A TOUR Thro' the Whole ISLAND of GREAT BRITAIN. Divided into CIRCUITS or JOURNEYS. GIVING A Particular and Entertaining ACCOUNT of whatever is Curious, and worth Observation; VIZ.

  • I. A DESCRIPTION of the Prin­cipal Cities and Towns, their Situation, Government, and Commerce.
  • II. The Customs, Manners, Exer­cises, Diversions, and Imploy­ment of the People.
  • III. The Produce and Improve­ment of the Lands, the Trade, and Manufactures.
  • IV. The Sea Ports and Fortifi­cations, the Course of Rivers, and the Inland Navigation.
  • V. The Publick Edifices, Seats, and Palaces of the NOBILITY and GENTRY.
  • VI. The Isles of Wight, Port­land, Jersey, Guernsey, and the other English and Scotish Isles of most Note.

Interspersed with Useful OBSERVATIONS. Particularly fitted for the Perusal of such as desire to Travel over the ISLAND.


The THIRD EDITION. With very great Additions, Improvements, and Corrections; which bring it down to the Year 1742. And a Copious INDEX to each Volume.




LETTER I. Containing a DESCRIPTION of the North Shores of the Counties of Cornwall and Devon, and some Parts of Somersetshire, Wiltshire, Dorsetshire, Gloucestershire, Buckinghamshire, and Berkshire.


I NOW turned about to the East; and as, when I went West, I kept to the Southern Coast of this long County of Cornwall, and of Devonshire also, so in going East, I shall keep the North Shore. The first Place of any Note, we came to, was St. Ive's, a pretty good Town, and grown rich by the Fishing Trade; it is situated on the West-side of a deep Bay, called St. Ives-bay, [Page 2] from the Town. This Bay is opposite, on the Land­side, to Mount's-bay, which I spoke of in my last; but it is filled up with Sands, and here is but very little Trade in any thing else but Cornish Slate.

It is a very pleasant View we have at Madern-hills, and the Plain by them, in the Way from the Land's-end to St. Ives; where we have a Prospect of the Ocean at the Land's-end, West; of the British Chanel at Mount's-bay, South; and the Bristol Chanel, or Severn Sea, North. At St. Ives the Land between the Two Bays, being not above Four or Five Miles over, is so situated, that upon the Hill neither of the Two Seas are above Three Miles off, and very plain to be seen; and so likewise, in a clear Day, are the Islands of Scilly, tho' above 30 Miles off.

The Country from hence to Padstow is both fruit­ful and pleasant, and several Houses of Gentlemen are seen as we pass; the Sands also are very agreeable to the Eye, and to travel upon: among the Gentle­mens Houses is Lanhidrock, the Seat of the Earls of Radnor, who are Barons of Truro, and were so, long before they obtained the Title of Radnor; also a good House belonging to the antient Family of Trefusis.

The Hills are fruitful of Tin, Copper and Lead, all the Way on our Right-hand; the Product of which is carried all to the other Shore; so that we shall have little to say of it here. The chief Business on this Shore is the Herring Fishing; the Herrings about October come driving up the Severn Sea, and from the Coast of Ireland, in prodigious Shoals, and beat all upon this Coast as high as Bidiford and Barn­stable in Devonshire, and are caught in great Quan­tities by the Fishermen, chiefly on Account of the Merchants of Falmouth, Foy, Plymouth, and other Ports on the South.

[Page 3] St. Michael's, or Modishole, a mean Portreeve Borough, is not now remarkable, but was of great Note in the Saxon Time, and has still a Market weekly, and a yearly Fair.

We then came to St. Columb's, a little Market-town, a Lordship belonging to the Arundels of Wardour; so called, to distinguish them from the Arundels of Trerice in this County; which Family, espousing the King's Side in the Civil Wars, suffered much, and was innobled in Charles II.'s Time. The Wardour Family was likewise loyal, and suffered in the same Cause.

Near this Place is a Hill, which has a Rampire on the Summit of it, and a Causeway leading to it. 'Tis an old Danish Camp, and called Castellum Danis.

Padstow is a large Town, and stands on a very good Harbour for such Shipping as use the Irish Trade. The Harbour is the Mouth of the River Camel, or Camal, which rising at Camelford, runs down by Bodmyn to Wadbridge, a little Town, where a large Stone Bridge of about Eight Arches is built by the Contributions of the Country Gentle­men, at the Motion, and under the Direction, of one Nicolas Lovibond, Vicar of Wadbridge, the Passage over the River before being very dangerous, and having occasioned the Loss of some Lives, as well as Goods.

The Passage from this Town of Padstow to Ire­land is said, by Writers, to be no more than Twenty-four Hours; but this, if ever done, hat been so sel­dom, that it ought not to be mentioned as generally the Case; for I believe not one in Twenty-four Ships makes its Voyage in so few Hours; and that they are oftener Five or Six Days in the Passage. Here is a very antient Seat, like a Castle, of a Family of the Name of Prideaux, the Chief of which, in Queen Elizabeth's Time, built this noble Seat there.

[Page 4]Higher within the Land lies the Market and Borough Town of Bodmyn, formerly one of the Coining Towns of Tin, till it lost that Privilege to Lestwithyel: However it still injoys several Ad­vantages, some of which are Tokens of its Anti­quity. It is pretty large, and stands between two Hills in a good Air. It had antiently several Churches, of which now only one remains, which belonged to the Priory, and is at present the Parish Church. A kind of Carnival is kept here yearly, in July, whither great Numbers of People resort.

The Coinage Towns were, in Queen Elizabeth's Time, Four; namely,

  • Leskard,
  • Lestwithyel,
  • Truro,
  • Helston.

Since that, in King James's Time, was added Pensance.

Camelford is a mean, but antient Borough-town. Here the River Camel rises, which takes its Name from the British Word Cam, i. e. crooked. It has not either Church or Chapel in it, nor ever had. It is only remarkable for two great Battles which were fought here, one between King Arthur and his Nephew Mordred, and the other between the Britons and Saxons.

The Borough of Bossiney, otherwise called Trevena, is but a small Village. It is famous only for the splendid Ruins of an impregnable Castle, built on the Rock, which stood partly on the Continent, and partly on an Island, joined together by a Draw­bridge. The Castle was the Seat of the British Princes, and since, of the Dukes of Cornwall. And, 'tis said, Arthur was born here, and died in one of the above-mentioned Battles near Camelford.

Launceston, which is a Corruption of the British Word Lanstuphadon, i. e. St. Stephen's Church; is a Market and Borough-town, pretty neat, and is [Page 5] situate on a rising Ground, at the Extremity of the County, on the Borders of Devonshire: great Part of it is very old, ragged and decayed.

When Richard Earl of Cornwall had the Govern­ment of this County, this was a Frontier Town, well walled about, and fortified, and had also a noble Castle, which, from its Strength, was called Castle Terrible. The Inhabitants, for the Defence and Repair of it, held formerly the Lands here by Castle-guard.

Here the Lord Hopton's good Fortune failed him, and he was forced by Fairfax to disband his Army.

Not far from hence is Hengeston-hill, which pro­duces a great Plenty of Cornish Diamonds. The Cornish Britons joined the Danes here, to drive out the Saxons from Devonshire; but were totally de­feated by Egbert in 831, which, 'tis conjectured, gives the Name of Hengist to this Hill, in Comme­moration of their first Leader.

Newport is a little Village adjoining, and was formerly Part of Launceston; and yet sends Two Members to Parliament. And indeed there are no less than Forty-four, and the Number of Electors are so few in many of the Places, that an Admi­nistration, of which Side soever it be, as to Party, has usually a great Reliance on the Elections in this County every new Parliament, in order to obtain a Majority in the House of Commons: For Forty-four Members from hence, and Forty-five from an­other Part of the Island, who generally go one way, make no small Figure in a Question: And in this Case it may not be improperly observed, that the two Extremities of the Island, let the other Parts go as they will, are generally united in the same way of Thinking, or at least of Acting, in all Political Debates, and are likely to be so in all Times to come.

[Page 6]There is a fine Image or Figure of Mary Magda­len, upon the Tower of the Church at Launceston, to which the Papists fail not to pay Reverence, as they pass by. There is no Tin, Copper or Lead found hereabouts, as I could hear, nor any Manu­facture in the Place. There are a pretty many Attorneys here, who manage Business for the rest of their Fraternity at the Assizes: As to Trade, it has not much to boast of, and yet there are People enough in it to excuse those who call it a populous Place. There is a long Nook of the County runs North from this Place, called the Hundred of Strat­ton, in which there is one Market-town, named Stratton; but it has nothing in or about it worth remarking, except only Stow-house, built by the Earl of Bath, in the Reign of King Charles II. and as to its Finishings within, not inferior to any in Eng­land. The Carvings, especially those of the Chapel; the grand Alcove, and some of the best Rooms, were done by the Hand of Michael Chuke, and are not excelled by Gibbon himself. The Landschape, and Sea-pieces, of which there were a great Number, (particularly in the great Stairs, a Prospect of Ply­mouth, containing 22 Feet by 12) were the Work of Vandeist. The Situation of this stately Palace renders it a disagreeable Habitation; for which Rea­son the Owners have disposed of the Materials, and it is now (Nov. 1739) pulling to Pieces. Near this Town, Sir Ralph Hopton defeated the Parliament Forces under the Command of Major-General Chud­leigh, and took him Prisoner; for which he was made Baron Stratton. 'Tis said, the Place where this Bat­tle was fought, produced a prodigious Crop of Barley of 10 or 12 Ears on a Stalk, the next Year.

Not far from Bodmyn, is to be seen the Set of monumental Stones, called The Hurlers; which Dr. Stukeley says, are, out of Doubt, Remains of an antient Druid Temple. Probably they are called by [Page 7] this Name, from the Game of Hurling, practised in these Parts; the Country People giving them that for want of a better; and indeed, it is said, that they have a superstitious Notion, that they were once Men, who were transformed into Stones, for playing at this Sport on a Sunday. They are oblong, rude, unhewn Stones, pitched on one End upon the Ground. They stand on a Down in Three Circles, the Centres whereof are in a right Line, the middle-most Circle the greatest.

Now I have mentioned the Hurlers, I must take the Opportunity to describe the Hurling Match; for which the Cornish Men are so particularly famous, and which is one of their principal Recreations, tho' bar­barous enough. A Silver Ball is generally the Prize on these Occasions. The Match is made in different Manners: for sometimes the Challenge is by Twenty or Thirty Men on a Side, and no others are to inter­fere; at other times, when a great Number of People are assembled at a Wake or Church-Ale, the Word is given out, That Johns, Wills, and Toms, will oppose all other Names: or, at other times, That Eldest or Seconds are against all Younger Sons. And so the Ball is thrown up, and becomes the Property of that Party which carries it away to the Goal set for that Purpose.

