REMARKS ON SEVERAL PARTS OF ITALY, &c. In the Years 1701, 1702, 1703.

Verum ergo id est, si quis in coelum ascendisset, naturamque mundi et pulchritudinem siderum perspexisset, insuavem illam admirationem ei fore, quae jucundissima fuisset, si aliquem cui narraret habuisset. Cicer. de Amic.


LONDON: Printed for J. Tonson, at Shakespear's-Head, over against Katharine-street in the Strand. MDCCXVIII.

To the Right Honourable John Lord Sommers, Baron of Evesham.


THERE is a Plea­sure in owning Obligations which it is [Page] an Honour to have re­ceived, but should I pub­lish any Favours done me by Your Lordship, I am afraid it would look more like Vanity than Gratitude.

I had a very early Ambition to recom­mend my self to Your Lordship's Patronage, which yet encreas'd in [Page] me as I Travell'd thro' the Countries, of which I here give Your Lord­ship some Account: For whatever great Impres­sions an Englishman must have of Your Lordship, they who have been conversant Abroad will find them still impro­ved. It cannot but be obvious to them that [Page] tho' they see Your Lord­ship's Admirers every where, they meet with very few of Your Well-wishers at Paris or at Rome. And I could not but observe when I pas­sed through most of the Protestant Govern­ments in Europe, that their Hopes or Fears for the Common Cause rose [Page] or fell with Your Lord­ship's Interest And Au­thority in England.

I here present Your Lordship with the Re­marks that I made in a Part of these my Tra­vels; wherein, not with­standing the Variety of the Subject, I am very sensible that I offer no­thing New to Your [Page] Lordship, and can have no other Design in this Address, than to declare that I am,

Your Lordship's most Obliged, and most Obedient Humble Servant, J. ADDISON.


THERE is certainly no Place in the World where a Man may Travel with greater Pleasure and Ad­vantage than in Italy. One finds something more particu­lar in the Face of the Country, and more astonishing in the Works of Nature, than can be met with in any other Part of Europe. It is the great School of Musick and Painting, and contains in it all the noblest Productions of Statuary and Architecture both Ancient and Mo­dern. It abounds with Cabinets of Curiosities, and vast Collections of all Kinds of Antiquities. No o­ther Country in the World has such a Variety of Governments, that are so different in their Constitu­tions, and so refined in their Po­liticks. [Page] There is scarce any Part of the Nation that is not Famous in History, nor so much as a Moun­tain or River that has not been the Scene of some extraordinary Action.

As there are few Men that have Talents or Opportunities for exa­mining so copious a Subject, one may observe among those who have written on Italy, that different Au­thors have succeeded best on diffe­rent sorts of Curiosities. Some have been more particular in their Ac­counts of Pictures, Statues and Buildings; some have search'd in­to Libraries, Cabinets of Rarities, and Collections of Medals, as others have been wholly taken up with In­scriptions, Ruins and Antiquities. Among the Authors of our own Coun­try, we are obliged to the Bishop of Salisbury, for his masterly and uncom­mon Observations on the Religion and Governments of Italy: Lassels may be useful in giving us the Names of such Writers as have treated of the several States through which he [Page] pass'd: Mr. Ray is to be valu'd for his Observations on the Natural Productions of the Place. Monsieur Mission has wrote a more correct Account of Italy in general than any before him, as he particularly Excels in the Plan of the Country, which he has given us in true and lively Colours.

There are still several of these Topicks that are far from being exhausted, as there are many new Subjects that a Traveller may find to employ himself upon. For my own part, as I have taken Notice of several Places and Antiquities that no Body else has spoken of, so, I think, I have mentioned but few Things in common with others, that are notei ther set in a new Light, or accompany'd with different Re­flections. I have taken care parti­cularly to consider the several Pas­sages of the Ancient Poets, which have any Relation to the Places or Curiosities that I met with: For before I entered on my Voyage I took [Page] care to refresh my Memory among the Classic Authors, and to make such Collections out of them as I might afterwards have Occasion for. I must confess it was not one of the least Entertainments that I met with in Travelling, to examine these several Descriptions, as it were, upon the Spot, and to compare the Natural Face of the Country with the Landskips that the Poets have given us of it. However, to avoid the Confusion that might arise from a Multitude of Quotati­ons, I have only cited such Verses as have given us some Image of the Place, or that have something else besides the bare Name of it to re­commend them.

A LETTER FROM ITALY, To the Right Honourable Charles Lord Halifax. In the Year MDCCI.

Salve magna parens frugum Saturnia tellus,
Magna Virûm! tibi res antiquae laudis et artis
Aggredior, sanctos ausus recludere fontes.
Vir. Geo. 2.
WHILE you, my Lord, the rural Shades admire,
And from Britannia's publick Posts retire;
Nor longer, her ungrateful Sons to please,
For their Advantage sacrifice your Ease;
[Page ii] Me into Foreign Realms my Fate conveys,
Through Nations fruitful of Immortal Lays,
Where the soft Season and inviting Clime
Conspire to trouble your Repose with rhime.
For wheresoe'er I turn my ravish'd Eyes,
Gay gilded Scenes and shining Prospects rise,
Poetick Fields encompass me around,
And still I seem to tread on Classic Ground:
For here the Muse so oft her Harp has strung,
That not a Mountain rears its Head unsung;
Renown'd in Verse each shady Thicket grows,
And ev'ry Stream in Heav'nly Numbers flows.
How am I pleas'd to search the Hills and Woods
For rising Springs and celebrated Floods!
To view the Nar, tumultuous in his Course,
And trace the smooth Clitumnus to his Sourse,
To see the Mincio draw his watry Store
Through the long Windings of a fruitful Shore,
And hoary Albula's infected Tide
O'er the warm Bed of smoaking Sulphur glide.
Fir'd with a thousand Raptures I survey
Eridanus through flow'ry Meadows stray,
The King of Floods! that rowling o'er the Plains
The tow'ring Alps of half their Moisture drains,
And, proudly swoln with a whole Winter's Snows,
Distributes Wealth and Plenty where he flows.
Sometimes, misguided by the tuneful Throng,
I look for Streams immortaliz'd in Song,
That lost in Silence and Oblivion lye,
(Dumbare their Fountains and their Channels dry)
Yet run for ever by the Muses Skill,
And in the smooth Description murmur still.
Sometimes to gentle Tiber I retire,
And the fam'd River's empty Shores admire,
That destitute of Strength derives its Course
From thrifty Urns and an unfruitful Sourse;
Yet, sung so often in Poetick Lays,
With Scorn the Danube and the Nile surveys.
So high the deathless Muse exalts her Theme!
Such was the Boin, a poor inglorious Stream,
[Page iv] That in Hibernian Vales obscurely stray'd,
And unobserv'd in wild Meanders play'd;
Till by Your Lines and Nassau's Sword renown'd,
Its rising Billows through the World refound,
Where-e'er the Heroe's Godlike Acts can pierce,
Or where the Fame of an Immortal Verse.
Oh could the Muse my ravish'd Breast inspire
With Warmth like yours, and raise an equal Fire,
Unnumber'd Beauties in my Verse shou'd shine,
And Virgil's Italy shou'd yield to mine!
See how the Golden Groves around me smile,
That shun the Coast of Britain's stormy Isle;
Or when transplanted and preserv'd with Care,
Curse the Cold Clime, and starve in Northern Air.
Here kindly Warmth their mounting Juice ferments
To nobler Tastes, and more exalted Scents.
Ev'n the rough Rocks with tender Myrtle bloom,
And trodden Weeds send out a rich Perfume.
Bear me some God to Baja's gentle Seats,
Or cover me in Umbria's Green Retreats;
[Page v] Where Western Gales eternally reside,
And all the Seasons lavish all their Pride,
Blossoms, and Fruits, and Flowers together rise,
And the whole Year in gay Confusion lies.
Immortal Glories in my Mind revive,
And in my Soul a thousand Passions strive,
When Rome's exalted Beauties I descry
Magnificent in Piles of Ruin lye:
An Amphitheater's amazing Height
Here fills my Eye with Terror and Delight,
That on its publick Shows unpeopled Rome,
And held uncrowded Nations in its Womb.
Here Pillars rough with Sculpture pierce the Skies,
And here the proud Triumphal Arches rise,
Where the old Romans deathless Acts display'd
Their base degenerate Progeny upbraid.
Whole Rivers here forsake the Fields below,
And wondring at their height through airy Chan­nels flow.
Still to new Scenes my wandring Muse retires,
And the dumb show of breathing Rocks admires;
[Page vi] Where the smooth Chissel all its Force has shown,
And soften'd into Flesh the rugged Stone.
In solemn Silence, a Majestick Band,
Heroes, and Gods, and Roman Consuls stand.
Stern Tyrants, whom their Cruelties renown,
And Emperors in Parian Marble frown:
While the bright Dames, to whom they humbly su'd,
Still show the Charms that their proud Hearts sub­du'd.
Fain wou'd I Raphael's Godlike Art rehearse,
And show th' Immortal Labours in my Verse.
Where from the mingled strength of Shade and Light
A new Creation rises to my Sight.
Such Heav'nly Figures from his Pencil flow,
So warm with Life his blended Colours glow.
From Theme to Theme with secret Pleasure tost,
Amidst the soft Variety I'm lost:
Here pleasing Airs my ravish'd Soul confound
With circling Notes and Labyrinths of Sound;
Here Domes and Temples rise in distant Views,
And opening Palaces invite my Muse.
How has kind Heav'n adorn'd the happy Land,
And scatter'd Blessings with a wasteful Hand!
But what avail her unexhausted Stores,
Her blooming Mountains and her sunny Shores,
With all the Gifts that Heav'n and Earth impart,
The Smiles of Nature, and the Charms of Art,
While proud Oppression in her Vallies reigns,
And Tyranny usurps her happy Plains?
The poor Inhabitant beholds in vain
The red'ning Orange and the swelling Grain:
Joyless he sees the growing Oils and Wines,
And in the Myrtle's fragrant Shade repines:
Starves in the midst of Nature's Bounty curst,
And in the loaden Vineyard dies for Thirst.
Oh Liberty, thou Goddess Heav'nly bright,
Profuse of Bliss, and pregnant with Delight,
Eternal Pleasures in thy Presence reign,
And smiling Plenty leads thy wanton Train!
Eas'd of her Load, Subjection grows more light,
And Poverty looks chearful in thy Sight;
[Page viii] Thou mak'st the Gloomy face of Nature Gay,
Giv'st Beauty to the Sun, and Pleasure to the Day.
Thee, Goddess, Thee, Britannia's Isle adores;
How has she oft exhausted all her Stores,
How oft in Fields of Death thy Presence sought?
Nor thinks the mighty Prize too dearly bought.
On Foreign Mountains may the Sun refine
The Grape's soft Juice, and mellow it to Wine,
With Citron Groves adorn a distant Soil,
And the fat Olive swell with Floods of Oil:
We envy not the warmer Clime that lies
In ten Degrees of more indulgent Skies,
Nor at the Coarseness of our Heav'n repine,
Tho' o'er our Heads the frozen Pleiads shine:
'Tis Liberty that Crowns Britannia's Isle,
And makes her barren Rocks and her bleak Moun­tains smile.
Others with tow'ring Piles may please the Sight,
And in their proud aspiring Domes delight;
[Page ix] A nicer Touch to the stretcht Canvas give,
Or teach their animated Rocks to live:
Tis Britain's Care to watch o'er Europe's Fate,
And hold in Balance each contending State.
To threaten bold presumptuous Kings with War,
And answer her afflicted Neighbour's Pray'r.
The Dane and Swede rouz'd up by fierce Alarms,
Bless the Wise Conduct of her Pious Arms.
Soon as her Fleets appear, their Terrors cease,
And all the Northern World lies hush'd in Peace.
Th' ambitious Gaul beholds with secret Dread
Her Thunder aim'd at his aspiring Head,
And fain her Godlike Sons wou'd disunite
By Foreign Gold, or by Domestick Spite;
But strives in vain to Conquer or Divide,
Whom Nassau's Arms defend and Counsels guide.
Fir'd with the Name, which I so oft have found
The distant Climes and different Tongues resound;
I bridle in my strugling Muse with Pain,
That longs to launch into a bolder Strain.
But I've already troubled you too long,
Nor dare attempt a more advent'rous Song.
My humble Verse demands a softer Theme,
A painted Meadow or a purling Stream,
Unfit for Heroes; whom Immortal Lays,
And Lines like Virgil's, or like yours, shou'd praise.


ON the Twelfth of Decem­ber, 1699, I set out from Marseilles to Genoa in a Tartane, and arrived late at a small French Port call­ed Casses, where the next Morning we were not a little surprized to see the Mountains about the Town covered with Green Olive-trees, or laid out in beautiful Gardens, which gave us a great Variety of pleasing Prospects, even in the Depth of Winter. The most uncultivated of them produce a­bundance of sweet Plants, as Wild-Time, Lavender, Rosemary, Balme and Mirtle. [Page 2] We were here shown at a distance the Desarts, which have been rendered so fa­mous by the Penance of Mary Magdalene, who, after her Arrival with Lazarus and Joseph of Arimathea at Marseilles, is said to have wept away the rest of her Life among these solitary Rocks and Moun­tains. It is so Romantic a Scene, that it has always probably given occasion to such Chimerical Relations; for it is per­haps of this Place that Claudian speaks, in the following Description.

Est locus extremum pandit qua Gallia littus
Oceani praetentus aquis, quà fertur Ulysses
Sanguine libato populum movisse Silentûm,
Illic Umbrarum tenui stridore volantûm
Flebilis auditur questus; simulachra coloni
Pallida defunctasque vident migrare figu­ras, &c.
Cl. In. Ruf. L. 1.
A Place there lyes on Gallia's utmost Bounds,
Where rising Seas insult the Fontier Grounds.
Ulysses here the Blood of Victims shed,
And rais'd the pale Assembly of the Dead:
Oft in the Winds is heard a plaintive Sound
Of melancholy Ghosts, that hover round;
[Page 3] The lab'ring Plow-man oft with Hor­ror spies
Thin airy Shapes, that o'er the Fur­rows rise,
(A dreadful Scene!) and skim before his Eyes.

I know there is nothing more unde­termined among the Learned than the Voyage of Vlysses; some confining it to the Mediterranean, others extending it to the great Ocean, and others ascribing it to a World of the Poet's own making; tho' his Conversations with the Dead are generally supposed to have been in the Narbon Gaul.

Incultos adiit Laestrigonas Antiphatenque, &c.
Atque haec seu nostras intersunt cognita ter­ras,
Fabula sive novum dedit his Erroribus Or­bem.
Tib. L. 4. El. 1.
Uncertain whether, by the Winds con­vey'd,
On real Seas to real Shores he stray'd;
Or, by the Fable driv'n from Coast to Coast,
In new Imaginary Worlds was lost.

The next Day we again set Sail, and made the best of our way 'till we were [Page 4] forced, by contrary Winds, into St. Re­mo, a very pretty Town in the Genoese Dominions. The Front to the Sea is not large, but there are a great many Houses behind it, built up the Side of the Moun­tain, to avoid the Winds and Vapours that come from Sea. We here saw se­veral Persons, that in the midst of De­cember had nothing over their Shoulders but their Shirts, without complaining of the Cold. It is certainly very lucky for the poorer sort, to be born in a Place that is free from the greatest Inconvenience, to which those of our Northern Nati­ons are subject; and indeed without this natural Benefit of their Climates, the ex­tream Misery and Poverty that are in most of the Italian Governments would be insupportable. There are at St. Re­mo many Plantations of Palm-trees, that do not grow in other Parts of Italy. We failed from hence directly for Genoa, and had a fair Wind that carried us into the middle of the Gulf, which is very re­markable for Tempests and Scarcity of Fish. It is probable one may be the Cause of the other, whether it be that the Fisher-men cannot employ their Art with so much Success in so troubled a Sea, or that the Fish do not care for in­habiting such stormy Waters.

[Page 5]
Defendens pisces hyemat mare—
Hor. Sa. 2. li. 2.
While black with Storms the ruffled Ocean rolls,
And from the Fisher's Art defends her Finny Sholes.

We were forced to lye in it Two Days, and our Captain thought his Ship in so great Danger, that he fell upon his Knees and confessed himself to a Capu­chin who was on Board with us. But at last, taking the Advantage of a Side­wind, we were driven back in a few Hours time as far as Monaco. Lucan has given us a Description of the Harbour that we found so very welcome to us, after the great Danger we had escaped.

Quaque sub Herculeo Sacratus nomine portus
Urget rupe cavâ pelagus: non Corus in illum
Jus habet aut Zephyrus: Solus sua littora turbat
Circius, & tutâ prohibet statione Monaeci.
Lib. 1.
The winding Rocks a spacious Harbour frame,
That from the great Alcides takes it Name:
[Page 6] Fenc'd to the West, and to the North it lyes;
But when the Winds in Southern Quar­ters rise,
Ships, from their Anchors torn, become their sport,
And sudden Tempests rage within the Port.

On the Promontory, where the Town of Monaco now stands, was formerly the Temple of Hercules Monaecus, which still gives the Name to this small Principality.

Aggeribus socer Alpinis atque arce Monaeci
Virg. Aen. 6.

There are but Three Towns in the Dominions of the Prince of Monaco. The chief of them is situate on a Rock which runs out into the Sea, and is well for­tified by Nature. It was formerly un­der the Protection of the Spaniard, but not many Years since drove out the Spa­nish Garrison, and received a French one, which consists at present of Five Hun­dred Men, paid and officer'd by the French King. The Officer who showed me the Palace told me, with a great deal of Gravity, that his Master and the King of France, amidst all the Confusions of [Page 7] Europe, had ever been good Friends and Allies. The Palace has handsome Apart­ments, that are many of them hung with Pictures of the reigning Beauties in the Court of France. But the best of the Furniture was at Rome, where the Prince of Monaco resided at that time Ambassa­dor. We here took a little Boat to creep along the Sea-shore as far as Genoa; but at Savona, finding the Sea too rough, we were forced to make the best of our way by Land, over very rugged Moun­tains and Precipices: For this Road is much more difficult than that over Mount Cennis.

The Genoese are esteemed extremely Cunning, Industrious, and inur'd to Hardship above the rest of the Italians; which was likewise the Character of the old Ligurians. And indeed it is no won­der, while the Barrenness of their Coun­try continues, that the Manners of the Inhabitants do not change: Since there is nothing makes Men sharper, and sets their Hands and Wits more at work than Want. The Italian Proverb says of the Genoese, that they have a Sea without Fish, Land without Trees, and Men without Faith. The Character the Latin Poets have given of them is not much different.

[Page 8]
Assuetumque malo Ligurem
Virg. G. 2.
The hard Ligurians, a laborious kind.

—Pernix Ligur.
Sil. It. L. 8.
Fallaces Ligures.
Aus. Eid. 12.
Apenninicolae bellator filius Auni
Haud Ligurum extremus, dum fallere fata finebant.
Aen. 11.
Yet, like a true Ligurian, born to cheat,
(At least while Fortune favour'd his De­ceit.)

Vane Ligur, frustraque animis elate superbis,
Nequicquam patrias tentasti Lubricus ar­tes.
Vain Fool and Coward, cries the lofty Maid,
Caught in the Train which thou thy self hast laid.
On others practise thy Ligurian Arts;
Thin Stratagems, and Tricks of little Hearts
Are lost on me; nor shalt thou safe retire,
With vaunting Lies to thy fallacious Sire.

There are a great many beautiful Pa­laces standing along the Sea-shore on both sides of Genoa, which make the Town ap­pear [Page 9] much longer than it is, to those that fail by it. The City it self makes the noblest Show of any in the World. The Houses are most of them painted on the Outside; so that they look extreamly gay and lively, besides that they are esteemed the highest in Europe, and stand very thick together. The New-Street is a double Range of Palaces from one end to the other, built with an excellent Fancy, and fit for the greatest Princes to inhabit. I cannot however be reconciled to their manner of Painting several of the Genoese Houses. Figures, Perspectives, or Pieces of History are certainly very ornamental, as they are drawn on many of the Walls, that would otherwise look too naked and uniform without them: But instead of these, one often sees the Front of a Pa­lace covered with painted Pillars of diffe­rent Orders. If these were so many true Columns of Marble, set in their proper Architecture, they would certainly very much adorn the Places where they stand, but as they are now, they only shew us that there is something wanting, and that the Palace, which without these Coun­terfeit Pillars would be beautiful in its kind, might have been more perfect by the Addition of such as are real. The Front of the Villa Imperiale, at a Mile [Page 10] distance from Genoa, without any thing of this Paint upon it, consists of a Doric and Corinthian Row of Pillars, and is much the handsomest of any I there saw. The Duke of Doria's Palace has the best Outside of any in Genoa, as that of Du­razzo is the best furnished within. There is one Room in the first, that is hung with Tapestry, in which are wrought the Figures of the great Persons, that the Fa­mily has produced; as perhaps there is no House in Europe, that can show a lon­ger Line of Heroes, that have still acted for the Good of their Country. Andrew Doria has a Statue erected to him at the Entrance of the Doge's Palace, with the glorious Title of Deliverer of the Com­mon-wealth; and one of his Family ano­ther, that calls him its Preserver. In the Doge's Palace, are the Rooms, where the great and little Council with the Two Colleges hold their Assemblies; but as the State of Genoa is very poor, tho' se­veral of its Members are extreamly rich, so one may observe infinitely more Splen­dor and Magnificence, in particular Per­sons Houses, than in those that belong to the Publick. But we find in most of the States of Europe, that the People show the greatest Marks of Poverty, where [Page 11] the Governors live in the greatest Mag­nificence. The Churches are very fine, particularly that of the Annunciation, which looks wonderfully beautiful in the Inside, all but one Corner of it being co­vered with Statues, Gilding and Paint. A Man would expect, in so very ancient a Town of Italy, to find some considera­ble Antiquities; but all they have to show of this Nature is an old Rostrum of a Ro­man Ship, that stands over the Door of their Arsenal. It is not above a Foot long, and perhaps would never have been thought the Beak of a Ship, had not it been found in so probable a Place as the Haven. It is all of Iron, fashioned at the End like a Boar's Head; as I have seen it represented on Medals, and on the Co­lumna Rostrata in Rome. I saw at Genoa Signior Micconi's famous Collection of Shells, which, as Father Buonani the Je­fuite has since told me, is one of the best in Italy. I know nothing more remark­able, in the Government of Genoa, than the Bank of St. George, made up of such Branches of the Revenues, as have been set apart, and appropriated to the dis­charging of several Sums, that have been borrowed from private Persons, during the Exigencies of the Common-wealth. [Page 12] Whatever Inconveniencies the State has laboured under, they have never enter­tained a Thought of violating the Pub­lick Credit, or of alienating any Part of these Revenues to other Uses, than to what they have been thus assigned. The Administration of this Bank is for Life, and partly in the Hands of the chief Ci­tizens, which gives them a great Autho­rity in the State, and a powerful Influ­ence over the common people. This Bank is generally thought the greatest Load on the Genoese, and the Managers of it have been represented as a second kind of Senate, that break the Unifor­mity of Government, and destroy, in some measure, the Fundamental Constitution of the State. It is however very certain, that the People reap no small Advantages from it, as it distributes the Power a­mong more particular Members of the Republick, and gives the Commons a Fi­gure: So that it is no small Check up­on the Aristocracy, and may be one Rea­son, why the Genoese Senate carries it with greater Moderation towards their Sub­jects, than the Venetian.

It would have been well for the Re­publick of Genoa, if she had followed the Example of her Sister of Venice, in not [Page 13] permitting her Nobles to make any Pur­chase of Lands or Houses in the Domi­nions of a Foreign Prince. For at pre­sent the Greatest, among the Genoese, are in part Subjects to the Monarchy of Spain, by reason of their Estates that lye in the Kingdom of Naples. The Spani­ards Tax them very high upon occasion, and are so sensible of the Advantage this gives them over the Republick, that they will not suffer a Neapolitan to buy the Lands of a Genoese, who must find a Purchaser among his own Country­men, if he has a Mind to sell. For this Reason, as well as on Account of the great Sums of Mony which the Spani­ard owes the Genoese, they are under a Necessity, at present, of being in the In­terest of the French, and would probably continue so, tho' all the other States of Italy entered into a League against them. Genoa is not yet secure from a Bombard­ment, tho' it is not so exposed as former­ly; for, since the Insult of the French, they have built a Mole, with some little Ports, and have provided themselves with long Guns and Mortars. It is easie for those that are strong at Sea to bring them to what Terms they pleafe; for having but very little Arable Land, they are forced to [Page 14] fetch all their Corn from Naples, Sicily, and other Foreign Countries; except what comes to them from Lombardy, which probably goes another way, whilst it furnishes Two great Armies with Provisions. Their Fleet, that for­merly gained so many Victories over the Saracens, Pisans, Venetians, Turks and Spa­niards, that made them Masters of Crete, Sardinia, Majorca, Minorca, Negrepont, Lesbos, Malta, that settled them in Scio, Smyrna, Achaia, Theodosia, and several Towns on the Eastern Confines of Eu­rope, is now reduced to Six Gallies. When they had made an Addition of but Four new ones, the King of France sent his Orders to suppress them, telling the Re­publick at the same time, that he knew very well how many they had Occasion for. This little Fleet serves only to fetch them Wine and Corn, and to give their Ladies an Airing in the Summer-season. The Republick of Genoa has a Crown and Scepter for its Doge, by reason of their Conquest of Corsica, where there was formerly a Saracen King. This in­deed gives their Ambassadors a more ho­nourable Reception at some Courts, but, at the same time, may teach their Peo­ple to have a mean Notion of their own [Page 15] Form of Government, and is a tacit Ac­knowledgment that Monarchy is the more honourable. The old Romans, on the contrary, made use of a very barba­rous kind of Politicks to inspire their People with a Contempt of Kings, whom they treated with Infamy, and dragged at the Wheels of their Triumphal Cha­riots.


FROM Genoa we took Chaise for Mi­lan, and by the way stopped at Pa­via, that was once the Metropolis of a Kingdom, but is at present a poor Town. We here saw the Convent of Austin Monks, who about Three Years ago pretended to have found out the Body of the Saint, that gives the Name to their Order. King Luitprand, whose Ashes are in the same Church, brought hither the Corps, and was very industri­ous to conceal it, lest it might be abused by the barbarous Nations, which at that time ravaged Italy. One would there­fore rather wonder that it has not been found out much earlier, than that it is discovered at last. The Fathers howe­ver do not yet find their Account in the Discovery they have made; for there are Canons Regular, who have half the same [Page 17] Church in their Hands, that will by no means allow it to be the Body of the Saint, nor is it yet recognised by the Pope. The Monks say for themselves, that the very Name was written on the Urn where the Ashes lay, and that in an old Record of the Convent, they are said to have been interred between the very Wall and the Altar where they were taken up. They have already too, as the Monks told us, begun to justifie themselves by Miracles. At the Corner of one of the Cloisters of this Convent are bury'd the Duke of Suffolk, and the Duke of Lorrain, who were both killed in the famous Battel of Pavia. Their Monument was erected to them by one Charles Parker, an Ecclesiastic, as I learned from the Inscription, which I cannot omit Transcribing, since I have not seen it Printed.‘Capto a Milite Caesare [...] lorum Rege in agro Pa [...] [...] Feb. inter alios proce [...] [...] in proeli occisi sunt, occubuei [...] [...] [...]llustrissimi pri [...] ­cipes, F [...]nciscus [...] Lotharingiae, [...] de la Poo [...] Anglus [...] Rege Tyranno Hen. V [...] egno. Quorum corpora hoc in coenobio & ambitu per Annos 57. fine honore tumulata sunt. Tandem Carolus Parker a Morley, Richar­di [Page 18] proximus consanguineus, Regno Angliae a Reginâ Elisabethâ ob Catholicam fidem eject­us, beneficentiâ tamen Philippi Regis Cath. Hispaniarum Monarchae Invictissimi in Sta­tu Mediolanensi sustentatus, hoc qualecunque monumentum, pro rerum suarum tenuitate, charissimo propinquo et Illustrissimis principi­bus posuit, 5. Sept. 1582. et post suum ex­ilium 23. majora et honorificentiora com­mendans Lotharingicis. Viator precare Qui­etem.’

This pretended Duke of Suffolk was Sir Richard de la Poole, Brother to the Earl of Suffolk, who was put to Death by Henry the Eighth. In his Banish­ment he took upon him the Title of Duke of Suffolk, which had been sunk in the Family ever since the Attainder of the Great Duke of Suffolk under the Reign of Henry the Sixth. He fought very bravely in the Battle of Pavia, and was magnificently Interr'd by the Duke of Bourbon, who, tho' an Enemy, assist­ed at his Funeral in Mourning.

Parker himself is bury'd in the same Place with the following Inscription.

D. O. M.

Carolo Parchero a Morley Anglo ex Il­lustrissimâ clarissimâ stirpe. Qui Episcopus [Page 19] Des, ob fidem Catholicam actus in Exilium An. XXXI. peregrinatus ab Invictiss. Phil. Rege Hispan. honestissimis pietatis & con­stantiae praemiis ornatus moritur Anno a par­tu Virginis, M. D. C. XI. Men. Septem­bris.

In Pavia is an University of Seven Col­leges, one of them called the College of Borromee, very large, and nearly built. There is likewise a Statue in Brass, of Marcus Antoninus on Horseback, which the People of the Place call Charles the Fifth, and some learned Men Constantine the Great.

Pavia is the Ticinum of the Ancients, which took its Name from the River Ticinus which runs by it, and is now call'd the Tesin. This River falls into the Po, and is excessively rapid. The Bishop of Salisbury says, that he ran down with the Stream Thirty Miles in an Hour, by the help of but one Rower. I do not know therefore why Silius Italicus has re­presented it as so very gentle and still a River, in the beautiful Description he has given us of it.

Caeruleas Ticinus aquas et Stagna vadoso
Perspicuus servat, turbari nescia, fundo,
Ac nitidum viridi lentè trabit amne liquorem;
[Page 20] Vix credas labi, ripis tam mitis opacis
Argutos inter (volucrum certamina) cantus
Somniferam ducit lucenti gurgite lympham.
L. 4.
Smooth and untroubled the Ticinus flows,
And through the Chrystal Stream the shining Bottom shows:
Scarce can the Sight discover if it moves;
So wond'rous slow amidst the shady Groves,
And tuneful Birds that warble on its Sides,
Within its gloomy Banks the Limpid Li­quor glides.

A Poet of another Nation would not have dwelt so long upon the Clearness and Transparency of the Stream, but in Italy one seldom sees a River that is ex­treamly bright and limpid, most of them falling down from the Mountains, that make their Waters very troubled and muddy, whereas the Tesin is only an Out­let of that vast Lake, which the Italians now call the Lago Maggiore.

I saw between Pavia and Milan the Convent of Carthusians, which is very spa­cious and beautiful. Their Church is extreamly fine, and curiously adorned, but of a Gothic Structure.

I could not stay long in Milan with­out going to see the Great Church that [Page 21] I had heard so much of, but was never more deceived in my Expectation than at my first entering: For the Front, which was all I had seen of the Outside, is not half finished, and the Inside is so smutted with Dust, and the Smoak of Lamps, that neither the Marble, nor the Silver, nor Brass-Works show them­selves to an Advantage. This vast Gothic Pile of Building is all of Marble, except the Roof, which would have been of the same Matter with the rest, had not its Weight rendered it improper for that part of the Building. But for the Rea­son I have just now mentioned, the Out­side of the Church looks much whiter and fresher than the Inside; for where the Marble is so often washed with Rains, it preserves it self more beautiful and un­sullyed, than in those Parts that are not at all exposed to the Weather. That Side of the Church indeed, which faces the Tramontane Wind, is much more unsightly than the rest, by reason of the Dust and Smoak that are driven against it. This Profusion of Marble, tho' asto­nishing to Strangers, is not very won­derful in a Country that has so many Veins of it within its Bowels. But tho' the Stones are cheap, the working of them is very expensive. It is generally [Page 22] said there are Eleven Thousand Statues about the Church, but they reckon in­to the Account every particular Figure in the History-pieces, and several little Images which make up the Equipage of those that are larger. There are indeed a great Multitude of such as are bigger than the Life: I reckoned above Two Hundred and Fifty on the Outside of the Church, tho' I only told Three Sides of it; and these are not half so thick set as they intend them. The Statues are all of Marble, and generally well cut; but the most valuable one they have is a St. Bartholomew, new-flead, with his Skin hanging over his Shoulders: It is esteemed worth its weight in Gold: They have inscribed this Verse on the Pedestal, to show the Value they have for the Work­man.

Non me Praxiteles sed Marcus finxit Agrati.
Lest at the Sculptor doubtfully you guess,
'Tis Marc Agrati, not Praxiteles.

There is, just before the Entrance of the Quire, a little Subterraneous Chap­pel, Dedicated to St. Charles Borromee, where I saw his Body, in Episcopal Robes, lying upon the Altar in a Shrine [Page 23] of Rock-Crystal. His Chappel is adorned with abundance of Silver Work: He was but Two and Twenty Years old when he was chosen Arch-Bishop of Mi­lan, and Forty Six at his Death; but made so good use of so short a time, by his Works of Charity and Munificence, that his Countrymen bless his Memory, which is still fresh among them. He was Cannonised about a Hundred Years ago: and indeed if this Honour were due to any Man, I think such Publick-spirited Virtues may lay a juster Claim to it, than a sour Retreat from Mankind, a fiery Zeal against Heterodoxies, a Set of Chi­merical Visions, or of Whimsical Pe­nances, which are generally the Qualifica­tions of Roman Saints. Miracles indeed are required of all who aspire to this Dig­nity, because they say an Hypocrite may imitate a Saint in all other Particulars, and these they attribute in great Num­ber, to him I am speaking of. His Me­rit, and the Importunity of his Country­men, procured his Canonization before the ordinary time; for it is the Policy of the Roman Church not to allow this Ho­nour, ordinarily, 'till Fifty Years after the Death of the Person, who is a Candi­date for it; in which time it may be sup­posed that all his Contemporaries will be [Page 24] worn out, who could contradict a pre­tended Miracle, or remember any Infir­mity of the Saint. One would wonder that Roman Catholicks, who are for this kind of Worship, do not generally ad­dress themselves to the Holy Apostles, who have a more unquestionable Right to the Title of Saints than those of a Modern Date; but these are at present quite out of Fashion in Italy, where there is scarce a great Town, which does not pay its Devotions, in a more particu­lar manner, to some one of their own making. This renders it very suspicious, that the Interests of Particular Families, Religious Orders, Convents or Churches, have too great a Sway in their Canoni­zations. When I was at Milan I saw a Book newly published, that was Dedica­ted to the present Head of the Borromean Family, and entitled, A Discourse on the Humility of Jesus Christ, and of St. Charles Borromee.

The Great Church of Milan has Two Noble Pulpits of Brass, each of them run­ning round a large Pillar, like a Gallery, and supported by huge Figures of the same Metal. The History of our Savi­our, or rather of the Blessed Virgin, for it begins with her Birth, and ends with her Coronation in Heaven, that of [Page 25] our Saviour coming in by way of Episode) is finely cut in Marble by Andrew Biffy. This Church is very Rich in Relicks, which run up as high as Daniel, Jonas and Abraham. Among the rest they show a Fragment of our Countryman Becket, as indeed there are very few Treasuries of Relicks in Italy that have not a Tooth or a Bone of this Saint. It would be end­less to count up the Riches of Silver, Gold, and Precious Stones, that are amass'd together in this and several other Churches of Milan. I was told, that in Milan there are Sixty Convents of Wo­men, Eighty of Men, and Two Hun­dred Churches. At the Celestines is a Picture in Fresco of the Marriage of Cana, very much esteem'd; but the Painter, whether designedly or not, has put Six Fingers to the Hand of one of the Figures: They show the Gates of a Church that St. Ambrose shut against the Emperor Theodosius, as thinking him unfit to assist at Divine Service, 'till he had done some extraordinary Penance for his barbarous Massacring the Inha­bitants of Thessalonica. That Emperor was however so far from being displeas'd with the Behaviour of the Saint, that at his Death he committed to him the Education of his Children. Several have [Page 26] pick'd Splinters of Wood out of the Gates for Relicks. There is a little Chap­pel lately re-edify'd, where the same Saint baptis'd St. Austin. An Inscription upon the Wall of it says, that it was in this Chappel, and on this Occasion, that he first sung his Te Deum, and that his great Convert answered him Verse by Verse. In one of the Churches I saw a Pulpit and Confessional, very finely In­laid with Lapis-Lazuli, and several kinds of Marble, by a Father of the Convent. It is very lucky for a Religious, who has so much Time on his Hands, to be able to amuse himself with Works of this Nature; and one often finds parti­cular Members of Convents, who have excellent Mechanical Genius's, and di­vert themselves, at leisure Hours, with Painting, Sculpture, Architecture, Gar­dening, and several kinds of Handy-Crafts. Since I have mention'd Con­fessionals, I shall set down here some In­scriptions that I have seen over them in Roman-Catholick Countries, which are all Texts of Scripture, and regard either the Penitent or the Father. Abi, Osten­de Te ad Sacerdotem—Ne taceat pupil­la oculi Tui—Ibo ad patrem meum & dicam, Pater peccavi—Soluta erunt in Coelis—Redi Anima mea in Requiem [Page 27] tuam—Vade, & ne deinceps pecca— Qui vos audit, me audit—Venite ad me omnes qui fatigati estis & onerati—Cor­ripiet me justus in misericordiâ—Vide si via Iniquitatis in me est, & deduc me in viâ aeternâ—Ut audiret gemitus com­peditorum. I saw the Ambrosian Library, where, to show the Italian Genius, they have spent more Money on Pictures than on Books. Among the Heads of several learned Men I met with no Englishman, except Bishop Fisher, whom Henry the Eighth put to Death for not owning his Supremacy. Books are indeed the least part of the Furniture that one ordinarily goes to see in an Italian Library, which they generally set off with Pictures, Sta­tues, and other Ornaments, where they can afford them, after the Example of the old Greeks and Romans.

—Plena omnia gypso
Chrysippi invenias: nam perfectissimus horum
Si quis Aristotelem similem vel Pittacon emit,
Et jubet archetypos pluteum servare Clean­thas.
Juv. S. 2.
Chrysippus' Statue decks thy Library.
Who makes his Study finest, is most read;
The Dolt that with an Aristotle's Head,
[Page 28] Carv'd to the Life, has once adorn'd his Shelf,
Straight sets up for a Stagyrite himself.

In an Apartment behind the Library are several Rarities often described by Travellers, as Brugeal's Elements, a Head of Titian by his own Hand, a Manuscript in Latin of Josephus, which the Bishop of Salisbury says was written about the Age of Theodosius, and another of Leonardus Vincius, which King James the First could not procure, tho' he proffered for it Three Thousand Spanish Pistols. It consists of Designings in Me­chanism and Engineering: I was shown in it a Sketch of Bombs and Mortars, as they are now used. Canon Settala's Ca­binet is always shown to a Stranger a­mong the Curiosities of Milan, which I shall not be particular upon, the Print­ed Account of it being common enough. Among its Natural Curiosities I took particular notice of a Piece of Chrystal, that enclos'd a couple of Drops, which look'd like Water when they were sha­ken, tho' perhaps they are nothing but Bubbles of Air. It is such a Rarity as this that I saw at Vendome in France, [Page 29] which they there pretend is a Tear that our Saviour shed over Lazarus, and was gather'd up by an Angel, who put it in a little Chrystal Vial, and made a Pre­sent of it to Mary Magdalene. The Famous Pere Mabillon is now engag'd in the Vindication of this Tear, which a learned Ecclesiastic, in the Neighbour­hood of Vendome, would have suppressed, as a false and ridiculous Relick, in a Book that he has Dedicated to his Diocesan the Bishop of Blois. It is in the Possession of a Benedictin Convent, which raises a considerable Revenue out of the Devotion that is paid to it, and has now retained the most learned Father of their Order to write in its Defence.

It was such a Curiosity as this I have mention'd, that Claudian has celebrated in about half a Score Epigrams.

Solibus indomitum glacies Alpina rigorem
Sumebat, nimio jam preciosa gelu.
Nec potuit toto mentiri corpore gemmam,
Sed medio mansit proditor orbe latex:
Auctus honor; liquidi crescunt miracula saxi,
Et conservatae plus meruistis aquae.
Deep in the Snowy Alpes a Lump of Ice
By Frosts was harden'd to a mighty Price;
[Page 30] Proof to the Sun, it now securely lyes,
And the warm Dog-star's hottest Rage defies:
Yet still unripen'd in the Dewy Mines,
Within the Ball a trembling Water shines,
That through the Chrystal darts its spu­rious Rays,
And the proud Stone's Original betrays:
But common Drops, when thus with Chrystal mixt,
Are valu'd more, than if in Rubies fixt.

As I walk'd thro' one of the Streets of Milan, I was surpriz'd to read the fol­lowing Inscription, concerning a Barber that had Conspir'd with the Commissary of Health and others to Poison his Fel­low-Citizens. There is a void Space where his House stood, and in the midst of it a Pillar, superscrib'd Colonna Infame. The Story is told in handsom Latin, which I shall set down, as having never seen it transcrib'd.

Hic, ubi haec Area patens est,
Surgebat olim Tonstrina
Jo' Jacobi Morae:
Qui factā cum Guliclmo Platea publ. Sanit. Commissario
Et cum aliis Conspiratione,
Dum pestis atrox saeviret,
[Page 31] Lethiferis unguentis huc & illuc aspersis
Plures ad diram mortem compulit.
Hos igitur ambos, hostes patriae judicatos,
Excelso in Plaustro
Candenti prius vellicatos forcipe
Et dexterâ mulctatos manu
Rotâ infringi
Rotaeque intextos post horas Sex jugulari,
Comburi deinde,
Ac, ne quid tam Scelestorum hominum reliqui sit,
Publicatis bonis
Cineres in flumen projici
Senatus jussit:
Cujus rei memoria aeterna ut sit,
Hanc domum, Sceleris officinam,
Solo aequari,
Ac nunquam in posterum refici,
Et erigi Columnam,
Quae vocatur Infamis,
Idem ordo mandavit.
Procul hinc procul ergo
Boni Cives,
Ne Vos Infelix, Infame solum
M. D. C. xxx Kal. Augusti. Praeside Pub. Sanitatis M. Antonio Montio Senatore R. Justitiae Cap. Jo. Baptistâ Vicecomit.

[Page 32] The Citadel of Milan is thought a strong Fort in Italy, and has held out formerly after the Conquest of the rest of the Dutchy. The Governor of it is independent on the Governor of Mi­lan; as the Persians used to make the Rulers of Provinces and Fortresses of different Conditions and Interests, to pre­vent Conspiracies.

At Two Miles distance from Milan there stands a Building, that would have been a Master-piece in its kind, had the Architect design'd it for an Artificial Echo. We discharg'd a Pistol, and had the Sound return'd upon us above Fifty Six times, tho' the Air was very foggy. The first Repetitions follow one ano­ther very thick, but are heard more di­stinctly in proportion as they decay: There are Two parallel Walls which beat the Sound back on each other, 'till the Undulation is quite worn out, like the several Reverberations of the same Image from two opposite Looking-Glasses. Father Kircher has taken notice of this particular Echo, as Father Bartolin has done since in his Ingenious Discourse on Sounds. The State of Milan is like a vast Garden, surrounded by a Noble Mound-Work of Rocks and Mountains: Indeed if a Man considers the Face of [Page 33] Italy in general, one would think that Nature had laid it out into such a Varie­ty of States and Governments as one finds in it. For as the Alpes at one End, and the long Range of Appenines, that passes thro' the Body of it, branch out on all sides into several different Divisi­ons; they serve as so many natural Boun­daries and Fortifications to the little Ter­ritories that lye among them. Accor­dingly we find the whole Country cut into a Multitude of particular King­doms and Common-wealths in the oldest Accounts we have of it, 'till the Power of the Romans, like a Torrent that o­verflows its Banks, bore down all before it, and spread it self into the remotest Corners of the Nation. But as this Ex­orbitant Power became unable to sup­port it self, we find the Government of Italy again broken into such a Variety of Sub-Divisions, as naturally suits with its Situation.

In the Court of Milan, as in several others of Italy, there are many who fall in with the Dress and Carriage of the French. One may however observe a kind of Awkwardness in the Italians, which ea­sily discovers the Airs they give them­selves not to be natural. It is indeed very strange there should be such a [Page 34] Diversity of Manners, where there is so small a difference in the Air and Cli­mate. The French are always Open, Familiar and Talkative: The Italians, on the contrary, are Stiff, Ceremonious and Reserved. In France every one aims at a Gaiety and Sprightliness of Be­haviour, and thinks it an Accomplish­ment to be brisk and lively: The Itali­ans, notwithstanding their natural Fieri­ness of Temper, affect always to appear Sober and Sedate; insomuch that one sometimes meets Young Men walking the Streets with Spectacles on their Noses, that they may be thought to have impaired their Sight by much Study, and seem more Grave and Judi­cious than their Neighbours. This Dif­ference of Manners proceeds chiefly from Difference of Education: In France it is usual to bring their Children into Company, and to cherish in them, from their Infancy, a kind of Forwardness and Assurance: Besides, that the French apply themselves more universally to their Exercises than any other Nation in the World, so that one seldom sees a Young Gentleman in France that does not Fence, Dance, and Ride in some tolerable Per­fection. These Agitations of the Body do not only give them a free and easie [Page 35] Carriage, but have a kind of Mechani­cal Operation on the Mind, by keeping the Animal Spirits always awake and in Motion. But what contributes most to this light airy Humour of the French, is the Free Conversation that is allowed them with their Women, which does not only communicate to them a certain Vivacity of Temper, but makes them endeavour after such a Behaviour as is most taking with the Sex.

The Italians, on the contrary, who are excluded from making their Court this way, are for recommending themselves to those they Converse with by their Gravity and Wisdom. In Spain there­fore, where there are fewer Liberties of this Nature allowed, there is some­thing still more serious and composed in the manner of the Inhabitants. But as Mirth is more apt to make Proselytes than Melancholy, it is observed that the Italians have many of them for these late Years given very far into the Modes and Freedoms of the French; which pre­vail more or less in the Courts of Italy, as they lye at a smaller or greater Di­stance from France. It may be here worth while to consider how it comes to pass, that the Common People of Ita­ly have in general so very great an Aversion [Page 36] to the French, which every Traveller cannot but be sensible of, that has pas­sed thro' the Country. The most obvi­ous Reason is certainly the great Diffe­rence that there is in the Humours and Manners of the Two Nations, which always works more in the meaner sort, who are not able to vanquish the Prejudices of Education, than with the Nobility. Besides, that the French Hu­mour, in regard of the Liberties they take in Female Conversations, and their great Ambition to Excel in all Compa­nies, is in a more particular manner very shocking to the Italians, who are natu­rally Jealous, and value themselves upon their great Wisdom. At the same time the common People of Italy, who run more into News and Politicks than those of other Countries, have all of them something to exasperate them against the King of France. The Savoyards, not­withstanding the present Inclinations of their Court, cannot forbear re­senting the infinite Mischiefs he did them in the last War. The Milanese and Neapolitans remember the many In­sults he has offer'd to the House of Austria, and particularly to their De­ceased King, for whom they still retain a natural kind of Honour and Affection. [Page 37] The Genoese cannot forget his Treatment of their Doge, and his Bombarding their City. The Venetians will tell you of his Leagues with the Turks; and the Romans, of his Threats to Pope Innocent the Ele­venth, whose Memory they adore. It is true, that Interest of State, and Change of Circumstances, may have sweetened these Reflections to the Politer sort, but Impressions are not so easily worn out of the Minds of the Vulgar. That how­ever, which I take to be the Principal Motive among most of the Italians, for their favouring the Germans above the French, is this, that they are entirely persuaded it is for the Interest of Italy, to have Milan and Naples rather in the Hands of the first than of the other. One may generally observe, that the Body of a People has juster Views for the Publick Good, and pursues them with greater Uprightness than the No­bility and Gentry, who have so many private Expectations and particular In­terests, which hang like a false Biass upon their Judgments, and may possibly dis­pose them to sacrifice the Good of their Country to the Advancement of their own Fortunes; whereas the Gross of the People can have no other Prospect in Changes and Revolutions than of Pub­lick [Page 38] Blessings, that are to diffuse them­selves thro' the whole State in general.

To return to Milan: I shall here set down the Description Ausonius has given of it, among the rest of his great Cities.

Et Mediolani mira omnia, copia rerum:
Innumerae cultaeque domus, faecunda virorum
Ingenia, & mores laeti. Tum duplice muro
Amplificata loci species, populique voluptas
Circus, & inclusi moles cuneata Theatri:
Templa, Palatinaeque arces, opulensque Mo­neta,
Et regio Herculei celebris ab honore lavacri,
Cunctaque marmoreis ornata peristyla Signis,
Omnia quae magnis operum velut aemula for­mis
Excellunt; nec juncta premit vicinia Romae.
Milan with Plenty and with Wealth o'er-flows,
And num'rous Streets and cleanly Dwel­lings shows;
The People, bless'd with Nature's hap­py Force,
Are Eloquent and Chearful in Discourse;
A Circus and a Theatre invites
Th' unruly Mob to Races and to Fights;
Moneta consecrated Buildings grace,
And the whole Town redoubled Walls embrace:
[Page 39] Here spacious Baths and Palaces are seen,
And intermingled Temples rise between;
Here circling Colonnades the Ground en­close,
And here the Marble Statues breathe in Rows:
Profusely grac'd the happy Town appears,
Nor Rome it self, her beauteous Neigh­bour, fears.


FROM Milan we travell'd thro' a very pleasant Country, to Brescia, and by the way cross'd the River Adda, that falls into the Lago di Como, which Virgil calls the Lake Larius, and running out at the other End loses it self at last in the Po, which is the great Re­ceptacle of all the Rivers of this Coun­try. The Town and Province of Bre­scia have freer Access to the Senate of Venice, and a quicker Redress of Injuries, than any other Part of their Dominions. They have always a mild and prudent Governor, and live much more happily than their Fellow-Subjects: For as they were once a Part of the Milanese, and are now on their Frontiers, the Veneti­ans dare not exasperate them, by the [Page 41] Loads they lay on other Provinces, for fear of a Revolt; and are forc'd to Treat them with much more Indulgence than the Spaniards do their Neighbours, that they may have no Temptation to it. Brescia is famous for its Iron-Works. A small Day's Journey more brought us to Verona. We saw the Lake Benacus in our way, which the Italians now call Lago di Garda: It was so rough with Tempests when we pass'd by it, that it brought into my Mind Virgil's Noble Description of it.

Adde lacus tantos, te Lari maxime, teque
Fluctibus & fremitu assurgens, Benace, ma­rino.
Here vex'd by Winter Storms Bena­cus raves,
Confus'd with working Sands and rol­ling Waves;
Rough and tumultuous like a Sea it lyes,
So loud the Tempest roars, so high the Billows rise.

This Lake perfectly resembles a Sea, when it is work'd up by Storms. It is Thirty Five Miles in length, and Twelve in breadth. At the lower end of it we cross'd the Mincio.

[Page 42]
—Tardis ingens ubi flexibus errat
Mincius, & tenerâ praetexit arundine ripas.
G. 3.
Where the slow Mincius through the Valley strays:
Where cooling Streams invite the Flocks to drink,
And Reeds defend the winding Waters Brink.

The River Adige runs thro' Verona; so much is the Situation of the Town chang'd from what it was in Silius Ita­licus his Time.

