LONDON. Printed for ROBT. FAULDER, No. 42, New Bond Street. MDCCXC.


THIS work is composed from the ob­servations of perhaps half my life, made without the lest original view of publication, from the numberless walks taken in and about our capital, with a mind occupied with more ideas than the frivolous visit, or the mere object of the hour.

SOME were made in company of different friends, stricken, like myself, with the love of the science of antiquities; and with the desire of tracing the progress of perhaps the first city (comparing all its advantages) in the universe.

THE remarks made in these latter walks [Page iv] were committed to my tablets till they became rather considerable. In that state I determined to lay them before the public, not urged by desire of friends, nor the wish of the people, or any similar motives, but by my own continued propensity to writing.

I HAVE two things to apologize for in this performance. First, its irregularity: but I do assure my friends it is given nearly in the same manner in which the materials were collected, and quite according to the course of the walk of the day.

Secondly, Let me request the good inhabi­tants of London and Westminster, not to be offended at my having stuffed their Iliad into a nut-shell: the account of the city of London, and liberties of Westminster, into a quarto volume. I have condensed into it all I could; omitted nothing that suggested itself, nor am­plified [Page v] any thing to make it a guinea book. In a word, it is done in my own manner, from which I am grown too old to depart.

I FEEL within myself a certain monitor that warns me to hang up my pen in time, before its powers are weakened, and rendered visibly impaired. I wait not for the admonition of friends. I have the archbishop of Grenada in my eye: and fear the imbecility of human nature might produce, in long-worn age, the same treatment of my kind advisers, as poor Gil Blas had from his most reverend patron. My literary bequests to future times, and more serious concerns, must occupy the remnant of my days. This closes my public labors.

To every particular friend and correspondent I send my most cordial thanks, for their candid and unremitted attention to my various enqui­ries: and for their bearing so long with my [Page vi] yearning after information; and with my un­common curiosity, without which no writer can proceed with the confidence of accuracy, or ought to lay any thing before the public unsanctioned by local information. So much for acknowlegement of private favors.—I take leave of a partial public, with the truest grati­tude for its long endurance of my very volumi­nous writings: for its kind fostering my few merits: for its affected blindness to my nume­rous defects. The last act concluded!

Valete et Plaudite. THOMAS PENNANT.


  • Frontispiece, SIR HENRY LEE; see p. 96.
  • Page 98, ROBERT DUDLEY, Earl of LEICESTER, armed for the Tilt-yard.
  • 100, Cabinet of CHARLES I. and part of Old Whitehall.
  • 103, The Old Horse Guards.
  • 136, The SAVOY Hospital.
  • 191, Ruins of the Church of St. JAMES'S, CLERKEN­WELL.
  • 193, St. JOHN'S GATE.
  • 218, The Gigantic PORTER, and Little HUDSON, the Dwarf, in Newgate-street.
  • 219, The Sculpture of the Boy in Pannier Ally.
  • 221, ALDERSGATE, and part of the Walls and Towers on each side, taken from a very antient Drawing in the archives of St. Bartholo­mew's: communicated by Doctor COMBE.
  • 389, Sir RICHARD CLOUGH, knight, from the original in possession of Mrs. CLOUGH, of Glan y wern, in the county of Denbigh.
  • 416, The antient Hall at CROSBIE PLACE.—N. B. This, and the prints at pp. 136, 191, 193, 218, and 219, drawn and etched by Mr. John Carter.
LONDON and WESTMINSTER in the Reign of QUEEN ELIZABETH, Anno Dom. 1563.


This Plan shows the ancient [...] of the famous [...] of London & Westminster as it was near the beginning of the Reign of Queen Elizabeth▪ [...] Plates [...]or their [...] are re-engraved to oblige the Curious & [...] [...]nd to Posterity th [...] Old prospect whereby at one view may be seen, how much was built of this populous City, and parts adja­cent, at that time.

[...] in [...] Antiqua▪ published in 1 [...]78 says▪ Near ten years past the Author made a doubt,

whether to print or lay this work aside,
Until he first had [...]ondon platted out.

The following Buildings were not [...] when this Plan [...].

  • The Whitehall Banquetting House
  • Royal [...]hange not [...]uilt before 1 [...]70.
  • Moor Fields not divided nor pla [...]ed▪
  • [...]am [...]s [...] on Snow [...]ill in 1 [...]8 [...]
  • Puget Plan [...] till the death of [...].•• Puget 15 [...].
  • A St. Margaret
  • B Palace Gates
  • C Gates
  • D Fountain
  • E St. Mary [...]ou [...]ival
  • F St. Mar [...]in [...]s
  • G Walks
  • H Temple Gate
  • I Bridewell Palace
  • K City Walls


WHENSOEVER a party of the original inhabitants of this island found an impulse towards civilization;ESTABLISHMENT OF A BRITISH TOWN. to withdraw from their native dens in depth of woods, and to form society; they cleared a spot in the midst of their fo­rests, and founded their towns, similar to those which the first dis­coverers of the new world met with occupied by the savages of America *; similar to, but probably inferior in oeconomy to those of the more polished race of Pholey Negroes of Guinea. The Britons soon found the danger of living in families separated and undefended. They sought for security in places surrounded with woods or morasses, and added to the natural strength by forming ramparts and sinking fosses . But they preferred spots fortified by nature; and made artificial works only where [Page 2] nature shewed herself deficient. Within such precincts they formed their towns; their buildings were most mean and simple, covered with reeds or sticks like American wigwams, or like modern hovels of the peasants of Lo [...]haber, or the cabins of the Irish commonalty, to this moment as rude as the British abori­gines. To these precincts the Britons resorted with their cattle, their wives and children *, whom they left thus protected, while they sallied out to war, or to the employments of the chace: for their cloathing was the skins of beasts, and their food the flesh, with the addition of milk, and farinaceous diet. The Britons soon became acquainted with one great use of the cow, notwith­standing they remained ignorant of the making of cheese till the arrival of the Romans. Agriculture was soon introduced among those who earliest formed towns or communities: possibly by strangers who visited them from the continent. They cleared the land in the neighborhood of their dwellings, they sowed corn, they reaped and deposited it in granaries under ground, as the Sicilians practise to this very day; but the latter lodged it in the grain, our predecessors in the ear, out of which they picked the grains as they wanted them, and, ignorant of mills, at first bruised, and then made them into a coarse bread. The same nation who taught them the art of agriculture, first introduced a change of dress. From the Gauls of the continent, they received the first cloth; the dress called the Bracha, a coarse woollen manu­facture. But probably it was long before they learned the use of the loom, or became their own manufacturers. This intercourse [Page 3] layed the foundation of commerce, which in early times extended no farther than to our maritime places. They first received the rudiments of civilization, while the more remote remained, in proportion to their distance, more and more savage, or in a state of nature. In the same degree as the neighboring Gauls be­came acquainted with the arts, they communicated them to the nearest British colonists; who, derived from the same stock, and retaining the same language and manners, were more capable and willing to receive any instructions offered by a congenerous peo­ple. For this reason Cantium, the modern Kent, and probably the country for some way up the Thames, was, as Caesar informs us, far the most civilized of any part of Britain: and that the inha­bitants differed very little in their manner of life from the Gauls. It was from the merchants who frequented our ports, he received the first intelligence of the nature of our country, which induced him to undertake the invasion of Britain, and which in after­times layed the foundation of its conquest by the Romans.

THERE is not the lest reason to doubt but that London existed at that period, and was a place of much resort.LONDON. It stood in such a situation as the Britons would select, according to the rule they established. An immense forest originally extended to the river side, and even as late as the reign of Henry II. covered the north­ern neighborhood of the city, and was filled with various species of beasts of chace *. It was defended naturally by fosses; one formed by the creek which ran along Fleet-ditch, the other, afterwards known by that of Walbrook. The south side was [Page 4] guarded by the Thames. The north they might think sufficiently protected by the adjacent forest.

LONDON STONE.NEAR St. Swithin's church is a remnant of antiquity, which some have supposed to have been British; a stone, which might have formed a part of a Druidical circle, or some other object of the antient religion, as it is placed near the center of the Ro­man precincts. Others have conjectured it to have been a milli­ary stone, and to have served as a standard, from which they began to compute their miles. This seems very reasonable, as the dis­tances from the neighboring places coincide very exactly. At all times it has been preserved with great care, was placed deep in the ground, and strongly fastened with bars of iron. It seems preserved like the Palladium of the city. It is at present cased like a relique, within free-stone, with a hole left in the middle, which discovers the original. Certainly superstitious respect had been payed to it; for when the notorious rebel Jack Cade passed by it, after he had forced his way into the city, he struck his sword on London stone, saying, "Now is Mortimer lord of this citie *;" as if that had been a customary ceremony of taking possession.

WHEN FOUNDED.THERE is every reason to suppose that the Romans possessed themselves of London in the reign of Claudius; under whom Au­lus Plautius took Camalcdunum, the present Maldon, in Essex, and planted there a colony, consisting of veterans of the four­teenth legion, about a hundred and five years after the first inva­sion of our island by Caesar. This was the first footing the Ro­mans had in Britain. It seems certain that London and Verulam [Page 5] were taken possession of about the same time; but the last clames the honor of being of a far earlier date, more opulent, populous, and a royal seat before the conquest of Britain. Camalodunum was made a Colonia, or a place governed entirely by Roman laws and customs; Verulamium, a Municipium, in which the natives were honored with the privileges of Roman citizens, and enjoyed their own laws and constitutions; and Londinium, ONLY A PRAEFECTURA. only a Praefec­tura, the inhabitants, a mixture of Romans and Britons, being suffered to enjoy no more than the name of citizens of Rome, being governed by Praefects sent annually from thence, without having either their own laws or magistrates. It was even then of such concourse, and such vast trade, that the wise conquerors did not think fit to trust the inhabitants with the same privileges as other places, of which they had less reason to be jealous.

THERE is no mention of this important place, till the reign of Tiberius; when Tacitus speaks of it as not having been distin­guished as a colony, but famous for its great concourse of mer­chants, and its vast commerce: this indicates, at lest, that London had been at that time of some antiquity as a trading town. The exports from hence were cattle, hides, and corn; dogs made a small article; and, let me add, that slaves were a considerable object. Our internal parts were on a level with the African slave coasts; and wars among the petty monarchs were promoted for the sake of a traffic now so strongly controverted *. The imports were at first salt, earthen ware, and works in brass,IMPORTS. polished bits of bones emulating ivory, horse-collars, toys of am­ber, and glasses, and other articles of the same material . We [Page 6] need not insist on the commerce of this period, for there was a great trade carried on with the Gauls in the days of Caesar: that celebrated invader assigning, as his reason for attempting this island, the vast supplies which we gave to his Gaulish enemies *, and which interrupted his conquests on the continent.

WHEN FIRST MENTIONED.THE first mention of London was occasioned by a calamity, in the year 61, in the reign of Nero, which nearly occasioned the extinction of the Roman power in Britain. The heroine Bo­adicia, indignant at the personal insult offered to her and her family, and the cruelties of the conquerors to the unhappy Bri­tons, made a sudden revolt, and destroyed Camolodunum, after putting all the colonists to the sword. Tacitus gives us the pre­diction of the ruin of that city, with all the majesty of historical superstition. ‘Nulla palàm causa delapsum Camaloduni simu­lacrum victoriae, ac retro conversum, quasi cederet hostibus. Et foeminae in furore turbatae, adesse exitium canebant. Externosque fremitus in curiâ eorum auditos, consonuisse ululatibus theatrum, visamque speciem in aestuario, notam esse subversae coloniae. Jam oceanum cruento aspectu: dilabente aestu, humanorum corporum effigies relictas, ut BRITANNI ad spem ita veterani ad metum trahebant.’

THE Roman general Paulinus Suetonius, on this news, suddenly marched across the kingdom, from his conquests in North Wales, to London; which, finding himself unequal to defend with his small army, he evacuated to the fury of the enemy, after rein­forcing his troops with all the natives who were fit to serve. Neither the tears nor prayers of the inhabitants could prevale on [Page 7] him to give them his protection.DESTROYED BY THE BRITON [...] The enraged Boadicia destroy­ed all who continued behind. Verulamium met with the same fate. In all the three places seventy thousand Romans and Bri­tish allies perished*.

WHEN the Romans became masters of London, ENLARGED BY THE ROMANS. they enlarged the precincts, and altered their form. It extended in length from Ludgate-hill to a spot a little beyond the Tower. The breadth was not half equal to the length, and at each end grew considerably narrower. Mr. Maitland suspects that the walls were not built till a very late period of the empire, and that it was an open town; because the city happened to be surprized,LONG AN OPEN TOWN. in the days of Dioclesian and Maximilian, by a party of banditti, who were cut off by a band of Roman soldiers, who fortunately had, at the very time they were engaged in the plunder, come up the river in a fog. The time in which the wall was built is very un­certain. Some ascribe the work to Constantine the great.WHEN WALLED. Mait­land, to Theodosius, governor of Britain in 369. As to the last, we know no more, than that, after he had cleared the coun­try of the barbarians, he redressed grievances, strengthened the garrisons, and repaired the cities and forts which had been damaged. If London was among those, it certainly im­plies a prior fortification. Possibly their founder might have been Constantine, as numbers of coins of his mother Helena have been discovered under them placed there by him in compliment to her. To support this conjecture, we may strengthen it by saying, that in honor of this empress, the city, about that time, [Page 8] received from her the title of Augusta; which, for some time, superseded the antient one of Londinium. Long before this period, it was fully romanized, and the customs, manners, build­ings, and arts of the conqueror adopted. The commerce of the empire flowed in regularly; came in a direct channel from the se­veral parts then known, not as in the earlier days (when described by Strabo) by the intervention of other nations; for till the settle­ment of the Roman conquest, nothing could come immediately from Italy. The antient course of the walls was as follows:—It began with a fort near the present site of the Tower, EXTENT AND FORM. was conti­nued along the Minories, and the back of Houndsditch, across Bishopsgate street, in a strait line by London-wall to Cripplegate; then returned southward by Crowder's Well Alley, (where several remnants of lofty towers were lately to be seen) to Aldersgate; thence along the back of Bull and Mouth street to Newgate, and again along the back of the houses in the Old Bailey to Ludgate; soon after which it probably finished with another fort, where the house, late the King's Printing House, in Black Friars, now stands: from hence another wall ran near the river-side, along Thames street, quite to the fort on the eastern extremity. In another place I shall have occasion to mention that the river at present is moved considerably more to the south, than it was in the times in question.

TOWERS.THE walls were three miles a hundred and sixty-five feet in circumference, guarded at proper distances, on the land side, with fifteen lofty towers; some of them were remaining within these few years, and possibly may still. Maitland mentions one, twenty-six feet high, near Gravel-lane, on the west side of Houndsditch; another, about eighty paces south-east towards Aldgate; and the [Page 9] bases of another, supporting a modern house, at the lower end of the street called the Vineyard, south of Aldgate. But since his publication, they have been demolished, so that there is not a trace left. The walls, when perfect, are supposed to have been twenty-two feet high, the towers, forty. These, with the rem­nants of the wall, proved the Roman structure, by the tiles and disposition of the masonry. London-wall, near Moorfields, is now the most entire part left of that ancient precinct.

I MUST not omit the Barbican, A SPECULA. the Specula or Watch-tower be­longing to every fortified place. This stood a little without the walls, to the north-west of Cripplegate.

THE gates, which received the great military roads, were four.THE GATES. The Praetorian way, the Saxon Watling street, passed under one, on the site of the late Newgate; vestiges having been discovered of the road in digging above Holborn-bridge: it turned down to Dow-gate, or more properly Dwr-gate or Water-gate, where there was a Trajectus or Ferry, to join it to the Watling street, which was continued to Dover. The Hermin street passed under Crip­plegate; and a vicinal way went under Aldgate, by Bethnal Green, towards Oldford, a pass over the river Lee to Duroleiton, the mo­dern Leiton, in Essex.

IN most parts of antient London, ANTIQUITIES. Roman antiquities have been found, whenever it has been thought necessary to dig to any con­siderable depth. Beneath the old Saint Mary le Bow were found the walls, windows, and pavement of a Roman Temple; and not far from it, eighteen feet deep in adventitious soil, was the Ro­man causeway. The great elevation of the present ground above its former state, will be taken notice of in another place.

IN digging the foundation for the rebuilding of St. Paul's, [Page 10] was found a vast coemetery: first lay the Saxons, in graves lined with chalk-stones, or in coffins of hollowed stones; beneath them had been the bodies of the Britons, placed in rows. Abundance of ivory and boxen pins, about six inches long, marked their place. These were supposed to have fastened the shrouds in which the bodies were wrapped*. These perishing, left the pins entire. In the same row, but deeper, were Roman urns intermixed, lamps, lacrymatories; fragments of sacrificial vessels were also discovered, in digging towards the north-east corner; and in 1675, not far from the east corner, at a considerable depth, beneath some flinty pavement, were found numbers of vessels of earthen ware, and of glass, of most exquisite colors and beauty, some inscribed with the names of deities, heroes, or men of rank. Others ornamented with variety of figures in bas relief, of animals and of rose-trees. Tesulae of jasper, porphyry, or marble, such as form the pavement we so often see, were also discovered. Also glass beads and rings, large pins of ivory and bone, tusks of boars, and horns of deer sawn through. Also coins of different emperors, among them some of Constantine; which at once destroys the conjecture of Mr. Maitland, who supposes that this collection were flung together at the sacking of London by our injured Boadicia.

IN 1711, another coemetery was discovered, in Camomile street, adjoining to Bishopsgate. It lay beneath a handsome tesselated pavement, and contained numbers of urns filled with ashes and cinders of burnt bones; with them were beads, rings, a lacryma­tory, a fibula, and a coin of Antoninus.

IN SPITTLE­FIELDS.IN Spittlefields was another Roman burying-place, of which [Page 11] many curious particulars are mentioned by old Stow, in p. 323 of his Survey of London: and Camden gives a brief account of another, discovered in Goodman's fields. Among those sound in Spittlefields, was a great ossuary made of glass, encompassed with five parallel circles, and containing a gallon and a half; it had a handle, a very short neck, and wide mouth of a whiter metal. This was presented to Sir Christopher Wren, who lodged it in the Museum of the Royal Society*. I point out these as means of discovering the antient Roman precincts of the city. The coeme­teries must have been without the walls: it being a wise and ex­press law of the XII tables, that no one should be buried within the walls. I cannot think that the urns found near St. Paul's were funebrial; if that should have been the case, the Roman walls must have been much farther to the east than they have been placed, which by no means appears to have been the fact.

I WILL only mention two other antiquities found here: very few indeed have been preserved, out of the multitude which must have been found in a place of such importance, and the capital of the Roman empire in Britain. The first is a sepulchral monument, in memory of Vivins Marcianus, (a Roman soldier of the second legion, quartered here) erected by his wife Januaria Matrina. His sculpture represents him as a British soldier, pro­bably of the Cohors Britonum, dressed and armed after the man­ner of the country, with long hair, a short lower garment fastened round the waist by a girdle and fibula, a long Sagum or plaid flung over his breast and one arm, ready to be cast off in time of action, naked legs, and in his right hand a sword of vast length, [Page] [...] [Page] [...] [Page 10] [...] [Page 11] [...] [Page 12] like the [...]lymore of the later Highlanders; the point is represented resting on the ground: in his left hand is a short instrument, with the end seemingly broken off. This sculpture was found in dig­ging among the ruins, after the fire in 16 [...]6, in the vallum of the Pr [...]t [...]ion camp near L [...]dgate. The soldiers were always buried in the [...]ll [...]; the citizens in the Pe [...]rium *, without the gates. It is very differently represented by Mr. Gale. The hair in his figure is short, the sword also short, and held with the left hand across his body, the instrument is placed in the left hand, and resembles an exact Bet [...]: the [...]ss also differs. I give the preference to the figure given by Mr. Hers [...]ly , which he corrected after the figure given by Doctor Prid [...]x, from the Arundelian marbles. But Mr. H [...]sely fairly confesses that the representation is far more elegant than in the mutilated original.

SAXON INVATION.AFTER the Romans deserted Britain, a new and fierce race succeeded. The warlike Saxons, under their leaders Hengest and Horsa, landed in 448, at Upwines fleot, the present Ebbsflete, in the isle of Thanet. The Britons remained masters of London at lest nine years after that event; for, receiving a defeat in 457, at Creccanford, (Crayford) they evacuated Kent, and fled with great fear to the capital . By the year 604, it seems to have reco­vered from the ravages of the invaders. It became the chief town of the kingdom of Essex. Sebert was the first Christian king; and his maternal uncle Ethelbert, king of Kent, founded here a church dedicated to St. Paul. At this time Bede informs us [Page 13] that it was an emporium of a vast number of nations, who resort­ed there by sea and by land.

IN the reign of that great prince ALFRED, London, or, to use the Saxon name, Lundenburg, was made by him capital of all Eng­land. In consequence of a vow he had made, he sent Sighelm, bishop of Sherbourn, first to Rome, and from thence to India, with alms to the Christians of the town of St. Thomas, now called Bekkeri, or Meliapour: who returned with various rich gems, some of which were to be seen in the church of Sherbourn, in the days of William of Malmesbury *. It must not be omitted that he was the first who, from this island, had any commerce with that distant country. Our commerce by sea, even in the next century, was not very extensive, the wise monarch Athelstan be­ing obliged, for the encouragement of navigation, to promise patents of gentility to every merchant, who should, on his own bottom, make three voyages to the Mediterranean.

THE succeeding ravages of the Danes reduced London, NORMAN CON­QUEST. and its commerce, to a low ebb: yet it seems in some measure to have recovered itself before the Conquest. We are wonderfully in the dark respecting its state of government, both in the Saxon period, and that of the Conquest: in respect to the former, we know no more than that it was governed by a Portreve or Portgrave, LONG GOVERNED BY A PORT­GRAVE. or guardian of the port; and this we learn from the concise charter granted to the city by William the Conqueror, in which he salutes William the bishop, and Godfrey the Portreve, and all the bur­gesses. ‘WILLM̄ kyng griet Willm̄ bisshop and Godfreg' porteren and eall the boroughwaren bynnen London franchisce and en­glisce [Page 14] jich kyd eth yr jck yell yr gret bē ealbra yeara laga yee die ye gret yer anen EDWARDIS dage kinge end ick yll yet sulke childe be his fader yr faum achter his fader dage and ick nel geyolian that ening man eche doig prungbede. God ye be­helde*.’ It is probable that the bishop of London for the time being, and the Portgrave, were united in the government, for in the Saxon charters they are mentioned together: in the time of Edward the Confessor, Alswar the bishop, and Wolfgar my Port­grave. William bishop, and Swerman my Portgrave.

LONDON certainly could not have been in the very low con­dition which some writers represent it to have been, at the time of the Conquest. It had ventured to sally out on the Conqueror, but without success. It fell more by internal faction, than its own weakness; yet there was strength enough left, to make William think proper to secure their allegiance, by building that strong fortress the Tower. In seventy years from that event, an historian of that period pretends, that London mustered sixty thousand foot, and twenty thousand horse. If this is any thing near the truth, is it possible but London must have been very powerful at the time of the Conquest? for the reigns between that period and of Stephen, were not well calculated for a great in­crease of population. I rather concur with them who think that the muster must have been of the militia of the neighboring counties, and London the place of rendezvous. A writer of that period, and at the very time resident in the capital, with [Page 15] more appearance of truth, makes the number of inhabitants only forty thousand.

DURING the time of the Conqueror, and till the reign of Richard I. the name of the civil governor continued the same. That monarch, to support the madness of the crusade, received from the citizens a large sum of money; and in return, permitted them to chuse annually two officers, under the name of bailiffs, or sheriffs; who were to supersede the former. The names of the two first upon record are Wolgarius, and Geffry de Magnum.

IN the next reign was added the office of mayor,CHANGED TO A MAYOR. a title bor­rowed from the Norman Maire, as well as the office. Henry Fitz-alwyn was the first elected [...]o that trust. He had been be­fore mayor, but only by the nomination of his prince.

IN the reign of Henry III. after the citizens had suffered many oppressions, he restored a form of government, and appointed twenty-four citizens to share the power. In his son's reign, we find the city divided into twenty-four wards; the supreme ma­gistrate of which was named Alderman, ALDERMEN. an exceeding antient Saxon title. Aelder-man, a man advanced in years, and accordingly supposed to be of superior wisdom and gravity. In the time of Edgar, the office was among the first in the kingdom. Ailwyn, ancestor to the first mayor, was alderman of all England; what the duties of his office were, does not appear.

HE must be a Briarcus in literature, who would dare to at­tempt a history of our capital, on the great, the liberal, the ele­gant plan which it merits. I, a puny adventurer, animated with a mind incapable of admitting a vacant hour; restless when un­employed in the rural scenes to which my fortunate lot has des­tined me, must catch and enjoy the idea of the minute. In the [Page 16] pursuit of my plan, I wish to give a slight view of the shores I am about to launch from: the account must be brief and confin­ed, limited to what I shall say of their antient state, to the pe­riod bounded by the REVOLUTION; intermixed with the greater events, which have happened in nearer days.

THE choice of the situation of this great city was most judi­cious. It is on a gravelly soil; and on a declivity down to the borders of a magnificent river. The slope is evident in every part of the antient city, and the vast modern buildings. The antient city was defended in front by the river; on the west side by the deep ravine, since known by the name of Fleet-ditch; on the north by morasses; on the east, as I suspect, by another ra­vine. All the land round Westminster Abbey was a flat sen, which continued beyond Fulham: but a rise commences opposite to it, and forms a magnificent bend above the curvature of the Thames, even to the Tower. The Surry side was in all probability a great expanse of water, a lake, a Llyn, as the Welsh call it; which an ingenious countryman of mine*, not without reason, thinks might have given a name to our capital; Llyn Din, or the city on the lake. This most probably was the original name: and that de­rived from Llong a ship, and Din a town, might have been be­stowed when the place became a seat of trade, and famous for the concourse of shipping. The expanse of water might have filled the space between the rising grounds at Deptfor and those at Clapham; and been bounded to the south by the beautiful Surry Hills. Lambeth Marsh, and the Bank Side, evidently were reco­vered from the water. Along Lambeth are the names of Narrow [Page 17] Walls, or the mounds which served for that purpose; and in South-wark, Bankside again shews the means of converting the antient lake into useful land: even to this day the tract beyond South-wark, and in particular that beyond Bermondsey street, is so very low, and beneath the level of common tides, that the proprietors are obliged to secure it by embankments.

I BEGIN my account by crossing over the Thames into Surry, SURRY. which, with Sussex, formed the country of the antient Regni, being part of this island to which the Romans permitted a kingly govern­ment, merely to enjoy the insolent boast of having kings as their slaves. The Saxons bestowed on this part their own names of Suthry or Suthrea, from its situation on the southern part of the river. I proceed to my accustomed walk of LAMBETH.LAMBETH. In the earlier times it was a manor, possibly a royal one, for the great Hardiknut died here in 1042, in the midst of the jollity of a wed­ding dinner: and here, without any formality, the usurper Harold is said to have snatched the crown, and placed it on his own head. At that period it was part of the estate of Goda, wife to Walter earl of Mantes, and Eustace earl of Boulogne; who present­ed it to the church of Rochester, but reserved to herself the patro­nage of the church. It became, in 1197, the property of the see of Canterbury, by exchange transacted between Glanville bishop of Rochester, and the archbishop Hubert Walter. Glanville re­served out of the exchange a small piece of land, on which he built a house called Rochester Place, for the reception of the bi­shops of Rochester, whenever they came to attend parlement. In 1357, John de Shepey built Stangate stairs, for the convenience of himself and retinue to cross over into Westminster. Fisher and [Page 18] Hilsley were the last bishops who inhabited this palace; after their deaths it fell into the hands of Henry VIII. who exchanged with Aldridge bishop of Carliste, for certain houses in the Strand. Its name was changed to that of Carlisle house *. The small houses built on its site still belong to that see. It had been the design of archbishop Walter, A COLLEGE OF SECULAR MONKS PROJECTED HERE to have erected here a college of secular monks, independent of those of Canterbury. It was originally designed, by archbishop Baldwyn, to have been built at Hackington, near that city: but such a jealousy did those holy men conceive at the thought of a rival house so near to their own, that by their in­terest with the pope the project was layed aside. It was afterwards resumed by Hubert Walter, who thought he could give no offence by erecting the college on this distant manor; but the monks ob­taining a bull from the pope in their favor, and such humiliating terms prescribed to the archbishop, that from thenceforth he en­tirely desisted from the design . The mortifications which the primates met with in the prosecution, seem to have first determin­ed them in fixing their residence here. Walter and Langton suc­cessively lived at the manor-house of Lambeth. The last improved it, but the building was afterwards neglected and became ruinous. No pious zeal restored the place, but the madness of priestly pride. Boniface, a wrathful and turbulent primate, elected in 1244, took it into his head to become a visitor of the priory of St. Bartholomew, to which he had no right. The monks met him with reverential respect, but assured him the office did not belong to the bishop. The meek prelate rushed on the sub-prior, knocked him down, [Page 19] kicked, beat, and buffeted him, tore the cope off his back, and stamped on it like one possessed, while his attendants payed the same compliments to all the poor monks. The people, enraged at his unpriestly conduct, would have torn him to pieces; when he retired to Lambeth, and, by way of expiation, rebuilt it with great magnificence.

THIS palace was very highly improved by the munificent Henry Chichely, who enjoyed the primacy from 1414 to 1443. I lament to find so worthy a man to have been the founder of a building so reproachful to his memory as the Lollards tower, at the expence of near two hundred and eighty pounds. Neither protestants or catholics should omit visiting this tower, the cruel prison of the unhappy followers of Wickliffe. The vast staples and rings, to which they were chained before they were brought to the stake, ought to make protestants bless the hour which freed them from so bloody a religion. Catholics may glory, that time has softened their zeal into charity for all sects, and made them blush at these memorials of the misguided zeal of our an­cestors.

THIS palace suffered greatly in the civil wars. After those of York and Lancaster, it was restored by archbishop Morton. He also built the gateway; in the lower room of which are still to be seen the rings to which the overflowings of the Lollards tower were chained.

AFTER the civil wars of the last century,FANATICAL FURY. when fanatical was united with political fury, it was found that every building de­voted to piety, had suffered more than they had done in all the rage of family contest. The fine works of art, and the sacred memorials of the dead, were, except in a few cases, sacrificed to [Page 20] puritanical barbarism, or to sacrilegious plunder. Lambeth tell to the share of the miscreant regicide Scot. He turned the chapel into a hall, and levelled, for that purpose, the fine monument of archbishop Parker: he pulled down the noble hall, the work of Chichely, and sold the materials for his own profit. Juxon, on the Restoration, found the palace of his predecessors a heap of ruins. His piety rebuilt a greater part than could have been expected from the short time he enjoyed the primacy. He rebuilt the great hall on the antient model, when the archbishop with his particu­lar friends sat at the high table: the steward with the servants, who were gentry of the better rank, sat at the table on the right hand side: the almoner, the clergy, and others, occupied the table on the left. None but nobility or privy counsellors were admitted to the table of the archbishop. The bishops themselves sat at the almoner's; the other guests at the steward's. All the meat which was not consumed, was regularly given to the idle poor, who waited in crowds at the gate. It is not the defect of charity in modern prelates that this custom is difused; but the happy change in the times. Every one must now eat the bread of his own industry; a much more certain support than the casual bounty of the great; which misfortunes often prevented, and left the object a prey to misery and famine. What is styled the luxury of the times, has by no means superseded deeds of alms. Wealth is more equally diffused; but charity is equally great: it passes now through many channels, and makes less noise than when it was poured through fewer streams.

LIBRARY.THE fine library in this palace was founded by archbishop Bancroft; who died in 1610, and left all his books to his successors, for ever. The succeeding archbishop, Abbot, bequeathed all his [Page 21] books in his great study, marked C. C. in the same unlimited manner.

ON the suppression of episcopacy, this valuable library was preserved by the address of the celebrated Mr. Selden. It seems that archbishop Bancroft had left his books to his successors, on condition that the immediate successor was to give bond that they should not be embezzled; but delivered entire from one to the other for ever. On failure of this article, they were to go to Chelsea College, in case it was built in six years after his decease. The college never was finished: but whether any of Bancroft's successors gave the security does not appear. The books were remaining at Lambeth in 1646, two years after the execution of archbishop Laud; when probably fearing for their safety in times so inimical to learning, Mr. Selden suggested to the univer­sity of Cambridge their right to the books; and the whole were delivered into their possession. On the Restoration, archbishop Juxon demanded the return of the library; which was repeated by his successor Sheldon, as founded on the will of the pious foun­der: and they were restored accordingly. Archbishop Sheldon added a considerable number: and archbishop Tenison augmented it with part of his books.

THAT very worthy prelate archbishop Secker, besides a consi­derable sum expended on making catalogues to the old registers of the see, left to the library all such books from his own, as were not in the former, which comprehended much the largest and most valuable part of his own collection.

ARCHBISHOP Cornwallis bestowed many valuable books in his life-time. And the present archbishop has given a considerable sum for fitting up a proper repository for the valuable collec­tion [Page 22] of manuscripts. The whole number of printed books amounts to twenty-five thousand.

THE other apartments have within these few years received considerable improvements.G [...]S The great gallery, which is near ninety feet long by fifteen feet nine inches broad, has lately had the addition of a bow window, by the present amiable primate. An opening has been made towards the river, by the cutting down of a few trees, which admits a most beautiful view of the wa­ter, part of the bridge, and of the venerable abbey. This gallery is filled with portraits of primates or prelates, among others, that of cardinal Pole, the founder of this very room. Over the chim­ney are the heads of those of the earlier times, such as archbishop Warham, by Holbein; St. Dunstan, and archbishop Chichely: the first imaginary, the last probably taken from painted glass. Among these distinguished characters, Katherine Parr has found a place, and not without just clame; it being reasonable to suppose, but for the death of her tyrant, she would have been devoted to the stake for the favor she bore to the reformed religion. I must not omit mention of the two portraits of archbishop Parker, second primate of the protestant religion; one is by Holbein, the other by Richard Lyne, who jointly practised the arts of painting and engraving in the service of this great patron of science *.

IN the dining-room is a succession of primates, from the violent and imprudent Laud to the quiet and discreet Cornwallis. The portrait of Laud is admirably done by Vandyke; Juxon, from a good original which I saw last year at Longleate; Tenison, by Simon Dubois; Herring, by Hogarth; Hutton, by Hudson; Secker, [Page 23] by Reynolds; and Cornwallis, by Dance. Here are besides in the gallery, by the last master, portraits of Terrick late bishop of Lon­don, and Thomas late bishop of Winchester: and another of bishop Hoadley, which does honor to the artist, his wife, Sarah Curtis. When I looked into the garden I could not but recall the scene of conference between the great the wise earl of Clarendon, and the unfortunate Laud. Hyde laid before him the resentment of all ranks of people against him for his passionate and ill-man­nered treatment even of persons of rank. The primate attended to the honest chancellor with patience, and palliated his faults *. The advice was forgotten, nor his folly cured till he had involved himself and master in destruction.

A MORE phlegmatic cohabitant of the garden,LONGEVITY OF A TORTOISE. enjoyed his situa­tion during many successions to this self-devoted metropolitan. A Tortoise, introduced here in his days (in 1633) lived till the year 1753, the time of archbishop Herring, and possibly might have lived till the present, had it not been killed by the negli­gence of the gardener.

IN the vestry is a portrait of Luther and his wife; the lady ap­pears pregnant. This great reformer left three sons, John, Martin, and Paul.

IN one of the apartments of the palace is a performance that does great honor to the ingenious spouse of a modern dignitary; a copy in needlework of a Madonna and child, after a most capital performance of the Spanish Murillo. There is most admirable grace in the original, which was sold last winter at the price of eight hundred guineas . It made me lament that this excellent mas­ter [Page 24] had wasted so much time on beggars and ragged boys. Beau­tiful as it is, the copy came improved out of the hand of our skil­ful countrywoman; a judicious change of color of part of the drapery, has had a most happy effect, and given new excellence to the admired original.

CHURCH.THE parish church of Lambeth is at a small distance from the palace, has a plain tower, and the architecture of the gothic of the time of Edward IV. It has very little remarkable in it, ex­cept the figure of a pedlar and his dog, painted in one of the windows. Tradition says, that the parish was obliged to this man for the bequest of a piece of land, which bears the name of The Pedlar's Acre.

BEFORE I go any farther, let me mention the sad example of fallen majesty in the person of Mary d'Este, the unhappy queen of James II; who flying with her infant prince from the ruin im­pending over their house, after crossing the Thames from the ab­dicated Whitehall, took shelter beneath the antient walls of this church a whole hour, from the rain of the inclement night of December 6th, 1688. Here she waited with aggravated misery, till a common coach, procured from the next inn, arrived, and conveyed her to Gravesend, from whence she sailed, and bid an eternal adieu to these kingdoms *.

IN this place rest from their labors several of the later pri­mates, without any remarkable monument, except their good works, to preserve them from oblivion; among them is Bancroft, Tenison, Hutton; and in a passage leading to the palace, are the remains of Secker.

[Page 25]HERE likewise was interred the mild, amiable,BISHOP TUNSTAL. and polished prelate Cuthbert Tunstal, bishop of Durham, who, deprived on ac­count of his attachment to the old religion, by Edward VI. was restored by Mary, and again deprived by Elizabeth: here he found an asylum in the family of archbishop Parker, so highly was he esteemed even by the protestants; here he passed his days with honor and tranquillity, till his death in 1559.

IN the same church are the remains of Thirlebye, BISHOP THIRLE­BYE. once bishop of Ely, deprived for the same cause by Elizabeth. By the charity of the above-mentioned great prelate, he found the same protec­tion as his fellow-sufferer Tunstal. To shew the humanity of protestantism, he was indulged with the company of his secretary. He merited every favor. Being joined in commission with Bonner for the degradation of Cranmer, he performed his office with as much tenderness, as his associate did with brutality, and melted into tears over fallen greatness. His body was found in digging the grave for archbishop Cornwallis. His long and venerable beard, and every part, was entire, and of a beautiful whiteness: a slouched hat was under his left arm: his dress that of a pilgrim, as he esteemed himself to be upon earth.

A NEAT bust, with the body in armour, and with artillery,ROBERT SCOT. drums, and trophies around, exhibits the military character of Robert Scot, who entered into the service of Gustavus Adolphus, and brought with him two hundred men. He was made muster-master general to that hero; afterwards he went into the service of Denmark; and finally, in 1631, closed his life in that of Charles I. who made him gentleman of his privy chamber, and bestowed on him a pension of six hundred a year. He was of the family of the antient barons of Bawtrie, in North Britain; but [Page 26] his character surpassed his origin.INVENTOR OF LEATHERN AR­TILLERY. He was the inventor of lea­thern artillery, which he introduced into the army of Gustavus, and by that means contributed highly to the glorious victory of Leipsic. Harte, and other historians of that illustrious prince, speak of the invention and its important services, but were either igno­rant of the inventor, or chose to suppress his merit *. Tilly him­self confesses the superiority of these portable cannons, after his own heavy artillery, so admirably served as they were, sunk under the vivacity of the fire of these light pieces.

TOMB OF THE TRADESCANTS.IN the church-yard is a tomb which no naturalist should neg­lect visiting, that of old John Tradescant, who, with his son, lived in this parish. The elder was the first person who ever formed a cabinet of curiosities in this kingdom. The father is said to have been gardener to Charles I. But Parkinson says, ‘sometimes be­longing to the right honorable lord Robert earl of Salisbury, lord treasurer of England in his time; and then unto the right honorable the lord Wotton, at Canterbury, in Kent; and lastly unto the late duke of Buckingham .’ Both father and son were great travellers; the father is supposed to have visited Russia and most parts of Europe, Turkey, Greece, many of the eastern countries, Egypt, and Barbary; out of which he introduced multi­tudes of plants and flowers, unknown before in our gardens. His was an age of florists: the chief ornaments of the parterres were owing to his labors. Parkinson continually acknowleges the obligation. Many plants were called after his name: these the Linnaean system has rendered almost obsolete: but the great na­turalist [Page 27] hath made more than reparation, by giving to a genus of plants the title of TRADESCANTIA *.MUSEUM TRA­DESCANTIANUM. The Museum Tradescan­tianum, a small book, adorned by he hand of Hollar with the heads of the father and the son, is a proof of their industry. It is a catalogue of their vast collection, not only of the subjects of the three kingdoms of nature, but of artificial rarities from great va­riety of countries. The collection of medals, coins, and other antiquities, appears to have been very valuable. Zoology was in their time but in a low state, and credulity far from being ex­tinguished: among the eggs is one supposed to have been of the dragon, and another of the griffin. You might have found here two feathers of the tail of the phoenix, and the claw of the ruck, a bird able to trusse an elephant. Notwithstanding this, the collec­tion was extremely valuable, especially in the vegetable king­dom. In his garden, at his house in South Lambeth, THEIR GARDEN. was an amazing arrangement of trees, plants, and flowers. It seems to have been particularly rich in those of the east, and of North America. His merit and assiduity must have been very great; for the eastern traveller must have labored under great difficulties from the barbarity of the country: and North America had in his time been but recently settled. Yet we find the names of numbers of trees and plants still among the rarer of much later times. To him we are also indebted for the luxury of many fine fruits; for, as Parkinson observed, ‘The choysest for goodnesse, and rarest for knowledge, are to be had of my very good friend Master John Tradescante, who hath wonderly laboured to ob­taine all the rarest fruits hee can heare off in any place of Chris­tendome, [Page 28] Turky, yea, or the whole world *.’ He lived at a large house in this parish, and had an extensive garden, much visited in his days. After his death, which happened about the year 1652, his collection came into the possession of the famous Mr. Elias Ashmole, by virtue of a deed of gift which Mr. Trades­cant, junior, had made to him of all his rarities, in true astrolo­gical form, being dated December 16, 1657, 5 hor. 30 minutes post merid. . Mr. Ashmole also purchased the house, which is still in being, the garden fell to decay. In the year 1749, it was visited by two respectable members of the Royal Society , who found among the ruins some trees and plants, which evidently were introduced here by the industrious founder. The collection of curiosities were removed by Mr. Ashmole, to his Museum at Oxford, where they are carefully preserved. Many very curious articles are to be seen: among others, several original dresses and weapons of the North Americans, in their original state; which may in some period prove serviceable in illustrating their man­ners and antiquities.

MONUMENT DE­SCRIBED.THE monument of the Tradescants was erected in 1662, by Hester, relict of the younger. It is an altar tomb: at each corner is cut a large tree, seeming to support the slab: at one end is an hydra picking at a bare scull, possibly designed as an emblem of Envy: on the other end are the arms of the family: on one side are ruins, Grecian pillars, and capitals; an obelisk and pyramid, to denote the extent of his travels: and on the opposite, a croco­dile, [Page 29] and various shells, expressive of his attention to the study of natural history. Time had greatly injured this monument; but in 1773 it was handsomely restored, at the parish expence; and the inscription, which was originally designed for it, engraven on the stone. As it is both singular and historical, I present it to the reader.

Know, stranger, ere thou pass, beneath this stone
Lye John Tradescant, grandsire, father, son;
The last dy'd in his spring; the other two
Liv'd till they had travell'd Art and Nature through,
As by their choice collections may appear,
Of what is rare, in land, in sea, in air;
Whilst they (as Homer's Iliad in a nut)
A world of wonders in one closet shut:
These famous Antiquarians that had been
Both gardiners to the Rose and Lily Queen,
Transplanted now themselves, sleep here; and when
Angels shall with their trumpets waken men,
And fire shall purge the world, these hence shall rise,
And change this garden for a paradise *.

IN contrast to these innocent characters,GUY FAUX. I shall mention that desperate miscreant Guy Faux, or Vauxe, as an inhabitant of this parish. He lived in a large mansion called Faux-hall, and, as Doctor Ducarel imagines, was lord of the manor of the same name. In foreign parts a colonne infame would have been erected on the spot: but the site is now occupied by Marble-hall, and Cumberland tea-gardens, and several other buildings.

[Page 30]FROM Lambeth I returned by the water-side, near the end of Westminster bridge, along a tract once a dreary marsh, and still in parts called Lambeth marsh; about the year 1560, there was not a house on it, from Lambeth palace as far as Southwark. Sir William Dugdale * makes frequent mention of the works for se­curing it, in old times, by embankments or walls as they are styled, to restrain the ravages of the tide. The embankments in Southwark must have been the work of the Romans, otherwise they never could have erected the buildings or made the roads of which such frequent vestiges have been found. Most of this tract is become firm land, and covered with most useful buildings even to the edge of the river.MRS. COADE'S ARTIFICIAL STONE. In a street called Narrow Wall (from one of the antient embankments) is Mrs. Coade's manufac­ture of artificial stone. Her repository consists of several very large rooms filled with every ornament which can be used in archi­tecture. The statue, the vase, the urn, the rich chimney-pieces, and, in a few words, every thing which could be produced out of natural stone or marble by the most elegant chisel, is here to be ob­tained at an easy rate. Proof has been made of its durable quality. The inventor has been able to ward off the attacks of time, but not of envy: a beautiful font, now the ornament of Dibden church in Essex, and which was formed on a most admirable antique model, was denied to the public eye, in a place where liberality ought to have enjoyed the freest reign.

ENGLISH WINES;NOTWITHSTANDING the climate of Great Britain has, at lest of late years, been unfavorable to the production of wines: yet, in the year 1635, we began to make some from the raisins or [Page 31] dried grapes of Spain and Portugal. Francis Chamberlayne made the attempt, and obtained a patent for fourteen years, in which it is alleged that his wines would keep good during several years, and even in a voyage under the very line *. The art was most successfully revived, several years ago, by Mark Beaufoy, and the foreign wines most admirably mimicked. Such is the prodigality and luxury of the age, that the demand for many sorts exceeds in a great degree the produce of the native vine­yards. We have skilful fabricators, who kindly supply our wants. It has been estimated, that half of the port, and five-sixths of the white wines consumed in our capital, have been the produce of our home wine-presses. The product of duty to the state from a single house, was in one year, from July 5th, 1785, to July 5th, 1786, not less than £. 7,363.9s 8 ½ d. The genial banks of the Thames opposite to our capital, yield almost every species of white wine; and, by a wondrous magic, Messrs. Beaufoy pour forth the materials for the rich Frontiniac, to the more elegant tables; the Madeira, the Caleavella, and the Lisbon, into every part of the kingdom.

THIS great work, and that for the making of vinegar,AND VINEGAR. is at a small distance from Mrs. Coade's. I can scarcely say how much I was struck with the extent of the undertaking. There is a magnificence of business, in this ocean of sweets and sours, that cannot fail exciting the greatest admiration: whether we consider the number of vessels, or their size.GREAT TONS. The boasted ton at Heydel­berg does not surpass them. On first entering the yard, two rise before you, covered at the top with a thatched dome; between [Page 32] them is a circular turret, including a winding staircase, which brings you to their summits, which are above twenty-four feet in diameter. One of these conservatories is full of sweet wine, and contains fifty eight thousand one hundred and nine gallons; or eighteen hundred and fifteen barrels of Winchester measure. Its superb associate is full of vinegar, to the amount of fifty six thou­sand seven hundred and ninety-nine gallons, or seventeen hundred and seventy-four barrels, of the same standard as the former. The famous German vessel yields even to the last by the quantity of forty barrels *.

BESIDES these, is an avenue of lesser vessels, which hold from thirty-two thousand five hundred, to sixteen thousand nine hun­dred and seventy-four gallons each. After quitting this Brob­dignagian scene, we pass to the acres covered with common bar­rels: we cannot diminish our ideas so suddenly, but at first we imagined we could quaff them off as easily as Gulliver did the little hogsheads of the kingdom of Lilliput.

THIS ground, so profitable to the proprietors, and so produc­tive of revenue to the state, was in my memory the scene of low dissipation.CUPER'S GAR­DEN. Here stood Cuper's Garden, noted for its fire-works, and the great resort of the profligate of both sexes. This place was ornamented with several of the mutilated statues belonging to Thomas earl of Arundel, which had been for that purpose beg­ged from his lordship by one Boyder Cuper, a gardener in the family . The more valuable part were bought by lord Lemster, [Page 33] father of the first earl of Pomfret, and presented by the earl's widow to the university of Oxford. These grounds were then rented by lord Arundel. On the pulling down of Arundel-house, to make way for the street of that name, these, and several others of the damaged part of the collection, were removed to this place. Numbers were left on the ground, near the river-side, and over­whelmed with the rubbish brought from the foundation of the new church of St. Paul's. These in after-times were discovered, dug up, and conveyed to the seat of the duke of Norfolk, at Work­sop manor. Injured as they are, they appear, from the etchings given by Doctor Ducarel, to have had great merit.

THE great timber-yards,GREAT TIMBER-YARDS. beneath which these antiquities were found, are very well worthy of a visit. One would fear that the forests of Norway and the Baltic would be exhausted, to supply the want of our overgrown capital, were we not assured, that the resources will successively be increasing, equal to the demand of succeeding ages.

IN this parish are the vast distilleries,GREAT DISTIL­LERY. till of late the property of Sir Joseph Mawhey. There are seldom less than two thousand hogs constantly grunting at this place; which are kept entirely on the grains. I lament to see the maxim of private vices being public benefits so strongly exemplified in the produce of the duty on this Stygian liquor. From July 5th, 1785, to July 5th, 1786, it yielded £. 450,000. And I have been told of a single distiller who contributed to that sum £. 54,000.

TO the south are St. George's Fields, ST. GEORGE'S FIELDS. now the wonder of foreigners approaching by this road to our capital, through ave­nues of lamps, of magnificent breadth and goodness. I have heard that a foreign ambassador, who happened to make his [Page 34] entry at night, imagined that these illuminations * were in honor of his arrival, and, as he modestly expressed, more than he could have expected. On this spot have been found remains of tesselated pavements, coins, and an urn full of bones , possi­bly the site of a summer camp of the Romans. In this place it could have been no other. It was too wet for a residentiary station. Its neighbor, Lambeth marsh, was in the last century overflown with water: but St. George's Fields might, from their distance from the river, admit of a temporary encampment.

[...]ON approaching St. George's Fields from Westminster-bridge are two charities of uncommon delicacy and utility. The first is the Westminster Lying-in Hospital. This is not instituted merely for the honest matron, who can depose her burthen with the consci­ousness of lawful love, but also for the unhappy wretches whom some villain, in the unguarded moment, hath seduced, and then left a prey to desertion of friends, poverty, want, and guilt. Least such ‘may be driven to despair by such complicated misery, and be tempted to destroy themselves, and murder their in­fants ,’ here was founded, in 1765, this humane preventative The Westminster New Lying-in Hospital. To obviate all objec­tion to its being an encouragement to vice, no one is taken in a second time: but this most excellent charity is open to the wor­thy distressed matron as often as necessity requires. None are rejected who have friends to recommend. And of both descrip­tions [Page 35] upwards of four thousand have experienced its salutary effects.

FARTHER on is another institution of a most heavenly nature,ASYLUM, OR HOUSE OF RE­FUGE. calculated to save from perdition of soul and body, the brighter part of the creation: such on whom Providence hath bestowed angelic faces and elegant forms, designed as blessings to mankind, but too often debased to the vilest uses. The hazard that these innocents constantly are liable to, from a thousand temptations, from poverty, from death of parents, from the diabolical procu­ress, and often from the stupendous wickedness of parents them­selves, who have been known to sell their beauteous girls for the purpose of prostitution, induced a worthy band to found, in the year 1758, the Asylum, or House of Refuge. Long may it flourish, and eternal be the reward of those into whose minds so amiable a conception may have entered!

FOR the salvation of those unhappy beings who had the ill for­tune to lose the benefits of this divine institution, at a small dis­tance is the Magdalen Hospital, MAGDALEN HOS­PITAL. for the reception of the penitent prostitutes. To save from vice is one great merit. To reclame and restore to the dignity of honest rank in life is certainly not less meritorious. The joy at the return of one sinner to repen­tance, is esteemed by the highest authority worthy of the heavenly host. That ecstasy, I trust, this institution has often occasioned. Since its foundation, in the same year with the former, to De­cember 25th, 1786, not fewer than 2,471 have been admitted. Of these (it is not to be wondered that long and evil habits are often incurable) 300 have been discharged, uneasy under constraint; 45 proved lunatics, and afflicted with incurable fits; 60 have died; 52 never returned from hospitals they were sent to; 338 [Page 36] discharged for faults and irregularities.—How to be dreaded is the entrance into the bounds of vice, since the retreat from its paths is so difficult! Finally, 1608 prodigals have been return­ed to their rejoicing parents, or placed in reputable services, or to honest trades, banes to idleness, and securities against a future relapse.

[...]IAN [...]TRES.IN this neighborhood are two theatres of innocent recreation, (in which every government should indulge its subjects, as preser­vations from worse employs, and as relaxations from the cares of life) of a nature unknown to every other part of Europe; the British Hippedromes, belonging to Messrs. Astley and Hughes, where the wonderful [...]gacity of that most useful animal the horse is fully evinced. While we admire its admirable docility and ap­prehension, we cannot less admire the powers of the riders, and the graceful attitudes the human frame is capable of receiving. But there is another species of amusement, usually reckoned of a des­picable kind, yet, ever since I read Doctor Delaney's thoughts * on the subject, I have looked on the art of tumbling with admira­tion. It shews us how fearfully and wonderfully we are made. What infinite misfortunes would befal us, (which almost every step is liable to) was it not for that wise construction of parts, that pliability of limb, that, unperceived by us, protects us in every contrived motion, or accidental slip, from the most dire and dis­abling calamities!

BOROUGH OF SOUTHWARK.THE borough of Southwark joins to the parish of Lambeth on the east, and consists of the parishes of St. Olave's, St. Saviour's, St. George's, and St. Thomas's.

[Page 37]IT was called by the Saxons, Suthverke, or the South work, in respect to some fort or fortification bearing that aspect from Lon­don. It was also called the Borough, or Burg, probably for the same reason. It was long independent of the city of London: but, in consideration of the inconveniences arising from the escape of malefactors from the great capital into this place, it was, in 1327 granted by Edward III. to the city, on payment of ten pounds annually. It was then called the village of Southwark; it was afterwards styled the bailiwick of Southwark, and the mayor and commonalty of London appointed the bailiff. This power did not seem sufficient to remedy the evil, a more intimate con­nection was thought necessary: in the reign of Edward VI. on a valuable consideration payed to the crown, it was formed into a twenty-sixth ward, by the title of Bridge ward without, and Sir John Ayliff was its first alderman. It had long before enjoyed the privilege of sending members to parlement. It is mentioned among the boroughs in the time of Edward III; but the names of the first members which appear, are Robert Acton and Thomas Bulle, in 1542. The members are elected by the inhabitants paying scot and lot, and returned by the bailiff.

THE first time that Southwark is mentioned in history, is on occasion of earl Godwin's sailing up the river to attack the royal navy of fifty ships, lying before the palace of Westminster; this was in 1052, when we are told he went ad Suthwecree, and stayed there till the return of the tide *.

ST. GEORGE's church is of considerable antiquity; it is men­tioned [Page 38] in 1122, when Thomas of Arderne and his son bestowed it on the neighboring monks of Bermondsey *. It was rebuilt in 1736, by Price, with a spire steeple most aukwardly standing upon stilts.

[...] OF CHARLES BRAN­D [...]N.NOT far from this church stood the magnificent palace of Charles Brandon duke of Suffolk, the deserved favorite of Henry VIII. After his death, in 1545, it came into the king's hand, who established here a royal mint. It at that time was called South­wark Place, and in great measure preserved its dignity. Edward VI. once dined in it. His sister and successor presented it to Heath archbishop of York, as an inn or residence for him and his suc­cessors,THE MINT whenever they repaired to London. As to the Mint, it became a sanctuary to insolvent debtors; at length becoming the pest of the neighborhood, by giving shelter to villains of every species, that awakened the attention of parlement; which, by the statutes 8 and 9 William III. c. 27. 9 George I. c. 29. and 11 George I. c. 22. entirely took away its abused privileges.

KING'S-BENCH PRISON.THE King's-bench prison, in this parish, is of great antiquity. To this prison was committed Henry prince of Wales, after­wards Henry V, by the spirited and honest judge Gascoigne, for striking or insulting him on the bench. It is difficult to say which we should admire most, the courage of the judge, or the peaceful submission of the prince to the commitment, after he was freed from the phrenzy of his rage. The truth of the fact has been doubted; but, it is delivered by several grave histori­ans, such as Hall, who died in 1547, who mentions it folio 1; Grafton, perhaps his copyist, at p. 443; and the learned Sir [Page 39] Thomas Elyot, a favorite of Henry VIII. in his book called The Governour, relates the same in p. 102, book ii. c. 6, of that treatise. These were all long prior to Shakespeare, or the author of another play, in the time of queen Elizabeth, styled Henry V. It must have been the poets that took up the relation from the historians, and not the historians from the poets, as some people have asserted. This was not the only time of his commitment. In 1411 he was confined by John Hornesby *, mayor of Coventry, in the Cheleysmor in that city; and arrested with his two brothers in the priory, probably for a riot committed there. The reform of this great prince was very early: for I never can believe him to have been a hypocrite when he wrote in that strain of piety to his father, on the subject of a victory obtained at Usk, over the famous Glyndwr . The other play of Henry V. which I allude to, was written before the year 1592. In the scene in which the historical account of the violence of the prince against the chief justice is introduced, Richard Tarlton, a famous come­dian and mimic, acts both judge and clown. One Knell, another drole comedian of the time, acted the prince, and gave the chief justice such a blow as felled him to the ground, to the great diversion of the audience. Tarlton the judge, goes off the stage; and returns, Tarlton the clown; he demands the cause of the laughter, "O," says one, ‘had thou beenst here to have seen what a terrible blow the prince gave the judge." "What, strike a judge!’ says the clown, terrible indeed must it be [Page 40] to the judge, when the very report of it makes my cheek burn*.’

MARSHALEEN.THE prison of the Marshalsea, which belongs to that court, and also to the king's palace at Westminster, stands here; this court had particular cognizance of murders, and other offences, com­mitted within the king's court: such as striking, which in old times was punished with the loss of the offending hand. Here also persons guilty of piracies, and other offences on the high seas, were confined. In 1377 it was broke open by a mob of sailors, who murdered a gentleman confined in it for killing one of their comrades, and who had been pardoned by the count . It was again broke open by Wat Tyler and his followers, in 1381. It escaped in the infamous riots of 1780; but the King's Bench, and the Borough prison, and another Borough prison called the Clink, were nearly at the same instant sacrificed to their fury.

PARIS-GARDEN.IN this parish, near the water, on Bank-side, stood Paris-garden, one of the antient playhouses of our metropolis. Ben Johnson is reproached by one Decker, an envious critic, with his ill success on the stage, and in particular with having performed the part of Zuliman, at Paris-Garden. It seems to have been much frequented on Sundays. This profanation was at length fully punished, by the dire accident which, heaven-directed, be­fel the spectators in 1582, when the scaffolding suddenly fell, and multitudes of people were killed or miserably maimed. The omen seems to have been accepted, for, in the next century, the manor of Paris-Garden was erected into a parish, and a church [Page 41] founded, under the name of CHRIST's. This calamity seems to have been predicted by one Crowley, a poet, of the reign of Henry VIII; who likewise informs us, that in this place were ex­hibited bear-baitings, as well as dramatical entertainments, and upon Sundays, as they are to this time at the Combat des Animaux, at Paris.

What folly is this to keep, with danger,
A great mastive dog, and fowle ouglie bear;
And to this an end, to see them two fight,
With terrible tearings, a ful ouglie sight.
And methinkes those men are most fools of al,
Whose store of money is but very smal,
And yet every Sunday they wil surely spend
One peny or two, the Bearwards living to mend.
At Paris Garden each Sunday a man shal not fail
To find two or three hundred for the Bearwards vale.
One halfpeny a piece they use for to give,
When some have not more in their purses, I believe.
Wel, at the last day their conscience wil declare,
That the poor ought to have al that they may spare.
If you therefore give to see a bear fight,
Be sure God his curse upon you wil light.

BEYOND this place of brutal amusement were the Bear-Gar­den, and place for baiting of bulls; the British circi: "Herein," says Stow *, ‘were kept beares, bulls, and other beasts to be bayted, as also mastives in several kenels, nourished to bayt them. These beares and other beasts are there kept [Page 42] in plots of ground scaffolded about for the beholders to stand safe.’ In the old maps these circi are engraven.

BEAR-BAITING.BEAR-baiting made one of the amusements of the romantic age of queen Elizabeth; for there was still left a strong tincture of those of the savage and warlike period. It was introduced among the princely pleasures of Kenilworth, in 1575; where the drole author of the account introduces the bear and dogs, deciding their antient grudge per duellum. ‘Well, Syr, (says he) the bearz wear brought foorth intoo coourt, the dogs set too them, too argu the points eeven face to face, they had learnd coounsell allso a both parts: what may they be coounted parciall that are retaind but a to syde, I ween. No wery feers both ton and toother eager in argument: if the dog in pleadyng woold pluk the bear by the throte, the bear with trauers woould claw him again by the skaip, confess & a list; but a voyd a coold not that waz bound too the bar: and hiz counsell tolld him that it coold bee [...]o him no poliecy in pleading. Thearfore thus with sending & proouing, with plucking & tugging, skratting & byting, by plain tooth & nayll, a to side & toother, such erspes of blood & leather waz thear between them, az a moonths licking I ween wyl not recoouer, and yet remain az far oout az euer they wear. It waz a sport very pleazaunt of theez beastz: to see the bear with hiz pink nyez leering after hiz enmiez approch, the nimblness & wayt of ye dog too take hiz auauntage, and the fors & experiens of the bear agayn to auoyd the assauts: if he wear bitten in one place, hoow he woold pynch in an oother too get free: that if he wear taken onez, then what shyft with byting, with clawyng, with roring, tossing & tumbling, he woold work to [Page 43] wynde hymself from them; and when he was lose, to shake hiz earz twyse or thryse wyth the blud and the slaver aboout hiz fiznamy was a matter of a goodly releef*.’

THIS was an amusement for persons of the first rank; our great princess Elizabeth thought proper to cause the French ambassa­dors to be carried to this theatre, to divert them with these bloody spectacles .

NOT far from these scenes of cruel pastime was the Bordello, THE STEWS. or Stews, permitted, and openly licensed by government, under cer­tain laws or regulations. They were farmed out. Even a lord mayor, the great Sir William Walworth, did not disdain to own them; and he rented them to the Froes, i. e. the bawds of Flanders. Among other regulations, no stewholder was to admit married women: nor, like pious Calvinists, in Holland, to this present day, were they to keep open their houses on Sundays; nor were they to admit any women who had on them the perilous in­firmity of burning, &c. &c. These infamous houses were suppressed in the reign of Henry VIII. The pretence of these establishments was to prevent the debauching the wives and daughters of the citizens, so that all who had not the gift of continence might have places to repair to. Perhaps, in days when thousands were tied up by vows of celibacy, these haunts might have been necessary; for neither cowl nor cope had virtue suffi­cient to annihilate the strongest of human passions. Old Latimer [Page 44] complains bitterly, that the offence was not taken away with the suppression of the houses. "One thing I must here," says the zealous preacher, ‘desire you to reforme, my lordes; you have put downe the Stewes. But, I pray you, whow is the matter amended. What avayleth that you have but changed the place, and not taken the wh—d me away.— There is now more wh—d-me in London then ever there was on the Bancke *.’

THE signs were not hung out, but painted against the walls. I cannot but smile at one: the Cardinal's Hat. I will not give into scandal so far as to suppose that this house was peculiarly protected by any coeval member of the sacred college. Neither would I by any means insinuate that the bishops of Winchester and Rochester, or the abbots of Waverley or of St. Augustine's, in Canterbury, or of Battel, or of Hyde, or the prior of Lewes, had here their temporary residences for them or their trains, for the sake of these conveniencies, in that period of cruel and unnatu­ral restriction.

BESIDES these temporary mansions of holy men, were others, for those who preferred the monastic life. The first religious house was that of St. Mary Overie, ST. MARY OVERIE. said to have been originally founded by a maiden named Mary, for sisters, and endowed with the profits of a ferry cross the Eye, or river Thames. Swithen, a noble lady, changed it into a college of priests: but in the year 1106 it was re-founded by William Pont de L'arche, and William Dauncy, Norman knights, for canons regular. The last prior was Bartholomew Linsted, alias Fowle, who surrendered the convent [Page 45] to Henry, in October 1540, and received in reward a pension of £. 100 a year. Its revenues, according to Dugdale, were £. 654. 6s. 6d. * William Giffard, bishop of Winchester, in the reign of Henry I, was a great benefactor to this place, and built the con­ventual church. It certainly was not the present church, for in the days of Giffard the round arch and clumsy pillar was in full fashion. This church was probably burnt in the fire which con­sumed the priory, in 1207: for we know it was rebuilt in the time of Richard II. or Henry IV. The whole is a beautiful pile of gothic architecture, in form of a cross, but much deformed by a wooden gallery, which the increase of the congregation occa­sioned to be built. On the dissolution, the inhabitants of South­wark purchased the church of the king, and converted it into a parish church; and, by act of parlement, united it with that of St. Margaret's of the Hill, under the name of St. Saviour's.

WITHIN, beneath a rich gothic arch in the north wall,TOMB OF THE POET GOWER. is the monument of the celebrated poet John Gower. His figure is placed recumbent, in a long gown; on his head is a chaplet of roses; and from his neck a collar of SS; under his feet are three books, denoting his three principal works. On one is inscribed Specu­lum Meditantis, which he had written in French; on the second, Vox Clamantis, written in Latin; and on the last, Confessio Aman­tis, in English. Above, on the wall, are painted three female figures crowned, and with scrolls in their hands.

[Page 46]The first, which is named Charitie, hath on her scroll

En toy qui es fite de Dieu le pere,
Sauve soit que gist souz cest piere.

On that of the second, who is named Mercie,

O bone Jesu fait ta mercie,
Al alme dont le corps gist icy.

And on the scroll of the third, named Pitie,

Pur ta pite JESU regarde!
Et met cest alme en sauve garde.

HE founded a chauntry for himself within these walls, and was also a signal benefactor to the church. He was a man of family, and had a liberal education, according to the times, in the inns of court. Notwithstanding the word Armiger in the modern in­scription, it is probable he was a knight *. He was cotemporary with, and the great friend of Chaucer, whom he styles ‘his pupil and his poet;’ a proof of seniority, notwithstanding he survived him.

Grete wel CHAUCER, whan ye mete,
As my Disciple and my Poete;
For in the flours of his youth,
In sondrie wise, as he well couth,
Of Detees and of Songes glade,
The which he for my sake made.

[Page 47] Chaucer is not a bit behind hand in marks of respect.

O moral GOWER, this boke I direct
To the, and to the philosophical Strode.
To vouchsafe there nede is to correcte,
Of your benignities and zelis gode.

THESE excellent characters lived together in the most perfect amity: Chaucer was a severe reprover of the vices of the clergy; and each united in their great and successful endeavour to give a polish to the English language. Chaucer gave a free rein to his poetical mirth. Gower's poetry was grave and sententious. He has much good sense, solid reflection, and useful observation. But he is serious and didactic on all occasions. He preserves the tone of the scholar, and the moralist, on the most lively to­pics *.’ These fathers of English poetry followed each other closely to the grave. Chaucer died in 1400, aged 72. Gower in 1402, blind and full of years.

A RECUMBENT figure of a bishop, in his robes and badges,OF BISHOP ANDREWS. as prelate of the Garter, commemorates the pious, hospitable, and witty Launcelot Andrews, bishop of Winchester, who died in his ad­jacent palace, in 1624, aged seventy-one. James I. at dinner, attended by Neale, bishop of Durham, and this amiable church­man, asked of the first, whether he might not take his subjects money without the assistance of parlement? "God forbid," says the servile Neale, ‘but you should: you are the breath of our nostrils.’ Then, turning to Andrews, Well, my lord, what say you? The good bishop would have evaded the question, but the [Page 48] king being peremptory, he answered, ‘Then, Sir, I think it lawful to take my brother Neale's, money, for he offers it.’

WINCHESTER-HOUSE. Winchester-house was a very large building, not far from this church: the founder is unknown. Till the civil wars of the last century, it was the residence of the prelates during their atten­dance in parlement. Much of it is yet standing, tenanted by different families, or converted into warehouses. The great court is called Winchester-square, and in the adjacent street is the abutment of one of the gates.

THE CLINK.THE Clink, or manor of Southwark, is still under the jurisdic­tion of the bishops of Winchester; who, besides a court-leet, keeps a court of record on the Bank-side, by his steward and bailiff, for pleas of debt, trespasses, &c.

IN Southwark Park, on the back of Winchester-house, was found, by Sir William Dugdale, knight, in 1658, in sinking the cellars for new buildings, a very curious tesselated pavement, with a border in form of a serpentine column *.

MONUMENT OF LOCKYER, A QUACK DOCTOR.A FIGURE with its head reclined on one hand, in a great wig, and furred gown, represents Lionel Lockyer, a celebrated quack of the reign of Charles II. His virtues and his pills are thus expressed:

His virtues and his pills so well are known,
That envy can't confine them under stone;
But they'l survive his dust, and not expire
Till all things else, at th' universal fire.
This verse is lost, his pills embalm him safe
To future times without an epitaph.

I believe the last to be prophetic; his pills being to be found [Page 49] among the long list of quackeries which promise almost immor­tality to the credulous taker.

HERE are two other ridiculous epitaphs,RIDICULOUS EPITAPHS. which promise to the deceased a place in court, after they have passed the limits of the grave. Thus, John Trehearne, porter to James I. is told of the reversion he is to have in heaven:

In thy king's court good place to thee is given,
Whence thou shalt go to the King's court of heaven.

But Miss Barford is flattered in a still higher manner:

Such grace the King of kings bestow'd upon her,
That now she lives with him a maid of honour.

AGAINST a wall is a singular diminutive figure, one foot three inches long, said to represent a dwarf, one William Emerson, who died in 1575, aet. 92. He is represented half naked, much ema­ciated, lying in his shroud on a mat, most neatly cut.

I SHALL conclude this list with the monument of Richard Humble, his two wives, and children; not on account of their grotesque figures, but for the sake of the pretty and moral in­scription cut on one side.

