Printed for B. and J. WHITE, Fleet Street.




  • FRONTISPIECE, Bychton, see page 27.
  • VIGNETTE, Downing, at p. 1.
  • I. GROUNDS near Downing, Page 4
  • II. FAIRY OAK, Page 6
  • III. DOWNING, Page 20
  • IV. COATS of ARMS:—1. Arms and crest of the Mostyn family; 2. Crest of the Trevors; 3. Arms of Ang­harad, heiress of Mostyn (see p. 55.) 4. Arms of Ednowain Bendew, and the crest transfixed by a dagger; 5. A variation of the arms of Yswittan Wŷddel; 6. The arms of the Pennants, Page 31
  • V. MOSTYN HALL, with a View of Porth-mawr, Page 54
  • VI. MOSTYN, as in 1684. This, and plate XVI. are fac similes of very coarse drawings, Page 58
  • VII.
    • 1. FRONT of MOSTYN, built 1631, Page 60
    • 2. The late Mr. PARRY'S, MERTYN, see pp. 13, 27.
  • VIII. 1. A LAMP with the head of Jupiter Ammon, Page A. 90
  • IX. 2. Another, with two GENII, cock-fighting, Page B. 90
  • [Page]X. Another, with a warrior's head, Page C. 91
  • XI. A [...] A [...]HERETA, Page 92
  • XII. 1. WHITEFORD CHURCH; 2. Gelli chapel, Page 102
  • XIV. PHAROS on G [...]rreg, and a G [...]. goat Page 112
  • XV. TOOLE of Roman miners, 1, 2, Page 122
  • [...]. A Leaden LAMP. The use of this seems to have been continued amongst the German miners, see Ag [...] de Re Meta [...], [...]b. 50.
  • XVI. WATER-WHEEL in the old collieries near Mostyn, Page 134
  • XVII. WHITE OWL, Br. Zool. i. No 67, Page 146
  • A LUSUS NATURAE on a turkey's leg.
  • XVIII. COPPER and BRASS WORKS, and a View of the Lower Cotton Works, Page 212
  • XIX. View of the two upper COTTON WORKS, Page 214
  • XX. BAGILLT HALL, Page 268
  • XXI. ARMS of the FIVE ROYAL TRIBES, Page 283
  • XXII. ARMS of the SIXTEEN TRIBES of North Wales, Page 290


  • DOWNING, Tre-eden O [...]n Page 1
  • My Birth Place Page 2
  • Affection of Foster Fathers Page 3
  • Horrid Murder ib.
  • Gwibnant Page 4
  • Grounds, Views, &c. Page 5
  • Fairy Oak, Tale of Page 6
  • Downing, the House Page 7
  • Library ib.
  • Hall Page 8
  • Parlor. Portraits ib.
  • David Pennant and Wife ib.
  • Major Hugh Pennant Page 9
  • Pyers Pennant Page 11
  • Peter Pennant Page 12
  • John Pennant, of Chelsea Page 13
  • Epitaph Page 14
  • Robert Pennant ib.
  • Epitaph Page 15
  • My Father and Mother ib.
  • Elizabeth Pennant Page 16
  • John Mytton ib.
  • James Mytton Page 17
  • Sir Roger Mostyn, Knt. Page 17
  • Humphrey Lloyd ib.
  • Sir John Wynne, iunior, Knt. Page 18
  • Sir Richard Wynne, Bart. Page 19
  • Charles I. ib.
  • His Great Grandson ib.
  • Lord Anson Page 20
  • Frobenius ib.
  • Saint Charles Borromeo Page 21
  • Unknown Portraits ib.
  • Cabinet of Fossils Page 22
  • Tyddyn Ucha' ib.
  • Terming Page 23
  • Merton Abbot ib.
  • Complaints of Tegengl Page 24
  • Downing Ucha' Page 25
  • Cruel Feuds ib.
  • Whiteford Wood ib.
  • A Llys Page 26
  • Line of Tudor Trevor ib.
  • Bychton Page 27
  • Summer-house Page 28
  • Madoc ap Meilir ib.
  • Philip ap Yswittan Page 29
  • [Page]Arms Page 30
  • Bards and Heralds Page 32
  • Abbot of B [...]singwerk Page 33
  • Gipsies Page 35
  • Our First Marriage with an English woman Page 36
  • Our First Sheriff ib.
  • Presents to Sheriffs Page 57
  • Brandy Page 41
  • William Pennant, Goldsmith Page 42
  • His Wealth ib.
  • Dissipated by his Nephew Page 43
  • His charitable Bequest ib.
  • Bequests to his Friend. ib.
  • Strange Story of John Pennant, who had a Monster in his Heart Page 45
  • Barbarous Events Page 49
  • Lletty gonest ib.
  • Singular Head Page 50
  • Smuggling ib.
  • Avon Marsh S [...]ambr Page 52
  • Tre Mostyn Page 53
  • The Rhewl ib.
  • Mostyn Hall ib.
  • The old Hall Page 55
  • Coats of Arms ib.
  • Falcon, vast flight of one Page 56
  • Kitchen Page 57
  • Great Room ib.
  • Henry VII. Page 58
  • Square Tower ib.
  • New House, 1631 Page 59
  • Arms and Portraits Page 60
  • Sir Roger, first Baronet Page 61
  • Curious Epistle Page 63
  • Billy Bangor Page 64
  • Busts ib.
  • Dining-Room Page 65
  • Bust of the Elder Brutus ib.
  • of two Fawns ib.
  • Model of a Man of War ib.
  • Edystone ib.
  • Painting of St. Catharine Page 66
  • The Supper at Emaus ib.
  • Two Caverns ib.
  • Daniel Earl of Nottingham ib.
  • His Countess Page 67
  • Lady Essex Mostyn Page 68
  • Sir Roger Mostyn ib.
  • Late Sir Thomas Mostyn ib.
  • Admiral Mostyn Page 69
  • Earl of Northumberland ib.
  • Charles I. and Queen, Profiles Page 70
  • Beauties of Charles II. ib.
  • Arms in stained Glass ib.
  • Sir Orlando Bridgeman ib.
  • Arms in stained Glass Page 71
  • Library ib.
  • Gloddaeth Library Page 73
  • Manuscripts ib.
  • Select Books Page 80
  • Antiquities in the Mostyn Library Page 85
  • Isis ib.
  • A Female rising from the Bath ib.
  • Jupiter's Eagle ib.
  • Osiris Page 86
  • [Page]A Phallus Page 86
  • A Hog-skin Page 87
  • Patera Page 88
  • A Speculum ib.
  • A Strigil Page 89
  • A Comb ib.
  • Bracelet ib.
  • Ring ib.
  • Arm of a Discobulus ib.
  • Key Page 90
  • Lamp, with the Face of Ju­piter Ammon ib.
  • Jupiter and his Eagle ib.
  • Lamp, with two Cocks fighting ib.
    • with a Horse Page 91
    • with a Warrior's Head ib.
  • Isis, a small Figure ib.
  • Another ib.
  • Narbonne Marbles ib.
  • Torques Page 92
  • Copper Cake Page 93
  • Silver Harp Page 94
  • Tre Lan Page 98
  • The Church Page 99
  • Poor Rates Page 100
  • School ib.
  • Club Page 101
  • Catharine Gors Page 102
  • Nicholas Pennant Page 103
  • Louis Gold ib.
  • Pierces, of Ysglan Page 105
  • Of the Foulkes's ib.
  • Of Williams Page 106
  • Elizabeth Mostyn ib.
  • Elizabeth Mostyn's Epitaph Page 107
  • Two other Epitaphs Page 108
  • Vicars of Whiteford ib.
  • Vault of the Mostyns Page 109
  • Of the Pennants Page 110
  • Garreg Page 111
  • Pharos Page 112
  • Maen Achwynsan Page 113
  • Gelli Page 114
  • Glol ib.
  • Sarn-Hwlkin Page 115
  • Tre'r Abbot ib.
  • Miles Davies ib.
  • Llyn Helyg Page 116
  • Plâs Captain Page 117
  • Lususes Page 118
  • Entrenchment ib.
  • Llwybr Hîr Page 119
  • Ty-maen ib.
  • Ednowen Bendew ib.
  • Gorseddau Page 120
  • Pen-fford-y-waen ib.
  • Boundaries of the Parish Page 121
  • Length ib.
  • Minerals ib.
  • worked by the Romans Page 122
  • Their tools ib.
  • Mineral Tract Page 123
  • Lead Ores ib.
  • Carrickfergus Page 124
  • Gravel Lead Ore ib.
  • Copper Ore Page 125
  • Calamine ib.
  • John Barrow Page 126
  • [Page]Black Jack Page 127
  • Mi [...] Distemper Page 128
  • C [...]ert Page 130
  • Lime Stone Page 131
  • Spars ib.
  • Petroleum ib.
  • Advent [...]ous Bodies Page 132
  • Shells ib.
  • Change of Strata ib.
  • Shale ib.
  • Alum ib.
  • Collieries Page 133
  • Quay Page 134
  • Engine ib.
  • Strata ib.
  • Coal Page 135
  • Canal Coal Page 136
  • Free-stone ib.
  • Burnt Rock ib.
  • A Fire Damp Page 137
  • Another in 1751 Page 139
  • Earthquakes ib.
  • Quadrupeds Page 142
  • Birds Page 146
  • Fishes Page 148
  • Angel Fish Page 149
  • Sting Ray Page 150
  • Herring Page 151
  • Anchovy Page 151
  • W [...]ver ib.
  • Plants Page 152
  • A Mu [...]room a dread [...]ul Poison Page 154
  • Water Page 155
  • Frynnon Oswald Page 156
  • Bryn-y-Groes ib.
  • Whiteford Stream ib.
  • Felyn L [...]m Page 157
  • Nature of the Dingles ib.
  • Chalybeate Springs ib.
  • Husbandry ib.
  • Mountain Ground ib.
  • Sheep Page 158
  • Hogs Page 159
  • Soils, Clay ib.
  • Lighter Soil ib.
  • Potatoes Page 160
  • Wheat Page 161
  • Produce of Wheat Page 169
  • Sod-kilns ib.
  • Barleys ib.
  • Oats Page 170
  • Grasses ib.
  • Clover ib.
  • Rye-Grass ib.
  • Planting Page 171
  • Sir Edward Lloyd, a great Planter Page 172


I NATURALLY begin this little history with the account of Tre Eden Owain, the place where I first made my entrance into this busy world. The principal house in this township, Downing, was built in the year 1627.DOWNING. It certainly had no pretensions to the English name of Downing, which doubtlessly was a corruption from Eden Owain, the Tre or township in which it stands. The founder was John Pennant, son of Nicholas Pennant, a younger son of Hugh Pennant, of Bychton. He married the heiress of the place, and built a house, which was much too large for the estate. The stones were brought from Nant-y-bi, a dingle opposite to the house. There is a tradition, that the stones were rolled along a platform from the top of the quarry, raised on an [Page 2] inclined plane till they reached the building, and there were ele­vated as the work increased in height, till the whole was finished. The house is in form of a Roman H, a mode of architecture very common in Wales at that period. On the front is the pious motto frequent on the Welsh houses, Heb Dduw heb ddim, a duw a dig [...]n, which signifies, ‘Without God there is nothing, with God enough.’ There were only four generations of this branch; Thomas, the last, died in 1724, and was buried in Whiteford church, on June 6th of the same year. He bequeathed his estate to my father, who made the house his residence; his own father being living, and the house much better than our paternal.

M. EARTH P [...].TO pre [...] all disputes about the place and time of [...] [...]th, be it known that I was born on June 14th, 1726, old style, in the room now called the Yellow Room; that the celebrated Mrs. C [...]ay [...]n, of S [...]rowsbury, ushered me into the world, and delivered me to Miss J [...]y Perry, of Merton, in this parish; who to her dying day never failed telling me, ‘Ah, you rogue! I remember you when you had not a shirt to your back.’

ANTIENT MODE OF NURSING.I WAS, according to antient custom, put out to nurse at a neigh­boring farm-house, called Pentre, covered with thatch, and which at present would be deemed a cottage. My nurse's maiden name was Pennant; and from the time of this great event she re­sumed it, notwithstanding she had long used that of her husband, John Pierce, a freeholder of above a hundred a year. He and she were fond of this charge, which was ever esteemed a peculiar favor and honor. The affection and connection is still retained in many parts of Ireland; but what is unfortunate in more civilized Wales, both seem at present almost extinguished.

[Page 3]OF the affection between the foster-father, foster-mother,AFFECTION OF [...]OSTER FATHERS, &c. and foster-brother, the instances were frequent. The fidelity of Robin ap Inko, foster-brother to Jevan ap Vychan, of the house of Gwedir, in the reign of Edward IV. was a most noted one. In a fatal feud between Jevan and his brother-in-law Rys ap Howel, the latter, expecting a fray, provided a butcher to murder Jevan in the confusion of the battle, and to him he gave orders in these terms. The butcher not being acquainted with Jevan, Ap Rys said, ‘Thou shalt soone discerne him from the rest by his stature, and he will make way before him. There is a foster-brother of his, one Robin ap Inko, a little fellow, that useth to match him behind: take heed of him, for be the encountre never soe hot, his eye is ever on his foster-brother;’ —and so it happened. Robin suspected the treachery, and seeing the butcher watching his opportunity, came behind him and knocked him on the head in the moment in which he had come behind Jevan, and had aimed one at that of his beloved foster-brother. The patrimony of his faithful follower was in the parish of Llanderfel; and to this day retains the name of Tyddin Inko.

IN those days there was great competition for the honor of fostering the children of great men.HORRID MURDEN. The parson of Llanvrothen near Traeth-mawr, had taken a child of Jevan ap Robert to nurse. This so grieved the wife of Rys (her husband having more land in the parish than Jevan had) that she determined to have the poor parson put to death. A woman was sent to his house, who was kindly taken in. At midnight she set up hideous cries, pre­tending that the parson had attempted to ravish her. This only was a pretence for revenge: the woman had, as the historian says, [Page 4] to her brethren three notable rogues ‘of the damned crew fit for any mischief, being followers of Howel ap Rys. These watched the parson, and as he went one morning to look to his cattle, cruelly murdered him; the sequel is told in the Welsh Tour, vol. i. p. 291, and the proper end of the villains.—These extracts are taken from the history of the Gwedir family, a curious pub­lication, for which we are indebted to my true friend the Honor­able Daines Barrington.

WHEN I came into possession of Downing, by the death of my excellent father David Pennant, the house had partly transome, partly sashed windows. By consulting a drawing of it in that state, may be known the changes made by myself. With the estate, I luckily found a rich mine of lead ore, which enabled me to make the great improvements I did. The grounds were much hurt by a vile road running in front and on one side of the house, and through the middle of the demesne, to the hamlet called Gwibnant, GWIBNANT. or the meandring glen. The house was planted up almost to the door, which gave it a very melancholy gloom. But I soon laid open the natural beauties of the place, and by the friendly exchange Sir Roger Mostyn made with me, enlarged the fine scenery of the broken grounds, the woods, and the com­mand of water. The walks in the near grounds, the fields, and the deep and darksome dingles, are at left three miles in extent, and the dingle not ill united with the open grounds, by a subter­raneous passage under the turnpike road. I am not a little flattered by the admiration of those who visit the place. Mr. Boydel has published a fine engraving of the house among his Welsh feats. I have, as a head-piece to p. 1. of this Work, given it in the prettiest representation.



[Page 5]MY grounds consist of very extensive walks along the fine swelling lands, beneath the shady depth of the glens,GROUNDS. or through the contracted meads which meander quite to the shore.VIEWS. The views are various towards the hills, and the antient Pharos on Garreg. Over the channel of the Dee, the Hilbree isles, on one of which had been a cell of Benedictines, dedicated to our Lady, and dependent on Chester and possibly the hermitage called Hilburghey, which in the second of Edward III. received ten shillings a year from a charity belonging to the castle at Chester. The dreary woodless tract of Wiral, a hundred of Cheshire, stretches eastward as far as its capital, chequered with black heaths, and with corn, a bad return to the prospect of our wooded slope; yet formerly was so well cloathed as to give oc­casion to this distich:

From Blacon point to Hilbree
A squirrel might leap from tree to tree.

But our sea view is animated with the sight of the numerous fleets entering and sailing out of the port of Liverpool, now swelled into a vast emporium, from (a century and a half ago) a most insig­nificant fishing town.

IN the near view below the house are the ruins of the abbey of Molandina: notwithstanding they are not very considerable, they do not want their beauties. Let me confess that this is a trap for antiquaries, the name derived from Mola being a deserted mill, antiquated by myself as an imposture innocente. FAIRY OAK. Above this is a spreading oak of great antiquity, size, and extent of branches: it has got the name of the Fairy Oak. In this very [Page 6] century a poor cottager, who lived near the spot, had a child who grew uncommonly peevish; the parents attributed this to the fair [...], and imagined that it was a changeling. They took the child, put it in a cradle, and left it all night beneath the tree, in hopes that the tylwydd têg, or fairy family, or the fairy folk, would restore their own before morning. When morning came they found the child perfectly quiet, so went away with it, quite confirmed in their belief. Shakspeare and Spenser allude to this popular fiction. Spenser is particularly allusive to the above:

And her base elrin breed there for thee left,
Such man do changelings call, so chang'd by fairies theft.

Besides this oak is another, on a spot within the pleasure-grounds called Mount Airy. It probably is of superior age to that I have just mentioned; it is truly picturesque, and has in it furrows so deep, and of aspect so uncommonly venerable, as to render its shade as worthy of the solemn rites of the Druids, as those of Mona in its most prosperous days. At a small distance below are three ever­green oaks, of a considerable size; I do not know how they came there, for the wood in my father's time was in a state of nature. Below those is a very antient towering oak of great size; and in a dingle, near the field called the Coxet, is a tree of the same species of great size and beauty, yet retaining the very habit of a vigorous sapling. These and a fine Spanish chesnut are the boast of my Sylvan shades. If I digrese beyond them let me mention a most antient pear-tree, which gives name to a field, Coitia Pren Gellig; the stem has not a relique of sound timber, it consists entirely of


[Page 7] rotten wood, yet bears annually most plentiful crops of a choaky pear.

THE house itself has little to boast of.HOUSE. I fortunately found it in­capable of being improved into a magnitude exceeding the reve­nue of the family. It has a hall which I prefer to the rural impro­priety of a paltry vestibule; a library thirty feet by eighteen; a parlor capable of containing more guests than I ever wish to see at a time, Septem, convivium; novem, convicium! and a smoaking-room most antiquely furnished with antient carvings, and the horns of all the European beasts of chace. This room is now quite out of use as to its original purpose. Above stairs is a good drawing-room, in times of old called the dining-room, and a tea-room, the sum of all that are really wanted.—I have Cowley's wish realized, a small house and large garden!

THE library is filled by a numerous collection of books,LIBRARY. principally of history, natural history and classics. My own la­bors might fill an ordinary book-room; many of them receive considerable value from the smaller drawings and prints with which they are illustrated on the margins, as well as by the larger intermixed with the leaves; among the latter are several draw­ings of uncommon beauty, by that eminent hand Mr. Nicholas Pococke. These relate either to the Ferroe isles, or to Iceland, others to the distant Tibet or Boutan. I was favored, by John Thomas Stanley, esq with permission to have copies made of the first, and by Warren Hastings, esq of the last. Among my own labors,OUTLINES OF THE GLOBE. I value myself on my MS. volumes of THE OUTLINES OF THE GLOBE, in xxii. volumes, folio, on which uncommon expence has been bestowed, in ornament and illuminations.

[Page 8] HALL.IN the hall are some very good pictures by Peter Pa [...]ou, a fine painter of animals and birds: four express the three cli­mates, two of them are of the Torrid Zone, one the Temperate, and another the Frigid, all illustrated by suitable animals and scenery: the two last have much merit. Besides, there is a romantic view in Otabeite, and another of part of an isle of ice near the Antartic Circle, with three different species of those strange birds the pin­guins, and two different species of the petrels; this was taken from an original sketch made on the spot by Doctor John Rein­hold Forster.

PORTRAITS.THE parlor is filled with numbers of portraits, and other paintings. The greater part of the first are reduced from the originals by Moses Griffith, in a most masterly manner. A few excepted, they are family pictures. A very large one covers the end of the room; the figures are three quarters, and dressed in the manner in which Vandyk did his; the man has a remarkable good look, long hair, whiskers, and small beard: his wife is by him; between them a boy with a basket of flowers, and by him a gre-hound.DAVID PEN­NANT WIFE AND CHILD. These represent David Pennant, sheriff of the county in 1643, his wife Margaret Pennant, of Merton, and their eldest son Piers. This piece is done in a superior style, a good imitation of Vandyk. A grand column and a rich carpet is intro­duced, a flattery of the artist, for in those days we were far from being able to pay for even a performance of that value. It pro­bably was done in the troublesome times, when some painter of merit might have wandered about the country, and have been glad of working for his meat and his drink, and some trifle for other necessaries.

[Page 9]MY great, great grandfather was an officer in the garrison of Denbigh, when it was besieged and taken by my maternal great, great grandfather general Mytton. My loyal ancestor suffered there a long imprisonment. Bychton was plundered, and the distress of the family so great, that he was kept from starving by force of conjugal affection; for his wife often walked with a bag of oatmeal from the parish of Whiteford to Denbigh to relieve his wants.

NOTWITHSTANDING the zeal of his house for the loyal cause, it suffered very little in respect to the general composition of delinquents; the Bychton estate only paid 42l. 14s. whereas Robert Pennant, of Downing, paid not less than 298 l. for his estate, which was very far inferior to the other. The occasion was this: Robert Pennant had the misfortune to have a hot-headed young fellow in his house, when a small detachment of the adverse party, with a cornet at the head, approached the place. He persuaded the family to resist; the doors were barri­cadoed, a musquet fired, and the cornet wounded. The house was soon forced, and of course plundered; but, such was the mode­ration of the party, no carnage ensued, and the only revenge seems to have been the disproportionate fine afterwards levied.

NOTWITHSTANDING his brother Hugh is not delivered down to us on canvas,MAIOR HUGH PENNANT. I cannot omit the mention of him as a brave and faithful officer in the royal army serving in North Wales. He attained the rank of major, and particularly distinguished himself in the isle of Anglesey. In 1648, that island, in imitation of several of the English counties, rose in order to set the king at liberty, and to restore monarchy to the oppressed kingdom. Numbers of royalists resorted to this island from different parts [Page 10] of North Wales, and made a general muster in the middle of the island, under the command of Thomas lord Bulkeley. The par­lement determined on their reduction, and made Conwy the place of rendezvous. General Mytt [...]n was the commanding of­ficer; he landed at Cadnant, where Hugh Pennant was posted, who, after undergoing a severe fire from the rocks and hedges, being left unsupported, was obliged to retreat. Two captains posted at Porth-aethwy, made so speedy a flight, that it was said that one of them at lest had previously received the bribe of 50 l. for his treachery. In the battle which soon after was fought near Beaumaris, Hugh Pennant charged the enemy with great spirit, and was very near taking that brave officer colonel Lo­thian prisoner. Some others of the loyal officers conducted themselves with spirit; but, in general, the islanders are allowed by their own historian, a schoolmaster of Beaumaris, to have be­haved very ill. An Anglesey captain was directed to keep the church: he posted his men in it, locked them safely up, and then ran away with the key in his pocket. The historian tells us, that he was called Captain Church to his dying day. They certainly had great valor at distant danger. As soon as the enemy appeared march­ing over Penmaen-mawr, at lest four miles from Beaumaris, the Anglesey people began to bustle; drums beat, trumpets sounded, and great vollies of small shot and great were discharged; at which the enemy, says the sage pedagogue, took little or no no­tice. Major Pennant was probably taken in Beaumaris castle, with the royal army, to which place it had retired after the de­feat. As soon as he obtained his liberty he resided at Bryn-shone, in the parish of Yskivi [...]g, where he died on March 10th, 1669, and was interred at Whiteford.

[Page 11]He was married to Margaret Aungier, baroness of Longford, one of the daughters of Sir Thomas Cave, of Slimford, in the county of Northampton, knight. This lady had four husbands; she paid our country the compliment of beginning and ending with a Welshman: her first was Sir John Wynne, of Gwedir, junior, they lived unhappily together, which sent him on his tra­vels into Italy, where he died at Lucca. She then took one of the Milesian race, for she married Sir Francis Aungier, master of the rolls in Ireland, afterwards created baron of Longford. Thirdly, she gave her hand to an Englishman, Sir Thomas Wenman, of Oxfordshire; and, finally, she resigned her antiquated charms to our valiant major, who in the year 1656 deposited her with his ancestors, in the church at Whiteford.

THE next is a single figure, a half-length of Pyers, PYERS PENNANT. son of David Pennant, with long hair, a long laced cravat, and in a singular gown. His wife is in another frame, a handsome woman, with her neck naked, and long tresses flowing on each side. She was one of the celebrated seven sisters of the house of Gwysanney, near to Mold, who were all married about the same time, and all became widows, and of them only two of them renewed the nuptial vow. These ladies being much talked of, even to this day, I add their names, and those of their spouses. Let me premise that they were daughters of Robert Davies, by Anne, eldest daughter of Sir Peter Mutton, knight, chief justice of North Wales, and owner of Llanerch, in the vale of Clwyd.

  • Anne, their first daughter, married John Thelwall, of Plascoch.
  • Katherine, Pyers Pe [...]ant, of Bychton.
  • [Page 12] Dorothy, married George Hope, of Doddleston.
  • Elizabeth, Thomas Humphries, of Boddlewiddan.
  • Margaret, John Holland, of Tyrddan.
  • Ellen, George Wynne, of Leeswood.
  • Jane, Thomas Edwards, of Rhual.

Pyers Pennant, who occasioned this notice, died in 1623.

I CANNOT well ascertain the next portrait, which is of a hand­some young man, in long hair, flowing and curling gracefully on his shoulders. He is dressed in the military dress of the time, a laced turn-over, and an elegant buff coat, much ornamented, and a musket with an aukward old lock in his hand, and a sword by his side. I suspect him to have been a son of Pyers Pennant, who was slain the ill-conducted expedition to the isle Rhi, under the duke of Buckingham, in 1627. He probably was in the company of his neighbor captain Richard Mostyn, a younger son of Mostyn, who fell in the same spot.

PETER PENNANT.THE portrait of my grandfather, Peter Pennant, represents, what I well remember him to have been, a fine person, and of a jovial complexion. He is dressed in a white tye-wig, and a red coat. On the death of his first wife, Catherine, second daughter of the Wynnes, of Glynne, in Merionethshire, he went into the army in the reign of Queen Anne, and served at the siege of Brussels. Disgusted with his colonel, Sir Thomas Prendergast, after demanding satisfaction, which Sir Thomas declined, he re­signed, and passed the remainder of his days at Bychton; where he lived in great hospitality, and died in October 1736, aged 72.

[Page 13]HIS uncle, John Pennant, in a full brown wig,JOHN PENNANT, OF CHELSEA. and brown g [...]wn. By his jolly rubicund face he appears to have been a tho [...]ough bon-vivant, yet with much the air of the gentleman. The original, a well painted picture, was given to us by John Wynne, of Coperleney, in this neighborhood, who, by the in­scription on the back, seems to have taken as much pride in being thought the friend of John Pennant, as Sir Fulke Grevil did in being the friend of Sir Philip Sydney. Many a bottle had they emptied during their thirty years friendship. He resided at Chelsea, where my father often visited him during the boyish holydays. My father told me he was frequently taken by him to the coffee-house, where he used to see poor Richard Cromwell, a little and very neat old man, with a most placid countenance, the effect of his innocent and unambitious life.

I IMAGINE that the coffee-house was Don Saltero's, to which he was a benefactor, and has the honor of having his name in­serted in the catalogue. I have, when a boy, seen his gift to the great Saltero, which was a lignified hog. I fear that this matchless curiosity is lost, at left it is omitted in the last, or 47th edition of the catalogue.—What author of us can flatter himself with delivering his works down to posterity, in im­pressions so numerous as the labors of Don Saltero?

John Pennant died in 1709, aged 69, and was interred in the church-yard of Chelsea, and had a small monument to his memo­ry erected against the wall of the church, by his wife, daughter to Mr. Parry, of Merton, a house and small estate which we now possess, above a mile from Downing. Her affection pro­vided [Page 14] the following epitaph, which I give more on that account, than for the excellency of the composition.

Near this place, under a stone with his name on it, lies the body of John Pennant, gent. second son of David Pennant, of Bichton, in the county of F [...], esq who departed this life the 5th of June, 1709, aged 69. In whose memory this monument was erected, by his mournful widow, who designs to be interred in the same grave:
Had virtue in perfection power to save
The best of men from the devouring grave,
Pennant had liv'd; but 'tis in vain to flie
The fatal stroke, where all are doom'd to die.
Farewel, lov'd spouse; since want of words appears
T' express my grief, I'll moan thy loss with tears,
Which like N [...]le's cataracts shall rumble down,
And with their briny floods my passion drown,
Here may thy ashes undisturb'd remain,
Till thy wife's dust re-visits thee again;
Then sacred quiet, till the day of doom
Seal the enclosure of our catacomb.

His arms are those of the Pennants. Her's those of Edwyn, lord of Tegengle.

ROBERT PENNANT.ANOTHER of my kindred lies in Pancras church-yard. I may be excused for mentioning him, as his epitaph is far from inele­gant. This youth, Robert Pennant, was son to Pierce Pennant by Katherine, one of the seven sisters of Gwysanney, and was snatched away at the age of twenty-four, in the year 1639. He was at­tended to his grave, as was then the custom, by a most numerous set of friends, among whom were the two bishops, and numbers of [Page 15] the first gentry of North Wales, who happened then to be in town. Thus is delivered his amiable character:

Gentilibus suis compositus
Robertus Pennant,
Filius 2dus l'yercei Pennant, de Bychton,
In Com. Flint, Arm.
Et Katherinae, sororis Roberti Davies,
Hic reconditus.
Qui cum omnia obiisset munera
Juvenem quae suis charum reddere poterant
Febre Londini correptus,
Desideratus aeque ac notus decessit
Aetatis A [...] 24.

MY worthy father was painted at the age of fifteen,MY FATHER. most aukwardly in a long flowing wig. He was brought up at Thistleworth, under Creech, the translator of Lucretius; after that his education was neglected, but he was abnormis sapiens, and of the best of hearts. He passed a useful and worthy life to a good old age; and departed, with every expression of piety and resigna­tion, on January 1st, 1763, aged 78.

MY good and religious mother is painted in oil,MOTHER. over the chimney-piece; she is dressed in blue, her neck naked, her tresses auburn, long, and flowing. The painter was Mr. Fellowes, an artist of some merit, who lived at Wrexham and Chester. She was called a beauty, 'in spite of her teeth,' which were not good. She was third daughter of Richard Mytton, Esq of Halston (see Tour in Wales, i. p. 246) one of fifteen children, by Arabella, eldest daughter of Sir John [Page 16] Houblon, lord mayor of London in 1695, lord of the admiralty in the time of King William, and the first governor of the bank of England. See more of his history in my account of London, p. 455. I have often been assured by some of my aunts, that (with their father and mother) they had often danced to the number of eight couple. My mother was born September 6th, 1689, and married to my father December 24th, 1724. The courtship was carried on at Wynn-stay, and the nuptials per­formed at the neighboring church of Rhiwabon. That good man Sir Watkin Williams Wynne, in a frolic, jumped on the box, and drove the bride and bridegroom to the church-door. This excellent woman died in London of the small-pox, in the year 1744. She, near to her dying moment, called me to the bed-side, and presented me with her silver etwee, and looked as if she could have delivered her tender adieu in the Augustan style (which I engraved on it) VIVE MEMOR AMORIS NOSTRI, ET VALE!

ELIZABETH PENNANT.THE portrait of my venerable aunt, Elizabeth Pennant, was drawn in water colors, in her old age, by Moses Griffith, and does him much credit. It is a very strong likeness, dressed in the old fashion, with a long white handkerchief flung carelessly over her cap; the countenance shews the goodness of her heart. I speak gratefully of a friend, who doated on me and mine. I lost this valuable woman October 2d, 1775; who, with all the con­sciousness of a well-spent life, quitted the earthly stage with the utmost tranquillity.

JOHN MYTTON.MY respected uncle John Mytton, of Halston, born Septem­ber 11th, 1690, closes the list of relations. His countenance in­dicates [Page 17] the sweet disposition he possessed, and [...]ll his features are amiable. His dress, a grey tye-wig, a blue coat, with a scarlet mantle flung over one arm. He was bred a merchant, and spent much of his time in Portugal; but succeeding his eldest brother Richard in his estate, retired to Halston, where he ended his benevolent life.

I MUST not forget a shade of my affectionate uncle James Mytton, fifth son of the same house, and brother to the last,JAMES MYTTON. the kind friend of my youth, with whom I lived long, and strove, to the best of my power, to reap from him every advantage that his good sense, good heart, and polished manners, wished to instil into my susceptible mind.

I CONCLUDE the accounts of the portraits of our family with my own, in a Vandyk dress, by Mr. Willes, an ingenious artist, who afterwards quitted the pencil and obtained holy orders, to which he did no discredit.

Moses Griffith furnished this room with other reduced por­traits. That from the fine picture of Sir Roger Mostyn, knight,SIR ROGER MOSTYN, KNT. (of whom more will be said when I arrive at the house) is an admirable performance.

SUPERIOR even to the portrait of Sir Roger Mostyn is that of Humphrey Lloyd, taken from the original, on board,HUMPHREY LLOYD. in possession of the Reverend John Lloyd, of Aston, in Shropshire. This illus­trious person was senator, philosopher, historian, and physician. He represented the town of Denbigh, in 1653. He is celebrated also as an accomplished gentleman, eloquent, and an excellent rhetorician. Camden speaks of his great skill in the antiquities of his country. He married a sister of John lord Lumley: and [Page 18] formed his brother-in-law's library, which now is the most va­luable part in the British Museum. He died in 1658, aged 41. He is painted with short reddish hair, rounded beard, and whiskers, a short quilled ruff, black dress, and a triple gold chain; on one side of him are his arms and crest; beneath is this motto: ‘HWY PERY KLOD NA GOLYD.’ ‘Fame is more lasting than wealth.’ On the other side is the following inscription: Aetatis 34. A. D [...]i. 1561. Vera effigies incliti Artium Professoris, earumque dumni Humfredi Lloyd, Cambro-Britanni et Denbighensis, ortus antiqu [...] R [...]s [...]ndalorum familiâ; qui floruit temporibus Mariae et Elizabeth [...] beata memoria regin. Obiitq. An. D [...]i. 156 [...], et cum patribus in ecclesia parochiali de Denbigh sepultus.’ He was buried at Whichchurch, near Denbigh, with a very neat monument. He is represented kneeling at an altar beneath a range of small arches, and dressed in a Spanish habit.

SIR JOHN WYNNE, JUNIOR, KNIGHT.THIS is over the chimney-piece; above him is the portrait of Sir John Wynne, knight, who died on his travels at Lucca, in 1614. (It is taken from the original at Wynn-stay.) He was buried there, in the parish of St. John's. I have seen numbers of his letters, which shew him to have been a most observant man. He was eldest son of Sir John Wynne, of Gwedir. He is in black, has a large ruff, laced turn-over, and others at his wrists, a white girdle stuck with points, and a white belt passing over his shoulders and breast. His countenance is good, his hair short and dark, his beard small and peaked.

[Page 19]THE next is opposite to the other,SIR RICHARD WYNNE, BART. a head of Sir Richard Wynne, baronet, grandson to old Sir John, and last of the male line.

ABOVE Sir John Wynne is a very fine head of Charles I. by Vandyk. He is elegantly dressed in a red jacket,CHARLES I. slashed and laced. This was purchased at the sale of the late colonel Nor­ton, of Southwick, in Hampshire, by my worthy friend the late Pusey Brooke, esq and gratefully presented by him to the late Mr. Edwards, of Brynford, to whom he lay under obligations. It was on his death presented to my father, and decreed to re­main an heir-lome in the family.

OPPOSITE to Charles I. is another Charles, HIS GREAT GRANDSON. great grandson to the unfortunate monarch. It is a head in oil-colors, after the original by Hussey. He was a man uncommonly handsome: his fine brown hair is tied behind, and curled on the sides; his body and arms are clad in armor. In the field he certainly took too great care of his person, but I believe the armor to have been the painter's choice. His highness had given him­self the two orders, for both the blue and the green ribbon grace his shoulders.

THIS picture was originally the property of the late Sir William Meredith, baronet. He suddenly veered from the Stuart to the Brunswick line; and thinking it unsafe to have a Stuart, even in canvas, presented it to my very worthy mother-in-law, Elizabeth Falconer, a true votary of exiled royalty. On her death, the choice of any of her personality having been, in the most friendly manner, offered by her son the Rev. James Falconer, D. D. I fixed on this. The period of Jacobitism was over; but I re­member [Page 20] the time in which I might have been struck out of the commission for having in my possession even the shadow of disaffection.

ANSON.ANSON, the persevering ANSON, graces the lower end of the room: a head painted when he was a captain, before the year 1742, when he began his celebrated voyage. This was the bequest of my uncle James Mytton, who well knew the respect I had to the two illustrious brothers of Shugborough. Lord ANSON was for­tunate, but his good fortune was the result of merit, not of chance. During his naval administration, and during that more arduous one under John earl of SANDWICH, the commerce of BRITAIN in every part was uninterrupted! our colonies protected! our acquisitions secured! and, in the latter war, when we had all the world to combat, our squadrons were every where! The superior genius of the man disposed our fleets so as to gain all those advantages, without neglecting, without weakening the domestic safety of BRITAIN, which must ever acknowlege his salutary strength of mind, and bury his foibles in oblivion. His blemishes were those of the private man: his high qualities, public benefits. In his active days ‘No navies yawn'd for orders on the main.’

FROBENIUS.I HAVE very few other pictures. I may boast of an admirable head of Frobenius, the printer of the celebrated Erasmus, by Holbein; it is exactly the same with that of Hatfield. (See Journey to London, p. 408.) I will repeat what I said respecting that illus­trious typographer. He is dressed in a black gown, lined with for. Frobenius was a native of Franconi [...], but settled at Bazil, in [Page]

DOWNING. —Published in the Act [...] 1796. by [...]

[Page 21] Switzerland, of which city he became a citizen. He was a man of considerable learning, and the finest printer of his time. Erasmus resided a long time with him, attracted by his personal merit, and his admirable skill in his profession; for to him we are indebted for the most beautiful edition of the works of his illustrious friend. Frobenius died in 1527, and was honored by the same hand with two epitaphs, one in Greek, the other in Latin.

THE next is a small half-length on copper of Saint Charles Bor­romeo, praying before a crucifix.SAINT CHARLES BORROMEO. That illustrious prelate was an ornament to his church. He is represented in his car­dinal's dress, with a wan and meagre countenance, the effects of his sincere austerities. Those alone ought not to have given him a place in the kalendar: his genuine piety, his benevolence, his great deeds of charity, furnished him with the fullest clame. Add to this, his courage in facing the pestilence which raged in Milan, his native city, in all its horrors. He administered to the distressed every comfort, spiritual and temporal. Like Mar­seilles's good bishop,’ he escaped, and received his heavenly re­ward November 3d, 1584.

Or unknown portraits I have two. One is of an officer,UNKNOWN POR­TRAITS. I think by de Gelder, a pupil of Rembrandt's. It is much in the style of his master. The figure is standing, with a good military coun­tenance. In one hand is a long sword, the point resting on the floor; on his head is a hat and feathers; his body is armed to the waist; below are long skirts of buff; his helmet is on a barrel, the colors-furled, and rests against the wall; his shield and war-saddle near them. De Gelder was born in 1645, and died in 1727.

[Page 22]THE other is of a Low Country soldier; a small full length; a most graceful figure of a young man leaning on a chair, with an emptied glass in one hand, and on the floor a flagon, and near is his white hat and feathers; his hair long; he is in a buff coat, a broad leathern belt, with a cloak flung carelessly over one arm; he has vast boots, and a long sword hanging down from his side.

A SMALL, but neat inside of a Flemish church; and a fine painting of a white grous, hung by one foot from a tree, with some plants near the foot. These are all the paintings I can boast of. The last is by Rysbrack, a painter born at Antwerp about the middle of the last century.

I MAY conclude with a very neat drawing by Moses Griffith, of the antient gardens of Llanerch, in the Italian taste of the middle of the last century, made by Mr. Mutton Davies, after his return from Italy; they were fine (in that style), decorated with water­works, statues, dials, &c. &c. emitting water, to the astonishment of the spectators. The original of the drawing is from an old large picture in my possession.

CABINET OF FOSSILS. Downing may boast of a good and numerous collection of fossils and minerals, partly collected by myself, partly by my son in his extensive travels; many of the specimens are elegant, and most of them instructive.

TYDDI [...] UCHA'.ABOVE a mile from Downing is Tyddyn Ucha', a farm-house belonging to our family. In the last century it was inhabited by my grandfather, during the life-time of his father. My uncle John Pennant, and two of my aunts, were born there. I have often heard it said, with pride, that once three baronets were [Page 23] entertained there by the hospitable owner. I vehemently suspect, from the size of the house, that at lest two of them must have slept together.

MY father has often told me a ridiculous story of the effect of a jolly evening passed there by some of the convivial neigh­bors. They had made very free with some ale which had been brewed with malt made of soul barley, unfortunately mixed with the seeds of certain plant, which brought on a temporary blind­ness. The guests had not gone far before the symptoms seized them, and they were led back to their host, who was in the same condition. They were suddenly alarmed with a violent scream in a female voice. It seems that the butleress, or female butler, had, in her repeated visits to the cellar, sipped too plentifully of the cwrw, and, terrified with the effect, betrayed herself by giv­ing unguardedly full vent to her fears.

IN those days the neighbors were much addicted to terming, TERMING. i. e. brewing a barrel of ale at some favorite ale-house, and stay­ing there till it was all drunk out. They never went to bed, even should the term last a week; they either slept in their chairs or on the floor, as it happened, then awoke and resumed their jollity. At length, when the barrel was exhausted, they reeled away, and the hero of this Bacchanalian rout always carried the spiggot in triumph. Coursing was very frequently the occasion of these terms; each gentleman brought his gre-hound, and often made matches, more for the glory of producing the best dog, than for the value of the bet.

AT half a mile distance, south of this house, stands Merton, MERTON ABBOT. in the township of Merton Uwch Glan; I gave it the addition of [Page 24] Abbot, to distinguish it from the many others of the same name. It was built in the year 1572, and for the time was a tolerable house. This and the Holywell estate was conveyed into our family by the marriage of David Pennat with Katherine Pennant, daughter and sole heiress of John Pennant, of Holywell, and Mary, daughter of Thomas ap Thomas ap Edward, of Merton. John was fourth in descent from Nicholas Pennant, last abbot of Basingwerk, and son of Thomas ap David, &c. &c. his predecessor in the abbotship. David Pennant, who made this valuable acquisition, died in 1666; Katherine survived him till the year 1700. This was the only marriage that added much to our estate since the time of Madoc ap Thomas ap Meiiir, who sat down at Bychton with the heiress of Philip O' Phicdan, hereafter to be mentioned.

THE two Mertons, Uwch Glan and Is Glan, are adjacent town­ships. They were, at the time of compiling the Doomsday Book, undivided, and known by the Saxon name of Meretone, or the township bordering over the sea.

COMPLAINTS OF TEGENGL.THE noblemen of Tegengl drew up a memorial, which they presented to John Peckham, archbishop of Canterbury, containing, among numbers of other grievances, the wrong done to the men of Merton. The archbishop (whom in 1281 came down on the christian design of reconciling the differences between Edward I. and Llewelyn) seemed to pity their sufferings; but it it not pro­bable that the king paid any attention to their representations, as he was then in full march against our gallant countrymen, de­termined to make an effectual conquest of an enemy who gave him so much serious disturbance.

[Page 25]ABOVE three hundred yards from my house,DOWNING UCHA'. on the opposite side of a dingle, stands another Downing, the seat of my worthy neighbor and friend Thomas Thomas, esq His good father came into possession of it about the year 1749, by marriage with Miss Mary Lloyd, heiress of the place, and descended from Edwyn, prince or lord of Tegengl. His Llys or palace was near Northop. My much-lamented friend the Reverend John Lloyd, of Caerwys, was of opinion that the fat figure on one of the tomb-stones in Northop church, represented this chieftain.

MR. Thomas was of Llechweddgarth in Montgomeryshire. CRUEL FE [...]D [...]. (See Tour in Wales, ii. 349) descended from Brochwel Yscythrog, prince of Powis, who bore sable three nags heads erased argent. Before Mr. Thomas's arrival, a fierce feud raged between the two houses, as usual in days of yore; which, on his appearance, was changed into lasting peace. I cannot but mention a cruel revenge which the Montagues used to take on their neighbor Capulet, by the advantage of a stream which ran through their grounds in its way to our kitchen, where it was applied to the purpose of a jack for the turning of a spit. How often has that important engine been stopped before it had performed half its evolutions! our poor Capulet swearing, lady crying, Cogess fuming, and nurse screaming! But

To hear the children mutter,
When they lost their bread and butter,
It would move a heart of stone.

IN the footway to Bychton is the wood,WHITEFORD WOOD. the Sylva mentioned in the Doomsday Book. At the time of that compilation it was [Page 26] valued at 20 s. only. Possibly the value did not increase greatly in the beginning of the sixteenth century, when my ancestor, Hugh Pennant of Bychton (eighteenth in descent from their common stock) married Jonet, daughter of Richard ap Howel, of Mostyn, who led his troops to Bosworth Field. Tradition says, that (money being wondrous scarce in those days) he was offered this wood as a portion with the lady; which our family rejected, as of no value in a country of forests. I cannot estimate the thousands it would have been worth at present, or in course of time.

A LLYS.IN this wood are the remains of some antient Llys, or palace, as my friend, the late antiquary of Cherwys, used to maintain. I can only say, that to judge of the foundations, our palaces in those days were not very splendid.

LINE OF TUDOR TREVOR.THE line of Tudor Trevor, with all its branches, is so fre­quently spoken of, that I shall here continue his descent. He was son of Y [...]ger ap Cadvarch, earl of Hereford, in right of his wife Rhiengar, daughter and heir of Llwdocea ap Karadoc Vreichvras, or the earl of Hereford, grandson to the said Karadoc, and great-grandson to Karadoc Vreichvras, earl of Hereford and Marchiogen, in the time of prince Arthur, and who had besides the honor of being one of the knights of the rou [...] [...]ble. Tudor married Angbarad, daughter to Howel Dda, prince of Wales, renowned for his wise laws, who quitted his government and retired to Rome, and there died in 948, whose death was sore bewailed of all men, ‘for he was a prince that loved peace and good order, and that feared God.’ I am sorry to deprive our ancestor of his title of earl: the Welsh had none such among them. Our great [Page 27] men had that of Arglwydd or Lord, and the chief or monarch that of T'wisog or Prince. Tudor had in right of his mother immense possessions in Herefordshire, and in all that country, then called Ferlys, which lies between the Wye and the Severn. He was also lord of Whittington, in Shropshire (See Tour in Wales, i. p. 250.) and made that castle his residence. Let me observe that many of his estates, being in the marches of Wales, he was called of the Tribe of March, to distinguish him from the other tribes.

THE families descended from this chieftain were exceedingly numerous, but those still existing in the male line are only the following: Thomas Trevor Hampden viscount Hampden, Richard Pennant Lord Penrhyn, Sir Roger Mostyn, and the Mostyns of Bryngwyn, of Segrwyd, branches of his family, and Sir Pyers Mostyn, Eytons of Eyton, Wynnes of Gwerninvawr, Jones's, of Llwynon, and Jeffries's, of Acton, existing in my friend the Rev. Dr. Jeffries, residentiary of St. Paul's, and worthy Rector of Whiteford, and the Pennants of Bychton.

ADJACENT to this wood is my paternal seat,BYCHTON. I may say the primaeval seat of our family. The date, on a piece of wood over an added window, is 1572. This gives an idea of the house of a gentleman of middling estate in those days. There was a much more antient date on a beam in the barn, which was inadver­tently destroyed when I new built it. I lived at this seat in 1761 and 1762; at that time I recollect buying of the tenant, who with great civility quitted it to me, his stock of wheat at 2 s. the hobbet, consisting of two measures, of forty-one quarts each.

[Page 28]LET me contrast this to a year of scarcity in our country, that of 1637, when I find, by a diary kept by a Peter Roberts, of St. Asaph, that in the same year wheat was sold at 21 s. the hobbet, rye at 15 s. and vetches at 11 s. Change this into the present value of silver, the hobbet of wheat at this time would be equal to 29 s. of barley to 20 s.d. and vetches to 15 s.d. —a calculation for which I am indebted to the ingenuity of my good assistant, the Rev. Mr. Henry Parry, of Holywell.

SUMMER-HOUSE.VERY near to the house stood a summer-house, (a building very frequent near the seats of Welsh gentry) with a cellar be­neath. These were used as retreats for the jovial owners and their friends, to enjoy, remote from the fair, their toasts and noisy merriment. Mine was so near to ruin, that I was obliged to pull it down. I remember oaks of a vast size growing near to the house. This, and I may say the other lower parts of the parish, are finely wooded with that noble species of tree, which grows spontaneously: was this part deserted, it would relapse into its original state, and become an impenetrable forest.

MADOC AP MEI­LER.NOW let the whole Welshman arise in me! Let me relate how Madoc ap Meiler (surnames were not as yet) ap Thomas ap Owen ap Blydden ap Tudor ap Rhys Sais ap Ednesyd ap Llowarch Ga [...] ap Llyddocca, fil. primogen. TUDOR TREVOR, living A.D. 924. (miscalled) earl of Hereford, cotemporary with the great king Athelstan, and the greater Edwal Voel, prince of Wales, did take lawful possession of Alice, daughter and heir of Philip o Phicdan, by Margaret, daughter and heir of Dafydd ap Ririd, &c. &c. of Penley in Maelwr. This Philip o Phicdan was son (See Har­lcian Library, No 1792.) to Philip ap Yswittan Wyddel, of the [Page 29] house of Dungannon, in Ireland, one of the Irish cavaliers who followed Gryffydd ap Conan out of that island, to assist him to re­gain the throne of his ancestors, about the year 1077, usurped by Trahaern ap Caradog.

THE great and decisive victory on the mountains of Carno, in the county of Montgomery, in the same year, was owing to the valor of Philip. The usurper was defeated and slain, after the bloodiest contest in our annals. Gryffydd was reinstated in his lawful dominions, and reigned with great dignity during fifty-seven years. He was not ungrateful to his Milesian general; he bestowed on him great possessions in his new-recovered domi­nions *, of which one of his sons inherited Bychton. It remained in the male line only one generation after Yswittan, as we have above said. If we reckon thirty years to a generation, the match between Madoc ap Meiler and Alice must have taken place very early in the next century, if not in the same. This gives us a pri­ority of landed possession in the parish of Whiteford to any other freeholder: Madoc being only tenth in descent from Tudor Trevor.

THIS my ancestor Madoc probably lived also by the sword, for I cannot with any certainty prove that before this time he had any landed property. I presume he was content with his acqui­sition of the fair Alice, and the Bychton estate (not Putecaine, as the barbarous Normans made it in the Doomsday Book) at which period (Widfor, i. e. Whiteford) was terra unius carucae, et ibi erat cum duobus villanis et XII. inter servos, et an­cilla ibi piscaria, and Sylva, or the wood above mentioned. But I fear we had been long before robbed of the wood at lest, and [Page 30] possibly of our piscaria, &c. either by our own countrymen or the tyrant Saxons. Madoc sat down quietly on his lands; his offspring seem to have been much respected, for his son Jerwerth married the daughters of two princes; his first wife was daughter of Owen, lord of Tegangl, and his second the daughter of the lord of Allington and Ruthenland. We went on begetting sons and daugh­ters for a long space. My son may boast of being sixteenth in descent from the great Madoc, or twenty-fifth from Tudor Trevor; where, for brevity sake, I take up the pedegree, otherwise I might reach the renowned K [...]rda Wlodig, after passing through five most celebrated descents.

ARMS. Madoc assumed the arms of Yswi [...]tan Wyddel, his wife's grand­father, viz. ‘Fyelde silver three barres wavey azure, on the mydle barr three shieldrakes of the fyrste,’ and for his next coat, by the name Philip Phichdan, 'three boars in palle silver;' these are so defined, and placed quarterly by that able genealogist John Charles Brooke, esq Somerset herald, whose untimely end I find daily reason to deplore. The three boars were the arms of Yona [...] ap Gr [...]wy, of Penley in Ma [...]wr hundred, in the county of Flint. My father had some small possessions in that country, which he sold to improve our estate nearer home. Those pro­bably were derived from Philip Phicdan, and devolved to Madoc on his marriage with his daughter Alice.

I OBSERVE that the descendants of Yswyct [...]n Wyddel varied in their first coat. Margaret, one of the daughters, and heiress of David ap Kynric, ap Philip Phycdan, bose in a white field two sesses azure, and in each the three shieldrakes. She married William Salusbury, of Llewenni, (says the Salusbury Pedegree, [Page]


[Page 31] p. 14. b.) who served in parlement for the borough of Leominster in the sixth of Edward III. and several other parlements as late as that of the thirty-eighth of the same prince.

THE family assumed afterwards their proper arms, those of Tudor Trevor. In the year 1580, a patent for a crest, the an­telope's head most strangely disfigured with heraldic liberty, was granted to Pyers Pennant, one of the four gentlemen-ushers to Queen Elizabeth, and to the posterity of his father Hugh Pennant. In this patent, which I have in high preservation, the first coat is that of the Trevors, ‘the fyelde party par bend, sinister ermen, and ermyne, a lion rampant goulde, langued and armed gules.’ The two next are as described above, and the fourth by the name of Gruffydd Lloyd, ‘the fyelde azure three flower-de-luces of the fyelde:’ and such is the dictum of Robert Cooke, alias Clarentieux, ROV D'ARMES, 1580.

THE Mostyns of Mostyn bear as their crest, a lion rampant.

THE Trevors, who were the Pen-cenedl, or head of the whole line, had for their crest the wivern or dragon on a cap of dignity. The present Lord Hampden is its true Pen-cenedl; but by heraldic rules, on the descent of the Hampden estate to his lordship, from the alliance of his ancestor Sir John Trevor with the Hampdens, the talbot, the crest of that family, supersedes the antient dragon.

