AN ACCOUNT OF THE VOYAGES UNDERTAKEN BY THE ORDER OF HIS PRESENT MAJESTY FOR MAKING Discoveries in the Southern Hemisphere, And successively performed by COMMODORE BYRON, CAPTAIN WALLIS, CAPTAIN CARTERET, And CAPTAIN COOK, In the DOLPHIN, the SWALLOW, and the ENDEAVOUR: DRAWN UP From the JOURNALS which were kept by the several COMMANDERS, And from the Papers of JOSEPH BANKS, Esq

By JOHN HAWKESWORTH, LL.D.

IN THREE VOLUMES. Illustrated with CUTS, and a great Variety of CHARTS and MAPS relative to Countries now first discovered, or hitherto but imperfectly known.

VOL. I.

LONDON: Printed for W. STRAHAN; and T. CADELL in the Strand.

MDCCLXXIII.

TO THE KING.

SIR,

AFTER the great improvements that have been made in Navigation since the discovery of America, it may well be thought strange that a very considerable part of the globe on which we live should still have remain­ed unknown; that it should still have been the subject of speculation, whether a great portion of the Southern Hemisphere is land or water; and, even where land had been discovered, that [Page] neither its extent nor figure should have been ascertained. But the cause has probably been, that sovereign Princes have seldom any other motive for attempting the discovery of new countries than to conquer them, that the ad­vantages of conquering countries which must first be discovered are remote and uncertain, and that ambition has always found objects nearer home.

It is the distinguishing characteristic of Your Majesty to act from more liberal motives; and having the best fleet, and the bravest as well as most able navigators in Europe, Your Majesty has, not with a view to the acquisition of treasure, or the extent of dominion, but the improvement of commerce and the increase and diffusion of knowlege, undertaken what has so long been neglected; and under Your Majesty's auspices, in little more than seven years, discoveries have been made far greater than those of all the navigators in the world [Page] collectively, from the expedition of Columbus to the present time.

To have been appointed to record them, and permitted to inscribe the narrative to Your Majesty, is an honour, the sense of which will always be retained with the warmest gratitude, by

YOUR MAJESTY's Most faithful, and most obliged Subject and Servant, JOHN HAWKESWORTH.

CONTENTS OF THE FIRST VOLUME.

  • GENERAL INTRODUCTION. Page i
  • An Explanation of the Nautical Terms not generally understood which occur in this Work. Page xxiii
  • A Description of the Cuts. Page xxxv
COMMODORE BYRON's VOYAGE.
  • CHAP. I. The Passage from the Downs to Rio de Janeiro. 3
  • CHAP. II. Passage from Rio de Janeiro to Port Desire; with some Description of that Place. 8
  • CHAP. III. Course from Port Desire, in Search of Pepys' Island, and afterwards to the Coast of Patagonia, with a Description of the Inhabitants. 23
  • CHAP. IV. Passage up the Streight of Magellan, to Port Famine; with some Account of that Harbour, and the adjacent Coast. 33
  • CHAP. V. The Course back from Port Famine to Falkland's Islands, with some Account of the Country. 41
  • [Page] CHAP. VI. The Passage through the Streight of Magellan as far as Cape Monday, with a Description of several Bays and Harbours, formed by the Coast on each Side. 58
  • CHAP. VII. The Passage from Cape Monday, in the Streight of Magellan, into the South Seas; with some general Remarks on the Navigation of that Streight. 75
  • CHAP. VIII. The Run from the Western Entrance of the Streight of Magellan, to the Islands of Disappointment. 86
  • CHAP. IX. The Discovery of King George's Islands, with a Description of them, and an Account of several Incidents that happened there. 97
  • CHAP. X. The Run from King George's Islands to the Islands of Saypan, Tinian, and Aguigan; with an Account of several Islands that were dis­covered in that Track. 107
  • CHAP. XI. The Arrival of the Dolphin and Tamar at Tinian, a Description of the present Condition of that Island, and an Account of the Transac­tions there. 115
  • CHAP. XII. The Run from Tinian to Pulo Timoan, with some Account of that Island, its Inhabitants and Productions, and thence to Batavia. 123
  • CHAP. XIII. Transactions at Batavia, and Departure from that Place. 131
  • CHAP XIV. The Passage from Batavia to the Cape of Good Hope, and from thence to England. 135
CAPTAIN WALLIS's VOYAGE.
  • [Page]CHAP. I. The Passage to the Coast of Patagonia, with some Account of the Natives. 363
  • CHAP. II. The Passage through the Streight of Magellan, with some further Account of the Patagonians, and a Description of the Coast on each Side, and its Inhabitants. 379
  • CHAP. III. A particular Account of the Places in which we anchored during our Passage through the Streight, and of the Shoals and Rocks that lie near them. 410
  • CHAP. IV. The Passage from the Streight of Magellan, to King George the Third's Island, called Otaheite, in the South Sea, with an Account of the Discovery of several other Islands, and a Description of their In­habitants. 419
  • CHAP. V. An Account of the Discovery of King George the Third's Island, or Otaheite, and of several Incidents which happened both on board the Ship, and on Shore. 433
  • CHAP. VI. The Sick sent on Shore, and a regular Trade established with the Na­tives; some Account of their Character and Manners, of their Visits on board the Ship, and a Variety of Incidents that happened during this Intercourse. 454
  • [Page] CHAP. VII. An Account of an Expedition to discover the inland Part of the Coun­try, and our other Transactions, till we quitted the Island to con­tinue our Voyage. 472
  • CHAP. VIII. A more particular Account of the Inhabitants of Otaheite, and of their domestic Life, Manners, and Arts. 480
  • CHAP. IX. Passage from Otaheite to Tinian, with some Account of several other Islands that were discovered in the South Seas. 490
  • CHAP. XI *. Some Account of the present State of the Island of Tinian, and our Em­ployment there; with what happened in the Run from thence to Batavia. 498
  • CHAP. XII. Transactions at Batavia, and an Account of the Passage from thence to the Cape of Good Hope. 507
  • CHAP. XIII. An Account of our Transactions at the Cape of Good Hope, and of the Return of the Dolphin to England. 513
CAPTAIN CARTERET's VOYAGE.
  • CHAP. I. The Run from Plymouth to Madeira, and from thence through the Streight of Magellan. 525
  • [Page] CHAP. II. Passage from Cape Pillar, at the Western Entrance of the Streight of Magellan, to Masafuero; with some Account of that Island. 537
  • CHAP. III. The Passage from Masafuero to Queen Charlotte's Islands; several Mistakes corrected concerning Davis's Land, and an Account of some small Islands, supposed to be the same that were seen by Quiros. 557
  • CHAP. IV. An Account of the Discovery of Queen Charlotte's Island, with a Description of them and their Inhabitants, and of what happened at Egmont Island. 568
  • CHAP. V. Departure from Egmont Island, and Passage to Nova Britannia; with a Description of several other Islands, and their Inhabitants. 584
  • CHAP. VI. Discovery of a Streight dividing the Land called Nova Britannia into two Islands, with a Description of several small Islands that lie in the Passage, and the Land on each side, with the Inhabitants. 595
  • CHAP. VII. The Passage from Saint George's Channel to the Island of Mindanao, with an Account of many Islands that were seen, and Incidents that happened by the Way. 602
  • CHAP. VIII. Some Account of the Coast of Mindanao, and the Islands near it, in which several Mistakes of Dampier are corrected. 611
  • [Page] CHAP. IX. The Passage from Mindanao to the Island of Celebes, with a particular Account of the Streight of Macassar, in which many Errors are corrected. 622
  • CHAP. X. Transactions off Macassar, and the Passage thence to Bonthain. 630
  • CHAP. XI. Transactions at Bonthain, while the Vessel was waiting for a Wind to carry her to Batavia, with some Account of the Place, the Town of Macassar, and the adjacent Country. 638
  • CHAP. XII. Passage from Bonthain Bay, in the Island of Celebes, to Batavia: Transactions there, and the Voyage round the Cape of Good Hope to England. 649

CHART of part of the SOUTH SEA, Shewing the Tracts & Discoveries made by His MAJESTYS Ships Dolphin, Commodore Byron, & Tamer, Capn. Mouat, 1765. Dolphin, Capn. Wallis, & Swallow, Capn. Carteret, 1767. and Endeavour, Lieutenant Cooke, 1769.