But another kind of Hurling is, when an Out-ball, as they call it, is thrown up; and these Matches are generally made by Two or more neighbouring Gentle­men, who, at a Day agreed on, bring each of them the Men of Two, Three, or more Parishes; and the Goals are then set, perhaps, Four or Five Miles distant, at some Gentlemens Houses, Towns, or the like: and here nothing is said about Matching in Number, or otherwise; but the Ball is thrown up, and a bloody Skirmish generally ensues: no Bushes, Briers, Bogs, Mud-pools, Rivers, or any other Impediments, hinder their Course, nor any [Page 8] Friendship, Relation, or former Obligation, in the least, abates their Fury. The Party prevailing ge­nerally present the Ball to the Gentlemen who brought them on, as a Trophy; and he, in Return, sets open his Cellar-doors, where they wash away the Blood from their Noses, and apply a Balsam to their Bruises.

The Wrestling in Cornwall is, indeed, a much more manly and generous Exercise; and that Clo­sure, which they call the Cornish Hug, has made them eminent in the Wrestling Rings all over Eng­land; as the Norfolk and Suffolk Men are, for their Dexterity at the Hand and Foot, and throwing up the Heels of their Adversary, without taking hold of him.

Passing the River Tamar, about Two Miles from Launceston, we enter the great County of Devon; and as it is in the most wild and barren Part of it, and where formerly Tin Mines were found, tho' now they are either quite exhausted, or not to be worked without more Charge than Profit; so we must expect it a little to resemble its neighbour County.

The River Tamar here abounds with fresh Salmon, which are so exceeding fat and good, that they are esteemed in both Counties above the Fish of the same Kind found in other Places; and the Quantity is so great, as supplies the Country in abundance. This is occasioned by the Mouth of the River being so very large, and the Water so deep for Two Leagues be­fore it opens into Plymouth Sound, that the Fish have a secure Retreat in the salt Water for their Harbour and Shelter, and from thence they shoot up into the fresh Water, in vast Numbers, to cast their Spawn.

We ride but a few Miles in Devonshire, before we find a different Face in several respects: As, 1. More People than in Cornwall: 2. Larger Towns: 3. The People all busy, and in full Imploy upon their Manufactures.

[Page 9]At the uppermost and extreme Part of the County North-west, runs a large Promontory into the Sea beyond all the Land on either Side, whether of Devonshire, or of Cornwall. This they would fain have called Hercules's Promontory; but the honest Sailors, and, after them, the plain Country People, call it Hartland Point, or Hearty Point, from the Town of Hartland, which stands just within the Shore, and is situated on the utmost Edge of the County of Devon: It is a Market-town of good Resort, the People coming constantly to it out of Cornwall, the Fisher-boats of Barnstable, Bidiford, and the other Towns on the Coasts, lying often un­der the Lee, as they call it, of these Rocks, for Shelter from the South-west, or South-east Winds; at which time the Seamen go on Shore here, and supply themselves with Provisions: nor is the Town unconcerned in that gainful Fishing-trade, which is carried on for the Herrings on this Coast.

From this Point or Promontory, the Land falling away for some Miles, makes a Gulph or Bay, which reaching to the Head-land, or Point of Barnstable Haven, is called from thence Barnstable Bay. Into this Bay, or at the West-end of it, the Rivers Taw and Towridge empty themselves at one Mouth; and it is very particular, that as Two Rivers join in One Chanel, so here are Two great trading Towns in One Port, a thing, which, as it is not usual, so I cannot say is an Advantage to any of them; for it naturally follows, that they rival one another, and lessen both; whereas, had they been joined together in one Town, or were it possible to join them, they would make the most considerable Town, or City rather, in all this Part of England.

These are the Towns of Barnstable and Bidiford, the first, the most antient; the last, the most flourishing; the Harbour or River is, in its En­trance, the same to both; and when they part, [Page 10] the Towridge turns to the Right, or South-west, and the Taw to the South-east; yet they seem to be both so safe, so easy in the Chanel, so equally good with respect to Shipping, and so equidistant from the Sea, that neither Town complains of the Bounty of the Sea to them, or their Situation by Land; and yet of late Years the Town of Bidiford has flourished, and the Town of Barnstable rather declined.

Bidiford is a clean, well-built Town; the more antient Street, which lies next the River, is very pleasant, where is the Bridge, a very noble Quay, and the Custom-house; it is also very well built and populous, and fronts the River for above three Quarters of a Mile: But besides this, there is a new spacious Street, which runs North and South, or rather North-west, and South-east, a great Length, broad as the High-Street of Exeter, well-built, and inhabited with considerable and wealthy Merchants, who traffick to most Parts of the World.

Here, as is to be seen in almost all the Market-towns of Devonshire, is a very large and well-finished Meeting-house, and, by the Multitude of People which I saw come out of it, I thought all the Town had gone thither, and began to inquire for the Church: but I found that also large, spacious, and filled with People of the best Fashion.

The Trade of this Town, as well as of all the Towns on this Coast, being very much in Fish, I observed that several Ships were imployed to go to Liverpool, and up the River Mersey to Warrington, to fetch the Rock Salt, which is found in that County, (and of which I shall say more in my Remarks on those Parts) to Bidiford and Barnstable, and there dissolve it into Brine in the Sea-water, joining the Strength of two Bodies in one, and then boil it up again into a new Salt, as the Dutch do by that of the French and Portuguese. This is justly called Salt upon Salt, and with this they cure their Herrings. [Page 11] As this is a Trade which can be but of few Years standing, because the Rock Salt itself has not been discovered in England many Years; so the Difference in curing the Fish has been such, that the Demand for them has considerably increased in foreign Markets.

Here is a very fine Stone Bridge over the River, built in the 14th Century, on 24 Gothick Arches, all uniform and regular, and very good Workmanship of the kind. These Arches are indeed beautiful and stately; but what a late Author says, that one of them is so big, that a Ship of 60 Tons may sail under it, is a Mistake, no such thing being practicable, either at London Bridge, Rochester Bridge, or even at York, where the largest Arch in England is supposed to be.

As Bidiford has a fine Bridge over the Towridge, so Barnstable has a very noble one over the Taw, and tho' not longer, is counted larger and stronger than the other. These two rival Towns are really very considerable; both of them have a large Share in the Trade to Ireland, and in the Herring-fishery, and in a Trade to the British Colonies in America; if Bidiford cures more Fish, Barnstable imports more Wine, and other Merchandizes; they are both established Ports for landing Wool from Ireland; of which by itself.

If Bidiford has a greater Number of Merchants, Barnstable has a greater Commerce within Land, by its great Market for Irish Wool and Yarn, &c. with the Serge-markets of Tiverton and Exeter, who come up hither to buy. So that, in a word, Barn­stable, tho' it has lost Ground to Bidiford, yet, take it in all its Trade completely, is full as considerable as Bidiford; only, that perhaps it was formerly far supe­rior to it, and the other has risen up to be its Match.

Barnstable is a large, well-built Town, seated among the Hills. It is more populous than Bidi­ford, but not better built, and stands lower; inso­much, that at High-water in Spring-tides it is, in a manner, surrounded with Water. The Bridge was [Page 12] built by the generous Benefaction of one Stamford, a Citizen and Merchant of London, who, it seems, was not a Native of the Place; but by trading here to his Gain, had Kindness enough for the Town, to confer that valuable Benefit upon them. It was formerly walled in, and had a Castle and a Priory. 'Tis governed by a Mayor and Twenty-four Bur­gesses, whereof Two are Aldermen. It has also an High-Steward, and Recorder.

The Bridge at Bidiford, as above, was likewise a Gift; but was, as they say, done by Collections among the Clergy, by Grant of Indulgences, and the like Church Management: However, both the Towns are infinitely obliged to the Benefactors; and we wish no worse Use had ever been made of Superstition.

Behind Bidiford, as we come from Launceston, are several good Towns, tho' I observed, that the Country was wild and barren; as Tavistock, Torrington, &c.

Tavistock is situate on the Tavy, among Springs, and is a large Town pretty well built. The Abbot of this Place sat in Parliament, built a Church of 126 Yards long, spacious Cloisters, and a Chapter-house, with 36 Stalls, which are all now destroy'd.

The Town of Torrington is situated on the same River that Bidiford stands upon. It has a large spacious Church, with a Library in it; and was for some time the Residence of Margaret, the Mother of Henry VII.

Another Town in this Part of the Country is Okehampton, vulgarly Okington, a good Market and Borough-town, governed by Eight principal Burgesses, and as many Assistants: it is a manufacturing Town, as all the Towns this way now are, and pretty rich; but in the Records of Antiquity it appears to have been much more considerable than it is now, having 92 Knights Fees belonging to it.

A little above Barnstable, N. E. upon the Coast, stands a noted Market and Port-town, called Ilford­comb, [Page 13] a Place of good Trade, populous and rich; which is owing to its having a very good Harbour and Road for Ships, which affords a safe Shelter for Vessels from Ireland, when in bad Weather they can­not, without the extremest Hazard, run into the Mouth of the Taw, which they call Barnstable Wa­ter; and this is one Reason, that the Merchants at Barnstable do much of their Business at this Port of Ilfordcomb.

The Harbour of this Town was maintain'd former­ly at the private Expence of the Ancestors of Sir Bourchier Wrey, Bart. Lord of the Manor; and the Quay or Pier of it contains in Length upwards of 850 Feet, and in Height upwards of Forty; and the Warp-house, Light-house, Pilot-boats, and Taw-boats belonging to the Port, were at first founded and built, and constantly repaired and maintained, by that worthy Family, without any Assistance, but some small Acknowledgments paid to them as Lords of the Manor. But by Length of Time, and Vio­lence of the Sea, the Quay was very much sunk and impair'd, the Warp and Warp-house, by long Usage, was gone to Decay, and the Boats for Piloting and Towing were much out of Repair, and the small Duties and Acknowlegements to Sir Bour­chier sinking, and being frequently unpaid; to remedy all these Evils, an Act passed Anno 1731, George II. for repairing, and keeping in Repair, and inlarging the Piers and Harbour, and for the Support of the Light and Light-house, the Warp and Warp-house, and the Pilot, and Towing-boats, as above-men­tioned: so that by this means the Harbour of Il­fordcomb is likely to continue the useful and conve­nient Port it has been for so many Years past, to the End of Time.

Antiquity tells us long Stories of the Danes land­ing on this Coast; of Hubba the Danish King being slain at Kennith Castle, between this Place and the [Page 14] Mouth of the Taw and Towridge; and that the Place was called Hubbestow from his being buried there: but I could not hear either of this Castle, or Burial-place, or so much as the Ruins of them.

The Sea-coast in this Country runs a little farther East by North; but nothing of Moment is to be seen there, except Fishing-towns, and little Creeks, on which are Two Market-towns, viz. Combemer­ton and Porlock, till we came to Minehead.

Leaving the Coast in our Journey Southward, we came to the great River Ex or Isca, which rises in the Hills on the North Side of the County, and, like the Tamar, begins within Four or Five Miles of the Severn Sea. The Country it rises in is called Exmore: Camden says it is a filthy, barren Ground; and indeed so it is: but as soon as the Ex comes off from the Moors and hilly Country, and descends into the lower Grounds, we found an Alteration; for then we saw Devonshire in its other Countenance, culti­vated, populous and fruitful, and continuing so till we came to Tiverton.