THE dragon was worn as a cogni [...]ance by all our princes, particularly by Cadwaledr, who died in 688. It was adopted by Henry VII. who clamed descent from him, and wore it in he battle of Bosworth. It took its origin from the legend of Uther Pen-dragon, father of king Arthur, who is said to have received [Page 32] the addition of Pen-dragon, from his wearing that imaginary ani­mal on his helmet.

OUR bards united with the poet the office of herald. At first our pedegrees were preserved by oral communication; after­wards committed to writing, and preserved in the houses of our great men. The heralds office is at present a great repository of these kinds of treasure.

BY the first we are assured of many other illustrious descents from princes' ancestors to our Tudor Trevor; from the princes of Powis; from Rywalbon Conwyn, (who, with his brother Kynric, were joint princes of North Wales;) from even Roderic the Great, and from Cadwaladr; and finally from Vortigern, the un­fortunate king of the Britons, who fled from the rage of his subjects, for his invitation of the Saxons into Britain, and died in­gloriously about the year 465, in the darksome Nant y Gwrtheyrn, in the county of Caernarvon *.

THE English heralds attempt to add fame to our race, by telling us that the present Sir Roger Mostyn is nineteenth in de­scent from the Conqueror, from John of Gaunt, from Richard Plantagenet, duke of York, father to Edward IV. I leave Arthur Collins, (vol. iii. p. 129, 131) to adduce the proofs. Why will my ingenious countrywoman, after admitting these honors , deny to us BIRTH, by distinction fine as ether, and as imper­ceptible, allowing us only the advantage of family! And, not­withstanding the lady's justly-favored Johnson makes birth and lineage synonymous, yet my cousin will allow us no more of the former than what that great writer defines the ‘act of coming [Page 33] into the world,’ the act which graced our country with its fair synonymist.

I HOPE the reader will not think me too warm, for thus vin­dicating my clame to birth, in common with my worthy brother-in-law. I am jealous that the honors which I possess by means of our marriage with his aunt Shonet, ten ascents higher, should receive any abatement: and I trust that the lady concerned will, as a Welsh-woman, even applaud my warmth on so very interest­ing an occasion!

OUR house has always been the Pen-cenedl, or chief of the name. We had several branches, all which, excepting those I have enumerated, are extinct in the male line; unless it be in the gentleman who of late years spread our celebrity in the capital, under the title of Pennant's Parcel Post.

THE first who branched from us was the hospitable, the useful, the valiant Thomas Pennant, abbot of Basingwerk, son of David Pennant ap Tudor, before mentioned. He flourished in the reign of Edward IV. and is highly celebrated by Guttun Owain, a bard of the year 1480, who records the hospitality of the abbot, in a poem printed in the collection of Mr. Rhŷs Jones. The poet is so liberal of his praise as to say, That he gave twice the treasure of a king in wine.

Er bwrw yno aur brenhin
Ef a roes deufwy ar wîn.

And among his other luxuries I think he enumerates sugar, which a rich abbot of the fifteenth century might easily indulge [Page 34] himself in, for it had been a great article of commerce in Sicily as early as the year 1148.

Guttun Owain also adds:

Tŷ da i'r ŷd, o'r tu draw.
Tŷ brâg sydd, Tŷ b [...]ics iddaw.

A good granary on the other side, a malt-house, and a house of bricks: which last was probably a material in building of recent introduction in our country.

Guttun Owain and Tudor Aled, another noted bard, speak not only of his works of utility; of the water and of the wind-mills he erected; of his having enlarged and beautified the abbey, but also compliment him on his prowess in battle. Neither is Guttun silent on a subject, pleasing to every Welsh ear, the pedegree of his patron, whom he derives from Edwyn, and from Rhŷs Sais, a direct descendant from Tudor Trevor.

IT is probable that our abbot discovered that celibacy did not suit his constitution. He quitted his profession, and became (in the law term) a monk deraigne, and married into the great house of Peurbyn, a lady of the name of Angharad. He became the father of four children. Of them, Edward the eldest succeeded to the fortunes which he seems to have secured in the parish of Holywell. Thomas, the second son, became vicar of Holywell. And Nicholas, the third, in due time abbot of Basingwerk; he was the last, and became founder of a family, as I shall have occasion to mention. More also will be said of the line of Edward, who may be considered as the first of the house of Bagilt.

WE did not assume the name of Pennant, till the time of David Pennant ap Tudor, fifteenth in descent from Tudor Trevor; it is a [Page 35] true Welsh name, taken from Pen, a head, and Nant, a dingle, our house of Bychton being seated at the head of a very consider­able one. The name is very common in North Wales, applied to places, such as Pennant St. Melangl, Pennant Mowddwy, Pennant Lliw, &c. &c. I have found it in Cornwal, and again in the great bay of Douarnenez, in Bretagne, where, among numbers of other Welsh names, is that of Pointe Pennant.

IT has been delivered down to us,GI [...]CS. that in some distant time a gang of gipsies used to haunt this dingle, and that eighteen of them were executed, after which the gipsey race never more fre­quented the neighborhood. I cannot learn their crime, possibly there was none, for they might have been legally murdered by the cruel statute of the 1st and 2d of Philip and Mary, which enacts, ‘that if, within forty days next after proclamation of this present act shall be made, that then he or they which shall not depart and avoid within the said time of forty days, according to the true meaning of this act, shall be judged and deemed, ac­cording to the laws of this realm of England, a felon and felons, and shall suffer therefore pains of death, loss of lands and goods as in other cases of felony, and shall be tried as is aforesaid, and without having any benefit or privilege of sanctuary or clergy.’ Sir Matthew Hale tells us, that in Suffolk, a few years before the restauration, were executed, at a single assizes, not less than thirteen; but none, on that barbarous law, have suffered since that time. In these humane days the gipsies may wander in peace, provided they behave inoffensively wheresoever they chance to make their transient abode; for the bloody act was repealed in the twenty-third year of his present majesty.

[Page 36] OUR FIRST M [...] ­ [...]GE WITH AN ENGLISHWOMAN. David Pennant was the first of us who married into a Saxon family; he took to wife Anne, daughter of John Done, of Utkin­ton, in Cheshire, by Anne daughter of Richard Heaton, of Heaton, in the county of Lancaster. He begat many sons and daughters, among them was the famous abbot Thomas, and also Sir Hugh Pennant, Offeiriad, or priest, whom the great Lhuyd, in his A [...]aelogic, p. 257, calls an able poet, in the time of Henry VIII.; and I find also, that in 1575 he was at an Fisteddfod, at Caerwis, secondary student in vocal song, and — he was the only musical man in all our line.

OUR FIRST SHE­RIFF.TILL the advancement of Richard Pennant to the title of Penrbyn, our house was never distinguished by any honors beyond the most useful one, that of justice of the peace. I should blush if a Pennant should be found, who through lack of public spirit, sloth, or selfishnese, could decline that great constitutional office! The first sheriff of our house was Pyers Pennant, who discharged that trust in 1612. He had the lot of marrying the daughter of a family not famed for placidity, or the milder virtues. Valdè valde, irritabile genus! 'And from them, Tom (a most worthy aunt of mine used often to tell me) we got our passion;'—and frequently added the wise Welsh caution, Beware of a Breed!

THE fruits of this marriage appeared very soon. Thomas, the eldest son, in a furor brevis, killed his miller: was indicted for the manslaughter, tried, and convicted; but received his pardon, dated in the first of Charles I. or the year 1625. This grace preserved him from the ignominious part of the sentence, and the more important advantage of preserving his personality, which would otherwise have been forfeited to the crown.

[Page 37]THIS is sufficient to shew that the offence did admit of every palliation; but a stronger proof than that may be drawn from the following honor having been conferred on him, when we find that in eight years afterwards, in 1633, he was intrusted with the care of the county of Flint, by having the office of high sheriff committed to his charge. He died the next year; cujus animae propitietur DEUS! This unfortunate man married a grand-daughter of that nuptial-loving dame Catherine y Berran (See Tour in Wales, vol. ii. p. 29) Mary, daughter of Edward Wynn, of Ystrad, son of Morris Wynn, of Gwydir, fourth and last husband of our famous Catherine. There was no issue from this match; so Bychton descended to David, the next brother.

IN those days, and long preceding,PRESENTS TO SHERIFFS. it was customary for the friends and neighbors of the sheriff to make presents to him to assist in defraying the expences. I have among my papers two long rolls of gifts. To give the whole would be very tedious. I extract only a few of the most remarkable, among which are several in money, which his friends were not ashamed to offer: nor the sheriff to receive. The cash received in 1612, was £. 10. 18 s. 6 d.; that in 1642, £. 5.

A Note of such Presents as were given previous to the seconde Sessions, 1612. Sept 27. Pyers Pennant, Sheriff.
  • Imp. From my mother 1 cowe 8 weathers
  • Evan ap John ap Llewelyn I weather
  • Humffrey Thomas ap Edd VI geesse
  • Hugh ap Llewelyn VI geesse
  • William John ap Llewelyn II geesse
  • [Page 38] Katharinge Vth Evan II geesse
  • Thomas Barker III geesse
  • Piers Griffith III geesse
  • Hugh ap Morris II geesse
  • From my sone Harry Conwey VIII hoopes * of wheat
  • From my mother VI hoopes of wheat, and a paile full of butter
  • From my sister Holande III hwps of wheat, and a whole brawne
  • From my brother Tho. Kyffin, in goulde II £ IIIIs
  • From Jo [...] Roberts, in money VIs
  • From Rice ap Jor ap Llewelyn IIs VId
  • From John ap Jor Gr II muttons and a dozen chicks
  • Gregor II capons
  • Katheringe Penant II capons, II dozen of eggs
  • Thomas Price I goose
  • Thomas ap W [...] ap Meredith one mutton
  • M [...] Pennant, in gould XI shillings
  • S [...] Thomas Wrighte, wyf II geesse
  • John ap Rie a couple of chishes
  • My brother W [...] Kyffin II£
  • S Roger Mosten
  • From Mr David Holland, in goulde XXXIIIIs
  • From Mr Ellis Edwards, of Halliwell VIIs
  • From Mr Griffith, of Kayarws XXs
  • From Morris of the mounten Xs
  • From my brother Edward Kyffin, in gould Xs
  • [Page 39]From Mr Edward Pennant, of Bagillt Xs
  • From Richart ap Jevan Vs

To shew that the sense of relationship was not, in those days, soon worn out, Mr. Done, of Utkinton, sent a venison, for which the sheriff gave as a fee 6 s. 8 d. to the keeper. This sheriff was in respect to the donor fifth in descent from the marriage of David Pennant ap Tudor, with Anne, daughter of John Done, of Utkinton, as near as I can guess about the year 1440.

1642. A Note of what Presents were sent against the Sessions. David Pennant, Sheriff.
  • My Lady Mostyn, 2 muttons, a gallon of sacke, and
  • Mr Griffith, of Cayrwis, 2 sugar loafs.
  • Mr Roger Parry,
  • Mr Robert Pennant,
  • Mrs Conway, of Nant,
  • Mrs Matthew, a sugar loaf.
  • Mr Vaughan, 3 gallons of sacke.
  • Mr Ralph Hughes, a mutton, 6 rabbetts, a dozen pigeons.
  • Mr John Jones, a sugar loafe.
  • Mr David Jones, a sugar loafe.
  • Mr Raphell Davis, a veale.
  • Mr Hugh Pennant, of Dooning, a mutton.
  • Mr William Mostyn, of Bagillt, halfe a veale, and a pigg.
  • Nichlas George, 2 capons.
  • Edward ap Thomas, a veale, a pigg, a quart of hony.
  • William Parry Wynn, a mutton.
  • [Page 40] Margaret Price, of Brinford, a mutton.
  • Th [...] ap Roi [...] ap Hugh, 2 capons, and a pigg.
  • John ab William J [...], halfe a veale, and a q [...] hony.
  • Edward Ethel, a q [...] veale, and a pigg, 6 q [...] claret.
  • John Thomas Evans, a qr veale.
  • Jullius Se [...]sar, a qr veale, and a q [...] porke.
  • Thomas ab Ellis, a mutton.
  • Pyers Williams, 2 capons, a qt hony.
  • William Ethe [...]l, a sugar loafe.
  • John Price, of Calcate, 2 hoopes of oates.
  • Robert Lloyd, a sugar [...]oafe.
  • Thomas Lloyd, of Mertyn, a qr veale, a q [...] lambe.
  • Petter Hughes, 2 capons.
  • Thomas Parry, of Mays guin, 2 capons, and a pigg.
  • John ap Robert Shamber wen, halfe a veale.
  • Thomas John Cooke, half a mutton.
  • Barbara Parry, half a lambe.
  • The Deputie Sheriffe, 2 turkies, and a pottle of sacke.
  • John Price, of Pentre, a q [...] veale, a pigg.
  • Robert Lloyd, of Taverne y Gennog, halfe a lambe.
  • John Humfrey, a veale.
  • M [...] Kyffin, a qr veale, a greate cake.
  • Mr Roger Holland, 4 hoops of wheat.
  • Andrew Ellis, a goose, a q [...] veale.
  • Margaret ach Pyers, 2 dozen cakes.
  • Thomas ap Thomas, a flitch of bacon, 6 qt claret, a qt veale.
  • Ellen Foulkes, a qr veale.
  • [Page 41] John ap John, halfe a lambe, a q [...] of mutton.
  • John Conway, a qr veale, a pigg.
  • Anne Simon, a qrt of sacke.
  • Foulke, the joyner, a pigg.
  • David, the weaver, a pigg.
  • Ellin Lorrance, 2 henns.
  • Thomas John ap Ric. a qr porke, 4 eggs.
  • Ales Owen, 2 henns, 2 piggs, 6 chickins, 30 eggs.
  • Mar. John Robert, 2 hens, a pigg, three chi.
  • Edward John ap Robert, 2 henns, a qt porke, a pigg.
  • John ap Rhytherch, 60 eggs.
  • Hugh Barker, a qr of porke.
  • John ap John ap Robert, 2 capons.
  • Hugh ap Thomas ap Harry, 2 capons.

IN these numerous lists of presents I was surprised at the omission of brandy;BRANDY. probably the fiery dram was not then in fashion in Wales: yet nurse, in Romeo and Juliet, calls for it amain, under the name of aqua vitae: ‘Some aqua vitae, ho! my lord, my lady!’ It appears to have been chiefly used in those days for medical purposes.

IN captain Wyndham's voyage to Guinea there was brandy on board for the use of the sick sailors. It was said to have been invented by Raymundus Lullius, the famous alchemist, who died in the year 1315. Charles the Bad, king of Navarre, came to a most horrible end, says Mezerey, (i. 954.) who, to restore his strength, weakened by debauchery, was wrapped in sheets steeped [Page 42] in [...]au d [...]e. His valet by accident set fire to them: after the third day he died in the most dreadful tortures, and it is to be hoped thus expiated the crimes of his most execrable life. I am indebted for the origin of brandy to a most elaborate essay on it which I received from Mr. William Taylor, of Norwich, by fa­vor of my friend Dr. Atkin.

WILLIAM PEN­NANT. G [...] ­ [...].I NOW, in gratitude, take up the brief history of William Pen­nant, second son to Hugh Pennant, of Bychton, by Sionet, daughter of Richard ap Howel ap Moston. His good deeds towards the poor of our parish, and his good intention towards our family, give him full clame to this token of respect. William was a goldsmith and jewelier; he lived at the Queen's Head, in Smith­field; and by the sign of his shop, and by the several bequests he made to persons about the court, he probably was goldsmith and jeweller to the royal family.HIS WEALTH. He made a considerable fortune, and died possessed of the manor of Moxhall, in the parish of Andley, in the county of Essex; the rectories called Cutcombe and Luxborough, in the county of Somerset; the leafe of the manor of Thornes, in Haveringe, in the Bower Ward, in the county of Essex; the lease of the manor of Noxbridge, in the same county; and in London, an estate in Smithfield and Hosier Lane; and a house called the Blue Anchor, in Candlewick ward, which last he bequeathed to the famous Hugh Middleton, afterwards Sir Hugh, the projector of the New River. All the other estates he be­queathed thus:—His manor of M [...]xhall, and the two rectories, to his nephew Hugh Pennant; and his leases of the manor of Thornes to his brother Pyers Pennant, of Mailard Green, in the county of Essex, the gentleman usher before mentioned.

[Page 43]ALL these fruits of William Pennant's industry were dissipated by my unfortunate name sake, mentioned in a preceding page,D [...] BY HIS NE [...]. who luckily died before he had ruined our paternal estate.

HIS bequest in money to the poor of Whiteford parish had a better fate.HIS CHA [...] [...]. It was laid out in the purchase of land in the parish of St. Asaph; the produce of which annually clothes completely eighteen poor men or poor women, on the feast of St. Thomas. On the expiration of the lease of those lands, I trust that double the number will experience the benefit of this charity.

William Pennant also remembered several of his friends by le­gacies, at this time appearing to us very singular.BEQUEST TO HIS FRIENDS. Besides some small legacies in money, he bequeathed the following articles:— Item, I give and bequeath unto Sir William Fortescue, K, one chaine of gold and pearle, weighing about 12 ounces and a quarter; one billament of gold and pearle, being 19 pieces; a round salt of silver, with a cover thereto, weighing 15 ounces, and some what more; six white silver spoons; one feather-bed, bolster, two pillows, two blankets, one blue rugg, a teastern of satten figured, russet and black, and vallance to the same; five curtains of taffety farsanet, on char, and a stool with a back of satten figured russet; ten black — and six stools covered with black wrought velvett; and also a great chest covered with black leather, with an in-lock on it, and all things in it (excepting cer­tain plate therein) hereafter bequeathed. Item, I give and bequeath unto — Fortescue, the daughter of the sald William Fortescue, Kt, and god-daughter to my late wife Ellinor, her aunt, one bason and ewer of silver, all gilt, weighing 36 ounces, or thereabouts; one dozen of silver spoons gilt, [Page 44] weighing 22 ounces, or thereabouts; one silver pot hooped, weighing 20 ounces and upwards, with arms on the side thereof; a bell salt without a cover, partly gilt, weighing 6 ounces, or thereabouts. All which particulars are in the said black chest. And I will that the same shall presently after my decease be delivered to the said Wm Fortescue, Kt, for him to keep safely in trust and confidence, to and for the use of — —, untill she happen to be married, or untill she shall at­tain to the age of 21 years, and then to be delivered unto her; and that if the said — — happen to die before she be married, or attain to the said age of 21 years, then I give and bequeath the said legacy to her bequeathed to Roger Fortescue, her brother, to be delivered to him at his age of 21 years, and untill that time to remain in trust in the hands of Sir Wm Fortescue, Knt, his uncle. Item, I give and be­queath unto my loving and kind friend, Mr. Randall Woolley, merchant taylor, one ounce of fine gold to make him a ring. Item, I give and bequeath unto my loving friend Mr. John Barker, living at Mr. Rob Holland's house, the like quantity of fine gold to make him a ring. Item, I give and bequeath unto my loving friend Mr. Richd Locksmith, Clerk to Mr. Attorney General, one ounce of fine gold to make him a ring. Item, I give and bequeath to my loving cousin Mr. John Lloide, bencher of the Inner Temple, 34 buttons of gold; to my cousin Wm Lloyd, his brother, 5 l. of money. Item, I give and bequeath to my honorable and late master, the said John Fortescue, Knt, one of his Highness' most honorable privy [Page 45] councel, in token of the remembrance of his love and kindness towards me, 20l. in money, to buy him a piece of velvet for a gown. Item, I give and bequeath to my loving friend the un­der-named, for the love and kindness that hath passed between us on this earth, as followeth: that is to say; to Sir Robert Ban­nister, knight, clark companion of his majesty's household, one ounce of fine gold, of 3l. to make him a ring. To Thomas Merry, chief clerk of his majesty's kitchen, one ounce of the like gold to make him a hooped silver pot for his wife. Item, to John Trefearne, one other of the clerks of the kitchen, one ounce of like gold, to make him a ring; and to John Crane, one other of the clerks of the kitchen, the like quantity of gold. Item, to Mr. Lewis Owen, serjeant of the larder, the like quan­tity of gold Item, to Lewis Rogers, the prince's servant, half an ounce of like gold to make him a ring. Item, to John Panton, servant to the right honorable the lord chancellor of England, one ounce of fine gold of the like value. Item, to John Price, one of the porters of the spiritual court in London, the like quantity of fine gold. Item, to John Legate, of Hornchurch, in Essex, esquire, one ounce of fine gold. Item, I give and bequeath to my loving friend Walter Meredith, 5 l. in money, and also a cloak of fine black cloth, with some lace about, and lined through with russet taffety.’

THIS will is dated May 4th, 1607; the codicil two years after, and Sir Hugh Myddleton left sole executor.

THE entertaining James Howel, STRANGE STORY OF JOHN PEN­NANT; in the xliiid letter of his Epistolae Ho-Elianae, makes John Pennant, third son of Pyers [Page 46] Pennant of By [...]h [...]n, and brother of the worthy William, the in­strument of presages to our kingdom, of the evil days and evil times which were advancing with rapid pace. The relation is very properly addressed to that mirror of credulity, Sir Kenelm Digby, knight.

[...]D A [...]EN [...]S HEART'It was my fortune,' says the solemn historian, ‘to be in a late communication, where a gentleman spoke of a hideous thing that happened in High Holborn; how one John Pennant, a young man of 21, being dissected after his death, there was a kind of serpent, with divers tails, found in the left ventricle of his heart, which you know is the most defended part, being thrice thicker than the right, and is the cell which holds the purest and most illustrious liquor, the arterial blood and the vital spirits. The serpent was it seems three years ingen­dring, for so long time he found himself indisposed in the breast; and it was observed that his eye, in the interim, grew more sharp and fiery, like the eye of a cock, which is next the serpent's eye in redness: so that the symptom of his in­ward disease might have been told by certain exterior rays and signatures.’

‘GOD preserve us from public calamities! for serpentine monsters have been often ill favored presages. I remember in the Roman story, to have read how, when snakes or serpents were found near the statues of their Gods, at one time about Jupiter's neck, another time about Minerva's thigh, there fol­lowed bloody civil wars after it.’

THIS portentous story is given most scientifically by Dr. Edward May, in a thin quarto pamphlet of forty pages. The [Page 47] title-page will inform the reader of his various other titles, which savor most strongly of quackery.

A MOST CERTAINE AND TRVE RELATION OF A STRANGE MONSTER OR SERPENT, Found in the Left Ventricle of the Heart of John Pennant, Gentle­man of the Age of 21 Years.

By Edward May, Doctor of Philosophy and Physick, and Professor Elect of them in the Colledge of the Academy of Noblemen, called the Musaeum Minervae.

Physitian also Extraordinary unto her Most Sacred Majesty Queene of GREAT BRITAIN, &c.

LONDON: Printed by George Miller, MDCXXXIX.

THE epistle dedicatory is ‘to the renowned peere of this king­dom, Edward earle of Dorset, the book itself to Sir Theodore Maiherne, knight. In that he lays before him the wonderful case. He tells us that he was sent on October 7th, 1637, by Lady [Page 48] Herris, wife to Sir Francis Herris, knight, to dissect her nephew John Pennant, who had deceased the night before, to know the cause of his death. The doctor brought with him Master Jacob Heyden, surgeon, to assist in the enquiry. Mr. Heydon made in­cision into the left ventricle of the heart, which was full of blood. On thorough examination, the monster was discovered, the head of which was so like to that of a serpent, that Lady Herris shivered to see it. To judge by the prints, all the upper part of it was cylindrical; towards the lower part bifurcated, and each fork divided into five long and slender fibrillae. I leave to the reader the perusal of the rest of Dr May's most curious dis­quisition.

THIS is not the only instance of similar appearances in the heart: but we hear no more of serpents; the name was changed to polypuses, to which, for their numerous ramifications, they might bear the resemblance. In our Philosophical Transactions are more than one paper on the subject. In Mr. Lowthorp's Abridg. iii. p. 70, and tab. p. 120, is an account, and the figure of one found in the heart of a man at Oxford; and in Mr. Martyn's Abridg. ix. p. 135, is the account of several discovered in num­bers of sailors who died immediately on their return from the West Indies. This paper was written by the celebrated Dr. Huxbam; he quotes Malpighius, Bartholinus, Tulpius, and Pechlin, as giving incontestible instances of the existence of polypi in the heart, in the strictest sense. This opinion is now exploded. The only uncommon circumstance (my ingenious friend Dr. Haygarth assures me) is, that the left ventricle of the heart, and probably the aorta, which after death are usually empty, were [Page 49] in these cases full of blood. The crassamentum, upon coagula­tion, had taken the form of the arteries in which it was con­tained.

I BREAK a little into chronology,BARBAROUS EVENTS. to conclude with an event relative to another of my house; of little moment indeed, but merely to give a picture of the barbarous days, even of the be­ginning of the last century, which I collected from the journal kept by Peter Roberts, of St. Asaph, before mentioned. He re­cords, that on July 22d, 1615, Hugh Pennant, brother to Pyers Pennant, esq of Bychton, died of a broken head given him at Denbigh, by Pyers Hughes: That in the year 1626, Rowland Evan, a vicar of St. Asaph, was killed at an ale-house in Llandrillo Eiderneon: That on October 3d, 1628, Mr. Richard Thelwal was slain at his own house at Ruthen: And that, in 1634, one Foulkes, of Cilowen, killed his wife, and cut his own throat.

THE mention of ale house tempts me to speak of a house of mine, by the sea-side, in the township of Bychton, LLETTY GONEST. called Lletty Gonest, or the honest house. It had been formerly in the highest repute for its excellent ale, brewed by a good ale-wife yclep'd Jane, of Lletty, whom I well remember. She acquired both fame and wealth, both of which I may say she bequeathed to her descendants; who to this day, by their own industry, continue to flourish on the effect of her's.

THE house was originally built by one Smith, from Worcester, partly for the purposes of distilling, and partly for a warehouse. I am told, that it occasionally had served for the place of con­finement for impressed men, at the time in which the colliers [Page 50] had such great trade with Dublin. The strong bars in the lower windows favor that notion.

SINGULAR HEAD.ABOVE the door is a very singular sculpture, cut in bas-relief, in stone, and let into the wall. One part is a strange chimerical figure of a monster with four legs, and the head of an owl, fixing its claws in the side of a human head. The face is averted, and expressing much agony. The eye-lids are drawn up, the eyes the same, the mouth half opened, and the teeth closely fixed together. The face is young, but has a pair of whiskers, and is far from being ill cut. It has the character of one of Le Brun's passions, article Pain. It evidently never was designed for this place, but seems originally to have been one of those fanciful gothic sculptures be­longing to some antient church.

SMUGGLING.IN the reign of King William, this house was remarkable for the violent hands laid on a vast seizure of French wines, to the amount of sixty pipes, which had been smuggled into the great barn at Trelacre, in the parish of Llanasa, destined for the use of the Welsh gentry in this and the neighboring counties. It must be observed, that in those days port-wine was in very little use in our country. The officers had conveyed this prize with safety as far as Lletty Gonest, where they intended to sleep that night. At midnight they were alarmed by the entry of multitudes of colliers, who tied every body in the house neck and heels. They removed the wine into other carriages, and conveyed it into places so secure that it never more could be heard of. Many of the colliers were observed to have rings on their fingers, and fine linen. In fact numbers of them were the gentlemen interested in the wine, and concerned in the re-capture, who mixed with [Page 51] the colliers, to direct them in their operations. A proclamation was issued out for the discovery of the offenders; but such was the fidelity of our people, that they were never detected. The poor tapster, in particular, knew perfectly well who they were, and large rewards were offered to him by the custom-house; but nothing could shake his attachment to his friends. He lived long after, supported by the grateful contributions of the neighboring 'squires.

HIGH above Lletty Gonest stands a summer-house, built by my grandfather, to which he often adjourned with his guests, to re­gale them with the delicious beer, brewed by the famous Jane. Many years after, when I became master of the estate, I also had my adjournment, but it was either to eat shrimps or to drink tea. An honest vicar of a distant parish, who had been a most intimate friend of my convivial grandfather, enquired whether I ever went to the summer-house; and was answered, 'Now and then, to drink tea.' Struck with horror at the de­generacy of the grandson, the good man with indignation ex­clamed, ‘DRINK TEA! his grandfather would have SCORNED IT!’

THE turnpike road designed for the enabling the smelters and others to convey our coal to the places of its destination, from the Mostyn and Bychton pits, passes by Lletty Gonest, and goes along the shore towards Holywell. In the space of a mile it passes by three smelting-houses, Shop-goch, the property of Sir Roger Mostyn, and Pen-y-Ro and Llanerch-y-môr, belonging to me. The last disputes antiquity with most in the county, the late works at Gadlis excepted.

[Page 52]ABOVE the last is the neat house of Kinsale, inhabited by my good friend and tenant Mr. Ralph Richardson, who for several years had with great success and integrity carried on the smelting business, with the advantage of shipping the produce from the very spot, after a short carriage to the vessels.

A SMALL marsh begins a little beyond Lletty Gonest, and widens as it extends southward. It borders on the manor of Mostyn: but itself owns no lord but the king. The same may be said of the va­luable remainder, as far as the manor of Coleshill, in the parish of Flint. The minor of Greenfield, in the parish of Holywell, was long supposed to have been the property of one or other of two clamants, who fell into dispute about the right. The matter was referred to two gentlemen of the law, eminent for their abilities, and not less so for their probity. After examining all the proofs adduced by the rivals, they adjudged that neither had any clame to the lordship; so it is now left to the freeholders under our sovereign lord the king: a rich tract for future inclosures.

A LITTLE beyond Kinsale is the end of our parish on this side. The boundary between it and the parish of Holywell, is a small [...]ll called Avon Marsh Siambr. AVON MARSH SIAMBR. Above on an eminence is the old seat of the Pierces, a family now extinct, and the property passed into other hands. It bears the name of Is Glan, from the name of the township in which it stands.

ABOUT a mile higher up is Merton, the seat of the Reverend Mr. John Foulkes. He derives his right to it from Margaret, daughter and heiress to Thomas Parry ap William Parry Wynne. She married John Foulkes, of Pen-yeba [...]luy, in the parish of Shy [...]iog, great-grandfather to the present owner, who died in July, 1667, and was interred in Whiteford church-yard.

[Page 53] Tre Mostyn bounds Tre Bychton on the west.TRE MOSTYN. This town­ship is considered as containing one fourth of the parish. It reaches to the sea-side: on which, as well as the whole, trees of every kind grow most admirably.

IT is divided from Tre Bychton, in the lower part by the turn­pike road, which extends from the sea-side to Henllan, sixteen miles distant, originally designed for the conveyance of coal from the pits of this township, and that of Tre Bychton, to the great lime-works near Denbigh. The first act was obtained in 1768, the second in 1770: before which our roads were scarcely passable. If either Sir Roger Mostyn's family or our own wanted to get to Chester, we were to reach the sea-side; then to Flint as we could, and from thence at low water cross the ford of the Dee, a way not always unattended with danger.

OPPOSITE to Mostyn gates, on this part of the turnpike road,THE RHEWL. is a hamlet, called the Rhewl, yr Heol, platea, a way or street. On each side are a few houses. The Swan, a small ale-house, my property, was noted for its vast trade about the beginning of this century, when the coal trade was in the height of its prosperity: ‘And Cw [...]w da then unexcised by kings!’ Thomas Edwards, who several years was tenant there, edu­cated a family of numbers of children, at no inconsiderable expence, and is supposed to have acquired by the tap at lest fifteen hundred pounds.

FROM the Rhewl opens the principal gates to Mostyn Hall,MOSTYN HALL. or more properly Moston Hall, for such, for many ages, was the spelling of the names of both the mansion and its antient owners. On this approach is a most venerable avenue, which goes for a [Page 54] considerable way in a direct line; then turns short, and terminates with a view of the old part of the old mansion. The park is small, but beautifully broken, and cloathed in various parts with fine oaks, and most magnificent beeches; but amidst the trees is suffered to remain rugged with the vestiges of the antient col­lieries. The ground slopes finely to the sea, facing the North East. The trees grow with vigor close to the water, unhurt by the rude winds with which they are affailed.

THE house is placed about half a mile from the shore. I find some difficulty in making a description. I shall therefore refer the reader to the first plate of Welsh seats, by Mr. Boydel, and to my own, as the only method of giving him some idea of the sin­gularity of the structure. That plate attempts the front—

If front it might be call'd, that shape had none

For it consists of the most antient hall; a lesser, designed for a sort of symposium for servants; and on the outside, annexed and jutting out, is the quondam chapel, now converted into a bed-chamber. I have a sketch of the whole as it was in the year 1684, made by a Mr. Thomas Dinely, an attendant on Henry, first duke of Beaufort, then lord president of the council in the prin­cipality of Wales, and lord lieutenant of the twelve counties; who in that year made a reviewing progress of the militia of North Wales, and of course paid his respects to the great man of our country.

THE porch had been rebuilt in 1623. It has on it the arms of the four great alliances of the family, rudely cut on the stone. [Page]


[Page 55] They seem to have been copied from the great chimney-piece in the hall.

I CANNOT trace the time of building of this part of the house. It must have been at lest early in the time of Henry VI. but pro­bably more antient, for in Bolton Hall, in Bowland, Yorkshire (the most antique seat we know) is a hall in a lesser scale indeed, but greatly similar; and in that house it is well known that the unfor­tunate prince concealed himself for a long time. Posterity may find the account in my ‘Tour in Part of the Mercian and Northum­brian Kingdoms.’ The great gloomy hall is furnished with a Dais or elevated upper end,THE OLD HALL. and with a long table for the lord and his jovial companions; and another in the side, the seat of the inferior partakers of the good cheer. To this day the similitude of the old times is kept up when the family is at home. The head servants take their dinner at the Dais, and the numerous inferior servants fill the long table. The roof is lofty, crossed with long beams. The nen-bren, or top-beam, was in all times a frequent toast, whenever the master of the house's health was drank; and 'Jached y nen-bren y ty,' was the cordial phrase. The chimney-piece is magnificently plain, unless where the arms of the house and its alliances are cut on the stone, and properly emblazoned.

THE first are the arms (a lion rampant, ermin,COATS OF ARMS. erminé) of Jevan Vychan, of Pengwern, near Llangollen, (see Tour in Wales, vol. i. p. 295.) sixteenth in descent from Owen Tudor. By the marriage of Jevan with Angharad, daughter and sole heiress of Howel ap Tudor ap Ithel Vychan, of Mostyn, he added that estate to his paternal acres in the reign of Richard II.

IT seems (from the Mostyn pedegree) that in 1444 Jevan had [Page 56] farmed the estate. He wisely determined to turn the lease into a perpetuity: and gaining the lady's affections, ‘Connubio junxit stabili, propriamque dicavit.’

THE next are the arms of his spouse, the heiress of Mostyn: di­rectly descended from the Edwyn lord of Tegengle before mentioned (argent a cross engrailed sable, between four Cornish choughs.)

THE third are the arms of Gloddaeth, (gules a chevron argent between three plates) acquired by the marriage of Howel ap Evan Vychan, son of the former, in 1460, with Margaret, daughter and heir of Gryffydd ap Rhys ap Gryffydd ap Madoc Gloddaeth ap Ma­doc ap Jerweth Goch, of Cryddyn, the hundred in which the house stands.

THE fourth are the arms of Sir Gryffydd Lloyd. Morfydd, one of his daughters and co-heiresses, married Madoc Gloddaeth, who with her received Tregarnedd, in the isle of Anglesey, as her portion. That estate followed the succession of the house, till Gloddaeth was united with that of Mostyn, in which it continued till the year 1750; then it was alienated by the late Sir Thomas Mostyn, to the late Mr. Owen Williams, of Anglesey.

THE walls are furnished in a suitable manner with antient mili­tia guns, swords, and pikes; with helmets and breast-plates; with funeral atchievements,FALCON VAST FLIGHT OF ONE. and with variety of spoils of the chace. A falcon is nailed against the upper end of the room, with two bells, a greater and a lesser, hung to each foot. On two silver rings are inscribed the name of the owner, Mr. Kinloch, of Kul­rie, in the county of Angus, on the Eastern side of Scotland. With these incumbrances it flew from its owner on the morning of the 24th of September, 1772, and was killed near this house on the [Page 57] morning of the 26th. The precise time it reached our country is not known; therefore we are uncertain whether this bird exceeded in swiftness the hawk which flew thirty miles in an hour in pur­suit of a woodcock; or that which made a flight out of West­phalia into Prussia in a day—instances recorded by the learned Sir Thomas Brown.

THE adjacent kitchen is overlooked by a gallery leading to the antient apartments of the lady of the house,KITCHEN. at a period when the odors of the pot and spit were thought no ill savors. From the commanding height of the gallery the good lady might give her orders to her Coges, or she-cook, as Syrus is humorously de­scribed by Terence to do to his scullion Dromo:‘Let the great eel sport a little longer in the water.—See that you gut the other fishes, and stew the great carp well.—Freshen the salt fish.— Look to the baked meats, good Douse.—Crisp the pig nicely.— Pray do not over-roast the surloin again.—Boil the pudding sufficiently, and do not spare plums and suet.—Be sure not to smoke the flummery.—Remember, no onions to-day—neigh­bor P. dines with us, &c. &c.’

IN the roof to this gallery are numbers of small roosting-holes, to which the inferior maidens of the family nightly repair to rest from their labors.

AT one end of the gallery is a great room,GREAT ROOM. remarkable for a singular event. During the time that Henry earl of Richmond was secretly laying the foundation of the overthrow of the house of York, he passed concealed from place to place, in order to form an interest among the Welsh, who favored his cause on account of their re­spect to his grandfather Owen Tudor, their countryman. While [Page 58] he was at Mostyn, a party attached to Richard III. arrived there to apprehend him. He was then about to dine, but had just time to leap out of a back window, and make his escape through a hole, which,HENRY VII. to this day, is called the King's. Richard ap Howel, then lord of Mostyn, joined Henry at the battle of Bosworth; and after the victory, received from the king, in token of gratitude for his preservation, the belt and sword he wore on that day; he also pressed Richard greatly to follow him to court: but he nobly an­swered, like the Shunamitish woman: ‘I dwell among mine own people.’ The sword and belt were preserved in the house till within these few years. It is observable that none of our histo­rians account for a certain period of Henry's life, previous to his accession. It is very evident that he passed the times when he disappeared from Bretagny, in Wales. Many cotemporary bards, by feigned names, record this part of his life, under those of the LION, the EAGLE, and the like, which were to restore the em­pire to the Britons: for the inspired favorers of the house of Lancaster did not dare to deliver their verses in other than terms allegorical, for fear of the reigning prince.

SQUARE TOWER.IN all probability the original of Mostyn was a square tower, such as may be exemplified entire at Tower, the seat of the Reverend the late Dr. Wynne (see Tour in Wales, ii. p. 427). Part of that at Mostyn is still remaining, but concealed by the additional buildings. It is fully shewn in the view of Mostyn, as it was in the year 1684. The upper part ought to have been em­battled, but the top had been in later times covered with an auk­ward dome. These square towers are still very frequent on the borders of Scotland, built in savage times, as I have attempted to [Page]

MOSTYN as in 1684. [...]

[Page 59] describe in my Tour in Scotland, second edition, volume ii. p. 88. In the plate of Mostyn is given the view of the seat of a gentle­man of large fortune in antient times. In that of Bychton, one of middling fortune. In that of the late Mr. Parry's of Merton, one of small fortune. As to our estate, I think the rent-roll in the year 1572 might amount to about 300l. a year, consisting of a little money, and rents in kind, and services.

BEFORE I quit the old house, let me say, that the best view of the chaotic additions backward is from the garden, from a very handsome summer-house, built by the first baronet, as appears by his arms quartered with those of his wife, Bulkeley of Baron Hill. From this spot is seen great part of the buildings, and the appurtenances to the old house, one tacked to the other, as the increase or the wants of the family made necessary.

IN the year 1631, Sir Roger Mostyn, knight,NEW HOUSE, 1631. gave to the house a very handsome addition; a square mass, consisting of six bed-chambers, a very large eating-room, and a dining-room or drawing-room above, with a large bow-window in the middle of each. In that below are the arms of Gwynne and D'Arcy, well emblazoned on glass. These are complimentary to two great alliances; the one of Sir Roger himself with Mary, daughter of the famous Sir John Wynne, of Gwydir; the other out of respect to the alliance with Bridget Savage, daughter of D'Arcie Savage, esq of Leighton, in Cheshire, by whom the family acquired the great estates they possess in that county. From the principal gate of the park they have the pleasing view of those of Beeston, and those above Parkgate.

OPPOSITE to this window is a fire-place suitable to the room. Above are the arms of the numerous alliances of the house, [Page 60] beautifully done in stucco, dated 1632. Conjoined with them are the arms of Mary Wynne, wife of Sir Roger. Those of Gwydir quarterly with those of Gryffydd ap Conan. In the first of the Mostyn side are those of Tudor Trevor, the stock of the house. The next are those of Llwdocca ap Carad [...]c. 3dly, the arms of Elidir ap Rhys Sais. 4thly, those of Jestyn ap Gurgant. 5thly, the bearing of Brochwel Yscythrog. 6thly, the arms of Edwyn. 7thly, those of Tudor ap Gronw. 8thly, of Ithel Vychan. 9thly, are the arms of Madoc Gloddaeth. 10thly, are those of Sir Gryffydd Lloyd. The 11th, of Goodman; and 12thly, and lastly, the arms of Shalmes [...]orow, which seem an appurtenance only to those of Goodman. This is a mere focal ornament, an abridge­ment of the thirty-two coats which graced the pedegree of the house in the year 1663. Two Termini support the entablature of this genealogical table. The other ornaments are elegant; but unfortunately, as if to dash the mirth of the company, the architect has added, in full view, the monumental cross-bones and bared skull.

AT the upper end of the room are two fine portraits by Mytens, full lengths. One is of Sir Roger Mostyn, knight, men­tioned at p. 17. His face is an excellent representation of the viridis senectus, his countenance florid, his peaked beard of strong whiteness. On his head is a black close cap, turned up with Flanders lace; round his neck a flat large ruff; his whole dress besides is black; round the waistband of his great breeches is a girdle stuck with points. This piece of magnificence gave rise to a very coarse proverb, applicable to inferior people, ambitious of acting beyond their station. Round his knees are similar gir­dles. [Page]


[Page 61] His boots are large, and of white leather, turned down at top, and ornamented in the same finical manner as the cap: such was the foppery of the times, even in so manly a figure as was our knight of Mostyn. But then he was in full dress, his spurs of fine gold, with vast spur-leathers. His right hand rests on his stick, his left on a table covered with a carpet most ad­mirably painted; on it his hat, broad-brimmed, and with a most immoderate crown. The date on his portrait is 1634; his age 67. He died on August 18th, 1642, and was interred at Whiteford, on September the 1st.

HIS lady's neck (in a picture of the same date) is ornamented with a large ruff, single and elevated; her right hand has in it a fan, and rests on an elbow-chair; on a finger of her left hand is a ring, tied to her arm by several black strings.

SHE is dressed in a handsome long gown, with a sash up to her very arms, exactly like the no-waisted fair of the present days. Her shape is contrived to have some degree of elegance, notwithstanding she seems to have been a large woman. I wish our modern embonpoints resembled this lady. They seem to emu­late in fashion the form of a sack of wool, bulging out on every side, undulating their plump graces, here and there, as motion gives occasion. Over the mouth of the sack seems to have been oftimes flung by accident a light horseman's cap, or any other incongruity, instead of the venerable coeffure of the Lady Mostyn, at the sober age of forty-nine.

HIS son Roger, the first baronet, created August 3d, 1660,SIR ROGER, FIRST BARONET. is the middle figure of a picture of the most ridiculous composition. This distinguished character is represented a kit-kat length, in a strange long flaxen wig, a breast-plate, buff skirts, and antique [Page 62] Roman sleeves; a negro holding his helmet. By him is his second lady, Mary, eldest daughter of Thomas, lord Bulkeley, of Baron Hill. She is reading, with one hand on a skull, and her little lap-dog placed by her warlike husband. His third wife is doubled up, and concealed behind the frame. This lady shewed such a mercenary disposition, and so mischievous to the children of her predecessor, that one of the family affixed this stigma. I have taken a peep at her, and may pronounce her countenance to be truly symptomatic of her interior.

SIR Roger was a zealous loyalist. He raised a regiment in support of the crown, consisting of fifteen hundred men, in twelve hours time, mostly colliers. Whitelock, whose sister had been married to Sir Thomas Mostyn, of Kilken, in this county, knight, father to Sir Roger, speaks of him in the following terms; notwithstanding their principles, and the parts they took were widely different. 'Then the parliament forces (in 1643)' says the historian, at p. 78, ‘took in Mostyn-house, belonging to colonel Mostyn, the governor of Flint; and in Mostyn they took four pieces of ordnance and some arms.’

‘THIS colonel Mostyn is my sister's son, a gentleman of good parts, and mettle; of a very ancient family, large possessions, and great interest in that country; so that in twelve hours he raised 1,500 men for the king, and was well beloved there, living very nobly.’

THIS gentleman's loyalty cost him and the family dear. He spent about sixty thousand pounds in the service of his majesty. His house of Mostyn was plundered and stripped, so that he was obliged to retire to a small house called Plas-ycha, about a mile distant from Mostyn. The first was built by his grandfather, the [Page 63] old baronet before mentioned: within, in coarse stucco, are his arms, with those of Gwydir, and the date and initials of his and his lady's name—'1603, R. M. M. M.'

SIR Roger had a great intimacy with Pyers Pennant, his cotem­porary neighbor at Bychton. Both seem to have been boon companions, as is evident from the P. S. to the following cu­rious epistle:

Dear Pyers,

I HOPE you will excuse me for asking for the 4l. you owe me for the pair of oxen; for I want the money to make up 20l. to send my son to Oxford next week.

I am, dear Pyers, Your's, &c. &c. ROGER MOSTYN.

P. S.—How does your head do this morning?—mine aches confoundedly.

AT this time money was so scarce, that 4l. was a price for a pair of oxen; and the baronet of Mostyn was thought very liberal in sending his heir apparent to the university with 20l. in his pocket.

THE other portraits are a head of Sir Thomas Mostyn, the gen­tleman who married Bridget Savage, heiress of the Cheshire estates.

ONE of the late Sir Thomas Mostyn, when a youth. In him was united the fine gentleman, the polite scholar, and the good man. My vision of a certain youth, I do believe, does not issue from the ivory gate.

— when I behold, with ravish'd eyes,
Our pride, our darling, our Marcellus rise!

[Page 64]PORTRAITS of William Vaughan, esq of Corsygedol, and his brother Evan Lloyd Vaughan, esq of Bodidris, successor to his estates, and to his seat in parlement for the county of Merioneth.

A SMALL full length of the exiled duke of Ormond, in a Roman dress, with a brown full wig, and a plan of a modern fortification, by Vauban or C [...]horn, at his feet.

BILLY BANGOR.LET not the shades of the great grow indignant, when I men­tion on the same page our Billy Bangor, the wit, the jester, buf­foon, and fool (as he probably was misnamed) of our country. His sayings and his pranks are to this day much talked of. His is a half-length, with a pipe in his hand. His look savors not of folly, and is full of sly gravity. The portrait is well painted, I imagine in the beginning of the present century, in which Billy flourished.

TWO very good portraits, half-lengths, close the list. They are said to have been two painters, who sate for their pictures to each other. Their countenances are good, their dresses similar.

BETWEEN them is a head of Charles II. in his usual black wig. He is well painted, but without flattery. His coarse features well vindicate the question he put to poor Riley, the painter, on seeing the portrait done by that artist: ‘Is this like me?—then, od's fish, I am a very ugly fellow *!’

BUSTS.IN the room are some busts collected by the late Sir Thomas Mostyn, when he was at Rome; among them is a beautiful head of a young Faun, in a Phrygian bonnet, placed (by no very un­common mistake) on a female body, which it never owned.

ONE of the Cornelii, with meagre face and lank hair. Au­gustus. A Seleucus, with two wings fastened to an imperial [Page 65] diadem, symbols of dispatch and expedition. Two heads of old men, one with short curled hair, and long rounded beard; the other with a long square beard, and long flowing hair. Both have a fillet round the head. Neither of these are determined. One is conjectured to have been Hesiod; the other Hippocrates.

THIS room is in length thirty-five feet three inches; in breadth twenty feet, from the hollow of the bow-window to the fire-place.

IN passing out of this apartment to the great stairs is the entrance into a small and darksome room, mentioned only for the sake of a picture of a hound bitch, most enormously fat, doing great credit to the house: as another, I am in possession of, did to that of Bychton.

THE dining-room is above the parlor.DINING-ROOM. The dimensions are very singular, exceeding in breadth those of the room below about nine inches. On an antient table, made out of one plank (of some unknown wood) seven feet ten inches in length, and four feet ten in breadth, stands a most exquisite bust of the elder Brutus, BUST OF THE ELDER BRUTUS; which seems as if formed in the instant that the love of his country got the better of paternal affection; when with a steady voice he was delivering to the lictors his Titus and Tiberius, to receive the reward of their treasons.

ON a glass case are two busts in brown alabaster,OF TWO FAUNS. of a male and female Faun, with the flammeum on their heads. Both are of hideous deformity, but well executed. In the case beneath is a very fine model of a man of war of sixty-four guns:MODEL OF A MAN OF WAR. and beneath that a most splendid barge. I should have mentioned, that, between the Fauns, is also a model of the Edystone light-house,EDYSTONE. which was burnt down in the year 1755, and succeeded by the present, the work of our able engineer the late Mr. Smeaton.

[Page 66] PAINTING OF ST. CATHERINE.ON the left hand of this case is a most charming painting by Leonardo da Vinci, of St. Catherine. The wheel is placed by her, and in her hand is a palm-branch, the symbol of martyrdom. Moreri, and the moderate catholic writers, seem to be incredu­lous, equally with myself, as to her history. The Golden Legend, that flower of martyrologies, is superior to all doubts. She was daughter to king Costus, married to our Saviour, and martyred by a wheel stuck with razors, under the tyrant Maxentius. The wheel burst to pieces, and at once killed four thousand Paynims who attended the execution. Both these subjects have furnished most delightful pictures for the best masters. (See more of her in my Outlines of the Globe—Arabia, vol. x. p. 23.)

THE SU [...]ER AT EMAUS.OVER the chimney-piece is a good picture by one of the Bassans, of the supper at Emaus, filled with pots and kettles, and all the characteristic culinary furniture of those famous artists.

TWO CAVERNS.TWO very good pieces, I imagine of the interior of some great quarries, vast caverns, with pillars of stone left to support the roof. Similar to those are the caves of Caussie, in the county of Banff, in North Britain, drawn by my much-lamented protège, the late Mr. Cordiner, (see Introduction to the Arctic Zoology, tab. i.) and such as those engraven by Le Bruyn (ii. p. 189. tab. 250, 251, of the English edition) which he saw on the Wo­logda, in the province of the same name.

DANIEL EARL OF NOTTINGHAM.THE family portraits shall be mentioned as they are placed. At the upper end of the room is Daniel, second earl of Notting­ham, sitting in his robes, with a most enormous black wig, flow­ing on each side, almost to his waist; his complexion suitably swarthy.

[Page 67]THIS noble peer was painted by Sir Godfrey Kneller, and was one of the few pictures which that unprincipled painter, as Mr. Walpole says, would not gladly have disowned the moment it was paid for. The earl of Nottingham was, as Dalrymple repre­sents him to have been, most vehement in his political principles, both in church and state, so that he could hereby not live in charity with those who differed from him. He undertook the defence of the former against the attack made upon it by the famous Whiston, in a letter in 1719, addressed to his lordship, which the earl answered; for which his lordship received from the univer­sity of Oxford, in full convocation, its solemn thanks, for his noble defence of the Christian faith. He died January 1, 1729-30. His zeal (as Mr. Walpole observes) caused him during life to suffer many aspersions. In all probability the following may have been one: a stanza in the translation of the 4th Epistle, lib. ii. of Horace, Ne sit ancillae tibi amor pudori, by the Earl of to the Earl of S.

Did not base Greber's Pegg inflame
The sober Earl of Nottingham,
Of sober fire descended:
That, careless of his soul and fame,
To play-houses he nightly came,
And left church undefended!

HIS second lady, Anne, only daughter of William, HIS COUNTESS. the last viscount Hatton, is the next portrait, sitting, and dressed in white. According to Collins, she was a most profitable vessel, for she had five sons and eight daughters, besides ten other children who died young, and seven who were still-born.

[Page 68] LADY ESSEX MOSTYN.LADY Essex, her eldest daughter, in blue, sitting without a cap. One lock graces her neck. She was married to Sir Roger Mostyn, the third baronet. There is a good mezzotinto print of her, by John Smith, from a different portrait, by Kneller. The painter has placed her on a bank, in a rural scene, with flowers in her hands.

THE second daughter, lady Charlotte, married to Charles Seymour, duke of Somerset, in yellow, sitting.

Mary, countess of Thanet, in white, sitting, married to Sack­ville Tufton, earl of Thanet.

Dorothy, countess of Burlington, wife to the late Richard Boyle, earl of Burlington. She is in the character of Diana, in white, walking, with a spear in her hand.

THOSE two ladies were sisters, daughters to William Saville, marquis of Halifax, by his second wife, Mary, only daughter of the pious earl above mentioned, by his first wife, lady Essex Rich, one of the daughters and coheirs of Robert Rich, earl of Warwick.

SIR ROGER MOSTYN.SIR Roger Mostyn, grandfather to the present baronet. He was pay-master of the marines, in the reign of Queen Anne, and one of the tellers of the exchequer in that of George I. He died on May 5th, 1739.

LATE SIR THO­MAS MOSTYN.THE late Sir Thomas Mostyn, and the general John Mostyn, painted when they were children of seven or eight years of age, in one piece. Sir Thomas is dressed in a blue silver-laced suit. His younger brother habited exactly like a girl, in stays, a frock, and an apron, with his neck naked: too ridiculous to be attempted by the artist, or permitted by the parents.

[Page 69] Savage Mostyn, afterward admiral Mostyn. ADMIRAL MOS­TYN. His is a very good and spirited portrait. It was painted when he was a lieutenant: his hand rests on a cannon, the sea and shipping in view. His dress a red short waistcoat, a colored handkerchief round his neck, and a colored worsted night-cap, sitting lightly on his well-shaven head. There is a neat etching of this portrait, by Worlidge. It is said that he first introduced the uniform into the navy. He died in 1757.