—Verona Athesi circumflua.
L. 8.
Verona by the circling Adige bound.

This is the only great River in Lom­bardy that does not fall into the Po; which it must have done, had it run but a little further before its entering the Adriatic. The Rivers are all of them mention'd by Claudian.

—Venetosque erectior amnes
Magnâ voce ciet. Frondentibus humida ripis
Colla levant, pulcher Ticinus, & Addua visu
[Page 43] Caerulus, & velox Athesis, tardusque meatu
Mincius, inque novem consurgens ora Tima­vus.
Sexto con. Hon.
Venetia's Rivers, summon'd all around,
Hear the loud Call, and answer to the Sound:
Her dropping Locks the Silver Tessin rears,
The blue transparent Adda next appears,
The rapid Adige then erects her Head,
And Mincio rising slowly from his Bed,
And last Timavus, that with eager force
From Nine wide Mouths comes gushing to his Course.

His Larius is doubtless an Imitation of Virgil's Benacus.

—Umbrosâ vestit qua littus olivâ
Larius, & dulci mentitur Nerea fluctu.
De Bel. Get.
The Larius here, with Groves of O­lives Crown'd,
An Ocean of fresh Water spreads around.

I saw at Verona the Famous Amphi­theater, that with a few Modern Repa­rations has all the Seats entire. There is something very Noble in it, tho' the high Wall and Corridors that went [Page 44] round it are almost entirely ruined, and the Area is quite filled up to the lower Seat, which was formerly deep enough to let the Spectators see in Safety the Combats of the Wild Beasts and Gladi­ators. Since I have Claudian before me, I cannot forbear setting down the beautiful Description he has made of a Wild Beast newly brought from the Woods, and making its first Appearance in a full Am­phitheater.

Ut fera quae nuper montes amisit avitos,
Altorumque exul nemorum, damnatur arenae
Muneribus, commota ruit; vir murmure contra
Hortatur, nixusque genu venabula tendit;
Illa pavet strepitus, cuneosque erecta Theatri
Despicit, & tanti miratur sibila vulgi.
In. Ruf. L. 2.
So rushes on his Foe the grisly Bear,
That, banish'd from the Hills and bushy Brakes,
His old Hereditary Haunts forsakes.
Condemn'd the cruel Rabble to delight,
His angry Keeper goads him to the Fight.
Bent on his Knee, the Savage glares a­round,
Scar'd with the mighty Croud's promi­scuous Sound;
[Page 45] Then rearing on his hinder Paws retires,
And the vast hissing Multitude admires.

There are some other Antiquities in Verona, of which the Principal is the Ruin of a Triumphal Arch erected to Flaminius, where one sees old Doric Pil­lars without any Pedestal or Basis, as Vi­truvius has described them. I have not yet seen any Gardens in Italy worth ta­king notice of. The Italians fall as far short of the French in this Particular, as they excel them in their Palaces. It must however be said, to the Honour of the Italians, that the French took from them the first Plans of their Gardens, as well as of their Water-Works; so that their surpassing of them at present is to be attributed rather to the Greatness of their Riches, than the Excellence of their Taste. I saw the Terrace-Garden of Verona, that Travellers gene­rally mention. Among the Churches of Verona, that of St. George is the hand­somest: Its chief Ornament is the Mar­tyrdom of the Saint, drawn by Paul Veronese; as there are many other Pi­ctures about the Town by the same Hand. A Stranger is always shown the Tomb of Pope Lucius, who lyes buried in the Dome. I saw in the same Church [Page 46] a Monument erected by the Publick to one of their Bishops: The Inscription says, that there was between him and his Maker, Summa Necessitudo, Summa Similitudo. The Italian Epitaphs are often more extravagant than those of o­ther Countries, as the Nation is more given to Compliment and Hyperbole. From Verona to Padua we travelled thro' a very pleasant Country: It is planted thick with Rows of White Mulberry-trees, that furnish Food for great Quan­tities of Silk-worms with their Leaves, as the Swine and Poultry consume the Fruit. The Trees themselves serve, at the same time, as so many Stays for their Vines, which hang all along like Garlands from Tree to Tree. Between the seve­ral Ranges lye Fields of Corn, which in these warm Countries ripens much bet­ter among the Mulberry Shades, than if it were exposed to the open Sun. This was one Reason why the Inhabitants of this Country, when I passed thro' it, were extreamly apprehensive of seeing Lombardy the Seat of War, which must have made miserable Havock among their Plantations; for it is not here as in the Corn Fields of Flanders, where the whole Product of the Place rises from Year to Year. We arrived so late at Vi­cenza, [Page 47] that we had not time to take a full Sight of the Place. The next Day brought us to Padua. St. Anthony, who lived about Five Hundred Years ago, is the great Saint to whom they here pay their Devotions. He lyes buried in the Church that is Dedicated to him at pre­sent, tho' it was formerly Consecrated to the Blessed Virgin. It is extreamly magnificent, and very richly adorned. There are narrow Clefts in the Monu­ment that stands over him, where good Catholicks rub their Beads, and smell his Bones, which they say have in them a natural Perfume, tho' very like Apo­plectic Balsom; and what would make one suspect that they rub the Marble with it, it is observed that the Scent is stronger in the Morning than at Night. There are abundance of Inscriptions and Pictures hung up by his Votaries in se­veral Parts of the Church: For it is the way of those that are in any Signal Dan­ger to implore his Aid, and if they come off safe they call their Deliverance a Mi­racle, and perhaps hang up the Picture or Description of it in the Church. This Custom spoils the Beauty of several Ro­man Catholick Churches, and often co­vers the Walls with wretched Daub­ings, impertinent Inscriptions, Hands, [Page 48] Legs, and Arms of Wax, with a Thou­sand idle Offerings of the same Nature.

They sell at Padua the Life of St. Anthony, which is read with great De­votion; the most remarkable Part of it is his Discourse to an Assembly of Fish. As the Audience and Sermon are both very extraordinary, I will set down the whole Passage at length.

Non curando gli Heretici il suo parlare, egli si come era alla riva del mare, dove shocca il fiume Marecchia, chiamò da parte di Dio li pesci, che venissero à sentir la sua santa parola. Et ecco che di subito sopra l'acque nuotando gran moltitudine di varii, & diversi pesci, e del mare, e del fiume, si unirono tutti, secondo le specie loro, e con bell ordine, quasi che di ragion capaci stati fossero, attenti, e cheti con gratioso spetta­colo s'accommodaro per sentir la parola di Dio. Ciò veduto il santo entro al cuor suo di dolcezza stillandosi, & per altretanta ma­raviglia inarcando le ciglia, della obedientia di queste irragionevoli creature così cominciò [...]oro à parlare. Se bene in tutte le cose create (cari, & amati pesci) si scuopre la potenza, & providenza infinita di Dio, come nel Cielo, nel Sole, nella Luna, nelle stelle, in questo mondo inferiore, nell huomo, e nelle altre creature perfette, nondimeno in Voi particolarmente lampeggia e risplende la bontà [Page 49] della maestà divina; perche se bone siete chi­amati Rettili, mezzi frà pietre, e bruti, confinati nelli profondi abissi delle ondeggiante acque: agitati sempre da flutti: mossi sem­pre da procelle; sordi al' udire, mutoli al parlare, & horridi al vedere; con tutto ciò in Voi maravigliosamente si scorge la Divina grandezza; e da voi si cavano li maggiori misterii della bontà di Dio, ne mai si parla di voi nella Scrittura Sacra, che non vi sia ascosto qualche profondo Sacramento; Cre­dete voi, che sia senza grandissimo misterio, che il primo dono fatto dall' onnipotente Id­dio all' huomo fosse di voi Pesci? Credete voi che non sia misterio in questo, che di tutte le cre­ature, e di tutti gl' animali si sien fatti sacrifi­cii, eccetto, che di voi Pesci? Credete, che non vi sia qualche secreto in questo, che Chri­sto nostro salvatore dall' agnelo pasquale in poi, si compiacque tanto del cibo di voi pesci? Credete, che sia à caso questo, che dovendo il Redentor del mondo, pagar, come huomo, il censo à Cesare la volesse trovaare nella boc­ca di un pesce? Tutti, tutti sono misteri è Sacramenti: perciò siete particolarmente ob­ligati a lodare il vostro Creatore: amati pe­sci di Dio havete rivevuto l'essere, la vita, il moto, e'l senso; per stanza vi hà dato il liquido elemento dell' Acqua, secondo che alla vostra naturale inclinatione conviene: ivi hà fatti amplissimi alberghi, stanze, caverne, [Page 50] grotte, e secreti luogi à voi più che sale Regie, e regal Palazzi, cari, e grati; & per propria sede havete l'acqua, elemento dia­fano, transparente, e sempre lucido quasi cristallo, e verro; & dalle più basse, e pro­fonde vostre stanze scorgete ciò che sopra ac­qua ò si fa, ò nuota; havete gli occhi quasi di Lince, ò di Argo, & da causa non errante guidati, seguite ciò che vi giova, & aggrada; & fuggite ciò che vi nuoce, havete natural de sio di conservarvi secondo le spetie vostre, fase, oprate & caminate ove natura vi detta senza contrastro alcuno; nè algor d'inverno, nè calor di state vi offende, ò nuoce; siasi per sereno, ò turbato il cielo, che alli vostri humidi alberghi nè frutto, nè danno apporta; siasi pure abbondevole de suoi tesori, ò scar­sa de suoi frutti la terra, che a voi nulla giova; piova, tuoni, saetti, lampaggi, è su­bissi il mondo, che a voi ciò poco importa; verdeggi prinavera, scaldi la state, fruttifi­chi l' Autunno, & assideri li inverno, questo non vi rileva punto: ne trappassar del' hore nè correr de giorni, nè volar de mesi, ne fug­gir d'anni, ne mutar de tempi, ne cangiar de sta­gioni vi dan pensiero alcuno, ma sempre sicura, & tranquilla vita liatamente vivere: O quan­to, o quanto grande la Maestâ di Dio in voi si scuopre, O quanto mirabile la potenza sua; O quanto stupenda, & maravigliosa la sua provi­denza; poi che frà tutte le creature dell' univer­so [Page 51] so voi solo non sentisti il diluvio universale dell' acque; nè provasti i danni, che egli face almon­do; e tutto questo ch' io ho detto dovrebbe muo­vervi à lodar Dio a ringratiare sua divina maestà di tanti e cosi singolari beneficii, che vi ha fatti, di tante gratie: che vi ha conferite, di tanti favori, di che vi ha fatti degna; per tanto, se non potete snodar la lingua à ringrati­ar il vostro Benefattore, & non sapete con pa­role esprimer le sue lodi, fatele segno di rive­renza almeno; chinatevi al suo nome; mo­strate nel modo che potete sembiante di gratitu­dine; rendetevi benevoli alla bontà sua, in quel miglior modo che potete; O sapete, non siate sconoscenti de suoi beneficii, & non siate in­grati de suoi favori. A questo dire, O mara­viglia grande, come si quelli pesci havessero havuto humano intelletto, e discorso, con gesti di profonda Humiltà, con riverenti sembi­anti di religione, chinarono la testa, blandiro co'l corpo, quasi approvando ciò che detto havea il benedetto padre S. Antonio.

When the Hereticks would not re­gard his Preaching, he betook himself to the Sea-shore, where the River Marecchia disembogues it self into the Adriatic. He here called the Fish to­gether in the Name of God, that they might hear his Holy Word. The Fish came swimming towards him in such vast Shoals, both from the Sea [Page 52] and from the River, that the Surface of the Water was quite covered with their Multitudes. They quickly ran­ged themselves, according to their se­veral Species, into a very beautiful Congregation, and, like so many ra­tional Creatures, presented themselves before him to hear the Word of God. St. Antonio was so struck with the mi­raculous Obedience and Submission of these poor Animals, that he found a secret Sweetness distilling upon his Soul, and at last addressed himself to them in the following Words.

Altho' the Infinite Power and Pro­vidence of God (my dearly beloved Fish) discovers it self in all the Works of his Creation, as in the Heavens, in the Sun, in the Moon, and in the Stars, in this lower World, in Man, and in other perfect Creatures; never­theless the Goodness of the Divine Majesty shines out in you more emi­nently, and appears after a more par­ticular manner, than in any other Cre­ated Beings. For notwithstanding you are comprehended under the Name of Reptiles, partaking of a mid­dle Nature between Stones and Beasts, and Imprisoned in the Deep Abyss of Waters; notwithstanding you are [Page 53] tost among Billows, thrown up and down by Tempests, deaf to Hearing, dumb to Speech, and terrible to be­hold: Notwithstanding, I say, these natural Disadvantages, the Divine Greatness shows it self in you after a very wonderful manner. In you are seen the mighty Mysteries of an In­finite Goodness. The Holy Scripture has always made use of you, as the Types and Shadows of some profound Sacrament.

Do you think that, without a My­stery, the first Present that God al­mighty made to Man, was of you, O ye Fishes? Do you think that, with­out a Mystery, among all Creatures and Animals which were appointed for Sacrifices, you only were excepted, O ye Fishes? Do you think there was nothing meant by our Saviour Christ, that next to the Paschal Lamb he took so much Pleasure in the Food of you, O ye Fishes? Do you think it was by meer Chance, that when the Redeemer of the World was to pay a Tribute to Caesar, he thought fit to find it in the Mouth of a Fish? These are all of them so many Mysteries and Sacraments, that oblige you in a more particular manner to the Praises of your Creator.

[Page 54] It is from God, my beloved Fish, that you have received Being, Life, Motion and Sense. It is he that has given you, in Compliance with your natural Inclinations, the whole World of Waters for your Habitation [...] It is he that has furnished it with Lodgings, Chambers, Caverns, Grottoes, and such magnificent Retirements as are not to be met with in the Seats of Kings, or in the Palaces of Princes: You have the Water for your Dwelling, a clear transparent Element, brighter than Chrystal; you can see from its deepest Bottom every thing that passes on its Surface; you have the Eyes of a Lynx, or of an Argus; you are guided by a secret and unerring Principle, delight­ing in every thing that may be bene­ficial to you, and avoiding every thing that may be hurtful; you are carried on by a hidden Instinct to preserve your selves, and to propagate your Species; you obey, in all your Acti­ons, Works and Motions, the Di­ctates and Suggestions of Nature, without the least Repugnancy or Con­tradiction.

The Colds of Winter, and the Heats of Summer, are equally inca­pable of molesting you. A Serene or [Page 55] a clouded Sky are indifferent to you. Let the Earth abound in Fruits, or be cursed with Scarcity, it has no Influ­ence on your Welfare. You live se­cure in Rains and Thunders, Light­nings and Earthquakes; you have no Concern in the Blossoms of Spring, or in the Glowings of Summer, in the Fruits of Autumn, or in the Frosts of Winter. You are not so­licitous about Hours or Days, Months or Years; the Variableness of the Weather, or the Change of Seasons.

In what dreadful Majesty, in what wonderful Power, in what amazing Providence did God Almighty distin­guish you among all the Species of Creatures that perished in the Univer­sal Deluge! You only were insensible of the Mischief that had laid waste the whole World.

All this, as I have already told you, ought to inspire you with Gratitude and Praise towards the Divine Maje­sty, that has done so great things for you, granted you such parti­cular Graces and Privileges, and heaped upon you so many distinguish­ing Favours. And since for all this you cannot employ your Tongues in the Praises of your Benefactor, and are [Page 56] not provided with Words to express your Gratitude; make at least some Sign of Reverence; bow your selves at his Name; give some show of Gra­titude, according to the best of your Capacities; express your Thanks in the most becoming manner that you are able, and be not unmindful of all the Benefits he has bestowed upon you.

He had no sooner done speaking, but behold a Miracle! The Fish, as tho' they had been endued with Rea­son, bowed down their Heads with all the Marks of a profound Humility and Devotion, moving their Bodies up and down with a kind of Fond­ness, as approving what had been spo­ken by the Blessed Father, St. Antonio. The Legend adds, that after many Hereticks, who were present at the Miracle, had been converted by it, the Saint gave his Benediction to the Fish, and dismissed them.

Several other the like Stories of St. Antony are represented about his Monu­ment in a very fine Basso Relievo.

I could not forbear setting down the Titles given to St. Antony in one of the Tables that hangs up to him, as a To­ken of Gratitude from a poor Peasant, who fancied the Saint had saved him from breaking his Neck.

[Page 57]
Sacratissimi pusionis Bethlehemitici
Lilio candidiori Delicio,
Seraphidum soli fulgidissimo,
Celsissimo sacrae sapientiae tholo,
Prodigiorum patratori Potentissimo,
Mortis, Erroris, Calamitatis, Leprae, Dae­monis,
Dispensatori, correctori, Liberatori, cura­tori, fugatori,
Sancto, sapienti, pio, potenti, tremendo,
Aegrotorum & Naufragantium Salvatori
Praesentissimo, tutissimo.
Membrorum restitutori, vinculorum con­fractori,
Rerum perditarum Inventori stupendo,
Periculorum omnium profligatori
Magno, Mirabili,
Ter Sancto,
Antonio Paduano,
Pientissimo post Deum ejusque Virgineam matrem
Protectori & Sospitatori suo, &c.

The Custom of hanging up Limbs in Wax, as well as Pictures, is certainly de­rived from the old Heathens, who used, upon their Recovery, to make an Of­fering in Wood, Metal or Clay, of the Part that had been afflicted with a Di­stemper, to the Deity that delivered them. I have seen, I believe, every [Page 58] Limb of a Human Body figured in Iron or Clay, which were formerly made on this Occasion, among the several Col­lections of Antiquities that have been shown me in Italy. The Church of St. Justina, designed by Palladio, is the most handsom, luminous, disencumbered Build­ing in the Inside that I have ever seen, and is esteemed by many Artists one of the finest Works in Italy. The long Nef consists of a Row of Five Cupola's, the cross-one has on each side a single Cu­pola deeper and broader than the others. The Martyrdom of St. Justina hangs o­ver the Altar, and is a Piece of Paul Ve­ronese. In the great Town-Hall of Pa­dua stands a Stone superscribed Lapis Vi­tuperii. Any Debtor that will swear him­self not worth Five Pound, and is set by the Bailifs thrice with his bare Buttocks on this Stone in a full Hall, clears him­self of any farther Prosecution from his Creditors; but this is a Punishment that no Body has submitted to these Four and Twenty Years. The University of Pa­dua is of late much more regular than it was formerly, tho' it is not yet safe walking the Streets after Sun-set. There is at Padua a Manufacture of Cloth, which has brought very great Revenues into the Republick. At present the [Page 59] English have not only gained upon the Venetians in the Levant, which used chiefly to be supplyed from this Manu­facture, but have great Quantities of their Cloth in Venice it self; few of the Nobility wearing any other sort, not­withstanding the Magistrate of the Pomps is obliged by his Office to see that no Body wears the Cloth of a For­reign Country. Our Merchants indeed are forced to make use of some Artifice to get these Prohibited Goods into Port. What they here show for the Ashes of Livy and Antenor is disregarded by the best of their own Antiquaries.

The pretended Tomb of Antenor put me in Mind of the latter part of Vir­gil's Description, which gives us the O­riginal of Padua.

Antenor potuit mediis elapsus Achivis
Illyricos penetrare sinus, atque intimae tutus
Regna Liburnorum, & fontem superare Ti­mavi:
Unde per ora novem vasto cum murmure montis
It mare praeruptum, & pelago premit arva sonanti;
Hic tamen ille urbem Patavi, sedesque locavit
[Page 60] Teucrorum, & genti nomen dedit, armaque fixit
Troïa: nunc placidâ compostus pace quiescit.
Ae. 1.
Antenor, from the midst of Grecian Hosts,
Could pass secure; and pierce th' Illy­rian Coasts,
Where rolling down the steep Timavus raves,
And through Nine Channels disem­bogues his Waves.
At length he founded Padua's happy Seat,
And gave his Trojans a secure Retreat:
There fix'd their Arms, and there re­new'd their Names;
And there in quiet lyes.—Dryden.

From Padua I went down to the Ri­ver Brent in the Ordinary Ferry, which brought me in a Day's time to Venice.


HAving often heard Venice re­presented as one of the most defensible Cities in the World, I took Care to in­form my self of the Particu­lars in which its Strength consists. And these I find are chiefly owing to its ad­vantagious Situation; for it has neither Rocks nor Fortifications near it, and yet is, perhaps, the most impregnable Town in Europe. It stands at least Four Miles from any part of the Terra Firma, nor are the Shallows that lye about it, ever frozen hard enough to bring over an Ar­my from the Land-side. The constant Flux and Reflux of the Sea, or the na­tural Mildness of the Climate, hindering the Ice from gathering to any Thick­ness; which is an Advantage the Hol­landers want, when they have laid all their Country under Water. On the Side that is exposed to the Adriatic, the Entrance is so difficult to hit, that they have marked it out with several Stakes driven into the Ground, which they [Page 62] would not fail to cut upon the first ap­proach of an Enemy's Fleet. For this Reason they have not fortified the little Islands, that lye at the Entrance, to the best Advantage, which might otherwise very easily command all the Passes that lead to the City from the Adriatic. Nor could an ordinary Fleet, with Bomb-Ves­sels, hope to succeed against a Place that has always in its Arsenal a considerable Number of Gallies and Men of War rea­dy to put to Sea on a very short warning. If we could therefore suppose them block­ed up on all sides, by a Power too strong for them, both by Sea and Land, they would be able to defend themselves against every thing but Famine; and this would not be a little mitigated by the great Quan­tities of Fish that their Seas abound with, and that may be taken up in the midst of their very Streets, which is such a natural Magazine as few other Places can boast of.

Our Voyage-Writers will needs have this City in great Danger of being left, within an Age or two, on the Terra Firma; and represent it in such a man­ner, as if the Sea was insensibly shrink­ing from it, and retiring into its Chan­nel. I asked several, and among the rest Father Coronelli, the State's Geographer, [Page 63] of the Truth of this Particular, and they all assured me that the Sea rises as high as ever, tho' the great Heaps of Dirt it brings along with it are apt to choak up the Shallows, but that they are in no Danger of losing the Benefit of their Situation, so long as they are at the Charge of removing these Banks of Mud and Sand. One may see abun­dance of them above the Surface of the Water, scattered up and down like so many little Islands, when the Tide is low; and they are these that make the Entrance for Ships difficult to such as are not used to them, for the deep Ca­nals run between them, which the Ve­netians are at a great Expence to keep free and open.

This City stands very convenient for Commerce. It has several Navigable Rivers that run up into the Body of I­taly, by which they might supply a great many Countries with Fish and other Commodities; not to mention their Op­portunities for the Levant, and each side of the Adriatic. But, notwithstanding these Conveniencies, their Trade is far from being in a flourishing Condition for many Reasons. The Duties are great that are laid on Merchandises. Their Nobles think it below their Quality to engage [Page 64] in Traffick. The Merchants who are grown Rich, and able to manage great Dealings, buy their Nobility, and ge­nerally give over Trade. Their Manu­factures of Cloth, Glass and Silk, for­merly the best in Europe, are now ex­celled by those of other Countries. They are tenacious of old Laws and Customs to their great Prejudice, whereas a Tra­ding Nation must be still for new Chan­ges and Expedients, as different Jun­ctures and Emergencies arise. The State is at present very sensible of this Decay in their Trade, and as a Noble Venetian, who is still a Merchant, told me, they will speedily find out some Method to redress it; possibly by making a free Port, for they look with an Evil Eye upon Leghorne, which draws to it most of the Vessels bound for Italy. They have hitherto been so negligent in this Parti­cular, that many think the Great Duke's Gold has had no small Influence in their Councils.

Venice has several Particulars which are not to be found in other Cities, and is therefore very entertaining to a Tra­veller. It looks, at a distance, like a great Town half floated by a Deluge. There are Canals every where crossing it, so that one may go to most Houses either [Page 65] by Land or Water. This is a very great Convenience to the Inhabitants; for a Gondola with Two Oars at Venice, is as magnificent as a Coach and Six Horses, with a large Equipage, in another Coun­try; besides that it makes all Carriages extreamly cheap. The Streets are gene­rally Paved with Brick or Free-stone, and always kept very neat, for there is no Carriage, not so much as a Chair, that passes thro' them. There is an in­numerable Multitude of very handsome Bridges, all of a single Arch, and with­out any Fence on either side, which would be a great Inconvenience to a City less sober than Venice. One would indeed wonder that Drinking is so little in Vogue among the Venetians, who are in a moist Air and a moderate Climate, and have no such Diversions as Bowling, Hunting, Walking, Riding, and the like Exercises to employ them without Doors. But as the Nobles are not to Converse too much with Strangers, they are in no Danger of learning it; and they are generally too distrustful of one another for the Freedoms that are used in such kind of Conversations. There are many Noble Palaces in Venice. Their Furniture is not commonly very Rich, if we except the Pictures, which are [Page 66] here in greater plenty than in any other Place in Europe, from the Hands of the best Masters of the Lombard School; as Titian, Paul Veronese and Tintoret. The last of these is in greater Esteem at Ve­nice than in other Parts of Italy. The Rooms are generally hung with Gilt Leather, which they cover on extraor­dinary Occasions with Tapestry, and Hangings of greater Value. The Floor­ing is a kind of Red Plaister made of Brick ground to Powder, and afterwards work'd into Mortar. It is rubbed with Oil, and makes a smooth, shining and beautiful Surface. These Particularities are chiefly owing to the Moisture of the Air, which would have an ill Effect on other kinds of Furniture, as it shows it self too visibly in many of their finest Pictures. Tho' the Venetians are ex­treamly jealous of any great Fame or Merit in a living Member of their Com­mon-wealth, they never fail of giving a Man his due Parises, when they are in no Danger of suffering from his Ambi­tion. For this Reason, tho' there are a great many Monuments erected to such as have been Benefactors to the Repub­lick, they are generally put up after their Deaths. Among the many Elogiums that are given to the Doge Pisauro, who [Page 67] had been Ambassador in England, his E­pitaph says, In Angliâ Jacobi Regis obi­tum mirâ calliditate celatum mirâ sagacita­te rimatus priscam benevolentiam firmavit. The particular Palaces, Churches, and Pictures of Venice, are enumerated in se­veral little Books that may be bought on the Place, and have been faithfully Transcribed by many Voyage-Writers. When I was at Venice, they were putting out very curious Stamps of the several Edifices which are most famous for their Beauty or Magnificence. The Arsenal of Venice is an Island of about three Miles round. It contains all the Stores and Provisions for War, that are not actu­ally employed. There are Docks for their Gallies and Men of War, most of them full, as well as Work-Houses for all Land and Naval Preparations. That Part of it, where the Arms are laid, makes a great show, and was indeed very extraordinary about a Hundred Years ago, but at present a great part of its Furniture is grown useless. There seem to be almost as many Suits of Armour as there are Guns. The Swords are old-fashion'd and unwieldy in a very great Number, and the Fire-Arms fitted with Locks of little Convenience in compa­rison of those that are now in use. The [Page 68] Venetians pretend they could set out, in Case of great Necessity, Thirty Men of War, a Hundred Gallies, and Ten Ga­leasses, tho' I cannot conceive how they could Man a Fleet of half the number. It was certainly a mighty Error in this State to affect so many Conquests on the Terra Firma, which has only served to raise the Jealousie of the Christian Prin­ces, and about Three Hundred Years ago had like to have ended in the utter Extirpation of the Common-wealth; whereas, had they applyed themselves with the same Politics and Industry to the Increase of their Strength by Sea, they might perhaps have had all the Islands of the Archipelago in their Hands, and, by Consequence, the greatest Fleet, and the most Sea-men of any other State in Europe. Besides, that this would have given no Jealousie to the Princes their Neighbours, who would have enjoyed their own Dominions in Peace, and have been very well contented to have seen so strong a Bulwark against all the Forces and Invasions of the Ottoman Em­pire.

This Republick has been much more powerful than it is at present, as it is still likelier to sink than increase in its Domini­ons. It is not impossible but the Spaniard [Page 69] may, some time or other, demand of them Creme, Brescia, and Bergame, which have been torn from the Milanese; and in case a War should arise upon it, and the Ve­netians lose a single Battel, they might be beaten off the Continent in a single Summer, for their Fortifications are ve­ry Inconsiderable. On the other side, the Venetians are in continual Apprehen­sions from the Turk, who will certainly endeavour at the Recovery of the Mo­rea, as soon as the Ottoman Empire has recruited a little of its antient Strength. They are very sensible that they had better have pushed their Conquests on the other side of the Adriatick into Al­bania, for then their Territories would have lain together, and have been nearer the Fourtain-Head to have received Suc­cours on occasions; but the Venetians are under Articles with the Emperor, to re­sign into his Hands whatever they con­quer of the Turkish Dominions, that has been formerly dismembered from the Empire. And having already very much dissatisfied him in the Frioul and Dalma­tia, they dare not think of exasperating him further. The Pope disputes with them their Pretensions to the Polesin, as the Duke of Savoy lays an equal Claim to the Kingdom of Cyprus. 'Tis surpri­sing [Page 70] to consider with what Heats these Two Powers have contested their Title to a Kingdom that is in the Hands of the Turk.

Among all these Difficulties the Re­publick will still maintain it self, if Po­licy can prevail upon Force; for it is certain the Venetian Senate is one of the wisest Councils in the World, tho' at the same time, if we believe the Re­ports of several that have been well versed in their Constitution, a great part of their Politics is founded on Maxims which others do not think consistent with their Honour to put in practice. The Preservation of the Republick is that to which all other Considerations submit. To encourage Idleness and Luxury in the Nobility, to cherish Ignorance and Licentiousness in the Clergy, to keep alive a continual Faction in the Common People, to connive at the Viciousness and Debauchery of Convents, to breed Dissensions among the Nobles of the Terra Firma, to treat a brave Man with Scorn and Infamy: In short, to stick at nothing for the Publick Interest, are re­presented as the refined Parts of the Ve­netian Wisdom.

Among all the Instances of their Po­litics, there is none more admirable than [Page 71] the great Secrecy that reigns in their Public Councils. The Senate is gene­rally as numerous as our House of Com­mons, if we only reckon the sitting Members, and yet carries its Resoluti­ons so privately, that they are seldom known 'till they discover themselves in the Execution. It is not many Years since they had before them a great De­bate concerning the Punishment of one of their Admirals, which lasted a Month together, and concluded in his Condem­nation; yet was there none of his Friends, nor of those who had engaged warmly in his Defence, that gave him the least Intimation of what was passing against him, 'till he was actually seiz'd, and in the Hands of Justice.

The Noble Venetians think themselves equal at least to the Electors of the Em­pire, and but one Degree below Kings; for which reason they seldom travel in­to Foreign Countries, where they must undergo the Mortification of being treat­ed like private Gentlemen: Yet it is ob­served of them, that they discharge them­selves with a great deal of Dexterity in such Embassies and Treaties as are laid on them by the Republick; for their whole Lives are employed in Intrigues [Page 72] of State, and they naturally give them­selves Airs of Kings and Princes, of which the Ministers of other Nations are only the Representatives. Monsieur Amelot reckons in his Time, Two Thou­sand Five Hundred Nobles that had Voices in the great Council, but at pre­sent, I am told, there are not at most Fifteen Hundred, notwithstanding the Addition of many new Families since that time. It is very strange, that with this Advantage they are not able to keep up their Number, considering that the Nobility spreads equally thro' all the Brothers, and that so very few of them are destroyed by the Wars of the Re­publick. Whether this may be imputed to the Luxury of the Venetians, or to the ordinary Celibacy of the younger Bro­thers, or to the last Plague which swept away many of them, I know not. They generally thrust the Females of their Fa­milies into Convents, the better to pre­serve their Estates. This makes the Ve­netian Nuns famous for the Liberties they allow themselves. They have Opera's within their own Walls, and often go out of their Bounds to meet their Ad­mirers, or they are very much misrepre­sented. They have many of them their Lovers, that converse with them daily at [Page 73] the Grate, and are very free to admit a Visit from a Stranger. There is indeed one of the Cornara's, that not long ago refused to see any under a Prince.

The Carnaval of Venice is every where talked of. The great Diversion of the place at that Time, as well as on all other high Occasions, is Masking. The Venetians, who are naturally Grave, love to give into the Follies and Entertainments of such Sea­sons, when disguised in a false Personage. They are indeed under a necessity of finding out Diversions that may agree with the Nature of the Place, and make some Amends for the Loss of several Plea­sures which may be met with on the Con­tinent. These Disguises give Occasion to abundance of Love Adventures; for there is something more intriguing in the Amours of Venice, than in those of other Countries, and I question not but the Secret History of a Carnaval would make a Collection of very diverting Novels. Opera's are another great Entertain­ment of this Season. The Poetry of them is generally as exquisitely ill, as the Musick is good. The Arguments are often taken from some celebrated Action of the ancient Greeks or Romans, which sometimes looks ridiculous enough; for who can endure to hear one of the rough [Page 74] old Romans squeaking thro' the Mouth of an Eunuch, especially when they may chuse a Subject out of Courts where Eu­nuchs are really Actors, or represent by them any of the soft Asiatic Monarchs? The Opera that was most in Vogue, during my Stay at Venice, was built on the following Subject. Caesar and Scipio are Rivals for Cato's Daughter. Cae­sar's first Words bid his Soldiers fly, for the Enemies are upon them. Si Leva Cesare, e dice a Soldati. A la fugga. A' lo Scampo. The Daughter gives the Pre­ference to Caesar, which is made the Occasion of Cato's Death. Before he kills himself, you see him withdrawn in­to his Library, where, among his Books, I observed the Titles of Plutarch and Tasso. After a short Soliloquy he strikes himself with the Dagger that he holds in his Hand, but, being interrupted by one of his Friends, he stabs him for his Pains, and by the Violence of the Blow unluckily breaks the Dagger on one of his Ribs, so that he is forced to dispatch himself by tearing up his first Wound. This last Circumstance puts me in Mind of a Contrivance in the Opera of St. An­gelo, that was acted at the same time. The King of the Play endeavours at a Rape, but the Poet being resolved to [Page 75] save his Heroine's Honour, has so or­dered it, that the King always acts with a great Case-Knife stuck in his Girdle, which the Lady snatches from him in the Struggle, and so defends her self.

The Italian Poets, besides the cele­brated Smoothness of their Tongue, have a particular Advantage, above the Wri­ters of other Nations, in the difference of their Poetical and Prose Language. There are indeed Sets of Phrases that in all Countries are peculiar to the Poets, but among the Italians there are not only Sentences, but a Multitude of particu­lar Words that never enter into common Discourse. They have such a different Turn and Polishing for Poetical Use, that they drop several of their Letters, and appear in another Form, when they come to be ranged in Verse. For this Reason the Italian Opera seldom sinks into a Poorness of Language, but, a­midst all the Meanness and Familiarity of the Thoughts, has something beau­tiful and sonorous in the Expression. Without this natural Advantage of the Tongue, their present Poetry would appear wretchedly low and vulgar, not­withstanding the many strained Allego­ries that are so much in use among the Writers of this Nation. The English [Page 76] and French, who always use the same Words in Verse as in ordinary Conver­sation, are forced to raise their Language with Metaphors and Figures, or, by the Pompousness of the whole Phrase, to wear off any Littleness that appears in the particular Parts that compose it. This makes our Blank Verse, where there is no Rhime to support the Ex­pression, extreamly difficult to such as are not Masters in the Tongue, especi­ally when they write on low Subjects; and 'tis probably for this Reason that Milton has made use of such frequent Transpositions, Latinisms, antiquated Words and Phrases, that he might the better deviate from vulgar and ordinary Expressions.

The Comedies that I saw at Venice, or indeed in any other Part of Italy, are very indifferent, and more lewd than those of other Countries. Their Poets have no Notion of gentile Comedy, and fall into the most filthy double Mean­ings imaginable, when they have a Mind to make their Audience merry. There is no Part generally so wretched as that of the fine Gentleman, especially when he Converses with his Mistress; for then the whole Dialogue is an insipid mix­ture of Pedantry and Romance. But [Page 77] 'tis no wonder that the Poets of so Jea­lous and Reserved a Nation fail in such Conversations on the Stage, as they have no Patterns of in Nature. There are Four Standing Characters which enter into every Piece that comes on the Stage, the Doctor, Harlequin, Pantalone and Co­viello. The Doctor's Character com­prehends the whole Extent of a Pedant, that with a deep Voice, and a Magi­sterial Air breaks in upon Conversation, and drives down all before him: Every thing he says is backed with Quotati­ons out of Galen, Hippocrates, Plato, Vir­gil, or any Author that rises uppermost, aad all Answers from his Companion are looked upon as Impertinencies or Inter­ruptions. Harlequin's Part is made up of Blunders and Absurdities: He is to mistake one Name for another, to for­get his Errands, to stumble over Queens, and to run his Head against every Post that stands in his way. This is all at­tended with something so Comical in the Voice and Gestures, that a Man, who is sensible of the Folly of the Part, can hardly forbear being pleased with it. Pantalone is generally an old Cully, and Coviello a Sharper.

I have seen a Translation of the Cid acted at Bolonia, which would never [Page 78] have taken, had they not found a Place in it for these Buffoons. All Four of them appear in Masks that are made like the old Roman Personae, as I shall have occasion to observe in another Place. The French and Italians have probably derived this Custom of shew­ing some of their Characters in Masks, from the Greek and Roman Theater. The old Vatican Terence has at the Head of every Scene the Figures of all the Per­sons that are concerned in it, with the particular Disguises in which they acted; and I remember to have seen in the Vil­la Mattheio an Antick Statue mask'd, which was perhaps designed for Gnatho in the Eunuch, for it agrees exactly with the Figure he makes in the Vati­can Manuscript. One would wonder indeed how so Polite a People, as the ancient Romans and Athenians, should not look on these borrowed Faces as un­natural. They might do very well for a Cyclops, or a Satyr, that can have no Resemblance in Human Features; but for a Flatterer, a Miser, or the like Cha­racters, which abound in our own Spe­cies, nothing is more ridiculous than to represent their Looks by a painted Vi­zard. In Persons of this Nature the Turns and Motions of the Face are of­ten [Page 79] as agreeable as any part of the Action. Could we suppose that a Mask represent­ed never so naturally the general Hu­mour of a Character, it can never suit with the Variety of Passions that are in­cident to every single Person in the whole Course of a Play. The Grimace may be proper on some Occasions, but is too steady to agree with all. The Rabble indeed are generally pleased at the first Entry of a Disguise, but the Jest grows cold even with them too when it comes on the Stage in a Second Scene.

Since I am on this Subject, I cannot forbear mentioning a Custom at Venice, which they tell me is particular to the common People of this Country, of sing­ing Stanza's out of Tasso. They are set to a pretty Solemn Tune, and when one begins in any part of the Poet, it is odds but he will be answered by some Body else that over-hears him: So that some­times you have Ten or a Dozen in the Neighbourhood of one another, taking Verse after Verse, and running on with the Poem as far as their Memories will carry them.

On Holy-Thursday, among the seve­ral Shows that are yearly exhibited, I saw one that is odd enough, and parti­cular to the Venetians. There is a Set [Page 80] of Artisans, who by the help of several Poles, which they lay across each others Shoulders, build themselves up into a kind of Pyramid; so that you see a Pile of Men in the Air of Four or Five Rows rising one above another. The Weight is so equally distributed, that every Man is very well able to bear his part of it, the Stories, if I may so call them, growing less and less as they advance high­er and higher. A little Boy represents the Point of the Pyramid, who, after a short space, leaps off, with a great deal of Dexterity, into the Arms of one that catches him at the Bottom. In the same manner the whole Building falls to pie­ces. I have been the more particular on this, because it explains the following Verses of Claudian, which show that the Venetians are not the Inventors of this Trick.

Vel qui mere avium sese jaculantur in auras,
Corporaque aedificant, celeri crescentia nexu,
Quorum compositam puer augmentatus in arcem
Emicat, & vinctus plantae, vel cruribus haerens,
Pendula librato figit vestigia saltu.
Claud. de Pr. & Olyb. Cons.
[Page 81]Men, pil'd on Men, with active Leaps arise,
And build the breathing Fabrick to the Skies;
A sprightly Youth above the top most Row
Points the tall Pyramid, and crowns the Show.

Tho' we meet with the Veneti in the old Poets, the City of Venice is too mo­dern to find a Place among them. San­nazarius's Epigram is too well known to be inserted. The same Poet has ce­lebrated this City in Two other Places of his Poems.

—Quis Venetae miracula proferat urbis,
Una instar magni quae simul Orbis habet?
Salve Italûm Regina, altae pulcherrima Romae
Aemula, quae terris, quae dominaris aquis!
Tu tibi vel Reges cives facis; O Decus, O Lux
Ausoniae, per quam libera turba sumus,
Per quam Barbaries nobis non imperat, & Sol
Exoriens nostro clarius orbe nitet!
L. 3. El. 1.
Venetia stands with Endless Beauties crown'd,
And as a World within her self is found.
[Page 82] Hail Queen of Italy! for Years to come
The mighty Rival of Immortal Rome!
Nations and Seas are in thy States enroll'd,
And Kings among thy Citizens are told.
Ausonia's brightest Ornament! by Thee
She sits a Sov'raign, Unenslav'd and Free;
By Thee, the rude Barbarian chas'd a­way,
The Rising Sun chears with a purer Ray
Our Western World, and doubly gilds the Day.

Nec Tu semper eris, que septem amplecteris arces,
Nec Tu, quae mediis aemula surgis aquis.
L. 2. El. 1.
Thou too shalt fall by Time or barb'rous Foes,
Whose circling Walls the Sev'n fam'd Hills enclose;
And Thou, whose Rival Tow'rs Invade the Skies,
And, from amidst the Waves, with e­qual Glory rise.


AT Venice I took a Bark for Fer­rara, and in my way thither saw several Mouths of the Po, by which it empties it self into the Adriatic,

—Quo non alius per pinguia culta
In mare purpureum violentior influit amnis.
Virg. G. 4.

which is true, if understood only of the Rivers of Italy.

Lucan's Description of the Po would have been very beautiful, had he known when to have given over.

Quoque magis nullum tellus se solvit in am­nem
Eridanus, fractasque evolvit in aequora syl­vas,
[Page 84] Hesperiamque exhaurit aquis, hunc fabula primum
Populeâ fiuvium ripas umbrâsse coronâ:
Cumque diem pronum transverso limite du­cens
Succendit Phaëton flagrantibus aethera loris;
Gurgitibus raptis, penitus tellure perustâ,
Hunc [...]abuisse pares Phoebeis ignibus undas.
L. 2.
The Po, that rushing with uncommon Force,
O'er-sets whole Woods in its tumultu­ous Course,
And rising from Hesperia's watry Veins,
Th' exhausted Land of all its Moisture drains.
The Po, as sings the Fable, first convey'd
Its wond'ring Current through a Pop­lar Shade:
For when young Phaeton mistook his way,
Lost and confounded in the Blaze of Day,
This River, with surviving Streams sup­ply'd,
When all the rest of the whole Earth were dry'd,
And Nature's self lay ready to expire,
Quench'd the dire Flame that set the World on Fire.

The Poet's Reflections follow.

[Page 85]
Non minor hic Nilo, si non per plana jacentis
Aegypti Libycas Nilus stagnaret arenas.
Non minor hic Istro, nisi quod dum permeat orbem
Ister, casuros in quaelibet aequora fontes
Accipit, & Scythicas exit non solus in un­das.
Nor would the Nile more watry Stores contain,
But that he stagnates on the Libyan Plain:
Nor would the Danube run with greater Force,
But that he gathers in his tedious Course
Ten Thousand Streams, and swelling as he flows,
In Scythian Seas the Glut of Rivers throws.

That is, says Scaliger, the Eridanus would be bigger than the Nile and Da­nube, if the Nile and Danube were not bigger than the Eridanus. What makes the Poet's Remark the more improper, the very Reason why the Danube is greater than the Po, as he assigns it, is that which really makes the Po as great as it is; for before its Fall into the Gulf, it receives into its Channel the most con­siderable Rivers of Piemont, Milan, and the rest of Lombardy.

[Page 86] From Venice to Ancona the Tide comes in very sensibly at its stated Pe­riods, but rises more or less in proportion as it advances nearer the Head of the Gulf. Lucan has run out of his way to describe this Phaenomenon, which is in­deed very extraordinary to those who lye out of the Neighbourhood of the great Ocean, and, according to his u­sual Custom, lets his Poem stand still that he may give way to his own Re­flections.

Quàque jacet littus dubium, quod terra fre­tumque
Vendicat alternis vicibus, cum funditur in­gens
Oceanus, vel cùm refugis se fluctibus aufert.
Ventus ab extremo pelagus sic axe volutet
Destituatque ferens: an sidere mota secundo
Tethyos unda vagae Lunaribus aestuet horis:
Flammiger an Titan, ut alentes hauriat undas,
Erigat Oceanum fluctusque ad sidera tollat,
Quaerite quos agitat mundi labor: at mihi semper
Tu quaecunque moves tam crebros causa meatus,
Ut superi voluere, late.—
Lib. 1.
[Page 87]Wash'd with successive Seas, the doubt­ful Strand
By turns is Ocean, and by turns is Land:
Whether the Winds in distant Regions blow,
Moving the World of Waters to and fro;
Or waining Moons their settled Periods keep
To swell the Billows, and ferment the Deep;
Or the tir'd Sun, his Vigour to supply,
Raises the floating Mountains to the Sky,
And slakes his Thirst within the mighty Tide,
Do you who study Nature's Works decide:
Whilst I the dark mysterious Cause ad­mire,
Nor, into what the Gods conceal, pre­sumptuously enquire.

At Ferrara I met nothing extraordi­nary. The Town is very large, but ex­treamly thin of People. It has a Cita­del, and something like a Fortification running round it, but so large that it requires more Soldiers to defend it, than the Pope has in his whole Dominions. The Streets are as beautiful as any I have seen, in their Length, Breadth, and Re­gularity. The Benedictins have the finest [Page 88] Convent of the Place. They show'd us in the Church Aristo's Monument: His Epitaph says, he was Nobilitate ge­neris atque Animi clarus, in rebus publicis administrandis, in regendis populis, in gra­vissimis & summis Pontificis legationibus prudentiâ, consilio, eloquentiâ praestantissi­mus.

I came down a Branch of the Po, as far as Alberto, within Ten Miles of Ra­venna. All this Space lyes miserably un­cultivated 'till you come near Ravenna, where the Soil is made extreamly fruit­ful, and shows that much of the rest might, be were there. Hands enough to manage it to the best Advantage. It is now on both sides the Road very Marshy, and generally over-grown with Rushes, which made me fancy it was once float­ed by the Sea, that lyes within Four Miles of it. Nor could I in the least doubt it when I saw Ravenna, that is now almost at the same distance from the Adriatic, tho' it was formerly the most famous of all the Roman Ports.

One may guess at its ancient Situation from Martial's

Meliùsque Ranae garrian [...] Ravennates.
Lib. 3.
[Page 89] Ravenna's Frogs in better Musick croak.

and the Description that Silius Italicus has given us of it.

Quàque gravi remo limosis segniter undis
Lenta paludosae perscindunt stagna Raven­nae.
L. 8.
Encumber'd in the Mud, their Oars di­vide
With heavy Stroaks the thick unwieldy Tide.

Accordingly the old Geographers re­present it as situated among Marshes and Shallows. The Place which is shown for the Haven, is on a Level with the Town, and has probably been stopped up by the great Heaps of Dirt that the Sea has thrown into it; for all the Soil on that side of Ravenna has been left there insensibly by the Sea's discharging it self upon it for so many Ages. The Ground must have been formerly much lower, for otherwise the Town would have lain under Water. The Remains of the Pharos, that stand about Three Miles from the Sea, and Two from the Town, have their Foundations covered with Earth for some Yards, as they told me, [Page 90] which notwithstanding are upon a Level with the Fields that lye about them, tho' 'tis probable they took the Advan­tage of a rising Ground to set it upon. It was a square Tower of about Twelve Yards in Breadth, as appears by that part of it which yet remains entire, so that its Height must have been very con­siderable to have preserved a Proportion. It is made in the Form of the Venetian Campanello, and is probably the high Tower mentioned by Pliny, Lib. 36. cap. 12.

On the side of the Town, where the Sea is supposed to have lain formerly, there is now a little Church called the Rotonda. At the Entrance of it are Two Stones, the one with an Inscription in Gothic Characters, that has nothing in it remarkable; the other is a square Piece of Marble, that by the Inscription appears ancient, and by the Ornaments about it shows it self to have been a lit­tle Pagan Monument of Two Persons who were Shipwreck'd, perhaps in the Place where now their Monument stands. The first Line and a half, that tells their Names and Families in Prose, is not le­gible; the rest runs thus,

—Raniae domus hos produxit alumnos,
[Page 91] Libertatis opus contulit una Dies.
Naufraga mors pariter rapuit quos junxe­rat antè,
Et duplices luctus mors periniqua dedit.
Both with the same Indulgent Master bless'd,
On the same Day their Liberty possess'd:
A Shipwreck slew whom it had join'd before,
And left their common Friends their Fun'rals to deplore.

There is a Turn in the Third Verse that we lose, by not knowing the Cir­cumstances of their Story. It was the Naufraga mors which destroyed them, as it had formerly united them; what this Union was is expressed in the pre­ceding Verse, by their both having been made Free-men on the same Day. If therefore we suppose they had been for­merly Shipwreck'd with their Master, and that he made them Free at the same time, the Epigram is unriddled. Nor is this Interpretation perhaps so forc'd as it may seem at first sight, since it was the Custom of the Masters, a little be­fore their Death, to give their Slaves their Freedom, if they had deserv'd it at their Hands; and it is natural enough [Page 92] to suppose one, involved in a common Shipwreck, would give such of his Slaves their Liberty, as should have the good Luck to save themselves. The Chancel of this Church is vaulted with a single Stone of Four Foot in Thickness, and a Hundred and Fourteen in Circumfe­rence. There stood on the Outside of this little Cupola a great Tomb of Por­phyry, and the Statues of the Twelve A­postles; but in the War that Louis the Twelfth made on Italy, the Tomb was broken in pieces by a Cannon-Ball. It was, perhaps, the same Blow that made the Flaw in the Cupola, tho' the Inhabitants say it was crack'd by Thun­der, that destroyed a Son of one of their Gothic Princes, who had taken Shelter under it, as having been foretold what kind of Death he was to die. I asked an Abbot, that was in the Church, what was the Name of this Gothic Prince, who, after a little Recollection, answered me, That he could not tell precisely, but that he thought it was one Julius Caesar. There is a Convent of Theatins, where they show a little Window in the Church, thro' which the Holy Ghost is said to have entered in the Shape of a Dove, and to have settled on one of the Candidates for the Bishoprick. The [Page 93] Dove is represented in the Window, and in several Places of the Church, and is in great Reputation all over Italy. I should not indeed think it impossible for a Pi­geon to fly in accidentally thro' the Roof, where they still keep the Hole open, and by its fluttering over such a parti­cular Place, to give so superstitious an Assembly an Occasion of favouring a Competitor, especially if he had many Friends among the Electors that would make a politick Use of such an Acci­dent: But they pretend the Miracle has happened more than once. Among the Pictures of several famous Men of their Order, there is one with this Inscripti­on. P. D. Thomas Gouldvellus Ep. Asis Tridno concilio contra Haereticos, & in An­glia contra Elisabet. Fidei Confessor conspi­cuus. The Statue of Alexander the Se­venth stands in the large Square of the Town; it is cast in Brass, and has the Posture that is always given the Figure of a Pope; an Arm extended, and bles­sing the People. In another Square on a high Pillar is set the Statue of the bles­sed Virgin, arrayed like a Queen, with a Scepter in her Hand, and a Crown up­on her Head; for having delivered the Town from a raging Pestilence. The Custom of Crowning the Holy Virgin [Page 94] is so much in Vogue among the Itali­ans, that one often sees in their Churches a little Tinsel Crown, or perhaps a Cir­cle of Stars glew'd to the Canvas over the Head of the Figure, which some­times spoils a good Picture. In the Con­vent of Benedictins I saw Three huge Chests of Marble, with no Inscription on them that I could find, tho' they are said to contain the Ashes of Valentinian, Honorius, and his Sister Placidia. From Ravenna I came to Rimini, having pas­sed the Rubicon by the way. This Ri­ver is not so very contemptible as it is generally represented, and was much in­creased by the melting of the Snows when Caesar passed it, according to Lu­can.