Like to the damask rose you see,
Or like the blossom on the tree,
Or like the dainty flower of May,
Or like the morning of the day;
Or like the sun, or like the shade,
Or like the gourd which Jonas had:
Even so is man, whose thread is spun,
Drawn out and cut, and so is done.
[Page 50]The rose withers, the blossom blasteth,
The flower fades, the morning hasteth;
The sun sets, the shadow flies,
The gourd consumes, and man he dies.

A LITTLE to the west of this church is a lane called Stoney street, which ran down to the water-side, nearly opposite to Dow-gate, and probably was the continuation of the Watling-street road. This is supposed to have been a Roman Trajectus, and the ferry from Londinum into the province of Cantium. Marks of the antient causey have been discovered on the London side. On this, the name evinces the origin. The Saxons always give the name of Street to the Roman roads; and here they gave it the addition of Stein or Stoney, from the pavement they found it composed of.

DEADMAN's place lies a little farther: tradition says that it took its name from the number of dead interred there in the great plague, soon after the Restoration.

FROM the calamity which destroyed this church, and the reli­gious house, in the year 1207, arose one of our noblest hospitals, that of St. Thomas. ST. THOMAS'S HOSPITAL. After the fire, the canons built, at a small distance from the priory, an occasional building for their recep­tion till their house could be re-built. But in 1215, Peter de Ru­pibus, bishop of Winchester, disliking the situation, removed it to a place on which Richard, a Norman prior of Bermondsey, had, in 1213, erected a hospital for converts and poor children, which he called the Almery. Peter de Rupibus new founded it for canons regular, and endowed it with three hundred and forty-four pounds a year. It was held from the prior and abbot of Ber­mondsey, till the year 1428, when a composition was made be­tween [Page 51] the abbot and the master of the hospital of St. Thomas, for all the lands and tenements held of the abby for the old rent, to be payed to the said abbot. At the dissolution it was surrendered into the hands of the king. In 1552, it was founded a third time by the citizens of London, who purchased the suppressed hospital: in July they began the reparation, and in November following, opened it for the reception of the sick and poor; not fewer than two hundred and sixty were the first objects of the charity. The patron was at the same time changed: the turbulent Thomas Becket very properly giving place to the worthy apostle St. Thomas.

TOWARDS the end of the last century, the building fell into decay. In the year 1699 the governors solicited the benevolence of the public for its support: and with such success, that they were enabled to re-build it on the magnificent and extensive plan we now see. It consists of three courts, with colonnades be­tween each: three wards were built at the sole cost of Thomas Frederic, esquire, of London: and three by Thomas Guy, citi­zen and stationer. The whole containing eighteen wards, and 442 beds. The expences attending this foundation are about £. 10,000 a year. In the middle of the second court is a statue in brass of Edward VI. and beneath him the representation of the halt and maimed.

IN that of the third court is a stone statue of Sir Robert Clayton, knight, lord mayor of London, dressed in character, in his gown and chain. He gave £. 600 towards re-building this hospital; and left £. 2,300 towards the endowing it. The statue was erected before his death, which happened in 1714.

[Page 52]THIS excellent institution has, within the last ten years, ad­mitted and discharged, of

  • In-patients, 30,717.
  • Out-patients, 47,099.

And in the last account of 1787, it appears there were admitted and discharged

  • 2,758 In-patients,
  • 5,191 Out-patients,
  • Total in the year — 7,949.

MR. GUY'S HOSPITAL.MR. Guy, not satisfied with his great benefactions to the hospi­tal of St. Thomas, determined to be the sole founder of another. The relation is very remarkable. At the age of seventy-six, he took a lease, of the governors of the former, of a piece of ground opposite to it, for the term of nine hundred and ninety-nine years, and on it, in 1721, at the expence of £. 18,793. 16 s. began to build the hospital which bears his name: and left to endow it, the prodigious sum of £. 219,499, amassed from a very small be­ginning, chiefly by purchasing seamen's tickets, in the reign of queen Anne; and by his great success in the buying and selling South Sea stock, in the memorable year 1720; and also a vast sum by the sale of bibles. He seems to have profited both of GOD and Mammon. I think he was a native of Tamworth, and representative for that borough. His death happened on December 27th, 1724; before which he saw his hospital covered with the roof. In the first court is his statue in brass, dressed in his livery gown. Besides his public expences, he gave, during life, to many of his poor relations, £. 10 or £. 20 a year; and to others money to advance them in life; to his aged relations, £. 870 in annuities; and to his younger relations and executors, the sum of £. 75,589!

[Page 53]IN the chapel (shouldering GOD's altar) is another statue of Mr. Guy, a most expensive performance by Mr. J. Bacon, in 1779, in white marble. He is represented standing, in his livery gown, with one hand raising a miserable sick object, and with the other pointing to a second object, on a bier, carried by two per­sons into his hospital. This superfluity cost a thousand pounds; a proof of the exuberant wealth of the foundation, which could spare such a sum to be wasted on an idle needless occasion. I was told that at this time there were only two hundred beds: three wards being out of use, undergoing certain alterations. But I could not obtain the lest account of the annual number of patients, or of ex­penditure, or revenue; which other hospitals never fail of laying before the public.

IN the laboratory is a large medallion in white marble of the great and pious BOYLE.

THE other religious house in Southwark was Bermondsey, BERMONDSEY ABBY. found­ed in 1082, by Aylwin Childe, a citizen of London, for monks of the Cluniac order: a cargo of which were imported hither by favor of archbishop Lanfranc, in the year 1089, from the priory De Caritate, on the Loire, in Nivernois. Soon after the resumption of the alien priories, it was converted into an abby by Richard II. In 1539 *, it was surrendered into the king's hands by Robert de Wharton, who had his reward, not only of a pension of £. 333. 6 s. 8 d. but also the bishoprick of St. Asaph in commendam. The revenues of the house at the dissolution were £. 474. 14s. 4d.; the poor monks received the annual pension of from ten to about five pounds apiece.

[Page 54]THE conventual church was then pulled down by Sir Thomas Pope, who built a magnificent house on the site. This became the habitation of the Ratcliffs, earls of Sussex. Thomas, the great rival of the favorite earl of Leicester, breathed his last within its walls.

THE present parochial church of St. Mary Magdalen was founded by the priors of Bermondsey, for the use of their adjoining tenants.

THE remains of antiquity in this neighborhood are, the antient gate of the abby, with a large arch and a postern on one side. Adjoining is part of a very old building; and on passing beneath the arch, and turning to the left, is to be seen, within a court, a house of very great antiquity, called (for what reason I know not) king John's court.

BERMONDSEY street may at present be called the great Wool Staple of our kingdom. Here reside numbers of merchants, who supply Rochdale, Leicester, Derby, Exeter, and most other weaving countries in this kingdom, with that commodity. As Southwark may be considered as a great suburb to London, numbers of other trades are carried on there to a vast extent: the Tanners, Curriers, Hatters, Dyers, Iron-founders, Rope-makers, Sail-makers, and Block-makers, occupy a considerable part of the borough.

THE most eastern parish in Southwark, is that of St. Olave or Olaf, so named from the Danish prince who was massacred by his Pagan subjects.ST. OLAVE, OR OLAF'S CHURCH. The church appears to have been founded near five hundred years ago *. The parish extends from the spot on London-bridge, on which was the draw-bridge, and stretches [Page 55] along the water-side as far as St. Saviour's Dock. In this parish, near the church, was the inn or lodging of the abbot of Lewes in Sussex. The chapel is still remaining, converted into a cellar, and, by the accumulation of earth, sunk under ground: and a gothic building, now turned into a wine vault belonging to the King's-head tavern, may have been part of the mansion.

ON Sellenger's wharf stood the town-house of the abbot of St. Augustine's at Canterbury; which being granted to Sir Anthony Saint-Leger, the wharf was named after him, but corrupted ac­cording to the modern spelling *.

THE abbot of Battle had also here his city-mansion. Battle-bridge, or rather Stairs, took its name from the house: as did the streets called the Mazes, from the luxurious intricacies in his mag­nificent gardens .

ST. Saviour's Dock, or, as it is called, Savory, ST. SAVIOUR'S DOCK. bounds the eastern end of this parish. St. Saviour's Dock may be considered as the port of Southwark. It is in length about four hundred yards, but of most disproportionable breadth, not exceeding thirty feet. The borough will certainly give it a more useful magnitude: and also re-build the warehouses and magazines on each side. It is at present solely appropriated to barges, which discharge coals, copperas from Writtlesea in Essex, pipe-clay, corn, and various other articles of commerce. If the dock was deepened, and cor­respondent wharfs erected, sloops and lesser vessels might come from different sea-ports, and here discharge their cargoes, without the expence of re-loading lesser craft, in order to re-land them at this dock.

[Page 56]IT antiently belonged to the priory of St. Saviour's Bermondsey, as did certain adjacent mills, which, in 1536 were let by the monks to one John Curlew, for £. 6, then the value of eighteen quarters of good wheat; and he was besides bound to grind gratis all the corn used in that religious house.

ROTHEPHITHE.ON the east side of the dock commences the parish of Rother­hithe or Redriff, which consists chiefly of one street of a vast length, running along the shore, and winding with the great bend of the river, to a very small space from Deptford. The church, dedicated to St. Mary, is remarkable for its steeple, a fluted spire terminating in the Ionic scroll. I introduce this parish, be­cause it is comprehended in the bills of mortality, having been taken in, in the year 1636, with five other parishes. Near the extremity of this parish are the docks for the Greenland ships; a profitable nusance, very properly removed to a distance from the capital. The greater dock is supposed to have been the mouth of the famous canal, cut in 1016 by king Canute, in order to avoid the impediment of London-bridge, and to lay siege to the capital by bringing his fleet to the west side.

THE LOKE HOS­PITAL.THE Loke, in Southwark, was a hospital for leprous persons. It was dedicated to St. Leonard, and existed in the time of Edward II: till lately, it was, under the care of the hospital of St. Bar­tholomew, appropriated to the cure of another loathsome disease. The word changed into Lock, possibly has allusion to the ne­cessity of their being locked or kept apart from all other patients.

AS the Borough High-street was the great passage into a great [Page 57] part of our kingdom, to and from our capital,TABARD, CHAU­CER'S INN. it was particularly well furnished with inns. I shall only mention one immortalized by Chaucer. The sign is now perverted into the Talbot. It originally was the Tabard, so called from the sign—a sleeveless coat, open on both sides, with a square collar, and winged at the shoulders; worn by persons of rank in the wars, with their arms painted on them that they might be known. The use is now transferred to the Heralds. This was the rendezvous of the jolly pilgrims, which formed the troop which our father of poetry describes sallying out to pay their devotions to the great St. Thomas Becket, who for a long time superseded almost every other Saint.

Befelle that in that seson, on a day,
In Southwerk at the Tabard as I lay,
Redy to wenden on my pilgrimage
To Canterbury, with devoute corage,
At night was come into that hostellerie
Wel nine and twenty in a compagnie,
Of sondry folk, by aventure yfalle,
In felawship, and pilgrimes were they alle,
That toward Canterbury wolden ride.
The chambres and the stables weren wide,
And wel we weren esed atte beste.

The memory of our great poet's pilgrimage is perpetuated by an inscription over the gateway: ‘This is the inn where Sir Jeffry Chaucer, and nine and twenty pilgrims, lodged, in their journey to Canterbury, in 1383.’

A LITTLE west of St. Mary Overie's (in a place still called Globe Alley) stood the Globe, THE GLOBE, SHAKESPEAR'S THEATRE. immortalized by having been the theatre on which Shakespear first trod the stage, but in no [Page 58] higher character than the Ghost in his own play of Hamlet. It appears to have been of an octagonal form; and is said to have been covered with rushes*. I have been told that the door was very lately standing. James I. granted a patent to Laurence Fletcher, WILLIAM SHAKESPEAR, Richard Burbage, Augustine Philippes, John Heminges, Henrie Condell, William Sly, Robert Ar­min, and Richard Cowlie, and others of his majesty's servants, to act here, or in any other part of the kingdom. Notwithstanding the modesty of Shakespear made him decline taking any considera­ble part in his own productions, his good-nature, and friendship for the morose Ben Johnson, induced him to act both in the Seja­nus and Every Man in his Humour; a benevolence that greatly contributed to bring the latter into public notice. But in Shake­spear's own plays, Dick Burbage, as he was familiarly called, was the favorite actor. Condell and Heminges were his intimate friends: and published his plays in folio, seven years after his death.

THE playhouses, in and about London, were by this time ex­tremely numerous, there not being fewer than seventeen between the year 1570 and 1629.


I NOW return to the extremity of the western part of our capi­tal on the opposite shore. In the time of queen Elizabeth, the shore correspondent to Lambeth was a mere marshy tract. Mill-bank, MILL-BANK. the last dwelling in Westminster, is a large house, which took its name from a mill which once occupied its site. Here, in my [Page 59] boyish days, I often experienced the hospitality of the late Sir Robert Grovenour, its worthy owner, who enjoyed it, by the pur­chase, by one of his family, from the Mordaunts, earls of Peter­borough. All the rest of his vast property about London devolved on him in right of his mother, Mary, daughter and heiress of Alexander Davies of Ebury in the county of Middlesex. I find, in the plan of London by Hollar, a mansion on this spot, under the name of Peterborough-house. It probably was built by the first earl of Peterborough. It was inhabited by his successors, and retained its name till the time of the death of that great but irregular genius Charles, earl of Peterborough, in 1735. It was rebuilt in its present form by the Grovenour family.

A LITTLE farther was the antient Horse-ferry between Westmin­ster and Lambeth: HORSE-FERRY. suppressed on the building of Westminster-bridge.

A LITTLE beyond the Horse-ferry stands the church of St. John the Evangelist, one of the fifty voted by parlement, to give this part of the town the air of the capital of a christian country. It was begun in 1721, and finished in 1728. The architect was Sir John Vanbrugh. Notwithstanding it is deservedly censured for its load of ornaments, they are by no means destitute of beauty. The aim at excess of magnificence is not a fault peculiar to the builder.

AT a small distance to the east is that noble specimen of gothic architecture,WESTMINSTER ABBY. the conventual church of St. Peter's abby of West­minster. The church is said to have been founded about the year 610, by Sebert king of the East-Saxons, FOUNDED BY SEBERT. on the ruins of the temple of Apollo, flung down, quoth legend, by an earthquake. [Page 60] The king dedicated his new church to St. Peter; who descended in person, with a host of heavenly choristers, to save the bishop of Mellitus the trouble of consecration. The saint descended on the Surry side, in a stormy night; but, prevaling on Edric, a fisher­man, to waft him over, performed the ceremony: and, as a proof, left behind the chrism, and precious droppings of the wax candles, with which the astonished fisherman saw the church illuminated. He conveyed the saint safely back; who directed him to inform the bishop that there was no farther need of consecration. He likewise directed Edric to fling out his nets, who was rewarded with a miraculous draft of falmons: the saint also promised to the fisherman and his successors, that they never should want plenty of salmon, provided they presented every tenth to his church. This custom was observed till at lest the year 1382. The fisher­man that day had a right to sit at the same table with the prior; and he might demand of the cellerer, ale and bread; and the cel­lerer again might take of the fish's tail as much as he could, with four fingers and his thumb erect.

THE place in which it was built was then styled Thornie island, from its being over-run with thorns and briers; and it was be­sides insulated by a branch of the Thames. This church was burnt by the Danes; BURNT BY THE DANES. REBUILT BY EDGAR. and restored by the incontinent king Edgar, in 958, under the influence of St. Dunstan, the most continent of men, and such a lover of celibacy that he drove out of the church every married priest. Edgar ravished nuns: but he founded or re-founded fifty monasteries; and planted, with very poor endow­ments, in this, twelve monks of the Benedictine order.

AGAIN BY ED­WARD THE CONFESSOR.IT was reserved for the pious Confessor to rebuild both church and abby; he began the work in 1049, and finished it in a most [Page 61] magnificent manner in 1066, and endowed it with the utmost munificence. An abby is nothing without reliques.RELIQU [...]S. Here was to be found the veil, and some of the milk of the virgin: the blade-bone of St. Benedict: the finger of St. Alphage: the head of St. Maxilla: and half the jaw-bone of St. Anastasia. The good Edward was buried in his own church. William the Con­queror bestowed on his tomb a rich pall: and in 1163, Henry II. lodged his body in a costly ferretry, translating it from its pristine place.

WHETHER from the decay of the building,REBUILT A THIRD TIME BY HENRY III. or a particular zeal and affection Henry III. had for the royal Confessor, I cannot say, but that prince pulled down the Saxon pile, and rebuilt it in the present elegant and magnificent style. In 1245 he began this great work, in the mode of architecture which began to take place in his days. He did not live to complete his design, which was carried on by his successor, and finished in his fourteenth year. A casual fire destroyed the roof; but by the piety of Edward and several of the abbots it was restored to the beauty and splen­dor we so justly admire.

HENRY performed two acts of pious respect to the remains of the founders of this abby, which must not be omitted. He tran­slated those of Sebert into a tomb of touchstone, beneath an arch made in the wall. Above were paintings, long since defaced, done by order of the king, who was strongly imbued with the love of the arts. Mr. Walpole * has preserved several of the precepts for number of paintings in this church, and other places. Among [Page 62] them is directions for painting duos CHERUMBINOS cum hilar i vultu et jocoso.

SHRINE OF ED­WARD THE CON­FESSOR, BY CAVALINI.BUT what does that prince the most honor is the shrine *, which he caused to be made in honor of the Confessor, placed in a chapel which bears his name. This beautiful mosaic work was the performance of Peter Cavalini, inventor of that species of ornament. It is supposed that he was brought into England by the abbot Ware, who visited Rome in 1256. Weever expressly says, ‘He brought from thence certain workmen, and rich por­phery stones, whereof hee made that curious, singular, rare pavement before the high altar; and with these stones and workmen he did also frame the shrine of Edward the Con­fessor .’ This beautiful memorial consists of three rows of arches; the lower pointed: the upper round. And on each side of the lower is a most elegant twisted pillar, an ornament the artist seems peculiarly fond of. Children, or childish age, has greatly injured this beautiful shrine, by picking out the mosaic, through the shameful connivance of the attendant vergers.

ANOTHER, BY THE SAME ARTIST.THIS is not the only specimen of Cavalini's, skill, which we possess in this kingdom. Mr. Walpole has, at his beautiful villa near town, another shrine of his workmanship, brought, in 1768, from the church of Santa Maria Maggiore, in Rome; and placed in a chapel in his gardens. It was erected, in 1256, over the bodies of the holy martyrs Simplicius, Faustina, and Beatrix, by John James Capoccio, and Vinia his wife. It differs in form from [Page 63] the shrine of St. Edward, but is formed of the same materials, and adorned with the same twisted columns.

ALONG the freeze of the screen of the chapel, are fourteen legendary sculptures respecting the Confessor. They are so rudely done, that we may conclude that the art at this time was at a very low ebb. The first is the trial of queen Emma. The next the birth of Edward. Another is his coronation. The fourth tells us how our saint was frightened into the abolition of the dane-gelt, by his seeing the devil dance upon the money bags. The fifth is the story of his winking at the thief who was robbing his treasury. The sixth is meant to relate the appearance of our SAVIOUR to him. The seventh shews how the invasion of England was frustrated by the drowning of the Danish king. Eighthly is seen the quarrel between the boys Tosti and Harold, predicting their respective fates. In the ninth sculpture is the Confessor's vision of the seven sleepers. Tenthly, how he meets St. John the Evangelist in the guise of a pilgrim. Eleventhly, how the blind were cured by their eyes being washed in his dirty water. Twelfthly, how St. John delivers to the pilgrims a ring. In the thirteenth they deliver the ring to the king, which he had un­knowingly given to St. John as an alms, when he met him in the form of a pilgrim. This was attended with a message from the Saint, foretelling the death of the king. And the fourteenth shews the consequential haste made by him to complete his pious foundation *.

IN this very chapel is a third proof of the skill of either Cava­lini [Page 64] or some of his pupils.HENRY III. HIS TOMB BY THE [...]E. It is an altar tomb of Henry himself, enriched like the shrine, and with wreathed columns at each cor­ner *. The figure of this prince, who died in 1272, is of brass, and placed recumbent. This is supposed to have been the first brazen image known to have been cast in our kingdom. The little book, sold to the visitors of this solemn scenery at the door, will be a sufficient guide to the fine and numerous funebrial memorials of the place. Let me only observe, that here may be read an excellent lecture on the progress of these efforts of human skill, from the simple altar tomb to the most ostentatious proofs of human vanity. The humble recumbent figure with uplifted hands, as if deprecating the justice of Heaven for the offences of this mortal state; or the proper kneeling attitude, supplicating that mercy which the purest must stand in need of, may be seen here in various degrees of elegance. The careless lolling attitude of heroes in long gowns and flowing perriwigs, next succeed; and after them, busts or statues vaunting their merits, and attended with such a train of Pagan deities, that would almost lead to sup­pose oneself in a heathen Pantheon instead of a Christian church.

IN the antient tombs there is a dull uniformity. The sides are often embellished with figures of the offspring of the deceased; often with figures of mourners, pleureurs, or weepers , frequently in monastic habits, as whole convents were wont (and still are ac­customed, [Page 65] in Catholic countries) to pour out their pious inhabi­tants to form processions at the funerals of the great. The tomb of Aymer de Valence, in this abby, is surrounded by his mourners.

IN the reign of queen Elizabeth, and James I. begins to appear a ray of taste in the sculptors. I shall instance one of the six sons of Henry lord Norris, who appear kneeling round his magnificent cenotaph (for he was buried at Rycot) in the chapel of St. An­drew. This figure has one hand on his breast, the other a little removed from it, in attitude of devotion, inexpressibly fine. Lord Norris died in 1589 *.

ANOTHER proof is in the monument of Sir Francis Vere, who died in 1608, distinguished by thirty years of able service in the low countries, in the reign of Elizabeth. He lies in a gown re­cumbent; over him four [...]ne figures of armed knights, kneeling on one knee, support a marble slab, on which are strewed the various parts of his armour. At Bredah is the tomb of Ingel­bert II. count of Nassau, who died in 1504; executed on the same idea.

THE figure of young Francis Hollis, son of John earl of Clare, cut off at the age of eighteen, in 1622, on his return from a cam­paign [Page 66] in the Netherlands, has great merit. He is placed, dressed like a Grecian warrior, on an altar, in a manner that did great credit to Nicholas Stone, or rather to the earl, to whom Mr. Wal­pole justly attributes the design.

THE figure of Doctor Busby, master of Westminster school, who died in 1695, is elegant and spirited. He lies resting on one arm; a pen in one, a book in the other hand: his countenance looking up. His loose dress is very favorable to the sculptor, who has given it most graceful flows: the close cap alone is inimical to his art.

I CANNOT go through the long series of tombs: nor will I at­tempt, like the Egyptians of old, to bring the silent habitants to a posthumous trial, or bring their frailties to light. I will only mention the crowned heads who here repose, till that day comes which will level every distinction of rank, and shew every individual in his proper characters. Qualis erat, says a beautiful and modest inscription, iste dies indicabit.

EDWARD I.THE second of our monarchs who lies here, is the renowned Edward I. in an altar tomb, as modest and plain, as his fame was great. A long inscription in monkish lines imperfectly records the deeds of the conqueror of Scotland, and of the antient Britons. In 1770, antiquarian curiosity was so urgent with the respectable dean of Westminster, as to prevale on him to permit certain mem­bers of the society, under proper regulations, to inspect the remains of this celebrated hero; and discover, if possible, the composition which gave such duration to the human body.

IN the minute relation given by that able and worthy antiquary the late Sir Joseph Ayloffe, bart. almost every particular is given. [Page 67] On lifting up the lid of the tomb, the royal body was found wrapped in a strong thick linen cloth, waxed on the inside: the head and face were covered with a sudarium or face-cloth of crim­son sarcenet, wrapped into three folds, conformable to the napkin used by our Saviour in his way to his crucifixion, as we are assur­ed by the church of Rome. On flinging open the external mantle, the corpse was discovered in all the ensigns of majesty, richly ha­bited. The body was wrapped in a fine linen cere-cloth, closely fitted to every part, even to the very fingers and face. The writs de cera renovanda circa corpus regis Edwardi primi * being extant, gave rise to this search. Over the cere-cloth was a tunic of red silk damsk; above that a stole of thick white tissue crossed the breast, and on this, at six inches distant from each other, quatre-foils of philligree-work, of gilt metal set with false stones, imitat­ing rubies, sapphires, amethysts, &c.; and the intervals between the quatre-foils on the stole, powdered with minute white beads, tacked down into a most elegant embroidery, in form not unlike what is called the true lover's knot. Above these habits was the royal mantle of rich crimson sattin, fastened on the left shoulder with a magnificent fibula, of gilt metal richly chased, and orna­mented with four pieces of red, and four of blue, transparent paste, and twenty-four more pearls.

THE corpse, from the waist downwards, is covered with a rich cloth of figured gold, which falls down to the feet and is tucked beneath them. On the back of each hand was a quatre-foil like those on the stole. In his right hand is a sceptre with a cross of copper gilt, and of elegant workmanship, reaching to the right [Page 68] shoulder. In the left hand is the rod and dove, which passes over the shoulder and reaches the royal ear. The dove stands on a ball placed on three ranges of oak leaves of enamelled green; the dove is white enamel. On the head is a crown charged with tre­foils made of gilt metal *. The head is lodged in the cavity of the stone-coffin, always observable in those receptacles of the dead. I refer the reader to the Archaelogia for the other minutiae atten­dant on the habiting of the royal corse. It was dressed in con­formity to antient usage, even as early as the time of the Saxon Sebert. And the use of the cere-cloth is continued to our days: in the instance of our late king, the two serjeant-surgeons had £. 122. 8 s. 9 d. each for opening and embalming; and the apothecary £. 152 for a fine double cere-cloth, and a due quantity of rich perfumed aromatic powders .

ELIANOR HIS QUEEN.ELIANOR of Castile, the beautiful and affectionate queen of Edward, was in 1290 deposited here. Her figure , in copper gilt, rests on a tablet of the same, placed on an altar tomb of Petworth marble.

THE murdered prince Edward II. found his grave at Gloces­ter: his son,EDWARD III. the glorious warrior Edward III. rests here. His fi­gure at full length, made of copper once gilt, lies beneath a rich gothic shrine of the same material. His hair is disheveled, his beard long and flowing. His gown reaches to his feet. Each hand holds a sceptre. The figures of his children in brass sur­round the altar tomb . His worthy queen Philippa was inter­red [Page 69] at his feet*. Her figure in alabaster represents her as a most masculine woman. She died in 1369: her royal spouse in 1377. His latter end was marked with misfortunes; by the death of his son the Black Prince; by a raging pestilence; but more by his unseasonable love in his doating years. How finely does Mr. Gray paint his death, and the gay entrance of his suc­cessor into power, in the bitter taunt he puts into the mouth of a British bard!

Mighty victor, mighty lord,
Low on his funeral couch he lies
No pitying heart, no eye, afford
A tear to grace his obsequies.
Is the sable warrior fled?
Thy son is gone: he rests among the dead!
The swarm, that in thy noon-tide beam were born?
Gone to salute the rising morn.
Fair laughs the morn, and soft the Zephyr blows,
While, proudly riding o'er the azure realm,
In gallant trim the gilded vessel goes;
Youth on the prow, and pleasure at the helm;
Regardless of the sweeping whirlwind's sway,
That, hush'd in grim repose, expects his evening-prey.

THE tomb of the wasteful unfortunate prince Richard II. and his first consort Anne, daughter of Wincelaus king of Bohemia, RICHARD II. is the next in order. Their figures, in the same metal as the for­mer, lie recumbent on it. He had directed these to be made in his life-time, by B. and Godfrey, of Woodstreet, goldsmiths: the expence of gilding them cost four hundred marks. The counte­nance [Page 70] of Richard is very unlike the beautiful painting of him on board,HIS PORTRAIT. six feet eleven inches high, by three feet seven inches broad. He is represented sitting in a chair of state, with a globe in one hand, the sceptre in the other; a crown on his head; and his dress extremely rich and elegant; many parts marked with his initial, R. surmounted with a crown. His coun­tenance remarkably fine and gentle, little indicative of his bad and oppressive reign*.

THIS picture, after the test of near four hundred years, is in the highest preservation; and not less remarkable for the elegance of the coloring, than the excellent drawing, considering the early age of the performance. We must allow it had been re-painted; but nothing seems altered, if we may collect from the print made by Vertue, excepting a correction in the site of the cross issuing out of the globe. The back ground is elevated above the figure, of an uneven surface, and gilt. The curious will find, in Mr. Walpole's Anecdotes, vol. i. an ingenious conjecture of the method of painting in that early period, which has given such amazing duration to the labors of its artists.

THIS portrait was originally hung up in the choir of the abby; but about a dozen years ago was removed to the Jerusalem chamber.

HENRY V.WITHIN a beautiful chapel of gothic workmanship, of open iron-work, ornamented with various images, is the tomb of the gallant prince Henry V. a striking contrast to the weak and [Page 71] luxurious Richard. This was built by Henry VII. in compli­ment to his illustrious relation and predecessor. His queen Ca­therine had before erected his monument, and placed his image, cut in heart of oak, and covered over with silver, on an altar tomb; the head was (as the guide tells us) of solid silver, which, in the reign of Henry VIII. was sacrilegiously stolen away. The wooden headless trunk still remains.

ON each side of this royal chapel is a winding staircase, inclos­ed in a turret of open iron-work, which leads into a chauntry founded for the purpose of masses, for the repose of the soul of this great prince. The front looks over the shrine of the Confes­sor. Here is kept a parcel of human figures, which in old times were dressed out and carried at funeral processions; but at present very deservedly have got the name of the ragged regiment. More worthy of notice is the elegant termination of the columellae of the two staircases, which spread at the top of the turrets into roofs of uncommon elegance.

ONE end of this chauntry rests against that of the chapel of Henry VII. Among the stone statues placed there is the French patron St. Dennis, most composedly carrying his head in his hand.

ON the south side of the chauntry, over his monument, is the representation of his coronation. The figure of Henry is distin­guished by a wen under his chin. It is probable that it was be­longing to that monarch, as it is not to be supposed that the sculptor would have added a deformity*.

CATHERINE, his royal consort,HIS QUEEN. had less respect payed to her [Page 72] remains. She had sunk from the bed of the conqueror of France, to that of a common gentleman: yet gave to these kingdoms a long line of princes. She died in 1437, and was interred in the chapel of our lady in this church. When her grandson Henry VII. ordered that to be pulled down, to make room for his own magnificent chapel, he ungratefully neglected the remains of this his ancestress, and suffered them to be flung carelessly into a wooden chest, where they still rest near her Henry's tomb.

EDWARD V. AND HIS BROTHER.NEXT is the cenotaph of the two innocents, Edward V. and his brother Richard duke of York. In the reign of Charles II. certain small bones were found in a chest under a staircase in the Tower. These, by order of Charles, were removed here; and, under the supposition of their belonging to the murdered princes, this memorial of their sad fate was erected, by order of that hu­mane monarch, after a design by Sir Christopher Wren *.

HENRY VII. HIS CHAPEL.IN order of time I must pass into the beautiful chapel of Henry VII. nearly the rival in elegance with that of King's College Cam­bridge. Who can look at the roof of either without the highest admiration! Henry, finding the chapel of the Confessor too much crouded to receive any more princes, determined on the building of this. That of the Virgin was sacrificed to it; also an adjacent tavern, distinguished by the popular sign of the White Rose. Ab­bot Islip, on the part of the king, laid the first stone, on Febru­ary 11th, 1503. The royal miser scrupled no expence in this piece of vanity. By his will it appears, that he expressly intended it as the mausoleum of him and his house, and that none but the [Page 73] blood royal should be interred in this magnificent foundation. It was built at the expence of fourteen thousand pounds *. In the body of this chapel is his superb tomb, the work of Pietro Torregiano, a Florentine sculptor; who had, for his labor and the materials, one thousand pounds. This admirable artist continued in London till the completion of his work in 1519. But the reigning prince and Torregiano were of tempers equally turbu­lent, so they soon separated . To him is attributed the altar tomb of Margeret countess of Richmond, with her figure recum­bent in brass. Henry VII. had made a special provision for this tomb in his will , for the images and various other ornaments,HIS TOMB. which were to decorate this his place of rest. The tomb itself is, as he directed, made of a hard Basaltic stone, called in the language of those days Touche. The figures contained in the six bas reliefs in brass on the sides, are strong proofs of the skill of the artist. The figures suit the superstition of the times: St. Michael and the devil, joined with the Virgin and Child: St. George with St. Anthony and his pig: St. Christopher, and perhaps St. Anne: Edward the Confessor, and a Benedictine monk: Mary Magdalen, and St. Barbara: and several others. One pretence is a respect to his grandmother, whose bones he left flung into an ordinary chest. He and his quiet neglected queen lie in brass on an altar tomb within the beautiful brazen precinct; his face resembles all his portraits. I have seen a model, a still stronger likeness, in possession of Mr. Walpole; a bust in [Page 74] stone taken from his face immediately after his death. A stronger reluctance to quit the possessions of this world could never be expressed on the countenance of the most griping mortal.

WITHIN the grate of the tomb was an altar of a single piece of touchstone, destroyed by the fanatics, to which he bequeathed ‘our grete piece of the holie crosse, which, by the high provision of our Lord God, was conveied, brought, and delivered to us from the isle of Cyo, in Grece, set in gold and garnished with perles and precious stones: and also the preciouse relique of oon of the legges of St. George, set in silver parcel gilte, which came into the hands of our broder and cousyn Lewys, of France, the time that he wan and recovered the citie of Mil­lein, and given and sent to us by our cousyne the cardinal of Amboise *.’

QUEEN ELIZA­BETH AND MARY QUEEN OF SCOTS.HERE also rest, freed from the cares of their eventful reigns, the rival queens, Elizabeth, and the unhappy Mary Stuart. The same species of monument incloses both, in this period of the revival of the arts. The figures of each lie under an elegant canopy supported by pillars of the Corinthian order . Two great blemishes obscure the characters of this illustrious pair. Elizabeth will never be vindicated from treachery, hypocrisy, and cruelty in the death of Mary. The love of her subjects was the pretext: the reality, a female jealousy of superior charms at the bottom, with the spretae injuria formae, discovered in a letter of passion, accusing another female , perhaps equally touched with [Page 75] the same tormenting passion. The long and undeserved suffer­ings of Mary, from one of her own sex, a sister princess, from whom she had reason to expect every relief, makes one forget her crime, and fling a veil over the fault of distressed, yet criminal beauty.

THE peaceful pedant James I, his amiable Henry, JAMES TO GEORGE II. and the royal rakish Charles, the second of the name; the sullen mis-treat­ed hero William, his royal consort the patient Mary, Anne, glori­ous in her generals, and George II. repose within the royal vault of this chapel. No monument blazons their virtues: it is left to history to record the busy, and often empty tale of majesty. George I. was buried at Hanover; his son caused a vault to be made in this for himself, his Caroline, and family, and directed that the side-board of her coffin, and that of his own (when his hour came) to be constructed in such a manner as to be removed, so that their loving dust might intermingle.

I SHALL drop these subjects of mortality, with pointing out a single monument of inferior note. A very fine figure of Time, cut in Italy, in white marble, holds in his hand a scroll, with an inscription of uncommon elegance, written by Doctor Friend, to commemorate the premature death of the honorable Philip Car­teret, at the age of 19. Time thus seems to address himself to him *:

Quid breves te delicias tuorum,
Naeniis Phoebi chorus omnis urget
Et mei falcis subitò recisum
Vulnere plangit?
[Page 76]En puer! vitae pretium caducae
Hic tuum custos vigil ad favillam
Semper ad [...]tabo et memori tuebor
Marmore famam:
Andies claros pietate, morum
Integer, multae studiosus artis:
Hic frequens olim leget, haec sequetur
Aemula pubes.
Why flows the M [...]se's mournful tear
For thee, cut down in life's full prime?
Why fighs for thee the parent dear,
Cropt by the scythe of hoary Time?
[Page 76]Lo! this, my boy's the common lot—
To me thy memory entrust;
When all that's dear shall be forgot,
I'll guard thy venerated dust.
From age to age, as I proclaim
Thy learning, piety, and truth,
Thy great example shall inflame,
And emulation raise in youth *.
Thus translated in the little historical description, &c.

I SHALL quit these solemn scenes with the beautiful reflec­tion of Mr. Addison, made on the spot: and hope it may have the same weight with the reader, as it has on me whenever I pe­ruse the following piece of instructive eloquence. ‘When I look (says the delightful moralist) upon the tombs of the great, every emotion of envy dies in me: when I read the epitaphs of the beautiful, every inordinate desire goes out: when I meet with the grief of parents upon a tomb-stone, my heart melts with compassion: when I see the tomb of the parents them­selves, I consider the vanity of grieving for those whom we must quickly follow: when I see kings lying by those who deposed them, when I consider rival wits placed side by side, or the holy men that divided the world with their contests and disputes, I reflect with sorrow and astonishment on the little competitions, factions, and debates of mankind. When I read the several dates of the tombs, of some that died yesterday, [Page 77] and some six hundred years ago, I consider that great day when we shall all of us be contemporaries, and make our appearance together.’

ON the dissolution, this great monastery, the second mitred abby in the kingdom, underwent the common lot of the religious houses. In 1534, the abbot, William Benson, subscribed to the king's supremacy, and in 1539 surrendered his monastery into the royal hands, and received as a reward the office of first dean to the new foundation, consisting of a dean and twelve preben­daries. He also erected it into a bishoprick, but its only bi­shop was Thomas Thirleby; it being suppressed in 1550, on his translation to Norwich. When the protector Somerset ruled in the fulness of power, this magnificent, this sacred pile narrowly escaped a total demolition. It was his design to have pulled it down to the ground, and to have applied the materials towards the palace he was then erecting in the Strand, known by the name of Somerset-house. He was diverted from his design by a bribe of not fewer than fourteen manors.— Mortals should be very de­licate in pronouncing the vengeance of Heaven on their fellow-creatures: yet, in this instance, without presumption, without su­perstition, one may suppose his fall to have been marked out by the Almighty, as a warning to impious men. He fell on the scaffold on Tower-hill, lamented only because his overthrow was effected by a man more wicked, more ambitious, and more detested than himself. In their ends there was a consent of justice: both died by the ax: and both of their headless bodies were flung, within a very short space, into the same place, among the attainted herd.

IN the reign of queen Mary, the former religion of the place experienced a brief restoration. She with great zeal restored it [Page 78] to the antient conventual state; collected many of the rich habits and insignia of that splendid worship; established fourteen monks, and appointed for their abbot John Feckenham, a man of great piety and learning, who, on his expulsion in the succeeding reign, finished his days in easy custody in Wisbech castle.

IN 1560 it was changed into a collegiate church, consisting of a dean and twelve secular canons, and thirty petty canons, and other members, two school-masters, and forty king's or queen's scholars, twelve almsmen, and many officers and servants *. But there seems to have been a school there from the first foundation of the abby. Ingulphus, abbot of Crowland, speaks of his having been educated at it; and of the disputations he had with the queen of the Confessor, and of the presents she made him in money in his boyish days .

CLOISTERS, AND CHAPTER-HOUSE.BESIDES the church, many of the antient parts remain. The cloisters are entire, and filled with monuments. The north and west cloisters were built by abbot Littlington, who died in 1386: he also built the granary, which was afterwards the dormitory of the king's scholars; of later years rebuilt.

THE entrance into the chapter-house (built in 1250) is on one side of the cloister, through a most rich and magnificent gothic portal, the mouldings most exquisitely carved: this is divided into two gothic doors. After a descent of several steps, is the chap­ter-house, an octagon, each side of which had most superb and lofty windows, now filled up, and lighted by lesser. The opening into this room is as noble as that from the cloister. The stone [Page 79] roof is destroyed, and one of plank is substituted. The central pillar remains, light, slender, and elegant, surrounded by eight others; bound by two equidistant fasciae, and terminated in capi­tals of beautiful simplicity. By consent of the abbot, in 1377, the commons of Great Britain first held their parlements in his place; the crown undertaking the repairs. Here they sat till the year 1547, when Edward VI. granted the chapel of St. Stephen for that purpose. It is at present filled with the public records, among which is the original Domesday book, now above seven hundred years old: it is in as fine preservation as if it was the work of yesterday.

BENEATH the chapter-house is a very singular crypt. The roof, which forms the floor of the former, is supported by a short round pillar, quite hollow. The top spreads into massy plain ribs, the supports of the roof. The walls are not less than eighteen feet thick, and form a most firm base to the superstructure. They had been pierced with several small windows, which are now lost by the vast increase of earth on the outside *; one is just visible in the garden belonging to Mr. Barrow.

THE Jerusalem chamber was part of the abbot's lodgings; and built by Littlington. It is noted for having been the place where Henry IV. breathed his last: he had been seized with a swoon while he was paying before the shrine of St. Edward; and, being carried into this room, asked, on recovering, where he was? being informed, he answered, (I will speak his reply in the words of Shakespear, borrowed from history)

[Page 80]
Laud be to God!—even there my life must end.
It hath been prophesied to me many years
I should not die but in Jerusalem,
Which vainly I suppos'd the HOLY LAND!

The devil is said to have practised such a delusion on pope Sylvester II. having (on consultation) assured his holiness that he should die in Jerusalem; and kept his word, by taking him off as he was saying mass, in 1003, in a church of that name in Rome *.

I OMITTED to mention the revenues of this great house, which, in its monastic state, Speed makes to amount to £. 3977 per ann. Dugdale to £. 3471.

SANCTUARY.NOT far from the abby stood the Sanctuary, the place of refuge absurdly indulged, in old times, to criminals of certain denomina­tions. The church belonging to it was in form of a cross, and double; one being built over the other. Such is the account that Doctor Stukely gives of it, for he remembered it standing : it was of vast strength; and was with much labor demolished. It is supposed to have been the work of the Confessor. Within its precincts was born Edward V; and here his unhappy mother took refuge, with her younger son Richard, to secure him from his cruel uncle, who had already possession of the elder brother. Seduced by the persuasions of the duke of Buckingham, and [...] archbishop of York, she surrendered the little innocent, who was instantly carried to his brother in the Tower, where they were soon after involved in one common fate.

[Page 81]TO the west of the sanctuary stood the Eleemosynary or Almory, where the alms of the abby were wont to be distributed. But it is still more remarkable for having been the place where the first printing press ever known in England was erected. It was in the year 1474; when William Caxton, probably encouraged by the learned Thomas Milling, then abbot, produced The Game and Play of the Chesse, the first book ever printed in these kingdoms. There is a slight difference about the place in which it was printed, but all agree that it was within the precincts of this reli­gious house. Would the monks have permitted this, could they have foreseen how certainly the art would conduce to their overthrow, by the extension of knowlege, and the long-concealed truths of Christianity?

BENEATH the shadow of the abby stands the church of St. Mar­geret, built originally by Edward the Confessor.ST. MARGARET'S CHURCH. The parish church had been in the abby, to the great inconveniency of the monks. It was rebuilt in the time of Edward I. and again in that of Edward IV. This church is honored with the remains of the great Sir Walter Raleigh, who was interred here on the same day on which he was beheaded in Old Palace Yard. It was left to a sensible churchwarden to inform us of the fact, who in­scribed it on a board, about twenty years ago.

THE east window is a most beautiful composition of figures.ITS FINE WIN­DOW. It was made by order of the magistrates of Dort, and by them designed as a present to Henry VII; but he dying before it was finished, it was put up in Waltham abby: there it remained till the dissolution; when it was removed to Newhall in Essex, afterwards part of the estate of general Monk, who preserved it from demoli­tion. In 1758 it was purchased from the then owner by the in­habitants [Page 82] of the parish for four hundred guineas. By the opposi­tion and absurdity of a cotemporary prebend, this fine ornament run a great risque of being pulled down again. The subject is the crucifixion; a devil is carrying off the soul of the hardened thief; an angel receiving that of the penitent. Silly enough! but the other beauties of the piece might surely have moved the reverend zealot to mercy. The figures are numerous, and finely done. On one side is Henry VI. kneeling; above him his patron saint, St. George. On the other side is his queen in the same atti­tude, and above her the fair St. Catherine with the instruments of her martyrdom. This charming performance is engraved at the cost of the Society of Antiquaries.

PALACE AT WESTMINSTER.THE royal palace which clames seniority in our capital, was that of Westminster, founded by the Confessor, who was the first prince who had in it regular residence. It stood near the Thames: the stairs to it on the river still keep the name of Palace stairs; and the two Palace Yards were also belonging to this extensive pile.

THE New Palace Yard is the area before the hall. In old times a very handsome conduit, or, as it was called, fountain, graced one part: and opposite to the hall, on the site of the present pas­sage into Bridge-street, stood a lofty square tower, which, from its use, was called the Clock Tower. This may be seen in Hollar's print, No 6, and in the old plan of London, as it was in the be­ginning of the reign of queen Elizabeth.

WESTMINSTER-HALL.MANY parts of this antient palace exist to this day, sunk into other uses. Succeeding monarchs added much to it. The great hall was built by William Rufus, or possibly rebuilt; a great hall being too necessary an appendage to a palace, ever to have been [Page 83] neglected. The entrance into it from New Palace Yard, was bounded on each side by towers *, most magnificently ornamented with numbers of statues in rows above each other, now lost, or concealed by modern buildings; a mutilated figure of an armed man, supposed to have been one, was discovered under the Ex­chequer staircase in 1781 . The size may be estimated, when we are told that Henry III. entertained in this hall, and other rooms, six thousand poor men, women, and children, on new-year's day, 1236. It became ruinous before the reign of Richard II. who rebuilt it in its present form in 1397; and in 1399 kept his Christmas in it, with his characteristical magnificence. Twenty-eight oxen, three hundred sheep, and fowls without number, were daily consumed. The number of his guests each day were ten thousand. We need not wonder then, that Richard kept two thousand cooks. They certainly were deeply learned in their profession; witness The Forme of Cury, compiled about 1390, by the master cooks of this luxurious monarch, in which are pre­served receits for the most exquisite dishes of the time. This book was printed by the late worthy Gustavus Brander, esq with an excellent preface by that able antiquary the reverend Mr. Pegge. Mr. Brander favored me with a copy: but, excepting a magician of Laputa could conjure up a few of Richard's cooks, I despair of ever treating my brethren with a feast à l'antique.

THIS room exceeds in dimension any in Europe, which is not supported by pillars; its length is two hundred and seventy feet; the breadth seventy-four. Its height adds to its solemnity. The [Page 84] roof of timber, most curiously constructed, and of a fine species of gothic.

PARLEMENTS HELD IN IT.PARLEMENTS often sat in this hall. In 1397, when, in the reign of Richard II. it was extremely ruinous, he built a temporary room for his parlement, formed with wood, and covered with tiles. It was open on all sides, that the constituents might see every thing that was said and done: and, to secure freedom of debate, he sur­rounded the house with four thousand Cheshire archers, with bows bent, and arrows nocked ready to shoot *. This fully answered the intent: for every sacrifice was made to the royal pleasure.

COURTS OF IUSTICE.COURTS of justice, even in early times, sat in this hall, where monarchs themselves usually presided; for which reason it was called Curia Domini Regis, and one of the three now held in this hall is called the court of king's-bench. The first chief justice was Robert Le Brun, appointed by Henry III. The judges of the courts were made knights bannerets, and had materials given them for making most sumptuous habits for the occasion. Among others, they had for a cloak cxx bellies of minever pure, i. e. the ermine, which they retain to this day; but I observe green to be the predominant color of their robes. The judges in old times rode to court: at first on mules; but in the reign of queen Mary, they changed those restive animals for easy pads.

CHARLES I. TRIED HERE.THE solemn trial of Charles I. was held in this hall, before a packed court of judicature: during the intervals of this mockery of justice, he was carried to the neighboring house belonging to Sir Thomas Cotton, in which a room was fitted up by Mr. Kinner­sley, a servant of the king's, belonging to the wardrobe. This was [Page 85] the residence of his father, Sir Robert, the famous antiquary, and owner of the noble collection of manuscripts, which, with great public spirit, he got together and secured for ever to the use of his country. They were at first kept in Cotton-house, which was purchased by the crown. They were afterwards removed to another house in Westminster, and finally deposited in the British Museum. Let me add, that the room in which the books were originally lodged, had been the oratory of Edward the Con­fessor.

THE house of lords is a room ornamented with the tapestry which records our victory over the Spanish Armada. HOUSE OF LORDS. It was be­spoke by the earl of Nottingham, lord high admiral, and comman­der in chief on the glorious day. The design was drawn by Cornelius Vroom, and the tapestry executed by Francis Spiering. Vroom had a hundred pieces of gold for his labor. The arras it­self cost £. 1628. It was not put up till the year 1650, two years after the extinction of monarchy, when the house of lords was used as a committee-room for the house of commons. The heads of the naval heroes who commanded on the glorious days, form a matchless border round the work, animating posterity to emulate their illustrious example!

IN the Prince's chamber, where his majesty puts on his robes when he comes to the house of lords, is a curious old tapestry, representing the birth of queen Elizabeth. Anne Bullen in her bed; an attendant on one side, and a nurse with the child on the other. The story is a little broken into by the loss of a piece of the Arras, cut to make a passage for the door. But beyond is Henry with his courtiers; one of which seems dispatched to bring [Page 86] back intelligence about the event. On the south side of this room are three gothic windows.

COURT OF REQUESTS.THE court of requests is a vast room modernized; at present a mere walking-place. The outside of the south end shews the great antiquity of the building, having in it two great round arches, with zigzag mouldings, our most antient species of archi­tecture. This court has its name because the masters of it here received the petitions of the subjects to the king, in which they requested justice; and the masters advised the suppliants how they were to proceed *.

THAT court of justice so tremendous in the Tudor and part of the Stuart reign, the Star Chamber, still keeps its name; which was not taken from the stars with which its roof was said to have been painted (which were obliterated even before the reign of queen Elizabeth), but from the Starra , or Jewish covenants, which were deposited there by order of Richard I. in chests under three locks. No starr was allowed to be valid except found in those repositories: here they remained till the banishment of the Jews by Edward I. In the reigns of Henry VII. and VIII. a new-modelled court was erected here, consisting of divers lords spiritual and temporal, with two judges of the courts of common law, with the intervention of a jury . The powers of this court were so shamefully abused, and made so subservient to the revenge of a ministry, or the views of the crown, as to be abo­lished by the reforming commons in the 16th of Charles II , to [Page 87] the great joy of the whole nation. The room is now called the Painted Chamber, and is used as the place of conference between the lords and commons. It makes a very poor appearance, being hung with very antient French or Arras tapestry, which, by the names worked over the figures, seems to relate to the Trojan war. The windows are of the antient simple gothic. On the north outside, beyond the windows, are many marks of recesses, groins, arms, on the remains of some other room.

NUMBERS of other great apartments are still preserved on each side of the entrance into Westminster-hall, in the law court of ex­chequer, and adjacent; and the same in the money exchequer, and the dutchy of Lancaster: all these had been the parts of the antient palace.

AT the foot of the staircase is a round pillar, having on it the arms of John Stafford, lord treasurer from 1422 to 1424. On the opposite part are the arms of Ralph lord Botelar, of Sudley, trea­surer of the exchequer in 1433 *.

CLOSE to Mr. Waghorn's coffee-house, in Old Palace Yard, GUY FAUR'S CELLAR. is the vault or cellar in which the conspirators of 1605 lodged the barrels of gunpowder, designed at one blow to annihilate the three estates of the realm in parlement assembled. To this day, the manner in which Providence directed the discovery is un­known. The plot evidently was confined to a few persons of des­perate zeal and wickedness: they did not dare to trust so dreadful a design to the multitude. The success, they knew, must be fol­lowed with a general insurrection, and completion of their wishes. The opportunity would have been too irresistible, even to those [Page 88] who, in cool blood, would have rejected with horror a plan so truly diabolical.

HOUSE OF COM­MONS, ONCE ST. STEPHEN'S CHAPEL.THE commons of Great Britain hold their assemblies in this place, which was built by king Stephen, and dedicated to his namesake the protomartyr. It was beautifully rebuilt by Edward III. in 1347, and by him made a collegiate church, and a dean and twelve secular priests appointed *. Soon after its surrender to Edward VI. it was applied to its present use. The revenues at that period were not less than £. 1085 a year.

WEST FRONT.THE west front, with its beautiful gothic window, is still to be seen as we ascend the stairs to the court of requests; it consists of the sharp-pointed species of gothic. Between it and the lobby of the house is a small vestibule of the same sort of work, and of great elegance. At each end is a gothic door, and one in the middle, which is the passage into the lobby. On the south side of the outmost wall of the chapel, appear the marks of some great gothic windows, with abutments between; and beneath, some lesser windows, once of use to light an under chapel. The inside of St. Stephen's is adapted to the present use, and plainly fitted up.

SUB-CHAPEL.THE under chapel had been a most beautiful building: the far greater part is preserved, but frittered into various divisions, oc­cupied principally by the passage from Westminster-hall to Palace Yard.

BUST OF CHARLES I.IN the passage stood the famous bust of Charles I. by Ber­nini, made by him from a painting by Vandyck, done for the pur­pose. [Page]

CHARLES the 1st. From an Original Bronze by Bernini, From a Lecture by Vandyke.

[Page 89] Bernini is said, by his skill in physiognomy, to have pro­nounced from the likeness, that there was something unfortunate in the countenance.

THE far greater part of the under-chapel of St. Stephen, is pos­sessed by his grace the duke of Newcastle, as auditor of the ex­chequer. One side of the cloister is entirely preserved,BEAUTIFUL CLOISTER. by being found convenient as a passage: the roof is gothic workmanship, so elegant as not to be paralleled even by the beautiful workmanship in the chapel of Henry VII. Several parts are walled up for the meanest uses; even a portion serves, with its rich roof, for a coal-hole. That which has the good fortune to be allotted for the steward's room, is very well kept. In one part of the roof is cut a neat, and, I believe, true representation of the front of the cha­pel, bounded on each side by a turret. Another of the same kind, held by an angel, appears on the wall.

ON one side of the cloister,SMALL ORATORY AND CHAUNTRY. projects into the area a small ora­tory, as richly ornamented as other parts of this building: above is a neat chauntry in the same style. A gallery runs over each side of the cloister, with windows of light stone tracery, looking into the court or area, which is deformed by a modern kitchen and its appendages.

FROM one part of the gallery is a stairs,ANTIENT SQUARE TOWER. which leads to a very antient square tower of stone, standing almost close to the side of Westminster-hall. It probably was a belfry, to hold the bells that roused the holy members of the chapel to prayer.

IN what is called the grotto room,SCULPTURES OF ST. STEPHEN. are fine remains of the roof and columns of this sub-chapel. The roof is spread over with ribs of stone, which rest on the numerous round pillars that compose the support. The pillars are short; the capitals round [Page 90] and small, with a neat foliage intervening. In a circle on the roof, is a martyrdom of St. Stephen, cut in stone. In another circle, is a representation of St. John the Evangelist cast into a cauldron of boiling oil, by command of the emperor Domitian.

WOOL-STAPLE.NOT far from Westminster-hall, in New Palace Yard, stood the staple of wool, removed to Westminster, and several other places in England, in 1353, by Edward III. These before had been kept in Flanders: but this wise measure brought great wealth into the kingdom, and a considerable addition to the royal revenue: for the parlement in those days granted to the king a certain sum on every sack exported. Henry VI. had six wool-houses here, which he granted to the dean and canons of St. Stephen's *. The concourse of people, which this removal of the wool-staple to Westminster occasioned, caused this royal village to grow into a considerable town: such is the superiority of commerce. Part of the old gate­way to the staple was in being as late as the year 1741, when it was pulled down to make room for the abutment of the new bridge .

WESTMINSTER BRIDGE.THE first stone of that noble structure was laid on January 24th, 1739, by Henry earl of Pembroke, a nobleman, of whom Mr. Walpole says, none had a purer taste in architecture. It was built after the design of Monsieur Labelye, an ingenious architect, a native of France. The last stone was laid in November 1747, so that it was eight years and nine months in completing, at the expence of £. 389,500. Its length is 1223 feet; the number of arches fourteen, that in the center seventy-six feet wide. In this bridge, grandeur and simplicity are united. Fault has been [Page 91] found with the great height of the balustrades, which deny to the passengers a clear view of the noble expanse of water, and the fine objects, especially to the east, which are scattered with no sparing hand. I cannot agree with the happy thought of the French tra­veller *, who assures us, that the cause was to prevent the suicide to which the English have so strong a propensity, particularly in the gloomy month of November; for, had they been low, how few could resist the charming opportunity of springing over, whereas at present, the difficulty of climbing up these heights is so great, that the poor hypochondriac has time to cool; and, desisting from his glorious purpose, think proper to give his days their full length, and end them like a good christian in his peaceful bed.

THE tide has been known to rise at this bridge twenty-two feet;TIDE. much to the inconveniency of the inhabitants of the lower parts of Westminster, for at such times their cellars are laid under water; but its height depends much on the force and direction of the wind at the time of flood.

BEYOND this palace, to the north,CANON, OR CHANNEL ROW. stood some streets and lanes by the water-side, distinguished in older times by the residence of some of our nobility. In Canon Row, so named from being inhabited by the canons of the church, but corrupted into Chan­nel Row, was the stately house built by the termagant Anne Stan­hope, wife to the protector Somerset; whose dispute, about some point of female precedency, is said to have contributed in some degree to her husband's fall. She left this house to her son Ed­ward earl of Hertford. Here William earl of Derby had, in 1603, a fair mansion; and Henry Clinton earl of Lincoln, another; and [Page 92] in this row, Anne Clifford tell us, that on the first of May, 1589, she was begotten by her most valiant father George earl of Cum­berland, on the body of her most virtuous mother Margaret, daughter of Francis earl of Bedford. Astonishing accuracy!

IN this part of the town were some other houses of our nobi­lity. In the remote Tothil street, stood the houses of lord Grey, and of lord Dacres, mentioned in Norden's map of London, in 1603; and in Lea's map, published in 1700, is the earl of Linde­sey's house near Old Palace Yard; of which I find no other ac­count, than that it was inhabited, in 1707, by one of the Dormers, earl of Caernarvon *.

PALACE OF WHITEHALL.IMMEDIATELY beyond these buildings began the vast palace of Whitehall. It was originally built by Hubert de Burgh earl of Kent, the great, the persecuted justiciary of England, in the reign of Henry III. He bequeathed it to the Black Friars in Holborn, and they disposed of it to Walter de Grey archbishop of York, in 1248. It became for centuries the residence of the prelates of that see, and was styled York-house. In it Wolsey took his final leave of greatness. The profusion of rich things; hangings of cloth of gold and of silver; thousands of pieces of fine Holland; the quantities of plate, even of pure gold, which covered two great tables , (all of which were seized by his cruel rapacious master) are proofs of his amazing wealth, splendor, and pride. Henry deigned to purchase the palace from his fallen servant: the antient palace of Westminster having some time before suffered greatly by fire. From this time it became the residence of our [Page 93] princes, till it was almost wholly destroyed by the same element in 1697.

HENRY had an uncommon composition: his savage cruelty could not suppress his love of the arts: his love of the arts could not soften his savage cruelty. The prince who could, with the utmost sang froid, burn Catholics and Protestants, take off the heads of the partners of his bed one day, and celebrate new nup­tials the next, had, notwithstanding, a strong taste for refined plea­sures. He cultivated architecture and painting, and invited from abroad artists of the first merit. To Holbein was owing the most beautiful gate at Whitehall, built with bricks of two colors,FINE GATE. glaz­ed, and disposed in a tesselated fashion. The top, as well as that of an elegant tower on each side, were embattled. On each front were four busts in baked clay, in proper colors, which re­sisted to the last every attack of the weather: possibly the arti­ficial stone revived in this century. These, I have been lately informed, are preserved in a private hand. This charming struc­ture fell a sacrifice to conveniency within my memory: as did another in 1723, built at the same time, but of far inferior beau­ty *. The last blocked up the road to King-street, and was called King's-gate. Henry built it as a passage to the park, the tennis-court, bowling-green, the cock-pit, and tilting-yard; for he was extremely fond of athletic exercises; they suited his strength and his temper.

IT was the intention of William duke of Cumberland, to re­build the beautiful gate, first mentioned, at the top of the long [Page 94] walk at Windsor, and for that purpose had all the parts and stones numbered; but unfortunately the design was never executed.

TILT-YARD.THE tilt-yard was equally the delight of his daughter Eliza­beth, as singular a composition: for, with the truest patriotism, and most distinguished abilities, were interwoven the greatest va­nity,VANITY OF QUEEN ELIZA­BETH. and most romantic disposition. Here, in her sixty-sixth year, with wrinkled face, red perriwig, little eyes, hooked nose, skinny lips, and black teeth *, she could suck in the gross flatterie; of her favored courtiers. Essex (by his squire) here told her of her beauty and worth. A Dutch ambassador assured her majesty, that he had undertaken the voyage to see her majesty, who for beauty and wisdom excelled all other beauties in the world. She labored at an audience to make Melvil acknowlege that his charming mistress was inferior in beauty to herself . The artful Scot evaded her question. She put on a new habit of every foreign nation, each day of audience, to attract his admiration. So fond was she of dress, that three thousand different habits were found in her wardrobe after her death. Mortifying reflection! in find­ing such alloy in the greatest characters.

SHE was very fond of dancing. I admire the humour she shewed in using this exercise, whenever a messenger came to her from her successor James VI. of Scotland: for Sir Roger Aston assures us, that whenever he was to deliver any letters to her from his master, on lifting up of the hangings, he was sure to find her dancing to a little fiddle, affectedly, that he might tell James, by [Page 95] her youthful disposition, how unlikely he was to come to the throne he so much thirsted after *.

HENTZNER, who visited this palace in 1598,HER LIBRARY. informs us that her royal library was well stored with Greek, Italian, Latin, and French books. Among others, was a little one in her own hand­writing, addressed to her father. She wrote a most exceeding fair hand, witness the beautiful little prayer book, sold at the late dutchess of Portland's sale for £. 106, written in five languages,HER LEARNING. two in English, and one in Greek, Latin, French, and Italian. At the beginning was a miniature of her lover the Duc d'Anjou, at the end one of herself, both by Hilliard: by the first she artfully in­sinuated that he was the primary object of her devotions. His mother, Catherine de Medicis, had been told by an astrologer, that all her sons were to become monarchs. Anjou visited England, and was received with every species of coquetry. On the first of January, 1581, in the tilt-yard of this palace,GREAT TOURNA­MENT HELD IN HONOR OF THE DUC D'ANJOU. the most sump­tuous tournament ever celebrated, was held here in honor to the commissioners sent from France to propose the marriage. A ban­queting-house, most superbly ornamented, was erected at the ex­pence of above a thousand seven hundred pounds. ‘The gallerie adjoining to her majesties house at Whitehall, says the minute Holinshed, ‘whereat hir person should be placed, was called,ROMANTIC FOOLERIES. and not without cause, the castell or fortresse of perfect beautie! Her majesty, at the time aged forty-eight, received every flat­tery that the charms of fifteen could clame. ‘This fortresse of perfect beautie was assailed by Desire, and his four foster chil­dren.’ The combatants on both sides were persons of the first [Page 96] rank: a regular summons was first sent to the possessor of the castell, with the delectable song of which this is part:

"Yeeld, yeeld, ô yeeld, you that this fort d [...]o hold,
"Which seated is in spotless honors feeld,
"Desires great force, no forces can with hold;
"Then to Desires desire ô yeeld, ô yeeld."

Which ended, ‘two canons were fird off, one with sweet powder, and the other with sweet water: and after there were store of prettie scaling ladders, and then the footmen threw floures, and such fansies against the wals, with all such devises as might seeme fit shot for Desire. In the end Desire is repulsed, and forced to make submission; and thus ended an amorous foolery; which, if the reader is endowed with more patience than myself, he may find to fill near six great pages in the historian aforesaid*.

NOBLE BAND OF KNIGHTS TIL­TERS.TWO principal heroes of the time were Sir Henry Lee, knight of the garter, the faithful devoted knight of this romantic prin­cess,SIR HENRY LEE, THE QUEEN'S CHAMPION; and George earl of Cumberland. The first had made a vow to present himself armed at the Tilt-Yard, on the 27th of Novem­ber annually, till he was disabled by age. This gave rise to the annual exercises of arms during the reign. The society consisted of twenty-five of the most distinguished personages about the court . Among them was Sir Christopher Hatton, and even the lord chancellor,DISABLED BY AGE, RESIGNS IN GREAT FORM. I think Sir Thomas Bromley. Age overtook Sir Henry in the thirty-third year of her majesty: when he retired with great ceremony, and recommended as his successor the fa­mous [Page 97] hero, the earl of Cumberland, of whom I have given an am­ple account in another place*. Sir Henry, in the year 1590, in­vested his successor with much form; and in the true spirit of chivalry and romance, in the presence of the queen and the whole court, armed the new champion and mounted him upon his horse. His own armour he offered at the foot of a crowned pillar, near her majesty's feet: after which he clothed himself in a coat of black velvet pointed under the arm, and instead of a helmet, co­vered his head with a buttoned cap of the country fashion. He died aged 80, in the year 1611, and was interred in the once elegant little church of Quarendon, near Aylesbury. It is difficult to say whether that or the tomb is most ruinous. The figure of the knight appears in armour reclining, with one hand support­ing his head, the other on his sword; on his neck is a rich collar with the George pendant; his hair is short and curled; his face bearded and whiskered. He lies beneath a rich canopy, supported by suits of armour like antient trophies. The epitaph tell us,

The warres abroad with honnor he did passe,
In courtlie justs his sovereigns knight he was.
Sixe princes he did serve.

In a work which furnished so few architectural subjects for the engraver, I present the reader with the portrait of this venerable knight, taken from an original in possession of the late Mrs. Sydney Lee, of Chester; who with great politeness obliged me with a re­duced copy. He was sprung from a Cheshire family, the same which produced the Lees, earls of Lichfield. Sir Henry has by [Page 98] him a large dog, to which he once was indebted for his life. By accident it was left one night in his bed-chamber, unknown to a faithless servant, who entered the room with an intent to rob and murder his master, but was seized on his entrance by the affection­ate animal.

THE other print is one of Sir Henry's associates in the gallant society, Robert earl of Leicester, clad for the tilt-yard, in complete armour*.

OTHER AMUSE­MENTS OF ELIZABETH. Rowland White has left us a curious account of the amuse­ments of this reign, and with what spirit her majesty pursued her pleasures as late as her sixty-seventh year. ‘Her majesty says she is very well. This day she appoints a Frenchman to doe feate [...] upon a rope in the conduit court. To-morrow she hath com­manded the beares, the bull, and the ape to be bayted in the tilt-yard. Upon Wednesday she will have solemne dawncing.’

ORIGIN OF THE PRESENT BANQUETTING HOUSE.IN the time of James I. Whitehall was in a most ruinous state. He determined to rebuild it in a very princely manner, and wor­thy of the residence of the monarchs of the British empire. He began with pulling down the banquetting rooms built by Eliza­beth. That which bears the name at present was begun in 1619, from a design of Inigo Jones, in his purest manner; and executed by Nicholas Stone, master-mason and architect to the king: it was finished in two years, and cost seventeen thousand pounds; but was only a small part of a vast plan, left unexecuted by reason of [Page]


[Page 99] the unhappy times which succeeded. The note * will shew the small pay of this great architect.

THE cieling of this noble room cannot be sufficiently admired. It was painted by Rubens, who had three thousand pounds for his work. The subject is the apotheosis of James I; it forms nine compartments; one of the middle, represents our pacific monarch on his earthly throne, turning with horror from Mars, and other of the discordant deities, and as if it were giving himself up to the amiable goddess he always cultivated, to her attendants. Commerce and all the fine arts. This fine performance is painted on can­vass, and is in fine preservation; but, a few years ago, underwent a repair by Mr. Cipriani, who, as I am told, had two thousand pounds for his trouble. Near the entrance is a bust of the royal founder.

LITTLE did James think that he was erecting a pile from which his son was to step from the throne to the scaffold. He had been brought, in the morning of his death, from St. James's across the park, and from thence to Whitehall, where, ascending the great staircase, he passed through the long gallery to his bed­chamber, the place allotted to him to pass the little space before he received the fatal blow. It is one of the lesser rooms marked with the letter A, in the old plan of Whitehall. He was from thence conducted along the galleries and the banquetting-house, through the wall, in which a passage was broken, to his last [Page 100] earthly stage. This passage still remains, at the north end of the room, and is at present the door to a small additional building of late date. At the time of the king's death, contiguous to the banquetting-house was a large building with a long roof, and a small cupola rising out of the middle*. The late dutchess of Portland did me the honor of shewing to me a rich pearl sur­mounted with a crown, which was taken out of the ear of the murdered monarch, after his head was struck off.

THE banquetting-house has been, many years past, converted into a chapel. George I. appointed a salary of £. 30 a year to he paid to certain select preachers, to preach here every Sunday.

CABINET OF CHARLES I.THE collection of paintings formed by this most accomplished prince, was esteemed the first in Europe. They were kept in a room called the Cabinet-room, in this palace; which was built by order of prince Henry, from a design of Inigo Jones. I have a view of it, and some of the antient parts of Whitehall which stood next to St. James's park. This building is distinguished by the Venetian window. It stood on the fite of the duke of York's house. Vanderdort was appointed keeper, with a salary of £. 50 a year. On the death of Henry it was confirmed to him by Charles, at the reduced salary of forty. The view is taken from a drawing by Levines, an artist who had worked under Rembrandt. This I owe to the liberality of Doctor Combes.

THE pictures were sold by order of the ruling powers. As a proof of his majesty's judgment in collecting, several were sold [Page]


[Page 101] for a thousand pounds apiece; a price seldom known in these days, when money bears so far less a value.