Algernon Percy, earl of Northumberland. EARL OF NORTH­UMBERLAND. That nobleman was not bred to the sea, yet in 1636 was employed by his majesty, with a fleet of sixty sail, to drive away the Dutch (Kennet, iii. 78.) who would persist in fishing on our coasts. When his lordship sound them indisposed to comply, he took some, sunk others, and drove the rest away. Soon after which the States were glad to submit to pay the sum of thirty thousand pounds for permis­sion to continue their fisheries. In the next year the earl was constituted lord high admiral of England. Lord Clarendon speaks of him when he was appointed privy counsel, as if it was done for ornament! He took, in the consequent troubles, a part adverse to the king. But in 1648, he voted that his majesty's concessions were sufficient grounds for settling the peace of the kingdom. The army soon settled that affair. His lordship retired from the tyranny of the times, became one of the instru­ments of the Restoration, and died in 1668.

HE is painted as lord high admiral, sitting (a half-length) with one hand on an anchor, with the view of the destroying the busses at a distance.

[Page 70]A BEAUTIFUL small full-length on board, of a very young lady, in the dress of the time of Vandyk. The figure is in height only seven inches. It is beautifully copied in oil, after that great master, probably by Russel, who is mentioned by the noble author of the Anecdotes of Painting, vol. ii. p. 6.

CHARLES I. AND QUEEN. PROFILES.TWO beautiful half-length portraits of Charles I. and his beau­teous queen, both profiles, finely painted. They are called Vandyk's, but I suspect the artist. Charles in black, with one hand playing with his ribbon. Henrietta is in white, lightly hold­ing her mantle.

CHARLES I. AND QUEEN.THERE is besides the same royal pair in one piece, three-quar­ters length, small, evidently by Vandyk. The king is in a light red jacket, laced with silver; she in white, a favorite dress with her majesty, and presenting to him a wreath of laurel. She ap­pears pregnant. They are charmingly painted. The dress of the king is the same as the portrait I mentioned at p. 19, only mine is red, laced with gold.

BEAUTIES OF CHARLES II.DISPERSED in different rooms are twelve small heads of Charles II. and his beauties.

ARMS IN STAINED GL [...].IN the windows of the dining-room are several honorary me­morials of alliances, or of great men, friends of the family, per­petuated by their coats of arms in stained glass.

SIR ORLANDO BRIDGEMAN.THE first is of Sir Orlando Bridgeman, a person eminent for his piety and charity, in the reign of Charles I. and his successor. He was employed on the part of the king as one of the com­missioners at the treaty of Uxbridge, but fell under some censure in shewing a disposition to make concessions in church affairs, [Page 71] which were disagreeable to his majesty. Yet lord Clarendon, in his own Life, i. 176. attributes them more to a timidity of disposition than to any ill design. At the Restoration he was successively made chief baron of the exchequer, chief justice of the common pleas; and at length lord-keeper of the great seals. He ended his days in 1674.

THE arms of Cadifod ap Dyfnwal, quartered with several coats of arms of the great men in South Wales.

James earl of Derby, his arms quartered with those of his gallant Charlotte de la Tremouille.

SIR Thomas Savage, baronet, afterwards created viscount Sa­vage, by James I.; and in 1639, on the death of his father-in-law lord Darcie, viscount Colchester, became earl Rivers.

ARMS of the Mostyns and Wynnes of Gwydir.

THE Grosvenours and Mostyns, in memory of the marriage of Sydney Mostyn, eldest daughter of the old Sir Roger Mostyn, with Sir Richard Grosvenour, of Eyton, baronet.

Mostyn and Whitelock, occasioned by the marriage of Sir Thomas Mostyn, of Kilken, knight, eldest son of the old Sir Roger Mostyn, with Elizabeth, eldest daughter of Sir James Whitelock, knight, one of the puisne judges of the king's bench in 1620, and sister to the famous historian.

Francis earl of Bedford.

Thomas Egerton, baron Ellesmere. See his origin in my Tour in Wales, vol. i. p. 109.

John Williams, bishop of Lincoln. These arms have, quartered with his own, those of the see of Lincoln, which shew that they must have been put up before he was removed to the see of [Page 72] York, in 1641. Probably all the others were put up at the same time.

PORTH-MAWR.IN 1570 William Moston (for till the time of his son, Sir Thomas Mostyn, knight, that was the manner in which the name was spelt) meditated a design of building a new house. By what he executed it appears to have been planned in form of a quadrangle, the old house to have been rebuilt, and to have formed the centre, the other three sides to have been the offices. He finished only one, which from the great gate-way in the middle bears to this day the name of Porth mawr.

THE date is expressed in this manner: ANNO MUNDI 5552. W. M. 1570. If I may compare small things with great, my house at Bychton was rebuilt, and my house at Merton Uchlan was also built in the same year; so it seems to have been an improving age.

LIBRARY.AT one end of this building is the library, a room most un­worthy of the valuable collection of manuscripts and books it contains. Few, if any, can boast of the number or beauty of the first, especially the illuminated; and I suspect that the num­ber, rarity, and value of the antient classics, medallic histories, gems, and variety of every species of polite literature, is without parallel. They are of the scarcest editions, and printed by the most esteemed printers. I am indebted to Mr. Edward Clarke, A. M. of Jesus college, Cambridge, for a select catalogue of the most valuable manuscripts and books. The articles mentioned are attended with our joint notes; but my share must candidly be confessed to have been the smallest. Mr. Clarke may be said to be a scholar, ex traduce. His mother [Page 73] was daughter to the Rev. Dr. William Wotton, famous for having given a translation of the laws of Howel Dda. His grandfather, WILLIAM CLARKE, M. A. was still more eminent. He assisted Wotton in his labors, by a most learned and elegant Latin preface to the Leges Wallicae. But his name will be for ever delivered to posterity for his celebrated treatise, The Connection of the Roman, Saxon, and English Coins, printed in 1767, by his friend Mr. William Bowyer. Neither must I be silent in respect to Mr. Clarke's father, who favored the world with a very ingenious ac­count of Spain, where he had resided some time under the patro­nage of the earl of Bristol, the British minister at the court of Madrid.

THE late Sir Thomas Mostyn may be said to have been the founder of the library. In the old catalogue (for Mr. Clarke has formed a most complete new one) is written, in Sir Thomas's own hand, the following very unnecessary apology: Satius est etiosum esse quam nihil agere!

AT Gloddaeth is another large library,GLODDAETH LIBRARY. consisting chiefly of old English history, and very valuable Welsh MSS. collected by Sir Roger Mostyn, grandfather to the present baronet.

Manuscripts, &c. in the Mostyn Library.

Arms of Illustrious Families of France, MANUSCRIPTS. beginning with the Comte d'Auvergne, the houses, and castles, and coats of arms, illuminated. Fol. Vel. illum.

Account of the Rebellion in North and South Wales, in the last Century, quarto. It begins in 1642, and ends in 1656. Part [Page 74] is written in Welsh. It appears by several passages to have been written by a native of Dolgelli.

Biblia Sacra Antiqua. Quarto, vel. slightly illuminated. In most curious small gothic letter.

Of the magnificent MS. 'Boccace des nob. & illust. Femmes,' Foll. vell. illum. it should be observed that the illuminations, in point of beauty and number, exceed any thing of the kind. The principal illumination or frontespiece is a representation of our first parents in the garden of Eden. The Deity is here pourtrayed in the papal robes, with the tiara on his brow, handing Eve out of Adam's side. Two angels in white sur­plices support his train, which is of blue and gold. The garden is enclosed by the walls and windows of a gothic cathedral.

TOWARDS the end of the volume is a representation of Pope Joan's accouchement in the public streets of Rome, in her way to the Lateran church, between the Coliseum and St. Clement's church, attended by two cardinals, preceded by a white friar, and followed by a numerous concourse of mob. This cele­brated Popess (if such there ever was) is said to have been a German girl, who had assumed the habit of our sex, went to Athens to study, and made such a progress as to be the asto­nishment of every body. By what steps she rose to the papacy I am not told. She attained it in 853, and discharged all the duties of it under the name of John VIII. She unfortunately proved a frail mortal. Her holiness had an intrigue, and the consequences appeared as related. Unable to bear the shame, she died on the spot. This affair gave occasion to a thousand controversies: which side had the right is little worth enquiry. Mr. Misson enters deeply into it, see vol. ii. p. of his Travels. [Page 75] He takes the affirmative part, and gives us an engraving of the fa­mous chair (see tab. vii. p. 119) on which every pope, after the cruel deception, is obliged to sit. It has in the middle a hole like that of a selle-percée, on which the new pope is obliged to sit sans culottes, and the youngest deacon to make a report that his holiness has not imposed on the catholic world.

THE horrors of the various and barbarous modes of execution exhibited in most of the pages, take away the pleasure of exa­mining minutely this fine MS.

Comedia di Dante, fol. vell. illum. A most infernal MS. in gothic letters; the illuminations coarse, numerous as horrid; on every page devils are represented in all forms. Fancy seems exhausted. Done by the Fuseli of the time. Mr. Addison some­where observes that the devils of Dante and Tasso are made hor­rible by their horns, claws, and tails; Milton's by their evil pas­sions. I wish the reader could compare the deformity of the dae­mons in this MS. with the greater deformities occasioned by the evil passions which render detestable even the beauteous features of the fallen angels, painted by the admirable Westall for Mr. Boydel's Milton. It should seem as if the ideas of our great poet had transmigrated into our young painter, to give the present times the fulness of his conceptions.

Chroniques de Jean Froissart, en deux livres, avec figures. Folio, vell. illum.—A very fair and antient manuscript, with the history of every chapter curiously painted in gold and water-colors. It was written in Froissart's own time, or near it, and belonged to a Holland. The first lord Buckhurst made a present of it to Sir William Cecil. The arms of the Hollands are often painted [Page 76] in the initial letters, and in others the arms of the nobility men­tioned in the history.

THE frontespiece to this volume is a battle, with a town at a distance. The French appear victorious; their cavalry driving be­fore them that of the fugitive English. I compared the text of this valuable MS. with the French edition, printed at Lyons in 1559, and the famous translation by Sir John Berniers, lord Bourchier, done in 1525, and find both vary in language, but not in sense, from this manuscript. Another volume of the first and second books, equally beautiful, is to be found in the Gloddaeth library; which I thus describe in my Tour in Wales, ii. p. 337. ‘The frontespiece represents the author on his knees, in a blue man­tle, presenting his book to Edward III. A king of France, distin­guished by the fleurs-de-lis on his robes, holds a queen by the hand, who, from the arms of England, and the lions on her robe, seems to be queen Philippa, to whom Froissart was clerk of the closet. She holds by the hand a little boy, whose robe is also marked with the lions. This must have been Richard of Bour­deaux, her grandson, afterwards Richard II. A lady and several other figures appear in the piece.’ —Mr. Simco, bookseller, in Great Queen Street, Lincoln's Inn Fields, had copy of this manuscript. It was dated on the back 'd'environ 1470.'

Decreta sac. Congregationis Concilii, tom. 7, quarto, in Italian, a common hand, ill-written.

De Arte Amandi, Ovid, vell. quarto.

Eusebii Glossarum Liber, vell. fol. gothic letters.

Evang. de Matthae, cum Expos. vell. fol. most curious gothic letter, slight but elegant illumination.

[Page 77] Ellegia di Madonna Fiametta, fol.

Histoire des Roys de France, fol. vell. illuminated.

Histoire des quatre Roys de France, Charles V, VI, VII, & Lewis XI. Fol. vell. illum. only one large illumination, a battle: King Charles VII. mounted, driving an English body of cavalry before him: a town at a distance.

Herodiani Historiae, &c. Fol. superb vell. with beautiful ena­melled coins—a MS. matchless for elegance of the ornamental part of illumination, and equally so for the medals in rich gold, seemingly real, and as if lying on the paper. To the first letter of each chapter is prefixed one, with the reverse.

Il Nimfale in Versi, di Giov. Bo [...]accio, 8vo.

Imperatoris Caesaris Maximiliani, de Vita sua, Comm. Quarto, superb illum. with a portrait of the emperor, and a view of his study.

Maximiliam I. was born in 1459. He first married, in 1477, Mary of Burgundy. After her death he married by proxy Ann of Bretagne: but Charles VIII. of France actually married her in person, and in consequence added her dominion to that of his successors. The illuminations are very beautiful. His own portrait is the first, sitting in a rich chair, at a table, with his pen in his hand. That of his christening is the next. In another he is instructed in the art of beleaguering. A fourth places him in his study, drawing figures astrological, calculating some great event. From the king to the cobler, every one was in those ages an astrologer.—Consult Sully, 410 edit. i. 78.81.382.530.

[Page 78]ONE side of the study is filled with books, mostly clasped, with their faces outwards, the leaves gaily painted. Above Maximi­lian are his cross-bows, his bows and arrows, the instruments of the chace; and by them his art in music is expressed by the lute. On the floor is shewn the objects of his various studies. That of artillery, by two golden cannon. Of painting, by the grinding-stone for colors, and the pallet. Of husbandry, by a hoe. Of his skill in the arts of the carpenter and joiner, by the ax, plane, &c. &c. &c. Of the smith, by the iron anvil.—A more curious illu­mination is not to be found!

IN one or other of them are depicted the deeds of his busy life. His amusements in the chace are given in various draw­ings; such as that of the bear, the boar, the stag, the chamois, and ibex. The scenery of vast rocks and precipices, and the manner of the chasseurs overcoming all difficulties, make this a most curious delineation. There is one shewing him employed in falconry. Tilts ending most fatally, and as cruelly as shows of gladiators, next are exhibited. His marriage, and his being instructed in virtuous gallantry with the ladies of the court, and the maids of honor, all true Platonic lovers. Maximilian was also great in the field. Voltaire tells us that prince introduced the arms of the Macedonian phal [...]nx; and in all the military illuminations, the long pike (eighteen feet in length) is introduced. In the midst of war he preserved his gallantry. A lady is represented at the entrance of his tent, like another Syfigambis, kneeling to this second Alexander, imploring his pity.—This was the virago sister of Egmond, duke of Gueldres, who, after his death, entered [Page 79] Venlo, and defended it valiantly against Maximilian, who soon reduced her to submit to his mercy.—Let this close his glorious life. I shall add no more than the conclusion: for in 1519, at the age of sixty, he quitted the mortal stage, the com­mon fate of emperors and their meanest subjects.

La Vie de Mons. Sevin, fol.—Francis Sevin, a learned Frenchman, one of the Academy Royal of Inscriptions, &c. at Paris, appoint­ed (in conjunction with l'Abbê Fourmont) to travel into Greece in search of antient MSS. He returned in 1730, and with such success, that he was rewarded with the place of keeper of the royal MSS. He was born in 1699, died in 1741, leaving be­hind numbers of learned memoirs, printed among those of the academy.

Lactantius Firmianus, 1663. fol. vell. the writing most ele­gant, like the finest type, in the manner of Aldus. One side of the margin is prettily illuminated with a fancy scroll; birds, &c.

Missale Vetus, 12mo. with curious musical notes.

Naldinaldii Florentini, Oratio de Laudib. Urbis, 4to, vell. most elegant writing, a thin octavo.

Officium beatae Mar. Virg. 4to. vell. with superb illum.

Seneca, fol. vell. From the library of Samuel Petit, of which are many others. This S. Petit was a celebrated minister of the Calvinist persuasion, and of French descent, whose parents had fled to Geneva from Paris, after the infamous massacre.

Sozomeni Historia, tom 2. fol. vell. most beautifully written, one border finely fancied.

Suetonius Mstus in Pergameno, per Cassium Parmensem, ad Fidem optimorum Codicum, 1469.

[Page 80] S. Thomas de Rege Princip. 8vo. vell. in fine gothic letters. In­structions how princes should reign.

Suetonius. A beautiful MS. on vell. 4to.

Sidonius Apollinaris. 4to. vell. gothic letter.

Valerio Maximo Manuscripto, 8vo.

N. B.—There are moreover a variety of beautiful missals, all on vellum, and superbly illuminated. One as old as the year 1200; and many very curious Bibles.

THIS department is not to be left without mention of the most valuable illumination of a British library the pedegree of the family. This is rich in two. One is not less than forty-two feet long; which, after passing through the British and Saxon race of monarchs, pursues its purpose through the monarchs of Israel; reaches Noah and his ark, and finishes with Adam and Eve. Our bards were our heralds and genealogists. This must originally have been composed by one, who, I dare say, was in­finitely displeased that he was cruelly stopped in his progress by our first parents, and by the Mosaic account denying to him all power of extending his patron's lineage into that of the Pre-Adamites. The other pedegree (notwithstanding it is most beau­tifully illuminated) is scarcely worth mention, being a mere abridgment of the former, and not above twenty-two feet in length.

    Appiani Historiae Romanae. Folio, Venet. 1477.
  • Augustarum Imagines. 4to, Venet. 1558.
  • [Page 81]Apollonius Rhodius. Folio, ap. H. Steph. 1574.
  • Athenaeus. Folio, Venet. ap. Aldum, 1514.
  • Aretius in Pindarum. Folio, ap. le Preux, 1587.
  • Blondi Flavii Histor. ab inclinadone Imper. Rom. Very scarce. Folio, Venet. 1483.
  • Biblia Latina. Folio, R. Steph, 1546.
  • Biblia Latina. Folio, cura Junii, ap. Wechel, 1596.
  • Biblia Latina. Folio, R. Steph. 1545.
  • Catullus, Tibullus, Propertius, cum Not. 4to. Venet. 1500.
  • Catullus, Tibullus, Propertius, 8vo, Venet. ap. Aldum. 1502.
  • C. Plinii Secundi Novicomensis, Epist. Mediol. Folio, 1478.
  • Celtis Protucius de Mensura Carminum, &c. 4to. Nurem. 1487.
  • Ciceronis Opera. Folio. A curious and very old Edition, with­out date, printed at Rome.
  • Dionysius Halicarnassensis. Folio, ap. R. Steph. 1546.
  • Dionysius Halicarnassensis. Folio, ap. H. Steph. 1588.
  • Diodori Siculi, quae exstant. Folio, ap H. Steph. 1559.
  • Demosthenis Opera. Folio. Lutet. 1570.
  • Eustathius in Homerum. Folio. Tom. 4. Rom. 1550. Exemp. nitid.
  • Epigrammata Graeca, cum Not. var. Fol. ap. H. Steph. 1500.
  • Edictum Reginae Elizabethae, Londini promulgat. Nov. 29, 1591. & Andr. Philopatri Respons. ad idem. Very scarce, 8vo. 1593.
  • Esopus, cum Commentariis varius, 8vo. Davent. 1500. A very curious Edition, in black letter.
  • [Page 82]H [...]meri Isias, Graecè, ex recognitione Micylli & Camerarii. [...]m e [...]sdem Odyssea ex Interpret. Didymi, 2 vols. Folio, B [...]ll, 1541.
  • Homen Opera omnia, quae exstant. Tom. duob. Folio, ap. Al [...]um.
  • Horatius, cum quat. Comment. & Fig. Venet. 1509. Folio.
  • Il Petrarca. Edit. nitid. & rariss. Venet. Folio, 1473.
  • [...]atis Opera. Folio, ap. Aldum.
  • Juvenalis Opera, cum Com. Calderini. Folio. Venet. ap. B [...]pt. de Tortis, 1485.
  • Juvenalis Opera, cum Comment. Britannici. Folio, 1503.
  • Juvenalis Opera. Folio, ap. Herb. 1507.
  • Justinus Historicus. Folio, Venet. 1497.
  • Landinus ad Horatium. Folio, Venet. 1483.
  • Livii Historia. Folio, ap. Aldum, 1566.
  • Luciani Opera. Folio, ap. Aldum, 1522.
  • Martialis Opera, cum Not. Calderini, Folio, Venet. 1482.
  • Novum Testamentum Syriacé. Ant. Plantin. 1575. 8vo.
  • Novum Testamentum Graecé. Exemp. rariss. Lutet. 8vo. p. Colinaeum, 1534.
  • Orat [...]rum veterum Orationes, Gr. & Lat. H. Stephani, Folio, Exemp. ni [...]d. ap. H. Steph. 1575.
  • Ovidii Opera, ap. Vincent. Folio, 1480.
  • Persti Opera, cum Comment. Fontii. Folio, Venet. ap. Re­ [...]ld. de Novimag. 1482.
  • Poliphill Hypnerotomachia. The curious Edition, Cuts after a great I [...] master; some say Raphael, vide De Bure. Folio.
  • [Page 83]Plinii Junioris Epistolae, per Beroaldum correctae. 4to. Bonon. 1498.
  • Platina de Vit. Pontificum. Folio, Nuremb. 1481.
  • Politiani Opera. Folio, Venet. 1498.
  • Pausanias. Folio, ap. Aldum.
  • Platonis Opera quae exstant omnia. Gr. & Lat. Folio, Tom. [...] ap. H. Steph. 1578.
  • Poetae Graeci Principes. Folio, ap. H. Steph. 1566.
  • Senecae Opera omnia. Folio, Venet. ap Ber. de Co [...]is, Edit. rariss. 1492.
  • Silius Italicus, cum Comment. Pet. Marti. Venet. ap. Bapt. de Tortis, 1483. Folio.
  • Suetonius. Folio. Mediol. 1475.
N. B.—To this very scarce and valuable Edition of Suetonius, a note in manuscript, signed P. A. OR. or Pet. A. Orlandus, has been subjoined, in the beginning of the volume, with these remarkable words: Caius Suetonius Tranquillus, tempore Trajani et Hadriani floruit circa annum ab orbe redempto CXII. historicus emendatissimus et candidissimus inter Histor. August. Scriptores clarus. Libros xii. de vitis et gestis xii. Caesarum scripsit, quo­rum editiones primae intra annum 1400. sunt sequentes: R [...]ae 1470, in Aedibus Maximis, fol.—Romae, in Via Papae, sine nomine typographi, 1470. — Typographus autem fuit Uldericus G [...]llus, fol. Venetiis, 1471. — Per Nicolaum Je [...]sion. fol. quae est praesens editio inter omnes clarior et nitidior.—Mediolari, 1475. per Philippum de Lavagna. fol. — Alia editio de anno 1480. sine loco et typographo, [Page 84] fol. sine commento.—Cum commento Sabellici, Venetiis, 1490, per Baptistam de Tortis, fol.—Cum commento Beroaldi, Bononiae, 1493, per Benedictum Hectoris, fol. Venetiis, 1493.—Per Bamianum de Mediolano, fol. cum notis Bercaldi, et Sabeilici, Venetiis, 1500.—Per Bartholomaeum, de Zanis. fol.—Alia editio antiqua videtur, sed est sine loco, anno, et typographo. fol.’ 'P. A. OR.'
  • Suetonius. Vit. Caesarum. Edit. nitidiss. & rariss. Folio. Nic. Jensson, 1471.
  • Terentius, cum Commentariis variis, et Figuris. Folio. Ar­gent. 1496.
  • Tullii Orationes, &c. Folio, Bonon. 1496.
  • Thucydides. Folio, ap. Aldum. 1502.
  • Themistii Opera omnia. Folio. Venet. ap. Aldum.
  • Terentius, ap. Aldum. 1504.
  • Virgilius, cum Notis var. & Figuris. Folio, Venet. ap. Bon. 1558. Rariss.
  • Vetus Testamentum. Folio, Rom. 1587.
  • Virgilii Opera, cum Annot. Guell. Fol. Plantin. 1575. A fine Copy.
  • Virgilii Opera. Folio. Venet. 1544.
  • Zenophontis, quae exstant. Folio. ap Aldum.

TO this classical list let me add a modern edition of the BIBLE, remarkable for its magnificence, but more so for a singular erratum. It was printed by Basket, at the Clarendon [Page 85] press, in 1717, in two vast volumes. It is adorned with a frontes-piece, and various head-pieces, from paintings by Sir James Thornhill, and others, engraven by Vander Gutch, de Bosche, &c. The ridiculous mistake is in the running-title to the twentieth chapter of St. Luke; in which 'Parable of the vineyard' is printed 'Parable of the vinegar;' and on that account the edition is better known by the name of the Vinegar Bible, than any other.

Antiquities in the Mostyn Library.


1. Isis nursing the infant Orus, a figure six inches in height.ISIS. For a description of which see Montfaucon, vol. ii. chap. 5. pl. 113. fig. 2.

2. A FEMALE figure rising from the bath,A FEMALE RISING FROM THE BATH. adjusting her hair before a mirror, which she holds in her right hand, while the left is employed in arranging her waving tresses. The legs of this beautiful little bronze have been restored. The rest of the figure is remarkable for its symmetry and elegance.

3. THE eagle of Jupiter, with extended pinions,JUPITER'S EAGLE. retaining the thunder in its claws. This has been suspended as a vow at the shrine of that deity. The same figure often occurs upon the antient lamps, as will be shewn hereafter. Montfaucon has given [Page 86] an exact representation of this figure in vol. i. pl. 154. It there forms the principal ornament of a bronze lamp; and over it is this inscription:





[...].4. IMAGE of Os [...]ris, the tutelar deity of the Nile; according to Mr. Bruce, the personified representation of the dog-star. For an account of this god, see Montfaucon, tom. ii. chap. 8.

[...]LLUS.5. THE PHALLUS, certainly intended as a pendant for the ear. With the ancients it was a symbol of secundity. Herodotus mentions its having been carried in solemn procession at the sacrifices of Bacchus. Athenaeus speaks of one carried in this manner, which was twenty cubits long, and formed entirely of gold. It was moreover adorned with garlands, which were twined round to its vertex, where was a golden star, six cubits in circumference. See Athen. lib. v. c. 5. At Isernia, a province in the kingdom of the two S [...]cilies, the women annually celebrate the anniversary of their patron saint, by offering at his shrine ex voto of wax, represent­ing the male organs of generation, which they style St. Cosmus's toes. Sir W. Hamilton addressed a letter to the Dilettanti society upon this curious circumstance, which he accompanied with dif­ferent specimens of the usual offerings! This letter gave birth to a very learned and ingenious essay, by Mr. Knight, on the ancient worship of Priapus, written at the request of the society! and partially distributed for their use! In the course of this work [Page 87] Mr. Knight thus expresses himself: ‘Whatever the Greeks and Egyptians meant by the symbol in question, it was certainly nothing ludicrous or licentious; of which we need no other proof than its having been carried in solemn procession, at the celebration of those mysteries, in which the first principles of their religion, the knowledge of the God of nature, the FIRST, the SUPREME, the INTELLECTUAL (v. Plut. de ls. & Os.) were preserved from the vulgar superstitions, and com­municated under the strictest oaths of secrecy to the initiated; who were obliged to purify themselves, prior to their initiation, by abstaining from venery, and all impure food.

I FIND this detestable worship among the Gentoos in Indostan. Captain Alexander Hamilton, in his account of the East Indies, i. p. 381, gives the following relation: ‘In all this tract between Gamgam and Jagarnaut, the visible god in most esteem is Go­palsami, whose temples are decorated with obscene representa­tions of men and women in indecent postures, also of demons and caco-demons, whose shameful parts are of a prodigious size, in proportion to their bodies. This filthy image is worshipped by the heathens of both sexes; but barren women are his greatest devotees, and bring him the best oblations.’

6. THE HOG-SKIN *—A vow to Bacchus. A HOG-SKIN.—The custom of preserving wine in hog-skins is still observed in Spain, and many other parts of the world. The antients retained the form of it in their domestic utensils, and vessels of libation, long after the [...]se of it had been superseded by the more convenient amphora.

[Page 88] PATERA.7. AN instrument of sacrifice, by some falsely called a patera. Montfaucon has proved that these instruments, round, flat, having no cavity to contain the liquor, are not paterae. Beger supposes them to be what Isidorus calls apophereta, which were used as plates to hold fruit and other viands. ‘Apophereta, a ferendo poma vel aliud, nominata; est enim plana.’ See Mont­faucon, tom ii. pl. 63. fig. 2.

THE paterae were very different from those designed for festive purposes. The latter were rich goblets, or a species of tankard. Montfaucon has, in vol. iii. part 1. p. 146, to p. 149, engraven several kinds. Virgil, in describing Dido's royal feast, says, ‘Implevit mero pateram.’ After the fair queen had made a delicate libation, she pre­sented the goblet to the jovial Trojan, Bitias, who drank it up at one tip. The Poet describes it most humorously and em­phatically:

Tum Bit [...]e dedit increpitans: ille impiger hausit,
Spumantem pateram, et pleno se proluit auro.

A SPECULUM.8. A SPECULUM, or mirror, of some metallic substance, at this day retaining a polish equal to the first telescope reflector. Bishop Watson, in his Chemical Essays, vol. iii. p. 335, has given a pretty comment on the composition of these specula. 'Cop­per,' says the ingenious prelate, ‘communicates a smell both to gold and silver. The Roman specula, which they used as looking-glasses in Pliny's time, were commonly made of silver; but the silver was alloyed with much copper; for we [Page 89] find a cunning waiting-maid in Plantus, advising her mistress to wipe her fingers after having handled a speculum, least her paramour should suspect her of receiving silver from some other lover:’

Ut speculum tenuisti, metue ne oleant argentum manus,
Ne usque argentum te accipisse suspicitur Philolocles.

9. THE STRIGIL, a crooked instrument for scraping the muscles.A STRIGIL. It was in high request among the Romans. Montfaucon gives the figures of several. Among others, he has pourtrayed a man of rank in the bath, while two boys are seen on each side of him, using the strigil. This instrument is very common on all the Greek vases, and is always represented among the ceremonies of the bath.

10. A COMB, exactly resembling those now in use. This also formed a necessary article among the bathing apparatus.A COMB.

11. A SMALL spice-box; of the same nature as those found at Pompeia.

12. A BRACELET for the arm.BRACELET. These are frequently found in Greek sepulchres; and in the excavations at Herculaneum and Pompeia.

13. AN intaglio ring, beaded round; the work very coarse,RING. and altogether in the Egyptian style.

14. ARM of the Discobolus, ARM OF A DISC­OBOLUS. in the act of throwing the dis­cus. I find the same sort of fragment mentioned in an old col­lection of antiquities, engraved at Rome in the year 1610; with this exception, that the latter is of marble: ‘Marmoreum bra­chium [Page 90] chium Discoboli, libratum pondus in [...]ras mittentis.’ —R. Antiq. Pa. Pet. C. R.

KEY.15. A SMALL key connected to a beaded ring.

16, 17. Prefericula, as ex voto.

Lamps of Earthen Ware, Penates, &c.

LAMP WITH THE FACE OF JUPITER AMMON.1. A BEAUTIFUL Lamp, of the Nola clay, with an uncom­monly fine head of Jupiter Ammon, in mezzo relievo.

JUPITER, AND HIS EAGLE.2. A DITTO, representing Jupiter supported by the eagle, with the thunder in its claw; the exact representation of this lamp is in Montfaucon, vol. v. pl. 154. Also in Bartoli's L [...]cerne Antiche, part ii. pl. 4. As Bartoli's account is short and satisfac­tory, I shall insert it: ‘Gieve pertato dell' Aquila. A questa figura di Giove portato in alto dall' Aquila, [...]cello ad esso consecrato, altro non habbiamo da aggiungere, se non che [...] Ro­mani dopo morte, nelia consecratione de [...]o [...]mperadori usunano questo honore, fingenda che [...]e l [...]ro anime dall' Aquila fossino inal [...] al cielo, & fra le fielle. Tale Ambitione indusse ancora huomini privati ad ins [...]ire & deficare in to [...] modo i l [...]o Defonti, in habito, e culto divino, portati dall' Aquila al' Cielo.’

L. WITH TWO FIGHTING COCKS.3. A VERY curious lamp, with a small handle, representing, in alto relievo, two fighting cocks, each supported by a Genius. One of the cocks has evidently the advantage; his tutelar Genius is shouting the victory. The other Genius covers his face with [Page]

Lamp with the head of Jupiter [...] [...]on [...]


LCAESA [...]



[Page 91] his hands, to hide a convulsive fit of tears, and the shame of being defeated. The expression in these two figures is asto­nishing. An elegant border surrounds the whole, and on the reverse of the lamp ‘L. CAESAR.’ is stamped in very legible characters.

4. A SMALL lamp in Nola clay, L. WITH A HORSE. with a horse in mezzo relievo.

5. A BEAUTIFUL lamp, of red clay,L. WITH A WAR­RIOR's HEAD. with a remarkably fine head in relief; representing a warrior, accompanied by an instru­ment of sacrifice.

6. A FIGURE of Isis, one of the Egyptian Penates,ISIS, A SMALL FIGURE. carved in stone, and covered with hieroglyphics.

7. A SIMILAR figure, formed of blue antique paste,ANOTHER. of the same kind which the ancients used in their Mosaics, known to Italians by the name of fritta. This figure is also covered with hieroglyphics.

TO these may be added others, which I have described in the first volume of my Tour in Wales. Those which are foreign, are several marbles brought from Narbonne, the Narbo Martius. NARBONNE MAR­BLES. It is one of the most ancient cities in Gaul, for it was a flourishing place two hundred and eighty years before the Christian era. A Roman colony was established there in the time of Marcius Rex, from whom it received its addition. It is full of antiquities, which have been used in the various modern buildings. Those in question came from the walls of the archbishop's palace; and were brought here by the late Sir Thomas Mostyn. The en­graving, [Page 92] with the inscriptions, taken from the 2d volume of my Tour, gives a full idea of these funebrial memorials.

TORQUES.THE golden torques, that invaluable morsel in possession of this family, was found by digging in a garden near to Harlech castle in 1692. It is well described by Camden, as a wreathed rod of gold, about four feet long, with three spiral furrows, with sharp intervening ridges running its whole length to the ends, which are plain, truncated, and turn back like pot-hooks. Whether this was purely Roman, or whether it might not have been common to both nations, I will not dispute. The use was that of a baldric, to suspend gracefully the quiver of men of rank, which hung behind, by means of the hook; and the golden wreath crossed the breast, and passed over the shoulder. Virgil, in his beautiful description of the exercises of the Trojan youth, expresses the manner, in these frequently misconstrued lines:

Cornea bina ferunt: prae [...]ixo hastilia ferro:
Pars leves [...]umer [...] pharetras: ait pectore summo
Flexilis obt [...]rti per collum circulus auri.
Each brandishing aloft a cornel spear:
Some on their backs their burnish'd quiver bore,
Hanging from wreaths of gold, which shone before.

THE torch, or torques, worn by the Gauls and Britons, was a very different affair, a collar of gold, or other metal, worn round the neck. Our heroine Boadicea had a great one of that precious metal; and Virdomaerus wore round his neck another, fastened behind with hooks, which fell off when the conqueror cut off his head.


[Page 93]
Illi virgatis jaculanti ex agmine braccis
Torquis ab incisa decidi [...] unca gula.

Manlius acquired the addition of Torquatus, from a torques which he won from a Gaul, whom he flew in single combat, in sight of the army; and Publius Cornelius, after the slaughter of the Boii, took, among other spoils, not fewer than four thousand and seventy golden torques.

THEY were also in use among the Romans, who bestowed them as military rewards; and, as Pliny pretends, the golden on the auxiliaries, the silver on the citizens. They probably were made in several ways. I have seen a very beautiful one (I think at present in possession of the Rev. Mr. Prescot, of Stockport) composed of several links of silver wire, most elegantly twisted together: it was long enough to go twice round the neck, and had clasps which fastened it on.

THE custom of wearing the torques was continued from the more remote periods of Britain, to later times. Llewellyn, a lord of Yale, was called Llewelyn aur Dorchog, ‘Llewelyn, with the golden torques,' on that account; and the common proverb, Mi a dynna'r dorch a chwi, I will pluck the torques with you,’ signifies to this day, a hard struggle of a person before he would yield a victory.

THE next antiquity is, as to material, British; COPPER CAKE. as to its destina­tion, Roman. I refer to the cake of copper smelted at the antient Conovium, the modern Caer-bên, near to Conwy, which probably was smelted from the ore of the Snowdon hills, where of late years much has been got. This mass is in shape of a cake of bees­wax: [Page 94] on the upper part is a deep concave impression, with the words 'Se [...]o Romae, To my partner at Rome:' across these is im­pressed obliquely, in lesser letters, Na [...]ol. I cannot explain it, unless N [...] stands for Na [...], the people who paid this species of t [...]bute, and sol for [...], that being the stamp-master's mark. These cakes might be bought up by a merchant resident in Britain, and consigned [...], 'to his partner at Rome.' The weight of this antiquity is forty-two pounds; the diameter of the upper part eleven inches; the thickness in the middle two and three quarters.

SILVER HARP.THE silver harp is purely British, both as to the metal, and the use; which, with the commission for holding an Eisteddfod, or sessions of bards, at Ca [...]wis, in 1568, is still in possession of Sir Roger Mostyn. The harp from time immemorial had been in the gift of his ancestors, to give as a temporary mark of excel­lency on the chief of the faculties, or those who had excelled in their different ways, poetical or musical. I shall only pre­sent the reader with the copy of the patent to Sir Richard Bulkeley, knight, and to William Moston, and many others. William Moston is the gentleman mentioned at p. 72. This commission is in some measure historical: but the reader who wishes for a fuller account of the [...]isteddfod, may gratify his curiosity by turning to p. 457, and from thence to p. 478, of the first volume of my Tour in Wales. The commission is as follows:

ELIZABETH, by the grace of God, of England, Fraunce, and Ireland, Quene, defendor of the fayth, &c.
to our trustie and [Page 95] ryght wel-beloved Sr Richard Bulkley, Knight, Sr Rees Gruffuth, knight, Ellice Price, equior, doctor in cyvill lawe, and one of our counsail in our marches of Wales, William Mostyn, Jovan Lloyd of Yale, John Salisbury of Ruge, Rees Thomas, Maurice Wynne, Willm Lewis, Peres Mostyn, Owen John ap Holl Vaughan, John Willm ap John, John Lewis Owen, Moris Gruffyth, Symound Thelwall, Ellice ap Willm Lloyd, Rob Puleston, Harry Aparry, William Glynne, and Rees Hughes, esquiors, and to every of them greating.

—WHERAS it is come to the knowledge of the lorde president, and other or said counsail, in or marches of Wales, that vagraunt and idle psons, naming themselfs mynstrells, rithmors, and bar­thes, are lately growen into such an intollerable multitude wthin the principalitee of Northwales, that not only gentlemen, and others, by theire shameles disorders, are oftentimes dis­quieted in their habitaons; but also thexpert mynstrells and mucisions in toune and contry therby much discouraged to travail in thexercise and practize of their knowledge; and also not a litle hyndred in theire lyvings and pfermts. The reformac̄on whereof, and the putting of these people in ordr, the said lorde president and counsail have thought verey ne­cessarye; and knowing you to be men both of wysdome and upright dealing, and also of experience and good knowledge in the scyence, have apointed and authorised you to be com­missioners for that purpose. And forasmuch as or counsail of late, travayling in some pte of the said principalitee, had ꝑfect understanding, or credible report, that thaccustomed place for thexecuc̄on of the like comssyon, hath bene her­tofore [Page 96] at Carcyes, in our countie of Flynt, and that William Most [...], esquio [...], and his ancest [...], have had the gyfte and be­stowing of the sylver harpe apꝑtayning to the cheff of that facultie, and that a yeares warning at the least hath bene ac­customed to be geaven of thassembly, and execuc̄on of the like commissyon. Our said counsail have, therfore, apoynted thexecuc̄on of this commyssyon to be at the said towne of Cartyes, the Monday next aft (er) the feast of the blessed Trynitee, wch shall be in the yeare of or Lorde God 1568.

AND therfore we require and command you, by the autho­ritee of these p̄sents, not only to cause open ꝓclamaons to be made in all ffayors, mrketts, townes, and other places of assembly wthin our counties of Anglize, Carnrvon, Meyryonneth, Denbigh, and Fflynt, that all on evry ꝑson & ꝑsons that entend to maynteigne theire lyvings by name of color of myn­strells, rithm̄rs, or barthes, within the Talaith of Aberfiowe, comphending the said fyve shires, shal be and appeare before you the said day and place, to shewe theire learnings accord­ingly: but also that you xx••e, xixen, xviiien, xviien, xvien, xven, xiven, xiiien, xiie, xin, xen, ix, viii, vii, or vi. of you whereof youe Sr Richard Bulkley, Sr Rees Gruffith, Ellice Price, and Wm Mostyn, esquiors, or iiiee, or ii. of you, to be of the nombr to repayre to the said place the day aforsaid, and calling to you such expert men in the said facultie of the Welshe musick, as to you shall be thought convenient to ꝓceade to thexecuc̄on of the ꝑmissn, and to admytt such and so many as by your wisdomes and knowledges, you shall fynde worthy into and undr the degrees heretofore in semblable sort, to use, [Page 97] exercise and folowe the scyences and facultes of theire ꝓfessyons in such decent ordr as shall apꝑtaigne to eche of their degrees, and as yor discrec̄ons and wisdomes shall p̄scribe unto them, geaving straight monycons and comaundm [...], in or name and on or behalf, to the rest not worthy, that they returne to some honest labor, and due excercise, such as they be most apte unto for mayntenaunce of theire lyvings, upon paine to be taken as sturdy and idle vacaboundes, and to be used according to the lawes and statutes ꝓvided in that behalf, letting you wyth or said counsaill look for advertisemt by due certificate at youre handes of yor doings in thexecuc̄on of the said ꝑmissn. For seeing in any wise that upon the said assembly the peas and good order be observed and kept accordingly, assertayning you that the said Willm Mostyn hath ꝓmised to see furnyture and things necessary ꝓvided for that assembly, at the place afor­said.

Signed her Highnes counsaill in the mrches of Wales.

FINALLY, in the library, is a most exquisite drawing upon vellum, of the crucifixion, done with a lead pencil, twenty-two inches by fifteen. It formerly hung in the approach to the chapel, and was brought there by the lady of Sir Thomas Mostyn, the second baronet. That lady, as I have before mentioned, was a Roman catholic, and placed it where it was originally found, to exalt her devotion. The drawing was made after a pi [...]ture by Rub [...]ns, as the inscription shews, P. P. Rubens pin [...]. The [Page 98] copyist was David Legg [...]n, a celebrated engraver of his time, about the year 1677, and remarkable for the neatness of his drawings of heads in black-lead *. On his drawing at Mostyn is 'D. L. de [...]in.' The expression of agony in the countenance of our dying SAVIOUR, is remarkably striking; and the head, and every part of the drawing, is finished with all the accuracy of the finest miniature painting.

OF the seven churches in the hundred of Coleshill, part of the S [...]n dis [...]ros, Wisford, as it is called in the Doomsday Book, is one. The name was changed to Whiteford, of derivation un­known. In the Doomsday Book notice is also taken of some of the present townships, such as Tre-Mostyn, Tre-Bychton, and M [...]ton, under the names of Mostone, Widford, Putecaine, and Mer [...]tone. M [...]stone was then a plough-land, terra unius carucae. It had on it four villeyns and eight boors; (Bordarii) a wood a league long, and forty perches (perticatae) broad, and was valued at twenty shillings.

Widford is joined with Putecaine, the first seems to have com­prehended our present Tre [...]lan, or the place where the church-village now stands. These had one plough land, two villeyns, and twelve others between men and maid servants, fisheries, and a wood half a mile long, and forty perches broad; the value was the same with that of Mostone.

WITH Mereton is joined the third part of Widford, and the Berewicha, or hamlet of Caldecote, the last at present a township of the parish of Holywell. In this division was a presbyter, a church, and six villeyns. Here was a wood half a mile long, and twenty perches broad. One Odin held these of the earl.

[Page 99]THE church stands in the township of Tre lan. THE CHURCH. It is dedi­cated to St. Mary; so popular was that Saint, that thirteen churches in our country were placed under her patronage, and thirteen wakes kept on that day. The living is a rectory, a sine­cure, which, with the vicarage, is in the gift of the bishop of St. Asaph. The church consists of a nave, with a good plain tower-steeple. It has besides a side aile, built by a Blithyn Drow, of the house of Mostyn, to whom that part belongs.

DIVINE service is performed every Sunday, alternately in Welsh and in English. At the first the congregation is very nume­rous, and at all times truly serious and devout. The dress of even the poorest, neat and whole, and very unlike the squalid ragged figures, too frequently seen in the congregations of many a southern county.

OFFERINGS at funerals are kept up here, and I believe in all the Welsh churches. A disgusting, and in cases in which the deceased may have died of an infectious distemper, a dan­gerous custom, often prevales, of the corpse being brought into church during divine service, and left there till the congregation is dismissed.

THAT excellent memento to the living, the passing-bell, is punctually sounded. I mention this, because idle niceties have in great towns often caused the disuse. It originated before the Reformation, to give notice to the priest to be ready to do the last duty of extreme unction to the departing person, in case he had no other admonition. The canon (67) allows one short peal after death, one other before the funeral, and one other after the funeral. The second is still in use, and is a single bell [Page 100] s [...] [...]ed. The third is a merry peal, rung at the request of the [...]s; [...] if [...] like, they reioiced at the escape of the departed out of thi [...] troublesome world.

BELL-CORN is a small perquisite belonging to the clerk of certain parishes. I cannot learn the origin.

[...]HANGING up against the wall is an imperfect table of bene­fa [...]tors. The ann [...]al revenue in interest and land is 68 l. yet the poor's rates are alarmingly high. In the beginning of the pre­sent century poor rates had not taken place. Collections were made in the church for the sick and the aged. Filial piety had at that time f [...] possession of the breasts of the children, or great affection the part of more distant relations, and the pangs of p [...]verty were as much as possible alleviated. There was also a laudable p [...] in them, which made them above suffering their friends to be a burden to their fellow parishioners; all this gra­dually ceased, and the warmth of natural affection soon quite dis­appeared. I cannot but mention an instance of the rapid increase of taxes in my days. In the year 1756 William Lloyd, smith, was one of the overseers of the poor; at that time the annual tax was only 6 [...]. 3 c. 1 d. He was appointed again overseer in the year 17 [...], when the tax was increased to 600l. William Lloyd is now living, but the books prove the exactness of the assertion.

SCHOOL.IN the village is the school. It was founded by Mary Brad­shaw, widow of Thomas Williams, of Mostyn Gate, who bequeathed by will, dated 1745, the interest of 141l. to be paid to the mas­ter of the said school, for instructing for ever, annually, fourteen children, who are instructed in reading and writing English, and [Page 101] accounts. The present school-house was built by Pyers Jones, an opulent farmer of this parish, who also bestowed a very hand­some brass chandelier on the church.

IN this and a few other of the mineral parishes,CLUB is a Cymdei­thos, or club, instituted in 1766, for the support of the members in case of illness, or any accidents, provided they are not con­tracted by intemperance, fighting, or any immoral act. Our club consists of 240 members, each of whom contributes monthly 8d. which is put into a box locked with three keys; two are kept by the stewards, and the third by the person to whom the box is intrusted, so that all three must be present at the taking out or putting in of any money. The club has been of late years for­tunate enough to have saved three hundred pounds, which is put out on good security, and kept in reserve against any calamitous times, such as seasons of sickness, or uncommon successions of accidents.

IN case of illness a certain allowance is made till the time of their recovery, or till they are deemed incurable. In the last case they are allowed two shillings and six pence for life. In case of death forty shillings is paid for funeral expences, and a sum to the widow proportionable to the time the husband had been member of the club.

WHENEVER the business requires a meeting, the steward must bring with him the tankard of ale, and a very small cup, in or­der that the members may not exceed the bounds of temperance.

IF any member comes to the club in liquor, he forfeits two-pence; if he speaks ill of government, or abuses any body, or curses and swears, or will not hold his tongue when required by [Page 102] the stewards, he forfeits two-pence for every offence. In a word, every caution is observed to preserve the rules of morality in this our paroc [...]al society. Finally, there is a great annual meeting on New-Year's Day, in which every member attends. Every one appears neatly dressed, carrying a wand gally painted, and make altogether a most respectable figure, ranged in two lines from the porch door to that of the church.

I STEP into the church-yard, and sigh over the number of departed which f [...]ll the inevitable retreat. In no distant time the north side, like those of all other Welsh churches, was, through some superstition, to be occupied only by persons exe­cuted, or by suicides. It is now nearly as much crowded as the other parts. The most remarkable inscription is on a head-stone set up by myself.

C [...]NE [...]
HERE lyeth the [...]dy of C [...] M [...], otherwise Go [...]s. who during sixty years, to the best of her ab [...] discharged the duties of a good and faithful servant in the family o [...] By [...], died August 3d, 1767, aged 106.

THIS Ante-d [...]ian was one of those characters misnamed fools, a mixture of weakness, with much acuteness and strong expressions, often highly diverting to the company. The addi­tion to her name of G [...]r [...] was from her coming from Cors-y-gedol, in Meri [...]e, into our service.

ON an old altar-tomb, on the south-side of the church, is the following inscription: [Page]


[Page 103]Hic jacet corpus Nicolai Pennant, filii Hugonis ap Rees ap Dafydd Pennant, de Bychton, ex Jonetae, filiae Ricardi ap Howel, de Mostyn. Sepultum vicessimo-sept. die Martis, A. D. 1601. Cuj. An. DEUS propit. Esto, miserere, Amen.’

THIS distant uncle was a younger son of Hugh Pennant, NICOLAS PEN­NANT. and one of twelve children by Sionet Mostyn (See p. 26) one of the five daughters of the valiant Howel ap Richard de Mostyn, who led his countrymen to Bosworth-field, and received the honor­able reward I mentioned, at p. 58.

BY the remains of Nicolas Pennant are deposited those of my late worthy servant Louis Gold. LOUIS GOLD. What I never with to be done for myself, I did for him, I placed a small brass within the church, with an inscription expressed in the following terms:

This small Monument of esteem was erected by his lamenting Master in Memory of LOUIS GOLD, a Norman by Birth, and above twenty years the faithful Servant and Friend of THOMAS PENNANT, Esq of Downing.

In his various services he made considerable savings, which he disposed of by his last will (having no relations of his own) with affection to his friends and to his fellow-servants, with unmerited gratitude to his Master and his family, and with piety to the poor.

[Page 104] Every duty of his humble station, and every duty of life, He discharged so fully, That when the day sh [...]ll come which levels all distinction of ranks, He may, By the favor of our blessed Mediator, hear these joyful words, "Well done, thou good and faithful servant, enter thou into the joy of thy Lord." He was born at St. Hermes de Rouvelle in Normandy, August 22, 1717; died at Downing, August 20, 1785; and was interred in the Church-yard near this wall on the 22d of the same month.

The wealth which Louis had acquired was considerable. Above sixteen hundred pounds passed through my hands. He had be­sides a thousand pounds, which a setter to an attorney prevaled on the good man to sink with the man of the law for an an­nuity. Death soon put the lawyer in possession of the principal. I lament this; for I had been left by him residuary legatee and sole executor, with a power to dispose of the remainder (all legacies paid) in charitable uses. Thus a thousand pounds were lost to Whiteford parish. The interest of the remainder is quarterly divided among the worthiest of our poor, who may annually bless so excellent a benefactor.

Louis was bred a Roman catholic, and notwithstanding he occa­sionally frequented the prayers of our church, he chose to be buried according to the rites of those of Rome, which were per­formed [Page 105] in a room in my house. He left twenty pounds to the gentleman who performed the service. I fixed on the Re­verend Philip Jones, who had in this neighborhood near fifty years discharged his function in a manner truly exemplary. I took up the old custom of attending a faithful friend to his grave, a respect the excellency of his conduct clamed from me.

NEAR to the tomb of Nicolas Pennant, is another in memory of Hugh Pennant, son and heir of Robert Pennant, of Downing, (see p. 9.) who was buried August 16th, 1675, with this best of cha­racters: ‘He lived honestly, and hurt nobody. He gave every one his due.’

NEAR to this place, tumbled on the ground,PIERCES OF YSGLAN. is a stone in memory of a Pierce of Ysglan, in this parish, a respectable family now extinct, descended from Ednowen Bendew. The crest of this family is a boar's head marked with a crescent, a sign of its having been a second branch. On a board I have of the arms of the house, I see it had been allied with numbers of reputable families, among others I venture to reckon that of Bychton.

I MIGHT mention other tombs of the men of property in our parish, who in less luxurious times lived in hospitality, till, infected with those fiends luxury and ostentation, they soon became swallowed up in the greater estates.

BENEATH the venerable shade of two great yews,OF THE FOULKE [...]'s. our Baucis and Philemon, is the tomb which preserves the memory of Mar­garet Parry, heiress of Merton, (see p. 52.) the seat of our hospi­table [Page 106] vicar, the Rev. Mr. John Foulkes. The epitaph gives the descent:

Hic jacet corpus Margarettae Parry, filiae The Parry, filn̄ heredis Gu [...].
Parry, et nuper uxor Joh. Fo [...]lkes, quae sepulta est 8 die Julii, 1667.
Hic jacet corpus Guilidmi Parry Wynne, de Mertyn isgl [...],
Junii, et sepultus 19 die Junii, 1658. Id.

THIS at present is the tomb of the family of Mr. Foulkes, of Merton. On the top are cut, as I suppose, the arms of the fa­mily from whom he derives his right, quarterly for his first coat a stag, by which I imagine that the bearer derived his descent from Hedd Molwynog, lord of Uwch Aled, and one of the fifteen tribes, and cotemporary with Dafydd ap Owen Gwynedd. If the reader will give himself the trouble of turning to p. 56 of the second volume of my Welsh Tour, he will find a recital of the great deeds of the house.

O [...] WILLIAMS.THE next is the place of interment of Peter Williams, of Mer­ton Ysglan, who died January 19th, 1671.

HIS arms shew him to have derived his descent from the above-mentioned Ednowen Bendew, quarterly with those of Edwyn, lord of Tegengl. The family fell to decay, and the part of the estate which lay in our parish was purchased by my father, and the name changed to that of Kinsale (see p. 52.) from the late owner having made that place his residence.

THE following quaint rhyme, on another grave-stone, may conclude with much propriety this part of the funebrial subject.

Vita caduca vale,
Vita perennis ave!



Monument of Elizabeth Mostyn. [...])

[Page 107]I STEP within the church with reverential awe. Many pious men I have seen offer up at short ejaculation in our Welsh churches (even when alone) to the Almighty Being, to whose service they were founded, and in whose praise we all unite. A few monumental marks of respect are to be seen, and three on the north wall not inelegant.

ALL are small. The first has the figure of a man and woman kneeling on opposite sides of a desk. Two sons are behind the man, and three daughters behind the woman, in the same at­titudes. They are most neatly engraven on a tablet of white marble, and the whole included in a very neat frame. The in­scription gives their brief tale: ‘Neere to this lyeth the body of Elizabeth Mostyn, one of the Coheires of Rich. Aldersey of the Citie of Chester, Gent. Wife to Will. Mostyn, Arch. Bang. and Rector of Chrysilton. By whom he had issve three sonnes and two daughters. She de­parted this life the 10th of April, Ann. Dni. 1647.’