Fonte cadit modico parvisque impellitur undis
Puniceus Rubicon, cum fervida canduit aestas:
Perque imas serpit valles, & Gallica certus
Limes ab Ausoniis disterminat arva colonis:
Tunc vires praebebat hyems, atque auxerat undas
Tertia jam gravido pluvialis Cynthia cornu,
Et madidis Euri resolutae flatibus Alpes.
L. 1.
While Summer lasts, the Streams of Ru­bicon
From their spent Source in a small Cur­rent run,
[Page 95] Hid in the winding Vales they gently glide,
And Italy from neighb'ring Gaul divide;
But now, with Winter Storms encreas'd, they rose,
By wat'ry Moons produc'd, and Alpine Snows,
That melting on the hoary Mountains lay,
And in warm Eastern Winds dissolv'd away.

This River is now called Pisatello.

Rimini has nothing modern to boast of. Its Antiquities are as follow: A Marble Bridge of Five Arches, built by Augustus and Tiberius, for the Inscription is still legible, tho' not rightly transcrib'd by Gruter. A Triumphal Arch raised by Au­gustus, which makes a Noble Gate to the Town, tho' part of it is ruined. The Ruins of an Amphitheater. The Sug­gestum, on which it is said that Julius Caesar harangued his Army after having passed the Rubicon. I must confess I can by no means look on this last as Authen­tick: It is built of hewn Stone, like the Pedestal of a Pillar, but something high­er than ordinary, and is but just broad enough for one Man to stand upon it. On the contrary, the ancient Sugge­stums, as I have often observed on Me­dals, [Page 96] as well as on Constantine's Arch, were made of Wood like a little kind of Stage, for the Heads of the Nails are sometimes represented, that are supposed to have fastened the Boards together. We often see on them the Emperor, and Two or Three General Officers, some­times sitting and sometimes standing, as they made Speeches, or distributed a Congiary to the Soldiers or People. They were probably always in readiness, and carried among the Baggage of the Army, whereas this at Rimini must have been built on the Place, and required some time before it could be finished.


[Page 97]


If the Observation I have here made is just, it may serve as a Confirmation to the Learned Fabretti's Conjecture on Trajan's Pillar; who supposes, I think, with a great deal of Reason, that the Camps, Intrenchments, and other Works [Page 98] of the same Nature, which are cut out as if they had been made of Brick or hewn Stone, were in reality only of Earth, Turf, or the like Materials; for there are on the Pillar some of those Sugge­stums which are figured like those on Me­dals, with only this difference, that they seem built of Brick or Free-Stone. At Twelve Miles distance from Rimini stands the little Republick of St. Marino, which I could not forbear visiting, tho' it lyes out of the common Tour of Travellers, and has excessively bad Ways to it. I shall here give a particular Account of it, because I know of no Body else that as done it. One may, at least, have the Pleasure of seeing in it something more singular than can be found in great Governments, and form from it an Idea of Venico in its first Beginnings, when it had only a few Heaps of Earth for its Dominions, or of Rome it self, when it had as yet cover'd but one of its Seven Hills.


THE Town and Republick of St. Marino stands on the Top of a very high and craggy Mountain. It is generally hid among the Clouds, and lay under Snow when I saw it, tho' it was clear and warm Weather in all the Country about it. There is not a Spring or Fountain, that I could hear of, in the whole Dominions, but they are always well provided with huge Cisterns and Reservoirs of Rain and Snow-Water. The Wine that grows on the sides of their Mountain is extraordinary good, and I think much better than any I met with on the cold side of the Appenines. This puts me in Mind of their Cellars, which have most of 'em a natural Ad­vantage that renders 'em extreamly cool [Page 100] in the hottest Seasons, for they have ge­nerally in the Sides of them deep Holes that run into the Hollows of the Hill, from whence there constantly issues a breathing kind of Vapour, so very chil­ling in the Summer time, that a Man can scarce suffer his Hand in the Wind of it.

This Mountain, and a few neighbour­ing Hillocks that lye scatter'd about the Bottom of it, is the whole Circuit of these Dominions. They have, what they call, Three Castles, Three Convents, and Five Churches, and can reckon about Five Thousand Souls in their Communi­ty. The Inhabitants as well as the Histori­ans, who mention this little Republick, give the following Account of its Original. St. Marino was its Founder, a Dalmatian by Birth, and by Trade a Mason. He was employed above Thirteen Hundred Years ago in the Reparation of Rimini, and, after he had finish'd his Work, retired to this solitary Mountain, as find­ing it very proper for the Life of a Her­mit, which he led in the greatest Ri­gours and Austerities of Religion. He had not been long here before he wrought a reputed Miracle, which, join'd with his extraordinary Sanctity, gained him so great an Esteem, that the Princess of [Page 101] the Country made him a Present of the Mountain to dispose of it at his own Di­scretion. His Reputation quickly Peo­pled it, and gave Rise to the Republick which calls it self after his Name. So that the Common-wealth of Marino may boast at least of a nobler Original than that of Rome, the one having been at first an Asylum for Robbers and Murderers, and the other a Resort of Persons eminent for their Piety and Devotion. The best of their Churches is Dedicated to the Saint, and holds his Ashes. His Statue stands over the high Altar, with the Figure of a Mountain in its Hands, crown'd with Three Castles, which is likewise the Arms of the Common-wealth. They at­tribute to his Protection the long Dura­tion of their State, and look on him as the greatest Saint next the Blessed Virgin. I saw in their Statute-Book a Law a­gainst such as speak disrespectfully of him, who are to be punished in the same man­ner as those who are Convicted of Blas­phemy.

This petty Republick has now lasted Thirteen hundred Years, while all the other States of Italy have several times changed their Masters and Forms of Go­vernment. Their whole History is com­pris'd in Two Purchases, which they [Page 102] made of a neighbouring Prince, and in a War in which they assisted the Pope against a Lord of Rimini. In the Year 1100 they bought a Castle in the Neigh­bourhood, as they did another in the Year 1170. The Papers of the Condi­tions are preserv'd in their Archives, where 'tis very remarkable that the Name of the Agent for the Common-wealth, of the Seller, of the Notary, and the Witnesses, are the same in both the Instruments, tho' drawn up at Seven­ty Years distance from each other. Nor can it be any Mistake in the Date, be­cause the Popes and Emperors Names, with the Year of their respective Reigns, are both punctually set down. About 290 Years after this they assisted Pope Pius the Second against one of the Ma­latesta's, who was then Lord of Rimini; and when they had helped to conquer him, received from the Pope, as a Re­ward for their Assistance, Four little Ca­stles. This they represent as the flou­rishing Time of the Common-wealth, when their Dominions reach'd half way up a neighbouring Hill; but at present they are reduced to their old Extent. They would probably sell their Liberty as dear as they could to any that attacked them; for there is but one Road by [Page 103] which to climb up to them, and they have a very severe Law against any of their own Body that enters the Town by another Path, lest any new one should be worn on the Sides of their Mountain. All that are capable of bear­ing Arms are exercis'd, and ready at a Moment's Call.

The Sovereign Power of the Repub­lick was lodg'd originally in what they call the Arengo, a great Council in which every House had its Representative. But because they found too much Confusion in such a Multitude of Statesmen, they devolv'd their whole Authority into the Hands of the Council of Sixty. The Arengo however is still called together in Cases of extraordinary Importance; and if, after due Summons, any Mem­ber absents himself, he is to be Fin'd to the value of about a Penny English, which the Statute says he shall pay, Sine ali­quâ diminutione aut gratiâ. In the ordi­nary Course of Government, the Coun­cil of Sixty (which, notwithstanding the Name; consists but of Forty Persons) has in its Hands the Administration of Affairs, and is made up half out of the Noble Families, and half out of the Plebeian. They decide all by Baloting, are not admitted 'till Five and Twenty [Page 104] Years old, and chuse the Officers of the Common-wealth.

Thus far they agree with the Great Council of Venice, but their Power is much more extended; for no Sentence can stand that is not confirmed by Two Thirds of this Council. Besides, that no Son can be admitted into it during the Life of his Father, nor Two be in it of the same Family, nor any enter but by E­lection. The chief Officers of the Com­mon-wealth are the Two Capitaneos, who have such a Power as the old Roman Con­suls had, but are chosen every Six Months. I talk'd with some that had been Capi­taneos Six or Seven times, tho' the Office is never to be continu'd to the same Per­sons twice successively. The Third Of­ficer is the Commissary, who judges in all Civil and Criminal Matters. But be­cause the many Alliances, Friendships, and Intermarriages, as well as the Per­sonal Feuds and Animosities that happen among so small a People might obstruct the Course of Justice, if one of their own Number had the Distribution of it; they have always a Foreigner for this Em­ploy, whom they chuse for Three Years, and maintain out of the Publick Stock. He must be a Doctor of Law, and a Man of known Integrity. He is join'd [Page 105] in Commission with the Capitaneos, and acts something like the Recorder of London under the Lord Mayor. The Common-wealth of Genoa was forc'd to make use of a foreign Judge for many Years, whilst their Republick was torn into the Divisions of Guelphs and Gibe­lines. The Fourth Man in the State is the Physician, who must likewise be a Stranger, and is maintain'd by a publick Salary. He is oblig'd to keep a Horse, to visit the Sick, and to inspect all Drugs that are imported. He must be at least Thirty Five Years old, a Do­ctor of the Faculty, and eminent for his Religion and Honesty; that his Rash­ness or Ignorance may not unpeople the Common-wealth. And that they may not suffer long under any bad Choice, he is elected only for Three Years. The present Physician is a very understand­ing Man, and well read in our Country­men, Harvey, Willis, Sydenham, &c. He has been continu'd for some time among 'em, and they say the Common-wealth thrives under his Hands. Ano­ther Person, who makes no ordinary Fi­gure in the Republick, is the School-Master. I scarce met with any in the Place that had not some Tincture of Learning. I had the Perusal of a La­tin [Page 106] Book in Folio, Entituled, Statuta Il­lustrissimae Reipublicae Sancti Marini, Print­ed at Rimini by Order of the Common-wealth. The Chapter on the publick Ministers says, that when an Ambassa­dor is dispatch'd from the Republick to any Foreign State he shall be allow'd, out of the Treasury, to the Value of a Shilling a Day. The People are esteem'd very honest and rigorous in the Execu­tion of Justice, and seem to live more happy and contented among their Rocks and Snows, than others of the Italians do in the pleasantest Vallies of the World. Nothing indeed can be a greater Instance of the natural Love that Mankind has for Liberty, and of their Aversion to an Arbitrary Govern­ment, than such a Savage Mountain co­ver'd with People, and the Campania of Rome, which lyes in the same Country, almost destitute of Inhabitants.

Pesaro, Fano, Senigallia, Ancona, Loretto, &c. To ROME.

FROM Rimini to Loretto the Towns of Note are Pesaro, Fano, Senigallia and Ancona. Fano received its Name from the Fane or Temple of For­tune that stood in it. One may still see the Triumphal Arch erected there to Augustus: It is indeed very much de­fac'd by Time, but the Plan of it, as it stood entire with all its Inscriptions, is neatly cut upon the Wall of a neigh­bouring Building. In each of these Towns is a beautiful Marble Fountain, where the Water runs continually thro' several little Spouts, which looks very refreshing in these hot Countries, and gives a great Coolness to the Air about them. That of Pesaro is handsomly de­signed. Ancona is much the most con­siderable [Page 108] of these Towns. It stands on a Promontory, and looks more beauti­ful at a distance than when you are in it. The Port was made by Trajan, for which he has a Triumphal Arch e­rected to him by the Sea-side. The Marble of this Arch looks very white and fresh, as being exposed to the Winds and Salt Sea-Vapours, that by continu­ally fretting it preseves it self from that mouldy Colour, which others of the same Materials have contracted. Tho' the Italians and Voyage-Writers call these of Rimini, Fano, and Ancona Tri­umphal Arches, there was probably some Distinction made among the Ro­mans between such Honorary Arches e­rected to Emperors, and those that were rais'd to them on the Account of a Victory, which are properly Trium­phal Arches. This at Ancona was an In­stance of Gratitude to Trajan for the Port he had made there, as the two o­thers I have mention'd were probably for some Reason of the same Nature. One may however observe the Wisdom of the ancient Romans, who to encou­rage their Emperors in their Inclina­tion of doing good to their Coun­try, gave the same Honours to the great Actions of Peace, which turn'd to the [Page 109] Advantage of the Publick, as to those of War. This is very remarkable in the Medals that were stamp'd on the same Occasions. I remember to have seen one of Galba's with a Triumphal Arch on the Reverse, that was made by the Senate's Order for his having remitted a Tax. R. XXXX. REMISSA. S. C. The Medal which was made for Trajan in Remembrance of his Benificence to Ancona is very common. The Reverse has on it a Port with a Chain running a-cross it, and betwixt them both a Boat with this Inscription, S. P. Q. R. OP­TIMO PRINCIPI. S. C.


[Page 110]

I know Fabretti would fain ascribe this Medal to another Occasion, but Bellorio, in his Additions to Angeloni, has sufficiently refuted all he says on that Subject.

At Loretto I enquir'd for the En­glish Jesuits Lodgings, and on the Stair-Case that leads to 'em I saw seve­ral Pictures of such as had been Execu­ted in England, as the Two Garnets, Old-Corn, and others to the Number of Thirty. Whatever were their Crimes, the Inscription says they suffer'd for their Religion, and some of 'em are represent­ed lying under such Tortures as are not in use among us. The Martyrs of 1679 are set by themselves, with a Knife stuck in the Bosom of each Figure, to signify that they were Quarter'd.

[Page 111] The Riches in the Holy House and Treasury are surprizingly great, and as much surpass'd my Expectation as other Sights have generally fallen short of it. Silver can scarce find an Admission, and Gold it self looks but poorly among such an incredible number of precious Stones. There will be, in a few Ages more, the Jewels of the greatest Value in Europe, if the Devotion of its Princes continues in its present Fervour. The last Offer­ing was made by the Queen Dowager of Poland, and cost her 18000 Crowns. Some have wonder'd that the Turk ne­ver attacks this Treasury, since it lyes so near the Sea-shore, and is so weakly guarded. But besides that he has at­tempted it formerly with no Success, it is certain the Venetians keep too watch­ful an Eye over his Motions at present, and would never suffer him to enter the Adriatic. It would indeed be an easie thing for a Christian Prince to surprize it, who has Ships still passing to and fro without Suspicion, especially if he had a Party in the Town, disguis'd like Pil­grims, to secure a Gate for him; for there have been sometimes to the Num­ber of 100000 in a Day's time, as it is generally reported. But 'tis probable the Veneration for the Holy House, and [Page 112] the Horror of an Action that would be resented by all the Catholick Princes of Europe, will be as great a Security to the Place as the strongest Fortification. It is indeed an amazing thing to see such a prodigious Quantity of Riches lye dead, and untouch'd in the midst of so much Poverty and Misery as reign on all sides of 'em. There is no question, how­ever, but the Pope would make use of these Treasures in case of any great Cala­mity that should endanger the Holy See; as an unfortunate War with the Turk, or a powerful League among the Protestants. For I can't but look on those vast Heaps of Wealth, that are amass'd together in so many Religious Places of Italy, as the hidden Reserves and Magazines of the Church, that she would open on any pressing Occasion for her last Defence and Preservation. If these Riches were all turn'd into current Coin, and em­ploy'd in Commerce, they would make Italy the most flourishing Country in Europe. The Case of the Holy House is nobly design'd, and executed by the great Masters of Italy, that flourish'd about a hundred Years ago. The Sta­tues of the Sibyls are very finely wrought, each of 'em in a different Air and Po­sture, as are likewise those of the Pro­phets [Page 113] underneath 'em. The Roof of the Treasury is painted with the same kind of Device. There stands at the up­per End of it a large Crucifix very much esteem'd, the Figure of our Saviour re­presents him in his last Agonies of Death, and amidst all the Ghastliness of the Vi­sage has something in it very amiable. The Gates of the Church are said to be of Corinthian Brass, with many Scripture Stories rising on 'em in Basso Relievo. The Pope's Statue, and the Fountain by it, would make a noble Show in a Place less beautified with so many other Productions of Art. The Spicery, the Cellar and its Furniture, the great Re­venues of the Convent, with the Story of the Holy House, are too well known to be here insisted upon.

Whoever were the first Inventors of this Imposture, they seem to have taken the hint of it from the Veneration that the old Romans paid to the Cottage of Romulus, which stood on Mount Capitol, and was repair'd from time to time as it fell to decay. Virgil has given a pret­ty Image of this little thatch'd Palace, that represents it standing in Manlius's Time, 327 Years after the Death of Romulus.

[Page 114]
In summo custos Tarpeiae Manlius areis
Stabat pro templo, & capitolia celsa tene­bat:
Romuleoque recens horrebat Regia culmo.
Aen. L. 8.
High on a Rock Heroick Manlius stood
To guard the Temple, and the Temple's God:
Then Rome was poor, and there you might behold
The Palace thatch'd with Straw.

From Loretto, in my way to Rome, I pass'd thro' Recanati, Macorata, Tolenti­no and Foligni. In the last there is a Convent of Nuns call'd la Contessa, that has in the Church an incomparable Ma­donna of Raphel. At Spoletto, the next Town on the Road, are some Antiqui­ties. The most remarkable is an Aquae­duct of a Gothic Structure, that conveys the Water from Mount St. Francis to Spoletto, which is not to be equall'd for its height by any other in Europe. They reckon from the Foundation of the low­est Arch to the Top of it 230 Yards. In my way hence to Terni I saw the River Clitumnus, celebrated by so many of the Poets for a particular Quality in its Waters of making Cattle white that [Page 115] drink of it. The Inhabitants of that Country have still the same Opinion of it, as I found upon Enquiry, and have a great many Oxen of a whitish Colour to confirm 'em in it. It is probable this Breed was first settled in the Country, and continuing still the same Species, has made the Inhabitants impute it to a wrong Cause; tho' they may as well fancy their Hogs turn black for some Reason of the same Nature, because there are none in Italy of any other Breed. The River Clitumnus, and Mevania that stood on the Banks of it, are famous for the Herds of Victims with which they furnish'd all Italy.

Qua formosa suo Clitumnus flumina luco
Integit, & Niveos abluit unda boves.
Prop. L. 2.
Hinc Albi Clitumne greges, & maxima Taurus,
Victima, saepe tuo perfusi flumine saero
Romanos ad Templa Deûm duxere trium­phos.
Geor. 2. Virg.
There flows Clitumnus through the flow'ry Plain;
Whose Waves, for Triumphs after pro­sp'rous War,
The Victim Ox, and Snowy Sheep pre­pare.

[Page 116]
—Patulis Clitumnus in Arvis
Candentes gelido profundit flumine Tauros.
Sil Ital. L. 2.
—Tauriferis ubi se Mevania campis
Luc. L. 1.
—Atque ubi latis
Projecta in campis nebulas exhalat inertes,
Et sedet ingentem pascens Mevania tau­rum,
Dona Jovi—
Id. L. 6.
—Nec si vacuet Mevania valles,
Aut praestent niveos Clitumna novalia Tau­ros.
Stat. Syl. L. 1.
Pinguior Hispullâ traheretur taurus & ipsâ
Mole piger, non finitimâ nutritus in herbâ,
Laeta sed ostendens Clitumni pascua sanguis
Iret, & a grandi cervix ferienda Ministro.
Juv. Sat. 12.
A Bull high fed should fall the Sacrifice,
One of Hispulla's huge prodigious Size.
Not one of those our neighb'ring Pa­stures feed,
But of Clitumnus whitest Sacred Breed:
The lively Tincture of whose gushing Blood
Should clearly prove the Richness of his Food;
[Page 117] A Neck so strong, so large, as would command
The speeding Blow of some uncommon Hand.
Mr. Congreve.

I shall afterwards have occasion to quote Claudian.

Terni is the next Town in Course, formerly call'd Interamna, for the same Reason that a part of Asia was nam'd Mesopotamia. We enter at the Gate of the Three Monuments, so call'd because there stood near in a Monument erected to Tacitus the Historian, with two others to the Emperors Tacitus and Florianus, all of them Natives of the Place. These were a few Years ago Demolish'd by Thunder, and the Fragments of them are in the Hands of some Gentlemen of the Town. Near the Dome I was shown a square Marble, inserted in the Wall, with the following Inscription.

Saluti perpetuae Augustae
Libertatique Publicae Populi Romani
Genio municipi Anno post Interamnam Conditam. D. CC. IV.
Ad Cnejum Domitium
Coss. providentiae Ti. Caesaris [Page 118]Augusti nati ad Aeternitatem Romani nomi­nis sublato hoste perniciosissimo P. R. Fau­stus Titius Liberalis VI. vir iterum P. S. F. C. that is, pecunia sua fieri curavit.

This Stone was probably set up on occasion of the Fall of Sejanus. After the Name of Ahenobarbus there is a little Furrow in the Marble, but so smooth and well polish'd, that I should not have taken notice of it had not I seen Coss. at the end of it, by which it is plain there was once the Name of another Consul, which has been industriously razed out. Lucias Aruncius Camillus Scribonianus was Consul under the Reign of * Tiberius, and was afterwards put to Death for a Conspiracy that he had form'd against the Emperor Claudius; at which time it was order'd that his Name and Consulate should be effaced out of all publick Registers and Inscrip­tions. It is not therefore improbable, that it was this long Name which fill'd up the Gap I am now mentioning. There are near this Monument the Ru­ins of an ancient Theatre, with some of the Caves entire. I saw among the Ru­ins [Page 119] an old Heathen Altar, with this Par­ticularity in it, that it is hollow'd, like a Dish, at one End; but it was not this End on which the Sacrifice was laid, as one may guess from the Make of the Festoon, that runs round the Altar, and is inverted when the Hollow stands uppermost. In the same Yard, among the Rubbish of the Theatre, lye Two Pillars, the one of Granate, and the other of a very beautiful Marble. I went out of my way to see the Famous Cascade about Three Miles from Terni. It it form'd by the Fall of the River Velino, which Virgil mentions in the Seventh Aeneid—Rosed rura Velini.

The Channel of this River lyes very high, and is shaded on all sides by a Green Forest, made up of several kinds of Trees that preserve their Verdure all the Year. The neighbouring Mountains are co­ver'd with them, and by reason of their height are more expos'd to the Dews and drizzling Rains than any of the adjacent Parts, which gives occasion to Virgil's Ro­sea rura, (Dewy Countries.) The River runs extreamly rapid before its Fall, and rushes down a Precipice of a Hundred Yards high. It throws it self into the Hol­low of a Rock, which has probably been [Page 120] worn by such a constant Fall of Water. It is impossible to see the Bottom on which it breaks for the Thickness of the Mist that rises from it, which looks at a Distance like Clouds of Smoak as­cending from some vast Furnace, and distils in perpetual Rains on all the Pla­ces that lye near it. I think there is something more astonishing in this Cas­cade, than in all the Water-Works of Versailles, and could not but wonder when I first saw it, that I had never met with it in any of the old Poets, especially in Claudian, who makes his Emperor Honorius. go out of his way to see the River Nar which runs just be­low it, and yet does not mention what would have been so great an Embellish­ment to his Poem. But at present I don't in the least question, notwithstanding the Opinion of some Learned Men to the contrary, that this is the Gulf thro' which Virgil's Alecto shoots her self into Hell: for the very Place, the great Re­putation of it, the Fall of Waters, the Woods that encompass it, with the Smoak and Noise that arise from it, are all pointed at in the Description. Per­haps he would not mention the Name of the River, because he has done it in the Verses that precede. We may add [Page 121] to this, that the Cascade is not far off that part of Italy which has been call'd Italiae Meditullium.

Est locus Italiae medio, sub montibus altis,
Nobilis, & famâ multis memoratus in oris,
Amsancti valles, densis hunc frondibus a­trum
Urget utrinque latus nemoris, medioque fra­gosus
Dat sonitum saxis & torto vortice torrens:
Hic specus horrendum, & saevi spiracula Ditis
Monstrantur, ruptoque ingens Acheronte vo­rago
Pestiferas aperit fauces, queis condita E­rinnys
Invisum Numen terras coelumque levabat.
Aen. 7.
In midst of Italy, well known to Fame,
There lies a Vale, Amsanctus is the Name,
Below the lofty Mounts: On either side
Thick Forests the forbidden Entrance hide:
Full in the Centre of the Sacred Wood
An Arm ariseth of the Stygian Flood;
Which falling from on high, with bel­lowing Sound
Whirls the black Waves and ratling Stones around.
[Page 122] Here Pluto pants for Breath from out his Cell,
And opens wide the grinning Jaws of Hell.
To this Infernal Gate the Fury flies,
Here hides her hated Head, and frees the lab'ring Skies.

It was indeed the most proper Place in the World for a Fury to make her Exit, after she had fill'd a Nation with Di­stractions and Alarms; and I believe e­very Reader's Imagination is pleas'd, when he sees the angry Goddess thus sinking, as it were, in a Tempest, and plunging herself into Hell, amidst such a Scene of Horror and Confusion.

The River Velino, after having found its way out from among the Rocks where it falls, runs into the Nera. The Channel of this last River is white with Rocks, and the Surface of it, for a long Space, cover'd with Froth and Bubbles; for it runs all along upon the Fret, and is still breaking against the Stones that oppose its Passage: So that for these Reasons, as well as for the Mixture of Sulphur in its Waters, it is very well de­scrib'd by Virgil, in that Verse which mentions these Two Rivers in their old Roman Names.

[Page 123]
Tartaream intendit vocem, quà protinus omne
Contremuit nemus, & sylvae into [...]ere pro­fundae,
Audiit & longè Triviae lacus, audiit amnis
Sulphureâ Nar albus aquâ, fontesque Ve­lini.
Aen. 7.
The Sacred Lake of Trivia from afar,
The Veline Fountains, and Sulphureous Nar,
Shake at the Baleful Blast, the Signal of the War.

He makes the Sound of the Fury's Trum­pet run up the Nera to the very Sour­ces of Velino, which agrees extreamly well with the Situation of these Rivers. When Virgil has mark'd any particular Quality in a River, the other Poets sel­dom fail of Copying after him.

—Sulphureus Nar.
—Narque albescentibus undis
In Tibrim properans—
Sil. It. L. 8.
—Et Nar vitiatus odoro
Claud. de Pr. & Olyb. Cons.
—The Hoary Nar
Corrupted with the Stench of Sulphur flows,
And into Tiber's Streams th' infected Cur­rent throws.

[Page 124] From this River our next Town on the Road receives the Name of Narni. I saw hereabouts nothing remarkable ex­cept Augustus's Bridge, that stands half a Mile from the Town, and is one of the stateliest Ruins in Italy. It has no Cement, and looks as firm as one entire Stone. There is an Arch of it unbro­ken, the broadest that I have ever seen, tho' by reason of its great height it does not appear so. The middle one was still much broader. They join together Two Mountains, and belong'd, without doubt, to the Bridge that Martial men­tions, tho' Mr. Ray takes 'em to be the Remains of an ancient Aquaeduct.

Sed jam parce mihi, nec abutere Narnia Quinto,
Perpetuo liceat sic tibi ponte frui!
L. 7.
Preserve my better Part, and spare my Friend;
So, Narni, may thy Bridge for ever stand.

From Narni I went to Otricoli, a very mean little Village, that stands where the Castle of Ocriculum did formerly. I turn'd about half a Mile out of the Road to see the Ruins of the old Ocriculum, [Page 125] that lye near the Banks of the Tiber. There are still scatter'd Pillars and Pe­destals, huge Pieces of Marble half bu­ry'd in the Earth, Fragments of Tow­ers, Subterraneous Vaults, Bathing Pla­ces, and the like Marks of its ancient Magnificence.

In my way to Rome, seeing a high Hill standing by it self in the Campania, I did not question but it had a Classic Name, and upon Enquiry found it to be Mount Soracte. The Italians at present call it, because its Name begins with an S. St. Oreste.

The Fatigue of our crossing the Ap­penines, and of our whole Journey from Loretto to Rome, was very agreeably re­liev'd by the Variety of Scenes we pass'd thro'. For not to mention the rude Prospect of Rocks rising one above another, of the deep Gutters worn in the Sides of 'em by Torrents of Rain and Snow-Water, or the long Channels of Sand winding about their Bottoms, that are sometimes filled with so many Rivers: We saw, in Six Days Travel­ling, the several Seasons of the Year in their Beauty and Perfection. We were sometimes Shivering on the Top of a bleak Mountain, and a little while af­ter Basking in a warm Valley, covered [Page 126] with Violets and Almond-trees in Blos­som, the Bees already swarming over 'em, tho' but in the Month of February. Sometimes our Road led us thro' Groves of Olives, or by Gardens of O­ranges, or into several hollow Apart­ments among the Rocks and Mountains, that look like so many natural Green-Houses; as being always shaded with a great Variety of Trees and Shrubs that never lose their Verdure.

I shall say nothing of the Via Flami­nia, which has been spoken of by most of the Voyage-Writers that have pass'd it, but shall set down Claudian's Ac­count of the Journey that Honorius made from Ravenna to Rome, which lyes most of it in the fame Road that I have been describing.

—Antiquae muros egressa Ravennae
Signa movet, jamque or a Padi portusque relinquit
Flumineos, certis ubi legibus advena Nereus
Aestuat, & pronas puppes nunc amne Se­cundo
Nunc redeunte vehit, nudataque littora fluctu
Deserit, Oceani lunaribus aemula damnis;
Laetior hinc Fano recipit Fortuna vetusto,
Despiciturque vagus praeruptâ valle Metau­rus,
[Page 127] * Quà mons arte patens vivo se perforat Arcu,
Admisitque viam sectae per viscera rupis,
Exuperans delubra Jovis, saxoque minantes
Apenninigenis cultas pastoribus aras:
Quin & Clitumni sacras victoribus undas,
Candida quae Latiis praebent armenta tri­umphis
Visere cura fuit. Nec te miracula fontis
Praetereunt: tacito passu quem si quis adiret,
Lentus erat: Si voce gradum majore citâsset,
Commistis fervebat aquis, cùmque omnibus una
Sit natura vadis, similes ut corporis umbras
Ostendant: haec sola novam jactantia sortem
Humanos properant imitari flumina mores.
Celsa dehinc patulum prospectans Narnia campum
Regali calcatur equo, rarique coloris
Non procul amnis adest, urbi qui nominis auctor
Ilice sub densâ sylvis arctatus opacis
Inter utrumque jugum tortis anfractibus al­bet.
Inde salutato libatis Tibride Nymphis,
Excipiunt arcus, operosaque semita, vastis.
Molibus, & quicquid tantae praemittitur urbi.
De 6. Cons. Hon.
[Page 128]They leave Ravenna, and the Mouths of Po,
That all the Borders of the Town o'er­flow;
And spreading round in one continu'd Lake,
A spacious hospitable Harbour make.
Hither the Seas at stated Times resort,
And shove the loaden Vessels into Port:
Then with a gentle Ebb retire again,
And render back their Cargo to the Main.
So the pale Moon the restless Ocean guides,
Driv'n to and fro by such submissive Tides.
Fair Fortune next, with Looks serene and kind,
Receives 'em, in her ancient Fane en­shrin'd;
Then the high Hills they cross, and from below
In distant Murmurs hear Metaurus flow,
'Till to Clitumno's sacred Streams they come,
That send white Victims to Almighty Rome:
When her triumphant Sons in War suc­ceed,
And slaughter'd Hecatombs around 'em bleed.
[Page 129] At Narni's lofty Seats arriv'd, from far
They view the Windings of the hoary Nar;
Through Rocks and Woods impetuous­ly he glides,
While Froth and Foam the fretting Sur­face hides.
And now the Royal Guest, all Dangers pass'd,
Old Tiber and his Nymphs salutes at last;
The long laborious Pavement here he treads,
That to proud Rome th' admiring Nati­ons leads:
While stately Vaults and tow'ring Piles appear,
And show the World's Metropolis is near.

Silius Italicus, who has taken more Pains on the Geography of Italy than any other of the Latin Poets, has given a Catalogue of most of the Rivers that I saw in Umbria, or in the Borders of it. He has avoided a Fault (if it be really such) which Macrobius has objected to Virgil, of passing from one Place to a­nother, without regarding their regular and natural Situation, in which Homer's Catalogues are observ'd to be much more methodical and exact than Virgil's.

[Page 130]
—Cavis venientes montibus Umbri,
Hos Aefis Sapisque lavant, rapidasque so­nanti
Vortice contorquens undas per saxa Me­taurus.
Et lavat ingentem perfundens flamine sacro
Clitumnus taurum, Narque albescentibus undis
In Tibrim properans, Tineaeque inglorius humor,
Et Clanis, & Rubico, & Senonum de no­mine Senon.
Sed pater ingenti medios illabitur amne
Albula, & immotâ perstringit moenia ripâ,
His urbes arva, & latis Mevania pratis,
Hispellum, & duro monti per saxa recum­bens
Narnia, &c.—
Sil. It. L. 8.

Since I am got among the Poets, I shall end this Chapter with Two or Three Passages out of 'em, that I have omitted inserting in their proper Places.

Sit Cisterna mihi quam Vinea malo Ravennae,
Cùm possim multo vendere pluris Aquam.
Mar. L. 5.
Lodg'd at Ravenna, (Water sells so dear)
A Cistern to a Vineyard I prefer.

[Page 131]
Callidus imposuit nuper mihi Caupo Ravennae:
Cum peterem mixtum, vendidit ille merum.
By a Ravenna Vintner once betray'd,
So much for Wine and Water mix'd I paid;
But when I thought the purchas'd Li­quor mine,
The Rascal fobb'd me off with only Wine.

Stat fucare colus nec Sidone vilior Ancon,
Murice nec Tyrio.—
Sil. It. L. 8.
The Wool, when shaded with Ancona's Dye,
May with the proudest Tyrian Purple vie.

Fountain Water is still very scarce at Ravenna, and was probably much more so, when the Sea was within its Neigh­bourhood.


UPON my Arrival at Rome I took a View of St. Peters, and the Rotunda, leaving the rest 'till my Return from Naples, when I should have time and leisure enough to consider what I saw. St. Peters seldom answers Expectation at first entering it, but en­larges it self on all Sides insensibly, and mends upon the Eye every Moment. The Proportions are so very well observ'd, that nothing appears to an Advantage, or distinguishes it self above the rest. It seems neither extreamly high, nor long, nor broad, because it is all of them in a just Equality. As on the contrary in our Gothic Cathedrals, the Narrowness [Page 133] of the Arch makes it rise in Height, or run out in Length; the Lowness often opens it in Breadth, or the Defectiveness of some other Particular makes any single Part appear in greater Perfection. Tho' every thing in this Church is admirable, the most astonishing Part of it is the Cupola. Upon my going to the Top of it, I was surpriz'd to find that the Dome, which we see in the Church, is not the same that one looks upon with­out Doors, the last of 'em being a kind of Case to the other, and the Stairs lying betwixt 'em both, by which one as­cends into the Ball. Had there been only the outward Dome, it would not have shewn it self to an Advantage to those that are in the Church; or had there only been the inward one, it would scarce have been seen by those that are without; had they both been one solid Dome of so great a Thickness, the Pil­lars would have been too weak to have supported it. after having survey'd this Dome, I went to see the Rotunda, which is generally said to have been the Mo­del of it. This Church is at present so much chang'd from the ancient Panthe­on, as Pliny has describ'd it, that some have been inclin'd to think it is not the same Temple; but the Cavalier Fonta­na [Page 134] has abundantly satisfy'd the World in this Particular, and shewn how the an­cient Figure, and Ornaments of the Pan­theon, have been chang'd into what they are at present. This Author, who is now esteem'd the best of the Roman Architects, has lately written a Treatise on Vespasian's Amphitheater, which is not yet Printed.

After having seen these Two Ma­ster-pieces of Modern and Ancient Ar­chitecture, I have often consider'd with my self whether the ordinary Figure of the Heathen, or that of the Christian Temples be the most beautiful, and the most capable of Magnificence, and can't forbear thinking the Cross Figure more proper for such spacious Buildings than the Rotund. I must confess the Eye is better fill'd at first entering the Rotund, and takes in the whole Beauty and Mag­nificence of the Temple at one view. But such as are built in the Form of a Cross, give us a greater Variety of No­ble Prospects. Nor is it easie to conceive a more glorious Show in Architecture, than what a Man meets with in St. Pe­ters, when he stands under the Dome. If he looks upward he is astonish'd at the spacious Hollow of the Cupola, and has a Vault on every side of him, that [Page 135] makes one of the beautifullest Vistas that the Eye can possibly pass thro'. I know that such as are profess'd Admirers of the Ancients will find abundance of Chimerical Beauties, the Archi­tects themselves never thought of, as one of the most Famous of the Moderns in that Art tells us, the Hole in the Roof of the Rotunda is so admirably con­triv'd, that it makes those who are in the Temple look like Angels, by dif­fusing the Light equally on all sides of 'em.

In all the old High-ways, that lead from Rome, one sees several little Ruins on each side of 'em, that were formerly so many Sepulchres; for the ancient Ro­mans generally bury'd their Dead near the great Roads.

Quorum Flaminiâ tegitur cinis atque La­tinâ.
Juv. S. 1.

None, but some few of a very extra­ordinary Quality, having been interred within the Walls of the City.

Our Christian Epitaphs, that are to be seen only in Churches, or Church-Yards, begin often with a Siste Viator-Viator precare salutem, &c. probably in Imitation of the old Roman Inscriptions, that generally address'd themselves to the [Page 136] Travellers; as it was impossible for 'em to enter the City, or to go out of it without passing thro' one of these me­lancholly Roads, which for a great Length was nothing else but a Street of Fune­ral Monuments.

In my way from Rome to Naples I found nothing so remarkable as the Beauty of the Country, and the extream Poverty of its Inhabitants. It is indeed an amazing thing to see the present De­solation of Italy, when one considers what incredible Multitudes of People it abounded with during the Reigns of the Roman Emperors: And notwithstand­ing the Removal of the Imperial Seat, the Irruptions of the Barbarous Nations, the Civil Wars of this Country, with the Hardships of its several Govern­ments, one can scarce imagine how so plentiful a Soil should become so mise­rably unpeopled in Comparison of what it once was. We may reckon, by a very moderate Computation, more In­habitants in the Campania of Old Rome, than are now in all Italy. And if we could number up those prodigious Swarms that had settled themselves in every Part of this delighful Country, I question not but that they would amount to more than can be found, at present, in any Six [Page 137] Parts of Europe of the same Extent. This Desolation appears no where greater than in the Pope's Territories, and yet there are several Reasons would make a Man expect to see these Domini­ons the best regulated, and most flou­rishing of any other in Europe. Their Prince is generally a Man of Learning and Virtue, mature in Years and Expe­rience, who has seldom any Vanity or Pleasure to gratify at his People's Ex­pence, and is neither encumber'd with Wife, Children or Mistresses; not to mention the suppos'd Sanctity of his Character, which obliges him in a more particular manner to consult the Good and Happiness of Mankind. The Di­rection of Church and State are lodg'd entirely in his own Hands, so that his Government is naturally free from those Principles of Faction and Di­vision which are mix'd in the very Composition of most others. His Sub­jects are always ready to fall in with his Designs, and are more at his Disposal than any others of the most absolute Government, as they have a greater Ve­neration for his Person, and not only court his Favour but his Blessing. His Country is extreamly fruitful, and has good Havens both for the Adriatic and [Page 138] Mediterranean, which is an Advantage peculiar to himself and the Neapolitans above the rest of the Italians. There is still a Benefit the Pope enjoys above all other Soveraigns, in drawing great Sums out of Spain, Germany and other Coun­tries that belong to Foreign Princes, which one would fancy might be no small Ease to his own Subjects. We may here add, that there is no Place in Europe so much frequented by Strangers, whether they are such as come out of Curiosity, or such who are obliged to attend the Court of Rome on several Oc­casions, as are many of the Cardinals and Prelates, that bring considerable Sums into the Pope's Dominions. But not­withstanding all these promising Cir­cumstances, and the long Peace that has reign'd so many years in Italy, there is not a more miserable People in Europe than the Pope's Subjects. His State is thin of Inhabitants, and a great Part of his Soil uncultivated. His Subjects are wretchedly poor and idle, and have nei­ther sufficient Manufactures nor Traffick to employ 'em. These ill Effects may arise, in a great measure, out of the Ar­bitrariness of the Government, but I think they are chiefly to be ascrib'd to the very Genius of the Roman Catholick [Page 139] Religion, which here shews it self in its Perfection. It is not strange to find a Country half unpeopled, where so great a proportion of the Inhabitants of both Sexes is ty'd under such Vows of Chastity, and where at the same time an Inquisition forbids all Recruits out of any other Religion. Nor is it less easy to account for the great Poverty and Want that are to be met with in a Country which invites into it such Swarms of Vagabonds, under the Title of Pilgrims, and shuts up in Cloisters such an incredible Multitude of young and lusty Beggars, who, instead of encrea­sing the Common Stock by their La­bour and Industry, lye as a dead Weight on their Fellow Subjects, and consume the Charity that ought to support the Sickly, Old and Decrepid. The many Hospitals, that are every where erected, serve rather to encourage Idleness in the People, than to set 'em at Work; not to mention the great Riches which lye useless in Churches and Religious Hou­ses, with the Multitude of Festivals that must never be violated by Trade or Bu­siness. To speak truly, they are here so wholly taken up with Mens Souls, that they neglect the good of their Bo­dies; and when, to these natural Evils [Page 140] in the Government and Religion, there arises among 'em an Avaritious Pope, who is for making a Family, it is no wonder if the People sink under such a Complication of Distempers. Yet it is to this Humour of Nepotism that Rome owes its present Splendor and Magni­ficence, for it would have been impos­sible to have furnish'd out so many glo­rious Palaces with such a Profusion of Pictures, Statues, and the like Ornaments, had not the Riches of the People at several times fallen into the Hands of many different Families, and of particu­lar Persons; as we may observe, tho' the Bulk of the Roman People was more rich and happy in the times of the Com­mon-wealth, the City of Rome receiv'd all its Beauties and Embellishments under the Emperors. It is probable the Cam­pania of Rome, as well as other Parts of the Pope's Territories, would be culti­vated much better than it is, were there not such an Exorbitant Tax on Corn, which makes 'em plow up only such Spots of Ground as turn to the most Advantage: Whereas were the Money to be rais'd on Lands, with an Exception to some of the more barren Parts, that might be Tax-free for a certain Term of Years, every one would turn his Ground to the [Page 141] best Account, and in a little time per­haps bring more Money into the Pope's Treasury.

The greatest Pleasure I took in my Journey from Rome to Naples was in see­ing the Fields, Towns, and Rivers that have been describ'd by so many Classic Authors, and have been the Scenes of so many great Actions; for this whole Road is extreamly barren of Curiosities. It is worth while to have an Eye on Horace's Voyage to Brundisi, when one passes this way; for by comparing his several Stages, and the Road he took, with those that are observ'd at present, we may have some Idea of the Changes that have been made in the Face of this Country since his Time. If we may guess at the common Trevelling of Per­sons of Quality, among the ancient Ro­mans, from this Poet's Description of his Voyage, we may conclude they seldom went above Fourteen Miles a Day over the Appian Way, which was more us'd by the Noble Romans than any other in Italy, as it led to Naples, Baïae, and the most delightful Parts of the Nation. It is indeed very disagreeable to be carry'd in haste over this Pavement.

Minùs est gravis Appia tardis.

[Page 142] Lucan has describ'd the very Road from Anxur to Rome, that Horace took from Rome to Anxur. It is not indeed the ordinary Way at present, nor is it mark'd out by the same Places in both Poets.

Jamque & praecipites superaverat Anxuris arces,
Et qua * Pontinas via dividit uda paludes,
Quà sublime nemus, Scythicae quà regna Dianae;
Quàque iter est Latiis ad summam fascibus Albam.
Excelsâ de rupe procul jam conspicit urbem.
L. 3.
He now had conquer'd Anxur's steep A­scent,
And to Pontina's wat'ry Marshes went,
A long Canal the muddy Fenn divides,
And with a clear unsully'd Current glides;
Diana's woody Realms he next invades,
And crossing through the consecrated Shades
Ascends high Alba, whence with new Delight
He sees the City rising to his Sight.

[Page 143] In my way to Naples I cross'd the Two most considerable Rivers of the Cam­pania Felice, that were formerly call'd the Liris and Vulturnus, and are at present the Garigliano and Vulturno. The First of these Rivers has been deservedly ce­lebrated by the Latin Poets for the Gen­tleness of its Course, as the other for its Rapidity and Noise.

—Rura quae Liris quietâ
Mordet aquâ, taciturnus Amnis.
H. Li. 1. Od. 30.
Liris—qui fonte quieto
Dissimulat cursum, & nullo mutabilis imbre
Perstringit tacitas gemmanti gurgite ripas.
Sil. It. L. 4.
—Miscentem flumina Lirim
Sulfureum, tacitisque vadis ad littora lapsum
Accolit Arpinas—
Id. L. 8
Where the smooth Streams of Liris stray,
And steal insensibly away.
The Warlike Arpine borders on the sides
Of the slow Liris, that in silence glides,
And in its tainted Stream the working Sulphur hides.

Vulturnusque rapax—
Cl. de Pr. & Ol. Con.
Vulturnasque celer—
Luc. L. 2. 28.
—Fluctuque sonorum
Sil. It. L. 8.
[Page 144]The rough Vulturnus, furious in its Course,
With rapid Streams divides the fruitful Grounds,
And from afar in hollow Murmurs sounds.

The Ruins of Anxur and old Capua mark out the pleasant Situation in which those Towns formerly stood. The first of them was planted on the Mountain, where we now see Terracina, and by rea­son of the Breezes that came off the Sea, and the Height of its Situation, was one of the Summer Retirements of the an­cient Romans.

O nemus, O fontes! solidumque madentis arenae
Littus, & aequoreis splendidus Anxur a­quis!
Mar. L. 10.
Ye warbling Fountains, and ye shady Trees,
Where Anxur feels the cool refreshing Breeze
Blown off the Sea, and all the dewy Strand
Lyes cover'd with a smooth unsinking Sand!

Anxuris aequorei placidos Frontine recessus
Et propius Baïas littoreamque domum,
[Page 145] Et quod inhumanae Cancro fervente Ci­cadae
Non novere, nemus, flumineosque lacus
Dum colui, &c.
On the cool Shore, near Baja's gentle Seats,
I lay retir'd in Anxur's soft Retreats.
Where Silver Lakes, with verdant Sha­dows crown'd,
Disperse a grateful Chilness all around;
The Grasshopper avoids th' untainted Air,
Nor in the midst of Summer ventures there.

Impositum Saxis latè candentibus Anxur.
Hor. S. 5. L. 1.
Monte procelloso Murranum miserat An­xur.
Sil. It. L. 4.
—Scopulosi verticis Anxur.
S. It. L. 4.
Capuae Luxum vide apud
Sil. It. L. 11.
Murranus came from Anxur's show'ry Height,
With ragged Rocks, and stony Quar­ries white;
Seated on Hills—

I don't know whether it be worth while to take notice that the Figures, [Page 146] which are cut in the Rock near Terra­cina, encrease still in a Decimal Propor­tion as they come nearer the Bottom. If one of our Voyage-Writers, who pas­sed this way more than once, had obser­ved the Situation of these Figures, he would not have troubled himself with the Dissertation that he has made upon them. Silius Italicus has given us the Names of several Towns and Rivers in the Campania Felice.

Jam verò quos dives opum, quos dives a­vorum,
Et toto dabat ad bellum Campania tractu;
Ductorum adventum vicinis Sedibus Osci
Servabant; Sinuessa tepens, fluctuque so­norum
Vulturnum, quasque evertere silentia, A­myclae,
Fundique et regnata Lamo Cajeta, domus­que
Antiphatae compressa freto, stagnisque pa­lustre
Linternum, et quondam fatorum conscia Cuma,
Illic Nuceriae, et Gaurus navalibus apta,
Prole Dicharchaeâ multo cum milite Graja
Illic Parthenope, et Paeno non pervia Nola.
Alliphe, et Clanio contemtae semper Acerrae.
Sarrastes etiam populos totasque videres
[Page 147] Sarni mitis opes: illic quos Sulphure pin­gues
Phlegraei legere sinus, Misenus et ardens
Ore gigantaeo sedes Ithacesia, Bajae,
Non Prochite, non ardentem sortita Tiphaea
Inarime, non antiqui saxosa Telonis
Insula, nec parvis aberat Calatia muris,
Surrentum, et pauper sulci Cerealis Avella,
In primis Capua, heu rebus servare Se­cundis
Inconsulta modum, et pravo peritura tu­more.
L. 8.


MY First Days at Naples were taken up with the Sight of Processions, which are al­ways very magnificent in the Holy-Week. It would be tedious to give an Account of the seve­ral Representations of our Saviour's Death and Resurrection, of the Figures of himself, the Blessed Virgin, and the Apostles, which are carry'd up and down on this Occasion, with the Cruel Penan­ces that several inflict on themselves, and the Multitude of Ceremonies that at­tend these Solemnities. I saw, at the same time, a very splendid Procession for the Accession of the Duke of Anjou to the Crown of Spain, in which the Vice-Roy bore his Part at the Left Hand of Cardinal Cantelmi. To grace the Pa­rade, they expos'd, at the same time, the Blood of St. Januarius, which lique­fy'd at the approach of the Saint's Head, tho', as they say, it was hard congeal'd before. I had twice an Opportunity of seeing the Operation of this pretended [Page 149] Miracle, and must confess I think it so far, from being a real Miracle, that I look upon it as one of the most Bung­ling Tricks that I ever saw: Yet it is this that makes as great a Noise as any in the Roman Church, and that Monsieur Paschal has hinted at among the rest, in his Marks of the true Religion. The modern Neapolitans seem to have copy'd it out from one, which was shown in a Town of the Kingdom of Naples, as long ago as in Horace's Time.

—Dehinc Gnatia lymphis
Iratis extructa dedit risusque jocosque,
Dum flamma sine thura liquescere limine Sacro
Persuadere cupit: credat Judaeus apella,
Non ego—
Sat. 5. L. 1.
At Gnatia next arriv'd, we laugh'd to see
The superstitious Croud's Simplicity,
That in the sacred Temple needs would try
Without a Fire th' unheated Gums to fry;
Believe who will the Solemn Sham, not I.

[Page 150] One may see at least that the Heathen Priesthood had the same kind of Secret among them, of which the Roman Ca­tholicks are now Masters.

