally owing to ourselves, and we have contri­buted to our own Deceit. The Truth is, we do not conduct our selves as we are courted, but as we are inclined. When we let our Imaginations take this unbridled Swing, it is not he that acts best is most lovely, but he that is most lovely acts best. When our humble Servants make their Ad­dresses, we do not keep our selves enough disinga­ged to be Judges of their Merit; and we seldom give our Judgment of our Lover, till we have lost our Judgment of him.

While Clarinda was passionately attended and addressed to by Strephon, who is a Man of Sense and Knowledge in the World; and Cassio, who has a plentiful Fortune and an excellent Understand­ing, she fell in Love with Damon at a Ball: From that Moment she that was before the most rea­sonable Creature of all my Acquaintance, cannot hear Strephon speak, but it is something so out of the Way of Ladies Conversation: And Cassio has ne­ver since opened his Mouth before us, but she whispers me, How seldom do Riches and Sense go together? The Issue of all this is, that for the Love of Damon, who has neither Experience, Understanding, or Wealth, she despises those Ad­vantages in the other Two which she finds want­ing in her Lover; or else thinks he has them for no Reason but because he is her Lover. This and many other Instances may be given in this Town; but I hope thus much may suffice to prevent the Growth of such Evils at Edinburgh.

The TATLER. [No 248.
From Tuesday Nov. 7. to Thursday Nov. 9. 1710.

— Media sese tulit obvia Silva
Virginis Os Habitumque gerens. —

IT may perhaps appear ridiculous; but I must confess, this last Summer as I was riding in Enfield Chase, I met a young Lady whom I could hardly get out of my Head, and for ought I know my Heart, ever since. She was mounted on a Pad, with a very well-fancied Furniture. She sate her Horse with a very graceful Air; and when I saluted her with my Hat, she bowed to me so obligingly, that whether it was her Civility or Beauty that touched me so much, I know not, but I am sure I shall never forget her. She dwells in my Imagination in a Figure so much to her Advantage, that if I were to draw a Picture of Youth, Health, Beauty, or Modesty, I should re­present any or all of them in the Person of that young Woman.

I do not find that there are any Descriptions in the ancient Poets so beautiful as those they draw of Nymphs in their Pastoral Dresses and Exercises. Virgil gives Venus the Habit of a Spartan Hun­tress when she is to put Aeneas in his Way, and relieve his Cares with the most agreeable Object imaginable. Diana and her Train are always described as Inhabitants of the Woods, and Fol­lowers of the Chase. To be well diverted, is the safest Guard to Innocence; and, methinks, it [Page 258] should be one of the first Things to be regarded among People of Condition to find out proper Amusements for young Ladies. I cannot but think this of Riding might easily be revived a­mong them, when they consider how much it must contribute to their Beauty. This would lay up the best Portion they could bring into a Fami­ly, a good Stock of Health, to transmit to their Posterity. Such a charming Bloom as this gives the Countenance, is very much preferable to the real or affected Feebleness or Softness, which ap­pear in the Faces of our modern Beauties.

The Comedy, called, The Ladies Cure, repre­sents the Affectation of wan Looks and languid Glances to a very entertaining Extravagance. There is, as the Lady in the Play complains, something so robust in perfect Health, that it is with her a Point of Breeding and Delicacy to ap­pear in publick with a sickly Air. But the natu­ral Gaiety and Spirit which shine in the Com­plexion of such as form to themselves a Sort of diverting Industry by chusing Recreations that are Exercises, surpass all the false Ornaments and Graces that can be put on by applying the whole Dispensary of a Toilet. An healthy Body and a chearful Mind give Charms as irresistible as ini­mitable. The Beauteous Dictynna, who came to Town last Week, has from the constant Prospect in a delicious Country, and the moderate Exer­cise and Journeys in the Visits she made round it, contracted a certain Life in her Countenance which will in vain employ both the Painters and Poets to represent. The becoming Negligence in her Dress, the severe Sweetness of her Looks, and a certain innocent Boldness in all her Behaviour, are the Effect of the active Recreations I am talk­ing of.

But instead of such or any other as innocent and pleasing Method of passing away their Time with Alacrity, we have many in Town who [Page 259] spend their Hours in an indolent State of Body and Mind, without either Recreations or Re­flections. I am apt to believe, there are some Pa­rents imagine their Daughters will be accomplish­ed enough, if nothing interrupts their Growth or their Shape. According to this Method of Education, I could name you Twenty Families, where all the Girls hear of in this Life is, That it is Time to rise and to come to Dinner; as if they were so insignificant as to be wholly pro­vided for when they are fed and cloathed.

It is with great Indignation that I see such Crowds of the Female World lost to humane So­ciety, and condemned to a Laziness, which makes Life pass away with less Relish than in the hard­est Labour. Palestris in her Drawing-Room, is supported by Spirits to keep off the Returns of Spleen and Melancholy, before she can get over half the Day for want of something to do, while the Wench in the Kitchen sings and scowrs from Morning to Night.

The next disagreeable Thing to a lazy Lady, is a very busy one. A Man of Business in good Company, who gives an Account of his Abilities and Dispatches, is hardly more insupportable than her they call a Notable Woman, and a Ma­nager. Lady Goodday, where I visited the other Day at a very polite Circle, entertained a great Lady with a Recipe for a Poultice, and gave us to understand, that she had done extraordinary Cures since she was last in Town. It seems a Countryman had wounded himself with his Sithe as he was Mowing; and we were obliged to hear of her Charity, her Medicine, and her Humility, in the harshest Tone, and coursest Language ima­ginable.

What I would request in all this Prattle is, that our Females would either let us have their Per­sons or their Minds in such Perfection as Nature designed them.

[Page 260] The Way to this is, that those who are in the Quality of Gentlewomen should propose to them­selves some suitable Method of passing away their Time. This would furnish them with Reflections and Sentiments proper for the Companions of reasonable Men, and prevent the unnatural Mar­riages which happen every Day between the most accomplished Women, and the veriest Oafs; the worthiest Men, and the most insignificant Females. Were the general Turn of Womens Education of another Kind than it is at present, we should want one another for more Reasons than we do as the World now goes. The common Design of Pa­rents is to get their Girls off as well as they can, and make no Conscience of putting into our Hands a Bargain for our whole Life, which will make our Hearts ake every Day of it.

I shall therefore take this Matter into serious Consideration, and will propose, for the better Improvement of the Fair Sex, a Female Library. This Collection of Books shall consist of such Authors as do not corrupt while they divert, but shall tend more immediately to improve them, as they are Women. They shall be such as shall not hurt a Feature by the Austerity of their Reflections, nor cause one impertinent Glance by the Wanton­ness of them. They shall all tend to advance the Value of their Innocence as Virgins, improve their Understanding as Wives, and regulate their Ten­derness as Parents. It has been very often said in these Lucubrations, that the Ideas which most frequently pass through our Imaginations, leave Traces of themselves in our Countenances. There shall be a strict Regard had to this in my Female Library, which shall be furnished with nothing that shall give Supplies to Ostentation or Imper­tinence, but the whole shall be so digested for the Use of my Students, that they shall not go out of Character in their Enquiries, but their Knowledge appear only a cultivated Innocence.

The TATLER. [No 249.
From Thursday Nov. 9. to Saturday Nov. 11. 1710.

Per varios Casus, per tot Discrimina Rerum,
Tendimus. —

I Was last Night visited by a Friend of mine who has an inexhaustible Fund of Discourse, and never fails to entertain his Company with a Variety of Thoughts and Hints that are altogether new and uncommon. Whether it were in Com­plaisance to my Way of Living, or his real Opi­nion, he advanced the following Paradox, That it required much greater Talents to fill up and become a retired Life, than a Life of Business. Upon this Occasion he rallied very agreeably the busie Men of the Age, who only valued them­selves of being in Motion, and passing through a Series of trifling and insignificant Actions. In the Heat of his Discourse, seeing a Piece of Money lying on my Table, I defie (says he) any of these active Persons to produce half the Adventures that this Twelvepenny-Piece has been engaged in, were it possible for him to give us an Account of his Life.

My Friend's Talk made so odd an Impression upon my Mind, that soon after I was a-Bed I fell insensibly into a most unaccountable Resverie, that had neither Moral nor Design in it, and can­not be so properly called a Dream as a Delirium.

Methoughts the Shilling that lay upon the Ta­ble reared it self upon its Edge, and turning the Face towards me, opened its Mouth, and in a soft [Page 262] Silver Sound gave me the following Account of his Life and Adventures:

I was born, says he, on the Side of a Mountain, near a little Village of Peru, and made a Voyage to England in an Ingot, under the Convoy of Sir Francis Drake. I was, soon after my Arri­val, taken out of my Indian Habit, refined, na­turalized, and put into the British Mode, with the Face of Queen Elizabeth on one Side, and the Arms of the Country on the other. Being thus equipped, I found in me a wonderful Inclination to ramble, and visit all the Parts of the new World into which I was brought. The People very much favoured my natural Disposition, and shifted me so fast from Hand to Hand, that before I was Five Years old, I had travelled into almost every Corner of the Nation. But in the Begin­ning of my Sixth Year, to my unspeakable Grief, I fell into the Hands of a miserable old Fellow, who clapped me into an Iron Chest, where I found Five Hundred more of my own Quality who lay under the same Confinement. The only Relief we had, was to be taken out and counted over in the fresh Air every Morning and Evening. After an Imprisonment of several Years, we heard some Body knocking at our Chest, and breaking it open with an Hammer. This we found was the old Man's Heir, who, as his Father lay a dy­ing, was so good as to come to our Release: He separated us that very Day. What was the Fate of my Companions, I know not: As for my self, I was sent to the Apothecary's Shop for a Pint of Sack. The Apothecary gave me to an Herb-Wo­man, the Herb-Woman to a Butcher, the Butcher to a Brewer, and the Brewer to his Wife, who made a Present of me to a Nonconformist Prea­cher. After this Manner I made my Way merri­ly through the World; for, as I told you before, we Shillings love nothing so much as travelling. I sometimes fetched in a Shoulder of Mutton [Page 263] sometimes a Play-Book, and often had the Satis­faction to treat a Templer at a Twelvepenny Or­dinary, or carry him with Three Friends to West­minster-Hall.

In the Midst of this pleasant Progress which I made from Place to Place, I was arrested by a su­perstitious old Woman, who shut me up in a greazy Purse, in Pursuance of a foolish Saying, That while she kept a Queen Elizabeth's Shilling about her, she should never be without Money. I continued here a close Prisoner for many Months, till at last I was exchanged for Eight and Forty Farthings.

I thus rambled from Pocket to Pocket till the Beginning of the Civil Wars, when (to my Shame be it spoken) I was employed in raising Soldiers against the King: For being of a very tempting Breadth, a Serjeant made Use of me to inveigle Country Fellows, and list them in the Service of the Parliament.

As soon as he had made one Man sure, his Way was to oblige him to take a Shilling of a more homely Figure, and then practise the same Trick upon another. Thus I continued doing great Mischief to the Crown, till my Officer chancing one Morning to walk Abroad earlier than ordina­ry, sacrificed me to his Pleasures, and made Use of me to seduce a Milk-Maid. This Wench bent me, and gave me to her Sweetheart, applying more properly than she intended the usual Form of, To my Love and from my Love. This unge­nerous Gallant marrying her within few Days after, pawned me for a Dram of Brandy, and drinking me out next Day, I was beaten flat with an Hammer, and again set a running.

After many Adventures, which it would be te­dious to relate, I was sent to a young Spendthrift, in Company with the Will of his deceased Fa­ther. The young Fellow, who I found was very extravagant, gave great Demonstrations of Joy at [Page 264] the Receiving the Will; but opening it, he found himself disinherited and cut off from the Posses­sion of a fair Estate, by Vertue of my being made a Present to him. This put him into such a Pas­sion, that after having taken me in his Hand, and cursed me, he squirred me away from him as far as he could fling me. I chanced to light in an unfrequented Place under a dead Wall, where I lay undiscovered and useless, during the Usurpa­tion of Oliver Cromwell.

About a Year after the King's Return, a poor Cavalier that was walking there about Dinner­time fortunately cast his Eye upon me, and, to the great Joy of us both, carried me to a Cook's-Shop, where he dined upon me, and drank the King's Health. When I came again into the World, I found that I had been happier in my Retirement than I thought, having probably by that Means escaped wearing a monstrous Pair of Breeches.

Being now of great Credit and Antiquity, I was rather looked upon as a Medal than an ordi­nary Coin; for which Reason a Gamester laid hold of me, and converted me into a Counter, ha­ving got together some Dozens of us for that Use. We led a melancholy Life in his Possession, being busy at those Hours wherein Current Coin is at rest, and partaking the Fate of our Master, being in a few Moments valued at a Crown, a Pound, or a Sixpence, according to the Situation in which the Fortune of the Cards placed us. I had at length the good Luck to see my Master break, by which Means I was again sent Abroad under my primitive Denomination of a Shil­ling.

I shall pass over many other Accidents of less Moment, and hasten to that fatal Catastrophe when I fell into the Hands of an Artist who con­veyed me under Ground, and with an unmerciful Pair of Sheers cut off my Titles, clipped my [Page 265] Brims, retrenched my Shape, rubbed me to my inmost Ring, and, in short, so spoiled and pillaged me, that he did not leave me worth a Groat. You may think what a Confusion I was in to see my self thus curtailed and disfigured. I should have been ashamed to have shown my Head, had not all my old Acquaintance been reduced to the same shameful Figure, excepting some few that were punched through the Belly. In the midst of this general Calamity, when every Body thought our Misfortune irretrievable, and our Case desperate, we were thrown into the Furnace together, and (as it often happens with Cities ri­sing out of a Fire) appeared with greater Beauty and Lustre than we could ever boast of before. What has happened to me since this Change of Sex which you now see, I shall take some other Opportunity to relate. In the mean Time I shall only repeat Two Adventures, as being very ex­traordinary, and neither of them having ever happened to me above once in my Life. The First was, my being in a Poet's Pocket, who was so taken with the Brightness and Novelty of my Appearance, that it gave Occasion to the finest Burlesque Poem in the British Language, entitu­ed from me, The Splendid Shilling. The Second Adventure, which I must not omit, happened to me in the Year 1703, when I was given away in Charity to a blind Man; but indeed this was by [...] Mistake, the Person who gave me having heed­ [...]esly thrown me into the Hat among a Penny­ [...]orth of Farthings.

The TATLER. [No 250.
From Saturd. Nov. 11. to Tuesd. Nov. 14. 1710.

Scis etenim Justum gemina suspendere Lance
Ancipitis Librae. —

I Last Winter erected a Court of Justice for the correcting of several Enormities in Dress and Behaviour, which are not cognizable in any other Courts of this Realm. The Vintner's Case which I there tryed is still fresh in every Man's Memo­ry. That of the Petticoat gave also a general Satisfaction, not to mention the more important Points of the Cane and Perspective; in which, if I did not give Judgments and Decrees according to the strictest Rules of Equity and Justice, I can safely say, I acted according to the best of my Understanding. But as for the Proceedings of that Court, I shall refer my Reader to an Ac­count of them, written by my Secretary, which is now in the Press, and will shortly be published under the Title of Lillie's Reports.

As I last Year presided over a Court of Justice, it is my intention this Year to set my self at the Head of a Court of Honour. There is no Court o [...] this Nature any where at present, except in France, where, according to the best of my in­telligence, it consists of such only as are Marshals of that Kingdom. I am likewise informed, that there is not one of that honourable Board at pre­sent who has not been driven out of the Field by the Duke of Marlborough: But whether this be only an accidental or a necessary Qualification, I must confess I am not able to determine.

[Page 267] As for the Court of Honour of which I am here speaking, I intend to sit my self in it as Pre­sident, with several Men of Honour on my Right Hand, and Women of Virtue on my Left, as my Assistants. The First Place of the Bench I have given to an old Tangereen Captain with a Wooden Leg. The Second is a Gentleman of a long twisted Periwig without a Curl in it, a Muff with very little Hair upon it, and a Thread-bare Coat with new Buttons, being a Person of great Worth, and Second Brother to a Man of Quali­ty. The Third is a Gentleman-Usher, extreamly well read in Romances, and Grandson to one of the greatest Wits in Germany, who was some Time Master of the Ceremonies to the Duke of Wolfembuttel.

As for those who sit further on my Right Hand, as it is usual in publick Courts, they are such as will fill up the Number of Faces up­on the Bench, and serve rather for Ornament than Use.

The chief upon my Left Hand are, an old Mai­den Lady, that preserves some of the best Blood of England in her Veins.

A Welsh Woman of a little Stature, but high Spirit.

An old Prude that has censured every Marriage for these Thirty Years, and is lately wedded to a young Rake.

Having thus furnished my Bench, I shall esta­blish Correspondencies with the Horse-Guards, and the Veterans of Chelsea College; the former to furnish me with Twelve Men of Honour as often as I shall have Occasion for a Grand Jury, and the latter with as many good Men and true for a Petty Jury.

As for the Women of Virtue, it will not be difficult for me to find them about Midnight at Crimp and Basset.

[Page 268] Having given this publick Notice of my Court, I must further add, that I intend to open it on this Day Sevennight, being Monday the Twen­tieth Instant; and do hereby invite all such as have suffered Injuries and Astronts, that are not to be redressed by the common Laws of this Land, whether they be short Bows, cold Saluta­tions, supercilious Looks, unreturned Smiles, di­stant Behaviour, or forced Familiarity; as also all such as have been aggrieved by any ambiguous Expression, accidental Justle, or unkind Repartee; likewise all such as have been defrauded of their Right to the Wall, tricked out of the upper End of the Table, or have been suffered to place them­selves in their own Wrong on the Back-Seat of the Coach: These, and all of these, I do, as I above said, invite to bring in their several Cases and Complaints, in which they shall be relieved with all imaginable Expedition.

I am very sensible, that the Office I have now taken upon me will engage me in the Disquisi­tion of many weighty Points that daily perplex the Youth of the British Nation, and therefore I have already discussed several of them for my fu­ture Use; as, How far a Man may brandish his Cane in the telling a Story, without insulting his Hearer? What Degree of Contradiction amounts to the Lye? How a Man should resent another's staring and cocking a Hat in his Face? If asking Pardon is an Attonement for treading upon ones Toes? Whether a Man may put up a Box on the Ear received from a Stranger in the Dark? Or, Whether a Man of Honour may take a Blow of his Wife? With several other Subtilties of the like Nature.

For my Direction in the Duties of my Office, I have furnished my self with a certain Astrologi­cal Pair of Scales which I have contrived for this Purpose. In one of them I lay the Injuries, in the other the Reparations. The first are repre­sented [Page 269] by little Weights made of a Metal resem­bling Iron, and the other in Gold. These are not only lighter than the Weights made use of in Averdupois, but also than such as are used in Troy-Weight. The heaviest of those that repre­sent the Injuries amount but to a Scruple; and decrease by so many Sub-divisions, that there are several imperceptible Weights which cannot be seen without the Help of a very fine Microscope. I might acquaint my Reader, that these Scales were made under the Influence of the Sun when he was in Libra, and describe many Signatures on the Weights both of Injury and Reparation: But as this would look rather to proceed from an Ostentation of my own Art than any Care for the Publick, I shall pass it over in Silence.

The Letter of the 7th Instant, enquired for by another of the 11th, came to Hand.

The TATLER. [No 251.
From Tuesd. Nov. 14. to Thursd. Nov. 16. 1710.

Quisnam igitur Liber? Sapiens. sibi qui Imperiosus,
Quem neque Pauperies, neque Mors, neque Vincula, terrent:
Responsare Cupidinibus, contemnere Honores,
Fortis, & in seipso totus teres atque rotundus,
Externi nequid valeat per laeve morari;
In quem manca ruit semper Fortuna. —

IT is necessary to an easy and happy Life, to possess our Minds in such a Manner as to be always well satisfied with our own Reflections. [Page 270] The Way to this State, is to measure our Actions by our own Opinion, and not by that of the rest of the World. The Sense of other Men ought to prevail over us in Things of less Consideration, but not in Concerns where Truth and Honour are engaged. When we look into the Bottom of Things, what at first appears a Paradox, is a plain Truth; and those Professions which, for Want of being duly weighed, seem to proceed from a Sort of Romantick Philosophy, and Ignorance of the World, after a little Reflection are so reasonable, that it is direct Madness to walk by any other Rules. Thus to contradict our Desires, and to conquer the Impulses of our Ambition, if they do not fall in with what we in our inward Senti­ments approve, is so much our Interest, and so absolutely necessary to our real Happiness, that to contemn all the Wealth and Power in the World, where they stand in Competition with a Man's Honour, is rather good Sense than Greatness of Mind.

Did we consider that the Mind of a Man is the Man himself, we should think it the most unna­tural Sort of Self-Murther to sacrifice the Senti­ment of the Soul to gratify the Appetites of the Body. Bless us! Is it possible, that when the Necessities of Life are supplied, a Man would flatter to be rich, or circumvent to be powerful? When we meet a poor Wretch urged with Hun­ger and Cold asking an Alms, we are apt to think this a State we could rather starve than submit to: But yet how much more despicable is his Condition who is above Necessity, and yet shall resign his Reason and his Integrity to purchase Superfluities? These are both abject and common Beggars; but sure it is less despicable to beg a Supply to a Man's Hunger than his Vanity. But Custom and general Prepossessions have so far prevailed over an unthinking World, that those necessitous Creatures who cannot relish Life [Page 271] without Applause, Attendance, and Equipage, are so far from making a contemptible Figure, that distressed Virtue is less esteemed than suc­cessful Vice. But if a Man's Appeal in Cases that regarded his Honour were made to his own Soul, there would be a Bafis and standing Rule for our Conduct, and we should always endeavour ra­ther to be than appear honourable. Mr. Collier, in his Essay on Fortitude, has treated this Subject with great Wit and Magnanimity. What (says he) can be more honourable than to have Courage enough to execute the Commands of Reason and Con­science; to maintain the Dignity of our Nature, and the Station assigned us? To be Proof against Poverty, Pain, and Death it self? I mean so far as not to do any Thing that's scandalous or sinful to avoid them? To stand Adversity under all Shapes with Decency and Resolution? To do this, is to be great above Title and Fortune. This argues the Soul of an Heavenly Extraction, and is worthy the Offspring of the Deity.