TWO of the sons were heads of two families, those of Bryng­wyn, in Montgomeryshire, and those of Segroit, in Denhighshire.

THE next records the death of a son of Gwydyr. The arms of the house, three spread-eagles and three lions, are cut on the [Page 108] tablet. Above is the crest, and on the entablature, MORTUUS VIVO. The inscription follows: ‘Here lyeth interred the body of Ellici Wynn, the 9th son of Sir John Wynn, of Gwydyr, Knight and Baronet, aged xx, who died the xxth of 9ber, and was buried the xxiii of the said month, Ao. Domini 1619. Omnis caro foenum.’ Conjoined with the last is the tablet of one of our vicars, neat, like the others, only his arms are cut on the stone; the epitaph beneath: ‘Near this place lieth interr­ed the body of Mr. Richard C [...]tmor, late Vicar of Whitford, and Rector of Aber, who died the xxvii day of July, MDCLXXXIIII, and was buri­ed the 3o, aetatis suae 42.’ Richard Coytmore was one of the nineteen vicars who filled the living, from the year 1537. The following is the list of all the vicars, from that date to the present time:

  • David Lloyd, 1537.
  • L [...]wis ap John Al'gwin, 1562, deceased.
  • Hon. Mostyn, 1586, d.
  • Rice Hughes, 1591, resigned.
  • Tho. Kyffin, 1598, res.
  • Ed. Kyffin, 1601, res.
  • [Page 109] S [...] Meredith, 1608, res.
  • Lewis Lloyd, 1617, d.
  • Wil. Mostyn, 1638, d.
  • Rice Powel, 1642.
  • Humf. Mostyn, 1653, depr.
  • Wil. Smith, 1661.
  • Rob. Edwards, 1666, res.
  • Wil. Roberts, 1666, resigned.
  • Rich. Coytmore, 1668, d.
  • Hugh Price 1686.
  • Edw. Davies, 1697, d.
  • Gr. Griffith, 1730, d.
  • John Foulkes, 1765.

THE vault of the Mostyn family is at the end of this aile.VAULT OF THE MOSTYNS. The last who was buried there was Sir Roger Mostyn, the first baronet, who died in 1651. His second lady, Mary, eldest daughter of Thomas, lord viscount Bulkley, was buried in the same vault. Her epitaph is preserved in our parish-register, and is as follows:

Nobilis Heroina ac Domina D. Maria Mostyn,
Illustri Buckleiensis familia oriunda,
Honoratissimo viro Rogero Mostyn, de Mostyn,
Equiti et baronetto connubio juncta,
Praestantissimarum virtutum cumulo
Supra invidiam laudemque adornata, utque
Pudicitiam et formam,
Gravitatem et dulcedinem,
Comitatem et honorem,
Humilitatem et magnitudinem,
Humanitatem et pietatem,
Gratissima concordia consociavit.
Quum nondum annos 34, etiamum numerâsset,
Quumq. dolendos non unius morbi cruciatus,
Victrici patientia per biennium sustulisset
Dignissimo conjuge
Charissimis que (egregiae indolis) natis quatuor,
[Page 110]Quae supersunt (castissimi amoris pignora) relictis,
Non sine summo omnium (quibus aut ipsius virtus
Ejusve fama innotuerat) luctu planctuque
In pacem aeternam sibi feliciter migravit, die 16o Octobris,
Et sepulta 28 die ejusdem mensis, Anno Dom. 1662.
R. E. vic.

THE disgraced lady mentioned in p. 62, is also commemo­rated here.

Valde generosa virtuosaque ac Domina
D. Lumlaea Mostyn in felicitatem
Sanctorum octavo die Octobris migravit,
Sepultaque decimo octavo die mensis
Ejusdem Anno Domini 1680.

HIS son and successor Sir Thomas Mostyn married Bridget, daughter and sole heiress of Darcie Savage, of Leighton, esq who transferred to the house of Mostyn the great Cheshire estates. This lady was a Roman catholic. Tradition is warm in her praise, and full of her domestic virtues, and the particular at­tention that she shewed in obliging her domestics, of each re­ligion, to attend their respective churches. Her husband and she ‘were lovely and pleasant in their lives, and in their death they were not divided.’ They died within a day or two of each other, at Gloddaeth, in Caernarvonshire, and were interred in the neigh­boring church of Eglwys Rhôs. They are here mentioned as the first of the family who were interred out of the antient vault of the house of Mostyn.

OF THE PEN­NANTS.I TURN mine eyes towards the ALTAR, towards the aeterna [Page 111] domus of our race. The recent visitation of Heaven! The un­closed wound!—arrest my pen.


Cicero de Senectute.
MAY 1, 1794.

ON a brass plate, now covered with the Downing seat, is a memorial of Morris Kyffin, of Maenan, who died (a youth) June 2d, 1610, at Bychton, on a visit to his sister Jane, wife to Pyers Pennant.

THE next township to the village is in Whitford Garn. GARREG. In this township is Garreg, or The Rock, the highest land in the parish; it is a large inclosed hill, the property of Sir Roger Mostyn. Part of it is a fine turf, and excellent sheep-walk; [Page 112] the summit, and part of the sides, rocky. From Whiteford to the top is a continual ascent. From this height the traveller may have an august foresight of the lofty tract of Snowdon, from the crooked Moel Shabog, at one end, to the towering Pen­maen-mawr at the other; of the vast promontory of Llandudno, and part of the isle of Anglesea, with the great bay of Llanddulas, forming an extensive crescent; the estuaries of the Dee and the Mersey; and to the North (at times) the isle of Man and the Cumberland Alps, the frequent presages of bad weather.

PHAROS.THE Romans took advantage of this elevated situation, and placed on its summit a Pharos, to conduct the navigators to and from Deva, along the difficult channel of the Seteia Portus. The building is still remaining. It is tolerably entire; its form is circular; the inner diameter twelve feet and a half; the thickness of the walls four feet four inches. The doors, or entrances, are opposite to each other; over each is a square funnel, like a chimney, which opens on the outside, about half-way up the building. On each side is a window. About four feet from the ground are three circular holes, lined with mortar, as is frequent in Roman buildings; and penetrate the whole wall, for purposes now unknown.

WITHINSIDE are the vestiges of a stair-case, which led to the floors, of which there appear to have been two. Along such part of the upper, which was conspicuous from the channel, are eight small square openings, cased with free-stone (the rest of the building being of rude lime-stone, bedded in hard mortar) and each of these were separated by wooden pannels, placed in deep grooves, the last still in a perfect state. In each of these [Page]


[Page 113] partitions were placed the lights, which the Romans thought ne­cessary to keep distinct, or to prevent from running into one, lest they should be mistaken by seamen for a star. Periculum in corrivatione ignium, ne sidus existimetur.

TO the building is very evidently a broad and raised road, pointing from the east; and near its upper end are the marks of a trench, which surrounded and gave protection to this useful edifice. It certainly had in later times been repaired, or perhaps applied to some other use, for in one part is a piece of timber which could not have been aboriginal.

THE curious cross called Maen Achwynfan, MAEN ACHWYN­FAN. or the stone of lamentation, stands in a small field opposite to the gate which opens from the turnpike-road into Garreg. It takes its name, in all probability, from the penances, which were often finished be­fore such sacred pillars; attended with weeping, and the usual marks of contrition: for an example, near Stafford stood one called the weeping cross, a name analogous to ours. This is of an elegant form and sculpture; is twelve feet high, two feet four inches broad at the bottom, and ten inches thick. The base is let into another stone. The top is round, and includes, in raised work, the form of a Greek cross. Beneath, about the middle, is another, in the form of St. Andrew's: and under that, a naked figure, with a spear in his hand. Close to that, on the side of the column, is represented some animal. The rest is covered with very beautiful fret-work, like what may be seen on other pillars, of antient date, in several parts of Great Britain. I do not presume (after the annotator on Camden has given up the point) to attempt a guess at the age; only must observe, that [Page 114] it must have been previous to the reign of gross superstition among the Welsh, otherwise the sculptor would have employed his chizzel in striking out legendary stories, instead of the elegant knots and interlaced work that cover the stone.

THOSE, who suppose it to have been erected in memory of the dead slain in battle on the spot, draw their argument from the number of adjacent tumull, containing human bones, and sculls often marked with mortal wounds; but these earthy se­pulchres are of more antient times than the elegant sculpture of this pillar will admit. This likewise (from the crosses) is evidently a Christian monument. The former were only in use in pagan days.

GELLI.THERE is likewise, near to it, an antient chapel, now a farm­house, called Gelli, or the Hazel-grove, the name of an adjacent tract. This might have relation to the cross; as well as a place for performance of divine service to the abbot of Basingwerk, who had a house at no great distance. This tract (mis-spelt by the English, Geteley,) with the wood (at that time on it) was granted by Edward I. to the abbot and convent, on the tenth of November, at Westminster, before the death of our last prince. He also gave him power to grub up the wood; which by the nakedness of the place appears to have been done most effectually.

FARTHER to the west is another inclosed mountain called Glol. my own property; part is covered with hazels and large white-thorn trees (perhaps a continuation of the Gelli,) part is very [...]cky, part a fine sheep-walk. In many places were se­veral druidical circles, which I believe are now injured by the removal of the stones for various uses. In the rougher parts of [Page 115] this inclosure are often seen vipers, which always prefer the dry and sunny parts of a country.

ON Sarn-Hwlkin, a little common to the east of Glol, SARN-HWLKIN. was a very long but low tumUlus, supposed by the vulgar to have been a giant's grave, from a tradition that one of our sons of Anak had been there interred. It probably did cover the remains of some British heroes of the common size, who there found their grave, after some fierce action, I have before supposed to have happened before the place.

THE township of Tre'r-Abbot, TRE'R-ABBOT. one of the eight which compose our parish, joins to this part of Tre-Mostyn. In it stands the house of the same name, originally the country-seat of the abbots of Basingwerk, but long since the property of the Davies's, lately sold to Edward Jones, of Wepre, esq From the proof that gentleman has given of his literary abilities in drawing up the resolutions of the Holywell association, in December 1792, I must lament they are not oftener exerted, the occasion alone ex­cepted.

THIS township was once exempted from the payment of tythes by a modus, originally granted by the abbot of Basing­werk, but which by negligence has been totally lost.

THE house, in Mr. Miles Davies, MILES DAVIES. produced a very extraordi­nary genius indeed! The talents of this eccentric gentleman were poetical. He lived about the year 1716, and published three volumes of his Athenae Britannicae. In his Martii Ca­lendae sive laudes Cambro Britanniae, is a Latin poem on St. David's Day. I never could get the sight of the books, but was indebted to the Rev. William Cole, late of Milton, near [Page 116] Cambridge, for the following extract; which will, I dare say, content the reader, as it does me.

Roberto atque Mansel, Buckley, Vaughan, et
Trevor et Hanmer, eumque Salesbury,
Stradlinque, Corway, Kemys, An [...]will,
Morganius Theliolque Moston.
Bennet, beata Oecumenicon Notâ,
Davidis ortu, est Davisius nepos
Wynne atque Griffith, atque Pennant,
Ll [...]d quoque Powell, et Ellis Humphreys, &c.

HAVING reached the farthest part of our parish, to the north-west, I return along the great heath Mynydd Tegen, or Tegen-Mountain, which yet preserves the antient name of Tegengl, which comprehended the three modern hundreds of Coleshill, Prestatyn, and Rudland. It had been the property of Edwin, descended from Roderick the Great, and called prince of Tegengl. His Llys, or royal residence, was, in 1041, near Llaneurgan or Northop. This common, for I cannot call it mountain, stretches along the whole of the higher parts of our parish, and is covered with the erica vulgaris, or common heath. It feeds numbers of sheep, and is part of the mineral tract of Flintshire.

LLYN HELYG.THE manor of Mostyn, of which Sir Roger Mostyn is lord, includes the greater part of the mountain, and reaches to the sea. It was derived from the heiress of the house, descended from her ancestor, prince Edwin.

A LARGE piece of water, now well stocked with fish, made by Sir Roger Mostyn, baronet, grandfather to the present owner, [Page 117] lies near that end of the heath. In the winter it is the resort of ducks and teal.

ON the east-side of Mostyn pool, in Tegen mountain,PLAS CAPTAIN. is a grave bounded at each end by a rude stone, above four feet high. It contains the remains of captain Edward Morgan, of the adjacent house of Plâs Captain, and of the respectable family of the Mor­gans, of Gwlgray, in the adjoining parish of Llan Asaph. Some years ago a person of strange curiosity opened the grave, and found the skeleton. On the head was a red cap, I think of velvet, and round his neck a silk handkerchief. By him lay his sword, and his helmet; and beneath the skeleton two bullets, which had fallen out of the body on its dissolution; all which verify the report of his having been slain in battle, or in some skirmish during the civil wars, and that he was interred, according to his wish, under the spot on which he fell. In a collection of pede­grees lent to me by Thomas Gryffith, esq of Rhual, I find this short memorial of the captain, in the pedegree of his family: 'Capt. Edward Morgan, slain at Cheshire raise.' If he was slain in that county, I cannot suppose that his body would have been carried so far; nor can I account for this relation, or for the body being found here, unless that the above is a mistake, and that he fell in some skirmish near to his own house.

AT a small distance from Plâs Captain, is Plâs-mawr, at pre­sent the property of Sir Edward Price Lloyd, bart. of Pengwern, in right of his worthy grandmother, Frances, daughter and heiress to Bell Jones, secretary in the civil board of ordnance in the Tower. He erected a handsome monument in Whiteford church in memory of his father Robert Jones, and others of his predeces­sors. [Page 118] He died, and was buried in the chapel of the Tower, aged 49, near the remains of his wife Frances, who died No­vember 24th, 1723, aged 48.

ABOUT a mile farther, the turnpike, which is named the Flint road, cresses the upper road from Newmarket to Holywell.

IT is the first turnpike known on the Holyhead road. The act was obtained in 1755, and contained, besides the district of Flint, those of E [...]mere, Chester, and Mold. The part in question is called Llwybr-hir, or the long-path, for it extends along the mountain westward, as far as Brick-kiln.

[...]USUSES.ON the right hand, as you pass towards that hamlet, on a rocky elevated part, called Gelli, is a multitude of loose stones, lying on the surface. They are of the lime-stone kind, mere l [...]es, assuming most singular forms; some are excavated, and often perforated. This must have been done when they were in a soft state, for since their formation nothing has fallen on them but the rain of heaven, and that could not effect the phenomenon.

ENTRENCHMENT.SCATTERED over this part of the mountain are several rounded tumuli; and to the le [...]t, at some distance, is a work, pro­bably coeval with them. On the slope of the west part of the race-ground is an entrenchment of a circular form, about a hundred and sixty-three feet in diameter, surrounded with a low bank, and on the outside of that with a ditch; in one part very shallow, in the other more deep. This circle could not have been designed as a post, or place of retreat from an enemy. Its entrenchment is weak, and it might easily be commanded from above by the rising-ground. Possibly it might have been for some religious purpose, or for a place of council, or for ha­ranguing [Page 119] the people, who might assemble round the outside, and readily hear what was delivered to them.

ON returning along Llwybr-hîr, I rejoin the Newmarket road,LLWYBR-HÎR. at the pla [...]d had left it, near a great inclosure belonging to Sir Roger M [...], called Ty-maen. Within, near to the road,TY-MAEN. is a great mount, now planted with fir-trees, the site of a castelet, probably a seat of Owen Bendew, EDNOWEN BEN­DEW. which my friend and fellow-traveller, the late Rev. John Lloyd, supposed to have been one of the habitations of that chieftain. Owen was lord of Tegengl in 1079, and one of the fifteen tribes of North Woles. He was distinguished by the name of Pendew, or Bendew. I have consulted Davies's, and all our dictionaries, and can find no other translation of the word than Thick-scull. Of him are descended, as the MS. of the Rev. Lewis Owen (my authority) say, many worthy families, among them Ithel ap Rotpert, arch­deacon of Tegengl, who was living in the years 1375 and 1393, and the Bithels, and a great many families besides. I might venture to mention the living descendants of the great Bendew; for the unfortunate idea of character impressed by the cognomen is entirely worn out. They are only to be known by their arms, argent, three boars heads couped, a chevron sable.

THE extinct families were the Wynnes, of Galedlom, and Caerwis; Piers of Llanasaph and of Merton Ysglan, and the Williams's of Merton, both of the parish of Whiteford; the Parrys, of Coleshill and Basingwerk; the Ffachnalts, of Ffachnalts, in the parish of Mold; and the Griffiths, of Pant [...]y Llo [...]wndŷ, in Llanhasa parish, and Griffiths of Caerwis hall; all of whom are now extinct, unless it may be in the female line.

[Page 120] GO [...]SEDDAU.A LITTLE farther on the left, on the common, are two raised mounts of a conoid shape, called Gorseddau, a name common to all of the same kind. According to our learned Rowlands (see p. 69) it is derived from the custom which the Druids had of fitting aloft on them, when they pronounced their sentences, and made their solemn orations to the people. 'Multa,' says Caesar, 'de Decrum immortalium vi et potestate disputant, et juventute tra­dunt.' The custom of promulging the laws in the Isle of Man from their Tinwald, a larger but similar mount, has its origin in Druidism. A certain officer takes the place of the Druid, and makes known to the people, who stand beneath, the institution of the new law.

PEN-FFORDD Y WAEN.ON the mountain opposite to the place called Penffôrdd ŷ Waen, are other remains of the antient Britons, one or two tumuli, and near one of them an upright stone; and a little farther is another, its tumulus possibly destroyed. These are the Meini Gwŷr, Meini Hirion, and Lleche, differently denominated in different places. These were sometimes memorials of great events, sometimes monumental, as in the present case. There are illustrations of both in the book of Genesis, ch. xxxv.v.v. 14, 20. On the pillar which Jacob erected, after he had the gracious favor of conversing with the Deity face to face, he made a libation of oil: on that raised on the grave of his wife Rachel, he omitted that respect.

I NOW advance towards my conclusion, and shall attempt the more interesting topics of the rural oeconomy of my native parish, and its mineral and commercial advantages. In respect [Page 121] to size and population, it may rank among the most important in this division of our principality.

IT is bounded on the east by the Chester Channel, BOUNDARIES OF THE PARISH. the Seteia Aestuarium of Ptolemy. Its inhabitants at that time were the Or­dovices; but whether in so long a period any of the antient blood at present runs in our veins, is extremely uncertain. The southern boundary of this parish is that of Holywell; the northern, those of Llan Asaph, Newmarket, and Cwm; and the western, those of Tremerchion and Caerwis.

THE whole length of the parish, from its eastern extremity,LENGTH. not far from Holloway turnpike-gate, to the extremity of the township Tre'r-Abbot, is about four miles two furlongs. Its greatest breadth, from the sea-side near Llanerch-y-môr, to Foel-da, ad­joining to Yskiviog parish, is near three miles four furlongs. The northern part, which is its length, is in general a rapid descent of two miles three quarters and 136 yards, reckoning from Pen-y-ffordd Waen, to Llanerch-y-môr. All beyond to the south and to the west is Tegen mountain, or the old Tegenia, a large extent of plain swelling into gentle risings, covered chiefly with heath, and mixed with grass, unless where the lime-stone stratum appears above the surface.

BEING on the spot,MINERALS. I shall give first some account of our minerals, the source of wealth to the land-owner, and of wealth, but oftener poverty, to the adventurous miners, who, like ad­venturers in a lottery, to which miners may truly be compared, are tempted by the good fortune of others to risque and fre­quently lose their all. If they are successful, they never th [...]k of a future day, but enjoy their fortune in good living, forgetfull [Page 122] of the pains it cost them, till all is gone, and they are again compelled to take to hard labor. After a life of dissipation they sink under the fatigue, lose their health, and early become a burthen to the community, by adding to the load of paupers under which it groans.

WORKED BY THE ROMANS.THE want of gun-powder, in early times, with the Romans, was a great impediment. Instead, we find that great fires were used; the rock intensely heated, and cracks formed in it by the sudden infusion of water; Pliny says of vinegar. The wedge or pick-ax was then insinuated into the apertures, and the stone or ore forced out. Miners often discover the marks of fire in antient mines. I am in possession of a little wedge, five inches and a quarter long, presented to me by the late Mr. Smedley, of Bagillt Hall, discovered in working the deep fissures of Dalar Goch rock, in the parish of Diserth, in this county. This little instrument affords a proof of its antiquity, by being almost in­tirely incrusted with lead ore. It had probably lain in the course of some subterraneous stream, which had brought along with it the leaden particles, and deposited them on the iron.

THEIR TOOLS.PICK-AXIS of an uncommon bulk, and very clumsy, have been discovered in the bottom of the mineral trenches; these seem to have been the same with the fractaria of the Romans, pick-axes of enormous size, used by the miners in the gold mines of Spain. Buckets of singular construction, and other things of uses unknown at present, have been found among the antient mines.

MY good friend, that thorough honest mine-agent Mr. Thomas Edwards, of Saith Aclwyd, lately brought to me a frac­taria [Page]

1 2. Antient [...] wedges

3. a [...]eaden [...]


[Page 123] and a wedge, found in a shaft in our parish, at the depth of sixty yards. The wedge had at the thicker end a square perforation, through which a stick was to be thrust, which was held by a man, whilst another, with repeated strokes of a mallet, drove the instrument into a crack it was to force open.

I AM also indebted to Mr. Edwards for a plate of lead of the shape of the sole of a shoe, with an elevated rim round the sides, and furnished also with a hooked handle to hang it in the fissures of the rocks of the mines, evidently designed to have placed on it a lamp, to give the miners light in their subterraneous opera­tions. This and another were found at the depth of sixty yards in a Roman mine.

OUR mineral tract is from Pen-yr-allt, or Bryn-digri, MINERAL TRACT. in a line to the western borders of Holywell parish. Its extent to north and south is very narrow. The turnpike road by Kelyn and Pen­y-ffordd Waen, as far as Creecas, describes its course east and west. This part goes under the name of the Whiteford Rake, and is nearly the summit of the parish in this part. The veins on the east side, when they dip into the fields, scarcely ever bear.

THE veins run either north or south, or east or west: the last are generally found most profitable. It is singular, that the ore got in the first scarcely ever produces silver worth the re­finer's labor.

THE ores differ in quality.LEAD ORES. The lamellated or common kind, usually named potter's ore, yields from fourteen hundred to sixteen hundred and a quarter of lead from twenty hundred of the ore: but the last produce is rare.

[Page 124]THE quantity of silver produced from our lead is also vari­able. The upper part of a vein of lead ore is always richest in silver; the bottom, in lead. Our refiners will assay any lead that with yield ten ounces in the ton of lead and upwards. The usual produce is fourteen ounces: sixteen have been gotten; but acquisitions of that kind within this circuit are extremely uncommon.

CAR [...]CKFER [...]ON the side of the Whiteford Rake are the ruins of a large bu [...]ding called Carrickfergus, probably from being sounded by some adventurer from that town, for the purpose of smelting the ore got in its neighborhood. It is near a century old, and erected when the furnaces were constructed in a manner very different from those of the present times; for by the remains of the chimnies they seem to have been formed like those of the modern iron-furnaces.

THE depth of our lead-mines are various. Rich veins have been discovered to the depth of ninety yards.

THE veins are found either in the lime-stone rock or that of chert. These frequently go to unknown depths; the ore is pur­sued extremely far indeed; and when it ceases, the unprofitable is usually found to consist of spar.

GRAVEL LEAD-ORE.GRAVEL ore, or lumps, from forty tons weight to the size of a hazel-nut, are often discovered in what the miners call flats, or loose ground full of gravel, tumblers, and the like. It is rounded and smoothed on the surface, as if it had been rolled in violent waters: but within is pure, lamellated, and rich. It is a potter's ore, reduced to this form by accident.

[Page 125]THERE is no ascertaining the quantity of lead ore which is annually taken up in our parish, nor yet that of lead exported. It is included in the custom-house books at Chester, in the general account of the produce of the mineral parts of this county, and that of Denbigh. The number of tons exported in 1792, is as follows:

540 tons of lead.4497.
150 ore.761.

ABOUT fifty years ago about seventeen hundred weight of cop­per ore was discovered in a tenement of my father's called Cathe­rine George's; which on being assayed was found to be very rich:COPPER ORE. but none has been discovered since, notwithstanding the ground has been diligently searched.

LAPIS CALAMINARIS, or calamine,CALAMINE. is found in very great quan­tities almost the whole way I have mentioned, but increases in plenty as we advance eastward. It is found in veins like lead ore, often by itself; sometimes mixed with ore, which renders the break­ing and separating a work of labor and expence; what is found in these parts is generally of the cavernous, boney, or cancellated kinds. This mineral was the Cadmia of Pliny, lib. xxxiv. c. 10; and the Stone-cadmia of Strabo, lib. iii. 248. The Romans knew its uses in making of brass; therefore cannot be supposed to have overlooked so necessary an ingredient. The remains of the brass-founderies, discovered in our kingdom, shew, that they were ac­quainted [Page 126] with it. The knowlege of this mineral in after-ages was long lost. Before the reign of Elizabeth, much was im­ported from Sweden; but at that period it was discovered again in the Mendip-hills; and, fortunately, at the same time that the working of the copper-mines in those of Cumberland was re­newed. Our county abounds with it; but, till within these sixty years, we were so ignorant of the value, as to mend our roads with it; which have of late years been turned up in a hun­dred places most successfully to recover the lost wealth. It was John Barrow, JOHN BARROW. a miner, from the Mendip-hills (whom I well re­member living in this parish) who first made us acquainted with this valuable mineral, having long worked in the calamine mines of his own country.

IT appears that this mineral tract (which is called the Pant­vein) has yielded ore from very early times. In the last century there have been no very rich veins: but then it is almost always yielding something, and of later years has been particularly productive of calamine. In the beginning of this century Sir Thomas Grosvenour had a good mine of lead ore on the side of the road. My grandfather had another. The benevolent, chari­table Mr. Edwards, of Brinford, had another. The Mr. Jones, of Celyn, had another. The last is said to have put a trap-door to the top of the shaft, and to have locked it, and made use of the trea­sure below as a bank, which he had recourse to according to his wants. All these mines are on the same vein, which is an east and west, Sir Thomas Grosvenour's mine was included in the vast mineral grant, possessed by his ancestor, see Tour in Wales, i. p. 76. [Page 127] All the other freeholders work on their respective freeholds. Sir Roger Mostyn on his manor of Mostyn, and on his freehold.

A MR. Francis Leicester, of Vauxhall, gives an account of this vein in a small pamphlet, called 'The little Mine Adven­ture,' published in 1702. He styles himself the present lessee, and gives, I believe, a good plan of the vein in an annexed map.

BLACK JACK, Zinc, Pseudo-galena, BLACK JACK. is met with in large quanti­ties near the eastern extremity of the parish. It is found to answer the purposes of calamine. It has hitherto been only exported to Bristol; and is sold there at the rate of 4l. 10s. per ton, deli­vered. We have it in a metallic form, of a blueish grey color, and again of the colors of the dark semi-pellucid ambers. Cronsted, ii. p. 779. Magellan's ed. calls the first, Zincum ferro sulphurato mineralisatum; the other, Zincum calciforme cum ferro sulphuratum.

THIS semi-metal, and its ore, has been long known in India, and imported from thence in a metallic state, under the name of tutenag, as early as the year 1647. It had even been fused in the Goslar mines, as early as 1617. Yet the secret of its being an ingredient in making brass, did not reach us till the year 1738; when it was communicated to us by Mr. Von Swob. I refer to the learned Bishop Watson's entertaining and instructive works, for a full account of this useful mineral. Let me here inform the reader from the same authority, (iv. p. 2.) that by the ac­cident of the Dutch taking a Portuguese ship laden with cala­mine, we learn the origin of the name, it being derived from the Arabic, calaem, the same mineral as our calamine, which is [Page 128] plentifully found in the peninsula of Malacca, and probably in other parts of India.

MILL-DISTEMPER.A MOST excruciating, and often fatal disorder, frequently at­tacks the miners who work in the hard veins of lead ore, or of black jack, or of such as are solid and lodged between sides, or immersed in the rock. The disorder is called the Felyn, from Felyn, a mill. It may be translated into Mill-distemper, because it was at first most frequent in the smelting-mills; but for a considerable time past has ceased in those buildings; and that happiness may be dated from the period in which lime has been used as a flux for the lead ores.

IN the mines it arises from the workmen being obliged to use the pick-axe in the hard veins to get the ore out. The mi­nute particles fly about, and are taken down into the stomach, and into the lungs. This occasions a most obstinate costiveness, attended with most dreadful pains, which have been known to last fourteen, and even twenty-one days, and attended with a strong symptomatic fever.

William Spencer, a miner, worked in Meilwr, (a mine near Holywell) in a close confined situation, and where the ore was of a particular hard nature. He was attacked annually, during fifteen or sixteen years, (usually in the spring) with an acute pain in the pit of his stomach, extending itself downwards, with a griping pain in the bowels; and attended with a violent reaching, vomiting, costiveness, and tenesmus. His bowels and abdominal muscles were much contracted, his pulse feeble and low, he was subject to cold clammy sweats, and an unusual coldness of his extremities. In the efforts to vomit, he some­times [Page 129] parted with a quantity of bile; and in each evacuation I observed a deposition of a number of particles of lead, by parting with which he found great relief. The costiveness continued sometimes eight, nine, or ten days, notwithstanding the repeated use of purgatives, (chiefly castor-oil, in large doses, which I found to be the most effectual remedy). When this was got the better of, and a stool procured, I ob­served in each evacuation a quantity of lead, by which, from the relief he obtained, his pulse became better, the contraction of his bowels disappeared, and likewise the cold clammy sweats. In three or four days, and in the two last attacks, he felt a similar acute pain in the lower part of his belly, attended with a scantiness, pain, and difficulty in voiding his urine. I consequently suspected that some leaden particles might have found their way into the bladder, and gave him some diuretic medicines, as balsam of copaiba, gum-arabic, and oil of juniper. In the course of twenty-four hours his urine was voided much easier, and in greater quantity, and he parted with as much pure lead by urine as would lie on a shilling. He in the latter part of his days became asthmatic, and weak, and died Nov. 30, 1754, in the 51st year of his age.’

I AM obliged to Mr. William Denman, of Holywell, surgeon, for the above account of the sad disorder; but more materially to his skill, and my excellent constitution, for a speedy recovery in the last spring (April 6th, 2 P. M.) from the con­sequences of a knee-pan snapped in two transversely, by no other violence than by stepping down two steps instead of one. After a strict recumbency of near seven weeks in pos­session [Page 130] of high spirits, fulness of faculties, and enjoyment of my favorite amusements, I rose from my bed, with the grateful pro­spect of p [...]ng the remainder of my days with my prior activity little impaired; thankful to PROVIDENCE for graciously adding this blessing to the numbers of others it has showered on me during my long and various life.

CHERT.CHERT, which I have mentioned before, as being often the lodgement of the mineral veins, is the petrosilex, and lapis corneus, of Cronstedt, i. 189. It is of a flinty nature, and the only one of that class we have in our county. Nodular flints, the attendant on chalks, are quite unknown here. This is in the neighborhood of lime-stone, as flints are concomitant with chalk. It is an opaque stone, some­times plain, often varied with stripes. I have spoken of it as a ma­trix of the ores. I now consider it as useful in manufactures. It is frequently cut out of its quarries in great masses, and sent to the pottery countries of Staffordshire, first, for the purposes of form­ing stones to grind and comminute the calcined flints, which are the great ingredients in the stone ware; and I think it is itself calcined, and being homogeneous with the purer flints, serves also for the same purposes. Much of it is found in the midst of our hills, sinking, as I have said, to depths unknown. In Sir Roger Mostyn's land, near Pen-yr-allt, where the upper part of the pa­rish hangs abrupt over the lower, it forms the broken precipitous front, and has been of late quarried out for exportation. Bishop Watson, (ii. 263) says, that it sells in Derbyshire at eight shillings ton. The duke of Rutland contents himself with five shillings per ton, as lord of the rock. The workmen have three shillings for raising. I leave the reader to consult the right reverend au­thor [Page 131] for the process of calcining, &c. The knowlege may be of use to my countrymen, whether it is any way related to the Petunse of the Chinese, p. 273. It may not be wrong to consult our late legatine voyagers to China for that purpose.

OUR lime-stone is a genuine marble, often pure,LIME-STONE. often filled with entrochi and shells, composed entirely of homogeneous matter. I have mentioned the immensity of the beds: but it is often found mixed with calamine and ore. Its uses cannot be unknown to any, whether in building, whether for the purposes of agriculture. I am sensible its application is not extended as far as it ought to be; (but more of that under the article Rural Oeconomy.) Here I may say that it is the common flux used by the smelters in the fusing the lead ores; which has taken off much of the noxious effect it formerly had on the smelters, who were engaged in the operation, and on the cattle who fed on the grass within reach of the smoke.

ON the west side of Celyn rake, is a large stratum of a deep grey lime-stone, which, when calcined, makes, mixed with common lime, an excellent cement or terras, for works con­structed in water. It is nearly equal to the Aberdour stone from South Wales, of which much has been imported for the uses of our great buildings on the Holywell stream.

OF spars we have in abundance the white opaque kind;SPARS. but I think none of the fine refracting spars, or the Crystallum Islan­dicum, which is frequent in the neighboring parishes.

PETROLEUM, rock-oil,PETROLEUM. or what the Welsh call it y menin tyl­with têg, or fairies butter, has been found in the lime-stone strata [Page 132] in our mineral country. It is a greasy substance, of an agreea­ble smell; and I suppose ascribed to the benign part of those imaginary beings. It is esteemed serviceable in rheumatic cases, rubbed on the parts affected. It retains a place in our Dispensary.

ADVENTI [...]OUS [...].I SHALL just mention two or three adventitious bodies disco­vered at vast depths in our mines. We have been often sur­prised with finding great rude logs of timber, at the depth of twenty-five or forty-five yards under ground. They are quite rough, and totally freed from any suspicion of having been used in the mines, even had they not been met with in new or un­worked ground, in blue clay, and amidst tumblers. They are firm and strong when first taken up, and of a black color, as if they had been burnt.

SHELLS.SHELLS, especially conchae anomiae, are very common, some­times loose, but more frequently immersed in the lime-stone.

CHANGE OF STRATA.I NOW quit the heights, and go down a steep descent, about half a mile, into the lower part of the parish. The mouth of a level, and a shallow shaft near it, discovers the change of strata. The chert and the lime-stone quite disappear, and in their place appear first the beds of shale,SHALE. black, shattery, and soon dissoluble when exposed to the weather. It is the symptom of approach­ing coal, and the covering. Cronstedt, i. 259, calls it a pyrita­ceous schistus, and gives it other epithets, according to its con­tents. It is often found in beds of immense thickness, and often filled with inflammable air, which frequently bursts out to the great inconveniency and danger of the workmen. It is also im­pregnated with bitumen, which adds to its powers. In many parts of the kingdom it is found to contain quantities of alum;ALUM. [Page 133] and to be worked for the purpose of extracting from it that use­ful article. The trial is worth making. In our parts we have the same advantages of coal for the process, and water-carriage for the exportation, as Whitby has. Coals begin to appear in their unprofitable beds, at a small distance to the east; half a mile further, in great bodies, and of an excellent quality.

THE collieries of Mostyn and Bychton have been worked for a very considerable space;COLLIERIES. and in the last century supplied Dublin and the eastern side of Ireland with coals. They were discovered in the township of Mostyn, as early as the time of Edward I. as appears by an extent of that place, in the twenty-third year of that reign.

I REMEMBER many fluctuations in their state. They are now in the most flourishing which I ever remember, inferior only to that in which they were in the latter end of the late, and the be­ginning of the present century. The rise of the collieries at White­haven, which interfered with our trade to Dublin, was one cause of their decline; but another great cause was a natural one, the loss of the channel of the river Dee. We still load a few small vessels for the neighboring coasts of North Wales. But our pre­sent prosperity arises from the great works of copper-plates, bolts, and sheathings for ships, and the works of brass established of late years near the town of Holywell. To them may be added the consumption occasioned by the increase of population, by the accession of the cotton manufactures; and, finally, th [...] vast quantities used for burning of lime, the effect of the happy in­provement in agriculture, annually increasing for numbers of years. I do not mention our obligations to the numerous smelting-houses for lead, as they have been established among us, during time immemorial.

[Page 134] QUAYI REMEMBER a quay beneath the Mostyn collieries, built by the grandfather of the present Sir Roger Mostyn, at which small vessels used to take in their lading.ENGINE. And I also remember on the shore the walls which supported the wheels and other machinery of a water-engine for draining the colliery. Of this I have a drawing by Mr. Dinely, whom at p. 54, I have re­lated to have visited Mostyn, in the year 1684.

THIS engine seems to have been formed on the model of some of those used in the German mines in the time of George Agricola. See the representation of several from p. 148 to p. 158, in his Treatise de Re Metallica. This celebrated author florished in 1550.

1. Red Marle and Clay,120
2. Shale,150
3. Free-stone,330
4. Coal, canal, 3 feet; common, 6 feet,90
5. Shale,300
6. Coal,23
7. Strong Shale and Rock,1200
8. Coal,150
9. Strong Shale and Rock,450
10. Coal,90
11. Rock, or Free-stone,270
12. Coal, canal,12
13. Rock, or Free-stone,240
14. Coal,10
15. Hard Rock,510
Carried over3585


Anent Water Wheel [...] Mostyn [...]

Brought over3585
16. Coal,60
17. Rock and Shale,600
18. Black Shale,360
19. Coal,70
20. Fine Brick Clay,30
21. Coal,30
22. Rock,480
23. Coal,39
24. Shale,06
25. Coal,39
26. Rock,300
27. Coal,39

THE beds of coal dip from one yard in four, to two in three;COAL. they immerge between the estuary of the Dee, are discovered again on the south-side of Wiral, in Cheshire, as if corresponding with some of the Flintshire. They remain as yet lost on the northern part of the same hundred, but are found a third time in vast quantities in Lancashire, on the opposite side of the Mersey. Their extent from west to east, in this country, may be rec­koned from the parish of Llanasa, through those of Whiteford, Holywell, Flint, Northop, and Hawarden. Our coal is of differ­ent qualities, suited to the variety of demands of the several sorts of founderies in the neighborhood. Sometimes is also found the peacock-coal of Dr. Plot, remarkable for the beauty of its sur­face, glossed over with the changeable brilliancy of the colors of that beautiful bird.

[Page 136] CAN [...]L C [...]L.THE beds of canal are inferior indeed in elegance to those of Lancashire, but greatly coveted by the lime-burners.

COALS were known to the Britons, before the arrival of the Romans, who had not even a name for them; yet Theo­phrastus describes them very accurately, at lest three centuries before the time of Caesar; and even says that they were used by workers in brass. It is highly probable that the Britons made use of them. It is certain they had a primitive name for this fossil, that of Glo; and as a farther proof, I may add, that a flint-ax, the instrument of the aborigines of our island, was dis­covered stuck in certain veins of coal, exposed to day in Craig y Parc, in Monmouthshire; and in such a situation as to render it very accessible to the unexperienced natives, who, in early times, were incapable of pursuing the veins to any great depths. The artless smelters of antient times made use of wood only in their operations, as we find among the reliques of their hearths.

FREE-STONE.AT a short distance from the shale appear the beds of free-stone, first on the side of the dingle Nant y bi, and from thence above the coal, terminating in the cliffs in the parts of Tre Bych­ton and Tre Mostyn, which are washed by the sea.

BURNT ROCK.IN the township of Tre Mostyn, near the shore, is a cliff of a very singular appearance, looking like the semi-vitrified lava of a volcano. The stratum is in front universally changed in its disposition, and run into a horrible mass of red and black; often porous, in all parts very hard. In it is a hollow, a vein in which was lodged the pyritical matter that took fire, which continued burning by its own phlogiston, (see Bishop Watson, i. 167, to p. 200.) and caused the phenomenon. Its fury chiefly raged [Page 137] towards the front, and diminished gradually in the internal part of the bed; which, at some distance within land, appears only dis­colored. The stratum is a sand-stone of the common sort (Da Costa's Fossils, 133.) I am informed, that these appearances are not uncommon in Derbyshire; and that Mr. Ferber, an ingenious Swede, and Mr. Whiteburst, our ingenious countryman, have taken notice of them in their writings.

I SHALL here introduce the mention of damps found in col­lieries, which are not unfrequent,A FIRE-DAMP. and sometimes act with amaz­ing fury, and fatal consequences. There are two species, the suffocating, and the fire. The last is very rare in the lead-mines, unless in those parts where the shale, or stone attendant on coal, begins. The first kills instantaneously, by its mephitic vapor, and is a disaster common to neglected vaults, and draw-wells. The other is inflammable, and burns and destroys in a dreadful man­ner, as the colliers, through negligence in not setting fire to the vapor before it gets to a head, do often experience. The most tremendous instance was on February 3d, 1675, in a coal-work at Mostyn, which I shall relate from the Philosophical Transactions; and so conclude the account of our mineral concerns.

‘THE damp had been perceived for some time before, re­sembling fiery blades, darting and crossing each other from both sides of the pit. The usual methods were taken to free the pit from this evil. After a cessation of work for three days, the steward, thinking to fetch a compass about from the eye of the pit that came from the day, and to bring wind by a secure way along with him, that, if it burst again, it may be done without danger of men's lives, went down, and took two men [Page 138] along with him, which served his turn for this purpose. He was no sooner down, but the rest of the workmen that had wrought there, disdaining to be left behind in such a time of danger, hasted down after them; and one of them, more indis­creet than the rest, went headlong with his candle over the eye of the damp pit, at which the damp immediately catched, and flew up, to and fro, over all the hollows of the work, with a great wind, and a continual fire; and, as it went, keeping a mighty great roaring noise on all sides.’

‘THE men, at first appearance of it, had most of them fallen upon their faces, and hid themselves as well as they could, in the loose slack, or small coal, and under the shelter of posts; yet nevertheless, the damp returning out of the hollows, and drawing towards the eye of the pit, it came up with incredible force; the wind and fire tore most of their clothes off their backs, and singed what was left, burning their faces and hands; the blasts falling so sharp on their skin, as if they had been whipt with cords. Some that had less shelter were carried fifteen or sixteen yards from their first station, and beaten against the roof of the coal, and sides of the posts, and lay afterwards a good while senseless, so that it was long before they could hear or find one another. As it drew up to the day-pit, it caught one of the men along with it that was next to the eye; and up it comes, with such a terrible crack, not unlike, but more shrill, than a cannon, that was heard fifteen miles off, with the wind, and such a pillar of smoke as darkened all the sky over-head for a good while. The brow of the hill above the pit was eighteen yards high, and on it grew trees of fourteen or fifteen [Page 139] yards long; yet the man's body, and other things from the pit, were seen above the tops of the highest trees, at lest 100 yards. On this pit stood a horse-engine, of substantial timber, and strong iron-work; on which lay a trunk, or barrel, for winding the rope up and down, of above 1000 pounds weight; it was then in motion, one bucket going down, and the other coming up full of water. This trunk was fastened to that frame with locks and bolts of iron; yet it was thrown up, and carried a good way from the pit; and pieces of it, though bound with iron hoops and strong nails, blown into the woods about; so like­wise were the two buckets; and the ends of the rope, after the buckets were blown from them, stood awhile upright in the air like pikes, and then came leisurely drilling down. The whole frame of the engine was stirred and moved out of its place; and those men's clothes, caps, and hats, that escaped, were afterwards found shattered to pieces, and thrown amongst the woods a great way from the pit.’

ANOTHER of these damps happened in the same lands within my memory. In the year 1751,ANOTHER IN 1751. one man was beat to pieces in the bottom of the pit. Two others were taken up alive, but died soon after; and two others survived, but were most dread­fully burnt: and one who is now living, remains a dreadful evi­dence of the effects of the damp. All his fingers burnt off, and his visage terribly disfigured.

I SHALL here describe agitations of the earth derived from other causes, which,EARTHQUAKES. dreadful as they have been in distant coun­tries, have here occasioned little more than a momentary alarm. I have at this house felt four shocks of the earthquake. I shall [Page 140] relate their effects, from the Philosophical Transactions, in which they are recorded. On April 2d, 1750, between the hours of ten and eleven at night, I was greatly alarmed with a violent shock of an earthquake. I, who was in bed, was frequently moved up and down; and the bed, having castors, was removed some small space from its proper situation.

DURING the shock, a great noise was heard in the air; and, some nights before, lights were seen in the sky; such as were previous to the earthquake in town.

I HAVE summed up the remainder in a letter to Sir Joseph Banks, baronet, K. B. which had the honor of being read before the ROYAL SOCIETY, on January 25th, following, and afterwards printed in the Transactions, vol. lxxi. p. 193.

Dear Sir,

It is very singular, that in three days after my return home, I should be reminded of my promise by a repetition of the very phenomenon on which I had engaged to write to you: for on Saturday last, between four and five in the evening, we were alarmed with two shocks of an earthquake; a slight one, im­mediately followed by another very violent. It seemed to come from the north-east, and was preceded by the usual noise. At present I cannot trace it farther than Holywell.

THE earthquake preceding this was on the 29th of August, 1780, about a quarter before nine in the morning. I was fore­warned of it by a rumbling noise, not unlike the coming of a great waggon into my court-yard. Two shocks immediately followed, which were strong enough to terrify us. They came [Page 141] from the north-west; were felt in Anglesea, at Caernarvon, Llan­rwst, in the vale of Clwyd south of Denbigh, at this house, and in Holywell; but I could not discover that their force extended any farther.

THE next, in this retrograde way of enumerating these pheno­mena, was on the 8th September, 1775, about a quarter before ten at night. The noise was such as preceded the former; and the shock so violent as to shake the bottles and glasses on the table round which myself and some company were sitting. This seemed to come from the east. I see in the Gentleman's Maga­zine of that year, that this shock extended to Shropshire, and quite to Bath, and to Swansea in South Wales.

THE earliest earthquake I remember here was on the 10th of April, 1750. It has the honor of being recorded in the Philo­sophical Transactions; therefore I shall not trouble you with the repetition of what I have said.

PERMIT me to observe, that I live near a mineral country, in a situation between lead-mines and coal-mines; in a sort of neutral tract, about a mile distant from the first, and half a mile from the last. On the strictest inquiry I cannot discover that the miners or colliers were ever sensible of the shocks under ground: nor have they ever perceived, when the shocks in question have happened, any falls of the loose and shattery strata, in which the last especially work; yet, at the same time, the earthquakes have had violence sufficient to terrify the inha­bitants of the surface.

TO this observation I may add, that no eruptions of water were ever observed to follow the shocks; no water from the vast [Page 142] reservoirs of that element, formed in the deserted pits, which have often burst through the hollow which contained them, and more than once drowned the unhappy colliers who have been working beneath.

I HAVE seen in prints an observation of some gentleman learned in earthquakes, that the cause of those I have mentioned, which leave the shattery strata of the coal-mines unaffected, to have been electricity, which in these instances moved equally and gently, so as not to cause any concussion, or to go perhaps far below the surface, so that they leave the worked depths totally untouched.

NONE of these earthquakes were local; for, excepting the first, all may be traced to very remote parts. The weather was remarkable still at the time of every earthquake I have felt.

I remain with true regard, &c. T. P.

QUADRUPEDS.THE quadrupeds of this parish are common to many parts of England. Yet I shall give a catalogue of them in our antient tongue, and affix to them those in the English.

1. IN respect to the March, Ceffyl, the horse, the caseg or mare, dispaidd-farch or gelding, there are abundance in our parish, used chiefly in the carriage of coal, and our mineral wealth; but as to fine large black horses used in the coach, and by the richer farmers, scarcely any are bred in our parish, but numbers are bought from those of Northop, Mold, and Hope, in our county, which are far from a disgrace to the gentleman's equipage.

[Page 143]2. THE mûl, or mule, is very rare with us; but the

3. Asyn, or ass, is in great plenty, used by the poor to carry coal, to ease themselves of part of the expence of turnpike. It for­merly was applied for the carriage of ore; but since the improve­ment in our roads, has been quite lain aside for that purpose.

4. THE tarw, bull; buwch, cow; ych, eidion, ox; llo, calf, or whatsoever goes under the general adopted name of cattal, or more properly gwarthag, or cattle, produces nothing worthy of note in Whiteford parish. Neither cheese nor butter for sale made from their milk, excepting for family consumption. There is only one ox-team in the parish; but that is a remarkably fine one. It is the property of Sir Roger Mostyn, and used on his noble demesn, which is kept in admirable order. I must not conceal, that Sir Roger would be the best farmer in the parish, if he was permitted to have his own way: but no one can be ignorant of the tenacity of servants to old customs, and the difficulty of over­coming ingrafted obstinacy.

5. THE hwrdd, maharen, or ram; dafad, ewe; oen, lamb. Sheep in general are not greatly cultivated in our parish: many in­deed are turned out by the farmers on Tegen-mountain, but the gentry chiefly buy their stock for the table from Llangollen and other places.

6. Bwch, the he-goat; gafr, the female; myn, the kid, are very little favored, even in the county at large. I keep a few on my mountain Glol, for the sake of any invalids who may want their restoring milk.

7. Hydd, the buck or fallow-deer; ewig, the doe; elain, the fawn, Br. Zool. i. No 7. are kept in Mostyn park, and give a venison of uncommonly good flavor.

[Page 144]8. Baedd, the boar; hwch, sow; mochyn, hog, have nothing in the breed particularly worthy notice.

9. OUR ci, dog; and gast, bitch; are under the same predicament.

10. Llwynog, dog-fox; llwynoges, bitch-fox, Br. Zool. i. No 11; are too frequent.

11. Cath-goed, the wild or wood-cat, Br. Zool. i. No 12. has been frequently seen in our woods, but I believe are now ex­tirpated. The last which was killed was about eight years ago.

12. Pry-llwyd, pry-penbrith, the badger, Br. Zool. i. No 13. An animal found in our parish: but neither here nor in other parts of the kingdom a common animal.

13. Ffwl-bard, polecat, fitchet, Br. Zool. i. No 14. Common and destructive.

14. Bela-graig, the martin, Br. Zool. i. No 15. The kind intended is the martin with a white throat, a sweet-scented, elegant animal, which in my younger days I have kept tame. They inhabited our woods. The last time in which I have known one taken, was about fifteen years ago.

15. Bronwen, the weesel, Br. Zool. i. No 17. Not unfrequent.

16. Carlwm, stoat or ermine, Br. Zool. i. No 18. More com­mon than the former. I have seen this animal more than once in my grounds, wholly changed (tail excepted) to a snowy whiteness; and also partly white, partly brown.

17. Dyfr-gi, the otter, Br. Zool. i. No 19. This animal is seldom seen in this parish. It is certain that they have passed to and from Cheshire, over the channel, at low water.

18. Ysgyfarnog, the hare, Br. Zool. i. No 20.

19. Gwiwair, the squirrel, Br. Zool. i. No 23. This elegant animal enlivens our woods in numbers.

[Page 145]20. Pathew, the dormouse, Br. Zool. i. No 24. Very rare in our parish.

21. Llygoden Ffrengig, the black rat, Br. Zool. i. No 25. Ffren­gig signifies French, as if it had been imported from France; which originally it might have been, with every animal we possess, before the separation of Gaul from Britain, by the convulsion which formed the Streights of Dover *. Whether our ancestors had any tradition of its being of a later importation, (as the distinction might imply) is unknown to me. They have long since been extirpated by the Brown Rat. The last I have seen in this parish, was at my old house at Bychton. They are still found in our ca­pital: the specimen of one taken there is preserved in the col­lection of British animals near the Pantheon.

22. THE Brown Rat is a modern importation, and has no name in the British. It is a pest to all countries it has settled in, (see Br. Zool. i. No 26, and Hist. Quadr. ii. No 375.)

23. Llygoden y dwr, water rat, Br. Zool. i. No 27. Once very common in the meadow below my house.

24. Llygoden ganoleg, Llygoden y maes, field mouse. Br. Zool. i. No 28.

25. Llygoden, common mouse, No 30, has sometimes been found white in our parish.

26. Llygoden gwtta'r maes, short-tailed mouse, No 31.

27. Llygoden goch, Chwistlen, Llyg, shrew, No 32.

28. Wadd, Twrch daear, mole, No 34. Sometimes white in my grounds.

29. Draenog, Draen y coed, urchin, or hedge-hog, No 35— [Page 146] humbly petitions mankind to desist from all farther persecutions; declaring themselves innocent of the various charges brought against them, particularly for that of sucking cows; resting their a [...]quittal on this simple plea—the impossibility. They could not effect it, by reason of the smallness of their mouths; nor the cows permit, by reason of the sharpness of their teeth.

30. Moel- [...]n, seal, No 3. By storms one was once taken on our shore.

31. Ystlum, the common bat, No 41.

[...]DS.THE Buzzard and the Kestrils annually build in the tall pines near my house. I believe them to be the lest noxious of the rapa­cious tribes, I therefore spare them; they animate the air, as well as other birds do the woods. Both feed principally on mice. The evolutions of the last, and their beautiful suspension in the air, are pleasing spectacles, and contribute to grace the scenery.

THE owl tribe, in my opinion, do not render night hideous. Their hootings, and their other notes, break finely into the still­ness of the evening; and their f [...]rm and sapient looks, are a singu­lar variation among the feathered tribe. The white owl, that useful species, is gratefully spared, as it is most particularly ini­mical to mice. Its chase after the different kinds of field-mice is very amusing, while it skims along the meadows. The beauty of its pl [...]mage is admirable; let that be the excuse for giving the figure of a bird that is not extremely rare.

THE turtle, Br. Zool. i. No 10 [...], is very rare in North Wales. They prefer the thick woods of beech or oaks, in the county of Buckingham, or of o [...]ks in the several western counties. Yet, in a [Page]

THE WHITE OWL. [...]usus o [...]atur [...]. Published [...]

[Page 147] late winter, three made my grounds a visit, and continued about three weeks. They were perfectly tame, and undisturbed by the frequent visits we made to admire these strangers.

THE long-tailed tit-mouse, Br. Zool. i. No 166, with its numerous brood, passes annually through my garden. They flit from tree to tree, as if on their progress to some other place, never making any halt.