I must confess, tho' I had liv'd above a Year in a Roman Catholick Country, I was surpriz'd to see many Ceremonies and Superstitions in Naples, that are not so much as thought of in France. But as it is certain there has been a kind of Secret Reformation made, tho' not pub­lickly own'd, in the Roman Catholick Church, since the spreading of the Pro­testant Religion, so we find the several Nations are recover'd out of their Ig­norance, in proportion as they converse more or less with those of the Reform'd Churches. For this Reason the French are much more enlighten'd than the Spaniards or Italians, on occasion of their frequent Controversies with the Huguenots; and we find many of the Roman Catholick Gentlemen of our own Country, who will not stick to laugh at the Superstitions they sometimes meet with in other Nations.

I shall not be particular in describing the Grandeur of the City of Naples, the Beauty of its Pavement, the Regu­larity of its Buildings, the Magnificence of its Churches and Convents, the Mul­titude [Page 151] of its Inhabitants, or the Delight­fulness of its Situation, which so many others have done with a great deal of Leisure and Exactness. If a War should break out, the Town has reason to ap­prehend the exacting of a large Contri­bution, or a Bombardment. It has but Seven Gallies, a Mole, and Two little Castles, which are capable of hindering an Enemy's Approaches. Besides, that the Sea which lyes near it is not subject to Storms, has no sensible Flux and Re­flux, and is so deep that a Vessel of Bur­den may come up to the very Mole. The Houses are flat Roof'd to walk upon, so that every Bomb that fell on them would take Effect.

Pictures, Statues, and Pieces of An­tiquity are not so common at Naples, as one might expect in so great and anci­ent a City of Italy; for the Vice-Roys take care to send into Spain every thing that is valuable of this Nature. Two of their finest modern Statues are those of Apollo and Minerva, plac'd on each side of Sannazarius's Tomb. On the Face of this Monument, which is all of Marble, and very neatly wrought, is re­presented, in Bas relief, Neptune among the Satyrs, to show that this Poet was the Inventer of Piscatory Eclogues. I [Page 152] remember Hugo Grotius describes him­self in one of his Poems, as the first that brought the Muses to the Sea-side, but he must be understood only of the Po­ets of his own Country. I here saw the Temple that Sannazarius mentions in his Invocation of the Blessed Virgin, at the beginning of his De partu Virginis, which was all rais'd at his own Expence.

—Niveis tibi si solennia templis
Serta damus; si mansuras tibi ponimus aras
Exciso in scopulo, fluctus unde aurea canos
Despiciens celso de culmine Mergilline
Attollit, nautisque procul venientibus offert.
Tu vatem ignarumque viae insuetumque labori
Diva mone—
L. 1.
Thou bright Celestial Goddess, if to Thee
An acceptable Temple I erect,
With fairest Flow'rs and freshest Gar­lands deck'd,
On tow'ring Rocks, whence Mergillinè spies
The ruffled Deep in Storms and Tem­pests rise;
Guide thou the Pious Poet, nor refuse
Thine own propitious Aid to his unpra­ctis'd Muse.

[Page 153] There are several very delightful Pro­spects about Naples, especially from some of the Religious Houses; for one sel­dom finds in Italy a Spot of Ground more agreeable than ordinary, that is not cover'd with a Convent. The Cu­pola's of this City, tho' there are many of them, don't appear to the best Ad­vantage when one surveys them at a di­stance, as being generally too high and narrow. The Marquis of Medina Cido­nia, in his Vice-Royalty, made the Shell of a House, which he had not time to finish, that commands a View of the whole Bay, and would have been a very noble Building had he brought it to Perfection.

It stands so on the side of a Mountain that it would have had a Garden to e­very Story, by the help of a Bridge which was to have been laid over each Garden.

The Bay of Naples is the most delight­ful one that I ever saw. It lyes in al­most a round Figure of about Thirty Miles in the Diameter. Three Parts of it are shelter'd with a noble Circuit of Woods and Mountains. The high Pro­montory of Surrentum divides it from the Bay of Salernum. Between the ut­most Point of this Promontory, and the [Page 154] Isle of Caprea, the Sea enters by a Streight of about Three Miles wide. This Island stands as a vast Mole, which seems to have been planted there on pur­pose to break the Violence of the Waves that run into the Bay. It lyes long­ways, almost in a parallel Line to Na­ples. The excessive Height of its Rocks secures a great part of the Bay from Winds and Waves, which enter again between the other End of this Island and the Promontory of Miseno. The Bay of Naples is call'd the Crater by the old Geographers, probably from this its Resemblance to a round Bowl half fill'd with Liquor. Perhaps Virgil, who compos'd here a great part of his Ae­neids, took from hence the Plan of that beautiful Harbour, which he has made in his First Book, for the Libyan Port is but the Neapolitan Bay in little.

Est in secessu longo locus. Insula Portum
Efficit objectu laterum, quibus omnis ab alto
Frangitur, inque sinus scindit sese unda reductos:
Hinc atque hinc vastae rupes geminique mi­nantur
In coelum scopuli, quorum sub vertice latè
[Page 155] Aequora tuta silent, tum Silvis Scena co­ruscis.
Desuper, horrentique atrum nemus immi­net umbrâ.
1. Aen.
Within a long Recess there lyes a Bay,
An Island shades it from the rouling Sea,
And forms a Port secure for Ships to ride.
Broke by the jutting Land on either side,
In double Streams the briny Waters glide,
Between Two Rows of Rocks: a Syl­van Scene
Appears above, and Groves for ever Green.

Naples stands in the Bosom of this Bay, and has the pleasantest Situation in the World, tho', by reason of its We­stern Mountains, it wants an Advantage Vitruvius would have to the Front of his Palace, of seeing the Setting Sun.

One would wonder how the Spani­ards, who have but very few Forces in the Kingdom of Naples, should be able to keep a People from Revolting, that has been famous for its Mutinies and Seditions in former Ages. But they [Page 156] have so well contriv'd it, that tho' the Subjects are miserably harass'd and op­press'd, the greatest of their Oppressors are those of their own Body. I shall not mention any thing of the Clergy, who are sufficiently reproached in most Itinera­ries for the universal Poverty that one meets with in this noble and plentiful Kingdom. A great Part of the People is in a State of Vassallage to the Barons, who are the harshest Tyrants in the World to those that are under them. The Vassals indeed are allow'd, and in­vited to bring in their Complaints and Appeals to the Vice-Roy, who, to fo­ment Divisions, and gain the Hearts of the Populace, does not stick at Impri­soning and Chastising their Masters ve­ry severely on occasion. The Subjects of the Crown are notwithstanding much more rich and happy than the Vassals of the Barons. Insomuch that when the King has been upon the point of selling a Town to one of his Barons, the Inhabitants have rais'd the Sum up­on themselves, and presented it to the King, that they might keep out of so insupportable a Slavery. Another way the Spaniards have taken to grind the Neapolitans, and yet to take off the O­dium from themselves, has been by ere­cting [Page 157] several Courts of Justice, with a very small Pension for such as fit at the Head of them, so that they are tempted to take Bribes, keep Causes undecided, encourage Law-suits, and do all they can to fleece the People, that they may have wherewithal to support their own Dignity. It is incredible how great a Multitude of Retainers to the Law there are at Naples. It is commonly said, that when Innocent the Eleventh had desir'd the Marquis of Carpio to furnish him with Thirty Thousand Head of Swine, the Marquis answer'd him, that for his Swine he could not spare them, but if his Holiness had occasion for Thirty Thou­sand Lawyers he had them at his Service. These Gentlemen find a continual Em­ploy for the fiery Temper of the Nea­politans, and hinder them from uniting in such common Friendships and Allian­ces as might endanger the Safety of the Government. There are very few Per­sons of Consideration who have not a Cause depending; for when a Neapoli­tan Cavalier has nothing else to do, he gravely shuts himself up in his Closet, and falls a tumbling over his Papers to see if he can start a Law Suit, and plague any of his Neighbours. So much is the Genius of this People chang'd since Statius's Time.

[Page 158]
Nulla foro rabies, aut strictae Jurgia Le­gis,
Morum jura viris solum et sine fascibus Aequum.
Sil. L. 3.
By Love of Right and Native Justice led,
In the straight Paths of Equity they tread;
Nor know the Bar, nor fear the Judge's Frown,
Unpractis'd in the Wranglings of the Gown.

There is another Circumstance which makes the Neapolitans, in a very particu­lar manner, the Oppressors of each other. The Gables of Naples are very high on Oil, Wine, Tobacco, and indeed on al­most every thing that can be eaten, drank or worn. There would have been one on Fruit, had not Massianello's Re­bellion abolish'd it, as it has probably put a stop to many others. What makes these Imposts more intolerable to the poorer sort, they are laid on all Butchers Meat, while at the same time the Fowl and Gibier are Tax free. Besides, all Meat being Taxed equally by the Pound, it happens that the Duty lyes heaviest [Page 159] on the coarser sorts, which are most likely to fall to the share of the common People, so that Beef perhaps pays a Third, and Veal a Tenth of its Price to the Government, a Pound of either sort ha­ving the same Tax fix'd on it. These Gabels are most of them at present in the Hands of private Men; for as the King of Spain has had occasion for Mo­ny he has borrow'd it of the Rich Nea­politans, on Condition that they should receive the Interest out of such or such Gabels 'till he could repay them the Principal.

This he has repeated so often that at present there is scarce a single Gabel unmortgag'd; so that there is no Place in Europe which pays greater Taxes, and at the same time no Prince who draws less Advantage from them. In other Countries the People have the Sa­tisfaction of seeing the Mony they give spent in the Necessities, Defence, or Or­nament of their State, or at least in the Vanity or Pleasures of their Prince: but here most of it goes to the enriching of their Fellow-Subjects. If there was not so great a Plenty of every thing in Naples the People could not bear it. The Spaniard however reaps this Advantage from the present posture of Affairs, that [Page 160] the Murmurs of the Peeple are turn'd upon their own Countrymen, and what is more considerable, that almost all the Persons, of the greatest Wealth and Power in Naples, are engag'd by their own Interests to pay these Impositions chearfully, and to support the Govern­ment which has laid them on. For this Reason, tho' the poorer sort are for the Emperor, few of the Persons of Conse­quence can endure to think of a Change in their present Establishment; tho' there is no question but the King of Spain will Reform most of these Abu­ses, by breaking or retrenching the Pow­er of the Barons, by cancelling several unnecessary Employs, or by ransoming or taking the Gabels into his own Hands. I have been told too, there is a Law of Charles the Fifth something like our Sta­tute of Mort-main, which has laid dormant ever since his Time, and will probably have new Life put into it under the Reign of an active Prince. The Inha­bitants of Naples have been always very notorious for leading a Life of Laziness and Pleasure, which I take to arise part­ly out of the wonderful Plenty of their Country, that does not make Labour so necessary to them, and partly out of the Temper of their Climate, that relaxes [Page 161] the Fibres of their Bodies, and disposes the People to such an idle indolent Hu­mour. Whatever it proceeds from, we find they were formerly as famous for it as they are at present.

This was perhaps the Reason that the Ancients tell us one of the Sirens was bury'd in this City, which thence re­ceiv'd the Name of Parthenope.

—Improba Siren
Hor. Sa. 3. L. 2.
Sloth, the deluding Siren of the Mind.

—Et in Otia natam
Ov. Met. L. 15.
Otiosa Neapolis.
H. Ep. 5.
Parthenope, for idle Hours design'd,
To Luxury and Ease unbends the Mind.

Parthenope non dives opum, non spreta vi­goris,
Nam molles Urbi ritus atque hospita Mu­sis
Otia, et exemtum curis gravioribus ae­vum:
Sirenum dedit una suum et memorabile no­men
[Page 162] Parthenope muris Acheloïas, aequore cu­jus
Regnavere diu cantus, cum dulce per un­das
Exitium miseris caneret non prospera Nau­tis.
Sil. It. L. 12.
Here wanton Naples crowns the happy Shore,
Nor vainly rich, nor despicably poor,
The Town in soft Solemnities delights,
And gentle Poets to her Arms invites;
The People, free from Cares, serene and gay,
Pass all their mild untroubled Hours a­way.
Parthenope the rising City nam'd,
A Siren, for her Songs and Beauty fam'd,
That oft had drown'd among the neigh­b'ring Seas
The list'ning Wretch, and made Destru­ction please.

Has ego te sedes (nam nec mihi barbara Thrace
Nec Libye natale solum) transferre laboro:
Quas et mollis hyems et frigida temper at Aestas,
Quas imbelle fretum, torpentibus alluit undis:
Pax secura locis, et desidis Otia vitae,
[Page 163] Et nunquam turbata quies, somnique per­acti:
Nulla foro rabies, &c.
Stat. Sil. L. 3.
These are the gentle Seats that I pro­pose;
For not cold Scythia's undissolving Snows,
Nor the parch'd Libyan Sands thy Hus­band bore,
But mild Parthenope's delightful Shore,
Where hush'd in Calms the bord'ring Ocean laves
Her silent Coast, and rolls in languid Waves;
Refreshing Winds the Summer's Heats asswage,
And kindly Warmth disarms the Win­ter's Rage;
Remov'd from Noise, and the tumul­tuos War,
Soft Sleep and downy Ease inhabit there,
And Dreams unbroken with intru­ding Care.

THE ANTIQUITIES AND Natural Curiosities That lye near the CITY of Naples.

AT about eight Miles Distance from Naples lyes a very noble Scene of Antiquities. What they call Virgil's Tomb is the first that one meets with on the Way thither. It is certain this Poet was bury'd at Naples, but I think it is al­most as certain that his Tomb stood on the other side of the Town which looks to­wards Vesuvio. By this Tomb is the Entry into the Grotto of Pausilypo. The common People of Naples believe it to have been wrought by Magick, and [Page 165] that Virgil was the Magician; who is in greater Repute among the Neapo­litans for having made the Grotto, than the Aeneid.

If a Man would form to himself a just Idea of this Place, he must fancy a vast Rock undermin'd from one End to the other, and a Highway running thro' it, near as long and as broad as the Mall in St. James's Park. This Subterraneous Passage is much mended since Seneca gave so bad a Character of it. The En­try at both Ends is higher than the mid­dle Parts of it, and sinks by degrees, to fling in more Light upon the rest. To­wards the middle are Two large Fun­nels, bor'd thro' the Roof of the Grot­to, to let in Light and fresh Air.

There are no where about the Moun­tain any vast Heaps of Stones, tho' it is certain the great Quantities of 'em that are dug out of the Rock could not easi­ly conceal themselves, had they not pro­bably been consum'd in the Moles and Buildings of Naples. This confirm'd me in a Conjecture which I made at the first sight of this Subterraneous Passage, that it was not at first design'd so much for a High-way as for a Quarry of Stone, but that the Inhabitants, finding a double Ad­vantage by it, hew'd it into the Form we [Page 166] now see. Perhaps the same Design gave the Original to the SibyL's Grotto, con­sidering the prodigious Multitude of Pa­laces that stood in its Neighbourhood.

I remember when I was at Chateau­dun in France I met with a very curious Person, a Member of one of the Ger­man Universities. He had stay'd a Day or Two in the Town longer than ordi­nary, to take the Measures of several empty Spaces that had been cut in the Sides of a neighbouring Mountain. Some of 'em were supported with Pil­lars form'd out of the Rock, some were made in the Fashion of Galleries, and some not unlike Amphitheaters. The Gentleman had made to himself several ingenious Hypotheses concerning the use of these Subterraneous Apartments, and from thenee collected the vast mag­nificence and Luxury of the ancient Chateaudunois. But upon communicat­ing his Thoughts on this Subject to one of the most Learned of the Place, he was not a little surpriz'd to hear that these stupendous Works of Art were only so many Quarries of Free-Stone, that had been wrought into different Figures, according as the Veins of it di­rected the Workmen.

[Page 167] About Five Miles from the Grotto of Pausilypo lye the Remains of Puteoli and Bajae, in a soft Air and a delicious Situation.

The Country about 'em, by reason of its vast Caverns and Subterraneous Fires, has been miserably torn in Pieces by Earthquakes, so that the whole Face of it is quite chang'd from what it was for­merly. The Sea has overwhelm'd a Multitude of Palaces, which may be seen at the Bottom of the Water in a calm Day.

The Lucrine Lake is but a Puddle in Comparison of what it once was, its Springs having been sunk in an Earth­quake, or stopp'd up by Mountains that have fallen upon 'em. The Lake of A­vernus, formerly so famous for its Steams of Poison, is now plentifully stock'd with Fish and Fowl. Mount Gaurus, from one of the fruitfullest Parts in Italy, is become one of the most barren. Seve­ral Fields, which were laid out in beau­tiful Groves and Gardens, are now na­ked Plains, smoaking with Sulphur, or encumber'd with Hills that have been thrown up by Eruptions of Fire. The Works of Art lye in no less Disorder than those of Nature, for that which was once the most Beautiful Spot of I­aly, [Page 168] cover'd with Temples and Palaces, adorn'd by the greatest of the Roman Common-wealth, embelish'd by many of the Roman Emperors, and celebrated by the best of their Poets, has now no­thing to show but the Ruins of its an­cient Splendor, and a great Magnificence in Confusion.

The Mole of Puteoli has been mista­ken by several Authors for Caligula's Bridge. They have all been led into this Error from the Make of it, because it stands on Arches. But to pass over the many Arguments that may be brought against this Opinion, I shall here take away the Foundation of it, by set­ting down an Inscription mention'd by Julius Capitolinus in the Life of Antoni­nus Pius, who was the Repairer of this Mole. Imp. Caesari. Divi. Hadriano. fi­lio. Divi. Trajani. Parthici. Nepoti. Divi. Nervae. pronepoti. T. Act Hadriano. Anto­nino. Aug. Pio. &c. quod super caetera be­neficia ad hujus etiam tutelam portûs, Pila­rum viginti molem cum sumptu fornicum reliquo ex Aeratio suo largitus est.

It would have been very difficult to have made such a Mole as this of Pute­li, in a Place where they had not so na­tural a Commodity as the Earth of Puz­zuola, which immediately hardens in the [Page 169] Water, and after a little lying in it looks rather like Stone than Mortar. It was this that gave the ancient Romans an Opportunity of making so many En­croachments on the Sea, and of laying the Foundations of their Villas and Pa­laces within the very Borders of it, as * Horace has elegantly described it more than once.

About Four Years ago they dug up a great Piece of Marble near Puzzuola, with several Figures and Letters Engra­ven round it, which have given occasi­on to some Disputes among the Antiqua­ries. But they all agree that it is the Pedestal of a Statue erected to Tiberius by the Fourteen Cities of Asia, which were flung down by an Earthquake; the same that, according to the Opinion of many Learned Men, happen'd at our Saviour's Crucifixion. They have found in the Letters, which are still legible, the Names of the several Cities, and dis­cover in each Figure something particu­lar to the City, of which it represents the Genius. There are two Medals of Tiberius stamp'd on the same Occasion [Page 169] with this Inscription to one of 'em, Ci­vitatibus Asiae Restitutis. The Emperor is represented in both sitting, with a Pa­tera in one Hand, and a Spear in the o­ther.



[Page 171] It is probable this might have been the Posture of the Statue, which in all likelihood does not lye far from the Place where they took up the Pedestal; for they say there were other great Pieces of Marble near it, and several of 'em In­scrib'd, but that no Body would be at the Charges of bringing them to light. The Pedestal it self lay neglected in an open Field when I saw it. I shall not be particular on the Ruins of the Am­phitheater, the ancient Reservoirs of Water, the Sibyl's Grotto, the Centum Camerae, the Sepulchre of Agrippina Ne­ro's Mother, with several other Anti­quities of less Note, that lye in the Neighbourhood of this Bay, and have been often describ'd by many others. I must confess, after having survey'd the Antiquities about Naples and Rome, I cannot but think that our Admiration of 'em does not so much arise out of their Greatness as Uncommonness.

There are indeed many extraordinary Ruins, but I believe a traveller would not be so much astonish'd at 'em, did he find any Works of the same kind in his own Country. Amphitheatres, Trium­phal Arches, Baths, Grotto's, Cata­combs, Rotunda's, Highways pav'd for so great a Length, Bridges of such an [Page 172] amazing Height, Subterraneous Build­ings for the Reception of Rain and Snow-Water, are most of 'em at pre­sent out of Fashion, and only to be met with among the Antiquities of Italy. We are therefore immediately surpriz'd when we see any considerable Sums laid out in any thing of this Nature, tho' at the same time there is many a Gothic Cathedral in England, that has cost more Pains and Mony than several of these celebrated Works. Among the Ruins of the old Heathen Temples they show'd me what they call the Chamber of Venus, which stands a little behind her Temple. It is wholly dark, and has several Figures on the Cieling wrought in Stucco, that seem to represent Lust and Strength by the Emblems of naked Ju­piters and Gladiators, Tritons and Cen­taurs, &c. so that one would guess it has formerly been the Scene of many lewd Mysteries. On the other side of Naples are the Catacombs. These must have been full of Stench and Loathsom­ness, if the dead Bodies that lay in 'em were left to rot in open Nitches, as an Eminent Author of our own Country Imagine's. But upon examining 'em I find they were each of 'em stop'd up: [Page 173] without doubt, as soon as the Corps was laid in it. For at the Mouth of the Nitch one always finds the Rock cut in­to little Channels, to fasten the Board or Marble that was to close it up, and I think I did not see one which had not still some Mortar sticking in it. In some I found pieces of Tiles that exactly tal­ly'd with the Channel, and in others a little Wall of Bricks, that sometimes stopp'd up above a quarter of the Nitch, the rest having been broken down. [...] Proculus's Sepulchre seems to have a kind of Mosaic Work on its Covering, for I observ'd at one End of it several little Pieces of Marble rang'd together after that manner. 'Tis probable they were adorn'd, more or less, according to the Quality of the Dead. One would in­deed wonder to find such a Multitude of Nitches unstopp'd, and I can't imagine any Body should take the Pains to do it, who was not in Quest of some sup­pos'd Treasure.

Bajae was the Winter Retreat of the old Romans, that being the proper Sea­son to enjoy the Bajani Soles, and the Mollis Lucrinus; as on the contrary, Tibur, Tusculum, Prenaeste, Alba, Caje­ta, Mons Circeius, Anxur, and the like airy Mountains and Promontories were [Page 174] their Retirements during the Heats of Summer.

Dum nos blanda tenent jucundi Stagna Lu­crini,
Et quae pumiceis fontibus antra calent,
Tu colis Argivi regnum Faustine coloni, *
Quo te bis decimus ducit ab urbe lapis.
Horrida sed fervent Nemeaei pectora mon­stri:
Nec satis est Bajas igne calere suo.
Ergo Sacri fontes, & littora Sacra va­lete,
Nympharum pariter, Nereidumque do­mus
Herculeos colles gelidâ vos vincite brumâ,
Nunc Tiburtinis cedite frigoribus.
Mar. L. 1. Ep. 116.
While near the Lucrine Lake consum'd to Death
I draw the sultry Air, and gasp for Breath,
Where Steams of Sulphur raise a stifling Heat,
And through the Pores of the warm Pumice sweat;
[Page 175] You taste the cooling Breeze, where nearer home
The Twentieth Pillar marks the Mile from Rome:
And now the Sun to the bright Lion turns,
And Baja with redoubled Fury burns;
Then briny Seas and tasteful Springs farewel,
Where Fountain-Nymphs confus'd with Nereids dwell,
In Winter You may all the World de­spise,
But now 'tis Tivoli that bears the Prize.

The Natural Curiosities about Naples are as numerous and extraordinary as the Artificial. I shall set them down, as I have done the other, without any re­gard to their Situation. The Grotto del Cani is famous for the poisonous Steams which float within a Foot of its Surface. The Sides of the Grotto are mark'd with Green, as high as the Ma­lignity of the Vapour reaches. The com­mon Experiments are as follow: A Dog, that has his Nose held in the Vapour, loses all Signs of Life in a very little time; but if carry'd into the open Air, or thrown into a Neighbouring Lake, he immediately recovers, if he is not [Page 176] quite gone. A Torch, Snuff and all, goes out in a Moment when dipp'd in­to the Vapour. A Pistol cannot take Fire in it. I split a Reed, and laid in the Channel of it a Train of Gun-powder, so that one End of the Reed was above the Vapour, and the other at the Bot­tom of it; and I found, tho' the Steam was strong enough to hinder a Pistol from taking Fire in it, and to quench a lighted Torch, that it could not inter­cept the Train of Fire when it had once begun Flashing, nor hinder it from run­ning to the very End. This Experiment I repeated twice or thrice, to see if I could quite dissipate the Vapour, which I did in so great a measure, that one might easily let off a Pistol in it. I ob­serv'd how long a Dog was in Expiring the first time, and after his Recovery, and found no sensible difference. A Vi­per bore it Nine Minutes the first time we put it in, and Ten the Second. When we brought it out after the first Trial, it took such a vast quantity of Air into its Lungs, that it swell'd almost twice as big as before; and it was perhaps on this Stock of Air that it liv'd a Minute longer the second time. Doctor Connor made a Discourse in one of the Acade­mies at Rome upon the Subject of this [Page 177] Grotto, which he has since Printed in England. He attributes the Death of A­nimals, and the Extinction of Lights, to a great Rarefaction of the Air, caus'd by the Heat and Eruption of the Steams. But how is it possible for these Steams, tho' in never so great quantity, to resist the Pressure of the whole Atmosphere? And as for the Heat, it is but very in­considerable. However, to satisfie my self, I plac'd a thin Viol, well stopp'd up with Wax, within the Smoak of the Vapour, which would certainly have burst in an Air rarefy'd enough to kill a Dog, or quench a Torch, but nothing follow'd upon it. However, to take a­way all further Doubt, I borrow'd a Weather-glass, and so fix'd it in the Grotto, that the Stagnum was wholly cover'd with the Vapour, but I could not perceive the Quicksilver sunk after half an Hour's standing in it. This Va­pour is generally suppos'd to be Sul­phureous, tho' I can see no Reason for such a Supposition. He that dips his Hand in it finds no Smell that it leaves upon it; and tho' I put a whole Bun­dle of lighted Brimstone Matches to the Smoak, they all went out in an Instant, as if immers'd in Water. Whatever is the Composition of the Vapour, let it [Page 178] have but one Quality of being very Glewy or Viscous, and I believe it will mechanicaly solve all the Phaenomena of the Grotto. It's Unctuousness will make it heavy, and unfit for mounting higher than it does, unless the Heat of the Earth, which is just strong enough to agitate, and bear it up at a little di­stance from the Surface, were much grea­ter than it is to rarifie and scatter it. It will be too gross and thick to keep the Lungs in play for any time, so that A­nimals will die in it sooner or later, as their Blood Circulates slower or faster. Fire will live in it no longer than in Water, because it wraps it self in the same manner about the Flame, and by its Continuity hinders any quantity of Air or Nitre from coming to its Suc­cour. The Parts of it however are not so compact as those of Liquors, nor therefore tenacious enough to intercept the Fire that has once caught a Train of Gun-Powder, for which Reason they may be quite broken and dispers'd by the Repetition of this Experiment. There is an unctuous clammy Vapour that a­rises from the Stum of Grapes, when they lye mash'd together in the Vat, which puts out a Light when dipp'd into it, and perhaps would take away [Page 179] the Breath of weaker Animals, were it put to the Trial.

It would be endless to reckon up the different Baths, to be met with in a Coun­try that so much abounds in Sulphur. There is scarce a Disease which has not one adapted to it. A Stranger is gene­rally led into that they call Cicero's Bath, and several Voyage-Writers pretend there is a cold Vapour rising from the Bottom of it, which refreshes those who stoop into it. 'Tis true the Heat is much more supportable to one that stoops, than to one that stands upright, because the Steams of Sulphur gather in the Hollow of the Arch about a Man's Head, and are therefore much thicker and warmer in that Part than at the Bottom. The Three Lakes of Agnano, Avernus, and the Lu­crin, have now nothing in them particu­lar. The Monte Novo was thrown out by an Eruption of Fire, that happen'd in the Place where now the Mountain stands. The Sulfatara is very surprising to one who has not seen Mount Vesuvio. But there is nothing about Naples, nor indeed in any Part of Italy, which de­serves our Admiration so much as this Mountain. I must confess the Idea I had of it, did not answer the real Image [Page 180] of the Place when I came to see it; I shall therefore give the Description of it as it then lay.

This Mountain stands at about Six English Miles distance from Naples, tho' by reason of its Height, it seems much nearer to those that survey it from the Town. In our Way to it we pass'd by what was one of those Rivers of burn­ing Matter, that ran from it in a late E­ruption. This looks at a distance like a new plow'd Land, but, as you come near it you see nothing but a long Heap of heavy disjointed Clods lying one up­on another. There are innumerable Ca­vities and Interstices among the several Pieces, so that the Surface is all broken and irregular. Sometimes a great Frag­ment stands like a Rock above the rest, sometimes the whole Heap lyes in a kind of Channel, and in other Places has nothing like Banks to confine it, but rises Four or Five Foot high in the open Air, without spreading abroad on either side. This, I think, is a plain Demonstration that these Rivers were not as they are usually represented, so many Streams of running Matter; for how could a Liquid, that lay hardening by degrees, settle in such a furrow'd un­compact Surface? Were the River a [Page 181] Confusion of never so many different Bodies, if they had been all actually dis­solved, they would at least have form'd one continu'd Crust, as we see the Sco­rium of Metals always gathers into a so­lid Piece, let it be compounded of a Thou­sand Heterogeneous Parts. I am apt to think therefore, that these huge unwiel'dy Lumps that now lye one upon another, as if thrown together by Accident, re­main'd in the melted Matter rigid and unliquify'd, floating in it like Cakes of Ice in a River, and that, as the Fire and Ferment gradually abated, they adjusted themseves together as well as their irre­gular Figures would permit, and by this means fell into such an interrupted dis­orderly Heap, as we now find it. What was the melted Matter lyes at the Bot­tom out of sight. After having quitted the Side of this long Heap, which was once a Stream of Fire, we came to the Roots of the Mountain, and had a very troublesome March to gain the Top of it. It is cover'd on all Sides with a kind of burnt Earth, very dry, and crumbled into Powder, as if it had been artifici­ally sifted. It is very hot under the Feet, and mix'd with several burnt Stones and Cakes of Cinders, which have been thrown out at different times. A Man [Page 182] sinks almost a Foot in the Earth, and generally loses half a Step by sliding backwards. When we had climb'd this Mountain we discover'd the Top of it to be a wide naked Plain, smoaking with Sulphur in several Places, and probably undermin'd with Fire, for we conclu­ded it to be hollow by the Sound it made under our Feet. In the midst of this Plain stands a high Hill in the shape of a Sugar-loaf, so very steep that there would be no mounting or descending it, were not it made up of such a loose crumbled Earth as I have before descri­bed. The Air of this Place must be very much impregnated with Salt-peter, as appears by the Specks of it on the Sides of the Mountain, where one can scarce find a Stone that has not the Top white with it. After we had, with much ado, conquer'd this Hill, we saw in the midst of it the present Mouth of Vesuvio, that goes shelving down on all Sides 'till above a Hundred Yards deep, as near as we could guess, and has about Three or Four Hundred in the Diame­ter, for it seems a perfect Round. This vast Hollow is generally fill'd with Smoak, but, by the Advantage of a Wind that blew for us, we had a very clear and distinct sight of it. The Sides [Page 183] appear all over stain'd with Mixtures of White, Green, Red and Yellow, and have several Rocks standing out of them that look like pure Brimstone. The Bottom was entirely cover'd, and tho' we look'd very narrowly we could see nothing like a Hole in it; the Smoak breaking through several imperceptible Cracks in many Places. The very Mid­dle was firm Ground when we saw it, as we concluded from the Stones we flung upon it, and I question not but one might then have cross'd the Bottom, and have gone up on the other Side of it with very little Danger, unless from some accidental Breath of Wind. In the late Eruptions this great Hollow was like a vast Caldron fill'd with glowing and melted Matter, which, as it boil'd over in any Part, ran down the Sides of the Mountain, and made Five such Rivers as that before-mention'd. In proportion as the Heat slacken'd, this burning Matter must have subsided with­in the Bowels of the Mountain, and as it sunk very leisurely had time to Cake together, and form the Bottom which covers the Mouth of that dreadful Vault that lyes underneath it. The next E­ruption or Earthquake will probably break in Pieces this false Bottom, and [Page 184] quite change the present Face of Things.

This whole Mountain, shaped like a Sugar-loaf, has been made at several times, by the prodigious Quantities of Earth and Cinders, which have been flung up out of the Mouth that lyes in the midst of them, so that it encreases in Bulk at every Eruption, the Ashes still falling down the Sides of it, like the Sand in an Hour-Glass. A Gentleman of Naples told me, that in his Memo­ry it had gain'd Twenty Foot in Thick­ness, and I question not but in length of time it will cover the whole Plain, and make one Mountain with that on which it now stands.

In those Parts of the Sea, that are not far from the Roots of this Mountain, they find sometimes a very fragrant Oil, which is sold dear, and makes a rich Per­fume. The Surface of the Sea is, for a little Space, cover'd with its Bubbles during the time that it rises, which they skim off into their Boats, and afterwards set a separating in Pots and Jars. They say its Sources never run but in a calm warm Weather. The Agitations of the Water perhaps hinder them from dis­covering it at other times.

[Page 185] Among the Natural Curiosities of Na­ples, I cannot forbear mentioning their manner of furnishing the Town with Snow, which they here use instead of Ice, because, as they say, it cools or congeals any Liquor sooner. There is a great Quantity of it consum'd yearly, for they drink very few Liquors, not so much as Water, that have not lain in Fresco, and every Body, from the highest to the lowest, makes use of it; insomuch that a Scarcity of Snow would raise a Mutiny at Naples, as much as a Dearth of Corn or Provisions in another Country. To prevent this the King has sold the Monopoly of it to certain Persons, who are oblig'd to furnish the City with it all the Year at so much the Pound. They have a high Moun­tain at about Eighteen Miles from the Town, which has several Pits dug into it. Here they employ many poor Peo­ple at such a Season of the Year to roll in vast Balls of Snow, which they ram together, and cover from the Sun-shine. Out of these Reservoirs of Snow they cut several Lumps, as they have occasi­on for them, and send them on Asses to the Sea-side, where they are carry'd off in Boats, and distributed to several Shops at a settled Price, that from time to time [Page 186] supply the whole City of Naples. While the Banditti continu'd their Disorders in this Kingdom, they often put the Snow-Merchants under Contribution, and threaten'd them, if they appear'd tardy in their Payments, to destroy their Magazines, which they say might easily have been effected by the Infusion of some Barrels of Oil.

It would have been tedious to have put down the many Descriptions that the Latin Poets have made of several of the Places mention'd in this Chapter: I shall therefore conclude it with the general Map which Silius Italicus has given us of this great Bay of Naples. Most of the Places he mentions lye within the same Prospect, and if I have pass'd over any of them, it is because I shall take them in my Way by Sea, from Naples to Rome.

Stagna inter celebrem nunc mitia monstrat Avernum,
Tum tristi nemore atque umbris nigranti­bus horrens,
Et formidatus volucri, lethale vomebat
Suffuso virus coelo, Stygiâque per urbes
Relligione sacer, saevum retinebat hono­rem.
Hinc vicina palus, fama est Acherontis ad undas
[Page 187] Pandere iter, caecas stagnante voragine fauces
Laxat et horrendos aperit telluris hiatus,
Interdumque novo perturbat lumine manes.
Juxta caligante situ longumque per aevum
Infernis pressas nebulis, pallente sub umbrâ
Cymmerias jacuisse domos, noctemque pro­fundam
Tartareae narrant urbis: tum sulphure et igni
Semper anhelantes, coctoque bitumine cam­pos
Ostentant: tellus atro exundante vapore
Suspirans, ustisque diu calefacta medullis
Aestuat et Stygios exhalat in aëra flatus:
Parturit, et tremulis metuendum exibilat antris,
Interdumque cavas luctatus rumpere sedes,
Aut exire foras, sonitu lugubre minaci
Mulciber immugit, lacerataque viscera terrae
Mandit, et exesos labefactat murmure montes.
Tradunt Herculeâ prostratos mole Gigan­tes
Tellurem injectam quatere, et spiramine anhelo
Torreri late campos, quotiesque minatur
Rumpere compagem impositam, expallescere coelum.
Apparet procul Inarime, quae turbine ni­gro
[Page 188] Fumantem premit Iapetum, flammasque rebelli
Ore ejectantem, et siquando evadere detur
Bella Jovi rursus superisque iterare volen­tem.
Monstrantur Veseva juga, atque in ver­tice summo
Depasti flammis scopuli, fractusque ruinâ
Mons circùm, atque Aetnae fatis certantia Saxa.
Nec non Misenum servantem Idaea sepul­cro
Nomina, et Herculeos videt ipso littore Baulos.
L. 12.
Averno next he show'd his wond'ring Guest,
Averno now with milder Virtues bless'd;
Black with surrounding Forests then it stood,
That hung above, and darken'd all the Flood:
Clouds of unwholsome Vapours, rais'd on high,
The flutt'ring Bird entangled in the Sky,
Whilst all around the gloomy Prospect spread
An awful Horror, and religious Dread.
[Page 189] Hence to the Borders of the Marsh they go,
That mingles with the baleful Streams below,
And sometimes with a mighty Yawn, 'tis said,
Opens a dismal Passage to the Dead,
Who pale with Fear the rending Earth survey,
And startle at the sudden Flash of Day.
The dark Cimmerian Grotto then he Paints,
Describing all its old Inhabitants,
That in the deep Infernal City dwell'd,
And lay in everlasting Night con­ceal'd.
Advancing still, the spacious Fields he show'd,
That with the smother'd Heat of Brim­stone glow'd;
Through frequent Cracks the steaming Sulphur broke,
And cover'd all the blasted Plain with Smoke:
Imprison'd Fires, in the close Dunge­ons pent
Roar to get loose, and struggle for a Vent,
Eating their Way, and undermining all,
'Till with a mighty Burst whole Moun­tains fall.
[Page 190] Here, as 'tis said, the Rebel Giants lye,
And, when to move th' incumbent Load they try,
Ascending Vapours on the Day pre­vail,
The Sun looks sickly, and the Skies grow pale.
Next to the distant Isle his Sight he turns,
That o'er the Thunderstruck Tiphaeus burns:
Enrag'd, his wide extended Jaws ex­pire
In angry Whirl-winds, Blasphemies and Fire,
Threat'ning, if loosen'd from his dire Abodes,
Again to challenge Jove, and fight the Gods.
On Mount Vesuvio next he fix'd his Eyes,
And saw the smoaking Tops confus'dly rise;
(A hideous Ruin!) that with Earth­quakes rent
A second Aetna to the View present.
Miseno's Cape and Bauli last he view'd,
That on the Sea's extreamest Borders stood.

[Page 191] Silius Italicus here takes notice, that the poisonous Vapours which arose from the Lake Averno in Hannibal's Time, were quite dispers'd at the time when he wrote his Poem; because Agrippa, who liv'd between Hannibal and Silius, had cut down the Woods that enclos'd the Lake, and hinder'd these noxious Steams from dissipating, which were im­mediately scatter'd as soon as the Winds and fresh Air were let in among them.


HAving stay'd longer at Naples than I at first design'd, I could not dispense with my self from making a little Voyage to the Isle of Caprea, as being very desirous to see a Place which had been the Retirement of Augustus for some time, and the Residence of Tiberi­us for several Years. The Island lyes Four Miles in Length from East to West, and about one in Breadth. The Western Part, for about Two Miles in Length, is a continu'd Rock vastly high, and in­accessible on the Sea-side. It has how­ever the greatest Town in the Island, that goes under the Name of Ano-Ca­prea, and is in several Places cover'd with a very fruitful Soil. The Eastern End of the Isle rises up in Precipices very near as high, tho' not quite so long, as the Western. Between these Eastern and Western Mountains lyes a Slip of lower Ground, which runs across the Island, and is one of the pleasantest Spots [Page 193] I have seen. It is hid with Vines, Figs, Oranges, Almonds, Olives, Myr­tles, and Fields of Corn, which look extremely fresh and beautiful, and make up the most delightful: little Landskip imaginable, when they are survey'd from the Tops of the neighbouring Moun­tains. Here stands the Town of Caprea, the Bishop's Palace, and Two or Three Convents. In the midst of this fruitful Tract of Land rises a Hill, that was probably cover'd with Buildings in Ti­berius's Time. There are still several Ruins on the Sides of it, and about the Top are found Two or Three dark Gal­leries low built, and cover'd with Ma­son's Work, tho' at present they appear over-grown with Grass. I enter'd one of 'em that is a Hundred Paces in Length. I observed, as some of the Countrymen were digging into the Sides of this Mountain, that what I took for solid Earth was only Heaps of Brick, Stone, and other Rubbish, skinn'd over with a Covering of Vegetables. But the most considerable Ruin is that which stands on the very Extremity of the Eastern Promontory, where are still some Apart­ments left, very high and arch'd at Top. I have not indeed seen the Remains of any ancient Roman Buildings, that have [Page 194] not been Roof'd with either Vaults or Arches. The Rooms I am mentioning stand deep in the Earth, and have no­thing like Windows or Chimnies, which makes me think they were formerly ei­ther Bathing Places or Reservoirs of Water. An old Hermit lives at present among the Ruins of this Palace, who lost his Companion a few Years ago by a Fall from the Precipice. He told me they had often found Medals and Pipes of Lead, as they dug among the Rub­bish, and that not many Years ago they discover'd a pav'd Road running under Ground, from the Top of the Moun­tain to the Sea-side, which was after­wards confirm'd to me by a Gentleman of the Island. There is a very noble Prospect from this Place. On the one side lyes a vast Extent of Seas, that runs abroad further than the Eye can reach. Just opposite stands the Green Promon­tory of Surrentum, and on the other side the whole Circuit of the Bay of Naples. This Prospect, according to Tacitus, was more agreeable before the burning of Vesuvio; that Mountain probably, which after the first Eruption look'd like a great Pile of Ashes, was in Tibe­rius's Time shaded with Woods and Vine­yards; for I think Martial's Epigram [Page 195] may here serve as a Comment to Taci­tus.

Hic est pampineis viridis Vesuvius umbris,
Presserat hic madidos nobilis uva lacus.
Haec juga quàm Nisae colles plùs Bacchus amavit:
Hoc nuper Satyri monte dedere choros.
Haec Veneris sedes, Lacedaemone gratior illi;
Hic locus Herculeo nomine clarus erat.
Cuncta jacent flammis & tristi mersa fa­villâ:
Nec superi vellent hoc licuisse sibi.
L. 2. Ep. 105.
Vesuvio, cover'd with the fruitful Vine,
Here flourish'd once, and ran with Floods of Wine,
Here Bacchus oft to the cool Shades re­tir'd,
And his own Native Nisa less admir'd;
Oft to the Mountain's airy Tops ad­vanc'd,
The frisking Satyrs on the Summets danc'd;
Alcides here, here Venus grac'd the Shore,
Nor lov'd her Fav'rite Lacedaemon more:
[Page 196] Now Piles of Ashes, spreading all a­round,
In undistinguish'd Heaps deform the Ground,
The Gods themselves the ruin'd Seats bemoan,
And blame the Mischiefs that themselves have done.

This View must still have been more pleasant, when the whole Bay was en­compass'd with so long a Range of Build­ings, that it appear'd to those, who look'd on it at a distance, but as one continu'd City. On both the Shores of that fruitful Bottom, which I have be­fore mention'd, are still to be seen the Marks of ancient Edifices: Particularly on that which looks towards the South there is a little kind of Mole, which seems to have been the Foundation of a Palace; unless we may suppose that the Pharos of Caprea stood there, which Statius takes notice of in his Poem that invites his Wife to Naples, and is, I think, the most natural among the Silvae.

Nec desunt variae circùm oblectamina vitae,
Sive Vaporiferas, blandissima littora Ba­jas
[Page 197] Enthea fatidicae seu visere tecta Sibyllae,
Dulce sit, Iliacoque jugum memorabile remo:
Seu tibi Bacchei vineta madentia Gauri,
Teleboumque domos, trepidis ubi dulcia nautis
Lumina noctivagae tollit Pharus aemulae luna,
Caraque non molli juga Surrentina Lyaeo.
L. 3.
The blissful Seats with endless Pleasures flow,
Whether to Baja's Sunny Shores you go,
And view the Sulphur to the Baths convey'd,
Or the dark Grotte of the Prophetick Maid,
Or steep Miseno from the Trojan nam'd,
Or Gaurus for its flowing Vintage fam'd,
Or Caprea, where the Lanthorn fix'd on high
Shines like a Moon through the benigh­ted Sky,
While by its Beams the wary Sailor steers:
Or where Surrentum, clad in Vines ap­pears.

[Page 198] They found in Ano-Caprea, some Years ago, a Statue and a rich Pavement un­der Ground, as they had occasion to turn up the Earth that lay upon 'em. One still sees, on the Bendings of these Mountains, the Marks of several anci­ent Scales of Stairs, by which they us'd to ascend 'em. The whole Island is so unequal that there were but few Diver­sions to be found in it without Doors, but what recommended it most to Tibe­rius was its wholsome Air, which is warm in Winter and cool in Summer, and its inaccessible Coasts, which are generally so very steep, that a handful of Men might defend 'em against a powerful Army.

We need not doubt but Tiberius had his different Residences, according as the Seasons of the Year, and his different Sets of Pleasure requir'd. Suetonius says, Duodecim Villas totidem nominibus orna­vit. The whole Island was probably cut into several easie Ascents, planted with Variety of Palaces, and adorn'd with as great a Multitude of Groves and Gardens as the Situation of the Place would suffer. The Works under Ground were however more extraordinary than those above it: For the Rocks were all undermin'd with High-ways, Grotto's, [Page 199] Galleries, Bagnio's, and several Subter­raneous Retirements, that suited with the Brutal Pleasures of the Emperor. One would indeed very much wonder to see such small Appearances of the many Works of Art, that were formerly to be met with in this Island, were we not told that the Romans, after the Death of Tiberius, sent hither an Army of Pio­neers on purpose to Demolish the Build­ings, and deface the Beauties of the Island.

In sailing round Caprea we were en­tertain'd with many rude Prospects of Rocks and Precipices, that rise in several Places half a Mile high in Perpendicular. At the Bottom of 'em are Caves and Grotto's, form'd by the continual breaking of the Waves upon 'em. I enter'd one which the Inhabi­tants call Grotto Oscuro, and after the Light of the Sun was a little worn off my Eyes, could see all the Parts of it distinctly, by a glimmering Reflection that play'd upon 'em from the Surface of the Water. The Mouth is low and narrow, but, after having enter'd pretty far in, the Grotto opens it self on both Sides in an oval Figure of an Hundred Yeads from one Extremity to the other, as we were toln, for it would not have [Page 200] been safe measuring of it. The Roof is vaulted, and Distils fresh Water from every Part of it, which fell upon us as fast as the first Droppings of a Shower. The Inhabitants and Neapolitans who have heard of Tiberius's Grotto's, will have this to be one of 'em, but there are several Reasons that show it to be na­tural. For besides the little use we can conceive of such a dark Cavern of Salt Waters, there are no where any Marks of the Chissel; the Sides are of a soft mouldering Stone, and one sees many of the like hollow Spaces worn in the Bottoms of the Rocks, as they are more or less able to resist the Impressions of the Water that beats against 'em.

Not far from this Grotto lye the Sire­num Scopuli, which Virgil and Ovid men­tion in Aeneas's Voyage; they are Two or Three sharp Rocks that stand about a Stone's Throw from the South-side of the Island, and are generally beaten by Waves and Tempests, which are much more violent on the South than on the North of Caprea.

Jamque adeo Scopulos Sirenum advecta subibat
Difficiles quondam, multorumque ossibus albos,
[Page 201] Tum: rauca assiduo longè sale saxa sona­bant.
Glides by the Syren's Cliffs, a shelfy Coast,
Long infamous for Ships and Sailors lost,
And white with Bones: Th' impetuous Ocean roars,
And Rocks rebellow from the sounding Shores.

I have before said that they often find Medals in this Island. Many of those they call the Spintriae, which Aretin has copy'd, have been dug up here. I know none of the Antiquaries that have writ­ten on this Subject, and find nothing sa­tisfactory of it where I thought it most likely to be met with, in Patin's Edi­tion of Suetonius illustrated by Medals. Those I have convers'd with about it, are of Opinion they were made to ridi­cule the Brutality of Tiberius, tho' I cannot but believe they were stamp'd by his Order. They are unquestionably An­tique, and no bigger than Medals of the Third Magnitude. They bear on one Side some lewd Invention of that Hel­lish Society which Suetonius calls Mon­strosi concubitûs repertores, and on the o­ther the Number of the Medal. I have seen of 'em as high as to Twenty. I can't [Page 202] think they were made as a Jest on the Emperor, because Raillery on Coins is of a Modern Date. I know but Two in the Upper Empire, besides the Spin­triae, that lye under any Suspicion of it. The first is one of Marcus Aurelius, where, in Compliment to the Emperor and Empress, they have stamp'd on the Reverse the Figure of Venus caressing Mars, and endeavouring to detain him from the Wars.


—Quoniam belli fera maenera Mavors
Armipotens regit, in gremium qui saepe Tuum se
Rejicit, aeterno devinctus volnere amoris.
Lucr. L. 1.

[Page 203] The Venus has Faustina's Face, her Lover is a naked Figure with a Helmet on his Head, and a Shield on his Arm.

Tu scabie frueris mali quod in Aggere ro­dit,
Qui tegitur, parmâ & galeâ—
Juv. Sat. 5.

This unluckily brings to Mind Fau­stina's Fondness for the Gladiator, and is therefore interpreted by many as a hidden Piece of Satyr. But besides, that such a Thought was inconsistent with the Gravity of a Senate, how can one imagine that the Fathers would have dar'd Affront the Wife of Aurelius, and the Mother of Commodus, or that they could think of giving Offence to an Em­press whom they afterwards deify'd, and to an Emperor that was the Darling of the Army and People?

The other Medal is a Golden one of Gallienus preserv'd in the French King's Cabinet; it is inscrib'd Gallienae Augustae, Pax Ubique, and was stamp'd at a time when the Emperor's Father was in Bon­dage, and the Empire torn in Pieces by several Pretenders to it. Yet, if one considers the strange Stupidity of this Em­peror, with the senseless Security which [Page 204] appears in several of his Sayings that are still left on Record, one may very well believe this Coin was of his own Inven­tion. We may be sure, if Raillery had once enter'd the old Roman Coins, we should have been over-stock'd with Me­dals of that Nature; if we consider there were often Rival Emperors pro­claim'd at the same time, who endea­vour'd at the lessening of each others Character, and that most of 'em were succeeded by such as were Enemies to their Predecessor. These Medals of Ti­berius were never current Mony, but ra­ther of the Nature of Medalions, which seem to have been made on purpose to perpetuate the Discoveries of that infa­mous Society. Suetonius tells us, that their monstrous Inventions were Regi­ster'd several ways, and preserv'd in the Emperor's private Apartments. Cubicu­la plurifariam disposita tabellis ac Sigillis lascivissimarum picturarum & figurarum adornavit, librisque Elephantidis instrux­it: ne cui in Operá edendâ exemplar im­petratae Schemae deesset. The Elephantis here mention'd is probably the same Mar­tial takes notice of for her Book of Po­stures. [Page 205]

In Sabellum.
Facundos mihi de libidinosis
Legisti nimium Sabelle versus,
Quales nec Didymi sciunt puellae,
Nec molles Elephantidos libelli.
Sunt illic Veneris novae figurae:
Quales, &c. Lib. 12. Ep. 43.

Ovid mentions the same kind of Pi­ctures that found a Place even in Augu­stius's Cabinet.

Scilicet in domibus vestris, ut prisca viro­rum
Artifici fulgent corpora picta manu;
Sic quae concubitus varios Venerisque figu­ras
Exprimat, est aliquo parva tabella loco.
De Trist. Lib. 2.