Next to Exeter, this is the greatest manufacture­ing Town in the County, and, of all the inland Towns, is likewise next to it in Wealth, and Num­ber of People; it stands on the River Ex, and has over it an old Stone Bridge, with another over the little River Loman, which immediately after falls into the Ex just below the Town. Antiquity says, be­fore those Bridges were built, there were two Fords here, one thro' each River; and that the Town was from thence called Twyfordton, that is, the Town upon the two Fords; and so, by abbreviating the Sounds, Twy-for-ton, then Tiverton.

This Town has been a remarkable Sufferer by Fire; for in the Year 1598. April 3. it was consum'd on a sudden; Aug. 5. 1612, it was again burnt down; and July 5. 1731, another dreadful Fire destroyed there 200 of the best Houses.

[Page 15]An Act passed on this sad Occasion, Anno 1732, for the more easy rebuilding of the Town, and determining Differences on that Account; and it injoins, that the new-built Houses shall be cover'd with Lead, Slate, or Tile, and not Thatch; that perilous Trades shall not be exercised in publick Streets; that no Stacks of Hay, Straw, Corn, &c. shall be erected at or near the publick Parts of the Town; that Fire-Engines may be bought by the Guardians of the Poor; that Houses may be demolished to stop any future Fire: that the Streets and Passages of the Town may be in­larged, and particular Houses pulled down for that Purpose, with other useful Provisions.

An Act also passed Anno 1733, for making a Chapel, built by the Subscription of the Inhabitants of Tiver­ton, a perpetual Cure; and for providing a Main­tenance for the Ministers who shall officiate in it; for, as the Preamble to the Act observes, the Parish Church was not near capacious enough to receive the Inhabitants of the Parish. The late Sir William Wyndham was a great Encourager and Promoter of this new Chapel at its first Erection.

But the Beauty of Tiverton is the Free-School, at the East Entrance into the Town, a noble Building, but a much nobler Foundation; it was erected by one Peter Blundel, a Clothier, and a Lover of Learn­ing, who used the Saying of William of Wickham to the King, when he founded the Royal School at Winchester, viz. ‘"That if he was not himself a Scholar, he would be the Occasion of making more Scholars than any Scholar in England;"’ to which End he founded this School. He has endow'd it so liberally, that, I was told, the Schoolmaster has at least Sixty Pounds per Annum, besides a very good House to live in, and the Advantage of Scholars not on the Foundation; and that the Usher has in Pro­portion. To this the generous Founder added Two Fellowships, and Two Scholarships, which he gave [Page 16] the Maintenance for to Sydney College in Cambridge; and One Fellowship, and Two Scholarships, to Baliol College in Oxford; all which are appointed for the Scholars bred up in this School.

As this is the chief Nursery of almost all the young Gentry of these Western Parts, the Profit arising to the Master from Boarders, and the liberal Benefactions of the Parents, added to the Salary before-mention'd, render it a Preferment suitable to a Man of the best Parts and Learning; and as the Trustees are Gentlemen of great Honour, it is generally disposed of to the most worthy Candidate. Mr. Rayner presided in it for many Years, with very great Applause, and dy'd about * Twelve Years ago. To him succeeded Mr. Smith; after him Mr. Jones; next Mr. Wesley, once Usher of West­minster School, as noted for his poetical Performances, as his Brothers John and Charles are for their being at the Head of the new Sectarists, who are called Methodists; and he dying Nov. 1739, is succeeded by Mr. Daddo. Thus hath it, in Twelve Years time, undergone Five different Regimens; and if it be consider'd, that every Change introduces some Difference in the Method of Teaching and Disci­pline, it will be no Surprize, that the School is some­thing sunk in its former Reputation. The present Master is Fellow of Baliol College, Oxford, had his Education here, and from his great Abilities, and good Oeconomy, (in which last respect a great Com­plaint lay against his Predecessor) the School is like to retrieve its former flourishing Condition.

The great Number of Gentlemens Sons sent hi­ther for their Education, as I have hinted, is no small Advantage to the Town likewise; and this, join'd with the brisk Trade carried on here, renders it so flourishing, that notwithstanding the dreadful Calamity it underwent by the Fire in 1731, which [Page 17] almost totally consumed it, it is already very elegantly rebuilt; and carries very few other Marks of this Devastation, than the Magnificence and Beauty of the new Structures.

As this is a manufacturing Country, we found the People here all fully imploy'd, and very few, if any, out of Work.

From this Town there is little belonging to Devon­shire but what has been spoken of, except what lies in the Road to Taunton, which we took next, where we meet with the River Columb, which rises also in the utmost Limits of the County towards Somerset­shire, and gives Name to so many Towns on its Banks, that it leaves no room to doubt of its own Name being right; such are Columb-David's, Ufco­lumb, Columbstock, and Columbton; the last is a Mar­ket-town, and they are all full of Manufacturers depending much on the Master-manufacturers of Tiverton.

Before we leave Devonshire, it will not be amiss to take Notice of Lundy Island, which, tho' 50 Miles from Devonshire, North-westward, is much mote remote from any other Continent. 'Tis but Five Miles long, and Two broad; but so surround­ed with inaccessible Rocks, that there is but one small Entrance into it, where Two Men can scarce go abreast. Tho' this Island lies so far in the Sea, it has the Advantage of several Springs of fresh Water.

With the Town of Tiverton we leave the County of Devon, and entering Somersetshire, have really a View of a different Country from Devonshire; for at Wellington, the first Town we came to in Somersetshire, tho' partly imployed in Manufacture­ing too, we were immediately surrounded with Beg­gars, to such a Degree, that we had some Difficulty to keep them from under our Horses Heels. I was [Page 18] astonish'd at such a Sight, in a Country where the People were so generally full of Work; for in Corn­wall, where there are hardly any Manufacturers, and abundance of Poor, we never found any like this.

Wellington is a low dirty Place, and is only re­markable for having been the Place of Residence of the Lord Chief Justice Popham, in the Reigns of Q. Elizabeth, and King James I. who was buried here. They talk much of one Salkeld, who was converted from Popery by King James I. and made Minister of this Place. He called himself, in Compliment to the King, The Royal Convert; who, in return, complimented him with the Title of the Learned Salkeld, which, by-the-bye, reflected no bad Com­pliment on himself, for having converted a learned Man.

The County of Somerset joins to the North-east Part of Devonshire, and takes its Name from the British Word Gladyr Haf, which signifies Summer-Country, and so the Welsh call it in their Language to this Day. I touch'd only upon one Point of the County in my last, as I went Westward. The whole County is worth a more particular Account, than can be given within the Space of a Letter.

From Wellington we came to Taunton, leaving Blackdown Hills on our Right, and Ilminster behind them Southward, a Market-town, fam'd for its very good Church, and a stately Monument erected in it to Nicolas Wadham, and Dorothy, his Wife, Founders of Wadham College, Oxon.

Near Taunton lies that rich Track of Ground, vulgarly called Taunton-dean. This large, wealthy, and very populous Town takes its Name from the River Tone, whereon it is situated. One of the chief Manufacturers here told us, That there was at that time so good a Trade in the Town, that they had eleven hundred Looms going for the Weaving of Sagathies, Duroys, and such kind of Stuffs; and [Page 19] that not one of those Looms wanted Work: he added, That there was not a Child in the Town, or in the Villages round it, of above Five Years old, but, if it was not neglected by its Parents, and un­taught, could earn its own Bread. This was what I never met with in any Place in England, except at Colchester in Essex.

The Election of Members here, is by those whom they call Pot-Walloners, that is to say, Every In­habitant, whether House-keeper or Lodger, who dresses his own Victuals: to make out which, seve­ral Inmates or Lodgers will, some little time before the Election, bring out their Pots, and make Fires in the Street, and boil their Victuals in the Sight of their Neighbours, that their Votes may not be called in Question.

There are Two large Parish Churches in this Town, and Two or Three Meeting-houses, one of which is said to be the largest in the County. The Inhabitants have been noted for Dissenters principal­ly; for Taunton was always counted a Seminary for such. They suffer'd much in the Duke of Monmouth's Rebellion, but paid King James home for the Cruel­ty exercised by Jefferies among them; for when the Prince of Orange arriv'd, the whole Town ran in to him, with so universal a Joy, that it was thought, if he had wanted it, he might have raised a little Army there, and in the adjacent Part of the Country.

There is a kind of College, or Academy, for the Dissenters in this Town; and it is by far the greatest Town in all this Part of the Country.

From Taunton we went North to take a View of the Coast. Exmore, of which mention was made above, where the River Ex rises, lies in the Way, Part of it in this County, and extending to the Sea Side: it gives, indeed, but a melancholy View, be­ing a vast Track of barren and desolate Lands; yet on the Coast there are some very good Sea-ports.

[Page 20] Porlock, mentioned before, on the utmost Extent of the County, has but a small Harbour, nor has it any thing of Trade.

But Minehead, the safest Harbour on this Side, is a fine Port: no Ship is so big, but it may come in; and no Weather so bad, but the Ships are safe when they are in; and they told me, that in the great Storm, Anno 1703, when the Ships were blown on Shore, wreck'd, and lost, in every Harbour of the County, they suffer'd little or no Damage in this.

The Trade of this Town lies chiefly with Ireland, and this was for many Years the chief Port in these Parts, where Wool from Ireland was allowed to be imported; but that Liberty is since inlarged to seve­ral other Ports by Act of Parliament.

The Town is well built, is full of rich Merchants, and has some Trade also to Virginia, and the West Indies. They correspond much with the Merchants of Barnstable and Bristol, in their foreign Trade. What has greatly contributed to the Improvement of Minehead, was an Act passed in the 12th and 13th Year of the late King William's Reign, which was continued by an Act of the Tenth of the late Queen Anne, For Recovering, Securing, and keeping in Repair, the Harbour of Minehead. And now so lately as in the Session 1737-8, another Act passed for further continuing the Terms and Powers of the Two former Acts, for the bringing to Effect the same laudable Purposes, in pursuance of which a new Head has been built, the Beach clear'd, and a great Pro­gress made in the Piers and design'd Works.

From hence the Coast bears back West to Watchet, a small Port of late Years, tho' formerly much more considerable; for it had given Place to Mine­head, tho' now it is in a much better Condition than it used to be in; and this it owes to Two Acts of Parliament, one passed in the Sixth Year of the late Queen Anne, for repairing of its Quay and Har­bour, [Page 21] and the other in the Tenth. But when the Works designed were near completed, it was found, that the Quay was built much too low, and not ex­tended to a sufficient Length to preserve the Town, and the Ships and Vessels riding in the Harbour, from the Violence of the Sea: whereupon another Act passed in the Seventh of King George I. for continuing the Duties laid by the former Acts, and remedying the Inconveniencies before-mentioned.

It seems to me, that the Town of Minehead rose out of the Decay of the Towns of Porlock and Watchet.

On this Coast are vast Quantities of Rock, or rather Pebbles, which the Sea, at low Water, leaves uncovered, from whence the neighbouring Inhabit­ants fetch them on Shore to a higher Ground, and burn them into Lime for dressing their Land; but it is more especially useful in Building; for that no Cement whatsoever is more lasting for Jets d' Eau Heads, Piers, and other Masonry that is to lie un­der Water; in which Position it runs up to a Stone as hard as Marble, and is scarce to be beaten abroad. The Cliffs are stored with Alabaster, which, by the Wash of the Sea, falls down, and is convey'd from hence to Bristol, and other Places on this Shore, in great Quantity. Neither should it be omitted, that the Inhabitants burn great Quantities of Sea­weed to supply the Glass-makers at Bristol.