THE Nut-cracker, Br. Zool. ii. App. tab. iii. Latham, i. p. 400, is an accidental visitant of this island. One was killed in the gar­den at Mostyn in 1753. On the continent it extends from Ger­many to Kamtschatka, and inhabits the vast forests of pines. It also nestles on lofty towers, and, like the jackdaw, is very noisy. In size it is about equal to that bird. Its colour is rusty brown, prettily marked with triangular spots of pure white. It feeds on nuts (which it breaks with its bill) also on fir-cones, acorns, ber­ries, and insects. Its bill is as strong as that of the wood-pecker, which enables it to pierce the bodies of trees, and make great havock among the timber.

VAST numbers of water-fowls frequent our shores in the win­ter time, chiefly ducks and wigeons. In very severe weather, variety of others emigrate here; but none excepting those which accidentally visit every other maritime part of Great Britain.

I SHALL conclude this mention of the birds with an account of a singular accident discovered in a turkey which was killed for my table. The cook in plucking it found herself much wounded in the fingers. On examining the cause, it was found, that from the thigh-bone of the bird issued a short upright process, and to that grew a large and strong talon, with a sharp and crooked [Page 148] claw, exactly resembling that of a bird of prey. Every head was set to work to explain the cause of this wondrous pheno­me [...]n. The effects of fright, of conceit on the minds of the female, human and brute, in the state of pregnancy, was then considered, and all the various instances of monstrous produc­tions. I have heard of a duckling, which, to the surprize of a g [...]ave family, [...]ad [...] from its n [...]st with a long serpentine tail instead of its natural rump. This was readily resolved into a fright the mother-duck took, at finding, when it went once to lay, a snake coiled up in the nest, as was a real fact. I consulted the learned, but found the doctrine of terror and fancy totally exploded. I then consulted the Memoirs of the Royal Academy of Sciences at Brobdingnag; and, to my inexpressible satisfaction, found that the opinion of that illustrious body coincided with my own: so I put down this uncommon accident as no more than a Relpium Sca [...]cath, or, in the modern phrase, a lusus naturae.

FISHES.THE tides recede here so very f [...]r as to deny us any variety of fish. The species most plentiful are of the flat kind, such as flounders, a few pla [...]ce, small soles, and rays. Dabs visit us in November. Smear Dabs, Br. Zool. iii. No 106, also visit our sea; and in the last year was taken that rare species of flounder the whiff, the figure of which is given in the British Zoology, No 111.

THAT turbots of a large size are found in our neighborhood, is evident; twice in my life I had one brought to me which weighed twenty-two pounds. There have been a few others taken here of the same size, but the instances are rare.

[Page 149]VARIOUS other fishes are taken off our coast accidentally.ANGEL FISH. Among them is the Fishing Frog, or Angler, Br. Zool. iii. No 51. And once a large Angel or Monk (Br. Zool. iii. No 39.) fish got into my fisherman's nets. The man was very poor, I there­fore thought he might get a little money by exhibiting it at C [...]ester. I gave him a few instructions, and drew up for him a curious advertisement; but the rogue went beyond his instructions, for as soon as he arrived in the city, he sent the bellman about to notify his arrival, and that of his wonderful monster; signifying that Squire Pennant had consulted all his books, and could not find the like. His success was great, for he got ten pounds by the curiosity of the good people of Chester. When the smell grew intolerable, he sold it to another poor per­son, who stuffed the skin, and distended it to a most dreadful form, and carried it to Worcester, and the internal parts of England, where I doubt not his success was equal to that of poor Thomas H [...]d [...]field.

'Advertisement. 'TO THE CURIOUS. July, 1761.

To be seen at the upper White Bear, in Bridge-Street, in this ‘City, (now in its Road to the ROYAL SOCIETY) THE STUPENDOUS SEA MONSTER, Taken alive on the Coasts of North Wales.

‘IT is the most amazing prodigy the great deep ever produced, being headed like a bull-dog, mouthed like the ravenous sha [...]ke, and armed with a four-fold row of teeth. It has a breast like the human kind, wings like those of an eagle, and a [Page 150] tail very like that of a fish. It could fly, walk, and swim, and was so fierce as to keep three men at bay for two hours, before it could be taken.’

‘THIS amazing monster has given the greatest satisfaction to all that have viewed it; and may now be seen at the small expence of three-pence.’

N. B.—THE Proprietor of this wonder is willing to oblige persons, by bringing it to their houses, on paying double price.’

STING RAY.THAT rare species of fish the Sting Ray, Br. Zool. iii. No 38, is sometimes taken in our channel. It is greatly dreaded by our fishermen, on account of the dangerous spine issuing from the tail, with which it might give a mortal wound. From the British Zoology, I shall add, that the terror of its weapon sup­plied the antients with many tremendous fables relating to it. Pliny, A [...]ian, and Oppian, have given it a venom that affects even the inanimate creation. Trees that are struck by it instantly lose their verdure, and perish, and rocks themselves are incapable of resisting the potent poison.

THE enchantress Circe armed her son with a spear, headed with the spine of the trygon, a species of sting-ray, as the most irresistible weapon she could furnish him with, and with which he afterwards committed parricide, unintentionally, on his father Ulysses. But we need not dive into antiquity for the fatal applica­tion of the spine of some of the ray genus. The inhabitants of certain parts of South America, and of some of the new-discovered islands in the Pacific Ocean, still head their spears with the spines [Page 151] of the congenerous kinds, which prove far more tremendous than those pointed with iron, in use among the European warriors.

THE Herring in this sea is extremely desultory.HERRING. At times they appear in vast shoals, even as high as Chester; arrive in the month of November, and continue till February; and are fol­lowed by multitudes of small vessels, which enliven the chan­nel. Great quantities are taken, and salted; but are generally shotten and meagre. The last time in which they appeared here in quantities was in the year 1766 and 1767.

A few Anchovies, Br. Zool. iii. No 163,ANCHOVY. have been taken off this parish, particularly in 1769. Ray, in his Philosophical Let­ters, p. 47, saw some at Chester in the year 1669.

THE Argentine, Br. Zool. ii. No 156, a very rare fish, not much above two inches long, has also been taken in our channel.

In my father's younger days, Cod-fish, of considerable sizes, and in vast quantities, were taken on the back of the Hyle sands, but have deserted the place beyond my memory.

THE Weever, Br. Zool. iii. No 71, is very common here,WEEVER. and equally dreaded in these parts as they are on the different shores of England. Pliny, lib. ix. c. 27, 48; and Aelian, lib. ii. c. 50 men­tions this species, its dorsal spine, and its dangerous effects, under the name of Draco; and Pliny again under that of Araneus.

OUR shore is not productive of any variety of crustacea, or of shells. We have the cancer maenas, or the common crab; and the cancer crangon, or shrimp. The last is here so peculiarly deli­cious, that had Apicius failed from Minturnae to the Flintshire shores, to have feasted on them, at he did to those of the Sinus [Page 152] Hipponensis, in Africa, to indulge on the congenerous locustae * of that sea, he would not instantly have returned indignant, as he did from thence, at finding himself deceived in the report of their excellency, but remained on our coast, wallowing in epicurism the whole of the happy season.

AS to shells, we have only one species, we can call new, the tro­chus ulvae, Br. Zool. iv. No 12 [...]. tab. lxxxvi. fig. 120. It is very small, not exceeding the size of a grain of wheat, consists of four spires, the first swelling: the color deep brown. These are found in great numbers, lodged in the ulva lactuca, on our shores.

PLANTS.AMONG the rarer plants of our parish, are the lithospermium arvense, Syst. Pl. i. 385. Corn Gromwell, or bastard Alkanet, Gerard, 610.

Anchusa sempervirens, Syst. Pl. i. 389. Never-dying borage, Gerard, 797.

Phellandrium aquaticum, Syst. Pl. 701. Flor. Scot. i. 163. Common water hemlock, Gerard, 1063.

Campanula latifolia, Syst. Pl. 1458. Giant throat-wort, Gerard, 448.

Chlora perfoliata, Syst. Pl. ii. 161. Flor. Scot. p. 200. Yellow centorie, Gerard, 547. Elegant, and rather scarce.

Trifolium fragiferum, Syst. Pl. 559. Strawberry trefoil, Gerard, 1208.

Tragopogon pratense, Syst. Pl. iii. 611. Flor. Scot. 426. Purple goat's beard, Gerard, 735.

[Page 153]THE Rev. Mr. Lightfoot discovered in our dingles, in the month of May, a variety of the Anenome Nemorosa, Syst. Pl. ii. 637. with the leaves dotted on the back like the fructifications of a polypody: precisely corresponding with the figure of a sup­posed fern, in Mr. Ray's Synopsis, 124, after No 24; and fig. i. tab. iii. at p. 128.

THE arenaria saxatilis, Syst. Pl. ii. 364. is found on our moun­tain in plenty, and chears the ground with its white flowers, in May. I do not find it in Mr. Hudson, nor any of our British flo­rists. It is found in Sibiria, Fl. Sib. iv. 157. tab. 63; and in Switzerland, Haller, p. 383, No 867.

THE geranium phaeum, Syst. Pl. iii. 32. has also been discovered in the hanging wood above my garden.

THE picturesque dingle Nant-y-bi abounds with what the bota­nists name the cryptogamous plants. The idea of cryptogamy in­spired Timaeus with ideas of loves of other kind; and makes our Nant the tender scene of courtship for all the nymphs and swains of Whiteford parish, which he candidly admits does always terminate in honest matrimony in the parish church. I leave to the learned in German, to peruse his very graphical account *. [Page 154] Perhaps the quotation of two lines from Dr. Darwin's elegant poem, book ii. line 361, 'On the Loves of the Plants,' may prove full as pleasing. He makes Muscus, one of the classes in question, thus address itself, just in the manner our amorous couples may be supposed to do:

Rise, let us mark how bloom the awaken'd groves,
And 'mid the banks of roses hide our loves.

THE rarest plants of the dingle, of the cryptogamous kind, are the Polypodium creopteris, Lin. Soc. Trans. i. 181.

Bryum extinctorium, Fl. Scot. ii. p. 718. Dillen. Musc. tab. 95. fig. 8. So called from having a membranaceous calyptra hanging lower than the capsule, like an extinguisher upon a candle.

Bryum callistomum, Dicks. Fasc. iii. tab. 10.

Jungermannia ciliaris. Hudson Fl. Angl. i. 515.

Lichen concentricus, Lin. Soc. Trans. ii. 284. Discovered by my excellent botanical assistant, the Reverend Hugh Davies Aber, Caernarvonshire.

Lichen quercinus, Dicks. Fasc. i. p. 9.

Agaricus piperatus, Fl. Scot. ii. p. 1013. Fl. Angl. i. 613. A most acrid fungus, and the most suspicious of the whole class; yet is eaten in great quantities by the Russians. They fill large vessels with them in the autumn season, or pickle them with salt, and eat them in the ensuing Lent.

A DREADFUL POISON. Haller gives a dreadful account of the fatal effects. ‘The maladies they occasion are a swelling of the abdomen, restless­ness, heart-burns, vomitings, colics, difficult breathings, hic­coughs, melancholy, diarrhoeas, accompanied with a tenesmus, and gangrenes. To which dreadful complaints, the acrimonious quality of some fungi brings on besides inflammations in the [Page 155] mouth, with bloody lotions and bloody stools. Lastly, it is certain that some species have an intoxicating quality, followed often by deliriums, tremblings, watchings, faintings, apoplexies, cold sweats, and death itself. Some have fancied that skilful cookery would deprive them of their bad effects, and that oils would sheath their noxious qualities; but these are fatal deceits, not to be trusted. Notwithstanding this, nothing can prevail on the northern nations from depriving themselves of so favorite a food.’

Agaricus deliciosus. Orange agaric. Hudson Flor. Angl. ii. 613.

Boletus suberosus. Cork boletus. Hudson Flor. Angl. ii. 624. Flor. Scot. ii. p. 1032. So called from its being light, tough, and spongy like cork, and is sometimes cut and shaped by the country people, and used as corks for their bottles; but must not be suffered to touch any liquid, for moisture soon renders them soft and useless.

Helvella mitra. Curled helvella. Hudson Flor. Angl. Fl. Scot. ii. p. 1047, is nearly allied to the Phallus esculentus, and like that is esteemed to be of the eatable kind.

THE peziza described by Ray, Syn. Stirp. Brit. i. 18. No 5. is found near my house; it is a fungus of the cup-form, and of a most brilliant scarlet color.

THE waters of this parish are very numerous,WATERS. as is the case of all mountanous tracts. Here indeed we must confine them to the steep slope that falls rapidly to the sea. It abounds with little springs, which accumulating in their course, form streams of power sufficient to turn some corn-mills of considerable size.

[Page 156] FFYNNON OSWALD.THE largest independent rivulet is that which gushes from Ffynnon Oswald, or the well of Oswald, in the township of Merton Ychlan. It takes its name from the Saxon monarch, martyr, and faint, Oswald king of the Northumbrians, who was defeated and slain on October 5th, 642, near Oswestry, by the pagan Penda; king of the Mer [...]ians, who hung his limbs on stakes dispersed over the field, as trophies of his victory. Some of the tradition reached our parish: for there is near to the well a certain field called A [...]lod Oswald, or Oswald's limb, as if one of them had found its way to this place. (For a farther account of the legend, I refer to article Oswestry, vol. i. p. 258, edit. 1784, of my Tour in Waies.) This stream divides the parish of Whiteford, for a certain way, from that of Holywell.

BRYN-Y-GROES.POSSIBLY St. Oswald had near his well a cross; for not remote, on an eminence named Bryn-y-Groes, or the Hill of the Cross, stood one of those marks of piety, of which still remains the shaft.

WHITEFORD STREAM.THE stream of most utility rises from a spring a little beyond the village of Whiteford. It runs by my house, and is no small ornament to my ground. It turns my two mills, which, with much patriotism and little wisdom, I erected. The first is near the Gwibnant or Wibnant, and made in form of a chapel. My great folly is about half a mile lower: is an excellent mill, and does much business for the lessee. This stream is much augmented by an­other, which rises at a place called Saith Ffynnan, or the Seven Wells, and murmurs through the romantic Nant-y-bi, and unites with it at the Wibnant. It concludes its course near Llanerch-y-môr smelting-house, to which it is of great use, by setting in [Page 157] motion some stampers for comminuting the slags before they are committed to the hearth for the extraction of the remaining lead.

THE last stream runs through Felyn Blwm, or the lead-mill, FELYN BLWM. a great romantic dingle which divides this parish from that of Llan-Asaph. Near its fall into the sea is a considerable mill, the property of Sir Roger Mostyn. This dingle probably takes its name from the number of antient smelting-hearths for lead found in it, in use in the primaeval artless times of smelting.

ALL our dingles run parallel to each other,NATURE OF THE DINGLES. and begin at some distance from the first or steepest descent from the mountain. The sides of all are cloathed with oaks, and each has its rill at the bottom. These great ravines, I may call them, were evi­dently formed on the running down of the waters of the deluge on its subsidence, when they found their way to what the AL­MIGHTY determined should ever remain a circum-ambient sea.

NUMBERS of the small springs which arise in the lower part of the parish shew symptoms of the internal contents.CHALYBEATE SPRINGS. In the neighborhood of the coal, they are covered with a dirty yellow ochreous scum; and are more or less chalybeate. One, which rises before my house, is strongly so, and proved very beneficial to the only person I know who made a fair use of it.

IN respect to the husbandry of this parish;HUSBANDRY. it may be di­vided into several parts. I shall first pay attention to the higher or the mountanous. That tract is very extensive,MOUNTAIN GROUND. covered in general with heath mixed with coarse grass. The climate very cold in comparison of the lower parts. We often find during [Page 158] winter a severe frost reign there, when the ground has been quite soft, and the air mild, in the lower parts.

THE soil in general a poor loam, and in many parts very thin; in others, the lime-stone pervades the stratum, and forms large tracts of rock. There are certain parts fit for agriculture, as has been found by the surreptitious inclosures made in a few parts, which yield corn, such as barley and oats, in a kindly manner. I wish experiments were made of planting part; which, if put under the care of a woodman, might be a national benefit, as well as a private one to the lord of the manor. The neglect of appointing woodmen would render the planting of no effect, by reason of the variety of trespasses; as we free-holders of the lower parts, who make our woods the glory of our estates, do daily and cruelly experience.

OUR mountains support some black-cattle; the greater part of which are left out the whole year to take their chance. Still the high country is a nursery. Many are sent lean to market, and drove to more genial soils. Most of our farmers fatten cattle, and either sell them to the butchers for the Holywell market, or to those of Chester and Leverpool.

SHEEP.THE sheep are numerous. They likewise are left to them­selves; and become in hard weather great nusances by their trespasses on the cultivated lands of us low-landers. As may be imagined, they produce little wool. Their fleeces are coarse, yet of that a small quantity is sold into Merionethshire, and the rest manufactured at home, and made either into cloth for the country people, or into flannel for the women, or knit into stockings, all for home consumption. In respect to mutton, much [Page 159] is brought to market from the mountains, but that is only during the vigorous part of the summer, and after the frost or rainy sea­son: but the greatest part of the sheep bought by the gentry for the table, is purchased at the distant country fairs.

NUMBERS of hogs are bred in our parish;HOGS. and numbers are sold at the fairs, and driven to distant parts.

THE soil of the lower part of the parish is in general a very stiff clay, which continues quite to the edge of the cliff,SOILS. CLAY. above the shore. In many places are spots of gravel, but of very small extent. We have also beds of pure sand, but that useful arti­cle is in most parts scarce.

FROM the Rhewl to Avon Marsh Siambr is a thin vein of very rich marle, saponaceous to the touch; prettily veined with red, grey, and white. It is got in too small quantities for use. On the edge of the mountain, especially on the tenement of Plâs Captain, is a larger vein of a coarser kind. The tenant, Thomas Blore, a Cheshire man, conversant in this species of manure, has made a judicious application of it on his farm, and as long as it lasted reaped the reward of his industry.

BEYOND the space between the boundary and the mountain is a tract of light soil, which may be said to begin under Kelyn, LICHTER SOIL. in the township of Uchlan, and continue in a direct line by Tyddin Ycha, to Plas Ycha, in the township of Mostyn. This is extremely well adapted for that useful root the turnep; and it has been tried with success. But the farmer is obliged to give up the cultiva­tion, by reason of the depredations the poor make on the crops. They will steal the turneps before his face, laugh at him when he fumes at them; and ask him, how he can be in such a rage about a few turneps? As a magistrate, I never had a complaint made before [Page 160] me against a turnep-stealer. Our farmers, and our coal-adven­turers, have not yet 'plucked the old woman out of their hearts,' for the last suffer likewise in a great degree in their trade, yet hardly complain. Incredible as it may appear, numbers of them are in fear of being cursed at St. Aelian's well, (see my Tour in Wales, vol. ii. p. 337) and suffer the due penalty of their superstition.

AT uncertain seasons clouds of ring-doves, wood-pigeons or queests, winter-migrants from Scandinavia, have visited our turnep-fields, and done no small damage to the crops.

POTATOES.EVERY cottage has its garden; and if that is not large enough, any landlord or neighbor allots him a piece in one of his fields, for the purpose of a potatoe-garden, and this spot is prepared and manured by the landlord, and for which not more than 18 d. per rood is demanded. The last comfort is not of long date, for I can remember the time in which it was almost unknown to the poorer people; neither did the rich extend the culture beyond the garden. How singular does appear to us the following quotation from old Gerard, p. 928, who speaks of it as ‘being also a meate for pleasure, equall in goodnesse and whole­somenesse vnto the same, being either rosted in the embers, or boyled and eaten with oyle, vinegar, and pepper, or dressed any other way by the hand of some cunning in cookerie.’ —At pre­sent our gardeners, and a few others of the parish, raise sufficient to supply their neighbors, and to carry for sale to the adjacent market. The stiff soil of the parish is unfavorable to the cul­ture. If we want potatoes in any quantities, we must import them from the vaie of Conwy, from Cheshire, and Lancashire. In the present time of scarcity, (May 1795) the cultivation [Page 161] has been unusually encreased in Whiteford parish. Before this season, I never raised more than was necessary for the use of my family: this year I increased my potatoe-ground many-fold, even before I had read the speech made by Sir John Sinclair. Thousands have done the same in a similar state of ignorance, some from benevolence, some from view of gain, and others on the principle of self-preservation. I may predict also, from the former motives, that wheat will be in the next season sown four­fold. Admonitions surely are unnecessary. In the next year we may rejoice in plenty, even in superfluity, and have the happiness of seeing the poor man exult in our success.—But the halcyon days are arriving fast. Let us comfort ourselves with the fair prospect before us, and devoutly pray for the accom­plishment of those hopes delivered to us in the following pro­phetic effusions:

Let us cut off those legal bars
Which crush the culture of our fertile isle!
Were they remov'd, unbounded wealth would flow,
Our wastes would then with varied produce smile,
And England soon a second Eden prove?

WHEAT grows remarkably well in our clayey land;WHEAT. it is the red kind, that the farmer prefers for seed; it is the hardiest, and the surest of finding sale; the white and the grey being in our country less in request. We raise much more than the parish would consume. The rest is exported to Leverpool, to supply the county of Lancashire with bread, that vast county not being pro­ductive of much wheat. The demand, therefore, from the nu­merous populous towns is very considerable, and at times occa­sions a great rise in the price, and a consequential clamor at home. The complaints are the draining of our county of grain, and the imaginary evil of great farms. Grain is one of the ar­ticles of commerce of the parish; and weaving the support of [Page 162] thousands and thousands of poor in the great county I have men­tioned. We feed them, they supply us with various species of cloathing. As to food, let me add, that the farmers of that county even make us a return in that article; for they supply us with potatoes, as we do them with wheat. We all depend upon one another: so true is it, that ‘GOD never form'd an independant man [...] Without such means of sale, or, we may call it, exchange of commodities, the great farmer would cease to plough, would cease to form those magazines of corn, on which, at all times, our markers depend, and which are the great preservative from famine in these kingdoms. At times, bad seasons occasion bad crops, and of course enhance the price. An inordinate lust of gain may sometimes occasion criminal confederacies; which, criminal as they are, have hitherto baffled every attempt of the legis­lature to prevent. The poor are now left quite defenceless against the iniquitous race of forestallers, &c. &c. by the repeal of the 5th and 6th Edw. VI. It is much to be lamented that those humane laws are not revived, modified in any manner adapted to the times. A middle man in great contracts is often requisite: it is not that description of men at whom I aim, but those who in small bargains tempt the farmer, by offers of exor­bitant prices, and contribute to the distresses of the poor, and discontents of the country, to a degree unspeakable. At present a calamitous war assists that evil; but surely we cannot grudge food to our brave countrymen, who are fighting for all that is dear to us. Among them we may have neighbors, sons of tenants, our own sons, or different relations: to whom, if we think a moment, we should be ashamed to deny a share in the produce of the labor of their native country, in which it is possible they themselves might have bore a share.

[Page 163]SUPPOSING all farms are reduced to an equality, and all made small ones, the ground must be divided into little portions for the support of a miserable team, or of a few cows, or for raising small quantities of corn. No magazines could be formed against evil days; the produce of the dairy would be small, and the provision for fodder serve for little more than to support the live stock. A few hobbets * of corn would be sent to market to pay the rent; the rest might serve to maintain the family till the return of the harvest: and if the stock should be consumed before that season, how would they wish for the restoring of the great farms! Many of the little farmers are also day-laborers: to whom could they apply for work, the very support of them and their families? NEVER HAS THERE BEEN A FAMINE IN ENG­LAND SINCE THE INTRODUCTION OF GREAT FARMS. Unavoidable scarcities will happen, from causes inevitable. But there has not been an instance, for numbers of centuries, of the poor running into corners to die for want of food; of their seeing their infants perish before their eyes; and perhaps a plague might ensue, the consequence of famine, to thin the land of multitudes of the mi­serable survivors.

I SPEAK disinterestedly, for I have not on my estate a single great farmer. I find no merit in this assertion; had it been otherwise, I should have supported him in all that was right, in common with my poorest tenant, and my poorest tenant perhaps in pre­ference to him.

[Page 164]I WOULD never grant a lease to a great corn-tenant. I would preserve a power over his granary, which legislature will not or cannot assume. Should he attempt by exportation to exhaust it, in years of scarcity, and not leave a sufficient supply for the country which produced the grain; should he attempt a monopoly; should he refuse to carry a proper quantity to the next market; or should he refuse to sell to the poor, who cannot attend the market, corn in small quantities, I would instantly assume the power of the landlord, and expel him from my estate: a just pu­nishment for the tenant, who, through rapacity, declines to com­ply with my desires, excited with no other view than to promote the good of the public.

THE necessity of great farms is admitted; but let it be re­membered, that their support rests upon the laborers, who are equally requisite to the great farmer as beams are to a building. Let not the rapacity of the miscalled great man direct all his force to the support of the opulent farmer, for the sake of in­creased rent. He will (as sad examples prove) depopulate his country by removing the sturdy laborers to the ground of wiser landlords, and leave his own weakened by their desertion; while the fields of the former laugh and sing, but round his own, ingens [...]it solitudo.

I COULD wish (was it in my power) to add even to the cot­tages of my laborers two or three small fields, that they might have the comfort of a cow, to supply their families with milk. They are too useful a class of men to be neglected: to be left to the precarious possibility of getting any of that invigorating fluid, so necessary for their infants, and even for the support of their [Page 165] own strength, to sustain them through their labor. Give them a dry stated cottage, with an upper floor, and a kind landlord, and a British laborer need not envy Caesar.

BEFORE I take leave of the subject, let me define the size of a great and a small farm in this parish. Our greatest farm is rented at £. 110 per ann. at the rate of about 14 s. per acre. Our small farms have from 20 to 10 acres; and the rent per acre from 12 s. to 7 s. There may be in every parish instances of the exorbi­tant raise of rent: an evil most frequently originating in the luxury of the landlord. Our rents are moderate, because our gentry would blush to add one dish to their table at the expence of the tenant. Mr. Wedge, in his Survey of Cheshire, p. 72, speaks humanely and sensibly on the affected maxim of ‘high rents being a spur to industry.’ This (for I must help Mr. Wedge with a simile) resembles the practice of the prudent planter, who wishes to quicken the industry of his negroes by the invigorating appli­cation of the cart-whip to their velvet skin.

IN respect to leases, the utility is not perfectly agreed on. In our parts of North Wales I have known lease-tenants of very mo­derate rent continue on their farms their whole term without suc­cess: and I know in this parish, and within a small distance, seve­ral rack-rent tenants, with large farms, the most prosperous of any in the country. They improve boldly, and reap amply the fruits of their industry. They have confidence in their landlords, nor can they recollect more than one instance (and that indeed disgrace­ful enough *) in which they found it misplaced. They are masters [Page 166] of the knowlege of the soil, and the nature of the climate of their own country. The appearance of their tenements does them credit. When they heard of a person sent among them to inculcate the principles of good farming, they smiled at the design, but spoke with gratitude of the kind intent of the Board of Agriculture. Denbighshire has long had its little board, for North Wales does not neglect its own interests. An agricultural society has, for a number of years, been estabished in the vale of Clwyd. None who have visited that beautiful tract can deny the general excellency of its culture.

IN Cheshire the antient practice of leasing is growing fast out of use: and agriculture will increase in that county in proportion.

MR. George Kay, of Leith, the missionary to whom was commit­ted the inspection of every farm in the six counties of North Wales, favored me with a call some time in the last summer, and delivered to me his credentials from Sir John Sinclair. I was really at the time out of spirits. At the same time, a report was circulated, that the object of the mission was to ascertain the reality of our land-tax; which was much credited by my coun­trymen. I was certain that the report was entirely unfounded; but I did not chuse to trouble myself with militating against what I knew must speedily become self-confuted. I treated Mr. Kay with all civility. He left me, and I believe, through all his journey, (one place excepted) had no reason to complain of the reception he met with. Sir John Sinclair is a man of honor. He had not the lest occasion to give himself the trouble of making to me so earnest an asseveration of the purity of his intentions, as he did in his last favor. He is above taking clandestine means of getting at any kind of information.

[Page 167]WE lament that Mr. Kay did not see, in any one of our six counties, a single custom that could be useful to others *. From the state of numbers of our farms, I suspect that we had pre­viously adopted many methods of agriculture from English coun­ties, which must have occasioned his remark. I would fain pay that compliment to his candour. On the whole, I fear that the mission has passed most unprofitably to both visitor and visitè. Nothing seems to have been learned by the one, and nothing taught by the other.

WE thatch our hay-ricks with admirable neatness, and in that manner preserve the hay for years. I do not know a better expedient, even could the landlord afford to every little farm a hay-barn, or give them a moveable canopy, which is liable per­petually to be out of order. Necessity in every country causes different modes of oeconomy. Send Shenkin ap Morgan on a survey of Cathness, and he would at first stare at the bykes , but would admire the ingenuity of the contrivances, and acknowlege the wisdom of the farmer in the preservation of his grain, where other means were wanting.

THERE are, certainly, both beyond the Tweed, and beyond the Dee, many thousands of acres, of which a tenant should be court­ed to attempt the cultivation, and be bribed by leases to settle upon them. In North Britain the practice is common. In North Wales, our mountain landlords rarely grant leases, possibly from their not finding the necessity.

IN all the mineral part of Flintshire are numbers of small farms, tenanted by carriers, who entirely support themselves by the [Page 168] carriage of the lead ore, and calamine or coal. These are reck­oned the most slovenly farmers we have. They apply them­selves to carriage to such a degree, as to neglect their tenements. The minerals are the great natural staple of this, and most of the parishes; so that these species of farms are quite indispensable.

LET not the little farmer, or the cottager, repine at the wealth of the great farmers. It is not many weeks since their empty stomachs have been filled from the hoards of the latter. Had they not been able to form a stock, or to enable by sale others to do so, what would have become of you? The good, the bene­volent, have been able to purchase from them the food that has contributed to preserve, for many months, you and your's from cruel want. The instances of the recent charities have not been equalled. I may speak of the universal charities. But I will recal to your minds those of your several neighborhoods. In public calamities little souls lie squat in their holes: great souls arise, and are called forth to action; some from a generous sensibi­lity, others from selfish motives. I cannot but confess myself to be among the latter. I am selfish enough to wish to put out my money at lest on reversionary interest, but that on security incontestible. ‘HE THAT HATH PITY ON THE POOR LENDETH TO THE LORD; AND LOOK WHAT HE LAYETH OUT, IT SHALL BE PAID TO HIM AGAIN!’ With what animated benevolence of sentiment doth Sir Thomas Broune comment on this pious exhortation! 'There is,' says the great physician of Norwich, ‘more rhetoric in that one sentence than in a library of sermons; and, indeed, if those sentences were understood by the reader, with the same em­phasis as they were delivered by the Author, we needed not those volumes of instructions, but might be honest by epitome.’

[Page 169]THE produce of the wheat of this parish is from seven and eight fold, to twelve or thirteen,PRODUCE OF WHEAT. according to the pains taken with the ground, or the nature of it. Our general manure is lime, burnt in sod-kilns. The lime-stone, broken small,SOD-KILNS. is placed within a thick circular wall of sods, and the strata of stone, broken small, interlaid with beds of coal, which is set on fire by wood placed in certain holes left at the sides. These holes serve likewise to ad­mit the air, which promotes the fierceness of the fire within. The lime-stones are piled in a conic form, to a great height above the top of the sod-wall, and then covered thickly with sods. I must mention that the holes are four in number, placed opposite to each other, and have a gutter cut from one to the other, which is left hollow by means of flat stones over them, to promote the current of air. A circular gutter also runs close to the interior side of the sod wall. A common-sized kiln will require about sixteen tons of stone: but there are larger, and those often of an oval form.

SOMETIMES the lime-stone is burnt in common kilns, then taken and carried to form a compost with earth, which had been deposited in some adjacent place, and which usually had been dug out of old ditches. The lime is intimately mixed with it, and left a considerable time to mature, after which it is applied to use.

OUR best barley is raised in the light soil which we have men­tioned at p. 159.BARLEY. In general our farmers prepare the ground for barley by giving it a fallow in December or January, and again harrow and plough it the latter end of April or beginning of May. In the stiffer lands the crops are frequently very un­favorable. [Page 170] The quantity raised is not equal to the consump­tion. It is the principal grain used by our common people. The produce from the hobbet is about equal to that of the wheat.

OATS.OATS are chiefly sown in the mountain inclosures, or on the lands adjacent to the mountains. The produce is by no means equal to our demand.

GRASSES.THE artificial grasses are but two. Clover (the red sort) which we sow immediately after the barley.CLOVER. When the clover is sowen by itself, or without any other grass-seeds, the quantity to each acre is eighteen or twenty pounds. It is not a favorite grass, but we do not know how to remedy ourselves. It wears out in less than three years, after which we renew the ground with a crop of wheat, managed as before related. The clover-seed is procured from the vale of Clwyd, and other places where the plant is culti­vated for the sake of the seed.

RYE-GRASS.RYE-GRASS is sowen in our poor land; which, if not harvested early, is little better than a fodder of straw.

I VALUE myself on being the first in this parish who introduced on my estate the husbandry of draining and flooding, which I did last autumn, and throughout the winter, on a great number of acres. I did intend to desist from working after Christmas, had I not been induced to continue it throughout the season, in consi­deration of the numbers of poor people who were in the deepest distress for want o [...] employ. The season was so rigorous, that the laborers were obliged to break into the unfrozen ground with the pick-ax, before they could use the spade. This, and the short days, made the work very expensive: but I was far [Page 171] over-paid by the consideration of having given food to mul­titudes, who in themselves or their families must otherwise have labored under the greatest difficulties. The undertaker was Mr. Henry Harrison, who followed the most approved practice. I flatter myself that in the ensuing year I shall experience the effects of his skill.

To clear the free-holders of Whiteford parish from any inatten­tion to that important article of husbandry, planting,PLANTING. I bring the brief, but irresistible, defence of—the impossibility. The dingles are filled with oaks. I believe there is not one of us have any waste ground for the purpose. All our tenements consist of arable or pasture land, too valuable to be spared for any other purpose in this populous parish. Sir Roger Mostyn, on his coming to his estate, planted the little that had been cleared by his predecessor. Besides Mostyn or Whiteford wood (see p. 25) many of our very hedges are filled with oaks: possibly they do not benefit our land by their shade, but a few of us are true druids; and should we apply the ax, we should imagine that we heard the groans of the Hamadryads at every stroke.

I AM, in particular, so very avaricious of my woods, that at this instant of writing, I, with true reluctance, sign to my son the death-warrant of a few stag-horned trees, that have far outlived the best of their days. They, in all probability, would have had a re­spite, could I move from my couch to take a look at my antient favorites. But the void space shall be instantly inclosed, and, I may promise, that in a short time it will be filled with the best of successors, self-sown, from some of their own descendants, their eldest and most sturdy progeny.

[Page 172] SIR EDWARD LLOYD, A GREAT PLANTER.IF we of Whiteford parish are deprived of the possibility of planting within its limits, yet we can boast of a Flintshire gentle­man, who probably will be found to have contributed as a planter more to the benefit of his heir and of the state, than any other in the principality, in this age, or any past. I mean Sir Edward Lloyd, bart. of Pengwern, in the parish of St. Asaph, who finished his long and useful life on May the 26th of the present year. On his Flintshire estates he has planted a hundred and sixty-two thou­sand trees; and on his estate at Pant-glâs, in the county of Caer­narvon, more than three hundred and twenty thousand. Most of the trees are oaks, which in future times may float on the ocean, guardians of Britain, in distant wars, excited, either by the ambi­tion of foreign states, or by the incendiary machinations of domes­tic male-contents.—Even at present what have we to dread! The maritime genius of our island at length begins to smile on her again, and vigor and activity once more will fill every sail. The great spirit of old Sandwich has transmigrated, leaving behind the frailties of its mortal state, purified and congenialized to the breast it has taken possession of, on its return to the wonted Board, to re­sume its well-known powers.

Haud segnis strato surgit Palim [...]rus, et omnes
Explorat ventos: atque curibus aera captat.







AT Avon-marsh Siambr, (see p. 52.) we quit the parish of Whiteford, and enter the township of Greenfield, in the parish of Holywell, along a most excellent road. On the left is a continuation of the marsh. Above which is a low cliff, of the same nature as those which front the shore of the parish of Whiteford.

LET me preface this little history with saying that Avon Marsh Siambr is six miles distant from the rill which divides Holywell parish from that of Flint; that its greatest breadth is three miles from the turnpike road in Greenfield, to the borders of the parish of Skyviog; TOWNSHIPS. and that the parish consists of the town­ships of Holywell, Greenfield, Bagillt Vawr and Vechan, Whel­ston, Coleshill Vawr and Vechan, Brynfordd, and Calcoed. Its [Page 186] boundaries on the east are Flint, and part of Northop parishes; on the east Halkin; on the south-east Skyviog; on the west Whiteford; and on the north the estuary of the river Dee.

S [...]ABOVE Avon-marsh Siambr, on the rising ground, stands S [...]cky [...], a small house, which, with the estate belonging to it, has been of late years purchased by James Potts, publican in Holywell, and the house much improved. It originally belonged to a Mostyn, a younger branch of the Mostyns of Trelacre; T. M. signi­fying the name of Thomas Mostyn, cut above the arms on the mo­nument. A daughter of this gentleman, or one of his descendants, and heiress of the place, transferred the estate into the very antient family of the Blounts, of Orlton, in the county of Hereford, and with them it remained till the purchase by the present possessor.

RIVER DEE COMPANY.THE rights of the freeholders over the marsh extend a certain way to the east. These were settled by commissioners, in the year 1787, and a plan made, asserting the clames, as well of the freeholders, as of the River Dee Company. These were founded on acts of parlement, originating in the years 1732 and the fol­lowing, from that of the 11th and 12th of William III. entitled, ‘An act to enable the mayor and citizens of Chester to recover and preserve the navigation of the river Dee. It is possible that Mr. Andrew Yarrenton might be the primary cause of the improvements, by a survey he had made, in the year 1674, of the river Dee and its estuary.—I refer my reader to the account I have given, at p. 200 of my Welsh Tour, vol. i. for farther particulars.

THE other acts were passed in the years 1740, 1742, and 1752, and the works were begun with vigor. The project was carried on by subscription; and the adventurers were to be [Page 187] rewarded by the lands they were empowered to gain on both sides, from the White Sands, or the sea from Chester; and between the county of Cheshire, on the north side, and the county of Flint on the south side; being sands, soil, and ground not bearing grass. The tract, as appears by the chart attending the award made in 1787, and preserved among the records by the clerk of the peace for the county of Flint, terminate on our side at the Point of Air, in the parish of Llanasaph: on the Cheshire side at the Little Meels, at the extremity of the hundred of Wiral.

THE adventurers in the River Dee Company have gained a considerable quantity of land from the ravages of the sea, be­ginning from the walls of the city of Chester, and extending above five miles, even beyond the lower ferry.

THE report of the quantity of embanked land made from the beginning, by the River Dee Company and others (according as it is made to me by Mr. Wedge, agent to the company) is as follows:

Acres inclosed by the company,3,500
On Blacon-marsh, belonging to John Crewe, of Crewe, esquire, about300
On the south side of the river, belonging to the free-holders of Hawarden, as Mr. Wedge believes, about2,200
Total statute acres6,000
Marshes uninclosed, August 13th, 1795, about2,000

MR. WEDGE informs me that the grass which is found to an­swer best in these sandy inclosures is medicago sativa, Lucerne. LUCERNE GRASS. It [Page 188] will not however grow to any perfection on land where there is not a depth of at lest two feet of dry sand or soil beneath the surface, and succeeds (like most other grass [...]) in proportion to the quality of the soil. All kinds of stock are [...] of it; it is of a very feeding nature, and is both grazed [...] [...]rvested. Close grazing will destroy it; but if properly attended to, and assisted with manure about every f [...] ye [...]r, the plants will continue strong for upwards of thirty years. It may be grazed (sparingly) with safety in the spring, until the first week in May, and also in autumn, in the months of October and November, after the second crop is out. The hay, being of a dying nature, seems to be much better adapted for feeding stock, than either for horses or milking cows. I know no kind of hay that stock will feed faster upon than Lucerne, if it is well har­vested; as grass, it will answer best for soiling stock, when housed.

LAST E [...]BANK­MENT.NO attempts to embank were made farther to the west, till the summer of 1794, when about forty statute acres were inclosed by the same company, on the white sands bordering on Green­field marsh. Early in the next winter a fierce tide destroyed part of the embankment: but it now seems to be restored in the most effectual manner *.

PROJECTS.NEAR the extremity of this marsh the turnpike gates cross the roads leading to Flint and Holywell. A grand and beneficial [Page 189] project was some years ago formed, of making two canals. The one to be carried over the marsh (assisted by the Holywell stream) down to or near the perch or anchoring-ground; with a lock ca­pable of receiving vessels of a hundred tons burden.

ANOTHER canal was designed to have branched from this eastward as far as Pentre r [...]k, near Flint-castle, for the purpose of carrying the coal which was or may be discovered on that tract, either to the various mineral works, or into the lock for exportation. I trust, if ever the plan is resumed, that it may ex­tend a little farther, to the collieries belonging to Sir Roger Mostyn and myself, and others which may be discovered here­after. Nor see we any reason for our exclusion by so impolitic a partiality! The more choice of shops, the cheaper the goods. Both of the plans were taken by the able engineer, Mr. William Jessop, in the year 1785, and declared to be practicable. The expence indeed would have been very great; but alas! the aspect of the times forbids us to flatter ourselves with the resumption of the great design.

THE Mark, or place where the vessels lie to receive or discharge their lading, is about two miles from the turnpike gate.THE MARK. The channel of the Holywell river is to be seen at low water meandring to it, and might prove a useful means of improving the commerce of the country. At present the vessels must, on the recess of the tide, lie dry, and in hard gales, before they get afloat, are subject to much danger. The sands also shift, and make the Mark or an­choring-ground often precarious.

THE River Dee Company have power to inclose as far as the channel of the Dee, which in Holywell parish is supposed to extend [Page 190] as far as three miles from the turnpike road. In a late act of parlement for ascertaining the rights of the parish, and those of the company, in the spring of 1791, the agents for the company, after the act to confirm a line of boundary between the property of the company and the part of the marsh which was common, had been twice read, introduced clauses to render their pro­perty extra-parochial, and consequently to exempt the occu­piers from contributing to the church and poor, and other parochial rates of Holywell, Whiteford, or any parishes concerned; and also to exempt future householders from being liable to execute any offices within those parishes; and at the expence of others, artfully attempting to exonerate their tenants from bearing any part of the burdens. But the design was discovered, and the offensive clause omitted.

THE company have obtained a grant of all their lands from the parish of Hawarden to that of Whiteford, under the follow­ing circumstances: ‘Lands derelict by the sea belong to his prerogative; and being consequently extra-parochial, the tythes are due to the king; and if he grants them, his patentee shall have them.’ Such is the opinion of Sir John Comyns, as conveyed to me by the favor of Edward Jones, esquire, of Wepre hall.

WAT'S DIKE.ON passing the turnpike gate, a small walk brings us to the site of the abby and castle of Basingwerk, a place of importance in the wars between the English and Welsh. The land towards the sea is steeply sloped. The west side was protected by a deep gully, formed by the river. The south east by the vast ditch, which had hitherto been mistaken for that made by Ossa, king [Page 191] of the Mercians. I owe the detection of the error to Mr. John Evans, of Llwyn y Groes, who proves it to b [...] one termination of another stupendous work of the same kind, called Wat's Dike, which appears by his ma [...]nificent map of NORTH WALES, pub­lished this year, to have first become visible near Maesbury mill, in Oswestry parish, where it is lost in morassy ground; from thence it takes a northern direction to Hên ddinas, and by Pentre'r Clawdd, to Gobowen, the site of a small sort, called Bryn y Castell, in the parish of Whittington: then crosses Prys Henlle Common, in the parish of St. Martin; goes over the Ceir [...]g, between Brynkinallt and Pont y Blew forge, and the Dee below Nant y Bela; from whence it passes through Wynnstay Park, by another Pentre 'r Clawdd, or township on the ditch, to ERDDIG, the seat of Philip Yorke, esq where there was another strong fort on its course: from Erddig it goes above Wrexham, near Melin Puleston, by Dolydd, Maesgwyn, Rhôs ddu, Croes oneiras, Mr. Shakerley's Gwersyllt; crosses the Alun, and through the township of Llai, to Rhydin, in the county of Flint; above which is Caerestyn, a British post: from hence it runs by Hope church, along the side of Molesdale, which it quits towards the lower part, and turns to Mynydd Lychdyn, Monachlog near Northop, by Northop mills, Bryn-moel, Coed y llys, Nant y Flint, Cefn y Coed, through the Strand fields near Holywell, to its ter­mination below the abby of Basingwerk. I have been thus mi­nute in giving its course, because it is so often confounded with Offa's ditch, which attends the former at unequal distances, from five hundred yards to three miles, till the latter is totally lost.

IT is observable, that there are numbers of small artificial mounts, the sites of small forts, in many places along its course, [Page 192] as well as that of Offa's. These were garrisoned, and seem in­tended for the same purposes as the towers in the famous Chinese wall, to watch the motions of neighbors, and to repel any hostile incursions.

IT is remarkable that Wat's dike should have been overlooked, or confounded with that of Offa, by all writers except by Thomas Churchyard the poet, who assigns the object of the work: that the space intervening between the two was free ground, where the Britons and Saxons might meet with safety for all commercial purposes.

B [...]INGWERK CASTLE.VESTICES of the fortress appear in the foundation of a wall on the edge of the ditch, and on the road side, near the turnpike gate, opposite to the ruins of the abby. Lord Lytteiton * says, that the founder was an earl of Chester. I imagine that it must have been Richard, son of Hugh Lupus, and second earl of Chester, and that the abby was fortified by reason of a danger he had incurred near the abby: for even religious [...]tutions had no exemption, tempore necessitatis, l [...]lli [...]citum est, hospitari et in castellari in ecclesia .

THE first notice I find of it is in the life of St. Werburg, by Bra [...]s [...]aw; who informs us, that Richard, on his return out of Normandy, where he had been educated, began his reign with an act of piety. He attempted, in 1119, a pilgrimage to the well of St. Wene [...]rede; but, either in going or returning, was attacked by the Welsh, and obliged to take shelter in Basingwerk. He applied to St. W [...]burg for relief; who miraculously raised certain sands between Flintshire and Wiral, and thus gave means [Page 193] to his constable to pass to his assistance: which sands, from that time, were called the Constable's Sands. Bradshaw styles the place of his retreat an abby; a proof that here had been a re­ligious community before the time usually assigned for the foun­dation of this house. I must also draw from Lord Lyttelton's au­thority (for I can find no other) that this castle was demolished by the Welsh in the reign of Stephen *.

HENRY II. in 1157, after his escape from the ambuscade of Eulo, left Basingwerk restored, well fortified, and manned , in order to secure a retreat on any future disaster. He did the same by the castle of Ruddlan. In his days the inland parts of our county were a dangerous wild of forest. After his defeat he never trusted himself among our woods; but made his marches along the open shores.

THE same monarch left another species of garrison ; for he established here a house of knights templars, a military order introduced into England in the preceding reign. They were first instituted in the Holy Land for the protection of pilgrims; and possibly Henry might have the same in view in fixing them here, to secure the English devotees in performing their vows to our neighboring saint, who seems about this time to have come into reputation. It is singular, that these religious knights were allowed at their institution only one horse between two; yet so greatly did they flourish, that about the year 1240, or a hundred and fifty years after their institution, the order had acquired, in different parts of Christendom, nineteen thousand manors.

THIS castle was but of very short duration; for in 1165, the gallant prince Owen Gwynedd laid siege to it, took and levelled [Page 194] it to the ground; after which the name occurs no more as a fortress. I think at this period it belonged to Hugh de Bello Campo, or Beauchamp, on whom this and Ruddlan castle had been bestowed by the English monarch *.

ABBY.THE abby , of which there are some considerable remains, was founded in 1131 (according to the opinion of Bishop Tanner) by Randal the second earl of Chester: according to Bishop Fleet­wood, by Henry II. For my part, I believe it to be of greater antiquity; but do not pretend to derive its origin. No light into the matter can be collected from the charters preserved by Sir William Dugdale. There are three of them, either serving to confirm the antient donations, or confer new: in each is mention of the earl as a benefactor; but there is not the lest hint of his having been the founder. I must attribute that honor to one of the princes of Wales; for both Lhewelyn ap Jor­werth, and his son David, in their respective charters recite, that they give and confirm the several donations to GOD, St. Mary, the monastery of Basingwerk, and the monks, which had been bestowed on them by their predecessors for the salvation of their souls.

RANDAL was certainly a great benefactor; for it appears, that before his days the monks had only a chapel here. From that period it became considerable; and about that time part of the present buildings were erected, for the conveniency of its inhabi­tants, who were of the Cistercian order.

[Page 195]GIRALDUS calls it cellula de Basingwerk *. He lodged here a night in the train of Archbishop Baldwyn, on his progress through Wales to preach the crusade. He took with him our eloquent countryman, on account of his skill in the Welsh lan­guage.

THE architecture is mixed. Here appears what is called Saxon; having the round arches and short columns in some parts; and the Gothic narrow slips of high-pointed win lows in others. The first species had not fallen out of use, and the last was coming into fashion, in the days of the first great benefactor.

THE church lay on the east side; but is now almost destroyed. The refectory is pretty entire; and on one side has a great recess, with two round arches. The pillars which support them are very curious, formed of circular stones of the form of cheeses, set close one upon the other.

ABOVE were the cells for the lodgings of the monks, with a small window to each.

THE chapel of the knights templars is a spacious building. The windows are long, narrow, and pointed; the pilasters be­tween them on the inside slender and elegant.

WHATEVER monuments or inscriptions might have been in the church, are totally destroyed, unless that which may be found in one of the out-houses. It preserves the memory of a pious emigrant of the last century, George, youngest and eighth son of William second Lord Petre, who, plagued with the fanatical per­secutions in the reign of Charles I. quitted his country, died at [Page 196] Wexford, and was brought to Basingwerk for interment. The following is the inscription:


THERE are some remains of offices, used at present by a tanner. Within less than fifty years, much of the habitable part was standing; and sometimes used by the worthy family, the [Page 197] Mostyns of Trelacre. A lady of the family now living was born within these walls.

GREENFIELD HOUSE,GREENFIELD HOUSE. which was built by that worthy friend of mine, the late relict of Sir George Mostyn, baronet, of Tre­lacre, was built as a dower-house for her, and the widows of the family. It is a neat brick house on the west side of the turnpike road, opposite to the ruins of the abby, commanding a fine view of the estuary, and the Cheshire shore. It is at present in the hands of the great copper companies, being leased to them with part of the stream on which their works stand.

DURING the preparations for the conquest of Wales by Ed­ward I. the abby was under the protection of the English. There are extant two orders for the purpose, providing that they had no commerce with what are styled the Welsh rebels *. I imagine that the convent was firmly attached to the victor; for I have been informed that there are, among the lists of summons in the Tower, writs for calling the abbot to parlement, in the 23d, 24th, 28th, 32d, and 34th of Edward I.

ACCORDING to the valuation of its revenues in 1534, the gross sum at the dissolution was, according to Dugdale, 150 l. 7 s. 3 d.; to Speed, 157 l. 15 s. 2 d. In 1553, there remained in charge 4 l. in annuities .

THE particular endowments, as I collect from Dugdale , were these: Henry III. by charter, grants and confirms ten librates in Longenedale in Derbyshire, with the church of Glossope, [Page 198] and all its appertenances, to be held by them as freely as William Peverel held the same in the time of Henry his grand­father. The same charter confirms the donations of Ranulph earl of Chester, and other barons, viz. Holywell, Fulbrook, the chapel of Basingwerk, the antient residence of the monks, with the mills and their appertenances; likewise Holes, and a moiety of Leeche, and one hundred shillings of the revenues of Chester, the gift of the said earl. Calders with its inhabitants, and finally, Kethlenedei, the gift of Robert Banastre.

LHEWELYN AP JORWERTH, prince of Wales, and cotemporary with Henry III. confirms all the donations of his ancestors; particularly the site of their house, the mill before their gate, and the land before their doors; which last was granted to them by Ranulphus, and his brother Aeneas. The same grant gives them also the land of Meredeth Wawor, in Holywell; Ful­brook; a community of pasturage on the mountains; Hanot de le Wecch, and Creicgraft, with all their appertenances. His son and successor, David ap Lhewelyn, by another charter, confirms the donations of his father, and adds the lands of Huttred, brother to Meredeth Wawor of Holywell; the church of Holywell, and the chapel of Colsul; and the land and pasturage of Gelli, before granted by his father. He likewise empowers them to buy and sell every thing toll-free in all his territories, for the use of their house. Also, the fifth pan of the fish taken in his fisheries at Ruddlan; and the tenth of the fish belonging to him in other parts. He confirms to them all the village of Wenhewm, with all its inhabitants and appertenances, being the gift of Howen de Porkenton, and confirmed by Helyso. He at the same [Page 199] time confirms the lands and pasturage in Penthlin, the gift of his father.

DAVID also bestowed on the monks of Basingwerk, Folebroc, Feilebroc, or as it is now called Fulbrock, seated near the western extremity of the parish; which is mentioned in the confirmation of the grant to that convent by Henry II. and again in the confirma­tion of the charters renewed to it by Llewellyn ap Jorwerth and his son. The monks had a grainge on these lands, and right of pasturage on the mountain, in common with the neighboring in­habitants *. The Grange is at present a farm-house, the property of Sir Pyers Mostyn, and still retains its antient name.

THIS charter is dated from Coleshill in 1240, and witnessed by Hugh bishop of St. Asaph, and his chancellor, the famous Ednyfed Vychan, and others.

TANNER mentions the tithes of Blackbrook, and the wood of Langdon; lands in Chanclesworth; the manor of West Kirkby in Cheshire; the silver mine near Basingwerk; free warren in Gethli, Menegrange, Ouregrange, Beggerburgh, and Holywell.

THE abby also was possessed of the hospital or chapel of Sponne near Coventry, which had been originally founded by Hugh Cevei­lioc earl of Chester, who probably bestowed it on these monks .

THE revenues of the abbot amounted in the whole, reck­oning those arising from the mills, lands, cows, and sheep, to 46 l. 11 s.

IN the grant to the abby of Basingwerk, of the lands in the Peak of Derbyshire, there is a clause reserving the venison to the [Page 200] king, with the consent of the abbot and convent; for the pre­servation of which two foresters were appointed by the king: but the grantees were allowed to kill hares, [...]e, and wolves *.