Engrav'd by W. Whitchurch, Pleasant Row, Islington.

Note

The shaded Lands are new Discoveries, except a part of the West side of New Zeeland, which was seen by Ta [...]man in 16 [...]2.

Those without Shade are copied from Charts.

Places where the Longitude is settled by Astronomical Observations.

GENERAL INTRODUCTION.

HIS Majesty, soon after his accession to the crown, formed a design of sending out vessels for making discoveries of countries hitherto unknown, and in the year 1764, the kingdom being then in a state of profound peace, he proceeded to put it into execution. The Dolphin and the Tamar were dispatched under the command of Commo­dore Byron, and the best account of his Majesty's motives and design that can be given, will be found in the following preamble to Commodore Byron's instructions, which are dated the 17th of June in that year.

‘Whereas nothing can redound more to the honour of this nation, as a maritime power, to the dignity of the Crown of Great Britain, and to the advancement of the trade and navigation thereof, than to make discoveries of countries hitherto unknown; and whereas there is reason to believe that lands and islands of great extent, hitherto unvisited by any European power, may be found in the Atlantic Ocean, between the Cape of Good Hope and the Magellanic Streight, within the latitudes convenient for na­vigation, and in climates adapted to the produce of com­modities useful in commerce; and whereas his Majesty's islands called Pepys' Island, and Falkland's Islands, lying within the said tract, notwithstanding their having been first discovered and visited by British navigators, have never yet been so sufficiently surveyed as that an accurate judgment may be formed of their coasts and product; his [Page ii] Majesty taking the premises into consideration, and con­ceiving no conjuncture so proper for an enterprize of this nature, as a time of profound peace, which his kingdoms at present happily enjoy, has thought fit that it should now be undertaken.’

The Dolphin was a man of war of the sixth rate, mounting twenty-four guns: her complement was 150 men, with three Lieutenants, and thirty-seven petty officers.

The Tamar was a sloop, mounting sixteen guns: her com­plement was ninety men, with three Lieutenants, and two and twenty petty officers, and the command of her was given to Captain Mouat.

Commodore Byron returned in the month of May in the year 1766, and in the month of August following, the Dolphin was again sent out, under the command of Captain Wallis, with the Swallow, commanded by Captain Carteret, in pro­secution of the same general design of making discoveries in the southern hemisphere. The equipment of the Dolphin was the same as before. The Swallow was a sloop mount­ing fourteen guns; her complement was ninety men, with one Lieutenant, and twenty-two petty officers.

These vessels proceeded together till they came within sight of the South Sea, at the western entrance of the Streight of Magellan, and from thence returned by different routs to England.

In the latter part of the year 1767, it was resolved, by the Royal Society, that it would be proper to send persons into some part of the South Sea to observe a transit of the planet Venus over the sun's disk, which, according to astrono­mical calculation, would happen in the year 1769; and that the islands called Marquesas de Mendoza, or those of Rotter­dam [Page iii] or Amsterdam, were the properest places then known for making such observation.

In consequence of these resolutions, it was recommended to his Majesty, in a memorial from the Society, dated Fe­bruary 1768, that he would be pleased to order such an ob­servation to be made; upon which his Majesty signified to the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty his pleasure that a ship should be provided to carry such observers as the Society should think fit to the South Seas; and in the beginning of April following the Society received a letter from the Secre­tary of the Admiralty, informing them that a bark of three hundred and seventy tons had been taken up for that purpose. This vessel was called the Endeavour, and the command of her given to Lieutenant James Cook, a gentleman of undoubted abilities in astronomy and navigation, who was soon after, by the Royal Society, appointed, with Mr. Charles Green, a gentleman who had long been assistant to Dr. Bradley at the Royal Observatory at Greenwich, to observe the transit.

While this vessel was getting ready for her expedition, Captain Wallis returned; and it having been recommended to him by Lord Morton, when he went out, to fix on a proper place for this astronomical observation, he, by letter, dated on board the Dolphin, the 18th of May 1768, the day before he landed at Hastings, mentioned Port Royal harbour, in an island which he had discovered, then called George's Island, and since Otaheite: the Royal Society therefore, by letter, dated the beginning of June, in answer to an applica­tion from the Admiralty to be informed whither they would have their observers sent, made choice of that place.

The Endeavour had been built for the coal trade, and a vessel of that construction was preferred for many reasons, particularly because she was what the sailors call a good sea [Page iv] boat, was more roomy, would take and lie on the ground better, and might be navigated by fewer men than other vessels of the same burden.

Her complement of officers and men was Lieutenant Cook the Commander, with two Lieutenants under him, a Master and boatswain, with each two mates, a surgeon and carpenter, with each one mate, a gunner, a cook, a clerk and steward, two quarter-masters, an armourer, a sail-maker, three midshipmen, forty-one able seamen, twelve marines, and nine servants, in all eighty-four persons, besides the Commander: she was victualled for eighteen months, and took on board ten carriage and twelve swivel guns, with good store of ammunition and other necessaries. The Endeavour also, after the astronomical observation should be made, was ordered to prosecute the design of making dis­coveries in the South Seas. What was effected by these ves­sels in their several voyages, will appear in the course of this work, of which it is now necessary to give some account.

It is drawn up from the journals that were kept by the Commanders of the several ships, which were put into my hands by the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty for that purpose: and, with respect to the voyage of the Endeavour, from other papers equally authentic; an assistance which I have acknowledged in an introduction to the account of her voyage.

When I first undertook the work, it was debated, whether it should be written in the first or third person: it was rea­dily acknowledged on all hands, that a narrative in the first person would, by bringing the Adventurer and the Reader nearer together, without the intervention of a stranger, more strongly excite an interest, and consequently afford more entertainment; but it was objected, that if it was [Page v] written in the name of the several Commanders, I could ex­hibit only a naked narrative, without any opinion or senti­ment of my own, however fair the occasion, and without noting the similitude or dissimilitude between the opinions, customs, or manners of the people now first discovered, and those of nations that have been long known, or remarking on any other incident or particular that might occur. In answer to this objection, however, it was said, that as the manuscript would be submitted to the Gentlemen in whose names it would be written, supposing the narrative to be in the first person, and nothing published without their appro­bation, it would signify little who conceived the sentiments that should be expressed, and therefore I might still be at liberty to express my own. In this opinion all parties ac­quiesced, and it was determined that the narrative should be written in the first person, and that I might notwithstand­ing intersperse such sentiments and observations as my sub­ject should suggest: they are not indeed numerous, and when they occur, are always cursory and short; for nothing would have been more absurd than to interrupt an interest­ing narrative, or new descriptions, by hypothesis and disser­tation. They will however be found most frequent in the account of the voyage of the Endeavour, and the principal reason is, that although it stands last in the series, great part of it was printed before the others were written, so that se­veral remarks, which would naturally have been suggested by the incidents and descriptions that would have occurred in the preceding voyages, were anticipated by similar inci­dents and descriptions which occurred in this.

Some particulars that are related in one voyage will per­haps appear to be repeated in another, as they would neces­sarily have been if the several Commanders had written the account of their voyages themselves; for a digest could not [Page vi] have been made of the whole, without invading the right of each navigator to appropriate the relation of what he had seen: these repetitions however taken together will be found to fill but a few pages of the book.

That no doubt might remain of the fidelity with which I have related the events recorded in my materials, the manu­script account of each voyage was read to the respective Commanders at the Admiralty, by the appointment of Lord Sandwich, who was himself present during much the great­est part of the time. The account of the voyage of the En­deavour was also read to Mr. Banks and Dr. Solander, in whose hands, as well as in those of Captain Cook, the manu­script was left for a considerable time after the reading. Commodore Byron also, Captain Wallis and Captain Carteret, had the manuscripts of their respective voyages to peruse, after they had been read at the Admiralty in their presence, and such emendations as they suggested were made. In order thus to authenticate the voyage of Captain Cook, the account of it was first written, because it was expected when his journal was put into my hands, that he would have sailed on the voyage he is now making in less than five months.