Walking on the Beach near Watchet, I discover'd among the large Gravel great Numbers of Stones, fluted in Imitation of the Shells of Fishes of all kinds: many of the flat kind are double, and curi­ously tallied one in another, which may, by a vio­lent Stroke, be separated. How to account for the vast Variety to be found here of this Sport of Na­ture, I know not: some I have seen as broad as a Pewter-dish, and again others no bigger than a Pep­per-corn; but in all of them the Flutings are regu­lar; [Page 22] some like the Escallop, in Rays from a Centre, others like the Perriwinkle, in spiral Lines: in these and all other Forms, they lie here in great Plenty.

Quantock is a high Down in the Neighbourhood; from whence, besides the two little Islands, called the Steep-Holmes, and the Flat-Holmes, and an ex­tensive View of the Chanel, I had a fair and distinct Prospect of the Welsh Coast for many Leagues in Length.

From hence the winding Shore brings us to Bridg­water. This is an antient and very considerable Town and Port; it stands at the Mouth of the Ri­ver Parrat, or Perrot, which comes from the South, after having received the River Tone from the West, which is made navigable up to within a few Miles of Taunton, by a very fine new Chanel, cut at the Expence of the People of Taunton, and which, by the Navigation of it, is infinitely advantageous to that Town, and well worth all their Expence, first by bringing up Coals, which are brought from Swanzy in Wales by Sea to Bridgwater, and thence by Barges up this River to Taunton; next for bring­ing all heavy Goods and Merchandizes from Bristol, such as Iron, Lead, Oil, Wine, Hemp, Flax, Pitch, Tar, Grocery, Dye-stuffs, and the like.

This Town of Bridgwater is a populous, trade­ing Town, well-built, and as well inhabited, hav­ing many Families of good Fashion dwelling in it, besides Merchants. The famous Admiral Blake, who under the Commonwealth so much exalted the Glory of the English maritime Force, was a Native of this Town.

This Town was regularly fortified in the late Civil Wars, and sustained more than one Siege. The Situation of it renders it easy to be fortified, the River and Haven taking one chief Part of the Circumference. Over the River, they have a very good Bridge of Stone; and the Tide rises here, at [Page 23] High-water, near Six Fathoms, and sometimes flows in with such Impetuosity, that it comes Two Fa­thoms deep at a time; and when it does so, un­awares, it often occasions great Damage to Ships, driving them foul of one another, and frequently oversets them. This sudden Rage of the Tide is called the Boar, and is frequent in all the Rivers of this Chanel, especially in the Severn; 'tis also known in the North, particularly in the Trent, and the Ouse, at their Entrance into the Humber, at Bristol, and in several other Places.

There is in Bridgwater, besides a very large Church, a fine Meeting-house, built since the To­leration, in which 'tis remarkable, that they have an advanced Seat for the Mayor and Aldermen, when any of the Magistrates shall be of their Com­munion, as sometimes has happened. Here also is a College, or private Academy, for the Dissenters to breed up their preaching Youth.

From Bridgwater is a Road to Bristol, which they call the Lower-way; the Upper-way, which is the more frequented Road, being over Mendip Hills. This Lower-way is not always passable, being sub­ject to Floods, and dangerous Inundations. All this Part of the Country, viz. between Bridgwater and the Sea, and on Northward upon the Coast, lies low, and is wholly imployed in feeding of Black Cat­tle, which they bring out of the West Part of De­von, and the neighbouring Borders of Cornwall, where the finest are bred; for as to those few bred in these low Lands, they are very heavy, sluggish, and un­shapely, and the Beef soft and spongy, such as they seldom or never drive to London Markets. Indeed, they breed a great many Colts; but then they too must be transplanted very young, into a dry, healthy Soil; for 'tis very difficult to find a Horse of their own Breed fit for any thing but a Drudge. The Moors, or Marsh-grounds, which are also imploy'd [Page 24] in the same way, extend themselves up the Rivers Perrot and Ivil, into the Heart of the Country; of which in its Place.

This low Part, between Bridgwater and Bristol, suffered exceedingly in that terrible Inundation of the Sea, which was occasioned by the great Storm, Anno 1703; and the Country-people have set up Marks upon their Houses and Trees, with this Note upon them, Thus high the Waters came in the great Storm: Thus far the great Tide flowed up in the last violent Tempest; and the like.

In one Place they shewed us where a Ship was driven up upon the Shore, several hundred Yards from the ordinary High-water Mark, and left upon dry Land.

As the low Part is thus imployed in grazing and feeding Cattle, so all the rest of this large extended Country is imployed in the Woollen Manufacture, and in the best and most profitable Part of it, viz.

In Taunton
The Serges, Druggets, &c. and several other kinds of Stuffs.
In Wells, Shep­ton, Glastenbury, &c.
Knitting of Stockens, principally for the Spanish Trade.
In Bristol, and many Towns on the Somersetshire Side
Druggets, Cantaloons, and other Stuffs.
In Froom, Phi­lips-Norton, and all the Country bordering upon Wiltshire
Fine Spanish Medley Cloths, espe­cially on that Part of the County from Wincanton, and Meer, to Warminster, Bruton, Castlecary, Temple-comb, down to Gillingham and Shaftsbury, in Dorsetshire.

[Page 25]These fine Spanish Medley Cloths are the mix'd colour'd Cloths, which all the Persons of Fashion in England wear. There are vast Quantities of these exported to all Parts of Europe, and it is so very considerable a Trade, and of so vast an Advantage to England, in maintaining and supporting so many poor Families, and making so many rich ones, that it is almost impossible to give a just Description of it. The above Sketch, however, may serve as an In­troduction to it. But I shall add a little more con­cerning this County; and upon my entering into the North-west and West Parts of Wiltshire, where the Centre of this Prodigy of a Trade is, I shall sum it all up together, and shew you the Extent of Land which it spreads itself upon, and so give you some Idea, as well of the vast Numbers of People who are sustained, as of those who are inriched by it.

But I must first go back a little while into Somer­setshire: The Northern Part of the County I did not visit in this Journey, which, as I hinted before, is only a Return from my long Travel to the Land's-end. In omitting this Part, I, of course, leave the two Cities of Bristol and Bath, and that high Part of the County called Mendip-hill, to my next Western Journey, which will include all the Counties due West from London; for these now spoken of, tho' ordinarily called the West-country, are rather North-west than West.

In that Part of the Country which lies Southward of Taunton and Bridgwater, is Langport, a well-frequented Market-town, on the River Parr, which is navigable for Barges to Bristol, and occasions a good Trade here. Eels are exceeding plentiful and cheap here. Near this Place General Fairfax beat up the discontented Goring's Quarters, and intirely defeated him.

[Page 26] South Petherton is a Market-town on the same River, famous, of old, for the Place of King Ina, but now of no other Note than an annual Fair, which lasts Five Days, in June.

From hence you come to Yeovil, which I have already mentioned in a former Letter.

Ivelchester is a Borough Town, and, as its Ruins shew, was formerly very large, and incompass'd with a double Wall, and had Four Churches. It has now a good Bridge over the Ivel. It was here that, on the 3d of May 1740, Mrs. Elizabeth Branch, and her Daughter, Miss Betty Branch, were executed for a most barbarous Murder committed on the Body of a Servant Girl, by one continued Series of Seven Hours beating and whipping, which with the Behaviour of the Criminals, was of so cruel and atrocious a Nature, that it shocked the whole King­dom. The Particulars are too well known to need any farther Mention here, had we Room, which we have not.

Somerton is a good Market-town, whence, some say, the Country takes its Name. It was antiently very noted, and had a strong Castle, in which John King of France was Prisoner. Here is a Fair which holds from Palm-Sunday to the Middle of June.

Milbourn lies on the Edge of Dorsetshire, and is very antient; but has neither Market, nor Fair.

Camalet is a noted Place, situated on the highest Ground in this County, on the Edge of Dorsetshire: its vulgar Name is Cadbury-castle, from the Village of North-Cadbury, wherein it stands. Hereabouts rise the Rivers of Somersetshire, which run into the Severn Sea Westward, and that in Dorset, which goes Eastward, thro' Sturminster, into the Southern Ocean. It is a noble Fortification of the Romans. The Prospect is woody, and very pleasant; here-and-there lofty and steep Hillocks. Roman Coins, [Page 27] in great Plenty, have been found here, and in all the Country round. The Entrance is guarded with Six or Seven Ditches. On the North-side, in the fourth Ditch, is a never failing Spring, called King Arthur's Well. Over it they have dug up square Stones, Door-jambs with Hinges, and say there are subterraneous Vaults thereabout. The Church and Tower of Cadbury is small, but neatly built of Stone.

At Wincaunton, an Urn was lately found full of Roman Money. Half a Peck of the same Coin was discovered in inclosing Ground, toward Beacon-ash, a little above Sutton; as also Patera's, a Knife, and other Antiquities, now in Lord Winchelsca's Custody: in particular, at Long-leat, in Lord Weymouth's Library, a Piece of Lead weighing 50 Pounds, One Foot Nine Inches long, Two Inches thick, Three and an half broad, found in Lord Fitzharding's Grounds near Bruton in Somersetshire, was discovered by digging a Hole to set a Gate-post in, with a legible Inscription.

The Road from hence to Glastenbury, is over Rocks and Heads of Rivers. But that is alleviated by the many natural Curiosities such Places afford.

Kyneton Village, for half a Mile together, is na­turally paved with one smooth broad Rock, the whole Length of the Road; so that it looks like Ice.

Crossing the Fosse Road at Lyteford, you enter a flat moorish Country, full of artificial Cuts and Drains. The Ascent to the Torr, which overhangs the Town of Glastenbury, is very difficult. Upon a narrow Crest of the Torr, which is much the highest; the Abbot built a Church to St. Michael, of good square Stone. The Tower is left, tho' ruinous, and is an excellent Sea-mark. It probably cost more to raise the Stone to this Height, than to erect the Building. Half way up is a Spring: it is [Page 28] certainly higher than any Ground within Ten Miles of the Place. In the Times of Superstition this great Monastery held the first Place for Reputa­tion of Sanctity.

The Inhabitants will have it, that King Arthur was buried here, and, as a Proof thereof, that his Coffin had been found in this Place; and also, that Joseph of Arimathea had been here, and that when he had fixed his Staff in the Ground, which was on Christmas-day, it immediately took Root, budded, put forth White-thorn Leaves, and the next Day was in full Blossom, white as a Sheet; and that the Plant is preserved, and blows every Christmas-day, as at first, to this very Time.

I believe the Miracle amounts to no more than this; viz. That a kind of White-thorn grows here­about, which, in a mild Winter, puts forth some Blossom about Christmas; and I doubt not, but some of the same Kind may be found at other Places, if any Observations were made of it. But this Place is remarkable for many other marvellous Stories, recorded by the Monks, who formerly possessed it.