IN 1540, the house and lands in the neighborhood were granted to Henry ap Harry, of the tribe of Ednowain Bendew; whose only daughter Anne, by her marriage with William Mostyn, esquire, of Trelacre, conveyed it into that family, in which it now remains.

I CANNOT recover the names of any more than two of the abbots. Thomas ap Dafydd Pennant presided over the house in the time of Guttun Owain, a bard who flourished in the year 1480. Beside that, and another eulogist mentioned in p. 34, I may add a third, viz. Thomas ap Rhys ap Howel, of Stokyn, who pub­lished an awdl or ode in his praise. It is to be found in the Se­bright Collection, vol. i. p. 37. among a collection of poems and prophecies delivered by the bard when the awen, or furor poeticus, had full possession of him.

I SHALL not here repeat what I have said of this celebrated abbot, in pp. 33, 34, but refer to them for his history. I shall only add here, that the ruins of a noble oak, still to be seen near the remains of the abby, is supposed to have been his co­temporary.

I HAVE spoken of his son and successor Nicholas, at pp. 24, 34; and shall again, in the article Bagillt, resume the subject.

THE whole road from the abby to St. Wenefrede's well, is most remarkably picturesque, along a narrow but deep valley, bounded [Page 201] on one side by hanging woods. In former times the sacred stream hurried to the sea unconfined by the busy manufactures. During the reign of pilgrimages nothing but the corn-mills, the property of the monks, found employ for its waters.

BEFORE I advance up the valley, let me observe, that notwith­standing it has the common causes of health, a rapid stream, and the greatest part of the year a brisk wind (usually from west to east) yet it is visited with the usual diseases of the country, in a degree even greater than other parts; nor has the angina maligna, hereafter to be spoken of, spared the children of this little tract.

COMMERCE found its way to the valley about fifty years ago.WHITE AND RED LEAD WORKS. I can remember the building of the works of white and of red lead under the conduct of Messrs. Smedley. But prior to these, a little above, was a tilting-mill, and an iron-wire mill.IRON-WIRE MILL. The first lessees were Hart and Co. from Yorkshire. They were suc­ceeded by Mr. Barker and Sir James Creed, who erected a new one on the lower part of the stream. On Mr. Barker's death the remainder of the term was purchased by Mr. John Norman and Mr. Rouben Chambers. Under a new leafe Mr. John Chambers converted the old mill into a steel-wire-mill; before which his mo­ther used it for a warehouse for a coarse-paper-mill.PAPER MILLS. The Parys mine company succeeded to both the premises, and covered them with their important edifices.

IT must be observed, that the antient corn-mills, belonging to the abby, stood where the paper-mill was, the molendina quae juxta portam abbatiae habent *.

[Page 202] SNUFF MILLSON this stream had been three snuff-mills; the oldest was occu­pied by Mr. Edward Jones, tobacconist, now living. It joined the old and uppermost corn-mill. It was taken down by the cotton company, who on the site built part of the new corn-mill, near the Holywell spring.

PETER PARRY, tobacconist, had two snuff-mills, one on the land of John Pierce, joiner, deceased, a little below the crescent cotton-mill. It was purchased by the brass battering-mill com­pany, for the sake of giving their pool a little greater depth of water, which built another for Peter Parry, below their brass-works.

OLD SMELTING-WORK.AN antient smelting-work stood in my memory on the site of the old cotton-mill, and part of the garden. They were erected before the year 1733, by lease from Roger Pennant, esq of Bagillt. I do not recollect the names of the lessees, but the com­pany was known by that of Madam Kaye and Co. The smoke did such injury to the fine woods belonging to Sir George Mostyn, of Trelacre, bart. as to occasion many law-suits between Sir George and the company; so that there ensued a total cessation of the smelting-trade in these works. Whether the suit came to a decision, does not appear. The suit must have commenced before March 26th, 1733, from which day all proceedings, which used before to be in Latin, were to be carried on in the Eng­lish tongue. Just before that period poor Sir George suffered a nonsuit, for using the word propè instead of juxta; and was foiled a second time, by using in the proceeding the title of Sir George Mostyn, instead of George Mostyn, esq his elder brother being liv­ing, and at that time an ecclesiastic in the church of Rome: and it [Page 203] is said that he suffered a third repulse, by stating that the works were in the township of Greenfield, instead of Holywell, or vice versa.

HOW the affair ended I cannot learn. The building reverted into the hands of the heirs of the lessors. Edward Pennant, esq granted a lease of it, in 1758, to Mr. Champion, partner and agent in the Wormley company, near Bristol, who there calcined black-jack. He was the first who engaged in such a concern in this country, and probably in Great Britain, which he carried on under the protection of a patent.

A PIN-MILL was built in 1764, for the use of James Eden, PIN-MILL. pin-maker, who occupied it about two years, and then failed. The next occupier was Mrs. Chambers, who converted it into a coarse-paper mill, and continued the use of it till 1783, when it fell into the hands of the cotton-company, which turned it into a smithy: and, finally, three corn-mills,THREE CORN-MILLS. formed with the above the sum of the works upon the stream, in my early days. The lower of these two, reckoning from the well, was pulled down.

IN the year 1766 began the memorable epoch in the annals of our famous stream, when the late Mr. Patten of Warrington, FAMOUS EPOCH OF COMMERCE. and Co. built the first battering-mill for copper and brass. In about ten years from that time, Mr. John Smalley, now deceased, introduced the first manufacture of cotton. By his successors, and by the great copper-companies, those behemoths of commerce, our little Jordan was soon drunk up. By their skill and industry they succeeded, to the benefit of the state, and to their private emolument. Tho. [Page 204] Williams, esquire *, that useful and active character, with unparal­leled speed, covered the lower part of the stream, or that next to the sea, with buildings stupendous in expence, extent, and ingenuity of contrivance. These great works are under the firm of the PARYS MINE COMPANY.PARYS MINE COMPANY. The buildings were completed in the year 1780, and held under lease from Sir Pyers Mostyn, bart. owner of the whole stream, excepting a small part. To Mr. Samuel Williamson, chief agent of this part of the works, I am indebted for the account of the works carried on here. These are entirely confined to the manufacture of copper.

IN this department is a great forge for heating the cakes of copper, previously to their being beat into pans, or rolled into sheathings, &c. &c. The wheels and machinery are set in motion by the water from a large pool, parallel to the road, which is filled from the stream, and let out by another channel to effect its purposes.

THESE may be called the great magazines for the supply of the royal navy with the various necessaries in copper, such as sheath­ings, bolts, and nails. Some of the bolts are twenty feet long, and so hardened by rolling and battering, as to be capable of being driven almost to their heads, in the entrance forward, and run abaft of the ships where the beds of timber are the thickest; which work is facilitated by boring with an anger two-thirds of the length.

SOME of the nails are a foot in length, and from that size to that of a sadler's cack.

RUDDER bands and braces are here made of an enormous [Page 205] size; some, designed for the largest first-rates, weighed one ton fourteen hundred.

THE number of men employed in these works is ninety-three. This is intended when they are in full employ: the same must be understood of all the rest.

THE head of water to this mill is about twenty-one feet and a half, and the superficial surface of the pool about 112,028 feet.

THE trade of these works is not confined to the royal navy. The merchant ships are from hence supplied with considerable quantities of sheathing, bolts, and nails, as are many of the ships in the service of the East India Company.

FROM hence braziers are furnished with copper vessels of all kinds, and the materials for all the copper branches of their business.

THE works on this river are supplied with their copper from the Parys mine and Mona mine companies; the ore of which is smelted chiefly at Ravenhead, and Stanley, in Lancashire.

THE Cornish ores are smelted at Swansey, Neath, Bristol, and in Cornwal.

THE Duke of Devonshire's ores, at Whiston, in Derbyshire.

THE number of vessels immediately employed by the copper-companies on this river, to convey the several manufactures, or the materials to and from Leverpool, and the other places con­nected with them, amount to between thirty and forty, from thirty to fifty tons burden.

MR. WILLIAMS has, besides the works on the Holywell stream, two near Marlow, in Buckinghamshire, upon as large a scale as those in Greenfield. There are also in this kingdom others be­longing [Page 206] to different proprietors, at Congleton and Macclesfield, in Cheshire, at Swansey, and Bris [...], and in Cornwel, and a number in the vicinity of London.

THE COMPANY'S COIN.I MUST not be silent on the subject of the most beautiful coin or token in use by this great company, as it exceeds in elegance any which has been yet emitted. On one side is the head of a Druid, emblematic of the isle of Mona, the antient seat of the ve­nerable order, and which now produces the material of the coin. On the reverse is the cypher of Parys mountain, with a promis­sory legend to pay one penny, or one half-penny, as it happens to be, in London, Anglesey, or Leverpool, to bearer on demand.

VAST quantities of these coins are counterfeited at Birmingham, and may be had by public order in any number.

BRASS MELTING-HOUSES.ABOVE these works is a great cluster of vast square chimnies, the discharge of the tremendous volumes of thick black smoke, rising from the making of brass. These are the brass melting-houses belonging to the Greenfield copper and brass company, under the direction of Mr. Donbavand, where they have six large melting houses with twenty-four fires, each fire contains nine pots, with metal, fluxes, &c. Here they make plate-brass for the purpose of being manufactured at their battery-mills, plate-brass for wire for the pin-manufacturers, and ingot-brass for the va­rious founders, &c. At this place they have a mill, places to calcine, buddle, and grind the lapis calaminaris, &c. for the pur­pose of making brass; also a copper forge, not used at present: the head of water is about 21½ feet, superficial surface of the pool about 23,664 feet. The number of the men employed in these works, is about fifty. The materials for the making of [Page 207] brass are all at hand. The copper shot and clippings are from the adjacent works, the calamine from our own mines, and the charcoal from our woods. The art of making brass in early times, is mentioned before at pp. 123, 124. The first patent for the calamine stone, and the use thereof, was granted to William Humsrey, and Christopher Shutz, dated the 17th of September, 1565, at which time the long lost art in these kingdoms began to revive.

IN digging the foundation for the brass melting-houses,HYPOCAUST. Mr. Donbavand discovered an antient Roman hypocaust, furnished with various flues, with the superincumbent tiles of a fine red color. These artificial hot baths and sweating-rooms were the greatest luxuries of the Romans. This proves that they had a stationary settlement in this place, probably of merchants concerned in the mineral works, which they certainly had on the adjacent moun­tains, of which I have given an account in p. 122 of this book.

NOT far from this work, on the east-side of the river,WIRE-WORK. is the great manufactory of brass wire of every denomination. Also here are drawn the square materials for making copper nails, which are formed by the common process of beating and heading. This work has a head of twenty-three feet, which is capable, by means of an extensive pool, that may be formed above, of having a very large work built on the now vacant spot.

AT a small distance to the south,COTTON-WORK. a most magnificent cotton-work soars, like the tower of Babel, above all the lower buildings. I shall here only say, that about ten weeks before its completion, nothing but a void appeared before me: at the expiration of that space, in another ride I took, I cannot express my astonishment at seeing the enormous mass risen, as if by magic, out of the [Page 208] ground. It was erected in the summer of 1785: is thirty-six yards long, ten yards wide, and six stories high, and is worked with a water-wheel eighteen feet high, and seven feet wide, with a fall of water of sixteen feet.

NE [...] POLLING MILL.AT some distance beyond this is the NEW ROLLING MILL, erected in 1787 *. The largest and most commodious build­ing, for the purpose it is applied to, of any in the kingdom. Its area within the walls measures eighty-six feet in length, by sixty-nine in breadth, floored with iron flags. Its height in the center is twenty-eight feet and an half. The roof is single, and covered with copper, supported in the center by two pillars, eleven feet and a half distant from each other; on their tops are transverse timbers supporting one end of each beam which more immediately sustains the roof, the other end resting on the wall.

THE water-wheels are of cast-iron, upon a curious construction. They are three in number, each of which receives its supply of water, at a height of about forty-five degrees, from an iron-pipe fixed in the bottom of the penstock, and so fitted to the buckets of the wheel, that scarce any water is wasted (of which we are studiously careful.) Wheels so receiving their water are called breast-wheels, of which kind I believe all the wheels on this stream are, excepting that belonging to the corn-mill, and another at this company's brass-works, which is used for grinding calamine; the water by that mode of delivery communicating the most powerful impulse, and the most steady motion. The iron-wheels here are twenty feet diameter, and they will, when unclogged with [Page 209] heavy weights, perform twenty revolutions in a minute. Now if we suppose a wheel of that diameter moving upon a plane with the same rapidity with which it revolves on its axis, it will, in a year, describe a line nearly equal in length to five circles of our globe at the equator. The yard and reservoir of water pertain­ing to this noble manufactory are suitable to its magnitude, and by much the most spacious on the Holywell stream.

THE number of men employed here are about forty-six.


1st. IT is a certain fact that the people constantly employed in the copper-manufactories are as healthy, and arrive to as great an age, as the generality of people employed in other occupations not connected with fire or metal; but they are scrupulous ob­servers of the antient law, which forbade to eat with unwashen hands; and they find it highly necessary to perform a careful ab­lution of the whole body at lest once a week, to rub off the cop­per dust, which adheres to their bodies, and occasions violent eruptions of a green color, evincing, by the tinge, their origin. The pain and symptoms are easily removed by washing with clean water; but if that is neglected, the consequences become se­rious, and even to require chirurgical assistance.

2d. YOUNG dogs, which have acquired a habit of licking cop­per sheets or bars, have never been known to survive long. The metallic virus by that means conveyed into the intestines soon destroys the animal by violent purging.

[Page 210]3d, YET it may deserve notice, that the writer of these hints having formerly kept a great number of poultry running about the yard, he observed that the fowls preferred drinking the water from a shallow copper pan that lay out of doors, and was generally full of rain-water, tinged of a deep green color, to fresh clear water, of which there was abundance. No ill effect was ever known to have happened to them from the green water, though a succession of poultry resorted to it for years.

THE writer of this having been employed on the spot, from the first opening of the ground for the foundations of the mill and other buildings, found frequent proofs that the surface of the land had formerly been about fourteen or sixteen feet lower than at the time the buildings were erected. His inducements to form that opinion were,

1st. THAT though the soil contained many large pebbles throughout its whole depth, yet at the depth of twelve to sixteeen or eighteen feet, grey pebbles of large size were every where found in great abundance, and mixed with sand or gravel, just as they appear on the shelving shores of many rivers.

2d. AT the depth of fifteen feet, under the wood where the warehouse now stands, the head of a battle-axe was picked up. The writer not chancing to be on the spot when it was taken up, could gather no information whether any part of the handle re­mained, but supposes not. He was shewn the spot where it lay, and measured fifteen feet to the surface.

3d. AND the most decisive proof is, that, after cutting down an oak-tree of pretty large girth, and afterwards clearing away the root, in digging still deeper, for the foundation of the present [Page 211] warehouse, the workmen found a lime-kiln, of very small dimen­sion, perhaps it would contain half a ton of lime-stone, but perfect, and having calcined lime in its bason. It was constructed of the same kind of red sand-stone as that now below Wepre. The bottom of that kiln now forms the lowest foundation of the north-east corner of the warehouse, which is nea [...]ly level with the surface of the cotton-mill-pool below it.

IMMEDIATELY above the last are the works under the super-intendency of Mr. Daniel Donbavand, GREENFIELD COPPER AND BRASS COMPANY. who with great civility informed me of their origin, and consequent improvements. These are on the site of the brass-battery-mills, built in the year 1765, and set to work 20th Sept. 1766. The first brass made at Greenfield, was on the 20th August, 1766, then held by Mess. Patten and Co. Since January 1786 they have been in the hands of Thomas Williams, esq and Co. under the firm of The Greenfield Copper and Brass Company, who have very much improved them by various erections, so as to enable them to finish goods for Africa, America, and most other markets, viz. brass Neptunes, or large pans, in which the negroes make salt; pans for getting the gold out of their rivers, and for various other purposes; kettles; brass and copper rods; bright and black manillas—the first are rings for ornaments to the arms and legs, the last for the current money of the country. The last are not unlike the golden bracelets of the antient Britons, the ends turned up and flatted; and add to these various sorts of latten, brass, &c. for mathema­tical instruments, &c. &c.

THE word latten is applied to works in brass, with which, for certain purposes, is an admixture of any other metal. Some­times [Page 212] it is made a synonym of brass itself. Watson's Essays, IV. 70. and in the same page: and Stringer, in his Opera Mineralia Ex­plicate, p. 34. gives us the qualities of the said latten, as explain­ed in the patent of 7th Elizabeth to Humphrey and Shutz, above­mentioned, which was granted to Shutz for ‘his great cunning, knowlege and experience, as well in the finding the calamine stone, called in Latin, lapis calaminaris, and in the right and proper commodity thereof, for the composition of mixed me­tal, commonly called latten, and in reducing it to be soft and malleable, and also in apting, manuring, and working the same for and into all sorts of battery wares, cast-work, and wire, and also in the mollifying and manuring of iron, and drawing and forging of the same into wire and plates for the mak­ing of armor, and also for divers other needful and profitable uses.’

THE word latten is also used for a distinct metal, as appears by two patents, one of the 30th Henry VI. to his chaplain and con­troller of all his mines of gold, &c. in Devon and Cornwal, (see Stringer, p. 20.); the other in the patent of 10th Elizabeth, (see Watson, iv. 70.) both which mention mines of latten. But, as the Bishop observes, whatever the name did mean, it is now lost. I can only say, that calamine does appear in so many, and so dif­ferent forms, that the application might have been to one of them, since the qualities seem to have been the same.

THE head of water to these mills is about 21½ feet; and the superficial surface of the pool or reservoir, about 70,696 feet.


[...] BRA [...] WORKES [...]

[Page 213]ALL the pools belonging to the several works are well stocked with trout brought from the river Wheeler, which flows beneath Caerwis. They grow to a vast size: I have heard of one which had been taken in the brass mill-pool, which weighed between eleven pounds and twelve pounds, but those over-grown fish do not equal in flavor those of an inferior size. The three-spined stickle-back, (Br. Zool. iii. No 229.) a little fish, seldom of the length of two inches, abound in this stream, but especially in the stiller parts, where the water has been confined for the use of the works. Eels are the only fish, besides these, found in these waters.

THOSE beautiful birds, the kingfishers, are very frequent about these waters, and almost dazzle the eye in their frequent transi­tions from place to place.

THIS work was erected in the spring of 179 [...],CRESCENT-MILL. is twenty-six yards by ten wide, and is six stories high. It is worked by a water-wheel, fifteen feet high, and ten feet wide, with a fall of water of thirteen feet and a half. This work makes a noble figure on the stream, is ornamented with a handsome cupola, with a fine gilden crescent on the top, from which it receives its name.

A CORN-MILL stood on part of the site of this mill.CORN-MILL. On the stream had been, within these few years, a tilting-mill, under the direction of Mr. William Smalley, which has since been removed to Avon Wen, below Caerwis; and a wire-mill on an extensive scale has been erected on the Wheeler, at a small distance from the tilting-mill, in the beautiful vale of Maes Mynnan.

[Page 214] OLD COTTON-MILL.A LITTLE beyond the crescent-mill, is the Old Cotton Mill, or that which was first known on the stream. It was erected in the spring of the year 1777, by Mr. John Smalley, of Preston, in Lan­cashire. He died January 28th, 1782, aged 53, and was interred in Whiteford church-yard. On his tomb mention is made of his having at Holywell established the cotton-works. This mill is small and low, is 33 yards long, 8 yards wide, and only three stories high, and is worked by a water-wheel 15 feet high, and 5 feet wide, with a fall of water of 11 feet 6 inches.

MR. John Smalley, senior, had long been engaged in a cotton-work at Cromford, near Mat [...]ck, in Derbyshire, unhappily with­in the baleful influence of a tyrant rival, which forced him to seek the protection of St. Wenefrede, under which he pro­spered, and his children still prosper, blessing the benefit of the change made by their injured parent.

GREATEST COT­TON-MILL.A LITTLE way above this mill is the largest and most magnifi­cent of any on the water. It was erected in the autumn of the year 1783, in the space of six weeks from laying the foundation-stone. It is 40 yards long, 10 yards wide, and 6 stories high, and is lighted by a hundred and ninety-eight sash windows, which nightly exhibit a most glorious illumination. It is worked by a water-wheel 20 feet high, and 7 feet wide, with a fall of water of 20 feet.

ALL the cotton-mills on the river go under the name of the Cotton Twist Company. It is to Mr. Christopher Smalley, one of the partners, and eldest son to the founder of these great manufactories, I am obliged for the account of what relates to them.



[Page 215]THE cotton-twist company have between three and four hun­dred apprentices, which they clothe and feed themselves,MANAGEMENT OF THE CHILDREN. in com­modious houses built for that purpose, the boys and girls in sepa­rate houses. These houses are white-washed twice every year, are fumigated three times a week through every apartment, with smoak of tobacco; besides this the sleeping-rooms are washed twice a week, and the bed-stocks are frequently sprinkled with rectified oil of tar. All the windows in the sleeping-rooms open at the tops, by which a thorough draft of air is admitted during the whole time the children are at work. To these and other precau­tions the good state of health of so many children may be justly attributed; for though the number of apprentices have not been less than 3 [...]0 for these seven years past, they have only buried seven. Their food for dinner is beef or pork and potatoes three or four times a week, the other days herrings and potatoes, or soup and bread and cheese, as much as they please to eat. Their break­fasts and suppers in summer is milk and bread; in the winter, when milk cannot be had, they drink porridge or broth, with bread and cheese. A surgeon is appointed to superintend their health; and a Sunday school is regularly attended by a master at each house.

OUR little children sleep three in a bed,THEIR BED. the larger sizes only two; and those who work in the night are so far from succeeding each other in the same beds, that they do not even sleep in the same rooms.

[Page 216]

The number of men employed at Greenfield, areabove 100
women and children,above 500
At Northop,49
At Denhigh,140
At Sky [...]g,36
At Newmarket,above 100
Apprentices,above 300

COTTON wool is produced in the East and West Indies, and also in many other places. The Isle of Bowbon, in the East Indies, fur­nishes the best; the next to this in quality, grows in the Portuguese settlements in South America, from whence it is exported to Lisbon, and imported from thence to England in British bottoms, duty-free. If in foreign bottoms, a penny per pound is paid. About fifteen years ago, not more than five hundred bags were culti­vated in the Brazils; but of late years, on an average, fifty thou­sand. The Dutch settlements, say Berbice and Surinam, supply a considerable quantity of good cotton, and comes to this country better cleaned than any other.

THE cotton-plant grows naturally in China and India. The cultivation travelled westward into Arabia, Persia, and the Levant. It is also cultivated in the province of Valencia, in Spain, with vast success. On the plains of that rich province, in good years, about four hundred and fifty thousand arrobas (of 26 lb. each) are har­vested. I suppose all this to be manufactured in Spain, at lest I do not hear of any being imported into our kingdoms.

[Page 217]COTTON twist is spun here of 130 hanks to the pound. Each hank is 840 yards long, so that one pound of cotton thread thus fine will be 62 miles 80 yards long. The new principle (for it is not yet 30 years old) by which cotton wool is made so perfect a thread, is by the use of iron-rollers moving horizontally; their speed is governed by brass wheels of different sizes and numbers, calculated to produce what fineness is wanted; the twist required is given by the flier and spindle. The cotton-twist made here is sent chiefly into England and Scotland, to be woven into ginghams, muslins, muslinets, dimities, nankeens, fine callicoes, fustians, &c. &c. which goods, when finished, are either admitted or smuggled into every part of the known world. It is introduced into every part of the Russian dominions, and even into the distant Kamt­schatka.

A NUMBER of machines called Mules are also used here with success:MULES. this machine is a compound of the water-engine and the spinning-jenny, and being of a mixed breed, was, I presume, the reason of its being so named. It is a machine particularly adapted to the spinning of fine yarns, and far exceeds every other yet dis­covered for that purpose.

THE last mill on the river is a corn-mill:CORN-MILL. a large building erected by the cotton-twist company, instead of the old one; and of another which stood a little lower down, on the site of which stands part of the great cotton-mill.

THE length of the stream, from the fountain to the marsh,LENGTH OF THE STREAM. is one mile and two hundred and thirty-four yards. The following are the number of falls, from the level of the marsh to the spring-head:

 Heads.Surface of Pools.
Parys Mine Company, Copper forge,10¾54,842
Old Copper forge Greenfield, Copper & Brass Co,21½23,664
Parys Mine Company, Copper rolling-mill,21¾40,068
Parys Mine Company, Copper wire-mill,23 
Lower cotton-mill, Cotton & twist Co28131,670
Greenfield Copper & Brass Co Copper rolling-mill,21½112,028
Greenfield Copper & Brass Co Brass battery mills,2370,696
Cotton Twist Company, Crescent cotton-mills13½ 
D' Old cotton-mill,11½ 
Do Upper cotton-mill,20 
D' Corn-mill to spring­head, 
Total feet202¾ 

LET me conclude with remarking the vast population these companies have brought to the townships of Holywell and Green­field. In respect to the first, there is no great increase of building; but the latter has of late years received such an addition in works and in houses, that almost the whole is a continued series of edifices of different kinds, from the upper corn-mill quite to the sea-side. Among them are a hundred and seventy-seven houses for workmen of different occupations, of which few in­deed have been erected beyond my memory.

[Page 219]THE origin of this useful stream is discovered at the foot of the steep hill, beneath the town of Holywell, or Treffynnon, ST. WENEFREDE'S WELL. to which it gave the name. The spring boils with vast impetuosity out of a rock, and is confined in a beautiful polygonal well, co­vered with a rich arch, supported by pillars *. The roof is most exquisitely carved in stone. Immediately over the fountain is the legend of St. Wenefrede, on a pendent projection, with the arms of England at the bottom. Numbers of fine ribs secure the arch, whose intersections are coupled with a sculpture.

SOME are mere works of fancy; grotesque figures of animals: but the rest allude chiefly to the Stanley family. This building, and the chapel over it, rose from the piety of that great house, which left these memorials of its benefactions: there are besides some marks of the illustrious donors; for example, the profile of Margaret, mother to Henry VII. and that of her husband the earl of Derby, cut on the same stone.

THE compliments to the Stanleys, are very frequent. The wolf's head is the arms of the earls of Chester: it is inclosed in a garter, in respect to Sir William Stanley, knight of that order, who had been chamberlain of that city, and justiciary of North Wales. The tun with a plant issuing out of it, is a rebus, the arms of his wife Elizabeth Hopton, allusive to her name. This proves, that the building was erected before 1495, in which year Sir William lost his head. The other badges of the same house are, the stag's head; the eagle's leg; and the three legs, the arms of the isle of Man.

[Page 220]WE also find, that Catherine of Arragon, widow to prince Arthur, and afterwards the unfortunate wife of his brother Henry VIII. was a benefactress to this building; at left her arms appear here: three pomegranates in a shield, surmounted with a crown; the badge of the house of Granada, in memory of the expulsion of the Moors, by her father Ferdinand *. The eagle seems also to belong to her, being one of the supporters of the arms of her family.

OVER one of the lesser arches, on each side of the well, are the dragon and gre-hound, the supporters of the arms of England during the reign of Henry VII. and part of that of Henry VIII. The first was born by Henry VII. as a badge of the house of Tudor, which derived itself from Cadwalader, last king of Britain, who bore on his ensign a red dragon. Henry, in imitation of him, at the battle of Bosworth carried on his standard a red dragon, paint­ed on white and green silk; which afterwards gave rise to the office of Rouge-dragon among the heralds.

ON one side of a wall that supports the roof, was painted the tale of the tutelar saint; at present almost defaced: over it is in­scribed, in honorem Sanctae Wenefredae, V. & M.

IN another wall is an elegant nich, in which stood a statue of the Virgin Mary; pulled down, as I have been informed, in the year 1635.

I HAVE also heard, that there had been another of St. Wene­frede. To grace the image on high festivals, it is probable, that Isabel, countess of Warwick, widow to the great Richard [Page 221] Beauchamp, left to St. Wenefrede, in 1439, her gown of russet velvet *.

OVER this spring is a chapel,CHAPEL. of the same date with the other building: a neat piece of gothic architecture; but in a very ruinous state. The east end is a pentagon, and had five windows with elegant tracery. The top arched, and crossed with neat slender ribs. It had been open to the body of the chapel; but the fine arch which formed the division, has been bricked up a great number of years ago. On one side of the body is an oblong recess, divided from it by three arches, supported by pillars; and within is a window impending over the well. Under the centre window must have stood the altar. The whole length of the chapel is fifty-two feet: the breadth is twenty. The re­cess is twenty-six feet long, and eight broad. The roof is neat wood-work. This had been a free chapel, in the gift of the bishop, with the reserve of a stipend to the chapter; but the rest of the offerings were to be expended on the chapel. In Richard III.'s time, the abbot and convent had from the crown ten marks yerely, for the sustentacione and salarie of a prieste, at the chapelle of St. Wynefride . The chapel is the property of Daniel Leo, esquire, in right of his wife Laetitia, sister to the late John Davies, esquire, of Llanerch.

THE following order, for putting the chapel over the well into possession of a clergyman of the church of Rome, [Page 222] was addressed to Sir Roger Mostyn, baronet, by the queen of James II.


IT having pleased the king, by his royall grant, to bestow upon me y [...] antient chappell adjoining to St. Winifride's well; these are to desire you to give present possession, in my name, of the said chappell, to Mr. Thomas Roberts, who will deliver this let­ter into y [...] hands. It being also my intention to have the place decently repaired, and put to a good use, I further desire, that you will affoard him your favour and protection, that he may not be disturbed in the performance thereof. You may rest assured, that what you do herein, according to my desire, shall be very kindly remembered by

Your good frind, MARY: REGINA.

FREE SCHOOL.IN this chapel is kept the free-school for sixteen boys, with a settled salary, from money laid out at interest, of 10l. per annum. The vicar appoints the master, which, as far as I recollect, has been a clergyman, excepting in one instance.

SUNDAY SCHOOLS.BESIDES the Sunday school, where the cotton-company's ap­prentices are instructed, there is another parochial one kept in the chapel over the well. This is supported by a general sub­scription through the parish; and about seventy poor children are instructed by proper masters, in reading, writing and arithmetick. The copper and brass companies are handsome subscribers, but [Page 223] they send only a few adults, to be instructed in matters, their more advanced years make them capable of learning.

THIS room has been used as the hall for holding both the great and the quarter sessions. I remember Matthew Skinner, esquire, chief justice of Chester, holding the assizes there; and I also recollect a quarter sessions: the hall having been properly fitted up for the purpose. But the distance from the center of the county was found so inconvenient, that after these instances they were removed to Flint, and finally to Mold, where they still continue.

THE window in this chapel impends a vast height over the bathing well.CHAPEL WINDOW. Several persons (not in their sober senses) have leaped into the water, without receiving any other damage than the smart caused by the dashing on the surface from their exalted station. Within my memory, one John Blackwall, of Llanasaph, took a far more desperate leap into the same water, from the church-yard wall, almost adjoining to the chapel. The leap would have been great, had it been on level ground. Here, had he not reached the water, the consequence would have been, that of being dashed to pieces on the flags.

THE bathing-well is an oblong, 38 feet by 16, with steps for the descent of the fair-sex, or of invalids. Near the steps, two feet beneath the water, is a large stone, called the wishing-stone. It receives many a kiss from the faithful, who are supposed never to fail in experiencing the completion of their desires, provided the wish is delivered with full devotion and confidence.

ON the outside of the great well, close to the road,LITTLE SPRING. is a small spring, once famed for the cure of weak eyes. The patient made an offering to the nymph of the spring, of a crooked pin, and [Page 224] sent up at the same time a certain ejaculation, by way of charm: but the charm is forgotten, and the efficacy of the waters lost.

THE well is common; for I find by a decision of the court of chancery, on a law-suit respecting the lordship of Holywell, be­tween Sir John Egerton, knight, and John Eldred; chancellor Ellesmere decrees, ‘That on calling to mind, that within the said manor there is a fountain or well of antient and worthy memory, he doth not think fit that the petitioner, or any other, should have the property thereof, notwithstanding the general words of the grant of the manor: and therefore his lordship doth order, that notwithstanding the said grant, that the well shall-continue as now it is, or heretofore hath been; saving to the petitioner, and his heirs and assigns, the benefit of the stream and watercourse, with the appertainances.’

THERE are two different opinions about the origin of this stream. One party makes it miraculous: the other asserts it to be owing only to natural causes. The advocates for the first, deliver their tale thus:

OF SAINT WENE­FREDE.IN the seventh century lived a virgin of the name of Wenefrede, of noble parents; her father's name was Thewith, a potent lord in the parts where Holywell now stands; her mother's Wenlo, de­scended from an antient family in Montgomeryshire, and sister to St. Beuno. Beuno assumed the monastic habit, retired to Clynnog, in Caernarvonshire, where he built a church and founded a con­vent. After completing this work of piety, he visited his rela­tions in Flintshire; and obtaining from his brother-in-law a little spot at the foot of the hill on which he resided, erected on it a church, and took under his care his niece Wenefrede. It is pro­bable [Page 225] that the saint used occasionally to make some residence in this country; for near the entrance of the dingle, opposite to the great cotton-work, are two small fields, called to this day Gerddi Saint Beuno, or the gardens of St. Beuno.

A NEIGHBORING prince of the name of Cradocus, son of king Alen, was struck with her beauty, and at all events determined to gratify his desires. He made known his passion to the lady; who, affected with horror, attempted to escape. The wretch, enraged at the disappointment, instantly pursued her, drew out his sabre, and cut off her head. Cradocus instantly received the reward of his crime: he fell down dead, and the earth opening, swallowed his impious corps. Higden, in his Polychronicon, adds, that even the descendants of this monster were visited with hor­rible judgments, to be expiated only by a visit to this well, or to the bones of the saint at Salop.

Ad Basingwerk sons oritur
Qui satis vulgo dicitur.
Et tantis bullis scaturit
Quod mox, injecta, rejicit.
Tam magnum flumen procreat
Ut Cambriae sufficiat.
Aegri qui dant rogamina
Reportant medicamina.
Rubro guttatos lapides
In scatebris reperies
In signum sacri sanguinis,
Quem VENEFREDE virginis
Guttur truncatum fuderat.
Qui scelus hoc patraverat,
Ac nati, ac nepotuli
Latrant ut canum catuli
Donec sanctae suffragium
Poscant ad hunc fonticulum:
Vel ad urbem Salopiae
Ubi quiescit hodie *.

THE severed head took its way down the hill, and stopt near the church. The valley, which, from its uncommon dryness, [Page 226] was heretofore called Sych [...]nant, now lost its name. A spring of uncommon size burst from the place where the head rested. The moss on its sides diffused a fragrant smell *. Her blood spotted the stones, which, like the flowers of Adonis, annually commemorate the fact, by assuming colors unknown to them at other times.

Luctus monumenta manebim
Semper A [...]ioni, mei: repetitaque mortis imago
Annua plangoris pe [...]get simila [...]i [...] nostri.
For thee, blest maid, my tears, my endless pain
Shall in immortal monuments remain.
The image of thy death each year renew;
And prove my grief, to distant ages, true.

ST. BEUNO took up the head, carried it to the corps, and, offering up his devotions, joined it nicely to the body, which instantly reunited. The place was visible only by a slender white line encircling her neck, in memory of a miracle, which surpassed far that worked by St. Dionysius, who marched in triumph after decapitation, with his head in his hands, from Mont martre to St. Dennis's ; or that of St. Adelbertus, who, in like circumstances, swam across the Vistula.

To conclude: St. Wenefrede survived her decollation fifteen years. She died at Gwytherin in Denbighshire, where her bones [Page 227] rested till the reign of king Stephen, when, after divine admo­nition, they were surrendered to the abby of St. Peter and St. Paul at Shrewsbury. The memory of the two great events, that of her first death is celebrated on the 22d of June: that of her translation the 3d of November.

THE first Sunday after St. James's day is also kept in honor of certain saints;DYDD SUL Y SAINT. (probably St. Wenefrede and St. Beuno) not with prayers or with holy masses, but in every species of frolick and excess. It originated in the Romish church: but I clear that congregation from being concerned in any part of the orgies; which are, I fear, celebrated by persons of our own religion only, who flock here on that day for most unsaintly ends. The day is called Dydd sul y Saint, or the Sunday of the Saints. I wish I could trace the primaeval ceremonies, and whether one might not have been the Druidical custom, the Deiseal, or Deisol, or turning from the east to the west, according to the course of the sun. In some of the western isles the custom is still preserved with great devotion. Deas signifies the right hand, and sul the sun, from the ceremony being performed with the right hand always next to the circle, cairn, or whatsoever they surround *. It is possible that this custom might have been applied to our saint, and the words Deiseil, or Deisol, corrupted for that purpose for Dydd-sol, for giving particular sanction to the Sunday in question.

A FRATERNITY and gild was established in honor of our saint at Shrewsbury. It had its common seal, which,AN ANTIENT SEAL. through the [Page 228] kindness of my friend, Mr. Henry Levingston, is now in my pos­session. It is of copper, of the form expressed in plate VI. of Vol. I. of my Tour in Wales. In the center is a representation of the martyrdom; above is a cross in form of a T, placed be­tween the letters T. m. which mark the time when the fraternity was instituted, during the abbacy of Thomas Mynde; who was elected in 1459, and died in 1499, a period in which these reli­gious societies were much in fashion. The T or cross refers to the church of St. Cross within this monastery. Beneath are probably the arms of the house, a sword and a key, symbols of its tutelar apostles; and round the margin is this inscription:

Sigillū cōe Ffraternitat beate Wenefride virginis
eccia sc̄e cruc ī: fra monaster. sc̄i Petri Salopie.

A bell belonging to the church was also christened in honor of her. I cannot learn the names of the gossips, who, as usual, were doubtlessly rich persons. On the ceremony, they all laid hold of the rope; bestowed a name on the bell; and the priest sprinkling it with holy water, baptized it in the name of the Father, &c. &c *. He then clothed it with a fine garment: after this the gossips gave a grand feast, and made great pre­sents, which the priest received in behalf of the bell. Thus blessed, it was endowed with great powers; allayed (on being rung) all storms; diverted the thunder-bolt; drove away evil spi­rits. [Page 229] These consecrated bells were always inscribed. The in­scription on that in question ran thus:

Sancta Wenefreda, Deo hoc commendare memento,
Ut pietate sua, nos servet ab hoste cruento.

And a little lower was another address: ‘Protege l'rece pia, quos convoco, virgo Marta.

AFTER her death, her sanctity, says her historian, was proved by numberless miracles. The waters were almost as sanative as those of the pool of Bethesda: all infirmities incident to the human body met with relief; the votive crutches, the barrows, and other proofs of cures, to this moment remain as evidences pendent over the well. The saint is equally propitious to Pro­testants and Catholics; for among the offerings are to be found these grateful testimonies from the patients of each religion.

THE Holy Father gave all encouragement to the piety of pil­grims to frequent this fountain. Pope Martin V. * in the reign of Henry V. furnished the abby of Basingwerk with pardons and indulgences, to sell to the devotees. These were renewed again in the reign of queen Mary, by the interest of Thomas Goldwell bishop of St. Asaph , who fled into Italy on the accession of Eliza­beth. Multitudes of offerings flowed in; marks of gratitude from such who had received benefit by intercession of the virgin.

[Page 230]THE resort of pilgrims of late years to these Fontanalia has considerably decreased; the greatest number are from Lancashire. In the summer, still a few are to be seen in the water in deep devotion up to their chins for hours, sending up their prayers, or performing a number of evolutions round the polygonal well; or threading the arch between well and well a prescribed number of times. I am sorry to say that this excess of piety has cost several devotees their lives. Few people of rank at present honor the fountain with their presence. A crowned head in the last age dignified the place with a visit. The prince who lost three kingdoms for a mass, payed his respects, on August 29th 1686, to our saint; and received as a reward a present of the very shift in which his great-grand-mother Mary Stuart lost her head *. This prince gave, in the course of his progress, as marks of his favor, golden rings, with his hair platted beneath a crystal. I have seen one, which he had bestowed on a Roman Catholic priest of a nighboring family. The majority of devotees are of the fair sex, attracted hither to commemorate the martyrdom of St. Wenefrede, as those of the East did the death of the Cyprian favorite,

Whose annual wound in Lebanon allur'd
The Syrian damsels to deplore his fate
In woeful ditties all the summer's day:
While smooth Ada [...]s from his native rock
Ran purple to the sea, supposed with blood
Of Tha [...] yearly wounded.

[Page 231]WE, whose ancestors, between two and three centuries ago, abridged our faith to the mere contents of the Old and New Testament, and to the creed called the Apostles, do not think the belief in the above, and other legends, requisite. I refer the reader to the arguments used by the antiquary Doctor Powel, in his notes on the Itinerary of Giraldus Cambrensis, and to Bishop Fleetwood's annotations on the life of the saint, for proofs against the truth of the tale: but with Protestants, and temperate Catho­lics, it carries with it self-confutation.

THE waters are indisputably endowed with every good quality attendant on cold baths; and multitudes have here experienced the good effects that thus result from natural qualities, implanted in the several parts of matter by the divine Providence, in order to fulfil his will. Heaven for a short period deigned to convince a dark and obdurate age with a series of miracles; which were de­livered down to succeeding times, as incontestible proofs of the reality of the divine mission. Without them, a sufficient ground of trust and reliance upon the Supreme Being has long since been established. Second causes innumerable are dispersed throughout the universe, subordinate to the FIRST. Every element proves to us a medicine or a bane, as suits His unerring dispensa­tion. We cannot want, we cannot have the mediation of poor departed mortals. The supposition would be bestow­ing on them the attributes of the Deity; omnipresence and omniscience.

SOME eminent botanists of my acquaintance have reduced the sweet moss, and the bloody stains, to mere vegetable produc­tions, far from being peculiar to our fountain. The first is [Page 232] that kind of moss called Jungermannia Asplenioides, Fl. Angl. 509, Tour in Wales, vol. i. tab. 6. imperfectly described and fi­gured by Dillenius, in his history of mosses; which induced us to give a new engraving of it. This species is also found in another holy well in Caernarvonshire, called Ffynnon Llanddeiniolen, in a parish of the same name.

THE other is a Byssus, likewise odoriferous: common to Lap­land, and to other countries besides our own. It adheres to stones in form of fine velvet. Linnaeus calls it Byssus Jolithus *, or the violet-smelling. He says, the stone to which it adheres easily betrays itself by the color, being as if smeared with blood; and if rubbed, yields a smell like violets. Micheli, in his Genera of plants, mentions the same ; and Schwenckfelt discovered it among the vegetables of Silesia. He calls it a muscus subrubeus, and informs us, that the smell is grateful to the heart; and that if put among clothes, it gives them a good scent, and serves to drive away moths . Linnaeus says , that it is of use in eruptive disorders. The Conferva Gelatinosa, Syst. Pl. iv. 591. Fl. Scot. ii. 986, is found in the same well.

[...] TO THE [...] W [...] WHEEL.A SPECIES of moss is apt to vegetate on the oaken wheels of se­veral of the mills of this stream. These give shelter to multitudes of animal [...]ae. These, it is probable, eat into the timber, and occasion the ill same our river has obtained of having a corro­sive quality. Mr. William Chambers, of Holywell, has assured me that he has seen the penstock and contiguous parts, which lie [Page 233] always under water, in some parts pierced with a few holes, in others eaten quite thorough; and that the planks appeared, after the moss was separated, as if consuming by the wet rot. He adds, that the moss first adheres to the oaken planks, and then it is that the small grubs eat into them; and in some parts quite penetrate, so that the moss becomes seemingly the nursery or receptacle of the grubs. The method used to preserve the wheels, was by scraping the moss off annually.

THIS account is corroborated by Mr. Robert Tart, a very in­telligent master-carpenter, who says, that the wheels made of the best oak are destroyed remarkably soon by the Holywell stream. A wheel which ought to have lasted thirty years, has here been known to become unfit for use in about twelve. Mr. Tart recommends wheels made of pine or red deal, and that the surface of the wheels be paid with pitch, tar, and ruddle; but even this has proved ineffectual, for the water occasions the mixture soon to peel away. Mr. Donbavand was so sensible of the evil, as to sub­stitute, instead of timber, wheels of cast-iron in the works which he superintends.

EDWARD DAVIES, an experienced wheel-wright, aged seventy-five, confirms the above; and adds that red deal perishes in the same manner, but in a much slower degree, by reason of its resinous qua­lity. There have been formerly instances of oaken planks, which had laid long under water, being found as full of holes as if they had been eaten through by Norway rats; and were kept as curiosities by the late Messrs. Barker, of Brynmadin, or Gadlys.

ON examination of the animalcula which occasion this da­mage, we found them to be the erucae or caterpillars of a certain [Page 234] insect, which deposite its eggs in the moss, the Hyp [...]um riparium, Flora [...]cot. ii. 760. we found them in the state of erucae, about a third of an inch long, and of a whitish color.

WE found others arrived to the state of pupae or chrysalides, of the same length as the caterpillar, and of a deep brown color. Whether these destructive insects are ephemerae, or phryganeae, of the class of insects which, by a wonderful direction of nature, de­posite their eggs in waters of different depths, I cannot ascertain. It is certain that these genera, before they assume the insect form, remain under the water. They from the egg become cater­pillars; these caterpillars rest a certain time in shape of pupae, then burst out into flies or insects, after that instantly quit the watery element. In a still day they may be observed to make their appearance, preceded by a bubble: the insect immediately follows, and either takes to the air, or runs along the surface of the water, before it rises into its new habitation.

CHURCH.ABOVE the well stands the church, dedicated to St. Wenefrede. The parish wakes are celebrated in November, the time of her translation. The living, before the dissolution, belonged to the abby of Basingwerk; and is a vicarage in the gift of Jesus College, Oxford, which nominates; and Daniel Leo, esquire, the lay-rector, presents. It was given away by Robert Davies, to the college, by deed dated 1626, expressing, that as often as it became vacant, the said Robert Davies and his heirs shall freely, and charitatis in­tuitu, et absque aliqua morosa cunctatione, present a native of Wales, rightfully and canonically nominated by the college.

IN a letter, dated 26th October, 1676, Mutton Davies, grand­son of the donor, earnestly recommends to the college Mr. [Page 235] J. Humphreys; adding, ‘That by this I do not take upon me in the lest to detract from the gift my grandfather made the col­lege, but I glory in the honor to be descended from one who had the happiness to pay such respect to the society.’ In ano­ther letter, dated January following, after thanking the society for consenting to his request, he adds, ‘I should be as ungrate­ful as disingenuous should I convert your condescension herein to the disadvantage of your society, by attempting hereafter to insinuate a right, when I ought to commemorate a free obliga­tion, which induces me (out of some congruity to my appre­hension) to send my eldest son to deliver this unto your hands, and to gain him the honor of being known unto you, which my ill-fortune hath denied me hitherto, though I covet it very much.’

THE list of the vicars of Holywell, from the year 1537 to the present time, was communicated to me by my most worthy friend, Lewis lord bishop of St. Asaph. It is entitled, vicars of Holywell, Tre-fynnon, or Ffynnon Gwen-frewi.

  • Maurice ap David, 1537, d.
  • Howel ap David, Feb. 1542.
  • Hugh ap Day, Feb. 15th, 1555.1560.
  • Owen Hughes, succeeded 23d March, 1593.1604.
  • Robert Price, 1608. On his death,
  • Evan Lloyd, A. M. July 1635, on the presentation of JESUS College.
  • John Humphreys, 1677. On his resignation,
  • William Ball, A. M. May, 1682, on being removed, was [Page 236] succeeded by,
  • Edward Parry, Aug. 1692. On his death,
  • Eliseus Price, A. M. Feb. 1711. Collated to Skyviog July 4th, 1704.—Ellis Price was recommended to the college by Sir Roger Mostyn, baronet, and, excepting John Humphreys, was the only incumbent who was not a fellow of Jesus College.
  • Benjamin Havard, B. D. 21st Sept. 1763.
  • John Lloyd, B. D. 22d March, 1773. Collated by the bishop to Kilken, 21st Aug. 1782.

AN account of the tythes will be given in the Appendix, with those of Whiteford parish.

THIS vicarage even wants a globe, unless we call the garden to the house by that name. Neither has it any other endowment, unless the share of tithes mentioned in the Appendix, and an ac­quisition of Queen Anne's bounty of two hundred pounds. This, in the time of the Rev. Ellis Price, vicar, received the ad­dition of two hundred more, which lay at interest till the last year, when, on the donation of a hundred and fifty pounds from Jesus College, the whole was laid out in the purchase of a portion of the waste lands in the parish of Kilken. An act had been passed in the year 1793, for the purpose of inclosing the common, di­viding it among the freeholders, and selling certain portions to defray the expences of the act, &c &c. &c. One part was bought with the above sums, and settled on the minister of Holywell and his successors, in addition to their income; and say the activity of the present vicar, the ground has already been inclosed, drained, ploughed and sown! The other support of the vicars is the an­tient one, oblationes altaris, among which are reckoned the of­ferings [Page 237] at burials for the pious use of the priest, and the good estate of the soul of the deceased.’ (See Kennet's Parochial An­tiquities. Glossary.) Those of Holywell parish amount, communibus annis, to eighty pounds.

THE vicarage house, about the middle of this century, became so ruinous as to be uninhabitable. In a few years it was rebuilt by the piety of two brothers, Thomas and John Barker, of Bryn­madyn, agents to the great smelting-company at Gadlys, who be­queathed to the vicar of Holywell 400l. for the purpose of build­ing a new glebe house at Holywell, for him and his successors, on the same spot as that on which the old one stood. It was finished in the year 1760, and, with the adjacent premises, has been con­siderably improved by the present vicar, the Reverend John Lloyd, and made a most comfortable residence.

NOT far distant, at the very foot of the hill, above the well,CHURCH. stands the parish church, placed in that inconvenient situation, out of respect to the guardian saint. It has only one bell, and that not to be heard at any distance; so that the congregation is assem­bled by a walking steeple, a man with a small bell, who sounds the notice through every street.

THE present church was rebuilt in 1769, on the site of the old, and of the same length and breadth, viz. the length sixty-eight feet, the breadth fifty-six. It is difficult to ascertain the antient archi­tecture of this church. Near the entrance, at the west-end, is a door-way, with an obtuse gothic arch. The pillars, plain them­selves, and with plain capitals, which support the gallery on each side of the nave, are original; and by the specimens given by Dr. Ducarel, in his Norman Antiquities, tab. xiii. appear to have [Page 238] been in use among the Saxons and the Normans. The arches, which might have confirmed my suspicion that the church was built in the Norman reign, are taken away, but the style con­tinued till about the year 1200. The church has a nave and two ailes, over which are two handsome galleries; and the whole is supposed to contain three thousand people. It is plain, neat, and calculated for use.

SHOULD it be ever thought necessary to commemorate the re­pair of the church by an inscription, I would venture to recom­mend the energetic lines inscribed, on a similar occasion, on a church at Bristol, adapting the date and third line to the circum­stances of that of Holywell.

Haec compta DEI domus
modo collapsura,
Jam quatu [...]r novis columnis
suffulta et decorata,
Stabilimen et ornamentum
recepit, A. D. 1731.
Firmiùs stabiliatur precibus
sacramentis, evangelis,
et puritate morum;
Clariùs ornetur quotidiano
coetu Christianorum.

UNDER the chancel are the vaults of the Mostyns of Trelacre, the Pennants of Bagillt, and the Pantons of Bagillt. The late Edward Pennant, esquire, on the purchase made by me of part of his estate, promised to me his share of these eternae domus. He died, and the posthumous gift was in the handsomest manner [Page 239] transferred to me by Roger Barnston, esquire, who afterwards possessed the remainder of his fortunes.

IN the chancel is a neat caenotoph, in memory of Mary, MONUMENTS. mother to the late Edward Pennant, esquire. The inscription does this lady no more than justice: ‘She was prudent, pious, and charitable; in the midst of misfortunes shewed a great example of meekness and humility, of patience and resignation to the will of GOD.’ With the best and most affectionate intent to improve the affairs of her son, she engaged in a partnership with a smelting-company in the neighborhood. The company failed; and the creditors, in an unrelenting manner, pursued the good lady till she was obliged to take shelter in the isle of Man; where she died, on the 28th of February, 1750, aged forty, and was interred in the church at Douglas.

ON the wall of the south aile is a small monument in memory of the Reverend Robert Edwards, a younger son of Brynford, rector of Halkin, who died May 13th, 1694. Above the inscription are the arms of the house, viz. field vert, a cheveron between three wolves heads argent, erased, with the lion, the arms of Tudor Trevor, empaled. The first denotes the descent of the family of Brynford from Ririd Vlaidd, lord of Penllyn, &c. killed in battle at the latter end of the reign of Henry II.

ON the wall at the end of the same aile, is a flat stone, with twelve quarterings, all faithfully copied from those over the chimney-piece in the dining-parlor at Mostyn. This belonged [Page 240] to the Mostyns of Calcoed, who, by virtue of their descent (of which more in another place) have a right to the first coat. The rest appertain only to Sir Roger Mostyn, especially those of Edwyn, gained by the marriage of Jevan with the heiress of Mostyn; those of Gloddaeth, gained by the heiress of Gloddaeth; and those of Tregarnedd, gained by the heiress of Ednefydd Vychan: to each of which none could have a right but the Mostyns of Mostyn, and their heirs. On one side is a shield argent, with four bars azure; in the first, three shieldrakes; in the second and third, two; and in the fourth one: these evidently variations of the coat, (see p. 30.) Beneath is Hodie mi, cras tibi. On the other side, be­neath the arms of Philip Phycdan, is Virtus semper vivit.

THE same errors reign in the arms of Thomas Mostyn, of Stokyn. They are almost the same with the preceding: the date is 1658. I shall not repeat here what I have said at p. 186, of the possessors of Stokyn.

ON a pillar in the north aile are the very same arms over the seat of the Williams's of Trellynian, with this motto:

Labe meâ morior, sanguine vivo tuo.

THE arms of Trellynian are those of Idnerth, lord of Maes­ [...]rook, a boar's head in chief, on the arms of Edwyn, lord of Te­gengl. Probably the pillar and the seat had been transferred to the Williams's by some descendant from the house of Tudor Trevor; perhaps a Mostyn of Hen-Blâs, in Brynford, now the pro­perty of Sir Roger Mostyn.

[Page 241]A FOURTH flat stone, smaller than the preceding, is placed in the wall of the north aile: on it is inscribed the following epitaph:

Resurrectio mea XTUS.
Hic jacet corpus Johannis Pennant, de Holywell, Arn [...]ge [...]; que obiit
xxx. die Augusti, 1623.