There are several of the Sigilla, or Seals, Suetonius speaks of, to be met with in Collections of ancient Intaglio's

But, I think, what puts it beyond all doubt that these Coins were rather made by the Emperor's Order, than as a Sa­tyr on him, is because they are now [Page 206] found in the very Place that was the Scene of these his unnatural Lusts.

—Quem rupes Caprearum tetra latebit
Incesto possessa Seni?—
Cl. de 4to Cons. Hon.
Who has not heard of Caprea's guilty Shore,
Polluted by the Rank old Emperor?


I Took a Falucca at Naples to carry me to Rome, that I might not be forc'd to run over the same Sights a Se­cond time, and might have an Opportunity of seeing many things in a Road which our Voyage-Writers have not so particularly describ'd. As in my Journey from Rome to Naples I had Horace for my Guide, so I had the Pleasure of seeing my Voyage, from Na­ples to Rome, described by Virgil. It is indeed much easier to trace out the Way Aeneas took, than that of Horace, because Virgil has mark'd it out by Capes, Islands, and other Parts of Na­ture, which are not so subject to change [Page 208] or decay as are Towns, Cities, and the Works of Art. Mount Pausilypo makes a beautiful Prospect to those who pass by it: At a small distance from it lyes the little Island of Nisida, adorned with a great Variety of Plantations, rising one above another in so beautiful an Or­der, that the whole Island looks like a large Terrace-Garden. It has Two lit­tle Ports, and is not at present troubled with any of those noxious Steams that Lucan mentions.

—Tali spiramine Nesis
Emittit Stygium nebulosis Aēra saxis.
Lib. 6.
Nesi's high Rocks such Stygian Air pro­duce,
And the blue breathing Pestilence dif­fuse.

From Nifida we row'd to Cape Mi­seno. The Extremity of this Cape has a long Cleft in it, which was enlarg'd and cut into Shape by Agrippa, who made this the great Port for the Roman Fleet that serv'd in the Mediterranean; as that of Ravenna held the Ships de­sign'd for the Adriatic and Archipelago. The highest End of this Promontory [Page 209] rises in the fashion of a Sepulchre or Mo­nument to those that survey it from the Land, which perhaps might occasion Virgil's burying Misenus under it. I have seen a grave Italian Author, who has written a very large Book on the Campania Felice, that from Virgil's De­scrption of this. Mountain, concludes it was call'd Aërius before Misenus had gi­ven it a new Name.

At pius Aeneas ingenti mole Sepulchrum
Imponit, suaque arma viro remumque tu­bamque
Monte sub Aerio, qui nunc Misenus ab illo
Dicitur, aeternumque tenet per saecula no­men.
Aen. L. 6.

There are still to be seen a few Ruins of old Misenum, but the most conside­rable Antiquity of the Place is a Sett of Galleries that are hewn into the Rock, and are much more spacious than the Piscina Mirabilis. Some will have them to have been a Reservoir of Water, but others more probably suppose them to have been Nero's Baths. I lay the first Night on the Isle of Procita, which is pretty well cultivated, and contains about Four Thousand Inhabitants, who [Page 210] are all Vassals to the Marquis de Va­sto.

The next Morning I went to see the Isle of Ischia, that stands further out into the Sea. The ancient Poets call it Inarime, and lay Typhaeus under it, by reason of its Eruptions of Fire. There has been no Eruption for near these Three Hundred Years. The last was very terrible, and destroy'd a whole Ci­ty. At present there are scarce any Marks left of a Subterraneous Fire, for the Earth is cold, and over-run with Grass and Shrubs, where the Rocks will suffer it. There are indeed several little Cracks in it, thro' which there issues a constant Smoke, but 'tis probable this arises from the warm Springs that feed the many Baths with which this Island is plenti­fully stock'd. I observ'd, about one of these Breathing Passages, a Spot of Myr­tles that flourish within the Steam of these Vapours, and have a continual Moisture hanging upon them. On the South of Ischia lyes a round Lake of about Three Quarters of a Mile Diame­ter, separate from the Sea by a narrow Tract of Land. It was formerly a Ro­man Port. On the North End of the Island stands the Town and Castle, on an exceeding high Rock, divided from [Page 211] the Body of the Island, and inaccessible to an Enemy on all Sides. This Island is larger, but much more Rocky and Barren than Procita. Virgil makes them both shake at the Fall of part of the Mole of Bajae, that stood at a few Miles distance from them.

Qualis in Euböico Bajarum littore quon­dam
Saxea pila cadit, magnis quam molibus ante
Constructam jaciunt pelago: Sic illa rui­nam
Prona trahit, penitusque vadis illisa re­cumbit;
Miscent se maria et nigrae attolluntur a­renae:
T'um sonitu Prochita alta tremit, durum­que cubile
Inarime, Jovis Imperiis imposta Typhaeo.
Aen. 9.
Not with less Ruin than the Bajan Mole
(Rais'd on the Seas the Surges to con­trol)
At once comes tumbling down the rocky Wall,
Prone to the Deep the Stones disjointed fall
[Page 212] Off the vast Pile; the scatter'd Ocean flies;
Black Sands, discolour'd Froth, and min­gled Mud arise.
The frighted Billows roll, and seek the Shores:
Trembles high Prochyta, and Ischia roars:
Typhaeus roars beneath, by Jove's Com­mand,
Astonish'd at the Flaw that shakes the Land,
Soon shifts his weary Side, and scarce awake,
With Wonder feels the Weight press lighter on his Back.

I don't see why Virgil in this noble Comparison has given the Epithet of Alta to Procita, for it is not only no high Island in it self, but is much lower than Ischia, and all the Points of Land that lye within its Neighbourhood. I should think Alta was join'd adverbially with Tremit, did Virgil make use of so Equivocal a Syntax. I cannot forbear inserting in this Place, the lame Imita­tion Silius Italicus has made of the fore­going Passage.

[Page 213]
Haud aliter structo Tyrrhena ad littora Saxo,
Pugnatura fretis subter caecisque procellis
Pila immane sonans, impingitur ardua ponto;
Immugit Nereus, divisaque caerula pulsu
Illisum accipiunt irata sub aequora mon­tem.
L. 4.
So a vast Fragment of the Bajan Mole,
That, fix'd amid the Tyrrhene Waters, braves
The beating Tempests and insulting Waves,
Thrown from its Basis with a dread­ful Sound,
Dashes the broken Billows all around,
And with resistless Force the Surface cleaves,
That in its angry Waves the falling Rock receives.

The next Morning going to Cumae thro' a very pleasant Path, by the Ma­re Mortuum, and the Elisian Fields, we saw in our Way a great many Ruins of Sepulchres, and other ancient Edifices. Cumae is at present utterly destitute of Inhabitants, so much is it chang'd since Lucan's Time, if the Poem to Piso be his.

[Page 214]
—Acidaliâ quae condidit Alite muros
Euboicam referens faecunda Neapolis ur­bem.
Where the fam'd Walls of fruitful Naples lye,
That may for Multitudes with Cuma vie.

They show here the Remains of Apollo's Temple, which all the Writers of the An­tiquities of this place suppose to have been the same Virgil describes in his Sixth Aeneid, as built by Daedalus, and that the very Story which Virgil there menti­ons, was actually Engraven on the Front of it.

Redditus his primùm terris tibi Phoebe-Sa­cravit
Remigium Alarum, posuitque immania Tem­pla.
In foribus lethum Androgeo, tum pendere paenas
Cecropidae jussi, miserum! Septena quotan­nis
Carpora Natorum: Stat ductis sortibus urna.
Contra elata mari respondet Gnossia tel­lus, &c.
Aen. 6.
[Page 215]To the Camean Coast at length he came,
And, here alighting, built his costly Frame
Inscrib'd to Phoebus, here he hung on high
The Steerage of his Wings that cut the Sky;
Then o'er the lofty Gate his Art em­boss'd
Androgeo's Death, and Off'rings to his Ghost,
Sev'n Youths from Athens yearly sent, to meet
The Fate appointed by revengeful Crete;
And next to those the dreadful Urn was plac'd,
In which the destin'd Names by Lots were cast.

Among other Subterraneous Works there is the beginning of a Passage, which is stopp'd up within less than a Hundred Yards of the Entrance, by the Earth that is fallen into it. They suppose it to have been the other Mouth of the Sibyl's Grotto. It lyes indeed in the same Line with the Entrance near the Avernus, is fac'd alike with the O­pus Reticulatum, and has still the Marks [Page 216] of Chambers that have been cut into the Sides of it. Among the many Fa­bles and Conjectures which have been made on this Grotto, I think it is high­ly probable, that it was once inhabited by such as perhaps thought it a better Shelter against the Sun than any other kind of Building, or at least that it was made with smaller Trouble and Expence. As for the Mosaic, and other Works that may be found in it, they may very well have been added in later Ages, ac­cording as they thought fit to put the Place to different Uses. The Story of the Cimmerians is indeed clogg'd with Improbabilities, as Strabo relates it, but it is very likely there was in it some Foundation of Truth. Homer's Descri­ption of the Cimmerians, whom he pla­ces in these Parts, answers very well to the Inhabitants of such a long dark Ca­vern.

The gloomy Race, in Subterraneous Cells,
Among surrounding Shades and Dark­ness dwells;
Hid in th' unwholsome Covert of the Night,
Theyshun th' Approaches of the chear­ful Light:
[Page 217] The Sun ne'er visits their obscure Re­treats,
Nor when he runs his Course, nor when he sets.
Unhappy Mortals!—
Odys. L. 10.

Tu quoque littoribus nostris, Aeneia nu­trix,
Aeternam mortens fomam Cajeta dedisti:
Et nunc servat honos sedem tuus, ossaque nomen
Hesperiâ in magnâ, si qua est ea gloria, sig­nat.
Aen. 7.
And thou, O Matron of Immortal Fame,
Here dying, to the Shore hast left thy Name:
Cajeta still the Place is call'd from Thee,
The Nurse of great Aeneas' Infancy.
Here rest thy Bones in rich Hesperia's Plains;
Thy Name ('tis all a Ghost can have) remains.

I saw at Cajeta the Rock of Marble, said to be cleft by an Earthquake at our Saviour's Death. There is written o­ver the Chappel Door, that leads into the Crack, the Words of the Evangelist, [Page 218] Ecce terrae-motus factus est magnus. I be­lieve every one who sees this vast Rent in so high a Rock, and observes how exactly the Convex Parts of one Side tally with the Concave of the o­ther, must be satisfy'd that it was the Effect of an Earthquake, tho' I question not but it either happen'd long before the Time of the Latin Writers, or in the darker Ages since, for otherwise. I cannot but think they would have taken notice of its Original. The Port, Town, Castle, and Antiquities of this Place have been often describ'd.

We touch'd next at Monte Circeio which Homer calls Insula Aeëa, whether it be that it was formerly an Island, or that the Greek Sailors of his Time thought it so. It is certain they might easily have been deceived by its appearance, as being a very high Mountain join'd to the main Land by a narrow Tract of Earth, that is many Miles in Length, and almost of a Level with the Surface of the Water. The End of this Promon­tory is very rocky, and mightily expos'd to the Winds and Waves, which per­haps gave the first Rise to the Howl­ings of Wolves, and the Roarings of Li­nos, that us'd to be heard thence. This I had a very lively Idea of, being forc'd [Page 219] to lye under it a whole Night. Virgil's Description of Aeneas passing by this Coast can never be enough admir'd. It is worth while to observe how, to heigh­ten the Horror of the Description, he has prepar'd the Reader's Mind, by the Solemnity of Cajeta's Funeral, and the dead Stillness of the Night.

At pius exequiis Aeneas rite solutis
Aggere composito tumuli, postquam alta quiêrunt
Aequora, tendit iter velis, portumque re­linquit.
Adspirant aurae in noctem, nec candida cursus
Luna negat: Splendet tremulo sub lumine pontus.
Proxima Circeae raduntur littora terrae:
Dives inaccessos ubi solis filia lucos
Assiduo resonat cantu, tectisque superbis
Urit odoratam nocturna in lumina cedrum,
Arguto tenues percurrens pectine telas:
Hinc exaudiri gemitus, iraeque Leonum
Vincla recusantum, et serâ sub nocte ru­dentum:
Setigerique sues, atque in praesepibus ursi
Saevire, ac formae magnorum ululare lupo­rum:
Quos hominum ex facie Dea saeva potenti­bus herbis
[Page 220] Induerat Circe in vultus ac terga fera­rum.
Quae nè monstra pii paterentur talia Troes
Delati in portus, neu littora dira subi­rent
Neptunus ventis implevit vela secun­dis:
Atque fugam dedit et praeter vada fervida vexit.
Aen. L. 7.
Now, when the Prince her Fun'ral Rites had paid,
He plow'd the Tyrrhene Seas with Sails display'd.
From Land a gentle Breeze arose, by Night
Serenely shone the Stars, the Moon was bright,
And the Sea trembled with her Silver Light.
Now near the Shelves of Circe's Shores they run,
(Circe the rich, the Daughter of the Sun)
A dang'rous Coast: The Goddess wastes her Days
In joyous Songs, the Rocks resound her Lays:
In Spinning, or the Loom, she spends her Night,
And Cedar Brands supply her Father's Light.
[Page 221] From hence were heard, (rebellowing to the Main)
The Roars of Lions that refuse the Chain,
The Grunts of bristled Boars, and Groans of Bears,
And Herds of Howling Wolves that stun the Sailor's Ears.
These from their Caverns, at the Close of Night,
Fill the sad Isle with Horror and Af­fright.
Darkling they mourn their Fate, whom Circe's Pow'r,
(That watch'd the Moon, and Planeta­ry Hour)
With Words and wicked Herbs, from Human kind
Had alter'd, and in Brutal Shapes con­fin'd.
Which Monsters lest the Trojan's Pi­ous Host
Should bear, or touch upon th' inchan­ted Coast;
Propitious Neptune steer'd their Course by Night
With rising Gales, that sped their happy Flight.

Virgil calls this Promontory Aeëae In­sula Circes in the Third Aeneid, but 'tis [Page 222] the Heroe, and not the Poet that speaks. It may however be look'd upon as an Intimation, that he himself thought it an Island in Aeneas's Time. As for the thick Woods, which not only Virgil but Homer mentions, in the beautiful Description that Plutarch and Longinus have taken notice of, they are most of 'em grubb'd up since the Promontory has been cultivated and inhabited, tho' there are still many Spots of it which show the natural Inclination of the Soil leans that way.

The next Place we touch'd upon was Nettuno, where we found nothing re­markable besides the extream Poverty and Laziness of the Inhabitans. At Two Miles distance from it lye the Ruins of Antium, that are spread over a great Circuit of Land. There are still left the Foundations of several Buildings, and what are always the last Parts that perish in a Ruin, many Subterraneous Grotto's and Passages of a great Length. The Foundations of Nero's Port are still to be seen. It was altogether Artificial, and compos'd of huge Moles running round it, in a kind of Circular Figure, except where the Ships were to enter, and had about Three Quarters of a Mile in its shortest Diameter. Tho' the mak­ing [Page 223] of this Port must have cost prodigious Sums of Mony, we find no Medal of it, and yet the same Emperor has a Medal struck in his own Name for the Port of Ostia, which in Reality was a Work of his Predecessor Claudius. The last Pope was at considerable Charges to make a little kind of Harbour in this Place, and to convey fresh Water to it, which was one of the Artifices of the Grand Duke, to divert his Holiness from his Project of making Civita-vecchia a free Port. There lyes between Antium and Nettu­no a Cardinal's Villa, which is one of the pleasantest for Walks, Fountains, Shades, and Prospects that I ever saw.

Antium was formerly famous for the Temple of Fortune that stod in it. All agree there were Two Fortunes worship­ped here, which Suetonius calls the Fortunae Antiates, and Martial the Sorores Antii. Some are of Opinion, that by these Two Goddesses were meant the Two Nemeses one of which rewarded good Men, as the other punish'd the wicked. Fabretti and others are apt to believe, that by the Two Fortunes were only meant in general the Goddess who sent Prosperity, or she who sent Afflictions to Mankind, and produce in their Behalf an ancient [Page 224] Monument found in this very Place, and superscrib'd Fortunae Felici, which indeed may favour one Opinion as well as the other, and shows at least they are not mistaken in the general Sense of their Division. I don't know whether any Body has taken notice, that this double Function of the Goddess gives a consi­derable Light and Beauty to the Ode which Horace has address'd to her. The whole Poem is a Prayer to Fortune, that she would prosper Caesar's Arms, and confound his Enemies, so that each of the Goddesses has her Task assign'd in the Poet's Prayer; and we may observe the Invocation is divided between the Two Deities, the first Line relating in­differently to either. That which I have mark'd speaks to the Goddess of Prospe­rity, or if you please to the Nemesis of the Good, and the other to the Goddess of Adversity, or to the Nemesis of the Wicked.

O Diva gratum quae regis Antium,
Praesens vel imo tollere de gradu
Mortale corpus, vel superbos
Vertere funeribus triumphos! &c.
[Page 225]Great Goddess, Antium's Guardian Power,
Whose Force is strong, and quick to raise
The lowest to the highest Place;
Or with a wond'rous Fall
To bring the Haughty lower,
And turn proud Triumphs to a Funeral, &c.

If we take the first Interpretation of the Two Fortunes for the double Neme­sis, the Compliment to Caesar is the greater, and the Fifth Stanza clearer than the Commentators usually make it, for the Clavi trabales, cunei, uncus, liquidum­que, plumbum, were actually used in the Punishment of Criminals.

Our next Stage brought us to the Mouth of the Tiber, into which we en­ter'd with some Danger, the Sea being generally very rough in these Parts, where the River rushes into it. The Season of the Year, the Muddiness of the Stream, with the many Green Trees hanging o­ver it, put me in Mind of the delight­ful Image that Virgil has given us when Aeneas took the first View of it.

Atque hic Aeneas ingentem ex aequore lucum
Prospicit: hunc inter fluvio Tiberinus a­maeno,
[Page 226] Vorticibus rapidis et multâ flavus arenâ
In mare prorumpit: variae circumque su­praque
Assuetae ripis volucres et fluminis alveo
Aethera mulcebant cantu, lucoque volabant.
Flectere iter Sociis terraeque advertere pro­ras
Imperat, et laetus fluvio succedit opaco.
Aen. L. 7.
The Trojan from the Main beheld a Wood,
Which thick with Shades, and a brown Horror stood:
Betwixt the Trees the Tiber took his Course,
With Whirlpools dimpled, and with downward Force
That drove the Sand along, he took his Way,
And roll'd his Yellow Billows to the Sea;
About him, and above, and round the Wood,
The Birds that haunt the Borders of his Flood;
That bath'd within, or bask'd upon his Side,
To tuneful Songs their narrow Throats apply'd.
[Page 227] The Captain gives Command, the joyful Train
Glide through the gloomy Shade, and leave the Main.

It is impossible to learn from the Ruins of the Port of Ostia, what its Figure was when it stood whole and entire. I shall therefore set down the Medal, that I have before mention'd, which repre­sents it as it was formerly.


It is worth while to compare Juve­nal's Description of this Port with the Figure it makes on the Coin.

Tandem intrat positas inclusa per aequora moles,
Tyrrhenamque Pharon, porrectaque brachia, rursus
[Page 228] Quae pelago occurrunt medio, longèque relin­quunt
Italiam: non sic igitur mirabere portus
Quos Natura dedit—
Juv. Sat. 12.
At last within the mighty Mole she gets
Our Tyrrhene Pharos, that the mid Sea meets
With its Embrace, and leaves the Land behind;
A Work so wond'rous Nature ne'er de­sign'd.
Dryd. Juv.

The Seas may very properly be said to be enclos'd (Inclusa) between the Two Semicircular Moles that almost surround 'em. The Colossus, with something like a lighted Torch in its Hand, is proba­bly the Pharos in the Second Line. The Two Moles that we must suppose are join'd to the Land behind the Pharos, are very Poetically describ'd by the

—Porrectaque brachia, rursus
Quae pelago occurrunt medio, longèque re­linquunt

as they retire from one another in the Compass they make, 'till their Two Ends almost meet a Second time in the midst of the Waters, where the Figure [Page 229] of Neptune sits. The Poet's Reflection on the Haven is very just, since there are few Natural Ports better Land­lock'd, and closed on all Sides than this seems to have been. The Figure of Neptune has a Rudder by him, to mark the Convenience of the Harbour for Na­vigation, as he is represented himself at the Entrance of it, to show it stood in the Sea. The Dolphin distinguishes him from a River God, and figures out his Dominion over the Seas. He holds the same Fish in his Hand on other Medals. What it means we may learn from the Greek Epigram on the Figure of a Cu­pid, that had a Dolphin in one Hand, and a Flower in the other.

A proper Emblem graces either Hand,
In one he holds the Sea, in one the Land.

Half a Day more brought us to Rome, thro' a Road that is commonly visited by Travellers.


IT is generally observ'd, that Modern Rome stands higher than the Ancient; some have computed it about Fourteen or Fifteen Feet, taking one Place with another. The Reason given for it is, that the present City stands up­on the Ruins of the former, and indeed I have often observed, that where any considerable Pile of Building stood an­ciently one still finds a rising Ground, or a little kind of Hill, which was doubt­less made up out of the Fragments and Rubbish of the ruin'd Edifice. But be­sides this particular Cause, we may assign another that has very much contributed to the raising the Situation of several Parts of Rome: It being certain the great Quantities of Earth, that have been wash'd off from the Hills by the Vio­lence of Showers, have had no small share in it. This any one may be sensi­ble of who observes how far several Buildings, that stand near the Roots of Mountains, are sunk deeper in the Earth [Page 231] than those that have been on the Tops of Hills, or in open Plains; for which Reason the present Face of Rome is much more Even and Level than it was for­merly; the same Cause that has rais'd the lower Grounds having contributed to sink those that were higher.

There are in Rome Two Setts of Antiquities, the Christian and the Hea­then. The former, tho' of a fresher Date, are so embroil'd with Fable and Legend, that one receives but little Sa­tisfaction from searching into them. The other give a great deal of Pleasure to such as have met with them before in ancient Authors; for a Man who is in Rome can scarce see an Object that does not call to Mind a Piece of a Latin Po­et or Historian. Among the Remains of Old Rome, the Grandeur of the Com­mon-wealth shows it self chiefly in Works that were either necessary or convenient, such as Temples, High-ways, Aqueducts, Walls and Bridges of the City. On the contrary the Magnificence of Rome, under the Emperors, is seen principally in such Works as were rather for O­stentation or Luxury, than any real Use­fulness or Necessity, as in Baths, Am­phitheaters, Circus's, Obelisks, Trium­phant Pillars, Arches and Mausoleums; [Page 232] for what they added to the Aqueducts was rather to supply their Baths and Nau­machias, and to embellish the City with Fountains, than out of any real Necessi­ty there was for them. These several Remains have been so copiously describ'd by abundance of Travellers, and other Writers, particularly by those concern'd in the learned Collection of Graevius, that it is very difficult to make any new Dis­coveries on so beaten a Subject. There is however so much to be observ'd in so spacious a Field of Antiquities, that it is almost impossible to survey them with­out taking new Hints, and raising diffe­rent Reflections, according as a Mans na­tural Turn of Thoughts, or the Course of his Studies, direct him.

No Part of the Antiquities of Rome pleas'd me so much as the ancient Sta­tues, of which there is still an incredi­ble Variety. The Workmanship is of­ten the most exquisite of any thing in its kind. A Man would wonder how it were possible for so much Life to en­ter into Marble, as may be discover'd in some of the best of them; and even in the meanest one has the Satisfaction of seeing the Faces, Postures, Airs and Dress of those that have liv'd so many Ages before us. There is a strange Re­semblance [Page 233] between the Figures of the several Heathen Deities, and the Descri­ptions that the Latin Poets have given us of them; but as the first may be look­ed upon as the ancienter of the Two, I question not but the Roman Poets were the Copiers of the Greek Statuaries. Tho' on other Occasions we often find the Statuaries took their Subjects from the Poets. The Laocoon is too known an Instance among many others that are to be met with at Rome. In the Villa Aldabrandina are the Figures of an Old and Young Man, engag'd together at the Caestus, who are probably the Dares and Entellus of Virgil; where by the way one may observe the Make of the ancient Caestus, that it only consisted of so many large Thongs about the Hand, without any thing like a Piece of Lead at the End of them, as some Writers of Antiquities have falsely imagin'd.

I question not but many Passages in the old Poets hint at several Parts of Sculpture, that were in Vogue in the Author's Time, tho' they are now ne­ver thought of, and that therefore such Passages lose much of their Beauty in the Eye of a Modern Reader, who does not look upon them in the same Light with the Author's Contemporaries. I shall [Page 234] only mention Two or Three out of Ju­venal, that his Commentators have not taken notice of. The first runs thus,

Multa pudicitiae veteris vestigia forsan,
Aut aliqua extiterint, et sub Jove, sed Jo­ve nondum
Sat. 6.
Some thin Remains of Chastity ap­pear'd
Ev'n under Jove, but Jove without a Beard.

I appeal to any Reader, if the Hu­mour here would not appear much more natural and unforced to a People that saw every Day some or other Statue of this God with a thick bushy Beard, as there are still many of them extant at Rome, than it can to us who have no such Idea of him; especially if we con­sider there was in the same City a Tem­ple Dedicated to the Young Jupiter, call'd Templum Vaejovis, where, in all probability, there stood the particular Statue of a * Jupiter Imberbis. Juve­nal, in another Place, makes his Flatte­rer compare the Neck of one that is [Page 235] but feebly built, to that of Hercules hold­ing up Antaeus from the Earth.

Et longum invalidi collum cervicibus ae­quat
Herculis Antaeum procul a tellure tenen­tis.
Sat. 3.
His long Crane Neck and narrow Shoul­ders praise;
You'd think they were describing Her­cules
Lifting Anteus

What a strain'd unnatural Similitude must this seem to a Modern Reader, but how full of Humour, if we suppose it alludes to any celebrated Statues of these Two Champions, that stood perhaps in some publick Place or High-way near Rome? And what makes it more than probable there were such Statues, we meet with the Figures, which Juvenal here describes, on Antique Intaglio's and Medals. Nay, Propertius has taken no­tice of the very Statues.

—Luctantum in pulvere signa
Herculis Antaeique—
Lib. 3. Car. 1.
[Page 236] Antaeus here and stern Alcides strive,
And both the grappling Statues seem to live.

I cannot forbear observing here, that the Turn of the Neck and Arms is of­ten commended in the Latin Poets a­mong the Beauties of a Man, as in Ho­race we find both put together, in that beautiful Description of Jealousie.

Dum tu Lydia Telephi
Cervicem roseam, et Cerea Telephi
Laudas Brachia, vae meum
Fervens difficili bile tumet jecur,
Tunc nec mens mihi, nec color
Certa sede manent: humor et in genas
Furtim labitur, arguens
Quàm lentis penitus macerer ignibus.
While Telephus's youthful Charms;
His rosie Neck, and winding Arms,
With endless Rapture you recite,
And in the tender Name delight;
My Heart, enrag'd by jealous Heats,
With numberless Resentments beats,
From my pale Cheeks the Colour flies,
And all the Man within me dies;
By fits my swelling Grief appears
In rising Sighs, and falling Tears,
[Page 237] That show too well the warm Desires,
The silent, slow, consuming Fires,
Which on my inmost Vitals prey,
And melt my very Soul away,

This we should be at a Loss to account for, did we not observe in the Old Ro­man Statues, that these Two Parts were always bare, and expos'd to View, as much as our Hands and Face are at pre­sent. I cannot leave Juvenal without ta­king notice that his

Ventilat aestivum digitis sudantilius [...]
Nec sufferre queat majoris pondera Gem [...].
Sat. 1.
Charg'd with light Summor Rings his Fingers sweat,
Unable to support a Gem of Weight.

was not anciently so great an Hyperbole as it is now, for I have seen old Roman Rings so very thick about, and with such large Stones in 'em, that 'tis no Won­der a Fop should reckon 'em a little cum­bersome in the Summer Season of so hot a Climate.

It is certain that Satyr delights in such Allusions and Instances as are extreamly [Page 238] natural and familiar: When therefore we see any thing in an old Satyrist that looks forc'd and pedantick, we ought to consider how it appear'd in the Time the Poet writ, and whether or no there might not be some particular Circum­stances to recommend it to the Readers of his own Age, which we are now de­prived of. One of the finest ancient Sta­tues in Rome is a Meleager with a Spear in his Hand, and the Head of a Wild Boar on one Side of him. It is of Pa­rian Marble, and as yellow as Ivory. One meets with many other Figures of Mele­ager in the ancient Basso Relievo's, and on the Sides of the Sarcophagi, or Fune­ral Monuments. Perhaps it was the Arms or Device of the old Roman Hunters; which Conjecture I have found con­firm'd in a Passage of Manilius, that lets us know the Pagan Hunters had Melea­ger for their Patron, as the Christians have their St. Hubert. He speaks of the constellation which makes a good Sports-Man.

—Quibus aspirantibus orti
Te Meleagre colunt—
Manil. Lib. 1.

I question not but this sets a Verse, in the Fifth Satyr of Juvenal, in a much [Page 239] better Light than if we suppose that the Poet aims only at the old Story of Mele­ager, without considering it as so very common and familiar a one among the Romans.

—Flavi dignus ferro Meleagri
Spumat aper—
Juv. S. 5.
A Boar intire, and worthy of the Sword
Of Meleager, smoaks upon the Board.
Mr. Bowles.

In the beginning of the Ninth Satyr Juvenal asks his Friend why he looks like Marsya when he was overcome?

Scire velim quare toties mihi Naevole tristis
Occurris fronte obductâ, ceu Marsya victus?
Tell me why saunt'ring thus from Place to Place,
I meet thee, Nevolus, with a clouded Face?
Dryden's Juvenal.

Some of the Commentators tell us, that Marsya was a Lawyer who had lost his Cause; others say that this Passage alludes to the Story of the Satire Mar­syas, who contended with Apollo; which I think is more humorous than the other, [Page 240] if we consider there was a famous Statue of Apollo fleaing Marsya in the midst of the Roman Forum, as there are still se­veral ancient Statues of Rome on the same Subject.

There is a Passage in the Sixth Satyr of Juvenal, that I could never tell what to make of, 'till I had got the Interpre­tation of it from one of Bellorio's ancient Basso Relievo's.

Magnorum Artificum frangebat pocula miles
Ut phaleris gauderet Equus: caelataque cassis
Romuleae simulacra ferae mansuescere jussae
Imperii fato, et geminos sub rupe Quirinos,
Ac nudam effigiem clypeo fulgentis et hastâ,
Pendentisque Dei, perituro ostenderet hosti.
Juv. Sat. 11.
Or else a Helmet for himself he made,
Where various Warlike Figures were Inlaid:
The Roman Wolf suckling the Twins was there,
And Mars himself, arm'd with his Shield and Spear,
Hov'ring above his Crest, did dreadful show,
As threat'ning Death to each resisting Foe.
Dryden's Juvenal.

[Page 241] Juvenal here describes the Simplicity of the old Roman Soldiers, and the Fi­gures that were generally Engraven on their Helmets. The First of 'em was the Wolf giving Suck to Romulus and Rhemus: The Second, which is com­prehended in the Two last Verses, is not so Intelligible. Some of the Commen­tators tell us, that the God here men­tion'd is Mars, that he comes to see his Two Sons sucking the Wolf, and that the old Sculptors generally drew their Figures naked, that they might have the Advantage of representing the different Swelling of the Muscles, and the Turns of the Body. But they are extremely at a Loss to know what is meant by the Word Pendentis; some fancy it expresses only the great Embossment of the Fi­gure, others believe it hung off the Hel­met in Alto Relievo, as in the foregoing Translation. Lubin supposes that the God Mars was Engraven on the Shield, and that he is said to be hanging, because the Shield which bore him hung on the Left Shoulder. One of the old Inter­preters is of Opinion, that by hanging is only meant a Posture of bending for­ward to strike the Enemy. Another will have it, that whatever is placed on the Head may be said to hang, as we call [Page 242] hanging Gardens, such as are planted on the Top of the House. Several learned Men, who like none of these Explica­tions, believe there has been a Fault in the Transcriber, and that Pendentis ought to be Perdentis; but they quote no Ma­nuscript in Favour of their Conjecture. The true Meaning of the Words is cer­tainly as follows. The Roman Soldiers, who were not a little proud of their Founder, and the Military Genius of their Republick, us'd to bear on their Helmets the First History of Romulus, who was begot by the God of War, and suckled by a Wolf. The Figure of the God was made as if descending upon the Priestess Ilia, or as others call her Rhea Silvia. The Occasion required his Body should be naked,

Tu quoque inermis eras cum te formosa Sa­cerdos
Cepit: ut huic urbi Semina magna dares.
Ov. de Fas. L. 3.
Then too, our mighty Sire, thou stood'st disarm'd,
When thy rapt Soul the lovely Priestess charm'd,
That Rome's high Founder bore—

[Page 243] tho' on other Occasions he is drawn, as Horace has describ'd him, Tunicâ cinctum adamantinâ. The Sculptor however, to distinguish him from the rest of the Gods, gave him what the Medallists call his proper Attributes, a Spear in one Hand, and a Shield in the other. As he was represented descending, his Figure ap­pear'd suspended in the Air over the Ve­stal Virgin, in which Sense the Word Pendentis is extremely proper and Poeti­cal. Besides the Antique Basso Relievo, that made me first think of this Inter­pretation, I have since met with the same Figures on the Reverses of a couple of an­cient Coins, which were stamp'd in the Reign of Antoninus Pius, as a Compli­ment to that Emperor, whom for his Excellent Government and Conduct of the City of Rome, the Senate regarded as a Second kind of Founder.

[Page 244]


Ilia Vestalis (quid enim vetat inde moveri)
Sacra lavaturas manè petebat aquas:
Fessa resedit humi, ventosque accepit aperto
Pectore; turbatas restituitque comas.
Dum sedet; umbrosae salices volucresque canorae
Fecerunt Somnos et leve murmur aquae.
[Page 245] Blanda quies victis furtim subrepit ocellis,
Et cadit a mento languida facta manus?
Mars videt hanc, visamque cupit, potitur­que cupitâ:
Et sua divinâ furta fefellit ope.
Somnus abit: jacet illa gravis, jam scilicet intra
Viscera Romanae conditor urbis erat.
Ov. de Fastis, Lib. 3. Eleg. 1.
As the Fair Vestal to the Fountain came,
(Let none be startled at a Vestal's Name)
Tir'd with the Walk, she laid her down to rest,
And to the Winds expos'd her glowing Breast
To take the Freshness of the Morning Air,
And gather'd in a Knot her flowing Hair:
While thus she rested on her Arm re­clin'd,
The hoary Willows waving with the Wind,
And Feather'd Quires that warbled in the Shade,
And purling Streams that through the Meadow stray'd,
In drowsie Murmurs lull'd the gentle Maid.
The God of War beheld the Virgin lye,
The God beheld her with a Lover's Eye,
[Page 246] And by so tempting an Occasion press'd,
The beauteous Maid, whom he beheld, possess'd:
Conceiving as she slept, her fruitful Womb
Swell'd with the Founder of Immortal Rome.

I cannot quit this Head without taking notice of a Line in Seneca the Tragedian.

—Primus emergit solo
Dextrâ ferocem cornibus premens taurum
Sen. OEdip. Act. 3.
—First Zetus rises through the Ground,
Bending the Bull's tough Neck with Pain,
That tosses back his Horns in vain.

I cannot doubt but the Poet had here in view the Posture of Zetus in the famous Groupe of Figures, which represents the Two Brothers binding Dirce to the Horns of a mad Bull.

I could not forbear taking particular notice of the several Musical Instruments, that are to be seen in the Hands of the Apollo's, Muses, Fauns, Satyrs, Baccha­nais and Shepherds, which might cer­tainly give a great Light to the Dispute for Preference between the Ancient and [Page 247] Modern Musick. It would perhaps be no impertinent design to take off all their Models in Wood, which might not only give us some Notion of the ancient Mu­sick, but help us to pleasanter Instru­ments than are now in use. By the Ap­pearance they make in Marble, there is not One String-Instrument that seems comparable to our Violins, for they are all play'd on, either by the bare Fingers, or the Plectrum, so that they were in­capable of adding any length to their Notes, or of varying 'em by those in­sensible Swellings, and wearings away of Sound upon the same String, which give so wonderful a Sweetness to our Modern Musick. Besides, that the String-Instru­ments must have had very low and feeble Voices, as may be guess'd from the small Proportion of Wood about 'em, which could not contain Air enough to render the Strokes, in any considerable mea­sure, full and sonorous. There is a great deal of difference in the Make, not only of the several kinds of Instruments, but even among those of the same Name. The Syringa, for Example, has sometimes Four, and sometimes more Pipes, as high as to Twelve. The same Variety of Strings may be observed on their Harps, and of Stops on their Tibiae, which shows [Page 248] the little Foundation that such Writers have gone upon, who from a Verse per­haps in Virgil's Eclogues, or a short Pas­sage in a Classic Author, have been so very nice in determining the precise Shape of the ancient Musical Instruments, with the exact Number of their Pipes, Strings and Stops. It is indeed the usual Fault of the Writers of Antiquities, to streighten and confine themselves to particular Mo­dels. They are for making a kind of Stamp on every thing of the same Name, and if they find any thing like an old De­scription of the Subject they Treat on, they take care to regulate it on all Oc­casions, according to the Figure it makes in such a single Passage: As the learned German Author, quoted by Monsieur Baudelot, who had probably never seen any thing of a Houshold-God, more than a Canopus, affirms roundly, that all the ancient Lares were made in the Fashion of a Jug-Bottle. In short, the Antiqua­ries have been guilty of the same Fault as the Systeme-Writers, who are for cramping their Subjects into as narrow a Space as they can, and for reducing the whole Extent of a Science into a few general Maxims. This a Man has occa­sion of observing more than once, in the several Fragments of Antiquity that are [Page 249] still to be seen in Rome. How many Dresses are there for each particular De­ity? What a Variety of Shapes in the ancient Urns, Lamps, Lachrymary Ves­sels, Priapus's, Houshold-Gods, which have some of 'em been represented under such a particular Form, as any one of 'em has been describ'd with in an ancient Author, and would probably be all so, were they not still to be seen in their own Vindication? Madam Dacier, from some old Cuts of Terence, fancies that the Larva or Persona of the Roman Actors, was not only a Vizard for the Face, but had false Hair to it, and came over the whole Head like a Helmet. Among all the Statues at Rome, I remember to have seen but Two that are the Figures of Actors, which are both in the Villa Mat­thei. One sees on 'em the Fashion of the old Sock and Larva, the latter of which answers the Description that is given of it by this learned Lady, tho' I question not but several others were in use; for I have seen the Figure of Tha­lia, the Comic Muse, sometimes with an entire Head-piece in her Hand, some­times with about half the Head, and a little Friz, like a Tower, running round the Edges of the Face, and sometimes with a Mask for the Face only, like those [Page 250] of a Modern Make. Some of the Ita­lian Actors wear at present these Masks for the whole Head. I remember for­merly I could have no Notion of that Fable in Phaedrus, before I had seen the Figures of these entire Head-pieces.

Personam Tragicam fortè vulpes viderat:
O Quanta Species, inquit, cerebrum non habet!
L. 1. Fab. 7.
As wily Renard walk'd the Streets at Night,
On a Tragedian's Mask he chanc'd to light,
Turning it o'er, he mutter'd with Dis­dain,
How vast a Head is here without a Brain!

I find Madam Dacier has taken no­tice of this Passage in Phaedrus, upon the same Occasion; but not of the follow­ing one in Martial, which alludes to the same kind of Masks.

Non omnes fallis, scit te Proserpina ca­num,
Personam capiti detrahet illa tuo.
L. 3. Ep. 43.
[Page 251]Why should'st thou try to hide thy self in Youth?
Impartial Proserpine beholds the Truth,
And, laughing at so fond and vain a Task,
Will strip thy hoary Noddle of its Mask.

In the Villa Borghese is the Bust of a young Nero, which shows us the Form of an ancient Bulla on the Breast, which is neither like a Heart, as Macrobius de­scribes it, nor altogether resembles that in Cardinal Chigi's Cabinet; so that with­out establishing a particular Instance in­to a general Rule, we ought, in Subjects of this Nature, to leave room for the Humour of the Artist or Wearer. There are many Figures of Gladiators at Rome, tho' I don't remember to have seen any of the Retiarius, the Samnite, or the Antagonist to the Pinnirapus. But what I could not find among the Statues, I met with in Two Antique Pieces of Mosaic, which are in the Possession of a Cardinal. The Retiarius is engag'd with the Samnite, and has had so lucky a Throw, that his Net covers the whole Body of his Adversary from Head to Foot, yet his Antagonist recover'd him­self out of the Toiles, and was Con­queror, [Page 252] according to the Inscription. In another Piece is represented the Com­bat of the Pinnirapus, who is arm'd like the Samnite, and not like the Reti­arius, as some learned Men have suppo­sed: On the Helmet of his Antagonist are seen the Two Pinnae, that stand up on either Side like the Wings in the Petasus of a Mercury, but rise much higher, and are more pointed.

There is no part of the Roman Anti­quities that we are better acquainted with, than what relates to their Sacri­fices. For as the Old Romans were ve­ry much devoted to their Religion, we see several Parts of it entering their an­cient Basso Relievo's, Statues and Me­dals, not to mention their Altars, Tombs, Monuments, and those particular Or­naments of Architecture which were borrow'd from it. An Heathen Ritual could not instruct a Man better than these several Pieces of Antiquity, in the parti­cular Ceremonies and Punctilio's that at­tended the different kinds of Sacrifices. Yet there is a much greater Variety in the Make of the Sacrificing Instruments, than one finds in those who have Treat­ed of them, or have given us their Pi­ctures. For not to insist too long on such a Subject, I saw in Signior Anto­nio [Page 253] Politi's Collection a Patera without any rising in the middle, as it is gene­nerally Engraven, and another with a Handle to it, as Macrobius describes it, tho' it is quite contrary to any that I have ever seen cut in Marble; and I have observed perhaps several Hundreds. I might here enlarge on the Shape of the Triumphal Chariot, which is diffe­rent in some Pieces of Sculpture from what it appears in others; and on the Figure of the Discus, that is to be seen in the Hand of the celebrated Castor at Don Livio's, which is perfectly round, and not oblong, as some Antiquaries have represented it, nor has it any thing like a Sling fasten'd to it, to add force to the Toss.

Protinus imprudens, actusque cupidine lu­sus
Tollere Taenarides orbem properabat—
—De Hyacinthi disco.
Ov. Met. L. 10.
Th' unwary Youth, impatient for the Cast,
Went to snatch up the rolling Orb in haste.

Notwithstanding there are so great a Multitude of cloath'd Statues at Rome, [Page 254] I could never discover the several diffe­rent Roman Garments, for 'tis very dif­ficult to Trace out the Figure of a Vest, thro' all the Plaits and Foldings of the Drapery; besides, that the Roman Gar­ments did not differ from each other, so much by the Shape as by the Em­broidery and Colour, the one of which was too nice for the Statuary's Observa­tion, as the other does not lye within the Expression of the Chissel. I obser­ved, in abundance of Bas Reliefs, that the Cinctus Gabinus is nothing else but a long Garment, not unlike a Surplice, which would have trail'd on the Ground had it hung loose, and was therefore ga­ther'd about the middle with a Girdle. After this it is worth while to read the laborious Description that Ferrarius has made of it. ‘Cinctus Gabinus non aliud fuit quàm cum togae lacinia laevo brachio subducta in tergum ita rejiciebatur, ut contracta retraheretur ad pectus, atque i­ta in nodum necteretur; qui nodus sive cin­ctus togam contrahebat, brevioremque et strictiorem reddidit. De re Vestiar. L. 1. C. 14. Lipsius's Description of the Sam­nite Armour, seems drawn out of the very Words of Livy; yet not long ago a Statue, which was dug up at Rome, dress'd in this kind of Armour, gives a [Page 255] much different Explication of Livy from what Lipsius has done. This Figure was superscrib'd BA. TO. NI. from whence Fabretti concludes, that it was a Monu­ment erected to the Gladiator Bato, who after having succeeded in Two Com­bats, was kill'd in the Third, and ho­nourably Interr'd by Order of the Em­peror Caracalla. The manner of Pun­ctuation after each Sillable is to be met with in other Antique Inscriptions. I confess I could never learn where this Figure is now to be seen, but I think it may serve as an Instance of the great Un­certainty of this Science of Antiquities. *

In a Palace of Prince Cesarini I saw Busts of all the Antonine Family, which were dug up about Two Years since, not far from Albano, in a Place where is suppos'd to have stood a Villa of Mar­cus Aurelius. There are the Heads of Antoninus Pius, the Faustina's, Marcus Aurelius, Lucius Verus, a young Com­modus, and Annius Verus, all incompa­rably well cut.

Tho' the Statues that have been found among the Ruins of Old Rome are al­ready very numerous, there is no questi­on but Posterity will have the Pleasure [Page 256] of seeing many noble Pieces of Sculp­ture which are still undiscovered, for doubtless there are greater Treasures of this Nature under Ground, than what are yet brought to Light. They have often dug into Lands that are describ'd in old Authors, as the Places where such particular Statues or Obelisks stood, and have seldom fail'd of Success in their Pursuits. There are still many such pro­mising Spots of Ground that have ne­ver been searched into. A great part of the Palatine Mountain, for Exam­ple, lyes untouch'd, which was former­ly the Seat of the Imperial Palace, and may be presum'd to abound with more Treasures of this Nature than any other Part of Rome.

Ecce Palatino crevit reverentia monti,
Exultatque habitante Deo, potioraque Del­phis
Supplicibus latè populis oracula pandit.
Non alium certè decuit rectoribus orbis
Esse Larem, nulloque magis se colle potestas
Aestimat et summi sentit fastigia juris.
Attollens apicem subjectis regia rostris
Tot circum delubra videt, tantisque Deo­rum
Cingitur excubiis—
Claud. de Sexto Consulat. Honorii.
[Page 257]The Palatine, proud Rome's Imperial Seat,
(An awful Pile!) stands venerably Great:
Thither the Kingdoms and the Nations come,
In supplicating Crouds to learn their Doom;
To Delphi less th' enquiring Worlds repair,
Nor does a greater God inhabit there:
This sure the pompous Mansion was de­sign'd
To please the mighty Rulers of Man­kind;
Inferior Temples rise on either Hand,
And on the Borders of the Palace stand,
While o'er the rest her Head she proud­ly rears,
And lodg'd amidst her Guardian Gods appears.

But whether it be that the richest of these Discoveries fall into the Pope's Hands, or for some other Reason, it is said that the Prince Farnese, who is the present Owner of this Seat, will keep it from being turn'd up 'till he sees one of his own Family in the Chair. There are Undertakers in Rome who often pur­chase the digging of Fields, Gardens, [Page 228] or Vineyards, where they find any like­lihood of succeeding, and some have been known to arrive at great Estates by it. They pay according to the Dimen­sions of the Surface they are to break up, and after having made Essays into it, as they do for Coal in England, they rake into the most promising Parts of it, tho' they often find, to their Disap­pointment, that others have been before­hand with 'em. However they gene­rally gain enough by the Rubbish and Bricks, which the present Architects va­lue much beyond those of a Modern Make, to defray the Charges of their Search. I was shown Two Spaces of Ground, where part of Nero's Golden House stood, for which the Owner has been offer'd an extraordinary Sum of Mony. What encourag'd the Undertakers are several very ancient Trees, which grow upon the Spot, from whence they conclude that these particular Tracts of Ground must have lain untouch'd for some Ages. 'Tis pity there is not some­thing like a publick Register, to preserve the Memory of such Statues as have been found from time to time, and to mark the particular Places where they have been taken up, which would not only prevent many fruitless Searches for the [Page 259] future, but might often give a considera­rable Light into the Quality of the Place, or the Design of the Statue.

But the great Magazine for all kinds of Treasure is supposed to be the Bed of the Tiber. We may be sure, when the Romans lay under the Apprehensions of seeing their City sack'd by a barbarous Enemy, as they have done more than once, that they would take care to be­stow such of their Riches this way as could best bear the Water: besides what the Insolence of a Brutish Conqueror may be supposed to have contributed, who had an Ambition to waste and destroy all the Beauties of so celebrated a City. I need not mention the old Common-shore of Rome, which ran from all Parts of the Town with the Current and Vio­lence of an ordinary River, nor the fre­quent Inundations of the Tiber, which may have swept away many of the Or­naments of its Banks, nor the several Statues that the Romans themselves flung into it, when they would revenge them­selves on the Memory of an ill Citizen, a dead Tyrant, or a Discarded Favourite. At Rome they have so general an Opini­on of the Riches of this River, that the Jews have formerly proffer'd the Pope to cleanse it, so they might have, for [Page 260] their Pains, what they found in the Bo­some of it. I have seen the Valley near Ponte molle, which they propos'd to fa­shion into a new Channel for it, 'till they had clear'd the old for its Reception. The Pope however would not comply with the Proposal, as fearing the Heats might advance too far before they had finished their Work, and produce a Pesti­lence among his People; tho' I don't see why such a Design might not be ex­ecuted now with as little Danger as in Augustus's Time, were there as many Hands employ'd upon it. The City of Rome would receive a great Advantage from the Undertaking, as it would raise the Banks and deepen the Bed of the Tiber, and by Consequence free 'em from those frequent Inundations to which they are so subject at present; for the Channel of the River is observed to be narrower within the Walls, than either below or above them.

Before I quit this Subject of the Sta­tues, I think it very observable, that a­mong those which are already found there should be so many not only of the same Persons, but made after the same Design. One would not indeed wonder to see se­veral Figures of particular Deities and Emperors, who had a Multitude of Tem­ples [Page 261] erected to 'em, and had their seve­ral Sets of Worshippers and Admirers. Thus Ceres, the most beneficent and useful of the Heathen Divinities, has more Statues than any other of the Gods or Goddesses, as several of the Roman Emperesses took a Pleasure to be re­presented in her Dress. And I believe one finds as many Figures of that excel­lent Emperor Marcus Aurelius, as of all the rest together; because the Romans had so great a Veneration for his Memo­ry, that it grew into a part of their Re­ligion to preserve a Statue of him in al­most every private Family. But how comes it to pass, that so many of these Statues are cut after the very same Mo­del, and not only of these, but of such as had no Relation, either to the Inte­rest or Devotion of the Owner, as the dying Cleopatra, the Narcissus, the Faune leaning against the Trunk of a Tree, the Boy with the Bird in his Hand, the Leda and her Swan, with many others of the same Nature. I must confess I always look upon Figures of this kind, as the Copies of some celebrated Master-piece, and question not but they were famous Originals, that gave Rise to the several Statues which we see with the same Air, Posture, and Attitudes: What confirms [Page 262] me in this Conjecture, there are many ancient Statues of the Venus de Medicis, the Silenus with the young Bacchus in his Arms, the Hercules Farnese, the An­tinöus, and other beautiful Originals of the Ancients, that are already drawn out of the Rubbish, where they lay conceal'd for so many Ages. Among the rest I have observed more that are form'd after the Design of the Venus of Medicis than of any other, from whence I believe one may conclude, that it was the most celebrated Statue among the Anci­ents, as well as among the Moderns. It has always been usual for Sculptors to work upon the best Models, as it is for those that are Curious to have Copies of them.