As to the Burial of King Arthur, Mr. Camden makes no doubt of it, and gives us from Giraldus Cambrensis an Account how King Henry II. caused Search to be made for his Tomb, and before the Workmen had dug Seven Feet deep, they came to a great Stone, having a Cross of Lead on the Inside of it, and the subsequent Letters or Inscription upon it, and in the following rude Character; which the said Giraldus Cambrensis, Mr. Camden says, was an Eye-witness of, as well as of a Coffin of hollow'd Oak, which they found by digging Nine Feet deeper than the Inscription, wherein were deposited the Bones of that great Prince. The Inscription is as follows: [Page 29]


But to leave these more disputable Points for Mat­ters of greater Certainty: it is not doubted but King Ina built the Church of Glastenbury, as one of the most antient, so the most wealthy and magni­ficent, loaded with Revenues by the Saxon, and per­haps the British Monarchs. The Abbot lived in little less State than the Royal Donors, his Revenue [Page 30] amounting to 40,000l. annually. He could from the Torr see a vast Track of this rich Land in his own Possession, and Seven Parks well stored with Deer belonging to the Monastery. 'Tis walled round, and imbattled like a Town, a Mile in Compass.

When I was last at Glastenbury, there were mag­nificent Ruins; but, within a few Years, a Presby­terian Tenant had made more barbarous Havock there, than had been since the Dissolution; for every Week a Pillar, a Buttress, a Window-jamb, or an Angle of fine hewn Stone, was sold to the best Bidder. And they were actually stripping St. Joseph's Chapel for that Purpose, and the squared Stones were laid up by Lots in the Abbot's Kitchen. The rest goes to paving Yards and Stalls for Cattle, or to the Highway. So much Dread indeed have the People here of Founders Curses, that they are afraid to make use of the Materials for Dwelling-houses; and are full of Stories of sad Accidents and Judgments, that have fallen upon such as have; but venture it for the Highways, for a Town-house, and even for Barns and Stables; so that, as one observes, where few are so hardy as to apply them to their par­ticular or personal Use, a publick Building shall be erected, where all come in for their Snack.

The Abbot's Lodging was a fine Stone Building, but could not content the just-mentioned Tenant, who pulled it down, and out of it built a new House, absurdly setting up the Arms and Cognizances of the great Saxon Kings and Princes, who were Founders, and of the Abbots, over his own Doors and Windows. Nothing is left intire, but the Kitchen, a judicious Piece of Architecture. But Tradition says, that this is but a modern Building; for the Story goes, That Whiting, the last Abbot, being dealt with by Henry VIII. and his Cormorants, for a Surrender, and bravely refusing to join in the Sacri­lege, [Page 31] that Prince proceeded to Menaces, and told him, he ‘"would burn his Kitchen about his Ears."’ To which he returned Answer, ‘"That he would build such an one as all the Timber in the Forest should not burn."’ And accordingly, as 'tis said, built this in Defiance, which is all of firm Stone, Walls and Roof, having nothing combustible in it. But what neither Flattery nor Menaces could effect, Tyranny and Murder brought about. For the Abbot was hanged on St. Michael's Tower, just now mentioned, on the Top of the high Hill, called The Torr, thereby accomplishing a Prophecy, (as the Townsmen call it; but rather occasioning a Saying since spread abroad) That a Whiting should swim over Glastenbury Torr.

The Church was large and magnificent; the Walls of the Choir are standing, 25 Fathom long, and 12 broad. There is one Jamb at the East-end of the High Altar left.

Hereabout were buried King Edgar, and many of the Saxon Monarchs, whose noble Ashes ought to have protected the Whole.

Two Pillars of the great Middle Tower are left, next the Choir. On the North-side is St. Mary's Chapel, as they told me; the Roof beat down by Violence, and a mean wooden one in its Place, thatched with Stubble, to make it serve as a Stable. The Manger lies upon the Altar and Nich, where they put the Holy-Water. St. Edgar's Chapel is opposite to it; but there is not much left of it be­side the Foundations. The present Work is 44 Paces long, 36 wide without. The Roof is chiefly wanting. Two little Turrets are at the Corners of the West-end, and Two more at the Interval of Four Windows from thence, which seem to indicate the Space of Ground the first Chapel was built on: the rest between it and the Church was a kind of Antechapel. Underneath was a Vault, now full of [Page 32] Water, the Floor of the Chapel being beaten down into it: it was wrought with great Stones.

Here was a capacious Receptacle of the Dead. They have taken up many leaden Coffins, and melted them into Cisterns.

The Roof of the Chapel was finely arched with Ribwork of Stone. The Sides of the Walls are full of small Pillars of Sussex Marble, as likewise the whole Church, which was a mean way of Orna­menting in those Times: they are mostly beaten down. Between them the Walls are painted with Pictures of Saints, as still easily seen. All the Walls are overgrown with Ivy, which is the only thing here in a flourishing Condition; every thing else presenting a most melancholy, tho' venerable Aspect. On the South-side the Cloisters was the great Hall.

The Townsmen bought the Stones of the Vaults underneath to build a sorry Market-house, not dis­cerning the Benefit accruing to the Town from the great Concourse of Strangers purposely to see this Abbey, which is now its greatest Trade, as formerly its only Support: for 'tis in a most miserable decaying Condition, as wholly cut off from the large Re­venues spent among them.

There are many other Foundations of the Build­ings left in the great Area; but in the present Hands will soon be rooted up, and the very Footsteps of them effaced, which so many Ages had been erecting.

The Abbot's Hall, I have been told, was curiously wainscotted with Oak, and painted with Coats of Arms in every Panel. The Morter of these Build­ings is very good, and great Rocks of the Roof of the Church lie upon the Ground, chiefly consisting of Rubble-stone untouched by the fanatical De­stroyers, who chiefly work on the hewn Stone of the Outside, till a whole Wall falls, when under­mined a little.

[Page 33]Throughout the Town are the tattered Remains of Doors, Windows, Bases, Capitals of Pillars, &c. brought from the Abbey, and put into every poor Cottage.

In the Town are Two Churches; the upper a handsome Fabrick with a fine Tower of good De­sign, adorned with Figures in Niches. The George Inn is an old Stone Building, called the Abbot's Inn, where chiefly the Pilgrims were lodged, who came strolling hither, and idling their Time away for Sanctity. A Coat of Arms of the Kings of Eng­land, supported by a Lion and a Bull, is over the Gate, with many Crosses. There was a Bed of large Timber, with imbossed gilt Panels, which seemed to have been the Abbot's.

Four Miles from Glastenbury, lies the little City of Wells, where is one of the neatest Cathedrals in England; particularly the West Front of it, which is a complete Draught of Imagery, as well as very antient.

The Close, or Part of the City where the Bishop's Palace is, is very properly called so; for it is walled in, and locked up like a little Fortification, and has a Ditch round it. The dignified Clergy live in the Inside of it, and the Prebendaries and Canons have very agreeable Dwellings. Here are no less than 27 Prebendaries, and 19 Canons, besides a Dean, a Chancellor, a Precentor, and Three Archdeacons; a Number which very few Cathedrals in England have besides.

The County is the Diocese, and contains 388 Parishes, and the Archdeaconries are of Wells, Bath, and Taunton.

The City lies just at the Foot of the Mountains called Mendip-hills, and is built on a stony Foun­dation. Its Manufacture is chiefly of Stockens, as has been said; 'tis well-built, and populous.

[Page 34]Near this City, and just under the Hills, is the famous Wokey Hole, the chief Curiosity of which is frequently found in all such subterraneous Caverns; that the Water, dropping from the Roof of the Vault, petrifies and hangs in long Pieces like Icicles, as if it would, in Time, turn into a Column to support the Arch.

Not far from hence is Sedgmore, a watry splashy Place, and infamous for the Defeat of the Duke of Monmouth.

In the low Country, on the other Side Mendip Hills, lies Chedder, a Village pleasantly situated under the very Ridge of the Mountains: before the Village is a large Green, or Common, on which all the Cows belonging to the Town feed: the Ground is exceeding rich, and as the Inhabitants are Cow-keepers, they take care to maintain the Goodness of the Soil, by agreeing to lay on large Quantities of Dung for manuring and inriching the Land.

Several Persons frequently, here mix their Milk together, which often weighs a hundred Weight, sometimes more; and is so excellent, that it is often sold from Six-pence to Eight-pence per Pound, when the Cheshire Cheese is sold but from Two-pence to Two-pence Half-penny.

Here is a deep frightful Chasm in the Mountain, in the Hollow of which the Road goes toward Bristol; and out of the same Hollow springs a little Stream, which is so rapid, that it is said to drive 12 Mills within a Quarter of a Mile of the Spring; but it must be supposed to fetch some winding Reaches in the Way; otherwise there would not be room for 12 Mills to stand, and have a sufficient Head of Water to each, within so small a Space of Ground. The Water of this Spring grows quickly into a River, and runs down into the Marshes, and joins another little River called Axe, about Axbridge, and thence into the Bristol Chanel, or Severn Sea.

[Page 35]I must now turn East, and South-east; for I re­solved not to go up the Hills of Mendip at all, this Journey; leaving that Part to another Tour, when I shall give an Account of these Mountains, as also of the Cities of Bath and Bristol, to which they are very near, in one Letter.

I come now to that Part of the County which joins to Wiltshire, which I reserved in particular to this Place, in order to give some Account of the Broad-cloth Manufacture, which I several times mentioned before, and which is carried on here, to such a Degree, as to deserve a Place in all the De­scriptions or Histories which shall be given of this Country.

As the East and South Parts of Wiltshire are all hilly, spreading themselves far and wide in Plains, and grassy Downs, for breeding and feeding vast Flocks of Sheep; and as the West and North Parts of Somersetshire are, on the contrary, low and marshy, or moorish, for feeding and breeding of Black Cattle and Horses, or for Lead Mines, &c. so all the South-west Part of Wiltshire, and the East Part of Somersetshire, are low and flat, being a rich, inclosed Country, full of Rivers and Towns, and infinitely populous, insomuch that some of the Market-towns are equal to Cities in Bigness, and superior to many of them in Numbers of People.

This low flat Country contains Part of the Three Counties, of Somerset, Wilts, and Gloucester; and that the Extent of it may be the easier understood by those who know any thing of the Situation of the Country, it reaches from Cirencester in the North, to Sherburn on the Edge of Dorsetshire South, and from the Devizes East, to Bristol West, which may take in about 50 Miles in Length where longest, and 20 in Breadth where narrowest.

In this Extent of Country, we have the following Market-towns, which are principally imployed in [Page 36] the Clothing Trade, that is to say, in that Part of it, which I am now speaking of, namely, fine Medley, or mixed Cloths, such as are usually worn in England by the better Sort of People; and also, exported in great Quantities to Holland, Hamburgh, Sweden, Denmark, Spain, Italy, &c. The prin­cipal Clothing Towns in this Part of the Country, are these,

Frome, Pentford, Philip's-Norton, Bruton, Shepton-Mallet, Castle-Carey, and Wincaunton.
Malmsbury, Castlecomb, Chippenham, Caln, Devizes, Bradford, Tru­bridge, Westbury, Warminster, Mere.
Gillingham, Shaftsbury, Bemister, and Bere, Sturminster, Shire­born.
Cirencester, Tetbury, Marshfield, Minchinghampton, and Fairford.