IN 1680 a complete plan of this great palace was taken by John Fisher, and engraven by Vertue, in 1747.PLAN OF WHITEHALL. It appears that extended along the river, and in front along the present Parlement and Whitehall street, as far as Scotland Yard; and on the other side of those streets to the turning into Spring Garden, beyond the Admiralty, looking into St. James's Park. The merry king, his queen, the royal brother, prince Rupert, the duke of Monmouth, and all the great officers, and all the courtly train, had their lodg­ings within these walls; and all the royal family had their diffe­rent offices, such as kitchens, cellars, pantries, spiceries, cyder-house, bake-house, wood-yards and coal-yards, and slaughter-house. We see among the fair attendants of queen Catherine, many names which make a great figure in Grammont, and other chronicles of the time: such as the countess of Castlemaine, Mrs. Kirk, and Mrs. Killegrew. As to Nell Gwynne, NELL GWYNNE. not having the honor to be on the good queen's establishment, she was obliged to keep her distance, at her house in what was then called Pall-mall. It is the first good one on the left hand of St. James's Square, as we enter from Pall-mall. The back room on the ground floor was (within memory) entirely of looking glass; as was said to have been the cieling. Over the chimney was her picture; and that of her sister was in a third room. At the period I mention, this house was the property of Thomas Brand, esq of the Hoo, in Hertsordshire.

THE other royal favorites had the sanction of offices, such as maids of honor and the like, which, in all ages, like charity, were sure to cover a multitude of sins.


[Page 102]I MUST not omit, that from the palace into the Thames were two stairs, one public, the other the privy stairs for the use of majesty alone; the first is still in use, the other is made up in the old wall adjacent to the earl of Fife's, but the arch of the portal remains entire. Henry, and his daughter Elizabeth, made all their parties by water or on horseback; or now and then the last went mounted on a litter, carried on men's shoulders. Coaches had been introduced into England by Henry Fitzalan earl of Arundel, one of her admirers; but the spirited princess seems to have dis­dained the use. She rode in a dress of form and magnificence equal to what she appeared in at the drawing-room; but never put on breeches or boots, like the late Czarina; nor yet the equi­vocal dress of the ladies of the present age.

NO one is unacquainted with the noble and commodious im­provements which succeeded. The space occupied by the former palace, most part of Privy Garden, is covered with houses of nobi­lity or gentry, commanding most beautiful views of the river. Among the first (on the site of the small-beer cellar, of which a view is preserved in No 4. of Hollar's prints of Whitehall) is the house of the earl of Fife. EARL OF FIFE'S. From his judicious embankment, is a matchless view of its kind, of the two bridges with the magnifi­cent expanse of water, Somerset-house, St. Paul's, and multitudes of other objects less magnificent, but which serve to complete the beautiful scene.

IN the great room is some very fine Gobelins tapestry. I never can sufficiently admire the expression of passions, in two of the subjects: the fine history of Joseph disclosing himself to his bre­thren, and that of Susanna accused by the two elders. Here are also great numbers of fine paintings by foreign masters; but, as I [Page]


[Page 103] confine myself to those which relate to our own country, I shall only mention a small three-quarters of Mary Stuart, with her child, an infant, standing on a table before her. This beautiful performance is on white marble.

A HEAD of Charles I. when prince of Wales, done in Spain, when he was there in 1625, on his romantic expedition to court the Infanta. It is supposed to have been the work of Velasco.

A PORTRAIT of William earl of Pembroke, lord high chamber­lain in the beginning of the reign of Charles I; a small full length in black, with his white rod in one hand, his hat in the other, standing in a room looking into a garden. Such is the merit of this piece, that, notwithstanding it is supposed to have been the performance of Jameson, the Scotch Vandyck; yet it has been often attributed to that great Flemish painter *.

IN the vacant part of Privy Garden is still to be seen a noble statue in brass of our abdicated monarch, executed by Grinling Gibbons, the year before he deserted his throne.

THE horse-guards had their stables in the place they occupy at this time: but the present elegant building was erected in the reign of his late majesty, after a design, I think, by Vardy. I have given a print of the Horse-guards as they were in the time of Charles II. In it is the merry monarch and his dogs; and in the back view, the banquetting-house, one of the gates, the pre­sent treasury in its antient state, and the top of the cockpit.

THE Admiralty-office stood originally in Duke-street Westmin­ster; but in the reign of king William was removed to the present [Page 104] spot, to the house then called Wallingford-house, I believe from its having been inhabited by the Knollys's, viscounts Wallingford. From the roof, the pious Usher, archbishop of Armagh, then liv­ing here with the countess of Peterborough, was prevaled on to take the last sight of his beloved master Charles I. when brought on the scaffold before Whitehall. He sunk at the horror of the sight, and was carried in a swoon to his apartment.

THE present Admiralty-office was rebuilt in the late reign: it is a clumsy pile, but properly veiled from the street by Mr. Adams's handsome skreen *

PALACE FOR KINGS OF SCOTLAND.A LITTLE farther to the north stood, in the place now occu­pied by Scotland-yard, a magnificent palace built for the reception of the Scottish monarchs, whenever they visited this capital. It was originally given by king Edgar to king Ken, for the humiliating purpose of his making to this place an annual journey, for the purpose of doing homage for the kingdom of Scotland, and in after times for Cumberland and Huntingdon, and other fiefs of the crown. Here Margaret, widow of James V. of Scotland, and sister to Henry VIII. resided for a considerable time after the death of her husband: and was entertained with great magnifi­cence by her royal brother, as soon as he was reconciled to her second marriage with the earl of Angus.

CHARING-CROSS.A LITTLE above stood one of the celebrated memorials of the affection of Edward I. for his beloved Elianor, being the cross erected on the last spot on which the body rested in the way to the abby, the place of sepulture. This and all the others were built after the designs of Cavalini. This was destroyed by the religious [Page 105] fury of the reformers. From a drawing communicated to me by Doctor Combes, it appears to have been of an octagonal form, and in an upper stage ornamented with eight figures: but the gothic parts far from being rich.

THE cross was in the next century replaced by a most beauti­ful and animated equestrian statue in brass,FINE STATUE OF CHARLES I. of Charles I. cast in 1633, by Le Soeur. It was not erected till the year 1678, when the parlement had ordered it to be sold and broke to pieces: but John River, the brazier who purchased it, having more taste or more loyalty than his masters, buried it unmutilated, and shewed to them some broken pieces of brass in token of his obedience. M. d' Archenholz gives a diverting anecdote of this brazier: that he cast a vast number of handles of knives and forks in brass, which he sold as made of the broken statue. They were bought with great eagerness; by the loyalists, from affection to their mo­narch; by the rebels, as a mark of triumph over the murdered sovereign *.

ON the site of part of Northumberland-house, ST. MARY ROUN­CEVAL. stood the chapel of St. Mary Rounceval, a cell to the priory of Rouncevaux, in Navarre. It was founded by William Marshal earl of Pembroke, in the time of Henry III. It was suppressed by Henry V. among the alien priories, but rebuilt by Edward IV. who fixed a frater­nity in it . In the reign of Edward VI, a grant was made of the site to Sir Thomas Cawarden .

NOT far from hence, opposite to Charing-Cross, was an hermi­tage, [Page 106] with a chapel dedicated to St. Catherine *. This, in 1262, belonged to the see of Llandaff; for I find in that year that Wil­liam de Radnor, then bishop, had leave from the king to lodge in the cloister of his hermitage at Charing, whenever he came to London .

ON the north side of Charing-Cross stand the royal stables, called, from the original use of the buildings on their site, the Mews; having been used for keeping the king's falcons, at lest from the time of Richard II. In that reign the accomplished Sir Simon Burley, knight of the garter, was keeper of the king's falcons at the Meuse, near Charing-Cross. This office was by Charles II. granted to his son by Nell Gwyn, Charles duke of St. Albans, and the heirs male of his body. In the reign of Henry VIII. the king's horses were kept here. In 1534 an accident by fire destroyed the building, with a great quantity of hay, and seve­ral great horses. It was rebuilt in the reigns of Edward VI. and queen Mary. In the year 1732 the present handsome edifice arose.

ST. JAMES'S PALACE.ST. JAMES's palace was originally a hospital, founded and de­dicated to St. James, by some pious citizens, before the Conquest, for fourteen leprous females: and eight brethren were added afterwards, to perform divine service. On the quarrel between the great earl of Warwick and lord Cromwel, about the cause of the first battle of St. Albans; lord Cromwel, fearing the rage of that violent peer, was at his own desire lodged here, by way of security, by John Talbot earl of Shrewsbury, at that time lord treasurer of England . It was surrendered to Henry VIII. in [Page 107] 1531, who sounded on its site the present palace, which Stowe calls a goodly manor. His majesty also inclosed the park, which was subservient to the amusement of this and the palace of White­hall. Charles II. was particularly fond of it, planted the avenues, made the canal, and the aviary, adjacent to the Bird-cage walk, which took its name from the cages which were hung in the trees. Charles, says Cibber, was often seen here, amidst crowds of specta­tors, feeding his ducks, and playing with his dogs *, and passing his idle moments in affability even to the meanest of his subjects, which made him to be adored by the common people; so fasci­nating in the great are the habits of condescension!

DUCK ISLAND was erected into a government, and had a salary annexed to the office, in favor of M. St. Evremond, who was the first and perhaps the last governor : and the island itself is lost in the late improvements.

IT does not appear that the palace was inhabited by any of our monarchs till after the fire at Whitehall. James I. presented it to his accomplished son Henry, who resided here till his lamented death in 1612. Charles I. was brought here from Windsor, on January 19th , by the power of the army, which had determined on his death; his apartment was hastily furnished by his servant Mr. Kinnersley, of the wardrobe . Some of the eleven days which he was permitted to live, were spent in Westminster-hall, and of the nights in the house of Sir Robert Cotton, adjacent to his place of trial. On the 27th he was carried back to St. James's, where he passed his three last days in exemplary piety. On the 30th he [Page 108] was brought to the place of execution; and walked, unmoved at every insult, with a firm and quick pace, supported by the most lively sentiments of religion.

HIS son, the bigoted James, sent to the prince of Orange, when he had approached in force near to the capital, a most necessitated invitation to take his lodgings at this palace. The prince ac­cepted it: but at the same time hinted to the frightened prince that he must leave Whitehall. It was customary to mount guard at both the palaces. The old hero lord Craven was on duty at the time when the Dutch guards were marching through the park to relieve, by order of their master. From a point of honor he had determined not to quit his station, and was preparing to maintain his post; but, receiving the command of his sovereign, he reluctantly withdrew his party and marched away with sullen dignity *.

DURING the reign of king William, St. James's was fitted up for the residence of the princess Anne (afterwards queen) and her spouse prince George of Denmark. From that time to the present it has been regularly the court of our monarchs.

JAMES, the son of James II. who so long made pretensions to the British throne, was born in the room now called the old bed-chamber; at present the anti-chamber to the levee room. The bed stood close to the door of a back-stairs, which descended to an inner court. It certainly was very convenient to carry on any secret design; and might favor the silly warming-pan story, was not the bed surrounded by twenty of the privy-council, four other men of rank, twenty ladies, besides pages and other atten­dants. [Page 109] James, with imprudent pride, neglected to disprove the tale: it was adopted by party, and firmly believed by its zealots. But, as James proved false to his high trust, and his son shewed every symptom of following his example, there was certainly no such pretence wanting for excluding a family inimical to the in­terests of the GREAT WHOLE.

UNCREDITABLE as the outside of St. James's palace may look, it is said to be the most commodious for regal parade of any in Europe. Every one knows that the furniture of this palace is un­becoming the place.PORTRAITE. Yet in a ramble I once made through the apartments, I saw several portraits of personages remarkable in their day. Among others (in one of the rooms behind the levee rooms) is a small full-length of Henry prince of Wales, son of James I. He is dressed in green, standing over a dead stag, and sheathing a sword. A youth, the accomplished lord Harrington, of Exton, is kneeling before him: each of them have hunting horns, and behind the prince is a horse, and on the bough of a tree are the arms of England, and behind the young lord, another coat of arms, perhaps his own. Another fine small piece, of Arthur, elder brother to Henry VIII. painted very young, with a bonnet on his head. Henry stands by him, and his sister Margaret, of in­fant ages. This picture is by Mabuse, who visited England in the reign of their father.

HENRY VII. and VIII. full-lengths, and each of them with a queen before an altar. The fortunate Jane Seymour (who died in her bed) is the consort of the son, here represented. This is a copy from Holbein, in small, by Van Lemput [...]n 1667, taken by order of Charles II. The original was painted on the wall in the privy chamber of Whitehall, and destroyed in the fire of 1697.

[Page 110]Two half-lengths, by Lely, of the dutchess of York, and her sister.

A CHILD in the robes of the garter: perhaps the youngest knight known. He was the second son of James II. while duke of York, by Anne Hyde his dutchess. On December 3d, 1666, he was elected knight of the garter, at the age of three years and five months. The sovereign put the George round his neck; and prince Rupert, the garter round his little leg. Death, in the fol­lowing year, prevented his installation *.

THE diminutive manhood of the dwarf Geoffry Hudson, is to be seen in another picture. He appears less by being placed walk­ing under some very tall trees.

IN the lords old waiting-room is Henry Darnley, in black, tall and genteel. His hand is resting on his brother Charles Stuart, earl of Lenox, dressed in a black gown.

IN another room is Charles II. of Spain, at the age of four, in black, with a sceptre in his hand, strutting and playing the mo­narch. He was inaugurated in 1665. His reign was unhappy. Spain at no period was in so low, so distressful a condition. His dominions were parcelled out in his life-time: but he disappointed the allies, and, after some struggle, the designation of his will in favor of the house of Bourbon took place.

HERE is to be seen the famous picture by Mabuse, of Adam and Eve. Mr. Evelyn justly remarks the absurdity of painting them with navels, and a fountain with rich imagery amidst the beauteous wilds of paradise. Raphael, and Michael Angelo, made [Page 111] the same mistake of the navel, on which the learned Sir Thomas Brown * wastes a long page and a half to disprove the pos­sibility.

IN the queen's library (built by queen Caroline, QUEEN'S LIBRARY. and ornamented by Kent) now a lumber-room, I saw a beautiful view from Greenwich park, with Charles I. his queen, and a number of cour­tiers, walking. And two others, of the same prince and his queen dining in public. And another of the elector palatine and his spouse at public table; with a carver, looking most ridiculous, a monkey having in that moment reared from the board and seized on his beard. Possibly this feast was at Guildhall, where he was most nobly entertained by the hospitable city, in 1612, when he made the match with the daughter of our monarch, which ended so unhappily for both parties.

TO the east of St. James's palace, in the reign of queen Anne, MARLBOROUGH-HOUSE. was built Marlborough-house, at the expence of the public. It appears by one of Kip's views of St. James's, published before the existence of this house, that it was built in part of the royal gardens, granted for that purpose by her majesty. The present duke added an upper story, and improved the ground floor, which originally wanted the great room. This national compliment cost not less than forty thousand pounds.

IN Pall-mall the duke Schomberg had his house.PALL-MALL. It was in my time possessed by Astley the painter, who divided it into three, and most whimsically fitted up the center for his own use.

TO take a review of the space between this palace and Charing-Cross, as it was about the year 1560, it will appear a tract of [Page 112] fields; there were no houses, excepting three or four on the east side of the present Pall-mall: and a little farther, on the opposite side, a small church, the name of which I cannot discover.

BY the year 1572, Cockspur-street filled up the space between those houses and Charing-Cross. Pall-mall was also laid out as a walk, or a place for the exercise of the Mall, a game long since disused. The north side was also planted with a row of trees. On the other side was the wall of St. James's park. Charles II. removed it to its present place, planted the park, and made all those improvements, which we now see. It was Le Notre, the famous French gardener, the director of taste under Louis XIV. who ordered the disposition of the trees. Of late, the French have endeavoured to borrow taste from us. In the days of Charles, HAYMARKET. HEDGE-LANE. the Haymarket, and Hedge-lane, had names; but they were literally lanes, bounded by hedges; and all beyond, to the north, east, and west, was entirely country. In the fine plan of London, published by Faithorn, in 1658, no traces of houses are to be met with in the former, any more than a single one, named the Gaming-house, at the end next to Piccadilly. Windmill-street consisted of disjoined houses; and a windmill, standing in a field on the west side, proves from what its name was derived. All the space occupied by the streets radiating from the Seven Dials, was at that period open ground.

LEICESTER-HOUSE. Leicester-fields was also unbuilt; but the house of that name is found in the same plan, and on the site of the present. It was founded by one of the Sydnies earls of Leicester. It was for a short time the residence of Elizabeth, daughter of James I. the titular queen of Bohemia, who, on February 13th, 1661, here [Page 113] ended her unfortunate life *. It has been tenanted for a great number of years. It was successively the pouting-place of princes. The late king, when prince of Wales, after he had quarrelled with his father, lived here several years. His son Frederick followed his example, succeeded him in his house, and in it finished his days. No one is ignorant of the magnificent and instructive museum exhibited in this house by the late Sir ASHTON LEVER. It was the most astonishing collection of the subject of natural history ever collected, in so short a space, by any individual. To the disgrace of our kingdom, after the first burst of wonder was over, it became neglected: and when it was offered to the public, by the chance of a guinea lottery, only eight thou­sand, out of thirty-six thousand, tickets were sold. Finally, the capricious goddess frowned on the spirited possessor of such a number of tickets, and transferred the treasure to the possessor of only two, Mr. Parkinson; who, by his spirited attention to, and elegant disposition of the Museum, well merited the favor.

BEHIND Leicester-house stood, in 1658, the Military-yard,THE MILITARY YARD. founded by Henry prince of Wales, the spirited son of our peace­ful James. M. Foubert afterwards kept here his academy for rid­ing and other gentleman-like exercises, in the reign of Charles II. It is to this day a noted riding-school.

A LITTLE beyond stood Gerard-house, GERARD-HOUSE. the habitation of the gallant Gerard earl of Macclesfield . It is lost in the street of the same name. The profligate lord Mohun lived in this street, and was brought there after he was killed in the duel with the duke [Page 114] of Hamilton. I have heard that his good lady was vastly dis­pleased at the bloody corse being flung upon the best bed.

COVENTRY-HOUSE stood near the end of the Haymarket, and gave name to Coventry-street. It was the residence of lord keeper Coventry; and Henry Coventry, secretary of state, died here in 1686. This house is said to be on the site of one called, in the old plans of London, the Gaming-house.

PICCADILLY.LORD Clarendon mentions a house of this name, in the follow­ing words. ‘Mr. Hyde (says he, speaking of himself) going to a house called Piccadilly, which was a fair house for entertain­ment, and gaming, with handsome gravel-walks with shade, and where were an upper and lower bowling-green, whither very many of the nobility and gentry of the best quality re­sorted for exercise and conversation *.’

AT the upper end of the Haymarket, stood Piccadilla-hall, where Piccadillas or Turn-overs were sold, which gave name to that vast street, called from that circumstance Piccadilly. This street was completed in 1642, as far as the present Berkeley-street. The first good house which was built in it was Burlington-house; the noble founder, father to the late earl of Burlington, said he placed it there ‘because he was certain no one would build be­yond him.’ Nobody is ignorant of the vast town that, since that period, has extended itself beyond this palace. After this rose Clarges-house, and two others adjacent, inhabited, says Strype, by lord Sherbourne and the countess of Denby.

THE Pest-house-fields were surrounded with buildings before the year 1700, but remained a dirty waste till of late years, when [Page 115] Carnaby-market occupied much of the west part. Golden-square, of dirty access, was built after the Revolution, or before 1700. In these fields had been the lazareto, during the period of the dreadful plague of the year 1665. It was built by that true hero lord Craven, who stayed in London during the whole time; and braved the fury of the pestilence, with the same coolness as he fought the battles of his beloved mistress Elizabeth, titular queen of Bohemia; or mounted the tremendous breach at Creutz­nach. He was the intrepid soldier, the gallant lover, the genuine patriot.

IN 1700 Bond-street was built no farther than the west end of Clifford-street. New Bond-street was at that time an open field, called Conduit Mead, from one of the conduits which supplied this part of the town with water: and Conduit-street received its name for the same reason.

GEORGE-street, Hanover-square, and its church, rose about the same time. The church was built by John James, ST. GEORGE's, HANOVER-SQUARE. and finished in 1724. Its portico would be thought handsome had you space to admire it. It now looks Brobdignagian. This was one of the fifty new churches, and the parish stolen out of that of St. Mar­tin in the Fields. It is the last parish in this part of Westminster, excepting the distant Mary-bonne. Every part besides was open ground, covered with dunghills, and all sorts of obscenity. May Fair was kept about the spot now covered with May Fair chapel,MAY FAIR. and several fine streets. The fair was attended with such disor­ders, riots, thefts, and even murders, that, in 1708, it was pre­sented by the magistrates. It revived again, and I remember the last celebrations: the place was covered with booths, temporary theatres, and every enticement to low pleasure.

[Page 116]AT the time of Sir Thomas Wiat's insurrection, in February, 1554, part of the army marched to make their attack on London over this tract, then an open country as far as Charing-Cross. On the spot called Hay-hill, near the present Berkeley-square, there was a skirmish between a party of the insurgents and another of the royal army, in which the former were repulsed. After the execution of Sir Thomas, his head (on that account) was set up on a gallows, at that place *, and his parboiled quarters in different parts of the neighborhood of the capital. Three of the insurgents were also hung in chains near the head of their leader.

THIS extensive tract, at present a vast seat of the most elegant population, is far from being destitute of places of devotion: but chapels arose instead of churches, subordinate to their respective rectors. In this enlightened age it was quickly discovered that "Godliness was profitable to many." The projector, the archi­tect, the mason, the carpenter, and the plasterer united their powers. A chapel was erected, well-pewed, well-warmed, dedi­cated, and consecrated. A captivating preacher is provided, the pews are filled, and the good undertakers amply repayed by the pious tenantry.

HANOVER AND CAVENDISH SQUARES.IN 1716, Hanover-square, and Cavendish-square, were unbuilt: but their names appear in the plans of London of 1720. Oxford-street, from Princes-street eastward as far as High-street St. Giles's, was almost unbuilt on the north side. I remember there a deep hollow road, and full of sloughs: there was here and there a rag­ged house, the lurking-place of cut-throats: insomuch that I never was taken that way by night, in my hackney-coach, to a [Page 117] worthy uncle's, who gave me lodgings at his house in George-street, but I went in dread the whole way. The south side was built as far as Swallow-street. SOHO-SQUARE was begun in the time of Charles II. The duke of Monmouth lived in the center house, facing the statue. Originally the square was called, in honor of him, Monmouth-square; and afterwards changed to that of King-square. I have a tradition, that, on his [...]ath, the ad­mirers of that unfortunate man changed it to Soho, being the word of the day at the field of Sedgemoor. The house was pur­chased by the late lord Bateman, and let by the present lord to the Comte de Guerchy, the French ambassador. After which it was leased on building leases. The name of the unfortunate duke is still preserved in Monmouth-street.

AFTER this digression, let me return into Piccadilly. BERKELEY-HOUSE.—Before the date of Burlington-house, was built a fine mansion, belonging to the Berkelies, lords, and afterwards earls Berkeley. It stood be­tween the south end of Berkeley-square and Piccadilly, and gave name to the square and an adjacent street. The misery and dis­grace which the profligacy of one of the daughters brought on the house, by an intrigue with her brother-in-law, lord Grey, (afterwards engaged in the Monmouth rebellion) is too lastingly recorded in our State Trials, ever to be buried in oblivion.

ON the site of this house, fronting Piccadilly, DEVONSHIRE-HOUSE. stands Devonshire-house; long after the year 1700 it was the last house in this street, at that time the portion of Piccadilly. The old house, which was built by the first duke, was burnt in the reign of George II. It was rebuilt by the third duke, after a design by Kent. Here is an excellent library, and a very fine collection of medals. I once saw the house, by the favor of my friend the Reverend Doctor [Page 118] Lort, at that time librarian; to whose liberal communications I have been invariably indebted. The portraits are so numerous in this noble house, that I must leave the complete list to those who have more opportunities of forming it than I had. Among others, is a fine portrait of Marc Antonio de Dominis, the vain de­sultory archbishop of Spalato, who, abjuring the Roman catholic religion, came over to England, and was appointed master of the Savoy. He had not been here long, but he publicly retracted all he had wrote against the church of Rome. James ordered him to depart the kingdom in three days. He had the folly to trust himself at Rome; where, his sincerity being doubted, he was flung into prison, where he ended his days. He is painted by Tin­toret, represented in his study, sitting, in black, and with a square cap.

ARTHUR Goodwin, the friend of Mr. Hampden, and, like him, active in the cause of liberty; a fine full length, by Vandyck, 1639: in long hair; his dress a yellow cloak and jacket, and white boots.

HIS daughter Jane, second wife of Philip lord Wharton; in black, enriched with chains of gold.

A HEAD of the favorite character of lord Clarendon, the virtu­ous and accomplished lord Falkland.

SIR Thomas Brown, author of the Religio Medici, his lady, and four daughters, by Dobson. Sir Thomas and his lady are in black; one child is on her lap, two stand before him, on whom he looks with great affection. When I thought of a passage in his famous book, I could but smile at the number of children. His sentiments on the consequence of matrimony are most singular. I dare not quote the passage: but must refer the reader to the strangeness of [Page 119] his ideas on the subject *. Let it be remembered he was a bache­lor when he wrote.

THE delightful portrait of the Jewish Rabbi, by Rembrandt.

A HEAD of Titian, by himself. And another of the painter Carlo Cignani, also by himself.

THE unfeeling Philip II. by Titian; a full-length, in armour, enriched with gold. The only time he ever buckled it on, was when he shewed himself to his troops going on the assault of St. Quintin. He merited to be stripped of the honorable dress: he never appeared in the field; and carried on his wars like an assassin.

I WILL close this very imperfect list, with the famous countess of Desmond; a popular subject with the painters: and refer the reader to the account I have given of her in my visits to that worthy peer the late earl of Kinnoul, in both my tours in Scotland.

THE collection of pictures by the great Italian masters, is by far the finest private collection now in England.

THE house of that monster of treachery, that profligate mini­ster the earl of Sunderland, who, by his destructive advice, preme­ditatedly brought ruin on his unsuspecting master James II. stood on or near the site of the present Melbourne-house. At the very time that he sold him to the prince of Orange, he encouraged his majesty in every step which was certain of involving him and his family in utter ruin.

PICCADILLY is continued near half a mile farther to the west: the north side only consists of houses, most of them mean build­ings; but it finishes handsomely with the magnificent new house [Page 120] of lord Bathurst, at Hyde-park corner. On the south side is the Green-park, bounded by a wall; but in many places are rows of benevolent railings, which afford a most elegant view of that park, the trees in that of St. James's, the majestic venerable abby soaring far above, and the more remote rural view of the Surry hills. Beyond the Turnpike-house, stood the house of a noble, celebrated by Mr. Pope for his passion for dancing; who de­manded an audience from queen Anne, after the death of George prince of Denmark, to advise her majesty to dispel her grief by applying to that exercise: ‘The sober Lanesh [...]row dancing in the gout.’ I have heard it said, that this was only his country-house; which might possibly have been, at that time.

ST. GEORGE'S HOSPITAL.IN 1733 arose on its site that great charity St. George's hospi­tal, founded by the voluntary contributions of the inhabitants of Westminster. The subscriptions, in 1786, were £. 2,239. 5 s.; but the benevolence of the governors, or increase of accidents, caused an increase of expence, which threatened most serious con­sequences, till the house was happily relieved by the bounty re­ceived from the third of the profits arising from the musical en­tertainments of the abby.—This hospital has discharged from it, since it was opened, on the first of the year 1733, not fewer than a hundred and sixty-four thousand seven hundred and forty-six patients.

HYDE-PARK was in the late century, and the early part of the present, celebrated, by all our dramatical poets, for its large space railed off in form of a circle,THE RING. round which the Beau-monde drove in their carriages, and in their rotation; exchanging as they passed smiles and nods, compliments, or smart repartees.

[Page 121]OPPOSITE to this hospital at Hyde-park Corner, stood a large fort with four bastions, which formed one of the many flung up in the year 1642. It is incredible with what speed the citizens flung a rampart of earth all round the city and suburbs of London, and again round Southwark and Lambeth, strengthened with bat­teries and redoubts at proper intervals. This was occasioned by an alarm of an attack from the royal army. Men, women, and children assisted by thousands. The active part which the fair sex took in the work is admirably described by the inimitable author of Hudibras; who, says he,

March'd rank and file with drum and ensign,
T' entrench the city for defence in:
Rais'd rampiers with their own soft hands,
To put the enemy to stands;
From ladies down to oyster-wenches,
Labour'd like pioneers in trenches,
Fal'n to their pick-axes and tools,
And help'd the men to dig like moles.
Have not the handmaids of the city
Chos'n of their members a committee,
For raising of a common purse,
Out of their wages to raise horse?
And do they not as Triers fit,
To judge what officers are fit?

THERE were a few more great houses,BERKSHIRE, OR CLEVELAND-HOUSE. not remote from St. James's palace, which merit mention. Berkshire-house, belonging to the Howards, earls of Berkshire, stood very near the royal resi­dence. It was afterwards purchased, and presented by Charles II. to that beautiful fury Barbara dutchess of Cleveland, and its honorable name changed into that of her dishonored title. It [Page 122] was then of great extent. She sold part, which was built into various houses. She built a large one for herself, which still re­mains, and may be distinguished by the row of round windows in the upper story.

TART-HALL.TART-HALL stood near the present Buckingham-gate: it was built in 1638, by Nicholas Stone, for Alathea countess of Arundel, wife to Thomas earl of Arundel. After the death of the countess it became the property of her second son, the unfortunate Wil­liam lord Stafford, a most gentle and amiable character, who fell an innocent victim to the detestable violence of party, and the perjured suborned evidence of the ever infamous Oates, Dugdale, and Tuberville. Good men, who had no share in that part, hur­ried away by intemperate passion, were at the period disgraced by their rage against this inoffensive peer. Even the virtuous lord Russel committed in this cause the single opprobrium of his life: when the unhappy lord was condemned, RUSSEL could wish to deny the king the amiable prerogative of taking away the cruel, the disgraceful part of the penalty. Within three years, this ex­cellent man himself tasted the bitter cup; but cleared, by royal indulgence, from the aggravating dregs, with which he wished to agonize the dying moments of the devoted Stafford.

HERE were kept the poor remains of the Arundelian collection. They were buried during the madness of the popish plot. The mob would have mistaken the statues for popish saints. They were sold in the year 1720; and the house soon after was pulled, down. Mr. Walpole; who saw the house at the time of the second sale, informed me that it was very large, and had a very venera­ble appearance.

ARLINGTON-HOUSE.HENRY BENNET earl of Arlington, one of the famous Cabal, [Page 123] had a house near the site of the present Buckingham-house, which went by his name. It was afterwards purchased by John Sheffield duke of Buckingham, who, after obtaining an additional grant of land from the crown, rebuilt it, in a magnificent manner, in 1703.BUCKINGHAM-HOUSE. He describes it most minutely, as well as his manner of living there, in a letter to the duke of Shrewsbury *. He has omitted his constant visits to the noted gaming-house at Marybone, the place of assemblage of all the infamous sharpers of the time. His grace always gave them a dinner at the conclusion of the season, and his parting toast was, May as many of us as remain unhanged next spring, meet here again. I remember the facetious Quin tell­ing this story at Bath, within the hearing of the late lord Chester­field, when his lordship was surrounded by a crowd of worthies of the same stamp with the above. Lady Mary Wortley alludes to the amusement in this time; ‘Some dukes at Marybone bowl time away.’ Antiently there was a park at Marybone: for I find that in queen Elizabeth's, time, the Russian ambassadors were entertained with the amusement of hunting within its pale. The duke died in 1720. His dutchess, daughter to James II. by Catherine Sedley, lived here till her death. She was succeeded by the duke's natu­ral son, Charles Herbert Sheffield, on whom his grace had entailed it after the death of the young duke, who died a minor. It was purchased from Sir Charles by his present majesty; is the retreat of our good king and queen; and dignified with the title of the QUEEN'S HOUSE.

The virtuous chancellor the earl of Clarendon, CLARENDON-HOUSE. had a house [Page 124] facing the upper end of St. James's-street, on the site of the pre­sent Graften-street. It was built by himself, with the stones in­tended for the rebuilding of St. Paul's. He purchased the ma­terials; but a nation soured with an unsuccessful war, with fire, and with pestilence, imputed every thing as a crime to this great and envied character: his enemies called it Dunkirk-house, calum­niating him with having built it with the money arising from the sale of that town, which had just before been given up to the French, for a large sum, by his master. Clarendon was so sensible of his vanity, of his imprudence, in building so large a house, and of the envy it drew upon him, that he thinks fit to apologize for that act of his; which he declares so far exceeded the proposed expence, as to add greatly to the embarrassment of his affairs *. It cost fifty thousand pounds, and three hundred men were em­ployed in the building. It was purchased from his lordship by George M [...]k duke of Albemarle, and afterwards by another noble­man, inferior indeed in abilities, but not inferior in virtues. In 1670,ATTACK ON THE DUKE OF OR­MOND BY BLOOD. James duke of Ormond, in his way to Clarendon-house, where his grace at that time lived, was dragged out of his coach by the infamous Blood, and his associates, who intended to hang his grace at Tyburn, in revenge for justice done, under his administration in Ireland, on some of their companions. This refinement in revenge saved the duke's life: he had leisure to disengage himself from the villain on horseback, to whom he was tied; by which time he was discovered by his affrighted domestics, and rescued from death. Blood was soon after taken in the attempt to steal the [Page 125] crown. The court had use for so complete a villain, and sunk follow as to apply to his grace for pardon for the offence against him; the duke granted it with a generous indignation. Blood had a pension of five hundred a year, and was constantly seen in the presence-chamber: as is supposed, to shew to the great un­complying men of the time, what a ready instrument the ministry had to revenge any attempt that might be made against them in the cause of liberty.

I WOULD not make this little work a Tyburn chronicle;MURDER OF MR. THYNNE. yet I cannot omit the horrible assassination, in 1681, of Thomas Thynne, esq of Longleat, by the instigation of count Koningsmark, in re­venge for his having married lady Elizabeth Ogle, the rich heiress, on whom the count had a design. The three assassins were exe­cuted in Pall-mall on the bloody spot: but the court, in love with profligacy, contrived to save the principal *. The gallant William earl of Devonshire would have avenged the death of his friend: the count accepted the challenge; but his conscience pre­vented him from meeting the earl. He afterwards met with a fate suited to his actions: he attempted an intrigue, in 1686, in Germany, with a lady of distinguished rank: he was one night waylayed, by order of the jealous husband; was literally cut to pieces, and his remains flung into a privy, which was instantly bricked up.

JERMYN,JERMYN-HOUSE. and St. Alban's streets took their names from the gal­lant Henry Jermyn earl of St. Alban's, who had a house at the head of the last. He was supposed to have been privately mar­ried to the queen dowager, Henrietta Maria. By this time mis­fortunes had subdued that spirit which had contributed to preci­pitate [Page 126] her first husband into the ruin of his house. She was awed by her subject-spouse*: her fear of him was long observed before the nearness of the connection was discovered.

ST. JAMES'S CHURCH.ON the ground of this gay peer, was built the present church of St. James, founded in the latter part of the reign of Charles II. and consecrated in the first of James II. and named in honor of both saint and monarch. London was so vastly increased about this period, that a new church in this place was necessary. Ac­cordingly, as much was taken from the parish of St. Martin in the Fields, as to form another. It is a rectory, to which, at first, the bishop of London had a right of two turns in the presentation. Lord Jermyn, nephew to the earl, had the third: but the last was fully resigned to the bishop.FINE FONT BY GIBBONS. The most remarkable thing in the church is the fine font of white marble, the work of Grinlin Gib­bons. It is supported by the tree of life; the serpent is offering the fruit to our first parents, who stand beneath: on one side of the font is engraven the Baptist baptizing our Saviour: on ano­ther, St. Philip baptizing the eunuch: and on the third, Noah's ark, with the dove bringing the olive-branch, the type of peace to mankind .

THE chancel, above the altar, is enriched with some beautiful foliage in wood, by the same great artist.

THE STRAND; ITS ANTIENT STATE.THE further progress of this part of the town I shall defer mentioning till I have reached the most eastern part of Westmin­ster. I shall resume my account at the opening of the Strand into Charing-Cross, by observing, that in the year 1353, that fine [Page 127] street the Strand was an open highway, with here and there a great man's house, with gardens to the water-side. In that year it was so ruinous, that Edward III. by an ordinance directed a tax to be raised upon wool, leather, wine, and all goods carried to the staple at Westminster, from Temple-bar to Westminster-abbey, for the repair of the road; and that all owners of houses adjacent to the highway should repair as much as lay before their doors. Mention is also made of a bridge to be erected near the royal pa­lace at Westminster, for the conveniency of the said staple *: but the last probably meant no more than a stairs for the landing of the goods, which I find sometimes went by the name of a bridge.

THERE are several instances of grants for building, in this ex­tensive road, in very early times. Edward I. granted to Walter le Barbur, a void space in the high-street, in the parish of St. Clement Danes and St. Mary Strand: and Robert le Spencer had from the same prince another grant.

THERE was no continued street here till about the year 1533:THE STREET COMPLETED IN 1533. before that, it entirely cut off Westminster from London, and no­thing intervened except the scattered houses, and a village which afterwards gave name to the whole. St. Martin's stood literally in the fields. But about the year 1560 a street was formed, loosely built; for all the houses on the south side had great gardens to the river, were called by their owners names, and in after-times gave name to the several streets that succeeded them, pointing down to the Thames; each of them had stairs for the conveniency of tak­ing boat, of which many to this day bear the names of the houses. As the court was for centuries, either at the palace at Westminster [Page 128] or Whitehall, a boat was the customary conveyance of the great to the presence of their sovereign. The north side was a mere line of houses from Charing-Cross to Temple-bar; all beyond was country. The gardens which occupied part of the site of Convent-garden were bounded by fields, and St. Giles's was a distant coun­try village. These are circumstances proper to point out, to shew the vast increase of our capital in little more than two centuries.

IN the same century was a second epoch respecting the build­ings of this part of the town. The first was at the time we have mentioned, or, to speak from strong authority, as they appear in the plan of London, made about the year 1562, by Ralph Aggas *. Our capital found itself so secure in the glorious government of Elizabeth, that, by the year 1600, most considerable additions were made to the north of the long line of street just described. St. Martin's-lane was built on both sides. St. Giles's church was still insulated: but Broad street, and Holborn, were completely formed into streets with houses, all the way to Snow-hill. Convent-garden, and Lincoln's-inn-fields, were built, but in an irregular manner. Drury-lane, Clare-street, and Long-acre, arose in the same period.

NORTHUMBER­LAND-HOUSE.THE present magnificent palace, Northumberland-house, stands on the site of the hospital of St. Mary Rounceval. Henry VIII. granted it to Sir Thomas Caverden. It was afterwards transferred to Henry Howard earl of Northampton; who, in the time of James I. built here a house, and called it after his own name. He left it to his kinsman the earl of Suffolk, lord treasurer; and, by the [Page 129] marriage of Algernoon Percy, earl of Northumberland, with Eliza­beth daughter of Theophilus earl of Suffolk, it passed into the house of the present noble owner. The greater part of the house was built by Bernard Jansen, an architect in the reign of James I; the portal, since altered by the late duke of Northumberland, by a cotemporary architect, Gerard Christmas, who left on it his mark, C. Ae *. I must not omit, that in this house is the noble picture of the Cornaro family, by Titian. It is very unfortunate that nothing can be more confined than the situation of this great house. The noble front is pent up by a very narrow part of the Strand; and behind by a cluster of mean houses, coal-wharfs, and other offensive objects, as far as the banks of the Thames. Fortunately, by the favor of government, it enjoys the power of giving the place the most magnificent improvement. The late duke received a lease from the crown of all the intervening ground as far as the river; and, within these very few years, an absolute exchange for certain lands in Northumberland, to erect batteries on against foreign invasion, at the period when the pro­ject of universal fortification prevaled. A little time may see every nusance removed, and a terrace arise in their stead, emulat­ing that of Somerset-house.

A LITTLE farther is Hungerford stairs and market;HUNGERFORD STAIRS. which take their name from the great family of the Hungerfords of Fairleigh, in Wiltshire. Sir Edward, created knight of the Bath at the coronation of Charles II. had a large house on the site, which he pulled down, and multiplied into several others.

ON the other side of the Strand, ST. MARTIN'S IN THE FIELDS. almost opposite to Hungerford-market, [Page 130] stands the church of St. Martin in the Fields, once a parish of vast extent; but much reduced at present by the robbing it of the tract now divided into the parishes of St. James, St. Anne, and St. Paul, Covent-garden. We cannot trace the time of its foundation. It was early bestowed on the abbot and convent of St. Peter, Westminster. In 1222, there was a dispute between the abbot and the city of London, about the jurisdiction of this church. And in 1363, we first find the name of a vicar, in room of Thomas Skyn, who had resigned. In the reign of Henry VIII. a small church was built here at the king's expence, by reason of the poverty of the parishioners, who possibly were at that period very few. In 1607 it was enlarged, because of the increase of build­ings. In 1721 it was found necessary to take the whole down, and in five years from that time, this magnificent temple was completed, at the expence of near thirty-seven thousand pounds. This seems the best performance of Gibbs, the architect of the Ratcliff Library. The steeple is far the most elegant of any of that style which I named the Pepper-box; and with which (I beg pardon of the good people of Glasgow) I marked their boasted steeple of St. Andrew.

YORK-HOUSE.HEATH, archbishop of York, about the year 1556, purchased a house a little beyond Hungerford-market, which had originally been the inn or lodgings of the bishops of Norwich. When Henry VIII. had dispossessed the primates of York of their house at Whitehall, the daughter, by way of reparation, made to them a grant of Suffolk-house, in Southwark; which he sold, and with the * [Page 131] money purchased Norwich-house, which afterwards was called York-house, when George Villiers duke of Buckingham became owner of it. On his disposal of it, several streets were laid out on the site and ground belonging to it. These go under the general appellation of York-buildings; but his name and title is preserved in George, YORK-BUILDINGS. Villiers, Duke, and Buckingham streets, and even the particle of is not forgotten, being preserved in Of-alley.

THE gate to York-stairs is the work of Inigo Jones, and deserv­ing of all the praises bestowed on it by the author of the Critical Review.

DURHAM-YARD takes its name from a palace,DURHAM-PLACE. built originally by the illustrious Thomas de Hatfield, elected bishop of Durham in 1345; designed by him for the town residence of him and his successors. It was called Durham-place, i. e. palace. Be it known to all whom it concerns, that the word is only applicable to the habitations of princes, or princely persons, and that it is with all the impropriety of vanity bestowed on the houses of those who have luckily acquired money enough to pile on one another a greater quantity of stones or bricks than their neighbors.GREAT FEAST­ING HERE IN 1540. At this place, in 1540, was held a most magnificent feast, given by the challengers of England, who had caused to be proclamed, in France, Flanders, Scotland, and Spain, a great and triumphant justing to be holden at Westminster, for all comers that would un­dertake them. But both challengers and defendants were English. After the gallant sports of each day, the challengers rode unto this Durham-house, where they kept open household, and feasted the king and queen (Anne of Cleves) with her ladies, and all the court. ‘In this time of their house-keeping, they had not only feasted the king, queen, ladies, and all the court, as is afore­shewed: [Page 132] but also they cheered al the knights and burgesses of the common house in the parliament; and entertained the maior of London, with the aldermen and their wives, at a din­ner, &c. The king gave to every of the sayd challengers, and their heires for ever, in reward of their valiant activity, 100 marks, and a house to dwel in of yeerely revenue, out of the lands pertaining to the hospital of S. John of Jerusalem *.’

IN this a [...] part of the following year, is most strongly exem­plified the unfeeling heart of this cruel prince, His sudden transitions from nuptials, and joyous festivities, to the most tyran­nical executions, often for offences of his own creation. In that small space of time, he married one queen, and put her away, be­cause he thought her a Flanders mare. He espoused another, and (not without cause) put her and the confident to her incontinence to death. He caused to be executed a hopeful young peer, and three young gentlemen, for a common manslaughter resulting from a sudden fray. He burnt numbers for denying the religion of Rome, and inflicted all the barbarous penalties of high treason on multitudes, for denying a prerogative which he had wrested from the pope, the head of that very worship which he supported with such rigour.

IN the reign of Edward VI. the mint was established in this house, under the management of Sir William Sharrington, and the influence of the aspiring Thomas Seymour, lord admiral. Here he proposed to have money enough coined to accomplish his designs on the throne. His practices were detected: and he suffered death. His tool was also condemned; but, sacrificing his master [Page 133] to his own safety, received a pardon, and was again employed un­der the administration of John Dudley earl of Northumberland. It afterwards became the residence of that ambitious man; who, in May 1553, in this palace, caused to be solemnized, with great magnificence, three marriages; his son, lord Guildford Dudley, with the amiable lady Jane Grey: lord Herbert, heir to the earl of Pembroke, with Catherine younger sister of lady Jane: and lord Hastings, heir to the earl of Huntingdon, with his youngest daugh­ter lady Catherine Dudley *. From hence he dragged the reluc­tant victim, his daughter-in-law, to the Tower, there to be in­vested with regal dignity. In eight short months his ambition led the sweet innocent to the nuptial bed, the throne, and the scaffold.

DURHAM-HOUSE was reckoned one of the royal palaces belong­ing to queen Elizabeth; who gave the use of it to the great Sir Walter Raleigh.

DURHAM-YARD is now filled with a most magnificent mass of building, called the Adelphi, ADELPHI. in honor of two brothers its archi­tects. Before the front to the Thames is a terrace, commanding a charming view to the river, when not obscured by the damps and poisonous fogs, which too often infest the air of the lower part of our capital.

To the north of Durham-place, fronting the street,THE NEW EXCHANGE. stood the New Exchange, which was built under the auspices of our mo­narch, in 1608. The king, queen, and royal family, honored the opening with their presence, and named it Britaines Bursse. It [Page 134] was built somewhat on the model of the Royal Exchange, with cellars beneath, a walk above, and rows of shops over that, filled chiefly with milleners, sempstresses, and the like. This was a fashionable place of resort. In 1654 a fatal affair happened here. Mr. Gerard, a young gentleman, at that time engaged in a plot against Cromwell, was amusing himself in the walk beneath, when he was insulted by Don Pantaleon de Saa, brother to the ambassa­dor of Portugal, who, disliking the return he met with, determined on revenge. He came there the next day with a set of bravos, who, mistaking another gentleman for Mr. Gerard, instantly put him to death, as he was walking with his sister in one hand, and his mistress in the other. Don Pantaleon was with impartial jus­tice tried and condemned to the axe. Mr. Gerard, who about the same time was detected in the conspiracy, was likewise condemned to die. By singular chance both the rivals suffered on the same scaffold, within a few hours of each other; Mr. Gerard with in­trepid dignity: the Portuguese with all the pusillanimity of an assassin*.

THE WHITE MILLENER.ABOVE stairs sat, in the character of a millener, the reduced dutchess of Tyrconnel, wife to Richard Talbot, lord deputy of Ire­land under James II; a bigotted papist, and fit instrument of the designs of the infatuated prince, who had created him earl before his abdication, and after that duke of Tyrconnel. A female, sus­pected to have been his dutchess, after his death, supported her­self for a few days (till she was known, and otherwise provided for) by the little trade of the place: had delicacy enough to wish [Page 135] not to be detected; she sat in a white mask, and a white dress, and was known by the name of the White Millener.

THIS exchange has long since given way to a row of good houses, which form a part of the street.

A LITTLE beyond was Ivy-bridge, which crossed the Strand, and had beneath it a way leading to the Thames. This was the boundary between the liberties of the dutchy of Lancaster and those of Westminster. Near this bridge the earls of Rutland had a house, at which several of the noble family breathed their last. The earls of Worcester had a very large house between Durham-place and the Savoy, with gardens to the water-side. The great earl of Clarendon lived in it, before his own was built, and payed for it the extravagant rent of five hundred pounds a year. This was pulled down by their descendant, the duke of Beaufort; and the present Beaufort-buildings rose on its site. This had origi­nally been the town-house of the bishops of Carlisle *. Opposite to these was the garden belonging to the abbot of Westminster; which extended quite to St. Martin's church: it was called the Convent Garden, and retains the name to this day. It was granted, after the dissolution, by Edward VI. first to the protector Somer­set: and afterwards to lord Russel, created earl of Bedford. About 1634, Francis earl of Bedford began to clear away the old build­ings, and formed the present handsome square. The arcade and the church were the work of Inigo Jones. Bedford-house, the former town-house of the noble family, stood in the Strand, but has long since given way to Little Bedford-street.

GREAT part of the palace called the Savoy is now standing,THE SAVOY. but [Page 136] is little better than a military prison. The palace of the potent Simon de Montford, earl of Leicester, stood on this place *. Henry III. had granted to Peter of Savoy, uncle to his queen Elianor, daughter of Berenger of Provence, all the houses upon the Thames where this building now stands, to hold to him and his heirs, yielding yearly at the exchequer three barbed arrows for all services. This prince founded the Savoy, and bestowed it on the fraternity of Montjoy. Queen Elianor purchased it, and be­stowed it on her son Edmund earl of Lancaster. It was rebuilt in a most magnificent manner by his son Henry. It was made the place of confinement of John king of France, in 1356, after he was taken prisoner at the battle of Poitiers. In 1381 it was en­tirely destroyed by Wat Tyler, out of spleen to the great owner John of Gaunt. Henry VII. began to rebuild it, with a design of forming it into an hospital for a hundred distressed people. He says in his will, he intended by this foundation ‘to doo and exe­cute vi out of the vii works of pitie and mercy, by meanes of kep­ing, susteynyng, and mayntenyng of commun hospitallis; where­in if thei be duly kept, the said nede pouer people bee lodged, viseted in their sicknesses, refresshed with mete and drinke, and if nede be with clothe, and also buried, yf thei fourtune to die within the same; for lack of theim, infinite nombre of pouer nede people miserably daillie die, no man putting hande of helpe or remedie.’ This building was in form of a cross: the walls of which are entire to this time. His son continued and completed the design. The revenues, at the suppression by Edward VI. amounted to above five hundred pounds a year. [Page]

Savoy Hospital. 106.

[Page 137] Queen Mary restored it: and her maids of honor, with exemplary piety, furnished it with all necessaries. It was again suppressed by queen Elizabeth: and at present part serves as lodgings for private people, for barracks, and a scandalous infectious prison for the soldiery, and for transports.

HERE is besides the church of St. Mary le Savoy. CHURCH OF ST. MARY LE SAVOY. It was ori­ginally the chapel to the hospital; but was made parochial on the impious destruction of St. Mary le Strand by the duke of Somer­set. The roof is remarkably fine, flat, and covered with elegant small compartments cut in wood; and shields, containing em­blems of the passion, surround each, with a neat garland.

AMONG the monuments, in the chancel, that in memory of the wife of Sir Robert Douglas merits notice. The lady, who died in 1612, is but a secondary figure, and placed kneeling be­hind her husband, dressed in a vast distended hood. Before her is her husband, in an easy attitude, reclined, and resting on his right arm; the other hand on his sword. He is represented in armour, with a robe over it; on his head a fillet, with a bead round the edge: a motto on his arms, Toujour sans taches *. The sculptor has much merit in this figure.

IN a pretty gothic niche, on the opposite side (occupied proba­bly in old times by the image of our lady) is now the figure of a kneeling female, with a countess's coronet on her head. This commemorates Jocosa, daughter of Sir Alan Apsley, lieutenant of the Tower: first, wife to Lyster Blunt, esq and afterwards, of William Ramsay, earl of Dalhousie.

ANOTHER fine monument of a recumbent lady, in a great ruff [Page 138] and long gown, with her arms cut on it, attracts our notice; but unfortunately the inscription is lost.

BURLEIGH, O [...] EXETER HOUSE.BURLEIGH-HOUSE was said to have been a noble pile, built by that great statesman the lord treasurer Burleigh, who died here in 1598. It was built with brick, and adorned with four square turrets. It was afterwards called Exeter-house, from the title of his son and successor. On its site was erected Exeter-exchange. It had been a very handsome pile, with an arcade in front, a gal­lery above, and shops in both. The plan did not succeed; for the New Exchange had the preference, and stole away both tenants and customers. A part of the old house is still to be seen. All originated in sacrilege. On the site stood a house belonging to die parson of St. Martin's: Sir Thomas Palmer, a creature of the duke of Somerset, obtained it by composition, in the time of Ed­ward VI. and began to build there a magnificent house of brick and timber *. This afterwards came into the hands of lord Burleigh, who finished it in the magnificent manner we have mentioned.

WIMBLEDON-HOUSE.A LITTLE farther (where Doyley's warehouse now stands) was Wimbledon-house, built by Sir Edward Cecil, son to the first earl of Exeter, and created by Charles I. viscount Wimbledon.

NOT far from hence stood the Strand Bridge, which crossed the street, and received the water which ran from the high grounds, through the present Catherine street, and delivered it into the Thames.

OTHER ANTIENT BUILDINGS.ON the south side of the Strand stood a number of buildings, which fell victims to sacrilege, in the reign of Edward VI. St. [Page 139] Mary le Strand, was a very antient church and parish, a rectory, in the gift of the bishops of Worcester, who had near it their inn, or town residence. The bishops of Litchfield and Coventry had another, built by Walter de Langton, elected bishop of that see in 1296. It was also called Chester Inn, CHESTER INN. as that bishoprick was at the time annexed to the former. The bishops of Landaff had also another house or inn. Finally, the Strand Inn, an inn of Chancery, belonging to the Temple *. I must stop a moment to say, that Occleve, the poet of the reign of Henry V. studied the law here: the place of his education is called Chestres Inn ; but, as that was never appropriated to the study of the law, I little doubt but it is a mistake for this adjacent house. Every one of these were levelled to the ground by the protector Somerset, to make way for the magnificent palace which bears his name.SOMERSET-HOUSE. The architect is supposed to have been one John of Padua, who had a salary in the preceding reign, under the title of devizor of his majesty's buildings , which was continued to him in the reign of the son. No atonement was made, no compensation to the owners. Part of the church of St. John of Jerusalem, and the tower, were blown up for the sake of the materials. The cloisters on the north side of St. Paul's underwent the same fate, together with the charnel-house and chapel: the tombs were destroyed, and the bones impiously carried away and flung into Finsbury Fields. This was done in 1549, when the building was first be­gan: possibly the founder never enjoyed the use of this palace; [Page 140] for in 1552 he fell a just victim on the scaffold. The crime of sacrilege is never mentioned among the numerous articles brought against him. This is no wonder, since every great man in those days, protestant and papist, shewed equal rapacity after the goods of the church.

AFTER his death his palace fell to the crown. Queen Eliza­beth lived here at certain times, most probably at the expence of her kinsman lord Hunsdon, to whom she had given the use. Anne of Denmark kept her court here: and Catherine queen of Charles II. lived here for some time in the life of her unfaithful spouse; and after his death, till she retired into her native country.

ANTIENT B [...]ING.THE architecture of old Somerset-house was the mixture of Gre­cian and Gothic, introduced into England in the reign preceding its erection. The back-front, and the water-gate, were built from a design of Inigo Jones, after the year 1623. A chapel was be­gun by him in that year, and afterwards finished. It was intended for the use of his catholic spouse the Infanta of Spain; but, on the failure of that romantic match, it served for the uses of the profes­sors of her religion.

AS Charles II. did not find it compatible with his gallantries that his spouse Catherine should be resident at Whitehall, he lodged her, during some part of his reign, in this palace. This made it the haunt of the Catholics: and possibly, during the phrenetic rage of the nation at that period against the professors of her religion, occasioned it to have been made the pretended scene of the murder of Sir Edmonbury Godfrey, MURDER OF SIR EDMONBURY GODFREY. in the year 1678. The infamous witnesses against his supposed murderers declared, that he was waylaid, and inveigled into the palace, under pre­tence [Page 141] of keeping the peace between two servants who were fight­ing in the yard: that he was there strangled, his neck broke, and his own sword run through his body: that he was kept four days before they ventured to remove him; at length, his corpse was first carried in a sedan-chair to S [...]ho, and then on a horse to Primrose-hill, between Kilburn and Hampstead. There it certainly was found, transfixed with the sword, and his money in his pocket, and his rings on his fingers. The murder therefore was not by robbers, but the effect of private revenge: but it is not probable that it was committed within these walls; for the assassins would never have hazarded a discovery by carrying the corpse three miles, when they could have so safely disposed of it into the Thames. The abandoned characters of the evidences, Prance and Bedloe (the former of whom had been treated with most horrid cruelties, to compel him to confess what he declared he never was guilty of) together with the absurd and irreconcileable testi­mony they gave on the trial, has made unprejudiced times to doubt the whole. That he was murdered there is no doubt: he had been an active magistrate, and had made many enemies. The marks of strangling round his throat, and his broken neck, evince the impossibility of his having put an end to his own ex­istence, as some have insinuated. But the innocence of the three poor convicts would not avail, the torrent of prejudice prevaling against them; and they were executed, denying the facts in the moment of death. One was a Protestant: the other two Roman Catholics, and belonging to the chapel; so probably were fixed on, by the instigators of the accusation, in order to involve the queen in the uncharitable suspicion.

[Page 142]THIS tragedy became at the time the subject of many me­dals *. On one is the bust of Sir Edmondbury, and two hands strangling him: on the reverse, the pope giving his benediction to a man strangling another on the ground. On a second, with the same bust, is the representation of the carrying the magistrate on horseback to Primrose-hill. A third, makes him walking with his broken neck, and sword buried in his body: and on the re­verse, St. Dennis with his head in his hand, with this inscription:

GODFREY walks up hill after he was dead,
DENIS walks down hill carrying his head.

THE present magnificent building is after a design by Sir Wil­liam Chambers: when completed, it is to be the station of numbers of our public offices. The Navy Office, and indeed almost every one, excepting the Treasury, the Secretary of State's, the Admi­ralty, and the War Office.

THE Royal Society, and the Society of Antiquarians, hold their meetings here: and here also are annually exhibited the works of the British painters and sculptors.

THE terrace on the south side is a walk bounded by the Thames, and unparalleled for grandeur and beauty of view.

BATH'S INN.TO the east of Somerset-house, stood Bath's Inn, inhabited by the bishops of Bath and Wells, in their visits to the capital. It was wrested from them, in the reign of Edward VI. by lord Thomas Seymour, high admiral, and received the name of Seymour-place. This was one of the scenes of his indecent dalliance with the princess Elizabeth, afterwards queen. At first he certainly [Page 143] was not ill received, notwithstanding he had just espoused the unhappy Catherine Parre. Ambition, not lust, actuated this wretched man: his designs on Elizabeth, and consequently on the crown, spurred him on. The instrument of his design was Thomas Parrye, cofferer to the princess, to whom he offered, for her grace's accommodation, his house and all the furniture, during her stay in London *. The queen's death, and her own suspicions on her death-bed, give just cause of the foulest sur­mises . His execution, which soon followed, put an end to his projects, and saved Elizabeth, and the nation, from a tyrant, pos­sibly worse than him from whom they had been just released.

THIS house in after-times passed to Thomas Howard earl of Arundel, and was called Arundel palace. The Duc de Sully, ARUNDEL PALACE. who was lodged in it during his embassy to England, on the accession of James I. says, it was one of the finest and most commodious of any in London, from its great number of apartments on the same floor: the views from the extensive gardens, up and down the river, were remarkably fine. Here was kept the magnificent collection of statues formed by the earl. Howsoever faulty the noble historian may have represented him in some respects, his judgment in the fine arts will remain indisputable. His relation, the duke of Norfolk, had a house at a very small distance from this. Both were pulled down in the last century, but their names are retained in the streets which rose on their sites.

AFTER it came into the possession of the duke of Norfolk (the [Page 144] same who presented his library to the Royal Society) he permit­ted that learned body to hold their meetings in Arundel-house; but on its being ordered to be pulled down, the meetings were re­moved to Gres [...]am college *.

AN OLD CROSS.OPPOSITE to Chester Inn, stood an antient cross. According to the simplicity of the age, in the year 1294, and at other times, the judges sat without the city, on this cross, to administer justice; and sometimes they made use of the bishop's house for that purpose.

MAY-POLE.IN the beginning of the present century, somewhat east of the site of the cross was the rural appearance of a May-pole. In 1717, it fell to decay, and the remainder was begged by Sir Isaac New­ton, who caused it to be carried to Wansted, in Essex, where it was erected in the park, and had the honor of raising the greatest tele­scope then known. On its place rose the first of the fifty new churches, which is known by the name of the New Church in the Strand. The first stone was laid in 1714. The architect was Gills; who loaded it with ornaments to such a degree as to gain very little credit to his own taste, or that of his employers.

DRURY-HOUSE.IN Drury-lane, which points towards the church, stood Drury-house, the habitation of the great family of the Druries, and, I be­lieve, built by Sir William Drury, knight of the Garter, a most able commander in the Irish wars; who unfortunately fell in a duel with Sir John Boroughs, in a foolish quarrel about prece­dency . I cannot learn into whose hands it passed afterwards. During the time of the fatal discontents of the favorite Essex, it [Page 145] was the place where his imprudent advisers resolved on such counsels, as terminated in the destruction of him and his adhe­rents.

IN the next century we find the heroic William lord Craven, AFTERWARDS CRAVEN-HOUSE. afterwards earl Craven, possessed of this house: he rebuilt it in the form we now see, a large brick pile now concealed by other build­ings. It is at present a public-house. In searching after Craven-house, I instantly knew it by the sign, that of the queen of Bohe­mia's head, his admired mistress, whose battles he first fought, animated by love and duty. When he could aspire at her hand, it is supposed he succceded: it is said they were privately mar­ried; and that he built for her the fine seat at Hampstead Mar­shal, in the county of Berks, which was destroyed by fire. I have before given an account of this illustrious nobleman *. I may repeat the service he rendered to this his native city in particular. He was so indefatigable in preventing the ravages of the frequent fires of those days, that it was said, that his very horse smelt it out. He, and the duke of Albemarle (the noted Monk) heroi­cally stayed in town during the dreadful pestilence; and, at the hazard of their lives, preserved order in the midst of the terrors of the time.

IN the court in Craven-buildings is a very good portrait of this hero, in armour, with a truncheon in his hand, and mounted on his white horse: on each side is an earl's and a baron's coronet, and the letters W. C. It is painted al fresco, and in good preser­vation.

THE theatre royal, in this street, originated on the Restoration. [Page 146] The king made a grant of a patent for acting in what was then called the Cock-pit, and the Phoenix. The actors were the king's servants, were on the establishment, and ten of them were called Gentlemen of the Great Chamber, and had ten yards of scarlet cloth allowed them, with a suitable quantity of lace *.

IT is singular that this lane, of later times so notorious for in­trigue, should receive its title from a family-name, which, in the language of Chaucer, had an amorous signification:

Of bataille and of chevalrie,
Of ladies love and Druerie,
Anon I wol you tell.

IN this neighborhood, towards the Temple, are several little seminaries of law, or inns of Chancery, belonging to the Inner and Middle Temple: such as Lions-inn, in use as long at lest as the reign of Henry V; the New-inn, where the students of the Strand-inn nestled, after they were routed from thence by the duke of Somerset; and Clements-inn, mentioned in the time of Edward IV. I must not omit, that in New-inn the great Sir Thomas More had the early part of his education, before he re­moved to Lincoln's-inn .

CHURCH OF ST. CLEMENT DANES.BETWEEN Clements-inn and the Strand, is the church of St. Clement Danes, called so either from being the place of inter­ment of Harold the Barefooted, or of the massacre of certain Danes who had taken refuge there: it was one of the churches built on this tract before the Conquest. At the time of the insurrection of the unhappy earl of Essex, a piece of artillery was placed on the [Page 147] top of the tower, which commanded Essex-house. The present was rebuilt in 1640 *. Here, beneath a tomb with his figure expressed in brass, was buried John Arundel, bishop of Exeter, who died in 1503, at Exeter-house, the town residence of the bishops of Exeter. EXETER-HOUSE. It was founded by Walter Stapleton, bishop of that see, and lord treasurer of England, unfortunately a favorite with Edward II. in those factious days: he was seized by the mob, hurried to Cheap-side, where they beheaded him, and carried his corpse before his own palace, and there buried it beneath a heap of sand. The house was said to have been very magnificent. Lacy, bishop of Exeter in the reign of Henry VI. added a great hall. The first lord Paget, a good catholic, made no scruple of laying violent hands on it, in the grand period of plunder. He improved it greatly, and called it after his own name.PAGET-HOUSE. At this house it was alleged that the great duke of Somerset designed the assassination of several of the council. This involved the noble owner in his ruin. In the reign of queen Elizabeth, it was possessed by the great earl of Leicester, and changed its name to Leicester-house. LEICESTER-HOUSE. The earl left it by will to his son-in-law Robert earl of Essex, the unfortunate imprudent favorite of Elizabeth, and it was called after his name. This was the scene of his frantic actions;ESSEX-HOUSE. from hence he sallied on the vain hope of exciting the city to arm in his behalf against its sovereign; to this place he forced his way back, and after a short siege submitted, and soon afterwards re­ceived his due punishment, reluctantly inflicted by his mistress, hesitating between fear and unseasonable love. The memory of [Page 148] these transactions is still retained in the name of Essex-street, and Essex-stairs, and Devereux-court. In the last, on the outside of a house, is placed a bust of the parlement general, son of the un­fortunate favorite.

TEMPLE-BAR.THE Strand was divided, in 1670, from Fleet-street, by the gate called Temple-bar; before the great fire, by nothing but posts, rails, and chains. On this gate have been the sad exhibition of the heads of such unhappy men who attempt the subversion of the government of their country. The last (and may they be the last!) were of those who fell victims, in 1746, to principles fortu­nately extinct with the family from which they originated. This gate is the western limit of Farringdon Ward Without, or the western extremity of the city of London. On the right hand are the entrances into the Temple, THE TEMPLE. one of our celebrated seats of law, which took its name from that gallant religious military order the knights templars. They were originally crusaders, who hap­pening to be quartered in places adjacent to the holy temple in Jerusalem, in 1118, consecrated themselves to the service of reli­gion, by deeds of * arms. Hugo de Paganis, Geoffry of St. Omers, and seven others, began the order, by binding themselves, after the manner of the regular canons of St. Augustines, to chastity and obedience, and professing to protect the pilgrims to the Holy Land from all wrong and robbery on the road. At first they subsisted on alms, and had only one horse between two of them; a rule was appointed for them, and they wore a white habit, af­terwards distinguished by a red cross on their left shoulder. By [Page 149] their devotion, and the fame of their gallant actions, they became very popular in all parts of Europe; and so enriched by the favor of princes, and other great men, that, at the time of their dissolu­tion, the order was found possessed of sixteen thousand manors. It became at last so infected with pride, and luxury,FALL OF THE KNIGHTS TEMPLARS. as to excite general hatred; a persecution, founded on most unjust and ficti­tious accusations, was formed against them in France, under Philip le Bel. Their riches seem to have been their chief crime: num­bers of innocent and heroic knights suffered in the flames, with the piety and constancy of martyrs; some of them, at the stake, sum­moned their chief enemies, Clement V. and Philip, to appear in a certain time at the divine tribunal; both of those princes died about the time prescribed, which, in an age of superstition, proved the validity. This potent order came into England in the reign of king Stephen, and had their first house in Holborn, which was called the Old Temple. They founded the New Temple in 1185, where they continued till the suppression of the order in 1310, when they were condemned to perpetual penance, and dispersed into several monasteries. Edward II. granted this house, and all their other possessions in London, to Thomas earl of Lancaster, and, after his rebellion and forfeiture, to Aymer de Valence, earl of Pem­broke; on his death, they reverted to the crown, and were given to the knights hospitallers of the order of St. John of Jerusalem, a few years after they had so valiantly driven the Turks out of the isle of Rhodes. These knights again granted the Temple to the students of the common law, in the reign of Edward III. to whose use it has been ever since applied.

THE church was founded by the templars in the reign of Henry II. upon the model of that of the holy sepulchre,ITS ROUND CHURCH. and was [Page 150] consecrated in 1185, by Heraclius, patriarch of Jerusalem. The entrance is through a door with a Saxon arch. Within, the form is circular, supported by six round arches, each resting on four round pillars, bound together by a fascia. Above each arch is a window with a rounded top, with a gallery, and rich Saxon arches intersecting each other. On the outside of the pillars is a considerable space, preserving the circular form. On the lower part of the wall are small pilasters meeting in pointed arches at top, and over each pillar a grotesque head.

JOINED to this building, is a large choir of a square form, with narrow gothic windows, evidently built at another time. On the outside is a buttress between every window.

MONUMENTS.ON the floor of the round church are two groups of knights. In the first are four, each of them cross-legged, three of them in complete mail, in plain helmets flatted at top, and with very long shields. One is known to have been Geoffry de Magnaville, created earl of Essex in 1148. His end was singular; for, driven to despair by the injustice of his monarch king Stephen, he gave loose to every act of violence. He was mortally wounded at an attack of Burwel castle, in Cambridgeshire; and, being found by some templars, was dressed by them in the habit of the order and carried from the spot: as he died excommunicated, they wrapped his body in lead, and hung it on a crooked tree in the Temple orchard. On being absolved by the pope (it being proved that he expressed great penitence in his last moments) he was taken down, and buried first in the cemetery, and afterwards in the place where we find this memorial of him *.

[Page 151]ONE of these figures is singular, being bare-headed, and bald, his legs armed, his hands mailed, his mantle long, round his neck a cowl, as if, according to a common superstition in early days, he had desired to be buried in the dress of a monk, least the evil spirit should take possession of his body. On his shield are three fleurs de lis.

IN this group is a stone coffin of a ridged shape, conjectured to have been the tomb of William Plantagenet, fifth son of Henry III.

IN the second group are other figures, but none of them cross-legged, except the outmost: all are armed in mail. The helmets much resemble the former, but two are mailed. One figure is in a spirited attitude, drawing a broad dagger; one leg rests on the tail of a cockatrice, the other in the action of being drawn up, with the head of the monster beneath. None of the eight figures, except Geoffry de Magnaville, are ascertained; but Cambden con­jectures that three are intended to commemorate William earl of Pembroke, who died in 1219, and his sons William and Gilbert, likewise earls of Pembroke, and Marshals of England *. In the first group, one of them bears a lion on his shield, the arms of that great family. Gilbert was brought up to the church, and, notwithstanding he was totally unskilled in exercises of chivalry, would enter into the gallant lists; but mounting a fiery courser, was run away with, flung off, and killed, at a tournament at Ware, in 1242.