What a generous Ambition has this Man point­ed to us? When Men have settled in themselves a Conviction by such noble Precepts, that there is nothing honourable that is not accompanied with Innocence; nothing mean but what has Guilt in it; I say, when they have attained thus much, though Poverty, Pain, and Death, may still retain their Terrors, yet Riches, Pleasures, and Honours, will easily lose their Charms, if they stand between us and our Integrity.

What is here said with Allusion to Fortune and Fame, may as justly be applied to Wit and Beau­ty; for these latter are as adventitious as the o­ther, and as little concern the Essence of the Soul. They are all laudable in the Man who pos­sesses them only for the just Application of them. A bright Imagination, while it is subservient to an honest and noble Soul, is a Faculty which makes a Man justly admired by Mankind, and [Page 272] furnishes him with Reflections upon his own Actions, which add Delicates to the Feast of a good Conscience: But when Wit descends to wait upon sensual Pleasures, or promote the base Purposes of Ambition, it is then to be contemned in Proportion to its Excellence. If a Man will not resolve to place the Foundation of his Happi­ness in his own Mind, Life is a bewildered and unhappy State, incapable of Rest or Tranquillity: For to such a one the general Applause of Valour, Wit, nay of Honesty it self, can give him but a very feeble Comfort, since it is capable of being interrupted by any one who wants either Under­standing or Good-nature to see or acknowledge such Excellencies. This Rule is so necessary, that one may very safely say, it is impossible to know any true Relish of our Being without it. Look about you in common Life among the ordinary Race of Mankind, and you will find Merit in every Kind is allowed only to those who are in particular Districts or Sets of Company: But since Men can have little Pleasure in these Facul­ties which denominate them Persons of Distin­ction, let them give up such an empty Pursuit, and think nothing essential to Happiness but what is in their own Power, the Capacity of reflecting with Pleasure on their own Actions, however they are interpreted.

It is so evident a Truth, that it is only in our own Bosoms we are to search for any Thing to make us happy, that it is, methinks, a Dis­grace to our Nature to talk of the taking our Measures from thence only as a Matter of For­titude. When all is well there, the Vicissitudes and Distinctions of Life are the meer Scenes of a Drama, and he will never act his Part well who has his Thoughts more fixed upon the Applause of the Audience than the Design of his Part.

[Page 273] The Life of a Man who acts with a steady Inte­grity, without valuing the Interpretation of his Actions, has but one uniform regular Path to move in, where he cannot meet Opposition, or fear Am­buscade. On the other Side, the least Deviation from the Rules of Honour introduces a Train of numberless Evils, and involves him in inexplica­ble Mazes. He that has entred into Guilt has bid Adieu to Rest, and every Criminal has his Share of the Misery expressed so emphatically in the Tra­gedian;

Mackbeth shall sleep no more!

It was with Detestation of any other Grandeur but the calm Command of his own Passion, that the excellent Mr. Cowley cries out with so much Justice;

If e're Ambition did my Fancy cheat,
With any Thought so mean as to be great,
Continue, Heav'n, still from me to remove
The humble Blessings of that Life I love.

The TATLER. [No 252.
From Thursd. Nov. 16. to Saturd. Nov. 18. 1710.

Narratur & prisci Catonis
Saepe Mero caluisse Virtus.

THE following Letter, and several others to the same Purpose, accuse me of a Rigour of which I am far from being guilty, to wit, the disallowing the chearful Use of Wine.

Mr. Bickerstaff,

YOur Discourse against Drinking, in Tuesday's Tatler, I like well enough in the main; but in my humble Opinion, you are become too ri­gid where you say to this Effect: [Were there only this single Consideration, that we are the less Masters of our selves if we drink the least Proportion beyond the Exigence of Thirst.] I hope no one drinks Wine to allay this Appetite. This seems to be designed for a loftier Indulgence of Nature; for it were hard to suppose, that the Author of Nature, who imposed upon her her Necessities and Pains, does not allow her her Pleasures, and we may reckon among the latter the moderate Use of the Grape: And though I am as much against Excess, or whatever ap­proaches it, as your self, yet I conceive one may safely go farther than the Bounds you there pre­scribe, not only without forfeiting the Title of being one's own Master, but also to possess it in a much greater Degree. If a Man's expressing himself upon any Subject with more Life and Vivacity, more Variety of Idea's, more copious­ly, more fluently, and more to the Purpose, ar­gues it he thinks clearer, speaks more ready, and with greater Choice of comprehensive and significant Terms. I have the good Fortune now to be intimate with a Gentleman remark­able for this Temper, who has an inexhaustible Source of Wit to entertain the Curious, the Grave, the Humorous, and the Frolick. He can transform himself into different Shapes, and a­dapt himself to every Company; yet in a Cof­fee-house, or in the ordinary Course of Affairs, appears rather dull than sprightly. You can seldom get him to the Tavern, but when once he is is arrived to his Pint, and begins to look a­bout and like his Company, you admire a Thou­sand [Page 275] Things in him, which before lay buried. Then you discover the Brightness of his Mind, and the Strength of his Judgment, accompanied with the most graceful Mirth. In a Word, by this enlivening Aid, he is whatever is polite, instructive, and diverting. What makes him still more agreeable is, that he tells a Story, serious or comical, with as much Delicacy of Humour as Cervantes himself. And for all this, at other Times, even after a long Knowledge of him, you shall scarce discern in this incomparable Person a whit more than what might be ex­pected from one of a common Capacity. Doubt­less, there are Men of great Parts that are guilty of downright Bashfulness, that by a strange He­sitation and Reluctance to speak, murder the fi­nest and most elegant Thoughts, and render the most lively Conceptions flat and heavy.

In this Case, a certain Quantity of my White or Red Cordial, which you will, is an easie, but an infallible Remedy. It awakens the Judgment, quickens Memory, ripens Understanding, dis­perses Melancholy, chears the Heart; in a Word, restores the whole Man to himself and his Friends without the least Pain or Indisposi­tion to the Patient. To be taken only in the Evening in a reasonable Quantity before going to Bed. Note, My Bottles are sealed with Three Flower-de-Luces and a Bunch of Grapes. Be­ware of Counterfeits. I am

Your most Humble Servant, &c.

Whatever has been said against the Use of Wine, upon the Supposition that it enfeebles the Mind, and renders it unfit for the Duties of Life, bears forcibly to the Advantage of that delicious Juice, in Cases where it only heightens Conversation, and brings to Light agreeable Talents, which otherwise would have lain concealed under the [Page 276] Oppression of an unjust Modesty. I must acknow­ledge I have seen many of the Temper mentioned by this Correspondent, and own, Wine may very allowably be used in a Degree above the Supply of meer Necessity by such as labour under Melan­choly, or are Tongue-ty'd by Modesty. It is cer­tainly a very agreeable Change, when we see a Glass raise a lifeless Conversation into all the Pleasures of Wit and good Humour. But when Caska adds to his natural Impudence the Fluster of a Bottle, that which Fools called Fire when he was sober, all Men abhor as Outrage when he is drunk. Thus he that in the Morning was only saucy, is in the Evening tumultuous. It makes one sick to hear one of these Fellows say, They love a Friend and a Bottle. Noisy Mirth has something too rustick in it to be considered with­out Terror by Men of Politeness: But while the Discourse improves in a well chosen Company, from the Addition of Spirits which flow from moderate Cups, it must be acknowledged, that Leisure Time cannot be more agreeably, or per­haps more usefully employed than at such Meet­ings: But there is a certain Prudence in this and all other Circumstances which makes Right or Wrong in the Conduct of ordinary Life. Sir Jeof­frey Wildacre has nothing so much at Heart as that his Son should know the World betimes: For this End he introduces him among the Sots of his own Age, where the Boy learns to laugh at his Father from the Familiarity with which he sees him treated by his Equals. This the old Fellow calls Living well with his Heir, and teaching him to be too much his Friend to be impatient for his Estate. But for the more exact Regulation of Society in this and other Matters, I shall publish Tables of the Characters and Relations among Men, and by them instruct the Town in making Sets and Companies for a Bottle. This Humour [Page 277] of Sir Jeoffrey shall be taken Notice of in the first Place; for there is, methinks, a Sort of Incest in Drunkenness, and Sons are not to behold Fathers stripped of all Reverence.

It is shocking in Nature for the Young, to see those whom they should have an Awe for in Cir­cumstances of Contempt. I shall therefore utter­ly forbid, that those in whom Nature should ad­monish to avoid too gross Familiarities, shall be received in Parties of Pleasure where there is the least Danger of Excess. I should run through the whole Doctrine of Drinking, but that my Thoughts are at present too much employed in the Model­ling my Court of Honour; and altering the Seats, Benches, Bar, and Canopy from that of the Court wherein I last Winter sate upon Causes of less Mo­ment. By the Way I shall take an Opportunity to examine, what Method is to be taken to make Joiners and other Artificers get out of a House they have once entered, not forgetting to tie them under proper Regulations. It is for Want of such Rules, that I have a Day or two longer than I expected been tormented and deafened with Ham­mers, insomuch that I neither can pursue this Discourse, or answer the following and many other Letters of the highest Importance.

Mr. Bickerstaff,

WE are Man and Wife, and have a Boy and a Girl: The Lad Seventeen, the Maiden Sixteen. We are quarrelling about some Parts of their Education. I Ralph cannot bear that I must pay for the Girl's Learning on the Spin­net, when I know she has no Ear. I Bridget have not Patience to have my Son whipped be­cause he cannot make Verses, when I know he is a Blockhead. Pray, Sir, inform us, Is it ab­solutely necessary that all who wear Breeches must be taught to Rhime, all in Petticoats to touch an Instrument? Please to interpose in this [Page 278] and the like Cases, to end much solid Distress which arises from trifling Causes, as it is com­mon in Wedlock, and you will very much oblige us and ours.

  • Ralph
  • Bridget

The TATLER. [No 253.
From Saturd. Nov. 18. to Tuesd. Nov. 21. 1710.

Pietate gravem ac Meritis si forte Virum quem
Conspexere, silent, arrectis (que) Auribus astant.

Extract of the Journal of the Court of Honour, 1710.

‘Die Lunae vicesimo Novembris, Hora nona Ante­meridiana.’

THE Court being sat, an Oath prepared by the Censor was administred to the Assistants on his Right Hand, who were all sworn upon their Honour. The Women on his Left Hand took the same Oath upon their Reputation. Twelve Gentlemen of the Horse-Guards were im­pannelled, having unanimously chosen Mr. Alexan­der Truncheon, who is their Right-Hand Man in the Troop, for their Foreman in the Jury. Mr. Truncheon immediately drew his Sword, and holding it with the Point towards his own Body, presented it to the Censor. Mr. Bickerstaff recei­ved it, and after having surveyed the Breadth of the Blade, and Sharpness of the Point, with more [Page 279] than ordinary Attention, returned it to the Fore­man in a very graceful Manner. The rest of the Jury, upon the Delivery of the Sword to their Foreman, drew all of them together as one Man, and saluted the Bench with such an Air, as signi­fied the most resigned Submission to those who commanded them, and the greatest Magnanimity to execute what they should command.

Mr. Bickerstaff, after having received the Com­pliments on his Right Hand, cast his Eye upon the Left, where the whole Female Jury paid their Respects by a low Courtesie, and by laying their Hands upon their Mouths. Their Forewoman was a professed Platonist, that had spent much of her Time in exhorting the Sex to set a just Value upon their Persons, and to make the Men know them­selves.

There followed a profound Silence, when at length, after some Recollection, the Censor, who continued hitherto uncovered, put on his Hat with great Dignity; and after having composed the Brims of it in a Manner suitable to the Gravi­ty of his Character, he gave the following Charge, which was received with Silence and Attention, that being the only Applause which he admits of, or is ever given in his Presence.

The Nature of my Office, and the Solemnity of this Occasion, requiring that I should open my First Session with a Speech, I shall cast what I have to say under Two principal Heads.

Under the First, I shall endeavour to show the Necessity and Usefulness of this new-erected Court; and under the Second, I shall give a Word of Advice and Instruction to every constituent Part of it.

As for the First, it is well observed by Phaedrus an Heathen Poet,

[Page 280]
Nisi utile est quod facimus, frustra est Gloria.

Which is the same, Ladies, as if I should say, It would be of no Reputation for me to be President of a Court which is of no Benefit to the Publick. Now the Advantages that may arise to the Weal-Publick from this Institution will more plainly appear, if we consider what it suffers for the Want of it. Are not our Streets daily filled with wild Pieces of Justice and random Penalties? Are not Crimes undetermined, and Reparations disproportioned? How often have we seen the Lye punished by Death, and the Lyar himself deciding his own Cause? nay, not only acting the Judge, but the Excutioner? Have we not known a Box on the Ear more se­verely accounted for than Manslaughter? In these Extrajudicial Proceedings of Mankind, an unmannerly Jest is frequently as Capital as a premeditated Murder.

But the most pernicious Circumstance in this Case is, that the Man who suffers the Injury must put himself upon the same Foot of Danger with him that gave it, before he can have his just Revenge; so that the Punishment is altoge­ther accidental, and may fall as well upon the Innocent as the Guilty.

I shall only mention a Case which happens frequently among the more polite Nations of the World, and which I the rather mention, be­cause both Sexes are concerned in it, and which therefore you Gentlemen and you Ladies of the Jury will the rather take Notice of; I mean that great and known Case of Cuckoldom. Supposing the Person who has suffered Insults in his dearer and better-Half; supposing, I say, this Person should resent the Injuries done to his tender Wife, What is the Reparation he may expect? Why, to be used worse than his poor Lady, run through the Body, and left [Page 281] Breathless upon the Bed of Honour. What then will you on my Right Hand say must the Man do that is affronted? Must our Sides be elbow­ed, our Shins broken? Must the Wall, or per­haps our Mistress, be taken from us? May a Man knit his Forhead into a Frown, toss up his Arm, on pish at what we say, and must the Villain live after it? Is there no Redress for injured Honour? Yes, Gentlemen, that is the Design of the Judicature we have here esta­blished.

A Court of Conscience, we very well know, was first instituted for the determining of se­veral Points of Property that were too little and trivial for the Cognizance of higher Courts of Justice. In the same Manner, our Court of Ho­nour is appointed for the Examination of seve­ral Niceties and Punctilio's that do not pass for Wrongs in the Eye of our common Laws. But notwithstanding no Legislators of any Nation have taken into Consideration these little Cir­cumstances, they are such as often lead to Crimes big enough for their Inspection, though they come before them too late for their Re­dress.

Besides, I appeal to you, Ladies, [Here Mr. Bick­erstaff turned to his Left Hand] if these are not the little Stings and Thorns in Life that make it more uneasy than its most substantial Evils? Confess ingenuously, Did you never lose a Morn­ning's Devotions because you could not offer them up from the highest Place of the Pew? Have you not been in Pain, even at a Ball, because ano­ther has been taken out to dance before you? Do you love any of your Friends so much as those that are below you? Or have you any Favourites that walk on your Right Hand? You have answered me in your Looks, I ask no more.

[Page 282] I come now to the Second Part of my Dis­course, which obliges me to address my self in particular to the respective Members of the Court, in which I shall be very brief.

As for you, Gentlemen and Ladies my Assistants and Grand Juries, I have made Choice of you on my Right Hand, because I know you very jealous of your Honour; and you on my Left, because I know you very much concerned for the Reputation of others; for which Rea­son I expect great Exactness and Impartiality in your Verdicts and Judgments.

I must in the next Place address my self to you, Gentlemen of the Council: You all know, that I have not chosen you for your Knowledge in the litigious Parts of the Law, but because you have all of you formerly fought Duels, of which I have Reason to think you have repent­ed, as being now settled in the peaceable State of Benchers. My Advice to you is, only that in your Pleadings you are short and expressive: To which End you are to banish out of your Dis­courses all synonymous Terms, and unnecessary Multiplications of Verbs and Nouns. I do more­over forbid you the Use of the Words also and likewise; and must further declare, That if I catch any one among you, upon any Pretence whatsoever, using the Particle or, I shall inces­santly order him to be stripped of his Gown, and thrown over the Bar.

This is a true Copy:
Charles Lillie.

N. B. The Sequel of the Proceedings of this Day will be published on Tuesday next.

The TATLER. [No 254.
From Tuesday Nov. 21. to Thursday Nov. 23. 1710.

Splendidè Mendax —

THere are no Books which I more delight in than in Travels, especially those that describe remote Countries, and give the Writer an Oppor­tunity of showing his Parts without incurring any Danger of being examined or contradicted. Among all the Authors of this Kind, our re­nowned Countryman Sir John Mandeville has di­stinguished himself, by the Copiousness of his Invention, and Greatness of his Genius. The Second to Sir John I take to have been Ferdinand Mendez Pinto, a Person of infinite Adventure, and unbounded Imagination. One reads the Voyages of these Two great Wits with as much Astonishment as the Travels of Ulysses in Homer, or of the Red Cross Knight in Spencer. All is En­chanted Ground, and Fairy Land.

I have got into my Hands by great Chance se­veral Manuscripts of these Two eminent Authors, which are filled with greater Wonders than any of those they have communicated to the Publick; and indeed, were they not so well attested, would appear altogether improbable. I am apt to think, the ingenious Authors did not publish them with the rest of their Works, lest they should pass for Fictions and Fables: A Caution not unnecessary, when the Reputation of their Veracity was not yet established in the World. But as this Reason has now no further Weight. [Page 284] I shall make the Publick a Present of these curious Pieces at such Times as I shall find my self un­provided with other Subjects.

The present Paper I intend to fill with an Ex­tract of Sir John's Journal, in which that learned and worthy Knight gives an Account of the Freezing and Thawing of several short Speeches which he made in the Territories of Nova Zem­bla. I need not inform my Reader, that the Au­thor of Hudibras alludes to this strange Quality in that cold Climate, when, speaking of abstra­cted Notions cloathed in a visible Shape, he adds that apt Simile,

Like Words congeal'd in Northern Air.

Not to keep my Reader any longer in Suspence, the Relation put into modern Language is as fol­lows:

We were separated by a Storm in the Latitude of 73, insomuch that only the Ship which I was in, with a Dutch and a French Vessel, got safe into a Creek of Nova Zembla. We landed, in order to resit our Vessels, and store our selves with Provisions. The Crew of each Vessel made themselves a Cabbin of Turf and Wood, at some Distance from each other, to fence themselves a­gainst the Inclemencies of the Weather, which was severe beyond Imagination. We soon ob­served, that in talking to one another we lost se­veral of our Words, and could not hear one ano­ther at above Two Yards Distance, and that too when we sat very near the Fire. After much Perplexity, I found that our Words froze in the Air before they could reach the Ears of the Per­son to whom they were spoken. I was soon con­firmed in this Conjecture, when, upon the Increase of the Cold, the whole Company grew dumb, or rather deaf; for every Man was sensible, as we afterwards found, that he spoke as well as ever; but the Sounds no sooner took Air, than [Page 285] they were condensed and lost. It was now a miserable Spectacle to see us nodding and gaping at one another, every Man talking, and no Man heard. One might observe a Seaman, that could hail a Ship at a League distance, beckoning with his Hands, straining his Lungs, and tearing his Throat, but all in vain.

— Nec vox, nec Verba, sequuntur.

We continued here Three Weeks in this dismal Plight. At length, upon a Turn of Wind, the Air about us began to thaw. Our Cabbin was immediately filled with a dry clattering Sound, which I afterwards found to be the Crackling of Consonants that broke above our Heads, and were often mixed with a gentle Hissing, which I imputed to the Letter S, that occurs so fre­quently in the English Tongue. I soon after felt a Breeze of Whispers rushing by my Ear; for those being of a soft and gentle Substance, im­mediately liquefied in the warm Wind that blew across our Cabbin. These were soon followed by Syllables and short Words, and at length by entire Sentences, that melted sooner or later, as they were more or less congealed; so that we now heard every Thing that had been spoken du­ring the whole Three Weeks that we had been silent, if I may use that Expression. It was now very early in the Morning, and yet, to my Sur­prize, I heard some Body say, Sir John, it is Mid­night, and Time for the Ship's Crew to go to Bed. This I knew to be the Pilot's Voice, and upon re­collecting my self, I concluded that he had spo­ken these Words to me some Days before, though I could not hear them before the present Thaw. My Reader will easily imagine how the whole Crew was amazed, to hear every Man talking, and see no Man opening his Mouth. In the Midst of this great Surprize we were all in, we heard a Volley of Oaths and Curses, lasting for [Page 286] a long while, and uttered in a very hoarse Voice, which I knew belonged to the Boatswain, who was a very cholerick Fellow, and had taken his Opportunity of Cursing and Swearing at me when he thought I could not hear him; for I had several Times given him the Strappado on that Account, as I did not fail to repeat it for these his pious Soliloquies when I got him on Ship­board.

I must not omit the Names of several Beauties in Wapping, which were heard every now and then, in the Midst of a long Sigh that accompa­nied them; as, Dear Kate! Pretty Mrs. Peggy! When shall I see my Sue again? This betray'd several Amours which had been concealed till that Time, and furnished us with a great deal of Mirth in our Return to England.

When this Confusion of Voices was pretty well over, though I was afraid to offer at Speaking, as fearing I should not be heard, I proposed a Visit to the Dutch Cabbin, which lay about a Mile further up into the Country. My Crew were extreamly rejoiced to find they had again recovered their Hearing, though every Man ut­tered his Voice with the same Apprehensions that I had done!

— Et timide Verba intermissa retentat.

At about half a Mile's Distance from our Cab­bin, we heard the Groanings of a Bear, which at first startled us; but upon Enquiry we were in­formed by some of our Company, that he was dead, and now lay in Salt, having been killed upon that very Spot about a Fortnight before, in the Time of the Frost. Not far from the same Place we were likewise entertained with some posthumous Snarls and Barkings of a Fox.

We at length arrived at the little Dutch Settle­ment, and upon entering the Room, found it filled [Page 287] with Sighs that smelt of Brandy, and several o­ther unsavourly Sounds that were altogether in­articulate. My Valet, who was an Irishman, fell into so great a Rage at what he heard, that he drew his Sword; but not knowing where to lay the Blame, he put it up again. We were stun­ned with these confused Noises, but did not hear a single Word till about half an Hour after; which I ascribed to the harsh and obdurate Sounds of that Language, which wanted more Time than ours to melt and become audible.