I am apt to think something of the same Account may be given of the Resemblance that we meet with in many of the Antique Basso Relievo's. I re­member I was very well pleased with the Device of one that I met with on the Tomb of a young Roman Lady, which had beem made for her by her Mother. The Sculptor had chosen the Rape of Proserpine for his Device, where in one End you might see the God of the Dead (Pluto) hurrying away a beau­tiful young Virgin, (Proserpine) and at the other the Grief and Distraction of [Page 263] the Mother (Ceres) on that Occasion. I have since observed the same Device up­on several Sarcophagi, that have enclos'd the Ashes of Men or Boys, Maids or Matrons; for when the Thought took, tho' at first it received its Rise from such a particular Occasion as I have mention'd, the Ignorance of the Sculptors apply'd it promiscuously. I know there are Authors who discover a Mystery in this Device.

A Man is sometimes surprized to find so many extravagant Fancies as are cut on the old Pagan Tombs. Masks, Hun­ting-matches, and Bacchanals are very common; sometimes one meets with a lewd Figure of a Priapus, and in the Villa Pamphilia is seen a Satyr coupling with a Goat. There are however many of a more serious Nature, that shadow out the Existence of the Soul after Death, and the Hopes of a happy Im­mortality. I cannot leave the Basso Relie­vo's without mentioning one of 'em, where the Thought is extreamly noble. It is call'd Homer's Apotheosis, and con­sists of a Groupe of Figures cut in the same Block of Marble, and rising one a­bove another by Four or Five different Ascents. Jupiter sits at the Top of it with a Thunderbolt in his Hand, and, [Page 264] in such a Majesty as Homer himself re­presents him, presides over the Ceremony.


Immediately beneath him are the Fi­gures of the Nine Muses, suppos'd to be celebrating the Praises of the Poet. Homer himself is placed at one End of the lowest Row, sitting in a Chair of State, which is supported on each Side by the Figure of a kneeling Woman. The one holds a Sword in her Hand to represent the Iliad, or Actions of Achil­les, as the other has an Aplustre to repre­sent the Odyssy, or Voyage of Ulysses. About the Poet's Feet are creeping a Couple of Mice, as an Emblem of the Batracho-myomachia. Behind the Chair stands Time, and the Genius of the Earth, distinguish'd by their proper At­tributes, and putting a Garland on the Poet's Head, to intimate the mighty Re­putation he has gain'd in all Ages, and in all Nations of the World. Before him stands an Altar with a Bull ready to be Sacrific'd to the new God, and behind the Victim a Train of the several Vertues that are represented in Homer's [Page 265] Works, or to be learnt out of them, lifting up their Hands in Admiration of the Poet, and in Applause of the Solem­nity. This Antique Piece of Sculpture is in the Possession of the Constable Co­lonna, but never shown to those who see the Palace, unless they particularly desire it.

Among the great Variety of ancient Coins which I saw at Rome, I could not but take particular notice of such as re­late to any of the Buildings or Statues that are still Extant. Those of the First kind have been already publish­ed by the Writers of the Roman An­tiquities, and may be most of them met with in the last Edition of Donatus, as the Pillars of Trajan and Antonine, the Arches of Drusus Germanicus, and Sep­timius Severus, the Temples of Janus, Concord, Vesta, Jupiter tonans, Apollo and Faustina, the Circus Maximus, Ago­nalis, and that of Caracalla, or, accor­ding to Fabretti, of Galienus, of Vespa­sian's Amphitheater, and Alexander Se­verus's Baths; tho', I must confess, the Subject of the last may be very well doubted of. As for the Meta sudans and Pons Aelius, which have gain'd a Place among the Buildings that are now standing, and to be met with on old Reverses of Medals: The Coin that [Page 266] shows the first is generally rejected as spurious: nor is the other, tho' cited in the last Edition of Monsieur Vaillant, esteem'd more Authentick by the present Roman Medallists, who are certainly the most skilful in the World, as to the Mecha­nical Part of this Science. I shall close up this Set of Medals with a very Cu­rious one, as large as a Medalion, that is singular in its kind. On one Side is the Head of the Emperor Trajan, the Reverse has on it the Circus Maximus, and a View of the Side of the Palatine Mountain that faces it, on which are seen several Edifices, and among the rest the famous Temple of Apollo, that has still a considerable Ruin standing. This Medal I saw in the Hands of Monseig­neur Strozzi, Brother to the Duke of that Name, who has many Curiosities in his Possession, and is very obliging to a Stranger who desires the Sight of 'em. It is a surprising thing; that among the great Pieces of Architecture repre­sented on the old Coins, one can never meet with the Pantheon, the Mausolaeum of Augustus, Nero's Golden House, the Moles Adriani, the Septizonium of Seve­rus, the Baths of Dioclesian, &c. But since it was the Custom of the Roman Emperors thus to Register their most [Page 267] remarkable Buildings, as well as Actions, and since there are several in either of these kinds not to be found on Medals, more extraordinary than those that are; we may, I think, with great Reason suspect our Collections of old Coins to be extremely deficient, and that those which are already found out scarce bear a Proportion to what are yet undisco­ver'd. A Man takes a great deal more Pleasure in surveying the ancient Statues, who compares them with Medals, than it is possible for him to do without some little Knowledge this way; for these Two Arts illustrate each other; and as there are several Particulars in History and Antiquities which receive a great Light from ancient Coins, so would it be impossible to Decipher the Faces of the many Statues that are to be seen at Rome, without so Universal a Key to them. It is this that teaches to distin­guish the Kings and Consuls, Emperors and Emperesses, the Deities and Virtues, with a Thousand other Particulars re­lating to Statuary, and not to be learnt by any other Means. In the Villa Pam­philia stands the Statue of a Man in Woman's Cloaths, which the Anti­quaries do not know what to make of, and therefore pass it off for an Her­maphrodite; [Page 268] But a learned Medallist in Rome has lately fix'd it to Clodius, who is so famous for having intruded into the S [...]emnities of the Bona Dea in a Woman's Habit, for one sees the same Features and Make of Face in a Medal of the Clodian Family.

I have seen on Coins the Four finest Figures perhaps that are now Extant: The Hercules Farnese, the Venus of Me­dicis, the Apollo in the Belvidere, and the famous Marcus Aurelius on Horse­back. The oldest Medal that the First appears upon is one of Commodus, the Second on one of Faustina, the Third on one of Antoninus Pius, and the last on one of Lucius Verus. We may con­clude, I think, from hence, that these Statues were extremely celebrated a­mong the old Romans, or they would never have been honoured with a Place among the Emperor's Coins. We may further observe, that all Four of 'em make their first Appearance in the An­tonine Family, for which Reason I am apt to think they are all of them the Pro­duct of that Age. They would proba­bly have been mentioned by Pliny the Naturalist, who liv'd in the next Reign, save one, before Antoninus Pius, had they been made in his Time. As for the [Page 269] Brazen Figure of Marcus Aurelius on Horseback, there is no doubt of its be­ing of this Age, tho' I must confess it may be doubted, whether the Medal I have cited represents it. All I can say for it is, that the Horse and Man on the Medal are in the same Posture as they are on the Statue, and that there is a Resemblance of Marcus Aurelius's Face, for I have seen this Reverse on a Meda­lion of Don Livio's Cabinet, and much more distinctly in another very beautiful one, that is in the Hands of Signior Marc. Antonio. It is generally objected, that Lucius Verus would rather have placed the Figure of himself on Horseback up­on the Reverse of his own Coin, than the Figure of Marcus Aurelius. But it is very well known that an Emperor often stamp'd on his Coins the Face or Ornaments of his Collegue, as an In­stance of his Respect or Friendship for him; and we may suppose Lucius Verus would omit no Opportunity of doing Honour to Marcus Aurelius, whom he rather revered as his Father, than treat­ed as his Partner in the Empire. The Famous Antinous in the Belvidere must have been made too about this Age, for he dyed towards the middle of Adrian's Reign, the immediate Predecessor of [Page 270] Antoninus Pius. This entire Figure, tho' not to be found in Medals, may be seen in several precious Stones. Monsi­eur La Chausse, the Author of the Mu­saeum Romanum, show'd me an Antinous that he has published in his last Volume, cut in a Cornelian, which he values at Fifty Pistoles. It represents him in the Habit of a Mercury, and is the finest In­taglia that I ever saw.

Next to the Statues, there is nothing in Rome more surprising than that a­mazing variety of ancient Pillars of so many kinds of Marble. As most of the old Statues may be well supposed to have been cheaper to their first Owners, than they are to a Modern Purchaser, several of the Pillars are certainly rated at a much lower Price at present than they were of old. For not to mention what a huge Column of Granite, Serpentine, or Porphyry must have cost in the Quar­ry, or in its Carriage from Egypt to Rome, we may only consider the great Difficulty of hewing it into any Form, and of giving it the due Turn, Propor­tion and Polish. It is well known how these sorts of Marble resist the Impres­sions of such Instruments as are now in use. There is indeed a Milanese at Rome who works in them, but his Advances [Page 271] are so very slow, that he scarce lives up­on what he gains by it. He show'd me a Piece of Porphyry work'd into an or­dinary Salver, which had cost him Four Months continual Application, before he could bring it into that Form. The Ancients had probably some Secret to harden the Edges of their Tools, with­out recurring to those Extravagant Opi­nions of their having an Art to mollifie the Stone, or that it was naturally softer at its first cutting from the Rock, or what is still more absurd, that it was an artificial Composition, and not the na­tural Product of Mines and Quarries. The most valuable Pillars about Rome, for the Marble of which they are made, are the Four Columns of Oriental Ja­sper in St. Paulina's Chappel at St. Ma­ria Maggiore; Two of Oriental Gra­nite in St. Pudenziana; One of Tran­sparent Oriental Jasper in the Vatican Library; Four of Nero-Bianco in St. Cecilia Trans-tevere; Two of Brocatel­lo, and Two of Oriental Agate in Don Livio's Palace; Two of Giallo Antico in St. John Lateran, and Two of Verdi Antique in the Villa Pamphilia. These are all entire and solid Pillars, and made of such kinds of Marble as are no where to be found but among Antiquities, whe­ther [Page 272] it be that the Veins of it are un­discovered, or that they were quite ex­hausted upon the ancient Buildings. Among these old Pillars I cannot forbear reckoning a great Part of an Alablaster Column, which was found in the Ruins of Livia's Portico. It is of the Colour of Fire, and may be seen over the high Altar of St. Maria in Campitello, for they have cut it into Two Pieces, and fix'd it in the Shape of a Cross in a Hole of the Wall that was made on purpose to receive it; so that the Light passing thro' it from without, makes it look, to those who are in the Church, like a huge transparent Cross of Amber. As for the Workmanship of the old Roman Pillars, Monsieur Desgodetz, in his ac­curate Measures of these Ruins has ob­served, that the Ancients have not kept to the nicety of Proportion, and the Rules of Art, so much as the Moderns in this Particular. Some, to excuse this Defect, lay the Blame of it on the Work­men of Aegypt, and of other Nations, who sent most of the ancient Pillars ready shap'd to Rome: Others say that the An­cients, knowing Architecture was chiefly design'd to please the Eye, only took care to avoid such Disproportions as were gross enough to be observ'd by the [Page 273] Sight, without minding whether or no they approach'd to a Mathematical Ex­actness: Others will have it rather to be an Effect of Art, and of what the Italians, call the Gusto grande, than of any Negli­gence in the Architect; for they say the Ancients always consider'd the Situ­ation of a Building, whether it were high or low, in an open Square or in a narrow Street, and more or less devia­ted from their Rules of Art, to comply with the several Distances and Elevations from which their Works were to be re­garded. It is said there is an Ionic Pillar in the Santa Maria Transtevere, where the Marks of the Compass are still to be seen on the Volute, and that Palladio learnt from hence the working of that difficult Problem; but I never could find time to examine all the old Columns of that Church. Among the Pil­lars I must not pass over the Two no­blest in the World, those of Trajan and Antonine. There could not have been a more magnificent Design than that of Trajan's Pillar. Where could an Empe­ror's Ashes have been so nobly lodg'd, as in the midst of his Metropolis, and on the Top of so exalted a Monument, with the greatest of his Actions under­neath him? Or, as some will have it, [Page 274] his Statue was on the Top, his Urn at the Foundation, and his Battles in the midst. The Sculpture of it is too well known to be here mention'd. The most remarkable Piece in Antonine's Pillar is the Figure of Jupiter Pluvius, sending down Rain on the fainting Army of Marcus Aurelius, and Thunderbolts on his Ene­mies, which is the greatest Confirma­tion possible of the Story of the Christian Legion, and will be a standing Evidence for it, when any Passage in an old Au­thor may be supposed to be forged. The Figure that Jupiter here makes among the Clouds, puts me in Mind of a Passage in the Aeneid, which gives just such a­nother Image of him. Virgil's Inter­preters are certainly to blame, that sup­pose it is nothing but the Air which is here meant by Jupiter.

Quantus ab occasu veniens pluvialibus haedis
Verberat imber humum, quàm multâ gran­dine nimbi
In vada praecipitant, quum Jupiter horri­das austris
Torqu [...]t aquosam hyemem, & caelo cava nu­bila rumpit.
Aen. 9.
[Page 275]The Combat thickens, like the Storm that flies
From Westward, when the show'ry Kids arise:
Or patt'ring Hail comes pouring on the Main,
When Jupiter descends in harden'd Rain,
Or bellowing Clouds burst with a stor­my Sound,
And with an armed Winter strew the Ground.

I have seen a Medal that, according to the Opinion of many learned Men, re­lates to the same Story. The Empe­ror is entitled on it Germanicus, (as it was in the Wars of Germany that this Circumstance happened) and carries on the Reverse a Thunderbolt in his Hand; for the Heathens attributed the same Miracle to the Piety of the Empe­ror, that the Christians ascribed to the Prayers of their Legion. Fulmen de coe­lo precibus suis contra hostium Machina­mentum Marcus extorsit, suis pluviâ impe­tratâ cùm siti laborarent. Jul. Capit.

Claudian takes notice of this Miracle, and has given the same Reason for it.

—Ad templa vocatus
[Page 276] Clemens Marce redis, cum gentibus undi­que cinctam
Exuit Hesperiam paribus fortuna periclis.
Laus ibi nulla ducum, nam flammeus im­ber in hostem
Decidit, hunc dorso trepidum fumante fe­rebat
Ambustus sonipes; hic tabescente solutus
Subsedit galeâ, liquefactaque fulgure-cuspis
Canduit, et subitis fluxere vaporibus enses.
Tunc, contenta polo, mortalis nescia teli
Pugna fuit. Chaldaea mago seu carmina ritu
Armavere Deos: seu, quod reor, omne to­nantis
Obsequium Marci mores potuere mereri.
De Sexto Cons. Hon.
So mild Aurelius to the Gods repaid
The grateful Vows that in his Fears he made,
When Latium from unnumber'd Foes was freed:
Nor did he Then by his own Force suc­ceed;
But with descending Show'rs of Brim­stone fir'd,
The wild Barbarian in the Storm ex­pir'd.
[Page 277] Wrapt in devouring Flames the Horse­man rag'd,
And spurr'd the Steed in equal Flames engag'd:
Another pent in his scorch'd Armour glow'd,
While from his Head the melting Hel­met flow'd;
Swords by the Light'ning's subtile Force distill'd,
And the cold Sheath with running Me­tal fill'd:
No Human Arm its weak Assistance brought,
But Heav'n, offended Heav'n, the Bat­tel fought;
Whether dark Magick and Chaldean Charms
Had fill'd the Skies, and set the Gods in Arms;
Or good Aurelius (as I more believe)
Deserv'd whatever Aid the Thunderer could give.

I do not remember that M. Dacier, among several Quotations on this Sub­ject, in the Life of Marcus Aurelius, has taken Notice, either of the forementi­oned Figure on the Pillar of Marcus Antoninus, or of the Beautiful Passage I have quoted out of Claudian.

[Page 278] It is pity the Obelisks in Rome had not been charged with several Parts of the Egyptian Histories instead of Hie­rogliphics, which might have given no small Light to the Antiquities of that Nation, which are now quite sunk out of sight in those remoter Ages of the World. Among the Triumphal Arches, that of Constantine is not only the no­blest of any in Rome, but in the World. I search'd narrowly into it, especially among those Additions of Sculpture made in the Emperor's own Age, to see if I could find any Marks of the Appa­rition, that is said to have preceded the very Victory which gave Occasion to the Triumphal Arch. But there are not the least Traces of it to be met with, which is not very strange, if we consi­der that the greatest Part of the Orna­ments were taken from Trajan's Arch, and set up to the new Conqueror in no small haste, by the Senate and People of Rome, who were then most of them Heathens. There is however something in the Inscription, which is as old as the Arch it self, that seems to hint at the Emperor's Vision. Imp. Caes. Fl. Con­stantino maximo P. F. Augusto S. P. Q. R. quod instinctu Divinitatis mentis mag­nitudine cum exercitu suo tam de Tyran­no [Page 279] quàm de omni ejus Factione uno tempore justis Rempublicam ultus est armis arcum triumphis insignem dicavit. There is no Statue of this Emperor at Rome with a Cross to it, tho' the Ecclesiastical Hi­storians say there were many such ere­cted to him. I have seen of his Medals that were stamp'd with it, and a very remarkable one of his Son Constantius, where he is Crown'd by a Victory on the Reverse with this Inscription, In hoc Signo Victor eris ☧. This Triumphal Arch, and some other Buildings of the same Age, show us that Architecture held up its Head after all the other Arts of Designing were in a very weak and languishing Condition, as it was pro­bably the first among them that revived. If I was surprized not to find the Cross in Constantine's Arch, I was as much dis­appointed not to see the Figure of the Temple of Jerusalem on that of Titus, where are represented the Golden Can­dlestick, the Table of Shew-bread, and the River Jordan. Some are of Opini­on, that the composite Pillars of this Arch were made in Imitation of the Pillars of Solomon's Temple, and observe that these are the most ancient of any that are found of that Order.

[Page 280] It is almost impossible for a Man to form, in his Imagination, such beautiful and glorious Scenes as are to be met with in several of the Roman Churches and Chappels; for having such a pro­digious Stock of ancient Marble within the very City, and at the same time so many different Quarries in the Bowels of their Country, most of their Chap­pels are laid over with such a rich Va­riety of Incrustations, as cannot possibly be found in any other Part of the World. And notwithstanding the incredible Sums of Mony which have been alrea­dy laid out this way, there is still the same Work going forward in other Parts of Rome, the last still endeavour­ing to out-shine those that went before them. Painting, Sculpture and Archi­tecture are at present far from being in a flourishing Condition, but 'tis thought they may all recover themselves under the present Pontificate, if the Wars and Confusions of Italy will give them leave. For as the Pope is himself a Master of polite Learning, and a great Encourager of Arts, so at Rome any of these Arts immediately thrives under the Encou­ragement of the Prince, and may be fetched up to its Perfection in Ten or a Dozen Years, which is the Work of an [Page 281] Age or Two in other Countries, where they have not such excellent Models to form themselves upon.

I shall conclude my Observations on Rome, with a Letter of King Henry the Eighth to Ann of Bulleyn, transcribed out of the famous Manuscript in the Va­tican, which the Bishop of Salisbury assures us is written with the King's own Hand.

The Cause of my Writing at this Time is to hear of your Health and Prosperity, of which I would be as glad as in manner of my own, praying God that it be his Pleasure to send us short­ly together, for I promise I long for it; howbeit I trust it shall not be long too, and seeing my Darling is absent, I can no less do than send her some Flesh, Prognosticating that hereafter thou must have some of mine, which, if he please, I would have now. As touching your Sister's Mother, I have consign'd Walter Welsh to write to my Lord Manwring my Mind there­in, whereby I trust he shall not have Power to disseid her; for surely, what­ever is said, it cannot so stand with his Honour, but that he must needs take his natural Daughter in her ex­treme [Page 282] Necessity. No more to you at this time, my own Darling, but that with a Whistle I wish we were together one Evening; by the Hand of Yours,


These Letters are always shown to an Englishman that visits the Vatican Library.

TOWNS Within the Neighbourhood of ROME.

I Spent Three or Four Days on Tivoli, Frescati, Palestri­na and Albano. In our way to Tivoli I saw the Rivulet of Solforata, formerly call'd Albula, and smelt the Stench that arises from its Waters some time before I saw them. Martial mentions this offensive Smell in an Epigram of the Fourth Book, as he does the Rivulet it self in the First.

Quod siccae redolet lacus lacunae,
Crudarum nebulae quod Albularum,
L. 4. Ep. 4.
The drying Marshes such a Stench con­vey,
Such the rank Steams of reeking Albula.

[Page 284]
Itur ad Herculeae gelidas quà Tiburis ar­ces,
Canaque sulphureis Albula fumat aquis.
L. 1. Ep. 5.
As from high Rome to Tivoli you go,
Where Albula's sulphureous Waters flow.

The little Lake that gives Rise to this River, with its floating Islands, is one of the most extraordinary natural Curi­osities about Rome. It lyes in the very Flat of Campania, and as it is the Drain of these Parts, 'tis no Wonder that it is so impregnated with Sulphur. It has at Bottom so thick a Sediment of it, that upon throwing in a Stone the Wa­ter boils for a considerable time over the Place which has been stirr'd up. At the same time are seen little Flakes of Scurfe rising up, that are probably the Parts which compose the Islands, for they of­ten mount of themselves, tho' the Wa­ter is not troubled.

I question not but this Lake was for­merly much larger than it is at present, and that the Banks have grown over it by degrees, in the same manner as the Islands have been form'd on it. Nor is it improbable but that, in Process of [Page 285] Time, the whole Surface of it may be crusted over, as the Islands enlarge them­selves, and the Banks close in upon them. All about the Lake, where the Ground is dry, we found it to be hollow by the Trampling of our Horses Feet. I could not discover the least Traces of the Si­byls Temple and Grove, which stood on the Borders of this Lake. Tivoli is seen at a distance lying along the Brow of a Hill. Its Situation has given Horace occasion to call it Tibur Supinum, as Vir­gil perhaps for the same Reason entitles it Superbum. The Villa de Medicis with its Water-Works, the Cascade of the Teverone, and the Ruins of the Sibyls Tem­ple (of which Vignola has made a little Copy at Peters de Montorio) are descri­bed in every Itinerary. I must confess I was most pleased with a beautiful Pro­spect that none of them have mentio­ned, which lyes at about a Mile di­stance from the Town. It opens on one Side into the Roman Campania, where the Eye loses it self on a smooth spaci­ous Plain. On the other Side is a more broken and interrupted Scene, made up of an infinite Variety of Inequalities and Shadowings, that naturally arise from an agreeable Mixture of Hills, Groves and Vallies. But the most enlivening Part [Page 286] of all is the River Teverone, which you see at about a Quarter of a Mile's di­stance throwing it self down a Preci­pice, and falling by several Cascades from one Rock to another, 'till it gains the Bottom of the Valley, where the Sight of it would be quite lost, did not it sometimes discover it self thro' the Breaks and Openings of the Woods that grow about it. The Roman Painters often work upon this Landskip, and I am apt to believe that Horace had his Eye upon it in those Two or Three beautiful Tou­ches which he has given us of these Seats. The Teverone was formerly call'd the Anio.

Me nec tam patiens Lacedaemon,
Nec tam Larissae percussit campus opimae,
Quàm domus Albuneae resonantis,
Et praeceps Anio, et Tiburni lacus, et uda
Mobilibus pomaria rivis.
L. 1. O. 7.
Not fair Larissa's fruitful Shore,
Nor Lacedaemon charms me more,
Than high Albunea's airy Walls
Resounding with her Water-falls,
And Tivoli's delightful Shades,
And Anio rolling in Caseades,
[Page 287] That through the flow'ry Meadows glides,
And all the beauteous Scene divides.

I remember Monsieur Dacier explains Mobilibus by Ductilibus, and believes that the Word relates to the Conduits, Pipes, and Canals that were made to distribute the Waters up and down, according to the Pleasure of the Owner. But any one who sees the Teverone must be of a­nother Opinion, and conclude it to be one of the most moveable Rivers in the World, that has its Stream broken by such a Multitude of Cascades, and is so often shifted out of one Channel into a­nother. After a very turbulent and noi­sie Course of several Miles among the Rocks and Mountains, the Teverone falls into the Valley before-mentioned, where it recovers its Temper, as it were, by little and little, and after many Turns and Windings glides peaceably into the Tiber. In which Sense we are to under­stand Silius Italicus's Description, to give it its proper Beauty.

Sulphureis gelidus quà serpit leniter un­dis,
Ad genitorem Anio labens sine murmure Tibrim.
Here the loud Anio's boist'rous Clamours cease,
That with submissive Murmurs glides in Peace
To his old Sire the Tiber

At Frescati I had the Satisfaction of seeing the First Sketch of Versailles in the Walks and Water-Works. The Prospect from it was doubtless much more delightful formerly, when the Cam­pania was set thick with Towns, Villas and Plantations. Cicero's Tusculum was at a Place call'd Grotto Ferrate, about Two Miles off this Town, tho' most of the Modern Writers have fix'd it to Frescati. Nardini says, there was found among the Ruins at Grotto Ferrate a Piece of Sculpture which Cicero himself mentions in one of his familiar Epistles. In going to Frescati we had a fair View of Mount Algido.

On our Way to Palaestrina we saw the Lake Regillus, famous for the Ap­parition of Castor and Pollux, who were here seen to give their Horses Drink af­ter the Battel between the Romans and the Son-in-Law of Tarquin. At some distance from it we had a View of the Lacus Gabinus, that is much larger than [Page 289] the former. We left the Road for a­bout half a Mile to see the Sources of a Modern Aqueduct. It is entertaining to observe how the several little Springs and Rills, that break out of the Sides of the Mountain, are glean'd up, and conveyed thro' little covered Channels into the main Hollow of the Aqueduct. It was certainly very lucky for Rome, seeing it had occasion for so many A­queducts, that there chanced to be such a Range of Mountains within its Neigh­bourhood. For by this means they could take up their Water from what height they pleased, without the Expence of such an Engine as that of Marli. Thus the Claudian Aqueduct ran Thirty Eight Miles, and sunk after the Proportion of Five Foot and a half every Mile, by the Advantage only of a high Source and the low Situation of Rome. Palae­strina stands very high, like most other Towns in Italy, for the Advantage of the cool Breezes, for which Reason Vir­gil calls it Altum, and Horace, Frigidum Praeneste. Statius calls it Praeneste Sa­crum, because of the Famous Temple of Fortune that stood in it. There are still great Pillars of Granite, and other Fragments of this ancient Temple. But the most considerable Remnant of it is [Page 290] a very beautiful Mosaic Pavement, the finest I have ever seen in Marble. The Parts are so well join'd together, that the whole Piece looks like a continued Picture. There are in it the Figures of a Rhinoceros, of Elephants, and of se­veral other Animals, with little Land­skips which look very lively and well painted, tho' they are made out of the natural Colours and Shadows of the Marble. I do not remember ever to have met with any old Roman Mosaic, composed of little Pieces of Clay half vitrify'd, and prepared at the Glass-Hou­ses, which the Italians call Smalte. These are much in use at present, and may be made of what Colour and Figure the Work-man pleases, which is a Modern Improvement of the Art, and enables those who are employ'd in it to make much finer Pieces of Mosaic than they did formerly.

In our Excursion to Albano we went as far as Nemi, that takes its Name from the Nemus Dianae. The whole Coun­try thereabouts is still over-run with Woods and Thickets. The Lake of Nemi lyes in a very deep Bottom, so surrounded on all Sides with Mountains and Groves, that the Surface of it is ne­ver ruffled with the least Breath of [Page 291] Wind, which perhaps, together with the Clearness of its Waters, gave it for­merly the Name of Diana's Looking-Glass.

—Speculumque Dianae.

Prince Caesarini has a Palace at Jen­sano, very near Nemi, in a pleasant Situ­ation, and set off with many beautiful Walks. In our Return from Jensano to Albano we passed through la Ricca, the Aricia of the Ancients, Horace's First Stage from Rome to Brundisi. There is nothing at Albano so remarkable as the Prospect from the Capucin's Garden, which for the Extent and Variety of pleasing Incidents is, I think, the most delightful one that I ever saw. It takes in the whole Campania, and terminates in a full View of the Mediterranean. You have a Sight at the same time of the Alban Lake, which lyes just by in an Oval Figure of about Seven Miles round, and, by reason of the continued Circuit of high Mountains that encom­pass it, looks like the Area of some vast Amphitheater. This, together with the several green Hills and naked Rocks, within the Neighbourhood, makes the most agreeable Confusion imaginable. [Page 292] Albano keeps up its Credit still for Wine, which perhaps would be as good as it was anciently did they preserve it to as great an Age; but as for Olives there are now very few here, tho' they are in great plenty at Tivoli.

—Albani pretiosa senectus.
Juv. Sat. 13.
Cras bibet Albanis aliquid de montibus aut de
Setinis, cujus patriam titulumque Sene­ctus
Delevit multâ veteris fuligine testae.
Id. Sat. 5.
Perhaps to Morrow he may change his Wine,
And drink old sparkling Alban, or Se­tine,
Whose Title, and whose Age, with Mould o'er-grown,
The good old Cask for ever keeps un­known.
Mr. Bowles.

—Palladiae seu collibus uteris Albae.
Mar. L. 5. E. 1.
Id. L. 9. Ep. 16.

The Places mention'd in this Chap­ter were all of them formerly the cool Retirements of the Romans, where they [Page 293] used to hide themselves among the Woods and Mountains, during the excessive Heats of their Summer; as Bajae was the general Winter Rendezvous.

Jam terras volucremque polum fuga veris Aquosi
Laxat, et Icariis coelum latratibus urit.
Ardua jam densae rarescunt moenia Romae:
Hos Praeneste sacrum, nemus hos glaciale Dianae,
Algidus aut horrens, aut Tuscula protegit Umbra,
Tiburis hi lucos, Anienaque frigora cap­tant.
Sil. 4. 1.
Albanos quoque Tusculosque colles
Et quodcunque jacet sub urbe frigus.
Fidenas veteres, brevesque Rubras,
Et quod Virgineo cruore gaudet
Annae pomiferum nemus Perennae.
M. L. 1. E. 123.
All shun the raging Dog-Star's sultry Heat,
And from the half-unpeopled Town retreat:
Some hid in Nemi's gloomy Forests lye,
To Palestrina some for Shelter fly;
Others to catch the Breeze of breathing Air,
To Tusculum or Algido repair;
[Page 294] Or in moist Tivoli's Retirements find
A cooling Shade, and a refreshing Wind.

On the contrary, at present, Rome is never fuller of Nobility than in Sum­mer time; for the Country Towns are so infested with unwholsome Vapours, that they dare not trust themselves in them while the Heats last. There is no question but the Air of the Campania would be now as healthful as it was for­merly, were there as many Fires burn­ing in it, and as many Inhabitants to manure the Soil. Leaving Rome about the latter end of October, in my Way to Sienna, I lay the first Night at a little Village in the Territories of the ancient Veii. ‘Haec tum nomina erant nunc sunt sine no­mine Campi.’

The Ruins of their Capital City are at present so far lost, that the Geographers are not able to determine exactly the Place where they once stood: So lite­rally is that noble Prophecy of Lucan fulfill'd, of this and other Places of Latium.

—Gentes Mars iste futuras
[Page 295] Obruet, et populos aevi venientis in orbem
Erepto natale feret, tunc omne Latinum
Fabula nomen erit: Gabios, Veïosque, Co­ramque,
Pulvere vix tectae poterunt monstrare ruinae,
Albanosque lares, Laurentinosque penates
Rus vacuum, quod non habitet nisi noct [...] coactâ
L. 7.
Succeeding Nations by the Sword shall die,
And swallow'd up in dark Oblivion lye;
Almighty Latium with her Cities crown'd,
Shall like an antiquated Fable sound;
The Veïan and the Gabian Tow'rs shall fall,
And one promiscuous Ruin cover all,
Nor, after length of Years, a Stone be­tray
The Place where once the very Ruins lay:
High Alba's Walls, and the Lavinian Strand,
(A lonely Desart, and an empty Land)
Shall scarce afford, for needful Hours of Rest,
A single House to their benighted Guest.

We here saw the Lake Bacca, that gives Rise to the Cremera, on whose Banks the Fabii were slain.

[Page 296]
Tercentum numerabat avos, quos turbine Martis,
Abstulit una Dies, cùm fors non aequa la­bori
Patricio Cremerae maculavit sanguine ri­pas.
Sil. It. L. 1.
Fabius a num'rous Ancestry could tell,
Three Hundred Heroes that in Battel fell,
Near the fam'd Cremera's disast'rous Flood,
That ran polluted with Patrician Blood.

We saw afterwards, in the Progress of our Voyage, the Lakes of Vico and Bolsena. The last is reckon'd One and Twenty Miles in Circuit, and is plenti­fully stock'd with Fish and Fowl. There are in it a couple of Islands, that are perhaps the Two floating Isles menti­oned by Pliny, with that improbable Circumstance of their appearing some­times like a Circle, and sometimes like a Triangle, but never like a Quadran­gle. It is easie enough to conceive how they might become fix'd, tho' they once floated; and it is not very credi­ble, that the Naturalist could be decei­ved in his Account of a Place that lay, [Page 297] as it were, in the Neighbourhood of Rome. At one End of this Lake stands Montefiascone, the Habitation of Virgil's Aequi Falisci, Aen. 7. and on the Side of it the Town of the Volsinians, now call'd Bolsena.

Aut positis nemorosa inter juga Volsiniis.
Juv. Sat. 3.
Volsinium stood
Cover'd with Mountains, and enclos'd with Wood.

I saw in the Church-yard of Bolsena an antique Funeral Monument (of that kind which they call'd a Sarcophagus) very entire, and what is particular, En­graven on all Sides with a curious Re­presentation of a Bacchanal. Had the Inhabitants observed a couple of lewd Figures at one End of it, they would not have thought it a proper Ornament for the Place where it now stands. Af­ter having travell'd hence to Aquapen­dente, that stands in a wonderful pleasant Situation, we came to the little Brook which separates the Pope's Dominions from the Great Duke's. The Frontier Castle of Radicofani is seated on the highest Mountain in the Country, and is as well fortify'd as the Situation of [Page 298] the Place will permit. We here found the natural Face of the Country quite changed from what we had been enter­tain'd with in the Pope's Dominions. For instead of the many beautiful Scenes of green Mountains and fruitful Vallies, that we had been presented with for some Days before, we saw now nothing but a wild naked Prospect of Rocks and Hills, worn on all Sides with Gutters and Channels, and not a Tree or Shrub to be met with in a vast Circuit of several Miles. This Savage Prospect put me in Mind of the Italian Proverb, that The Pope has the Flesh, and the Great Duke the Bones of Italy. Among a large Extent of these Barren Mountains I saw but a single Spot that was cultivated, on which there stood a Convent.


SIENNA stands high, and is adorn'd with a great many Towers of Brick, which in the Time of the Common-wealth were erected to such of the Members as had done any considerable Service to their Coun­try. These Towers gave us a sight of the Town a great while before we en­ter'd it. There is nothing in this City so extraordinary as the Cathedral, which a Man may view with Pleasure after he has seen St. Peters, tho' 'tis quite of a­nother Make, and can only be look'd upon as one of the Master-pieces of Go­thic Architecture. When a Man sees the prodigious Pains and Expence, that our Fore-Fathers have been at in these [Page 300] barbarous Buildings, one cannot but fan­cy to himself what Miracles of Archi­tecture they would have left us, had they only been instructed in the right way; for when the Devotion of those Ages was much warmer than it is at pre­sent, and the Riches of the People much more at the Disposal of the Priests, there was so much Mony consumed on these Gothic Cathedrals, as would have finish'd a greater Variety of Noble Buil­dings, than have been raised either be­fore or since that Time.

One would wonder to see the vast Labour that has been laid out on this single Cathedral. The very Spouts are loaden with Ornaments, the Windows are form'd like so many Scenes of Per­spective, with a Multitude of little Pil­lars retiring one behind another, the great Columns are finely engraven with Fruits and Foliage that run twisting about them from the very Top to the Bottom, the whole Body of the Church is che­quer'd with different Lays of White and Black Marble, the Pavement curiously cut out in Designs and Scripture-Stories, and the Front cover'd with such a Va­riety of Figures, and over-run with so many little Mazes and Labyrinths of Sculpture, that nothing in the World [Page 301] can make a prettier Show to those who prefer false Beauties, and affected Orna­ments, to a Noble and Majestick Sim­plicity. Over-against this Church stands a large Hospital, erected by a Shooe-Ma­ker who has been Beatify'd, tho' ne­ver Sainted. There stands a Figure of him superscrib'd, Sutor ultra Crepidam. I shall speak nothing of the Extent of this City, the Cleanliness of its Streets, nor the Beauty of its Piazza, which so many Travellers have described. As this is the last Republick that fell under the Subjection of the Duke of Florence, so is it still supposed to retain many Han­kerings after its ancient Liberty: For this Reason, when the Keys and Page­ants of the Duke's Towns and Govern­ments pass in Procession before him, on St. John Baptist's Day, I was told that Sienna comes in the Rear of his Do­minions, and is push'd forward by those who follow, to show the Reluctancy it has to appear in such a Solemnity. I shall say nothing of the many gross and absurd Traditions of St. Catherine of Si­enna who is the great Saint of this Place. I think there is as much Pleasure in hearing a Man tell his Dreams, as in reading Accounts of this Nature: A Traveller, that thinks them worth his [Page 302] Observation, may fill a Book with them at every great Town in Italy.

From Sienna we went forward to Leghorne, where the Two Ports, the Bagnio, and Donatelli's Statue of the Great Duke, amidst the Four Slaves chain'd to his Pedestal, are very noble Sights. The Square is one of the lar­gest, and will be one of the most beau­tiful in Italy, when this Statue is ere­cted in it, and a Town-house built at one End of it to front the Church that stands at the other. They are at a con­tinual Expence to cleanse the Ports, and keep 'em from being choak'd up, which they do by the help of several Engines that are always at work, and employ many of the Great Duke's Slaves. What­ever part of the Harbour they scoop in, it has an Influence on all the rest, for the Sea immediately works the whole Bottom to a Level. They draw a dou­ble Advantage from the Dirt that is ta­ken up, as it clears the Port, and at the same time dries up several Marshes a­bout the Town, where they lay it from time to time. One can scarce imagine how great Profits the Duke of Tuscany receives from this single Place, which are not generally thought so considera­ble, because it passes for a Free Port. [Page 303] But, it is very well known how the Great Duke, on a late occasion, not­withstanding the Privileges of the Merchants, drew no small Sums of Mo­ny out of them; tho' still, in respect of the exorbitant Dues that are paid at most other Ports, it deservedly retains the Name of Free. It brings into his Dominions a great Increase of People from all other Nations. They reckon in it near Ten Thousand Jews, many of them very Rich, and so great Traffic­kers, that our English Factors complain they have most of our Country Trade in their Hands. 'Tis true the Strangers pay little or no Taxes directly, but out of every thing they buy there goes a large Gabel to the Government. The very Ice-Merchant at Leghorne pays a­bove a Thousand Pound Sterling annu­ally for his Privilege, and the Tobacco-Merchant Ten Thousand. The Ground is sold by the Great Duke at a very high Price, and Houses are every Day rising on it. All the Commodities that go up into the Country, of which there are great Quantities, are clogg'd with Impositions as soon as they leave Leghorne. All the Wines, Oils, and Silks that come down from the fruitful [Page 304] Vallies of Pisa, Florence, and other Parts of Tuscany, must make their Way thro' several Duties and Taxes before they can reach the Port. The Canal that runs from the Sea into the Arno gives a convenient Carriage to all Goods that are to be shipp'd off, which does not a little enrich the Owners; and in pro­portion, as private Men grow wealthy, their Legacies, Law-Suits, Daughter's the Portions, &c. encrease, in all which the Great Duke comes in for a considerable Share. The Lucquese, who Traffick at this Port, are said to bring in a great deal into the Duke's Coffers. Another Advantage, which may be of great use to him, is, that at Five or Six Days warning he might find Credit in this Town for very large summs of Money, which no other Prince in Italy can pretend to. I need not take notice of the Reputati­on that this Port gives him among Fo­reign Princes, but there is one Benefit arising from it, which, tho' never thrown into the Account, is doubtless very con­siderable. It is well known how the Pisans and Florentines long regretted the Loss of their ancient Liberty, and their Subjection to a Family that some of them thought themselves equal to, in the flourishing Times of their Com­mon-wealths. [Page 305] The Town of Leghorne has accidentally done what the greatest Fetch of Politicks would have found difficult to have brought about, for it has almost unpeopled Pisa, if we com­pare it with what it was formerly, and every Day lessens the Number of the Inhabitants of Florence. This does not only weaken those Places, but at the same time turns many of the busiest Spi­rits from their old Notions of Honour and Liberty, to the Thoughts of Traf­fick and Merchandise: And as Men en­gaged in a Road of Thriving are no Friends to Changes and Revolutions, they are at present worn into a Habit of Subjection, and push all their Pursuits another way. It is no Wonder there­fore that the Great Duke has such Ap­prehensions of the Pope's making Civi­ta Vecchia a Free Port, which may in time prove so very prejudicial to Leg­horne. It would be thought an impro­bable Story, should I set down the se­veral Methods that are commonly re­ported to have been made use of, during the last Pontificate, to put a stop to this Design. The Great Duke's Mony was so well bestow'd in the Conclave, that several of the Cardinals dissuaded the Pope from the Undertaking, and at last [Page 106] turn'd all his Thoughts upon the little Port which he made at Antium, near Nettuno. The chief Work-men that were to have convey'd the Water to Civita Vecchia were bought off, and when a poor Capucin, that was thought Proof against all Bribes, had undertaken to carry on the Work, he dy'd a little after he had enter'd upon it. The pre­sent Pope however, who is very well acquainted with the Secret History, and the Weakness of his Predecessor, seems resolved to bring the Project to its Per­fection. He has already been at vast Charges in finishing the Aqueduct, and had some Hopes that, if the War should drive our English Merchants from Sicily and Naples, they would settle here. His Holiness has told some English Gentle­men, that those of our Nation should have the greatest Privileges of any but the Subjects of the Church. One of our Countreymen, who makes a good Figure at Rome, told me the Pope has this Design extremely at his Heart, but that he fears the English will suffer no­thing like a Resident or Consul in his Dominions, tho' at the same time he hoped the Business might as well be trans­acted by one that had no publick Cha­racter. This Gentleman has so busied [Page 107] himself in the Affair, that he has of­fended the French and Spanish Cardinals, insomuch that Cardinal Janson refused to see him when he would have made his Apology for what he had said to the Pope on this Subject. There is one great Objection to Civita Vecchia, that the Air of the Place is not wholsome; but this they say proceeds from want of Inhabitants, the Air of Leghorne having been worse than this before the Town was well peopled.

The great Profits which have accrued to the Duke of Florence from his Free Port have set several of the States of Italy on the same Project. The most likely to succeed in it would be the Genoese, who lye more convenient than the Ve­netians, and have a more inviting Form of Government than that of the Church, or that of Florence. But as the Port of Genoa is so very ill guarded against Storms, that no Privileges can tempt the Merchants from Leghorne into it, so dare not the Genoese make any other of their Ports Free, least it should draw to it most of their Commerce and Inhabi­tants, and by Consequence ruin their chief City.

From Leghorne I went to Pisa, where there is still the Shell of a great City, [Page 808] tho' not half furnish'd with Inhabitants. The Great Church, Baptistery, and and Leaning Tower are very well worth seeing, and are built after the same Fan­cy with the Cathedral of Sienna. Half a Day's Journey more brought me into the Republick of Lucca.


IT is very pleasant to see how the small Territories of this little Republick are cultiva­ted to the best Advantage, so that one cannot find the least Spot of Ground, that is not made to contribute its utmost to the Owner. In all the Inhabitants there appears an Air of Chearfulness and Plenty, not of­ten to be met with in those of the Countries which lye about 'em. There is but one Gate for Strangers to enter at, that it may be known what Num­bers of them are in the Town. Over it is written in Letters of Gold, Li­bertas.

This Republick is shut up in the Great Duke's Dominions, who at pre­sent [Page 110] is very much incensed against it, and seems to threaten it with the Fate of Florence, Pisa, and Sienna. The Oc­casion as follows.

The Lucquese plead Prescription for Hunting in one of the Duke's Fo­rests, that lyes upon their Frontiers, which about Two Years since was strictly forbidden them, the Prince in­tending to preserve the Game for his own Pleasure. Two or Three Sports­men of the Republick, who had the Hardiness to offend against the Prohi­bition, were seized, and kept in a neigh­bouring Prison. Their Country-men, to the number of Threescore, attack'd the Place where they were kept in Cu­stody, and rescued them. The Great Duke redemands his Prisoners, and, as a further Satisfaction, would have the Governor of the Town, where the Threescore Assailants had combined toge­ther, deliver'd into his Hands; but re­ceiving only Excuses, he resolved to do himself Justice. Accordingly he order'd all the Lucquese to be seiz'd that were found on a Market-Day, in one of his Frontier Towns. These amounted to Fourscore, among whom were Persons of some Consequence in the Republick. They are now in Prison at Florence, and [Page 111] as it is said, treated hardly enough, for there are Fifteen of the Number dead within less than Two Years. The King of Spain, who is Protector of the Com­mon-wealth, received Information from the Great Duke of what had pass'd, who approved of his Proceedings, and order'd the Lucquese, by his Governour or Mi­lan, to give a proper Satisfaction. The Republick, thinking themselves ill used by their Protector, as they say at Flo­rence, have sent to Prince Eugene to de­sire the Emperor's Protection, with an offer of Winter-Quarters, as it is said, for Four Thousand Germans. The Great Duke rises on them in his Demands, and will not be satisfy'd with less than a Hundred Thousand Crowns, and a Solemn Ambassy to beg Pardon for the past, and promise Amendment for the future. Thus stands the Affair at pre­sent, that may end in the Ruin of the Common-wealth, if the French succeed in Italy. It is pleasant however to hear the Discourse of the Common People of Lucca, who are firmly persuaded that One Lucquese can beat Five Florentines, who are grown low spirited, as they pre­tend, by the Great Duke's Oppressions, and have nothing worth fighting for. They say they can bring into the Field [Page 312] Twenty or Thirty Thousand fighting Men, all ready to Sacrifice their Lives for their Liberty. They have Quantity of Arms and Ammunition, but few Horse. It must be own'd these People are more happy, at least in Imagination, than the rest of their Neighbours, because they think themselves so; tho' such a Chi­merical Happiness is not peculiar to Re­publicans, for we find the Subjects of the most absolute Prince in Europe are as proud of their Monarch as the Luc­quese of being subject to none. Should the French Affairs prosper in Italy, it is possible the Great Duke may bargain for the Republick of Lucca, by the help of his great Treasures, as his Predecessors did formerly with the Emperor for that of Sienna. The Great Dukes have ne­ver yet attempted any thing on Lucca, as not only fearing the Arms of their Protector, but because they are well as­sured, that should the Lucquese be re­duced to the last Extremities, they would rather throw themselves under the Go­vernment of the Geneose, or some strong­er Neighbour, than submit to a State for which they have so great an Aver­sion. And the Florentines are very sen­sible, that it is much better having a weak State within their Dominions, [Page 313] than the Branch of one as strong as themselves. But should so formidable a Power, as that of the French King, sup­port them in their Attempts, there is no Government in Italy that would dare to interpose. This Republick, for the Extent of its Dominions, is estee­med the richest and best peopled State of Italy. The whole Administration of the Government passes into different Hands at the End of every Two Months, which is the greatest Security imagina­ble to their Liberty, and wonderfully contributes to the quick Dispatch of all publick Affairs: But in any Exigence of State, like that they are now pressed with, it certainly asks a much longer time to conduct any Design, for the Good of the Common-wealth, to its Maturity and Perfection.


I Had the good Luck to be at Florence when there was an Opera acted, which was the Eighth that I had seen in Italy. I could not but smile to read the Solemn Protestation of the Poet in the first Page, where he declares that he believes neither in the Fates, Dei­ties, or Destinies; and that if he has made use of the Words, it is purely out of a Poetical Liberty, and not from his real Sentiments, for that in all these Par­ticulars he believes as the Holy Mother Church believes and commands.


Le voci Fato, Deità, Destino, e Simili, che per entro questo Drama trovarai, son messe per ischerzo poetico, e non per Senti­mento vero, credendo Sempre in tutto quel­lo, che crede, e comanda Santa Madre chiesa.

There are some beautiful Palaces it Florence; and as Tuscan Pillars and Ru­stic [Page 315] Work owe their Original to this Country, the Architects always take care to give them a Place in the great Edifi­ces that are raised in Tuscany. The Duke's new Palace is a very noble Pile, built after this manner, which makes it look extremely Solid and Majestick. It is not unlike that of Luxemburg at Paris, which was built by Mary of Medicis, and for that Reason perhaps the Workmen fell into the Tuscan Hu­mour. I found in the Court of this Pa­lace what I could not meet with any where in Rome. I mean an Antique Sta­tue of Hercules lifting up Antaeus from the Earth, which I have already had occasion to speak of. It was found in Rome, and brought hither under the Reign of Leo the Tenth. There are abundance of Pictures in the several A­partments, by the Hands of the greatest Masters.

But 'tis the Famous Gallery of the Old Palace, where are perhaps the no­blest Collections of Curiosities to be met with in any Part of the whole World. The Gallery it self is made in the Shape of an L, according to Mr. Lassel, but, if it must needs be like a Letter, it re­sembles the Greek Π most. It is adorn­ed with admirable Pieces of Sculpture, [Page 316] as well Modern as Ancient. Of the last Sort I shall mention those that are rarest, either for the Person they represent, or the Beauty of the Sculpture. Among the Busts of the Emperors and Empe­resses there are these that follow, which are all very scarce, and some of them almost singular in their kind. Agrippa, Caligula, Otho, Nerva, Aelius Verus, Pertinax, Geta, Didius, Julianus, Albi­nus extremely well wrought, and what is seldom seen in Alabaster, Gordianus Africanus the elder, Eliogabalus, Galien the elder, and the younger Pupienus. I have put Agrippa among the Emperors, because he is generally ranged so in Sets of Medals, as some that follow among the Emperesses have no other Right to the Company they are joined with. Do­mitia, Agrippina Wife of Germanicus, Antonia, Matidia, Plotina, Mallia Scan­tilla, falsely inscribed under her Bust Julia Severi, Aquilia Severa, Julia Mae­sa. I have generally observed at Rome, which is the great Magazine of these Antiquities, that the same Heads which are rare in Medals are also rare in Mar­ble, and indeed one may commonly as­sign the same Reason for both, which was the Shortness of the Emperor Reigns, that did not give the Work [Page 317] men time to make many of their Fi­gures; and as the Shortness of their Reigns was generally occasioned by the Advancement of a Rival, it is no Won­der that no Body worked on the Figure of a Deceased Emperor, when his Ene­my was in the Throne. This Observa­tion however does not always hold. An Agrippa or Caligula, for Example, is a common Coin, but a very extraordina­ry Bust; and a Tiberius a rare Coin, but a common Bust, which one would the more wonder at, if we consider the In­dignities that were offered to this Em­peror's Statues after his Death. The Tiberius in Tiberim is a known Instance.