THE being represented cross-legged is not always a proof of the deceased having had the merit either of having been a cru [...]sa­der, [Page 152] or having made a pilgrimage to the holy sepulchre. I have seen, at Mitton in Yorkshire, two figures of the Sherbornes, thus represented; one died in 1629, the other in 1689: who, I ve­rily believe, could never have had any more than a wish to enter the holy land.

TO these antient monuments may be added that of a bishop, in his episcopal dress, a mitre, and a crosier, well executed in stone.

OF illustrious persons of later date, is the famous Plowden, a Shropshire man, treasurer of this society in 1572, and a lawyer of most distinguished abilities. Cambden says of him, that in inte­grity he was second to none of his profession. His figure is re­presented recumbent, and in his gown.

HERE is interred the celebrated Selden, who died in 1654. He was the best skilled in the constitution, and the various branches of antiquity, of any man. Yet, towards the close of his life, he was so thoroughly convinced of the vanity of all human knowlege, as to say, that the 11th, 12th, 13th, and 14th verses of the second chapter of the epistle to Titus, afforded him more solid consola­tion than all that he had ever read.

SIR John Vaughan, born at Trawscoed, in Cardiganshire, lies near his friend Mr. Selden: both their principles were anti-monar­chical. After the Restoration, he declined preferment offered by the chancellor Clarendon, but afterwards accepted the office of chief justice of the common pleas, from the enemies of that illus­trious character. He died in 1674.

HALL.THE magnificent hall was rebuilt in the treasurership of Plow­den. It is ornamented with paintings by Sir James Thornhill: and by two full-length portraits of those pillars of the law, [Page 153] Lyttleton, who died in 1481; and his commentator, the able but insolent Coke, who departed in 1634.

THE account of the great feast given in this hall, by the ser­jeants, in 1555, is extremely worth consulting *; and also of the hospitable Christmassings of old times. Dudley earl of Leicester once enjoyed them, and, with the romance of his mistress, styled himself Palaphilos, prince of Sophie. He was entertained here by a person representing a sovereign prince. Palaphilos, on seeing him, calls Largess, and receives instantly a chain of the value of a hundred talents. I must refer to the Origines Judiciales for the relation of the ceremony of the reign of the Lord of Misrule, and of his courtiers, Sir Francis Flatterer, Sir Randle Rackabite, and Sir Bartholomew Baldbreech; with the humour of hunting the fox and the cat round the hall, with ten couples of hounds, and all the other merry disports of those joyous days.

IN the parlement chamber are painted all the arms of the trea­surers, since the first who possessed the office. It is also adorned with some of Gibbon's carving.

THE Middle Temple gate was erected by Sir Amias Powlet, on a singular occasion. It seems that Sir Amias, about the year 1501, thought fit to put cardinal Wolsey, then parson of Lymington, into the stocks . In 1515, being sent for to London, by the cardinal, on account of that antient grudge, he was commanded not to quit town till farther orders. In consequence, he lodged five or six years in this gateway, which he rebuilt; and, to pacify his emi­nence, [Page 154] adorned the front with the cardinal's cap, badges, cogni­sance, and other devices, of this butcher's son: so low were the great men obliged to stoop to that meteor of the times *!

THE TEMPLE GARDEN.THE garden has of late been most judiciously enlarged, by a considerable embankment into the river; and part of the filthy muddy shore is converted into a most beautiful walk. The view up and down the water is most extremely rich. Blackfriars-bridge, part of Westminster-bridge, the Adelphi, and the elegant back-front of Somerset-house, rival the world in variety and magnificence of objects. If elegance alone was to be consulted, it is heartily to be wished that these embankments may make a farther progress; the defect of which, alone, gives to the Seine, at Paris, a boasted superiority. Without the prejudices of an Englishman, I will ven­ture to dare a comparison of the bridges; but the most partial foreigner will never hazard the comparison of the rivers.

SHAKESPEARE (whether from tradition, or history, I know not) makes the Temple garden the place in which the badge of the white and red rose originated, the distinctive badge of the houses of York and Lancaster, under which the respective partizans of each arranged themselves, in the fatal quarrel which caused such torrents of English blood to flow.

The brawl to-day
Grown to this faction in the Temple Garden,
Shall send, between the red rose and the white
A thousand souls to death and deadly night .

THE DEVIL TAVERN.NEAR Temple-bar is the Devil Tavern, so called from its sign of St. Dunstan seizing the evil spirit by the nose with a pair of [Page 155] hot tongs. Ben Jonson has immortalised it by his Leges Convi­viales, which he wrote for the regulation of a club of wits, held here in a room he dedicated to Apollo; over the chimney-piece of which they are preserved. The tavern was in his days kept by Simon Wadloe; whom, in a copy of verses over the door of the Apollo, he dignified with the title of King of Skinkers.

OPPOSITE to this noted house is Chancery-lane, CHANCERY-LANE. the most antient of any to the west. It was built in the time of Henry III. and then called New-lane; which was afterwards changed into its pre­sent name, on account of its vicinity to the courts.

SERJEANTS-INN is the first which opens into the lane:SERJEANTS-INN. it takes its name from having been in old times the residence or lodgings of the serjeants at law, as early at lest as the time of Henry VI. It was at that time, and possibly may be yet, held under a lease from the dean and chapter of York. In 1442 William Antrobus, citizen and taylor of London, held it at the rent of x marks a year, under the law Latin description of Unum messuagium cum gar­dino in parochia S. Dunstani, in Fleet-street, in suburbio civitatis LONDINI, quod nuper fuit Johannis Rote, & in quo Joh. Ellerkar, et alii servientes ad legem nuper inhabiterunt *.

CLIFFORDS-INN is the next, so named from its having been the town residence of Robert de Clifford, CLIFFORDS-INN. ancestor to the earls of Cumberland. It was granted to him by Edward II; and his widow granted it to the students of the law, in the next reign, for the yearly rent of ten pounds .

FARTHER up is the Rolls. THE ROLLS. The house was founded by Henry III. for converted Jews, who there lived under a learned Christian, [Page 156] appointed to instruct and govern them. In 1279, Edward I. caused about two hundred and eighty Jews, of both sexes, to be hanged for clipping. He bestowed one half of their effects on the first preachers, who undertook the trouble of converting the unbelieving race; and the other half for the support of the con­verts: the house was called Domus Conversorum. In 1377, it was first applied to its present use: and the master was called Custos Rotulorum: the first was William Burstal, clerk. The masters were selected out of the church, and often king's chaplains, till the year 1534, when Thomas Cromwel, afterwards earl of Essex, was appointed. It is an office of high rank, and follows that of chief justice of the king's bench. The master has his chaplain, and his preacher.

CHAPEL.THE chapel is adjacent to the house, and was built by Inigo Jones; begun in 1617, and finished at the expence of two thou­sand pounds. It was consecrated by George Mounteigne, bishop of London, and the sermon preached by the famous Doctor Donne. Among the monuments is one of the masters, Sir Edward Bruce, created by James I. after his accession, baron of Kinloss. He is represented lying reclined, with his head resting on one hand. His hair is short; his beard long, and divided towards the end; his dress a long furred robe. Before him is kneeling a man in armour, possibly his son lord Kinloss, who perished in the desperate duel between him and Sir Edward Sackville, in 1613; and ances­tor to the earls of Elgin and Aylesbury. The sad relation is given by Sir Edward himself. He seems solely actuated by honor. His rival by the deepest * revenge.

[Page 157]HE was one of the ambassadors sent by James to congratulate queen Elizabeth on the defeat of Essex's insurrection. He then commenced a secret correspondence with the subtle Cecil; and, when James came to the throne, was, besides the peerage, re­warded with the place of master of the rolls for life. He died January 14th 1610.

THE monument of John Yonge, D. L. L. is the work of Tor­regiano *. His figure is recumbent on a sarcophagus, in a long red gown, and deep square cap; his face finely executed, possibly from a cast after his death; his chin beardless. Above him is the head of our Saviour, and two cherubims: resistless supersti­tions of the artist. This gentleman was appointed master of the rolls in 1510, and died in 1517.

THERE is another handsome monument, of Sir Richard Alling­ton, knight (son of Sir Giles Allington, of Horseheath, in Cam­bridgeshire, knight, ancestor, by his first wife, of the lords Alling­ton) who lies here, by the accident of his marriage with Jane daughter of John Cordall, esq of Long-Melford, in Suffolk, and sister and coheir of Sir William Cordall, of the same place, knight, and master of the rolls. Sir Richard, I presume, died here: the date of his death is 1561. His figure is represented kneeling, in armour, with a short beard and hair. His wife is opposite; and beneath, on a tablet, are three female figures, also kneeling: these were his daughters. After his death his widow lived in Holborn, at a house she built, which long went by the name of Allington-place. She appears, by some of the parochial records of this town, to have been a lady of great charity.

[Page 158]MY countryman Sir John Trevor, who died master of the rolls, in 1717, lies here. Wisely his epitaph is thus confined, ‘Sir J. T. M. R. 1717.’ I will not repeat the evil, which regard to vera­city obliged me to say of him in another place *. Some other masters rest within these walls; among them, Sir John Strange, but without the quibbling line, ‘Here lies an honest Lawyer, that is Strange!

CHICHESTER RENTS.ADJACENT to Chancery-lane, the bishops of Chichester had their town house. It was built in a garden, once belonging to John Herberton, and was granted to them by Henry III. who excepted it out of the charter of the Domus Conversorum . At present the site is covered with houses, known by the name of Chichester Rents.

LINCOLN'S-INN.THE gate to Lincoln's-Inn is of brick, but no small ornament to the street. It was built by Sir Thomas Lovel, once a member of this inn, and afterwards treasurer of the houshold to Henry VII. The other parts were rebuilt at different times, but much about the same period. None of the original building is left, for it was formed out of the house of the Black Friars, which fronted Hol­born; and of the palace of Ralph Nevil, chancellor of England, and bishop of Chichester, built by him in the reign of Henry III. on a piece of ground granted to him by the king. It continued to be inhabited by some of his successors in the see. This was the original site of the Dominicans, or Black Friars, before they removed to the spot now known by that name. On part of the ground now covered with buildings, Henry Lacy, earl of Lin­coln, [Page 159] built an Inne, as it was in those days called, for himself, in which he died in 1312. The ground did belong to the Black Friars, and was granted by Edward I. to that great earl. The whole has retained his name. One of the bishops of Chichester, in after times, did grant leases of the buildings to certain students of the law, reserving to themselves a rent and lodgings for them­selves, whenever they came to town. This seems to have taken place about the time of Henry VII.

THE chapel was designed by Inigo Jones; CHAPEL. it is built upon massy pillars, and affords, under its shelter, an excellent walk. This work evinces that Inigo never was designed for a gothic architect. The lord chancellor holds his sittings in the great hall. This, like that of the Temple, had its revels, and great Christmasses. ANTIENT REVELS. Instead of the Lord of Misrule, it had its King of the Cocknies. They had also a Jack Straw; but in the time of queen Elizabeth he, and all his adherents, were utterly banished. I must not omit, that in the same reign sumptuary laws were made to regulate the dress of the members of the house; who were forbidden to wear long hair, or great ruffs, cloaks, boots, or spurs.REGULATIONS ABOUT BEARDS. In the reign of Henry VIII. beards were prohibited at the great table, under pain of paying double commons. His daughter Elizabeth, in the first year of her reign, confined them to a fortnight's growth, under penalty of 3s. 4d.; but the fashion prevaled so strongly, that the prohibition was repealed, and no manner of size limited to that venerable excrescence!

LINCOLN'S-INN-FIELDS would have been one of our most beautiful squares, had it been built on a regular plan.LINCOLN'S-INN-FIELDS. The disposition of it was, in 1618, committed to the care of the lord chancellor, the earls of Worcester, Pembroke, Arundel, and [Page 160] others. Inigo Jones drew the ground-plot, and gave it the exact dimensions of the base of one of the pyramids of Egypt. In the side called Portugal Row, is Lindesey-house, once the seat of the earls of Lindesey, and of their descendants the dukes of Ancaster; built after a beautiful design of that great architect. The view of this side of the square, and of Lincoln's-Inn gardens, is most particularly pleasing, when shone on by the western sun. Here also was, in the time of king William, a playhouse, erected within the walls of the tennis-court, under the royal patronage. In this theatre Betterton, and his troop of actors, excited the admiration of the public, if we may credit Cibber, as much as Roscius did the people of Rome, or G [...]rrick those of England in recent days.

EXECUTION OF LORD RUSSEL.ON another stage, of a different nature, was performed the sad tragedy of the death of the virtuous lord Russel, who lost his head in the middle of the square, on July 21st, 1683. Party writers assert that he was brought here in preference to any other spot, in order to mortify the citizens with the sight. In fact, it was the nearest open space to Newgate, the place of his lordship's confine­ment: otherwise the dragging him to Tower-hill, the usual con­cluding scene on these dreadful occasions, would have given his enemies full opportunity of indulging the imputed malice.

NEWCASTLE-HOUSE.IN the same square, at the corner of Queen-street, stands a house inhabited by the well known minister, the late duke of Newcastle. It was built about the year 1686, by the marquis of Powis, and called Powis-house, and afterwards sold to the late noble owner. The architect was captain William Winde.

IN the last century Queen-street was the residence of many of our people of rank. Among others was Conway-house, the resi­dence of the noble family of that name; Paulet-house, belonging [Page 161] to the marquis of Winchester; and the house in which lord Herbert, of Cherbury, finished his romantic life.

ON the back part of Portugal Row, is Clare-market; close to which, the second John earl of Clare had a palace of his own building, in which he lived about the year 1657, in a most princely manner *.

I SHALL pursue, from Queen-street, my journey westward, and point out the most remarkable places which rose into being be­tween the years 1562 and 1600, and incidentally of some others of later date. I have before mentioned the streets which rose in that period. Let me add,LONG-ACRE. that Long-acre was built on a piece of ground, once belonging to Westminster-abby, called the seven acres, and which, in 1552, were granted to John earl of Bedford.

ST. GILES's church, and a few houses to the west of it,ST. GILES'S IN THE FIELDS. in the year 1600, was but barely separated from Broad-street. The church is supposed to have belonged to an hospital for lepers, founded about the year 1117, by Matilda queen to Henry I. In antient times it was customary to present to malefactors, on their way to the gallows (which, about the year 1413, was removed from Smithfield, and placed between St. Giles's High-street, and Hog-lane) a great bowl of ale, as the last refreshment they were to receive in this life . On the door to the church-yard is a curious piece of sculpture, representing the last day, containing an amazing number of figures, set up about the year 1686.

HERE was executed, in the most barbarous manner, the famous Sir John Oldcastle, baron Cobham. His crime was that of adopt­ing [Page 162] the tenets of Wycliffe. He was misrepresented to our heroic prince, Henry V. by the bigoted clergy, as a heretic and traitor; and that he was actually at the head of thirty thousand Lollards, in these very fields. About a hundred inoffensive people were found there: Cobham escaped; but was taken some time after in Wales. He suffered death on this spot: was hung on a gallows, by a chain fastened round his body, and, thus suspended, burnt alive. He died, not with the calm constancy of a martyr, but with the wildest effusions of enthusiastic ravings.

CHURCH.THIS church was rebuilt in 1625. By the amazing raising of the ground by filth, and various adventitious matter, the floor, in the year 1730, was eight feet below the surface acquired in the intervening time. This alone made it necessary to rebuild the church, in the present century. The first stone was laid in 1730; it was finished in 1734, at the expence of ten thousand pounds, in a manner which does great credit to its architect, Mr. Henry Flitcraft.

IN the church-yard I have observed with horror a great square pit, with many rows of coffins piled one upon the other, all ex­posed to sight and smell. Some of the piles were incomplete, expecting the mortality of the night. I turned away disgusted at the view, and scandalized at the want of police, which so little re­gards the health of the living as to permit so many putrid corpses, tacked between some flight boards, dispersing their dangerous effluvia over the capital.

NEAR the church was the house of Alice dutchess Dudley, who died here in 1669, aged ninety. She was the widow of the great Sir Robert Dudley, son to Robert earl of Leicester, who, by various untoward circumstances, was denied legitimacy, and his paternal [Page 163] estates. He assumed the title of duke of Northumberland, and lived and died in great estimation in Tuscany. This lady was ad­vanced to the title of dutchess by Charles I. She merited the honor by the greatness of her mind and extent of her charities. Her body was interred at Stonely, in Warwickshire, the place of her family, she being third daughter of Sir Thomas Leigh, of Stonely, ancestor of the late lord Leigh. A fine monument was erected to her honor at Stonely *, and a grateful memorial of her in this church.

THE mention of St. Giles's bowl, naturally brings one to the late place of the conclusion of human laws. It was called in the time of Edward III. when the gentle Mortimer finished his days here, The Elms; but the original as well as present name was Tybourne, TYBOURNE. not from tye and burn, as if it was called so from the manner of capital punishments, but from Bourne, the Saxon word for a brook, which gave name to a manor before the Conquest. Here was also a village and church denominated St. John the Evangelist, which fell to decay, and was succeeded by that of Mary bourne, corrupted into Mary-la-bonne. About the year 1238, this brook furnished nine conduits for supplying the city with water: but the introduction of the New River superseded the use of them. Here the lord mayor had a banquetting-house, to which his lordship and brethren were wont to repair on horseback, attended by their ladies in waggons: and, after viewing the conduits, they returned to the city, where they were magnificently entertained by the lord mayor .

[Page 164]IN 1626, queen Henrietta Maria was compelled by her priests to take a walk, by way of penance, to Tyburn. What her offence was we are not told; but Charles was so disgusted at this inso­lence, that he soon after sent them, and all her majesty's French servants, out of the kingdom *.

I SHALL return through the mile and a quarter of country, at this time formed into Oxford-street, as handsome a one as any in Europe, and, I believe, the longest. After passing through Broad-street, and getting into Holborn, is Bloomsbury, the ancient manor of Lomesbury, in which our kings in early times had their stables: all the space is at present covered with handsome streets, and a fine square. This was first called Southampton-square; and the great house which forms one side, built after a design of Inigo Jones, BEDFORD-HOUSE. Southampton (now Bedford) house. From hence the ami­able relict of William lord Russel dates her letters; this being her residence till her death in 1723. The late duke fitted up the gallery, and bought the cartoons, copied by Sir James Thornhill, at the sale of that eminent artist.

MONTAGUE-HOUSE.MONTAGUE-HOUSE (now the British Museum) was built on a French plan, by the first duke of Montague, who had been ambassa­dor in France. The staircase and ceilings were painted by Rousseau and La Fosse: the apotheosis of Iris, and the assembly of the gods, are by the last. His grace's second wife was the mad dutchess of Albemarle, widow to Christopher, second duke of that title. She married her second husband as emperor of China, which gave oc­casion to a scene in Sir Courtly Nice. She was kept in the ground apartment during his grace's life, and was served on the knee to the day of her death, which happened in 1731, at Newcastle-house, at [Page 165] Clerkenwell *. The second duke and dutchess lived only in one of the wings, till their house at Whitehall was completed.

I MUST mention, that to the east of Bloomsbury-square, POWIS-HOUSE. in Great Ormond-street, stood in my memory Powis-house, originally built by the marquis of Powis, in the last century. When it was occu­pied by the Duc d'Aumont, ambassador from Louis XIV. in 1712, it was burnt down, and rebuilt at the expence of that magnificent monarch. It was of brick, and ornamented with fluted pilasters. On the top was a great reservoir, as a guard against fire, and it also served as a fish-pond. This house was pulled down and the ground granted on building leases.

I SHALL just mention Red-lion-square, RED-LION-SQUARE. not far to the south of this house, merely for the sake of some lines on its clumsy obelisk:

Obtusioris Ingenii
Quid me respicis viator?

NOT far from Holborn, is the church of St. George, ST. GEORGE's BLOOMSBURY. in Blooms­bury, which, with its magnificent porch supported by pillars of the Corinthian order, placed before a plain body, and its won­drous steeple, I cannot stigmatize stronger than in the words of Mr. Walpole, who styles it a masterpiece of absurdity. On the tower is a pyramid, at each corner of which are the supporters of England, a lion and an unicorn alternate, the first with its heels upwards: and the pyramid finishes with the statue of George I. The architect was Nicholas Hawksmoor. The church was con­secrated [Page 166] in 1731: and is a parish taken out of that of St. Giles. The square was, in the beginning of this century, the residence of many of our nobility; in later times, that of the more wealthy gentlemen of the long robe.

WE now enter again on the stormy latitude of the law. Lin­coln's-Inn is left a little to the south. Chancery-lane gapes on the same side, to receive the numberless malheureuses, who plunge un­warily on the rocks and shelves with which it abounds. The antient seminary of the law,GRAY'S-INN. Gray's-Inn, stands on the north side. It was originally the residence of the lord Grays, from the year 1315, when John, the son of Reginold de Grey, resided here, till the latter end of the reign of Henry VII. when it was sold, by Edmund lord Grey of Wilton, to Hugh Dennys, esq by the name of the manor of Portpole; and in eight years afterwards it was disposed of to the prior and convent of Shene, who again disposed of it to the students of the law. Not but that they were seated here much earlier, it appearing that they had leased a residence here from the lord Grays as early as the reign of Edward III. * It is a very extensive building, and has large gardens belonging to it. Gray's-Inn-Lane is to the east. I there observed, at a stone ma­son's, a manufactory of stone coffins quite a l'antique, such as we sometimes dig up in conventual ruins, or old churches. I en­quired whether they were designed for any particular persons, but was told they were only for chance customers, who thought they should lie securer lodged in stone than in wood.

THE OLD TEMPLE.NEAR the entrance into Chancery-lane were the bars: adjacent stood the Old Temple, founded in 1118, the first seat of the knights templars, before they removed to the New Temple. About [Page 167] the year 1595, one Agaster Roper *, who was engaged in building on the spot, discovered ruins of the old church, which was of a circular form, and built of stone brought from Caen in Nor­mandy.

A LITTLE beyond is Southampton-buildings, SOUTHAMPTON-HOUSE. built on the site of Southampton-house, the mansion of the Wriothesleys earls of South­ampton. The King's-head tavern, facing Holborn, is the only part which now remains: the chapel to the house is now rented by Mr. Lockyer Davies, as a magazine for books. Here ended his days Thomas, the last earl of that title, the faithful virtuous ser­vant of Charles I. and lord treasurer in the beginning of the reign of the ungrateful son. He died in 1667, barely in pos­session of the white rod, which his profligate enemies were with difficulty dissuaded from wresting out of his dying hands. He had the happiness of marrying his daughter and heiress to a nobleman of congenial merit, the ill-fated lord Russel. Her virtues underwent a fiery trial, and came out of the test, if possible, more pure. I cannot read of her last interviews with her devoted lord, without the strongest emotions. Her greatness of mind ap­pears to uncommon advantage. The last scene is beyond the power of either pen or pencil. In this house they lived many years. When his lordship passed by it in the way to execution, he felt a momentary bitterness of death in recollecting the happy moments of the place. He looked towards Southampton-house: the tear started into his eye, but he instantly wiped it away .

NOT far from hence, on the north side, in the street called [Page 168] Brook-street, BROOK HOUSE. was Brook-house, the residence of Sir Fulke Grevill [...] lord Brook, the nobleman whose chief ambition was to be thought, as he caused to be expressed on his tomb at Warwick, the friend of Sir Philip Sydney. He was a man of abilities, and a particular patron of learned men; who repayed his bounty, by what cost them little, numbers of flattering dedications. He died by the hand of Ralph Haywood, a gentleman who had passed most of his days in his lordship's service. For some reason unknown, he had left him out of his will, and was weak enough to let him know of it. In September, 1628, Haywood entered into his lord's bed­chamber, and, expostulating with great warmth on the usage he met with, his lordship answering with asperity, received from him a mortal wound with a sword. The assassin retired into ano­ther room, in which he instantly destroyed himself with the same instrument. His lordship languished a few days, and, after grate­fully forming another codicil, to reward his surgeons and atten­dants for their care, died in his 75th year *.

FURNIVALS-INN.IN this neighborhood, on each side of Holborn, is a tremendous array of inns of courts. Next to Brook-street is Furnivals-Inn, in old times the town abode of the lord Furnivals, extinct in the male line in the 6th of Richard II. Thavies-Inn is another,THAVIES INN. old as the time of Edward III. It took its name from John Tavye; who directed, that, after the decease of his wife Alice, his estates, and the Hospicium in quo apprentici ad legem habitare solebant, should be sold in order to maintain a chaplain, who was to pray for his soul and that of his spouse. The original use of this inn continues to this day.

[Page 169]A THIRD is Staples-Inn, STAPLES-INN. so called from its being a staple in which the wool merchants were used to assemble: but it had given place to students in law, possibly before the reign of Henry V. And a fourth is Barnard [...]s-Inn, originally Mackworth's-Inn, BARNARD'S-INN. hav­ing been given by the executors of John Mackworth, dean of Lin­coln, to the dean and chapter of Lincoln, on condition that they should find a pious priest to perform divine service in the cathe­dral of Lincoln, in which John Mackworth lies interred. As to Scroop's-Inn, it was an inn for serjeants at the law, in the time of Richard II.; it took its name from having once been the town-house of one of the lord Scroops, of Bolton. It is now an extinct vulcano, and the crater used as a quiet court, bearing its antient name.

HATTON-STREET, the late Hatton-garden, HATTON-GARDEN. succeeded to the town-house and gardens of the lord Hattons, founded by Sir Chris­toper Hatton, lord keeper in the reign of queen Elizabeth. He first attracted the royal notice by his fine person, and fine dancing; but his intellectual accomplishments were far from superficial. He discharged his great office with applause; but, distrusting his legal abilities, never acted without the assistance of two able lawyers. The place he built his house on, was the orchard and garden belonging to Ely-house. By his interest with the queen he extorted it from the bishop, Richard Cox, who for a long time resisted the sacrilege. Here he died, and was interred in the cathedral of St. Paul's.

THIS palace was long before distinguished by the death of a much greater man; for, at this house of the bishop of Ely, say his­torians, John duke of Lancaster, otherwise John of Gaunt, in 1398, breathed his last, after (according to Shakespeare) giving his dying fruitless admonition to his dissipated nephew Richard II.

[Page 170] ELY-HOUSE.ADJACENT stood, in my memory, Ely-house, the residence of the bishops of Ely. John de Kirkby, who died bishop of Ely, in 1290, laid the foundation of this palace, by bequeathing several messuages in this place; others were purchased by his successor William de Luda; at length the whole, consisted of twenty, some say forty acres, was inclosed in a wall. Holinshed has recorded the excellency of the strawberries cultivated in the garden by bishop Morton. He informs us that Richard duke of Glocester (after­wards Richard III.) at the council held in the Tower, on the morning he put Hastings to death, requested a dish of them from the bishop. Mr. Grose has given us two representations of the buildings and chapel. Here was a most venerable hall, seventy-four feet long, lighted with six gothic windows; and all the furni­ture suited the hospitality of the times: this room the serjeants at law frequently borrowed to hold their feasts in, on account of its size.GREAT FEASTS HELD HERE. In the year 1531, eleven gentlemen, who had just been honored with the coif, gave a grand feast here five days succes­sively. On the first, the king and his queen, Catherine of Arra­gon, graced them with their presence. For quantity of provisions it resembled a coronation feast: the minutiae are not given; but the following particular of part will suffice * to shew its greatness, as well as the wonderful scarcity of money in those days, evinced by the smallness of the prices compared to those of the present days:

Brought to the slaughter-house 24 beeves, each168
One carcase of an oxe from the shambles14
One hundred fat muttons, each210
Fifty-one great veales, at48
Thirty-four porkes, at33
Ninety-one pigs, at6
Capons of Greece, of one poulter (for he had three) ten dozens, at (apiece)18
Capons of Kent, nine dozen and six, at1
Cocks of grose, seaven dozen and nine, at8
Cocks course xiii dozen, at 8 d. and 3 d. apiece   
Pullets, the best 2 [...]/2 d. each. Other pullets2
Pigeons 37 dozen, each dozen2
Swans xiii dozen   
Larkes 340 dozen, each dozen5

THE chapel (which was dedicated to St. Etheldreda, CHAPEL. foundress of the monastery at Ely) has at the east end a very handsome gothic window, which looks into a neat court, lately built, called Ely-place. Beneath is a crypt of the length of the chapel. The cloisters formed a square on the south side.

THE several buildings belonging to this palace falling into ruin, it was thought proper to enable, by act of parlement, in 1772, the bishop to alienate the whole. It was accordingly sold to the crown, for the sum of six thousand five hundred pounds, together with an annuity of two hundred pounds a year, to be payed to the bishop and his successors for ever. Out of the first, five thousand six hundred was applied towards the purchase of Albemarle-house, in Dover-street, with other messuages and gar­dens. The remainder, together with three thousand pounds paid as dilapidations by the executors of bishop Mawson, was applied [Page 172] towards building the handsome house at present occupied, in Do­ver-street, by my respected friend the present prelate. This was named Ely-house, and is settled on the bishops of Ely for ever. It was the fortune of that munificent prelate Edmund Keene, to rebuild or repair more ecclesiastical houses than any churchman of modern days. He bestowed most considerable repairs on the parsonage-house of Stanhope, in the bishoprick of Durham. He wholly rebuilt the palace at Chester. He restored almost from rain that at Ely; and, finally, Ely-house was built under his in­spection.

TO revert to antient times. John duke of Lancaster, styled usually John of Gaunt, resided in this palace, and died here in 1399: possibly it was lent to him, during the long possession that bishop Fordham had of the see, after the duke's own palace, the Savoy, was burnt by the insurgents.

ST. ANDREW's HOLBORN.FROM hence is a steep descent down Holborn-hill. On the south side is St. Andrew's church, of considerable antiquity, but rebuilt in the last century in a plain neat manner. Here was buried Thomas Wriothesley, lord chancellor in the latter part of the life of Henry VIII; a fiery zealot, who, not content with seeing the amiable innocent Anne Askew put to the torture, for no other crime than difference of faith, flung off his gown, degraded the chancellor into the Bourreau, and with his own hands gave force to the rack *. He was created earl of South­ampton, just before the coronation of Edward VI; but, obstinately adhering to the old religion, he was dismissed from his post, and confined to Southampton-house,, where he died in 1550.

[Page 173]THE well-known party tool Doctor Sacheverel was rector of this church. He had the chance of meeting in his parish a per­son as turbulent as himself, the noted Mr. Whiston: that sin­gular character took it into his head to disturb the doctor while he was in his pulpit, venting some doctrine contrary to the opinion of that heterodox man. The doctor in great wrath de­scended from on high, and fairly turned wicked Will. Whiston into the street.

IN ascending to West Smithfield, Cock-lane is left to the right;COCK-LANE GHOST. a ridiculous scene of imposture, in the affair of the Cock-lane ghost, which was to detect the murderer of the body it lately inhabited, by its appearance in the vault of St. John's church, Clerkenwell. The credulity of the English nation was most fully displayed, by the great concourse of people of all ranks, to hear the conversation held by one of the cheats with the ghost. It ended in full detec­tion and exemplary punishment of the several persons concerned in the villainy.

SMITHFIELD is celebrated on several accounts: at present,SMITHFIELD. and long since, for being the great market for cattle of all kinds.BARTHOLOMEW-FAIR. For being the place where Bartholomew-fair was kept; which was granted, during three days annually, by Henry II. to the neighbor­ing priory. It was long a season of great festivity; theatrical per­formances by the better actors were exhibited here, and it was frequented by a great deal of good company; but, becoming the resort of the debauched of all denominations, certain regulations took place, which in later days have spoiled the mirth, but pro­duced the desired decency. The humours of this place will never be lost, as long as the inimitable print of Bartholomew-fair, of our Hogarth, shall exist.

[Page 174] PLACE FOR TOURNAMENTS;FOR a long series of reigns, Smithfield was the field of gallant tilts and tournaments: and also the spot on which accusations were decided by duel, derived from the Kamp-fight ordeal of the Saxons. Here, in 1374, the doating hero Edward III. in his sixty-second year, infatuated by the charms of Alice Pierce, placed her by his side in a magnificent car, and, styling her the Lady of the Sun, conducted her to the lifts, followed by a train of knights, each leading by the bridle a beautiful palfrey, mounted by a gay damsel: and for seven days together exhibited the most splendid justs in indulgence of his disgraceful passion.

HIS grandson, Richard II. in the same place held a tourna­ment equally magnificent. ‘There issued out of the Towre of London, says the admiring Froissart, "fyrst threescore coursers apparelled for the justes, and on every one a squyer of honour riding a soft pase. Than issued out threescore ladyes of ho­noure mounted on fayre palfreyes, and every lady led a knight by a cheyne of sylver, which knights were apparelled to just.’ I refer to my author * for the rest of the relation of this splendid spectacle; certainly there was a magnificence and spirit of gal­lantry in the dissipation of those early times, which cherished a warlike and generous spirit in the nobility and gentry of the land. Something like is now arising, in the brilliant societies of archers in most parts of Britain, which, it is to be hoped, will at lest share the hours consumed in the enervated pleasures of music; or the dangerous waste of time in the hours dedicated to cards.

FOR TRIALS BY DUEL;I WILL not trespass on my readers patience any more on this subject, than just to mention one instance of duel. It was when [Page 175] the unfortunate Armourer entered into the lists, on account of a false accusation of treason, brought against him by his apprentice, in the reign of Henry VI. The friends of the defendant had so plied him with liquor, that he fell an easy conquest to his accuser. Shakespear has worked this piece of history into a scene, in the second part of Henry VI. but has made the poor Armourer con­fess his treasons in his dying moments: for in the time in which this custom prevaled, it never was even suspected but that guilt must have been the portion of the vanquished. Let me add, that when people of rank fought with sword and lance, Plebeian com­batants were only allowed a pole, armed with a heavy sand-bag, with which they were to decide their guilt or innocence.

IN Smithfield was also held our Autos de Fè; but,FOR EXECUTIONS. to the credit of our English monarchs, none were ever known to attend the ceremony. Even Philip II. of Spain never honored any, of the many which were celebrated by permission of his gentle queen, with his presence, notwithstanding he could behold the roasting of his own subjects with infinite self-applause, and sang-froid. The stone marks the spot, in this area, on which those cruel exhibitions were executed. Here our martyr Latimer preached patience to friar Forest, agonizing under the torture of a slow fire, for denying the king's supremacy: and to this place our martyr Cranmer com­pelled the amiable Edward, by forcing his reluctant hand to the warrant, to send Joan Bocher, a silly woman, to the stake. Yet Latimer never thought of his own conduct in his last moments; nor did Cranmer thrust his hand into the fire for a real crime, but for one which was venial through the frailty of human nature.

THE last person who suffered at the stake in England was Bar­tholomew Legatt, who was burnt here in 1611, as a blasphemous [Page 176] heretic, according to the sentence pronounced by John King, bishop of London. The bishop consigned him to the secular arm of our monarch James, who took care to give to the sentence full effect *.—This place, as well as Tyburn, was called The Elms, and used for the execution of malefactors even before the year 1219.—In the year 1530, there was a most severe and singular punishment inflicted here on one John Roose, a cook, who had poisoned seventeen persons of the bishop of Rochester's family, two of whom died. By a retrospective law, he was sentenced to be boiled to death, which was done accordingly.—In 1541, Mar­g [...]ret Davie, a young woman, suffered in the same place and manner, for the same species of crime.—In Smithfield the arch­rebel Wat Tyler met with, in 1381, the reward of his treason and insolence. The youthful king, no longer able to bear his bruta­lity, ordered him to be arrested; when the gallant Walworth, lord mayor of London, struck him off his horse, and the atten­dants of the monarch quickly put him to death.

I CANNOT help indulging myself with the mention of William Pennant, an honest goldsmith, my great great great great great great uncle, who, at his house, the Queen's-head in Smithfield, ac­quired a considerable fortune in the latter end of the reign of Elizabeth, and the beginning of that of James I. It appears by his will, dated May 4th 1607, that he was employed by the court, for numbers of his legacies were to the royal servants. His legacy to Sir William Fortescue, knight, his wife's brother, has now a singular appearance:—one chain of gold and pearle, weigh­ing about 12 ounces and a quarter; one billament of gold and [Page 177] pearl, being 19 pieces; a round salt of silver and a cover thereto, weighing 15 ounces and somewhat more; six white silver spoons; one feather bed, bolster, two pillows, two blankets, one blue rug; a testearn of satten, figured russet and black, and vallance to the same; 5 curtains of taffety sarcenet; one chair, and a stool with a back of satten figured russet; ten black, and six stools covered with black wrought velvet; and also a great chest covered with black leather, with an in-lock and all things in it, excepting cer­tain plate hereafter bequeathed. He left to his nephew Hugh Pennant, of Bychton, Flintshire, the manor of Moxhall, in Essex, with a considerable estate; but the fruits of the labors of this in­dustrious tradesman, were all dissipated by a gentleman of the family, who fortunately quitted this life before he had wasted our paternal acres. But the charities of William Pennant, to the poor of Whiteford, Flintshire, are more permanent: for to this day they completely cloath twenty poor people; and in a few years more the trustees of the bequeathed lands flatter themselves with the hopes of doubling the number.

WE now reach a great extent of holy ground, consecrated for the purposes of monastic life, or for the humane purpose of af­fording relief to our distressed brethren, in their passage through this world. I have not in view a conventual history of London: but only mean to give a brief account of those foundations which have a clame to pre-eminence. The church of St. Bartholomew the Greater is a small distance from Smithfield; CHURCH OF ST. BARTHOLOMEW. it is only the choir of the antient building, and the center on which stood the great tower. In the choir are the remains of the old architecture; massy columns, and round arches: part of the cloisters are still preserved in a neighboring stable, and consists of eight arches. [Page 178] Adjacent is part of the south transept, now converted into a small burying-ground.PRIORY OF ST. BARTHOLOMEW. This was a conventual church, belonging to a priory of Black Canons, founded in 1102, by one Rahere, min­strel or jester to Henry I; who, quitting his profligate life, became the first prior of his own foundation. Legend relates, that he had a most horrible dream, out of which he was relieved by St. Bar­tholomew himself, who directed him to found the house, and to dedicate it to him. Rahere has here a handsome monument, beneath an arch divided by elegant tabernacle-work. His figure is recumbent, with an angel at his feet, and a canon in a great hood kneeling on each side, as if praying over him. It was after­wards repaired by William Bolton, the last prior. At the dissolu­tion its revenues, according to Dugdale, were £. 653.15s. It was granted by Henry to Sir Richard Rich. Queen Mary re-peopled it with Black, or Preaching Friars; but on the accession of Elizabeth, they were turned out. Rich, who was made lord chancellor in the reign of Edward VI. made it his place of resi­dence; as did Sir Walter Mildmay, chancellor of the exchequer to queen Elizabeth.

ST. BARTHOLOMEW's HOSPITAL.ST. BARTHOLOMEW's hospital will ever be a monument of the piety of Rahere; for from him it took its origin. On a waste spot, he obtained a grant of a piece of ground from his master, and built on it an hospital for a master, brethren, and sisters; and for the entertainment of poor diseased people, till they got well; of distressed women big with child, till they were delivered, and were able to go abroad; and for the support of all such children whose mothers died in the house, till they at­tained the age of seven years. It was given to the neighboring priory, who had the care of it. Its revenues at the dissolution [Page 179] were £. 305, according to Dugdale. The good works of Rahere live to this day. The foundation was continued through every reign. The present handsome building, which surrounds a square, was begun in 1729. The extent of the charity is shewn, by saying, that in the last year there were under the care of the hospital three thousand seven hundred and fifty in-patients; and eight thousand one hundred and twenty three out patients.

THE great staircase is admirably painted by Hogarth, at his own expence. The subjects are, the good Samaritan, and the pool of Bethesda. In another part is Rahere laying the founda­tion stone; a sick man carried on a bier attended by monks. The hall is at the head of the staircase, a very large room, orna­mented with a full-length of Henry VIII. who had good reason to be complimented, as he presented this house to the citizens. Doctor Ratcliff is also here at full-length. He left five hundred pounds a year to this hospital, for the improvement of the diet; and one hundred a year for buying of linen. Happy had it been had all his wealth been so directed, instead of wasting it on that vain mausoleum, his library at Oxford. The patron saint has over the chimney-piece his portrait, but not in the offensive circum­stances which Spagnolet would have placed it in; for he is cloathed, and has only the knife, the symbol of his martyrdom, in his hand. In the windows is painted Henry VIII. delivering the charter to the lord mayor; by him is prince Arthur, and two noblemen with white rods.

AT no great distance from this hospital stands (within the walls of the city) that of Christ-church; CHRIST-CHURCH HOSPITAL, a royal foundation for orphans and poor children, who are taken care of, and apprenticed,ONCE THE GREY FRIARS. at dif­ferent ages, to proper trades. It was originally the house of the [Page 180] Grey Friars, or Mendicants, of the order of St. Francis, founded by John Ewin, ITS FINE CHURCH. mercer, about the year 1225. The church was reckoned one of the most superb of the conventual: and rose by the contributions of the opulent devout. Margaret, daughter of Philip the Hardy, and second queen to Edward I. in 1306 began the choir. Isabella, queen to Edward II. gave threescore and ten pounds; and queen Philippa, wife of Edward III. gave threescore and two pounds, towards the building. John de Bretagne, duke of Richmond, built the body of the church, at a vast expence: and Gil­bert de C [...]are, earl of Gloucester, gave twenty great beams out of his forest at Tunbridge. No order of monks seem to have the powers of persuasion equal to these poor friars. They raised vast sums for their buildings among the rich: and few of their admirers, when they came to die, who did not console themselves with the thought of lying within their expiating walls; and if they were particularly wicked, thought themselves secure against the assault of the devil, if their corpse was wrapped in the habit and cowl of a friar.

PERSONAGES INTERRED HERE.MULTITUDES therefore of all ranks were crowded in this holy ground. It boasts of receiving four queens; Margaret, and Isa­bella, FOUR QUEENS. above mentioned; Joan, daughter to Edward II. and wife of Edward Bruce, king of Scotland; and, to make the fourth, Isabella wife of William Warren, titular queen of Man, is named. Of these, Isabella, whom GRAY so strongly stigmatizes,

She-wolf of France, with unrelenting fangs,
That tear'st the bowels of thy mangled mate,

I hope was wrapped in the friars garment, for few stood more in need of a daemonifuge. With wonderful hypocrisy, [Page 181] she was buried with the heart of her murdered husband on her breast *.

HERE also rest Beatrix, daughter of Henry III. and dutchess of Bretagny. Isabella, daughter of Edward III. and wife of Ingel­ram de Courcy, created earl of Bedford. John Hastings earl of Pembroke, slain in Woodstoke-park, at a Christmas festivity, in 1389. He was then very young, and, being desirous of instruction in feats of chivalry, ran against a stout knight of the name of John Saint John: but it remains uncertain whether his death was the result of design or accident .

John Duc de Bourbon, one of the noble prisoners taken at the battle of Azincourt, after eighteen years imprisonment, in 1443 here found a tomb. Walter Blunt lord Mountjoy, lord treasurer of England in the time of Edward IV, and many other illus­trious persons, were deposited here.

AMONG the unfortunate who fell victims to the executioner, in the wretched times of too many of our monarchs, as often un­justly as otherwise, were the following. I do not reckon, in the list of the first, the ambitious profligate Roger Mortimer, para­mour of Isabella, wife to the unhappy Edward of Caernarvon. He was surprized with the queen in Nottingham castle. In vain did she cry, Bel fitz, bel fitz, ayez pitie du gentile Mortimer. He was hurried to London, and, after a summary hearing, dragged to Tyburn, where he hung like a common malefactor two days upon the gallows.

SIR Robert Tresilian, chief justice of England; and Sir Nicholas [Page 182] Brembre, the stout mayor of London, suffered the same ignomi­nous death in the next reign. The first, as a warning to all judges for too great a complaisance to the pleasure of the court; Sir Nicholas, for his attachment to his royal master. Tresilian fell lamented: especially as the proceedings were hurried in a tumul­tuary manner, and more indicative of revenge than justice. Su­perstition records, that when he came to Tyburn, he declared that he should not die while he had any thing about him; and that the executioner, on stripping him, found certain images, the head of a devil, and the names of divers others *. The charm was broken, and the judge died.

HERE, in 1423, were interred the mangled remains of Sir John Mortimer, knight, a victim to the jealousy of the house of Lan­caster against that of York. He was put to death on a fictitious charge, by an ex post facto law, called the Statute of Escapes, made on purpose to destroy him: he was drawn to Tyburn, and underwent the rigorous penalty of treason . Thus was Henry VI. stained with blood even in his infancy, and began a bloody reign with slaughter, continued to the end of his life, by ambition and cruelty not his own.

IN the same ground lies another guiltless sacrifice, Thomas Bur­det, esq ancestor of the present Sir Robert Burdet. He had a white buck, which he was particularly fond of; this the king, Edward IV. happened to kill. Burdet, in anger, wished the horns in the person's body who had advised the king to it. For [Page 183] this he was tried, as wishing evil to his sovereign, and for this only lost his head *.

TO close the list, in 1523, a murdress, a lady Alice Hungerford, obtained the favor of lying here. She had killed her husband; for which she was led from the Tower to Holborn, there put into a cart with one of her servants, and thence carried to Tyburn and executed .

THE library founded here in 1429,LIBRARY. by the munificent Whitting­ton, must not be forgotten. It was a hundred and twenty-nine feet long; thirty-one broad: it was cieled with wainscot, had twenty-eight desks, and eight double settles of wainscot. In three years it was filled with books, to the value of five hundred and fifty-six pounds: of which Sir Richard contributed four hundred pounds; and Doctor Thomas Winchelsey, a friar, supplied the rest. This about thirty years before the invention of printing.

ON the dissolution, this fine church, after being spoiled of its ornaments for the king's use, was made a storehouse for French prizes, and the monuments either sold or mutilated. Henry, just before his death, touched with remorse, granted the convent and church to the city, and caused the church to be opened for divine service. It was burnt in 1666, and rebuilt by Sir Christopher Wren, at a small distance from its former site. I must mention, that with the old church was destroyed the tomb of lady Veneti [...] Digby .

THE buildings belonging to the friars were by Edward VI. [Page 184] applied to this useful charity: that amiable young prince had not any reason to be stimulated to good actions: but it is certain that, after a sermon of exhortation, preached before him by Ridley, bishop of London, he founded three great hospitals in this city, judiciously adapted to the necessities of the poor, divided into three classes: the hospital of St. Thomas, Southwark, for the sick or wounded poor; this for the orphan; and that of Bridewell for the thriftless. Charles II. founded also here a mathematical school for the instruction of forty boys, and training them up for the sea. Many able mathematicians and seamen have sprung from this institution. In the last year, a hundred and sixty-eight were apprenticed out; of which nine were from the last-mentioned institution. The governors have a seminary to this hospital at Hertford. At London and at Hertford are nine hundred and eighty-two children.

PART of the old buildings and cloister are yet remaining; but the greater part was rebuilt in the last century, under the direction of Sir Christopher Wren. The writing school was founded in 1694, by Sir John Moor, alderman, who is honored with a statue in front of the building.

GREAT HALL.IN the great hall is a fine picture of Charles II. in his robes, with a great flowing black wig. At a distance is a sea view with shipping: and about him a globe, sphere, telescope, &c. It was painted by Lely, in 1662.

HERE is the longest picture I ever saw. King James II. amidst his courtiers, receiving the president of this hospital, several of the governors, and numbers of the children, all kneeling; one of the governors with a grey head, and some of the heads of the children, are admirably painted. Chancellor Jefferies is standing by the [Page 185] king. This was painted by Verrio, who has placed himself in the piece, in a long wig.

THE founder is represented in another picture sitting, and giv­ing the charter to the governors, who are in their red gowns kneeling; the boys and girls are ranged in two rows; a bishop, possibly Ridley, is in the piece. If this was the work of Holbein, it has certainly been much injured by repair.

IN the court-room is a three-quarters length of Edward, a most beautiful portrait, indisputably by the hand of that great painter. The figure is most richly dressed, with one of his hands upon a dagger.

IN this room are the portraits of two persons of uncommon merit. The first is of Sir Wolstan Dixie, lord mayor in 1585. He is repr [...]nted in a red gown furred, a rich chain, and with a rough beard. The date on his portrait is 1593. He was de­scended from Wolstan Dixie, who was seated at Catworth, in Hun­tingdonshire, about the reign of Edward III. Sir Wolstan was the founder of the family of baronets, settled at Market-Bosworth, in Leicestershire, which was bestowed by him on his great nephew in the reign of queen Elizabeth *. Sir Wolstan was distinguished by the magnificent pageantry of his mayor's day; and by the poetical incense bestowed on the occasion by George Peele, A. M. of Christ-church College, Oxford: who, among other things, wrote the life of our last prince Llewelyn, the loves of king David and the fair Bathsheba, and the tragedy of Absalom . But Sir Wolstan immortalized himself by his good deeds, and the greatness of his [Page 186] charities. At Bosworth he founded a free-school; every prison in the capital felt his bounty; he portioned poor maidens in mar­riage; contributed largely to build a pest-house; established two fellowships in Emanuel College, Cambridge, and two scholarships; and left to this hospital an annual endowment of forty-two pounds for ever.

BUT a lady, dame Mary Ramsay, wife of Sir Thomas Ramsay, lord mayor in 1577, greatly surpassed Sir Wolstan in her chari­table deeds. By the gift of twenty pounds a year, to be annually paid to the master and usher of the school belonging to this hos­pital; and also to the hospital the reversion of a hundred and twenty pounds annually. She was complimented with having her picture placed in this room. She is dressed in a red-bodied gown and petticoat. She augmented fellowships and scholarships; cloathed ten maimed soldiers, at the expence of twenty pounds annually; she did not forget the prisoners in the several gaols; she gave the sum of twelve hundred pounds to five of the compa­nies, to be lent to young tradesmen for four years; she gave to Bristol a thousand pounds, to be laid out in an hospital; she mar­ried and portioned poor virgins; and, besides other charities I omit, left three thousand pounds to good and pious uses. This excellent woman died about the year 1596, and was interred in the church of St. Mary Woolnoth *.

CHARTER-HOUSE-SQUARE.IN this square, at the time called the Charter-house Yard, was a town-house belonging to the earls of Rutland, which, in the year 1656, was converted into an opera-house, over which Sir William [Page 187] d' Avenant presided *; for in those times of hypocrisy, tragedies and comedies were not permitted.

THE Charter-house is the next object of attention.CHARTER-HOUSE. This had been a house of Carthusians (from which the name is corrupted) founded by Sir Walter de Manni, a most successful commander in the French wars, under Edward III. He had purchased, in the year 1349, a piece of ground consisting of thirteen acres, for the purpose of interring the dead, at a time in which a dreadful pesti­lence raged. Not fewer than fifty thousand people were buried in it, during the time of this dreadful calamity; which shews how very populous London must have been at that period. In the preceding year Ralph Sratford, bishop of London, had bought another piece of land, adjoining to this, which he inclosed with a brick wall, built on it a chapel, and applied to the same use, under the name of Pardon Church-yard. Here also were buried suicides, and such who had been executed. They were brought here in what was called the Friars cart, which was tilted, and covered over with black: in it was a pendent bell, so that notice was given, as it passed along, of the sad burden it was carrying .

SIR WALTER first intended to found here a college for a war­den, dean, and twelve secular priests; but, changing his design, he, in conjunction with Northburgh, bishop of London, founded a priory for twenty-four monks, of the rigid order of Carthusians, which was finished in 1370 . The last prior but one, John Howghton, subscribed to the king's supremacy in 1534; yet, was [Page 188] executed soon after, for his opposition to the royal will. Three years after that there was a second subscription, in which William Trafford, the last prior, and two and twenty of his house, subscribed to the king's supremacy *. At the dissolution its revenues were reckoned, according to Dugdale, at £ 642 a year. It was first granted, in 1542, to John Bridges and Thomas Hall, for their joint lives; and in April 1555, to Sir Edward North, who sold it to Thomas duke of Norfolk, for twenty-five hundred pounds; and his son the earl of Suffolk, the rapacious treasurer, alienated it to Thomas Sutton, esq for thirteen thousand pounds.

MR. SUTTON's FOUNDATION.THAT gentleman made a most dignified use of his purchase. In the time of James I. he converted it into a most magnificent hospital, consisting of a master, a preacher, a head school-master, and second master, with forty-four boys, eighty decayed gentle­men, who had been soldiers or merchants, besides physician, surgeons, register, and other officers and servants of the house. Each decayed gentleman has fourteen pounds a year, a gown, meat, fire, and lodgings: and one of them may, if he chuses, attend the manciple to market, to see that he buys good provisions. This is the greatest gift in England, either in protestant or catho­lic times, ever bestowed by a single man, till we come to the time of the foundation of Guy's Hospital, in Southwark.

THERE is scarcely any vestige of the conventual building, which is said to have stood in the present garden. The present extensive house was the work of the duke of Norfolk. It was inhabited by the noble purchaser: the last time, it was made his easy prison; for, having been committed to the Tower in 1569, [Page 189] he was permitted to return to his own house, under the custody of Sir Henry Nevil, the plague at that time raging within the Tower liberties. But soon relapsing into his romantic design of a marriage with the unhappy Mary Stuart, he was here seized, and conveyed to his former place of confinement. In the great hall are the Howard arms, and the date 1571; the very year of his final imprisonment.

HIS grandson, lord Thomas Howard, was in possession of this house at the accession of James I. This monarch, to shew his respect for a family which had so severely suffered in the cause of his mother, made his first visit, on entering his new capital, on May 7th 1604, to this nobleman. His majesty and his train were most splendidly entertained here four whole days *; at his depar­ture, he was as profuse of his honors as he had been at Theo­balds just before, for he dubbed here not fewer than fourscore knights.

IN one of the great apartments is a very good half-length of Mr. Sutton, in a black gown furred, and with a white beard. He himself intended to have filled the post of master; but being seized with his last illness, by deed nominated the Reverend John Hut­ton to the office. He died December 12th, 1611, aged 79: his body was embalmed, kept in his own house till May 1612, when it was deposited with great pomp in Christ-church; from whence, in 1614 (the chapel in his hospital being by that time finished) it was carried on the shoulders of the poor into the vault prepared for its reception. His figure, in a gown, lies recumbent on the tomb: on each side is a man in armour standing upright; and [Page 190] above a preacher addressing a full congregation. This was the work of Nicholas Stone, who (including a little monument to Mr. Law, one of Mr. Sutton's executors) had four hundred pounds for his performance *.

GEORGE VILLIERS, the second of that name, duke of Bucking­ham, full-length, in a long wig, and robes of the garter.

THE earl of Shaftsbury, in his chancellor's robes, sitting.

CHARLES TALBOT, first earl, and afterwards duke of Shrews­bury, a full-length, in robes of the garter, with a white rod, as lord treasurer, in 1714, delivered to him by the queen, with her dying hand. A nobleman of fine abilities, and fine address, wa­vering and unsettled: a strong revolutionist; yet, in a little time, seduced into a plan of dethroning the very prince whom he had invited over. He died neglected by all parties; permanent only in the protestant religion, to which he was an early convert by the arguments of our great Tillotson. He died in February 1718, giving, almost with his last breath, assurance of his adherence to the church of England.

THE duke of Monmouth, in a long black wig, dressed, if I remember right, like the former.

THE munificent Sheldon, archbishop of Canterbury, is repre­sented here, sitting. He did honor to his promotion by his pa­tron Charles II. whom he attended in his exile. He was equally conspicuous for his charity and his piety. He expended above sixty-six thousand pounds in public and private benefactions, in relieving the miserable distressed in the time of the pestilence, and in redeeming Christian slaves. His theatre at Oxford is a magnifi­cent [Page 191] proof of his respect to the university in which he had most honorably presided, as warden of the College of All Souls.

HERE is a three-quarters piece of Doctor Thomas Burnet, master of this house, highly celebrated for his learning, and equally so for the spirit with which he resisted the obtrusion of a Roman catholic into the office by James II. He was the author of the famous Sacred Theory of the Earth, a beautiful and eloquent philoso­phical romance: and of the Archaelogia Philosophica. This last subjected him to such censure, for the sceptical opinions it con­tained, as to prevent his farther preferment. He died in 1715. He is represented as a thin man, of a good countenance, in a black gown, and short hair.

THE hero William earl Craven is the last; a full-length, in ar­mour, with a truncheon; and a distant view of a camp.

THESE noblemen had all been governors of this great charity.

IMMEDIATELY beyond the Charter-house, PRIORY OF ST. JOHN OF JERUSALEM. stood the priory of St. John of Jerusalem, of the warlike order of the knights hospi­talers. After the taking of Jerusalem from the Saracens, there was a vast concourse of pilgrims to the holy sepulchre. A pious man of the name of Gerardus, associating with other persons of his religious turn, assumed a black garment, with a white cross on it, with eight spikes; and undertook the care of an hospital, before founded at Jerusalem, for the use of the pilgrims; and also to protect them from insults on the road, either in coming or re­turning. Godfrey of Bologne first instituted the order; and, in reward of the valour of Gerardus, at the battle of Ascalon, en­dowed the knights with great estates, to enable them to support the end of their order: the kings of France were the sovereigns. After the loss of Jerusalem, they retired from place to place; but, [Page 191] [...] [Page 192] having taken Rhodes, fixed there, and were then styled knights of Rhodes. But, in 1522, on the loss of that island, they retreated to Malta, and were afterwards known by the name of knights of Malta. The order, before the separation of England from the church of Rome, consisted of eight nations. The world is filled with their prodigious valour.

JORDAN BRISET, and M [...]riel his wife, persons of rank, founded this house in the year 1100, and it received consecration from Heraclius, patriarch of Jerusalem. This order at first styled itself servant to the poor servants of the hospital at Jerusalem; but their vast endowments infected them with an uncommon degree of pride. The whole order had, in different parts of Christendom, nineteen thousand manors. In 1323, the revenues of the English knights templars were bestowed on them. This gave them such importance, that the prior was ranked as first baron of England, and lived in the highest state. Their luxury gave offence to the rebels of Kent and Essex, in 1381. These levellers burnt their house to the ground; but it soon rose with double splendor. The first prior was Garnerius de Neapoli; the last, Sir William Weston, who, on the suppression by Henry VIII. had a pension of a thou­sand a year; but died on Ascension-day, 1540, the very day that the house was suppressed *, entirely of a broken heart. His monument is preserved by a drawing in the collection of Doctor C [...]mbes. His figure lay recumbent, beneath rich gothic arches. It had a long beard, and is represented greatly emaciated. Its revenue at that time, according to Dugdale, was £. 2,385.12s. 8d.


St Iohns Gate 193

[Page 193]THE house and church remained entire during the reign of Henry, ST. JAMES's CLERKENWELL. for he chose to keep in them his tents and toils for the chace. In that of his son, the church, which for the beauty of its tower (which was graven, gilt, and enameled) was blown up with gunpowder, by order of the protector Somerset, and the stones carried towards the building his palace in the Strand. In the next reign, apart of the choir which remained, and some side-chapels, were repaired by cardinal Pole, and Sir Thomas Tresham was ap­pointed lord prior *: but the restoration was short-lived, being again suppressed by Elizabeth.

THE buildings covered a great extent of ground: and are now occupied by St. John's-square. The magnificent gateway still remains; James I. made a grant of it to Sir Roger Wilbraham, who made it his habitation.

AYLESBURY-HOUSE and gardens were other parts of the pos­sessions of those knights. They were granted to the Bruces, earls of Aylesbury; who made the house their residence. Earl Robert, deputy earl-marshal, dates numbers of his letters, in 1671, from Aylesbury-house, Clerkenwell. Aylesbury-street now covers the site of the house and gardens.

THE same Jordan Briset, BENEDICTINE NUNS. not satisfied with the former great en­dowment, gave to one Robert, a priest, fourteen acres of land almost adjoining to the first, to build on them a religious house. He accordingly founded one to the honor of God and the assump­tion of our lady, which he filled with Black Nuns of the order of St. Benedict. The first prioress was Christina; the last, Isabella Sackville, of the family of the present duke of Dorset. She ap­pointed [Page 194] pointed her cousin, lord Buckhurst, executor of her will, made February 19th 1569, if his lordship would undertake the trouble. She was buried in the conventual church; a small brass plate informs us she died in the reign of queen Elizabeth.

SIR Thomas Chaloner, tutor to prince Henry, built a fine house in the close of the priory, and on it inscribed these apt verses,

Casta fides superest, velatae tecta sorores
Ista relegatae deseruere licèt:
Nam venerandus Hymen hic vota jugalia servat,
Vestalemque forum mente fovere studet *.

THE church was made parochial. Part of the cloisters re­main, at lest till very lately, as did part of the nun's hall. In very antient records it was styled,PARISH CLERKS OUR ANTIENT ACTORS. Ecclesia Beatae Mariae de fonte Clericorum, from a well near it, at which the parish-clerks of Lon­don were accustomed to meet annually to perform their mysteries, or sacred dramatical plays. In 1391, they performed before the king and queen, and whole court, three days successively. These amusements, with much more substantial peace-offerings, were presented to Richard, to divert his resentment against the good citizens, for a riot of no very great moment against the bishop of Salisbury . And in 1409, they performed the creation of the world, which lasted eight days; and most of the nobility and gentry of England honored them with their presence.—But to re­turn to the church. Besides the venerable prioress, here was in­terred the lord prior of the knights hospitalers above-mentioned, [Page 195] Sir William Weston, who lies under a tomb, beneath an arch of neat gothic work. The brass is lost, but there is still his effigies represented in his shroud, emaciated by death; but admirably cut in stone. Weever preserves part of his epitaph; but it gives us nothing historical *. That great collector of funeral monuments and inscriptions lies here himself. He died in 1634 , aged 56, and left his own quaint epitaph:

Lankashire gave me birth, and Cambridge education,
Middlesex gave me death, and this church my humation;
And CHRIST to me hath given,
A place with him in heaven.

I SHALL conclude, with having observed here the plain monu­ment of Gilbert Burnet, bishop of Salisbury. His literary merits and demerits have been so fully discussed, that I rather chuse to refer the readers to the writers who have undertaken the task. Let his excellent discharge of his episcopal function, expiate the errors, which his enemies, of each party, so liberally impute to him.

NOW I am on the outside of the church again, let me, in this revival of archery, direct the attention of the brethren and sisters of the bow to the epitaph of Sir William Wood, a celebrated archer, who died in 1691, aet. 82. May their longevity equal his! but when they have made their last shot, I hope that the Royal British BOWMEN have provided an abler bard, to celebrate their skill, than fell to the lot of poor William Wood .

[Page 196]CLOSE to Clerkenwell-green stands Albemarle, or Newcastle-house; the property and residence of the mad dutchess, and widow of the second duke of Albemarle, and last surviving daughter and coheiress of Cavendish duke of Newcastle, who died here in 1734. At p. 164 some account is given of this lady. The house is en­tire, and at present occupied by a cabinet-maker. In the garden is the entire side of the cloister of the nunnery, and part of the wall, and a door belonging to the nuns hall. Scattered over the ground are the remains of the antient monuments of Sir Richard Weston, and others, shamefully ruined, being flung here during the rebuilding of the church.

OPPOSITE to this house is another, very large, ascended to by a long flight of steps. It is now divided into three houses. It is called Oliver Cromwell's; and tradition says, it was his place of conference with Ireton, Bradshaw, and others. If it had been his residence, it probably was usurped from some of the loyalists, and made his mansion, before he attained his fullness of power, and lived in regal state at Whitehall.

NEW RIVER HEAD.In the fields, at a small distance from Clerkenwell, is the New River Head, the great repository which supplies the largest por­tion of our capital with water. To give a greater extent of service, of late years another reservoir has been made on the heights, at a little distance to the north of the former. This is supplied with water from the first by means of an engine, which is worked by horses, forcing the water up the ascent; from hence it streams down to places which the other had not the power of benefiting. These reservoirs may be called the HEART of the work. The element, essentially useful as the vital fluid, at first rushes through veins of vast diameter; divides into lesser; and [Page 197] again into thousands of ramifications, which support the life of this most populous city.

NO one ought to be ignorant that this unspeakable benefit is owing to a WELSHMAN! Sir HUGH MIDDELTON, of Denbigh; who, on September 20th, 1608, began, and on September 29th, 1613, completed the great work. He brought the water from Amwell, in Hertfordshire, a distance of twenty, but, from the ne­cessity of making a detour to avoid hills and vallies, it was increas­ed to thirty-eight miles three-quarters and sixteen poles. Yet it was impossible to escape difficulties. His daring spirit penetrated the hills in several places: and carried the river over two vallies. Over one it extended six hundred and sixty feet in length, and thirty in height; and over another, four hundred and sixty-two feet in length. The original source of this river was, by the vast increase of London, found inadequate to its wants. The New River company found it necessary to have recourse to another supply. They applied to parlement for powers to obtain it from the river Lee, the property of the city. London opposed the bene­fit intended its inhabitants; but in vain, parlement wisely deter­mined against their objections: so the blessing was forced upon them! and the river Lee supplies the greater part of the wants of the city. Sir HUGH MIDDELTON was ruined by the execution of his project. So little was the benefit understood, that, for above thirty years, the seventy-two shares, it was divided into, shared only five pounds apiece. Each of these shares was sold originally for a hundred pounds. Within this twelvemonth they were sold at nine thousand pounds a share; and lately at ten thou­sand: and are increasing, because their profits increase, on which their dividends are grounded. Half of the seventy-two shares [Page 198] are called king's shares, and are in less estimation than the others, because subject to a grant of five hundred pounds a year, made so long ago as the reign of James I. when the water was first brought to London, or soon after.

I NOW descend to the Temple, and resume my journey along Fleet-street, as far as the southern extremity of the walls of London, the antient precinct; to follow them to their opposite end near the Tower; to describe their neighboring suburbs, and the parts of the city bordering on their interior sides. These, with the city itself, shall form the final consideration, together with the suburbs which point to Blackwall, and form a street of amazing extent.

ST. DUNSTAN'S CHURCH.JUST beyond the entrance into Chancery-lane, is St. Dunstan's church. The saint to whom it was dedicated was a person of great ingenuity; and excelled in painting, engraving, and music. From the following lines it appears that he was the inventor of the Aeolian harp:

St. Dunstan's harp fast by the wall,
Upon a pin did hang a,
The harp itself, with ly and all,
Untouch'd by hand did twang a *.

For this he was represented to king Athelstan as a conjuror. He was an excellent workman in brass and iron. It was when thus employed at his forge, that he seized the devil by the nose with the red-hot tongs, till he roared again. The daemon had visited him in a female form, and suffered for intruding on this woman-hating saint.

[Page 199]HIS church is probably of very antient foundation: yet the first mention of it is in 1237, when the abbot and convent of Westminster bestowed it on Henry III; who bestowed the profits on the Domus Conversorum, or the house for converted Jews. The two figures of savages on the outside of the clock, striking the quarters with their clubs, were set up in 1671, and are much admired by the gaping populace.

NEXT to the Temple, is another Serjeant's-Inn, destined, origi­nally, for the same purpose as that in Chancery-lane. And nearer to the Thames, a little east of the King's-bench Walks, THE WHITE FRIARS. stood the church and convent of Carmelites, or White Friars; founded in 1241, by Sir Richard Grey, ancestor of the lord Greys of Codnor. Edward I. bestowed on them more ground, that they might en­large their buildings. The order originated from the hermits of Mount Carmel, who inhabited the mountain which Elias and Eliseus inhabited. On the dissolution its revenues were £. 63. 2s. 4d. Part of the house was granted by Henry to Richard Moresque; and the chapter-house, and other parts, to his physician William Butts, immortalized by Shakespear. Edward VI. be­stowed the house inhabited by Doctor Butts, together with the church, to the bishop of Worcester, and his successors. It was afterwards demolished, with all its tombs, and several houses, in­habited in the reign of Edward VI. by people of fashion. That church was built by Sir Robert Knolles, a great warrior in the time of Edward III. and Richard II; who was honorably interred here in 1407. John Mowbray, earl of Nottingham, in 1382, in his youthful years. Elizabeth wife of Henry earl of Kent, who had wasted his substance by gaming. That noble family had for [Page 200] some time a house in the White Friars. John lord Gray, son to Reginald lord Gray, of Wilton, in 1418: and numbers of others of the common gentry.

BOLT-COURT.I MUST by no means omit Bolt-court, the long residence of Doctor SAMUEL JOHNSON, a man of the strongest natural abili­ties, great learning, a most retentive memory, of the deepest and most unaffected piety and morality, mingled with those numerous weaknesses and prejudices which his friends have kindly taken care to draw from their dread abode. I brought on myself his transient anger, by observing, that in his tour in Scotland he once had ‘long and woeful experience of oats being the food of men in Scotland, as they were of horses in England. It was a national reflection unworthy of him, and I shot my bolt. In re­turn he gave me a tender hug *. Con amore, he also said of me. The dog is a Whig . I admired the virtues of lord Russel, and pitied his fall. I should have been a Whig at the Revolution. There have been periods since, in which I should have been, what I now am, a moderate Tory; a supporter, as far as my little influence extends, of a well-poised balance between the crown and people: but, should the scale preponderate against the Salus populi, that moment may it be said, The dog's a Whig!

SALISBURY-COURT.FARTHER to the west of White Friars, is Salisbury-court, once the inn or city mansion of the bishops of Salisbury; afterwards of the Sackvilles: held at first by a long lease from the see, and then [Page 201] changed by bishop Jewel, for a valuable consideration from that great family. It was successively called Sackville-house, and Dor­set-house. The great lord Buckhurst, created by James I. earl of Dorset, wrote here his Porrex and Ferrex, a tragedy,DORSET-HOUSE. which was performed at Whitehall, before queen Elizabeth. He was equally great as a statesman and author. Here also died two of his suc­cessors: the last was the gallant earl (of whom lord Clarendon gives so great a character) who retired here on the murder of his royal master, and never after quitted the place.

THE house being pulled down,THEATRE. was succeeded by other build­ings, among which was a magnificent theatre, built after the Restoration, by Sir Christopher Wren; in which the company of comedians, called the duke of York's servants, performed under the patentee, Sir William Davenant. Here Betterton, and the best actors of the time, entertained the public, till its taste grew so de­praved that the new manager, Doctor Davenant, was obliged to call in aid, music and rich scenery, to support his house.