After having here met with a very hearty Wel­come, we went to the French Cabbin, who, to make Amends for their Three Weeks Silence, were Talking and Disputing with greater Rapi­dity and Confusion than ever I heard in an As­sembly even of that Nation. Their Language as I found, upon the first Giving of the Weather, sell asunder and dissolved. I was here convinced of an Error into which I had before fallen; for I fancied, that for the Freezing of the Sound, it was necessary for it to be wrapped up, and, as it were, preserved in Breath; but I found my Mi­stake, when I heard the Sound of a Kit playing a Minuet over our Heads. I asked the Occasion of it; upon which one of the Company told me, that it would play there above a Week longer if the Thaw continued; for, says he, finding our selves bereft of Speech, we prevailed upon one of the Company, who had this Musical Instru­ment about him, to play to us from Morning to Night; all which Time we employed in Dan­cing, in order to dissipate our Chagrin, & tuer le Temps.

Here Sir John gives very good Philosophical Reasons why the Kit could be heard during the Frost; but as they are something Prolix, I pass them over in Silence, and shall only observe, that the honourable Author seems, by his Quo­tations, to have been well versed in the ancient [Page 288] Poets, which perhaps raised his Fancy above th [...] ordinary Pitch of Historians, and very muc [...] contributed to the Embellishment of his Wriings.

The TATLER. [No 255.
From Thursd. Nov. 23. to Saturd. Nov. 25. 1710.

— Nec te tua plurima, Pantheu,
Labentem Pietas nec Apollinis Insula texit.

To the Censor of Great Britain.


I AM at present under very great Difficulties, which it is not in the Power of any one, be­sides your self, to redress. Whether or no you shall think it a proper Case to come before your Court of Honour, I cannot tell; but thus it is: I am Chaplain to an honourable Family, very regular at the Hours of Devotion, and I hope of an unblameable Life; but for not offer­ing to rise at Second Course, I found my Patron and his Lady very sullen and out of Humour, though at first I did not know the Reason of it. At length, when I happened to help my self to a Jelly, the Lady of the House, other­wise a devout Woman, told me, That it did not become a Man of my Cloth to delight in such frivolous Food: But as I still continued to sit out the last Course, I was Yesterday infor­med by the Butler, that his Lordship had no further Occasion for my Service. All which [Page 289] is humbly submitted to your Consideration, by,

Your most humble Servant, &c.

The Case of this Gentleman deserves Pity, e­specially if he loves Sweetmeats, to which, if I may guess by his Letter, he is no Enemy. In the mean Time, I have often wondered at the Indecency of discarding the holiest Man from the Table as soon as the most delicious Parts of the Entertainment are served up, and could never conceive a Reason for so absurd a Custom. Is it because a liquorish Palate, or a sweet Tooth (as they call it) is not consistent with the Sanctity of his Character? This is but a trifling Pretence. No Man of the most rigid Virtue gives Offence by any Excesses in Plumb-Pudding or Plumb-Por­ridge, and that, because they are the first Parts of the Dinner. Is there any Thing that tends to Incitation in Sweetmeats more than in ordi­nary Dishes? Certainly not. Sugar-Plumbs are a very innocent Diet, and Conserves of a much colder Nature than your common Pickles. I have sometimes thought, that the Ceremony of the Chaplain's flying away from the Dessert was Typical and Figurative, to mark out to the Com­pany how they ought to retire from all the lus­cious Baits of Temptation, and deny their Appe­tites the Gratifications that are most pleasing to them; or at least to signify, that we ought to stint our selves in our most lawful Satisfactions, and not make our Pleasure, but our Support, the End of Eating: But most certainly, if such a Lesson of Temperance had been necessary at a Table, our Clergy would have recommended it to all the Lay-Masters of Families, and not have disturbed other Men's Tables with such unseason­able Examples of Abstinence. The Original [Page 290] therefore of this barbarous Custom, I take [...] have been meerly accidental. The Chaplain [...] tired out of pure Complaisance to make Roo [...] for the Removal of the Dishes, or possibly f [...] the Ranging of the Dessert. This by Degre [...] grew into a Duty, till at length, as the Fashio [...] improved, the good Man found himself cut [...] from the third Part of the Entertainment; an [...] if the Arrogance of the Patron goes on, it is n [...] impossible but, in the next Generation, he m [...] see himself reduced to the Tythe, or Tenth Di [...] of the Table; a sufficient Caution not to pa [...] with any Privilege we are once possessed of. [...] was usual for the Priest in old Times to feast [...] on the Sacrifice, nay the Honey-Cake, while th [...] hungry Laity looked upon him with great Devotion, or as the late Lord Rochester describes it i [...] a very lively Manner:

And whiie the Priest did eat, the People stared.

At present the Custom is inverted; the Lai [...] feast, while the Priest stands by as an humbl [...] Spectator. This necessarily puts the good Ma [...] upon making great Ravages on all the Dishe [...] that stand near him, and distinguishing himsel [...] by Voraciousness of Appetite, as knowing tha [...] his Time is short. I would fain ask these stif [...] neck'd Patrons, Whether they would not take [...] ill of a Chaplain that, in his Grace after Meat, should return Thanks for the whole Entertain­ment, with an Exception to the Dessert? And ye [...] I cannot but think, that in such a Proceeding [...] would but deal with them as they deserved [...] What would a Roman Catholick Priest think [...] who is always helped first, and placed next th [...] Ladies, should he see a Clergyman giving hi [...] Company the Slip at the first Appearance of th [...] Tarts or Sweetmeats? Would not he believ [...] that he had the same Antipathy to a Candie [...] Orange, or a Piece of Puff-Past, as some have [...] [Page 291] a Cheshire Cheese, or a Breast of Mutton? Yet to so ridiculous a Height is this foolish Custom grown, that even the Christmas Pye, which in its very Nature is a kind of consecrated Cate, and a Badge of Distinction, is often forbidden to the Druid of the Family. Strange! that a Sirloin of Beef, whether boiled or roasted, when entire, is exposed to his utmost Depredations and Incisions; but if minced into small Pieces, and tossed up with Plumbs and Sugar, changes its Property, and, forsooth, is Meat for his Ma­ster.

In this Case I know not which to censure, the Patron or the Chaplain, the Insolence of Power, or the Abjectness of Dependance. For my own Part, I have often blushed to see a Gentleman, whom I knew to have much more Wit and Lear­ning than my self, and who was bred up with me at the University upon the same Foot of a liberal Education, treated in such an ignominious Manner, and sunk beneath those of his own Rank, by reason of that Character which ought to bring him Honour. This deters Men of ge­nerous Minds from placing themselves in such a Station of Life, and by that Means frequently excludes Persons of Quality from the improving and agreeable Conversation of a learned and ob­sequious Friend.

Mr. Oldham lets us know, That he was affright­ed from the Thought of such an Employment, by the scandalous Sort of Treatment which often accompanies it.

Some think themselves exalted to the Sky,
If they light in some Noble Family:
Diet, an Horse, and Thirty Pounds a Year,
Besides th' Advantage of his Lordship's Ear.
The Credit of the Business, and the State,
Are Things that in a Youngster's Sense sound great.
[Page 292] Little the unexperienc'd Wretch does know,
What Slavery he oft must undergo:
Who tho' in Silken Scarf, and Cassock drest,
Wears but a gayer Livery at best.
When Dinner calls, the Implement must wait,
With holy Words to consecrate the Meat.
But hold it for a Favour seldom known,
If he be deign'd the Honour to sit down.
Soon as the Tarts appear, Sir Crape withdr [...]
Those Dainties are not for a Spiritual Maw.
Observe your Distance, and be sure to stand
Hard by the Cistern with your Cap in Hand:
There for Diversion you may pick your Teeth,
Till the kind Voider comes for your Relief.
Let others who such Meannesses can brook,
Strike Countenance to ev'ry great Man's Look;
I rate my Freedom higher.

This Author's Raillery is the Raillery of a Friend, and does not turn the Sacred Order into Ridicule, but is a just Censure on such Person [...] as take Advantage from the Necessities of a M [...] of Merit, to impose on him Hardships that a [...] by no Means suitable to the Dignity of his Pro­fession.

The TATLER. [No 256.
[...]rom Saturd. Nov. 25. to Tuesday Nov. 28. 1710.

— Nostrum est tantas componere Lites.

The Proceedings of the Court of Honour, held in Sheer-Lane on Monday the 20th of November, 1710. before Isaac Bickerstaff Esq Censor of Great Britain.

PEter Plumb, of London, Merchant, was in­dicted by the Honourable Mr. Thomas Gules, of Gule-Hall in the Country of Salop, for that the said Peter Plumb did in Lombard-street, London, between the Hours of Two and Three in the Afternoon, meet the said Mr. Thomas Gules, and after a short Salutation, put on his Hat, Value Five-Pence, while the Honourable Mr. Gules stood bare-headed for the Space of Two Seconds. It was further urged against the Criminal, That during his Discourse with the Prosecutor, he fe­loniously stole the Wall of him, having clapped his Back against it in such a Manner that it was impossible for Mr. Gules to recover it again at his taking Leave of him. The Prosecutor alledged, That he was the Cadet of a very ancient Family; and that according to the Principles of all the younger Brothers of the said Family, he had ne­ver sullied himself with Business, but had chosen rather to starve like a Man of Honour, than do any Thing beneath his Quality. He produced several Witnesses, that he had never employed himself beyond the Twisting of a Whip, or the Making of a Pair of Nut-Crackers, in which he [Page 294] only worked for his Diversion, in order to mae a Present now and then to his Friends. The Pri­soner being asked what he could say for himself, cast several Reflections upon the Honourable Mr. Gules; as, That he was not worth a Groat; That no Body in the City would trust him for a Halspenny; That he owed him Money, which he had promised to pay him several Times, but ne­ver kept his Word: And in short, That he was an idle, beggarly Fellow, and of no Use to the Publick. This Sort of Language was very se­verely reprimanded by the Censor, who told the Criminal, That he spoke in Contempt of the Court, and that he should be proceeded against for Contumacy, if he did not change his Style. The Prisoner therefore desired to be heard by his Council, who urged in his Defence, That he put on his Hat through Ignorance, and took the Wall by Accident. They likewise produced se­veral Witnesses, That he made several Motions with his Hat in his Hand, which are generally understood as an Invitation to the Person we talk with to be covered; and that the Gentleman not taking the Hint, he was forced to put on his Hat, as being troubled with a Cold. There was likewise an Irish Man who deposed, That he had heard him cough Three and twenty times that Morning. And as for the Wall, it was alledged That he had taken it inadvertently, to save him­self from a Shower of Rain which was then fal­ling. The Censor having consulted the Men of Honour who sat at his Right Hand on the Bench, found they were all of Opinion, That the De­fence made by the Prisoner's Council did rather aggravate than extenuate his Crime; That the Motions and Intimations of the Hat were a To­ken of Superiority in Conversation, and therefore not to be used by the Criminal to a Man of the Prosecutor's Quality, who was likewise vested with a double Title to the Wall at the Time of [Page 295] [...]eir Conversation, both as it was the upper [...]and, and as it was a Shelter from the Weather. The Evidence being very full and clear, the [...]ry, without going out of Court, declared their Opinion unanimously by the Mouth of their Fore­man, That the Prosecutor was bound in Honour [...]o make the Sun shine through the Criminal, or, [...]s they afterwards explained themselves, to whip [...]im through the Lungs.

The Censor knitting his Brows into a Frown, [...]nd looking very sternly upon the Jury, after a [...]ittle Pause, gave them to know, That this Court was erected for the finding out of Penalties suita­ble to Offences, and to restrain the Outrages of private Justice; and that he expected they should moderate their Verdict. The Jury therefore re­tired, and being willing to comply with the Ad­vices of the Censor, after an Hour's Consulta­tion, declared their Opinion as follows:

That in Consideration this was Peter Plumb's first Offence, and that there did not appear any Malice prepense in it, as also that he lived in good Reputation among his Neighbours, and that his taking the Wall was only se defendendo, the Pro­secutor should let him escape with Life, and content himself with the Slitting of his Nose, and the Cutting off both his Ears. Mr. Bicker­staff smiling upon the Court, told them, That he thought the Punishment, even under its present Mitigation, too severe; and that such Penalties might be of ill Consequence in a Trading Na­tion. He therefore pronounced Sentence against the Criminal in the following Manner: That his Hat, which was the Instrument of Offence, should be forfeited to the Court; That the Criminal should go to the Warehouse from whence he came, and thence, as Occasion should require, proceed to the Exchange, or Garraway's Coffee-house, in what Manner he pleased; but that neither he nor any of the Family of the [Page 296] Plumbs should hereafter appear in the Streets [...] London out of their Coaches, that so the Foo [...] Way might be left open and undisturbed for thei [...] Betters.

Dathan, a Peddling Jew, and T. R—, [...] Welshman, were indicted by the Keeper of [...] Alehouse in Westminster, for breaking the Peac [...] and two Earthen Mugs, in a Dispute about the Antiquity of their Families, to the great Detri­ment of the House, and Disturbance of the whole Neighbourhood. Dathan said for himself, that he was provoked to it by the Welshman, who pretended, that the Welsh were an ancienter People than the Jews; whereas, says he, I can shew by this Genealogy in my Hand, that I am the Son of Mesheck, that was the Son of Naboth, that was the Son of Shalem, that was the Son of — The Welshman here interrupted him, and told him, That he could produce Shennalo­gy as well as himself; for that he was John ap Rice, ap Shenkin, ap Shones. He then turned himself to the Censor, and told him in the same broken Accent, and with much Warmth, That the Jew would needs uphold, that King Cadwalla­der was younger than Issachar. Mr. Bickerstaff seemed very much inclined to give Sentence a­gainst Dathan, as being a Jew; but finding Rea­sons, by some Expressions which the Welshman let fall in asserting the Antiquity of his Family, to suspect that the said Welshman was a Prae-Ada­mite, he suffered the Jury to go out, without any previous Admonition. After some Time they returned, and gave their Verdict, That it appearing the Persons at the Bar did neither of them wear a Sword, and that consequently they had no Right to quarrel upon a Point of Ho­nour; to prevent such frivolous Appeals for the future, they should both of them be tossed in the same Blanket, and there adjust the Superio­rity [Page 297] as they could agree it between themselves. The Censor confirmed the Verdict.

Richard Newman was indicted by Major Punto, for having used the Words, Perhaps it may be so, in a Dispute with the said Major. The Major urged, That the Word, Perhaps, was questioning his Veracity, and that it was an indirect Manner of giving him the Lye. Richard Newman had nothing more to say for himself, than that he in­tended no such Thing, and threw himself upon the Mercy of the Court. The Jury brought in their Verdict Special.

Mr. Bickerstaff stood up, and after having cast his Eyes over the whole Assembly, hem'd thrice. He then acquainted them, That he had laid down a Rule to himself, which he was resolved never to depart from, and which, as he conceived, would very much conduce to the shortening the Business of the Court; I mean, says he, never to allow of the Lye being given by Construction, Implication, or Induction, but by the sole Use of the Word it self. He then proceeded to show the great Mischiefs that had arisen to the English Nation from that pernicious Monosyllable; That it had bred the most fatal Quarrels between the dearest Friends; That it had frequently thin'd the Guards, and made great Havock in the Ar­my; That it had sometimes weaken'd the City Trained Bands; and, in a Word, had destroved many of the bravest Men in the Isle of Great Britain. For the Prevention of which Evils for the future, he instructed the Jury to present the Word it self as a Nusance in the English Tongue; and further promised them, That he would, up­on such their Presentment, publish an Edict of the Court for the entire Banishment and Exclu­sion of it out of the Discourses and Conversation of all civil Societies.

This is a true Copy,
Charles Lillie.

Monday next is set apart for the Tryal of several Female Causes.

N. B. The Case of the Hassock will come on be­tween the Hours of Nine and Ten.

The TATLER. [No 257.
From Tuesday Nov. 28. to Thursday Nov. 30. 1710.

In nova fert Animus mutatas dicere Formas
Corpora: Dii, Captis (nam vos mutastis & illas)
Aspirate meis. —
Ovid. Met.

EVery Nation is distinguished by Productions that are peculiar to it. Great Britain is par­ticularly fruitful in Religions, that shoot up and flourish in this Climate more than in any other. We are so famous Abroad for our great Variety of Sects and Opinions, that an ingenious Friend of mine, who is lately returned from his Tra­vels, assures me, there is a Show at this Time carried up and down in Germany, which repre­sents all the Religions of Great Britain in Wax­work. Notwithstanding that the Pliancy of the Matter in which the Images are wrought makes it capable of being moulded into all Shapes and Figures, my Friend tells me, that he did not think it possible for it to be twisted and tortured into so many skrew'd Faces and wry Features as appeared in several of the Figures that composed the Show. I was indeed so pleased with the De­sign of the German Artist, that I begged my Friend to give me an Account of it in all its Par­ticulars, which he did after the following Man­ner.

[Page 299] I have often, says he, been present at a Show of Elephants, Camels, Dromedaries, and other strange Creatures, but I never saw so great an Assembly of Spectators as were met together at the Opening of this great Piece of Wax-work. We were all placed in a large Hall, according to the Price that we had paid for our Seats: The Curtain that hung before the Show was made by a Master of Tapestry, who had woven it in the Figure of a monstrous Hydra that had several Heads, which brandished out their Tongues, and seemed to hiss at each other. Some of these Heads were large and entire; and where any of them had been lopped away, there sprouted up several in the Room of them; insomuch that for one Head cut off, a Man might see Ten, Twen­ty, or an Hundred, of a smaller Size, creeping through the Wound. In short, the whole Picture was nothing but Confusion and Bloodshed. On a sudden, says my Friend, I was startled with a Flourish of many Musical Instruments that I had never heard before, which was followed by a short Tune, (if it might be so called) wholly made up of Jars and Discords. Among the rest, there was an Organ, a Bagpipe, a Groaning-Board, a Stentorophonick-Trumpet, with several Wind Instruments of a most disagreeable Sound, which I do not so much as know the Name of. After a short Flourish, the Curtain was drawn up, and we were presented with the most extraordinary Assembly of Figures that ever entered into a Man's Imagination. The Design of the Work­man was so well expressed in the dumb Show before us, that it was not hard for an English­man to comprehend the Meaning of it.

The principal Figures were placed in a Row, consisting of Seven Persons. The middle Figure, which immediately attracted the Eyes of the whole Company, and was much bigger than the rest, was formed like a Matron, dressed in the Habit [Page 300] of an elderly Woman of Quality in Queen Eli­zabeth's Days. The most remarkable Parts of her Dress, was the Beaver with the Steeple Crown, the Scarf that was darker than Sable, and the Lawn Apron that was whiter than Er­min. Her Gown was of the richest black Vel­vet, and just upon her Heart studded with large Diamonds of an inestimable Value, disposed in the Form of a Cross. She bore an inexpressible Chearfulness and Dignity in her Aspect; and though she seemed in Years, appeared with so much Spirit and Vivacity, as gave her at the same Time an Air of old Age and Immortality. I found my Heart touched with so much Love and Reverence at the Sight of her, that the Tears ran down my Face as I looked upon her; and still the more I looked upon her, the more my Heart was melted with the Sentiments of Filial Tenderness and Duty. I discovered every Mo­ment something so charming in this Figure, that I could scarce take my Eyes off it. On its Right Hand there sat the Figure of a Woman so covered with Ornaments, that her Face, her Body, and her Hands, were almost entirely hid under them. The little you could see of her Face was painted; and what I thought very odd, had something in it like artificial Wrinkles; but I was the less surprised at it, when I saw upon her Forehead an old-fashioned Tower of grey Hairs. Her Head-Dress rose very high by Three several Stories or Degrees; her Garments had a Thousand Colours in them, and were embroi­dered with Crosses in Gold, Silver and Silk: She had nothing on, so much as a Glove or a Slipper, which was not marked with this Figure; nay, so superstitiously fond did she appear of it, that she sat cross-legged. I was quickly sick of this tawdry Composition of Ribands, Silks and Jewels, and therefore cast my Eye on a Dame which was just the Reverse of it. I need not tell [Page 301] my Reader, that the Lady before described was Popery, or that she I am now going to describe is Presbytery. She sat on the Left Hand of the ve­nerable Matron, and so much resembled her in the Features of her Countenance, that she seemed her Sister; but at the same Time that one obser­ved a Likness in her Beauty, one could not but take Notice, that there was something in it sickly and splenatick. Her Face had enough to discover the Relation, but it was drawn up into a peevish Figure, sowred with Discontent, and overcast with Melancholy. She seemed offended at the Matron for the Shape of her Hat, as too much resembling the triple Coronet of the Person who sat by her. One might see likewise, that she dissented from the white Apron and the Cross; for which Reasons she had made her self a plain, homely Dowdy, and turned her Face towards the Sectaries that sat on her Left Hand, as being a­fraid of looking upon the Matron, lest she should see the Harlot by her.

On the Right Hand of Popery sat Judaism, re­presented by an old Man embroidered with Phy­lacteries, and distinguished by many Typical Fi­gures, which I had not Skill enough to unriddle. He was placed among the Rubbish of a Temple; but instead of weeping over it, (which I should have expected from him) he was counting out a Bag of Money upon the Ruins of it.

On his Right Hand was Deism, or Natural Re­ligion. This was a Figure of an half-naked auk­ward Country Wench, who with proper Orna­ments and Education would have made an agree­able and beautiful Appearance; but for Want of those Advantages, was such a Spectacle, as a Man would blush to look upon.

I have now, continued my Friend, given you an Account of those who were placed on the Right Hand of the Matron, and who, according to the Order in which they sat, were Deism, Ju­daism, [Page 302] and Popery. On the Left Hand, as I told you, appeared Presbytery. The next to her was a Figure which somewhat puzzled me: It was that of a Man looking, with Horror in his Eyes, upon a Silver Bason filled with Water. Observing something in his Countenance that looked like Lunacy, I fancied at first that he was to express that kind of Distraction which the Physicians call the Hydro-Phobia; but considering what the Intention of the Show was, I immediately re­collected my self, and concluded it to be Ana­baptism.

The next Figure was a Man that sat under a most profound Composure of Mind: He wore an Hat whose Brims were exactly parallel with the Horizon: His Garment had neither Sleeve nor Skirt, nor so much as a superfluous Button. What they called his Cravat, was a little Piece of white Linen quilled with great Exactness, and hanging below his Chin about two Inches. See­ing a Book in his Hand, I asked our Artist what it was, who told me it was the Quakers Religion; upon which I desired a Sight of it. Upon Peru­sal, I found it to be nothing but a new-fashioned Grammar, or an Art of abridging ordinary Dis­course. The Nouns were reduced to a very small Number, as the Light, Friend, Babylon. The principal of his Pronouns was Thou; and as for You, Ye, and Yours, I found they were not looked upon as Parts of Speech in this Grammar. All the Verbs wanted the Second Person Plural; the Participles ended all in ing or ed, which were marked with a particular Accent. There were no Adverbs besides Yea and Nay. The same Thrift was observed in the Prepositions. The Con­junctions were only Hem! and Ha! and the In­terjections brought under the Three Heads of Sighing, Sobbing, and Groaning.