Among the Busts of such Emperors as are common enough, there are seve­ral in the Gallery that deserve to be ta­ken notice of for the Excellence of the Sculpture, as those of Augustus, Vespa­sian, Adrian, Marcus Aurelius, Lucius Verus, Septimius Severus, Caracalla, Ge­ta. There is in the same Gallery a beau­tiful Bust of Alexander the Great, cast­ing up his Face to Heaven, with a no­ble Air of Grief or Discontentedness in his Looks. I have seen Two or Three antique Busts of Alexander in the same Air and Posture, and am apt to think the Sculptor had in his Thoughts the [Page 318] Conqueror's weeping for new Worlds, or some other the like Circumstance of his History. There is also in Porphyry the Head of a Faun, and of the God Pan. Among the entire Figures I took particular notice of a Vestal Virgin, with the Holy Fire burning before her. This Statue, I think, may decide that notable Controversie among the Anti­quaries, whether the Vestals, after hav­ing received the Tonsure, ever suffered their Hair to come again, for it is here full grown, and gathered under the Veil. The Brazen Figure of the Consul, with the Ring on his Finger, reminded me of Juvenal's majoris pondera Gemmae. There is another Statue in Brass, suppo­sed to be of Apollo, with this Modern Inscription on the Pedestal, which I must confess I do not know what to make of. Ut potui huc veni musis et fra­tre relicto. I saw in the same Gallery the Famous Figure of the Wild Boar, the Gladiator, the Narcissus, the Cupid and Psyche, the Flora, with some Mo­dern Statues that several others have de­scribed. Among the Antique Figures there is a fine one of Morpheus in Touch­stone. I have always observed, that this God is represented by the ancient Sta­tuaries under the Figure of a Boy asleep, [Page 319] with a Bundle of Poppy in his Hand. I at first took it for a Cupid, 'till I had taken notice that it had neither Bow nor Quiver. I suppose Doctor Lister has been guilty of the same Mistake in the Reflections he makes on what he calls, the sleeping Cupid with Poppy in his Hands.

—Qualia namque
Corpora nudorum tabulâ pinguntur Amo­rum
Talis erat, sed nè faciat discrimina cultus,
Aut huic adde leves aut illis deme phare­tras.
Ov. Met. L. 10.
Such are the Cupids that in Paint we view;
But that the Likeness may be nicely true,
A loaden Quiver to his Shoulders tie,
Or bid the Cupids lay their Quivers by.

'Tis probable they chose to represent the God of Sleep under the Figure of a Boy, contrary to all our Modern De­signers, because it is that Age which has its Repose the least broken by Cares and Anxieties. Statius, in his celebra­ted Invocation of Sleep, addresses him­self to him under the same Figure.

[Page 320]
Crimine quo merui, juvenis placidissime Divûm,
Quove errore miser, donis ut solus egerem
Somne tuis? tacet omne pecus, volucresque feraeque, &c.
Silv. Li. 5.
Tell me, thou best of Gods, thou gen­tle Youth,
Tell me my sad Offence; that only I,
While hush'd at Ease thy drowsie Sub­jects lye,
In the dead Silence of the Night com­plain,
Nor taste the Blessings of thy peaceful Reign.

I never saw any Figure of Sleep that was not of Black Marble, which has probably some Relation to the Night, that is the proper Season for Rest. I should not have made this Remark, but that I remember to have read in one of the ancient Authors, that the Nile is generally represented in Stone of this Colour, because it flows from the Coun­try of the Ethiopians; which shows us that the Statuaries had sometimes an Eye to the Person they were to represent, in the Choice they made of their Mar­ble. There are still at Rome some of [Page 321] these Black Statues of the Nile which are cut in a kind of Touchstone.

Usque coloratis amnis devexus ab Indis.
Virg. Geor. 4. de Nilo.

At one End of the Gallery stand Two antique Marble Pillars, curiously wrought with the Figures of the old Roman Arms and Instruments of War. After a full Survey of the Gallery, we were led in­to Four or Five Chambers of Curiosities that stand on the Side of it. The First was a Cabinet of Antiquities, made up chiefly of Idols, Talismans, Lamps and Hieroglyphics. I saw nothing in it that I was not before acquainted with, except the Four following Figures in Brass.

I. A little Image of Juno Sispita, or Sospita, which perhaps is not to be met with any where else but on Medals. She is cloathed in a Goats-skin, the Horns sticking out above her Head. The Right Arm is broken that probably supported a Shield, and the Left a little defac'd, tho' one may see it held something in its Grasp formerly. The Feet are bare. I remember Tully's Description of this Goddess in the following Words. Hercle inquit quàm tibi illam nostram Sospitam quam tu nunquam nè in Som­niis vides, nisi cum pelle Caprinâ, [Page 322] cum hastâ, cum scutulo, cum calceolis repandis.


A Medal of Juno Si­spita. Vid. Fulv. Ursin. in Familiâ Thoriâ & Porciliâ.

This is a Reverse of Anton. Pi­us.

II. An antique Model of the Famous Laocöon and his Two Sons, that stands in the Belvidera at Rome. This is the more remarkable, as it is entire in those Parts where the Statue is maim'd. It was by the help of this Model that Ban­dinelli finished his admirable Copy of the Laocöon, which stands at one End of this Gallery.

III. An Apollo or Amphion. I took notice of this little Figure for the Sin­gularity of the Instrument, which I never before saw in ancient Sculpture. It is not unlike a Violin, and play'd on after the same manner. I doubt howe­ever whether this Figure be not of a [Page 323] later Date than the rest, by the Mean­ness of the Workmanship.

IV. A Corona Radialis with only Eight Spikes to it. Every one knows the usu­al Number was Twelve, some say Al­lusion to the Signs of the Zodiac, and others to the Labours of Hercules.

—Ingenti mole Latinus
Quadrijugo vehitur curru; cui tempora circùm
Aurati bis Sex Radii fulgentia cingunt,
Solis avi Specimen.—
Virg. Aen. 12.
Four Steeds the Chariot of Latinus bear:
Twelve Golden Beams around his Tem­ples play,
To mark his Lineage from the God of Day. Mr.

The two next Chambers are made up of several Artificial Curiosities in Ivory, Amber, Crystal, Marble, and precious Stones, which all Voyage-Writers are full of. In the Chamber that is shown last stands the celebrated Venus of Medi­cis. The Statue seems much less than the Life, as being perfectly naked, and in Company with others of a larger Make: It is notwithstanding as big as the ordinary size of a Woman, as I [Page 324] concluded from the Measure of her Wrist; for from the Bigness of any one Part it is easie to guess at all the rest, in a Figure of such nice Proportions. The Softness of the Flesh, the Delica­cy of the Shape, Air and Posture, and the Correctness of Design in this Statue are inexpressible. I have several Rea­sons to believe that the Name of the Sculptor on the Pedestal is not so old as the Statue. This Figure of Venus put me in Mind of a Speech she makes in one of the Greek Epigrams.

Anchises, Paris, and Adonis too
Have seen me naked, and expos'd to view;
All these I frankly own without deny­ing:
But where has this Praxiteles been pry­ing?

There is another Venus in the same Circle, that would make a good Figure any where else. There are among the old Roman Statues several of Venus in different Postures and Habits, as there are many particular Figures of her made after the [Page 325] same Design. I fancy it is not hard to find among them some that were made after the Three Statues of this Goddess, which Pliny mentions. In the same Chamber is the Roman Slave whetting his Knife and listning, which from the Shoulders upward is incomparable. The Two Wrestlers are in the same Room. I observed here likewise a very curious Bust of Annius Verus, the young Son of Marcus Aurelius, who dy'd at Nine Years of Age. I have seen several other Busts of him at Rome, tho' his Medals are exceeding rare.

The Great Duke has ordered a large Chamber to be fitted up for old Inscrip­tions, Urns, Monuments, and the like Sets of Antiquities. I was shown seve­ral of them which are not yet put up. There are the Two Famous Inscripti­ons that give so great a light to the Hi­stories of Appius, who made the High­way, and of Fabius the Dictator; they contain a short Account of the Honours they pass'd through, and the Actions they performed. I saw too the Busts of Tranquillina, Mother to Gordianus Pius, and of Quintus Herennius, Son to Trajan Decius, which are extremely valuable for their Rarity, and a beautiful old Fi­gure [Page 326] made after the celebrated Herma­phrodite in the Villa Borghese. I saw nothing that has not been observed by several others in the Argenteria, the Tabernacle of St. Laurence's Chapel, and the Chamber of Painters. The Cha­pel of St. Laurence will be perhaps the most costly Piece of Work on the Face of the Earth when compleated, but it advances so very slowly, that 'tis not im­possible but the Family of Medicis may be Extinct before their Burial Place is finish'd.

The Great Duke has lived many Years separate from the Dutchess, who is at present in the Court of France, and in­tends there to end her Days. The Car­dinal his Brother is old and infirm, and could never be induced to resign his Purple for the uncertain Prospect of giving an Heir to the Dukedom of Tus­cany. The Great Prince has been mar­ry'd several Years without any Chil­dren, and notwithstanding all the Pre­cautions in the World were taken for the Marriage of the Prince his younger Brother (as the finding out a Lady for him who was in the Vigour and Flow­er of her Age, and had given Marks of her Fruitfulness by a former Husband) they have all hitherto proved unsuccess­ful. [Page 327] There is a Branch of the Family of Medicis in Naples: The Head of it has been own'd as a Kinsman by the Grand Duke, and 'tis thought will succeed to his Do­minions, in case the Princes his Sons die Childless; though 'tis not impossi­ble but in such a Conjuncture, the Com­mon-wealths, that are thrown under the Great Dutchy, may make some Efforts towards the Recovery of their ancient Liberty.

I was in the Library of Manuscripts belonging to St. Laurence, of which there is a Printed Catalogue. I look'd into the Virgil which disputes its Antiquity with that of the Vatican. It wants the Ille ego qui quondam, &c. and the Twen­ty Two Lines in the Second Aeneid, beginning at Jamque adeo super unus e­ram—I must confess I always thought this Passage left out with a great deal of Judgment by Tucca and Varius, as it seems to contradict a Part in the Sixth Aeneid, and represents the Heroe in a Passion, that is, at least, not at all be­coming the Greatness of his Character. Besides, I think the Apparition of Ve­nus comes in very properly to draw him away from the Sight of Priam's Mur­der; for without such a Machine to take him off, I can't see how the Heroe could, [Page 328] with Honour, leave Neoptolemus trium­phant, and Priam unrevenged. But since Virgil's Friends thought fit to let drop this Incident of Helen, I wonder they would not blot out, or alter a Line in Venus's Speech, that has a Re­lation to the Rencounter, and comes in improperly without it.

Non tibi Tyndaridae facies invisa La­caenae,
Culpatusve Paris—
Aen. 2.

Florence for Modern Statues I think excels even Rome, but these I shall pass over in silence, that I may not Tran­scribe out of others.

The Way from Florence to Bolonia runs over several Ranges of Moun­tains, and is the worst Road, I be­lieve, of any over the Appennines; for this was my Third Time of crossing them. It gave me a lively Idea of Si­lius Italicus's Description of Hannibal's March.

Quoque magis subiere jugo atque evadere nisi
Erexere gradum, crescit labor, ardua supra
Sese aperit fessis, et nascitur altera mo­les.
L. 3.
[Page 329]From Steep to Steep the Troops ad­vanc'd with Pain,
In hopes at last the topmost Cliff to gain;
But still by new Ascents the Mountain grew,
And a fresh Toil presented to their View.

I shall conclude this Chapter with the Descriptions which the Latin Po­ets have given us of the Appennines. We may observe in them all the remarka­ble Qualities of this prodigious length of Mountains, that run from one Ex­tremity of Italy to the other, and give Rise to an incredible Variety of Rivers that water this delightful Country.

—Nubifer Appenninus.
Ov. Met. L. 2.
—Qui Siculum porrectus ad usque Pelorum
Finibus ab Ligurum populos amplectitur omnes
Italiae, geminumque latus stringentia longè
Utraque perpetuo discriminat aequora tra­ctu.
Clau. de Sexto Cons. Hon.
—Mole nivali
Alpibus aequatum attollens caput Apenni­nus.
Sil. It. L. 2.
[Page 330]Horrebat glacie Saxa inter lubrica Summo
Piniferum coelo miscens caput Apenni­nus:
Condiderat Nix alta trabes, et vertice celso
Canus apex strictâ surgebat ad astra pru­inâ.
Li. 4. Id.
Umbrosis mediam quà collibus Apenni­nus
Erigit Italiam, nullo quâ vertice tel­lus
Altiùs intumuit, propiùsque accessit O­lympo,
Mons inter geminas medius se porrigit undas
Inferni superique maris: collesque coer­cent
Hinc Tyrrhena vado frangentes aequora Pisae,
Illinc Dalmaticis obnoxia fluctibus An­con.
Fontibus hic vastis immensos concipit am­nes,
Fluminaque in gemini spargit divortia ponti.
Luc. L. 2.
In Pomp the shady Appennines arise,
And lift th' aspiring Nation to the Skies;
[Page 331] No Land like Italy erects the Sight
By such a vast Ascent, or swells to such a Height:
Her num'rous States the tow'ring Hills divide,
And see the Billows rise on either Side;
At Pisa here the Range of Mountains ends,
And here to high Ancona's Shores ex­tends:
In their dark Womb a Thousand Ri­vers lye,
That with continu'd Streams the double Sea supply.

Bolonia, Modena, Parma, Turin, &c.

AFTER a very tedious Jour­ney over the Appennines, we at last came to the River that runs at the Foot of them, and was formerly call'd the little Rhine. Following the Course of this River we arrived in a short time at Bolonia.

—Parvique Bononia Rheni.
Sil. It. 8.
Bolonia water'd by the petty Rhine.

We here quickly felt the Difference of the Northern from the Southern Side of the Mountains, as well in the Coldness of the Air, as in the Badness of the Wine. This Town is Famous for the Richness of the Soil that lyes about it, and the Magnificence of its Convents. It is likewise esteemed the Third in Italy for Pictures, as having [Page 333] been the School of the Lombard Pain­ters. I saw in it Three Rarities of dif­ferent kinds, which pleased me more than any other Shows of the Place. The first was an Authentick Silver Medal of the younger Brutus, in the Hands of an Eminent Antiquary. One may see the Character of the Person in the Features of the Face, which is exquisitely well cut. On the Reverse is the Cap of Li­berty, with a Dagger on each side of it, subscribed Id. Mar. for the Ides of March, the famous Date of Caesar's Murder. The Second was a Picture of Raphel's in St. Giouanni in Monte. It is extreme­ly well preserved, and represents St. Ce­cilia with an Instrument of Musick in her Hands. On one side of her are the Figures of St. Paul, and St. John; and on the other, of Mary Magdalene and St. Austin. There is something won­derfully Divine in the Airs of this Pi­cture. I cannot forbear mentioning, for my Third Curiosity, a new Stair-Case that Strangers are generally carryed to see, where the Easiness of the Ascent with­in so small a Compass, the Disposition of the Lights, and the convenient Land­ing are admirably well contrived. The Wars of Italy, and the Season of the Year, made me pass thro' the Dutchies [Page 334] of Modena, Parma, and Savoy with more haste than I would have done at another time. The Soil of Modena and Parma is very rich and well cultivated. The Palaces of the Princes are magni­ficent, but neither of them is yet fini­shed. We procured a Licence of the Duke of Parma to enter the Theater and Gallery, which deserve to be seen as well as any thing of that Nature in Italy. The Theater is, I think, the most spacious of any I ever saw, and at the same time so admirably well contri­ved, that from the very depth of the Stage the lowest Sound may be heard distinctly to the farthest part of the Au­dience, as in a Whispering Place; and yet if you raise your Voice as high as you please, there is nothing like an E­cho to cause in it the least Confusion. The Gallery is hung with a numerous Collection of Pictures, all done by ce­lebrated Hands. On one Side of the Gallery is a large Room adorned with Inlaid Tables, Cabinets, Works in Am­ber, and other Pieces of great Art and Value. Out of this we were led into another great Room, furnished with old Inscriptions, Idols, Busts, Medals, and the like Antiquities. I could have spent a Day with great Satisfaction in [Page 335] this Apartment, but had only time to pass my Eye over the Medals, which are in great Number, and many of them very rare. The scarcest of all is a Pe­scennius Niger on a Medalion well pre­served. It was coined at Antioch, where this Emperor trifled away his Time 'till he lost his Life and Empire. The Re­verse is a Dea Salus. There are Two of Otho, the Reverse a Serapis; and Two of Messalina and Poppaea in mid­dle Brass, the Reverses of the Emperor Claudius. I saw Two Medalions of Plo­tina and Matidia, the Reverse to each a Pietas; with Two Medals of Perti­nax, the Reverse of one Vota Decenna­lia, and of the other Diis Custodibus; and another of Gordianus Africanus, the Reverse I have forgot.

The Principalities of Modena and Par­ma are much about the same Extent, and have each of them Two large Towns, besides a great Number of lit­tle Villages. The Duke of Parma how­ever is much richer than the Duke of Modena. Their Subjects would live in great Plenty amidst so rich and well cul­tivated a Soil, were not the Taxes and Impositions so very Exorbitant; for the Courts are much too splendid and mag­nificent for the Territories that lye a­bout [Page 336] them, and one cannot but be ama­zed to see such a Profusion of Wealth laid out in Coaches, Trappings, Tables, Cabinets, and the like precious Toys, in which there are few Princes of Europe who equal them, when at the same time they have not had the Generosity to make Bridges over the Rivers of their Countries for the Convenience of their Subjects, as well as Strangers, who are forced to pay an unreasonable Exaction at every Ferry upon the least Rising of the Waters. A Man might well expect in these small Governments a much great­er Regulation of Affairs, for the Ease and Benefit of the People, than in large over-grown States, where the Rules of Justice, Beneficence, and Mercy may be easily put out of their Course, in passing thro' the Hands of Deputies, and a long Subordination of Officers. And it would certainly be for the Good of Mankind to have all the mighty Empires and Monarchies of the World cantoned out into petty States and Principalities, that, like so many large Families, might lye under the Eye and Observation of their proper Governors; so that the Care of the Prince might extend it self to every individual Person under his Protection. But since such a general Scheme can [Page 337] never be brought about, and if it were, it would quickly be destroyed by the Ambition of some particular State as­piring above the rest, it happens very ill at present to be born under one of these petty Soveraigns, that will be still endeavouring, at his Subjects Cost, to equal the Pomp and Grandeur of great­er Princes, as well as to out-vie those of his own Rank.

For this Reason there are no People in the World who live with more Ease and Prosperity than the Subjects of lit­tle Common-wealths, as on the contrary there are none who suffer more under the Grievances of a hard Government, than the Subjects of little Principalities. I left the Road of Milan on my Right Hand, having before seen that City, and after having passed through Asti, the Frontier Town of Savoy, I at last came within Sight of the Po, which is a fine River even at Turin, though within Six Miles of its Source. This River has been made the Scene of Two or Three Poetical Stories. Ovid has chosen it out to throw his Phaeton into it, after all the smaller Rivers had been dryed up in the Conflagration.

I have read some Botanical Criticks, who tell us the Poets have not rightly [Page 338] followed the Traditions of Antiquity in Metamorphosing the Sisters of Phae­ton into Poplars, who ought to have been turned into Larch-trees; for that it is this kind of Tree which sheds a Gum, and is commonly found on the Banks of the Po. The Change of Cyc­nus into a Swan, which closes up the Disasters of Phaeton's Family, was wrought on the same Place where the Sisters were turned into Trees. The Descriptions that Virgil and Ovid have made of it cannot be sufficiently admi­red.

Claudian has set off his Description of the Eridanus, with all the Poetical Stories that have been made of it.

—Ille caput placidis sublime fluentis
Extulit, et totis lucem spargentia ripis
Aurea roranti micuerunt cornua vultu.
Non illi madidum vulgaris arundine cri­nem
Velat honos, rami caput umbravere vi­rentes
Heliadum, to tisque fluunt electra capillis.
Palla tegit latos humeros, curruque paterno
Intextus Phaëton glaucos incendit amictus:
Fultaque sub gremio caelatis nobilis astris
Aetherium probat urna decus. Namque omnia luctûs
[Page 339] Argumenta sui Titan signavit Olympo,
Mutatumque senem plumis, et fronde soro­res,
Et fluvium, nati qui vulnera lavit anheli.
Stat gelidis Auriga plagis, vestigia fra­tris
Germanae servant Hyades, Cycnique soda­lis
Lacteus extentas aspergit circulus alas.
Stellifer Eridanus sinuatis fluctibus errans
Clara noti convexa rigat.—
Claudian de Sexto Cons. Honorii.
His Head above the Floods he gently rear'd,
And as he rose his golden Horns ap­pear'd,
That on the Forehead shone divinely bright,
And o'er the Banks diffus'd a yellow Light:
No interwoven Reeds a Garland made
To hide his Brows within the vulgar Shade,
But Poplar Wreaths around his Temples spread,
And Tears of Amber trickled down his Head:
A spacious Veil from his broad Shoul­ders flew,
That set th' unhappy Phaeton to view:
[Page 340] The flaming Chariot, and the Steeds it show'd,
And the whole Fable in the Mantle glow'd:
Beneath his Arm an Urn supported lyes,
With Stars embellish'd, and fictitious Skies.
For Titan, by the mighty Loss dismay'd,
Among the Heav'ns th' Immortal Fact display'd
Lest the Remembrance of his Grief should fail,
And in the Constellations wrote his Tale.
A Swan in Memory of Cycnus shines;
The Mourning Sisters weep in watry Signs;
The burning Chariot, and the Chario­teer,
In bright Boötes and his Wane appear;
Whilst in a Track of Light the Wa­ters run,
That wash'd the Body of his blasted Son.

The River Po gives a Name to the chief Street of Turin, which fronts the Duke's Palace, and, when finish'd, will be one of the noblest in Italy for its Length. There is one Convenience in this City that I never observed in any [Page 341] other, and which makes some amends for the Badness of the Pavement. By the help of a River, that runs on the upper Side of the Town, they can con­vey a little Stream of Water through all the most considerable Streets, which serves to cleanse the Gutters, and carries away all the Filth that is swept into it. The Manager opens his Sluce every Night, and distributes the Water into what Quarters of the Town he pleases. Besides the ordinary Convenience that arises from it, it is of great use when a Fire chances to break out, for at a few Minutes warning they have a little Ri­ver running by the very Walls of the House that is Burning. The Court of Turin is reckoned the most splendid and Polite of any in Italy; but by reason of its being in Mourning, I could not see it in its Magnificence. The com­mon People of this State are more ex­asperated against the French than even the rest of the Italians. For the great Mischiefs they have suffered from them are still fresh upon their Memories, and notwithstanding this Interval of Peace, one may easily trace out the several Mar­ches which the French Armies have made through their Country, by the Ruin and Desolation they have left behind [Page 342] them. I passed through Piemont and Savoy, at a time when the Duke was forced, by the Necessity of his Affairs, to be in Alliance with the French.

I came directly from Turin to Gene­va, and had a very easie Journey over Mount Cennis, though about the Begin­ning of December, the Snows having not yet fallen. On the Top of this high Mountain is a large Plain, and in the midst of the Plain a beautiful Lake, which would be very extraordinary were there not several Mountains in the Neighbour­hood rising over it. The Inhabitants there­about pretend that it is unfathomable, and I question not but the Waters of it fill up a deep Valley, before they come to a Level with the Surface of the Plain. It is well stocked with Trouts, though they say it is covered with Ice Three Quarters of the Year.

There is nothing in the natural Face of Italy that is more delightful to a Tra­veller, than the several Lakes which are dispersed up and down among the ma­ny Breaks and Hollows of the Alps and Appennines. For as these vast Heaps of Mountains are thrown together with so much Irregularity and Confusion, they form a great Variety of hollow Bot­toms, that often lye in the Figure of [Page 343] so many artificial Basins; where, if any Fountains chance to rise, they naturally spread themselves into Lakes before they can find any Issue for their Waters. The ancient Romans took a great deal of Pains to hew out a Passage for these Lakes to discharge themselves into some neighbouring River, for the bettering of the Air, or the recovering of the Soil that lay underneath them. The Draining of the Fucinus by the Empe­ror Claudius, with the prodigious Mul­titude of Spectators who attended it, and the Famous Naumachia and splendid Entertainment which were made upon it before the Sluces were opened, is a known Piece of History. In all our Journey through the Alps, as well when we climbed as when we descended them, we had still a River running along with the Road, that probably at first occasi­oned the Discovery of this Passage. I shall end this Chapter with a Descripti­on of the Alps, as I did the last with those of the Appennines. The Poet per­haps would not have taken notice, that there is no Spring nor Summer on these Mountains, but because in this Respect the Alps are quite different from the Appennines, which have as delightful Green Spots among them as any in Italy.

[Page 344]
Cuncta gelu canâque aeternùm grandine tecta,
Atque aevi glaciem cohibent: riget ardua montis
Aetherii facies, surgentique obvia Phoebo
Duratas nescit flammis mollire pruinas.
Quantùm Tartareus regni pallentis hia­tus
Ad manes imos atque atrae flagna palu­dis
A superâ tellure patet: tam longa per auras
Erigitur tellus, et coelum intercipit Um­brâ.
Nullum ver usquam, nullique Aestatis ho­nores;
Sola jugis habitat [...], sedesqué tuetur
Perpetuas deformis Hyems: illa undique nubes
Huc atras agit et mixtos cum grandine nimbos.
Nam cuncti flatus ventique furentia regna
Alpinâ posuere domo, caligat in altis
Obtutus saxis, abeuntque in nubila mon­tes.
Sil. It. L. 3.
Stiff with Eternal Ice, and hid in Snow,
That fell a Thousand Centuries ago,
[Page 345] The Mountain stands; nor can the rising Sun
Unfix her Frosts, and teach 'em how to run:
Deep as the dark Infernal Waters lye
From the bright Regions of the chear­ful Sky,
So far the proud ascending Rocks in­vade
Heav'ns upper Realms, and cast a dread­ful Shade:
No Spring nor Summer on the Moun­tain seen,
Smiles with gay Fruits, or with delight­ful Green,
But hoary Winter, unadorn'd and bare,
Dwells in the dire Retreat, and freezes there;
There she assembles all her blackest Storms,
And the rude Hail in rattling Tempests forms;
Thither the loud tumultuous Winds resort,
And on the Mountain keep their boist'­rous Court,
That in thick Show'rs her rocky Sum­met shrowds,
And darkens all the broken View with Clouds.


NEAR St. Julian in Savoy the Alps begin to enlarge them­selves on all sides, and open into a vast Circuit of Ground, which in Respect of the o­ther Parts of the Alps may pass for a plain Champian Country. This Extent of Lands, with the Leman Lake, would make one of the prettiest and most defensible Dominions in Europe was it all thrown into a single State, and had Geneva for its Metropolis. But there are Three powerful Neighbours who divide among them the greatest part of this fruitful Country. The Duke of Savoy has the Chablais, and all the Fields that lye be­yond the Arve, as far as to the Ecluse. The King of France is Master of the whole Country of Gex; and the Canton of [Page 347] Bern comes in for that of Vaud. Gene­va and its little Territories lye in the Heart of these Three States. The great­est part of the Town stands upon a Hill, and has its Views bounded on all Sides by several Ranges of Mountains, which are however at so great a Distance, that they leave open a wonderful Variety of beautiful Prospects. The Situation of these Mountains has some particular Ef­fects on the Country, which they en­close. As first, they cover it from all Winds, except the South and North. 'Tis to the last of these Winds that the Inhabitants of Geneva ascribe the Health­fulness of their Air; for as the Alps sur­round them on all sides, they form a vast kind of Bason, where there would be a constant Stagnation of Vapours, the Country being so well water'd, did not the North Wind put them in Motion, and scatter them from time to time. Another Effect the Alps have on Ge­neva is, that the Sun here rises later, and sets sooner than it does to other Places of the same Latitude. I have often observed that the Tops of the neighbouring Mountains have been co­vered with Light above half an Hour after the Sun is down, in respect of those who live at Geneva. These Moun­tains [Page 348] likewise very much increase their Summer Heats, and make up a Hori­zon that has something in it very sin­gular and agreeable. On one Side you have the long Tract of Hills, that goes under the Name of Mount Jura, co­vered with Vineyards and Pasturage, and on the other huge Precipices of naked Rocks rising up in a Thousand odd Fi­gures, and cleft in some Places, so as to discover high Mountains of Snow that lye several Leagues behind them. Towards the South the Hills rise more insensibly, and leave the Eye a vast uninterrupted Prospect for many Miles. But the most beautiful View of all is the Lake, and the Borders of it that lye North of the Town.

This Lake resembles a Sea in the Co­lour of its Waters, the Storms that are raised on it, and the Ravage it makes on its Banks. It receives too a different Name from the Coasts it washes, and in Summer has something like an Ebb and Flow, which arises from the melting of the Snows that fall into it more copious­ly at Noon, than at other times of the Day. It has Five different States bor­dering on it, the Kingdom of France, the Dutchy of Savoy, the Canton of Bern, the Bishoprick of Sion, and the [Page 349] Republick of Geneva. I have seen Pa­pers fix'd up in the Canton of Bern, with this magnificent Preface; Whereas we have been informed of several Abuses com­mitted in our Ports and Harbours on the Lake, &c.

I made a little Voyage round the Lake, and touch'd on the several Towns that lye on its Coasts, which took up near Five Days, tho' the Wind was pretty fair for us all the while.

The Right Side of the Lake from Geneva belongs to the Duke of Savoy, and is extreamly well cultivated. The great­est Entertainment we found in coasting it were the several Prospects of Woods, Vineyards, Meadows, and Corn-Fields which lye on the Borders of it, and run up all the Sides of the Alps, where the Barrenness of the Rocks, or the Steep­ness of the Ascent will suffer them. The Wine however on this side of the Lake is by no means so good as that on the other, as it has not so open a Soil, and is less expos'd to the Sun. We here pass'd by Yvoire, where the Duke keeps his Gallies, and lodg'd at Tonon, which is the greatest Town on the Lake belonging to the Savoyard. It has Four Convents, and they say about six or seven Thou­sand Inhabitants. The Lake is here about Twelve Miles in Breadth. At a little [Page 350] Distance from Tonon stands Ripaille, where is a Convent of Carthusians. They have a large Forest cut out into Walks, that are extremely thick and gloomy, and very suitable to the Genius of the Inhabitants. There are Vista's in it of a great Length, that terminate upon the Lake. At one Side of the Walks you have a near Pro­spect of the Alps, which are broken in­to so many Steps and Precipices, that they fill the Mind with an agreeable kind of Horror, and form one of the most ir­regular mis-shapen Scenes in the World. The House that is now in the Hands of the Carthusians belong'd formerly to the Hermites of St. Maurice, and is famous in History for the Retreat of an Anti-Pope, who call'd himself Felix the Fifth. He had been Duke of Savoy, and after a very glorious Reign took on him the Habit of a Hermite, and retired into this Solitary Spot of his Domini­ons. His Enemies will have it, that he lived here in great Ease and Luxury, from whence the Italians to this Day make use of the Proverb, Andare a Ri­paglia; and the French, Faire Ripaille, to express a delightful kind of Life. They say too, that he had great Managements with several Eccelesiasticks before he turned Hermite, and that he did it in the View of being advanced to the Pon­tificate. [Page 351] However it was, he had not been here half a Year before he was cho­sen Pope by the Council of Basil who took upon them to Depose Eugenio the Fourth. This promised fair at first, but by the Death of the Emperor, who fa­voured Amadeo, and the Resolution of Eugenio, the greatest part of the Church threw it self again under the Govern­ment of their deposed Head. Our An­ti-Pope however was still supported by the Council of Basil, and owned by Sa­voy, Switzerland, and a few other little States. This Schism lasted in the Church Nine Years, after which Felix voluntarily resigned his Title into the Hands of Pope Nicholas the Fifth, but on the following Conditions, That Amadeo should be the First Cardinal in the Conclave; That the Pope should always receive him standing, and offer him his Mouth to kiss; That he should be perpetual Car­dinal-Legate in the States of Savoy and Switzerland, and in the Archbishopricks of Geneva, Sion, Bress, &c. And last­ly, That all the Cardinals of his Crea­tion should be recognized by the Pope. After he had made a Peace so acceptable to the Church, and so honourable to himself, he spent the Remainder of his Life with great Devotion at Ripaille, [Page 352] and dy'd with an extraordinary Repu­tation of Sanctity.

At Tonon they showed us a Fountain of Water that is in great Esteem for its Wholesomness. They say it weights Two Ounces in a Pound less than the same Measure of the Lake Water, not­withstanding this last is very good to Drink, and as clear as can be imagined. A little above Tonon is a Castle and small Garrison. The next Day we saw other small Towns on the Coast of Sa­voy, where there is nothing but Misery and Poverty. The nearer you come to the End of the Lake the Mountains on each side grow thicker and higher, 'till at last they almost meet. One often sees on the Tops of the Mountains several sharp Rocks that stand above the rest; for as these Mountains have been doubt­less much higher than they are at pre­sent, the Rains have washed away a­bundance of the Soil, that has left the Veins of Stone shooting out of them; as in a decay'd Body the Flesh is still shrinking from the Bones. The Natu­ral Histories of Switzerland talk very much of the Fall of these Rocks, and the great Damage they have sometimes done, when their Foundations have been mouldered with Age, or rent by an Earthquake. We saw in several Parts [Page 353] of the Alps that bordered upon us vast Pits of Snow, as several Mountains that lye at a greater Distance are wholly co­vered with it. I fancy'd the Confusion of Mountains and Hollows, I here ob­served, furnished me with a more proba­ble Reason than any I have met with for those Periodical Fountains in Switzer­land, which flow only at such particular Hours of the Day. For as the Tops of these Mountains cast their Shadows upon one another, they hinder the Sun's shining on several Parts at such certain times, so that there are several Heaps of Snow which have the Sun lying upon them Two or Three Hours together, and are in the Shade all the Day afterwards. If there­fore it happens that any particular Foun­tain takes its Rise from any of these Re­servoirs of Snow, it will naturally begin to flow on such Hours of the Day as the Snow begins to melt: but as soon as the Sun leaves it again to freeze and harden, the Fountain dries up, and re­ceives no more Supplies 'till about the same time the next Day, when the Heat of the Sun again sets the Snows a run­ning that fall into the same little Con­duits, Traces, and Canals, and by Con­sequence break out and discover them­selves always in the same Place. At the [Page 354] very Extremity of the Lake the Rhone enters, and, when I saw it, brought a­long with it a prodigious Quantity of Water; the Rivers and Lakes of this Country being much higher in Summer than in Winter, by reason of the melt­ing of the Snows. One would wonder how so many Learned Men could fall into so great an Absurdity, as to believe this River could preserve it self unmix'd with the Lake 'till its going out again at Geneva, which is a Course of many Miles. It was extreamly muddy at its Entrance when I saw it, though as clear as Rock-Water at its going out. Be­sides, that it brought in much more Wa­ter than it carryed off. The River in­deed preserves it self for about a Quar­ter of a Mile in the Lake, but is af­terwards so wholly mixed, and lost with the Waters of the Lake, that one dis­covers nothing like a Stream 'till within about a Quarter of a Mile of Geneva. From the End of the Lake to the Source of the Rhone is a Valley of about Four Days Journey in Length, which gives the Name of Vallesins to its Inhabitants, and is the Dominion of the Bishop of Sion. We lodged the Second Night at Ville Neuve, a little Town in the Can­ton of Bern, where we found good Ac­commodations, [Page 355] and a much greater Ap­pearance of Plenty than on the other side of the Lake. The next Day, hav­ing passed by the Castle of Chillon, we came to Versoy, another Town in the Canton of Bern, where Ludlow retired after having left Geneva and Lausanne. The Magistrates of the Town warned him out of the First by the Sollicitation of the Dutchess of Orleans, as the Death of his Friend Lisle made him quit the o­ther. He probably chose this Retreat as a Place of the greatest Safety, it be­ing an easie matter to know what Stran­gers are in the Town, by Reason of its Situation. The House he lived in has this Inscription over the Door: ‘Omne solum forti patria quia patris.’ The first Part is a Piece of a Verse in Ovid, as the last is a Cant of his own. He is buryed in the best of the Churches with the following Epitaph.

Siste gradum et respice

Hic jacet Edmond Ludlow Anglus Nati­one, Provinciae Wiltoniensis, filius Henri­ci Equestris Ordinis, Senatorisque Parla­menti, cujus quoque fuit ipse membrum, [Page 356] Patrum stemmate clarus et nobilis, vir­tute proprià nobilior, Religione protestans et insigni pietate coruscus, Aetatis Anno 23. Tribunus Militum, paulo post exercitûs praetor primarius. Tunc Hibernorum do­mitor, in pugná intrepidus et vitae prodi­gus, in victoriâ clemens et mansuetus, pa­triae Libertatis Defensor, et potestatis Ar­bitrariae propugnator acerrimus; cujus cau­sâ ab eâdem patriâ 32 annis extorris, me­liorique fortuná Dignus apud Helvetios se recepit ibique aetatis Anno 73. Moriens sui de siderium Relinquens sedes aeternas lae­tus advolavit.

Hocce Monumentum, in perpetuam ve­rae et sincerae pietatis erga Maritum defun­ctum memoriam, dicat et vovet Domina E­lizabeth de Thomas, ejus strenua et mae­stissima, tam in infortuniis quam in matri­monio, consors dilectissima, quae animi mag­nitudine et vi amoris conjugalis mota eum in exilium ad obitum usque constanter secuta est. Anno Dom. 1693.

Ludlow was a constant Frequenter of Sermons and Prayers, but would never Communicate with them either of Ge­neva or Vevy. Just by his Monument is a Tombstone with the following In­scription.

[Page 357]


Andreae Broughton Armigeri Anglicani Maydstonensis in Comitatu Cantii ubi bis praetor Urbanus. Dignatusque etiam fuit sententiam Regis Regum profari: Quam ob causam expulsus patriâ suâ, peregrinati­one ejus finitâ, solo senectutis morbo affe­ctus requiescens a laboribus suis in Domino obdormivit, 23 die Feb. Anno D. 1687. aetatis suae 84.

The Inhabitants of the Place could give no Account of this Broughton, but, I suppose, by his Epi­taph, it is the same Person that was Clerk to the pretended High Court of Justice, which passed Sentence on the Royal Martyr.

The next Day we spent at Lausanne, the greatest Town on the Lake, after Geneva. We saw the Wall of the Ca­thedral Church that was opened by an Earthquake, and shut again some Years after by a Second. The Crack can but be just discerned at present, though there are several in the Town still living who have formerly passed through it. The Duke of Schomberg, who was killed in Savoy, lyes in this Church, but without any Monument or Inscription over him. Lausanne was once a Republick, but is now under the Canton of Bern, and go­verned, [Page 358] like the rest of their Dominions, by a Baily who is sent them every Three Years from the Senate of Bern. There is one Street of this Town that has the Privilege of acquitting or condemning any Person of their own Body, in Mat­ters of Life and Death. Every Inha­bitant of it has his Vote, which makes a House here sell better than in any o­ther Part of the Town. They tell you that not many Years ago it happened, that a Cobler had the Casting Vote for the Life of a Criminal, which he very graciously gave on the merciful Side. From Lausanne to Geneva we coasted a­long the Country of the Vaud, which is the fruitfullest and best cultivated Part of any among the Alps. It belonged for­merly to the Duke of Savoy, but was won from him by the Canton of Bern, and made over to it by the Treaty of St. Julian, which is still very much regret­ted by the Savoyard. We called in at Morge, where there is an artificial Port, and a show of more Trade than in any other Town on the Lake. From Morge we came to Nyon. The Colonia E­questris, that Julius Caesar settled in this Country, is generally supposed to have been planted in this Place. They have often dug up old Roman Inscriptions [Page 359] and Statues, and as I walked in the Town I observed in the Walls of several Houses the Fragments of vast Corinthian Pillars, with several other Pieces of Architecture, which must have formerly belonged to some very Noble Pile of Building. There is no Author that mentions this Colo­ny, yet it is certain by several old Roman Inscriptions that there was such an one. Lucan indeed speaks of a Part of Cae­sar's Army, that came to him from the Leman Lake in the beginning of the Civil War.‘Deseruere cavo tentoria fixa Lemanno.’

At about Five Miles distance from Nyon they show still the Ruins of Cae­sar's Wall, that reached eighteen Miles in Length from Mount Jura to the Borders of the Lake, as he has descri­bed it in the First Book of his Com­mentaries. The next Town upon the Lake is Versoy, which we could not have an opportunity of seeing, as belong­ing to the King of France. It has the Reputation of being extremely poor and beggarly. We sailed from hence di­rectly for Geneva, which makes a very noble Show from the Lake. There are near Geneva several Quarries of Free­stone [Page 360] that run under the Lake. When the Water is at lowest they make with­in the Borders of it a little Square en­closed with Four Walls. In this Square they sink a Pit, and dig for Freestone; the Walls hindering the Waters from coming in upon them, when the Lake rises and runs on all Sides of them. The great Convenience of Carriage makes these Stones much cheaper than any that can be found upon firm Land. One sees several deep Pits that have been made at several times as one sails over them. As the Lake approaches Geneva it grows still narrower and narrower, 'till at last it changes its Name into the Rhone, that turns all the Mills of the Town, and is extremely rapid, notwith­standing its Waters are very deep. As I have seen a great Part of the Course of this River, I cannot but think it has been guided by the particular Hand of Providence. It rises in the very Heart of the Alps, and has a long Valley that seems hewn out on purpose to give its Waters a Passage amidst so many Rocks and Mountains which are on all Sides of it. This brings it almost in a direct Line to Geneva. It would there over­flow all the Country, were there not one particular Cleft that divides a vast [Page 361] Circuit of Mountains, and conveys it off to Lyons. From Lyons there is another great Rent, which runs across the whole Country in almost another streight Line, and notwithstanding the vast height of the Mountains that rise about it, gives it the shortest Course it can take to fall into the Sea. Had such a River as this been left to it self to have found its way out from among the Alps, whatever Windings it had made it must have for­med several little Seas, and have laid ma­ny Countries under Water before it had come to the End of its Course. I shall not make any Remarks upon Geneva, that is a Republick so well known to the English. It lyes at present under some Difficulties by reason of the Em­peror's Displeasure, who has forbidden the Importation of their Manufactures into any Part of the Empire, which will certainly raise a Sedition among the People, unless the Magistrates find some way to remedy it: and they say it is al­ready done by the Interposition of the States of Holland. The Occasion of the Emperor's Prohibition was their furnish­ing great Sums to the King of France for the Payment of his Army in Italy. They obliged themselves to remit, after the rate of Twelve Hundred Thousand [Page 362] Pounds Sterling, per Annum, divided in­to so many Monthly Payments. As the Interest was very great, several of the Merchants of Lyons, who would not trust their King in their own Names, are said to have contributed a great deal under the Names of Geneva Merchants. The Republick fancies it self hardly treated by the Em­peror, since it is not any Action of the State, but a Compact among private Persons that hath furnished out these se­veral Remittances. They pretend how­ever to have put a stop to them, and by that means are in hopes again to open their Commerce into the Empire.

Fribourg, Bern, Soleurre, Zurich, St. Gaul, Lindaw, &c.

FROM Geneva I travelled to Lausanne, and thence to Fri­bourg, which is but a mean Town for the Capital of so large a Canton: Its Situati­on is so irregular, that they are forced to climb up to several Parts of it by Stair-Cases of a prodigious Ascent. This Inconvenience however gives them a ve­ry great Commodity in case a Fire breaks out in any Part of the Town, for by reason of several Reservoirs on the Tops of these Mountains, by the opening of a Sluce they convey a River into what Part of the Town they please. They have Four Churches, Four Convents of Women, and as many for Men. The little Chappel, called the Salutation, is very neat, and built with a pretty Fancy. The College of Jesuits is, they say, the finest in Switzerland. There is a great [Page 364] deal of Room in it, and several beauti­ful Views from the different Parts of it. They have a Collection of Pictures re­presenting most of the Fathers of their Order, who have been Eminent for their Piety or Learning. Among the rest many English Men whom we name Rebels, and they Martyrs. Henry Gar­net's Inscription says, That when the Hereticks could not prevail with him, either by Force or Promises, to change his Religion, they Hanged and Quarte­red him. At the Capucins I saw the Es­cargatoire, which I took the more no­tice of because I do not remember to have met with any thing of the same in other Countries. It is a square Place boarded in, and filled with a vast quan­tity of large Snails, that are esteemed excellent Food when they are well dres­sed. The Floor is strowed about half a Foot deep with several kinds of Plants, among which the Snails nestle all the Winter Season. When Lent arrives they open their Magazines, and take out of them the best meagre Food in the World, for there is no Dish of Fish that they reckon comparable to a Ra­goût of Snails.

About Two Leagues from Fribourg we went to see a Hermitage, that is [Page 365] reckon'd the greatest Curiosity of these Parts. It lyes in the prettiest Solitude imaginable, among Woods and Rocks, which at first Sight dispose a Man to be serious. There has lived in it a Hermite these Five and Twenty Years, who with his own Hands has worked in the Rock a pretty Chappel, a Sacristie, a Chamber, Kitchin, Cellar, and other Convenien­ces. His Chimney is carry'd up through the whole Rock, so that you see the Sky through it, notwithstanding the Rooms lye very deep. He has cut the Side of the Rock into a Flat for a Garden, and by laying on it the waste Earth that he has found in several of the neighbouring Parts, has made such a Spot of Ground of it as furnishes out a kind of Luxury for a Hermite. As he saw Drops of Water distilling from several Parts of the Rock, by following the Veins of them, he has made him­self Two or Three Fountains in the Bowels of the Mountain, that serve his Table, and water his little Garden.

We had very bad Ways from hence to Bern, a great Part of them through Woods of Fir-trees. The great Quan­tity of Timber they have in this Coun­try makes them mend their High-ways with Wood instead of Stone. I could [Page 366] not but take notice of the Make of se­veral of their Barns I here saw. After having laid a Frame of Wood for the Foundation, they place at the Four Corners of it Four huge Blocks; cut in such a Shape as neither Mice nor a­ny other sort of Vermin can creep up the Sides of them, at the same time that they raise the Corn above the Moisture that might come into it from the Ground. The whole weight of the Barn is sup­ported by these Four Blocks.

What pleased me most at Bern was their publick Walks by the Great Church. They are raised extremely high, and that their Weight might not break down the Walls and Pilasters which surround them, they are built upon Arches and Vaults. Tho' they are, I believe, as high as most Steeples in England from the Streets and Gardens that lye at the Foot of them, yet about Forty Years ago a Person in his Drink fell down from the very Top to the Bot­tom, without doing himself any other Hurt than the Breaking of an Arm. He dy'd about Four Years ago. There is the noblest Summer-Prospect in the World from this Walk, for you have a full View of a huge Range of Moun­tains that lye in the Country of the Gri­sons, [Page 367] and are bury'd in Snow. They are about Twenty Five Leagues distance from the Town, though by Reason of their Height and their Colour they seem much nearer. The Cathedral Church stands on one side of these Walks, and is perhaps the most Magnificent of any Protestant Church in Europe out of England. It is a very bold Work, and a Master-piece in Gothic Architecture.

I saw the Arsenal of Bern, where they say there are Arms for Twenty Thousand Men. There is indeed no great Pleasure in visiting these Maga­zines of War after one has seen Two or Three of them, yet it is very well worth a Traveller's while to look into all that lye in his Way; for besides the Idea it gives him of the Forces of a State, it serves to fix in his Mind the most considerable Parts of its History. Thus in that of Geneva one meets with the Ladders, Petard, and other Utensils which were made use of in their Fa­mous Escalade, besides the Weapons they took of the Savoyards, Florentines, and French in the several Battels mentioned in their History. In this of Bern you have the Figure and Armour of the Count who founded the Town, of the Famous Tell, who is represented as shoot­ing [Page 368] at the Apple on his Son's Head. The Story is too well known to be re­peated in this Place. I here likewise saw the Figure and Armour of him that headed the Peasants in the War upon Bern, with the several Weapons which were found in the Hands of his Follow­ers. They show too abundance of Arms that they took from the Burgundians in the Three great Battels which establish'd them in their Library, and destroy'd the Great Duke of Burgundy himself, with the bravest of his Subjects. I saw no­thing remarkable in the Chambers where the Council meet, nor in the Fortifica­tions of the Town. These last were made on Occasion of the Peasants In­surrection, to defend the Place for the future against the like sudden Assaults. In their Liberty I observed a couple of antique Figures in Metal, of a Priest pouring Wine between the Horns of a Bull. The Priest is veil'd after the manner of the old Roman Sacrificers, and is represented in the same Action that Virgil describes in the Third Aeneid.

Ipsa tenens dextrâ pateram pulcherrima Dido
Candentis vaccae media inter cornua fun­dit.

[Page 369] This Antiquity was found at Lausanne.

The Town of Bern is plentifully fur­nish'd with Water, there being a great Multitude of handsome Fountains plan­ted at set Distances from one End of the Streets to the other. There is indeed no Country in the World better sup­ply'd with Water, than the several Parts of Switzerland that I travell'd through. One meets every where in the Roads with Fountains continually running in­to huge Troughs that stand underneath them, which is wonderfully commodi­ous in a Country that so much abounds with Horses and Cattle. It has so ma­ny Springs breaking out of the Sides of the Hills, and such vast Quantities of Wood to make Pipes of, that it is no Wonder they are so well stock'd with Fountains.

On the Road between Bern and So­leurre there is a Monument erected by the Republick of Bern, which tells us the Story of an English Man, who is not to be met with in any of our own Wri­ters. The Inscription is in Latin Verse on one side of the Stone, and in Ger­man on the other. I had not Time to Copy it, but the Substance of it is this.‘One Cussinus, an English Man, to whom the Duke of Austria had giv­en [Page 370] his Sister in Marriage, came to take her from among the Swiss by Force of Arms, but after having ra­vaged the Country for some time, he was here overthrown by the Can­ton of Bern.

Soleurre is our next considerable Town, that seemed to me to have a greater Air of Politeness than any I saw in Switzer­land. The French Ambassador has his Residence in this Place. His Master contributed a great Sum of Mony to the Jesuits Church, which is not yet quite finished. It is the finest Modern Build­ing in Switzerland. The old Cathedral Church stood not far from it. At the Ascent that leads to it are a couple of an­tique Pillars which belonged to an old Heathen Temple, Dedicated to Hermes: They seem Tuscan by their Proportion. The whole Fortification of Soleurre is faced with Marble. But its best Forti­fications are the high Mountains that lye within its Neighbourhood, and sepa­rate it from the Franche Comptè.

The next Day's Journey carry'd us through other Parts of the Canton of Bern, to the little Town of Meldingen. I was surprised to find in all my Road through Switzerland, the Wine that grows in the Country of Vaud on the [Page 371] Borders of the Lake of Geneva, which is very cheap, notwithstanding the great Distance between the Vineyards and the Towns that sell the Wine. But the Na­vigable Rivers of Switzerland are as commodious to them in this Respect, as the Sea is to the English. As soon as the Vintage is over, they Ship off their Wine upon the Lake, which furnishes all the Towns that lye upon its Borders. What they design for other Parts of the Country they unload at Very, and after about half a Day's Land-Carriage con­vey it into the River Aar, which brings it down the Stream to Bern, Soleurre, and, in a Word, distributes it through all the richest Parts of Switzerland; as it is easie to guess from the first sight of the Map, which shows us the natural Communication Providence has formed between the many Rivers and Lakes of a Country that is at so great a distance from the Sea. The Canton of Bern is rec­koned as powerful as all the rest together. They can send a Hundred Thousand Men into the Field; tho' the Soldiers of the Catholick Cantons, who are much poor­er, and therefore forced to enter oftner into Foreign Armies, are more esteemed than the Protestants.