THE church of St. Bride's, with its fine steeple, built by the same great architect, but lost in the various houses of the street,ST. BRIDE'S CHURCH. stands farther on, on the south side. It was dedicated to St. Brid­get; whether she was Irish, or whether she was Scotch; whether she was maiden, or whether she was wife, I will not dare to determine the contest. Her church was originally small; but, by the piety of William Viner, warden of the Fleet about the year 1480, was enlarged with a body and side-ailes, and ornamented with grapes and vine-leaves, in allusion to his name. It was destroyed by the great fire, and rebuilt soon after in its present form.

NOT far from this church lived the famous printer, Wynkyn de [Page 202] Worde, at his inn or house, the Faulcon; but I find he enprynted his Fruyte of Tymes, in 1515, at the sygne of the sonne, in Fleet-street.

BRIDEWELL.NOT far from the White Friars, near the west side of Fleet-ditch, was a well, dedicated to one of the St. Brides, or Bridgets. This gave name to the parish-church, and the ancient palace of Bridewell, which was honored with the residence of several of our monarchs, even as early as king John. It was formed partly out of the remains of an antient castle,ARX PALATINA. the western Arx Palatina of the city, which stood near the little river Fleet, near to the Thames. In 1087, William the Conqueror gave many of the choicest materials towards the rebuilding of St. Paul's cathedral, which had been destroyed by fire. And Henry I. gave as many of the stones, from the walls of the castle-yard, as served to inclose and form the gates, and precinct of the church. Notwithstanding this, the dwelling remained, and became the residence of several of our monarchs *. To this palace that arbitrary prince convened all the abbots, and other heads of religious houses, English and foreign, and squeezed out of them a hundred thousand pounds; in those days an enormous sum. From the Cistercians, who would not own his supremacy, not less than thirty-three thousand. Henry VIII. rebuilt the palace, in a most magnificent manner, for the reception of the emperor Charles V. who visited England in 1522. After all the expence, the emperor lodged in Black Friars, and his suite in the new palace; and a gallery of communication was flung over the ditch, and a passage cut through the city wall [Page 203] into the emperor's apartments. The king often lodged here, particularly in 1529, when the question of his marriage with queen Catherine was agitated at Black Friars. It fell afterwards into decay, and was begged by the pious prelate Ridley, from Edward VI. to be converted to some charitable purpose.HOUSE OF CORRECTION. That of a house of correction was determined on, for vagabonds of each sex and all denominations. The first time I visited the place, there was not a single male prisoner, and about twenty female. They were confined on a ground-floor, and employed in beating of hemp. When the door was opened, by the keeper, they ran towards it like so many hounds in kennel; and presented a most moving sight: about twenty young creatures, the eldest not ex­ceeding sixteen, many of them with angelic faces, divested of every angelic passion; and featured with impudence, impenitency, and profligacy; and cloathed in the silken tatters of squalid finery. A magisterial! a national opprobrium!!!—What a disad­vantageous contrast to the Spinhuis, in Amsterdam, where the con­fined sit under the eye of a matron spinning or sewing, in plain and neat dresses, provided by the public. No trace of their former lives appears in their countenances; a thorough reformation seems to have been effected, equally to the emolument and honor of the republic. This is also the place of confinement for dis­obedient and idle apprentices. They are kept separate, in airy cells; and have an allotted task to be performed in a certain time. They, the men and women, are employed in beating hemp, pick­ing oakum, and packing of goods, and are said to earn their maintenance.

BUT Bridewell is not only a prison for the dissolute,A HOUSE OF INDUSTRY. but a hos­pital [Page 204] for the education of the industrious youth. Here twenty Arts masters (as they are styled) consisting of decayed tradesmen, such as shoemakers, taylors, flax-dressers, and weavers, have houses, and receive apprentices, who are instructed in several trades; the masters receiving the profit of their labors. After the boys have served their time with credit, they are payed ten pounds to begin the world with; and are entitled to the freedom of the city. They are dressed in blue, with a white hat. The procession of these, and the children of Christ's Hospital, on Easter Monday and Tuesday, to St. Bride's church, affords to the humane the most pleasing spectacle, as it excites the reflection of the mul­titudes thus rescued from want, profligacy, and perdition. The number of vagrants, and other indigent and miserable people, received into this house the last year, was seven hundred and six­teen; many of whom had physic, and other relief, as their neces­sities required, at the expence of the hospital.

COURT OF JUSTICE.SOME of the original building yet remains; as does the magni­ficent flight of antient stairs, which leads to the present court of justice, which is a handsome apartment. Contiguous to it is the room of punishment; but in our mild country, no other instru­ment is to be seen in it but a large whipping stocks. This is said to have been the place in which the sentence of divorce was pro­nounced against the worthy princess, which had been concluded on in the opposite monastery.

HALL. FINE PICTURE BY HOLBEIN.THE hall opens into the court-room. Over the chimney is the celebrated portrait of Edward VI. by Holbein, representing that monarch bestowing the charter of Bridewell, to Sir George Barnes, the lord mayor: by him is William earl of Pembroke, a great [Page 205] favorite and distinguished character; and Thomas Goodrich, bishop of Ely, and lord chancellor of England: and in a corner is the head of the celebrated painter. There are doubts whether this picture was completed by Holbein; for his death, and that of the king, very soon followed the solemnity it records.

SIR William Withers, lord mayor of London, is painted, repre­sented on horseback. He was president in 1741, and bestowed on this hospital the iron gates and marble pavement.

SIR William Turner, in long hair, furred robe, and gold chain; the face very fine. This gentleman was lord mayor in 1669; a native of Kirk Leedham, in Yorkshire, and a most liberal benefactor to his native place. He was painted by Mr. Beale, for Mr. Knollys, who presented it to the governors of Bridewell.

ANOTHER portrait, of Sir Robert Geoffry, with long wig, and furred robes, dated 1593. Two very fine portraits, of Charles II. sitting, and James II. standing, by Lely. Finally, a picture of Slingsby Bethel, esq lord mayor in 1756; the last work of the painter Hudson.

THE creek, called Fleet-ditch, FLEET-DITCH. had its entrance from the Thames immediately below Bridewell; and reached as far as Holborn-bridge, at the foot of Holborn-hill; and received into it the little river Fleet, Turnmill brook, and another called Oldbourn, which gave name to that vast street. The tide flowed up as high as Holborn-bridge, and brought up barges of considerable burden. Over it were four stone bridges, and on the sides extensive quays and warehouses. It was of such utility, that it was scoured and kept open at vast expence; and, not later than 1606, near twenty-eight thousand pounds were expended for that purpose.

[Page 206]IN the performing of this work, at the depth of fifteen feet, were found several Roman utensils; and a little deeper, a great quan­tity of Roman coins, in silver, copper, brass, and other metals, but none in gold. At Holborn-bridge were found two brazen Lares, about four inches long; one a Bacchus, the other a Ceres. It is a probable conjecture that these were thrown in by the affrighted Romans, at the approach of the enraged Boadicia, who soon took ample revenge on her insulting conquerors. Here were also found numbers of Saxon antiquities, spurs, weapons, keys, seals, &c.; also medals, crosses, and crucifixes, which might likewise have been flung in on occasion of some alarm.

THIS canal was afterwards neglected, and became a nusance; was filled up, and a sewer formed beneath to convey the water to the river. The fine market, which extends the whole length of the old ditch, rose in its place in 1733; in which year an act was passed to empower the lord mayor and citizens to fill up the ditch at their own expence, and to vest the see-simple of the ground in them and their successors for ever. I recollect the present noble approach to Blackfriars-bridge, the well-built open­ing of CHATHAM-PLACE, a muddy and genuine ditch. This had been the mouth of the creek, which, as Stow informs us, in 1307 was of depth and width sufficient ‘that ten or twelve ships navies at once, with merchandizes, were wont to come to the aforesaid bridge of Fleete *.’ It must be recollected, that at this period there were drawbridges upon London-bridge, through which ships of a certain size might pass, and discharge their car­goes in the mouth of the Fleet.

[Page 207]THIS end of Blackfriars-bridge now fills the filthy mouth of Fleet-ditch. BLACKFRIARS-BRIDGE. This elegant structure was built after the design of Mr. Robert Mylne. It consists of nine arches, the center of which is a hundred feet wide. The whole length nine hundred and ninety-five feet; the breadth of the carriage-way twenty-eight feet; of the two footways seven each. Over each pier is a recess, an apology for the beautiful pairs of ionic pillars which support them. The effect of this singular application of columns is beautiful from the river. The equinoctial tides rise here to the heighth of eigh­teen or twenty feet.—The first stone of this bridge was laid on October 30th, 1760; and it was completed about the latter end of the year 1768; at the expence of £. 152, 840. 3s. 10d *. The magnificent prospect from the top is so well described in the Tour through London (a little book that no walker of taste should be without) that I must refer my reader to that judicious and pleasing compilation, to which I freely acknowlege my frequent obliga­tion.

ON the east side of Fleet-market, stands the Fleet-prison, FLEET-PRISON. for debtors, founded at lest as early as the first of Richard I. It was also the place of confinement for such who had incurred the displeasure of that arbitrary court, the Star Chamber. This pri­son became such a scene of cruelty, that, in the year 1729, a most benevolent set of gentlemen, prototypes of the GOOD HOWARD, formed themselves into a committee, to search into the horrors of the gloomy gaol.

Unpitied, and unheard, where misery moans,
Where sickness pines, where thirst and hunger burns,
[Page 208]And poor misfortune feels the lash of vice,
While in the land of liberty. The land
Whose every street and public meeting glow
With open freedom, little tyrants rag'd;
Snatch'd the lean morsel from the starving mouth;
Tore from cold wint'ry limbs the tatter'd weed;
Even robb'd them of the last of comforts, sleep;
The free-born Briton to the dungeon chain'd,
Or, as the lust of cruelty prevail'd,
At pleasure mark'd him with inglorious stripes;
And crush'd out lives by secret barbarous ways.

All these barbarities were realized. The House of Commons, the year preceding, had taken up the enquiries *; and found that Hug­gins, warden of the Fleet, and Bambridge, his deputy, and William Acton, turnkey, had exercised most shocking cruelties. Those monsters were tried for the murder of five unhappy men, who died under the most horrid treatment from them. Yet, notwith­standing the prosecution was recommended from the throne, and conducted by the ablest lawyers, to the concern of all good men these wretches escaped their merited punishment .

PROFLIGATE MARRIAGES.IN walking along the street, in my youth, on the side next to this prison, I have often been tempted by the question, Sir, will you be pleased to walk in and be married? Along this most lawless space was hung up the frequent sign of a male and female hand conjoined, with, Marriages performed within, written beneath. [Page 209] A dirty fellow invited you in. The parson was seen walking be­fore his shop; a squalid profligate figure, clad in a tattered plaid night-gown, with a fiery face, and ready to couple you for a dram of gin, or roll of tobacco. Our great chancellor, lord HARD­WICK, put these daemons to flight, and saved thousands from the misery and disgrace which would be entailed by these extempo­rary thoughtless unions.

I SHALL now give a general view of the Walls, CITY WALLS. the antient de­fence of the city; and of the Town-ditch, a work of considerable labor. In my progress I shall point out whatsoever was remark­able in the adjacent suburbs, or the parts within the city which border on the walls. There never was any alteration made in the course of this first precinct, which was preserved through all succeeding ages; and in every reparation or additional strength which was thought necessary. Its direction was from the first irregular. The Romans, as was frequently the case, consulted the necessity of the ground *. It commenced at the Palatine-tower, ran in a strait line along the eminence of Ludgate-hill, and above Fleet-ditch, as far as Newgate; then suddenly was carried north­erly to a spot a little beyond Aldersgate, and at that place ran strait in a northern direction almost to Cripplegate; from whence it resumed a strait eastern course as far as Bishopsgate, in which a long remnant of the wall, still called London Wall, is to be seen. From Bishopsgate it assumes a gentle curvature pointed to the Tower, over the site of which it originally passed, and pro­bably finished in a Castellum in this, as it did in the western extre­mity. Another wall guarded the river, and ran the whole length [Page 210] of the south side of the city, on the direction of the vast street called Thames-street. But all this I shall particularize in my walk round the antient walls.

TOWN-DITCH.I SHALL first mention another considerable addition to the strength of those fortifications. The Town-ditch was a stupendous piece of work, began in the reign of king John, in 1211, by the Londoners themselves, possibly as a protection against their own monarch; who, in resentment to them, had just removed the Ex­chequer to Northampton. It was two hundred feet broad, and extended, on the outside of the walls, from Tower-ditch quite to Christ's Hospital. Notwithstanding the multitude of hands em­ployed, it was not finished in less than two years. It was filled with water, as is evident from the quantity of good fish Stow in­forms us was taken in it *. The citizens for some centuries were at great expence in cleansing and keeping it open: but, after the last attempt, in 1595, the work was given over, it became stable land, and was soon covered with buildings.

THE western wall terminated near the river with a sort, which I apprehend to have been the castle of Montfitchet, soon to be mentioned.

BLACK FRIARS.WITHIN the walls, opposite to Bridewell, stood the great house of Black Friars, or Dominicans; founded by the interest and ex­hortations of Robert Kilwarby, archbishop of Canterbury, about 1276; when Gregory Rocksley, and the barons of London, pre­sented him with the ground. Edward I. and his queen Elianor became great benefactors; by the assistance of whom, the arch­bishop built the monastery, and a large church richly ornamented. [Page 211] This obtained every immunity which any religious house had. Its precinct was very large, had four gates, and contained numbers of shops; the inhabitants of which were subject only to the king, the superior of the house, and their own justices. It also became a sanctuary for debtors, and even malefactors; a privilege which it preserved even long after the suppression of religious houses.

To make way for this foundation, two lanes were pulled down, and part of the city wall; which last was rebuilt immediately by a charter granted by Edward I. for that purpose.CASTLE OF MONTFICHET. The castle of Montfichet also fell a sacrifice to this house. It was built by Gil­bert de Montfichet, a follower of the Conqueror: and, growing ruinous, by gift of the king the materials were used for the build­ing of the church, on the site of this antient tower. The church became a fashionable place of interment of people of rank; and to be buried in the habit of the order, was thought to be a sure pre­servative against the attacks of the devil. Among other illustri­ous personages was Hubert de Burgh, earl of Kent, and his wife Margaret, sister to Alexander II. king of Scotland; the heart of queen Elianor; lord Fanhope; that patron of learning John Tip­toft, earl of Worcester, beheaded in 1470; James Touchet, earl of Audley, beheaded in 1497; Sir Thomas Brandon, knight of the Garter; William Courteney, earl of Devonshire; and much other great and noble dust.

IN the same church were also held several parlements. The remarkable one of 1450, in the reign of Henry VI. was adjourned from Westminster to this place; here the weak monarch vainly endeavoured to divert the storm raised by his subjects against the favorite of his queen, William de la Pole, duke of Suffolk; and by a poor expedient, a simulated exile, drove him to instant death.

[Page 212]HERE, in 1524, Henry VIII. held another, in order to oppress his subjects with an aid of eight hundred thousand pounds, to carry on his imprudent wars. The virtue of the commons resisted the demand, and gave him ony a moderate tax. This was called the Black parlement, as it began amongst the Black Monks, at Westminster; and ended among the Black Friars.

HERE cardinal Campeggio, and cardinal Wolsey, sat, in 1529, as judges and legates, on the question of divorce between Henry and the ill-fated princess Catherine of Arragon; Henry and his queen at that time residing in the palace of Bridewell, ready to attend the farcical citations of that court. And in this place Wolsey him­self fell from all his greatness; for here began the parlement which gave the sentence of premunire, the last stroke to all his prospe­rity.

WITH all the great events which honored this house, its reve­nues, at the dissolution, were only one hundred pounds fifteen shillings and five pence. Bishop Fisher held it in commendam; and in 1538, with fifteen brethren, surrendered it to the king. Edward VI. afterwards granted it to Sir Thomas Cawarden.

IN the reign of queen Elizabeth, the Black Friars became a place much inhabited by people of fashion. Among others, lord Herbert, son of William, fourth earl of Worcester, had a house here, which queen Elizabeth, in 1600, honored with her presence, on occasion of his nuptials with the daughter and heiress of John lord Russel, son of Francis earl of Bedford. The queen was met at the water-side by the bride, and carried to her house in a lectica by six knights; her majesty dined there, and supped in the same neighborhood, with lord Cobham; where there was ‘a memora­ble maske of 8 ladies, and a straunge dawnce new invented. [Page 213] Their attire is this: each hath a skirt of cloth of silver; a rich wastcoat wrought with silkes, and gold and silver; a mantell of carnacion taffete, cast under the arme; and there haire loose about there shoulders, curiously knotted and interlaced. Mrs. Fitton leade; these 8 ladys maskets choose 8 ladies more to dawnce the measures. Mrs. Fitton went to the queen, and woed her dawnce: her majesty (the love of Essex rankling in her breast) asked what she was? Affection, she said: Affection! said the queen, Affection is false. Yet her majestie rose up and dawnced *.’ At this time the queen was sixty: surely, as Mr. WALPOLE observed, it was at that period as natural for her to be in love!—I must not forget, that in her passage from the bride's to lord Cobham's, she went through the house of Doctor Puddin, and was presented by the doctor with a fan.—The Count de Tillier, ambassador of France, in the latter end of the reign of James I. resided here. During his residence in England, the dreadful acci­dent, called the Fatal Vespers, happened near his house. A cele­brated preacher of the order of the Jesuits, father Drury, FATAL VESPERS. gave a sermon to a large audience of British subjects, in a spacious room up three pair of stairs. In the midst of the discourse the floor fell, and ninety-four persons, besides the preacher, perished. It is disgusting to reflect on the uncharitable bigotry of the times. The Protestants considered the accident as a judgment on the Catholics, for their idolatry: the Catholics attributed it to a plot of the Protestants, to bring destruction on their dissenting bre­thren.

APOTHECARIES-HALL is within this precinct;APOTHECARIES-HALL. a large and [Page 214] handsome building, in which medicines of all kinds are prepared, and sold at a cheap rate: here also are made up the chests of medicines for the army and navy. It was finished in 1670: but I am not acquainted with the time of the first establishment of this useful institution: perhaps in that of James I. there being in the hall the portrait of that monarch, and a bust of his apothe­cary, Gideon Dilaune.

KING'S PRINT­ING-HOUSE.WITHIN this district was the King's Printing-house; in which bibles, common prayers, proclamations, and every thing respecting the public, were heretofore printed. Here, in the time of Charles I. was made that dreadful omission, in the seventh commandment, of, Thou SHALT commit adultery; for which archbishop Laud very properly laid a heavy fine on the Stationers company, to whom the printing of the sacred book is committed by patent. The SPECTATOR wittily observes, that he fears that many young profli­gates, of both sexes, are possessed of this spurious edition, and ob­serve the commandment according to that faulty reading.

LUDGATE.THE first gate in this southern part of the walls is Ludgate, which stood on the middle of Ludgate-hill. This, and every other gate in the city, are at present pulled down, Temple-bar excepted. Ludgate was built during the wars of the barons with king John: in 1215, they entered the city, and destroyed the houses of the devoted Jews; and with their houses repaired the walls, and built this gate. When it was taken down to be re­built, in 1586, a stone, with this inscription in Hebrew, was found lodged in the wall. ‘This is the ward of Rabbi Moses, the son of the honorable Rabbi Isaac. It was in my memory a wretched prison for debtors; it commenced what was called a free-prison, in 1373, but soon lost that privilege. It was enlarged, [Page 215] and had the addition of a chapel, by Sir Stephen Forster, on a very romantic occasion. He himself had been confined there, and, begging at the grate, was accosted by a rich widow, who asked him what sum would purchase his liberty. She payed it down, took him into her service, and afterward married him. In the chapel was an inscription in honor of him and Agnes his wife, dated 1454, the year in which he enjoyed the honor of being lord mayor of the city.

THIS gate gave a conclusion to the rebellion of Sir Thomas Wyat. When he had, with some loss, led his forces along the Strand and Fleet-street, in hopes of being joined by the citizens, he found it shut against him, and strongly manned; seized with de­spondency, he retreated a little down the hill, and, flinging himself on a bench opposite to the inn called The Bell Savage, began to re­pent the rashness of his enterprize and lament his folly. He was summoned by a herald to submit; which he agreed to, requesting that it might be to a gentleman; and accordingly yielded him­self into the hard of Sir Maurice Berkely, or Sir Clement Par­ton *.

THE Bell Savage continues an inn to this day:BELL SAVAGE. but the sign is disused. Stow says that it received its name from one Isabella Savage, who had given the house to the company of Cutlers. The painter gave it a very diverting origin, deriving it from a Bell and a Wild Man; so painted a bell, with a savage man standing by it. The SPECTATOR alone gives the real derivation; which is from La Belle Sauvage, a beautiful woman, described in an old French romance as being found in a wilderness in a savage state .


[Page 216] OLD BAILEY.ON the outside of Ludgate, the street called the Old Bailey runs parallel with the walls as far as Newgate. In this street stood Sydney-house (at present occupied by a coach-maker) once the residence of the Sydnies, till they removed to Leicester-house *. The Sessions-house, in which criminals of the county of Middlesex, and the whole capital, are tried, is a very elegant building, erected within these few years. The entrance into the area is narrow, to prevent a sudden ingress of mob. Above it is the figure of Justice. Every precaution has been taken to keep the court airy, and to prevent the effect of the effluvia arising from that dreadful dis­order the gaol-fever. The havoke it made in May, 1750, was a melancholy admonition to those interested in every court of jus­tice. My respected kinsman Sir Samuel Pennant, lord mayor; baron Clark; Sir Thomas Abney, judge of the common pleas; the under sheriff, some of the counsel, and several of the jury, and of other persons, died of this putrid distemper. Several of these fatal accidents have happened in this kingdom, which makes the sur­prize the greater, that the neglect of the salutary precautions was continued till the time of this awakening call.—MR. HOWARD has given us a view and plan of the great gaol of Newgate, as now rebuilt. Some of the defects of the old one are remedied: but this FRIEND TO MANKIND seems still to think it is not free from errors; and that, without great care, the prisoners are yet liable to the fatal fever, the result of one of those errors.

SURGEONS THEATERBY a sort of second sight, the Surgeons Theatre was built near this court of conviction and Newgate, the concluding stage [Page 217] of the lives forfeited to the justice of their country, several years before the fatal tree was removed from Tyburn to its present site. It is a handsome building, ornamented with ionic pilasters; and with a double flight of steps to the first floor. Beneath them is a door for the admission of the bodies of murderers, and other felons; who, noxious in their lives, make a sort of reparation to their fellow-creatures, by becoming useful after death.

THE new prison, which retains the name of Newgate, NEWGATE; from the gate which, till within these few years, formed a part of it, is immediately beyond the Sessions-house: a massy building, with an extensive front of rustic-work, with all the appearance of strength and security. Yet, in the infamous riots of 1780, the felons confined even in the strongest holds were released; stones of two or three tons in weight, to which the doors of their cells were fastened, were raised by that resistless species of crow, well-known to housebreakers by the name of the Pig's-foot. Such was the violence of the fire, that the great iron bars of the win­dows were eaten through; and the adjacent stones vitrified.

THE gate stood a little beyond this building:WHEN BUILT. as a military way has been traced under it, there can be no doubt but there had been one during the time the city was possessed by the Romans: but the place had been made up, and no vestiges of it left. The gate, which supplied its place, is supposed by Stow to have been erected between the years 1108 and 1128, when Richard Beau­veyes, bishop of London, by enlarging the precincts of St. Paul's, had obstructed the usual way under Ludgate, and made this new outlet necessary. Mr. Howel says, that the original name was Chamberlain-gate. It had been for ages a prison, even as long as [Page 218] the year 1218; and for persons of rank, long before the Tower was used for that purpose. Robert Baldock, chancellor to Edward III. was sent there; where, says Fabian, he ended his days misera­bly *: Sir Thomas Percie, lord Egremond, and other people of distinction, were committed to that prison in 1457. In 1412, this gate was rebuilt by the executors of the famous Sir Richard Whittington, out of the effects he had allotted for works of cha­rity: his statue, with the cat, remained in a nich to its final demolition, on the rebuilding of the present prison. It was de­stroyed in the fire of 1666, and rebuilt in its late form. It had one great arch, and one postern for passengers: and on each side a half hexagon tower.

NEW COMPTER.TO the north of Newgate, immediately across the street (and, with the east end of St. Sepulchre's church, forming the entrance of Giltspur-street) is lately built a vast pile, of a proper strength and simplicity, intended to supply the place of one or both of the city prisons, called Compters.—This, with the edifices just mention­ed, form all together a superb, but melancholy group of public buildings; and are a noble improvement of this spot; which, a few years ago, was much incumbered with a number of old houses, interrupting the free course of the air, the view, and the intercourse of passengers.

NEWGATE-STREET.IN Newgate-street, over the entrance into Bagnio-court, is a small sculpture in stone of William Evans, gigantic porter to Charles I. and his diminutive fellow-servant, Jeffry Hudson, dwarf to the same monarch. It was probably by his own consent that the latter was put into the pocket of the giant, and drawn out by him [Page]

King Charles 1st Porter & Dwarf



Boar in East Cheap




Sculpture in [...]anni [...] Ally



[Page 219] at a masque at court, to amaze and divert the spectators *. He had too much spirit to suffer such an insult, from even a Goliah: for little Jeffry afterwards commanded, with much reputation, a troop of horse in his majesty's service: and, in 1644, killed Mr. Crofts, in a duel; who had ventured to ridicule the irritable hero. Evans was seven feet and a half high. Hudson only three feet nine inches.

THE Bagnio in this court seems the first we had in our capital:BAGNIOS. a neat contrived building, says Strype, after the Turkish fashion, for the purposes of sweating and hot-bathing; and much approved by the physicians of the time. It probably was somewhat of the nature of Dominicetti's plan. At length it became, besides, a sort of Hotel, or lodging-house, for any short space. This, and the Hummums in Covent-garden, were the only houses of the kind which supported a fair character; till Pero's, in St. James's-street, was set up: since which, the conveniency of Hotels, on the French model, is universally experienced.

IN the wall of a house in Pannier-all [...]y, in this, or rather Blow­bladder-street, is a figure in [...]one of a naked boy, sitting on some­thing like a pannier; and beneath is this inscription:

When you have sought the citty round,
Yet still this is the highest ground.
Aug. 27, 1688.

The stone has very much the appearance of an antient sepulchral one; and might have had the inscription cut on it to inform the public of the elevated situation of the place.

[Page 220] CHURCH OF ST. SEPULCHRE.THE church of St. Sepulchre, or the holy sepulchre, before-men­tioned, stands at a small distance from the site of the gate, on the north side of Snow-hill. It was dedicated to the holy sepulchre at Jerusalem: but whether the original church, which was of a great size, and long since demolished, was of the form of that in Judea, is unknown. It was rebuilt in the reign of Henry VI. or Edward IV. Popham, chancellor of Normandy, who is mentioned as having been buried in the church of the Chartreux, was a great benefactor to this church. The famous captain John Smith, who perhaps under­went more romantic adventures, and deeds of arms, than any man who ever existed, rested here, in 1631, from his turmoils. I refer to his history for his wondrous acts of chivalry; for the kindness he experienced among the Turks, from the beauteous lady Tragebysanda! the charitable lady Calamata! and the blessed Pokahontas! the great king of Virginia's daughter.

A SOLEMN exhortation was formerly given to the prisoners, appointed to die at Tyburn, in their way from Newgate. Mr. Robert Dow, merchant taylor, who died in 1612; left 26s. 8d. yearly for ever, that the bell-man should deliver from the wall to the unhappy criminals, as they went by in the cart, a most pious and aweful admonition. And also another, in the prison of New­gate, on the night before they suffered. I give them in the note, as they are affectingly good *.



[Page 221]FROM a little beyond Newgate, the walls take a north-easternly direction, as far as Aldersgate.

I STILL pursue my journey along the northern suburbs; pass into Aldersgate-street, near the site of its antient gate. Aldersgate-street [Page 222] is open and airy, and remarkable for the antiquity of several of its houses.LONDON-HOUSE. London-house, the residence of the later bishops of the diprese, is now no more: its place is covered with the warehouses of Mr. Sedd [...], the greatest and most elegant repository of goods in the article of the cabinet manufactory, in the world. Stow in­forms us it was once called Petre-house, having been the property of the lords Petre: an ancestor of theirs, Sir William Petre, who died in 1572, was a benefactor to the parish of St. Botclph, Alders­gate *, in which the family resided. I do not know the time when the family alienated the place, or when it became the resi­dence of the bishops of London; but suspect that they occupied their palace near St. Paul's, till it was destroyed in the great fire. London-house has long since been sold, under the powers of an act of parlement: and the house in St. James's-square (the present town-house of the bishops of London) purchased for their use. The last tenant of London-house was, I think, old Rawlinson, the nonjuring titular bishop of London, who rented it. He died about twenty years ago; and left his antiquities to the university of Oxford.

THANET-HOUSE.ALMOST opposite to London-house, is Thanet-house. It was first called Dorchester-house, having been the residence of the marquis of Dorchester . In after times the town seat of the Tuftons, earls of Thanet: a magnificent old house, built about the time of Charles I. It was hired or purchased by the incendiary statesman lord Shaftsbury, for the purpose of living in the city, to inflame [Page 223] the minds of the citizens; among whom he used to boast he could raise ten thousand brisk boys by the holding up of his finger. He attempted to get into the magistracy; but, being disappointed in his views, and terrified at the apprehension of the detection of a conspiracy, he had entered into against his prince, fled, in 1683, into Holland, where he soon died of the gout, heightened by rage, and frustrated ambition *. This house, after undergoing various fortunes, in 1750 was converted into a lying­in hospital; a most humane institution, supported by voluntary contributions, which doth great honor to its patrons.

IN this street was also the town house of the Nevils, WESTMORELAND AND NORTHUMBER­LAND HOUSES. earls of Westmoreland; a magnificent pile, now frittered into various tene­ments, but still keeps its name under that of Westmoreland court. The other great northern family was lodged not far from hence, but within the walls, in a street now called Bull-and-Mouth street; the Percies, earls of Northumberland: but the business of those potent peers was chiefly in the camp; for they seldom visited town but to brave the sovereign or the favorite.

LAUDERDALE-HOUSE stood on the east side of the northern end of the street. It was the town seat of the duke of Lauderdale: LAUDERDALE-HOUSE. but its place is now covered with the distillery belonging to Messrs Bote and Walsh.

[Page 224]THE Bull-and-Mouth Inn, not far from the site of the gate, must not be passed by, on account of the wonderful perversion of the name. It originally signifies the mouth of Boulogne Harbour; which grew into a popular sign after the costly capture of that place by Henry VII.

BARBICAN.THE Barbican, which I mentioned, at page 9, as originally a Roman Specula, or watch-tower, lay a little to the north of this street. It was an appendage to most fortified places. The Saxons gave them the title of Burgh-kenning. They were esteemed so important, that the custody was always committed to some man of rank. This was entrusted to the care of Robert Ufford, earl of Suffolk, by Edward III. by the name of Base-court; which de­scended, by the marriage of Cecilia, one of his daughters, to Sir John Willoughby, afterwards, lord Willoughby, of Parham. In the reign of queen Mary, it was possessed by Catherine, widow of Charles Brandon, duke of Suffolk, in her own right baroness Wil­loughby, of Ereshy; and then wife of Thomas Bertie, ancestor of the duke of Ancaster: this lady, in her zeal against popery, had dressed a dog in a rochet or surplice, used by bishops; and, in affront to bishop Gardiner, had named a dog after him *. This induced her and her husband to quit their house at the Barbican, and retire into foreign parts, till the danger was over. The man­sion was called Willoughby-house, was of a great size, and inhabited by her son, who was called Peregrine, because he happened to be born abroad during the flight of his parents.

BRIDGEWATER-HOUSE.THE earls of Bridgewater had also a house in the Barbican, [Page 225] called after their title. It was burnt down in 1675, and lord Brackley, eldest son of the then earl, and a younger brother, with their tutor, unfortunately perished in the flames. The site is now called Bridgewater-square, or garden. It was in the last century, at the time Newcastle was besieged, celebrated for its orchards, productive of such quantities of fruits, says Mr. EVELYN, as never were produced before or after that time. Mr. EVELYN attributes this to the decrease of smoke, resulting from the scarcity of coal in the capital from that event. He inveighs with great indigna­tion at the increase of that species of fuel; and at the introduction of so many manufactories, productive of smoke, which not only deformed our noblest buildings with the sooty tinge, but also, from the quantity of coal, brought on catarrhs, coughs, and con­sumptions, in a degree unknown in Paris, and other cities, who make use of wood only. His words are strong: ‘The city of London, says he, ‘resembles rather the face of mount Aetna, the court of Vulcan Stromboli, or the suburbs of Hell, than an as­sembly of rational creatures, and the imperial seat of our incom­parable monarch *.’ The project of this good and able writer, of supplying London with wood-fires, was certainly very humane: but, from the destruction of the woods even in his days, was as little feasible as it would be at present.

GARTER-PLACE was another great house in this quarter.GARTER-PLACE. It had been built by Sir Thomas Writhe, or Writhsley, garter king at arms, and uncle to the first earl of Southampton .

ST. ALBAN's church, in Wood-street, I mention on account of [Page 226] its antiquity, having been founded in the time of king Athelstan, or about 924. Stow relates, that Roman bricks were in his time to be seen mixed with the building *. Athelstan had also a house near, which gave name to Adel-street, or King Adel-street, as it is called in old writings .

HEAD OF JAMES V.IN this church, flung among Plebeian sculls, was the head of the unfortunate James V. of Scotland. His body, for a long time, had remained embalmed at the monastery at Shene. After the dissolution, it was cast among some rubbish, where some work­men wantonly cut off the head; which was taken by Young, glazier to queen Elizabeth, who was struck with its sweetness, arising from the embalming materials. He kept it for some time at his house in Wood-street; but at last gave it to the sexton, to bury among other bones in the charnel-house . Such is often the end of ambitious greatness.

REDCROSS-STREET.FROM the Barbican, Redcross-street, one of the antient streets, points down towards Cripplegate. In it the mitred abbot of Ramsey had his town-house. It was afterward called Drury-house, from its having been in after-times the residence of Sir Drue Drury.

ST. GILES'S, CRIPPLEGATE.ON approaching Cripplegate, is the church of St. Egidius, St. Giles. That name always imports something of beggary: accord­ingly, this gate received its name from the number of cripples and beggars, with which it was haunted formerly. St. Giles was their patron; he was a noble Athenian, and of so great charity as at [Page 227] length to give away the very coat he wore on his back, which he bestowed on a sick beggar; who, no sooner put it on, but he was restored to health. The same legend relates also to St. Martin. He had in this very street a fraternity, founded by Henry V. who built here, for its use, a handsome house. In the church rest from their labors some of my brethren; such as John Speed, JOHN SPEED. the famous English historian and topographer; and Robert Glover, ROBERT GLOVER. Somerset herald, an indefatigable searcher of antiquities; and the zealous John Fox, the famous martyrologist.JOHN FOX.

NOT far from this church, within the walls, in Monkwell-street, BARBER SUR­GEONS-HALL. stands Barber Surgeons-hall; which is esteemed one of the best works of Inigo Jones. The theatre, for the operations, is ellipti­cal, and finely contrived. Since the separation of the company of the surgeons from that of the barbers, the building is in a manner deserted. Originally the chirurgic art, and that of shav­ing, went, in this city, hand in hand, as they do to this day in several parts of Europe. The barbers were first incorporated by Edward IV. in 1461; but, prior to that, they had been formed into a body by Thomas Morestead, surgeon to Henry IV, V, and VI, who died in 1450: and the grant had been solicited by him, Jacques Fries, physician to Edward IV, and John Hobbes, his physician and surgeon: at length it was incorporated by that prince, and his brother Glocester, in the name of St. Cosme and Damianus, brethren, physicians, and martyrs. The company pros­pered for some time, till, finding that numbers had crept in among them, less skilled in the lancet than the razor, from the want of power of examining into the skill of the chirurgical members, they obtained a new charter from Henry VIII. in which both pro­fessions were united. A fine picture by Holbein, PICTURE BY HOLBEIN. preserved in this [Page 228] hall, commemorates the event. Henry, in all his bluffness of ma­jesty, is represented giving them their new charter: among them is Doctor Butts, immortalized by Shakespeare, in his play of Henry VIII. There are seventeen of the company represented. I refer to the Gentleman's Magazine, for April, 1789, for their names. I may mention what the inquisitive author hath omitted; that John Chambre, physician to Henry VIII. was in orders, and was dean of the royal chapel and college, adjoining to Westminster-hall: and that Thomas Vycary, was a citizen of London, and ser­jeant surgeon to Henry VIII. * and the three succeeding sove­reigns. Aylif is another, who had been sheriff of London, and a merchant of Blackwell-hall. I relate part of his story from his epitaph:

In surgery brought up in youth,
A knight here lieth dead;
A knight, and eke a surgeon, such
As England seld hath bred.
For which so soveraigne gift of God,
Wherein he did excell;
King Henry VIII. call'd him to court,
Who lov'd him dearly well.
King Edward, for his service sake,
Bade him rise up a knight;
A name of praise, and ever since
He Sir John Ailife hight .

BY this charter, barbers were not to practise surgery, farther than drawing of teeth: and surgeons were strictly prohibited from [Page 229] the feat or craft of barbery, or shaving. Use was to make both perfect. But by the year 1745, it having been discovered, that the above arts were foreign to, and independent of each other, the barbers and the surgeons were, by act of parlement, sepa­rated, and made distinct corporations. It was very fit that an asso­ciation, which was now become ludicrous, should be dissolved: our surgeons began at that period to rise into great fame. True it is, that pupils then went to Paris to improve in the art: at pre­sent, Europe looks up to our surgeons as on the summit of the profession.

IT will be curious to turn back from these times to those of Henry VIII. to compare the state of surgery: when at one time there were very few, as Gale tells us, worthy to be called surgeons. His account of those employed in the army is very humorous. "I remember," says he, ‘when I was in the wars at Muttrel (Montreuil) in the time of that most famous prince king Henry VIII. there was a great rabblement, that took on them to be surgeons: some were sow-gelders, and some horse-gelders, with tinkers, and coblers. This noble sect did such great cures, that they got themselves a perpetual name; for, like as Thessalus's sect were called Thessalions, so was this noble rabblement, for their notorious cures, called Dog-leaches; for in two dressings they did commonly make their cures whole and found for ever; so that they neither felt heat nor cold, nor no manner of pain after. But when the duke of Norfolk, who was then general, understood how the people did die, and that of small wounds, he sent for me, and certain other surgeons, commanding us to make search how these men came to their death; whether it were by the grievousness of their wounds, or by the lack of knowledge of the surgeons; and we, according [Page 230] to our commandment, made search through all the camp; and found many of the same good fellows, which took upon them the names of surgeons; not only the names, but the wages also. We asking of them whether they were surgeons or no, they said they were; we demanded with whom they were brought up, and they, with shameless faces, would answer, either with one cunning man, or another, which was dead. Then we de­manded of them what chirurgery stuff they had to cure men withal; and they would shew us a pot, or a box, which they had in a budget; wherein was such trumpery as they did use to grease horses heels withal, and laid upon scabbed horses backs, with rewal, and such like. And others, that were cob­lers and tinkers, they used shoe-maker's wax, with the rust of old pans, and made therewithal a noble salve, as they did term it. But in the end, this worthy rabblement was committed to the Marshalsea, and threatened, by the duke's grace, to be hanged for their worthy deeds, except they would declare the truth what they were, and of what occupations; and in the end they did confess, as I have declared to you before *.’ I must not overlook another picture:DR. SCARBOROUGH. it is of Doctor Scarborough, after­wards Sir Charles, physician to Charles II. James II. and king William. He was early appointed, by the College of Physicians, to read anatomical lectures at this hall. He is dressed in the red gown, hood, and cap, of a doctor in physic; and is in the attitude of speaking: one hand on his breast, the other a little stretched out. On the left is another figure, the demonstrating surgeon, dressed in the livery-gown of the city of London; whose business it [Page 231] was to handle and shew the parts of the dissected bodies. Accord­ingly, he holds up the arm of a dead body, placed on a table, partly covered with a sheet, with the sternum naked, and laid bare, and the pectoral muscles appearing. He read these lectures with great applause sixteen or seventeen years; and deservedly attained the character of the ablest physician of his time, of great abilities and extensive learning *. He died in 1693. I never saw the elegy on Mr. Cowley, imputed to him by Mr. Granger: but the poet left one on his friend and physician, which he con­cludes with this advice:

Some hours at least on thy own pleasures spare,
Since the whole stock may soon exhausted be.
Bestow't not all in charitie.
Let Nature and let Art do what they please,
When all is done, Life's an incurable disease.

To the north-east of this hall, near St. Alphage's church,SION COLLEGE. op­posite to the western wall, is Sion College, founded on the site of Elsing Hospital or priory , by Thomas White, rector of St. Dun­stan's in the west, in the reign of queen Elizabeth; who gave three [Page 232] thousand pounds for the purchase and building the college. It is governed by a president, two deans, and four assistants, annually chosen: and all the clergy of London, and its suburbs, are fellows. They have under their care alms-houses for ten poor men, and as many women. John Sympson, rector of St. Olave's, who superin­tended the building *, added, at his own expence, for the use of the studious part of the London clergy, a library one hundred and twenty feet long; and amply filled with books. The origi­nal hospital was founded by William Elsing, mercer, in 1329 (on the site of a decayed nunnery) for the support of a hundred blind men. He afterwards changed it into a priory, and became him­self the first prior; who, with four canons regular, were to super­intend the miserable objects.

GRUD-STREET.I PASS by Cripplegate, by the south ends of Whitecross-street, and Grub-street: the last celebrated for the (supposed) residence of authors of the less fortunate tribe, and the trite jest of the more favored. In this same street dwelt John Fox, above-mentioned: and the very remarkable Henry Welby, esq of Lincolnshire, who lived in his house, in this street, forty-four years, without ever be­ing seen by any human being. He was to the hour of his death, (October 29th, 1636) possessed of a large estate; but an attempt being made on his life, by his ungrateful younger brother, he took the frantic resolution, thus to seclude himself from the world. He passed his days in most exemplary charity. His management, in his strange retreat, is too long to relate: the curious reader will find the whole in the 369th page of the Phoenix Britannicus.

THE Fletchers, Bowyers, Bowstring-makers, and of every thing [Page 233] relating to archery, inhabited, in old times, this street. It is the last street, in this part of the town, which was in being about the time of Aggas's map: all beyond (as far as Bishopsgate-street with­out) were gardens, fields, or morass: the last the original state of this part of the present London. FINSBURY, AND MOORFIELD [...]. This tract was in the manor of Finsbury, or rather Fensbury; and, in the days of the historian Fitzstephen, was an errant fen; of which he gives the following account, in his description of the pastimes of the citizens, in his time; in which is given the aukward substitute of the skate. "And," says the historian, ‘when that vast lake, which waters the walls of the city towards the north, is hard frozen, the youth in great numbers go to divert themselves on the ice; some tak­ing a small run, for an increment of velocity, place their feet at a proper distance, and are carried sliding sideways a great way. Others will make a large cake of ice, and, seating one of their companions upon it, they take hold of one's hands and draw him along, when it happens, that, moving swiftly on so slippery a plain, they all fall headlong. Others there are who are still more expert in these amusements on the ice; they place certain bones, the leg-bones of animals, under the soles of their feet, by tying them round their ankles, and then, taking a pole shod with iron into their hands, they push themselves forward by striking it against the ice, and are carried on with a velocity equal to the flight of a bird, or a bolt discharged from a cross­bow *.’

ON the north part of these fields stood the Dogge-house, DOG-HOUSE. in which were kept the hounds for the amusement of the lord mayor. [Page 234] Here resided the Common Hunt, an officer, the second in rank among those who formed the Praetorian establishment: Master Sword-bearer alone took place of him: Master Common Hunt followed him, and was to wait for his lordship's commands, on Mondays, Wednesdays, Fridays, and Saturdays *.

IT was, in the time of Edward II. of so little value, that the whole was let at the rent of four marks a year. It could only be passed over on causeways, raised for the benefit of travellers. In 1414, Thomas Fauconer, mayor, opened the postern in the wall, called Moorgate, MOORGATE. to give the citizens a passage into the country. He also began to drain this watery tract. In 1512, Roger Atch­ley, mayor, made further progress in the work . Successive at­tempts brought the ground into the state we see it at present: most part of which, except the still-neglected Moorfields, is covered with streets.

BETHLEM, OR BEDLAM.BETWEEN Bishopsgate and Moorfields stood the hospital of St. Mary of Bethlem; founded by Simon Fitz-mary, sheriff of London, in 1247, for a prior, canons, brethren, and sisters, of a peculiar order; subject to the visitation of the bishop of Bethlem. They were to be dressed in a black habit, and distinguished by a star on their breast . In 1403 most of the houses belonging to this hospi­tal were alienated, and only the master left, who did not wear the habit of the order. It seems to have been instituted for the recep­tion and cure of lunatics: and had dependent on it some lesser houses. Stow mentions one in St. Martin's in the Fields: but a [Page 235] certain king, disliking that persons under such unhappy circum­stances should be so near the royal palace, caused them to be re­moved to Bethlem, without Bishopsgate. In 1523, Stephen Gen­nings, merchant-taylor, with great humanity left by will forty pounds towards the purchasing of this hospital for the reception of lunatics. The mayor and commonalty had taken some steps to execute his design: but in 1545 were prevented by the muni­ficence of their monarch, who bestowed it on the city of London, when it was converted to the humane purpose of receiving persons laboring under this most dreadful of maladies. At first (the medical relief excepted) their expences were borne by their friends, or their parishes; but this edifice being found too small, and growing ruinous, in 1675 the lord mayor and aldermen, remov­ing the site to the present place, began the noble hospital we now see; and, great as it is, finished it in the next year, at the expence of seventeen thousand pounds. The front and wings extend five hundred and forty feet; and make a magnificent appearance. It was built on the plan of the palace of the Tuilleries, at Paris. Louis XIV. was so incensed that his palace should be made the model for a lunatic hospital, that it was said, he ordered a plan of the palace of our monarch at St. James's to be taken, for offices of the vilest nature *.

THE humanity of our nation, in 1734, was the cause that two large wings were added for the reception of incurables, of which there were lately one hundred, in that terrible state, maintained within these walls. The whole number of distracted people, ad­mitted in the last year, was two hundred and twenty-eight; cured [Page 236] and discharged, a hundred and eighty-nine; buried, fourteen; remained under cure two hundred and eighty.

OVER the gates are two capital figures, of raving and melan­choly Madness, the work of Caius Gabriel Cibber, the father of the admirable comedian and wit Colley Cibber. Pope satirizes himself, when he makes these fine figures the mere vehicle of abuse on the son, by calling them ‘His brazen brainless brothers.’ But Colley Cibber, after very long-suffering, took ample revenge, in a short but bitter Philippic against our great poet; which touched his pride so much as to contribute to bring him speedily to the grave.

ST LUKE's HOSPITAL.OPPOSITE to Bethlem Hospital, on the north side of Moorfields, stood the hospital of St. Luke, a long plain building, till of late appropriated to the same purposes, but totally independant of the former. It was founded on the humane consideration that Beth­lem was incapable of receiving all the miserable objects which were offered. Of late years, the patients were removed from the old hospital, to a new one, erected under the same name, in Old-street, on the plan of the former, extending in front three hundred and ninety-three feet. Since the first admission of patients, on July 30th, 1751, to the same day 1787, three thousand six hun­dred and seventy-five have been admitted: of which sixteen hun­dred and sixty-eight have been discharged cured: and twelve hundred and two uncured. The old hospital is now pulled down, and replaced by a handsome row of houses. By a very liberal regulation, uncured patients may be taken in again, on the pay­ment of five shillings a week: so that their friends may, if they [Page 237] please, try a second time the force of medicine on their unhappy relations or connections.

THE parish of St. Luke's was taken out of that of St. Giles's Cripplegate, by an act in his late majesty's reign. I mention it merely to direct the reader's attention to the steeple of the new church, which terminates most singularly in a fluted obelisc.

ON the west side of Moorfields is the Artillery Ground: ARTILLERY GROUND. a large piece of ground laid out for the purpose of proving the artillery; and for exercising the military belonging to the city. It was ori­ginally in Bishopsgate-street, where some land belonging to the priory of St. Mary Spittle was used for the same purpose. Wil­liam, last prior of this house, granted it, for three ninety-nine years, to the fraternity of artillery, or the gunners of the Tower, for the practice of great and small ordnance; and was long called the Artillery Garden. This society was greatly patronised by Henry VIII: his daughter Elizabeth favored it in a high degree; as became a princess whose dominions were threatened with per­petual invasion from her potent rival. The earl of Warwick (Am­brose Dudley) was master of the ordnance; under him, but more particularly under William Thomas, master gunner of the queen's ship the Victory, in 1584, the art was flung into system. Thomas proposed to the council, that the charter granted to the Fraternity by Henry should be confirmed, and that the earl of Warwick should be governor; and that a certain number of able gunners should be appointed to instruct in the art, and that none should be appointed to any of her majesty's ships or forts, but whom they should approve. This plan was rejected: and the ground remained to the gunners of the Tower *.

[Page 238] ARTILLERY COMPANY.IN 1585 a new military society arose in the city; which, in those affrighted times, finding itself grievously harrassed by continual musters and exercising of men, found a remedy in the gallant spirit of several of the citizens. A number (among whom were many skilful officers, who had served with credit abroad) formed themselves into a respectable body of volunteers, exercised them­selves, and trained others to the art of war. Within two years there were near three hundred merchants, and others, capable of training and teaching soldiers the management of their pieces, pikes, and halbards; to march, counter-march, and ring. They made a considerable figure at the camp at Tilbury, in the cele­brated year 1588. After that time, this useful discipline was neglected; but in 1610 it revived, and the volunteers became so numerous as to amount in time to six thousand men. The old place of exercise being too small for the purpose, they removed to the New Artillery Ground. In the year 1614, there was a gene­ral muster; and the citizens, bravely furnished, under twenty cap­tains, made a most creditable appearance. In 1622 they began to build on one side an armoury, which is excellently supplied. Charles II. when prince, and his brother James duke of York, entered into this company: and on the Restoration the duke him­self took the command, and called it his own company. The president, and other officers, consist of the leading persons in the city: and one of the royal family is captain-general. It consists of three hundred men.

BESIDES this military force, the city has six regiments of militia, commanded by gentlemen of the first rank in the city: these are under a lieutenancy peculiar to London; and are exercised.

IT was this body, then known by the name of the Trained-bands, [Page 239] which decided the fate of the civil war of the last century. On every occasion they behaved with the spirit and perseverance of the most veteran troops. They were commanded by Skippon, captain of the Artillery Garden, who had served long in Holland; and raised himself from a common soldier to the rank of captain, and proved himself an excellent officer. From the service he had been in, he came over with full prejudice against church and state, so was greatly in the confidence of his party *. He was totally illiterate; but his speeches to his soldiers had more weight in their ears than the finest oratory. On marching to join the earl of Essex, this was his speech: ‘Come, my boys, my brave boys, let us pray heartily, and fight heartily: I will run the same for­tune and hazards with you. Remember the cause is for GOD, and for the defence of yourselves, your wives, and children. Come, my honest brave boys, pray heartily and fight heartily, and GOD will bless you .’

ON the back of Bethlem hospital is a long street,LONDON WALL. called London Wall, from being bounded on the north by a long extent of the wall, in which are here and there a few traces of the Roman masonry.

A SMALL walk brought me to Bishopsgate-street Without. DEVONSHIRE-SQUARE. On the east side is Devonshire-square: the earls of Devonshire had a town-house near the street, which was called after their name. William, the second earl, died in it in 1628. It was originally built by Jasper Fisher, a clerk in Chancery. Stow calls it a large and beautiful house, with gardens of pleasure, bowling-allies, and [Page 240] the like. His vanity ruined him, and his house got the name of Fisher's Folly. It had a quick succession of owners. It belonged to Mr. Cornwallis; to Sir Roger Manners; and to Edward earl of Oxford, lord high chamberlain *, the same who is recorded to have presented to queen Elizabeth the first perfumed gloves ever brought into England. Her majesty lodged in this house in one of her visits to the city: probably when this gallant peer was owner. After him it fell to the Cavendishes; but that they resided in this neighborhood long before is to be supposed, as their an­cestor, Thomas Cavendish, treasurer of the exchequer to Henry VIII. interred his wife in St. Botolph's, the parish church: and by will, dated April 13th, 1523, bequeaths a legacy towards its repairs .

NEAR it was another fair house, built by one of our nobility, lord John Powlet ; I conjecture, an ancestor of the duke of Bolton. I imagine him to have been the second marquis of Win­chester, before he came to his title.

ST. MARY SPITTLE.ON the east side of the north end of this street stood the priory and hospital of St. Mary Spittle; founded, in 1197, by Walter Brune, sheriff of London, and Rosia his wife, for canons regular of the order of St. Augustine. It was noted for its pulpit cross, at which a preacher was wont to preach a sermon consolidated out of four others, which had been preached at St. Paul's Cross, on Good Friday, and the Monday, Tuesday, and Wednesday in Easter week; and then to give a sermon of his own. At all which ser­mons the mayor and aldermen were to attend, dressed on each occasion in different colored robes. This custom continued till [Page 241] the destruction of church government, in the civil wars of the last century. At the dissolution, here were found not fewer than a hundred and fourscore beds, well furnished for the reception of the poor *.

THE great population of this part of the town, called Spittle-fields, was owing to the blessed prosecutions of the Hugonots, in the reign of Louis le Grand; who sent thousands of his industrious subjects into our kingdom, to transfer to his bitterest enemies the arts and manufactures of his own kingdom. They flourished in this place to a great degree: at present they suffer a temporary depression from the giddiness of fashion, which, of late, prefers the vegetable material of cotton, to that produced from the antient silkworm .

IN April 1559, queen Elizabeth visited St. Mary Spittle in great state; possibly to hear a sermon given from the cross. She was attended by a thousand men in harness, with shirts of mail, and corslets, and morice pikes , and ten great pieces carried through London unto the court, with drums and trumpets sound­ing, and two morice-dancings, and in a cart two white bears.

IN 1617, numbers of lords, and others of the king's most honorable privy council (his majesty being then in Scotland) heard a sermon preached here by the Reverend Doctor Page, of Deptford; and afterwards rode with the lord mayor, Sir John Leman, fishmonger, to his house near Billingsgate, where they [Page 242] were entertained with a most splendid dinner *. In honor of Sir John, and his brother fishmongers, Anthony Monday wrote his Chrysonaleia, or Golden Fishing.

BISHOPSGATE-STREET WITHOUT.BISHOPSGATE-STREET WITHOUT, extends to Shoreditch, a long street, not named from Shore, the husband of the ill-fated Jane Shore, but from its lord, Sir John de Sordich, a person deeply skilled in the laws, and much trusted by Edward III. and who was sent by him, in 1343, to the pope Clement VI. to remonstrate to his holiness against his clame of presenting to English livings, and filling them with foreigners, who never resided on their cures, and drained the kingdom of its wealth. This, it may be easily supposed, the pope took much amiss; insomuch that Sir John thought it best to make a speedy retreat . It appears likewise that this knight was a very valiant man, and served the king with his sword, as well as his tongue.

LONG after, Shoreditch acquired much fame from another great man, Barlo, an inhabitant of this place, and a citizen; who acquired such honor as an archer, by his success in a shooting-match at Windsor, before Henry VIII. that the king named him on the spot Duke of Shoreditch. For a great series of years after this, the captain of the archers of London retained the title. On the 17th of September, 1583, the Duke (at the expence of the city) had a magnificent trial of skill: he sent a summons to all his officers, and chief nobility, with all their train of archery in and about London, to be ready to accompany him to Smithfield. In obedience, appeared the marquis of Barlo, and the marquis of [Page 243] Clerkenwell, with hunters who wound their horns: the marquises of Islington, Hogsden, Pankridge, and Shacklewell, who marched with all their train fantastically habited. Near a thousand had gold chains; and all were gorgeously attired. The sum of ar­chers were three thousand; their guards, with bills, four thousand; besides pages and henchmen. And the duke sallied out to meet them from Merchant Taylors hall *, to exhibit such a sight that was never seen before, nor ever will again: unless a combination of the modern societies of archers should treat the capital with the revival of this antient and worthy pageantry.

THE building of Bishopsgate, which divides the street,BISHOPSGATE. is attri­buted to Erkenwald, elected bishop of London in 675: the re­paration of it, to William, prelate at the time of the Conquest. Henry III. confirmed to the Hans merchants certain privileges, for which they were bound to support this gate. Accordingly, in 1479, it was elegantly rebuilt by them. In memory of the founder, and the first repairer, there were two statues of bishops: and besides, two others, conjectured to have been designed for Alfred, and Aeldred earl of Mercia, to whose care that great prince had committed the gate.

NOT far without the gate stands an inn or tavern,WHITE HART. called the White Hart, of most antient date, not less than 1480, which is still perpetuated in large figures in the front: but none of the origi­nal building appears to be left. I believe there are but very few houses in London remaining, of greater age than the time of queen Elizabeth, or James I. The great fire almost entirely destroyed those in the city. In Holborn, Broad St. Giles's, and St. John's [Page 244] Lane, Clerkenwell, are some old houses: in Catherine Wheel Alley, in this street, is a very old house in a ruinous state: and there are some also about Temple-bar. It is no wonder that we have so few; till about the year 1200 there were very few stone houses, and none tiled or slated: they were built with wood, and thatched with straw or reeds. In the year 1189, Richard I. ordered that they should be built with stone to a certain height, and that they should be covered with slate or burnt tile. This order was re­peated, but it was long before it was obeyed. This is not much to be wondered at; for, above a century afterwards, such simpli­city reigned, that one Peter Spileman made fine for his lands to Edward II. to find (among other things) litter for the king's bed, and hay for his horse *.

HOUND [...]DITCH.I WILL continue my journey eastward from Bishopssgate. On the outside, parallel to the walls, runs Houndsditch, now a long street, formerly a filthy ditch; which took its name from being the place into which dead dogs, and all manner of dirt was thrown. Into it, as worthy of no better sepulture, was thrown the noble Edric, the murderer of his master Edmund Ironside; after having been drawn by his heels from Baynard's-castle, and tormented to death by burning torches. Here it was customary for pious peo­ple to walk, on purpose to relieve the bed-ridden, who lay on a ground floor, covered with a neat cloth, and with a pair of beads, to shew to charitable passengers their helpless situation, and that they were incapable of doing more than pray for them.

DUKE'S PLACE.DUKE'S PLACE is a considerable place, much inhabited by the Jews: it stands on the site of the priory of the Holy Trinity, or [Page 245] Christ-church; founded, in 1108, by Matilda, wife to Henry I:PRIORY OF CHRIST-CHURCH. the prior was always an alderman of London, and of Portsoken ward; who, if he happened to be exceedingly pious, appointed a substitute to transact temporal matters. Norman was the first prior; and he and his successors rode, on solemn days, with the aldermen, but in their monastic habits. This is said to have been the richest priory in England; and possibly for that reason was selected to be the first which was dissolved *. Henry VIII. granted it to Sir Thomas Audley, afterwards lord chancellor of England; who inhabited the priory, and died there in 1554. By the marriage of his daughter and sole heiress Margaret, to Thomas duke of Norfolk, it was conveyed into the Howard family; and received the name of Duke's Place. In 1562, he rode through the city with his dutchess, to his residence here, attended by a hundred horse in his livery, with his gentlemen before him in coats guarded with velvet, preceded by the four heralds, Claren­cieux, Somerset, Red Cross, and Blue Mantle. So respectable was the appearance of our ancient nobility.

TWO gateways, and some parts of the ruins of this priory, may be still traced, enveloped in more modern buildings: some of the south transept may be discovered in certain houses; from which it appears that the architecture was of the round arch, or Saxon style .

A CURIOUS investigator of antiquities hath lately recovered the beautiful little chapel of St. Michael, near Aldgate, under the house of Mr. Relph, in Leadenhall-street . It is supposed to have [Page 246] been built by prior Norman, about the year 1108, in the gothic architecture. Its dimensions are forty-eight feet by sixteen; and is built with square pieces of chalk. The arches are very elegant, supported by ribs, which converge, and meet on the capitals of the pillars; which are now nearly buried in the earth; but are sup­posed to be covered with sixteen feet of soil. The whole addition of soil, since its foundation, is supposed to have been twenty-six feet; an amazing increase, which might almost occasion one to suspect it to have been the sub-chapel of some now-lost church.

THE church of St. James, Duke's Place, rose out of the ruins of this priory, in the time of James I. and the mayoralty of Sir Edward Barkham.

ALDGATE.EALDGATE, or Aldgate, which signifies Old Gate, stands in the place where the wall forms an angle, and takes a southerly direc­tion, and terminated in a postern near Tower-hill. It was one of the four principal gates; the Roman road passed under it, so one must have existed on the site in the earliest times. It was also one of the seven that had double doors, as was evident by the hinges, which existed in the time of Stow. Mention is made of it in the reign of Edgar, by the name of Ealdgate. In the fierce wars between king John and his barons, the latter entered the city through this gate, and committed great ravages among the houses of the religious. Their chieftains repaired, or rather re­built Aldgate, after the Norman manner; and made use of stone brought from Caen, and a small brick called the Flanders tile, which probably has been often mistaken for Roman. This gate was of great strength, and, what was peculiar to it, had a deep well within.

IN 1471, the Bastard Falconbridge, at the head of five thousand [Page 247] riotous people, attacked the city on this side, won this gate, and forced a way in for a few of his forces; but, the portcullis being let down, they were all slain. The valiant alderman of the ward, and the recorder, ordered it to be drawn up, and sallying forth, defeated the Bastard with great slaughter. In 1606, this gate was taken down and rebuilt, under the care of Martin Bond, afore­mentioned: as a proof of its antiquity, many Roman coins were found among the foundations.

IMMEDIATELY without the gate, is the church of St. Botolph's,ST. BOTOLPH'S, ALDGATE. Aldgate. This is one of four dedicated, in London, to this favo­rite saint. In it is the vault of the Darcies, of the north; and the tomb of Thomas lord Darcie, knight of the Garter; with his figure on it, representing him asleep, with a shroud wrapped round him; his face, breast, and arms naked. The figure is at present deformed by fresh painting, and the inscription rendered illegible. This nobleman, disliking the innovations in religious matters, took a secret part in the insurrection called the Pilgrimage of grace: and, in conjunction with the archbishop of York, was supposed to have given up to Aske, chief of the malecontents, the castle of Pontefract, on very frivolous pretences. He lost his head on Tower-hill, in 1537, and was interred in this church. He had been in high favor with the king; was entrusted by him, in 1510, with fifteen hundred archers, and four great ships, to assist Ferdi­nand against the Moors of Africa; but that monarch, having brought his designs to succeed to his wish, dismissed lord Darcie and his forces with rich rewards *.

HERE also was buried another victim to the unrelenting Henry, [Page 248] Sir Nichol's Carew, his master of the horse, and knight of the Garter. This gentleman was charged with nothing more than of being of council with Henry Courtney, marquis of Exeter, for the imaginary plot of deposing his master, and making cardinal Pole king in his stead: for this, on March 3d, 1538, he suffered on Tower-hill. By the instructions of his keeper, he imbibed the principles of the reformers, and died professing their religion.

HOUSE OF JOHN STOW.NEAR Aldgate lived and died the able historian John Stow. He relates a cruel execution on a gibbet, erected on the pave­ment before his house, on the bailiff of Rumford, in the time of Edward VI. In that age there were most barbarous and tyrannous punishments, by martial law, against all spreaders of rumors. The times were turbulent, but slighter penalties than death might have sufficed. The unhappy man, on the ladder, declared, in the presence of our historian, ‘That he knew not for what offence he was brought to die, "except for words by me spoken yester­night to Sir Stephen, curate and preacher of this parish; which were these. He asked me, What news in the countrey? I answered, Heavy newes. Why, quoth he? It is sayd, quoth I, that many men bee up in Essex; but, thanks be to God, all is in good quiet about us. And this was all, as God be my judge." Upon these words of the prisoner, Sir Stephen, to avoide the reproach of the people, left the citie, and never was heard of since among them to my knowledge.’ —I shall have farther occasion to speak of Sir Stephen, who was a fanatical fire­brand of those days.

WHITECHAPEL.ON the outside of the gate, begins the long street and suburbs of Whitechapel. The church stands very distant from the entrance into the street. It was originally a chapel of ease to Stepney, and [Page 249] known, as early as the year 1336, by the name of the church of St. Mary Matfelon; which is said to signify, in the Hebrew, Mary lately delivered of her holy child: as the township was styled Villa Beatae Mariae de Matfelon *. It is now a very rich rectory, in the gift of Brazen-nose College, Oxford.

IN this parish some of our nobility had formerly their villas, for the sake of the country air. Here Cromwel earl of Essex, the short-lived minister of Henry VIII. had a house; and the fa­mous Gondamor retired here, when disengaged from his bubble, James I.

PARALLEL to the walls, between Aldgate and the Tower, MINORIES; is the street called the Minories; named from certain poor ladies of the order of St. Clare, or minoresses, who had been invited into Eng­land by Blanch queen of Navarre, wife to Edmund earl of Lan­caster; who, in 1293, founded here, for their reception, a convent. On its suppression it was converted into a dwelling-house, and granted by the king to several great people, who inhabited it. The bishops of Bath and Wells once had it, in lieu of their man­sion in the Strand: and in 1552, Henry Grey, duke of Suffolk, possessed it by patent from Edward VI. On his attainder it re­verted to the crown, in which it continued till the Restoration. Soon after, a new house was built on it, called the King's, for what reason is unknown. Charles granted it to Colonel William Legge, who resided there, died in it in 1672, and was buried from thence, with great funeral pomp, in the adjoining church, that of Trinity Minories: and his descendants, of the Dartmouth family, still con­tinue to make it the place of their interment.

[Page 250] NOW A FINE STREET.THIS street, from being as despicable as any in the city, has of late years been most excellently rebuilt; is filled with several spacious shops; is become a fine street; and, on one side, has its square, its circus, and its crescent.

GOODMAN'S FIELDS.BEHIND this street is Goodman's Fields, or rather square. Stow, in his simple manner, tells, that in his time one Trolop, and afterwards Goodman, were the farmers there; and that the ‘fields were a farme belonging to the said nunrie; at the which farme I myselfe (says he) in my youth, have fetched manye a halfe peny worth of milk, and never had lesse then 3 ale pints for a halfe penny in the summer, nor lesse then one ale quart for a halfe penny in the winter, alwaies hot from the kine *.’

THE theatre in Goodman's Fields will always be remembered by my cotemporaries, as the stage where Garrick first shewed those powers, which, for such a number of years, astonished and charmed the public: his first appearance was on October 19th, 1741. One Odel founded the playhouse in this square, in 1728. As Sir John Hawkins expresses it, a halo of brothels soon incircled that, as it does all theatres: and drove away the industrious inhabitants. This theatre was rebuilt, in an expensive manner, by Henry Giffard, in 1737; but was suppressed by the excellent act for the licensing of places of dramatical entertain­ment. Yet it was supported a few years by an evasion, during which time, Mr. Garrick entered himself of the company. He drew an audience of nobility and gentry, whose carriages filled the whole space from Temple-bar to Whitechapel .

[Page 251]ON the west side of this portion of the walls,HOUSE OF CROSSED FRIARS; stood the house of the Crutched or Crossed Friars, or Fratres sanctae Crucis. The order was instituted, or at lest reformed, about the year 1169, by Gerard, prior of St. Mary de Morello, at Bologna. They astonish­ed the English by appearing among them, in 1244, and requiring from the opulent, a house to live in, telling them they were privi­leged by the pope to be exempt from being reproached by any body; and that they had from him power to excommunicate those who were hardy enough to reprove them. Two citizens, Ralph Hosier, and William Sabernes, were wise enough to accom­modate them with a house in this place, and became friars in it. Originally they carried in their hands an iron cross, which they afterwards changed into one of silver. They wore a cross, made of red cloth, on their garment; which at first was grey, and in later times altered to blue. One Adams was the first prior: Edmund Streatham, the last. Their annual income was only £. 52. 13 s. 4 d. Henry VIII. granted their house to Sir Thomas Wyat, GRANTED TO SIR THOMAS WYAT. the elder, who built a handsome mansion on part of the site. This was the gentleman whom Anthony Wood * (not without justice) calls the delight of the muses, and of mankind. He had the honor to be in great intimacy with the congenial peer, Henry earl of Surry. They were the refiners of our poetry: the elegant effusions of their muses are united in a little book published in 1585, intitled, ‘Songes and Sonnets, by the right honorable Henry Howard, late earl of Surry, and others.’ Sir Thomas died in 1541, of a violent fever, in Dorsetshire, contracted by hard riding to conduct to court the emperor's ambassador, who had landed at [Page 252] Falmouth. He was highly celebrated by his noble friend, and by every person of genius in the age in which he lived.

LUMLEY-HOUSE.THIS house afterwards became the residence of John lord Lum­ley, a celebrated warrior in the time of Henry VIII; who distin­guished himself greatly at the battle of Floddon, by his valour, and the number of men he brought into the field. Notwithstanding this, his zeal for the old religion engaged him in the Pilgrimage of Grace; from which he with much dexterity extricated himself and followers. But his only son soon after lost his head, for his concern in a fresh insurrection. John lord Lumley, grandson of the first, was among the few nobility of that time who had a taste for literature. He had the good fortune to marry his sister Bar­bara to my illustrious countryman Humphrey Llwyd, of Denbigh *, and by his assistance formed a considerable library, which at pre­sent makes a most valuable part in the British Museum.

THE NAVY OFFICE.IN the place of this rose the Navy Office, a building of no beauty; in which the comptroller of the navy used to reside, and all business respecting the payment of seamen's wages, and many other naval matters, were transacted; but this office is now re­moved to Somerset-house. In the place of the Old Navy Office, the India company have erected a most magnificent warehouse, a regular oblong square, of about two hundred and fifty feet, by a hundred and sixty; inclosing a court of a hundred and fifty, by sixty, entered by an arched gateway. This is the great repository of the teas. I am told that the searchers, who have frequent oc­casions to thrust their arms deep into the chests, often feel numb­nesses and paralytic affections?