[Page 303] There was at the End of the Grammar a little Nomenclature, call'd, The Christian Man's Voca­bulary, which gave new Appellations, or (if you will) Christian Names to almost every Thing in Life. I replaced the Book in the Hand of the Fi­gure, not without admiring the Simplicity of its Garb, Speech, and Behaviour.

Just opposite to this Row of Religions, there was a Statue dressed in a Fool's Coat, with a Cap of Bells upon his Head, laughing and pointing at the Figures that stood before him. This Ideot is supposed to say in his Heart what David's Fool did some Thousands of Years ago, and was therefore designed as a proper Representative of those among us who are called Atheists and In­fidels by others, and Free-Thinkers by them­selves.

There were many other Groupes of Figures which I did not know the Meaning of; but see­ing a Collection of both Sexes turning their Backs upon the Company, and laying their Heads very close together, I enquired after their Religion, and found that they called themselves the Philo­delphians, or the Family of Love.

In the opposite Corner there sat another little Congregation of strange Figures, opening their Mouths as wide as they could gape, and distin­guished by the Title of the Sweet Singers of Israel.

I must not omit, that in this Assembly of Wax there were several Pieces that moved by Clock­work, and gave great Satisfaction to the Specta­tors. Behind the Matron there stood one of these Figures, and behind Popery another, which, as the Artist told us, were each of them the Genius of the Person they attended. That behind Popery represented Persecution, and the other Moderation. The first of these moved by secret Springs to­wards a great Heap of dead Bodies that lay piled upon one another at a considerable Distance be­hind the principal Figures. There were written [Page 304] on the Foreheads of these dead Men several ha [...] Words, as Prae-Adamites, Sabbatarians, Cam [...] nians, Muggletonians, Brownists, Independants, M [...] sonites, Camisars, and the like. At the Approac [...] of Persecution, it was so contrived, that as sh [...] held up her Bloody Flag, the whole Assembly of dead Men, like those in the Rehearsal, started up and drew their Swords. This was followed by great Clashings and Noise, when, in the Midst of the Tumult, the Figure of Moderation moved gently towards this new Army, which upon her holding up a Paper in her Hand, inscribed, Li­berty of Conscience, immediately fell into a Heap of Carcasses, remaining in the same quiet Posture that they lay at first.

The TATLER. [No 258.
From Thursday Nov. 30. to Saturd. Dec. 2. 1710.

Occidit miseros crambe repetita —

WHen a Man keeps a constant Table, he may be allowed sometimes to serve up a cold Dish of Meat, or toss up the Fragments of a Feast into a Ragoust. I have sometimes, in a Scarcity of Provisions, been obliged to take the same Kind of Liberty, and to entertain my Rea­der with the Leavings of a former Treat. I must this Day have Recourse to the same Method, and beg my Guests to sit down to a kind of Satur­day's Dinner. To let the Metaphor rest, I in­tend to fill up this Paper with a Bundle of Let­ters relating to Subjects on which I have former­ly treated, and have ordered my Bookseller to [Page 305] rint at the End of each Letter the Minutes with which I endorsed it, after the first Perusal of it.

To Isaac Bickerstaff Esq


DIning Yesterday with Mr. South-British and Mr. William North-Briton, Two Gentle­men, who, before you ordered it otherwise, were known by the Names of Mr. English and Mr. William Scott. Among other Things, the Maid of the House (who in her Time I believe may have been a North-British Warming-pan) brought us up a Dish of North-British Collops. We liked our Entertainment very well, only we observed the Table-Cloth, being not so fine as we could have wished, was North-British Cloth: But the worst of it was, we were disturbed all Dinner-time by the Noise of the Children, who were playing in the pav'd Court at North-British Hoppers; so we paid our North-Briton sooner than we designed, and took Coach to North-Britain Yard, about which Place most of us live. We had indeed gone a foot, only we were under some Apprehensions lest a North-British Mist should wet a South-British Man to the Skin.

We think this Matter properly expressed, ac­cording to the Accuracy of the new Style set­tled by you in one of your late Papers. You will please to give your Opinion upon it to,

Your most humble Servants,
  • J. S.
  • M. P.
  • N. R.

See if this Letter be conformable to the Directions given in the Tatler above-mentioned.

To Isaac Bickerstaff Esq


A Gentleman in my Neighbourhood, who happens to be Brother to a Lord, though neither his Father nor Grandfather were so, it perpetually making Use of this Phrase, A Per­son of my Quality. He has it in his Mouth Fif­ty times a Day, to his Labourers, his Servants, his Children, his Tenants, and his Neighbours. Wet or dry, at home or abroad, drunk or sober, angry or pleased, it is the constant Burthen of his Style. Sir, as you are Censor of Great Bri­tain, as you value the Repose of a loyal County, and the Reputation of my Neighbour, I beg you will take this cruel Grievance into your Consideration, else, for my own Particular, I am resolved to give up my Farm, sell my Stock, and remove with my Wife and Seven Children next Spring to Falmouth or Berwick, if my Strength will permit me, being brought into a very weak Condition. I am, (with great Respect)

Your most obedient and languishing Servant, &c.

Let this be referred to the Court of Honour.

Mr. Bickerstaff,

I Am a young Lady of a good Fortune, and at present invested by several Lovers who lay close Siege to me, and carry on their Attacks with all possible Diligence. I know which of them has the first Place in my own Heart, but would freely cross my private Inclinations to make Choice of the Man who loves me best, which it is impossible for me to know, all of [Page 307] them pretending to an equal Passion for me. Let me therefore beg of you, dear Mr. Bicker­staff, to lend me your Itburiel's Spear, in order to touch this Troop of Rivals; after which I will most faithfully return it to you again, with the greatest Gratitude. I am,

SIR, &c.

Query 1. What Figure this Lady doth think her Lover will appear in? Or what Symptoms he will betray of his Passion upon being touched?

2. Whether a Touch of her Fan may not have the same Efficacy as a Touch of Ithuriel's Spear?

Honoured Sir,

GRatitude obliges me to make this publick Acknowledgment of the eminent Service you have done my self in particular, and the whole Body of Chaplains (I hope) in general. Coming Home on Sunday about Dinner-time, I found Things strangely altered for the better; the Porter smiled in my Face when he let me in, the Footman bowed to me as I passed him, the Steward shook me by the Hand, and Mrs. Beatrice drop'd me a Courtesie as she went along. I was surprized at all this Civility, and knew not to what I might ascribe it, except to my bright Beaver and shining Scarf that were new that Day. But I was still more astonished to find such an agreeable Change at the Table: My Lord helped me to a fat Slice of Venison with his own Hand, and my Lady did me the Honour to drink to me. I offered to rise at my usual Time, but was desired to fit still, with this kind Expression: Come Doctor, a Gelly or a Conserve will do you no Harm; don't be a­fraid of the Dessert. I was so confounded with the Favour, that I returned my Thanks in a most aukward Manner, wondering what was the Meaning of this total Transformation: But [Page 308] my Lord soon put an End to my Admirati [...] by shewing me a Paper that challenged yo [...] Sir, for its Author, and rallied me very agre [...] ably on the Subject, asking me, which was be [...] handled, the Lord or his Chaplain? I owne [...] my self to think the Banter sharpest against ou [...] selves, and that these were trifling Matters, no [...] fit for a Philosopher to insist on. His Lordship was in so good a Humour, that he ordered me to return his Thanks with my own, and my La­dy joins in the same, with this one Exception to your Paper, That the Chaplain in her Family was always allow'd Minc'd-Pyes from Allhal­lows to Candlemas. I am,

Your most Obliged, Humble Servant, T. W.

Requires no Answer.

Mr. Censor,

I Have read your Account of Nova Zembla with great Pleasure, and have ordered it to be transcribed in a little Hand, and inserted in Mr. Touson's late Edition of Hudibras. I could wish you would furnish us with more Notes upon that Author, to fill up the Place of those dull Annotations with which several Editions of that Book have been incumbered. I would particularly desire of you to give the World the Story of Talicotius, who makes a very eminent Figure in the first Canto, not having been able to meet with any Account of the said Talicotius in the Writings of any other Author. I am (with the most profound Respect)

The most humble of your Admirers, Q. Z.

To be answered next Thursday, if nothing more material intervenes.

Mr. Censor,

IN your Survey of the People, you must have observed Crowds of single Persons that are qualified to increase the Subjects of this glorious Island, and yet neglect that Duty to their Coun­try. In order to reclaim such Persons, I lay be­fore you this Proposal.

Your most obedient Servant, Th. Cl.

This to be considered on Saturday next.

The TATLER. [No 259.
From Saturday Dec. 2. to Tuesday Dec. 5. 1710.

— Vexat Censura Columbas.

A Continuation of the Journal of the Court of Ho­nour, held in Sheer-Lane on Monday the 27th of November, before Isaac Bickerstaff Esq Censor of Great Britain.

ELizabeth Makebate, of the Parish of St. Cathe­rine's, Spinster, was indicted for surrepti­tiously taking away the Hassock from under the Lady Grave-Airs, between the Hours of Four and Five, on Sunday the 26th of November. The Pro­secutor deposed, That as she stood up to make a Courtesie to a Person of Quality in a neighbour­ing Pew, the Criminal conveyed away the Has­sock by Stealth, insomuch that the Prosecutor was obliged to fit all the while she was at Church, or to say her Prayers in a Posture that did not become a Woman of her Quality. The [Page 310] Prisoner pleaded Inadvertency; and the Jury were going to bring it in Chance-medley, had not several Witnesses been produced against the said Elizabeth Makebate, that she was an old Of­fender, and a Woman of a bad Reputation. It appeared in particular, That on the Sunday before she had detracted from a new Petticoat of Mrs. Ma­ry Doelittle, having said in the Hearing of several credible Witnesses, that the said Petticoat was scowred, to the great Grief and Detriment of the said Mary Doelittle. There were likewise many Evidences produced against the Criminal, that though she never failed to come to Church on Sunday, she was a most notorious Sabbath-Brea­ker, and that she spent her whole Time, during Divine Service, in disparaging other People's Clothes, and whispering to those who sat next her. Upon the whole, she was found guilty of the Indictment, and received Sentence to ask Pardon of the Prosecutor upon her bare Knees, without either Cushion or Hassock under her, in the Face of the Court.

N. B. As soon as the Sentence was executed on the Criminal, which was done in open Court with the utmost Severity, the first Lady of the Bench on Mr. Bickerstaff's Right Hand stood up, and made a Motion to the Court, That whereas it was impossible for Women of Fashion to dress themselves before the Church was half done, and whereas many Confusions and Inconveniencies did arise thereupon, it might be lawful for them to send a Footman, in order to keep their Places, as was usual in other polite and well regulated Assemblies. The Motion was ordered to be en­tred in the Books, and considered at a more con­venient Time.

Charles Cambrick, Linendraper, in the City of Westminster, was indicted for speaking obscenely to the Lady Penolope Youthwood. It appeared, That the Prosecutor and her Woman going in a [Page 311] Stage-Coach from London to Brentford, where they were to be met by the Lady's own Chariot, the Criminal and another of his Acquaintance travelled with them in the same Coach, at which Time the Prisoner talked Bawdy for the Space of Three Miles and a half. The Prosecutor alledg­ed, That over against the Old Fox at Knights­bridge he mentioned the Word Linen; That at the further End of Kensington he made Use of the Term Smock; and that before he came to Ham­mersmith, he talked almost a Quarter of an Hour upon Wedding-Shifts. The Prosecutor's Woman confirmed what her Lady had said, and added further, That she had never seen her La­dy in so great a Confusion, and in such a Ta­king, as she was during the whole Discourse of the Criminal. The Prisoner had little to say for himself, but that he talked only in his own Trade, and meant no Hurt by what he said. The Jury however found him guilty, and represented by their Forewoman, That such Discourses were apt to sully the Imagination, and that by a Concate­nation of Idea's, the Word Linen implied many Things that were not proper to be stirred up in the Mind of a Woman who was of the Prosecu­tor's Quality, and therefore gave it as their Ver­dict, That the Linendraper should lose his Tongue. Mr. Bickerstaff said, he thought the Prosecutor's Ears were as much to blame as the Prisoner's Tongue, and therefore gave Sentence as follows: That they should both be placed over-against one another in the Midst of the Court, there to re­main for the Space of one Quarter of an Hour, during which Time, the Linendraper was to be gagged, and the Lady to hold her Hands close upon both her Ears, which was executed accor­dingly.

Edward Callicoat was indicted as an Accomplice to Charles Cambrick, for that he the said Edward Callicoat did, by his Silence and his Smiles, seem [Page 312] to approve and abet the said Charles Cambrick in every Thing he said. It appeared, That the Pri­soner was Foreman of the Shop to the aforesaid Charles Cambrick, and by his Post obliged to smile at every Thing that the other should be pleased to say: Upon which he was acquitted.

Josias Shallow was indicted in the Name of Dame Winifred, sole Relict of Richard Dainty Esq for having said several Times in Company, and in the Hearing of several Persons there present, That he was extremely obliged to the Widow Dainty, and that he should never be able suffi­ciently to express his Gratitude. The Prosecutor urged, That this might blaft her Reputation, and that it was in Effect a boasting of Favours which he had never received. The Prisoner seemed to be much astonished at the Construction which was put upon his Words, and said, That he meant nothing by them, but that the Widow had befriended him in a Lease, and was very kind to his younger Sister. The Jury finding him a little weak in his Understanding, without going out of the Court, brought in their Verdict Igno­ramus.

Ursula Goodenough was accused by the Lady Betty Wou'dbe, for having said, That she the Lady Betty Wou'dbe was painted. The Prisoner brought several Persons of good Credit to witness to her Reputation, and proved by undeniable Evidences, that she was never at the Place where the Words were said to have been uttered. The Censor ob­serving the Behaviour of the Prosecutor, found Reason to believe that she had indicted the Priso­ner for no other Reason but to make her Com­plexion be taken Notice of, which indeed was very fresh and beautiful: He therefore asked the Offender with a very stern Voice, How she could presume to spread so groundless a Report? And whether she saw any Colours in the Lady Wou'd­be's Face that could procure Credit to such a [Page 313] Falshood? Do you see (says he) any Lillies or Roses in her Cheeks, any Bloom, any Probabili­ty?—The Prosecutor, not able to bear such Language any longer, told him, That he talked like a blind old Fool, and that she was asham'd to have entertain'd any Opinion of his Wisdom: But she was soon put to Silence, and sentenced to wear her Mask for Five Months, and not to presume to show her Face till the Town should be empty.

Benjamin Buzzard Esq was indicted for having told the Lady Everbloom at a publick Ball, That she looked very well for a Woman of her Years. The Prisoner not denying the Fact, and persisting before the Court that he looked upon it as a Compliment, the Jury brought him in Non Com­pos Mentis.

The Court then adjourned to Monday the 11th Instant.

Copia Vera,
Charles Lillie.

The TATLER. [No 260.
From Tuesday Dec. 5. to Thursday Dec. 7. 1710.

Non cuicunque datum est habere Nasum.

WE have a very learned and elaborate Dis­sertation upon Thumbs in Montaigne's Es­says, and another upon Ears in the Tale of a Tub. I am here going to write one upon Noses, having chosen for my Text the following Verses out of Hudibras:

[Page 314]
So learned Talicotius from
The brawny Part of Porter's Bum
Cut Supplemental Noses, which
Lasted as long as Parent Breech:
But when the Date of Nock was out,
Off drop'd the Sympathetick Snout.

Notwithstanding that there is nothing obscene in Natural Knowledge, and that I intend to give as little Offence as may be to Readers of a well­bred Imagination, I must, for my own Quiet, de­sire the Criticks (who in all Times have been fa­mous for good Noses) to refrain from the Lecture of this curious Tract. These Gentlemen were formerly marked out and distinguished by the little Rhinocerical Nose, which was always look­ed upon as an Instrument of Derision, and which they were used to cock, toss, or draw up in a contemptuous Manner, upon reading the Works of their ingenious Contemporaries. It is not therefore for this Generation of Men that I write the present Transaction,

— Minus aptus acutis
Naribus horum Hominum —

But for the Sake of some of my Philosophical Friends in the Royal Society, who peruse Dis­courses of this Nature with a becoming Gravity, and a Desire of improving by them.

Many are the Opinions of learned Men con­cerning the Rise of that fatal Distemper which has always taken a particular Pleasure in venting its Spight upon the Nose. I have seen a little Burlesque Poem in Italian that gives a very plea­sant Account of this Matter. The Fable of it [...]ns thus: Mars, the God of War, having served during the Siege of Naples in the Shape of a French Colonel, received a Visit one Night from Venus, the Goddess of Love, who had been al­ways his professed Mistress and Admirer. The [Page 315] Poem says, she came to him in the Disguise of a Suttling Wench, with a Bottle of Brandy under her Arm. Let that be as it will, he managed Matters so well, that she went away big-bellied, and was at length brought to Bed of a little Cu­pid. This Boy, whether it were by Reason of any bad Food that his Father had eaten during the Siege, or of any particular Malignity in the Stars that reigned at his Nativity, came into the World with a very sickly Look, and crazy Constitution. As soon as he was able to handle his Bow, he made Discoveries of a most perverse Disposition. He dipped all his Arrows in Poison, that rotted every Thing they touched; and what was more particular, aimed all his Shafts at the Nose, quite contrary to the Practice of his elder Brothers, who had made a humane Heart their Burt in all Countries and Ages. To break him of this Ro­guish Trick, his Parents put him to School to Mercury, who did all he could to hinder him from demolishing the Noses of Mankind; but in Spight of Education, the Boy continued very unlucky; and tho' his Malice was a little softened by good Instructions, he would very frequently let fly an invenomed Arrow, and wound his Votaries oft­ner in the Nose than in the Heart. Thus far the Fable.

I need not tell my learned Reader, that Correg­gio has drawn a Cupid taking his Lesson from Mercury, conformable to this Poem; nor that the Poem it self was designed as a Burlesque upon Fracastorius.

It was a little after this fatal Siege of Naples that Talicotius begun to practise in a Town of Germany. He was the first Clap-Doctor that I meet with in History, and a greater Man in his Age than our celebrated Dr. Wall. He saw his Species extremely mutilated and disfigured by this new Distemper that was crept into it; and therefore, in Pursuance of a very seasonable In­ven­tion, [Page 316] set up a Manufacture of Noses, havin [...] first got a Patent that none should presume t [...] make Noses besides himself. His first Patien [...] was a great Man of Portugal, who had done goo [...] Services to his Country, but in the Midst of the [...] unfortunately lost his Nose. Talicotius grafted [...] new one on the remaining Part of the Gristle o [...] Cartilaginous Substance, which would sneeze [...] smell, take Snuff, pronounce the Letters M. or N [...] and in short, do all the Functions of a Genuine and Natural Nose. There was however one Mis­fortune in this Experiment: The Portuguese's Complexion was a little upon the Subfusk, with very black Eyes and dark Eyebrows; and the Nose being taken from a Porter that had a white German Skin, and cut out of those Parts that are not exposed to the Sun, it was very visible that the Features of his Face were not Fellows. In a Word, the Comdé resembled one of those maimed antique Statues that has often a modern Nose of fresh Marble glewed to a Face of such a yellow Ivory Complexion as nothing can give but Age. To remedy this Particular for the future, the Doctor got together a great Collection of Porters, Men of all Complexions, black, brown, fair, dark, sallow, pale, and ruddy; so that it was impossible for a Patient of the most out-of-the-way Colour not to find a Nose to match it.

The Doctor's House was now very much en­larged, and become a Kind of College, or rather Hospital, for the fashionable Cripples of both Sexes that resorted to him from all Parts of Eu­rope. Over his Door was fastened a large Golden Snout, not unlike that which is placed over the great Gates at Brazen-Nose College in Oxford; and as it is usual for the Learned in Foreign Uni­versities to distinguish their Houses by a Latin Sentence, the Doctor writ underneath this great Golden Proboscis Two Verses out of Ovid:

[Page 317]
Militat omnis Amans, habet & sua Castra Cupido,
Pontice, crede mihi, militat omnis Amans.

It is reported, That Talicotius had at one Time in his House Twelve German Counts, Nineteen French Marquisses, and a Hundred Spanish Cava­liers, besides One solitary English Esquire, of whom more hereafter. Tho' the Doctor had the Monopoly of Noses in his own Hands, he is said not to have been unreasonable. Indeed if a Man had Occasion for a high Roman Nose, he must go to the Price of it. A Carbuncle Nose likewise bore an excessive Rate: But for your ordinary short turned-up Noses, of which there was the greatest Consumption, they cost little or nothing; at least the Purchasers thought so, who would have been content to have paid much dearer for them, rather than to have gone without them.

The Sympathy betwixt the Nose and its Parent was very extraordinary. Hudibras has told us, that when the Porter died, the Nose dropped of Course, in which Case it was always usual to return the Nose, in order to have it interred with its first Owner. The Nose was likewise affected by the Pain as well as Death of the Original Proprietor. An eminent Instance of this Nature happen'd to Three Spaniards, whose Noses were all made out of the same Piece of Brawn. They found them one Day shoot and swell extremely; upon which they sent to know how the Porter did, and heard upon Enquiry, that the Parent of the Noses had been severely kicked the Day before, and that the Porter kept his Bed on Account of the Bruises it had received. This was highly resented by the Spaniards, who found out the Person that had used the Porter so unmercifully, and treated him in the same Manner as if the Indignity had been done to their own Noses. In this and several o­ther Cases it might be said, That the Porters led the Gentlemen by the Nose.

[Page 318] On the other Hand, if any Thing went a [...] with the Nose, the Porter felt the Effects of [...] insomuch that it was generally articled with [...] Patient, that he should not only abstain from [...] his old Courses, but should on no Pretence wh [...] soever smell Pepper, or eat Mustard; on whi [...] Occasion, the Part where the Incision had be [...] made was seized with unspeakable Twinges a [...] Prickings.