JOHN PENNANT was second in descent from Nicholas Pennant, last abbot of Basingwerk; and was married to Margaret, daughter of Hugh Mostyn, younger son of Pyers Mostyn, of Trelacre. His arms are the three shieldrakes quarterly with those of Sir Robert Pounderling, constable of Desert castle, and of Sir Griffith Llwyd, mentioned before at p. 31. He was great-grand-father to Mary Pennant, who conveyed into our house the Holywell and Merton Abbot estates, by her marriage with David Pennant of Bychton.

IN rebuilding the church was found the headless figure of a priest, in his sacerdotal habit, and with a chalice in his hand. He is supposed to have been Thomas, second son of Thomas ap David, abbot of Basingwerk; whom I find in the Bagillt pedegree to have been vicar of Holywell.

THE steeple is plain and square, very strongly built, but without any mark to denote the time of its being built.

THE church-yard is the worst in the whole diocese.CHURCH-YARD. A small part is a gentle slope, but the greater almost precipitous; so that after any continuance of wet weather, a fall may happen pro­ductive of the most indecent and horrible spectacles.

THE number of inhabitants in this parish may be from 7 to 8000. There are about 1000 houses in the whole parish,NUMBER OF PEOPLE. of [Page 242] which upwards of 400 are in the town. Greenfield contains about 1 [...] houses. This is the township which has received the great­est increase, by reason of the sudden and vast accession of inhabi­tants, by reason of the manufactures which settled here nearly at the same time. In these evil days about twenty of the houses are empty.

INCREASE.THE increase of inhabitants may be collected from the follow­ing abstract from the Holywell registers. Let it be observed, that the number allowed to each house is greater than common, from the consideration that in manufacturing places the number of poor employed in them are crowded into far less space than in any other towns.

Year1670.17 [...].1760.1770.1780.1787.1790.1794.
Baptisms,2972881221 [...]2164198193

IN bishop Tanner's MS. notes on the diocese of St. Asaph, pre­sented to me by my respected friend the late Reverend Doctor William Wynne, I find that in the year 1686 the number of fami­lies was 274, of which 41 were recusants.

POORS RATES.IN respect to the poors rate, I have a very curious memoran­dum, extracted out of the old vestry-book of the parish, by Mr. Samuel Small, who, with his usual friendship, communicated it to me; and every thing else which he thought would promote my design.

IN 1721.1722, May.—Vestry ordered the church and poors ley to be assessed separately, and that £. 14 be raised for the church, and £. 24 for the poor, both for the year 1721.’ (till then the leys [Page 243] were promiscuous, and denominated a church rate). That book began in 1715, and ended in 1763.

ANOTHER memorandum.—1723, June 4. Ordered,IN 1723 ‘that church and poors leys be assessed separately; and that £. 14 be raised for the church, and £. 21 for the poor, both for 1723.’

IN the present year the rates,IN 1793 equalized according to the actual rents, amount to fifteen hundred pounds!!!

IN this parish are three clubs, or friendly societies,CLUBS OR FRIEND­LY SOCIETIES. instituted on the same plan as those in Whiteford parish (see p. 101.) The first, or the Old Club, was formed on March 7th, 1751: so that it is prior to our's by fifteen years. It consists at present of 214 members.

CLUB the second consists of 170 members, and was formed January 27th, 1759.

CLUB the third is composed of 160 members, and commenced on January 21st, 1775. Each of these clubs have their rules, but so similar to those of Whiteford parish, that I shall not repeat them. I shall only remark, ne quid detrimenti ecclesia capiat, that there is an article which excludes every one who is not of the true church of England by law established, unless with the approbation of the majority.

THE UNION CLUB was established in April, 1789.UNION CLUB.It is com­posed of forty-two members, in general the most respectable in­habitants of the parish, untainted with despotic or jacobinical prin­ciples. Every Christmas they shew exemplary charity to their poor neighbors; and under their influence above 160l. was raised the late season of scarcity, and distributed among the objects most [Page 244] worthy of relief. My son and I are proud of being members of this society, as well as all the preceding.

OLD [...]-C [...].LET me here mention (from the principle Haec olim me­ [...]nisse [...]ava [...]is) a society long extinct, which consisted of the gentlemen of the neighborhood, and the most respectable men of business, tradesmen, or mine adventurers, who met, dur­ing summer, once a week, to dine at the house of Bryn Celyn, and after dinner descended to the bowling-green just beneath, to amuse themselves with the innocent recreation. Adjoining, in a room of retreat, in the intervals of play, the persons out, took their pipe and ale, or perhaps a small bowl of punch: for in those plain days wine was seldom called for, unless by the few with whom other liquors might disagree *.

IN the town are three places of worship besides the church, two for the Roman Catholics, and one for dissenters. The last was built on my ground, by lease dated April 16, 1788, and is maintained by voluntary contributions. Of the former, one supports a secular or parish priest. The other a gentleman of the late order of Jesuits. Both of their cures are endowed with lands vested in trustees. Each of their houses had been a species of hotel, probably de­signed for the reception of pilgrims of better rank. One was called the Cross-keys, the other the Star. I remember at one or other of them Edward duke of Norfolk, and other visitants of distinction.

BRYN Y CASTELL.ABOVE the church is a hill called Bryn y Castell, narrow and very steep on the sides, projecting at the end over the little valley. [Page 245] On this might have stood the castle of Treffynnon, or St. Wenefrede, built by Randle III. earl of Chester, in the year 1210 *. There are not at present any vestiges left.

IT is singular that no mention is made in the Doomsday-Book of either chapel, church, or well; yet townships now of less note are named; such as Brunford, Caldecote, and others. Notwith­standing bishop Fleetwood's opinion, I think the legend of St. Wenefrede was known previous to that survey; for the very name of Holywell is Saxon, probably bestowed on it before the Conquest, on account of the imputed sanctity of the well.

THE spring is certainly one of the finest in these kingdoms; and, by the two different trials and calculations lately made for my information, is found to fling out about twenty-one tons of water in a minute. It never freezes. In respect to the equality of the water in droughts, or after the greatest rains, I find I must place it among the vulgar errors. From the authority of Mr. Christopher Smalley, and other respectable manufacturers on the stream, I discover that the variation is extremely great, and that there is a decrease in summer of more than one-third, and in great droughts of still more, and after violent rains the increase is in like proportion: some even say it is one-half. As long as I remember, the fountain, after heavy falls of wet, became of a wheyey color. This is increased to a great degree, grows more turbid, and even deposits a mud upon the stones.

THE town was also very inconsiderable till the beginning of this century; the houses few, and those for the most part [Page 246] that [...]; the streets unpaved; and the place destitute of a mar­ket. The flourishing mines, that for some time were discovered [...], made a great change in the appearance, and introduced the effects of wealth. The effects of the manufacto­ [...] make less appearance in the town than in the valley beneath, [...] from the well to the sea-side, is a continued succession of [...]s.

[...]THE monks of Basingwerk obtained for it the grant of a [...] a market. The first has been dropt beyond the memory of [...]. The market was also lost, till it was renewed by letter [...]ent, dated Jan. 20th, 1703, granted to Sir John Eger [...] [...] [...]et. The patent also contains a grant of three fairs, viz. on the 23d of April, the Tuesday in Easter week, and the 2d of [...]er. The market has been the most flourishing in North Wales, but the fairs never could be established.

THE market is the best in the county for butcher's meat. That for corn is now much reduced, by reason of the greater farmers, or the badgers or purchasers for exportation, lessening the great stock which used to supply the markets at reasonable rates. Every great farmer seems now to have taken the early part of his education in Change-Alley, and is as expert in prices of corn, as any academy of that noted place is in those of stocks. That there never can be a deficiency for the use of the natives of Flintshire, either from their own lands, or the vale of Clwyd, is evident from the following table of exportation, from September 1, 1794, to August 5th, 1795; communicated to me by the friendship of the gentlemen of the custom-house in Ches­ter, from which appear the following truths:

 Wheat. Qrs. B.Wheat Flour Q [...]. B.Rye. Qrs. B.Barley. Qrs. B.Malt. Qrs. B.Oats. Qrs. B.Oat­meal. Qrs. B.Beans. Q [...]s. B.Bean Flour. Qrs. B.
From Rudland1,064 11 00 03 20 0930 00 029 20 0
From Weppra78 00 017 00 00 00 00 00 00 0
From Bagillt30 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 0
From Chester4 [...]0 2469 69 3123 6612 42 4646 40 011 0
Total1,652 3470 626 3127 0612 4932 4646 429 211 0

THIS is the sum of the corn exported from Flintshire or Chester; for I find that none had for several years past been sent from Rudland to any place westward of that port.

THE following table will shew the particular places to which the above is exported, and the quantity delivered at each place.

 Wheat. Qrs. B.Wheat Flour. Q [...]s. B.Rye. Qrs. B.Barley. Qrs. B.Malt. Qrs. B.Oats. Qrs. B.Oat­meal. Q [...]s. B.Beans. Q [...]. B.Bean Flour. Q [...] B
P [...]r [...]th10 022 69 30 00 00 00 00 00 0
[...]tis0 0157 40 03 6270 40 00 00 00 0
[...]von0 0154 00 05 0269 00 00 00 00 0
[...]erpool1,642 394 417 0115 063 00 0646 40 011 0
P [...]llhely0 041 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 0
C [...]ester0 00 00 03 20 0030 00 029 20 0
Holyland0 00 10 00 00 00 00 00 00 0
[...]ay0 00 00 00 010 02 40 00 00 0
Total1,652 3469 726 312 [...] [...]612 [...]952 26 [...]6 429 211 0

[Page 248] [...]TO conclude, I shall give the prices of the different kinds of corn during this noted year of scarcity, famine it cannot be called, for the evil has been very remote from that dreadful judgment, by reason of the innumerable resources Britain has within itself, both from the vegetable and animal kingdoms.

 Cheapest.Middle.Dearest.41 Q [...] per Me [...]re.
Wheat0800136100per Measure.

THE situation of the town is pleasant and healthy. On the back is a lofty hill, at times extremely productive of lead-ore. Towards the sea is a pretty valley, bounded by woods: the end finishes on one side with the venerable abby. To such who require the use of a cold-bath, few places are more proper; for, besides the excellence of the waters, exceeding good medical assistance, and comfortable accommodations, may be found here; and the mind entertained, and the body exercised in a variety of beautiful rides and walks.

ROADS.THERE are seven roads out of Holywell, leading to different places. The first, or that from the lower part of the town to the sea-side,TO THE SEA. I have already mentioned.

TO RUDLAND AND ST. ASAPH.THE second passes through Whiteford street, and is that to Rudland, St. Asaph, Conwy, and Holyhead, and also is the coach-road to Denhigh. Its extent in this parish is only one mile, [Page 249] ending at the late Mr. Henry Steeple's wall, where the parish of Whiteford begins. Above the west end stands the Grange, which was called Feilebrock (and also Fulibrock.) The Grange still re­mains a farm-house in a most ruinous condition. It is the pro­perty of Sir Pyers Mostyn, but formerly belonged to the abby of Basingwerk, having been granted to them by Meredeth Wawor, of which Dugdale, (i. 721) gives the following account, in the charter of David ap Llewelyn, prince of North Wales: Terram etiam quam Meredit Wawor in villa de Haliwell et extra villam habuit et terram quam Huttredus frater ejus secum excambiavit in ipsa villa pro sua parte terrae in Quitfordia et grangiam illo­rum quae appellatur Feilebroc cum omnibus pertinentiis et asia­mentis suis et communitatem pasturae montium cum caeteris.’

THE Holywell level was begun in 1774, [...]. under leases granted by Sir Pyers Mostyn, baronet, myself, Peter Parry, esquire, Ed­ward Jones, esquire, and Mrs. Mary Williams, of Trelunniau. I and my two sons made the voyage of this important venture on September 21st, 1795, and took boat, or rather punt, at the en­trance into the work in Coed Cae Dentir, a field belonging to Sir Pyers, on the north side of a small dingle opening into the road opposite to the great cotton factory. Under the pilotage of the honest Thomas Edwards, agent to the mine, we entered the mouth, lighted by candles, stuck on each side of our vessel. The first forty yards of our way was arched with stone, and so low as to oblige us to stoop. When the arch ceased, the roof was the natural rock, of that species called shale. [...]. The height begins now to be six feet; the breadth four; the depth of the water, included in the height, is two and a half. After passing in the shaley stratum about two hundred and twenty-six yards, we find it is succeeded [Page 250] by that of ch [...]rt, C [...]. at which spot the level enters my ground, in the field called Coed Cae porfa. There the height to the surface is eighteen yards. Several shafts have been sunk for air between this place and the mouth of the level. In a field of mine, called C [...]dlas [...]r, was early discovered, at the depth of thirty-one yards, a strong string of ore, which raised the hopes of the adventurers to the highest degree; and the mineral stock rose in proportion. But alas! in a little time, both spirits and stock fell; for the pro­mising prospect suddenly vanished, an accident too frequent with miners to occasion surprize. The chert continues to a little beyond the turnpike-road, when we again enter the land of Sir Pyers Mostyn, in a field called Brocknallt, where it stops. Hitherto the level has preserved a strait course:LIME STONE. but in this field (where the lime-stone stratum begins, and is continued to the end of the present work­ing, above five hundred yards) it takes a bend parallel to the road, and so continues as far as Brocknallt-pella, and then makes another curvature, and near a small but pretty cave crosses obliquely the turnpike-road.A CAVE. The cave is furnished with a table and benches, at which the visitants never fail experiencing the hospitality of their worthy conductor. Out of this cave is a passage, or sump, or short shaft, sunk for the purpose both of searching for ore, and also for conveying of air, which began to be wanted, into the level. This sump communicates with seve­ral others, till it reaches a shaft. The action of the air is various, sometimes it descends through the shaft;VE [...]TILATOR. at other times rushes up the mouth of the level; but in each case passes into the mouth of a square wooden conductor, which enters the lower part of the sump, and is continued on one side of the level, al­most to the end of the present working.

[Page 251]IN proceeding farther we were alarmed with the awful sound of a cataract. On arriving at the spot from whence it issued, the noise seemed to have derived its greatest force from the confined arch of the level;CASCADE. for we discovered it to proceed from a small but elegant cascade, which, in our sight, tumbled down a small hollow, and served to augment the water of the level, which was also increased by several strong springs rising from the sides and bottom with strong ebullitions.OTHER SUBTER­RANEOUS WA­TERS. Similar noises are said to have been heard in Coetiau'r Odyn. It is possible that this subterraneous water may be one of the feeds of St. Wenefrede's well, as the field is nearly in a descending line with it. I have also heard, on good authority, of another large stream of water running through a great subterraneous cavern, in working Portaway mine, in Pantasa, in the parish of Whiteford, but its discharge has never been yet discovered.—But to return. After passing this fall, we reached the end of our voyage, at the length of 1167 yards from the mouth, and at the place where two miners were pursuing the working of the level, and had got within ten yards of the shaft in which the miners are working in the rich vein, beneath the field called Coed Cae Plwm, or the wood or field of lead. The height from the sole of the level to the surface at this place is ninety-three yards and a half; the depth of the shaft, which is now so flattering to our hopes, is fifty yards; so that there are forty-three yards and a half from its sole to that of the level, which all the way is found to be filled with ore!!!

BUT we have more than one string to our bow.OTHER [...] Coetiau'r Odyn vein runs entirely from Coe [...]iau-maur fields through my ground, as does Maes Whiteford, giving Mr. Jones of Wepre a small [Page 252] chance in our mineral lottery. Then comes True Blue, which is shared between Sir [...]yers Mostyn and myself; and the once rich vein of Brocknallt is entirely his. All these run north and south, and have in general been very productive, but especially those be­longing to the house of Tre [...]a [...]re.

CONTINUANCE OF.LET me observe that in the depth of the level we saw the descend­ing course of all these veins (excepting Coe [...] [...]dyn) some of them which were tried at that depth proved bar [...]. How far lower the veins descended, may probably ever remai [...] [...]cret, unless some bold adventures should have the spirit to attempt a level from the marsh, which we (at p. 218) proved to have, from the we [...], a fail of 2 [...]2 feet.

FERTILE TRAC [...].THE whole tract below the east side of this road, is a most fer­tile and well cultivated bottom, sloping on each side. Its rural oeconomy may vie in excellen [...]e with the most boasted of our island. The prospect is charming, of the whole length of the Chester channel, bounded on the opposite by Wiral, and a distant view of part of Lancashire.

FROM the other side of the road the ground rises steeply; on the summit is a tract of inclosed land, backed by the mountain or common.

PEN-Y-BAL ROAD.I RETURN into the town, and at the end of Whiteford-street ascend the steep road called Pen-y-Bal, of very laborious ascent. I remember it the only coach approach on this side. The pre­sent fine road, then with great propriety called Holloway, was too narrow for any carriage beyond the then wretched carts of the country. I well remember that whenever our family wanted to visit Holywell, it was obliged to be dragged up to Pen-y-fordd-waen, [Page 253] to cross the mountain, and with locked wheel, and with great peril, go down the almost precipitous way.

FROM the summit of Pen y-Bal, to the west,CALCOLD. is a narrow tract of common. A little beyond, in a small wood, stands Calcot or Calcoed, in the township of the same name. In the Doomsd [...]y Book, it is called Caldecote, and is there united with Meretone and [...]rtia parte de W [...]dford. The founder of this house was Henry Moston, doctor of civil law, second son of Pyers Moston, of Tre­lacre. He purchased Ca [...]lcot, as it was then spelt, of George and Thomas Manley, of Chester, in the year 1595, for the sum of 467 l. After four generations, the succession ended in the male line in Samuel Mostyn, esquire, who died May 16th, 1760, aged 79, and was buried at Northop on the 19th: who settled his estate on his nephew Mr. John Ellis, who assumed the surname of Mostyn.

ON the mountain to the east of the common way to Calcoed, NAID-Y-MARCH. are two stones, about three feet high, and about twenty-two feet distant from each other. They are called Naid-y-March, or the horse's leap, from a vulgar notion of the derivation of the name. They are of the very antient British origin, and probably the place of interment of some hero whose body was deposited between stone and stone. The distance might be intended to give an idea of his mighty size; as Alexander is supposed, on his return out of India, to have buried various suits of armor, of gigantic dimen­sions, to impose on future times an exalted notion of the troops he had led to this distant country.

I DESCEND again into Holywell, HALKIN AND BRYNFORD ROADS. and at the south end of the High Street turn to the right, up the road which leads to Halkin and Brynford; the latter branches from that to Halkin on the right. [Page 254] Above the road is the old house of Brynford, [...]FORD HOUSE. at present the pro­perty of Richard Garnons, esquire. It had been that of the Ed­wards's. Their descent is given at p. 239. I remember it in­habited by Thomas Edwards, esquire, a most respectable old gen­tleman, blind with age, of great charity and benevolence; and who, most grateful to Providence, increased his charities in pro­portion to the increase of his abilities, in obedience to the direc­tion of Heaven, to observe its frequent injunctions to the per­formance of that virtue.

PEN-Y-BRYN MINE.OPPOSITE to the house, on the other side of the road, was for­merly a profitable lead-mine, called Pen y Bryn, belonging to lord Kilmorey. REFRACTING SPAR. It was remarkable for the quantity of refracting spar, spatum Islandicum, of great purity and trasparency; and often ele­gantly infected with marcasite finely disposed in lines.

THIS road ends on the mountain on the borders of Skyviog parish, the boundary of Holywell parish on this side.

PISTILL.I RETURN to the turnpike road, and continuing my way, pass on the right by Pistill, a neat small house, the property of Peter Parry, esquire, of Twissog, in the county of Denbigh.

IN order to proceed towards the rich mineral country I am entering on, I shall continue the enumeration of veins from C [...]etiau'r Odyn (see p. 241.)

MEI [...] AND OTHER MINES.THE next to that, eastward, is Caleb Bell, a north and south vein, which is traced from the east side of Pen-y-Bal, descends from the mountain, towards the late John Denman's, but as yet has not been traced to the road. This has in old times been very rich in several places.

THE old vein, or Pant Ithel, is another rich vein, which first [Page 255] appeared in Pantasa, and yielded great quantities of ore and ca­lamine. From thence crosses Butler's fields, and Pen-y-Bal, and then to Coetia fawr; from thence to Pant Ithel, where it de­scends near [...]ynford house, and crosses the road into Highgate te­nement, the property of Mr. Williams of Trelunnian. It then enters into my tenement called Meilwr, and was the first place in which ore was found in the level; the lease of which was granted by my father, on December the 20th, 1754.

THE next is the Highgate vein, which about Pistill had branch­ed into many strings. As they advance from Pistill eastward, they enter Highgate tenement, and become very productive, both in Mrs. Williams's land, and also my own, which for many years poured on me in great abundance its mineral wealth. I never considered this species of riches but of the most precarious nature, liable instantly to fail: I therefore secured them on the best of tenures, and purchased with them the moiety of the Bagillt-Hall estate, which has turned out to me uncommonly fortunate. I also was enabled by another part to improve my house at Downing to what it now is.

EVERY thing has its end. The vein or veins at length grew poorer. A great fire-engine was erected a few years ago, in hopes of clearing the water, and getting at the ore which was supposed to have been left in the soles.

THE level begins at the bottom of the north side of Nant­hill-brwc, and runs south-west. How uncertain is mineral know­lege, even among the most knowing! The object of the lessees was the working up to a certain rich vein, named the hard shaft, in the lands belonging to Brynfordd. An object that never [Page 256] yet has been obtained. But in pursuit of that object they most unexpectedly met with the veins which produced so much wealth to Mr. Williams and myself. Perhaps I fall short in my estimate if I say, that to lessors and lessees, the total amount must have exceeded a hundred thousand pounds.

THE next vein to the high-gate, is a string within five yards of the high gate, which his been very productive. Into the field called Coetia Yscubor, the hard shaft vein is expected to enter, and cross the whole breadth, into the ground of Pen y pylle. And at the very corner of the same field, another vein crosses into the same land, and has been tolerably rich.

I NOW quit my mineral territories in this part of the country; and cross over the road to Pen y pylle, the seat of Hugh Hum­phreys, esquire, descended from Edwyn, prince of Tegengl. That gentleman has had large share of the mineral wealth. The vein Rest y cegin passes under his very house and garden. The mine-hillocks fill the land: but by his judicious walks and plantations, which now cover them, he has turned them into beauties. The vein continues to his grounds, below his house, and may probably be a source of new wealth.

THE Lucky Venture, is the last vein I can mention in this pa­rish, which ranges from the mountain, and crosses the road into a corner of a field of Mr. Humphreys, and immediately from thence into the land belonging to Edward Jones, esquire, of Wepre, in which abundance of ore has been got. Much has also been got in the very road, in a pit sunk by earl Grosvenor, a privilege clamed by his lordship, in virtue of his great mineral grant?

[Page 257]THIS township ends at about a mile distance from Pen y pylle, where it is separated by Rh [...]d [...], a little [...]ll, from the parish of Halkin.

I RETURN again into the town,GADLYS ROAD and after crossing the east end of the High Street, take the road leading toward Gadlys. On the right I see a trifling monument of my respect to a town which has for a long series of years shewn every mark of esteem for the landlord of many, and the friend of all. In an adjacent field of mine, called Roft T [...]b, was a valuable spring, which running to waste, occasioned a great loss of time, to rich and poor, in pro­curing water. I (by the assistance of Mr. Denbavand) caused, in the year 1794, a pillar to be erected, into which the water was collected, and raised to a height convenient to be received into vessels placed there, to supply, with ease and expedition, the wants of the inhabitants.

AT the bottom of the descent from Holywell is a beautiful din­gle, named Nant-hil-brwe, which winds on the right to Meilwr tenement, and on the left quite to the marsh, the greater part of the way ornamented with hanging woods. On crossing a bridge near a large mill, the property of Paul Panton, esquire,BAGILLT TOWN­SHIP. enter the township of Bagillt; and in less than half a mile pass by the house of that worthy friend of mine. Our intimacy began in early youth,HOUSE THE PAN­ [...]. and has been ever since retained. With joy I see his eldest son rising with progressive goodness, and rare abilities. I see with pleasure my eldest son, with true judgment, cultivating with him a friendship. May it continue through a long life of human felicity, pleasant to themselves, and useful to their neighbors and country!

TO Mr. Panton senior I hold myself greatly obliged for the account of his family, maternal and paternal.

[Page 258] THE GRIFFITH O [...] BAGILLTTHE house and estate of Bagillt was conveyed into Mr. Pan­ton's family, by the marriage of his father with Mary, daughter of Edward Griffiths, esquire, descended from the Griffiths of Caerwis-hall, who derived themselves from Ednowen Bendew, one of the fifteen tribes of North Wales. His ancestors had long been settled at this place, and have as antient deeds to shew for their lands as any in Wales, as will appear by the following will:

CU [...]IOU [...] WILL.IN the name of God, Amen.—The 11th day of November, in the year of our Lord God 1331, I, John ab Griffith ap Cona, being of good and whole mind and memory, and sick in body, make, ordain, and declare my last will and testament in manner and form following:—First, I bequeath my soul to Almighty God, and his mother St. Mary, and my body to be buried in the parish church of Holywell: also I bequeath to the said parish church, to buy a banner withall 4s.: also I bequeath to the Fryers of Rudland, 20 d. and to the friars of Denbigh, 12 d.: also I bequeath to the Rhode work of the Mold, 2s.: also I will that a trental be given to pray for my father's soul, my mo­ther's soul, my brethren's souls, and all Christian souls. Also I will that a man be hired to go to St. David's on pilgrimage for my soul. Also I bequeath to Sir Rys, my curate, 2 s. Farther, I bequeath to my son Thomas, a young heifers, of 3 years old: also I bequeath to my son Richard, 16 s. 8 d. which is in the hands of Harry Vaughan. Moreover, I will that Anne my wife shall occupy, with my children, my house, and all the lands thereto belonging, as long as she shall be unmarried, and keep herself a good woman, and no longer. Also, my will is, that a close, called Gwern Onnen, be restored to Jonet wch Rhys, or her son, they paying to my heirs 6 l. of lawful money of Eng­land. [Page 259] —Furthermor I will that Sir Robert ap Meredith, chap­lain, and Morris ap Llewelyn, my feoffees of trust of and in all my lands and tenements, shall stand and be feoffees of the same, to the use and behoof of my children, and thereof to make them an estate when they shall come to their lawful age, and at their lawful desire. And all the residue of my goods, not bequeathed in this my last will and testament, I give and bequeath to my children, whom I make and ordain, my sons Thomas and Richard, my full and lawful executors.—In witness whereof all and singular the premises Sir Richard my curate, Rynallt ap Griffith ap Cona my brother, and Morris ap Llewelyn, and divers others.—And further my will is, that John ab Harry ab Kenrick, Sir Robert ap Mered [...]th, Edward Pennant ap Rys ap Llewelyn, and Ellys ap John ab Ithel, be over­seers, as well of my children, as of this my last will and testa­ment, till they come to lawful age, and all this at the oversight of my lord abbot.’

THE close distinguished in this will by the name of Gwern Onnen, still retains the name, and runs from Roft Tob towards the woods that lead to Meilwr.

THE licence for Mr. Panton's great-grandfather's marriage (by his mother's side) in Cromwell's time, is a curiosity worthy of the reader's perusal. I think that the same form is introduced into France, since the abolition of religion in that kingdom. It pro­bably was taken from the model left by our fanatical rulers in the last century. I have another of a similar marriage in our family, attested by — Evans, a justice in Northop parish.

KNOW all men, that upon the eleventh day of February, CU [...] [...]. in the year of our Lord God one thousand six hundred and [Page 260] fifty-five, Richard Griffith, sonne and heire app [...] ̄nt of John C [...]ff [...], late of Bagilt, in the county of [...]lint, esqr, deceased, and Martha Pennant, the daughter of Edward Pennant, esqr, of Bagillt aforesaid, came before me Ralf Hughes, esq, one of the justices of the peace of the county of [...]int, and desired to be joyned together in matrimony; and being sufficiently satisfied that the said intended marriage was published on three several Lords dayes, at the tyme of morning exercise, within the pa­rish church of Holywell, within which parish the said parties reside, and that noe [...] son gaynesayed or [...] tended any cause why the said parties might not be joyned togeather in matrimonie, both of them being of full age and discretion, and the parents of both parties consenting thereunto;—and after both parties had pronounced before me, in the presence of divers credible wit­nesses, the words of solemnization mentioned in an act of parlia­ment, intitled, an act touching marriages, and dated the xx [...] day of August 165 [...], I did pronounce and declare the said Richard Griffith and Martha Pennant to be lawful hus­band and wife. In witness whereof I have hereunto put my hand and sale, the day and yeare first above written, 1655,

L. S
Witnesses hereunto,
  • Thomas Griffith,
  • Roger Jones,
  • John Mostyn.

THE antient smelting-house of Gadlys stood a full mile distant from this house, about a mile distant from the shore, and on the land of Robert Hughes, esquire, of Halkin. The lease expired [Page 261] in 1786, and the works were pulled entirely down, after standing the term of the agreement, which was forty-four years.

THE respectable company, long known by the name of the Governor and Company for smelting down Lead with Pit Coale and Sea Coale, by the royal charter, granted in the 4th of William and Mary, began business in this county about the year 1700. They flourished with a most fair reputation for a great number of years, till their decline, either through want of ore, or other in­evitable causes, induced them to remove their antient furnaces to some works, built by the late Messrs. Smedley, on the bank above Bagillt. Those they purchased; and continued smelting, un­der the direction of their agent, Mr. William Smith *, till they sold them to Messrs. Griffith and Astet, of London. This company was often called the Quakers Company, from the number of per­sons of that mild persuasion being of it.

DURING the prosperity of the works (which was very long) they produced vast quantities of lead and bullion; of the latter they extracted from the lead, between the year 1704 and 1744, not less than 430,604 ounces. Queen Anne and her successor commanded that all specie coined from the silver should be struck on the reverse with the plume of feathers, as a mark of its having been the production of the principality . James I. gave the same directions respecting the coin made from the silver of the mines worked by Sir Hugh Middleton, in Cardi­ganshire; and in 1637, Charles I. caused the same marks of Welsh silver to be placed on the coins of the mint at Aberystwith, ob­tained [Page 262] from the mines of the same county *. Other coins from the company's works were called quakers money, from the cause above assigned. In an antient map of Denbighshire and Flintshire, by W. Williams, published in 1720, is an engraving of a crown, with the feathers, the insignia of Wales; and also another, of the seal of the corporation, with its crest and arms. The supporters are two miners; and the motto the apt one, Spectatur in igne. And above them is a view of the works, faithfully given, as they appeared before they were reduced to a single chimney.

THE company were for a long series of years the greatest mine-adventurers in North Wales, and had very considerable mines in every part of Flintshire. The company disposed of their remain­ing property in the county, and totally withdrew from it at Mi­chaelma [...], 1792; but still they carry on very extensive mines and smelting-works in Cumberland and Northumberland, under the commissioners of Greenwich hospital, on the forfeited estates of the earl of Derwentwater.

GADLYS takes its name from the Welsh, Câd, an army, and Llys, signifying the royal head quarter, or palace. Near the works stood a large mount, on which might have been a castelet, the residence of some of our princes.

BETWEEN this place and Pentre Bagillt is another eminence of antient celebrity, Bryn Dychwelwch, so named from Bryn, a hill, and Dychwelwch, return! being traditionally said to have been the place from which Henry II. gave his order for retreat, when he was engaged with the Welsh, in 1157, with his whole army, in Coleshill, in the same difficulties as he had just [Page 263] before experienced in the depth of Coed Eulo. BATTLE OF COLESHILL. In this action his forces were again defeated, and Eustace Fitz John, a baron first in rank, wealth, and abilities among the English; and Robert de Courci, another great baron, with numbers of others, were slain. Henry de Essex, hereditary standard-bearer, and a man of ap­proved valor, was seized with a panic; and flinging down the standard, cried out, that the king was killed! The route would have been general, if the king had not valiantly rallied his forces and repulsed the Welsh; but in the end he thought it prudent to withdraw his army, and encamp in a secure station. He after­wards attempted, by decamping from the shore, and endeavoring to get into the interior part of the country, to cut off Owen's re­treat into the mountains *. But the wise prince, penetrating into his views, retired to a plain near St. Asaph, still called Cîl Owen, or Owen's Retreat, and from thence to a strong post named Bryn-y-Pin, defended by great ramparts and ditches. This camp lies in the parish of St. George, on a lofty rock above the church, and is now called Pen y Pare.

I RETURN from this length of road to the skirts of the town of Holywell, and enter the road to Wall-wen, ROAD TO FLINT. on the borders of the marsh, a branch of the Flint turnpike district, tacked to it by act of parlement in 1771, which had been obtained in that sessions, for enlarging the term and powers of the Mostyn district, and particu­larly adding this road, under the description of ‘from Wall-wen to the then dwelling-house of Edward Parry. This act will not terminate till 1812.—After a very short space, pass by a noble malt-kilo and granary, the property of Mr. Richard Sankey, MALT KILN. who more than once gave a very seasonable relief to the country [Page 264] in the late time of scarcity, by large importations of barley, and that with very small profit to himself. [...]E Would not repositories of grain, established and filled by parlementary sanction, be stronger prevertatives of that evil than any other? I would have no part of our wastes lie uncultivated. Our wastes have very properly the synonym of commons; for rich and poor, bordering on them, have in them proportionate rights *. If the poor man is to lose his benefit of feeding a few geese, or a few sheep, ought he not to have recompence by the greniers d'abondance, granaries of plenty, so useful to France before the miseries in which rich and poor have been involved by the chime [...]as of bram-sick politicians? If our wastes are to be generally inclosed, ought not the produce to be safely lodged in proper houses of reception, and from the boasted plenty which is to ensue, be ready, by the resource at hand, to chase away the daemon rapa­city, which has had too great a power over the dealers in the subsistence of the land. All that human wit could invent, should be practised to prevent their eluding the attempt to reduce grain to a price which might afford an honest profit to the farmer, and yet enable him to supply the poor laborer at a rate which might give him power, not only to feed his family, but to cloath them with decent rayment, an article co-essential to their comfort, and to their health.

[Page 265]AS a house of industry is now in contemplation by the parish of Holywell, is there not a possibility of allotting certain portions of the waste lands for sale, to raise a fund to carry on the work, or to give in mortgage to such persons who may be willing to advance money for so salutary a purpose?

THE town of Shrewsbury, and I may say of every manufactur­ing county, have succeeded to admiration in their attempts, and should be examples to us. This neighborhood is now filled with men of business, capable of the conduct of such works: besides, the cotton and twist company have it in their power to expend annually above £. 1800 in the town, in picking the cotton; but from the dislike of the poor to that employ, are obliged to send the materials to distant places (see p. 216.) whereby the town and neighborhood lose the expenditure of that great sum among them. We squires are less qualified for operations which require vigor and activity, but we can contribute countenance and power, equally essential to the sup­port of the design. I know the poor will be averse to it at first: but when they recollect how long they had starved under the careless care of overseers, and that they will be placed under the immediate attention of visitors consisting of their neighbors, and that they will not be removed beyond the reach of their friends and relations, whom they may see at proper times, I trust they will be satisfied. To banish the poor from the possibility of the occa­sional comfort of their dearest relatives, would be unspeakable cruelty. I, therefore, must ever condemn a county house of in­dustry, in which that essential consolation is made difficult or im­possible, to the inmates from distant parts.

[Page 266] VITRIOL-WORKS.ON gaining the summit of this road, appears a vitriol-work, the property of Mr. Donbavand, placed under the care of Mr. John Jones, of Holywell, an able chymist. His operations are di­rected to three articles: blue vitriol, or vitriol of copper, which is made by dissolving copper in oil of vitriol or acid of sulphur. After the solution has taken place, the produce is dissolved in boiling water, evaporated down to a given weight, and put in coolers to evaporate.

THE use of this species of vitriol is in dying cottons of a green or olive color, and hats and woollen cloths black; and also for making green verditer for painting in oil or water-colors,VERDITER. by precipitation with whiting.

SUGAR OF LEADTHE last article is sugar of lead, or saccharum saturni, which is lead dissolved in distilled vinegar. When the vinegar is satu­rated with the lead, it is boiled down to a given weight, and, like the blue vitriol, is put in coolers to crystallize. For the purpose of making the wort for the vinegar, twelve hundred hobbets of barley or malt had been employed in a single year; but in the late season of scarcity the proprietor totally desisted from this branch of business.

SUGAR of lead is used in the cotton printing business, for fixing the colors in the stuff dyed or printed. Such I believe to be the sole application of it from these works; but from others nearer to the capital I fear a most criminal one is frequently in practice, (for it is a most dangerous poison) I mean that of using it in the refining of white wines, or in restoring the sweetness to such which are grown sour: for this drug is the sweetest of all sweet things. It occasions to the drinkers of wines thus restored, [Page 267] or rather thus endowed with the powers of poison, numbers of maladies they cannot account for, such as colics, obstinate cos­tiveness, and paralytic affections of the limbs. Finally, we may add death itself. The fatal dinner at Salt Hill, on March 27th, 1773, which ended in the destruction of several gentle­men, supposed to have been caused by wine impregnated with this fatal drug, has been much talked of. I believe that not to have been the case. The gentlemen did not sicken till after several days. One (Mr. Pote, who had drank as the rest did) never was infected. It happened that he walked in the garden during the time a most miserable object, a pauper, had been examined, from whom the pestilential miasmata of a fever, probably of the nature of the jail-fever, had diffused themselves among the company present; for all, except Mr. Pote, sickened *. In this instance the vintners may be cleared; but since it is probable that numbers of people fall victims to their art, I wish legislature would frame a law to condemn them, not to the halter, but to the more apt punishment of swallowing a competent draught of their own Stygian liquor. Nec lex est justior ulla!—Bishop Watson (iii. 369) says, that in Germany such adulteration is punished with death. In Henry VIII.'s time, a cook was boiled to death, (I hope in his own kettle) for poisoning a number of poor at Lambeth, with the broth allotted by a pious prelate for their support.

I MUST not forget that in October last Mr. Hugh Roberts, RIBBON WEAVERS. of Little Moorfields, established on my ground, opposite to the vitriol-works, a colony of ribbon-weavers. Sixteen looms are already employed, and others continually expected.

[Page 268] [...] THE [...].FROM the summit to the shore is a most steep descent. About a quarter of a mile lower, on the right, stands the house of Bagillt-Hall, erroneously so named, it not being possessed of any m [...]ne­rial rights, nor does it stand even in the township of Bagillt; the whole road from the town of Holywell being in the township of that name, divided from the former by the bottom of the dingle which we crossed by Mr. Panton's mill.

THE house was large, had a great and handsome hall, and a good parlor, the last wainscotted with good oak, much carved about the chimney. The rest of the house consisted of a number of rooms irregularly disposed. Near it stood, as usual with our old seats, a summer-house.

THIS place is beautifully situated, the grounds slope towards the sea, and command a fine view of the Chester channel, and as far as Beeston castle, and its adjacent hills.

A FEW years ago I was obliged to pull down great part of the building. It was very old, and going fast to ruin; and the repairs would have been uselessly expensive, for the thick smoke of a great smelting-mill for lead, and of a great calcining-house for calamine, just beneath, must have ever deterred my descendants from making it their residence.

FOUNDER OF THE FAMILY.THE founder of the family was Thomas, abbot of Basingwerk, and second son to David ap Tudor, of Bychton, by Anne, daughter of John Done, of Utkinton, in the county of Chester. Our abbot was living in the year 1480, in the reign of Edward IV. and in those of Edward V. and Richard III. The reader will excuse, I hope, the repetition of the few words in which I mentioned [Page]

[...] HALL

[Page 269] that celebrated church-man, who, quitting his profession, became (what the lawyers call) a monk deraigne, and married Angharad, daughter of Guillim ap Gryffydd ap Guillim, of the great house of Penrhyn, in the county of Caernarvon. By this lady he had four sons. Edward, the eldest, succeeded to his fortunes in the parish of Holywell; Thomas, the second, became vicar of Holywell; and Nicholas, the third, succeeded to the abbotship of Basingwerk. Fourth in descent from him was John, who acquired the estate of Merton, in the parish of Whiteford, by his marriage with Mary, daughter and heir of Thomas ap Thomas ap Edward, of that house. Finally, by the marriage of his only daughter Catharine with David Pennant, of Bychton, we not only acquired the Merton estate, but all the possessions in Holywell, belonging to abbot Nicholas.

LET me not forget that Nicholas had also two sisters, one named Agnes, wife of John Griffith ap Twna; the other Margaret, wife of Gruff. Lloyd ap John of Griffith ap David.

THE house of Bagillt was probably built by Henry, second in descent from the abbot, for he is styled in the pedegree, ‘of Holywell and Bagillt, whereas his father Edward is designed of Holywell only.

FROM David, fifth brother of Henry, PENNANTS OF H [...]NDRE-FI­GILLT. sprang the family of the Pennants of Hendre figillt, in the parish of Kilken. He married Deili, daughter and heir of John ap Deio ap Jevan, of Halghton. In Kilken church-yard are several inscriptions of this branch of the family. The oldest informs us that Angharad Pennant was buried on September 25th, 1588. The last who is mentioned in the pedegree of the house is Peter, who married Barbara, daugh­ter [Page 270] of John Eyton, of Leefwood, and was cotemporary with David Pennant, of Bychton, who was living in 1664.

C [...] PEN-Y-GARTH.THERE were other branches of the house of Hendre-figillt, one settled at Pen-y-Garth, in the parish of Mold, but is now extinct. Part of the lands are now in possession of Mr. Thomas Williams, of Dolevechles, a respectable freeholder, in the parish of Kilken, in right of his great-grand-mother, Mary Pennant, a daughter of Pen-y-Garth. She was buried at Kilken, September 1st, 1693. As to the house and estate of Hendre-fig [...]lt, it has long since passed into the family of Kilken, and is at present possessed by Mostyn Edwards, esquire.

LORD PENRHYN.MY respected, but remote kinsman, Richard Pennant, baron Penrhyn, sprung from this branch of our family. He is ninth in descent from the abbot, and third from Gifford Pennant, second son of Edward Pennant, of Bagillt, by Catherine, daughter of Edward Kynaston, of Otely, in the county of Salop. He went to Jamaica, in the time of Oliver Cromwel; had a grant of lands there November 5th, 1665; settled in the parish of Clarendon, and died in 1677. His lordship's property in that island is immense, and his addition to it in the county of Caernarvon, in this his native island, is very considerable, by his marriage with Anne Susanna, daughter and heiress of the late general Warburton, of Winnington, in Cheshire. With singular fortune, by this match his lordship pos­sesses Penrhyn, the seat and estate belonging to the family of Angbarad, his distant ancestress; from whom lady Penrhyn is by her grandmother also descended. All these fortunes they enjoy with dignity, and with utility to their numerous tenantry. I particularly allude to those about Penrhyn, where he has made [Page 271] his vast slate-quarries an object of admiration to travellers, pro­fitable to himself, and the source of opulence to the surrounding country. I had not, at the publication of my Welsh Tour, oppor­tunity of informing myself about these important works; I, there­fore, give a brief sketch of their history.

WHEN his lordship came to possession of his fortunes in part of the island, he found great appearance of neglect and poverty among the tenantry; the slate-quarries, one great staple of the country, in a very low state; and the export of that valuable article did not annually exceed a thousand tons; and there were not four carts on his estate, and only three in all Nant-Frankon, and the roads scarcely passable for a horse. By his judicious management a happy reverse took place. The carriages have encreased to the present time, to rather more than a hundred broad-wheel carts and waggons.

PORT Penrhyn, formerly Aber-cegid, is now highly improved by quays for the reception of vessels; so that those of two hun­dred tons burden can lie close to them, and take in their cargo. Vessels of above three hundred tons can enter the port, but cannot get close to the quays.

BEFORE the country experienced his lordship's improving ta­lents, not above a thousand tons have been exported in the year. In 1794 the export amounted to fifteen thousand. In 1795 there was every reasonable hope that it would have increased to twenty thousand, but the tax on the slates has given it a check; though it is expected that the return of peace, and a modification of the duty, will restore the progress of the trade.

[Page 272]THE state-quarries are a few miles from the port, near the entrance into Na [...]t-Frankon. From four to five hundred men are employed in them. They live in very elegant cottages, prettily disposed in groups. Here is a butcher and a shoe-maker, but no corrupting ale-house is permitted. His lordship has built a mar­ket house, so that the workmen need not wander for the necessary provisions. Let me not forget that he erected an elegant pa­vilion, called Ogwen Bank, with a kitchen, stables, &c. which lord and lady Penrhyn often visit, either to examine into this creation of theirs, or to amuse their guests.

HIS lordship was elected member for Petersfield, in the first parlement of his present majesty; and in 1767 vacated his seat to be elected for Leverpool. He was returned in 1768, 1774, and again in 1784. In that arduous situation, his lordship dis­charged his trust with zeal, abilities, and fidelity.

EDWARD PENNANT, the last owner of Bagillt, and last of the male line (lord Penrhyn excepted) died at Marseilles, on March 2d, 1 [...]8; and was there interred. In 1766 he disposed of to me by sale all the estates in the township of Holywell. And soon after he retired into France, he bequeathed the remainder of his for­tunes to his cousin Thomas Cratchley, who dying, left them to Roger Barnston, esquire, of Chester.

M [...]. H [...]S OF [...].FROM Bagillt-hall I descended into the township of Bagillt, through the turnpike-gate at Wall-wen. Immediately on the left hand, in Holywell township, is a small house, and small patrimony, the property of the Reverend Thomas Hughes, a curate of twelve years standing, of good morals, decent, and modest. His family, [Page 273] and two other families not remote from him, had long possessed respectable freeholds of fifty pounds a-year each. ‘Time and chance happeneth to all men.’ Our humble curate is far distanced by the other two. He remains a drudge in his pro­fession, honestâ pauperie, resulting from fraternal affection, in ex­erting every nerve to support two sisters, who rest on him for the poor pittance he can afford to give.

AFTER passing the turnpike-gate, I find myself on the conti­nuance of the turnpike-road from Greenfield to Flint. The dis­tance from the Greenfield gate to Flint is only four miles. Let me add, that within little more than one mile from the fountain of St. Wenefrede, at Holywell, to the gate just mentioned, Britain may be challenged to shew, on an equal space, a similar assemblage of commercial buildings, or of capitals employed in erecting and in carrying on their several objects. I refer the reader back to p. 203, for an account of those upon the Holywell stream. I re­sume the chain of commerce, from the copper-forge, the lowest link, which reaches to the very road.

A LITTLE to the right of the turnpike-gate, the little rill Nant-hil-brwe divides the small township of Whelstone from that of Holywell. This tract, of which I have the tythes, is one of the portions of Bagillt township, which is very large, and subdi­vided into two others, Bagillt-sawr, and Bagillt-fechan.

ON the side of the rill stand the works called the River Bank, established on my land, by lease dated September 22, 1785,RIVER BANK WORKS. granted to Messrs. William Roe and Edward Hawkins. These buildings are employed for the double purposes of calcining ca­lamine for the brass-works at Cheadle and Macclesfield, and for [Page 274] the smelting lead-ore. It has the advantage of a small stream, which improves the operation of the latter.

IT turns two wheels, one of which is twenty-four feet in dia­meter, and from the size and breadth makes a noble appearance. At each end of these wheels is a balance-wheel; one of them sets the great refining bellows in motion, the other that of the slag­hearth.

HERE is also a curious contrivance for saving the calx of the lead-ore, which would otherwise have gone away in smoke. It besides lessens the bad effects on the grounds above. For this purpose two brick flues have been constructed, one from each furnace; each of them is horizontal, and is supported by three arches, and over each is a channel to contain a small current of water, for the purpose of turning the wheels, and also to con­dense the smoke in its passage. These flues converge, and meet a little beyond the third arch, and terminate in the condensing room, to the walls of which the calx adheres. This room is opened three times a-year: the calx is taken out, and re-smelted with some profit.

THE two flues, in issuing out of the building, are united in one, and are continued, forming a right angle for a very considerable way. Out of the end rises a vertical flue, forty-three feet high, out of which the smoke issues. The length of the horizontal flues which pass over the arches is fifty-seven feet; of the single one which passes from the room which catches the calx, is two hundred and ten feet.

BAGILLT UPPER WORKS.ABOUT three quarters of a mile farther on the bank, above the road, stands a large smelting-work, originally built by virtue of a [Page 275] lease granted, in 1727, by Roger and Edward Pennant, esquires, of Bagillt, to Francis St [...]l [...]y and Nicholas Twig. It was after­wards rebuilt, and passed through various hands; the Smed­lies, father and sons; Henry Vigars, of Eaton, whose widow sold it to the Gadlys company. That expiring corporation possessed it only from about Michaelm [...]s 1783, after descending from their ancient works at Gadlys. In 1792 it again changed masters, and was sold by the company to Mr. John Griffith and Mr. Robert Aslett, of London.

BELOW them, on the road-side,LOWER WORKS. were works of greater anti­quity. Those were in possession of two lessees before the year 1717. The first was Mr. Thomas White; the last was a gen­tleman well known by the name of Major Roberts. He was of the antient house of Plashewydd, near Ruthin. His lease was surrendered, and a new one granted, in 1717, by Roger Pennant, esquire, to Mr. Benjamin Perrin, father to our respectable coun­tryman, Sir Richard Perrin, baron of the exchequer. I remem­ber them standing; but soon after they became a heap of ruins, and at present their place is scarcely known.

A MR. Warren came into this country in 1794, and built,D [...]E BANK. on the land of Roger Barnston, esquire, a smelting-house, on a new construction. But it was scarcely warmed, when it was disposed of to a Mr. Langworthy, mineral agent to earl Grosvenor!

THE collieries near these works have been very considerable.COLLIERIES. I remember, about forty years ago, there was between twenty and thirty thousand tons of coal upon bank, the greatest quan­tity, perhaps, ever seen together. The pits were then worked by the Gadlys company. The company had imprudently given [Page 276] their agent, one Lancester, an unlimited order for raising the coal. This he found so profitable to himself, that he never de­sisted till the discovery was made of his selfish views. To ex­pedite the working, he engaged numbers of colliers from New­castle, and was the first in this country who made use of horses under ground. The coal might have lain on the bank to this day, if a dispute had not rose between the city of Dublin and the coal-adventurers at Whitehaven. This occasioned the citi­zens of Dublin to purchase this great stock, which was all carried away before the differences were settled.

FOR a considerable time after this glut of coal, the collieries declined greatly, and became very low, till they were revived of late years by the spirit and perseverance of Mr. Roger Ellis, of Cornish, in the parish of Flint, who has erected a powerful fire-engine on the road-side, between Greenfield turnpike-gate and Flint, and raises great quantities of that important re­quisite.

NANT-Y-MOCH.QUIT the township of Bagillt, after crossing a little rill, issuing out of Nant-y-moch, or the dingle of the hogs. Here we enter the township of Coleshill-fawr. On the right, on an eminence, are the smelting-works, built by the grandfather of the present Sir Richard Perrin, whose father continued the works, and lived at Farm, till he took up his residence at Flint. About the year 1755, a new company was formed by Paul Panton, esquire, under the firm of himself, the Reverend Thomas Ince, and Charles Pigot, esquire.

COLESHILL.THE Doomsday-Book informs us, that at the time of the com­pilation of that record, Coleselt was held by Robert de Roelent, or [Page 277] Ruddlan, a valiant Norman, nephew to Hugh Lupus, earl of Chester. Edwyn held it of Robert, and as a freeman. There was one taxable hide of land, a land of one caruca, or a plough-land. On C [...]l [...]silt, was one Radman, four villeyns, and two boors. The Radman was the same with the Rod or Rad-knights, who by the tenure of their land w [...]re bound to ride with or for their lord, and to guard him [...] lady as often as they were required.

THIS township took its name from the abundance of coal which is produced. At present it gives name to one of the hundreds of the county. In the Doomsday-Book this township is placed in the hundred of Atiscros, a name which would have been lost, was it not retained in a tract called Croes-ati, a certain space round a cross, not remote from Flint, the pedestal of which I remember standing.

BENEATH the smelting-work is a neat building for the purpose of calcining calamine, held by lease granted by Mr. Panton, A CALCINING-WORK. June 24th, 1794, to Mr. Thomas Davies, of Smethwick, Stafford­shire, and the company known by the name of the Smethwick Brass Company.

Paul Panton, esquire, is lord of the manor of Coleshill, and,MANOR OF COLESHILL. till the marriage of his father, the family inhabited the manor-house, which of late years has been considerably enlarged and improved.

THE Pantons were a Denbighshire family,PANTON FAMILY. possessed of large property in Llanvair-Talhaiarn, Llanyfydd, Henllan, and other parishes. John Panton quitted Plâs-Panton, the antient resi­dence, a great house, called New Plâs-Panton. (See its unfor­tunate history in the Tour in Wales, ii. p. 52.) He married [Page 278] Alice, fourth daughter of Sir William B [...]th, of D [...]ham-Masse, in Ch [...]sire. He was secretary to the [...]rd chancellor Ellesmere, and represented the borough of Denhigh, in the [...]9th and 43d of Elizabeth; and the borough of Harwich, in the 1st of James I. He disinherited his son Thomas, and left his large possessions to his only daughter A [...]thea, who married the lord [...]and [...]-de-la-Vine, in Hampshire *.

Thomas, the disinherited son of this John, by his industry and skill in agriculture, became enabled to purchase this lordship, in 1617, of the first earl of Bridgewater, son of the lord chancellor Egerton. At the time when paper credit was little known, to him was intrusted cash to be conveyed to London, which, by a letter of Pyers Pennant's, I find he did in person. The manor has continued in the family from his time. In 1753, the present gentleman improved it greatly, by an embankment from the sea, which in parts is productive of most excellent wheat, &c. &c.

THE first I find of the line of the Pantons, is Jevan Panton, twelfth in descent from March-weithian, one of the fifteen tribes of North Wales. His wife was daughter and heir of Bennet, fourteenth in descent from Marchudd, another of the fifteen tribes. Their history, and their several descendants, are given in the Appendix to this Work.

ALL the coast of Whiteford and Holywell parishes are more particularly subject than the drier parts to pleurisies,DISEASES. intermittents, and fevers of the putrid kinds. The last chiefly in the places where the poorer people are obliged to crowd into small apart­ments, [Page 279] by which the air soon becomes soul, and produces this species of fever.