[Page 253]THE friars hall was converted into a glass-house,A GLASS-HOUSE. for the mak­ing of drinking glasses; which, with forty thousand billets of wood, was destroyed by fire, in 1575 *. The manufacture was set up in 1557, and was the first of the kind known in England. I may add here, that the finest flint glass was first made at the Savoy; and the first glass plates for looking-glasses, and coach windows, in 1673, at Lambeth, under the patronage of George Vil­liers, duke of Buckingham.

I FIND among the list of persons interred in the church belong­ing to these friars, the name of Sir Rhys Gryffydd, a Welshman, who lost his head on Tower-hill, in 1531. His servant, John Hughes, was hanged at Tyburn the same afternoon . I cannot learn what their crime was, in a reign when very trifling matters, and often bare suspicion, brought on a capital penalty.

NEAR this place stood another Northumberland-house, inhabited,NORTHUMBER­LAND-HOUSE. in the reign of Henry VI. by two of the earls of Northumberland: one lost his life in the battle of St. Albans; the other, his son, in that of Towton. Being deserted by the Percies, the gardens were converted into bowling-allies, and other parts, says Stow, into dicing-houses. This, I imagine, was the first of those pernicious places of resort, for he calls it ‘their antient and only patron of misrule.’

IN Mark-lane, near this place, stood the magnificent house built by Sir William Sharrington, a chief officer of the mint,SHARRINGTON-HOUSE. in the reign of Edward VI. He was the instrument of the ambition [Page 254] of Thomas Seymour, lord admiral: he fell with his master, was condemned and attained: and Sharrington-house bestowed on the earl of Arundel, being thought a fit habitation for that great peer, on account of its size and splendor. Let me add, that Sir William was pardoned, emerged from his misfortunes, and soon raised another considerable estate, under the favor of Seymour's rival, Dudley duke of Northumberland *; possibly at the price of the admiral's blood, against whom he was chief evidence. Mr. WALPOLE has a drawing of Sir William, after Holbein.

ALL HALLOWS BARKING.AT the bottom of this lane, in Tower-street, stands the church of All Hallows Barking. Legend says, that Edward I. when prince of Wales, was admonished, by a vision, to erect an image here to the glorious virgin; and, in case he visited it five times in the year, he was to be victorious over all nations, and in particular over Scotland and Wales. The image grew into great repute, and vast were the pilgrimages to it, till the suppression. An indulgence of forty days was granted to every one who performed this act of devotion .

PERSONS BE­HEADED BURIED THERE.IN this church were deposited, for a time, the bodies of that accomplished nobleman Henry Howard , earl of Surry, and two prelates, who ended their days by the ax on Tower-hill. The ashes of the ill-fated Surry were, in 1614, removed to Framling­ham, in Suffolk. The pious Fisher (whose head was placed on a pole on the bridge) and the indiscreet Laud. The first was re­moved to the chapel in the Tower, to rest by the side of his friend [Page 255] Sir Thomas More *. The remains of Laud, beheaded in 1644, lay here till 1663, when they were removed to St. John's College, Oxford, over which he had presided .

IN this parish was designed a hospital for poor priests, and for lunatics of both sexes, as early as the time of Edward III; but not taking effect, it was granted to the hospital of St. Katherine; which was to find a chaplain to pray for the soul of Robert Denton, who had piously intended the first foundation .

FROM Aldgate the walls ran southward to the Thames, and ended, as is generally supposed, with a fort; on the site of which arose the present TOWER of London. To the north of it was a postern, for the benefit of foot passengers: it was originally a fair and strong gate, built of stone brought out of Kent, POSTERN GATE. and Caen in Normandy. It stood till the year 1440, when it fell down; not, as is conjectured, from the pulling down of three hundred feet of the adjacent wall in 1189, for the purpose of enlarging and strengthening the Tower, but from decay;THE TOWER OF LONDON. it being made at the same time with that fortress, which was built by the Conqueror in his first year, and strongly garrisoned with Normans, to secure the allegiance of his new and reluctant subjects.

THE first work seems to have been suddenly flung up in 1066, on his taking possession of the capital: this included in it a part of the antient wall; for, soon after the murder of Sir Thomas Over­bury, a dispute arose whether he was poisoned in the liberties of the city, or in the county of Middlesex: on examination, part of the antient wall was discovered; and his apartment found to be [Page 256] to the west of it, and in consequence the criminals were tried within the jurisdiction of the city. Had it been on the other side, it would have been adjudged to have been within the county. There is another proof of this fortress having been built upon the remains of another more antient; for, in 1720, in digging on the south side of what is called Cesar's chapel, were discovered some old foundations of stone, three yards broad, so strongly cemented that it was with the utmost difficulty they were forced up.

WHITE TOWER.THE great square tower called the White Tower, and by the Welsh, Twr Gwyn, or Twr y Bryn-gwyn, was erected in the year 1078, when it arose under the directions of the great military ar­chitect Gundulph, bishop of Rochester *; who gave this noble spe­cimen of innovation in the art of castle-building, and which was pursued by him in the execution of Rochester-castle, on the banks of the Medway. Stow tells us, from Edmund de Haddenham, that during the time Gundulph was employed in this work, he was lodged in the house of one Edmere, a citizen of London . This building was long dignified with the name of Cesar's tower; but that illustrious invader probably never saw London: originally it stood by itself. Fitzstephen gives it the name of Arx Palatina, the Palatine tower; and says, with his usual romance, that the mortar of the foundation was tempered with the blood of beasts. The commander had the title of Palatine bestowed on him, being, as was the case with several of the great men of that time, who had places of importance trusted to their care, endowed with [Page 257] regal powers; such, for example, as the earl palatine, Hugh Lupus, had in the county palatinate of Chester *.

WITHIN this tower is a very antient chapel, for the use of such of our kings and queens who wished to pay their devotion here. By Stow's description (for I never saw it) it seems coeval with the building: he described it as having a long flight of steps to it, as being darksome, and venerable for the pillars, which are very plain; but that it was in his time filled with our valuable old records .

IN 1092 a violent tempest did great injury to the Tower; but it was repaired by William Rufus, and his successor. The first added another castellated building on the south side, between it and the Thames, which was afterwards called St. Thomas's Tower. Beneath that was Traitors-gate, through which state prisoners were brought from the river: and under another, properly enough called The Bloody; for, till these happier ages, there was little dif­ference between confinement, and the scaffold, or private assassi­nation.

Ye towers of Julius, London's lasting shame,
With many a foul and midnight murder fed.

HERE fell the meek usurper Henry VI. by the dagger of the profligate Gloucester. Here, full of horrors, died,MURDERS WITHIN THE TOWER. by the hands of hired ruffians, the unsteady Clarence. Here the sweet innocents Edward V. and his brother, duke of York, perished victims to the ambition of their remorseless uncle. And the empoisoning of Sir [Page 258] Thomas Overbury makes up the sum of the known murders, the reproaches of our antient fortress. We have here a strait room or dungeon, called, from the misery the unhappy occupier of this very confined place endures, the Little Ease. But this will appear a luxurious habitation, when compared with the inventions of the age of Louis XI. of France; with his iron cages, in which persons of rank lay for whole years; or his Oubliettes, dungeons made in form of reversed cones, concealed with trap-doors, down which dropped the unhappy victims of the tyrant, brought there by Tristan l'Hermite, his companion and executioner in ordinary. Sometimes their sides were plain, sometimes set with knives, or sharp-edged wheels; but in either case, they were true Oubliettes: the devoted were certain to fall into the land where all things were forgotten.

THE Tower was first inclosed by William Longchamp, bishop of Ely, and chancellor of England, in the reign of Richard I. This haughty prelate having a quarrel with John, third brother to Richard, under pretence of guarding against his designs, sur­rounded the whole with walls embattled, and made on the out­side a vast ditch,DITCH. into which, in after times, the water from the Thames was introduced. Different princes added other works. The present contents, within the walls, are twelve acres and five rods; the circuit, on the outside of the ditch, one thousand and fifty-two feet. It was again inclosed with a mud-wall by Henry III: this was placed at a distance from the ditch, and occasioned the taking down of part of the city wall; which was resented by the citizens; who, pulling down this precinct of mud, were punished by the king with a fine of a thousand marks.

LIONS TOWER.EDWARD IV. built the Lions tower: it was originally called the [Page 259] Bulwark; but received the former name from its use.ROYAL MENAGERY. A mena­gery had very long been a piece of regal state; Henry I. had his at his manor of Woodstock, where he kept lions, leopards, lynxes, porcupines, and several other uncommon beasts. They were afterwards removed to the Tower. Edward II. commanded the sheriffs of London, to pay the keepers of the king's leopards six pence a day, for the sustenance of the leopards; and three half-pence a day for the diet of the keeper, out of the fee-farm of the city. I should have mentioned before, that Henry issued his order to the sheriffs, to supply four pence a day for the maintenance of his white bear (urso nostro albo), and his keeper, in the Tower of London. They were also to provide a muzzle, and an iron chain to hold the said bear out of the water; and a long cord to hold it during the time it was fishing in the Thames: they were besides ordered to build a small house in the Tower for the king's ele­phant (elefantem nostrum) and to make provision both for beast and keeper *.

THE royal menagery is to this day exceedingly well supplied. In April 1787, there was a leopard, of a quite unknown species, brought from Bengal. It was wholly black, but the hair was marked, on the back, sides, and neck, with round clusters of small spots, of a glossy and the most intense black; the tail hung seve­ral inches beyond the length of the legs, and was very full of hair. Here were also two tigers: one had been here some time, and its ground-color had faded into a pale sickly sandiness; the other, young and vigorous, and almost fresh from its native woods, was [Page 260] almost of an orange color; and its black stripes, and the white parts, were most pure in their kinds *.

THE little book sold in the Tower, will give a very satisfactory account of all its curiosities, natural and artificial. To that I refer my reader.

TOWER-HILL.FOR a considerable time, there was a dispute between the crown and the city, about the right to the Tower-hill (the Gwyn­fryn of the Welsh). In the reign of Edward IV. the king's offi­cers erected there a gallows, and a scaffold for the execution of offenders. The citizens complained; and Edward immediately disavowed the act, by public proclamation. From that time the fatal apparatus is always provided by the city. The condemned are delivered to the sheriffs by the lieutenant, who receives from the former a receipt for their delivery; the sheriffs then see execu­tion done, as in other places.

THE FIRST PER­SON BEHEADED ON TOWER-HILL.THE first whom I recollect to have suffered here by the more honorable death of the ax, was in 1388, when Sir Simon de Burley, knight of the Garter, tutor of Richard II. and the most accomplished man of his time, fell a victim to the malice of the potent faction, which had usurped the regal authority. Queen Anne, the good queen Anne, went on her knees to the luke of Glocester, the king's uncle, to implore mercy; and continued in that attitude three hours before the inexorable tyrant.

THE FORMER ROUGH TREAT­MENT OF PRISONERS.THERE was, during a very long period, a barbarous meanness, a species of insult to the unhappy criminals, which is in our days happily changed into every species of tenderness and humanity, [Page 261] consistent with public justice and security. In revenge for the death of Sir Simon, and many others who suffered in the same cause, the great earl of Arundel, Richard Fitzalan, was hurried instantly from the place of trial, the palace at Westminster, to Tower-hill: his arms and his hands were bound; and the king glut­ted his eyes with the bloody scene. That great peer Thomas duke of Norfolk, who was confined here in the last year of Henry VIII. was reduced to beg for sheets. He was to have lost his head, but was saved by the death of the tyrant on the very day ordered for his execution. He was kept in custody during the next short reign, but was released on the accession of queen Mary. He mounted his horse, at the edge of fourscore, to assist in quelling the insurrection of Sir Thomas Wyat, in 1554. This served to fill the Tower with new subjects for the mean insults of the times. Sir Thomas, and the rest of the prisoners, were brought into the Tower through the Traitors-gate. The lieutenant received them, one by one, with insults and gross abuse. When Sir Thomas appeared, gallantly dressed, the lieutenant actually collared him: Sir Thomas gave him a fierce and reproachful look, bravely telling him, This is no masterie now!

ONE person of rank suffered here by the more infamous way of the halter. I should not mention Sir Gervis Elwayes, SIR GERVIS ELWAYES. lieutenant of the Tower, who suffered here, in 1615, for his concern in the murder of Sir Thomas Overbury, but for the great instruction which may be gathered from his end, and his excellent dying speech. For there is something very peculiar in his admonition to the spectators, against appealing to Heaven by a rash vow; for, having been greatly addicted to gaming, he had said seriously in his [Page 262] prayers, Lord, let me be hanged if ever I play more: and yet he broke it a thousand times *. Of what utility would be a sensible collection of these proofs of the FINGER OF GOD, exemplified to mankind in the detection and punishment of every species of crime!

CHAPEL OF THE TO [...].THE church of St. Petrus ad Vincula, within the Tower, has been the undistinguishing repository of the headless bodies of numbers, who ended their days on the adjacent hill; or, when greatly favored, within the fortress. The antient church was much more splendid, it being occasionally the place at which the kings of England performed their orisons. In Henry III.'s time here were stalls for the king and queen; a chancel dedicated to St. Peter, and another to St. Mary. The church was adorned with a fine cross, images of saints, and various paintings, benè & b [...]nis coloribus. Also several holy figures in painted glass; all done by that early lover and patron of the arts in England, the monarch just mentioned .

EXECUTED PERSONS BURIED THERE.TO the present church, after his execution, was finally removed the body of the conscientious amiable prelate Fisher, bishop of Rochester; FISHER, BISHOP OF ROCHESTER. a victim to his opinion of the pope's supremacy, and the treachery of the attorney-general Rich, who, under pretence of consulting him, obtained his confidence, and betrayed him. The pope rewarded his orthodoxy with a cardinal's hat, but it did not arrive till the poor bishop's head was on a pole on London-bridge. His headless corse was removed, to be near that of his friend, who suffered about three weeks after, in the same cause, the [Page 263] great Sir Thomas More. SIR THOMAS MORE. But his body did not long keep com­pany with that of his brother sufferer, nor his head on the bridge. His affectionate daughter, Margaret Roper, procured the one to be removed to Chelsea; and the head, accidentally blown into the Thames, to be given to her. She kept it during life as a re­lique, and directed that after her death it should be lodged in her arms and buried with her.

THE beauteous Anna Bullen, ANNA BULLEN. on May 19th, 1536, for a fictiti­ous charge of adultery, by a tyrant lusting for a new object: and the profligate Catherine Howard, on a full conviction of the same crime; rest here. George lord Rochford, the innocent bro­ther of the former, involved in the accusation, preceded her to the grave by two days; as his infamous wife, a cause of their death, accompanied, unpitied, her mistress Catherine Howard, in execution and in sepulchre. It is impossible not to moralize on comparing the manner in which she was brought prisoner to this fatal fortress, with the gay and splendid pageantry, which attended her and her savage spouse from Greenwich by water to the same place, on May 29th, 1533; and from the Tower, two days after, with still greater magnificence, to her coronation. She rejoiced too publickly on the death of Catherine of Arragon, whose place she most wrongfully usurped: in less than five months, she herself fell as a criminal *.

THAT meteor Thomas Cromwel, earl of Essex, THOMAS CROM­WEL, EARL OF ESSEX. the great promo­ter of the suppression of religious houses, experienced the com­mon lot of the preceding. He suffered, among other charges, [Page 264] for being a favorer of heretics; yet died in the firm profession of the Catholic religion.

THOMAS SEYMOUR, BARON SUDLEY.THE turbulent Thomas Seymour, baron Sudley, and lord high admiral, in 1549 was beheaded, and buried in this church, by a warrant from his own brother, the protector Somerset. On Janu­ary 24th, 1552, the protector himself mounted the same scaffold, and, notwithstanding his high rank, was flung into the same grave among the attainted herd: and his ambitious rival, the instru­ment of his death,JOHN DUDLEY, DUKE OF NOR­THUMBERLAND. John Dudley, duke of Northumberland, lost his head and was laid by his side, on the 22d of August, 1553. So short, so vain are the dreams of power and ambition!

ROBERT DEVE­REUX, EARL O [...] [...].THE favorite earl of Essex, Robert Devereux, was reluctantly given to the block by his fond mistress, after a long struggle be­tween fear and affection. Mr. Walpole observes, that it was a fashion to treat the passion of that illustrious princess as a ro­mance. She, it is alleged, was sixty-eight, but it was forgotten that the earl was only thirty-four. Let their ages have been re­versed, you would never have heard of the unhappy love of Eli­zabeth.

DUKE OF MONMOUTH.BENEATH the communion table reposes the handsome, restless, ungrateful son of Charles II. the duke of Monmouth. His ambi­tion, like that of many of those he followed to this place, occa­sioned his death. He is said to have died calmly; and to have acknowleged the guilt of rebellion: but love preserved her influ­ence to the last moment. He was married very young, and for interested motives. He had made a connection of the most tender nature with lady Harriet Wentworth, who lived with him as his wife. He could not, with all the arguments of our best divines, be convinced of the sin of adultery; he called her the choice of [Page 265] his ripened years. I have been told a tradition, that lady Harriet had placed herself in a window, to take a last and farewel look; he was master enough of himself to make her a graceful bow. With more certainty can I say, that the king, on the evening of the execution, visited the widowed dutchess, to give assurance of his attention to her and her children. Consolation she did not want, for she had been separated from him; and when, at the duke's earnest request, she had an interview with him in the Tower, their interview was, as Barillon expresses it, aigre de part et d' autre *.

THE repentant earl of Kilmarnock, and the rough and fearless lord Balmerino, avowing the goodness of his cause to the last,EARL OF KILMARNOCK. were deposited here August 18th, 1746. The inscriptions on the leaden plates of their coffins are here shewn to strangers. In the following year the infamous Simon lord Lovat was interred in the same ground, after mounting the scaffold with the intrepidity of innocence. He certainly was in his dotage, or, what is more pro­bable, lost to all sense of shame for his immoral and most aban­doned life, when he could repeat to the spectators, ‘Nam genus et proavos, & QUAE NON FECIMUS IPSI, vix ea nostra voco.’

BESIDES these headless trunks, numbers of good people lie here, who went to their graves from their quiet beds.SIR RICHARD BLOUNT AND HIS SON. Among them, Sir Richard Blount, and Sir Michael his son, both lieute­nants of the Tower. Sir Richard died in 1564; Sir Michael in 1592: a splendid monument was erected to each. They are re­presented in armour, kneeling; Sir Richard with his two sons, his [Page 266] wife, and two daughters, in the dress of the times; Sir Michael has a long beard, is attended by three sons in cloaks, his wife, and daughter.

SIR RICHARD CHO [...]MONDLY.IN a corner, on the floor, is an antient monument of a man re­cumbent, his hands closed as in prayer, his hair lank, his chin beardless; his lady by him in a long hood; round his neck is a collar of SS. and a rose pendent. This is to preserve the me­mory of Sir Richard Cholmondly, knight, lieutenant of the Tower in the time of Henry VIII.

TALBOT EDWARDS, KEEPER OF THE KING'S REGALIA.I PASS over less interesting monuments, to the little stone on the floor, which records, that Talbot Edwards, late keeper of his majesty's regalia, 30th September, 1674, aged 80,’ was de­posited here. Was it not a shameless reign, no remembrance of this good and faithful servant would have been suffered to remain. This venerable man was keeper of the regalia, when the russian Blood made the notorious attempt on the crown, and other orna­ments of majesty. Never was a more determined villain: ‘with a head to contrive, and heart to execute any wickedness.’ Blood contrived, under the guise of a clergyman, to make acquaint­ance with Mr. Edwards; insinuated himself into his favor and confidence. After various visits, with the assistance of several other associates, he seized on the old man, whom he had requested to shew the jewels to his friends, gagged him, and on his resisting, struck him on the head with a mallet, and gave him several stabs. Edwards thought it prudent to counterfeit death. Blood put the crown under his parson's gown: another put the globe in his breeches: a third, not being able to conceal the sceptre by reason of its length, broke off the rich ruby and put it in his pocket. As soon as they were gone, Edwards forced out the gag, and gave the alarm; they were instantly pursued, and three of them [Page 267] soon taken. Blood struggled hard for his prize, saying, when it was wrested from him, It was a gallant attempt, though unsuccess­ful; it was for a CROWN.

THE curiosity of the king was excited to see a man engaged in so many important villanies: under pretence of obtaining discove­ries, his majesty made the wretch a visit; from that moment the artful Blood dated his security: he told the king so many plausible tales; such indifference he shewed for his own life, such anxiety for that of his majesty (for he insinuated that his comrades would certainly revenge his death, even on his sacred majesty) that in a short time he obtained his pardon. It was necessary to apply to the duke of Ormond for permission, the ruffian having made the attempt on his grace's life not long before. The duke nobly an­swered, ‘If his majesty could forgive him stealing the crown, he might easily forgive the attempt upon his life; and if such was his majesty's pleasure, that was a sufficient reason for him, and his lordship (the earl of Arlington, who brought the message) might spare the rest.’ Blood was not only pardoned, but re­ceived into favor, had a pension of five hundred a year, and was perpetually seen at court, enjoying the smiles of majesty, and even successfully employing his interest, as a most respectable patron. But all good men looked on him with horror, and con­sidered him as a Sicarius to a profligate set of men, to overawe any who had integrity enough to resist the measures of a most profligate court. This miscreant died peacefully in his bed, Au­gust 29th, 1680, fearlessly, and without any signs of penitence; totally hardened and forsaken by Heaven.

THE innocent Talbot Edwards, so far from receiving the grate­ful reward of his fidelity and sufferings, got with great difficulty [Page 268] a pension of two hundred a year; and his son, who was active in taking Blood, one hundred more: but the order for the pensions was so long delayed, and the expences attending the cure of the good old man's wounds so great, that he was forced to sell his order for a hundred pounds ready money, and the son his for fifty. It is singular that this aged man survived his injuries seven years; the attempt was made May 9th, 1671, and the inscription, contrary to the assertions of some historians, fixes his death in 1680 *.

LAWLESS EXECU­TIONS.OTHERS have fallen, on this fatal hill, by the hands of lawless violence. In the rebellion of Wat Tyler, his miscreant followers pursued, with unrelenting rage, the nobility and better rank of people.ARCHBISHOP SUDBURY. That worthy primate, Sudbury archbishop of Canterbury; Sir Robert Hales, treasurer of England; and many others, took refuge with their youthful king in the Tower. It was then garri­soned with six hundred armed men, and six hundred archers; who, appalled at the mob, stood motionless. The rebels seized on the primate; Sir Robert; John Legge, serjeant at arms; and William Appledore, the king's confessor; all of whom they instantly be­headed on Tower-hill; the archbishop with peculiar circumstances of cruelty, being almost hewn to pieces by their cruel rage.

JAMES LORD SAY, AND HIS SON-IN-LAW.IN 1450, the mob under Jack Cade, in an endarkened and sa­vage period, forced out of this fortress James lord Say, whom the king had committed to appease the furious commons. They brought him to Guildhall, and from thence hurried him to the Standard in Cheapside, where they struck off his head, tied his naked body to a horse's tail, dragged it to Southwark, and there [Page 269] cut it into quarters. They then beheaded his son-in-law, Sir James Cromer, placed the heads on poles, and in every street made them kiss each other *. What a horrid parallel have we not seen in the late year, amidst the polished and enlightened FRENCH!!! Two men of rank, M. de Foulon, and his son-in-law M. Berthier, were devoted as victims by the barbarous populace. They were first hung, with a studied prolongation of their suffer­ings: their heads were struck off, and, by a refinement in cruelty (beyond the invention of Jack Cade) the heart of de Foulon was torn out, and brought dancing on a pole, to salute his unhappy son-in-law on his way to execution: nor was any insult to their mangled trunks omitted by the furious canaille. But the acts of a mob ought never to tarnish a national character.

WITHIN the Tower, on the green before the chapel,LORD HASTINGS. was be­headed the accomplished lord Hastings. His fidelity to the chil­dren of his late master Edward IV. was the cause of his death. He was dragged from the council-table, by order of their ambitious protector, Glocester, who swore he would have his head before he dined; and such was his haste, that the unfortunate lord had only time to make a short shrift to a priest who casually passed by, and his head was taken off on a log which happened to lie in the way. So little did he expect death, that, scarcely an hour before, he was exulting in the fate of his enemies, lord Rivers, lord Richard Grey, and Sir Thomas Vaughan, at Pontefract; yet all four underwent the stroke of the headsman on the very same day. Besides these, I can make a miscellaneous recital of several who died within these walls, by natural deaths, by suicide, or by accident.

ELIZABETH,ELIZABETH, WIFE OF HENRY VII. wife of Henry VII. breathed her last here in child­bed, in 1502.

[Page 270] HENRY, EIGHTH EARL OF NORTHUMBER­LAND.HERE may be truly said to have fled indignant to the shades, the high spirit of Henry earl of Northumberland. He was confined for the same cause as the earl of Arundel, by the jealous Elizabeth. The B—, exclames the earl, shall not have my estate; and on June 21st, 1585, shot himself with a pistol loaden with three bullets.

PHILIP EARL OF ARUNDEL.PHILIP earl of Arundel, son of the duke of Norfolk, beheaded for aspiring to the bed of Mary queen of Scots, was condemned to death for favoring that ill-fated princess. He was indeed re­prieved, but suffered to languish till his death, in 1595: his bones were kept in an iron chest. A late great dutchess of the same family procured his scull, had it enchased in gold, and kept it to exalt her devotion, as the relique of a martyr to religion.

ARTHUR EARL OF ESSEX.ARTHUR earl of Essex, accomplice with lord Russel, ended here his days. Despair seized him on his confinement, and, forsaken by Heaven, he put an end to his existence by the razor. He was of a party charged with equal freedom in religious as political principles. He vindicated and practised suicide. His death was charged on the court, but without the lest grounds. The prince who could bring lord Russel to the block by a legal course, need never have incurred the odium of assassination on a less important partner of the conspiracy.

SIR JOHN PERROT.HERE died, in September 1595, Sir John Perrot, the supposed son of Henry VIII. by Mary wife to Thomas Perrot, esq of Ha­roldstone, in the county of Pembroke. In his great stature, and high spirit, he bore a strong resemblance to that monarch. Young Perrot first attracted his notice by a quarrel he had with two of the yeoman of the guard, whom he foiled in a quarrel he had at the stews in Southwark. He was in high favor in the following [Page 271] reign. In that of Mary fell into disgrace, on account of his at­tachment to the reformed religion. When queen Elizabeth suc­ceeded, he experienced the smiles of his sovereign and sister. At length was constituted lord deputy of Ireland, where he grew very unpopular, by reason of his haughty conduct; was recalled, un­justly accused, and condemned of treason. His sentence was re­spited; but he died of a broken heart, unable, from his lofty spirit, to brook the ill-treatment he met with from one he thought so near an ally.

IN this prison also sunk a victim to unmerited misfortunes,LADY ARA­BELLA STUART. the innocent Arabella Stuart, daughter of Charles Stuart, earl of Lenox, and younger brother to lord Darnley, father to James I. Her affi­nity to the crown brought her under the jealousy of both Eliza­beth, and that monarch. The conspiracy in 1603, for which lord Cobham, Sir Walter Raleigh, and others, were condemned, was supposed, among other objects, to have that of placing the crown on the head of this unfortunate lady; on which she was confined to her own house. She found means to be married privately to Sir William Seymour, second son of the earl of Hertford, after­wards restored to the dukedom of Somerset. On discovery of the wedding, they were committed to the Tower, to the care of diffe­rent keepers. They artfully contrived their escape: he arrived safe at Dunkirk; the lady was taken at sea, and conveyed back to her prison; where her misfortunes deprived her of her senses. She was released by death, September 27th, 1615; and sound an hono­rable interment in Henry VIIth's chapel, near the remains of her ill-fated relation Mary queen of Scots. Her husband lived to succeed to the title of Somerset; and was the faithful servant and friend of Charles I.

[Page 272] HENRY, NINTH EARL OF NOR­THUMBERLAND, AND HIS WIZARDS.I SHALL mention two other noblemen who were confined within these walls, on account of some particularities which at­tended their durance. The first is Henry earl of Northumberland, imprisoned on the very just suspicion of being privy to the Gun-powder treason. During the time he was in custody, he amused himself most rationally in the company of learned men, who were permitted to have access to him. Among others, were three who were called his Wizards: possibly he might be fond of astronomy, or dabble in judicial astrology; circumstances that, with the vul­gar, might easily fasten on him the imputation of dealing with the devil.

EARL OF SOUTHAMPTON, AND HIS CAT.A VERY remarkable accident befel Henry Wriothsly, earl of Southampton, the friend and companion of the earl of Essex, in his fatal insurrection: after he had been confined there a small time, he was surprized by a visit from his favorite cat, which had found its way to the Tower; and, as tradition says, reached its master by descending the chimney of his apartment. I have seen at Bul­strode, the summer residence of the late dutchess of Portland, an original portrait of this earl, in the place of his confinement, in a black dress and cloak, with the faithful animal sitting by him *. Perhaps this picture might have been the foundation of the tale.

LORD CHANCEL­LOR JEFFRIES.THE fallen lord chancellor, the cruel instrument of despotism under James II. died, imprisoned here, of a broken heart, aided by intemperance. He was first interred in the church belonging to the Tower; and afterwards was removed to that of St. Mary, Aldermanbury, and deposited near the body of his rakish son, lord [Page 273] Wem. In my younger days, I have heard of a hard-hearted in­sult on this once great man, during his imprisonment. He re­ceived, as he thought, a present of Colchester oysters; and expressed great satisfaction at the thought of having some friend yet left: but, on taking off the top of the barrel, instead of the usual con­tents, appeared an halter!

To conclude this melancholy list, I shall return to antient times,GRYFFYDD, FATHER OF OUR LAST PRINCE LLEWELYN. to lament the sad fate of my countrymen, victims to English am­bition. Here was basely confined, by Henry III. my countryman Gryffydd, father of our last prince Llewelyn ap Gryffydd; who, im­patient of imprisonment, attempted to escape by lowering himself from the walls: the line he was descending by broke, and, being of a great bulk, he was dashed to pieces, and perished in a most miserable manner *.

IT is supposed that many of our nobility,WELSH MANUSCRIPTS DESTROYED IN THE TOWER. imprisoned within this fortress, had obtained leave that part of their libraries might be sent to them, for their amusement in their solitary hours: so that in time it became a repository of Welsh literature. These valua­ble manuscripts were at length burnt by the villainy of one Scolan, to the irreparable loss of our history, and our poetry. Gutto' r Glynn, who wrote about the year 1450, thus relates the fact:

Llyfrau Cymru a'u usfrudd,
I'r Twr Gwynn aethant ar gudd;
Ysceler oedd i S [...]lan,
Furw'r twrr llyfrau i'r tan.

i. e. ‘The books of Wales, and their destroyer, were concealed [Page 274] in the White Tower. Villainous was the deed of Scolan, when he threw the heaps of books into the fire *.’

T [...]E [...] [...]E [...].IN the next reign, to the eternal disgrace of the great Edward, the head of the son of Gryffydd, the last of our princes, was placed on these battlements, insultingly crowned with ivy, for gallantly defending his hereditary dominions, to which he had as good a right as his more fortunate conqueror had to the crown of Eng­land. And, to fill the measure of misfortune, in a small time after the head of prince Dafydd was sent to accompany that of his ill-sated brother.

OWE [...] TUDOR.DAFYDD LHWYD AP LLEWELYN o Vathavarn, a poet, who flou­rished in 1480, gives our countryman Owen Tudor, grandfather to Henry VII. a nobler prison than I fear we can warrant from history . He certainly thought it derogating from the honor of W [...]les, to send his hero to Newgate like a common felon. Thus he bewa [...]ls his unfortunate state, in a Cowydd composed on the occasion. I shall give a translation of the parts relative to the subject, by the same ingenious friend , to whom I lie under so many similar obligations.

TUDOR, in himself a h [...]st,
High-born Owen, Ca [...]'s boast.
C [...] flower imprison'd [...]ies,
Where L [...] losty towers rise.
U [...]st the pride, and r [...]sh the power,
That deem'd him to yon h [...]le Tower.
[Page 275]For him our eyes with pity flow,
For him our breasts with vengeance glow.
Are Owen's feet with fetters bound?
With poetry I'll ease the wound:
Around his legs my mute shall twine,
And break them with her strains divine.
How wond'rous are the powers of song,
To succour them who suffer wrong!

The next explains the cause of his imprisonment.

'Tis not for plunder, fraud, or debt,
That Owen this misfortune met.
'Tis not for lawless force of arms;
But for a queen's resistless charms,
Fertile Gallia's daughter fair,
That Owen's feet those fetters wear.
Worthy, virtuous, comely, tall,
CATHERINE did his heart enthrall.
Who could blame th' adventurous youth?
Fam'd for valor, honor truth.
To him this gem of Gallia's shore
Three renowned children bore,
Warlike youths, their father's pride,
FRANCE's royal blood allied;
Grandsons to the Gallie throne;
Loyal barons of our own.
From them in future times shall spring,
Many a gallant British king *.

A LITTLE to the south of East Smithfield, ST. CATHERINE'S HOSPITAL. is the hospital of St. Catherine's, originally founded in 1148, by Matilda of Boulogne, wife of king Stephen, for the repose of her son Bald­win, [Page 276] and her daughter Matilda: and for the maintenance of a master, brothers and sisters, and other poor persons. In 1273, Elinor, widow of Henry, possessed herself of it, dissolved the old foundation, refounded it in honor of the same saint, for a master, three brethren chaplains, three sisters, ten Bedes women, and six poor scholars. Queen Philippa, wife of Edward III. was a great benefactress to this hospital: and to this day it remains under queenly patronage, according to the reservation made by the pious re-foundress Elinor. Our present gracious queen is the twenty-ninth royal patroness.

THE mastership is a sinecure of considerable value. In this hospital is a house for him, and all its members. The reader will find the disposition of them, in the plan printed by Mr. Nichols, in the account of St. Katherine's hospital, and its colle­giate church; a posthumous work of that able antiquary the late Andrew Coltee Ducarel, LL. D. He was interred in the col­legiate church, where a plain piece of marble informs us of little more than the period of his existence.

CHURCH.THE church is a handsome gothic building, but almost quite lost in the various houses, which shut it up from public view. The east window is very elegant; and in the modern improve­ments there is the utmost propriety preserved in the imitation of the antient architecture. The wooden pulpit is a curiosity: on its eight sides are represented the antient building, and different gates of the hospital; beneath each compartment extend, EZRA THE SCRIBE—STOOD UPON A—PULPIT OF WOOD — WHICH HE HAD—MADE FOR THE—PREACHIN Neh— e. chap. viii. 4.

UNDER one of the stalls is a very good carving of the head of [Page 277] queen Philippa, and another of her spouse. They bear a resem­blance to the monumental sculpture of those great personages.

THE most remarkable monument is that of John Holland, TOMB OF JOHN HOLLAND, DUKE OF EXETER. duke of Exeter, who lies recumbent, with a fillet round his head, and in a long gown, the weeds of peace. By him are placed the figure of his first wife Anne, daughter of Edmund earl Stafford, and widow of Edmund Mortimer, earl of March; and another of his sister Constance, first, wife to Thomas Mowbray, duke of Nor­folk; and afterwards to Sir John Grey, eldest son of Reginald lord Grey, of Ruthen. This potent peer was a great benefactor to the hospital, founded in it a chauntry; and bequeathed to the high altar in the church, ‘a cuppe of byroll, garnished with gold, perles, and precious stones, to be put in the sacrament,’ and numbers of other valuable effects. He died in peace in 1447, a wonderful thing in his family; not fewer than four of this great house, in little more than a century, fell by violent deaths.

BELOW St. Catherine's, on the river side,THE BERE-HOUSE. stood the great breweries or Bere-house, as it is called in the map published in the first volume of the Civitates Orbis. They were subject to regulations as early as the reign of Henry VII; who, in 1492, licenses John Merchant, a Fleming, to export fifty tons of ale called Berre *. And in the same reign one Geffry Gate, pro­bably an officer of the king's, spoiled the brewhouses at St. Cathe­rine's twice, either for sending too much abroad unlicensed, or for brewing it too weak for their home customers . The demand for this article from foreign parts encreased to a high degree; in [Page 278] the reign of queen Elizabeth, five hundred tons were exported at once, as is expressed for the queen's use, at one time; probably for the service of her army in the low countries; three hundred and fifty barrels to Embden; three hundred to Amsterdam; and again eight hundred to Embden. At this time there seems to have been a free exportation, except when checked by proclamation, for fear of enhancing the price of corn, by excess of brewing in scarce times; but even then it was permitted by the royal licence *.

THOSE who wish to attempt to restore the spirit of the boister­ous reign of Henry, as far as depended on the boasted British liquor, may use the following receipt :

  • x quarters malte.
  • ii quarters wheet.
  • i. quarters ootos.
  • xl lb. weight of hoppys, to make lx barrel of seugyll beer.

IT is not in my power to trace the progress of this important article of trade. Let me only say that it is now a national con­cern: for the duty on malt, from July 5th 1785, to the same day 1786, produced a million and half of money , to the support of [Page 279] the state, from a liquor which invigorates the bodies of its willing subjects, to defend the blessings they enjoy; while that from the Stygian gin enervates and incapacitates. One of these Chevaliers de Malte (as an impertinent Frenchman styled a most respectable gentleman * of the trade) has, within one year, contributed not less than fifty thousand pounds to his own share. The sight of a great London brewhouse exhibits a magnificense unspeakable. The vessels evince the extent of the trade. Mr. Meux, of Liquor­pond street, Gray's-inn-lane, can shew twenty-four tons; contain­ing, in all, thirty-five thousand barrels; one alone holds four thousand five hundred barrels of wholesome liquor; which enables the London porter-drinkers to undergo tasks that ten gin-drinkers would sink under.

[Page 280]I AM now arrived at the very eastern extent of London, as it was in the age of queen Elizabeth. A small village or two might be found in the remaining part of the county of Middlesex, but bor­dered by marshes, which frequently experienced the ravages of the river.ST [...]EY This tract had been a manor in the Saxon times, called Stibben-hedde, i. e. Stibben-heath. In later days it belonged to John de Pulteney, who had been four times lord mayor, viz. in 1330, 1331, 1333, and 1336. The bishops of London had here a palace, as appears from antient records ‘Given from our palace of Stebonbyth, or Stebonheath, which is supposed to have filled the space now covered with several tenements *. It appears that the side next to the Thames had been embanked, to resist the fury of the floods. From the 26th of Edward I. several inquisitions were made to examine the state of the banks and ditches, and the tenants, who were found negligent, were presented as delin­quents . The church, which stands far from the river, was originally called Ecclesia omnium Sanctorum, but was afterwards styled that of St. Dunstan; for the whole body of saints was obliged to give way to him who had the courage to take the devil himself by the nose . The church is by no means distin­guished by its architecture. In it were interred the remains of the illustrious Sir Thomas Spert, comptroller of the navy in the time of Henry VIII. and to whom this kingdom was indebted for that salutary foundation the TRINITY-HOUSE . Here also may be found that curious epitaph mentioned by the Spectator:

[Page 281]
Here Thomas Saffin lyes interr'd: Ah why
Born in New England, did in London dye? &c.

This vast parish is at present divided into eight others, yet the mother parish still remains of great extent.

THE dock and ship yard, the property of Mr. Perry, the greatest private dock in all Europe, is at the extremity of this pa­rish, at Blackwall, the upper part of the eastern side of the Isle of Dogs. It may be called the eastern end of London, being nearly a continued succession of six miles and a half of streets, from hence to Tyburn turnpike.

THE great extent of Wapping, WAPPING. which stretches along the river side from St. Katherine's, arose from the opinion of the commis­sioners of sewers, in 1571, that nothing could secure the manor from the depredations of the water, more effectually than the build­ing of houses: for they thought the tenants would not fail being attentive to the safety of their lives and property. The plan suc­ceeded, and in our days we see a vast and populous town added to the antient precincts (which had stagnated for ages). A long narrow street, well paved, and handsomely flagged on both sides, winding along the banks of the Thames, as far as the end of Lime­house, an extent of near two miles; and inhabited by multitudes of seafaring men, alternate occupants of sea and land: their float­ing tenements lie before them. In fact, the whole river, from the bridge, for a vast way, is covered with a double forest of masts, with a narrow avenue in mid-channel. These give impor­tance and safety to the state, and supply the mutual wants of the universe. We send the necessaries and luxuries of our island to every part; and, in return, receive every pabulum which should [Page 282] satiate the most luxurious, wealth that ought to make avarice cry, Hold! enough, and matters for speculation for the laudable and delicate longings of the intellectual world.

SHADWELL.THE hamlet of Shadwell is a continuation of the buildings along the river. Between the houses and the water, in all this long tract of street, are frequent docks, and small building yards. The passenger is often surprized with the sight of the prow of a ship rising over the street, and the hulls of new ones appearing at numbers of openings. But all that filth and stench, which Stow complains of, exists no longer. Execution Dock stills remains at Wapping, and is in use as often as a melancholy occasion requires. The criminals are to this day executed on a temporary gallows placed at low-water mark; but the custom of leaving the body to be overflowed by three tides, has long since been omitted.

RADCLIFF.THE village of Radcliff, to which Wapping now joins, is of some antiquity. From hence the gallant Sir Hugh Willoughby, on May the 20th, 1553, took his departure on his fatal voyage for discovering the north-east passage to China. He sailed with great pomp by Greenwich, where the court then lay. Mutual honors were payed on both sides. The council and courtiers ap­peared at the windows, and the people covered the shores. The young king alone lost the noble and novel sight, for he then lay on his death-bed; so that the principal object of the parade was disappointed *.

LIMEHOUSE.LIMEHOUSE is a continuation of the town along the river-side: it is a new creation; and its church, one of the fifty new churches, was finished in 1724. This may be called the end of London on the [Page 283] water-side; but it is continued by means of Poplar, a chapelry in the parish of Stepney (antiently a regal manor, so named from its abundance of poplar trees) across the upper part of the Isle of Dogs, in a strait line to the river Lea, the division of this county from Essex.

WAPPING, Shadwell, and Limehouse, have their respective churches; and Poplar its chapel. The two first have nothing to attract the eye. Limehouse has its aukward tower, a dull square rising out of another, embellished with pilasters; heavy pinnacles rise out of the uppermost: the whole proves how unhappily Mr. Hawksmoor, the architect of Bloomsbury church, exerted his genius in the obsolete art of steeple-building. The church in question is one of the new fifty. In the year 1730 it was added to the bills of mortality.

IN our walk through Limehouse, we crossed the New Cut, or Poplar canal, near its discharge into the river. This was begun about twenty years ago; runs by Bromley, and joins the river Lea near Bow, where barges enter by means of a lock called Bow-lock. This canal is about a mile and a quarter in length; and serves to bring to our capital corn, malt, and flour, from the neighborhood of Hertford, and several other counties, which put their produc­tions on board the barges at that town. It is also of great use to convey to the Thames the produce of the great distilleries near Bow; and also to the internal counties coals, and several articles from the metropolis. This canal saves the great circuit of passing down to Lea-mouth, and thence round the Isle of Dogs; a navigation often impeded by contrary winds and tides, which frequently fall out so adverse, as to occasion great delays. Yet this canal by no means annihilates the use of the river Lea [Page 284] to and from its mouth; but barges go indifferently either way, as conveniency, or the circumstances above-mentioned, occur. Be­sides, many barges will enter the river Lea to save the navigation expences of the New Cut.

LIMEHOUSE dock is a little farther to the south-east, and is much used.

WE finished our walk, and dined at a small house called the Folly, on the water's edge, almost opposite to the splendid hospital at Greenwich, where we sat for some hours enjoying the delicious view of the river, and the moving picture of a succession of shipping perpetually passing and repassing.

BILLS OF MORTALITY.IT is wonderful, that in this great city there should have been no regular Census; but that we must depend on the account of the number of inhabitants from the uncertain calculation of the bills of mortality. I will allow them to be delivered annually, by the only censors we have, the company of parish-clerks, with all possi­ble accuracy, as far as their knowlege extends: but, as it is ad­mitted that a number of people find their burials in coemeteries without the bills, equal nearly to those which are annually reported to be interred within their jurisdiction, the uncertainty of the enu­meration collected from them must be allowed. In the last year, 19,697 were buried within the bills: if the above assertion * is well founded, the sum must be 39,394. I refer the decision of the numbers of inhabitants to the skilful in calculation. I have heard it averred that the present number is a million. Maitland gives the total, in the time of his publication (1756) to have [Page 285] been 725,341 *. The increase of London since his days gives a probability that the enumeration is not much exaggerated.

BILLS of mortality took rise in 1592, in which began a great pestilence, which continued till the 18th of December, 1595. During this period they were kept in order to ascertain the num­ber of persons who died: but when the plague ceased, the bills were discontinued. They were resumed again in 1603. At the original institution, there were only a hundred and nine parishes: others were gradually added, and, by the year 1681, the number was a hundred and thirty-two: since that time fourteen more have been added, so that the whole amounts to a hundred and forty-six; viz.

  • 97 within the walls.
  • 16 without the walls.
  • 23 out-parishes in Middlesex and Surry.
  • 10 in the city and liberties of Westminster .

AMONG the multitudes who fall victims to disease, is a melan­choly account of the rural youth, which crowd here in numbers, laboring under the delusion of preferment: some perish soon, without even attaining a service; and, urged by want, fall under the cognizance of justice. Others get admission into shops, or into places, where they experience hard work, hard wages, hard lodgings, and scanty food. They soon fall ill, are neglected, or flung into an hospital when passed all relief, where they perish. Their native villages want their innocent labor, and the whole [Page 286] rustic community, I may say the whole kingdom, suffers for the indiscrcet ambition of these unhappy youths or of their simple parents.

RADCLIFF HIGHWAY.WE varied our road on our return, by taking that of Radcliff Highway, a broad and very long street, ending in East Smithfield. On the north side stands another of the new fifty churches, St. George's Middlesex; square rises out of square, to compose the steeple; its upper story is incomprehensible, the outside stuck around with chimney-like columns, square at the lower parts, above making a sudden transition into the round. This church was began in 1715; finished in 1729: and, by the eccentricity of the style, may fairly be suspected to have had Mr. Hawksmoor for its builder.

RAG-FAIR.AT the end of this street we found ourselves in the midst of Rag-fair, in the fullest hour of business. The articles of com­merce by no means belye the name. There is no expressing the poverty of the goods: nor yet their cheapness. A distinguished merchant, engaged with a purchaser, observing me to look on him with great attention, called out to me, as his customer was going off with his bargain, to observe that man, For, says he, I have ac­tually cloathed him for fourteen pence.

ABBY OF ST. MARY OF THE GRACES.A LITTLE farther on to the east, stood the abby of St. Mary of the Graces, called also the New Abby, and Eastminster, in opposition to Westminster, in respect to its situation. It was founded by Edward III. in 1349, in the new church-yard of the Holy Trinity, and filled with Cistertians. That church-yard was made by John Corey, clerk, on occasion of the dreadful pestilence which raged in that reign, so that there was not room in the common church-yards to inter the dead. Edward was moved to his piety by a [Page 287] fright he was seized with in a violent storm, in his way to France; when he vowed; if he got safe to shore, he would found a monastery to the honor of God, and the Lady of Grace, if she would grant him the grace of coming safe on shore *. At the dissolution its revenues, according to Dugdale, amounted to £. 5,406. 0 s. 10 d. It was granted to Sir Arthur Darcie, in 1540, who pulled it en­tirely down. "In place thereof," says Stow, VICTUALLING OFFICE. ‘is builded a large store-house for victual, and convenient ovens are builded for baking of bisket to serve hir majesties shippes.’ The present Victualling Office succeeded the original building, and is allotted for the same purpose.

FROM hence I passed by the Tower, to the Custom-house,CUSTOM-HOUSE. a little to the west of that fortress. On this spot is the busy con­course of all nations, who pay their tribute towards the support of Great Britain. The present building is of brick and stone; be­fore which, ships of three hundred and fifty tons can lie and dis­charge their cargo. There was one here, built as early as the year 1385, by John Churchman , one of the sheriffs of London; but at that period, and long after, the customs were collected in different parts of the city, and in a very irregular manner. About the year 1559 the loss to the revenue was first discovered, and an act passed to compel people to land their goods in such places as were appointed by the commissioners of the revenue; and this was the spot fixed on: a Custom-house was erected, which, being de­stroyed by the great fire, was rebuilt by Charles II. In 1718, it underwent the same fate, and was restored in its present form. [Page 288] Before the Custom-house was established here, the principal place for receiving the duties was at Billingsgate. CUSTOMS IN 979. As early as 979, or the reign of Etheldred, a small vessel was to pay ad Bilynggesgate one penny halfpenny as a toll; a greater, bearing sails, one penny; a keel or hulk (Ceol vel Hulcus) four pence; a ship laden with wood, one piece for toll; and a boat with fish, one halfpenny; or a larger, one penny *. We had even now trade with France for its wines; for mention is made of ships from Rouen, who came here and landed them, and freed them from toll, i. e. payed their duties.IN 1268. What they amounted to I cannot learn. But in 1268 the half year's customs, for foreign merchandize in the city of London, came only to £. 75. 6 s. 10 d. In 1331, they amounted to £. 8,000 a year.IN 135 [...]. In 1354, the duty on imports was only £. 580. 6 s. 8 d.; on our exports (wool and felts) £. 81,624. 1 s. 1 d. Well may Mr. Anderson observe the temperance and sobriety of the age, when we consider the small quantities of wine and other luxuries used in these kingdoms.

IN 1590.IN 1590, the latter end of the glorious reign of Elizabeth, our customs brought in £. 50,000 a year. They had at first been farmed at £. 14,000 a year; afterwards raised to £. 42,000; and finally to the sum I mention, and still to the same person, Sir Thomas Smith.

IN 1613, by the peaceful politics of James I. our imports brought in £. 48,250; our exports £. 61,322. 16 s. 7 d. the whole of the revenue, from the customs, amounting this year to £. 109,572. 18 s. 4 d. in the port of London only. Our exports [Page 289] from the out-ports raised £. 25,471. 9 s. 9 d.; the imports £. 13,030. 9 s. 9 d.; the sum total was £. 148,075. 7 s. 8 d.

IN 1641, just before the beginning of our troubles,IN 1641. the customs brought in £. 500,000 a year; the effect of a long series of peaceful days. The effects of our civil broils appeared strongly in 1666, when they suffered a decrease of £. 110,000. From the year 1671 to 1688, they were at a medium £. 555,752.IN 1666, 1671. In the year 1709, notwithstanding a fierce war raged for many years,IN 1709. they were raised to £. 2,319,320. For want of materials, I am obliged to pass to the annual produce of the customs, ending in April, 1789, which amounted to £. 3,711,126.

IN Water-lane, a little to the north-west of the Custom-house,TRINITY-HOUSE. is the Trinity-house; a society founded in 1515, at a period in which the British navy began to assume a system. The founder was Sir Thomas Spert, comptroller of the navy, and commander of the great ship Henry Grace de Dieu. It is a corporation, con­sisting of a master, four wardens, eight assistants, and eighteen elder brethren *; selected from commanders in the navy and the merchants service; and now and then a compliment is payed to one or two of our first nobility. They may be considered as guardians of our ships, military and commercial. Their powers are very extensive: they examine the mathematical children of Christ's Hospital; masters of his majesty's ships; they appoint pilots for the river Thames; settle the general rates of pilotage; erect light-houses, and sea-marks; grant licences to poor seamen, not free of the city, to row on the Thames; prevent foreigners [Page 290] from serving on board our ships without licence; punish seamen for mutiny and desertion; hear and determine complaints of offi­cers and men in the merchants service, but liable to appeal to the judge of the court of admiralty; superintend the deepening and cleansing of the river Thames, and have under their jurisdiction the ballast-office; have powers to buy lands, and receive dona­tions for charitable uses; and, in consequence, relieve annually many thousands of poor seamen, their widows, and orphans.

THIS house is unworthy of the greatness of its design. In the council-room are some portraits of eminent men. The most re­markable is that of Sir John Leake, with his lank grey locks, and a loose night gown, with a mien very little indicative of his high courage, and active spirit. He was the greatest commander of his time, and engaged in most actions of note during the reigns of king William and queen Anne. To him was committed the despe­rate, but successful attempt of breaking the boom, previous to the relief of Londonderry. He distinguished himself greatly at the battle of La Hogue; assisted at the taking of Gibraltar; and after­wards, as commander in chief, reduced Barcelona; took Cartha­gena, and brought Sardinia and Minorca to submit to Charles, rival to Philip for the crown of Spain. He was made a lord of the admiralty, but declined the offer of being head of the commission; at the accession of George I. averse to the new family, he retired; but with the approving pension of £. 600 a year. He lived pri­vately at Greenwich, where he died in 1720, and was buried in a manner suitable to his merits, in the church at Stepney.

IT is in this house the business of the institution is carried on: but the mother-house is at Deptford, the corporation being named, The master, wardens, and assistants of the guild or fraternity of the [Page 291] most glorious and undivided Trinity, and of St. Clement, in the pa­rish of Deptford Strond, in the county of Kent *.

AFTER the Custom-house, the first place of note is Billingsgate, or,BILLINGSGATE. to adapt the spelling to conjectures of antiquaries, ‘who go be­yond the realms of Chaos and old night,’ Belin's-gate, or the gate of Belinus king of Britain, fellow-adventurer with Brennus king of the Gauls, at the sacking of Rome, three hundred and sixty years before the Christian aera: and the BELI mawr, who graces the pedigrees of numbers of us antient Britons. For fear of fall­ing on some inglorious name, I submit to the etymology; but must confess there does not appear any record of a gate at this place: his son Lud was more fortunate, for Ludgate preserves his memory to every citizen, who knows the just value of antiquity. Gate here signifies only a place where there was a concourse of people ; a common quay or wharf, where there is a free going in and out to the same . This was a small port for the reception of shipping, and, for a considerable time, the most important place for the landing of almost every article of commerce. It was not till the reign of king William that it became celebrated as a fish-market; who, in 1699, by act of parlement made it a free port for fish, which might be sold there every day in the week except Sunday. The object of this has long been frustrated, and the epicure who goes (as was a frequent practice) to Billingsgate to eat fish in perfection, will now be cruelly disappointed.

I CANNOT give a list of the fish most acceptable in the Saxon [Page 292] ages; but there is a list left of those which were brought to mar­ket in that of Edward I. who descended even to regulate the prices, that his subjects might not be left to the mercy of the venders.

The best plaice0
A dozen of best soles03
Best fresh mulvil, i. e. molun or cod03
Best hadock02
Best barkey04
Best mullet02
Best dorac, John Doree?05
Best conger10
Best turbot06
Best bran, sard, and betule03
Best mackrel, in Lent01
And out of Lent0
Best gurnard01
Best fresh merlings, i. e. whitings, four for01
Best powdered ditto, 12 for01
Best pickled herrings, twenty01
Best fresh ditto, before Michaelmas, six for01
Ditto, after Michaelmas, twelve for01
Best Thames, or Severn lamprey04
Best fresh oysters, a gallon for02
Best rumb, gross and fat, at04
Best sea-hog, i. e. porpesse68
Best eels, a strike, or ¼ hundred02
Best lampreys, in winter, the hundred08
Ditto, at other times These, by their cheap­ness, must have been the little lam­preys now used for bait.06
Best fresh salmon, from Christmas to Easter, for50
Ditto, after ditto30
Best smelts, the hundred01
Best roche, in summer01
Best Lucy, or pike, at68

[Page 293]AMONG these fish, let me observe, that the conger is, at present, never admitted to any good table; and to speak of serving up a porpesse whole, or in part, would set your guests a staring. Yet, such is the difference of taste, both these fishes were in high esteem. King Richard's master cooks have left a most excellent receipt for Congur in Sawse *; and as for the other great fish, it was either eaten roasted, or salted, or in broth, or furmente with por­pesse . The learned Doctor Caius even tells us the proper sauce, and says, that it should be the same with that for a Dolphin ; another dish unheard of in our days. From the great price the Lucy or pike bore , one may reasonably suspect that it was at that time an exotic fish, and brought over at a vast expence.

I CONFESS myself unacquainted with the words Barkey, Bran, and Betule: Sard was probably the Sardine or Pilchard: I am equally at a loss about Croplings, and Rumb: but the pickled Ba­lenes were certainly the Pholas Dactylus of Linnaeus, 1110; the Balanus of Rondeletius de Testaceis, 28; and the Dattili of the modern Italians, which are to this day eaten, and even pickled.

To this list of sea-fish, which were admitted in those days to table, may be added the sturgeon, and ling; and there is twice mention, in archbishop Nevill's great feast, of a certain fish, both roasted and baked, unknown at present, called a Thirle-poole.

THE seal was also reckoned a fish, and, with the sturgeon and porpess, were the only fresh fish which, by the 33d of Henry VIII. were permitted to be bought of any stranger at sea, between Eng­land and France, Flanders, and Zealand.

[Page 294] LONDON-BRIDGE;A LITTLE to the west is London-bridge. The year of its foun­dation is not settled. The first mention of it is in the laws of Ethelred, which fix the tolls of vessels coming to Billingsgate, or ad Pontem. It could not be prior to the year 993, when Unlaf, the Dane, sailed up the river as high as Stains *, without interrup­tion: nor yet after the year 1016, in which Ethelred died: and the great Canute, king of Denmark, when he besieged London, was impeded in his operations by a bridge, which even at that time must have been strongly fortified, to oblige him to have recourse to the following vast expedient:—He caused a prodigious ditch to be cut on the south side of the Thames, at Rotherhithe, or Redriff, a little to the east of Southwark, which he continued at a distance from the south end of the bridge, in form of a semicircle, opening into the western part of the river. Through this he drew his ships, and effectually compleated the blockade of the city . But the valour of the citizens obliged him to raise the siege. Evidences of this great work were found in the place called The Dock Head, at Redriff, where it began. Fascines of hazels, and other brush­wood, fastened down with stakes, were discovered in digging that dock, in 1694; and in other parts of its course have been met with, in ditching, large oaken planks, and numbers of piles .

WHEN BUILT;THE bridge originated from the public spirit of the college of priests of St. Mary Overie. Before, there had been a ferry, left by her parents to their only daughter Mary; who, out of the pro­fits, founded a nunnery and endowed it with the profits of the boat. This house was afterwards converted into the college of [Page 295] priests, who not only built the bridge but kept it in repair: but it must be understood that the first bridge was of timber,FIRST OF TIMBER. the mate­rials at hand, and most probably rudely put together. This ac­count is given by Stow, from the report of Bartholomew Linsted, alias Fowle, last prior of St. Marie Overie; but was doubted, because the work has been supposed to be too great, and too dis­interested for a college of priests, who were to give up the certain profits of the ferry, for those resulting precariously from an expen­sive undertaking. Even the existence of a religious house before the Conquest has been suspected: but the Domesday book puts that out of doubt, by informing us, Ipse episcopus habet unum monasterium in Sudwerche. Numbers of useful, as well as pious works, in early days, originated from the instigation of the church­men, who often had the honor of being called the founders, when the work itself was performed by their devotees. Neither is it to be supposed that they could keep it in repair: the same zeal which impelled people to contribute to the building, operated in the vestiture of land for its future support; and this appears to have been done by several instances; yet the endowments were so small, that a supplementary tax was often raised.

IN 1136, the bridge was burnt down. By the year 1163 it grew so ruinous as to occasion its being rebuilt, under the care of one Peter, curate of St. Mary Colechurch, a celebrated architect of those times. It was soon after determined to build a bridge of stone, and, about the year 1176,REBUILT IN 1176 WITH STONE. the same Peter was employed again. It proved a work of thirty-three years: the architect died four years before it was completed; and another clergyman, Isen­bert, master of the schools of Xainctes, was recommended to the citizens, by king John, for the honor of finishing it; but they [Page 296] rejected their prince's choice, and committed the work to three merchants of London, who completed it in 1209. Peter was buried in a beautiful chapel, probably of his own construction, dedicated to St. Thomas, C [...]P [...] IN ONE OF THE PIERE. which stood on the east side, in the ninth pier from the north end, and had an entrance from the river, as well as the street, by a winding staircase. It was beautifully paved with black and white marble, and in the middle was a tomb, sup­posed to contain the remains of Peter the architect.

THIS great work was founded on enormous piles, driven as closely as possible together: on their tops were laid long planks ten inches thick, strongly bolted; and on them were placed the base of the pier, the lowermost stones of which were bedded in pitch, to prevent the water from damaging the work: round all were the piles which are called the Sterlings, designed for the pre­servation of the foundation piles. These contracted the space between the piers so greatly, as to occasion, at the retreat of every tide, a fall of five feet, or a number of temporary cataracts, which, since the foundation of the bridge, have occasioned the loss of many thousand lives. The water, at spring-tides, rises to the height of about eighteen feet. The length of this vast work is nine hun­dred and fifteen feet, the exact breadth of the river. The num­ber of arches was nineteen, of unequal dimensions, and greatly deformed by the sterlings, and the houses on each side, which overhung and leaned in a most terrific manner. In most places they hid the arches, and nothing appeared but the rude piers. I well remember the street on London-bridge, narrow, darksome, and dangerous to passengers from the multitude of carriages: frequent arches of strong timber crossed the street, from the tops of the houses, to keep them together, and from falling into the [Page 297] river. Nothing but use could preserve the rest of the inmates, who soon grew deaf to the noise of the falling waters, the clamors of watermen, or the frequent shrieks of drowning wretches. Most of the houses were tenanted by pin or needle makers,PIN-MAKERS. and oeco­nomical ladies were wont to drive from the St. James's end of the town, to make cheap purchases. Fuller tells us, that Spanish needles were made here first in Cheapside, by a negro, who died without communicating the art. Elias Crowse, a German, in the reign of Elizabeth, was more liberal, and first taught the method to the English. Fuller's definition of a needle is excellent, quasi NE IDLE.

IN the bridge were three openings on each side, with ballu­strades, to give passengers a sight of the water and shipping. In one part had been a draw-bridge, useful either by way of defence,DRAW-BRIDGE. or for the admission of ships into the upper part of the river. This was protected by a strong tower. It served to repulse Faucon-bridge the Bastard, in his general assault on the city in 1471, with a set of banditti, under pretence of rescuing the unfortunate Henry, then confined in the Tower. Sixty houses were burnt on the bridge on the occasion *. It also served to check, and in the end annihilate, the ill-conducted insurrection of Sir Thomas Wiat, in the reign of queen Mary. The top of this tower, in the sad and turbulent days of this kingdom, used to be the shambles of hu­man flesh, and covered with heads or quarters of unfortunate partizans. Even so late as the year 1598, Hentzner, the German traveller, with German accuracy, counted on it above thirty [Page 298] heads *. The old map of the city, in 1597, represents them in a most horrible cluster.

AT the south end of the bridge one Peter Corbis, a Dutchman , in the year 1582, invented an engine to force the water of the Thames into leaden pipes, to supply many of the adjacent parts of the city. It has, since that time, been so greatly improved, by the skill of the English mechanics, as to become a most curious as well as useful piece of machinery, and to be extremely worthy the attention of that branch of science.

DREADFUL CA­LAMITY BY FIRE.I MUST not quit the bridge, without noticing an unparalleled calamity, which happened on it within four years after it was finished. A fire began on it at the Southwark end; multitudes of people rushed out of London to extinguish it; while they were engaged in this charitable design, the fire seized on the opposite end, and hemmed in the crowd. Above three thousand persons perished in the flames, or were drowned by overloading the ves­sels which were hardy enough to attempt their relief.

A BRAVE ACTION.THE gallant action of Edmund Osborne, ancestor to the duke of Leeds, when he was apprentice to Sir William Hewet, cloth-worker, must by no means be forgotten. About the year 1536, when his master lived in one of these tremendous houses, a servant-maid was playing with his only daughter in her arms, in a window over the water, and accidentally dropt the child. Young Osborne, who was witness to the misfortune, instantly sprung into the river, and, beyond all expectation, brought her safe to the terrified family. Several persons of rank payed their addresses to her, [Page 299] when she was marriageable; among others, the earl of Shrewsbury: but Sir William gratefully decided in favor of Osborne; OSBORNE, says he, saved her, and OSBORNE shall enjoy her *. In her right he possessed a great fortune. He became sheriff of London in 1575; and lord mayor in 1582. I have seen the picture of his master at Kiveton, the seat of the duke of Leeds, a half length on board; his dress is a black gown furred, a red vest and sleeve, a gold chain, and a bonnet. He served the office of lord mayor in 1559; and died in 1566. Strype mistakes, when he says, that Sir William died in 1599, and was buried in the cathedral of St. Paul: another person of the same name lies there, under the handsome monument ascribed by our old historian to the former.

Or the multitudes who have perished in this rapid descent, the names of no one, of any note, has reached my knowlege, except that of Mr. Temple, only son of the great Sir William Temple. His end was dreadful, as it was premeditated. He had, a week before, accepted, from king William, the office of Secretary of War. On the 14th of April, 1689, he hired a boat on the Thames, and directed the waterman to shoot the bridge; at that in­stant he flung himself into the torrent, and, having filled his pockets with stones, to destroy all chance of safety , instantly sunk. In the boat was found a note to this effect: ‘My folly, in undertak­ing what I could not perform, whereby some misfortunes have befallen the king's service, is the cause of my putting myself to [Page 300] this sudden end. I wish him success in all his undertakings, and a better servant.’ I hope his father's reflection, on the occasion, was a parental apology, not his real sentiments: ‘That a wise man might dispose of himself, and make his life as short as he pleased.’ How strongly did this great man militate against the precepts of Christianity, and the solid arguments of a most wise and pious heathen *!

CHURCH OF ST. MAGNUS.VERY near to the northern end of the bridge, is the church of St. Magnus. It is probably a church of great antiquity; yet the first mention is in 1433. It was consumed in the great fire, but within ten years was restored in the present handsome style. The bottom of the tower is open, so as to admit a most convenient thoroughfare to the numerous passengers.

A LITTLE higher up, on the left hand, is Eastcheap, immorta­lized by SHAKESPEARE, as the place of rendezvous of Sir John Falstaff and his merry companions. Here stood the Boar's Head tavern; the site is now covered with modern houses, but in the front of one is still preserved the memory of the sign, the Boar's Head, cut in stone. Notwithstanding the house is gone, we shall laugh at the humour of the jovial knight, his hostess, Bardolph, and Pistol, as long as the descriptive pages of our great dramatic writer exist in our entertained imagination. I must mention, that in the wall of another house is a Swan cut in stone; probably, in old times, the sign of another tavern.

THE renowned Henry, prince of Wales, was not the only one of the royal family, whose youthful blood led them into frolic and [Page]

A VIEW [...] PART of LONDON as it appeared in the GREAT FIRE of 1666.

[...] Original Painting in Painter [...] Hall.

[Page 301] riot. His brothers John, and Thomas, with their attendants, be­tween two and three o'clock, after midnight, raised such an uproar, that the mayor and sheriffs thought proper to interfere. This the princes took as an insult on their dignity. The magistrates were convened by the celebrated chief justice Gascoigne; they stood on their defence, and were most honorably dismissed, it being proved that they did no more than their duty, towards the maintenance of the peace *.

THIS street was famous, in old times, for its convivial doings; ‘The cookes cried hot ribbes of beef rosted, pies well baked, and other victuals : there was clattering of pewter, pots, harpe, pipe, and sawtrie.’ Evident marks of the jollity of this quarter.

IN Pudding-lane, at a very small distance from this church,FIRE IN 1666. be­gun the ever-memorable calamity by fire, on the 2d of September, 1666. In four days it consumed every part of this noble city within the walls, except what lies within a line drawn from the north part of Coleman-street, and just to the south-west of Leaden-hall, and from thence to the Tower. Its ravages were also ex­tended without the walls, to the west, as far as Fetter-lane, and the Temple. As it begun in Pudding-lane, it ended in Smithfield at Pye-corner; which might occasion the inscription with the figure of a boy, on a house in the last place, now almost erased, which attributes the fire of LONDON to the sin of gluttony. I leave the reader to consult the second volume of the City Remembrancer, for the melancholy detail.

[Page 302]SIR Christopher Wren was coeval to this misfortune. The plans his great genius offered to the public for rebuilding the city, with genuine taste, and a splendor worthy of ancient Rome, were unfor­tunately rejected. Perhaps the times are not greatly to be blam­ed; there were a thousand difficulties in respect to the division of property; there was, in a vast commercial city, such as London, a hurry to resume their former occupations, and a prejudice for ancient sites. It was difficult to persuade people to relinquish, for a mere work of taste, a spot productive of thousands, to them or their predecessors. These things considered, it is not to be won­dered that we are left to admire, on paper only, the vast designs of our great architect. But still he was the restorer of several of our public buildings: many of our temples arose with improved beauty from his plans; and several other buildings, which we have had, or shall have occasion of mentioning.

THE MONUMENT.THAT astonishing proof of his genius, the Monument, is placed on the side of Fish-street, very near to the spot where the calamity began;

Where London's column, pointing at the skies,
Like a tall bully lifts its head and lyes.

It is a Doric column, two hundred and two feet high, fluted, and finished with a trifling urn with flames, instead of a noble statue of the reigning king, as the great architect proposed. On the west side of the pedestal is a bas relief, cut by Gabriel Cibber, in ad­mirable taste. It represents emblematically this sad catastrophe; Charles is seen, surrounded with Liberty, Genius, and Science, giving directions for the restoring of the city. Here the sculptor [Page 303] found, luckily, one example to compliment the attention of the thoughtless monarch towards the good of his subjects; for, during the horrors of the conflagration, and after it was subdued, his en­deavours to stop the evil, and to remedy the effect, were truly indefatigable. The king was seriously affected by this calamity, and many emotions of piety and devotion were excited in him. There was, for a short time, great reason to expect the fruits of this his brief return to Heaven: but they were quickly blasted by the uncommon wickedness of the people about him, who, by every prophane witticism on the recent calamity, and even by suggest­ing that it was the blessing of God, to humble this rebellious city, and to prepare it for his yoke, soon removed every good thought from the royal breast *. This noble column was begun in 1671; and finished in 1677, at the expence of £. 14,500. A melancholy period of party rage: and the inscription was permitted. The damage sustained by the cruel element, was computed at ten mil­lions seven hundred and sixteen thousand pounds. But Provi­dence, mingling mercy with justice, suffered only the lost of a very few lives.