The Englishman I before mentioned was so ve [...] irregular, and relapsed so frequently into the D [...] stemper which at first brought him to the lear [...] Talicotius, that in the Space of Two Years he wo [...] out Five Noses, and by that Means so torment [...] the Porters, that if he would have given 500 [...] for a Nose, there was not one of them that wo [...] accommodate him. This young Gentleman w [...] born of honest Parents, and passed his first Yea [...] in Fox-hunting; but accidentally quitting t [...] Woods, and coming up to London, he was [...] charmed with the Beauties of the Play-hou [...] that he had not been in Town Two Days befo [...] he got the Misfortune which carried off this P [...] of his Face. He used to be called in Germa [...] The Englishman of Five Noses, and, The Gentl [...] man that had thrice as many Noses as he h [...] Ears: Such was the Raillery of those Times.

I shall close this Paper with an Admonition [...] the young Men of this Town, which I think t [...] more necessary, because I see several new fre [...] coloured Faces, that have made their first A [...] pearance in it this Winter. I must therefore a [...] sure them, that the Art of making Noses is e [...] tirely lost; and in the next Place, beg them not [...] follow the Example of our ordinary Town Rake [...] who live as if there was a Talicotius to be met wit [...] at the Corner of every Street. Whatever youn [...] Men may think, the Nose is a very becoming P [...] of the Face, and a Man makes but a very silly Figu [...] without it. But it is the Nature of Youth n [...] [Page 319] to know the Value of any Thing till they have lost it. The general Precept therefore I shall leave with them is, to regard every Town-Woman as a particular Kind of Siren, that has a Design up­on their Noses; and that, amidst her Flatteries and Allutements, they will fancy she speaks to 'em in that humorous Phrase of old Plautus:

Ego tibi Faciem denasabo mordicus.
' Keep your Face out of my Way, or I'll bite off your Nose.

The TATLER. [No 261.
From Thursd. Dec. 7. to Saturd. Dec. 9. 1710.

IT is the Duty of all who make Philosophy the Entertainment of their Lives, to turn their Thoughts to practical Schemes for the Good of Society, and not pass away their Time in fruit­less Searches, which tend rather to the Ostenta­tion of Knowledge than the Service of Life. For this Reason I cannot for bear reading even the com­mon Bills that are daily put into People's Hands as they pass the Streets, which give us Notice of the present Residence, the past Travels, and in­fallible Medicines of Doctors useful in their Gene­ration, though much below the Character of the renowned Talicotius: But upon a nice Calcula­tion of the Successes of such Adepts, I find their Labours tend mostly to the enriching only one Sort of Men, that is to say, the Society of Upholders. From this Observation, and many other which oc­cur to me when I am numbering the good People of Great Britain, I cannot but favour any Propo­sal which tends to repairing the Losses we sustain [Page 320] by eminent Cures. The best I have met with i [...] this Kind, has been offered to my Consideratio [...] and recommended by a Letter, subscribed Thoma [...] Clement. The Title to his printed Articles ru [...] thus: By the Profitable Society at the Wheat-Shea [...] over-against Tom's Coffee-house in Russel-Street, Covent-Garden, new Proposals for promoting a Con­tribution towards raising Two Hundred and Fifty Pounds to be made on the Baptizing of any Infant born in Wedlock. The Plan is laid with such pro­per Regulations, as serves (to such as fall in with it for the Sake of their Posterity) all the Uses, without any of the Inconveniencies of Sentlements. By this Means, such whose Fortunes depend upon their own Industry, or Personal Qualifications, need not be deterred by Fear of Poverty from that State which Nature and Reason prescribe to us as the Fountain of the greatest Happiness in Hu­mane Life. The Censors of Rome had Power vested in them to lay Taxes on the unmarried; and I think I cannot show my Impartiality better than in enquiring into the extravagant Privileges my Brother Batchelors enjoy, and fine them accord­ingly. I shall not allow a single Life in one Set to be reproached, and held in Esteem in the other. It would not, methinks, be amiss, if an old Bat­chelor, who lives in Contempt of Matrimony, were obliged to give a Portion to an old Maid who is willing to enter into it. At the same Time I must allow, that those who can plead Court­ship, and were unjustly rejected, shall not be lia­ble to the Pains and Penalties of Celibacy. But such as pretend an Aversion to the whole Sex, be­cause they were ill treated by a particular Female, and cover their Sense of Disappointment in Wo­men under a Contempt of their Favour, shall be proceeded against as Batchelors Convict. I am not without Hopes, that from this slight Warning, all the unmarried Men of Fortune, Tast, and Refine­ment, will, without further Delay, become Lo­vers [Page 321] and humble Servants to such of their Ac­ [...]uaintance as are most agreeable to them, under [...]ain of my Censures: And it is to be hoped, the [...]est of the World, who remain single for fear of the [...]ncumbrances of Wedlock, will become Subscri­ [...]ers to Mr. Clement's Proposal. By these Means [...]e shall have a much more numerous Account of [...]irths in the Year 1711, than any ever before [...]nown in Great Britain, where meerly to be born [...] a Distinction of Providence, greater than being [...]orn to a Fortune in another Place.

As I was going on in the Consideration of this good Office which Mr. Clement proposes to do his Country, I received the following Letter, which seems to be dictated by a like modest and publick Spirit, that makes Use of me also in its Design of obliging Mankind.

Mr. Bickerstaff,

IN the Royal Lottery for a Million and an half, I had the good Fortune of obtaining a Prize. From before the Drawing I had devoted a Fifth of whatever should arise to me to Charitable Uses. Accordingly I lately troubled you with my Request and Commission for placing half a Dozen Youths with Mr. More, Writing-Master in Castle-street, to whom, it is said, we owe all the fine Devices, Flourishes, and the Com­posure of all the Plates, for the Drawing and paying the Tickets. Be pleased therefore, good Sir, to find or make Leisure for complying there­with, for I would not appear concerned in this small Matter. I am very much

Your humble Servant, &c.

It is no small Pleasure to observe, that in the midst of a very degenerate Age, still Spi­rits which retain their natural Dignity, and pur­sue the Good of their Fellow Creatures: Some in [Page 322] making themselves useful by professed Servi [...] some by secret Generosity. Were I at Liberty [...] discover even all the Good I know of many M [...] living at this Time, there would want nothi [...] but a suitable Historian to make them appear [...] illustrious as any of the noblest of the old Gree [...] or Romans. The Cunning some have used to [...] handsome and worthy Actions, the Address to [...] Men Services, and escape their Notice, has pro­duced so many surprizing Incidents, (which hav [...] been laid before me during my Censorship) a [...] in the Opinion of Posterity, would absolve thi [...] Age of all its Crimes and Follies. I know n [...] Way to deal with such delicate Minds as these, but by assuring them, that when they cease to do Good, I shall tell all the Good they have done al­ready. Let therefore the Benefactor to the Youths above-mentioned continue such Bounties, upon Pain of being publickly praised. But there is no Probability of his running into that Hazard; for a strong Habit of Virtue can make Men suspend the receiving Acknowledgments due to their Me­rit, till they are out of a Capacity of receiving them. I am so very much charmed with Acci­dents of this Kind, that I have made a Collection of all the memorable handsome Things done by private Men in my Time. As a Specimen of my Manner of noting such Actions, take the follow­ing Fragment out of much more which is written in my Year-Book on the remarkable Will of a Gentleman, whom I shall here call Celamico.

This Day died that plain and excellent Man, my much honoured Friend Celamico, who be­queathed his whole Estate to a Gentleman no Way related to him, and to whom he had given no such Expectation in his Life-time.

He was a Person of a very enlarged Soul, and thought the nearest Relation among Men to be the Resemblance of their Minds and Sentiments. He [Page 323] was not mistaken in the Worth of his Successor, who received the News of this unexpected good Fortune with an Air that showed him less moved with the Benefit, than the Loss of the Benefactor.


Notice is hereby given, That on Monday the 11th Instant, the Case of the Visit comes on, between the Hours of Ten and Eleven, at the Court of Honour; where both Persons are to attend, the Meeting there not being to be understood as a Visit, and the Right of the next Visit being then to be wholly settled, ac­cording to the Prayer of the Plaintiff.

The TATLER. [No 262.
From Saturday Dec. 9. to Tuesday Dec. 12. 1710.

Verba Togae sequeris, Juncturâ callidus acri,
Ore teres modico, pallentes radere Mores,
Doctus & ingenuo Culpam defigere Ludo.
Pers. Sat. 5.

Journal of the Court of Honour, &c.

TImothy Treatall Gent. was indicated by seve­ral Ladies of his Sisters Acquaintance for a very rude Affront offered to them at an Entertain­ment, to which he had invited them on Tuesday the 7th of November last past, between the Hours of Eight and Nine in the Evening. The Indict­ment set forth, That the said Mr. Treatall, upon the Serving up of the Supper, desired the Ladies to take their Places according to their different Age and Seniority, for that it was the Way always at his Table to pay Respect to Years. The ind ct­ment added, That this produced an unspeakable [Page 324] Confusion in the Company; for that the Ladies who before had pressed together for a Placo at the upper End of the Table, immediately crowded with the same Disorder towards the End that was quite opposite; That Mrs. Frontly had the Inso­leuce to clap her self down at the very lowest Place of the Table; That the Widow Partlett seated her self on the Right Hand of Mrs. Frontly, alledging for her Excuse, that no Ceremony was to be used at a Round Table; That Mrs. Fidges and Mrs. Fescue disputed above half an Hour for the same Chair, and that the latter would not give up the Cause till it was decided by the Pa­rish Register, which happened to be kept hard by. The Indictment further said. That the rest of the Company who sat down, did it with a Reserve to their Right, which they were at Liberty to assert on another Occasion; and that Mrs. Mary Pippe, an old Maid, was placed by the unanimous Vote of the whole Company at the upper End of the Table, from whence she had the Confusion to be­hold several Mothers of Families among her In­feriors. The Criminal alledged in his Defence, That what he had done, was to raise Mirth, and avoid Ceremony, and that the Ladies did not complain of his Rudeness till the next Morning, having eaten up what he had provided for them with great Readiness and Alacrity. The Censor frowning upon him, told him, That he ought not to discover so much Levity in Matters of a serious Nature, and (upon the Jury's bringing him in guilty) sentenced him to treat the whole Assem­bly of Ladies over again, and to take Care that he did it with the Decorum which was due to Persons of their Quality.

Rebecoa Shapely, Spinster, was indicted by Mrs. Sarah Smack, for speaking many Words re­siecting upon her Reputation, and the Heels of her Silk Slippers, which the Prisoner had mali­ciousiy suggested to be two Inches higher than [Page 325] they really were. The Prosecutor urged, as an Aggravation of her Guilt, That the Prisoner was her self guilty of the same Kind of Forgery which she had laid to the Prosecutor's Charge, for that she the said Rebecca Shapely did always wear a Pair of Steel Bodice, and a false Rump. The Censor ordered the Slippers to be produced in open Court, where the Heels were adjudged to be of the Statutable Size. He then ordered the Grand Jury to search the Criminal, who, after some Time spent therein, acquitted her of the Bodice, but found her guilty of the Rump; upon which she received Sentence as is usual in such Cases.

William Trippit Esquire, of the Middle-Temple, brought his Action against the Lady Elizabeth Prudely, for having refused him her Hand as he offered to lead her to her Coach from the Opera. The Plaintiff set forth, That he had entred himself into the List of those Volunteers who officiate e­very Night behind the Boxes as Gentlemen-Ush­ers of the Play-house; That he had been at a con­siderable Charge in white Gloves, Periwigs, and Snuff-Boxes, in order to qualify himself for that Employment, and in Hopes of making his For­tune by it. The Council for the Defendant re­ply'd, That the Plaintiff had given out that he was within a Month of wedding their Client, and that she had refused her Hand to him in Ceremony, lest he should interpret it as a Promise that she would give it him in Marriage. As soon as their Plead­ings on both Sides were finished, the Censor or­dered the Plaintiff to be cashier'd from his Office of Gentleman-Usher to the Play-house, since it was too plain that he had undertaken it with an ill Design; and at the same Time ordered the Defendant either to marry the said Plaintiff, or to pay him Half a Crown for the new Pair of Gloves and Coach-hire that he was at the Expence of in her Service.

[Page 326] The Lady Townly brought an Action of Debt against Mrs. Flambeau, for that the said Mrs. Flambeau had not been to see the said Lady Townly, and wish her Joy, since her Marriage with Sir Ralph, notwithstanding she the said Lady Townly had paid Mrs. Flambeau a Visit upon her first coming to Town. It was urged in the Behalf of the De­fendant, That the Plaintiff had never given her any regular Notice of her being in Town; That the Visit she alledged had been made on a Monday, which she knew was a Day on which Mrs. Flam­beau was always abroad, having set aside that only Day in the Week to mind the Affairs of her Fami­ly; That the Servant who enquired whether she was at Home, did not give the Visiting-Knock; That it was not between the Hours of Five and Eight in the Evening; That there was no Can­dles lighted up; That it was not on Mrs. Flam­beau's Day; and in short, That there was not one of the essential Points observed that constitute a Visit. She further proved by her Porter's Book, which was produced in Court, that she had paid the Lady Townly a Visit on the Twenty fourth Day of March, just before her leaving the Town, in the Year 1709-10, for which she was still Cre­ditor to the said Lady Townly. To this the Plain­tiff only replied, That she was now under Co­vert, and not liable to any Debts contracted when she was a single Woman. Mr. Bickerstaff finding the Cause to be very intricate, and that several Points of Honour were likely to arise in it, he de­ferred giving Judgment upon it till the next Session Day, at which Time he ordered the Ladies on his Left Hand to present to the Court a Table of all the Laws relating to Visits.

Winifred Lear brought her Action against Ri­chard Sly, for having broken a Marriage Contract, and wedded another Woman, after he had enga­ged himself to marry the said Winifred Lear. She alledged, That he had ogled her twice ar an Ope­ra, [Page 327] thrice in St. James's Church, and once at Powel's Puppet-Show, at which Time he promi­sed her Marriage by a Side-Glance, as her Friend could testify that sat by her. Mr. Bickerstaff find­ing that the Defendant had made no further Over­ture of Love or Marriage, but by Looks, and Ocu­lar Engagement; yet at the same Time consider­ing how very apt such impudent Seducers are to lead the Ladies Hearts astray, ordered the Crimi­nal to stand upon the Stage in the Haymarket, be­tween each Act of the next Opera, there to be exposed to publick View as a false Ogler.

Upon the Rising of the Court, Mr. Bickerstaff having taken one of these Counterfeits in the very Fact as he was ogling a Lady of the Grand Jury, ordered him to be seized, and prosecuted upon the Statute of Ogling. He likewise directed the Clerk of the Court to draw up an Edict against these common Cheats, that make Women believe they are distracted for them by staring them out of Countenance, and often blast a Lady's Reputa­tion whom they never spoke to, by saucy Looks and distant Familiarities.

The TATLER. [No 263.
From Tuesday Dec. 12. to Thursday Dec. 14. 1710.

— Minimâ contentos Nocte Britannos.
Juv. Sat. 2.

AN old Friend of mine being lately come to Town, I went to see him on Tusday last about Eight a Clock in the Evening, with a Design to sit with him an Hour or two, and talk over old Stories; but upon enquiring after him, his Servant told me he was just gone to Bed. The next Morn­ing, as soon as I was up and dressed, and had dis­patched [Page 328] a little Business, I came again to my Friend's House about Eleven a Clock, with a Design to renew my Visit; but upon asking for him, his Servant told me he was just sat down to Dinner. In short, I found that my old fashioned Friend religiously adhered to the Example of his Fore-fathers, and observed the same Hours that had been kept in the Family ever since the Con­quest.

It is very plain, that the Night was much longer formerly in this Island than it is at present. By the Night, I mean that Portion of Time which Nature has thrown into Darkness, and which the Wisdom of Mankind had formerly dedicated to Rest and Silence. This used to begin at Eight a Clock in the Evening, and conclude at Six in the Morning. The Corfeu, or Eight a Clock Bell, was the Signal throughout the Nation for putting out their Candles and going to Bed.

Our Grandmothers, tho' they were wont to sit up the last in the Family, were all of them fast asleep at the same Hours that their Daughters are busy at Crimp and Basset. Modern Statesmen are concerting Schemes, and engaged in the Depth of Politicks, at the Time when their Fore-fathers were laid down quietly to Rest, and had nothing in their Heads but Dreams. As we have thus thrown Business and Pleasure into the Hours of Rest, and by that Means made the natural Night but half as long as it should be, we are forced to piece it out with a great Part of the Morning; so that near Two thirds of the Nation lie fast asleep for several Hours in broad Day-light. This Irre­gularity is grown so very fashionable at present, that there is scarce a Lady of Quality in Great Britain that ever saw the Sun rise. And if the Humour encreases in Proportion to what it has done of late Years, it is not impossible but our Children may hear the Bell-Man going about the Streets at Nine a Clock in the Morning, and the [Page 329] Watch making their Rounds till Eleven. This unaccountable Disposition in Mankind to continue awake in the Night, and sleep in Sunshine, has made me enquire, Whether the same Change of Inclination has happened to any other Animals? For this Reason I desired a Friend of mine in the Country to let me know, Whether the Lark rises as early as he did formerly? And whether the Cock begins to crow at his usual Hour? My Friend has answered me, That his Poultry are as regular as ever, and that all the Birds and the Beasts of his Neighbourhood keep the same Hours that they have observed in the Memory of Man; and the same which, in all Probability, they have kept for these Five Thousand Years.

If you would see the Innovations that have been made among us in this Particular, you may only look into the Hours of Colleges, where they still dine at Eleven, and sup at Six, which were doubt­less the Hours of the whole Nation at the Time when those Places were founded. But at present the Courts of Justice are scarce opened in West­minster-Hall at the Time when William Rufus used to go to Dinner in it. All Business is driven forward: The Land Marks of our Fathers (if I may so call them) are removed, and planted fur­ther up into the Day; insomuch that I am afraid our Clergy will be obliged (if they expect full Congregations) not to look any more upon Ten a Clock in the Morning as a Canonical Hour. In my own Memory the Dinner has crept by Degrees from Twelve a Clock to Three, and where it will fix no Body knows.

I have sometimes thought to draw up a Memo­rial in the Behalf of Supper against Dinner, set­ting forth, That the said Dinner has made several Encroachments upon the said Supper, and entered very far upon his Frontiers; That he has banished him out of several Families, and in all has driven him from his Head Quarters, and forced him to [Page 330] make his Retreat into the Hours of Midnig [...] and in short, That he is now in Danger of be [...] entirely confounded and lost in a Breakfast. Th [...] who have read Lucian, and seen the Complai [...] of the Letter T. against S. upon Account of ma [...] Injuries and Usurpations of the same Nature, [...] not, I believe, think such a Memorial forced a [...] unnatural. If Dinner has been thus postpo [...] or (if you please) kept back from Time to Ti [...] you may be sure that it has been in Complia [...] with the other Business of the Day, and that Su [...] per has still observed a proportionable Distanc [...] There is a venerable Proverb, which we have a [...] of us heard in our Infancy, of putting the Child [...] to Bed, and laying the Goose to the Fire. This w [...] one of the Jocular Sayings of our Fore-fathers, [...] may be properly used in the Literal Sense at p [...] sent. Who would not wonder at this perver [...] Relish of those who are reckoned the most po [...] Part of Mankind, that prefer Sea-Coals and Ca [...] dles to the Sun, and exchange so many chearf [...] Morning Hours for the Pleasures of Midnig [...] Revels and Debauches? If a Man was only [...] consult his Health, he would chuse to live h [...] whole Time (if possible) in Day-light, and to [...] tire out of the World into Silence and Slee [...] while the raw Damps and unwholesome Vapo [...] fly Abroad without a Sun to disperse, modera [...] or controul them. For my own Part, I value [...] Hour in the Morning as much as common Libe [...] tines do an Hour at Midnight. When I find [...] self awakened into Being, and perceive my Li [...] renewed within me, and at the same Time f [...] the whole Face of Nature recovered out of th [...] dark uncomfortable State in which it lay for [...] veral Hours, my Heart overflows with such sec [...] Sentiments of Joy and Gratitude as are a Kind [...] implicit Praise to the great Author of Nature [...] The Mind in these early Seasons of the Day is [...] refreshed in all its Faculties, and born up wi [...] [Page 331] such new Supplies of Animal Spirits, that she finds her self in a State of Youth, especially when she is entertained with the Breath of Flowers, the Melody of Birds, the Dews that hang upon the Plants, and all those other Sweets of Nature that are peculiar to the Morning.

It is impossible for a Man to have this Relish of Being, this exquisite Tast of Life, who does not come into the World before it is in all its Noise and Hurry; who loses the Rising of the Sun, the still Hours of the Day, and immediately upon his first getting up plunges himself into the ordinary Cares or Follies of the World.

I shall conclude this Paper with Milton's inimi­table Description of Adam's awakening his Eve in Paradise, which indeed would have been a Place as little delightful as a barren Heath or De­sert to those who slept in it. The Fondness of the Posture in which Adam is represented, and the Softness of his Whisper, are Passages in this Di­vine Poem that are above all Commendation, and rather to be admired than praised.

Now Morn her Rosie Steps in th' Eastern Clime
Advancing, sow'd the Earth with Orient Pearl,
When Adam wak'd, so custom'd; for his Sleep
Was Airy-light from pure Digestion bred,
And temperate Vapours bland, which th' only Sound
Of Leaves and fuming Rills, Aurora's Fan
Lightly dispers'd, and the shrill Matin Song
Of Birds on ev'ry Bough; so much the more
His Wonder was to find unwaken'd Eve
With Tresses discompos'd, and glowing Cheek,
As through unquiet Rest: He on his Side
Leaning half rais'd, with Looks of Cordial Love
Hung over her enamour'd, and beheld
Beauty, which whether making or asleep,
Shot forth peculiar Graces. Then with Voice
Mild, as when Zephyrus on Flora breaths,
Her Hand soft touching, whisper'd thus; Awake,
[Page 332] My fairest, my espous'd, my latest found,
Heav'n's last best Gift, my ever new Delight,
Awake, the Morning shines, and the fresh Field
Calls us; we lose the Prime, to mark how spri [...]
Our tended Plants, how blows the Citron Gre [...]
What drops the Myrrh, and what the Balmy Ree [...]
Now Nature paints her Colours, how the Bee
Sits on the Bloom extracting liquid Sweet.
Such Whisp'ring wak'd her, but with startled E [...]
On Adam, whom embracing, thus she spake:
O Sole! in whom my Thoughts find all Repose,
My Glory, my Perfection, glad I see
Thy Face, and Morn return'd. —

The TATLER. [No 264
From Thursd. Dec. 14. to Saturd. Dec. 16. 1710.