A CRUEL kind of quinzy has of late years infested these pa­rishes, and others adjacent. In 1794 it raged particularly in the township of Greenfield, and parish of Halkin, and made dreadful havock among children from the age of three to that of five. The average loss was four or five in seven. In this visitation the disease did not attack adults; not that instances are wanting in other places of its attacking grown-up persons. In September, 1771, a Mr. Poole, his wife and mother, were buried in one vault in Bunhill-fields. His daughter fell a victim also, and made the sum of the family, who died at the same time, and by the same malignant disorder.

THE name given by the learned to this fatal disease, is angina maligna, and cynanche maligna. Cynanche, because the patients are often observed to protrude their tongue far out of their mouth, like an over-heated dog.

THE symptoms are too terrible for description. They may uselessly affect parents, who may safely trust to the medical peo­ple for the knowlege of them, for they are by no means equivo­cal; but, if any one's curiosity is excited, it may be satisfied by the perusal of the works of the late Dr. Fothergill, p. 198. and Dr. Huxham's Essays, p. 286. It seems to have been one of the Nova Cohors Febrium. It was first observed in Spain, in 1610, from whence it spread into Malta, Sicily, Otr [...]nto, Apulia, Calabria, and, finally, in 1618, it broke out at Naples. It also appeared in the Archipelago, when Tournefort (see his Travels, i. [Page 280] p. 132.) was in Milo, in the year 17 [...]0. In Spain it got the name of garrotillo, from the horrible noise made by the patients, like that of persons strangled by a rope.

THIS fatal disorder reached England in 1739. Its first victims were two sons of Mr. Pelham, on the 27th of November of that year. After this it seemed to disappear, but began again in 1742; and with great fatality in 1746, when several of the in­habitants of Brom [...]y, near Bow, lost most of their children. From Dr. Huxham we learn, that in 1751 it visited C [...]wall; and from the latter part of that year, to May 1753, carried off numbers of children, and some adults.

IN the year 1743 it appeared in North Wales. From March 5th to March 10th, our late worthy vicar, the Reverend Griffith Griffith, buried three children. It was too much for his paternal feelings, and ever after greatly hurt his mind. And in the year 1744/5 that calamity visited the county of Caernarvon; and from January 28th to February 9th, the late Sir Thomas Mostyn, ba­ronet, at Gloddaeth, in Caernarvonshire, lost four. These were observed to have been the only instances of the disease in their respective neighborhoods.

I CANNOT trace the progress of this disease any farther north­ward than my own country. If it has not made any advances towards the colder climates, it may be deemed a malady of the warm and temperate parts of Europe.

THAT it has found its way to the New World, appears from the following instances. In 1746 it visited many parts of North America, from Philadelphia to New-York and New-England, and [Page 281] with a rage unknown in Great-Britain; for in New-England it depopulated whole villages. And that it either continues on the continent, or has re-visited it, is evident from its having appeared in New York, in the year 1771.

THE cynanche trachialis, or croup, has appeared here too fre­quently. A few years ago it destroyed not fewer than six chil­dren in the family of a respectable farmer in a neighboring parish.

THE smelting-works at Flint are at a very small distance from the eastern boundary of Holywell. FLINT SMELLING-WORKS. The division of the parish of Flint from that of the latter, is by a rill not far from the town of Flint. The works are of great antiquity. They are here men­tioned as the last link of the chain of metallic operations along the shore. There is no limiting the antiquity of the smelting-works; for we have proofs of very considerable ones having been near the town of Flint, at a place called Croes Ati, which is evident from the quantity of scoria of lead, bits of lead-ore, and frag­ments of melted lead, discovered in several places. I refer the reader, for a full account of them, and of the various antiquities met with on the spot, to p. 52. vol. i. of my Welsh Tour, which evince that they had been Roman works; so that it is probable there had been a succession of smelting-hearths in one part or other of this county, even to the present day.

TO return to the works in question. They are frequently known by the name of the salt-works; which possibly implies that the site had been occupied by works of that nature, prior to the existence of the smelting-works. They have been occu­pied [Page 282] by several companies: at present by Mr. Richard Ingleby, of Halkin.—May success be his reward, for the seasonable and useful importation of barley in the late time of scarcity; a cri­tical relief to the numerous miners on the adjacent mountains, in which he had no more interest than in the rest of the human race!




The Five Royal Tribes of Cambria, from the 'British Antiquities revived:' By ROBERT VAUGHAN, Esquire, of Hengwrt, in Merionethshire.


GRYFFITH AP CYNAN, King of North Wales, is the first registered in our books. He was the grand-child of prince Jago ap Edwal, whose son Cynan was forced to fly into Ireland for safety, where he married Ranullt, daughter of Auloedd, king of Dublin, Man, and the Isles, and the relict of Mathganyn, king of Ulster, and had issue by her this Griffith.* He beareth gules, three lioncels passant in pale barry argent, armed azure.

  • WYNNES, of Pengwern, Merionethshire.
  • [Page 284]WYNNES, of Gwyd [...], C [...]r [...]shire.
    • of Wynnsta [...], D [...]shire.
    • of Bod [...]an, and [...]e [...]dd [...], Caernarvorshire.
    • of Convey, Caernarvonshire.
    • of Maes M [...] D [...]ighshir [...].
    • of Ystym [...]g [...]d.
    • of Clynenney, Caernarvonshire.
  • LLOYD, of Rhiw [...]d [...]g, Merion [...]hshire, now Dolbe [...].
  • POWELL, of Penmachus, Caernarvonshire.
  • DAVIES, of Tal-llyntardeni, Merionethshire.
  • PRYSE, of Yscarweddan, Merionethshire.
  • ANWYL, of Park.


RHYS AP TEWDWR MAWR, (the second Royal Tribe) who took upon him the government of South Wales A. D. 1077. —Gules, a lion rampant o [...], within a bordure indented.

  • WYNNES, of Dole Bachog.
    • of Llan Erfyl, Montgomeryshire.
  • ST. OWEN AP GWILIM, of Tal-y-llyn, Merionethshire.
  • WYNN, of Coed-llai, or Leeswood, Flintshire.
  • OWEN, of Cefn Hafod.
  • [Page 285] LLOYDS, of Pl [...]s uwch Cla [...]dd, Denbighshire.
  • POWE [...], of [...]idio.
  • EVANS, of Ire Gastell.
  • JONES, of Hain.


BLETHYN AP CYNFYN, (the third Royal Tribe) was King of North Wales, and Prince of Powys *. And after the death of Meredith ap Owain ap Edwyn, (prince of South Wales) he became King of all Wales.—Or, a lion rampant gules, armed and langued or.

  • KYNASTON, of Hardwick, Shropshire.
  • VAUGHANS, of Golden Grove, Caermarthenshire.
  • LLOYD, of Cwm-bychan, Merionethshire.
    • of Blaen Glynn, Merionethshire.
  • KYNASTONS, of Hordley.
    • of Ottley.
  • [Page 286] K [...]ONS, of Morton.
    • of Llwyn-y-Mapsis.
    • of P [...]rt-y-Byrsley.
  • WILLIAMS, of H [...]mbroke, Huntingdonshire, of whom Cromwell, the Protector.
  • NANNEYS, of Nanney, Merienethshire.
  • MAURICES, of Ll [...]ran, Shrepshire.
  • KYFFINS, of Bodfach, Montgomeryshire.
    • of Ma [...]nan, Caernarvonshire.
    • of Glasgoed, Shropshire.
  • TANATS, of Abertanat, Montgomeryshire.
  • MEREDYDD, of Glantanat, Montgomeryshire.
  • POWELS, of Whittington, Shropshire.
  • JONES, of Treweithian.
  • MAESMOR, of Maesmor, Denbighshire.
  • HUGHES, of Gwerclas, Merionethshire.


ETHELYSTAN GLODRYDD, (the fourth Royal Tribe) Prince of the * country between Wye and Severn. He was the son of Cyhelyn ap Ifor, by Rhiengar, the daughter and heir of Gronw ap Tudor Trevor, from whom he had derived to him the title of the earldom of Hereford. Athelstan, King of England, was his god-father.—Ethelystan, (or, as he is sometimes called, [Page 287] Elystan) b [...]e two coats quartered, azure, three [...] heads caboched sable, langued gules, tusked or. His mother's [...], parted per bend sinister ermine and ermines; over all a lion rampant or.

  • CLYN, of Clyn, Shropshire.
  • PRICES, of Cery, Montgomeryshire.
    • of Bodfach, Montgomeryshire.
    • of Newtown, Montgomeryshire.
    • of Penarth.
    • of Park.
    • of Pilale, Radnorshire.
    • of Llanbister.
  • OLIVERS, of Nevoddwen,
    • of Llangyniw.
  • LLOYDS, of Cery, Montgomeryshire.
    • of Mochdre.
  • WYNNS, of Gellidywyll.
    • of Llanfendigedd.
  • OWEN, of Rhiw Saeson, Montgomeryshire.
  • PHILIPS, of Llan Ddewi.
  • VAUGHANS, of Bugeildy.
    • of Pant-y-Garreg.
  • MEREDYDD, of Llanasan.
  • OWEN, of Morbend.
  • MORRIS, of Cery, Montgomeryshire.
  • [Page 288] JAMES, of Croesgynan, Montgomeryshire.
  • MATTHEWS, of Bl [...]dwell, Shropshire.
    • of Mochdre.
  • POWELL *, of W [...]yn and Ednop, Shropshire.


JESTYN AP GWRGANT, (the fifth Royal Tribe) was Prince or Lord of Glamorgan; he descended from Tewdrie, King of Gwent, in King Arthur's time. He lost his country to Robert Fitzhamon, and his twelve knights; whom by the pro­curement of Einion ap Cadisor ap Collwyn, he had hired to come with an army to assist him against Rhys ap Tewdwr, Prince of South Wales, and Blethyn ap Maenyrch, Lord of Brecknock. As a judgment upon him, for his disloyalty to the said Rhys, his sovereign, God was pleased suddenly to punish treachery with treachery.

Rhys and Blethyn, after a very bloody battle (not far from Brecknock) were slain in the field.—Gules, three cheveronels in pale argent.

  • [Page 289]WILLIAMS *, of Tame. Earl of Abingdon.
  • NEWTONS, of Heathley.
  • JONES, of Craflwyn, Caernarvonshire.
    • of Dôl in Edeirnion, Merionethshire.
    • of Dôl-y-Môch, Merionethshire.
  • MYTTLEY, of Myttley.

PRINCE Griffith ap Cynan, Rhys ap Tewdwr, and Blethyn ap Cynfyn, made diligent search for the arms, ensignes, and pede­grees of their ancestors, the nobility and kings of the Britons. What they discovered by their pains, in any papers and records, was afterwards, by the bards, digested and put into books. And they ordained five royal tribes, (there being only three before) from whom their posterity to this day can derive themselves: and also fifteen special tribes, of whom the gentry of North Wales are, for the most part, descended. And in our books we have mention of the tribe of March, &c. besides other tribes called Gwehelyth, and Gwehelaethau.

The Fifteen Tribes of North Wales; from a [...]. in the Possession of the Reverend L. Owen.


HWFA * AP CYNDDELW (the first of the fifteen tribes) lived in the time of Owain Gwynedd, Prince of North Wales. Some books of pedegrees allege that he was steward to the said Prince . His office, by inheritance, was to bear the Prince's coronet, and to put it upon his head when the Bishop of Bangor anointed him, (as Nicholas, Bishop of Bangor, affirmeth). His house, I believe, was Presaddsed, in Anglesey. What lordships he had besides that, are mentioned, in the Extent of North Wales, to be divided among his five sons, viz. Methu­salem, Cysnerth, Jeuan, Jorwerth, and Blettrws. Many of the gentlemen of Anglesey hold lands from him by lineal descent, but who his heir is, I know not. Sir Howel-y-Pedolau was a fa­mous man in his time, and descended from him, being the son of Griffith ap Jorwerth ap Meredydd ap Methusalem ap Hwfa ap Cynddelw. Sir Howel's mother was King Edward the Second's [Page]


[Page 291] nurse; and he being the King's foster-brother, was in great fa­vor with him, who knighted him. He was a very strong man, insomuch that he could break or straiten horse-shoes with his hands.—His arms he beareth gules between three lioncels rampant, a cheveron or.

  • OWEN, of Bodeon, Anglesey; and Orielton, Pembrokeshire,
    • of Penrhos, Montgomeryshire.
  • WILLIAMS, of Llanbeder.
  • BOULD, of Tre'r Ddôl.
  • OWEN, of Porkinton, Shropshire.
    • of Llanvaethley.
  • MORRIS, of Tre Jorwerth.
  • WYNNES, of Bodychen, Anglesey.
    • of Bodowyr, Anglesey.
  • GRIFFITHS, of Chwaen, Anglesey.
  • LEWIS, of Presaddfed, Anglesey.


* LLOWARCH AP BRAN, (the second of the fifteen tribes) lived in the time of Owain Gwynedd, and was the Prince's bro­ther-in-law, for both their wives were sisters, the daughters of [Page 292] Grono ap Owain ap Edwyn, Lord of Tegaingle, (as Griffith Hirae­thog, and Sir Thomas ap Jevan ap Dei [...]ws, and also an old parch­ment MS. written about four hundred years ago, do testify.) What office he bore under the Prince, I do not know. Some say he was Owain's steward, as in a book of Sir Thomas ap Williams of Trefri [...], I found. I believe he dwelled in the township which from him is called Tref Llowarch, which hath in it Caer Gybi, (or Holyhead) and three parcels of land, bearing the name of his three sons, viz. Gwely Jorwerth ap Llowarch, Gwely Cadwgan ap Llowarch, and Gwely Madoc ap Llowarch, as in the Extent of North Wales is manifest. He had a grand-child by his son Jerwerth, called Meredydd, who, for his good services, had the freehold of the township of Eskyniok given him and his heirs for ever, by Prince Llewelyn ap Jerwerth; whose posterity, viz. Jeuan * Wyddel, and Tudur ap Howel ap Tudur, held the same by the grant aforesaid, in the twenty-sixth year of King Edward the Third, as is to be seen in the Extent Book of North Wales. Jeuan Wyddel's mother was the daughter of the Lord Cywchwr in Ireland, descended of the Earl of Kildare, of whom the gentlemen of Mosoglen, Bodowyr, Porthamal, and many others are descended.—He beareth argent, between three crows with er­mine in their bills, a cheveron sable.

  • LLOYDS, of Rhiwgoch, Merionethshire.
    • of Maes-y-Neuoedd, Merionethshire.
    • of Hendre 'r Mûr, Merionethshire.
  • [Page 293] LLOYDS, of Bryn Hir.
    • of Coed-y-Rhygyn.
    • of Llandecwyn.
    • of Cefnfaes.
    • of Cae Adda.
  • WYNN, of Mosoglen.
  • PRICE, of Bodowyr, Anglesey.
  • PARRY, of Bodafon, Anglesey.
  • GRIFFITH, of Celynnog fawr, Caernarvonshire.
  • MEREDYDD, of Monachdy Gwyn.
    • of Hafod Lwyfog.
    • of Porthamal.
  • OWEN, of Ruthin, Denbighshire.


GWEIRYDD AP RHYS GOCH, of the hundred of Tal-Ebolion in Anglesey. He dwelt at Caerdegog, the hamlets and tenements whereof bear the names of his children and grand­children, as Gwely Madoc ap Gweirydd, Gwely Llowarch ap Gweirydd, Gwely Howel ap Gweirydd, and Gwely Meuric ap Gweirydd, whose great grand-child Howel ap Jeuan ap Ednyfed ap Meuric ap Gweirydd, enjoyed Gwely Meuric, in the twenty-sixth year of Edward III.—* He beareth argent on a bend sable, [Page 294] three lions' heads caboched of the first. He lived in the time of Owain Gwynedd, and of his son David ap Owain.

  • FOULKES, of Gwernygron, Flintshire.
  • LLOYD, of Gwaredog, Anglesey.
  • WYNN, of Bodewryd, Anglesey.
  • HUGHES, of Beaumaris, Anglesey.


CILMIN TROED-DU * lived in the time of Merfyn Frych , King of Man, being his brother's son, with whom he came from the north of Britain, when Merfyn married Esyllt, the daughter and heir of Conan Tindaethwy, king of the Britons. What of­fices he bore, I have not been able to find out. His posterity were wise and discreet men, in all their ages; and many of them were learned in the laws in the time of the kings and princes of Wales, and were judges; as Morgeneu Ynad ap Gwrydr, and Cyfnerth his son, whose Law-Book is yet extant, fairly written on [Page 295] parchment; Morgeneu Ynad ap Madoc; Morgan Ynad ap Meuric, and Madoc Gôch Ynad. Robert ap Meredydd ap Hwlkin Llwyd, a wise and couth gentleman, lived in the time of Henry the Seventh; and of him are descended the Glynns of Nanlley. His house, I believe, was Glynllifon, whence some of his descendants took the name of Glynn.—He beareth quarterly 1, argent, an eagle displayed with two heads sable; 2, argent, three fiery ragged sticks, gules; the 3d as the second; the 4th as the first. Over all, upon an escutcheon of pretence argent, a man's leg coupé a la cuisse, sable.

  • GLYNNS, of Hawarden Castle, Flintshire.
    • of London.
  • HUGHES, of Bodryn.
  • GLYNNS, of Glynllifon, Caernarvonshire.
    • of Lleyar, Caernarvonshire.
    • of Nanlley, Caernarvonshire.


COLLWYN AP TANGNO is said to be Lord of Efionydd Ardudwy, and part of Llŷn: and it is true, that his progeny have, and do to this day, possess and enjoy the greatest part of the said [Page 296] country. His grand-children Asser, Meirion, and Gwgan, the sons of Merwydd ap Collwyn, lived in the beginning of Griffith ap Cynan's time, as by the Life * of the said Griffith is manifest, whereby may be known what time Collwyn lived and flourished. It is said that he lived some time in Bronwen's tower at Harlech, calling the same town after his own name Caer-Collwyn. But his said grand-children, when Griffith ap Cynan challenged the principality of Wales, lived in Llŷn, as in the said book of his life is extant. His posterity were always the noblest and best men in Efionydd and Ardudwy, next to the princes and their issue. His heir, from eldest son to eldest son, is hard to be known, in regard that by the British laws every man's inheritance was to be divided among his children, and the youngest son had the principal house; whereby every one having an equal portion of his parent's land, his posterity was forgotten.—He beareth sable, between three flower-de-luces a cheveron argent.

SIR Howel-y-Fwyall , descended of Collwyn, was a noble warrior, and was in the battle of Poictiers with the Black Prince, when the French King was taken prisoner: where, with his pole­ax, he behaved himself so valiantly, that the prince made him a knight, and allowed a mess of meat to be served before his ax or partizan for ever, to perpetuate the memory of his good ser­vice: which mess of meat, after his death, was carried down to be given to the poor for his soul's sake; and the said mess had eight yeoman-attendants found at the king's charge, which were [Page 297] afterwards called Yeomen of the Crown, who had eight-pence a day of standing wages, and lasted to the beginning of the reign of Elizabeth: (as by the relation of Serjeant Roberts, of Hasod-y-Bŵch, near Wrexham, and Robert Turbridge, of Caerfallen, near Ruthin, esquire, is recorded in the history of the noble house of Gwydir, wherein you may find this relation more at large.) Besides, he had the constableship of the castle of Crickieth, where he kept house; and the rent of Dee-mills at Chester, for the term of his life. His father was Griffith ap Howel ap Meredydd ap Einion ap Gwrganen ap Merwydd ap Collwyn.— His arms * were sable, between three flower-de-luces a pole-ax argent.

  • WILLIAMS, of Aberarch, Caernarvonshire.
  • BODWRDA, of Bodwrda, Caernarvonshire.
  • BODVELS, of Madryn, Caernarvonshire.
  • JONES, of Castell March, Caernarvonshire.
  • WYNN, of Pant-du.
    • of Pennardd.
    • of Bodsanan.
  • [Page 298] WYNN, of Pen-y-Berth.
    • of Pen Coed.
  • LLOYD, of Bodfan.
    • of Gardd.
    • of Dol-y-Penrhyn.
  • RHYDDERCHS, of Tregaenan.
  • VAUGHANS, of Plâs Hên, Caernarvonshire.
    • of Perkin, Merionethshire.
  • OWEN, of Plâs-du, Merionethshire.
    • of Maentwrog, Merionethshire.
  • ELLIS, of Ystymllyn, Caernarvonshire.


NEFYDD HARDD, of Nant Conwy, lived in the time of Owain Gwynedd, who gave Idwal his son to be fostered by him; but Nefydd, for what cause I know not, caused Dunawt his son to kill the young prince, at a place called of him Cwm Idwal. Wherefore Nefydd and his posterity were degraded, and of gen­tlemen were made bond-men of Nant Conwy. His son Rhûn, to expiate that foul murder, gave the lands whereon the church of Llanrwst was built, whose grand-child, (and Madoc Gôch ap Jor­werth ap Gwrgynon ap Cyfnerth, his son) were stewards to Llewelyn ap Jorwerth, Prince of Wales, (as Griffith Hiraethog says.) He dwelled at Crygnant, as I take it, near Llanrwst.* He beareth argent, three spears' heads imbrued, sable pointed upwards.

  • [Page 299]EVAN MORGAN *, of Gwibernant, Caernarvonshire.
  • EVANS, of Llanrwst.
  • DAVIES, of Coed-y-Mynydd.


MAELOC CRWM, of Llechwedd-isaf, and Creuddyn , lived in the time of Prince David ap Owain Gwynedd, about the year of our Lord 1175, (as Sir Thomas ap Williams' book averreth). What offices he bore, I have not learned. The most famous men descended of him were, Sir Thomas Chaloner, and others of that name, descended of David Chaloner, of Denbigh, whose ancestor Trahaiarn Chaloner was so called, because his grand­father Madoc Crwm of Chaloner had lived in a town in France called Chaloner, whence he took that name.—He beareth argent, on a cheveron sable, three angels or.

  • CHALONERS, of Gisborough, Yorkshire.
  • THOMAS, of Caer Pill.


MARCHUDD AP CYNAN, Lord of Abergeleu: His house was Bryn Ffenigl. He lived, (as Sir Thomas ap Williams' book saith) in the time of Rodri Mawr *, king of the Britons, about the year of our Lord 849 . Of him was Ednyfed Fychan de­scended, who being general of the prince's host, was sent to the Marches, to defend the frontiers from the approach of the English army, which was ready to invade them, under the command of Ranulph, earl of Chester, (who met them) and killed three of their chief captains and commanders, and a great many of the common soldiers. The rest he put to flight, and triumphantly returned to his prince; who, in recompence of his good service, gave him, among many gifts and honors, a new coat of arms; for the coat, which he and his ancestors had always given before, was the coat of Marchudd, being gules, a Saracen's head erased proper, wreathed or.—The new coat was thus displayed, gules between three Englishmen's heads couped, a cheveron ermin.—From the death of the last Llewelyn, Ednyfed's posterity were the greatest men of any in Wales, (as by the works of the bards and records is very manifest.) If I should go about to reckon all the famous men descended of him, it would require more time than I can well spare. Let it be sufficient to remember Henry the Seventh, king [Page 301] of England, Henry the Eighth, Edward the Sixth, Queen Mary, and Queen Elizabeth, all of whom were descended lineally and paternally of Ednyfed Fychan, who likewise was descended of Marchudd.

  • WYNNS, of Melay, now Lord Newborough.
    • of Garthewyn.
  • FOULKES, of Eriviet.
  • LLOYDS, of Plâs Madog, in Llansannan; now of Plâs Power.
  • * PRICE, of Maentwrog, Merionethshire; now of Gerddi Bluog.
  • MORGAN, of Gwlgre, Flintshire.
  • GRIFFITH, of Garreg Lwyd.
  • WYNNS, of Dyffryn Aled, Denbighshire.
    • of Trefarth.
  • ROBERTS, of Gwasane, Flintshire.
  • LLOYD, of Gydros.
  • [Page 302] LLOYD, of Dôl.
    • of Trebul.
  • HUGHES, Bishop of St. Asaph.
  • SMITH, Chancellor of St. Asaph.
  • VAUGHANS, of Hen Blâs and Bronheulog.
  • LLEWELIN, of Llanelian.
  • JENKIN, of Efenechtyd.
  • COL. JONES, the Regicide *.
  • WILLIAMS, of Cochwillan, Maenol, Marl, Meillionydd, and Ystumcolwyn.
  • CONWAY, of Nant.
  • GRIFFITH, of Festiniog.
  • HUGHES, of Cefn y Garlleg.


HEDD MOLWYNOG , of Uwch-aled, (as Sir Thomas ap Williams' book hath it) was steward to Prince David ap Owain. His lands and lordships were Llanfair Talybaern, Dyffryn Elwy, and Nanbaled, the which his three sons, viz. Meuter, Gwillonon, and Gwrgi, divided, and their posterity have enjoyed, and do still enjoy, some part of them. Rhys ap Jeuan ap Llewelyn Chwith of Chwibren, was an esquire of the body to King Edward the Fourth (as the book of Evan Lloyd Jeffrey hath it): he and his [Page 303] cousin-german, David Jenkin, were very turbulent in the Lancas­trian war.

Meuric Llwyd, of Llwyn y Maen, near Oswestry, was a valiant captain under the earl of Arundel, who by his prowess atchieved a very noble coat of arms, viz. The field argent, an eagle displayed with two heads sable.

And here, I think, Jolo Gôch *, Owain Glyndwr's bard, whose mother was the Countess of Lincoln, (as Griffith Hiraethog saith) may well bear a place among the worthy descendants of this tribe; who, for his lofty strain, and singular skill in British poetry, was and is as famous and renowned as any that hath been these four hundred years.—And also Tudur Aled, another learned bard, and a doctor of the chair in his profession: but their learned works will make them famous and ever glorious.— He beareth sable, a hart passant argent, attired or.

  • LLOYDS , of Havodunnos, Denbighshire.
    • of Llwyn-y-Maen, near Oswestry.
    • of Llanforda.
    • of Dre-newydd, in Whittington parish.
    • of Blaen-y-Ddôl.
  • PARRY, of Llangerniw.
  • [Page 304] WYNN, of Bryn Cynrick.
  • GRIFFITHS, of Bodychwyn.
    • of Hafod-y-Garreg.
    • of Blaen Iâl, Denbighshire.
    • of Plâs Newydd.


BRAINT HIR, of Is-dulas, lived, as I conjecture, about the time of the sons of Roderic * the Great. His posterity did not much increase, for there are not many, at present, known to be descended from him, yet some there are.—His arms are vert, a cross flowery or.

  • VAUGHANS, of Pont-y-Gwyddel. Mrs. Gifford, of Nerquis.


MARCHWEITHIAN was called Lord of Is-aled; his lands were Carwed Fynydd, Dincadfael, Prees, Beryn, Llyweni, Gwy­therin, and many other townships within the hundred of Is-aled, [Page 305] as appears by the extent of the lordship and honor of Denbigh, made in the eighth year of Edward the Third; at what time, Cynwric Fychan, being the ninth in descent from Marchweithian, lived; whereby some aim may be made at the time he flourished.

THE families and houses descended of him are many, but the most eminent are these, Berain, formerly incorporated to the house of Llyweni, by the marriage of Mrs. Catherine, of Perain *, the daughter and heir of Tudor ap Robert Fychan, of Berain, esquire, with John Salisbury, the son and heir of Sir John Salisbury, of Llyweni, knight; after whose death she married Richard Clough, esquire, of Denbigh, a rich merchant; after whose decease she married Maurice Wynne, of Gwydir, esquire, and had issue by both: and last of all she married Edward Thelwall, of Plâs-y-Ward, esquire.—Mr. Robert ap Rees, descended of this tribe, and ancestor to the family of Rhiwlas, was chaplain to Cardinal Wolsey, and a very great man in the reign of Henry the Eighth.— Ellis Price, of Plâs-Yolyn, doctor of the law, who, I believe, was one of the scholars of Cambridge, that disputed with Throgmorton, and other scholars of Oxford, at Cambridge, in the year of our Lord 1532, and got the best; (as James Caius, in the first book of The Antiquities of Cambridge, affirmeth.)—He bore, in a shield gules, a lion rampant argent, armed azure.

  • PRICE, of Rhiwlas, Merionethshire.
    • of Boch-y-rhaiadr, Merionethshire.
  • [Page 306] WYNN, of Llangynbafal, Denbighshire.
  • PANTON, of Coleshill Manor, Flintshire.
  • PARRY, of Tywysog, and Pistill.
  • PRICE, of Giler, Denbighshire.
    • of Tyddyn Sieffrey.
    • of Cwmmein.
    • of Fedw dêg.
    • of Llanrwst.
    • of Dugoed, in Penmachno.
  • WYNN, of Voelas, Denbighshire.
    • of Plas Newydd Yspytty.
    • of Hafod-y-Maidd.
  • FOULKES, of Llŷs Llywarch.
    • of Carwed Fynydd, and Meriadog.
  • VAUGHANS, of Pant Glâs.
    • of Blaen-y-Cwm.
    • of Llysfaen.
  • WILLIAMS, of Aberconwy.
    • of Hafod Garregog.
  • DAVIES, of Llathwryd.
  • GETHIN, of Cerniogeu, Denbighshire.


EDWIN, commonly called King of Tegaingle *, was the twelfth tribe, whose son Owain had a daughter called Angharad, mar­ried to Griffith ap Cynan, king of Gwynedd, or North Wales. Many worthy and noble gentlemen in Flintshire and Denbighshire are descended of him, as the Bishop of Bangor, now living—(I believe he means William Roberts, D. D. who was consecrated Bishop of Bangor, in September 1637, and died at Llandurnog, August 12th, 1665, aged 80.) Thomas Owen, judge of —, father of Sir Roger Owen, late of Cundover, knight. Howel Gwynedd, a very valiant and stout man, who, siding with Owen Glyndwr against Henry the Fourth, did much annoy the English; but on a time, being more secure than he ought to have been, he was taken by his adversaries of the town of Flint, who, upon a place called Moel-y-Gaer, cut off his head: and long time before, one Owain ap Uchtryd, being grandson to Edwin, kept by force of arms all Tegaingle under subjection, not­withstanding all the power of the king, lords, and country to the contrary; and the third year, having his pardon, he deli­vered the owners their lands.—He beareth argent, between four Cornish choughs armed gules, a cross floury engrailed sable.

  • [Page 308]LLOYDS, of Pentre Hobyn, now of Trefor.
  • WYNNS, of Copparleni.
  • PARRIES, of Llaneurgain.
  • MOSTYNS, of Mostyn, &c. Flintshire.
  • LLOYDS, of Farm, Flintshire.
  • WYNNS, of Nhercwys, Flintshire.
  • EDWARDS, of Stansty.
    • of Rhual.
    • of Galit-y-celyn, and Crogen Iddon.
    • of Llangollen Fechan.
  • EVANS, of Coed Llai, and Treuddyn.
  • HUGHES, of Diserth.
  • JONES, of Gwernaffield, and Mold.
  • OWENS, of Coed Llai, Gwasane, Caerfallwch, Treuddyn, Arddunwynt, and Hope.
  • PRICE, of Llwyn Ynn.
  • BROMFIELDS, of Bromfield.


EDNOWAIN BENDEW was Lord of Tegaingle in the year of our Lord 1079, (as the book of Ednop saith.) He is said by Peter Ellis, the counsellor, to be the chief of the fifteen tribes. Of him are descended Ithel ap Rotpert, Archdeacon of Tegaingle, [Page 309] the Bithels, and a great many worthy families besides.—He bear­the argent, between three boars heads, a cheveron sable.

THE residence of Ednowain is supposed by some to have been at Ty-maen, in the parish of Whiteford, (see p. 119.)

  • LLOYD, of Wygfair, Flintshire.
  • FOULKES, of Mertyn, Flintshire.
  • GRIFFITH, of Rhual, Flintshire.
  • HUGHES, of Halkyn, Flintshire.
    • of Bagillt, Flintshire.
  • GRIFFITH, of Plâs isa', Caerwys, Flintshire.
  • WYNNS, of Galedlom, and Caerwys, Flintshire.
  • PUGHE, of Skeifiog, Flintshire.
  • PIERS, of Llanasaph, Flintshire.
  • PARRY, of Coleshill, and Basingwerk, Flintshire.
  • GRIFFITH, of Pant y Llongdu, Flintshire.
    • of Caerwys Hall, Flintshire.
  • EVANS, of Llaneurgain, Flintshire.
  • JONES, of Skeifiog, Flintshire.
  • WILLIAMS, of Clommendy Skeifiog, Flintshire.
  • HUGHES, of Coed-y-Brain, Flintshire.


EFNYDD, commonly called the son of * Gwenllian, the daughter of Rhŷs ap Marchon, who was lord of seven townships in Dyffryn Clwyd, called Ruthin land, viz. Tr [...]-ben-y-Coed, and Fereel dyd, y Groes [...]wyd, Pant Meugen, and three more, all free­hold land. He had no children besides Gwenllian aforesaid, who by the interest of B [...]te [...]n op Cy [...]yn, king of Wales, was given in marriage to this Efnydd's father, being nearly related to the said king, who gave him likewise seven townships, to wit, Almar, Tref-alen (or Alynton), Gre [...]ford in Bromfield, Lleprog-fawr, Lleprog-fe [...]han, and Tref-y-nant, in Tegaingle, &c. He had a daughter called Hunydd, who was the wife of Meredydd ap Blethyn, prince of Powys. Of him was descended John Almor, one of the marshals of the hall to king Henry the Seventh, father of John Almor, serjeant at arms to king Henry the Eighth, (as I think) who bare azure, a lion rampant or, armed and langued gules; and of Sir William Meredith, who lived in Yorkshire, or some­where else in England.—He bare a lion rampant saliant or, where­with he quartered his mother's coat, being azure, between three nags heads erased argent, a fess or.

  • SIMUNT, of Coed Llai, Flintshire.
  • PRICHARD, of Caergwrley, Flintshire.
  • [Page 311] ROGERS, of Flint.
  • MEREDYDD, of Trefalen.
    • of Pentre Bychan.
    • of Stansty.
  • ALMORS, of Almor.
  • ALYNTONS, of Alynton.
  • LLOYDS, of Gresford, and Alynton.


EDNOWAIN AP BRADWEN * is by writers called Lord of Meirionydd: but surely the princes and their issue were always lords of Meirionydd; howbeit it might be, that he (as others) took the same to farm, and therefore might be called lord thereof. And yet he and his issue were possessed of all Tal-y-Bont, save Nanney, and the prince's demesnes, and for the most part of Ystumanner in the like manner. The offices he bare under the prince, I know not. Some books of pedegree say that he lived in Griffith ap Cynan's time, but I think he was not so antient . The ruins of his Llŷs, or palace, are to be seen in the township of Cregenan, in Tal-y-Bont Iscregenan. Llewelyn ap Tudur ap Gwyn ap Peredur ap Ednowain ap Bradwen, lived in the time of Edward the First, and did him homage with the lords and [Page 312] gentry of Wales, as by the said king's records is manifest. Aaron, his grandchild, by his son Ednyfed, had two sons more eminent than the rest of his children, Ednyfed and Griffith; of the last of whom William David Lloyd, of Peniarth, esquire, lately deceased, was descended: whose inheritance is come to Margaret, the mother of Lewis Owen, of Peniarth, esquire, now living. Ednyfed ap Aaron is said to have entertained Owain Glyndwr, when he was overcome by king Henry the Fourth, the usurper, but se­cretly in a cave, by the sea-side, in the parish of Llan Gelynin, which of him is called * Ogof Owain. Of this Ednyfed was de­scended Morgan ap Griffith ap Eineon, a courageous stout man, who, as it is reported by his kinsmen, by chance, in the streets of the city of London, late in the night, met with King Henry the Eighth, with a small guard about him, coming to see what rule was kept in the city; and when neither would yield to the other, they drew and fought hardly, until a person, who accompanied Morgan, bade him take heed what he did, for that he feared it was the king with whom he fought. Whereupon Morgan crying mercy, yielded, and craved pardon; and the king did let him go, saying, that he was a lusty man, and ever after he was called Lusty Morgan. This is a report, I cannot tell how true.

Morgan his, mawr gan Harri,
Mae Llundain dan d' adain di.

He bore gules, three snakes enowed in a triangular knot argent.

  • [Page 313]OWENS, of Cae'r Berllan, Merionethshire.
  • LLOYDS, of Nant-y-Mynach, and Peniarth.
  • OWENS, of Peniarth, and Morben.
  • GRIFFITH, of Garth, and Cloddiau Cochion.

Out of our ancient books of pedegrees, we are enabled to add another Tribe; by no means inferior to any of the foregoing, in the respectability and number of its descendants.


TUDOR TREVOR, the tribe of * March, called likewise in our books Llwyth Maelor (or the tribe of Maelor,) was the son of Ynyr ap Cadfarch, descended of Cadell Deurnllug, King of Powys. He is said to have been the founder of, and to have re­sided at, Whittington Castle, which continued in his posterity for many generations after. His mother was Rhiengar, daughter to Lluddocca ap Caradoc Vreichfras, earl of Hereford, who was one of the knights of king Arthur's Round Table. Tudor had large possessions in Herefordshire, in right of his mother, as well as in that country called Ferlys, which lies between the rivers Wye [Page 314] and Severne. He was cotemporary with Howel Dda, king of Wales, whose daughter Angharad he married, by whom he had three sons and one daughter. Powell, of Edenhope, in his Pen­t [...]chia, describes his arms in the following manner:

Em in [...]is fulgens Theodor. parma T [...]e [...],
Dat rapidum fulvumque sinistro verte leonem:
Mos [...]ni sunt nota satis, simul arma T [...]e [...]is.

Which may be thus expressed in plain English: ‘Parted per bend finister ermine and ermines, over all a lion rampant or; the well-known arms of the Mostyns, and also of the Trevors.’

  • Viscount Hambden, and Baron TREVOR.
  • MOSTYNS, of Mostyn, Baronets.
    • of Trelacre, Baronets.
    • of Bryngwyn.
    • of Segroit.
  • PENNANT, of Bychton.
  • RICHARD PENNANT, Baron Penrhyn.
  • JEFFERIES, of Acton.
  • EDWARDS, of Chirk.
  • WYNNE, of Gerwyn-fawr.
  • JONES, of Llwyn-onn.
  • TREVOR, of Brynkinnallt.
    • of Pentre Cynric.
  • [Page 315] TREVOR, of Daywen.
    • of Trefalen.
    • of Plâs-têg.
    • of Oswestry.
  • LLOYDS, of Halton.
  • YOUNG, of Bryn Yorkin.
  • DYMMOCK, of Willington.
  • PUGHE, of Llan-y-Mynach.
  • LLOYDS, of Plâs isa' y Clawdd.
    • of Dal-y-wern.

HERE it may not be improper to mention, that though the tribes are generally considered as the nobility of Wales, yet are there many ancient Welsh families of high respectability, who de­rive not their descent from any of them. Such are the Middle­tons, of Chirk castle and Gwaunynog; the Vaughans, of Glan-y-llyn, afterwards of Llwydiarth and Llangedwyn, but now extinct, who are descended from Ririd Flaidd, lord of Penllyn, &c. The Vaughans, of Cors-y-gedol; and the Wynnes, of Dolegwyn, whose stock was Osbwrn Wyddel, (or the Irishman.) The Eytons, of Leeswood; the Wynnes, of Tower; the Davises, of Gwasane (whose representative in the male line is Peter Davies, esquire, of Broughton;) the Parrys, of Pwllhalog, and the Williamses, of Fron, who are descended from Cynric Efell, baron of Eglwyseg.

IN Anglesey are the Williamses, of Ty-fry, descended from Ca­drod Hardd, (or the Handsome) lord of Tal-ebolion; and from [Page 316] them the Williamses, of Nantarog, ancestors of the present Sir Watkin Williams Wynne; the Williamses, of Penbed [...], and the Williamses, of B [...]d [...]ydd [...]n.

THOUGH many others may be added to these, we shall now close this account with the descendants of Br [...]chwel Ysgrithog, prince of P [...]wys, viz. the Blaneys of Tregynon, the Wynnes of Garth, the Ll [...]yds of Leig [...]ton, and the Thomases of Llechwedd­gerth, whose present representative is T [...]o. Thomas, esquire, of Downing Ucha'.

  • I. HWFA AP CYNDDELW Page 290
  • IV. CILMIN TROED-DU Page 294
  • [Page 317] VI. NEFYDD HARDD Page 298
  • VII. MAELOE CRWM Page 299
  • IX. HEDD MOLWYNOG. Page 302
  • X. BRAINT HIR Page 304
  • XII. EDWIN Page 307
  • XIV. EFNYDD Page 310

THE number of Tribes in the MS. is only XV.—We retain the title, but add that of TUDOR TREVOR, or the Tribe of MARCH, as is done by some of our writers.

  • XVI. TUDOR TREVOR.—For his Coat of Arms, consult PLATE IV. p. 31.


  • VOL. I.
    • ENGLAND.
    • ICELAND.
    • HOLLAND.
    • DENMARK.
  • VOL. II.
    • SWEDEN.
    • NORWAY.
    • RUSSIA.
  • VOL. III.
    • Dominions bordering on the VÖLGA.
    • Circuit of the CASPIAN SEA.
    • Mountains of CAUCASUS.
    • From the north end of the CASPIAN SEA to the URALLIAN CHAIN.
  • [Page 319] VOL. IV.
    • SIBERIA.
  • These four volumes contain the subjects of the first CCVIII. pages of the Introduction to the Arctic Zoology, enlarged and extended.
  • VOL. V.
    • Western Coast of AMERICA.
    • BRITISH Colonies in AMERICA.
    • United States of AMERICA.
    • Being the remaining part of the Introduction to the Arctic Zoology, enlarged.
  • VOL. VI. VII. FRANCE, from Calais to Andaye, and the French Pyrenees.
  • VOL. VIII.
    • SPAIN, from Fontarabia to the borders of Portugal.
    • SPAIN again, from the mouth of the Guadiana, to the eastern entrance of the Streights of Gibraltar.
  • VOL. IX.
    • The MEDITERRANEAN coast of Spain, from Europa Point to the beginning of Southern France.
    • SOUTHERN FRANCE, to the Maritime Alps.
  • VOL. X. NORTHERN AFRICA, from the mouths of the Nile, along the Mediterranean coast of Africa, through the [Page 320] Streights of Gibra [...]ar, and from thence to the river of Senegal; with an account of the Madeira, the Canary Islands, and those of Cape Verd.
  • VOL. XI. NIGRITIAN AFRICA, from the river Senegal to Cape Negro; with an account of Prince's Isle, Isle of St. Thomas, Isle of Ascension, and that of St. Helena.
  • VOL. XII. From CAPE NEGRO to the CAPE OF GOOD HOPE, from thence to the mouth of the Red Sea, and the African coast of the Red Sea, as far as the Isthmus of Suez; with an account of Madagascar, Isle of Bourbon or Mascarenbas, Isle of France or Mauritius, Isle of Ro­drigues, Isles of Comoro, Joanna, the Twelve Isles, and Amirantes Isles or Sechelles.
  • VOL. XIII. ARABIA, and its coasts, the Persian Gulph, and the coasts of Persia, as far as the Indus.
  • VOL. XIV.
    • From the mouth of the INDUS to the Panjab, and Cashmere.
    • From the mouth of the INDUS, along the western coast of Indostan, to Cape Comorin.
    • Island of CEYLON, and the Laccadive and Maldive Islands.
  • VOL. XV.
    • The EASTERN COAST of HINDOOSTAN, to the mouth of the Ganges.
    • [Page 321]From the mouth of the GANGES to its origin with its contributory rivers.
    • The origin of the SAMPOO or BURRAMPOOTER river, to its junction with the Ganges, near the fall of the latter into the Gulph of Bengal.
    • Several particulars respecting the foregoing vo­lumes, may be found in my Literary Life, from p. 41 to 45.
  • VOL. XVI. INDIA extra GANGEM, to the borders of China; with the translation of
    By the Reverend ROBERT WILLIAMS, curate of Whiteford, 1792.
  • VOL. XVII. The empires of CHINA and JAPAN, with the islands to the north and south of the latter, Matmay, &c. and the Kuril islands.
    • The MALAYAN and MANILLA Islands, the PHILIPPINE Islands.
    • [Page 322]The islands of MINDANAO, CELEBES, or MACASSAR, and the TIMORIAN Chain.
  • VOL. XIX.
    • MOLUCCA, or Spicy Islands.
    • PAPUAN Islands.
    • Land of PAPUAS, or NEW GUINEA.
  • VOL. XX. A JOURNEY from LONDON to DOVER, along the Coasts, in the year 17 [...]7.
  • VOL. XXI. The same continued from DOVER along the remaining coast of Kent, of all Sussex, of Hampshire, to Ports­mouth, and the circuit of the Isle of Wight; accom­panied by my Son DAVID PENNANT.—The object of this journey is fully mentioned in p. 31 of my Literary Life.
  • VOL. XXII. A JOURNEY taken in 1773, through some of the in­ternal parts of Cheshire, Lancashire, Yorkshire, West­moreland, and Cumberland, as far as Alston Moor.—See more of this tour in my Literary Life, p. 16.


N. B. TITLE PAGE to Whiteford, the date 1796.—I request that this may be read 1795. It was expected that the whole book would have been printed in that year; but by various delays, too well known to authors, it was not completed till the month of March 1796. I therefore beg the reader would consi­der that the several references which may be supposed to relate to 1796 can only intend 1795: for example, p. 161. l. 9. 'next season' means the wheat-sowing season of that year. 'In the next year,' means 1796. The attentive reader will discover many other reference of that kind.

PAGE 99, after paragraph 2d.—We retain in Whiteford church the decent service of praying for the sick, instead of lazily sinking it into the xxixth supplicatlon of the Litany. The prayers on that occasion are so pathetic, so admonitory to the congregation, that I am amazed that any minister should remain insensible of the impropriety of the omission.

I NOW cannot but most earnestly exhort the squires of every parish to attendance on divine service, if it was only to hear the sad catalogue of the miserable objects which compose the largest part of those for whom the devotions I allude to are intended. It will direct their benevolence to their relief. They may find among them objects of their charity, whom they may never otherwise have heard of. They may find tenants to whom they ought to be fathers. They certainly will find congenerous beings, to whom every duty of humanity is enjoined by the SA­VIOUR of the world: This I should hope is thus irresistibly enforced:

[Page 324]







To these benedictory verses let me add one, in which the penalty, as well as the reward is united. I cannot resist the im­pulse, as it is so admirably adapted to the times. It shall be followed by an extract from p. 164 of this work, which I com­municated to the public through the channel of the Chester paper, followed by some declarations to prevent the mistaking of any part. I fervently wish to promote a friendly agreement between landlord and tenant; between tenant and every poor laborer. The benevolent Duke of BEAUFORT, and I believe others of the benevolent GREAT, have made the attempt; and, to [Page 325] the glory of landlord and tenant, are to this moment dispensing their generous plan to a grateful people. Such an agreement was entered into by the farmers of part of this and a neighbor­ing county; but to their infamy, many of them withdrew from their words and their signatures. May the landlords become the instruments of compelling them to accept the blessing offered in the last part of the line, and to shun the curse denounced in the first! There is one description of men, on whom it should fall in a most exemplary manner. The badger, or factor, employed to exhaust the stock of corn and other provisions, not by fair agreement, but by openly raising the price, by offering more than the farmer would have asked; and even telling them, in open market, 'Ask what you will, and we will give it.' The poor, since the repeal of the 5th and 6th of Edward IV. by the 12th of George III. are left defenceless. The means of inflicting the pu­nishment by the statute is taken away, and they are to seek justice through the tedious expensive labyrinths of the common law.




PERMIT me to convey, through the channel of your paper, a paragraph from a book which is still in the press:

‘I would never grant a lease to a great corn-tenant. I would preserve a power over his granary, which legislature will not, or [Page 326] cannot assume. Should he attempt by exportation to exhaust it in years of scarcity, and not leave a sufficient supply for the country which produced the grain; — should he attempt a mo­nopoly,—should he refuse to carry a proper quantity to the next market;—or should he refuse to sell, to the poor who can­not attend the market, corn in small quantities, I WOULD INSTANTLY ASSUME THE POWER OF THE LANDLORD, AND EXPEL HIM FROM MY ESTATE. A just punishment for the tenant, who, through rapacity, declines to comply with my desires, excited with no other view than to promote the good of the public.’

THE end which we wish by the above radically to correct, may soon be past cure, I therefore commit the extract to your hands. The evil is entirely local; other parts of Great Britain are possibly unaffected by it, and have no occasion to take alarm. We do not wish the farmers solely to feed the poor; we only re­quest them to reserve in the country corn enough of EVERY kind to enable others to exert their benevolence to their poorer neigh­bors; not by gratu [...]tous donations, but by selling it at reasonable prices to those who are in want; we do not ask it from the farmers at the prices of good times. GOD forbid that we should deny them FAIR profits, such as every other dealer has a right to. I wish to inculcate universal justice; but let us remember that CHARITY begins at home. We shall gladly impart our super­fluity to our most distant neighbors, even should we be obliged to pay more for the bare competency we may reserve.

T. P.


  • TOWNSHIPS Page 185
  • Stokyn Page 186
  • River Dee Company ib.
  • Lucerne Grass Page 187
  • Last Embankment Page 188
  • Projects ib.
  • The Mark Page 189
  • Wat's Dike Page 190
  • Basingwerk Castle Page 192
  • Abby Page 194
  • Curious Epitaph Page 196
  • Greenfield House Page 197
  • White and Red Lead Works Page 201
  • Iron Wire Mill ib.
  • Paper-Mills ib.
  • Snuff-Mills Page 202
  • Old Smelting-Work ib.
  • Pin-Mill Page 203
  • Three Corn Mills ib.
  • Famous Epoch of Commerce ib.
  • Parys Mine Company Page 204
  • The Company's Coin Page 206
  • Brass Melting-Houses ib.
  • Hypocaust Page 207
  • Wire-work ib.
  • Cotton-work ib.
  • New Rolling-Mill Page 208
  • Greenfield Copper and Brass Company. Page 211
  • Crescent-Mill Page 213
  • Corn Mill ib.
  • Old Cotton-Mill Page 214
  • Greatest Cotton-Mill ib.
  • Management of the Children Page 215
  • Their Beds ib.
  • Mules Page 217
  • Corn-Mill ib.
  • Length of the Stream ib.
  • Number of Falls Page 218
  • St. Wenefrede's Well Page 219
  • Chapel Page 221
  • Free School Page 222
  • Sunday Schools ib.
  • Chapel Window Page 223
  • Little Spring ib.
  • Of St. Wenefrede Page 224
  • Dydd sal y Saint Page 227
  • An antient Seal ib.
  • The Fountain Page 230
  • Insects destructive to the Oaken Water-wheels Page 232
  • Church Page 234
  • Vicars of Holywell Page 235
  • Parish Church Page 237
  • Monuments Page 239
  • Church Yard Page 241
  • Number of People ib.
  • Increase Page 242
  • Poors Rates ib.
    • in 1721 ib.
    • in 1723. and 1795 Page 243
  • Clubs or Friendly Societies ib.
  • Union Club ib.
  • Old Bowling-Green Page 244
  • Places of Worship for Ro­man Catholics and Dis­sente [...]s ib.
  • [Page 328]Bryn-y-Castell Page 244
  • Holywell Spring Page 245
  • Market Page 24 [...]
  • Exportation of Corn Page 247
  • Prices in the late Scarcity Page 248
  • Ro [...]ds to the Sea ib.
    • to Rudl [...] and St. Asaph ib.
  • Level Page 249
  • S [...]a [...]e ib.
  • [...] Page 250
  • Lune-stone ib.
  • A Cave ib.
  • Vent [...]lator ib.
  • Cascade Page 251
  • Other subterraneous Waters ib.
  • Other Veins ib.
  • Continuance of Page 252
  • Fertile Tract ib.
  • Pen-y-Bal Road ib.
  • Calcoed Page 253
  • Naid-y-March ib.
  • Halkin and Brynford Roads ib.
  • Brynford House Page 254
  • Pen-y-Bryn Mine ib.
  • Refracting Spar ib.
  • P [...]ti [...]l ib.
  • Meilwr and other Mines ib.
  • Gadlys Road Page 257
  • Bagillt Township ib.
  • House, the Pantons ib.
  • The Griffiths of Bagillt Page 258
  • Curious Will ib.
  • Curious Licence Page 259
  • Gadlys Company Page 261
  • Battle of Coleshill Page 263
  • Road to Flint ib.
  • Malt Kiln ib.
  • Granaries Page 264
  • Vitriol-Works Page 266
  • Verditer ib.
  • Sugar of Lead ib.
  • Ribbon Weavers Page 267
  • Bagillt the Pennants Page 268
  • Founder of the Family ib.
  • Pennants of Hendre Figillt Page 269
    • of Pen-y-Garth Page 270
  • Lord Penrhyn ib.
  • Slate Quarries Page 272
  • Mr. Hughes of Bagillt ib.
  • River Bank Works Page 273
  • Bagillt Upper Works Page 274
  • Lower Works Page 275
  • Dee Bank ib.
  • Coil [...]eries ib.
  • Nant-y-Moch Page 276
  • Coleshill ib.
  • A Calcining Work Page 277
  • Manor of Coleshill ib.
  • Panton Family ib.
  • D [...]seases Page 278
  • Flint Smelting Works Page 281
  • Five Royal Tribes of CAMBRIA Page 283
  • Fifteen Tribes of NORTH WALES Page 290
  • The Tribe of MARCH Page 317
  • Outlines of the GLO [...] Page 318


PAGE 5. l. 18. for Liverpool, read Leverpool —P. [...]. [...]— P. 18. l. 15. for Whichchurch r. Whitchurch.—P. 55. [...] r. y gwr a biau'r nenbren.—P. 67. l. 15 for epistle r. ode.—P. 72. for mother r. grandmother —P. 75 l. 5 for culottes r. culotte.—P. 81. l. 26. for Esopus cum commentariis varius r. Aesopus cum commentariis variis.—P. 120. l. 7. for juventute r. juventu [...].—P. 140. l. 12. for STATA r. STRATA.—P. 135. l. 16. for beneath r. under.—P. 192. l 28. for ecclesia r. ecclesiae.—P. 200. l. 21. for ru [...]ns r. ruin.—P. 206 l. 7. for Parys Mountain r. Parys Mine Company.—P. 206. l. 8. for evaporate r. cry [...]allize.—P. 271. l. 7. before part, insert this.

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