It will probably be thought by many Readers, that I have related the nautical events too minutely; but it must be re­membered, that minutely to relate these events was the great object of the work. It was in particular thought ne­cessary to insert the situation of the ship at different hours of the day, with the bearings of different parts of the land while she was navigating seas, and examining shores that hitherto have been altogether unknown, in order to ascer­tain her track more minutely than could be done in any chart, however large the scale, and to describe with critical [Page vii] exactness the bays, headlands, and other irregularities of the coast; the appearance of the country, its hills, vallies, mountains, and woods, with the depth of water, and every other particular that might enable future navigators easily to find, and safely to visit every part of it. I was not indeed myself sufficiently apprised of the minuteness that was ne­cessary in this part of the work, so that I was obliged to make many additions to it, after I had prepared my manuscript. It is however hoped, that those who read merely for enter­tainment will be compensated by the description of coun­tries which no European had before visited, and manners which in many instances exhibit a new picture of human life. In this part, the relation of little circumstances re­quires no apology, for it is from little circumstances that the relation of great events derives its power over the mind. An account that ten thousand men perished in a battle, that twice the number were swallowed up by an earthquake, or that a whole nation was swept away by a pestilence, is read in the naked brevity of an index, without the least emotion, by those who feel themselves strongly interested even for Pamela, the imaginary heroine of a novel that is remarkable for the enumeration of particulars in themselves so trifling, that we almost wonder how they could occur to the author's mind.

This work is illustrated and adorned by a great number of cuts, from which every class of readers, whether their object is knowlege or pleasure, will find equal advantage, as they consist not only of maps and charts, drawn with great skill and attention, but of views and figures, designed and executed by the best artists in this country.

The most effectual way to prevent obscurity and confusion in relating events, is to range them in order of time, which [Page viii] however cannot be done in an unbroken series when the complicated and multifarious objects of history are to be re­corded; but as each of the narratives in this work is a single thread, the transactions of every day are set down in a regu­lar succession, and the time noted in the margin.

Great care has been taken to make the charts and the nautical part of the narrative coincide; if there should be any difference, which it is hoped will not be the case, the charts are to be confided in, as of unquestionable authority. By the charts, as well as by the narrative, especially by that on which the tracks of the several vessels are marked, it will be seen how far the existence or non existence of a southern con­tinent is already ascertained, and what land has in the course of these voyages been first discovered. The charts also will at one view prevent any mistake which might arise from the same name having been given to different islands by the several Commanders in these voyages, without the trouble of comparing the latitudes and longitudes assigned them in the narrative.

As it is but a very few years since the existence of a race of men above the common stature upon the coast of Patago­nia, was the subject of eager dispute among all ranks of people in this country, I have brought together the whole of the evidence on the question, as I find it in a collection of voyages lately printed in France, under the title of "Histoire des Navigationes aux Terres Australes."

"It must be acknowledged, that the contrariety of the re­ports that have been made, by ocular witnesses, concerning a fact easy to be determined, does not deviate less from the common course of things than the gigantic stature of the people in question. It appears, that during an hundred [Page ix] years, almost all navigators, of whatever country, agree in affirming the existence of a race of giants upon the coast of Patagonia; and that during another century, the much greater number agree in denying the fact, treating their predecessors as idle fabulists, and imputing their reports either to the terror which the rude fierceness of a savage people inspired, or to the natural propensity of mankind to assume importance, by pretending to have seen wonderful things. That men have a strange propensity to the marvelous cannot be denied, nor that fear naturally magnifies its object; but though it be allowed that the accounts of the Patagonians have in some instances been exaggerated, it is certain, that all who have affirmed their stature to be gigantic, were not under the influence of fear; and it is very strange, that na­tions who have an hereditary hatred to each other, and an acknowledged opposition of interest, should agree in assert­ing an evident falsehood.

"In the first place, it is well known to have been an opinion long established, both in our ancient world and in America, that there was once a race of giants upon earth who distin­guished themselves by violence and guilt.

"Barbenais was told by the inhabitants of South America, that a deluge having laid Peru under water, the Indians re­tired to the mountains till the flood should subside, and that when they came again down to the plain, they found there men of an enormous stature, who attacked them with great ferocity, killing many, and driving the rest to the caves of the rocks; but that having continued in their hiding places many years, they saw in the air a young man who destroyed the giants by thunderbolts, and thus restored to them the possession of their country. His guides also showed [Page x] him many marks upon a rock which they said were im­pressed by the thunderbolts, and many bones of an extraor­dinary size, which they believed to be remains of the giants; but they did not pretend to know when the deluge hap­pened.

"The Ynca Garcilasso de la Vega, in his history of Peru, re­lates,Pedro de Cieca, chap. 52. Garci­lasso, Hist. du Perou. liv. 9. chap. 9. that according to a tradition universally received, a num­ber of vessels or junks came to Point Saint Helena with a com­pany of giants on board, of a stature so enormous that the natives of the country were not higher than their knees: that their eyes were as broad as the bottom of a plate, and their limbs proportionably large: that some of them were naked, and others slightly covered with the skins of beasts. That when they came on shore, they dug a pit of an astonishing depth in the rock, and each of them consuming as much provi­sions as would be sufficient for fifty men, the country was soon exhausted, and they were obliged to live upon fish: that they seized the women of the country, to whom their bru­tality was fatal, and afterwards giving themselves up to worse vices, the whole race was destroyed by fire from heaven, which however left their bones unconsumed, as a lasting memorial of Divine vengeance. Bones of an amazing size are said to have been found in this country, and frag­ments of teeth, which, if they were whole, must have weighed half a pound.

"Those who wish to know all the particulars of these American traditions may satisfy their curiosity by reading Tor­quemado, lib. 1. chap. 13 and 14. where they will find that these fables are very similar to those relative to the same subject in other parts of the world. The bones, said to have been the bones of giants, which have been found in Ame­rica, [Page xi] and which were shewn at Mexico and other places in the year 1550, are probably the bones of some animal un­known; and indeed nothing less than the sight of such a race of human beings, or of an entire skeleton, can be ad­mitted as a proof of their existence. Turner, the naturalist, reports, that in the year 1610, the thigh bone of a man was shewn in London, who must have been of an enormous size; but this testimony is not decisive, though the author adds, that he had himself seen near the river Plata, upon the coast of Brasil, a race of giants who went stark naked; that the hinder part of their heads was flat, and not round; that the women had long black hair, as coarse as a horse's mane; that the men were excellent archers, and, besides their bow and arrows, carried two massive balls or bullets, each fastened to one end of a thong, a weapon which they used with great dexterity and force, either by striking with it, or throwing it like a stone from a sling. One of these giants, he says, was twelve feet high; but acknowledges that he saw no other so tall.

"Of this fact there are other ocular witnesses who perhaps may be thought more worthy of credit; among the Spa­niards, Magellan, Loaisa, Sarmiento, and Nodal; among the English, Cavendish, Hawkins, and Knivet; among the Dutch, Sebald, de Noort, le Maire, and Spilberg; and among the French, those who went in the expedition from Marseilles, and Saint Maloes. Those who bear testimony to the con­trary, are Winter, the Dutch Admiral Hermite, Froger in de Gennes's narrative, and Sir John Narborough. Winter, after having himself seen the inhabitants of Patagonia, says in direct terms, that the accounts of their being giants are falsehoods invented by the Spaniards; and it must be con­fessed that the testimony of these navigators at least counter­balances [Page xii] the evidence on the other side, especially as they were best acquainted with the Streight of Magellan, and the neighbouring country. Such navigators as have visited this country, and are silent with respect to the stature of the in­habitants, particularly Sir Francis Drake, must be considered as witnesses against the fact in question; for their silence is a proof that they saw nothing extraordinary. It must how­ever be observed, in the first place, that the greater part of those who hold the affirmative in this question, speak of people that inhabited the desert coast of Patagonia to the east and west; and that, on the contrary, those who hold the negative, speak of those who inhabit the Streight upon the sides of the utmost point of America to the north and south. The nations of these two districts are certainly not the same; and if the first have sometimes been seen in the Streight, it cannot be thought strange, considering how short the distance is from Port Saint Julian, which appears to be their ordinary habitation. Magellan, and his people saw them there very often, and trafficked with them sometimes on board his ships, and sometimes on shore: nor was this all, he seized two of them, and kept them pri­soners in his vessel, one of whom was baptized some time before his death, and taught several words of his language to Pigafette, who formed them into a little dictionary: these are facts than which nothing can be more positive, or less subject to illusion.