Favete Linguis. —

BOccalim, in his Parnassus, indicts a Laconick Writer for speaking that in Three Words which he might have said in Two, and sentences him for his Punishment to read over all the Works of Guicciardin. This Guicciardin is so very prolix and circumstantial in his Writing, that I remember our Countryman Dr. Don, speal­ing of that Majestick and Concise Manner is which Moses has described the Creation of the World, adds, ‘"That if such an Author as Guic­ciardin were to have written on such a Subject, the World it self would not have been able to have contained the Books that gave the History of its Creation.'’

I look upon a tedious Talker, or what is gene­rally known by the Name of a Story-Teller, to [Page 333] [...]e much more insufferable than even a prolix Wri­ [...]r. An Author may be toss'd out of your Hand, [...]d thrown aside when he grows dull and tire­ [...]me; but such Liberties are so far from being al­ [...]ed towards your Orators in common Conver­ [...]tion, that I have known a Challenge sent a Per­ [...]n for going out of the Room abruptly, and lea­ [...]ng a Man of Honour in the Midst of a Disserta­ [...]on. This Evil is at present so very Common and [...]pidemical, that there's scarce a Coffee-house in [...]own that has not some Speakers belonging to it, [...]ho utter their Political Essays, and draw Paral­ [...]ls out of Baker's Chronicle to almost every Part [...]f Her Majesty's Reign. It was said of two an­ [...]ent Authors who had very different Beauties in [...]eir Style, That if you took a Word from one of [...]em, you only spoiled his Eloquence; but if you [...]ok a Word from the other, you spoiled his Sense. [...] have often applied the first Part of this Criticism [...] several of these Coffee-house Speakers whom I [...]ave at present in my Thoughts, tho' the Cha­ [...]acter that is given to the last of those Authors is what I would recommend to the Imitation of my [...]oving Countrymen: But it is not only publick Places of Resort, but private Clubs and Conver­ [...]ations over a Bottle, that are infested with this [...]oquacious Kind of Animal, especially with that [...]pecies which I comprehend under the Name of [...] Story-Teller. I would earnestly desire these Gentlemen to consider, that no Point of Wit or Mirth at the End of a Story can attone for the Half-Hour that has been lost before they come at [...]t. I would likewise lay it home to their serious Consideration, Whether they think that every Man in the Company has not a Right to speak as well as themselves? And whether they do not [...]hink they are invading another Man's Property, when they engross the Time which should be di­ [...]ided equally amongst the Company to their own [...]rivate Use?

[Page 334] What makes this Evil the much greater in Conversation is, that these Humdrum Companion [...] seldom endeavour to wind up their Narrations into a Point of Mirth or Instruction, which might make some Amends for the Tediousness of them, but think they have a Right to tell any Thing that has happened within their Memory. They look upon Matter of Fact to be a sufficient Foun­dation for a Story, and give us a long Account of Things, not because they are entertaining or sur­prizing, but because they are true.

My ingenious Kinsman, Mr. Humphrey Wagstaff uses to say, The Life of Man is too short for a Story-Teller.

Methusalem might be half an Hour in telling what a Clock it was; but as for us Postdiluvians, we ought to do every Thing in Hast; and in our Speeches, as well as Actions, remember that our Time is short. A Man that talks for a Quarter of an Hour together in Company, if I meet him frequently, takes up a great Part of my Span. A Quarter of an Hour may be reckoned the Eight and fortieth Part of a Day, a Day the Three hun­dred and sixtieth Part of a Year, and a Year the Threescore and tenth Part of Life. By this moral Arithmetick, supposing a Man to be in the Talk­ing World one third Part of the Day, whoever gives another a Quarter of an Hour's Hearing, makes him a Sacrifice of more than the Four hun­dred thousandth Part of his Conversable Life.

I would establish but one great general Rule to be observed in all Conversation, which is this, That Men should not talk to please themselves, but those that hear them. This would make them consider, Whether what they speak be worth Hearing? Whether there be either Wit or Sense in what they are about to say? And, Whether it be adapted to the Time when, the Place where, and the Person to whom, it is spoken?

[Page 335] For the utter Extirpation of these Orators and [...]ry-Tellers, which I look upon as very great [...]ts of Society, I have invented a Watch, which [...]ides the Minute into Twelve Parts, after the [...]e Manner that the ordinary Watches are di­ [...]ded into Hours; and will endeavour to get a [...]tent, which shall oblige every Club or Com­ [...]ny to provide themselves with one of these [...]atches (that shall lie upon the Table as an [...]our-Glass is often placed near the Pulpit) to [...]easure out the Length of a Discourse.

I shall be willing to allow a Man one Round of [...]y Watch, that is, a whole Minute to speak in; [...]t if he exceeds that Time, it shall be lawful for [...]y of the Company to look upon the Watch, or [...] call him down to Order.

Provided however, That if any one can make [...] appear he is turned of Threescore, he may take [...]o, or, if he pleases, three Rounds of the Watch [...]ithout giving Offence. Provided also, That this [...]ule be not construed to extend to the Fair Sex, [...]ho shall still be at Liberty to talk by the ordi­ [...]ary Watch that is now in Use. I would likewise [...]rnestly recommend this little Automaton, which [...]ay be easily carried in the Pocket without any [...]cumbrance, to all such as are troubled with this [...]firmity of Speech, that upon pulling out their Watches, they may have frequent Occasion to [...]onsider what they are doing, and by that Means [...]t the Thread of their Story short, and hurry to [...] Conclusion. I shall only add, That this Watch, [...]ith a Paper of Directious how to use it, is sold [...] Charles Lillie's.

I am afraid, a Tatler will be thought a very im­ [...]oper Paper to censure this Humour of being [...]alkative; but I would have my Readers know, [...]at there is a great Difference between Tattle and [...]oquacity, as I shall show at large in a following [...]ucubration, it being my Design to throw away [Page 336] a Candle upon that Subject, in order to expla the whole Art of Tattling in all its Branches as Subdivisions.

The TATLER. [No 265
From Saturday Dec. 16. to Tuesday Dec. 19. 1710

Arbiter hic igitur factus de Lite Jocosâ
Ovid. Me [...]

Continuation of the Journal of the Court of Honour, &c.

AS soon as the Court was sat, the Ladies of the Bench presented, according to Order, a Table of all the Laws now in Force relating to Visits and Visiting-Days, methodically digested under their respective Heads, which the Censor ordered to be laid upon the Table, and after­wards proceeded upon the Business of the Day.

Henry Heedless Esq was indicted by Colonel Touchy, of Her Majesty's Trained-Bands, upon an Action of Assault and Battery; for that he the said Mr. Heedless having espied a Feather upon the Shoulder of the said Colonel, struck it of gently with the End of a Walking-Staff, Value Three Pence. It appeared, That the Prosecutor did not think himself injured till a few Days after the aforesaid Blow was given him; but that having ruminated with himself for several Days, and conferred upon it with other Officers of the Militia, he concluded, that he had in Ef­fect been cudgelled by Mr. Heedless, and that he ought to resent it accordingly. The Council for the Prosecutor alledged, That the Shoulder was the tenderest Part in a Man of Honour; That it [Page 337] [...]ad a natural Antipathy to a Stick, and that [...]ery Touch of it, with any Thing made in the [...]ashion of a Cane, was to be interpreted as a [...]ound in that Part, and a Violation of the Per­ [...]n's Honour who received it. Mr. Heedless re­ [...]lied, That what he had done was out of Kind­ [...]ess to the Prosecutor, as not thinking it proper [...]r him to appear at the Head of the Trained- [...]ands with a Feather upon his Shoulder; and [...]rther added, That the Stick he had made use of [...]n this Occasion was so very small, that the Pro­ [...]cutor could not have felt it, had he broken it [...] his Shoulders. The Censor hereupon directed [...]e Jury to examine into the Nature of the Staff, [...]r that a great deal would depend upon that [...]rticular. Upon which he explained to them [...]e different Degrees of Offence that might be [...]iven by the Touch of Crab-tree from that of [...]ane, and by the Touch of Cane from that of [...] plain Hazle Stick. The Jury, after a short Per­ [...]sal of the Staff, declared their Opinion by the [...]outh of their Foreman, That the Substance of the [...]aff was British Oak. The Censor then obser­ [...]ing that there was some Dust on the Skirts of [...]e Criminal's Coat, ordered the Prosecutor to [...]eat it off with his aforesaid Oaken Plant; and [...]us, said the Censor, I shall decide this Cause [...] the Law of Retaliation: If Mr. Heedless did [...]e Colonel a good Office, the Colonel will by [...]is Means return it in Kind; but if Mr. Heedless [...]ould at any Time boast that he had cudgelled e Colonel, or laid his Staff over his Shoulders, [...]e Colonel might boast in his Turn, that he has [...]ushed Mr. Heedless's Jacket, or (to use the [...]rase of an ingenious Author) that he has rub­ [...]d him down with an Oaken Towel.

Benjamin Busy, of London, Merchant, was in­ [...]ted by Jasper Tattle Esq for having pulled out [...] Watch and looked upon it thrice, while the [...]d Esquire Tattle was giving him an Account [Page 338] of the Funeral of the said Esquire Tattle's fir [...] Wife. The Prisoner alledged in his Defence [...] Tha [...] he was going to buy Stocks at the Tim [...] when he met the Prosecutor; and that, during the Story of the Prosecutor, the said Stocks roe above Two per Cent. to the great Detriment of the Prisoner. The Prisoner further brought several Witnesses. That the said Jasper Tattle Esq was a most notorious Story-Teller; That before he met the Prisoner, he had hindred one of the Prisoners Acquaintance from the Pursuit of his lawful Business, with the Account of his Second Marriage; and that he had detained ano­ther by the Button of his Coat that very Morn­ing, till he had heard several witty Sayings and Contrivances of the Prosecutor's eldest Son, who was a Boy of about Five Years of Age. Upon the whole Matter, Mr. Bickerstaff dismissed the Accusation as frivolous, and sentenced the Prose­cutor to pay Damages to the Prisoner for what the Prisoner had lost by giving him so long and patient an Hearing. He further reprimanded the Prosecutor very severely, and told him, That if he proceeded in his usual Manner to interrupt the Business of Mankind, he would set a Fi [...] upon him for every Quarter of an Hour's Imper­tinence, and regulate the said Fine according [...] the Time of the Person so injured should appear to be more or less precious.

Sir Paul Swash Kt. was indicted by Peter Double Gent. for not returning the Bow which he received of the said Peter Double, on Wednesday the 6 Instant, at the Play-house in the Hay-Market. The Prisoner denied the Receipt of any such Bow, and alledged in his Defence, That the Profecutor would often times look full in his Face, but that when he bowed to the said Prosecutor, he would take no notice of [...] or bow to some Body else that sat quite on the othe [...] Side of him. He likewise alledged, That severa [...] Ladies had complained of the Prosecutor, wh [...] [Page 339] [...]ter ogling them a Quarter of an Hour, upon [...]eir making a Courtesy to him, would not re­ [...]rn the Civility of a Bow. The Censor ob­ [...]erving several Glances of the Prosecutor's Eye, [...]nd perceiving, that when he talked to the Court, he looked upon the Jury, found Reason [...] suspect that there was a wrong Cast in his [...]ight, which upon Examination proved true. The Censor therefore ordered the Prisoner (that [...]e might not produce any more Confusions in [...]ublick Assemblies) never to bow to any Body whom he did not at the same Time call to by his [...]ame.

Oliver Bluff, and Benjamin Browbeat, were in­ [...]icted for going to fight a Duel since the Erection [...]f the Court of Honour. It appeared, That they were both taken up in the Street as they passed [...]y the Court, in their Way to the Fields behind Mountague-House. The Criminals would answer [...]othing for themselves, but that they were go­ [...]ng to execute a Challenge which had been made [...]bove a Week before the Court of Honour was [...]rected. The Censor finding some Reasons to [...]uspect (by the Sturdiness of their Behaviour) [...]hat they were not so very brave as they would [...]ave the Court believe them, ordered them both [...]o be searched by the Grand Jury, who found a [...]reast-Plate upon the one, and Two Quires of Pa­ [...]er upon the other. The Breast-Plate was immedi­ [...]tely order'd to be hung upon a Peg over Mr. Bick­ [...]rstaff's Tribunal, and the Paper to be laid upon [...]he Table for the Use of his Clerk. He then or­ [...]ered the Criminals to button up their Bosoms, [...]nd, if they pleased, proceed to their Duel. Upon which they both went very quietly out [...]f the Court, and retired to their respective [...]odgings.

The Court then adjourned till after the Holidays.

Copia Vera,
Charles Lillie.

The TATLER. [No 266.
From Tuesd. Dec. 19. to Thursd. Dec. 21. 1710.

Rideat & pulset lasciva decentius Aetas.

IT would be a good Appendix to the Art of Li­ving and Dying, if any one would write the Art of Growing Old, and teach Men to resign their Pretensions to the Pleasures and Gallantries of Youth, in Proportion to the Alteration they find in themselves by the Approach of Age and Infirmities. The Infirmities of this Stage of Life would be much fewer, if we did not affect those which attend the more vigorous and active Part of our Days; but instead of studying to be wiser, or being contented with our present Fol­lies, the Ambition of many of us is also to be the same Sort of Fools we formerly have been. I have often argued, as I am a professed Lover of Women, that our Sex grows old with a much worse Grace than the other does; and have ever been of Opinion, that there are more well-plea­sed old Women than old Men. I thought it a good Reason for this, that the Ambition of the Fair Sex being confined to advantagious Mar­riages, or shining in the Eyes of Men, their Parts were over sooner, and consequently the Errors in the Performance of them. The Conversation of this Evening has not convinced me of the con­trary; for one or two Fop Women shall not make a Ballance for the Crowds of Coxcombs among our selves, diversified according to the different Pursuits of Pleasure and Business.

[Page 341] Returning Home this Evening a little before my usual Hour, I scarce had seated my self in my Easy Chair, stirred the Fire, and stroaked my Cat, but I heard some Body come rumbling up Stairs. I saw my Door opened, and a Humane Figure ad­vancing towards me, so fantastically put together, 'twas some Minutes before I discovered it to be my old and intimate Friend Sam. Trusty. Imme­diately I rose up, and placed him in my own Seat, a Compliment I pay to few. The first Thing he utter'd was, Isaac, Fetch me a Cup of your Cherry-Brandy before you offer to ask me any Question. He drunk a lusty Draught, sat silent for some Time, and at last broke out; I am come (quoth he) to insult Thee for an old fantastick Dotard as thou art in ever defending the Wo­men. I have this Evening visited Two Widows, who are now in that State I have often heard you call an After-Life: I suppose you mean by it, an Existence which grows out of past Enter­tainments, and is an untimely Delight in the Sa­tisfactions which they once set their Hearts upon too much to be ever able to relinquish. Have but Patience, (continued he) till I give you a suc­cinct Account of my Ladies, and of this Night's Adventure. They are much of an Age, but very different in their Characters: The one of them, with all the Advances which Years have made upon her, goes on in a certain Romantick Road of Love and Friendship which she fell into in her Teens; the other has transferred the amo­rous Passions of her first Years to the Love of Cronies, Petts and Favourites, with which she is always surrounded; but the Genius of each of them will best appear by the Account of what happened to me at their Houses. About Five this Afternoon, being tired with Study, the Weather inviting, and Time lying a little upon my Hands, I resolved, at the Instigation of my Evil Genius, to visit them, their Husbands having been our [Page 342] Contemporaries. This I thought I could do withou [...] much Trouble, for both live in the very nex [...] Street. I went first to my Lady Camomile, and the Butler, who had lived long in the Family, and seen me often in his Master's Time, ushered me very civilly into the Parlour, and told me, Though my Lady had given strict Orders to be denied, he was sure I might be admitted, and bid the Black-Boy acquaint his Lady, that I was to wait upon her. In the Window lay Two Let­ters, one broke open, the other fresh sealed with a Wafer: The first directed to the Divine Cos­melia, the second to the Charming Lucinda; but both, by the indented Characters, appeared to have been writ by very unsteady Hands. Such uncommon Addresses increased my Curiosity, and put me upon asking my old Friend the Butler, If he knew who those Persons were? Very well, says he: This is from Mrs. Furbish to my Lady, an old School-Fellow and great Crony of her La­dyship's, and this the Answer. I enquired in what Country she lived. Oh dear! says he, but just by in the Neighbourhood. Why, she was here all this Morning, and that Letter came and was answered within these Two Hours. They have taken an odd Fancy, you must know, to call one another hard Names, but for all that they love one another hugely. By this Time the Boy returned with his Lady's humble Service to me, desiring I would excuse her, for she could not possibly see me, nor any Body else, for it was Opera Night.

Methinks, (says I) such innocent Folly as Two old Women's Courtship to each other should rather make you merry, than put you out of Humour. Peace, good Isaac, (says he) no Inter­ruption I beseech you. I got soon to Mrs. Fee­ble's, she that was formerly Betty Frisk; you must needs remember het, Tom. Feeble of Brazen-Nose fell in Love with her for her fine Dancing. [Page 343] Well, Mrs. Ursula, without further Ceremony, carries me directly up to her Mistress's Chamber, where I found her environ'd by Four of the most mischievous Animals that can ever infest a Fa­mily: An old Shock Dog with one Eye, a Mon­key chaned to one Side of the Chimney, a great grey Squirrel to the other, and a Parrat wad­dling in the middle of the Room. However, for a while, all was in a profound Tranquillity. Upon the Mantle-Tree, for I am a pretty curious Observer, stood a Pot of Lambetive Electuary, with a Stick of Liquorish, and near it a Phyal of Rose-Water and Powder of Tutty. Upon the Table lay a Pipe filled with Bettony and Colts-Foot, a Roll of Wax-Candle, a Silver Spitting-Pot, and a Seville Orange. The Lady was pla­ced in a large Wicker Chair, and her Feet wrap­ped up in Flannel, supported by Cushions; and in this Attitude (would you believe it Isaac) was she reading a Romance with Spectacles on. The first Compliments over, as she was industri­ously endeavouring to enter upon Conversation, a violent Fit of Coughing seized her. This a­wakened Shock, and in a Trice the whole Room was in an Uproar; for the Dog barked, the Squirrel squealed, the Monkey chattered, the Parrat screamed, and Ursula, to appease them, was more clamorous than all the rest. You Isaac, who know how any harsh Noise affects my Head, may guess what I suffered from the hi­deous Din of these discordant Sounds. At length all was appeased, and Quiet restored: A Chair was drawn for me, where I was no sooner seat­ed, but the Parrat fixed his Horny Beak, as sharp as a Pair of Sheers, in one of my Heels, just above the Shoe. I sprung from the Place with an unusual Agility, and so being within the Monkey's Reach, he snatches off my n [...]w Bob Wig, and throws it upon Two Apples that were roasting by a sullen Sea-Coal Fire. I was [Page 344] nimble enough to save it from any further Da­mage than singeing the Foretop. I put it on, and composing my self as well as I could, I drew my Chair towards the other Side of the Chim­ney. The good Lady, as soon as she had reco­vered Breath, employed it in making a Thousand Apologies, and with great Eloquence, and a nu­merous Train of Words, lamented my Misfor­tune. In the middle of her Harangue, I felt something scratching near my Knee, and feeling what it should be, found the Squirrel had got in­to my Coat-Pocket. As I endeavoured to re­move him from his Burrow, he made his Teeth meet through the Fleshy Part of my Fore-Finger. This gave me an unexpressible Pain. The Hun­gary Water was immediately brought to bath it, and Gold-beaters Skin applied to stop the Blood. The Lady renewed her Excuses; but being now out of all Patience, I abruptly took my Leave, and hobbling down Stairs with heedless Hast, I set my Foot full in a Pail of Water, and down we came to the Bottom together. Here my Friend concluded his Narrative, and, with a composed Countenance, I began to make him Compliments of Condoleance; but he started from his Chair, and said, Isaac, you may spare your Speeches, I expect no Reply: When I told you this, I knew you would laugh at me; but the next Wo­man that makes me ridiculous shall be a young one.

The TATLER. [No 267.
From Thursd. Dec. 21. to Saturd. Dec. 23. 1710.

Qui Genus humanum Ingenio superavit, & omnes
Restinxit Stellas, exortus uti Aerius Sol.

I Have heard, that it is a Rule among the Con­ventuals of several Orders in the Romish Church, to shut themselves up at a certain Time of the Year, not only from the World in general, but from the Members of their own Fraternity, and to pass away several Days by themselves in settling Accounts between their Maker and their own Souls, in cancelling unrepented Crimes, and renewing their Contracts of Obedience for the future. Such stated Times for particular Acts of Devotion, or the Exercise of certain religious Duties, have been enjoined in all civil Govern­ments, whatever Deity they worshipped, or whatever Religion they professed. That which may be done at all Times, is often totally neg­lected and forgotten, unless fixed and determin­ed to some Time more than another; and there­fore, though several Duties may be suitable to every Day of our Lives, they are most likely to be performed if some Days are more particularly set apart for the Practice of them. Our Church has accordingly instituted several Seasons of De­votion, when Time, Custom, Prescription, and (if I may so say) the Fashion it self, call upon a Man to be serious and attentive to the great End of his Being.

[Page 346] I have hinted in some former Papers, that the greatest and wisest of Men in all Ages and Coun­tries, particularly in Rome and Greece, were re­nowned for their Piety and Virtue. It is now my Intention to show how those in our own Na­tion, that have been unquestionably the most eminent for Learning and Knowledge, were likewise the most eminent for their Adherence to the Religion of their Country.

I might produce very shining Examples from among the Clergy; but because Priestcraft is the common Cry of every cavelling empty Scribbler, I shall show, that all the Laymen who have ex­erted a more than ordinary Genius in their Wri­tings, and were the Glory of their Times, were Men whose Hopes were filled with Immortality, and the Prospect of future Rewards, and Men who lived in a dutiful Submission to all the Do­ctrines of Revealed Religion.