GREAT as this calamity was, yet it proved the providential cause of putting a stop to one of a far more tremendous nature. The plague, which, for a series of ages, had, with very short inter­vals, visited our capital in its most dreadful forms, never appeared there again after the rebuilding of the city in a more open and airy manner, which removed several nusanoes; which, if not the actual origin of a plague, was assuredly one great pabulum, when [Page 304] it had seized our streets. The last was in the year 1665, when in about six months, by the smallest computation, a hundred and threescore thousand people fell by the destroying angel.

ALMOST opposite to the place where the monument now stands, was a large stone house, the habitation of Edward, our famous black prince, the flower of English chivalry. In Stow's time it was altered to a common hosterie or inn, having a black bell for the sign *.

FISHMONGERS-HALL.AT a small distance, to the west of the bridge, is Fishmongers-hall, a very handsome building, erected since the destruction of the old hall by the great fire. It faces the river, and commands a fine view of the water and the bridge. In the court-room are several pictures of the various sorts of vendible fishes. A printed catalogue of the species and varieties, with their seasons, was pre­sented to me when I visited the place. At this and every other hall I met with the utmost urbanity. As an humble historian of the fishy tribe, I trust that I am not to be condemned to the Pygmalion prospect of these delicacies; but, on my next visit to town, may be honored with a card, in order to form a practical judgment of what hitherto [...] only feasted my eyes!!!

IN the great hall is a wooden statue of the brave Sir William Walworth, armed with his rebel-killing dagger; here is also another of St. Peter: the former was of this company; the latter with great propriety is adopted as its titular saint. The arms of the benefactors are beautifully expressed in painted glass on the several windows.

[Page 305]THIS is one of the twelve great companies: it originally was divided into Stock-mongers, and Saltfish-mongers; the first were in­corporated in 1433; a period in which we had very considerable trade with Iceland in that very article *: the last not till 1509, but were united in 1536. There was once a desperate feud between this company and the Goldsmiths, about precedency. The par­ties grew so violent, that the mayor and aldermen, by their own authority, were obliged to pronounce them rebels, and even ban­nifiati, or banished the city, such of them who persisted in their contumacy . I fear that, in old times, the Goldsmiths were a pugnacious society; for I read, in 1268, of a desperate battle between them and the Taylors, in which numbers were slain. This company pays £. 500 a year to charitable uses.

THE next place I shall take notice of, to the west of this hall,COLD HARBOUR. was Cold Harbour, mentioned as a tenement as early as the reign of Edward II. A magnificent house was, in after-times, built on the spot, which, from its occupant, Sir John Poultney, four times mayor of London, was, in the style of the times, called Poultney-Inn: POULTNEY-INN. for the town habitations of most of the great men were called Inns. Warwick-Inn w [...] palace of the great king­maker, and many others had the same addition. In feudal days the town had no pleasures to attract the great; they seldom came there but to support a cause (as now and then is the case with a modern senator), to make or unmake a king, or lay the founda­tion of civil broils. In 1397, it was the Inn of John Holland, duke of Exeter, and earl of Huntingdon, who here gave a din­ner, and doubtlessly a very magnificent one, to his half-brother [Page 306] Richard II. Next year it became the inn of Edmund of Langley, earl of Cambridge, but still retained the addition of Poultney. In 1472, Henry Holland, duke of Exeter, lodged in it. In 1485, Richard III, granted it to Garter king of arms, and his brother heralds. In the time of Henry VIII. it became the lodgings of Tonstal, bishop of Durham. On his deposal it was granted to the earl of Shrewsbury, by Edward VI; and changed its name to that of Shrewsbury-house.

STEEL-YARD.TO the west of this place was the Steel-yard, a most noted quay for the landing of wheat, rye, and other grain; cables, masts, tar, flax, hemp, linen cloth, wainscot, wax, steel, and other merchan­dize, imported by the Easterlings, or Germans. Here was the Guildhalda Teutonicorum, or Guildhall of those people. They were our masters in the art of commerce, and settled here even before the eleventh century. For we find them here in the year 9 [...]9, at lest in the time of king Ethelred: for the Emperor's men, i. e. the Germans of the Steel-yard, coming with their ships, were accounted worthy of good laws. They were not to forestall the market from the burghers of London; and to pay toll, at Christ­mas, two grey cloths, and one brown one, with ten pounds of pepper, five pair of gloves, two vessels of vinegar; and as many at Easter. The name of this wharf is not taken from Steel the metal, which was only a single article, but from Stael-hoff, con­tracted from Stapel-hoff, or the general house of trade of the Ger­man nation. The powerful league of the Hanse Towns, and the profits we made of their trade (for they were for a long season the great importers of this kingdom) procured for them great privi­leges. They had an alderman of London for their judge, in case of disputes; and they were to be free from all subsidies to the [Page 307] king, or his heirs; saving, says the king, to us and our heirs, our antient prizes, prisis juribusque consuetudinibus costumisque *. In return for these distinguishing favors, they were to keep in repair the gate called Bishopsgate. In 1282, they were called on to perform their duty, the gate being at that time in a ruinous state; they refused; but being compelled by law, Gerard Marbod, their alderman, advanced the necessary sum. In 1479, it was even rebuilt in a most magnificent manner, by the merchants of the Steel-yard. As they decreased in strength, and we grew more powerful and more politic, we began to abridge their privileges. We found that this potent company, by their weight, interfered with the interest of the natives, and damped their spirit of trade. After several revocations and renewals of the charter, the house, in 1597, was shut up, by our wise and patriotic queen, and the German inhabitants expelled the kingdom.

AT this time it is the great repository of the imported iron, which furnishes our metropolis with that necessary material. The quantity of bars, that fill the yards and warehouses of this quar­ter, strike with astonishment the most indifferent beholder. Next to the water-side are two eagles, with imperial crowns round their necks, placed on two columns.

IN the hall of this company were the two famous pictures, painted in distemper by Holbein, representing the triumphs of Riches and Poverty. They were lost, being supposed to have been carried into Flanders, on the destruction of the company, and from thence into France. I am to learn where they are at present, unless in the cabinet of M. Fleischman, at Hesse-Darmstadt. [Page 308] The celebrated Christian a Mechel, of Basil, has lately published two engravings of these pictures, either from the originals, or the drawings by Zucchero; for Frid. Zucchero, 1574, is at one corner of each print. Drawings of these pictures were found in England, by Vertue, ascribed to Helbein; and the verses over them to Sir Thomas More *. It appears that Zucchero copied them at the Steel-yard , so probably those copies, in process of time, might have fallen into the hands of M. Fleischman.

IN the triumph of Riches, Plutus is represented in a golden car, and Fortune sitting before him, flinging money into the laps of people, holding up their garments to receive her favors: Ventidius is wrote under one; Gadareus under another; and Themistocles under a man kneeling beside the car: Croesus, Midas, and Tanta­lus follow; Narcissus holds the horse of the first: over their heads, in the clouds, is Nemesis. There are various allegorical figures, I shall not attempt to explain. By the sides of the horses walk dropsical and other diseased figures, the too frequent attendants of riches.

POVERTY appears in another car, mean and shattered, half naked, squalid, and meagre. Behind her sits Misfortune; before her Memory, Experience, Industry, and Hope. The car is drawn by a pair of oxen, and a pair of asses; Diligence drives the ass; and Sclicitude, with a face of care, goads the ox. By the sides of the car walks Labor, represented by lusty workmen with their tools, with chearful looks; and behind them Misery, and Beggary, in ragged weeds, and with countenances replete with wretchedness and discontent.

[Page 309]NOT remote from hence formerly stood the Erber, THE ERBER. a vast house or palace. Edward III. for it is not traced higher, granted it to one of the noble family of the Scroopes; from them it fell to the Nevills. Richard, the great earl of Warwick, possessed it, and lodged here his father, the earl of Salisbury, with five hundred men, in the famous congress of barons, in the year 1458, in which Henry VI. may be said to have been virtually deposed. It often changed masters: Richard III. repaired it, in whose time it was called the King's Palace. It was rebuilt by Sir Thomas Pullison, mayor, in 1584; and afterwards dignified by being the residence of our illustrious navigator Sir Francis Drake.

BEYOND the Steel-yards is Dowgate, now a place of little note.DOWGATE. Here stood one of the Roman gates, through which was the way for passengers, who took boat at the trajectus, or ferry, into the continuation of the military way towards Dover. The Britons are supposed to have given it the name of Dwr or Dwy, water; and the Saxons added the word gate, which signifies way. It became a noted wharf, and was called the port of Downgate. In the time of Henry III. and Edward III. customs were to be paid by ships resting there, in the same manner as if they rode at Queenhithe.

NEAR Dowgate runs concealed into the Thames the antient Wal-brook, or river of Wells, mentioned in a charter of the Con­queror to the college of St. Martin le Grand. It rises to the north of Moorfields, and passed through London Wall, between Bishopsgate and Moorgate, and ran through the city; for a long time it was quite exposed, and had over it several bridges, which were maintained by the priors of certain religious houses, and [Page 310] others. Between two and three centuries ago it was vaulted over with brick *; the top paved, and formed into a street; and, for a long time past, known only by name.

THREE CRANESTHE Three Cranes, in the Vintry, was the next wharf, which, in old times, by royal order, was allotted for the landing of wines, as the name imports. The Cranes were the three machines used for the landing of the wines, such as we use to this day. In the adjacent lane was the Painted Tavern, famous as early as the time of Richard II. [...] VINTRIE. In this neighborhood was the great house called the Vintrie, with vast wine-vaults beneath. Here, in 1314, re­sided Sir John Gisors, lord mayor, and constable of the Tower. But the memorable feasting of another owner, Sir Henry Picard, vintner, lord mayor in 1356, must not be forgotten, who, ‘in one day, did sumptuously feast Edward king of England, John king of France, the king of Cipres (then arrived in Eng­land,) David king of Scots, Edward prince of Wales, with many noblemen, and other: and after, the sayd Henry Picard kept his hall against all commers whosoeuer, that were willing to play at dice and hazard. In like manner the lady Margaret, his wife, did also keepe her chamber to the same intent. The king of Cipres, playing with Henry Picard, in his hall, did winne of him fifty markes; but Henry, beeing very skilfull in that art, altering his hand, did after winne of the same king the same fifty markes, and fifty markes more; which when the same king began to take in ill part, although hee dissembled the same, Henry said unto him, My lord and king, be not agreeu­ed, I court not your gold, but your play, for I have not bidd [Page 311] you hither that I might grieue, but that amongst other things I might your play; and gave him his money againe, plentifully bestowing of his owne amongst the retinue: besides, he gave many rich gifts to the king, and other nobles and knights, which dined with him, to the great glory of the cittizens of London in those days *.’

VINTNERS-HALL faces Thames street. VINTNERS-HALL. It is distinguished by the figure of Bacchus striding his tun, placed on the columns of the gate. In the great hall is a good picture of St. Martin, on a white horse, dividing his cloak with our Saviour, who appeared to him in the year 337, in the character of a beggar.

Hic CHRISTO chlamydem Martinus dimidiavit;
Ut faciamus idem nobis exemplificavit.

There is, besides, a statue of that saint in the same room; and another picture of him above stairs. Why this saint was selected as patron of the company I know not, except they imagined that the saint, actuated by good wine, had been inspired with good thoughts; which, according to the argument of James Howel, producing good works, brought a man to Heaven. And, to shew the moral in a contrary effect, here is a picture of Lot and his incestuous daughters, exemplifying the danger of the abuse of the best things.

THIS hall was built on ground given by Sir John Stodie, vint­ner, lord mayor in 1357. It was called the manour of the Vintre. The Vintners, or Vintonners, were incorporated in the reign of Edward III. They were originally divided into Vinetarii et Ta­bernarii; [Page 312] Vintners who imported the wine, and Taverners who kept taverns, and retailed it for the former. The company flou­rished so much, that, from its institution till the year 1711, it pro­duced not fewer than fourteen lord mayors, many of which were the keepers of taverns. Yet, in the time of Edward III. the Gascoigne wines were not sold at the rate of above 4 d. a gallon; nor the Rhenish above 6 d. In 1379, red wine was 4 d. a gallon; and a little after, the price of a tun £. 4. As late as the year 1552, the Gu [...]nne and Gascoigne wines were sold at 8 d. a gallon; and no wines were to exceed the price of 12d. To restrain luxury, it was at the same time enacted, that no person, except those who could expend 100 marks annually, or was worth 1000 marks, or was the son of a duke, marquiss, earl, viscount, or baron of the realm, should keep in his house any vessel of wine, for his family use, exceeding ten gallons, under penalty of ten pounds.

OUR great wine trade was at first with Bourdeaux, and the neighboring provinces; it commenced as early as the Conquest, perhaps sooner *. But it became very considerable in the reign of Henry II. by reason of his marriage with Elianor, daughter of the duke of Aquitaine; our conquest of that, and other great wine-provinces of France, increased the trade to a high degree, and made great fortunes among the adventurers of this company. In after­times, when sweet wines came into fashion, we had considerable intercourse with the Canary islands.

SIR RICHARD WHITTINGTON.I MUST not be silent about the celebrated Sir Richard Whitting­ton, three times lord mayor of London, in 1397, 1406, and 1419. I shall leave the history of his cat to the friend of my younger [Page 313] days, Punch, and his dramatical troop. But will not omit saying, that his good fortune was not without parallel, for it is re­corded, ‘how Alphonso, a Portuguese, being wrecked on the coast of Guinney, and being presented by the king thereof with his weight in gold for a Cat, to kill their mice, and an oyntment to kill their flies, which he improved, within five years, to £. 6000 on the place, and returning to Portugal, after 15 years traffick, becoming the third man in the kingdom *.’

OUR munificent citizen founded, near this place, Whittington College, in the church of St. Michael Royal, rebuilt by him, and finished by his executors in 1424. The college was dedicated to die Holy Ghost, and the Virgin Mary, and had in it an establish­ment of a master and four fellows, clerks, choristers, &c.; and near it an almshouse for thirteen poor people. The college was suppressed at the reformation, but the almshouses still exist .

THIS great man was thrice buried: once by his executors, un­der a magnificent monument, in the church which he had built; but by the sacrilege of Thomas Mountein, rector, in the reign of Edward VI. who expected great riches in his tomb, it was broke open, and the body spoiled of its leaden sheet, and then com­mitted again to its place §. In the next reign the body was again taken up, to renew a decent covering, and deposited the third time. His epitaph began thus:

Ut fragrans nardus, fama suit iste Ricardus,
Albificans villam qui justè rexerat illam,
Flos mercatorum, sundator Presbyterorum, &c .

[Page 314] TOWER ROYAL.THE Tower Royal, which stood in a street of the same name, a little beyond this church, must not pass unnoticed. It was sup­posed to have been founded by Henry I; and, according to Stow, it was the residence of king Stephen. Whether it was destroyed by any accident does not appear: but in the reign of Edward I. it was no more than a simple tenement, held by one Simon Beawmes. In that of Edward III. it acquired the title of Royal, and the Inn Royal, as having been the residence of the king: under that name he bestowed it on the college of St. Stephen, Westminster; but it reverted to the crown, and in the time of Richard II. was called the Queen's Wardrobe *. It must have been a place of great strength; for, when the rebels, under Wat Tyler, had made themselves masters of THE TOWER, and forced from thence the archbishop of Canterbury, and every other victim to their barbarity, this place remained secure. Hither the prin­cess Joan, the royal mother, retired during the time the rebels were committing every excess in all parts of the town; and here the youthful monarch found her, after he had, by his wonderful calmness and prudence, put an end to this pestilential insurrec­tion .

IN this tower Richard, in 1386, lodged, when his royal guest Leon III. king of Armenia, or, as Holinshed calls him, Lyon king of Armony (Armenia) who had been expelled his kingdom by the Turks, took refuge in England. Richard treated him with the utmost munificence, loaded him with gifts, and settled on the un­fortunate [Page 315] prince a thousand pounds a year for life. After two months stay, he returned into France, where he also met with a reception suitable to his rank *; and dying at Paris, in 1393, was interred in the Celestins, where his tomb is to be seen to this day .

JOHN duke of Norfolk, the faithful adherent of the usurper Richard III. had a grant of this tower from his master, and made it his residence .

NEAR the water-side, a little to the west of Vintners-hall, stood Worcester Place, the house of the accomplished John Tiptoft, WORCESTER PLACE. earl of Worcester, lord high treasurer of England. All his love for the sciences could not soften in him the ferocious temper of the un­happy times he lived in. While he was in Ireland, he cruelly destroyed two infants of the Desmond family. And, in 1470, sit­ting in judgment on twenty gentlemen and yeomen, taken at sea near Southampton, he caused them to be hanged and beheaded, then hung by their legs, and their heads stuck on a stake driven into their fundaments. He had deserted the cause of Henry, and was beheaded by order of the great earl of Warwick, who had just before thought proper to quit that of Edward.

THE next place of antiquity, on the banks of the Thames, QUEEN-HITHE. is Queen-hithe, or harbour: its original name was Edred's-hithe, and possibly existed in the time of the Saxons. This was one of the places for large boats, and even ships, to discharge their lading; for there was a draw-bridge in one part of London-bridge, which [Page 316] was pulled up, occasionally, to admit the passage of large vessels; express care being taken to land corn, fish, and provisions, in dif­ferent places, for the conveniency of the inhabitants; and other hithes were appointed for the landing of different merchandise, in order that business might be carried on with regularity. When this hithe fell into the hands of king Stephen, he bestowed it on William de Ypres, who, in his piety, again gave it to the convent of the Holy Trinity, within Aldgate. It again fell to the crown, in the time of Henry III. and then acquired its present name, be­ing called Ripa Reginae, the Queen's Wharf. That monarch compelled the ships of the cinque ports to bring their corn here, and to no other place. It probably was part of her majesty's pin-money, by the attention paid to her interest in the affiair.

BEAUMONT-INN.I CANNOT ascertain the place, but in Thames street, somewhere to the north-east of St. Paul's wharf, stood Beaumont-Inn, or house, the residence of the noble family of that name. Ed­ward IV. in 1465, presented it to his favorite, the lord Hastings. On the advancement of his grandson to the earldom of Hunting­don, it was named after the title of the noble possessors.

PAINTER- [...]INERS HALL.OPPOSITE to Queen-hithe, on the south side of Thames-street, is Little Trinity Lane, where the company of Painter-stainers have their hall. These artists formed themselves into a fraternity as early as the reign of Edward III. and also erected themselves into a company; but were not incorporated. They styled themselves Painter-stainers; the chief work being the staining or painting of glass, illuminating missals, or painting of portatif or other altars, and now and then a portrait; witness that of Richard II. and the portraits of the great John Talbot and his wife, preserved at [Page 317] Castle Ashby *. In the year 1575, they found that plaisterers, and all sorts of unskilful persons, intermeddled in their business, and brought their art into disrepute by the badness and slightness of their work. They determined (as the surgeons in later days) to keep their mystery pure from all pretenders. They were incor­porated in 1576, had their master, warden, and common seal: George Gower was queen Elizabeth's serjeant painter ; but, as I do not find his name in Mr. Walpole's, Anecdotes, I suspect his art was confined to the humbler part. This corporation extended only to such artists who practised within the city. As art is un­confined, numbers arose in different parts, and settled in West-minster, the seat of the court. They for a long time remained totally unconnected even with each other. About the year 1576, they solicited and received the royal patronage, and were in­corporated under the title of master, wardens, and commonalty of Painter-stainers. The majority are independent of any other body corporate; but several among them are regular freemen of the city under the antient company.

THE next remarkable place is Baynard Castle, BAYNARD CASTLE. one of the two castles built on the west end of the town, "with walls and ram­parts," mentioned by Fitzstephens. It took its name from its founder, a nobleman and follower of the Conqueror, and who died in the reign of William Rufus. It was forfeited to the crown in 1111, by one of his descendants. Henry I. bestowed it on Robert Fitz-Richard, fifth son of Richard de Tonebrugge, son of Gilbert earl of Clare . To this family did appertain, in right of [Page 318] the castle, the office of castilian, and banner-bearer of the city of London. There is a curious declaration of their rights, in the person of Robert Fitzwalter, one of his descendants, expressing his duty in time of war, made in all the fullness of chivalry, in 1303, before John Blondon, then lord mayor. It is there recited, that,RIGHTS OF ROBERT FITZ­ [...]A [...]TE [...], C [...] ­IAN AND STAN­DARD- [...]RER OF LONDON IN TIME OF WAR. ‘The sayd Robert, and his heyres, ought to be, and are chiefe bannerers of London, in see for the chastilarie, which he and his ancestors had by Castell Baynard, in the said city. In time of warre, the sayd Robert, and his heyers, ought to serve the citie in manner as followeth: that is,’

‘THE sayd Robert ought to come, he beeing the twentith man of armes, on horsebacke, covered with cloth, or armour, unto the great west doore of Saint Paul, with his banner dis­played before him of his armes. And when hee is come to the sayd doore, mounted and apparelled as before is said, the maior, with his aldermen and sheriffes, armed in their armes, shall come out of the sayd church of Saint Paul unto the sayd doore, with a banner in his hand, all on foote: which banner shall be gules,BANNER OF ST. PAUL. the image of Saint Paul, gold; the face, hands, feete, and sword of silver: and assoone as the sayd Robert shall see the maior, aldermen, and sheriffes come on foot out of the church, armed with such a banner, he shall alight from his horse, and salute the maior, and say to him, Sir maior, I am come to do my service, which I owe to the citie. And the maior and aldermen shall answere. We give to you, as to our bannerer of see in this citie, this banner of this citie to beare and governe, to the honour and profite of the citie, to our power. And the sayd Robert, and his heyers, shall receive the banner in his hands, and shall go on foote out of the gate, with the banner in [Page 319] his hands; and the maior, aldermen, and sheriffes shall follow to the doore, and shall bring a horse to the said Robert, worth twenty pound, which horse shall be saddled with a saddle of the armes of the said Robert, and shall be covered with sindals of the sayd armes. Also, they shall present to him twenty pounds starling money, and deliver it to the chamberlaine of the sayd Robert, for his expences that day. Then the said Robert shall mount upon the horse, which the maior presented to him, with the banner in his hand, and as soon as he is up, he shall say to the maior, that he cause a marshall to be chosen for the host, one of the citie; which marshall being chosen, the said Robert shall command the maior and burgesses of the citie to warne the commoners to assemble together; and they shall all goe un­der the banner of Saint Paul: and the said Robert shall beare it himself unto Aldgate; and there the said Robert and maior shall deliver the said banner of Saint Paul from thence, to whom they shall assent or think good. And if they must make any issue forth of the citie, then the sayd Robert ought to choose two forth of every ward, the most sage personages, to foresee to the safe keeping of the citie after they bee gone forth. And this counsell shall be taken in the priorie of the Trinitie, neere unto Aldgate; and againe before every towne or castell, which the host of London shall besiege; if the siege continue a whole yeere, the sayd Robert shall have for every siege, of the com­munalty of London, a 100 shillings for his travaile and no more.’

‘THESE be the rights that the said Robert hath in the time of warre. Rights belonging to Robert Fitzwalter, IN TIME OF PEACE. and to his heires, in the citie of Lond. in the time of peace, are these; [Page 320] that is to say, The sayd Robert hath a soken or ward in the citie, that is, a wall of the canonrie of Saint Paul, as a man goeth downe the street, before the brewhouse of Saint Paul, unto the Thames, and so to the side of the mill, which is in the water that commeth down from the Fleet-bridge, and goeth so by London wals, betwixt the Friers preachers and Ludgate, and so returneth backe by the house of the sayd Friers, unto the sayd wall of the sayd canonrie of Saint Paul, that is, all the parish of Saint Andrew, which is in the gift of his ancestors, by the sayd signiority: and so the said Robert hath, appendant unto the sayd soken, all these things underwritten: That hee ought to have a sokemanrie, or the same ward; and if any of the soke­manry be impleaded in the Guild-hall, of any thing that touch­eth not the body of the maior that for the time is, or that toucheth the body of no sheriffe, it is not lawful for the soke­man of the sokemanry of the sayd Robert; and the maior, and his citizens of London, ought to grant him to have a court, and in his court he ought to bring his judgements, as it is assented and agreed upon in the Guild hall, that shall be given them.’

‘IF any therefore be taken in his sokemanrie, he ought to have his stockes and imprisonment in his soken, and he shall be brought from thence to Guild-hall, before the maior, and there they shall provide him his judgement that ought to be given of him: but his judgement shall not be published till he come into the court of the sayd Robert, and in his libertie. And the judgement shall be such, that if he have deserved death by treason, he to be tied to a post in the Thames at a good wharf, where boats are fastened, two ebbings and two flowings of the water. And if he be condemned for a common thief, [Page 321] he ought to be led to the Elmes, and there suffer his judgement as other theeves. And so the said Robert and his heirs hath honour, that he holdeth a great franches within the citie, that the maior of the city, and citizens, are bound to doe him of right; that is to say, that when the maior will hold a great counsaile, he ought to call the said Robert and his heyres, to be with him in counsaile of the citie; and the said Robert ought to be sworne, to be of counsaile with the city against all people, saving the king and his heirs. And when the said Ro­bert commeth to the hustings, in the Guild-hall of the citie, the maior or his lieutenant ought to rise against him, and set him downe neere unto him; and so long as he is in the Guild-hall, al the judgements ought to be given by his mouth, ac­cording to the record of the recorders of the said Guild-hall. And so many waifes as come, so long as he is there he ought to give them to the bayliffes of the towne, or to whom he wil, by the counsaile of the maior of the citie.’

IN 1428, the old castle was burnt:B [...] CAS­TLE BURNI AND R [...]. it probably at that time had changed masters, for it was rebuilt by Humphrey duke of Gloucester. On his death it was granted, by Henry VI. to Richard duke of York. In the important convention of the great men of the kingdom, in 1458, the prelude to the bloody civil broils, Richard lodged here with his train of four hundred men; and all his noble partizans had their warlike suite. Let me say, that the king-making earl came attended with six hundred men, all in red jackets embroidered, with ragged staves, before and behind, and were lodged in Warwick-lane; in whose house there was often the scene of boundless hospitality, the instrument of his furious spirit and boundless ambition.

[Page 322]THIS mighty peer, in all his castles, was supposed to feed an­nually thirty thousand men. But Baynard Castle was the scene of a still more important action in 1460; the youthful Edward assumed the name and dignity of king, confirmed by a number of persons of rank assembled in this place, after it had been conferred on him by a mixed and tumultuary multitude.

THE usurper Richard in the very same castle took on him the title of king. Here he was waited on by his creature Bucking­ham, the mayor, and such part of the citizens who had been pre­pared for the purpose of forcing the crown on the seemingly re­luctant hypocrite. SHAKESPEARE has made an admirable scene cut of this part of our history *. His successor repaired, or per­haps rebuilt Baynard Castle, and, as if foreseeing a long series of peaceful years, changed its form into that of a palace for quiet times. According to the view I have seen, it included a square court, with an octagonal tower in the center, and two in the front; between which were several square projections from top to bottom, with the windows in pairs one above the other; beneath was a bridge and stairs to the river .

HENRY often resided here, and from hence made several of his solemn processions. Here, in 1505, he lodged Philip of Austria, the matrimonial king of Castile, tempest-driven into his domi­nions, and shewed him the pomp and glory of his capital .

THIS castle was the residence of Sir William Sydney, who died chamberlain and steward to Edward VI. And in this place Mary, the gloomy queen of the gloomy namesake of the former, [Page 323] had her right to the throne resolved on; and from hence her par­tizans sallied forth to proclame her lawful title. At this time it was the property and residence of William Herbert, earl of Pem­broke, a particular favorer of the rightful heir. Her successor, Elizabeth, did him the honor of taking a supper with his lord­ship: after supper, her majesty went on the water to shew her­self to her subjects; her barge was instantly surrounded by hun­dreds of boats; loud acclamations delivered from the heart, music, and fireworks testified the happiness they felt at the sight of this mother of her people. Early hours were then the fashion, for, notwithstanding this scene was exhibited on the 25th of April, she retired to her palace at 10 o'clock *.

To the west of this stood the other of Fitzstephen's castles,TOWER OF MONTFICHET. the tower of Montfichet, founded by Gilbert de Montfichet, a native of Rome, but related to the Conqueror: he brought with him a strong force, and fought gallantly in his cause, in the field of Hastings . By him was founded this tower: its date was short, for it was demolished by king John in 1213, after banishing Richard, successor to Gilbert, the actual owner . The materials were applied, in 1276 (as before related) to the building of the monastery of the Black Friars.

A LITTLE farther is Puddle Dock, and Puddle Dock Hill, PUDDLE DOCK. re­markable only for having in the latter the western termination of the long street called Thames-street, THAMES-STREET. which extends eastward as far as the Tower, a mile in length. In early times, the southern side [Page 324] was guarded by a wall, close to the river, strengthened with towers. These are mentioned by Fitzstephens as having been ruined and undermined by the river. Lord Lyttelton justly observes, that after the building of the Tower and the bridge, there was no necessity of restoring these fortifications; as it was impossible (at lest after the bridge was flung across the Thames) for any fleet to annoy the city. It originally stood farther from the river than the present buildings and wharss, a considerable space between the street and the water having been gained in a long series of ages.

NOT far from Puddle Dock, in old times, stood an antient house of stone and timber, built by the lords of Berkely, a potent race of barons. In the reign of Henry VI. it was the residence of the great Richard Beauchamp, earl of Warwick *, who seems to have made himself master of this by violence, among other estates of the Berkelles, to which he made pretensions on the death of Thomas fourth lord Berkeley .

FROM hence I turn north till I gain the site of Ludgate. On the left all is piety; Credo-lane, Ave Maria! lane, Amen Corner, and Pater-Noster-row, indicate the sanctity of the motley inhabi­tants. Before us rises the magnificent structure of St. Paul's, and its confined church-yard. Before I mention that noble tem­ple, I pursue the left hand way to Warwick-lane;

Where stands a dome majestic to the sight,
And sumptuous arches bear its oval height;
A golden globe, plac'd high with artful skill,
Seems to the distant sight a gilded pill.

[Page 325] In prose, the College of Physicians; COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS a society founded originally by Doctor Linacre, the first who rescued the medical art from the hands of illiterate monks and empirics. He studied in Italy: and became physician to Henry VII. and VIII. Edward VI. and the princess Mary. He died in 1524 *. The college was first in Knight-Rider-street; afterwards it was removed to Amen Corner; and finally fixed here. The present building was the work of Sir Christopher Wren. On the top of the dome is a gilt ball, which the witty Garth calls the gilded pill. On the summit of the centre is the bird of Aesculapius, the admonishing cock.

ON one side of the court is a statue of Charles II: on the op­posite, that of the notorious Sir John Cutler. I was greatly at a loss to learn how so much respect was shewn to a character so stigmatized for avarice. I think myself much indebted to Doc­tor WARREN for the extraordinary history. It appears, by the annals of the college, that in the year 1674, a considerable sum of money had been subscribed by the fellows, for the erection of a new college, the old one having been consumed in the great fire, eight years before. It also appears, that Sir John Cutler, a near relation of Doctor Whistler, the president, was desirous of becom­ing a benefactor. A committee was appointed to wait upon Sir John, to thank him for his kind intentions. He accepted their thanks, renewed his promise, and specified the part of the build­ing of which he intended to bear the expence. In the year 1680, statues in honor of the king, and Sir John, were voted by the college: and nine years afterwards, the college being then com­pleted, [Page 326] it was resolved to borrow money of Sir John Cutler, to discharge the college debt, but the sum is not specified. It ap­pears, however, that in 1699, Sir John's executors made a demand on the college of £. 7000; which sum was supposed to include the money actually lent, the money pretended to be given, but set down as a debt in Sir John's books, and the interest on both. Lord Radnor, however, and Mr. Boulter, Sir John Cutler's exe­cutors, were prevaled on to accept £. 2000 from the college, and actually remitted the other five. So that Sir John's promise, which he never performed, obtained him the statue, and the libe­rality of his executors has kept it in its place ever since. But the college wisely have obliterated the inscription, which, in the warmth of its gratitude, it had placed beneath the figure.


[...]ORTRAITE.IN the great room are several portraits of gentlemen of the faculty. Among them Sir Theodore Mayerne, a native of Geneva, physician to James and Charles I. The great Sydenham, to whom thousands owe their lives, by his daring attempt (too long neg­lected) of the cool regimen in the small-pox. Harvey, who first discovered the circulation of the blood. And the learned and pious Sir Thomas Brown, who said that the discovery of that great man's, was preferable to the discovery of the New World.

SIR Edmund King, the famous transfuser of blood from one animal into another; a discovery, if pursued, of infinite conse­quence, in a moral, as well as a physical light.

A VERY good portrait of the anatomist Ve [...]lius, on board, by [...]n Calker, a painter from the dutchy of Cloves, who died in 1 [...]6. This celebrated character had filled the professor's chair [Page 327] at Venice; after that, was for some time physician to Charles V. Disgusted with the manners of a court, he determined on a voyage to the Holy Land. The republic of Venice sent to him to fill the professorship of medicine at Padua, vacant by the death of Fallo­pius. On his return, in 1564, he was shipwrecked on the isle of Zanta, where he perished by hunger.

Doctor Goodal, the Stentor of Garth's dispensary; and Doctor Millington, whom the witty author compliments with the follow­ing lines, and, from what I understand, with great justice;

Machaon, whose experience we adore,
Great as your matchless merit is your power:
At your approach the baffl'd tyrant Death
Breaks his keen shafts, and grinds his clashing teeth.

THE portrait of Doctor Freind, the historian of physic, and the most able in his profession, and the most elegant writer of his time, must not be omitted. The fine busts of Harvey, Syden­ham, and Mead, the physician of our own days, merit attention: and with them I close the distinguished list.

THE library was furnished with books by Sir Theodore Mayerne. And it received a considerable addition from the marquis of Dorchester.

WARWICK-LANE took its name from its having in it the inn or house of Richard Nevil, the great earl of Warwick, whose popularity and manner of living merits recital. Stow men­tions his coming to London, in the famous convention of 1458, with 600 men, all in red jackets imbrodered, with ragged staves, before and behind, and was lodged in Warwicke-lane: in whose house there was often six oxen eaten at a breakfast, and every taverne was full of his meate, for hee that had any [Page 328] acquaintance in that house, might have there so much of sod­den and rost meate, as he could pricke and carry upon a long dagger *.’

THE memory of this king-making earl is still preserved by a fine stone statue, placed in the front of a house in this lane, within two or three doors of the south side of Newgate-street.

ANTIENT HOUSE [...] D [...]S [...] BRETAGNY.NOT far from hence, near Ave Maria-lane, stood a great house of stone and wood, belonging, in old times, to John duke of Bretagny, and earl of Richmond, cotemporary with Edward II. and III; after him [...] was possessed by the earls of Pembroke, in the time of Richard II. and Henry VI; and, in the time of queen Elizabeth, [...] [...]S H [...]. by Henry lord Abergavenny. To finish the anti-climax, it was finally possessed by the Company of Stationers, who rebuilt it of wood, and made it their hall. It was destroyed by the great fire; and was succeeded by the present plain building. The preceding owners might boast of their nobility; their successors of their wealth; for in that sad calamity, lord Clarendon estimated that the loss of the company did not amount to less than two hun­dred thousand pounds.

[...] P [...]UL [...] CATHEDRAL.THE cathedral of St. Paul more than fills the space of Ludgate­hill. The best authority we have for the origin of this church, is from its great restorer Sir CHRISTOPHER WREN. His opinion, that there had been a church on this spot, built by the Christians in the time of the Romans, was confirmed: when he searched for the foundations for his own design, he met with those of the ori­ginal presbyterium, or semicircular chancel of the old church. They consisted only of Kentish rubble-stone, artfully worked, and [Page 329] consolidated with exceeding hard mortar, in the Roman manner, much excelling the superstructure *. He explodes the notion of there having been here a temple of Diana, and the discovery of the horns of animals used in the sacrifices to that goddess, on which the opinion had been founded, no such having been dis­covered in all his searches . What was found, is mentioned in the 9th page of this book.

THE first church is supposed to have been destroyed in the Dioclesian persecution, and to have been rebuilt in the reign of Constantine. This was again demolished by the pagan Saxons; and restored, in 603, by Sebert, a petty prince, ruling in these parts under Ethelbert king of Kent, the first Christian monarch of the Saxon race; who, at the instance of St. Augustine, appointed Meli­tus the first bishop of London. Erkenwald, the son of king Offa, fourth in succession from Melitus, ornamented his cathedral very highly, and improved the revenues with his own patrimony. He was most deservedly canonized; for the very litter in which he was carried in his last illness, continued many centuries to cure fevers by the touch; and the very chips, carried to the sick, restored them to health.

WHEN the city, of London was destroyed by fire, in 1086, this church was burnt; the bishop Mauritius began to rebuild it, and laid the foundations, which remained till its second destruction, from the same cause, in the last century. Notwithstanding Mauri­tius lived twenty years after he had begun this pious work, and [Page 330] bishop Beauvages enjoyed the see twenty more, yet, such was the grandeur of the design, that it remained unfinished. The first had the ruins of the Palatine tower bestowed on him, as materials for the building: and Henry I. bestowed on Beauvages part of the ditch belonging to the Tower, which, with purchases made by himself, enabled him to inclose the whole with a wall. The same monarch granted besides, that every ship, which brought stone for the church, should be exempted from toll; he gave him also all the great fish taken in his precincts, except the tongues; and lastly, he secured to him and his successor, the delicious tythes of all his venison in the county of Essex.

THE steeple was finished in 1221. The noble subterraneous church of St. Faith, Ecclesia Sanctae Fidis in cryptis, was begun in 1257. It was supported by three rows of massy clustered pillars, with ribs diverging from them to support the solemn roof. This was the parish church. This undercroft, as these sort of build­ings were called, had in it several chauntries and monuments. Henry Lacie, earl of Lincoln, who died in 1312, made what was called the New Work, at the east end, in which was the chapel of our Lady, and that of St. Dunstan.

CHAPTER-HOUSE.THE Chapter-house was adjoining to the south transept, was circular, and supported by four central pillars, and of more elegant gothic than the rest of the building. This projected into a most beautiful cloister, two stories high. On the walls was painted the Machabre, or dance of death, a common subject on the walls of cloisters or religious places. This was a single piece, a long train of all orders of men, from the pope to the lowest of human be­ings; each figure has as his partner, Death; the first shaking his [Page 331] remembering hour-glass *. Our old poet Lydgate, who flourished in the year 1430, translated a poem on the subject, from the French verses which attended a painting of the same kind about St. Innocent's cloister, at Paris. The original verses were made by Machaber, a German, in his own language. This shews the antiquity of the subject, and the origin of the hint from which Holbein composed his famous painting at Basil.

THIS cloister, the dance, and innumerable fine monuments (for here were crowded by far the most superb) fell victims to the sacrilege of the protector Somerset, who demolished the whole, and carried the materials to his palace then erecting in the Strand.

FARTHER to the west, adjoining to this south side, was the parish church of St. Gregory. Over it was one of the towers which ornamented the western front. It was called the Lollards Tower, and was the bishop's prison for the heterodox, in which was com­mitted many a midnight murder. That of Richard Hunn, in 1514, was one most foul; he was committed there; he was hanged there by the contrivance of the chancellor of the diocese, Horsey; he was scandalized with suicide; his corpse was ignomi­niously buried. The murder came out; the coroner's inquest sat on the ashes, and they brought in a verdict of wilful murder against Horsey and his accomplices. The bishop, Fitzjames, de­fended them. The king interfered, and ordered the murderers to make restitution to the children of the deceased, to the amount of fifteen hundred pounds. Yet the perpetrators of this villainy escaped with a pardon, notwithstanding the king, in his order, [Page 332] speaks to them as having commited what himself styles the cruel murder *.

THE last person confined here was Peter Burchet of the Temple, who, in 1573, desperately wounded our famous seaman Sir Richard Hawkins, in the open street, whom he had mistaken for Sir Chris­topher Hatton. He was committed to this prison, and afterwards removed to the Tower; he there barbarously murdered one of his keepers; he was tried, convicted, had his right hand struck off, and then hanged. He was found to be a violent enthusiast, who thought it lawful to kill such who opposed the truth of the gospel.

THE style of the antient cathedral was a most beautiful gothic; over the east end was a most elegant circular window; alterations were made in the ends of the two transepts, so that their form is not delivered down to us in the antient plans; from the central tower rose a lofty and most graceful spire.

DIMENSIONS OF THE CHURCH.THE dimensions of this noble temple, as taken in 1309, were these: the length six hundred and ninety feet; the breadth a hun­dred and twenty; the height of the roof of the west part, from the floor, one hundred and two; of the east part, a hundred and eighty-eight; of the tower, two hundred and sixty; of the spire, which was made of wood covered with lead, two hundred and seventy-four. The whole space the church occupied was three acres and a half, one rood and a half, and six perches .

WE may be astonished at this amazing building, and naturally [Page 333] enquire what fund could supply money to support so vast an ex­pence. But monarchs resigned their revenues resulting from the customs due for the materials, which were brought to the adjacent wharfs; they furnished wood from the royal forests: prelates gave up much of their revenues; and, what was more than all, by the pious bait of indulgences, and remissions of penance, brought in, from the good people of this realm, most amazing sums. Pope Innocent III. in 1252, gave a release of sixty days penance: the archbishop of Cologne gave, a few years before, a relaxation of fifty days: Boniface, archbishop of Canterbury, forty days. In brief, there was not a prelate who did not, in this manner, excite his flock to contribute liberally to this great and pious design.

THE nave was supported by clustered pillars and round arches, the style preserved by the Normans, after the conquered Saxons. The galleries and windows of the transepts were also finished with rounded arches. The skreen to the choir, and the cha­pel of our Lady, were gothic. The skreen remarkably elegant, ornamented with statues on each side of the door, at the expence of Sir Paul Pindar *. We are obliged to the industry of Hollar, for preserving this knowlege of its antient state. His great em­ployer Sir William Dugdale, and that eminent artist, were fortu­nately coeval. The pen of the one, and the burine of the other, were in full vigour, before the ravages of the great fire, on multi­tudes of the choice antiquities of our capital. To the same dis­tinguished characters we owe our acquaintance with the tombs: but we are not to expect in this church the number, nor the ele­gance, of those of Westminster. St. Peter, the porter of heaven, [Page 334] had far the preference to the tutelar saint of this cathedral. Few crowned heads crowded here,ETHELRED AND SEBBA. Dagda [...]e, 94. except Ethelred and Sebba, founders of the church; and of Saxon race, none were found within these walls.

BUT if they were deprived of that boast, they had the honor of receiving the remains of JOHN OF GAUNT.Old John of Gaunt, time-honored Lancaster! the brother, father, and uncle of kings. He died in 1399; and had a most magnificent tomb erected over him, ruined by the fanatical soldiery of the last century. He, and his first wife Blanch, lay recumbent beneath a rich canopy of tabernacle work; his crest upon his abacoc, or cap of state; his shield, and his mighty spear, were hung on his monument as so many tro­phies.

SHRINE OF ST. ERKENWALD. Dugdale, 114.IN point of time, as well as sanctity, the rich gothic shrine of St. Erkenwald should have preceded; which rested on his plain altar tomb. No wonder if, on account of the miracles before mentioned, this shrine was a great resort of pious devotees. It was enriched with gold, silver, and pretious stones, by the dean and chapter, who, in 1339, employed three goldsmiths to work on it a whole year; the wages of the most expert was only eight shillings a week, the other two five shillings. Of the gifts from devotees, that of Richard de Preston, of London, grocer, was most valuable, being his best sapphire stones, there to remain for cur­ing of infirmities in the eyes *.

[Page 335]THE shrine of Roger Niger, SHRINE OF ROGER NIGER. Dugdale, 86. bishop of London in the thirteenth century, was also in high repute. A visit to his shrine was fre­quently enjoined to the indulgences given for the rebuilding of this church.

HENRY LACIE, the great earl of Lincoln, EARL OF LINCOLN. Dugdale, 84. an eminent warrior under Edward I. particularly in the Welsh wars, was buried in that part of the church of his own building, called the New Work. He died at his house in town, called Lincoln's-Inn. He is armed in mail; his body covered with a short gown; his legs crossed, for he had either the merit of visiting the Holy Land, or (which would entitle him to a right to that attitude) made a vow to per­form that expiatory privilege.

SIR John Beauchamp, a younger son of Guy earl of Warwick, SIR JOHN BEAUCHAMP. Dugdale, 52. in 1360 was interred here. His figure lay armed, and recum­bent. He was one of the founders of the order of the Garter; and distinguished himself, in the martial reign of Edward III. by numbers of gallant actions by sea and by land.

THAT accomplished knight, the ill-fated Sir Simon de Burley, SIR SIMON DE BURLEY. Dugdale, 104. lay here in complete armour, under a most elegant gothic arch. I have mentioned his sad story at p. 260. so will not repeat the subject. Here was deposited, in 1468, (severed from her husband the great John Talbot, who was interred at Whichurch, in Shrop­shire) Margaret countess of Shrewsbury. A monument was de­signed by the friendship of one John Wenlok, at the expence of a hundred pounds; but, from some unknown cause, the inscription only was executed.

WILLIAM earl of Pembroke, WILLIAM EARL OF PEMBROKE. Dugdale, 88. an active character in the reigns of Henry VIII. Mary, Edward VI. and Elizabeth, with his first [Page 336] countess Anne *, sister to Catherine Parre, queen to Henry VIII. who dying at Baynard Castle, in 1551, was interred here with vast solemnity. The portraits of Anne and her lord, in painted glass, are still extant in the chapel at Wilton, and ought to be engrav­ed . The earl followed her in 1569. They lay beneath a mag­nificent canopy divided into two arches; at their head, kneeling, is their daughter Anne lady Talbot; at their feet, in the same atti­tude, their sons Henry earl of Pembroke, and Sir Edward Herbert, of Pool, i. e. Powis Castle, ancestor of the earls of Powis.

DEAN COLET. Dugdale, 64.AT the expence of the Mercers Company was erected a monu­ment to the memory of John Colet, the learned dean of St. Paul's, the intimate of Erasmus, and all the eminent scholars of the time. This compliment was payed him by the Mercers, because his father had been of their company, and twice lord mayor. He was, in the beginning of life, luxurious, high-spirited, and subject to excess in mirth; and used a freedom of speech which he after­wards corrected. He thought too much for the clergy of his days; and often exposed the corruptions of the church. This subjected him to persecution, but he escaped unhurt. At length he determined to retire from the world; which he quitted for a better in 1519. He dedicated his great fortune to the founding of the school of St. Paul's, in honor of Christ Jesu in pueritia, for a hundred and fifty-three scholars. A handsome house is built for this purpose, under the care of the Mercers Company. His monu­ment had his bust in terra cotta, dressed in a gown and square cap; and beneath it, a skeleton laid on a mat rolled up under its head.

[Page 337]THAT great and honest man, Sir Nicholas Bacon, SIR NICHOLAS BACON. Dugdale, 71. lay here re­cumbent, and, notwithstanding he was a gownsman, was singu­larly clad in complete armour: beneath him are his two wives, in gowns and short ruffs.

SIR PHILIP SYDNEY, the delight of the age,SIR PHILIP SYDNEY. Dugdale, 111. the most he­roic and virtuous character of his time, had no more than a board with a most wretched inscription of eight verses, to record a same which nothing can injure. His remains were brought here on Jan. 16, 1586, with the utmost magnificence. There was a general mourning for him, and it was accounted indecent, for many months, for any gentleman to appear at court, or in the city, in gay apparel *. The partiality of an individual may mis­take the qualities of a friend; but the testimony of a whole na­tion puts his merits beyond dispute.

THE memory of the great Walsingham also rests on his own deserts. He died so poor,WALSINGHAM. Dugdale, 101. that his friends were obliged to steal his remains into their grave, for fear least they should be arrested. By accident was left an old book of legends, which I purchased; an antient manuscript-list of statesmen in the reign of Elizabeth, consigned by the writer to the pains of hell, for their zeal against the Catholics. The 1st, Leicester, all in fire, died 1588: 2d, Wal­singham, the Secretarie, also in fire and flames. He died, Ap. 6, 1590. No wonder, since he could contrive to get the pope's pocket picked, when his holiness was asleep, of the keys of a cabinet, by which he made himself master of an original letter of the first importance, which proved the saving of our island from the machinations of its enemies.

[Page 338] OWEN THE EPI­GRAMMATIST. Dugdale.AS a Welshman, I must not pass over the quibbling epitaph of the quibbling epigrammatist, my countryman John Owen, born at Llanarmon, in Caernarvonshire, educated at Winchester, and elected fellow of New College *. He lived under the patronage of archbishop Williams, and died in 1623.

Parva tibi statua, quia parva statura, supellex
Parva, volat parvus per ora liber.
Sed non parvus honos, non parva est gloria, quippe
Ingenio haud quicquam est majus in orbe tuo.
Parva domus texit, templum sed grande, poetae
Tum verè vitam, quum moriuntur, agunt.

DOCTOR DONNE. Dugdale, 62.I WILL conclude with the melancholy corse of Doctor Donne, the wit of his time, standing in a nich, and wrapped in a shroud gathered about his head; with his feet resting on an urn. Not long before his death, he dressed himself in that funebrial habit, placed his feet on an urn fixed on a board exactly of his own height, and, shutting his eyes, like a departed person, was drawn in that attitude by a skilful painter. This gloomy piece he kept in his room till the day of his death, on March 31, 1631; after which it served as a pattern for his tomb.

THE HIGH ALTAR.IT will be endless to enumerate the altars of this vast temple, numerous as those of the Pantheon. I content myself with the mention of the High Altar, which dazzled with gems and gold, the gifts of its numerous votaries. John, king of France, when prisoner in England, first paying his respects to St. Erkenwald's shrine, offered four basons of gold: and the gifts at the [Page 339] obsequies of princes, foreign and British, were of immense value. On the day of the conversion of the tutelar saint, the charities were prodigious, first to the souls, when an indulgence of forty days pardon was given, verè poenitentibus, contritis et confessis; and, by order of Henry III. fifteen hundred tapers were placed in the church, and fifteen thousand poor people fed in the church­yard.

BUT the most singular offering was that of a fat doe in winter,SINGULAR OF­FERING. and a buck in summer, made at the high altar, on the day of the commemoration of the saint, by Sir William de Baude and his family, and then to be distributed among the canons resident. This was in lieu of twenty-two acres of land in Essex, which did belong to the canons of this church. Till queen Elizabeth's days, the doe or buck was received solemnly, at the steps of the high altar, by the dean and chapter, attired in their sacred vestments, and crowned with garlands of roses. ‘They sent the body of the bucke to baking, and had the head, fixed on a pole, borne before the crosse in the procession, untill they issued out of the west doore, where the keeper that brought it blowed the deathe of the bucke, and then the horners, that were about the citie, presently answered him in like manner; for which paines they had each man, of the deane and chapter, four pence in money, and their dinner; and the keeper that brought it was allowed, during his abode there, for his service, meate, drinke, and lodging, and five shillings in money at his going away, toge­ther with a loafe of breade having the picture of St. Paul upon it *.’

[Page 340] MYSTERIES.THE boys of St. Paul's were famous for acting of the mys­teries or holy plays, and even regular dramas. They often had the honor of performing before our monarchs. Their preparations were expensive; so that they petitioned Richard II. to prohibit some ignorant and unexperienced persons from act­ing the History of the Old Testament, to the great prejudice of the clergy of the church.BOY BISHOP. They had their barne-bishop, or child-bishop, who assumed the state and attire of a prelate. Ludicrous as this holy counterfeit was, dean Colet expressly orders that his scho­lars shall, ‘every Childermas daye, come to Paulis churche, and heare the chylde byshop's sermon, and after be at the hygh masse, and each of them offer a penny to the chylde byshop; and with them, the maisters and surveyors of the scole *.’ This character was very common in many of the churches in France, under the name of L'evéque des foux, or Archevêque des foux. They were dressed in the pontifical habits, and sung such indecent songs, danced and committed such horrible profanations, even before the altar, that at length they were suppressed by an arret of par­lement , at the request of the dean and chapter of Rheims.

THE holiness of this place did not prevent thieves and profli­gates of all denominations lurking within the precincts, and committing, under favor of the night, murders and every sort of crime.CHURCH, AND BUILDINGS BELONGING TO IT, IN­CLOSED WITH A WALL. Edward I. gave the dean and canons permission to in­close the whole within a wall; and to have gates to be shut every night, to exclude all disorderly people. Within these walls, on the north-west side, was the bishop's palace. Froissart tells us, [Page 341] that after the great tournament in Smithfield, BISHOP'S PA­LACE. king Edward III. and his queen lodged here (I think on occasion of their nuptials); ‘There was goodly daunsyng in the quenes lodging, in presence of the kyng and his uncles, and other barons of England, and ladyes, and damoyselles, tyll it was daye, whyche was tyme for every person to drawe to theyr lodgynges, except the kynge and quene, who laye there in the byshoppe's palayce, for there theye laye al the feastes and justes durynge *.’

IT was a building of vast extent, and frequently lodged our kings on different occasions. The poor prince Edward V. was brought here, as he supposed to take possession of the crown; and, in 1501, the unhappy Catherine of Arragon was conducted to this palace to meet her young lover, prince Arthur; and on Nov. 14, was publicly married to him at St. Paul's; they re­turned to the palace, where they were entertained with a splendid nuptial feast, and resided here a few days, till they were visited by the king and queen, who took the royal pair with them by water from Baynard Castle to Westminster .

IN 1526, Anne de Montmorenci, and others, ambassadors from Francis I. were magnificently lodged and entertained at this pa­lace. They were sent over to ratify the important treaties be­tween the two monarchs, and to compliment Henry with the order of St. Michael . And in 1546, the French ambassador Claude Annebau, admiral of France, was splendidly lodged in the same [Page 342] place *. He was a favorite of Francis I. and sent over to make peace between Charles V. his master, and Henry.

IN the reign of Edward VI. the queen dowager of Scotland was here entertained. The dean's house, and the houses of the prebendaries and residentiaries, were on the opposite side; and, in those days of plain living, kept great housholds and liberal hos­pitality .

PAUL'S CROSS.BEFORE this cathedral was the famous Paul's Cross, a pul­pit formed of wood, mounted upon steps of stone, and co­vered with lead, in which the most eminent divines were ap­pointed to preach every Sunday in the forenoon. To this place, the court, the mayor, and aldermen, and principal citizens, used to resort. The greatest part of the congregation sat in the open air; the king and his train had covered galleries; and the better sort of people, if I may judge from the old prints, were also pro­tected from the injury of the weather; but the far greater part stood exposed in the open air: for which reason the preacher went, in very bad weather,THE SHROWDS. to a place called the Shrowds; a covered space on the side of the church, to protect the congregation in inclement seasons. Considerable contributions were raised among the nobility and citizens, to support such preachers as were (as was often the case) called to town from either of the universities. In particular, the lord mayor and aldermen ordered that every preacher, who came from a distance, should be freely accommo­dated, during five days, with sweet and convenient lodgings, fire, candle, and all necessaries. And notice was given by the bishop [Page 343] of London, to the preacher appointed by him, of the place he was to repair to.

THE origin of the custom of preaching at crosses, was proba­bly accidental. The sanctity of this species of pillar often caused a great resort of people, to pay their devotion to the great object of their erection. A preacher, seeing a large concourse, might be seized by a sudden impulse, ascend the steps, and deliver out his pious advice from a station so fit to inspire attention, and so con­veniently formed for the purpose. The example might be fol­lowed, till the practice became established by custom.

IT certainly at first was a common cross, and coeval with the church. When it was first covered, and converted into a pulpit-cross, we are not informed. We are given to understand that it was overthrown by an earthquake in 1382, and that William Courtney, then archbishop of Canterbury, collected great sums for the rebuilding; which, says dean Nowel, in a sermon he preached at this cross, he applied to his own use. Courtney was a most munificent prelate, and not likely to abuse the charity of his flock; yet it was not rebuilt till the time of Thomas Kemp, elected bishop of London in 1449, who finished it in the form, says God­win, in which we see it at present *; and so it stood till it was demolished, in 1643, by order of parlement, executed by the willing hands of Isaac Pennington, the fanatical lord mayor of that year, who died in the Tower, a convicted regicide.

WE hear of this being in use as early as the year 1259. It was used not only for the instruction of mankind, by the doctrine of the preacher, but for every purpose political or ecclesiastical: for [Page 344] giving force to oaths, for promulging of laws, or rather the royal pleasure, for the emission of papal bulls, for anathematizing sin­ners, for benedictions, for exposing of penitents under censure of the church, for recantations, for the private ends of the ambi­tious, and for the defaming of those who had incurred the displea­sure of crowned heads.

IN 1259, Henry III. commanded the lord mayor to swear, be­fore the aldermen, every person of twelve years and upwards, to be true to him and his heirs.

IN 1262, the same monarch caused the bull of Urban IV. to be here made public, as an absolution of him and his adherents, who had sworn to observe the Oxford provisions, made in the vio­lent meeting at that city in 1258, called the mad parliament.

HERE, in 1299, Ralph de Baldoc, dean of St. Paul's, cursed all those who had searched, in the church of St. Martin in the Fields, for a hoard of gold, &c.

THE PENANCE OF JANE SHORE.BEFORE this cross, in 1483, was brought, divested of all her splendor, Jane Shore, the charitable, the merry concubine of Edward IV. and, after his death, of his favorite, the unfor­tunate Lord Hastings. After the loss of her protectors, she fell a victim to the malice of crook-backed Richard. He was disap­pointed (by her excellent defence) of convicting her of witch­craft, and confederating with her lover to destroy him. He then attacked her on the weak side of frailty. This was undeniable. He consigned her to the severity of the church: she was carried to the bishop's palace, cloathed in a white sheet, with a taper in her hand, and from thence conducted to the cathedral, and the cross, before which she made a confession of her only fault. Every other virtue bloomed in this ill-fated fair with the fullest vigour. She [Page 345] could not resist the solicitations of a youthful monarch, the hand­somest man of his time. On his death she was reduced to ne­cessity, scorned by the world, and cast off by her husband, with whom she was paired in her childish years, and forced to fling herself into the arms of Hastings. "In her penance she went," says Holinshed, ‘in countenance and pase demure, so womanlie, that, albeit she were out of all araie, save hir kirtle onlie, yet went she so faire and lovelie, namelie, while the woondering of the people cast a comelie rud in hir cheeks, (of whiche she before had most misse) that hir great shame wan hir much praise among those that were more amorous of hir bodie than curious of hir soule. And manie good folkes that hated hir living, (and glad were to see sin corrected) yet pitied they more hir penance, than rejoised therin, when they considered that the Protector procured it more of a corrupt intent, than anie virtuous affection *.’

ROWE has flung this part of her sad story into the following poetical dress; but it is far from depreciating the moving simpli­city of the old historian.

Submissive, sad, and lowly was her look;
A burning taper in her hand she bore,
And on her shoulders carelessly confus'd,
With loose neglect, her lovely tresses hung;
Upon her cheek a faintish flush was spread;
Feeble she seem'd, and sorely smit with pain,
While, barefoot as she trod the flinty pavement.
Her footsteps all along were mark'd with blood.
Yet silent still she pass'd, and unrepining;
[Page 346]Her streaming eyes bent ever on the earth,
Except when, in some bitter pang of sorrow,
To Heav'n she seem'd in fervent zeal to raise,
And beg that mercy man deny'd her here.

THE poet has adopted the fable of her being denied all suste­nance, and of her perishing with hunger; but that was not fact. She lived to a great age, but in great distress and miserable po­verty; deserted even by those to whom she had, during prospe­rity, done the most essential services. She dragged a wretched life, even to the time of Sir Thomas More, who introduces her story into his life of Edward V. The beauty of her person is spoken of in high terms: ‘Proper she was, and faire: nothing in hir bodie that you would have changed; but you would have wished hir somewhat higher. Thus saie they that knew hir in hir youth.—Now is she old, leane, withered, and dried up; nothing left but rivelled skin and hard bone; and yet, being even such, who so well advise her visage, might gesse and devise, which parts how filled would make it a faire face *.’

THE late ingenious the Reverend Mr. Michael Tyson, made me a present of an etching of this unfortunate fair, done by him­self from the original in the provost's lodgings, in King's college, Cambridge. Her hair is curled in short curls high above her neck, and mixed with chains of jewels set in a lozenge form: her neck and body, as far beneath her arms, are naked; the first has two strings of pearls hanging loose round it: over her shoulders is a rich chain of jewels set in circles, and pendant from the [Page 347] middle, which hangs down her breast, is a rich lozenge of jewels, and to each link is affixed one or more pearls. In her counte­nance is no appearance of charms; she must have attracted the hearts of her lovers by her intellectual beauties.

UNDER her cruel persecutor,PROSTITUTE PREACH [...]S. this pulpit-cross became the seat of prostituted eloquence. The usurper made use of Doctor Shaw, brother to his creature the lord mayor, and friar Pinke, an Augus­tine, (both, says Stow, doctors of divinity, both great preach­ers, both of more learning than virtue) as his engines. They addressed the people, and inferred the bastardy of his brother's children, and enlarged on the great qualities of their ambitious employers. But Pinke lost his voice in the middle of his sermon, and was forced to descend: and Shaw was afterwards struck with such remorse, finding himself despised by all the world, that he soon after died of a broken heart *.

ROYAL contracts of marriage were notified to the people from this place. Thus that between Margaret, ROYAL CON­TRACTS OF MARRIAGE. daughter of Henry VII. and James the IVth of Scotland, was here declared in 1501; Te Deum was sung, twelve bonfires set a blazing, and twelve hogs­heads of Gascoigne wine given to the populace .

BUT the most famous preachments ever made here,PAPAL BULLS PREACHED DOWN. were those done by order of Henry VIII; who compelled the bishop of Lon­don to send up to Paules Cross, from Sonday to Sonday, preachers to preach down the pope's authority; to shew to the people that he was no more than the simple bishop of Rome, and that his usurpations were only the effect of the negligence of the princes [Page 348] of this realm *. And thus his holiness's bulls were fairly baited out of the kingdom by his own dogs.

PENITENCE OF HENRY VIII.FROM this pulpit was proclamed to the people, by Henry Hol­betch, bishop of Rochester, the death-bed remorse of the same tyrant; who, finding the stroke inevitable, he ordered the church of the Grey Friars, which he had converted into a store-house, to be cleared of the goods, and opened for divine service, and presented by patent to the city, for the relieving of the poor .

RECANTATIONS.MANY are the examples of persons bearing the faggot, and of making public recantation of their faith, of both religions, at this place. The Reformers bore that badge as a mark of their escape: the Catholics were excused from the burning, therefore were excused from the burden. The last who appeared, was a seminary priest, who, in 1593, made his recantation. In 1537, Sir Thomas Newman, priest, bore the faggot here on a singular occasion, for singing mass with good ale. To this place Henry Grey, duke of Suffolk, sent his chaplain, Harding, to dissuade the people from revolting from their allegiance to queen Mary : yet, actuated by weakness and ambition, concurred in setting up his unhappy daughter, Jane Grey, in opposition to his right­ful sovereign.

WE are told in Strype's Memorials, III. 21, that queen Mary made use of the same arts in the same place, and appointed seve­ral of her best divines to preach the old religion, and her design of restoring the antient worship: but so averse were the people, [Page 349] that the attempt was attended with great tumults. These she allayed by the temporary expedients of fire and faggot.

THE reign of queen Elizabeth was wisely ushered in by the ap­pointment of good and able men to preach from this Cross the doctrine of the Reformation, and rejection of the Papal power *;THE REFORMA­TION PREACH­ED FROM HENCE. in which politics were naturally intermixed. This began April the 9th, 1559, with doctor Bill, the queen's almoner; he was fol­lowed by Grindal, Horn, Jewel, Sandys, and many others, who soon after enjoyed the highest dignities in our church.

THE same heroine, giving way to a most ungenerous passion,ESSEX CALUM­NIATED. caused from this pulpit the memory of her once-beloved Essex to be blackened; to suffer ‘the indignity of a sermon at Paul's Cross, set out in command. Some sparks of indignation re­maining in the queen, that were unquenched even by his blood .’

IT was more worthily employed,DEFEAT OF THE ARMADA AN­NOUNCED. when her majesty caused from thence a sermon of thanksgiving to Providence, in 1588, for the signal deliverance her subjects received from the invincible armada of Philip II.

AFTER the battle of St. Quintin, her predecessor, queen Mary, BATTLE OF ST. QUINTIN. caused doctor Harpsfield to preach a sermon, and from this Cross to give the people information of the victory gained by the ge­neral of her husband, Philip of Spain, over the French, and of the succeeding capture of St. Quintin; before which that mo­narch, the only time in his life, appeared clad in armour.

IN 1596,LEVIES INCITED. while the lord mayor and aldermen were attending a sermon at this place, they received an order from the queen, to [Page 350] levy a thousand able-bodied men. They quitted their devotions, and performed their commission before eight at night, and had them ready armed for their march before morning. The service they were designed for was to assist the French in raising the siege of Calais, then besieged by the Spaniards; but the place being taken by the time they reached Dover, they returned to the city, after a week's absence. From the usual policy of Elizabeth, it is possible the sermon and order were both preconcerted; the mo­ment of devotion being the aptest to inspire zeal, and promote an enthusiastic ardor in the people to fly to a standard raised against a nation so detested, and so inimical to our religion and liberties, as the Spaniards.

JAMES I. HEARS A SERMON AT THE CROSS.THE last sermon which was preached at this place, was before James I. who came in great state on horseback from Whitehall, on Midlent Sunday, 1620: he was received at Temple Bar by the lord mayor and aldermen, who presented him with a purse of gold. At St. Paul's he was received by the clergy in their richest vestments. Divine service was performed, attended with organs, cornets, and sagbots; after which his majesty went to a prepared place, and heard a sermon at the Cross, preached by John King, bishop of London. The object of the sermon was the repairing of the cathedral. The king and the principal persons retired from the Cross to the bishop's palace, to consult on the matter, and, after a magnificent banquet, the court returned to Whitehall *.

SPIRE OF THE CHURCH BURNT.I WILL not mention the different misfortunes this cathedral ex­perienced, except the last, previous to its final destruction by the great fire. In 1561, the noble spire was totally burnt by light­ning, [Page 351] and never restored. This circumstance shews the date of 1560, to Aggas's famous survey of London, to have been erroneous: he having given the church without the spire; which he never could have omitted, had it existed at that time.

IN consequence of the resolutions taken in 1620, by James I. to repair the cathedral, the celebrated Inigo Jones was appointed to the work. But it was not attempted till the year 1633, when Laud laid the first stone, and Inigo the fourth. That great ar­chitect begun with a most notorious impropriety, giving to the west end a portico of the Corinthian order (beautiful indeed) to this antient gothic pile *; and to the ends of the two transepts gothic fronts in a most horrible style. The great fire made way for the restoring of this magnificent pile by Sir CHRISTOPHER WREN, an architect worthy of so great a design. I will not at­tempt to describe so well-known a building; the description is well done in several books easy to be had . Sir Christopher made a model in wood of his first conception for rebuilding this church, in the Roman style. He had in it an eye to the loss of the Pulpit-cross, and had supplied its place by a magnificent auditory within, for the reception of a large congregation. This was approved by men of excellent judgment, but laid aside un­der the notion it had not sufficiently a temple-like form. A se­cond was made, selected out of various sketches he had drawn; on this design Sir Christopher set a high value: but this also was [Page 352] rejected *. The third, which produced the present noble pile, was approved and executed. A singular accident happened at the beginning: while the great architect was setting out the dimen­sions of the dome, he ordered a common laborer to bring him a flat stone, to be laid as a direction to the masons; he brought a fragment of a gravestone, on which was the word RESURGAM. This was not lost on Sir Christopher; he caught the idea of the Phoenix, which he placed on the south Portico, with that word cut beneath.

THE first stone was laid on June 21, 1675; and the building was completed by him in 1710 ; but the whole decorations were not finished till 1723 . It was a most singular circumstance, that, notwithstanding it was thirty-five years in building, it was begun and finished by one architect, and under one prelate, Henry Comp­ton, bishop of London. The church of St. Peter's was a hun­dred and thirty-five years in building, in the reigns of nineteen popes, and went through the hands of twelve architects. It is not, as often mistaken, built after the model of that famous tem­ple: it is the entire conception of our great countryman; and has been preferred in some respects, by a judicious writer, to even the Roman Basilica. Its dimensions are less. The compara­tive view is given in the Parentalia, and copied in London and its Environs.—I will only mention the great outlines:—the height of St. Peter's, to the top of the cross, is four hundred and thirty-seven feet and a half; that of St. Paul's, three hundred and forty feet: so that, from its situation, it is lofty enough to be seen [Page 353] from the sea. The length of the first, is seven hundred and twenty-nine feet; of the latter, five hundred. The greatest breadth of St. Peter's is three hundred and sixty-four; of St. Paul's, one hundred and eighty.

IN the reigns of James I. and Charles I. the body of this ca­thedral was the common resort of the politicians, the news-mon­gers, and idle in general. It was called Paul's walk, and the frequenters known by the name of Paul's walkers. It is men­tioned in the old plays, and other books of the times. The fol­lowing droll description may possibly give some amusement to the reader:

‘IT is the land's epitome, or you may call it the lesser ile of Great Brittaine. It is more than this, the whole world's map, which you may here discerne in it's perfect'st motion, justling and turning. It is a heap of stones and men, with a vast con­fusion of languages; and, were the steeple not sanctified, no­thing liker Babel. The noyse in it is like that of bees, a strange humming or buzze, mixt of walking, tongues, and feet. It is a kind of still roare, or loud whisper. It is the great exchange of all discourse, and no busines whatsoever but is here stirring and a foot. It is the synod of all pates poli­ticke, joynted and laid together in the most serious posture; and they are not halfe so busie at the parliament. It is the anticke of tailes to tailes, and backes to backes; and for vizards, you need goe no further than faces. It is the market of young lecturers, whom you may cheapen here at all rates and sizes. It is the generall mint of all famous lies, which are here, like the legends popery first coyn'd and stampt in [Page 354] the church. All inventions are emptyed here, and not few pockets. The best signe of a temple in it is, that it is the theeves sanctuary, which robbe more safely in the croud then a wildernesse, whilst every searcher is a bush to hide them. It is the other expence of the day, after playes, taverne, and a baudy house, and men have still some oathes left to sweare here. It is the eare's brothell, and satisfies their lust and ytch. The visitants are all men, without exceptions; but the prin­cipall inhabitants and possessors are stale knights, and cap­taines out of service; men of long rapiers and breeches, which after all turne merchants here, and trafficke for newes. Some make it a preface to their dinner, and travell for a stomacke: but thriftier men make it their ordinarie, and boord here verie cheape. Of all such places it is least haunted with hobgoblins, for if a ghost would walke, move he could not *.’