"I affirm, says Knivet, that when I was at Port Desire I measured several dead bodies that I found buried there, which were from fourteen to sixteen spans high, and saw tracks in the sand which must have been left by people of nearly the same stature. I have also frequently seen at Bra­zil, one of the Patagonians who had been taken at Port Saint [Page xiii] Julian, and though he was but a youth, he measured no less than thirteen spans: and our English prisoners at Brazil have assured me that they had seen many men of the same stature upon the coasts of the streight." Sebald de Wert says, that when he was in the Streight, he saw giants of the same bulk, who tore up trees by the roots, that were a span in diameter, with great facility; he also saw women that were gigantic, and others of the common stature. Oliver de Noort reports, that he saw savages of a gigantic stature at Port Desire, but does not call them giants: that he took six of them prisoners, and carried them on board his ship, one of whom afterwards told him that the country was inhabited by many different nations, four of which were of the ordi­nary stature; but that farther within the land, in a territory called Coin, there was a gigantic people, distinguished by the name of Tiremenen, who were continually making war upon the other nations. Spilberg relates, that he saw a man of an extraordinary stature upon the coast of Terra del Fuego, but that the sepulchres which he found, had re­ceived men of the common height. Aris-Clasz, who was on board La Maire's fleet in the character of Commissary, a man well worthy of credit, declares, that having visited the sepulchres which he discovered upon the coast of Patagonia, he found the bones of men who were between ten and eleven feet high, which convinced him that the reports of former navigators were true; and here it must be confessed that the examination was made in cold blood, when it cannot be pre­tended that the object was magnified by fear. Some others, particularly Nodal and Sir Richard Hawkins, content them­selves with saying that these savages were a head taller than the inhabitants of Europe, and of such a stature that the people on board their vessels called them giants. Such is the evidence of past times; we shall now consider that of the age [Page xiv] in which we live. In 1704, the Captains Harrington and Carman, who commanded two French vessels, one from Saint Maloes, and the other from Marseilles, saw at one time seven of these giants in Possession Bay, at another time six, and at a third time they had an interview with a com­pany of more than four hundred men, part of whom were gigantic, and part of the common stature. That Harring­ton and Carman reported this fact, is attested by M. Frezier, superintendant of the fortifications of Bretagne, a man well known, and universally esteemed. Frezier never saw any of these savages himself, but he says, that being upon the coast of Chili, Don Pedro Molina, Governor of the isle of Chiloë, and many other eye-witnesses, told him, that there was at a considerable distance within the country, an Indian nation, called by their neighbours Caucohues, who some­times came down to the Spanish settlements, that were more than nine feet high, and were the same race with the Pata­gonians who live on the eastern coast, and have been men­tioned in former relations. We are told by Reaveneau de Lussan, that the Spaniards who live upon the sea coast in South America, report that certain white Indians inhabit part of Chili, with whom they are always at war: that they are of an enor­mous bulk and stature, and that whenever they take a Spa­niard prisoner, they force up the breast-bone, as they would the shell of a tortoise, and tear out his heart. Narborough, on the contrary, though he agrees that the Indians who in­habit the mountains near the Spanish settlements at Chili, and perpetually commit hostilities against them, are tall, expressly denies that their stature is gigantic. He had often measured the skulls and the prints of the feet of the savages on the coasts of the Streight of Magellan, which, he says, were of the common size: he had also several times seen nu­merous companies of them even at Port Saint Julian, and [Page xv] these he declares not to be taller or bigger than other men. Narborough is certainly a credible witness, and his evidence is directly to the point: it is confirmed by that of L'Hermite, who says, that the people he saw upon the coast of Terra del Fuego, though they were robust and well-proportioned, were not larger than the inhabitants of Europe; and lastly. M. de Gennes bears testimony that none of the people he saw at Port Famine were six feet high.

"Those who diligently consider these different relations will find reason to believe, that all the parties have spoken truth, each of them faithfully reporting what he saw, and there­fore that the existence of a gigantic race in these parts is a real fact, not to be questioned merely because they were not seen by every mariner that visited the country.

"It appears to be well established, that the inhabitants of the two borders of the Streight are of the common stature; and that the race distinguished by the name of Patagonians, made their constant residence upon the desart coasts, either in some miserable hovels in the depth of the woods, or in some caverns of the rocks, scarcely accessible to any but themselves: and it appears from the account of Oliver de Noort, that when the Streight began to be frequented by European vessels, they hid themselves as soon as the ships were in sight, which accounts both for their not being seen, and for the recent marks of inhabitants upon a coast that appeared to be desart. Perhaps the frequent appearance of our ships upon this coast, at length determined them to quit it as a settled habitation, returning only at particular seasons of the year, and taking up their constant residence in the in­terior part of the country. Lord Anson was of opinion, that they resided statedly on the western side of the Cordeliers, [Page xvi] and visited the eastern side occasionally, but not often: so that if they have been rarely seen by the vessels which have touched at the coast of Patagonia for the last hundred years, the reason probably is, that being, like other Indian nations, desirous to conceal themselves from strangers, they re­tired to the mountains. It is indeed to be regretted, that no skeleton of these people has been brought into Europe; and it may at first seem strange, that no such evidence of their uncommon stature should have been produced, as it is known that several of them who had been made prisoners by the Commanders of European vessels, died on board soon after they came into a hot climate; but the wonder will cease, when it is considered that all mariners have a super­stitious opinion that the compass will not traverse if there is a dead body on board the vessel." Upon the whole, it may reasonably be presumed, that the concurrent testimony of late navigators, particularly Commodore Byron, Captain Wallis, and Captain Carteret, Gentlemen of unquestionable veracity, who are still living, and who not only saw and conversed with these people but measured them, will put an end to all the doubts that have been hitherto entertained of their exist­ence.

Having thus brought together the whole of the evidence for and against a fact which has long been the object both of popular and philosophical curiosity, I shall not anticipate any opinion that the Reader may form concerning future navigations in the track which has been described by any of the vessels whose voyages are here related, except that al­though it is the opinion of Commodore Byron, who spent seven weeks and two days in passing through the Streight of Magellan, that it may be passed in three weeks at the pro­per season; yet the passage cost Captain Wallis near four [Page xvii] months, though he performed it precisely at the time re­commended by the Commodore, having reached the eastern entrance about the middle of December.

I cannot however dismiss my Readers to the following narratives, without expressing the regret with which I have recorded the destruction of poor naked savages, by our fire-arms, in the course of these expeditions, when they endea­voured to repress the invaders of their country; a regret which I am confident my Readers will participate with me: this however appears to be an evil which, if discoveries of new countries are attempted, cannot be avoided: resistance will always be made, and if those who resist are not over­powered, the attempt must be relinquished. It may perhaps be said, that the expence of life upon these occasions is more than is necessary to convince the natives that further contest is hopeless, and perhaps this may sometimes have been true: but it must be considered, that if such expeditions are under­taken, the execution of them must be intrusted to persons not exempt from human frailty; to men who are liable to provocation by sudden injury, to unpremeditated violence by sudden danger, to error by the defect of judgment or the strength of passion, and always disposed to transfer laws by which they are bound themselves; to others who are not sub­ject to their obligation; so that every excess thus produced is also an inevitable evil.