I shall in this Paper only instance Sir Francis Bacon, a Man who for the Greatness of Genius, and Compass of Knowledge, did Honour to his Age and Country; I could almost say to Hu­mane Nature it self. He possessed at once all those extraordinary Talents which were divided amongst the greatest Authors of Antiquity. He had the sound, distinct, comprehensive Know­ledge of Aristotle, with all the beautiful Lights, Graces and Embellishments, of Cicero. One does not know which to admire most in his Writings, the Strength of Reason, Force of Style, or Bright­ness of Imagination.

This Author has remarked in several Parts of his Works, that a thorough Infight into Phi­losophy makes a good Believer, and that a Smat­tering in it naturally produces such a Race of despicable Infidels as the little profligate Wri­ters of the present Age, whom (I must confess) I have always accused to my self, not so much for their Want of Faith as their Want of Learn­ing.

[Page 347] I was infinitely pleased to find among the Works of this extraordinary Man a Prayer of his own composing, which, for the Elevation of Thought, and Greatness of Expression, seems ra­ther the Devotion of an Angel than a Man. His principal Fault seems to have been the Excess of that Virtue which covers a Multitude of Faults. This betrayed him to so great an Indulgence to­wards his Servants, who made a corrupt Use of it, that it strip'd him of all those Riches and Honours which a long Series of Merits had heaped upon him. But in this Prayer, at the same Time that we find him prostrating himself before the great Mercy-Seat, and humbled un­der Afflictions which at that Time lay heavy up­on him, we see him supported by the Sense of his Integrity, his Zeal, his Devotion, and his Love to Mankind, which give him a much higher Figure in the Minds of Thinking Men, than that Greatness had done from which he was fallen. I shall beg Leave to write down the Prayer it self, with the Title to it, as it was found among his Lordship's Papers, written in his own Hand; not being able to furnish my Reader with an Entertainment more suitable to this solemn Time.

A Prayer or Psalm made by my Lord Bacon, Chancellor of England.

MOST gracious Lord God, my merciful Father; from my Youth up my Creator, my Redeemer, my Comforter. Thou, O Lord, soundest and searchest the Depths and Secrets of all Hearts; Thou acknowledgest the Up­right of Heart; Thou judgest the Hypocrite; Thou ponderest Men's Thoughts and Doings as in a Ballance; Thou measurest their Intentions as with a Line; Vanity and crooked Ways cannot be hid from Thee.

[Page 348] Remember, O Lord! how thy Servant hath walked before thee; remember what I have first sought, and what hath been principal in my Intentions. I have loved thy Assemblies, I have mourned for the Divisions of thy Church, I have delighted in the Brightness of thy San­ctuary. This Vine which thy Right Hand hath planted in this Nation, I have ever pray­ed unto Thee that it might have the first and the latter Rain, and that it might stretch her Branches to the Seas, and to the Floods. The State and Bread of the Poor and Oppressed have been precious in mine Eyes; I have hated all Cruelty and Hardness of Heart; I have (though in a despised Weed) procured the Good of all Men. If any have been my Enemies, I thought not of them, neither hath the Sun almost set upon my Displeasure; but I have been as a Dove, free from Superfluity of Maliciousness. Thy Creatures have been my Books, but thy Scriptures much more. I have sought Thee in the Courts, Fields and Gardens, but I have found Thee in thy Temples.

Thousands have been my Sins, and Ten Thou­sands my Transgressions, but thy Sanctifica­tions have remained with me, and my Heart (through thy Grace) hath been an unquenched Coal upon thine Altar.

O Lord, my Strength! I have since my Youth met with Thee in all my Ways, by thy Fatherly Compassions, by thy comfortable Cha­stisements, and by thy most visible Providence. As thy Favours have increased upon me, so have thy Corrections; so as Thou hast been al­ways near me, O Lord! And ever as my Worldly Blessings were exalted, so secret Darts from Thee have pierced me; and when I have ascended before Men, I have descended in Hu­miliation before Thee. And now when I thought most of Peace and Honour, thy Hand [Page 349] is heavy upon me, and hath humbled me ac­cording to thy former loving Kindness, keep­ing me still in thy Fatherly School, not as a Ba­stard, but as a Child. Just are thy Judgments upon me for my Sins, which are more in Num­ber than the Sands of the Sea, but have no Pro­portion to thy Mercies; for what are the Sands of the Sea? Earth, Heavens, and all these, are nothing to thy Mercies. Besides my innu­merable Sins, I confess before Thee, that I am Debtor to Thee for the gracious Talent of thy Gifts and Graces, which I have neither put into a Napkin, nor put it (as I ought) to Ex­changers, where it might have made best Pro­fit, but mispent it in Things for which I was least fit: So I may truly say, my Soul hath been a Stranger in the Course of my Pilgri­mage. Be merciful unto me, O Lord, for my Saviour's Sake, and receive me unto thy Bosom, or guide me in thy Ways.

The TATLER. [No 268.
From Saturd. Dec. 23. to Tuesd. Dec. 26. 1710.

— O te, Bollane, Cerebri
Felicem! Aiebam tacitus, cum quidlibet ille
Garriret. —

AT my coming Home last Night, I found upon my Table the following Petition or Project, sent me from Lloyd's Coffee-house in the City, with a Present of Port Wine, which [Page 350] had been bought at a late Auction held in that Place.

To Isaac Bickerstaff Esq Censor of Great Britain.

WE the Customers of this Coffee-house, observing that you have taken into your Consideration the great Mischiefs daily done in this City by Coffee-house Orators, do humbly beg Leave to represent to you, That this Coffee-house being provided with a Pulpit for the Benefit of such Auctions that are fre­quently made in this Place, it is our Custom, upon the first coming in of the News, to order a Youth, who officiates as the Kidney of the Coffee-house, to get into the Pulpit, and read every Paper with a loud and distinct Voice, while the whole Audience are sipping their respective Liquors. We do therefore, Sir, hum­bly propose, that there be a Pulpit erected within every Coffee-house of this City and the adjacent Parts; That one of the Waiters of the Coffee-house be nominated as Reader to the said Pulpit; That after the News of the Day has been published by the said Lecturer, some Politician of good Note do ascend into the said Pulpit; and after having chosen for his Text any Article of the said News, that he do establish the Authority of such Article, clear the Doubts that may arise thereupon, compare it with Parellel Texts in other Papers, advance upon it wholesome Points of Doctrine, and draw from it salutary Conclusions for the Be­nefit and Edification of all that hear him. We do likewise humbly propose, That upon any such Politician's quitting the Pulpit, he shall be succeeded by any other Orator that finds himself moved by the same publick Spirit, who shall be at full Liberty either to enforce or [Page 351] overthrow what the other has said before him, and may in the same Manner be succeeded by any other Politician, who shall with the same Liberty confirm or impugn his Reasons, streng­then or invalidate his Conjectures, enlarge upon his Schemes, or erect new ones of his own. We do likewise further propose, That if any Person, of what Age or Rank soever, do pre­sume to cavil at any Paper that has been read, or to hold forth upon it longer than the Space of one Minute, that he be immediately ordered up into the Pulpit, there to make good any Thing that he has suggested upon the Floor. We do likewise further propose, That if any one plays the Orator in the ordinary Coffee-house Conversation, whether it be upon Peace or War, on Plays or Sermons, Business or Poetry, that he be forth with desired to take his Place in the Pulpit.

This, Sir, we humbly presume may in a great Measure put a Stop to those superficial Statesmen who would not dare to stand up in this Manner before a whole Congregation of Politicians, not­withstanding the long and tedious Harangues and Dissertations which they daily utter in pri­vate Circles, to the breaking of many honest Tradesmen, the seducing of several eminent Citizens, the making of numberless Malecon­tents, and to the great Detriment and Disquiet of Her Majesty's Subjects.

I do heartily concur with my ingenious Friends of the above-mentioned Coffee-house in these their Proposals; and because I apprehend there may be Reasons to put an immediate Stop to the Grie­vance complained of, it is my Intention, That, till such Time as the aforesaid Pulpits can be e­rected, every Orator do place himself within the Bar, and from thence dictate whatsoever he shall think necessary for the publick Good.

[Page 352] And further, because I am very desirous th [...] proper Ways and Means should be found out f [...] the suppressing of Story-Tellers and fine Talke [...] in all ordinary Conversation whatsoever, I do i [...] sist, That in every private Club, Company, [...] Meeting over a Bottle, there be always an Elbo [...] Chair placed at the Table, and that as soon a [...] any one begins a long Story, or extends his Di [...] course beyond the Space of one Minute, he [...] forthwith thrust into the said Elbow Chair, [...] less upon any of the Company's calling out t [...] the Chair, he breaks off abruptly, and holds hi [...] Tongue.

There are Two Species of Men, notwithstanding any Thing that has been here said, whom [...] would exempt from the Disgrace of the Elbo [...] Chair. The First are those Buffoons that have [...] Talent of mimicking the Speech and Behaviou [...] of other Persons, and turning all their Patron [...] Friends and Acquaintance, into Ridicule. I loo [...] upon your Pantomime as a Legion in a Man, or at least to be like Virgil's Monster, with an Hun­dred Mouths and as many Tongues.

— Linguae centum sunt, Oraque centum.

And therefore would give him as much Time to talk in, as would be allowed to the whole Body of Persons he represents, were they actually in the Company which they divert by Proxy. Pro­vided however, That the said Pantomime do not, upon any Pretence whatsoever, utter any Thing in his own particular Opinion, Language, or Cha­racter.

I would likewise in the Second Place grant an Exemption from the Elbow Chair to any Person who treats the Company, and by that Means may be supposed to pay for his Audience. A Guest cannot take it ill if he be not allowed to talk in his Turn by a Person who puts his Mouth to a better Employment, and stops it with good Beef [Page 353] and Mutton. In this Case the Guest is very a­greeably silenced, and seems to hold his Tongue under that Kind of Bribery which the Ancients called, Bos in Lingua.

If I can once extirpate the Race of solid and substantial Humdrums, I hope by my whole­some and repeated Advices, quickly to reduce the insignificant Tittle-tattles and Matter-of-Fact-Men that abound in every Quarter of this great City.

Epictetus, in his little System of Morality, pre­scribes the following Rule with that beautiful Simplicity which shines through all his Precepts. Beware that thou never tell thy Dreams in Compa­ny; for notwithstanding thou may'st take a Pleasure in Telling thy Dreams, the Company will take no Pleasure in Hearing them.

This Rule is conformable to a Maxim which I have laid down in a late Paper, and must always inculcate into those of my Readers who find in themselves an Inclination to be very talkative and impertinent, That they should not speak to please themselves, but those that hear them.

It has been often observed by witty Essay-Wri­ters, That the deepest Waters are always the most silent; That empty Vessels make the greatest Sound, and tinckling Cymbals the worst Musick. The Marquess of Hallifax, in his admirable Ad­vice to a Daughter, tells her, That good Sense has always something sullen in it: But as Sullen­ness does not only imply Silence, but an ill-natured Silence, I wish his Lordship had given a softer Name to it. Since I am engaged unawares in Quotations, I must not omit the Satyr which Horace has written against this impertinent talka­tive Companion, and which, I think, is fuller of Humour than any other Satyr he has written. This great Author, who had the nicest Tast of Conversation, and was himself a most agreeable Companion, had so strong an Antipathy to a great [Page 354] Talker, that he was afraid some Time or other [...] would be mortal to him, as he has very humo [...] rously described it in his Conversation with [...] impertinent Fellow who had like to have be [...] the Death of him.

Interpellandi Locus hic erat: Est tibi Mater,
Cognati, queis te salvo est Opus? Haud mihi qui qu [...]
Omnes composui. Felices, nunc ego resto.
Confice, nam (que) instat Fatum mihi triste Sabella,
Quod puero cecinit divinâ mota Anus Urnâ.
Hunc neque dira Venena, nec hosticus auferet Ensis,
Nec Laterum Dolor, aut Tussis, nec tarda Podagr [...]
Garrulus hunc quando consumet cumque: Loquaces,
Si sapiat, vitet, simul atque adoleverit Aetas.

Thus translated by Mr. Oldham:

' Here I got Room to interrupt: Have you
' A Mother, Sir, or Kindred living now?
' Not one, they all are dead. Troth, so I guest
' The happier they (said I) who are at Rest.
' Poor I am only left unmurder'd yet:
' Hast, I beseech you, and dispatch me quite,
' For I am well convinc'd my Time is come;
' When I was young, a Gipsy told my Doom.
' This Lad (said she, and looked upon my Hand)
' Shall not by Sword or Poison come to's End,
' Nor by the Fever, Dropsy, Gout, or Stone;
' But he shall die by an eternal Tongue:
' Therefore, when he's grown up, if he be wise,
' Let him avoid great Talkers, I advise.

The TATLER. [No 269.
From Tuesday Dec. 26. to Thursday Dec. 28. 1710.

— Hae Nugae seria ducunt
In mala. —

I Find my Correspondents are universally of­fended at me for taking Notice so seldom of their Letters, and fear People have taken the Ad­vantage of my Silence to go on in their Errors; for which Reason I shall hereafter be more care­ful to answer all lawful Questions and just Com­plaints as soon as they come to my Hands. The Two following Epistles relate to very great Mis­chiefs in the most important Articles of Life, Love, and Friendship.

Mr. Bickerstaff,

'TIS my Misfortune to be enamoured of a Lady that is neither very beautiful, very witty, nor at all well-natured; but has the Va­nity to think she excels in all these Qualifica­tions, and therefore is cruel, insolent, and scorn­ful. When I study to please her, she treats me with the utmost Rudeness and ill Manners: If I approach her Person, she fights, she scratches me: If I offer a civil Salute, she bites me; inso­much, that very lately, before a whole Assem­bly of Ladies and Gentlemen, she rip'd out a considerable Part of my Left Cheek. This is no sooner done, but she begs my Pardon in the most handsome and becoming Terms imagina­ble, gives her self worse Language than I could [Page 356] find in my Heart to do, lets me embrace her to pacify her while she is railing at her self, pro­tests she deserves the Esteem of no one living, says I am too good to contradict her when she thus accuses her self. This attones for all, tempts me to renew my Addresses, which are ever returned in the same obliging Manner. Thus, without some speedy Relief, I am in Danger of losing my whole Face. Notwith­standing all this, I doat upon her, and am sa­tisfied she loves me, because she takes me for a Man of Sense, which I have generally thought, except in this one Instance. Your Re­flections upon this strange Amour would be very useful in these Parts, where we are over-run with wild Beauties and Romps. I earnestly beg your Assistance, either to deliver me from the Power of this unaccountable Inchantment, or, by some proper Animadversions, civilize the Be­haviour of this agreeable Rustick. I am,

Your most humble Servant, Ebenezer.
Mr. Bickerstaff,

I Now take Leave to address you in your Cha­racter of Censor, and complain to you, That among the various Errors in Conversation which you have corrected, there is one which, tho' it has not escap'd a general Reproof, yet seems to deserve a more particular Severity. 'Tis an Hu­mour of jesting on disagreeable Subjects, and in­sisting on the Jest, the more it creates Uneasi­ness; and this some Men think they have a Ti­tle to do as Friends. Is the Design of Jesting to provoke? Or does Friendship give a Privilege to say Things with a Design to shock? How can that be call'd a Jest, which has nothing in it but Bitterness? 'Tis generally allow'd necessary, [Page 357] for the Peace of Company, that Men should a little study the Tempers of each others; but cer­tainly that must be in order to shun what's of­fensive, not to make it a constant Entertain­ment. The frequent Repetition of what appears harsh, will unavoidably leave a Rancour that's fatal to Friendship; and I doubt much, whether it would be an Argument of a Man's good Hu­mour, if he should be rouzed by perpetual Tea­zing, to treat those that do it as his Enemies. In a Word, whereas 'tis a common Practice to let a Story die, meerly because it does not touch, I think such as mention one they find does, are as troublesome to Society, and as unfit for it, as Wags, Men of Fire, good Talkers, or any other Apes in Conversation; and therefore, for the publick Benefit, I hope you'll cause them to be branded with such a Name as they deserve. I am,

Yours, Patient Friendly.

The Case of Ebenozer is a very common one, and is always cured by Neglect. These fantastical Returns of Affection proceed from a certain Va­nity in the other Sex, supported by a perverted Tast in ours. I must publish it as a Rule, That no Faults which proceed from the Will, either in a Mistress or a Friend, are to be tolerated: But we should be so complaisant to Ladies, to let them displease when they aim at doing it. Pluck up a Spirit, Ebenezer, recover the Use of your Judgment, and her Faults will appear, or her Beauties vanish. Her Faults begin to please me as well as my own, is a Sentence very prettily put into the Mouth of a Lover by the Comick Poet; but he never designed it for a Maxim of Life, but the Picture of an Imperfection. If Ebenezer takes my [Page 358] Advice, the same Temper which made her insolent to his Love, will make her submissive to hi [...] Indifference.

I cannot wholly ascribe the Faults mentioned i [...] the Second Letter to the same Vanity or Prid [...] in Companions who secretly triumph over thei [...] Friends, in being sharp upon them in Thing [...] where they are most tender. But when this for [...] of Behaviour does not proceed from that Source [...] it does from Barrenness of Invention, and an In­ability to support a Conversation in a Way less offensive. It is the same Poverty which makes Men speak or write smuttily, that forces them to talk vexingly. As obscene Language is an Ad­dress to the Lewd for Applause, so are sharp Al­lusions an Appeal to the Ill-natured. But mean and illiterate is that Conversation where one Man exercises his Wit to make another exercise his Patience.


Whereas Plagius has been told again and again, Both in publick and private, That he preaches excel­lently well, and still goes on to preach as well as ever, and all this to a polite and learned Audience; This is to desire, That he would not hereafter be so elo­quent, except to a Country Congregation, the Pro­prietors of Tillotson's Works having consulted the Learned in the Law, whether preaching a Sermon they have purchased, is not to be construed publish­ing their Copy.

Mr. Dogood is desired to consider, that his Story is severe upon a Weakness, and not a Folly.

The TATLER. [No 270.
From Thursday Dec. 28. to Saturday Dec. 30. 1710.

Cum pulchris Tunicis sumet nova Consilia & Spes.

ACcording to my late Resolution, I take the Holydays to be no improper Season to enter­tain the Town with the Addresses of my Corres­pondents. In my Walks every Day there appear all round me very great Offenders in the Point of Dress. An armed Taylor had the Impudence Yesterday in the Park to smile in my Face, and pull off a Laced Hat to me, as it were in Con­tempt of my Authority and Censure. However, it is a very great Satisfaction, that other People as well as my self are offended with these Impro­prieties. The following Notices from Persons of different Sexes and Qualities are a sufficient In­stance how useful my Lucubrations are to the Publick.

Cousin Bickerstaff,

IT has been the peculiar Blessing of our Family to be always above the Smiles or Frowns of Fortune, and by a certain Greatness of Mind to restrain all irregular Fondnesses or Passions. From hence it is, that though a long Decay, and a numerous Descent, have obliged many of our House to fall into the Arts of Trade and Business, no one Person of us has ever made an Appearance that betrayed our be­ing unsatisfied with our own Station of Life, [Page 360] or has ever affected a Mien or Gesture unsuit­able to it.

You have up and down in your Writings very justly remarked, That it is not this or the other Profession or Quality among Men that gives us Honour and Esteem, but the well or ill beha­ving our selves in those Characters. It is there­fore with no small Concern, that I behold in Coffee-houses and publick Places my Brethren, the Tradesmen of this City, put off the smooth, even and ancient Decorum of thriving Citi­zens, for a fantastical Dress and Figure, im­proper for their Persons and Characters, to the utter Destruction of that Order and Di­stinction which of Right ought to be between St. James's and Milkstreet, the Camp and Cheap­side.

I have given my self some Time to find out, how distinguishing the Frays in a Lot of Mus­lins, or drawing up a Regiment of Thread Laces, or making a Panegyrick on Pieces of Sagathy or Scotch-Plod, should entitle a Man to a Laced Hat or Sword, a Wig tied up with Ri­bands, or an embroidered Coat. The College say, this Enormity proceeds from a Sort of De­lirium in the Brain, which makes it break out first about the Head, and, for Want of timely Remedies, fall upon the Left Thigh, and from thence in little Mazes and Windings run over the whole Body, as appears by pretty Orna­ments on the Buttons, Button-holes, Garter­ings, Sides of the Breeches, and the like. I beg the Favour of you to give us a Discourse wholly upon the Subject of Habits, which will contribute to the better Government of Conver­sation amongst us, and in particular oblige,

Your affectionate Cousin, Felix Tranquillus.
[Page 361]

To Isaac Bickerstaff Esq Censor of Great Britain.
The humble Petition of Ralph Nab, Haberdasher of Hats, and many other poor Sufferers of the same Trade,


THat for some Years last past the Use of Gold and Silver Galloon upon Hats has been almost universal, being undistinguishably worn by Soldiers, 'Squires, Lords, Footmen, Beaus, Sportsmen, Traders, Clerks, Prigs, Smarts, Cullies, Pretty Fellows, and Sharpers.

That the said Use and Custom has been Two Ways very prejudicial to your Petitioners: First, in that it has induced Men, to the great Damage of your Petitioners, to wear their Hats upon their Heads, by which Means the said Hats last much longer whole than they would do if worn under their Arms. Secondly, in that very often a new Dressing and a new Lace supply the Place of a new Hat, which Grievance we are chiefly sensible of in the Spring-time, when the Com­pany is leaving the Town; it so happening commonly, that a Hat shall frequent all Winter the finest and best Assemblies without any Or­naments at all, and in May shall be tricked up with Gold or Silver to keep Company with Ru­sticks, and ride in the Rain.

All which Premisses your Petitioners humbly pray you to take into your Consideration, and either to appoint a Day in your Court of Honour, when all Pretenders to the Galloon may enter their Claims, and have them approved or re­jected, or to give us such other Relief as to your great Wisdom shall seem meet.

And your Petitioners, &c.

Order my Friend near Temple-Bar, the Author of the Hunting-Cock, to assist the Court when this Petition is read, of which Mr. Lillie to give him Notice.

[Page 362]

To Isaac Bickerstaff Esq Censor of Great Britain.
The humble Petition of Elizabeth Slender, Spinster [...]


THat on the 20th of this Instant Decembe [...] her Friend Rebecca Hive and your Petitioner walking in the Strand, saw a Gentleman before us in a Gown, whose Periwig was so long and so much powder'd, that your Petitioner took Notice of it, and said, She wonder'd that Lawyer would so spoil a new Gown with Powder. To which it was answered, That he was no Lawyer but a Clergyman. Upon a Wager of a Pot of Coffee we overtook him and your Petitioner was soon convinced she had lost.