STATUE OF QUEEN ANNE.THE statue of queen Anne, of white marble, with the figures of Britain, France, Ireland, and America at the base, is placed be­fore the western front. This rose from the chizzel of Francis Bird, as did the conversion of St. Paul in the pediment, and the has-reliefs under the portico . Let the fine irony of Sir Samuel Garth, whose spirit lay dormant till it rose in later days wrapped in the sheets of the eloquent Junius, conclude all I have said of this majestic pile.

Near the vast bulk of that stupendous frame
Known by the Gentiles great Apostle's name,
[Page 355]With grace divine, great Anna's seen to rise,
An awful form that glads a nation's eyes:
Beneath her feet four mighty realms appear,
And with due reverence pay their homage there.
Britain and Ireland seem to own her grace,
And ev'n wild India wears a smiling face.
But France alone with downcast eyes is seen,
The sad attendant of so good a queen:
Ungrateful country! to forget so soon
All that great Anna for thy sake has done:
When sworn the kind defender of thy cause,
Spite of her dear religion, spite of laws;
For thee she sheath'd the terrors of her sword,
For thee she broke her gen'ral—and her word:
For thee her mind in doubtful terms she told.
And learn'd to speak like oracles of old.
For thee, for thee alone, what cou'd she more?
She lost the honour she had gain'd before;
Lost all the trophies, which her arms had won,
(Such Caesar never knew, nor Philip's son)
Resign'd the glories of a ten years reign,
And such as none but Marlborough's arm cou'd gain.
For thee in annals she's content to shine,
Like other monarchs of the Stuart line.

IN digging the foundation for the rebuilding of this cathedral, it was discovered, beneath the graves mentioned at p. 9, that the foundation of the old church rested on a layer of hard and close pot earth. Curiosity led Sir Christopher Wren to search farther. He found that on the north side it was six feet thick, that it grew thinner towards the south, and on the decline of the hill was [Page 356] scarcely four. On advancing farther, he met with nothing but loose sand; at length he came to water and sand mixed with periwinkles, and other sea-shells; and, by boring, came at last to the beach, and under that the natural hard clay: which evinced that the sea had once occupied the space on which St. Paul's now stands. This sand had been one of those sand-hills frequent on many coasts, not only on those of Holland and Flanders, but on our own. It was the opinion of our great architect, that all the space between Camberwell hill and the hills of Essex had been a vast bay, at low-water a sandy plain. All which appears in some distant age to have been embanked, possibly by the Ro­mans *, who were greatly employed in that useful work, paludibus emuniendis.

TO the south of this cathedral are the college of Civilians, or Doctors commons, the court of arches, the court of delegates, and several others, the great satellites of the church. The court of arches took its name, curia de arcubus, from having been once kept in Bow church, Cheapside. With the downfall of the church of Rome their powers decreased, and continued decreasing as the rights of mankind became better understood.

HERALDS COLLEGE.ON Bennet-hill, adjacent to these courts, is the College of He­ralds, a foundation of great antiquity, in which the records are kept of all the old blood of the kingdom. In the warlike times of our Henries and our Edwards, the heralds were in full employ, and often sent upon most dangerous services; to hurl defiance into [Page 357] the teeth of irritated enemies, or to bring to their duty profligate rebels. Sometimes it has cost them their nose and ears, and sometimes their heads. At present they rest safe from all harms: are often of great use in proving consanguinity, and helping peo­ple to supply legal clames to estates; and often are of infinite use to our numerous children of fortune, by furnishing them with a quantum sufficit of good blood, and enabling them to strut in the motley procession of gentility.

THE house they occupy was built on the site of Derby-house, a palace of the great family of the Stanlies. It was built by the first earl, father-in-law to Henry VII. who in it lived and died, as did his son George, the intended victim to the rage of Richard III. before the battle of Bosworth. Edward earl of Derby, that prodigy of charity and hospitality *, exchanged it with Ed­ward VI. for certain lands adjoining to his park at Knowsley, in Lancashire. Queen Mary presented it to Dethick, Garter king of arms, and his brother heralds, to live in, and discharge the business of their office . This house was destroyed in the great fire, but soon rebuilt. It is inhabited by several of the heralds. J.C. Brooke, Esq Somerset, must permit me to acknowlege his fre­quent services and liberal communications.

IN this neighbourhood, to the west, stood the royal wardrobe, kept in a house built by Sir John Beauchamp, who made it his residence. It was sold to Edward III. and became the lodging Richard III. in his second year.

[Page 358] KNIGHT-RIDER STREET.CROSS Bennet-hill passes Knight-rider Street, so named from the gallant train of knights who were wont to pass this way, in the days of chivalry, from the Tower Royal to the gay tournaments at Smithfield. From hence I pass to the King's Exchange, or the Old Change, a street parallel to the east side of St. Paul's church yard, which cross the Roman road, or Watling-street, and terminates close to the west end of Cheapside. This was the seat of the King's Exchanger, who delivered out to the other exchangers, through the kingdom, their coining irons, and received them again when worn out, with an account of the sums coined: neither was any body to make change of plate, or other mass of silver, unless at this place *.

IN this street stood the College of Physicians, till it was destroyed by the great fire: it was founded by the ornament of his age, Doctor Linacre, the greatest and most general scholar of the time. He lived in this street, and left his house to the public, for the use of his institution. He was appointed by Henry VII. physician to prince Arthur, and also his tutor. He was besides physician to that monarch, and Henry VIII; and died in 1524, an honor to our country. He had travelled much, and was particularly re­spected by the reigning duke of Tuscany, (the politest scholar of his days), and other foreigners; and met with at home a return suitable to his merit.

CHEAPSIDE.CHEAPSIDE received its name from Chepe, a market, as being originally the great street of splendid shops. In the year 1246 it was an open field, called Crown-field, from an hosterie, or inn, with the sign of a crown, at the east end. "At the same period," [Page 559] adds Stow, at p. 187 of his Chronicle, ‘nor two hundred years after, was any street in London paved, except Thames-street, and from Ludgate-hill to Charing-cross. The goldsmiths shops were particularly superb, "consisting," says Stow, ‘of a most beauti­ful frame of faire houses and shops than be within the walls of London or elsewhere in England, commonly called Goldsmiths-Row; builded by Thomas Wood, goldsmith, and one of the sheriffes of London in 1491. It contained tenne faire dwelling houses, and fourteen shops, all in one frame, uniformely builded foure stories high, beautified toward the street with the gold­smithes arms, and likeness of woodmen, in memorie of his name, riding on monstrous beasts, all richly painted and gilt *.’

IN Foster Lane, which opens into the west end of this street,GOLDSMITHS HALL. stands the hall of this opulent company. In the court-room is a fine portrait of Sir Hugh Myddelton, with a shell by him, out of which he may be supposed to have poured the useful element to the thirsting metropolis. The words Fontes Fodinae are painted on the picture, to imply his double attentions. The wealth he got in the mines was totally exhausted in the execution of his project, of which the metropolis, to this moment, receives increas­ing benefit. Sir Hugh left a share in the New River to this com­pany, for the benefit of the decayed members; which, even in 1704, amounted to £. 134.

HERE is a good portrait of Sir Martin Bowes, lord mayor in 1545, with his chain and robes of office. The date of his picture is 1566.

[Page 360]ST. Dunstan appears here in canvas, in a rich robe, and with his crosier. The unfortunate devil is not forgotten, roaring between the pincers of the saint; with the heavenly host above, applauding the deed. It seems by this that St. Dunstan amused himself in works of gold as well as iron: so that it is no wonder to see the evil spirit in a place where the irritamenta malorum so much abound.

QUEEN Elizabeth presented this company with a silver cup, out of which annual libations are made to her memory. She was particularly kind to the citizens, and borrowed money of them on all occasions. The goldsmiths must of course enjoy a distin­guished place in her esteem.

THIS company appeared as a fraternity as early as 1180, being then amerced for being adulterine, or for setting up without the king's licence. In the reign of Edward III. they obtained a pa­tent, and were incorporated for the sum of ten marks. Richard II. confirmed the same, in consideration of the sum of twenty marks. They increased in wealth, and have left evident marks of charity, by having above a thousand pounds a year to dispose of for bene­volent purposes. They became in time the bankers of the capi­tal. The Lombards were the first and the greatest, and most of the money contracts in old times passed through their hands. Many of our monarchs were obliged to them for money. They did not seem to like trusting Henry IV. on his bond, so took the customs in pawn for their loan.

THE business of goldsmiths was confined to the buying and selling of plate, and foreign coins of gold and silver, melting them, and coining others at the mint. The banking was accidental, and foreign to their institution.

[Page 361]REGULAR banking by private people resulted, in 1643, from the calamity of the time, when the seditious spirit was incited by the arts of the parlementary leaders. The merchants and trades­men, who before trusted their cash to their servants and appren­tices, found that no longer safe; neither did they dare to leave it in the mint at the Tower, by reason of the distresses of majesty itself, which before was a place of public deposit. In the year 1645, they began to place it in the hands of goldsmiths, when they first began publicly to exercise both professions. Even in my days were several very eminent bankers, who kept the gold­smiths shop: but they were more frequently separated. The first regular banker was Mr. Francis Child, goldsmith, who began business soon after the Restoration. He was the father of the profession, a person of large fortune and most respectable character. He married, between the years 1665 and 1675, Mar­tha, only daughter of Robert Blanchard, citizen and goldsmith, by whom he had twelve children. Mr. Child was afterwards knighted. He lived in Fleet-street, where the shop still continues *, in a state of the highest respectability. Mr. Granger mentions Mr. Child as successor to the shop of alderman Backwel, a banker in the time of Charles II. noted for his integrity, abilities, and industry; who was ruined by the shutting up of the exchequer in 1672. His books were placed in the hands of Mr. Child, and still remain in the family.

THE next antient shop was that possessed at present by Messrs. Snow and Denne, a few doors to the west of Mr. Child's; who [Page 362] were goldsmiths of consequence in the latter part of the same reign. To the west of Temple Bar, the only one was that of Messrs Middleton and Campbel, goldsmiths, who flourished in 1692, and is now continued, with great credit, by Mr. Coutts. From thence to the extremity of the western end of the town, there was none till the year 1756, when the respectable name of Backwel * rose again, conjoined to those of Darel, Hart, and Croft, who with great reputation opened their shop in Pall Mall.

ST. MARTIN'S LE GRAND.FOSTER LANE bounds on the east that remarkable place, St. Martin's Le Grand: imperium in imperio: surrounded by the city, yet subject, near three centuries, to the governing powers of West­minster Abby. A large and fair college was founded, A. D. 700, by Wythred king of Kent; and rebuilt and chiefly endowed by two noble Saxon brothers, Ingelric and Edward, about the year 1056. William the Conqueror confirmed it in 1068, and even made it independent of every other ecclesiastical jurisdiction, from the re­gal and even the papal . It was governed by a dean, and had a number of secular canons. Succeeding monarchs confirmed all its privileges. It had Sak, Sok, Tol, and all the long list of Saxon in­dulgences, enumerated by the accurate Strype . It had also from the beginning the dreadful privilege of sanctuary, which was the cause of its being the resort of every species of profligates, from the murderer to the pick-pocket; and was most tenaciously vindi­cated by its holy rulers. In 1439 soldier, who for some crime [Page 363] was conducted from Newgate towards Guild-hall, was rescued by five fellows who rushed out of Panyer-alley, and who fled with him into the adjacent sanctuary. The sheriffs of that year, Philip Malpas and Robert Marshall, entered the church, and seizing on the soldier and other ruffians, carried them chained to Newgate *. The dean and chapter complained of this breach of privilege: the cause was heard, and the sheriffs were obliged to deliver the men into the sanctuary. But in 1457 the king thought proper to re­gulate these privileges, and to distinguish how far they might be protected; and that the dean and chapter should take care that none of the villainous refugees should become further noxious to their fellow-creatures .

A MAGNIFICENT church was erected within this jurisdiction, which was continued till the college was surrendered, in 1548, when it was pulled down, and a great tavern erected in the place. St. Martin's Le Grand was then, and still continues under the go­vernment of the dean of Westminster. It was granted to that mo­nastery by Henry VII. It still continues independent of the city: numbers of mechanics, (particularly taylors and shoemakers), set up there, and exercise their trades within its limits, and have vote for the members of the borough of Westminster. The dean and chapter have a court here, and a prison: and, I think, all processes to be executed within this liberty, are to be directed, by the sheriffs of London, to the constable of the dean and chapter of Westminster.

THIS church, with those of Bow, St. Giles's Cripplegate, and Barkin, had its Curfew bell long after the servile injunction laid on the Londoners had ceased. These were sounded to give notice [Page 364] to the inhabitants of those districts to keep within, and not to wander in the streets: which were infested by a set of ruffians, who made a practice of insulting, wounding, robbing, and mur­dering the people, whom they happened to meet abroad during night *.

CHEAPSIDE.THE view we have of Cheapside, as it appeared just before the great fire, shews that it was spacious and beautiful. The cross and conduit are to be seen; and the long row of shops, which pro­jected from the houses, reached to the bottom of the first floors, and were lighted by windows in the roofs. This shews the antient forms of building our more magnificent streets. On the south side stands the church of St. Mary le Bow, or de arcubus, because it originally was built upon arches. It perished in 1666, and was rebuilt after a design of Sir Christopher Wren's. I cannot express myself better than in the words of an ingenious writer, who calls it "a delightful absurdity ." In this church was interred Sir John Coventry, mercer, lord mayor in 1425, and ancestor and founder of the family of the earl of Coventry. I beg leave here to remind several other noble peers of their industrious and honest forefathers.

JOHN COVENTRY, son of William Coventry, of the city of that name, was an opulent mercer of the city of London, and mayor in 1425; a most spirited magistrate, who dared to interfere in the dreadful quarrel between Humphrey duke of Glocester and the insolent cardinal Beaufort, which he successfully quelled, from his loins is descended the present earl of Coventry.

SIR STEPHEN BROWN, son of John Brown of Newcastle, mayor [Page 365] in 1438, and again in 1448, was a grocer; and gave to us another peer, in the person of Sir Anthony Brown, created viscount Moun­tague by Philip and Mary, in 1554.

THE Legges rose to be earls of Dartmouth. The first who was nobilitated was that loyal and gallant sea officer George Legge, created baron of Dartmouth in 1682. He was descended from an ancestor of one of the above-mentioned names, who filled the praetorian chair of London in the years 1347 and 1354, having, by his industry in the trade of a skinner, attained to great wealth.

SIR GEFFRY BULLEN, mayor in 1458, was grandfather to Thomas earl of Wiltshire, father of Anna Bullen, and grandfather to queen Elizabeth; the highest genealogical honor the city ever possessed.

SIR BAPTIST HICKS was a great mercer at the accession of James I. and made a vast fortune by supplying the court with silks. He was first knighted, afterwards created viscount Camb­den. It is said he left his two daughters a hundred thousand pounds apiece. He built a large house in St. John's-street, for the justices of Middlesex to hold their sessions, which (till its de­molition, a very few years ago, upon the erection of a new sessions-house on Clerkenwell Green) retained the name of Hicks's Hall.

THE Capels, earls of Essex, are descended from Sir William Capel, draper, mayor in 1503. He first set up a cage in every ward, for the punishment of idle people.

MICHAEL DORMER, mercer, mayor in 1542, produced the fu­ture lord Dormers.

EDWARD OSBORN, by his fortunate leap, as before related, when apprentice to Sir William Hewet, attained in consequence great wealth and honors. He was mayor in 1583; and from his loins sprung the dukes of Leeds.

[Page 366]FROM Sir William Craven, merchant-taylor, mayor in 1611, sprung the gallant earl Craven, who was his eldest son, and was greatly distinguished by his actions in the service of the unfortu­nate Elector Palatine, by his attachment to the dowager, and his marriage with that illustrious princess.

LORD Viscount Dudley and Ward is descended from William Ward, a wealthy goldsmith in London, and jeweller to Henrietta Maria, queen to Charles I. His son, Humble Ward, married Frances, grand-daughter of Edward Sutton, lord Dudley, on the death of her grandfather baroness of Dudley; and he himself created, in 1643, lord Ward, of Birmingham.

THE old church of Bow was founded in the time of William the Conqueror; we have before given the origin of the name, which was from the arches of the foundation, not of the steeple, which was rebuilt with arches, or in a crown fashion, but not till long after the year 1512 *.STORY OF FITZ-OSBERT. In this tower, in 1196, one William Fitz-Os­bert, alias Long Beard, a seditious fellow of uncommon eloquence, but of the lowest rank, set up as advocate for the poorer citizens against the oppressions of the rich. He took opportunity of be­ginning a tumult by inflaming their minds against a certain tax, raised entirely for the necessities of the state. Many lives were lost on the occasion, at St. Paul's. Hubert, the great justiciary, summoned Long Beard to appear before him; but found him so well supported, that he thought it prudent to forbear punishment. This served but to increase his insolence. He grew so outrageous, that the citizens were resolved to bring him to justice: a resolute band made the attempt, when he and a few desperate fellows fled to the tower of Bow steeple, which they fortified. The besiegers, seeing the mob assemble from all parts to his rescue, made a fire [Page 367] at the bottom, which forced him and his companions to sally out; but they were taken, and the next day he and eight more were dragged by their heels to the Elms at Smithfield, and there hanged. It was said, that finding himself deserted by Heaven, he at the gallows ‘forsook Mary's Son (as he called our SAVIOUR), and called upon the Devil to helpe and deliver him.’ Yet, not­withstanding this, a cunning priest, a relation of his, stole his body, and pretended many miracles were wrought at the place of execution; and many persons passed the night on the spot which deprived them of a martyr, who died supporting the majesty of the people, as Thomas Becket did that of the pope.

IN the middle of the street, a little to the west of the church,THE C [...]S. stood the cross and the conduit. The first was one of the affec­tionate tokens of Edward I. towards his queen Elinor, built where her body rested in its way to interment, in 1290. It had origi­nally the statue of the queen, and in all respects resembling that at Northampton; at length, falling to decay, it was rebuilt, in 1441, by John Hutherby, mayor of the city, at the expence of several of the citizens. It was ornamented with various images, such as that of the Resurrection, of the Virgin, of Edward the Confessor, and the like. At every public entry it was new gilt, for the magni­ficent processions took this road. After the Reformation, the images gave much offence; the goddess Diana was substituted instead of the Virgin, after the symbols of superstition had been frequently mutilated. Queen Elizabeth disapproved of those at­tacks on the remnants of the old religion, and offered a large re­ward for the discovery of the offenders. She thought that a plain cross, the mark of the religion of the country, ought not to be the occasion of any scandal; so directed that one should be placed [Page 368] on the summit, and gilt *. Superstition is certain, in course of time, to take the other extreme. In the year 1643, the parlement voted the taking down of all crosses, and the demolishing of all popish paintings, &c. The destruction of this cross was com­mitted to Sir Robert Harlow; who went on the service with true zeal, attended by a troop of horse and two companies of foot, and executed his orders most effectually. The same most pious and religious noble knight did also attack and demolish "the abomi­nable and most blasphemous crucifix" in Christ's hospital, and broke it into a thousand pieces . In short, such was the rage of the times against the sign of our religion, that it was not suffered in shop-books, or even in the primers of children ; and as to the cross used in baptism, it became the abomination of abominations.

And some against all idolizing,
The Cross in shop-books, and baptizing.

THE Nag's-head tavern, almost opposite to the cross, was the fictitious scene of consecration of the Protestant bishops, at the accession of queen Elizabeth, in 1559. It was pretended by the adversaries of our religion, that a certain number of ecclesiastics, in hurry to take possession of the vacant sees, assembled here, where they were to undergo the ceremony from Anthony Kitchen, alias Dustan, bishop of Llandaff, a sort of occasional conformist, who had taken the oaths of supremacy to Elizabeth. Bonner, bi­shop of London, (then confined in the Tower) hearing of it, sent [Page 369] his chaplain to Kitchen, threatening him with excommunication, in case he proceeded. On this the prelate refused to perform the ceremony: on which, say the Catholics, Parker and the other candidates, rather than defer possession of their dioceses, de­termined to consecrate one another; which, says the story, they did without any sort of scruple, and Icorey began with Parker, who instantly rose archbishop of Canterbury. The refutation of this tale may be read in Strype's Life of archbishop Parker, at p. 57, which makes it needless for me to enter on the attempt. A view of the tavern, and its sign, is preserved in a print in the En­tré de la Reyne Mere du Roy, or of Mary de Medicis, when she visited our unfortunate monarch, Charles I. and her daughter, his fair spouse.

IN Laurence-lane, not far from hence, was another public-house of much antiquity, and which is still in great business as a car­riers inn; the Blossoms Inn, so named from the rich border of flowers which adorned the original sign, that of St. Laurence. These were the effects of his martyrdom, "for (says the legend) flowers sprung up on the spot of his cruel martyrdom."

IN this street, between the cross and Sopers-lane, were held most splendid tournaments in the year 1331; they began Sept. 21, and lasted three days. A scaffold was erected for queen Philippa and her gay troop of ladies, all most richly attired, to behold the knights collected from all quarters to shew their skill in deeds of arms. The upper part of the scaffold, on which the ladies were seated, "brake in sunder, and," as Stow says, ‘whereby they were (with some shame) forced to fall downe;’ and many knights and others, which stood beneath, much hurt. The car­penters were saved from punishment, by the intercession of the [Page 370] queen; but, to prevent such accidents in future, the king ordered a building of stone to be erected, near the church of St. Mary le Bow, for himself, the queen, and "other states," to see the gallant spectacles in safety *. This was used long after for the same pur­pose, even till the year 1410, when Henry IV. granted it to cer­tain mercers, who converted it into shops, warehouses, and other requisites of their trade .

CONDUIT.A LITTLE to the east of the cross stood the conduit, which served as the mother or chief aqueduct, which was to serve the lesser conduits with water, brought by pipes from Paddington. This stood on the site of the old conduit, founded in 1285, castel­lated with stone, and cisterned in lead, as old Stow tells us; and again rebuilt in 1479, by Thomas Ilan, one of the sheriffs. On some very festive occasions these conduits have been made to run with claret. Such was the case at the coronation of Anna Bullen; who was received at the lesser conduit by Pallas, Juno, and Venus. Mercury, in the name of the goddesses, presented to her a ball of gold divided into three parts, signifying three gifts bestowed on her by the deities, WISDOM, RICHES, and FELICITY. But, alas! beneath them lurked speedy disgrace, imprisonment, the block, and axe.

THE STANDARD.I CANNOT well fix the place where the old Standard in Cheap stood. The time of its foundation is unknown. It appears to have been very ruinous in 1442, at which time Henry VI. granted a licence for the repairing of it, together with a conduit in the same. This was a place at which executions, and other acts of justice, [Page 371] were in old times frequently performed. Here, in 1293,EXECUTIONS AT THE STANDARD. three men had their heads cut off, for rescuing a prisoner arrested by a city officer. In 1351, two fishmongers were beheaded at the standard, but their crime has not reached us. In 1461, John Davy had his hand struck off, for striking a man before the judges at Westminster; and in 1399, Henry IV. caused the blank char­ters, made by Richard II. to be burned here, as we do libels in our times.

BUT these were legal acts. Many sad instances of barbarous executions were done in the fury of popular commotions. Rich­ard Lions, an eminent goldsmith, and late sheriff of the city, was in 1381 (with several others) cruelly beheaded here by order of Wat Tyler. Lions was interred in the church of St. James, Garlic-hith, and on his tomb (now lost) was his figure in a long flowered gown, a large purse hanging in a belt from his shoul­ders, his hair short, his beard forked, a plain hood falling back and covering his shoulders. At the same time numbers of fo­reign merchants, especially Flemings, were dragged from the churches, and, the Shibboleth * of Bread and Cheese being put to them (which they pronouncing Brot and Cawse) they were in­stantly put to death. In 1450, lord Say, high treasurer of Eng­land, lost his head at the Standard, by the brutality of John Cade. Shakespeare admirably describes the tragic scene .

WHETHER Walter Stapleton, bishop of Exeter, suffered by the popular fury on this spot, is rather uncertain; some imagine [Page 372] that he was beheaded at a cross before the north door of St. Paul's *; to which church he was flying for refuge, and unfor­tunately seized by the mob before he had taken sanctuary.

THROUGH this street, and probably to this cross, in 1439, walked barefooted, with a tap [...]r in her hand, Elinor Cobham, wise to Humphrey duke of Gloucester, charged with the crime of sorcery, with intending the death of the king by melting an image of wax, with which his body was to sympathize.

Limus ut hic durescit, et haec ut cera liquescit .

A more serious fate attended her pretended accomplices; a wo­man was burnt, and three men, among whom was her chaplain, were hanged.

GUILDHALL.THE Guildhall of this vast city stands at the end of a street running northward from Cheapside. Before the year 1411, the court-hall, or Bury, as it was called, was held at Aldermans bury, so denominated from their meeting there. Stow remembered its ruins, and says, that in his days it was used as Carpenters-hall. It was succeeded by a new one, begun in 1411, and finished in twenty years, by voluntary contributions, by sums raised for par­dons of offences, and by fines. Its gothic front terminates the end of King-street. Its length is a hundred and fifty-three feet; its breadth forty-eight; its height fifty-five; so that it is capable of holding thousands of people. Elections, and every species of city business, is transacted here.

[Page 373]WITHIN are portraits of numbers of our judges, who frequently try causes under this roof. I must direct the reader's attention to twelve of that order of peculiar merit: these are the portraits of the able and virtuous Sir MATTHEW HALE, and his eleven cotemporary judges; who, after the dreadful calamity of 1 [...]66, regulated the rebuilding of the city of London by such wise rules, as to prevent the endless train of vexatious law-suits which might ensue; and been little less chargeable than the fire itself had been. This was principally owing to Sir Matthew Hale, who con­ducted the business; and sat with his brethren in Clifford's Inn, to compose all differences between landlord and tenant. These portraits were painted by Michael Wright, a good painter in the time of Charles II. and James II. and who died in the year 1700. It was designed that Sir Peter Lely should draw these pictures, but he fastidiously refused to wait on the judges at their cham­bers. Wright received sixty pounds apiece for his work *. In the year 1779, they were found to be in so bad a condition, as to make it an even question with the committee of city lands, whe­ther they should be continued in their places, or committed to the flames. To the eternal honor of alderman Townsend, his vote decided in favor of their preservation . He recommended Mr. Roma, (now unhappily snatched from us by death), who, by his great skill in repairing pictures, rescued them from the rage of time: so that they may remain another century, a proof of the gratitude of our capital. These were proofs of a sense of real [Page 374] merit: but in how many places do we meet instances of a tem­porary idolatry, the phrenzy of the day! Statues and portraits appear, to the astonishment of posterity, purged from the preju­dices of the time.

The things themselves are neither scarce nor rare;
The wonder's, how the devil they got there!

FACING the entrance are two tremendous figures, by some named Gog and Magog; by Stow, an antient Briton and Saxon. I leave to others the important decision. At the bottom of the room is a marble group, of good workmanship, (with London and Commerce whimpering like two marred children), executed soon after the year 1770, by Mr. BACON. The principal figure was also a giant, in his day, the raw-head and bloody-bones to the good folks at St. James's; which, while remon­strances were in fashion, annually haunted the court in terrific forms. The eloquence dashed in the face of majesty, alas! proved in vain. The spectre was there condemned to silence; but his patriotism may be read by his admiring fellow-citizens, as long as the melancholy marble can retain the tale of the affrighted times.

GREAT FEASTS.THE first time that this hall was used on festive occasions, was by Sir John Shaw, goldsmith, knighted in the field of Bosworth. After building the essentials of good kitchens and other offices, in the year 1500 he gave here the mayor's feast, which before had usually been done in Grocers-hall. None of their bills of fare have reached me, but doubtlessly they were very magnifi­cent. They at length grew to such excess, that, in the time of Philip and Mary, a sumptuary law was made to restrain the ex­pence [Page 375] both of provisions and liveries: but I suspect, as it lessened the honor of the city, it was not long observed; for in 1554, the city thought proper to renew the order of council, by way of reminding their fellow-citizens of their relapse into luxury. Among the great feasts given here on public occasions, may be reckoned that given in 1612, on occasion of the unhappy marriage of the prince Palatine with Elizabeth, daughter of James I; who, in defiance of the remonstrances of his better-judging father-in-law, rushed on the usurpation of the domi­nion of another monarch, and brought great misery on himself and his amiable spouse. The next was in 1641, when Charles I. returned from his imprudent, inefficacious journey into Scotland. In the midst of the most factious and turbulent times, when every engine was set to work to annihilate the regal power, the city, un­der its lord mayor, Sir William Acton, made a feast unparalleled in history for its magnificence. All external respect was payed to his majesty; the last he ever experienced in the inflamed city. Of the entertainment we know no more, than that it consisted of five hundred dishes. But of that which was given in our happier days, to his present majesty, in the mayoralty of Sir Samuel Flud­yer, the bill of fare is given us. This I print; and, as a parallel to it, that of another royal feast, given in 1487 at Whitehall, on oc­casion of the coronation of Elizabeth, queen of Henry VII, whom he treats with characteristical oeconomy, notwithstanding a king­dom was her dower *.

[Page 376]

12 Dishes of Olio, Turtle, Pottages, and Soups2420
12 Ditto of F [...]sh, viz. John Dories, red Mullets, &c.2420
7 Ditto roast Venison1000
3 Westphalia Hams consume, and richly ornamented660
2 Dishes of Pullets à la Royale220
2 Dishes of Tongues Espagniole330
6 Ditto Chickens à la Reine660
1 Ditto Tondron Devaux à la Dauzie220
1 Harrico110
1 Dish Popiets of Veale Glasse140
2 Dishes Fillets of Lamb, à la Comte220
2 Ditto Comports of Squabs220
2 Ditto Fillets of Beef Marinate300
2 Ditto of Mutton à la Memorance220
32 Ditto fine Vegetables16160
6 Dishes fine Ortolans2540
10 Ditto Quails1500
10 Ditto Notts3000
1 Ditto Wheat Ears110
1 Goodevau Patte1100
1 Perr [...]goe Pye1100
1 Dish Pea-chicks110
4 Dishes Woodcocks440
2 Dishes Pheasants330
4 Ditto Teal330
4 Ditto Snipes330
2 Ditto Partridges220
2 Ditto Pattys Royal300
1 Ragout Royal110
8 Dishes of fine green Morells880
10 Ditto fine green Peas10100
3 Ditto Asparagus Heads220
3 Ditto fine fat Livers1116
3 Ditto fine Combs1116
5 Ditto green Truffles550
5 Ditto Artichoaks, à la Provinciale2126
5 Ditto Mushrooms au Blank2126
1 Dish Cardons, à la Bejamel0106
1 Ditto Knots of Eggs0106
1 Ditto Ducks Tongues0106
3 Ditto of Peths1116
1 Dish of Truffles in Oil0106
4 Dishes of Pallets220
2 Ditto Ragout Mille220
2 Curious ornamented Cakes2120
12 Dishes of Blomanges, representing different Figures12120
12 Ditto clear Marbrays1480
16 Ditto fine cut Pastry16160
2 Ditto mille Fuelles1106
1 Grand Pyramid of Demies of Shell-fish of various Sorts220
32 Cold Things of Sorts, viz. Temples, Shapes, Land­scapes in Jellies, savory Cakes, and Almond Gothes33120
2 Grand Epergnes filled with fine Pickles, and gar­nished round with Plates of Sorts, as Laspicks Rolards, &c.660
Total of the KING'S Table£. 37410

THE whole of this day's entertainment cost the city £. 6,898. 5s. 4d. A committee had been appointed out of the body of aldermen, who most deservedly received the thanks of the lord mayor and whole body corporate, for the skilful discharge of this important trust. The feast consisted of four hundred and four­teen dishes, besides the desert; and the hospitality of the city, and the elegance of the entertainment, might vie with any that had ever preceded.

[Page 379]


  • A Warner byfor the Course
  • Sheldes of Brawne in Armor
  • Frumetye with Venison
  • Bruet riche
  • Hart powdered graunt Chars
  • Fesaunt intram de Royall
  • Swan with Chawdron
  • Capons of high Goe
  • Lampervey in Galantine
  • Crane with Cretney
  • Pik in Latymer Sawce
  • Heronusew with his Sique
  • Carpe in Foile
  • Kid reversed
  • Perche in Jeloye depte
  • Conys of high Grece
  • Moten Roiall richely garnyshed
  • Valance baked
  • Custarde Royall
  • Tarte Poleyn
  • Leyse Damask
  • Frutt Synoper
  • Frutt Formage
  • A Soteltie, with writing of Balads.
  • [Page 380]A Warner byfor the Course
  • Joly Ypocras
  • Mamane with Lozengs of Golde
  • Pekok in Hakell
  • Bittowre
  • Fesawnte
  • Browes
  • Egrets in Beorwetye
  • Cokks
  • Patrieche
  • Sturgyn freshe Fenell
  • Plovers
  • Rabett Sowker
  • Seyle in Fenyn entirely served richely
  • Red Shankks
  • Snytes
  • Quayles
  • Larkes ingraylede
  • Creves de Endence
  • Venesone in Paste Royall
  • Quince Baked
  • Marche Payne Royall
  • A colde bake Mete flourishede
  • Lethe Ciprus
  • Lethe Rube
  • Fruter Augeo
  • Fruter Mouniteyne
  • [Page 381]Castells of Jely in Temple wise made
  • A Soteltie.
Leland's Collectanea, iv. 216.

THESE Sotelties, or Subtilities as they were called, were the ornamental part of the desert, and were extremely different from those in present use. In the inthronization feast of archbishop Wareham, on March 9th, 1504, the first course was preceded by ‘a warner *, conveyed upon a rounde boorde of viii panes, with viii towres embatteled and made with flowres, stand­ynge on every towre a bedil in his habite, with his staffe: and in the same boorde, first the king syttinge in his parliament, with his lordes about hym in their robes; and Saint Wylliam, lyke an archishop, sytting on the ryght hand of the kyng: then the chaunceler of Oxforde, with other doctors about hym, presented the said lord Wylliam, kneelyng, in a doctor's habite, unto the kyng, with his commend of vertue and cunnynge, &c. &c. And on the third boorde of the same warner, the Holy Ghoste appeared with bryght beames proceedyng from hym of the gyftes of grace towarde the sayde lorde of the feaste.’ This is a specimen of the antient sotelties. This was a Lenten feast of the most luxurious kind. Many of the so­telties were suited to the occasion, and of the legendary nature; others historical; but all, without doubt, contrived "with great cunnynge."

TO these scenes of luxury and gluttony, let me oppose the simple fare at a feast of the Wax-chandlers, on Oct. 28th, 1478. These were a flourishing company in the days of old, when gra­titude [Page 382] to saints called so frequently for lights. How many thou­sands of wax candles were consumed on those occasions, and what quantities the expiatory offerings of private persons, none can enumerate. Candle-mass day wasted its thousands, and those all blessed by the priests, and adjured in solemn terms. ‘I ad­jure thee, O waxen creature, that thou repel the devil and his sprights, &c. &c *.’ Certainly this company, which was in­corporated in 1484, might have afforded a more delicate feast than

Two loins of Mutton, and two loins of Veal014
A loin of Beef004
A Leg of Mutton00
A Pig004
A Capon006
A Coney002
One dozen of Pigeons007
A hundred Eggs00
A Goose006
A Gallon of Red Wine008
A Kilderkin of Ale008
 £. 070

GUILDHALL CHAPEL.ADJACENT to Guildhall, is Guildhall chapel, or college, a go­thic building, founded by Peter Fanlore, Adam Francis, and Henry Frowick, citizens, about the year 1299. The establishment was [Page 383] a warden, seven priests, three clerks, and four choristers. Ed­ward VI. granted it to the mayor and commonalty of the city of London *. Here used to be service once a week, and also at the election of the mayor, and before the mayor's feast, to deprecate indigestions, and all plethoric evils . At present divine service is discontinued here, the chapel being used as a justice room.

ADJOINING to it once stood a fair library,LIBRARY. furnished with books belonging to Guildhall, built by the executors of the famous Whittington. Stow says that the protector Somerset sent to borrow some of the books, with a promise of restoring them; three Curries were laden with them, but they never more were returned .

IMMEDIATELY beyond the chapel stands Blackwall's hall, or,BLACKWALL'S HALL. more properly, Bakewell, from its having in later years been in­habited by a person of that name. It was originally called Ba­sing's haugh, or hall, from a family of that name; the coats of arms of which were to be seen cut in stone, or painted, in the an­tient building. It was on vaults of stone brought from Caen in Normandy; the time is uncertain, but certainly after the Con­quest. The family were of great antiquity. Solomon Basing was mayor in 1216; and another of the name sheriff in 1308. In 1397 the house was purchased by the mayor and commonalty for fifty pounds, and from that time has been used as the market of woollen cloth. It grew so ruinous in the time of queen Eliza­beth, that it was pulled down, and rebuilt at the expence of twenty-five hundred pounds; much of it at the expence of Rich­ard [Page 384] May, merchant-taylor. It consists at present of two large courts, with warehouses in all parts for the lodging of the cloth; but is very little used. Formerly there were proclamations issued to compel people to bring their goods into this hall, to prevent deceit in the manufactures, which might bring on us discredit in foreign markets, and also be the means of defrauding the poor children of Christ hospital of part of the revenue which arose from the hallage of this great magazine.

HOSPITAL OF ST. THOMAS OF ACON;ON the north side of Cheapside stood the hospital of St. Thomas of Acon, founded by Thomas Fitz-Theobald de Helles and his wife Agnes, sister to the turbulent Thomas Becket, who was born in the house of his father Gilbert, situated on this spot. The mother of our meek saint was a fair Saracen, whom his father had married in the Holy Land. On the site of his house rose the hospital, built within twenty years after the murder of Thomas; yet such was the repute of his sanctity, that it was dedicated to him, in con­junction with the blessed Virgin, without waiting for his canoni­zation. The hospital consisted of a master and several brethren, professing the rule of St. Austin. The church, cloisters, &c. were granted by Henry VIII. to the Mercers company, who had the gift of the mastership *.

NOW MERCER [...] HALL.IN the old church were numbers of monuments; among others, one to James Butler earl of Ormond, and Joan his wife, living in the beginning of the reign of Henry VI. This whole pile was destroyed in the great fire, but was very handsomely re­built by the Mercers company, who have their hall here. In the portico to the chapel is a full-length figure recumbent of Richard [Page 385] Fishbourn, dressed in a furred gown and a ruff; he died in 1623, and, being a great benefactor to the place, received the honor of this monument.

THIS company is the first of the twelve, or such who are ho­nored with the privilege of the lord mayor's being elected out of one of them. The name by no means implied originally a dealer in silks: for mercery included all sorts of small wares, toys, and haberdashery *. But, as numbers of this opulent company were merchants, and imported great quantities of rich silks from Italy, the name became applied to the company, and all deal­ers in silk. Several of the portraits in the great room of this hall are of Italian merchants. Not fewer than sixty-two mayors were of this company, between the years 1214 and 1762; among which it reckons Sir John Coventry, Sir Richard Whittington, and Sir Richard and Sir John Gresham. We are obliged to the exact Strype for the list. In that by Maitland, the company each mayor was of, is omitted.

IMMEDIATELY to the east is the narrow street, the Old Jewry, THE OLD JEWRY. which took its name from the great synagogue which stood there till the unhappy race were expelled the kingdom, in 1291. Their persecutions, under some of the preceding monarchs, nearly equal­led those of the Christians under the Roman emperors: yet the love of gain retained them in our country in defiance of all their suf­ferings. A new order of friars, called Fratres de Sacca, or de pe­nitentia, got possession of the Jewish temple: but did not hold it long. Robert Fitzwalter, the great banner-bearer of the city, requested, in 1305, that the friars might assign it to him. It [Page 386] seems it joined to his own house, which stood near the site of the present Grocers hall. In 1439, it was occupied by Robert Lorge, mayor, who kept his mayoralty in this house; Sir Hugh Clapton did the same in 1492; and after these tenants it was degraded into a tavern, distinguished by the sign of the Windmill.

GROCERS HALL.THE chapel, or church, was bought by the Grocers company, in 1411, from Fitzwalter, for three hundred and twenty marks *; who here layed the foundation of the present hall, a noble room, with a gothic front, and bow window. Here, to my great sur­prize,O. SIR JOHN CUTLER. I met again with Sir John Cutler, knight, and grocer, in marble and on canvas. In the first he is represented standing, in a flowing wig waved rather than curled, a laced cravat, and a furred gown with the folds not ungraceful: in all, except where the dress is inimical to the sculptor's art, it may be called a good performance. By his portrait we may learn that this worthy wore a black wig, and was a good-looking man. He died in 1693. His kinsman and executor Edmund Boulter, Esq expended £. 7,666 on his funeral expences . I am to learn how his statue and portrait came here. He is spoken of as a benefactor, and that he built the parlour, and over it an entertaining room. The anecdote of his bounty to the College of Physicians, may lead one to suppose that the Grocers did not meet with more liberal treatment. If not, the character given of him by Mr. Pope, may rest unimpeached:

Thy life more wretched, Cutler, was confess'd,
Arise and tell me was thy death more bless'd?
[Page 387] Cut [...]er saw tenants break, and houses fall;
For very want he could not build a wall.
His only daughter in a stranger's power *;
For very want he could not pay a dower.
A few grey hairs his rev'rend temples crown'd.
'Twas very want that sold them for ten pound.
What ev'n denied a cordial at his end,
Banish'd the doctor, and expell'd the friend?
What but a want, which you perhaps think mad,
Yet numbers feel, the want of what he had!

THIS company follows the Mercers; they were originally called Pepperers, from their dealing so greatly in pepper: but in 1345 they were incorporated by the name of Grocers, either because they fold things by, or dealt in grossi or figs . But from the beginning they trafficked in all the good things which the trade does to this day.

I FORGOT Bucklesbury, BUCKLESBURY. a street which opens on the south side of Cheapside, a little to the west of the Grocers hall. It took its name from one Buckle, who had in it a large manour-house of stone. This man lost his life in a strange way. Near his house stood an old tower built by Edward I. called the Cornets tower, possibly a watch tower, from the summit of which signals might have been given by the blowing of a horn. This, Buckle in­tended to pull down, and to have built a handsome house of [Page 388] wood; or, according to the expression of the times, a goodly frame of timber: but in greedily demolishing this tower, a stone fell on him, and crushed him to death; and another, who married his widow, set up the new-prepared frame of timber, and finished the work. This street, in Stow's time, was the residence of gro­cers and apothecaries *.

THE MANSION-HOUSE.ON the same side of the way is the Mansion-house, "damned, I may say, to everlasting fame ." The sight is relieved am­ply by another building behind it, St. Stephen's, Walbrook, a small church, the chef d'aeuvre of Sir Christopher Wren, of most exquisite beauty. ‘Perhaps Italy itself, (says a judicious writer) can produce no modern building that can vie with this in taste and proportion: there is not a beauty, which the plan would admit of, that is not to be found here in the greatest perfection; and foreigners, very justly, call our taste in question, for understanding the graces no better, and allow­ing it no higher degree of fame .’

OVER the altar is a beautiful picture of the martyrdom of St. Stephen, by Mr. West. The character of the saint is finely ex­pressed in his angelic countenance, resigned to his fate, and full of sure and certain hope. I looked to no purpose for the statue erected, DIVAe MAC-AULAe, by her doating admirer, a former rector; which a successor of his has most profanely pulled down.

STOCKS-MAR­KET.THE Mansion-house, and many adjacent buildings, stand on the site of Stocks-market; which took its name from a pair of [Page]


[Page 389] stocks for the punishment of offenders, erected in an open place near this spot, as early as the year 1281. This was the great market of the city during many centuries. In it stood the famous equestrian statue, erected in honor of Charles II, by his most loyal subject Sir Robert Viner, lord mayor. Fortunately his lordship discovered at a founder's, one of John Sobieski, king of Poland, trampling on a Turk; the good knight christened the Polish mo­narch by the name of Charles, and bestowed on the turbaned Turk that of Oliver Cromwel; and thus, new named, it arose on this spot in honor of his convivial monarch.

THE opening before the Mansion-house divides into three im­portant streets: Cornhill in the center; the Bank of England, the old Threadneedle-street, on the north; and Lombard-street on the south. I shall pursue these as far as the spots which I have passed over, and give the remaining things worthy of notice. I shall take the middle way.

THE Royal Exchange, that concourse of all the nations of the world, arises before us with the full majesty of commerce.ROYAL EXCHANGE. Whe­ther we consider the grandeur of the edifice, or the vast concerns carried on within its walls, we are equally struck with its im­portance. But we are more astonished when we find that this expensive princely pile was the effect of the munificence of a private citizen, SIR THOMAS GRESHAM. Let the pride of my country not be suppressed, when I have opportunity of saying, that the original hint was given to him by a Welshman; by Richard Clough, afterwards knighted, originally his servant, and in the year 1561, by his merit and industry, advanced by Sir Thomas to be his correspondent and agent in the then emporium of the world, [Page 390] Antwerp. Clough wrote to his master, to blame the city of Lon­don for neglecting so necessary a thing; bluntly telling, that they studied nothing else but their own private profit; that they were content to walk about in the rain, more like pedlars than mer­chants; and that there was no kind of people but had their place to transact business in, in other countries. Thus stimu­lated, Sir Thomas purchased some tenements on the site of the Royal Exchange; and, on June 7, 1566, laid the foundation, and in November, 1567, completed what was then called the Bourse. In 1570, queen Elizabeth went in great state from her palace at Somerset-house, to make Sir Thomas a visit at his own house. After dinner she went to the Bourse, visited every part, and then, by sound of trumpet, dignified it with the title of the Royal Ex­change. All the upper part was filled then, and even to this cen­tury, with shops; on this occasion they were filled with the richest productions of the universe, to shew her majesty the prosperity of the commercial parts of her dominions. I cannot learn what the expence of this noble design was, only that the annual product of the rents to his widow was £. 751. 5 s. I am equally unac­quainted with the form of the original building, which perished in the great fire. It was rebuilt, in its present magnificent form, by the city and the company of mercers *, at the expence of eighty thousand pounds; which, for a considerable time, involved the undertakers in a large debt. It was completed in 1669; on Sept. 28, of that year, it was opened by the lord mayor, Sir Wil­liam Turner, who congratulated the merchants on the occasion. [Page 391] The following inscription does grateful honor to the original founder:

HOC GRESHAMII Peristyllium,
Gentium commercium sacrum,
Flammis extinctum 1666,
Augustius e cinere resurrexit 1669,
W [...]ll [...] Turnero, milite, praetore.

THE statue of Sir Thomas Gresham is in one corner, in the dress of the times. Another, of that worthy citizen Sir John Barnard, graces another part. The rest are kings, which (as far as king Charles), with that of Sir Thomas, were chiefly executed by Gabriel Cibber; that of Charles II. in the centre, by Gibbons *. And above stairs are the statues of Charles I. and II, and another of the illustrious founder, by John Buchnell, an artist of inferior merit, in the reign of William III. On the top of the tower, in front of the exchange, is a Grasshopper, the crest of Sir Thomas Gresham. The allusion to that, and the Dragon on Bow steeple, makes a line in that inexcusable performance of Dean Swift's, a profane imitation of the style of the BIBLE , which dulness itself could execute, and which nothing but the most indefensible wantonness could have produced from a person of his profession, and of his all-acknowleged wit.

I MUST direct the reader's attention to the beautiful gothic tower of St. Michael's, on the south side of Cornhill. At each corner is an angulated turret as high as the belfry, where they [Page 392] become fluted, and the capital ornamented with sculptures of he­man faces; from them they spire into very elegant pinnacles. The body of this church was burnt in the great fire. It was begun to be built in 1421 *; but the church was of far greater antiquity. It appears to have existed in 1133. This church had its pulpit-cross, like that of St. Paul's, built by Sir John Rudstone, mayor in 1528, who was interred in a vault beneath in 1531. It may be added, that Robert Fabian, alderman, the celebrated historian, was buried in this church in 1511, after passing the dignity of sheriff.

THE king had a royal residence in this street, which was after­wards converted into a noted tavern, called the Pope's head. It was a vast house, and, in the time of Stow, distinguished by the arms of England, at that time three leopards passant, guardant, and two angels the supporters, cut on stone .

LEADENHALL.AT the end of Cornhill is, as it were, a continuation of the street, by the name of that of Leadenhall. It takes its name from a large plain building, inhabited about the year 1309, by Sir Hugh Nevil, knight; in 1384 belonging to Humphry Bohun, earl of Here­ford. In 1408 it became the property of the munificent Whitting­ton, who presented it to the mayor and commonalty of London. In 1419,PUBLIC GRANARY. Sir Simon Eyre, citizen and drape [...], erected here a pub­lic granary, built with stone in its present form. This was to be what the French call a Grenier d'abondance, to be always filled with corn, and designed as a preservative against famine. The intent was happily answered in distressful seasons. This and other o [...] [Page 393] the city granaries seem at first to have been under the care of the mayors; but in Henry VIII's time, regular surveyors were ap­pointed. He also built a chapel within the square; this he in­tended to apply to the uses of a foundation for a warden, six secu­lar priests, six clerks, and two choristers, and besides, three schoolmasters. For this purpose he left three thousand marks to the Drapers company to fulfil his intent. This was never executed: but in 1466 a fraternity of sixty priests, some of whom were to perform divine service every market-day, to such who frequented the market, was founded by three priests, William Rouse, John Risby, and Thomas Ashby *.

LEADENHALL-STREET had the good fortune to escape tolerably well in the great fire. The house was used for many other purposes; for the keeping the artillery and other arms of the city. Prepara­tions for any triumph or pageantry in the city were made here. From its strength it was considered as the chief fortress within the city, in case of popular tumults; and also as the place from which doles, largesses, or pious alms, were to be distributed. Here, in 1546, while Henry VIII. lay putrefying in state, Heath, bishop of Winchester, his almoner, and others his ministers, distri­buted great sums of money, during twelve days, to the poor of the city. The same was done at Westminster ; but I greatly fear his majesty was past ransom! The market here was of great antiquity: considerable as it is at present, it is far inferior to what it has been, by reason of the numbers of other markets which have been established. Still it is the wonder of foreigners, [Page 394] who do not duly consider the carnivorous nation to which it be­longs.

THE slaughter made of the horned cattle, for the support of the metropolis, is evinced by the multitudes of tanned hides exposed to sale in the great court of Leadenhall, which is the present mar­ket for that article.

INDIA-HOUSE.THE India-house stands a little farther to the east, but is not worthy of the lords of Indostan. This was built in 1726, on the spot once occupied by Sir William Craven, mayor in 1610; a man of most extensive charity. His house was very large, the apart­ments capacious, and fit for any public concern *.

IN the church of St. Catherine Cree, in this street, is supposed to have been interred the celebrated Holbein, who died of the plague in 1554, at the duke of Norfolk's, in the priory of Christ-church, near Aldgate. I must also mention it on another account, for its being the stage on which the imprudent, well-meaning Laud acted a most superstitious part in its consecration, on January 16, 1630-31. His whole conduct tended to add new force to the discontents and rage of the times: he attempted innovations in the ceremonies of the church, at a season he ought at lest to have left them in the state he found them: instead of that, he pushed things to extremities, by that, and by his fierce persecutions of his opponents; from which he never desisted till he brought de­struction on himself, and highly contributed to that of his royal master.

PRYNNE, whom every one must allow to have had sufficient [Page 395] cause of resentment against the archbishop, gives the relation with much acrimony, and much prophane humor *:

(As first), ‘When the bishop approached near the commu­nion table, he bowed with his nose very near the ground some six or seven times; then he came to one of the corners of the table, and there bowed himself three times; then to the second, third, and fourth corners, bowing at each corner three times; but when he came to the side of the table where the bread and wine was, he bowed himself seven times; and then, after the reading many praiers by himselfe and his two fat chaplins, (which were with him, and all this while were upon their knees by him, in their sirplisses, hoods, and tippits), he himself came neare the bread, which was cut and laid in a fine napkin, and then he gently lifted up one of the corners of the said napkin, and peeping into it till he saw the bread, (like a boy that peeped into a bird's nest in a bush), and presently clapped it down againe, and flew back a step or two, and then bowed very low three times towards it and the table. When he be­held the bread, then he came near and opened the napkin againe, and bowed as before; then he laid his hand upon the gilt cup, which was full of wine, with a cover upon it; so soon as he had pulled the cupp a little neerer to him, he lett the cupp goe, flew backe, and bowed againe three times towards it; then hee came neere againe, and lifting up the cover of the cupp, peeped into it; and seeing the wine, he let fall the cover on it againe, and flew nimbly backe, and bowed as before. After these, and many other apish, anticke gestures, he him­selfe [Page 396] received, and then gave the sacrament to some principal men onely, they devoutly kneeling neere the table; after which, more praiers being said, this scene and interlude ended.’

To the west of St. Catherine Cree, in the same street, stands the church of St. Andrew Undershaft, from the unfortunate shaft, or maypole, which on May 1st, 1517, gave rise to the insurrection of the apprentices, and the plundering of the foreigners in the city, whence it got the name of Evil May-day *. From that time it was hung on a range of hooks over the doors of a long row of neighbouring houses. In the third of Edward VI, when the plague of fanaticism began to scandalize the promoters of the Reformed religion, an ignorant wretch, called Sir Stephen, curate of St. Catherine Cree, began to preach against this maypole, (not­withstanding it had hung in peace ever since the Evil May-day), as an idol, by naming the church St. Andrew, with the addition of Shaft. This inflamed his audience so greatly, that, after eating a hearty dinner to strengthen themselves, every owner of such house over which the shaft hung, with assistance of others, fawed off as much of it as hung over his premises: each took his share, and committed to the flames the tremendous idol. This Sir Stephen, scorning the use of the sober pulpit, sometimes mounted on a tomb, with his back to the altar, to pour out his nonsensical rhap­sodies; at other times, he climbed into a lofty elm in the church­yard, and, bestriding a bough, delivered out his cant with double effect, merely by reason of the novelty of the situation .

[Page 397]IN the church of St. Andrew Undershaft was interred the faith­ful and able historian of the city, John Stow. He died in 1605, aged 80; and, to the shame of his time, in much poverty. His monument is still in being, a well-executed figure, sitting at a desk, in a furred gown, and writing. The figure is said to be made of terra cotta, or burnt earth, painted; a common practice in those days: possibly somewhat similar to the artificial stone of our time.

IN Lime-street, the northern end of which opens into that of Leadenha [...], stood the house and chapel of the lord Nevil; and after him, of the accomplished Sir Simon de Burley, SIR SIMON DE BURLEY'S HOUSE. and of his brother Sir John. In the time of Stow, it was partly taken down, and new fronted with timber, by Hugh Offley, alderman. Finally, not far from hence, towards the end of the adjacent street of St. Mary-Ax, stood the mansion of Richard Vere, earl of Oxford, HOUSE OF RICH­ARD EARL OF OXFORD. who inhabited it in the beginning of the reign of Henry V; and, drawn from thence in his old age to attend his valiant master to the French wars, died in France in 1415 *.

THE second street which opens into Cheapside, or rather the Poultry, is Threadneedle, or more properly Three-needle Street. BANK OF ENGLAND. That noble building, the Bank of England, fills one side of the space. The center, and the building behind, were founded in the year 1733; the architect, George Sampson. Before that time the business was carried on in Grocers Hall. The front is a sort of vestibule; the base rustic, the ornamental columns above, Ionic. Within is a court leading to a second elegant building, which con­tains a hall and offices, where the debt of above two hundred and [Page 398] fifty millions is punctually discharged. Of late years two wings of uncommon elegance, designed by Sir Robert Taylor, have been added, at the expence of a few houses, and of the church of St. Christopher's le Stocks. The demolition of the last occasioned as much injury to the memorials of the dead, and disturbance of their poor ashes, as ever the impiety of the fanatics did in the last cen­tury. Much of my kindred dust * was violated; among others, those of the Houblon family, sprung from Peter Houblon, of a respectable house at Lisle in Flanders, driven to seek refuge in England from the rage of persecution under the Duc d'Alva, in the reign of queen Elizabeth. About the same time fled to our sanctuary John Houblon and Guillaume Lethieulier. The first is found to have lent, i. e. given, to her Majesty, in the perilous year 1588, a hundred pounds . His son James flourished in wealth and reputation, and was eminent for his plainness and piety. He was buried in the church of St. Mary Woolnoth; but, wanting a monument, the following epitaph was composed for him by Samuel Pepys, esq secretary to the admiralty in the reigns of Charles II. and James II:

Ob fidem Flandria exulantis:
Ex C. Nepotibus habuit LXX superstites:
Filios V. videns mercatores florentissimos;
Ipse LONDINENSIS Bursae Pater;
Piissimè obiit Nonagenarius,

[Page 399]HIS sons, Sir John Houblon, and Sir James Houblon, knights, and aldermen, rose to great wealth. From the last sprung the respectable family of the Houblons of Hallingbury, in Essex. Sir James represented his native city. Sir John, my great grandfather by my mother's side, left six daughters: Arrabella, the eldest, married to Richard Mytton, esq of Halston, my maternal grand­father; the second to Mr. Denny, a respectable merchant in the city; the four younger died unmarried. Sir John Houblon was of the Grocers company, was elected alderman of Cornhill ward, Sep­tember 17th, 1689; and lord mayor, September 29th, 1695. He was interred in this church January 18th, 1711-12. He was at the same time lord mayor of London, a lord of the admiralty, and the first governor of the bank of England. His mansion stood on the site of the house; the noblest monument he could have.

IT would be injustice not to give the name of the projector of that national glory the Bank of England. It was the happy thought of Mr. James Paterson, of the kingdom of Scotland. This Palladium of our country was, in 1780, saved from the fury of an infamous mob by the virtue of its citizens, who formed suddenly a volunteer company, and over-awed the miscreants; while the chief magistrate skulked trembling in his Mansion-house, and left his important charge to its fate. I cannot wonder at the timidity of a peaceful magistrate, when the principle of self-pre­servation appeared so strong in the ministry of the day. It was the spirit of majesty itself that first dictated the means of putting a stop to the outrages; which, if exerted at first by its servants, would have been true mercy!

AT the extremity of Threadneedle-street, MERCHANT-TAYLORS HALL appears the origin of its name, in Merchant-Taylors hall; at the period in which they [Page 400] were called Taylors, and Linen-armourers, under which title they were incorporated in the year 1480; and by Henry VII. by that of the men of the art and mystery of Merchant-taylors, of the fraternity of St. John the Baptist. They were seventh in the rank of the great companies. Multitudes of eminent men were emu­lous of being admitted into it: seven kings, one queen, seventeen princes and dukes, two dutchesses, one archbishop, one and thirty earls, five countesses, one viscount, twenty-four bishops, sixty-six barons, two ladies, seven abbots, seven priors, and one sub-prior, besides squires innumerable, graced the long roll of freemen of this company *.

AMONG the portraits in this hall, is that of William Warham, archbishop of Canterbury, and lord high chancellor of England. He went through the various offices, now allotted to laymen, with great abilities; was appointed master of the rolls in 1486; keeper of the great seal in 1502; and lord chancellor in 1503; and in the following year was advanced to the see of Canterbury. He was in high favor with Henry VII; but on the accession of Henry VIII. was soon supplanted by Wolsey, and experienced his greatest insolence. The good primate enjoyed his dignity near twenty-eight years, with great munificence and honor; and died in 1532 .

NEXT is the portrait of Richard Fox, bishop of Winchester, an able statesman, greatly employed by Henry VII. at home and abroad; and continued for some time favored by his son. He first introduced Wolsey to court: but soon experienced his ingra­titude. [Page 401] Unable to bear his insolence, he, like Warham, retired from business. In his old age, when struck with blindness, the cardinal meanly hoped to prevale on him to resign his bishoprick, to which the good prelate returned a spirited reply. He lived to a great age, and died in 1528, after worthily governing the see twenty-seven years.

FOR the many good deeds of Sir Thomas Row, merchant-tay­lor, his portrait must not be passed by. He is dressed in a bonnet, ruff, and red gown. He first established a substantial standing watch in the city, when he was lord mayor, in 1569. He built a convenient room, near St. Paul's Cross, for a certain number of the auditors to hear the preacher at their ease. He inclosed a piece of ground near Bethlem, for the burial place of such parishes that wanted church-yards: besides numberless acts of charity, which rendered his memory sweet to posterity. He was buried in Hackney, September 2d, 1570; and has an epitaph in verse, quite in the simple style of the times *.

THE portrait of the illustrious Sir Thomas White, honors this hall, dressed in a red gown. He was of this fraternity, but pos­sibly not of the profession; for numbers of opulent merchants listed under the banners of the company. It was far from being confined to the trade. No one of his time rivalled him in love of literature, charity, and true piety. In the glorious roll of cha­rities, belonging to this company, he appears with distinguished credit. I refer to that for his good deeds, and those of his bre­thren *. [Page 402] Sir Thomas bought the Benedictine College at Oxford, then called Glocester-ball , and founded it by that name. It has since been advanced into a college, by the name of Worcester. He was the sole founder of St. John's College , on whom he be­stowed his hall. He was discontented till he could find a place with two elms growing together, near which he might found this seat of learning. He met with his wish, and accomplished the great design. Within my memory, majestic elms graced the street before this college, and the neighboring. The scene was truly academic, walks worthy of the contemplative schools of ancient days. But alas! in the midst of numberless modern elegancies, in this single instance, ‘Some Daemon whisper'd, OXFORD, have a taste;’ And by the magic line, every venerable tree fell prostrate. I refer, as above, to the list of the noble charities of this good man. He was born at Woodoakes, in Hertfordshire; entered on the re­ward of his excellent deeds in 1566, aged 72; and met with an honorable tomb within the walls of his great foundation .

I NOW descend to emperors, and other lesser characters. A por­trait of Charles V. is found here; another of a lord Willougby, with a white rod; and a picture of Henry VII. presenting them with the letters patent of their incorporation; the painter Clarkson; who the artist was, or when he lived, I am ignorant.

DISTINGUISHED TAYLORS.LET me enumerate the men of valour, and of literature, who [Page 403] have practised the original profession of this company.SIR JOHN HAWKWOOD. Sir John Hawkwood, usually styled Joannes Acutus, from the sharpness of his sword, or his needle, leads the van. The arch Fuller says, he turned his needle into a sword, and his thimble into a shield. He was an apprentice to a taylor in this city; was pressed for a soldier, and by his spirit rose to the highest commands in foreign parts. He signalized himself particularly in the command of the army of Galaeacca, or Galeazzo, duke of Milan; married the daughter of Barnabas, the duke's brother; died full of years and glory, at Florence, in 1394; where his figure, on horseback, painted al fresco on the walls of the cathedral, by the celebrated Paolo Uccelli, is still to be seen: beneath is this inscription, ‘JOHANNES ACUTUS, eques Britannicus, aetatis suae cautissimus et rei militiaris peritissimus, habitus est. PAULI UCCELLI OPUS *.’ —It is engraven among the works of the Society of Antiquaries, with the date of 1436, which probably refers to the death of the artist; and was a posthumous addition.

SIR Ralph Blackwall was said to be his fellow-apprentice,SIR RALPH BLACKWALL. and to have been knighted for his valour by Edward III. But he followed his trade, married his master's daughter, and, as we have said before, founded the hall which bears his name .

GENERAL Elliot's regiment of light horse, raised in our days, was formed out of the choice spirits of the trade, and performed prodigies of valour, worthy of their predecessor in arms, the great Johannes Acutus.

JOHN SPEED was a Cheshire taylor, and free of this company.JOHN SPEED. [Page 404] His merit as a British historian and antiquary is indisputable. The plans he has left us (now invaluable) of our antient castles, and of our cities, shew equal skill and industry. Nor must we be silent of his geographical labors, which, considering the con­fined knowlege of the times, are far from being despicable.

JOHN STOW.THE famous London antiquary John Stow, born in London about the year 1525, ought to have the lead among those of our capital: he likewise was a taylor. There is not one who has fol­lowed him with equal steps, or who is not obliged to his black letter labors. In his industrious and long life (for he lived till the year 1605) he made vast collections, as well for the history and topography of his native city, as for the history of England. Numbers of facts, in the interesting period in which he lived, he speaks of from his own knowlege; or of earlier matters, from books long since lost. Multitudes of the houses of our antient nobility, existing in his time, are mentioned by him, and many of them in the most despicable parts of the town.

BENJAMIN ROBINS.THE late Benjamin Robins was the son of a taylor at Bath. He united the powers of the sword and the pen. His knowlege in tactics was equal to that of any person of his age: and by his compilation of lord Anson's voyage, he proved himself not inferior in elegance of style.

ROBERT HILL.ROBERT HILL, taylor of Buckingham, was the first Hebraean of his time: a knowlege acquired in the most pressing poverty; and the cares of his profession, to maintain (for a most excellent man he was) his large family. The Reverend Mr. Spence did not think it beneath him to write his life, and point him out to the public as a meritorious object of charity; and to form a parallel [Page 405] between him and the celebrated Magliabecchi, librarian to the great duke of Tuscany *.

IT was one of this meek profession, actuated by the religion of meekness, who first suggested the pious project of abolishing the slave trade. Thomas Woolman, a quaker, and taylor, of New Jer­sey, was first struck with the thought, that engaging in the traffic of the human species was incompatible with the spirit of the Christian religion. He published many tracts against this un­happy species of commerce: he argued against it in public and private: he made long journies for the sake of talking to indivi­duals on the subject; and was careful, himself, not to countenance slavery, by the use of those conveniences which were provided by the labor of slaves. In the course of a visit to England, he went to York, in the same year sickened of the small-pox, and died October 7th, in sure and certain hopes of that reward which Hea­ven will bestow on the sincere philanthropist.

In this street also stands the South-Sea house, SOUTH-SEA HOUSE. the place in which the company did business, when it had any to transact. It was first established in 1711, for the purpose of an exclusive trade to the South-Seas; and for the supplying Spanish America with negroes. In the year 1720, by the villainy of the directors, it became the most notorious bubble ever heard of in any kingdom. Imaginary fortunes of millions were grasped at: a luxury introduced as great as if these schemes had been realized. At length the deception was discovered, and the iniquitous contrivers detected and brought to punishment; many with infamy, by being expelled the house , [Page 406] others suffered in their purses *, but none in a manner adequate to their crimes, which brought utter ruin on thousands.

AMONG the multitude of bubbles, which knaves, encouraged by the folly of the times, were encouraged to set up, were the fol­lowing most laughable:

Insurance against Divorces.
A scheme to learn men to cast nativities.
Making Deal-boards of Saw-dust.
Making Butter from Beech trees.
A flying Engine, (now exemplified in Balloons.)
A sweet way of emptying Necessaries.

DRAPERS HALL.I RETURN through Threadneedle-street into the Broad street. In Throgmorton-street, near its junction with Broad-street, stands Drapers Hall. Thomas Cromwel, earl of Essex, built a magnificent house on its site: he shewed very little scruples in invading the rights of his neighbors to enlarge his domain. Stow mentions his own father as a sufferer; for the earl arbitrarily loosened from its place a house which stood in Stow's garden, placed it on roll­ers, and had it carried twenty-two feet farther off, without giving the least notice: and no one dared to complain . The manner of removing this house, shews what miserable tenements a certain rank of people had, which could, like the houses in Moscow, be so easily conveyed from place to place. After Cromwel's fall, the house and gardens were bought by the Drapers company. The house was destroyed in the great fire, but rebuilt, for the use [Page 407] of their company, in a magnificent manner. This was the farthest limits of the fire northward, as Allhallows church, in Fenchurch-street, was to the east.

IN the hall, a very elegant room, is a portrait of the first mayor,PORTRAITS. of London, Fitz-alwin, a half length. I need not say a fictitious likeness. In his days, I doubt whether the artists equalled in any degree the worst of our modern sign-painters.

AT one end of the room is a large picture of Mary Stuart, with her hand upon her son James I. a little boy in a rich vest; her dress is black, her hair light-colored. I never saw her but in dark hair; perhaps she varied her locks. This could not be drawn from the life: for she never saw her son after he was a year old. These portraits are engraven by Bartolozzi.

PORTRAITS of Sir Joseph Sheldon, mayor in 1677, and of Sir Robert Clayton, mayor in 1680. Sir Robert was well deserving of this public proof of esteem: a great benefactor to Christ-church hospital, and again to that of St. Thomas in Southwark. He is finely painted, seated in a chair.

THE Drapers were incorporated in 1430. The art of weaving woollen cloth was only introduced in 1360, by the Dutch and Flemings: but, as it was long permitted to export our wool, and receive it again manufactured into cloth, the cloth trade made little progress in England till the reign of queen Elizabeth *, who may be said to have been the foundress of the wealthy loom, as of many other good things in this kingdom.

ON the west side of the adjacent Broad-street stood the house of the Augustines, AUGUSTINES. founded in 1253 by Humphry Bohun earl of [Page 408] Hereford, for friars heremites of that order. The church falling into ruin, was rebuilt by Humphry, one of his descendants, earl of Here­ford, who was buried here in 1361. Numbers of persons of rank were also interred here, from the opinion of the peculiar sanctity those mendicants filled this earth with. Here lay Edmund Guy de Meric, earl of St. Paul. This nobleman was sent over by Charles VI. of France, on a complimentary visit to Richard II. and his queen. He insinuated himself so gready into the king's favor, as to become a chief confident: insomuch that, by the advice of St. Paul, he was guilty of that violent action, the murder of his fac­tious uncle, the duke of Glocester *. Lucie, wife of Edmund Hol­land, lord admiral, and one of the heirs and daughter of Barnaby lord of Milan. She left great legacies to the church, in particu­lar to the canons of our lady de la Scala, at Milan.

RICHARD FITZALAN, the great earl of Arundel,