If it should be said, that supposing these mischiefs to be inevitable in attempting discoveries, discoveries ought not to be attempted; it must be considered, that upon the only principles on which this opinion can be supported, the risk of life, for advantages of the same kind with those proposed in discovering new countries, is in every other instance un­lawful. If it is not lawful to put the life of an Indian in [Page xviii] hazard, by an attempt to examine the country in which he lives, with a view to increase commerce or knowlege; it is not lawful to risk the life of our own people in carrying on commerce with countries already known. If it being said that the risk of life in our own people is voluntary, and that the Indian is brought into danger without his consent, the con­sequence will still follow; for it is universally agreed, at least upon the principles of Christianity, that men have no more right over their own lives than over the lives of others, and suicide being deemed the worst species of murder, a man must be proportionably criminal in exposing his own life, for any purpose that would not justify his exposing the life of another. If the gratification of artificial wants, or the inrease of knowlege, are justifiable causes for the risk of life, the landing by force on a newly discovered country, in or­der to examine its produce, may be justified; if not, every trade and profession that exposes life for advantages of the same kind is unlawful; and by what trade or profession is not life exposed? Let us examine all the multitudes that art has employed, from the refiner who sweats at the furnace to the sedentary artificer who grows pale at the loom, and per­haps none can be found in which life is not in some degree sacrificed to the artificial necessities of civil society. But will it therefore be said, that civil society, to which this sacrifice is made, is for that reason a combination contrary to the great original principles of morality, which are the basis of all duty? Will it be said, that to exercise the faculties which are the distinguishing characteristics of our nature is unna­tural? and that being endowed with the various powers which in civil societies only can be brought into action, it was incongruous to the will of our Creator that any such society should be formed, and that it would be pleasing to him if, still continuing in a savage state, these powers should [Page xix] lie torpid in our nature, like life in an embrio, during the whole of our existence? This surely must appear extrava­gant and absurd in the highest degree, especially as it must be allowed, that although commerce and arts in some in­stances expose life, in others they preserve it; they supply the wants of Nature, without rapine and violence, and by producing a common interest, they prevent the inhabitants of the same country from being divided into different clans, which among savages are almost perpetually committing hos­tilities against each other, with a ferocious cruelty which is not to be found where civil government and literary knowlege have meliorated the manners of mankind. Upon the whole, therefore, it seems reasonable to conclude, that the increase of knowlege and commerce are ultimately common bene­fits; and that the loss of life which happens in the attempt, is among the partial evils which terminate in general good.

I have now only to request of such of my Readers as may be disposed to censure me for not having attributed any of the critical escapes from danger that I have recorded, to the particular interposition of Providence, that they would, in this particular, allow me the right of private judgment, which I claim with the greater confidence, as the very same principle which would have determined them to have done it, has determined me to the contrary. As I firmly believe the divine precept delivered by the Author of Christianity, "there is not a sparrow falls to the ground without my Fa­ther," and cannot admit the agency of chance in the govern­ment of the world, I must necessarily refer every event to one cause, as well the danger as the escape, as well the sufferings as the enjoyments of life: and for this opinion, I have, among other respectable authorities, that of the Bible. Shall we, says Job, "receive good from the hand of God and shall we not re­ceive evil?" The Supreme Being is equally wise and benevolent [Page xx] in the dispensation of both evil and good, as means of effect­ing ultimate purposes worthy of his ineffable perfections; so that whether we consider ourselves as christians or philoso­phers, we must acknowledge that he deserves blessing not more when he gives than when he takes away. If the fall of a sparrow, as well as its preservation, is imputed to pro­vidence, why not the fall as well as the preservation of a man? and why should we attribute to Providence only what appears to be good in its immediate effect, when we suppose that the whole concatenation of events, whether the pre­servation or destruction of particular parts, tends ultimately to the good of the whole? The same voice commissions the winds to plough up the deep, which at the appointed time re­bukes them, saying, "Peace, be still." If the adorable Author and Preserver of Nature was such a being as Baal is repre­sented to have been by the prophet, when he derided his wor­shippers; if he was sometimes on a journey, and sometimes asleep, we might with propriety say that a fire happened to break out, or a storm to rise, but that by the interposition of providence life was preserved, expressions which imply that the mischief had one origin, and the remedy another; but such language certainly derogates from the honour of the great Universal Cause, who, acting through all duration, and subsisting in all space, fills immensity with his presence, and eternity with his power.

It will perhaps be said, that in particular instances evil necessarily results from that constitution of things which is best upon the whole, and that Providence occasionally inter­feres, and supplies the defects of the constitution in these particulars: but this notion will appear not to be supported by those facts which are said to be providential; it will al­ways be found that Providence interposes too late, and only moderates the mischief which it might have prevented. But [Page xxi] who can suppose an extraordinary interposition of Providence to supply particular defects in the constitution of nature, who sees those defects supplied but in part? It is true that when the Endeavour was upon the rock off the coast of New Holland, the wind ceased, and that otherwise she must have been beaten to pieces; but either the subsiding of the wind was a mere natural event or not; if it was a natural event, providence is out of the question, at least we can with no more propriety say that providentially the wind ceased, than that providentially the sun rose in the morning. If it was not a mere natural event, but produced by an extraordinary interposition, correcting a defect in the constitution of nature, tending to mischief, it will lie upon those who maintain the position, to shew, why an extraordinary interposition did not take place rather to prevent the ship's striking, than to pre­vent her being beaten to pieces after she had struck: a very slight impulse upon the ship's course would have caused her to steer clear of the rock, and if all things were not equally easy to Omnipotence, we should say that this might have been done with less difficulty than a calm could be produced by suspending the general laws of Nature which had brought on the gale.

I have, however, paid my homage to the Supreme Being, consonant to my own ideas of his agency and perfections; and those who are of opinion that my notions are erroneous, must allow, that he who does what he thinks to be right, and abstains from what he thinks to be wrong, acquits him­self equally of moral obligation, whether his opinions are false or true.

AN EXPLANATION of the NAUTICAL TERMS not generally understood which occur in this WORK.