Your Petitioner therefore desires your Wor­ship to cite the Clergyman before you, and to settle and adjust the Length of Canonical Peri­wigs, and the Quantity of Powder to be made use of in them, and to give such other Di­rections as you shall think fit.

And your Petitioner, &c.

Q. Whether this Gentleman be not Chaplain to a Regiment, and in such Case allow Powder accor­dingly?

After all that can be thought on these Subjects, I must confess, That the Men who dress with a certain Ambition to appear more than they are, are much more excusable than those who betray, in the ado [...]ing their Persons, a secret Vanity and Inclination to shine in Things, wherein if they did succeed, it would rather lessen than advance their Character. For this Reason I am more provoked at the Allegations relating to the Clergyman, than any other hinted at in these Complaints. I have indeed a long Time with much Concern observed abundance of Pretty Fellows in Sacred [Page 363] Orders, and shall in due Time let them know, that I pretend to give Ecclesiastical as well as Ci­vil Censures. A Man well bred and well dressed in that Habit, adds to the Sacredness of his Fun­ction and Agreeableness not to be met with a­mong the Laity. I own I have spent some Even­ings among the Men of Wit of that Profession with an inexpressible Delight. Their habitual Care of their Character gives such a Chastise­ment to their Fancy, that all which they utter in Company is as much above what you meet with in other Conversations, as the Charms of a mo­dest are superior to those of a light Woman. I therefore earnestly desire our young Missionaries from the Universities to consider where they are, and not dress, and look, and move like young Officers. It is no Disadvantage to have a very handsome white Hand; but were I to preach Re­pentance to a Gallery of Ladies, I would, me­thinks, keep my Gloves on. I have an unfeign­ed Affection to the Class of Mankind appointed to serve at the Altar, therefore am in Danger of running out of my Way, and growing too serious on this Occasion; for which Reason I shall end with the following Epistle, which, by my Interest in Tom. Trot the Penny-Post, I procured a Co­py of.

To the Rev. Mr. Ralph Incense, Chaplain to the Countess Dowager of Brumpton.


I Heard and saw you preach last Sunday. I am an ignorant young Woman, and under­stood not half you said: But ah! Your Manner, when you held up both your Hands toward our Pew! Did you design to win me to Heaven or your self?

Your humble Servant, Penitence Gentle.


Mr. Proctorstaff of Clare-Hall in Cambridge, [...] received as a Kinsman, according to his Reques [...] bearing Date the 20th Instant.

The Distressed Son of Aesculapius is desired to be more particular.

The TATLER. [No 271.
From Saturday Dec. 30. to Tuesday Jan. 2. 1710.

THE Printer having informed me, That there are as many of these Papers printed as will make Four Volumes, I am now come to the End of my Ambition in this Matter, and have no­thing further to say to the World, under the Cha­racter of Isaac Bickerstaff. This Work has indeed for some Time been disagreeable to me, and the Purpose of it wholly lost by my being so long un­derstood as the Author. I never designed in it to give any Man any secret Wound by my Conceal­ment, but spoke in the Character of an old Man, a Philosopher, an Humorist, an Astrologer, and a Censor, to allure my Reader with the Variety of my Subjects, and insinuate, if I could, the Weight of Reason with the Agreeableness of Wit. The general Purpose of the whole has been to recommend Truth, Innocence, Honour, and Virtue, as the chief Ornaments of Life; but I considered, that Severity of Manners was abso­lutely necessary to him who would censure others, and for that Reason, and that only, chose to talk in a Mask. I shall not carry my Humility so far as to call my self a vicious Man; but at the same Time must confess, my Life is at best but pardonable. And with no greater Character [Page 365] than this, a Man would make but an indifferent Progress in attacking prevailing and fashionable Vices, which Mr. Bickerstaff has done with a Free­dom of Spirit that would have lost both its Beau­ty and Efficacy, had it been pretended to by Mr. Steele.

As to the Work it self, the Acceptance it has met with is the best Proof of its Value; but I should err against that Candour which an honest Man should always carry about him, if I did not own, that the most approved Pieces in it were written by others, and those which have been most excepted against by my self. The Hand that has assisted me in those noble Discourses up­on the Immortality of the Soul, the glorious Pro­spects of another Life, and the most sublime Idea's of Religion and Virtue, is a Person who is too fondly my Friend ever to own them; but I should little deserve to be his, if I usurped the Glory of them. I must acknowledge at the same Time, that I think the finest Strokes of Wit and Humour in all Mr. Bickerstaff's Lucubra­tions are those for which he is also beholden to him.

As for the Satyrical Parts of these Writings, those against the Gentlemen who profess Gaming are the most licentious; but the main of them I take to come from losing Gamesters, as Invectives against the Fortunate; for in very many of them, I was very little else but the Transcriber. If any have been more particularly marked at, such Persons may impute it to their own Behaviour, (before they were touched upon) in publickly speaking their Resentment against the Author, and professing they would support any Man who should insult him. When I mention this Sub­ject, I hope Major-General Davenport, Brigadier Bisset, and my Lord Forbes, will accept of my Thanks for their frequent good Offices, in pro­fessing their Readiness to partake any Danger [Page 366] that should befal me in so just an Undertaking as the Endeavour to banish Fraud and Couze­nage from the Presence and Conversation of Gentlemen.

But what I find is the least excusable Part of all this Work is, That I have, in some Places in it, touched upon Matters which concern both the Church and State. All I shall say for this is, That the Points I alluded to are such as concern­ed every Christian and Freeholder in England; and I could not be cold enough to conceal my Opinion on Subjects which related to either of those Characters. But Politicks apart. I must confess, it has been a most exquisite Pleasure to me to frame Characters of Domestick Life, and put those Parts of it which are least observed in­to an agreeable View; to enquire into the Seeds of Vanity and Affectation, to lay before my Rea­ders the Emptiness of Ambition: In a Word, to trace Humane Life through all its Mazes and Recesses, and show much shorter Methods than Men ordinarily practise, to be happy, agreeable, and great.

But to enquire into Men's Faults and Weak­nesses has something in it so unwelcome, that I have often seen People in Pain to act before me, whose Modesty only make them think them­selves liable to Censure. This, and a Thousand other nameless Things, have made it an irksome Task to me to personate Mr. Bickerstaff any lon­ger; and I believe it does not often happen, that the Reader is delighted where the Author is dis­pleased.

All I can now do for the further Gratification of the Town, is to give them a faithful Index and Explication of Passages and Allusions, and sometimes of Persons intended in the several scattered Parts of the Work. At the same Time, the succeeding Volumes shall discover which of the whole have been written by me, and which [Page 367] by others, and by whom, as far as I am able, or permitted.

Thus I have voluntarily done what I think all Authors should do when call'd upon. I have published my Name to my Writings, and given my self up to the Mercy of the Town (as Shake­spear expresses it) with all my Imperfections on my Head. The indulgent Readers

Most Obliged, Most Obedient, Humble Servant, Richard Steele.
The End of the Fourth Volume.


  • ADversity, an Ease for it. Page 192
  • Advertisements, a Dissertation upon them. 154
  • Affection distinguish'd from Esteem. 75
  • — Both nearly related in the Fair Sex. 78
  • Alexander the Great, his Character. 10
  • — The remarkable Incident between him and his Physician. 88
  • — His Speech to his Physician. 90
  • — The Irregularity of his Temper. 91
  • Alexander Truncheon, Foreman of the Male Jury in Mr. Bickerstaff's Court of Honour. 278
  • Ambition, its Refuge when disappointed. 56
  • — No true Happiness in the Success of it. 57
  • [Page] Ambition in Grotesque, what. Page [...]
  • Amicable Contribution (a Lottery) for raising t [...] Fortunes of Ten young Ladies. [...]
  • Aminadab, his Letter to Mr. Bickerstaff. [...]
  • Apollo, the God of Verse and Physick. [...]
  • Apot hecaries, great Orators. [...]
  • Appetites, how to be govern'd. [...]
  • Astraea, an unfortunate Wife. [...]
  • Bacon (Sir Francis), his Character. [...]
  • Banbury, famous for Cakes and Zeal. [...]
  • Beauty, an Overstock of it. [...]
  • Bickerstaff (Issaac), his Opinion in a Law Case. [...]
  • — His Letter to the French King. [...]
  • — His Adventures in a Journey to the Lands-End [...]
  • — His Project. [...]
  • — His Letter to Amanda in Kent. [...]
  • — His Advice to Mr. Mills the Comedian. [...]
  • — His Answer to such as came to consult him about their Success in the Lottery. [...]
  • — His Observations upon the Drawing of the L [...] tery the first Day. [...]
  • — His Letter of Advice to a Fortunate Lady. [...]
  • — His Entertainment of his Three Nephews, an [...] a young Lady his Neighbour. [...]
  • — His Remonstrance to a Lady of Quality. [...]
  • — His Receipt. [...]
  • — His Charge to the Court of Honour. [...]
  • Billingsgate-Scold, her Defence before a Magistrat [...] [...]
  • Blockheads, apt to admire one another. [...]
  • Breeding, the highest Point of good Breeding. [...]
  • — Often mistaken. 114, [...]
  • Bridget Howde'e, an Advertisement against he [...] [...]
  • [Page]Caelia, her History. Page 37
  • Caelicola, his Character. 100
  • Callicoat, indicted in the Court of Honour. 311
  • Cambrick, a Linnen-Draper, indicted by the Lady Touchwood. 310
  • — His Defence. 311
  • Case (Dr.), grown rich by Means of a Distich. 224
  • Cato Junior, his Letter and Advice to Mr. Bicker­staff. 25, 26
  • Celamico, his Will. 322
  • Chances, a Character of that Play. 10
  • Chaplains, a Discourse upon 'em. 289
  • Chearfulness and Constancy, Qualifications absolute­ly necessary in the married State. 13
  • Chloe, the Fortunate Lady, her Answer to Mr. Bick­erstaff's Letter. 82
  • Church Weather-Glass, when invented. 136
  • — The Description and Use of it. 137, 138, 139, 140
  • City-Shower, a Description of it. 214
  • Clarinda, her ill Choice. 256
  • Clement (Thomas), his Proposal. 320
  • Companions, what sort the most desirable. 84
  • Conversation, the Use and Abuse of it. 159
  • — A Medium to be observed in it. 242
  • — What it chiefly turns upon. 248
  • — The Humdrums in Conversation. 333, 334
  • Coupler, his Account of Jointures and Marriage-Settlements. 43
  • Court of Honour erected by Mr. Bickerstaff. 266
  • — His Account of the Members of it, and of its Proceedings. 267, 278, 293, 309, 336
  • Dathan, a Jew, indicted in the Court of Honour for breaking the Peace. 296
  • Defiance, natural to the English. 106
  • [Page] Desires, Two most prevalent implanted in us by Nature. Page [...]
  • Devotion, the Pleasure and Dignity of it. [...]
  • — The false Pretenders to it. [...]
  • — The Pleasure of it, as represented by Dr. South. [...]
  • Diana Forecast, her Letter to Mr. Bickerstaff. [...]
  • Dissimulation distinguish'd from Simulation. [...]
  • Distaff (Jenny), her Apology for the Sex. [...]
  • Downes, his Letter to Mr. Bickerstaff. [...]
  • Dozers, who. [...]
  • Dramatists unskilful, the ill Effects of them in th [...] World. [...]
  • Drinking, a Dissertation upon it. [...]
  • — The Viciousness of it. ibid. &c.
  • — A Proviso against Drunkards in the Offices whe [...] Policies are drawn upon Lives. [...]
  • Drunkards die by their own Hand. Ibid
  • D'Urfey, the Lyrick Poet, mistaken in a Dedication. [...]
  • Enters sacrifice all their Senses and Understanding to their Appetites. 71
  • Education, a Letter to Mr. Bickerstaff concerning it. 196
  • — The wrong Education of the Female Sex. 259
  • — A Proposal to reform it. 260
  • Elbow-Chair, where proposed to be provided. 352
  • — And for what Uses. ibid.
  • Elliot, Master of St. James's Coffee-house, his Re­quest to the Censor. 54
  • — Granted upon Conditions. ibid.
  • — His Project in relation to the Drawing of the Lottery. ibid. & 59
  • Envy often occasion'd by Avarice. 169
  • — How to be soften'd into Emulation. ibid.
  • Envy deforms every Thing. 170
  • Esteem distinguish'd from Affection. 75
  • Examiner, reprov'd by the Censor. 217, &c.
  • [Page]Familiarity, how distinguish'd. Page 161
  • Fardingale (Lady), her Advertisement. 244
  • Fashion, the Absurdity of it, when too strictly fol­lowed. 103
  • Feasts considered. 70
  • Female Library proposed for the Improvement of the Sex. 260
  • Flatterers, few good ones. 84
  • — The Qualities of an accomplish'd Flatterer, ibid.
  • — The true Meaning of the Word. 85
  • — In what Manner distingush'd from a Coxcomb. 87
  • Flavia, her Jars with her Daughter. 77
  • Flavia, a truly fine Woman, her Character. 103
  • Fools, the Way to make 'em Madmen. 86
  • Fortitude, what, as describ'd by Mr. Collier. 271
  • Fox-hunter, the Motives for his Hospitality. 57
  • Freemen, who their Superiors. 182
  • Friendship, when most manifeasted. 31
  • Frogs, the Method us'd to plant them in Ireland. 206, &c.
  • Gatty (Mrs.), her Character. 76
  • Good-Fortune, the ready Path to it. 59
  • Goodly (Lady), her Fondness to her Children. 203
  • Grammar not rightly taught. 198
  • Great Men, the Behaviour of some of 'em to their Dependants. 31, &c.
  • True Greatness of Mind, wherein it consists. 62
  • Guicciardin the Historian, a prolix Author. 332
  • Gyges's Ring, the Use Mr. Bickerstaff has made of it. 236
  • [Page]Heroick Virtue, wherein it consists. Page [...]
  • Historical Paintings, the great Advantage of them [...]
  • Honour, the Seat of it. [...]
  • — A Court of Honour erected by Mr. Bickerstaff [...]
  • — A Journal of that Court. 278, 293, 323, [...]
  • Humphrey Trelooby, his Complaint to the Censor. 230
  • Hunger, a Discourse on it. 70
  • Jack Such-a-one, what sort of Men pass under that Title. 75
  • Jester, in what manner to be distinguish'd from a Flatterer. 114
  • — The richest generally the best Jester. 160
  • Indenture of Marriage, drawn up by Mr. Bicker­staff. 46
  • Inquietude (natural), in what mauner to be cured. 56, &c.
  • Jointures, the ill Effects of them. 149, &c.
  • Joseph, the Patriarch, his History. 193
  • Joshua Fairlove, his Petition to Mr. Bickerstaff. 135
  • Journey, Mr. Bickerstaff's Account of one to the Land's-End. 11, 12
  • — His Inferences from it. ibid. &c.
  • Ithuriel (the Angel) makes a Present of his Spear to Mr. Bickerstaff. 211
  • — The Use he put it to. ibid. &c.
  • Law-Case, put to Mr. Bickerstaff. 4
  • — His Answer. ibid.
  • [Page] Letters to Isaac Bickerstaff from Aminadab the Quaker. Page 2
  • — From Downes the Prompter. 17
  • — From an old Maid. 94, 105
  • — From Plain English. 101
  • — From J. L. 104
  • — Upon a Phrase in the Post-Man. 105
  • — From Rebecca Midriffe. 116
  • — From the Widow Gimcrack. 141
  • — From a Scold. 144
  • — Another from Plain-English. 162
  • — From High-Church the Chaplain. 171
  • — From an Almanack-Maker. 172
  • — With a Present of Wine. 187
  • — From the Upholsterer. 188
  • — From Ireland. 206
  • — From B. B. 229
  • — From Scoto Britannus. Ibid.
  • — From Pompey, a Black. 247
  • — From a Gentleman in the Country upon Drink­ing. 274
  • — From a married Man and his Wife. 277
  • — From a Chaplain. 288, 307
  • — From Three Gentlemen, according to the new Stile. 305
  • — From a Gentleman in Kent. 306
  • — From a young Lady, address'd to by many Lo­vers. 306
  • — From Q. Z. upon Mr. B.'s Account of Nova Zembla. 308
  • — From Th. Cl. 309
  • — From Ebenezer, in Dorsetshire. 355
  • — From Felix Tranquillus. 359
  • — From Almeira. 253
  • Lillie (Charles), his Reports. 266
  • Linnen-drapers of Westminster, their Petition to the Censor. 117
  • Literature, the proper Effects of it. 37
  • Lloyd's Coffee-house, Proposals sent from thence to Mr. Bickerstaff. 350
  • [Page] Long Heads, who. Page [...]
  • Lordships, an Apellation on what Occasions proper. 66
  • Lotius, his unequal Conduct. 99
  • Love of a Woman inseparable from some Esteem of her. 78
  • Lucia, her Behaviour to her Mother. 77
  • Lye, a pernicious Monosyllable. 297
  • Lysander, his Complaint to Mr. Bickerstaff. 113
  • Makebate (Eliz.), indicted in the Court of Honour. 309
  • — Her Punishment. 310
  • Male-Coquet, his Bed-Equipage. 237
  • Mandevil (Sir John), some of his Remains. 283
  • Marriage-Settlements, by whom first introduced. 43
  • — The ill Consequences of them. 150
  • — A Regulation proposed. 153
  • Marriage-Life, the Caprices, and Hazards attending it. 12, 42
  • — Some Reasons for it. 44, 150
  • Morn, describ'd by Milton. 331
  • Mountebanks, their Artifices to ensnare the Vulgar. 224
  • Nab, the Haberdasher of Hats, his Petition to the Censor. 361
  • Newman (Richard), his Indictment in the Court of Honour. 297
  • Night, longer formerly in this Island than at pre­sent. 328
  • Noses, a Dissertation upon them. 313
  • Old Age, wherein delighted. 79
  • Old Batchelor, some Account of that Play. 16
  • [Page]Palamede, his Adventure. Page 38
  • Pantomime, a Rule to be observ'd by him, and a Liberty allow'd him in Conversation. 352
  • Parents, their Conduct in general in marrying their Children. 42, 43
  • — Their unequal Love to them. 201
  • — The Folly, and Injustice of it. 203, 205
  • — Wherein they may be allow'd to be particular. 202
  • Party, all Parties composed of Two Sorts of Men. 109
  • — The present Prevalence of Party. 190
  • Patience Gentle, her Letter to Mr. Ralph Incense. 363
  • Patrick (St.), a great Destroyer of Frogs. 206
  • Patrons, their Behaviour to their Dependants. 29, &c.
  • Peter Plumb, Merchant, indicted in the Court of Honour. 293
  • — His Defence. 294
  • — And Sentence. 295, 296
  • Philosophy, the Business of it. 168
  • Physick, observ'd by Mr. Bickerstaff. 225
  • Pictures, the true Use of them. 90
  • Piety, the perfect Pleasure arising from it. 100
  • Pinners, a Treatise of them recommended to the modern Head-Dressers. 102
  • A Platonist, the Fore-Woman of the Jury in the Court of Honour. 279
  • Plainness of Dress the best. 102
  • Poetry, the Foundation of it. 222
  • Polypragmon, his Character. 6, 7
  • Pyrrhus, reprov'd by a Philosopher. 56
  • Pythagoras, his Apothegm. 112
  • Quacks, their Artifices. 222
  • Great Friends to the Upholders. [...]
  • [Page] Quality, what the most essential to a Statesman. Page 24.
  • Ralph Shallow, a fine Speaker. 34, 35
  • Retired Life. 261
  • Ridicule, the ill Effects of it. 134
  • Riding, a wholesome Exercise. 258
  • Rigid, one of the Compositions in all Parties. 109
  • — Described. ibid. 110
  • Satyr, if just, must be directed by Good-Nature. 231
  • — The ordinary Subjects for Satyr. 232
  • — The Vain Pretenders to it. 233
  • Scudamore (Sir), his Adventure. 19, &c.
  • Self-Regard, when most contemptible. 1
  • Settlements, the ill Effects of them. 149, &c.
  • Scholar, the many Pretenders to that Title. 36
  • Scolding, a great Enemy to Women's Features. 122
  • — What usually makes Women Scolds. 123
  • — A Scold compared to a Witch. 126
  • — A Remedy for this Vice. 145
  • Screnading, a silly Custom, reproved by the Censor. 146, 147
  • Shield of Love, obtain'd by Sir Scudamore. 20
  • Shilling, the Adventures of it. 261
  • Show in Germany, representing in Wax-work all the Religions in Great-Britain. 298
  • — A Description of it. 299
  • Simulation distinguish'd from Dissimulation. 105
  • Slattern, describ'd in her Bed. 236
  • Snuff, how, and when it ought to be offer'd. 36
  • South (Dr.) quoted by the Censor. 72, 100
  • State Weather-Glass, the Description and Use of it. 111
  • Story-tellers reprov'd. 333
  • [Page] Style, deprev'd by our Modern Writers. Page 179
  • Supple, a Compound in all Parties. 109
  • Tables of Respect and Intimacy. 115
  • Talkativeness, a Sign of Folly and Ill-breeding. 240
  • Temple of Love, describ'd out of Spencer. 20
  • Tirewomen, their Ignorance. 102
  • Tom Courtly, his great Knowledge. 68
  • Tom Mercet, his Manner of Conversation. 132, 133
  • Tom Springly, wherein an Hypocrite. 107
  • Tom Trueman enter'd among the Heroes of Dome­stick Life. 109
  • Town-Lady, reprov'd by Mr. Bickerstaff. 92
  • Town-Orators, their great Volubility. 240
  • Tradesman, when deserving the Name of Gentle­man. 81
  • Trusty, his Visits to Two Widows. 341
  • Tulips, the Variety of Names given them. 129
  • Virginity, how properly to be dated. 94
  • Virtuoso's, their ridiculous Studies. 118
  • — A Virtuoso's Will. 119, 120
  • Understanding (Good), a necessary Part of a Scho­lar. 36
  • Urbanus, his great Condescension. 241
  • Watch described, as invented by Mr. Bickerstaff. 335
  • Wine to whom, and when to be allow'd. 276
  • Wit Adventitious. 271
  • Wits professed, silly troublesome Fellows. 131
  • [Page] Women have not those favourable Allowances Men give themselves. Page 51
  • — Their common Failing. 254
  • Young (Margery), her Life and Adventures. 163

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