These Towns, as they stand thin, and at consi­derable Distance from one another, (for, except the Two Towns of Bradford and Trubridge, the others stand at an unusual Distance) are interspersed with a very great Number of Villages, Hamlets, and scat­tered Houses, in which, generally speaking, the spinning Work of all this Manufacture is performed by the poor People; the Master Clothiers, who generally live in the greater Towns, sending out the Wool weekly to their Houses, by their Servants and Horses, and at the same time bringing back the Yarn that they have spun and finished, which then is fitted for the Loom.

The increasing and flourishing Circumstances of this Trade are happily visible by the great Concourse of People to, and Increase of Buildings and Inhabit­ants [Page 37] in, these principal Clothing Towns, where this Trade is carried on, and in the Wealth of the Clo­thiers. The Town of Frome, or, as it is written in our Maps, Frome-Sellwood, is a Specimen of this, which is so prodigiously increased within these last 30 or 40 Years, that they have built a new Church, and so many new Streets of Houses, and these Houses are so full of Inhabitants, that Frome is now reckoned to have more Inhabitants in it, than the City of Bath; and some say, than Salisbury; and if their Trade continues to increase in like manner for a few Years more, it is very likely to become one of the greatest and wealthiest inland Towns in England.

Its Trade is wholly Clothing, and the Cloths they make are, generally speaking, all convey'd to London: where Blackwell-hall is their Market; and, if we may believe common Fame, there are above 10,000 People in Frome now, more than lived in it 30 Years ago; and yet it was a considerable Town then.

Here are also several large Meeting-houses, as well as Churches, as there are, generally, in all the ma­nufacturing trading Towns in England, especially in the Western Counties.

The Devizes is, next to Frome, a large and im­portant Town, and full of wealthy Clothiers; but it has lately run pretty much into the Drugget-making Trade; a Business, which has made some Invasion upon that of the Broad-cloth, great Quan­tities of Druggets being worn in, as well as exported from England, instead of Broad-cloth; but this is much the same as to the Trade still; for since it is all a Woolen Manufacture, and the Druggets may properly be called Cloth, tho' narrow, and of a different Make, so the Makers are all called Clothiers.

The River Avon, a noble and large fresh River, branching itself into many Parts, and receiving almost [Page 38] all the Rivers on that Side of the Hills, waters this whole fruitful Vale; and the Water of this River seems particularly qualified for dying the best Colours, and for Fulling and Dressing the Cloth, so that the Clothiers generally plant themselves upon this River, but especially the Dyers, as at Trubridge and Brad­ford, which are the Two most eminent Clothing Towns in that Part of the Vale, for the Making fine Spanish Cloths, and for the nicest Mixtures.

From these Towns, South to Westbury and War­minster, the same Trade continues, and the finest Medley Spanish Cloths in the whole World are made in this Part. They told me at Bradford, that it was no extraordinary thing to have Clothiers thereabout worth from 10,000 to 40,000l. a Man; and many of the Gentry in those Counties have been originally raised from this truly noble Manufacture.

If I may speak here from the Authority of the an­tient Inhabitants of the Place, who have been curious Observers upon this Subject, the Country which I have now described, as principally imployed in, and maintained by this Prodigy of a Trade, contains 2,330,000 Acres of Land, and has in it 788 Parishes, and 374,000 People. It is true, that this is all Guess­work; but I must confess myself very willing to be­lieve, that the Reckoning is far short of the Account; for this Part is exceeding large and populous.

It may be worth Inquiry, how the Manufacturers in so vast a Consumption of the Wool, as such a Trade must take up, can be supplied with Wool for their Trade; and indeed it would be something strange, if the Answer were not at hand.

1. We may reasonably conclude, that this Manu­facture was at first seated in this County, or, as we may say, originally planted itself here, because of the infinite Numbers of Sheep, which were always up­on the Downs and Plains of Dorset, Wilts, and Hampshire, all adjoining. This, no doubt, induced [Page 39] the first Planters of the Clothing Manufacture to make Choice of this delightful Vale in the Neigh­bourhood of those Plains, which afforded such im­mense Funds of Wool for the carrying on their Works. Thus the Manufacture of white Cloth was planted in Stroud-water in Gloucestershire, for the sake of the excellent Water there for the Dying Scarlets, and all Colours that are dyed in Grain, which are better done there, than in any other Place of England, some Towns near London excepted. Hence therefore we first observe, they are supplied yearly with the Fleeces of Two or Three Millions of Sheep.

2. But as the Number of Sheep fed on these Downs is lessened, rather than increased, because of so many thousand Acres of the Carpet Ground being of late Years converted into Tillage, and sowed with * Wheat; and at the same time the Manufacture pro­digiously increasing; the Manufacturers applied to other Parts for a Supply, and hence began the Influx of North Country Wool from the Counties of Northampton, Leicester and Lincoln, the Centre and Markets of which Trade are about Tetbury and Cirencester, where several hundred Packs are sold every Week, to supply this prodigious Consumption.

3. From London they have great Quantities of Wool, which is generally called Kentish Wool, in the Fleece, which is brought up from thence by the Farmers, since the late severe Acts against their Selling it within a certain Number of Miles of the Sea; also Fell-wool for the Combers, bought of the Wool-staplers in Barnaby-street, and sent back by the Carriers which bring up the Cloths to Market.

4. They have also, sometimes, large Quantities of Irish Wool by the way of Bristol, or of Minehead in [Page 40] Somersetshire; but this is uncertain, and only on extraordinary Occasions. I omit the Spanish Wool, as being an Article by itself.

Thus, as those who see the almost countless Num­bers of Sheep on the Downs and Plains, and the great Quantities of Wool brought to the Markets of Tetbury, and other Towns, as well as what are sent down from London into this single Vale, would wonder how it was possible so much Wool could be consumed, manufactured, and wrought up; so, on the other hand, those that see what Numbers of People are imployed, and what vast Quantities of Goods are made, in this Part of England, would wonder how the Nation should be able to supply them with Wool.

And yet, notwithstanding the whole Country is thus busy'd in the Broad-cloth Manufacture, I must not omit to mention, that here is a very great Application to another Branch or two of Trade, viz. The supplying the City of London with Provisions: Tho' it is true, that the general Imployment of the People in all this County, is in the Woollen Manu­facture; yet, as the Spinning is generally the Work of the Women and Children, and the Land is here exceeding rich and fertile, so it cannot be sup­posed, but that here are Farmers in great Numbers, whose Business it is to cultivate the Land, and sup­ply the rest of the Inhabitants with Provisions; and this they do so well, that notwithstanding the County is exceeding populous, yet Provisions of all Sorts are cheap, the Quantity very great, and a considerable Overplus sent every Day to London.

All the lower Part of this County, and also of Gloucestershire adjoining, is full of large feeding Farms, which we call Dairies; and the Cheese they make is excellent, and is eaten newer than that from Cheshire. Of this a vast Quantity is every Week sent up to London, where, tho' it is called Gloucester­shire [Page 41] Cheese, yet the greatest Part of it comes from Wiltshire; the Gloucestershire Cheese being more generally carried to Bristol and Bath, where a very great Quantity is consumed, as well by the Inhabit­ants of these two populous Cities, as in Exportation to our West-India Colonies, and other Places; whereas this Wiltshire Cheese is carried to the River of Thames, which runs thro' Part of the County, by Land-carriage, and so by Barges to London.

Again, in the Spring of the Year, they make a vast Quantity of that we call Green or New Cheese, which is a thin and very soft Cheese, resembling Cream Cheeses, but somewhat thicker. These are so universally liked in London, that all the low rich Lands of this County are hardly enough to supply the Market; but then this holds for little more than the Two first Summer Months of the Year.

Besides this, the Farmers in Wiltshire, and the Part of Gloucestershire adjoining, send a very great Quan­tity of Bacon up to London, which is esteemed the best Bacon in England, Hampshire only excepted. This Bacon is raised here, by their great Dairies, as the Hogs are fed with the vast Quantities of Whey, and skimmed Milk, which the Farmers must otherwise have thrown away.

But this is not all; for as the North Part of Wilt­shire, as well the Downs as the Vales, border upon the River Thames, and in some Places come up even to the Banks of it, so most of that Part of the County being arable Land, they sow a very great Quantity of Barley, which is carried to the Markets at Abingdon, at Faringdon, and such Places, where it is made into Malt, and carried to London. This imploys all the Hill-country from above Malmsbury to Marlborough, and on the Side of the Vale of White-horse, as 'tis called, which is in Berkshire, and the Hills adjoining; a Track of fertile Ground, which furnishes a prodigious Quantity of Barley.

[Page 42]Thus Wiltshire helps to supply London with Cheese, Bacon, and Malt, Three very considerable Articles, besides that vast Manufacture of fine Spanish Cloths, of which I have said so much; and I may without Partiality say, that it is thereby rendered one of the most important Counties in England to the publick Wealth of the Kingdom. The bare Product is in itself prodigiously great; the Downs are an inex­hausted Store-house of Wool, and of Corn; and the Valley, or low Part of it, is the like for Cheese and Bacon.

One Thing here is worth while to mention, for the Observation of those Counties in England, where they are not yet arrived to that Perfection in Hus­bandry, as in this County; and I have purposely reserved it to this Place; and that is, The Downs or Plains, which tho' generally called Salisbury Plain, yet extend themselves into the Counties of South­ampton, Wilts, and Dorset, were formerly wholly taken up with Sheep, as being thought incapable of producing Grain, but now are made to yield most plentiful Crops, by folding their Sheep upon the plough'd Lands, removing the Fold every Night to a fresh Place, till the whole Fallow has been folded on. This alone has made these Lands, which in them­selves are poor, and, in some Places, so shallow as that the Earth is not six Inches deep over the solid Chalk, able to bear as good Wheat, as any of the richer Lands in the Vales, tho' not altogether in such great Quantities: And were it not for this Improve­ment, the Product would hardly compensate the Ploughman's Labour; for many of these Lands lie up such high Hills, so remote from the Farmers Houses, which are always in the Valleys, that it would be very difficult to carry up their Dung to manure them.

If this way of folding Sheep upon the Fallows and ploughed Lands were practised in some other Parts [Page 43] of Britain, and especially in Scotland, it would effectually improve the waste Lands, which now are useless and uncultivated, and turn both Sheep and Lands to a better Account than was ever yet known among them. In Wiltshire it appears to be so, very significantly; for if a Farmer has a Thousand Sheep, and no Fallows to fold them on, his Neighbours will give him Ten Shillings a Night for every Thousand.

But as I have not mentioned these Clothing Towns other than as they contribute to that Trade, I shall now proceed to say something of the Towns them­selves, except those in Gloucestershire; of which I shall speak in my next Letter, as I fall down Westward.

Shipton-Mallet, Castle Carey, Wincaunton, and Bruton, lie to the Southward of Wells, and have nothing remarkable in them except the last, which lies on the River Brews. It has a fair Church, a good Free-school, and a stately Alms-house, the Ruins of a Priory, and beside the Clothing-trade, is famous for Stockens.