[Page 372] We lay one Night at Meldingen, which is a little Roman Catholick Town with one Church, and no Convent. It is a Republick of it self under the Protecti­on of the Eight ancient Cantons. There are in it a Hundred Bourgeois, and about a Thousand Souls. Their Government is modelled after the same manner with that of the Cantons, as much as so small a Community can imitate those of so large an Extent. For this Reason though they have very little Business to do, they have all the Variety of Councils and Of­ficers that are to be met with in the greater States. They have a Town-House to meet in, adorn'd with the Arms of the Eight Cantons their Protectors. They have Three Councils, the Great Council of Fourteen, the Little Coun­cil of Ten, and the Privy Council of Three. The chief of the State are the Two Avoyers: When I was there the Reigning Avoyer, or Doge of the Com­monwealth, was Son to the Inn where I was lodged. His Father having enjoy'd the same Honours before him. His Re­venue amounts to about Thirty Pound a Year. The several Councils meet every Thursday upon Affairs of State, such as the Reparation of a Trough, the mend­ing of a Pavement, or any the like [Page 373] Matters of Importance. The River that runs through their Dominions puts them to the Charge of a very large Bridge, that is all made of Wood, and coped over Head, like the rest in Switzerland. Those that travel over it pay a certain Due towards the Maintenance of this Bridge. And as the French Ambassador has often occasion to pass this way, his Master gives the Town a Pension of Twenty Pound Sterling, which makes them extremely industrious to raise all the Men they can for his Service, and keeps this powerful Republick firm to the French Interest. You may be sure the Preserving of the Bridge, with the Regulation of the Dues arising from it, is the grand Affair that cuts out Employment for the several Councils of State. They have a small Village be­longing to them, whither they punctu­ally send a Bailiff for the Distribution of Justice; in Imitation still of the Great Can­tons. There are Three other Towns that have the same Privileges and Protectors.

We Dined the next Day at Zurich, that is prettily situated on the Out-let of the Lake, and is reckoned the hand­somest Town in Switzerland. The chief Places shown to Strangers are the Arse­nal, the Library, and the Town-House. [Page 374] This last is but lately finished, and is a very fine Pile of Building. The Fron­tispiece has Pillars of a beautiful Black Marble streaked with White, which is found in the neighbouring Mountains. The Chambers for the several Councils, with the other Apartments are very neat. The whole Building is indeed so well de­signed, that it would make a good Figure even in Italy. It is pity they have spoil'd the Beauty of the Walls with abundance of childish Latin Sentences, that consist often in a Jingle of Words. I have in­deed observed in several Inscriptions of this Country, that your Men of Learn­ing here are extremely delighted in play­ing little Tricks with Words and Fi­gures; for your Swiss Wits are not yet got out of Anagram and Acrostick. The Library is a very large Room, pretty well filled. Over it is another Room fur­nished with several artificial and natural Curiosities. I saw in it a huge Map of the whole Country of Zurich drawn with a Pensil, where they see eve­ry particular Fountain and Hillock in their Dominions. I ran over their Ca­binet of Medals, but don't remember to have met with any in it that are ex­traordinary rare. The Arsenal is better than that of Bern, and they say has Arms [Page 375] for Thirty Thousand Men. At about a Day's Journey from Zurich we entered on the Territories of the Abbot of St. Gaul. They are Four Hours Riding in Breadth, and Twelve in Length. The Abbot can raise in it an Army of Twelve Thousand Men well armed and exercised. He is Soveraign of the whole Country, and under the Protection of the Cantons of Zurich, Lucerne, Glaris and Switz. He is always chosen out of the Abby of Benedictines at St. Gaul. Every Father and Brother of the Convent has a Voice in the Election, which must afterwards be confirmed by the Pope. The last Abbot was Cardinal Sfondrati, who was advanced to the Purple about Two Years before his Death. The Abbot takes the Advice and Consent of his Chapter before he enters on any Matter of Importance, as the levying of a Tax, or declaring of a War. His chief Lay-Officer is the Grand Maître d' Hôtel, or High-Steward of the Houshold, who is named by the Abbot, and has the Ma­nagement of all Affairs under him. There are several other Judges and Di­stributers of Justice appointed for the se­veral Parts of his Dominions, from whom there always lyes an Appeal to the Prince. His Residence is gene­raliy at the Benedictine Convent at [Page 376] St. Gaul, notwithstanding the Town of St. Gaul is a little Protestant Republick, wholly independent of the Abbot, and under the Protection of the Cantons.

One would wonder to see so many rich Bourgeois in the Town of St. Gaul, and so very few poor People in a Place that has scarce any Lands belonging to it, and little or no Income but what arises from its Trade. But the great Support and Riches of this little State is its Linnen Manufacture, which employs almost all Ages and Conditions of its Inhabitants. The whole Country about them furnishes them with vast Quanti­ties of Flax, out of which they are said to make yearly Forty Thousand Pieces of Linnen Cloath, reckoning Two Hun­dred Ells to the Piece. Some of their Manufacture is as finely wrought as any that can be met with in Holland; for they have Excellent Artizans, and great Commodities for Whitening. All the Fields about the Town were so covered with their Manufacture, that com­ing in the Dusk of the Evening we mistook them for a Lake. They send off their Works upon Mules into Italy, Spain, Germany, and all the adjacent Countries. They reckon in the Town of St. Gaul, and in the Houses that lye scattered about it, near Ten Thousand [Page 377] Souls, of which there are Sixteen Hun­dred Burgeois. They chuse their Coun­cils and Burgo-Masters out of the Body of the Burgeois, as in the other Govern­ments of Switzerland, which are every where of the same Nature, the diffe­rence lying only in the Numbers of such as are employed in State Affairs, which are proportioned to the Grandeur of the States that employ them. The Abby and the Town bear a great Aver­sion to one another; but in the General Diet of the Cantons their Representatives sit together, and act by Concert. The Abbot deputes his Grand Maître d' Hô­tel, and the Town one of its Burgo-Masters.

About Four Years ago the Town and Abby wou'd have come to an open Rup­ture, had it not been timely prevented by the Interposition of their common Pro­tectors. The Occasion was this, A Bene­dictine Monk, in one of their annual Pro­cessions, carried his Cross erected through the Town with a Train of Three or Four Thousand Peasants following him. They had no sooner entered the Convent but the whole Town was in a Tumult, occasion'd by the Insolence of the Priest, who, contrary to all Precedents, had presumed to carry his Cross in that [Page 378] manner. The Burgeois immediately put themselves in Arms, and drew down Four Pieces of their Cannon to the Gates of the Convent. The Procession to escape the Fury of the Citizens durst not return by the Way it came, but af­ter the Devotions of the Monks were finish'd, pass'd out at a Back-door of the Convent, that immediately led into the Abbot's Territories. The Abbot on his Part raises an Army, blocks up the Town on the Side that faces his Domi­nions, and forbids his Subjects to fur­nish it with any of their Commodities. While things were just ripe for a War, the Cantons, their Protectors, inter­pos'd as Umpires in the Quarrel, con­demning the Town that had appear'd too forward in the Dispute to a Fine of Two Thousand Crowns; and Enacting at the same time, That as soon as any Procession enter'd their Walls, the Priest should let the Cross hang about his Neck without touching it with either Hand, 'till he came within the Precincts of the Abby. The Citizens could bring into the Field near Two Thousand Men well exercis'd, and arm'd to the best Advantage, with which they fancy they could make Head against Twelve or Fifteen Thousand Peasants, for so many [Page 379] the Abbot could easily raise in his Ter­ritories. But the Protestant Subjects of the Abby, who they say make up a good Third of its People, would probably, in case of a War, abandon the Cause of their Prince for that of their Religion. The Town of St. Gaul has an Arsenal, Library, Town-Houses, and Churches proportionable to the Bigness of the State. It is well enough fortify'd to re­sist any sudden Attack, and to give the Cantons time to come to their Assi­stance. The Abby is by no means so Magnificent as one would expect from its Endowments. The Church is one huge Nef with a double Aisle to it. At each End is a large Quire. The one of them is supported by vast Pillars of Stone, cas'd over with a Composition that looks the most like Marble of any thing one can imagine. On the Cieling and Walls of the Church are Lists of Saints, Martyrs, Popes, Cardinals, Arch-Bishops, Kings and Queens that have been of the Benedictine Order. There are several Pictures of such as have been distinguish'd by their Birth, Sanctity, or Miracles, with Inscriptions that let you into the Name and History of the Per­sons represented. I have often wish'd that some Traveller would take the Pains [Page 380] to gather together all the Modern In­scriptions which are to be met with in Roman Catholick Countries, as Gruter and others have copy'd out the ancient Heathen Monuments. Had we Two or Three Volumes of this Nature, with­out any of the Collector's own Refle­ctions, I am sure there is nothing in the World could give a truer Idea of the Roman Catholick Religion, nor expose more the Pride, Vanity and Self-Inte­rest of Convents, the Abuse of Indul­gencies, the Folly and Impertinence of Votaries, and in short the Superstition, Credulity, and Childishness of the Ro­man Catholick Religion. One might fill several Sheets at St. Gaul, as there are few considerable Convents or Churches that would not afford large Contributions.

As the King of France distributes his Pensions through all the Parts of Swit­zerland, the Town and Abby of St. Gaul come in too for their Share. To the First he gives Five Hundred Crowns per Annum, and to the other a Thou­sand. This Pension has not been paid these Three Years, which they attribute to their not acknowledging the Duke of Anjou for King of Spain. The Town and Abby of St. Gaul carry a Bear for [Page 381] their Arms. The Roman Catholicks have this Bear's Memory in very great Veneration, and represent him as the first Convert their Saint made in the Country. One of the most Learned of the Benedictine Monks gave me the fol­lowing History of him, which he deli­ver'd to me with Tears of Affection in his Eyes. St. Gaul it seems, whom they call the great Apostle of Germany, found all this Country little better than a vast Desart. As he was walking in it on a very cold Day he chanc'd to meet a Bear in his Way. The Saint, instead of be­ing startled at the Rencounter, order'd the Bear to bring him a Bundle of Wood, and make him a Fire. The Bear serv'd him to the best of his Ability, and at his Departure was commanded by the Saint to retire into the very Depth of the Woods, and there to pass the rest of his Life without ever hurting Man or Beast. From this time, says the Monk, the Bear liv'd irreproachably, and ob­serv'd to his dying Day the Orders that the Saint had given him.

I have often consider'd, with a great deal of Pleasure, the profound Peace and Tranquillity that reigns in Switzer­land and its Alliances. It is very won­derful to see such a Knot of Govern­ments, [Page 382] which are so divided among them­selves in Matters of Religion, maintain so uninterrupted an Union and Corre­spondance, that no one of them is for Invading the Rights of another, but re­mains content within the Bounds of its First Establishment. This, I think, must be chiefly ascribed to the Nature of the People, and the Constitution of their Governments. Were the Swiss animated by Zeal or Ambition, some or other of their States would immediately break in upon the rest; or were the States so ma­ny Principalities, they might often have an ambitious Soveraign at the Head of them, that would embroil his Neigh­bours, and sacrifice the Repose of his Subjects to his own Glory. But as the In­habitants of these Countries are naturally of a heavy Phlegmatick Temper, if any of their leading Members have more Fire and Spirit than comes to their Share, it is quickly temper'd by the Coldness and Moderation of the rest who sit at the Helm with them. To this we may add, that the Alps is the worst Spot of Ground in the World to make Conquests in, a great Part of its Governments be­ing so naturally intrench'd among Woods and Mountains. However it be, we find no such Disorders among them as [Page 383] one would expect in such a Multitude of States; for as soon as any Publick Rupture happens, it is immediately clos'd up by the Moderation and good Offices of the rest that interpose.

As all the considerable Governments among the Alps are Common-wealths, so indeed it is a Constitution the most adapted of any other to the Poverty and Barrenness of these Countries. We may see only in a neighbouring Govern­ment the ill Consequences of having a Despotic Prince, in a State that is most of it composed of Rocks and Moun­tains; for notwithstanding there is a vast Extent of Lands, and many of them better than those of the Swiss and Gri­sons, the common People, among the latter, are much more at their Ease, and in a greater Affluence of all the Conve­niences of Life. A Prince's Court eats too much into the Income of a poor State, and generally introduces a kind of Luxury and Magnificence, that sets every particular Person upon making a higher Figure in his Station than is ge­nerally consistent with his Revenue.

It is the great Endeavour of the se­veral Cantons of Switzerland, to banish from among them every thing that looks like Pomp or Superfluity. To this End [Page 384] the Ministers are always Preaching, and the Governors putting out Edicts against Dancing, Gaming, Entertainments, and fine Cloaths. This is become more ne­cessary in some of the Governments, since there are so many Refugees settled among them; for tho' the Protestants in France affect ordinarily a greater Plain­ness and Simplicity of Manners, than those of the same Quality who are of the Roman Catholick Communion, they have however too much of their Coun­try-Gallantry for the Genius and Con­stitution of Switzerland. Should Dres­sing, Feasting, and Balls once get among the Cantons, their Military Roughness would be quickly lost, their Tempers would grow too soft for their Climate, and their Expences out-run their In­comes, besides that the Materials for their Luxury must be brought from o­ther Nations, which would immediate­ly ruin a Country that has few Commo­dities of its own to export, and is not over-stock'd with Mony. Luxury in­deed wounds a Republick in its very Vi­tals, as its natural Consequences are Ra­pine, Avarice and Injustice; for the more Mony a Man spends, the more must he endeavour to augment his Stock; which at last sets the Liberty [Page 385] and Votes of a Common-wealth to Sale, if they find any Foreign Power that is able to pay the Price of them. We see no where the pernicious Effects of Luxury on a Republick more than in that of the ancient Romans, who immediately found it self poor as soon as this Vice got Footing among them, though they were possess'd of all the Riches in the World. We find in the Beginnings and Increases of their Common-wealth strange Instances of the Contempt of Mony, because indeed they were utter Strangers to the Pleasures that might be procured by it; or in other Words, be­cause they were wholly ignorant of the Arts of Luxury. But as soon as they once enter'd into a Taste of Pleasure, Politeness and Magnificence, they fell into a Thousand Violences, Conspira­cies, and Divisions that threw them in­to all the Disorders imaginable, and ter­minated in the utter Subversion of the Common-wealth. It is no wonder there­fore the poor Common-wealths of Swit­zerland are ever labouring at the Sup­pression and Prohibition of every thing that may introduce Vanity and Luxury. Beside the several Fines that are set up­on Plays, Games, Balls and Feastings, they have many Customs among them [Page 386] which very much contribute to the keeping up of their ancient Simplicity. The Bourgeois, who are at the Head of the Governments, are obliged to ap­pear at all their publick Assemblies in a Black Cloak and a Band. The Wo­mens Dress is very plain, those of the best Quality wearing nothing on their Heads generally but Furs, which are to be met with in their own Country. The Persons of different Qualities in both Sexes are indeed allowed their dif­ferent Ornaments, but these are gene­rally such as are by no means costly, be­ing rather designed as Marks of Di­stinction than to make a Figure. The chief Officers of Bern, for Example, are known by the Crowns of their Hats, which are much deeper than those of an inferior Character. The Peasants are generally cloathed in a coarse kind of Canvas, that is the Manufacture of the Country. Their Holy-day Cloaths go from Father to Son, and are seldom worn out, 'till the Second or Third Genera­tion: So that it is common enough to see a Countryman in the Doublet and Breeches of his Great-grand-father.

Geneva is much politer than Switzer­land, or any of its Allies, and is there­fore looked upon as the Court of the [Page 387] Alps, whither the Protestant Cantons often send their Children to improve themselves in Language and Education. The Genevois have been very much re­fin'd, or as others will have it, corrup­ted by the Conversation of the French Protestants, who make up almost a Third of their People. It is certain they have very much forgotten the Advice that Calvin gave them in a great Council a little before his Death, when he recom­mended to them, above all Things, an Exemplary Modesty and Humility, and as great a Simplicity in their Manners as in their Religion. Whether or no they have done well, to set up for mak­ing another kind of Figure, Time will witness. There are several that fancy the great Sums they have remitted into Italy, though by this means they make their Court to the King of France at present, may some time or other give him an Inclination to become the Ma­ster of so wealthy a City.

As this Collection of little States a­bounds more in Pasturage than in Corn, they are all provided with their pub­lick Granaries, and have the Humanity to furnish one another in publick Exi­gencies, when the Scarcity is not Uni­versal. As the Administration of Af­fairs [Page 388] relating to these publick Grana­ries, is not very different in any of the particular Governments, I shall content my self to set down the Rules observed in it by the little Common-wealth of Geneva, in which I had more Time to inform my self of the Particulars than in any other. There are Three of the Little Council deputed for this Office. They are obliged to keep together a Provision sufficient to feed the People at least Two Years, in case of War or Famine. They must take care to fill their Magazines in Times of the great­est Plenty, that so they may afford cheap­er, and increase the publick Revenue at a small Expence of its Members. None of the Three Managers must, up­on any Pretence, furnish the Granaries from his own Fields, that so they may have no Temptation to pay too great a Price, or put any bad Corn upon the Publick. They must buy up no Corn growing within Twelve Miles of Ge­neva, that so the filling of their Maga­zines may not prejudice their Mar­ket, and raise the Price of their Provi­sions at Home. That such a Collection of Corn may not spoil in keeping, all the Inns and Publick-Houses are obliged to furnish themselves out of it, by which means is raised the most considerable [Page 389] Branch of the publick Revenues; the Corn being sold out at a much dearer Rate than 'tis bought up. So that the greatest Income of the Common-wealth, which pays the Pensions of most of its Officers and Ministers, is raised on Strangers and Travellers, or such of their own Body as have Mony enough to spend at Taverns and Publick-Houses.

It is the Custom in Geneva and Swit­zerland to divide their Estates equally among all their Children, by which means every one lives at his Ease with­out growing dangerous to the Repub­lick, for as soon as an overgrown E­state falls into the Hands of one that has many Children, it is broken into so many Portions as render the Sharers of it Rich enough, without raising them too much above the Level of the rest. This is absolutely necessary in these lit­tle Republicks, where the Rich Mer­chants live very much within their E­states, and by heaping up vast Sums from Year to Year might become for­midable to the rest of their Fellow-Ci­tizens, and break the Equality, which is so necessary in these kinds of Govern­ments, were there not means found out to distribute their Wealth among seve­ral Members of their Republick. At Geneva, for Instance, are Merchants [Page 390] reckon'd worth Twenty Hundred Thou­sand Crowns, though, perhaps, there is not one of them who spends to the value of Five Hundred Pounds a Year.

Though the Protestants and Papists know very well that it is their com­mon Interest to keep a steddy Neutra­lity in all the Wars between the States of Europe, they cannot forbear siding with a Party in their Discourse. The Catholicks are zealous for the French King, as the Protestants do not a little glory in the Riches, Power, and good Success of the English and Dutch, whom they look upon as the Bulwarks of the Reformation. The Ministers in parti­cular, have often preached against such of their Fellow-Subjects as enter into the Troops of the French King; but so long as the Swiss see their Interest in it, their Poverty will always hold them fast to his Service. They have indeed the Exercise of their Religion, and their Ministers with them, which is the more remarkable, because the very same Prince, refused even those of the Church of England, who follow'd their Master to St. Germains, the publick Exercise of their Religion.

Before I leave Switzerland I cannot but observe, that the Notion of Witch­craft [Page 391] reigns very much in this Country. I have often been tired with Accounts of this Nature from very sensible Men, that are most of them furnish'd with Matters of Fact which have happened, as they pretend, within the compass of their own Knowledge. It is certain there have been many Executions on this Account, as in the Canton of Bern there were some put to Death during my Stay at Geneva. The People are so u­niversally infatuated with the Notion, that if a Cow falls sick, it is Ten to One but an Old Woman is clapt up in Prison for it, and if the poor Creature chance to think her self a Witch, the whole Country is for hanging her up without Mercy. One finds indeed the same Humour prevail in most of the rocky Barren Parts of Europe. Whe­ther it be that Poverty and Ignorance, which are generally the Products of these Countries, may really engage a Wretch in such dark Practices, or whe­ther or no the same Principles may not render the People too credulous, and perhaps too easy to get rid of some of their unprofitable Members.

A great Affair that employs the Swiss Politicks at present is the Prince of Con­ti's Succession to the Dutchess of Ne­mours [Page 392] in the Government of Neuf-Cha­tel. The Inhabitants of Neuf-Chatel can by no means think of submitting them­selves to a Prince who is a Roman Ca­tholick, and a Subject of France. They were very attentive to his Conduct in the Principality of Orange, which they did not question but he would Rule with all the Mildness and Moderation imagina­ble, as it would be the best Means in the World to recommend him to Neuf-Cha­tel. But notwithstanding it was so much his Interest to manage his Protestant Subjects in that Country, and the strong Assurances he had given them in pro­tecting them in all their Privileges, and particularly in the free Exercise of their Religion, he made over his Principality in a very little time for a Sum of Mony to the King of France. It is indeed ge­nerally believed the Prince of Conti would rather still have kept his Title to Orange, but the same Respect which induced him to quit this Government, might at ano­ther time tempt him to give up that of Neuf-Chatel on the like Conditions. The King of Prussia lays in his claim for Neuf-Chatel, as he did for the Principa­lity of Orange, and 'tis probable would be more acceptable to the Inhabitants than the other, but they are generally [Page 393] dispos'd to declare themselves a Free Common-wealth, after the Death of the Dutchess of Nemours, if the Swiss will support them. The Protestant Cantons seem much inclin'd to assist them, which they may very well do, in case the Dut­chess dies whilst the King of France has his Hands so full of Business on all sides of him. It certainly very much concerns them not to suffer the French King to Establish his Authority on this side Mount Jura, and on the very Borders of their Country; but it is not easie to foresee what a round Sum of Mony, or the Fear of a Rupture with France, may do among a People who have tamely suffer'd the Franche Comptè to be seiz'd on, and a Fort to be built within Cannon-shot of one of their Cantons.

There is a new Sect sprung up in Switzerland, which spreads very much in the Protestant Cantons. The Pro­fessors of it call themselves Pietists, and as Enthusiasm carries Men generally to the like Extravagancies, they differ but little from several Sectaries in other Countries. They pretend in general to great Refinements, as to what regards the Practice of Christianity, and to ob­serve the following Rules. To retire [Page 394] much from the Conversation of the World. To sink themselves into an entire Repose and Tranquillity of Mind. In this State of Silence to attend the se­cret Illapse and Flowings in of the Ho­ly Spirit, that may fill their Minds with Peace and Consolation, Joys or Rap­tures. To favour all his secret Intima­tions, and give themselves up entirely to his Conduct and Direction, so as neither to speak, move, or act, but as they find his Impulse on their Souls. To retrench themselves within the Con­veniencies and Necessities of Life. To make a Covenant with all their Senses, so far as to shun the Smell of a Rose or Violet, and to turn away their Eyes from a beautiful Prospect. To avoid, as much as is possible, what the World calls In­nocent Pleasures, lest they should have their Affections tainted by any Sensuali­ty, and diverted from the Love of him who is to be the only Comfort, Repose, Hope, and Delight, of their whole Beings. This Sect prevails very much among the Protestants of Germany, as well as those of Switzerland, and has occasion'd se­veral Edicts against it in the Dutchy of Saxony. The Professors of it are ac­cus'd of all the ill Practices which may seem to be the Consequence of their [Page 395] Principles, as that they ascribe the worst of Actions, which their own vicious Tempers throw them upon, to the Di­ctates of the Holy Spirit; that both Sexes under Pretence of Devout Con­versation visit one another at all Hours, and in all Places, without any regard to common Decency, often making their Religion a Cover for their Immorali­ties; and that the very best of them are possess'd with Spiritual Pride, and a Contempt for all such as are not of their own Sect. The Roman Catholicks, who reproach the Protestants for their break­ing into such a Multitude of Religions, have certainly taken the most effectual way in the World for the keeping their Flocks together; I don't mean the Pu­nishments they inflict on Mens Persons, which are commonly look'd upon as the chief Methods by which they deter them from breaking through the Pale of the Church, though certainly these lay a very great Restraint on those of the Roman Catholick Persuasion. But I take one great Cause why there are so few Sects in the Church of Rome, to be the Multitude of Convents, with which they every where abound, that serve as Receptacles for all those fiery Zealots who would set the Church in a Flame, [Page 396] were not they got together in these Houses of Devotion. All Men of dark Tempers, according to their Degree of Melancholy or Enthusiasm, may find Convents fitted to their Humours, and meet with Companions as gloomy as themselves. So that what the Prote­stants would call a Fanatick, is in the Roman Church a Religious of such or such an Order; as I have been told of an English Merchant at Lisbon, who af­ter some great Disappointments in the World was resolv'd to turn Quaker or Capuchin; for, in the Change of Reli­gion, Men of ordinary Understandings don't so much consider the Principles, as the Practice of those to whom they go over.

From St. Gaul I took Horse to the Lake of Constance, which lyes at Two Leagues Distance from it, and is form'd by the Entry of the Rhine. This is the only Lake in Europe that disputes for Greatness with that of Geneva; it ap­pears more beautiful to the Eye, but wants the fruitful Fields and Vineyards that border upon the other. It receives its Name from Constance, the chief Town on its Banks. When the Cantons of Bern and Zurich proposed, at a general Diet, the Incorporating Geneva in the [Page 397] Number of the Cantons, the Roman Catholick Party, fearing the Protestant Interest might receive by it too great a Strengthning, proposed at the same time the Incantoning of Constance, as a Coun­terpoise; to which the Protestants not consenting, the whole Project fell to the Ground. We cross'd the Lake to Lindaw, and in several Parts of it ob­served abundance of little Bubbles of Air, that came working upward from the very Bottom of the Lake. The Watermen told us, that they are ob­served always to rise in the same Places, from whence they conclude them to be so many Springs that break out of the Bottom of the Lake. Lindaw is an Im­perial Town on a little Island that lyes at about Three Hundred Paces from the firm Land, to which it is join'd by a huge Bridge of Wood. The Inhabitants were all in Arms when we pass'd through it, being under great Apprehensions of the Duke of Bavaria, after his having fallen upon Ulm and Memminghen. They flatter themselves, that by cutting their Bridge they could hold out against his Army: But, in all Probability, a Shower of Bombs would quickly reduce the Burgeois to Surrender. They were for­merly Bombarded by Gustavus Adolphus. [Page 398] We were advis'd by our Merchants, by no means to venture our selves in the Duke of Bavaria's Country, so that we had the Mortification to lose the Sight of Munich, Ausburg, and Ratisbon, and were forced to take our Way to Vienna through the Tirol, where we had very little to Entertain us besides the natural Face of the Country.


AFTER having coasted the Alps for some time, we at last entered them by a Passage which leads into the long Valley of the Tirol, and fol­lowing the Course of the River Inn we came to Inspruck, that receives its Name from this River, and is the Capital Ci­ty of the Tirol.

Inspruck is a handsome Town, though not a great one, and was formerly the Residence of the Arch-Dukes who were Counts of Tirol: The Palace where they used to keep their Court is rather Con­venient than Magnificent. The great Hall is indeed a very noble Room, the Walls of it are painted in Fresco, and [Page 400] represent the Labours of Hercules. Ma­ny of them look very finely, though a great part of the Work has been crack'd by Earthquakes, which are very fre­quent in this Country. There is a lit­tle Wooden Palace that borders on the other, whither the Court used to retire at the first shake of an Earthquake. I saw here the largest Menage that I have met with any where else. At one End of it is a great Partition designed for an Opera. They showed us also a very pretty Theatre. The last Comedy that was acted on it was designed by the Je­suits for the Entertainment of the Queen of the Romans, who pass'd this way from Hanover to Vienna. The Compliment which the Fathers made her Majesty on this occasion was very particular, and did not a little expose them to the Raillery of the Court. For the Arms of Hanover being a Horse, the Fathers thought it a very pretty Allusion to re­present the Queen by Bucephalus, that would let no Body get upon him but Alexander the Great. The Wooden Horse that acted this nobtale Part is still to be seen behind the Scenes. In one of the Rooms of the Palace which is hung with the Pictures of several Illu­strious Persons, they showed us the Por­trait [Page 401] of Mary Queen of the Scots, who was beheaded in the Reign of Queen Elizabeth. The Gardens about the House are very large, but ill kept. There is in the middle of them a beau­tiful Statue in Brass of an Arch-Duke Leopold on Horseback. There are near it Twelve other Figures of Water-Nymphs and River-Gods well Cast, and as big as the Life. They were designed for the Ornaments of a Water-Work, as one might easily make a great Vari­ety of Jetteaus at a small Expence in a Garden that has the River Inn running by its Walls. The late Duke of Lor­rain had this Palace, and the Govern­ment of the Tirol assigned him by the Emperor, and his Lady the Queen Dow­ager of Poland lived here several Years after the Death of the Duke her Hus­band. There are covered Galleries that lead from the Palace to Five different Churches. I passed through a very long one which reaches to the Church of the Capucin Convent, where the Duke of Lorrain used often to assist at their Mid­night Devotions. They showed us in this Convent the Apartments of Maxi­milian, who was Arch-Duke and Count of Tirol about Fourscore Years ago. This Prince at the same time that he kept the [Page 402] Government in his Hands, lived in this Convent with all the Rigor and Auste­rity of a Capucin. His Anti-Chamber and Room of Audience are little square Chambers Wainscoated. His private Lodgings are Three or Four small Rooms faced with a kind of Fret-work, that makes them look like little Hollow Caverns in a Rock. They preserve this Apartment of the Convent uninhabited, and show in it the Altar, Bed and Stove, as likewise a Picture and a Stamp of this Devout Prince. The Church of the Franciscan Convent is famous for the Mo­nument of the Emperor Maximilian the First, which stands in the midst of it. It was erected to him by his Grand-Son Ferdinand the First, who probably looked upon this Emperor as the Founder of the Austrian Greatness. For as by his own Marriage he annexed the Low-Countries to the House of Austria, so by matching his Son to Joan of Arra­gon he settled on his Posterity the King­dom of Spain, and by the Marriage of his Grand-Son Ferdinand got into his Family the Kingdoms of Bohemia and Hungary. This Monument is only Ho­norary, for the Ashes of the Emperor lye elsewhere. On the Top of it is a Brazen Figure of Maximilian on his [Page 403] Knees, and on the Sides of it a beau­tiful Bas Relief representing the Actions of this Prince. His whole History is digested into Twenty Four square Pan­nels of Sculpture in Bas Relief: The Subject of Two of them is his Confede­racy with Henry the Eighth, and the Wars they made together upon France. On each Side of this Monument is a Row of very noble Brazen Statues much bigger than the Life, most of them re­presenting such as were some way or o­ther related to Maximilian. Among the rest is one that the Fathers of the Con­vent tell us represents King Arthur the old British King. But what Relation had that Arthur to Maximilian? I don't question therefore but it was de­signed for Prince Arthur, Elder Bro­ther of Henry the Eighth, who had es­poused Catharine, Sister of Maximilian, whose Divorce afterwards gave occasi­on to such signal Revolutions in Eng­land. This Church was built by Ferdinand the First. One sees in it a kind of Offer at Modern Architecture, but at the same time that the Architect has shown his Dislike of the Gothick manner, one may see very well that in that Age they were not, at least in this Country, arrived at the Knowledge of the true Way. [Page 404] The Portal, for Example, consists of a composite Order unknown to the Anci­ents; the Ornaments indeed are taken from them, but so put together that you see the Volutes of the Ionic, the Foliage of the Corinthian, and the Uovali of the Doric mix'd without any Regularity on the same Capital. So the Vault of the Church, tho' broad enough, is encum­ber'd with too many little Tricks in Sculpture. It is indeed supported with single Columns instead of those vast Clusters of little Pillars that one meets with in Gothic Cathedrals, but at the same time these Columns are of no regu­lar Order, and at least Twice too long for their Diameter. There are other Churches in the Town, and Two or Three Palaces which are of a more Mo­dern Make, and built with a good Fan­cy. I was shown the little Notredame that is handsomly design'd, and topp'd with a Cupola. It was made as an Of­fering of Gratitude to the Blessed Vir­gin, for having defended the Country of the Tirol against the Victorious Arms of Gustavus Adolphus, who could not enter this Part of the Empire after ha­ving over-run most of the rest. This Temple was therefore built by the Con­tributions of the whole Country. At [Page 405] about half a League's distance from In­spruck stands the Castle of Amras, fur­nish'd with a prodigious Quantity of Medals, and many other sorts of Rari­ties both in Nature and Art, for which I must refer the Reader to Monsieur Pa­tin's Account in his Letter to the Duke of Wirtemburg, having my self had nei­ther Time or Opportunity to enter into a particular Examination of them.

From Inspruck we came to Hall, that lyes at a League distance on the same River. This Place is particularly fa­mous for its Salt-Works. There are in the Neighbourhood vast Mountains of a transparent kind of Rock not unlike Allum, extreamly solid, and as piquant to the Tongue as Salt it self. Four or Five Hundred Men are always at Work in these Mountains, where as soon as they have hewn down any Quantities of the Rock they let in their Springs and Reservoirs among their Works. The Water eats away and dissolves the Par­ticles of Salt which are mix'd in the Stone, and is convey'd by long Troughs and Canals from the Mines to the Town of Hall, where 'tis received in vast Ci­sterns, and boil'd off from time to time.

[Page 406] They make after the rate of Eight Hundred Loaves a Week, each Loaf Four Hundred Pound Weight. This would raise a great Revenue to the Em­peror, were there here such a Tax on Salt as there is in France. At present he clears but Two Hundred Thousand Crowns a Year, after having defray'd all the Charges of working it. There are in Switzerland, and other Parts of the Alps, several of these Quarries of Salt that turn to very little Account, by Reason of the great Quantities of Wood they consume.

The Salt-Works at Hall have a great Convenience for Fuel which swims down to them on the River Inn. This Ri­ver, during its Course through the Ti­rol, is generally shut up between a dou­ble Range of Mountains that are most of them cover'd with Woods of Fir-Trees. Abundance of Peasants are em­ploy'd in the hewing down of the lar­gest of these Trees, that, after they are Bark'd and cut into Shape, are tumbled down from the Mountains into the Stream of the River, which carries them off to the Salt-Works. At Inspruck they take up vast Quantities for the Con­vents and publick Officers, who have a certain Portion of it alloted them by the [Page 407] Emperor: the rest of it passes on to Hall. There are generally several Hun­dred Loads afloat, for they begin to cut above Twenty Five Leagues up the Ri­ver above Hall, and there are other Ri­vers that flow into the Inn, which bring in their Contributions. These Salt-Works, and a Mint that is establish'd at the same Place, have render'd this Town, notwithstanding the Neighbourhood of the Capital City, almost as populous as Inspruck it self. The Design of this Mint is to work off part of the Metals which are found in the neighbouring Mountains; where, as we were told, there are Seven Thousand Men in con­stant Employ. At Hall we took a Boat to carry us to Vienna. The First Night we lay at Rottenburg, where is a strong Castle above the Town. Count Serini is still close Prisoner in this Castle, who, as they told us in the Town, had lost his Senses by his long Imprisonment and Af­flictions. The next Day we Din'd at Kuff-stain, where there is a Fortress on a high Rock above the Town almost inaccessible on all Sides: This being a Frontier Place on the Dutchy of Bavaria, where we enter'd after about an Hour's Rowing from Kuff-stain. It was the pleasantest Voyage in the World [Page 408] to follow the Windings of this River Inn through such a Variety of pleasing Scenes as the Course of it naturally led us. We had sometimes on each Side us a vast Extent of naked Rocks and Mountains, broken into a Thousand ir­regular Steeps and Precipices; in other Places we saw a long Forest of Fir-Trees so thick set together, that it was impos­sible to discover any of the Soil they grew upon, and rising up so regularly one above another, as to give us the View of a whole Wood at once. The time of the Year, that had given the Leaves of the Trees so many different Colours, compleated the Beauty of the Prospect. But as the Materials of a fine Landskip are not always the most profi­table to the Owner of them, we met with but very little Corn or Pasturage for the Proportion of Earth that we pass'd through, the Lands of the Tirol not being able to feed the Inhabitants. This long Valley of the Tirol lyes en­closed on all Sides by the Alps, tho' its Dominions shoot out into several Branches that lye among the Breaks and Hollows of the Mountains. It is go­vern'd by Three Councils residing at Inspruck, one sits upon Life and Death, the other is for Taxes and Impositions, [Page 409] and a third for the common Distributi­ons of Justice. As these Courts regulate themselves by the Orders they receive from the Imperial Court, so in many Cases there are Appeals from them to Vienna. The Inhabitants of the Tirol have many particular Privileges above those of the other Hereditary Countries of the Emperor. For as they are natu­rally well fortify'd among their Moun­tains, and at the same time border upon many different Governments, as the Gri­sons, Venetians, Swiss, Bavarians, &c. a severe Treatment might tempt them to set up for a Republick, or at least throw themselves under the milder Go­vernment of some of their Neighbours: Besides that their Country is poor, and that the Emperor draws considerable In­comes out of its Mines of Salt and Me­tal. They are these Mines that fill the Country with greater Numbers of Peo­ple than it would be able to bear without the Importation of Corn from Foreign Parts. The Emperor has Forts and Cittadels at the Entrance of all the Passes that lead into the Tirol, which are so advantagiously placed upon Rocks and Mountains, that they command all the Vallies and Avenues that lye about them. Besides, that the Country it self [Page 410] is cut into so many Hills and Inequali­ties, as would render it defensible by a ve­ry little Army against a numerous Enemy. It was therefore generally thought the Duke of Bavaria would not attempt the cutting off any Succours that were sent to Prince Eugene; or the forcing his Way through the Tirol into Italy. The River Inn, that had hitherto been shut up among Mountains, passes gene­rally through a wide open Country dur­ing all its Course through Bavaria, which is a Voyage of Two Days, after the rate of Twenty Leagues a Day.


  • ADDA, and the Addige, both describ'd by Claudian, Page, 42, 43.
  • Albano, for what famous, 292.
  • Alps describ'd by Silius Italicus, 344.
  • St. Ambrose his resolute Behaviour towards Theodosius the Great, before the Gates of the great Church at Milan, 25.
  • Ambrosian Library in Milan how furnish'd, 27.
  • Ancona its Situation, 107, 108
  • St. Anthony of Padua, his magnificent Church, 47. a natural Perfume issuing from his Bones, ibid. a Conjecture upon it, ibid. his famous Sermon to an Assembly of Fish, 48. the Ti­tles given him by a poor Peasant, 57.
  • Antiquaries, wherein faulty, 248.
  • Antiquities, Two Sets in Rome, 231. the great Difference between 'em, ibid.
  • Antium, its extensive Ruins, 222. for what fa­mous formerly, 223.
  • Anxur, its pleasant Situation, 144. describ'd by Martial, ibid. &c.
  • Appennine Mountains describ'd by the Latin Poets, 329.
  • Ariosto, his Monument in the Benedictine Church in Ferrara, 188.
  • Baiae, the Winter Retreat of the old Romans, 173.
  • [Page] St. Bartholomew his famous Statue in the great Church in Milan, 22.
  • Bern, its publick Walks, 366. and Arsenal, 367.
  • Bolonia, for what famous, 332. its Rarities, 333.
  • Brescia, why more favour'd by the Venetians than any other Part of their Dominions, 40, 41. famous for its Iron-Works, ibid.
  • Calvin, his Advice to the Genevois before his Death. 387.
  • Caprea describ'd, 192, &c. its fruitful Soil, 193. some Account of the Medals found in it, 201.
  • Cassis, a French Port, its pleasant Neighbour­hood, 1.
  • Cennis, a Mountain between Turin and Gene­va. 342.
  • St. Charles Borromeo his subterraneous Chapel in Milan, 22. an Account of that Saint, 23. compar'd with the ordinary Saints in the Ro­man Church, ibid.
  • Cimmerians, where placed by Homer, 216.
  • Civita Vecchia, its unwholesome Air, 307.
  • Clitumnus, the Quality of its Waters, 114.
  • Colonna Infame, a Pillar at Milan, 30. the Occasion of it, ibid.
  • Confessionals, Inscriptions over them, 26.
  • English courted by the present Pope to settle at Civita Vecchia, 306.
  • Escargatoire, the use of it, 364.
  • Fano, from whence so call'd, 107.
  • Felix the Fifth, his Story, 350.
  • [Page] Ferrara thinly inhabited, 87. the Town describ'd, ibid.
  • Florence, 314. an Account of its publick Build­ings, 315. its famous Gallery, ibid. and Rari­ties contain'd in it, 315, 316. and in some Chambers adjoining to it, 321. famous for modern Statues, 328. the great Duke's Care to prevent Civita Vecchia from being made a free Port, 305. incens'd against the Lucquese, 310, 311. for what Reason, ibid.
  • Fortune, Two Fortunes worshipp'd by the Hea­thens at Antium, 223.
  • Fountains in Switzerland, a Reason given for their Periodical Fluxes, 353.
  • Fribourg describ'd, 363. with an Hermitage near it, 364.
  • St. Gaul, Abbot of, the Extent of his Territo­ries, 375. manner of his Election, ibid. the Riches of the Inhabitants, 376. their Quarrel with the Abbot, 377. the Abby, 379. their Arms, 380.
  • St. Gaul, the great Apostle of Germany, some Account of him, 381.
  • Geneva, its Situation, 347. under the Empe­ror's Displeasure, and for what Reason, 361. esteem'd the Court of the Alps, 386.
  • Genoese, their Manners describ'd, 7. their Cha­racter from the modern Italians, and Latin Po­ets, 7, 8. an Instance of their Indiscretion, 13. why oblig'd to be at present in the French In­terest, 13. their Fleet, 14. and its Service, ibid. their Doge claims a Crown and Scepter from their Conquest of Corsica, 14. an Ad­vantage arising to 'em from it, and a different Maxim observed by the ancient Romans 14, 15.
  • [Page] Genoa, its Description, 9. &c. its Bank no Burden to the Genoese, 12. why uncapable of being made a free Port, 307.
  • St. George his Church at Verona, 45.
  • Granaries, the Administration of 'em in Swit­zerland, 504.
  • Grotto del Cani, some Experiments made in it, 176, 177. Reasons offer'd for the Effects of its Vapours, 177, 178.
  • Grotto Oscuro, 199.
  • Gulf of Genoa, its Nature, 4.
  • Hall, its Salt Works. 405. the Method of prepa­ring 'em, ibid. its Mint, ibid.
  • Henry the Eighth of England, his Letter to Ann of Bulloyn, 281.
  • Hercules Monaecus, 6.
  • Homer his Apotheosis, 263.
  • Jesuits their particular Compliment to the Queen of the Romans in a Comedy design'd for her Entertainment, 400.
  • Inspruck, its publick Buildings, 399.
  • Ischia, by the Ancients call'd Inarime, 210. some Account of it, ibid.
  • Italians, the usual Furniture of their Libraries, 27. compar'd to the French, 34. the difference of Manners in the two Nations, ibid. the great Aversion to the French observ'd in the common People, 35, 36. some Reasons for it, 36, 37, their extravagant Tombstones, 46. the difference be­twixt their Poetical and Prose Language, 75. a great help to their modern Poetry, ibid. their Comedies low and obscene, 76. a Reason for it, [Page] 76. the chief Parts in all their Comedies 77. a great Custom among 'em of crowning the Holy Virgin, 93, 94.
  • Italy divided into many Principalities, as more natural to its Situation, 33. its present De­solation, 136. compar'd to its ancient Inhabi­tants, ibid.
  • Juno Sispita, or Suspitae, how represented, 321. Tully's Description of this Goddess, ibid.
  • St. Justina, her Church one of the finest in Italy, 58.
  • Lago di Como, formerly Larius, 40. describ'd by Claudian, 43.
  • Lago di Garda, or Benaeus, describ'd by Vir­gil, 41.
  • Lapis Vituperii. what, and to what use apply'd, 58.
  • Lausanne, 357. a peculiar Privilege belonging to one Street in this Town, 358.
  • Lawyers, their great Numbers, and continual Employment among the Neapolitans, 157.
  • Leghorn, 302. a free Port, ibid. the great Re­sort of other Nations to it, 303. the Advanta­ges the Great Duke receives from it, 303, 304, &c.
  • Lemanus the Lake describ'd, 348, &c. with the Towns upon it, 349.
  • Lindaw, 397.
  • Liris or the Garigliano describ'd; 143.
  • Loretto its prodigious Riches, 111. why never at­tack'd by the Turks, ibid. or the Christian Prin­ces, ibid, a Description of the Holy House, 112.
  • Lucan his Prophecy of the Larian Towns, 294.
  • Lucca, the Industry of its Inhabitants, 309. un­der the King of Spain's Protection, 311. indan­ger [Page] of ruin, 311. the great Contempt the Inha­bitants have of the Florentines, ibid. why ne­ver attempted as yet by the Great Duke, 312. the Form of its Government, 313.
  • Ludlow, Edmund, his Epitaph, 355.
  • St. Marino, its Situation, 99. the Extent of its Dominions, 100. the Founder, and Original of this little Republick, ibid. the Antiquity of it, 101. the Form of the Government, 103, &c.
  • Mary Magdalene, the Desarts render'd famous by her Penance, 2. describ'd by Claudian, ibid.
  • Maximilian the first Founder of the Austrian Greatness, 400.
  • Meldingen, a little Republick in Switzerland, 472. the Model of its Government, ibid. and Business of the Councils of State, ibid.
  • Milan, its great Church, 21. &c. the Relicks and great Riches contain'd in it, 25. the Cita­del, 32. the Situation of its State, ibid. an Af­fectation of the French Dress, and Carriage in the Court, 33. Milan describ'd by Ausonius, 38. &c.
  • Mincio describ'd by Virgil, 42. and Claudian, 43.
  • Miseno, its Cape describ'd, 208. its Set of Gal­leries, 209.
  • Modena, the Extent of its Dominions, and Con­dition of the Inhabitants, 335.
  • Monaco, its Harbour describ'd by Lucan, 5. its Dominions, 6.
  • Monte Circeio, why suppos'd by Homer to have been an Island, 218. Aeneas his Passage near it describ'd by Virgil, 219.
  • Monte Novo, how form'd, 179.
  • Morge, its Artificial Port, 358.
  • [Page] Morpheus, why represented under the Figure of a Boy, 318, 319. in what manner address'd to by Statius, 320.
  • Naples, 148. its many Superstitions, 150. its de­lightful Bay, 153. describ'd by Silius Italicus, 186. its pleasant Situation, 155. the litigious Temper of the Inhabitants, 157. different from what it was in Statius his Time, 158. the great Alteration of the adjacent Parts from what they were formerly, 167. the natural Curio­sities about it, 175.
  • Narni, why so call'd, 124.
  • Neapolitans addicted to Ease and Pleasure, 160. the Reason, ibid.
  • Nemi, why so call'd, 290.
  • Nettuno, for what remarkable, 222.
  • Ocriculum, its Ruins, 124.
  • Ostia describ'd by Juvenal, 227.
  • Padua, its University, 58. the Original of Pa­dua from Virgil, 59.
  • Parker, an English Ecclesiastick, his Epitaph on his Tomb in Pavia, 18.
  • Parma, its famous Theatre, 334. the Extent of its Dominions, 335. and Condition of the In­habitants, ibid.
  • Pavia, its Description, 16, &c. why call'd Ti­cinum by the Ancients, 19.
  • Pausilypo's Grotto, 164. the beautiful Prospect of its Mount, 208.
  • St. Peter's Church at Rome describ'd, 132. the [Page] [...] of its double Dome, 133. its beautiful Architecture, 134.
  • Pietists, a new Sect in Switzerland, 393.
  • Pisatello, see Rubicon.
  • Pisauro, Doge of Venice, his Elogium, 66, 67.
  • Po describ'd by Lucan, 83.Scaliger's Critick upon it, 85. describ'd by Clandian, 338.
  • Pope his Territories very desolate, 137. and the Inhabitants poor, 138. Reasons for it, 139.
  • Puteoli, its Remains near Naples, 167. its Mole mistaken for Caligula's Bridge, 168. the Er­ror confuted, ibid, &c.
  • Ravenna, its ancient Situation according to Mar­tial, 88. and Silius Italicus, 89. the City and adjacent Parts describ'd, ibid, &c. its great Scarcity of fresh Water, 131.
  • St. Remo, a Genoese Town, describ'd, 4.
  • Rhone, some Account of it, 360.
  • Rimini, its Antiquities, 95.
  • Rome, the Modern stands higher than the An­cient, 230. the Grandeur of the Common-wealth, and Magnificence of the Emperors differently consider'd, 231. its Rarities 232, 233, &c. and Considerations upon them, ibid. why more fre­quented by the Nobility in Summer than in Winter, 294.
  • Romulus his Cottage describ'd by Virgil, 114.
  • Rubicon, call'd at present Pisatello, describ'd by Lucan, 94, 95.
  • Sannazarius his Verses upon Venice, 81.
  • Sienna, 299. its Cathedral, ibid.
  • Snow monopoliz'd at Naples, 185.
  • Soleutre, the Residence of the French Ambassa­dors, 481.
  • [Page] Soracte, call'd by the modern Italians St. Ore­ste, 125.
  • Spaniards, their Policy observed in the [...] ­ment of Naples, 155, 156, 159, 160.
  • Spoletto, its Antiquities, 114.
  • Suffolk, Duke of, bury'd in Pavia, 17. the In­scription on his Tomb, ibid. his History, 18.
  • Switzerland, its wonderful Tranquility, 381. the Reason for it, 382. the Thirst of its Inhabitants, 384. the Reason for it, ibid. their Dress; 386. their Custom in bequeathing their Estates, 389. their Notion of Witchcraft, 391.
  • Terni, why call'd formerly Interamna, 117.
  • Theatines, their Convent in Ravenna, 92.
  • Tiber, an Account of it from Virgil, 225. its great Riches, 259.
  • Ticinus, or Tesin a River near Pavia, 19. de­scrib'd by Silius Italicus, 19. and Claudian, 42.
  • Timavus describ'd by Claudian, 43.
  • Tirol, the particular Privileges of its Inhabi­tants, 409.
  • Turin, a Convenience particular to it, 341. the Aversion of the common People to the French, ibid.
  • Velini Rosea Rura, why call'd so by Virgil, 119. the Cascade form'd by the Fall of that River, ib.
  • Venetians, their Thirst after too many Conquests on the Terra Firma prejudicial to the Common-wealth, 68. wherein, ibid. the Republick in a declining Condition, ibid. on what Terms with the Emperor, 69. the Pope and Duke of Savoy, ibid. their Senate the wisest Council in the World, 70. the refin'd Parts of their Wis­dom, [Page] ibid. their great Secrecy in Matters of State, 71. an Instance of it, ibid. the Num­ber of their Nobility, 72. their Opera's, 73. a Custom peculiar to the Venetians, 79. a Show particular to them exhibited on Holy Thurs­day, 80. describ'd by Claudian, ibid.
  • Venice, its advantagious Situation, 61. conve­nient for Commerce, 63: its Trade declining, ibid. the Reason of it, 63, 64. its Description, 64. remarkable for its Pictures from the best Hands, 65, 66. the Moisture of its Air, 66. its Arsenal, 67. its Carnival, 73. the Necessity and Consequences of it, ibid.
  • Venus her Chambers, 172.
  • Verom, its Amphitheater, 43, 44. its Antiqui­ties, 45.
  • Vesuvio describ'd, 179, &c. much different from Martial's Account of it, 195.
  • Virgil's Tomb, 164.
  • Ulysses his Voyage undetermin'd by the Learned, 3.
  • Volturno describ'd, 143.
  • Zurich, an Account of it, 373.

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