A.
  • ABACK, the situation of the sails when their surfaces are flatted against the masts by the force of the wind. The sails are said to be taken aback, when they are brought into this situation, either by a sudden change of the wind, or by an alteration in the ship's course. They are laid aback, to effect an immediate retreat, without turning to the right or left; in order to avoid some danger.
  • ABAFT, the hinder part of a ship.
  • AFT, behind, or near the stern of the ship.
  • ANCHOR, the principal are the sheet anchor, the best bower and the small bower, so called from their situation in the ship's bows. The smaller anchors, are the stream anchor, the kedge anchor, and the grappling.
  • AWNING, a canopy of canvass extending over the decks of a ship in hot weather.
  • AZIMUTH-COMPASS, an instrument employed to discover the mag­netical azimuth or amplitude of any heavenly object. This operation is performed at sea, to find the exact variation of the magnetical needle.
B.
  • To BALANCE, to contract a sail into a narrower compass, in a storm, by retrenching or folding up a part of it at one corner.
  • BEAMS, strong thick pieces of timber, stretching across the ship from side to side, to support the decks, and retain the sides at their pro­per distance. On the weather beam, is on the weather side of the ship.
  • To BELAY, to fasten a rope by winding it several times round a cleat, belaying-pin, or kevel.
  • BENDING a sail, fastening it to its yard or stay.
  • BIGHT, the double part of a rope when it is folded, in contradistinc­tion to the end.
  • BIGHT, is also a small bay between two points of land.
  • BULGE, or BILGE, that part of the floor of a ship, on either side of the keel, which approaches nearer to an horizontal than to a perpendi­cular [Page xxiv] direction, and on which the ship would rest if laid on the ground: or more particularly, those parts of the bottom which are opposite to the heads of the floor-timbers amidships on each side of the keel. Hence, when a ship receives a fracture in this place, she is said to be bilged.
  • BIRTH, the station in which a ship rides at anchor.
  • BIRTH, also signifies the room or apartment where any particular number of the officers or ship's company usually mess and reside.
  • BOARD, the line over which the ship runs between tack and tack, when she is turning to windward, or sailing against the direction of the wind.
  • BOW, the rounding part of a ship's side forward, beginning at the place where the planks arch inwards, and terminating where they close at the stem or prow.
  • BREAKERS, billows that break violently over rocks lying under the surface of the sea.
  • To BRING-TO, to check the course of a ship when she is advancing, by arranging the sails in such a manner as that they shall counter-act each other, and prevent her either from retreating or moving forward. In this situation the ship is said to lie-by, or lie-to.
  • BULK-HEADS, certain partitions, or walls, built up in several places of a ship between two decks, either lengthways or across, to form and separate the various apartments.
  • BUOY, a sort of close cask, or block of wood, fastened by a rope to the anchor, to determine the place where the anchor is situated.
C.
  • CABLE's-length, a hundred and twenty-fathom.
  • CAP, a strong, thick block of wood, used to confine two masts to­gether, when the one is erected at the head of the other, in order to lengthen it. It is for this purpose furnished with two holes perpendicu­lar to it's length and breadth, and parallel to its thickness; one of these is square, and the other round; the former being solidly fixed upon the upper-end of the lower-mast, whilst the latter receives the mast em­ployed to lengthen it, and secures it in this position.
  • CAPSTERN, or CAPSTAN, a strong, massy column of timber, formed like a truncated cone, and having its upper extremity pierced with a number of holes to receive the bars or levers. It is let down per­pendicularly [Page xxv] through the decks of a ship, and is fixed in such manner, that the men, by turning it horizontally with their bars, may perform any work which requires an extraordinary effort.
  • CASTING, the motion of falling off, so as to bring the direction of the wind on either side of the ship after it had blown for some time right a-head.
  • CHAINS, strong links or plates of iron, the lower ends of which are bolted through the ship's side to the timbers. They are placed at short distances from each other on the ship's outside, as being used to contain the blocks called dead-eyes, by which the shrouds of the masts are ex­tended.
  • CHEEKS of the mast, the faces or projecting parts on each side of the masts, used to sustain the frame of the top, together with the top-mast, which rests immediately upon them.
  • CLAWING, or CLAWING-OFF, the act of beating or turning to wind­ward from a lee shore, so as to acquire a sufficient distance from it, to escape the dangers of shipwreck.
  • CLEATS, pieces of wood of different shapes, used occasionally to fasten ropes upon in a ship.
  • CLENCH, or CLINCH, that part of a cable, or other rope, which is fastened to the ring of the anchor.
  • CLOSE upon a wind, or CLOSE-HAULED, the general arrangement or trim of a ship's sails, when she endeavours to make a progress in the nearest direction possible towards that point of the compass from which the wind blows.
  • To CLEW, or CLUE-UP, to truss the sails up to the yards by tackles fastened to their lower corners, called their clues.
  • COCKSWAIN, or COXEN, the officer who manages and steers a boat, and has the command of the boat's crew.
  • COMPANION, a sort of wooden porch placed over the entrance or stair case of the master's cabin in a merchant-ship.
  • COURSES, a name by which the principal sails of a ship are usually distinguished, viz. the main-sail, fore-sail, and mizen.
  • CRANK, the quality of a ship which for want of a sufficient quantity of ballast or cargo, is rendered incapable of carrying sail without being exposed to the danger of overturning.
D.
  • [Page xxvi]Half-DECK, a space under the quarter-deck of a ship of war, con­tained between the foremost bulkhead of the steerage and the fore-part of the quarter-deck.
  • DRIVING, the state of being carried at random along the surface of the water, by a storm or current: it is generally expressed of a ship when broken loose from her anchors or moorings.
E.
  • To EDGE away, to decline gradually from the shore, or from the line of the course which the ship formerly steered.
F.
  • FALL, the loose end of a tackle; or that part upon which the people pull, or hoist, to produce the required effect.
  • To FILL, to brace the sails in such a manner, as that the wind, en­tering their cavities from behind, dilates them so as to advance the ship in her course.
  • FISH, is a long piece of oak, convex on one side, and concave on the other. It is used to fasten upon the outside of the lower masts, as an additional security, to strengthen them when it becomes necessary to carry an extraordinary pressure of sail. The fishes are also employed for the same purpose on any yard, which happens to be sprung or fractured.
  • FLAW, a sudden breeze, or gust of wind.
  • FLOOR, the bottom of a ship.
  • FOOT of a sail, lower edge or bottom.
  • FOOT-ROPE, the rope to which the foot of a sail is sewed.
  • FORE, all that part of a ship's frame and machinery which lies near the head.
G.
  • GAFF, a sort of boom or pole, used to extend the upper edge of the mizen. The foremost, or inner extremity of it, is furnished with two cheeks forming a semicircle, which inclose the after part of the mast so as to confine the gaff close to its respective mast whilst the sail is hoisting or lowering.
  • GANGWAY, a narrow platform, or range of planks, laid horizontally along the upper part of a ship's side, from the quarter-deck to the fore­castle, for the convenience of walking more expeditiously fore and aft, than by descending into the waist.
  • [Page xxvii]GANGWAY, is also that part of a ship's side, both within and without, by which the passengers enter and depart. It is for this purpose provided with a sufficient number of steps, or cleats, nailed upon the ship's side, nearly as low as the surface of the water; and sometimes furnished with a railed accommodation-ladder, whose lower end projects from the ship's side, being secured in this position by iron braces, so as to render the ascent and descent convenient.
  • GRAPPLING, a small anchor, fitted with four or five flukes or claws, commonly used to ride a boat or other small vessel.
  • GUNNEL, or GUNWALE, the upper edge of a ship's side.
H.
  • HANDING the sails, rolling them up close to the yard or mast to which they belong.
  • HAMMACOES, the same with hammoc.
  • To HAUL, an expression peculiar to seamen, implying to pull a single rope, without the assistance of blocks, or other mechanical powers.
  • To HAUL the wind, to direct the ship's course nearer to that point of the compass from which the wind arises.
  • HAWSER, a large rope which holds the middle degree between the cable and tow-line.
  • HEAVING-short, is the drawing so much of the cable into the ship, by means of the capstern or windlass, as that by advancing, she will be almost perpendicularly above the anchor, and in a proper situation to set sail.
  • HEAVING-taught, the act of heaving about the capstern, till the rope applied thereto becomes streight and ready for action.
  • To HEEL, to stoop or incline to either side.
  • HUMMOCK, a little hill.
J.
  • JERKED, cured with salt.
  • GIB, or JIB-BOOM, a boom run out from the extremity of the bow­sprit, parallel to its length, and serving to extend the bottom of the jib, and the stay of the fore-top-gallant-mast.
K.
  • KEDGE, a small anchor, used to keep a ship steady whilst she rides in a harbour or river.
  • [Page xxviii] False KEEL, a strong, thick piece of timber, bolted to the main keel to preserve its lower-side.
  • KNEE, a crooked piece of timber, having two branches or arms and generally used to connect the beams of a ship with her sides or timbers.
L.
  • LAGOON, a lake.
  • LARBOARD, the left side of a ship when the eye of a spectator is directed forward.
  • LASHING, a piece of rope employed to fasten or secure any move­able body in a ship, or about her masts, sails, and rigging: also the act of fastening or securing any thing by means of the rope used for this purpose.
  • LOG, a machine used to measure the ship's head-way, or the rate of her velocity as she advances through the sea. It is composed of a reel and line, to which is fixed a small piece of wood, forming the quadrant of a circle. The term log however is more particularly applied to the latter. The log, is generally about a quarter of an inch thick, and five or six inches from the angular point to the circumference. It is ba­lanced by a thin plate of lead, nailed upon the arch, so as to swim per­pendicularly in the water, with about ⅔ impressed under the surface. The line is fastened to the log by means of two legs, one of which passes through a hole at the corner, and is knotted on the opposite side; whilst the other leg is attached to the arch by a pin, fixed in another hole, so as to draw out occasionally. By these legs the log is hung in equilibrio, and the line, which is united to it, is divided into certain spaces, which are in proportion to an equal number of geographical miles, as a half minute or quarter minute is to an hour of time.