Frome, and Philips Norton, lie East of Somerset­shire, upon the Borders of Wilts. The first is near the Forest of Selwood, and I have already mentioned its prodigious Increase of late Years. The last is a very good Market-town, and has Two annual Fairs, one reputed, for a One-day Fair, as great as any in England.

Bensford is a small Market-town, and lies North-west toward Bristol.

Malmsbury is a very antient Town, and, 'tis said, was built by a British Prince, called Caer Bladdon. It was formerly defended by Walls, and a large strong Castle, which was razed afterward, to inlarge the Abbey, which was very famous, and the greatest in Wiltshire: the Abbot sat in Parliament. King Athelstane was buried here, and they still shew [Page 44] his Tomb here. Vast Piles of Buildings were pulled down at the Dissolution, but the Church of the Abbey was saved, a great Part of which still remains, and is used as the Parish Church. It is a Corporation governed by a Justice, who is an annual Magistrate, and called The Alderman. It has a good Market weekly. The Town is neat, and lies on the River Avon. It is also famous for the Birth-place of William of Malmsbury, the Historian; and of that great Scholar, Philosopher, and Mathematician, Hobbes; and of divers other very great and re­markable Men.

Near this Town, Southward, on the same River, lies the Village of Dantsey, which, tho' but an ob­scure Place, has given Title of Honour to many eminent Persons, and among the rest, to Henry Danvers, created Baron of this Place by King James I. tho' afterwards made Earl of Danby. He had distin­guished himself in Queen Elizabeth's Irish Wars, was as good as great, and died with Glory; but his Brother and Heir, having sat, ungratefully, a Judge on that very King who made his Brother Earl, was, at the Restoration, attainted of High Treason; and this his Manor of Dantsey given to James then Duke of York, who settled it in Dowry on his second Consort. On his Abdication, it became a second time forfeited, and King William conferred it on Charles Lord Mordaunt, late Earl of Peter­borough and Monmouth, in whose Family it still remains. But as there are some other Things more than ordinarily particular, relating to this Manor, I shall inlarge a little upon it.

The whole Parish of Dantsey consists of this Manor only, and not a Foot of Ground in it be­longs to any other Person: it is altogether Pasture, and indeed very rich. The Inhabitants, who are all Tenants of the Manor, make most excellent Cheese, not at all inferior to that of Chedder, which is the [Page 45] only Commodity in the Place; for the late Lord would not permit the Grounds to be ploughed up; and, I believe, there is not an Acre in the Parish of arable Land, tho' the Tenants have offered a considerable Advance of Rent, for Liberty to break up the Ground, which indeed seems to want it, and would be much better'd by the Plough; nor would his Lordship, for some Years before his Death, renew a Life upon it, either by Lease or Copyhold, except as many of the last, as would keep up the Homage, and the Rights of the Manor: and the Reason of this was, not only to get a clear Rack-rent Estate in it, but to prevent the Cheats and Impositions which the Copyhold Tenants of the Manor put upon their Lord; for as every Widow has her Life in her Husband's Copyhold after his Death, if she continues sole and continent, 'tis a very common thing there for an old Man, on his Death-bed, to marry a young Woman, who privately contracts to give Part of the Profits of the Copyhold, or some Consideration for it, to the Husband's Relations, and not seldom selects, for a Bedfellow for herself, one of her favourite Men-servants.

The Abuse which accrued from granting Leases on Lives is this, That whereas a Person takes a Lease for Three Lives, viz. his own, his Wife's, and his Son John's; to defraud the Lord of the Manor, he names all his Sons John; so that, as long as any of the Sons live, John in the Lease never dies.

By these Frauds, the Earl, who was none of the best Oeconomists, and lived remote from this Place, suffered considerably, tho' he could not find out how; but frequently complained, That his Lessees, and his Copyhold-Widows, were very long lived; and, in an humorous way, used to recommend his Manor of Dantsey to all such as were apprehensive of dying.

[Page 46]As all in the Parish were his Tenants, and had an Interest in the Fraud, they combined against him, so that he could get no Intelligence of it: and tho' his Lordship enjoyed the Manor ever since the Revo­lution, yet, by reason of its being then full estated, that is, all let out upon Lives then actually subsisting, and continued by the above-mentioned Frauds, his Lordship received no great Benefit out of it till some few Years before his Death; when he came to a Resolution not to renew, tho', when all the Lives drop in, this Manor will, at a Rack-rent, amount to at least 3000l. a Year.

There is a large old Mansion-house here, lying just on the River, with Gardens formed after the Manner of those at Parsons-green; but it is not a kindly Place for ripening Fruit, and the Grounds lie very low and splashy, being all of a stiff Clay, and yet very good Pasture. Here is also a fine Park well timber'd, but without Deer. His Lordship had once a Design to improve this Mansion-house and Estate, and resided here in 1705, when he was called to Court, and sent to command the Queen's Forces in Spain, where his Conduct, and great Services to his Country, are too well known to need men­tioning here.

Tho' this Place is often overflowed with Water, yet there is none good, either for Brewing or Wash­ing, or any Spring of sweet Water. Here is a Spring of a chalybeat Kind, which would turn to good Account, were it not in such a distant, and an almost inaccessible Part of the Country, occasioned by bad Roads, which were a great Protection to the Inhabitants in the late Civil Wars, who were never visited by either Party; but injoyed an easy and uninterrupted Repose, whlist their Neighbours, on all Sides, were involved in the Calamities of that un­natural War.

[Page 47]Here is likewise a good neat Church, with one of the best-built, high, square Towers I ever saw, raised at the Expence of one of the Lords of Dantsey, probably the afore-mentioned Henry, who lies buried here under a very large magnificent Tomb. Here likewise is interred Lieutenant-General Lewis Mor­daunt, a Brother of the late Earl, a Gentleman noted for his great Wit, Humour, and polite Con­versation, as indeed all his Brothers were, as well as his Lordship.

Castlecomb is a Village of small Account.

Chippenham is a corporate, good Market-town, likewise on the River Avon, over which it has a Bridge of Sixteen Arches, famous for the Residence and Resort of many of the West Saxon Kings, par­ticularly Alfred. Here is a very magnificent Church; and near this Place, formerly, was a famous Forest.

Bradford is a Market-town, and has a Bridge over the Avon. 'Tis well-built of Stone, and lies in the Side of a Hill.

Trubridge is an antient Market-town, and had formerly a Castle of Seven Towers, but long since destroyed. The Court of the Duchy of Lancaster, for this County, is annually held here.

Westbury is a little Borough Market-town, but was formerly of great Note. Some Quantity of Roman Coins have been found here.

Warminster is noted, as I have said, for the prodi­gious Quantity of Corn, which is sold in it every Market-day. Upon the Downs, near this Town, are two antient Camps, supposed to be Danish.

It is observable, That these Five last Towns be­longed antiently to the Family of the Hungerfords, which in King Edward IV.'s Reign came by Mar­riage to the Lord Hastings, who being executed in Richard III.'s Time, this vast Estate was given by that King to Howard, Duke of Norfolk, first Earl-Marshal of that Family, in England.

[Page 48]Near Warminster is the famous Forest of Selwood, called by the antient Britons, Coedmaur, i. e. Great­wood. It is 15 Miles in Length, and very thick of Wood.

Mere, which in the old Saxon signifys Boundary, as this Place seems to be on the Borders of Wilts, Somerset, and Dorset, is but a Village, and yet gives Name to the Hundred where it stands. It has neither Fair nor Market in it; but it had, antiently, a Castle. Not far from this Place is an old Danish Camp called Whiteshole-hill. Sir Francis Cotton, who flourished in the Reign of King James, and afterwards of Charles I. was born here.

A little South-east of Mere lies Hindon, a small Borough and Market-town. And North-east of it stands Heightsbury, an inconsiderable Town; but noted formerly for an Hospital.

Lavington is also a little more North; a very in­different Market-town.

The Devizes is excellently situated, about Two Miles from the Bottom of the Hills, which keep off the Eastern Winds, and in a rich Soil. Under the Hill, at Runway, is an excellent Spring, which the Inhabitants have not yet found Means to convey thither, tho' it runs but a little way off the Town, where they want Water. It is a very large old Town, consisting chiefly of Two long parallel Streets, the Houses mostly of Tim­ber, but of a very good Model. The Inhabitants value themselves for being Tenants to the King, and for one of the best weekly Markets in England. The Castle was originally Roman, judiciously seated upon a natural Fortification; but in After-times, made in a manner impregnable by Roger, a Bishop of Salisbury, tho' now it suffers daily by Peoples taking away the Materials. Here are Two Churches. The Choir of St. Mary's is of a very old Model, as are the Steeple, Choir, and both Wings of St. John's, to which Additions have been made; and new wide Windows with pointed [Page 49] Arches, in the room of the antient, narrow, semi­circular ones.

Just out of Town is a pretty Plain called the Green, with another handsome Church and Steeple, Suburbs to the old Town. Here William Cadby, a Gardener, dug up his Collection of Gods, which he carried about for a Shew. They were found in a Garden in a Cavity inclosed with Roman Brick. The Venus is of an excel­lent Design; and the Vestal Virgin, as they call it, a Fragment of Corinthian Brass, and of very curious Workmanship. Vulcan is as lame as if made at a Forge. He had also several Coins found thereabouts, and a Brass Roman Key, which my Lord Winchelsea bought. Roman Antiquities are discovered here every Day. The same Nobleman has a Brass Probus; on the Reverse Victoria Germ. with a Trophy. A great Number of such Reliques is to be met with all round the Country.

Calne is a little Town, situate on a stony Hill, and very antient, and is supposed to have been one of the Seats of the West-Saxon Kings. It has a neat Church, and a good weekly Market. After a great Rain, in November 1725, the Waters rose so very high here, on a sudden, that they overflow'd the Town, damaged a great Quantity of Goods, drowned Two Men in the Street, and carried off a Cask of Oil of 100 Gallons, which could not be found for several Days after. A great Parcel of Roman Coins were dug up here formerly. Here was, likewise, antiently an Hospital of Black Canons.

I am now come into the Road to Marlborough: On the Downs, about Two or Three Miles from the Town, are abundance of loose Stones, lying scattered about the Plain, some whereof are very large, and appear to be of the same Kind with those of Stone-henge, and some larger: they are called by the Country People, the Grey Weathers; and it must be confessed, that they look not unlike Sheep straggling upon the [Page 50] Downs, on a transient and distant View, as Travellers pass. These Grey Weathers, on a more curious Inspection, are found to be a Sort of white Marble, and lie upon the Surface of the Ground in infinite Numbers, and of all Dimensions. They are loose, detached from any Rock, and, as Dr. Stukeley thinks, lay there ever since the Creation, being solid Parts thrown out to the Surface of the fluid Globe, when its Rotation was first impressed.