  • LUG-SAIL, a square sail, hoisted occasionally on the mast of a boat, or small vessel, upon a yard which hangs nearly at right angles with the mast.
M.
  • To MAKE the land, is to discover it from a distant situation, in con­sequence of approaching it after a sea-voyage.
  • MIZEN, the aftermost or hindmost of the fixed sails of a ship.
  • [Page xxix]MOORING, the act of confining and securing a ship in a particular station, by chains or cables, which are either fastened to the adjacent shore, or to anchors in the bottom.
N.
  • NEAPED, the situation of a ship which is left aground on the height of a spring-tide, so that she cannot be floated off till the return of the next spring.
O.
  • OFFING, implies out at sea; or at a competent distance from the shore, and generally out of anchor-ground.
  • OPEN, is expressed of any distant object, to which the sight or pas­sage is not intercepted by something lying, or coming between. Thus, to be open with any place, is to be opposite to it; as the entry of a port, road, or haven.
  • OVER-HAULING, the act of opening and extending the several parts of a tackle, or other assemblage of ropes, communicating with blocks, or dead-eyes. It is used to remove those blocks to a sufficient distance from each other, that they may be again placed in a state of action, so as to produce the effect required.
P.
  • PAINTER, a rope employed to fasten a boat either alongside of the ship to which she belongs, or to some wharf or key.
  • PALM of the anchor, the same with fluke, the broad barbed ends of the two arms at the bottom of the shank.
  • PARCELING, certain long narrow slips of canvas, daubed with tar, and frequently bound about a rope, in the same manner as bandages are applied to a broken limb in surgery.
  • To PAY, to daub or anoint the surface of any body, in order to pre­serve it from the injuries of the water and weather, &c.
  • PORTS, the embrasures or openings in the side of a ship of war, wherein the artillery is ranged in battery upon the decks above and below.
  • HALF-PORTS, are what stops that part of the port which when the gun is pushed out is left open.
  • PURCHASE, any mechanical power employed in raising or remov­ing heavy bodies, or in fixing or extending the ship's rigging.
Q.
  • [Page xxx]QUARTER, that part of a ship's side which lies towards the stern.
  • QUARTER-CLOTHS, long pieces of painted canvas, extended on the outside of the quarter-neting from the upper-part of the gallery to the gangway.
R.
  • RANGE, a sufficient length of the cable, drawn up on the deck, be­fore the anchor is cast loose from the bow, to let it sink to the bottom, without being interrupted, that the flukes may be forced the deeper into the ground, by the additional weight which the anchor acquires in sinking.
  • REEF, a certain portion of a sail, comprehended between the top or bottom, and a row of eyelet-holes parallel thereto.
  • To REEF, is to reduce the surface of the sail in proportion to the in­crease of the wind.
  • REEF also implies a chain of rocks, lying near the surface of the water.
  • RIGING, a general name given to all the ropes employed to support the masts; and to extend or reduce the sails, or arange them to the disposition of the wind.
  • RIGHTING, the act of restoring a ship to her upright position, after she has been laid on a careen. A ship is also said to right at sea when she rises, with her masts erected, after having been prest down on one side by the effort of her sails, or a heavy squall of wind.
S.
  • SCARFING, when two pieces of timber are to be joined together by the ends, if the ends are cut square, another piece is laid upon, and fastened to both, and this is called scarfing.
  • SETING, the act of observing the situation of any distant object by the compass, in order to discover the angle which it makes with the nearest meridian.
  • SHEET, a rope fastened to one or both the lower corners of a sail to extend and retain it in a particular station.
  • SHROUDS, a range of large ropes extended from the mast-heads to the right and left side of the ship, to support the masts, and enable them to carry sail.
  • [Page xxxi]SKIDS, or SKEEDS, are long compassing pieces of timber, formed so as to answer the vertical curve of a ship's side. They are notched below so as to fit closely upon the wales; and as they are intended to preserve the planks of the side, when any weighty body is hoisted or lowered, they extend from the main wale to the top of the side; and they are re­tained in this position by bolts or spike-nails.
  • SPRING, a crack or breach running transversely or obliquely through any part of a mast or yard, so as to render it unsafe to carry the usual quantity of sail thereon.
  • SPRING is also a rope passed out of one extremity of a ship and at­tached to a cable proceeding from the other, when she lies at anchor. It is usually done to bring the ship's broad-side, or battery of cannon, to bear upon some distant object.
  • SPRITSAIL, a sail attached to a yard which hangs under the bowsprit.
  • SQUALL, a sudden and violent blast of wind, usually occasioned by the interruption and reverberation of the wind from high mountains.
  • STANCHION, a sort of small pillar of wood or iron used for various purposes in a ship; as to support the decks, the quarter-rails, the netings, and awnings.
  • STANDING, the movement by which a ship advances towards a certain object, or departs from it.
  • STARBOARD, the right side of a ship when the eye of the spectator is directed forward.
  • To STAY, the same as to tack; the contrary to wear, which see; hence the phrase to miss stays when she fails in the operation.
  • STIFF, the quality by which a ship is enabled to carry a sufficient quantity of sail, without hazard of oversetting.
  • STREAKS, or STRAKES, the uniform ranges of planks on the bot­tom and sides of a ship.
  • To STRIKE, to run ashore, or to beat upon the ground in passing over a bank or shallow.
  • STUDDING-SAILS, certain light sails extended, in moderate and steady breezes, beyond the skirts of the principal sails, where they ap­pear as wings upon the yard-arms.
  • [Page xxxii]SURF, the swell of the sea which breaks upon the shore, or any rock lying near the surface of the water.
  • SWEEPING, the act of dragging the bight, or loose part of a small rope, along the surface of the ground, in a harbour or road, in order to hook and recover some anchor, wreck, or other material, sunk at the bottom. It is performed by fastening the two ends of this rope to the sides of two boats which are abreast of each other, at some distance. To the middle of the rope are suspended two cannon shot, or something which weighs heavy, in order to sink it to the ground: so that, as the boats advance by rowing ahead, the rope drags along the bottom, to hook any thing for which they are searching.
  • SWEEPS, are long oars sometimes used on board a ship to pull her round.
T.
  • TACK, a rope used to confine the foremost lowest-corners of the courses and stay-sails in a fixed position, when the wind crosses the ship's course obliquely.
  • TACK-CHAIN plates, strong links or plates of iron, the lower ends of which are bolted through the ship's side to the timbers, for the purpose of holding the rope called a tack.
  • MAIN-TACK, the tack of the main-sail.
  • TAFFAREL, the upper part of a ship's stern, being a curved piece of wood, usually ornamented with sculpture.
  • TAUGHT, the state of being extended or stretched out. It is usually applied to a rope or sail, in opposition to slack.
  • TENDING, the movement by which a ship turns or swings round her anchor in a tide-way, at the beginning of the flood or ebb.
  • THWART, the seat or bench of a boat whereon the rowers sit to ma­nage the oars.
  • TILER, the bar or lever employed to turn the rudder in steering.
  • TIMBERS, the ribs of a ship.
  • TRANSOMS, certain beams or timbers extended across the stern-post of a ship to fortify her after-part, and give it the figure most suitable to the service for which she is calculated.
  • [Page xxxiii]TRUSSEL or TRESTLE-TREES, two strong bars of timber fixed horizontally on the opposite sides of the lower mast-head, to support the frame of the top, and the weight of the top-mast.
  • TRIM, the state or disposition by which a ship is best calculated for the several purposes of navigation.
  • To TREND, to run off in a certain direction.
  • TRIPING, the movement by which an anchor is loosened from the bottom by its cable or buoy-ropes.
V.
  • VEERING, the same as wearing, which see.
  • To VEER away the cable, is to slacken it, that it may run out of the ship.
W.
  • WAKE, the print or track impressed by the course of a ship on the surface of the water.
  • WALES, an assemblage of strong planks extending along a ship's side, throughout her whole length, at different heights, and serving to rein­force the decks, and form the curves by which the vessel appears light and graceful on the water.
  • WARP, a small rope employed occasionally to remove a ship from one place to another, in a port, road or river. And hence
  • To WARP, is to change the situation of a ship, by pulling her from one part of a harbour, &c. to some other, by means of warps.
  • WASH-BOARD, a broad thin plank fixed occasionally on the top of a boat's side, so as to raise it, and be removed at pleasure. It is used to prevent the sea from breaking into the vessel, particularly when the surface is rough.
  • To WEATHER, is to sail to windward of some ship, bank, or head­land.
  • To WEAR, the same as to veer, to perform the operation by which a ship, in changing her course from one board to the other, turns her stern to windward; it is the opposite to tacking, in which the head is turned to the windward and the stern to the leeward.
  • WINDLASS, a machine used in merchant-ships to heave up the an­chors. It is a large cylindrical piece of timber, supported at the two [Page xxxiv] ends by two frames of wood, placed on the opposite sides of the deck near the fore-mast, and is turned about as upon an axis, by levers called handspecs which are for this purpose thrust into holes bored through the body of the machine.
  • WOOLDING, the act of winding a piece of rope about a mast or yard, to support it in a place where it may have been fished or scarfed; or when it is composed of several pieces united into one solid.
Y.
  • YARD, a long piece of timber suspended upon the masts of a ship. to extend the sails to the wind.
  • YAW, the movement by which a ship deviates from the line of her course towards the right or left in steering.

A DESCRIPTION of the CUTS.

  • I. A view of the Indians of Terra del Fuego in their hut.
  • II. A view of Matavia Bay in Otaheite; called by Captain Wallis, Port Royal Harbour in King George the Third's Island. The view is taken from One Tree Hill, and the tree is a new species of the Erythrina.
  • III. A view in the Island of Ulietea, with a double canoe and a boat-house.
  • IV. A view of the Island of Otaheite, with several vessels of that island.
  • V. A view in the Island of Otaheite; with the house or shed called Tu­papow, under which the dead are deposited, and a representation of the person who performs the principal part in the funeral ceremony in his peculiar dress; with a man climbing the bread-fruit tree to get out of his way.
  • VI. A view in the Island of Huaheine; with the Ewharra no Eatua, or House of God; a small altar with its offering; and a tree called Owharra with which the houses are thatched.
  • VII. A view of the inside of a house in the Island of Ulietea, with the representation of a dance to the music of the country.
  • VIII. A military gorget worn in the South Sea Islands.
  • IX. The first two figures, reckoning from the left hand, are ohissels or gouges; the third an adze of the smaller kind; the fourth, the instru­ment with which the bread-fruit is beaten into paste; the fifth, the nasal flute; the sixth, a thatching needle; the seventh, the instrument used for beating the cloth, over which is a square representing the end of it, to shew the different size of the grooves on the four sides, the number of which is expressed in figures.
  • X. The first figure, reckoning from the left hand, is an adze of the larger size; the second and third are different representations of the upper part of it, to shew the manner of tying the stone to the handle; the smaller figures are tattowing instruments, to pierce the skin, of dif­ferent sizes with and without their handles; the last is the instrument with which they are struck for that purpose.
  • [Page xxxvi]XI. A branch of the bread-fruit tree with the fruit.
  • XII. The middle figure represents a fly-flap of the Island Ohiteroa; the two side figures, handles of the same instruments made in Otaheite. @@

    N.B. the figures in the plates IX. X. and XII. are according to a scale of one third of an inch to an inch.

  • XIII. The head of a New Zealander, with a comb in his hair, an orna­ment of green stone in his ear, and another of a fish's tooth round his neck.
  • XIV. Bludgeons, used as weapons by the New Zealanders, and called Patoo-patoos, as seen on the side, the edge, and the end. They are from fourteen to eighteen inches long, and broad and thick in proportion.
  • XV. A chest of New Zealand, as a specimen of the carving of that country.
  • XVI. A war canoe of New Zealand, with a view of Gable End Foreland.
  • XVII. A view of a perforated rock in Tolaga Bay in New Zealand.
  • XVIII. A fortified town or village, called a Hippah, built on a perforated rock at Tolaga in New Zealand.
  • XIX. A view of Endeavour River, on the coast of New Holland, where the ship was laid on shore, in order to repair the damage which she received on the rock.
  • XX. An animal found on the coast of New Holland called Kanguroo.
  • XXI. A representation of the interview between Commodore Byron and the Patagonians.
  • XXII. A representation of the attack of Captain Wallis in the Dolphin by the natives of Otaheite.
  • XXIII. A representation of the surrender of the island of Otaheite to Captain Wallis by the supposed Queen Oberea.

ERRATUM.

Vol. I. page 534. line 18. for I, read he.

DIRECTIONS FOR PLACING THE CUTS AND CHARTS.

VOLUME I.
  • CHART of part of the South Seas, shewing the Track and Discoveries made by all the ships, To front the Title-page.
    • Chart of the Streight of Magellan,
    • Chart of Port Famine, Wood's Bay, Port Gallant and Fortescue Bay, and Cordes's Bay and Harbour,
    • Chart of Saint David's Cove, Island Bay, Swallow Harbour, Puzzling Bay, Cape Providence, Cape Upright Bay, and Dolphin Bay,
    • Chart of Elizabeth Bay, Saint David's Bay, and from York River to Three Island Bay and Harbour,
    To front Commodore Byron's Voyage.
  • No. 23. facing Page 27
  • A chart of Hawkins's Maiden Land, and Falkland's Sound, to face Ch. V. Page 41
  • No. 21. facing Page 443
  • No. 22. to face Page 462
  • Views of Sir Charles Saunders's Island, Osnaburg Island, Boscawen's Island, Admiral Keppel's Island, and Wallis's Island, Page 491
  • Chart of Coco's Island, and Traytor's Island, to face Page 492
  • Chart of Wallis's Island, to face Page 496
  • View of the N.W. side of Masafuero, to face Page 553
  • A chart and views of Pitcairn's Island, to face Page 561
  • [Page]Queen Charlotte's Islands, to face Page 568
  • The north side of the largest of Queen Charlotte's islands, Swallow Bay, and Byron's Harbour, to face Page 577
  • Nova Hibernia, with a view of the Island of Saint John, and six others, to face Page 588
  • A chart of Captain Carteret's Discoveries at New Britain, to face Page 595
  • Three views of the Admiralty Isles, and some others, to face Page 605
  • A dangerous shoal, Joseph Freewell's Island, and the south end of Min­danao, to face Page 609
  • A Draught of Bonthain Bay, Page 637
VOLUME II.
  • A view of part of the N.E. side of Terra del Fuego, with three other views, a Plan of Success Bay in Streight la Maire, and a chart of the S.E. part of Terra del Fuego, Page 39
  • No. 1. facing Page 55
  • Chart of the Island of Otaheite, Page 79
    • No. 2.
    • No. 11.
    facing Page 80
    • No. 4.
    • No. 8.
    facing Page 185
  • No. 12. facing Page 185
  • No. 10. facing Page 191
  • No. 9. facing Page 212
  • No. 5. facing Page 234
    • Chart of the Society Islands,
    • Matavai Bay in Otaheite, Ohameneno Harbour in Ulietea, Ow­harra Harbour in Huaheine, and Oopoa Harbour in Ulietea,
    • Chart of all the Islands,
    Page 249
  • No. 6. facing Page 252
  • No. 3. facing Page 258
  • No. 7. facing Page 265
  • Chart of New Zealand, facing Book II. Chap. i. Page 281
  • No. 17. facing Page 318
  • [Page]River Thames, and Mercury Bay in New Zealand, Bay of Islands, and Tolaga Bay, Page 323
  • No. 18. facing Page 341
  • Chart of Cook's Streight in New Zealand, facing Page 385
VOLUME III.
  • No. 13. facing Page 453
    • No. 15.
    • No. 16.
    facing Page 463
  • No. 14. facing Page 466
    • A chart of New South Wales on the east coast of New Holland,
    • Entrance of Endeavour River in New South Wales, and Botany Bay, facing
    Page 481
  • No. 19. facing Page 557
  • No. 20. facing Page 561
  • Chart of part of the coast of New South Wales from Cape Tribula­tion to Endeavour Streight, Page 589
  • ☞ The Second Volume ends at page Page 410
  • and Vol. 3d. begins at page Page 411

Errata in the Description of the Cuts.

  • For Plate XXI. read Plate XXIII.
  • For XXII. read XXI.
  • For XXIII. read XXII.
A CHART of the STRAIGHTS OF MAGELLAN, in which are Inserted THE OBSERVATIONS AND DISCOVERIES, of Captn. Byron, Captn. Wallis and Captain Carteret.

[Page]

PORT FAMINE
WOODS BAY
PORT GALLANT and FORTESCUE BAY
CORDES BAY and HARBOUR

[Page]

St. Davids Cove
ISLAND BAY
[figure]
Swallow Harbour
Puzling Bay
Cape Providence with the Bay and Anchoring Places to the N.N.E. of it.
CAPE UPWRIGHT BAY
DOLPHIN BAY

[Page]

Elizabeth Bay
A Bay under the Islands Opposite York R [...]ad
St. Davids Bay
FROM YORK BAY to THREE ISLAND BAY and HARBOUR