Marlborough, so called from its Hills of Chalk, which antiently was called Marle. It is the Cunetia (from Kenet) of the Romans; but from the coming of the Saxons to the Conquest, there is no Mention of it. It is governed by a Mayor, Aldermen, and Burgesses, and is well-built. It consists chiefly of One broad and strait Street. To the South are some Relicks of a Priory; the Gate-house is still remain­ing. On the North, the Chapel of another Reli­gious House remains, now turned into a Dwelling-house. The Seat of my Lord Hertford was the Scite of the Roman Costrum; for there they find Foundations, and Roman Coins; and towards the River, without the Garden-walls, one Angle of it very manifestly remains; and the Rampart [...]d Ditch intire. The Road going over the Bridge cuts it off from the present Castle. The Ditch is still 20 Feet wide in some Parts. The Mount, so much noted, was the Keep of the Castle; it is now converted into a pretty spiral Walk, on the Top of which is an octagonal Summer-house, from whence you have a pleasant View over the Town and County. The Town has at present a pretty good Shop-keeping Trade, but not much of the manufacturing Part. The River Kennet, some Years ago made navi­gable by Act of Parliament, rises just by this Town; from whence running to Hungerford and Newbury, it becomes a large Stream; and passing by Reading, runs into the Thames near that Town. [Page 51] This River is famous for Crayfish, which they help Travellers to at Newbury; but they seldom want for Price.

At Abury, near Marlborough Downs, in the Way to Bath, are to be seen the stupendous Remains of a Druids Temple, being a Collection of monstrous Stones of the like Nature with those of Stone-henge, and brought together from the Downs for the same re­ligious Purposes, as Dr. Stukeley makes no Question.

On the Hills on this Side the Devizes is Round­way Down, where the King's Forces, under Prince Maurice, but owing chiefly to the Lord Wilmot, beat and intirely routed the famous Sir William Waller, in the Civil Wars; from whence the Place is called by some, Run-away Down, to this Day.

A little nearer towards Marlborough is St. Ann's Hill, where, notwithstanding several high Hills be­tween, and the Distance of Twenty-two Miles, or more, is a fair View of Salisbury Steeple, or Spire, which is deem'd the highest in England.

At Badmington in Wiltshire have been found Nine Caves all in a Row, but of different Dimensions, the least of them Four Feet wide, some Nine or Ten Feet long, Two long Stones being set upon the Sides, and the Top cover'd with broad Stones. Spurs, Pieces of Armour, and the like, have been found in these Caves; which gives Ground to believe, that they were Tombs of some antient Warriors, Romans, Saxons, or Danes.

In our Way from Marlborough to Newbury, we mounted a chalky Hill, (of which Sort is much of the Soil of Wilts) on the Top of which we enter'd into Savernack Forest, belonging to the R [...]ght Hon. the Lord Bruce, and is almost the only privileged Ground of Hunting, of that Denomination, possess'd by a Subject. It is in Circumference about Twelve Miles, plentifully stock'd with Deer of a large Size, [Page 52] and render'd very pleasant and delightful by the many Walks and Vistas lately cut and levell'd through the several Coppices and Woods with which it abounds. Eight of these Vistas meet like so many Rays of a Star, in a Point near the Middle of the Forest, where his Lordship has prepared and cleared the Ground for erecting an Octagon Tower, whose Sides will be correspondent to the Vistas, thro' one of which you will have a View of his Lordship's Seat at about Two Miles Distance, called Tottenham, from a Park of that Name, in which it is situate, con­tiguous to the Forest.

It is a stately Edifice, newly erected on the same Spot of Ground where stood an antient Palace, de­stroyed by Fire, of the Marquis of Hereford, so justly celebrated for his steady Adherence, and power­ful Assistance, to the Royal Cause, during the whole Course of the Civil Wars, from whom his Lordship is descended, by his Mother the Lady Elizabeth, Sister and Niece to the Two last Dukes of Somer­set, of the elder Line.

To give you some Idea of the Grandeur and Magnificence of the Structure, it will be suffi­cient to observe, that it was begun, carried on and finish'd, after the Model, and under the Direction, of our modern Vitruvius, the Earl of Burlington, who, to the Strength and Convenience of the English Architecture, has added the Elegance and Politeness of the Italian Taste.

The House has Four Towers, and Four Fronts, each of them diversly beautified and adorned; to which are now added Four Wings, wherein are Rooms of State, a noble and capacious Room for a Library, containing a judicious and large Collection of several Thousand Books in all Languages, but especially the modern.

The Beauty and Delightfulness of the Buildings are much augmented by the large Canals, the spa­cious [Page 53] and well-planted Walks which surround it, one of which, leading to the London Road, extends Two Miles in Length.

About the same Distance from hence, on the op­posite Side, are to be seen the Remains of a large House, the Seat of Sir John Seymour, Father of the unfortunate Protector, call'd Wolf-Hall, of which no more is standing than suffices for a Farm-house. Here King Henry VIII. as, Tradition goes, cele­brated his Nuptials with the Lady Jane Seymour, and kept his Wedding-dinner, in a very large Barn, hung with Tapestry on the Occasion; for Confirm­ation of which they shew you, in the Walls thereof, some Tenter-hooks, with small Pieces of Tapestry fasten'd to them; and between this Place and Totten­ham th [...]re is a Walk, with old Trees on each Side, still known by the Name of King Harry's Walk.

From hence, continuing our Course Easterly, we came to a Borough-town, called Great Bedwin, which Dr. Stukeley takes to be the Leucomagus of Ravennas. It is an old Corporation, and gave Birth to the fa­mous Dr. T. Willis, the Ornament of English Phy­sicians. Castle Copse, half a Mile from the Town South East, was probably the Roman Castle; and Havisdike, a Camp of that People. Some time since there was in the East Window of the Church, the Picture of a Priest, with Two Crutches, a Cup in his Hand, and a Can standing by him, with an Inscription in old English Capitals, but in the Lan­guage obsolete French, which in English is this:

I am Peris call'd, Vicar of this Church,
Upon my Crutches leaning just in this wise;
My Pouch in my Fist, and I'll drink without Guile,
My Pot at my Back, set after the new Mode.
To my Pot and my Pouch I will have Justice done;
For none shall drink without putting in as much again.

[Page 54]The Church is large and capacious, in which are some antient Monuments, particularly one of a Knight-Templar, call'd Adam of Scott, from a Manor of that Name in the Parish, with an Inscription not legible, and another above-mentioned of Sir John Seymour, Father of the Protector, wherein we have an Account of the Names of all his Children, with their several Inter-marriages and Deaths The Church is very strongly built with Flint, and a Ce­ment near as hard as themselves, in form of a Cross, in the Centre of which is erected a high Tower, containing a good Ring of Six very musical Bells.

Moving hence towards the North-east a little, we cross'd the much fam'd Wansdyke, a Work of prodigious Labour and Expence, and concluded by most Writers to be a Boundary of one of the King­doms of the Heptarchy, probably that of the West Saxons, before its Inlargement by incroaching on other Kingdoms. It may be traced from near Bath, all over the Downs, to this Place, where it turns its Course towards the Southern Coasts: it is supposed, by some, to derive its Name from Woden, one of the Saxon Deities.

Soon after we mounted a small Hill, of easy Ascent, on the Summit of which was erected, as Historians inform us, a fortified Place, the Residence of Cissa, a Viceroy of one of the South-Saxon Kings, from whom it derives its Denomination of Chisbury, or Cisbury, who also built Chichester, for the Resort of his People, as he did this for the Repose of him­self. It seems to have been strongly fortified, being surrounded with a double Ditch or Mote, of con­siderable Depth and Breadth, and full of Water: since which time there has been a Religious House here, the Chapel of which is still remaining, but converted into a Barn.

From hence we returned to the great London Road, and soon arrived at a Village called Froxfield, [Page 55] about Seven Miles from Marlborough, in which is a handsome and well-endow'd Alms-house, founded by Sarah Duchess Dowager of Somerset, Relict of John the last Duke of the elder Branch of the noble Family of Seymours, descended from the great Duke of Somerset, Protector of the King and Kingdom, during the Minority of King Edward VI. This Lady bequeath'd by her Will above 2000l. for the Building and Furniture of this Alms-house, and de­vised several Manors, Messuages, and Farms, for the Maintenance of Thirty poor Widows, not have­ing 20l. per Ann to subsist upon; one Half of which are Widows of Clergymen, and the other of Lay­men, giving a Preference to those of the last Sort, who live on the Manors so devised by her. She left in her Will particular Directions for the Form, Di­mensions, and Scite of the Structure, and for the Manner of electing, ruling, and providing for the Widows, which her Executors, especially Sir Wil­liam Gregory, who chiefly took upon him the Execu­tion of the Trust, punctually observ'd.

The Building is neat and strong, in the Form of a Quadrangle, having one Front, and a Court before it facing the Road. It contains Thirty Ground­rooms, and as many Chambers, one of each Sort being allowed to every Widow, for her Apartment, with an Area or Bed in a Garden, on the North Part of the Building, inclosed with a Brick-wall.

In the midst of the Quadrangle is built a hand­some and convenient Chapel, furnished with a Com­munion-Table, Pulpit, Desk, Pews and Books, for the Use of the Widows, wherein the Chaplain, whose Stipend is 30l. per Ann. is to read Prayers every Day, and to preach on Sundays: and for his further Encouragement, is to be presented, on a Va­cancy, to the Rectory of Kemish, in the same County, which the Duchess has appropriated to that Use. Besides the yearly Pension in Money, which [Page 56] is now about Eight Guineas, she hath also ordered a Cloth-gown, with a certain Quantity of Wood every Winter, to each of the Widows: and when the Estates which she has given to the said Alms­house, (many of which are now demised upon Leases for Lives) shall fall in, and shall produce a clear yearly Income of more than 400l. she hath ap­pointed additional Lodgings to be built for the Re­ception of Twenty more Widows, who are to be placed on the same Establishment, elected and pro­vided for in the same manner as the Thirty former; and then all the Rents and Profits of the said Estates (the Salary for the Chaplain and a Steward being first deducted) shall be distributed in equal Shares and Proportions between the Fifty Widows.

The Produce of all the Estates devised to this, and another charitable Use, which I shall mention by-and-by, upon the Determination of the Leases granted, will, according to the best Information I could get, amount to little less than 1000l. per Ann.

This truly useful and excellent Charity, which displays the Judgment, as well as charitable Disposi­tion, of the noble Foundress, is under the Inspection and Management of several worthy Gentlemen and Clergymen of the Neighbourhood, who discharge the Trust reposed in them with a very laudable Dili­gence and Integrity, scrupulously, or religiously ra­ther, pursuing the Directions of the Will, care­fully preventing all Imbezelments, and frequently meeting, at their own Expence, for the Dispatch of Business in the Execution of their Trust; which worthy Example, if imitated by other Trustees or Directors of charitable Benefactions, (who too often make a Property of their Trust) would be of pub­lick Emolument, and singular Benefit to the Poor, by rescuing charitable Devises from the Discourage­ment they now lie under, and rendering unnecessary [Page 57] the Trouble and Expence of applying for, and suing out Commissions of Charitable Uses.

The same charitable Lady, to make Provision for the helpless Young, as well as destitute Old, has also bequeathed a considerable yearly Sum for the apprenticing of Ten or Twelve Children, in which a Preference is to be given to such as were born in her Manors. In the Management of which Trust, another Set of Trustees act, with the same commend­able Uncorruptness and Integrity as the former.

We next came to Hungerford, a little Market­town, situate in a Moorish-place, remarkable only for being a great Thoroughfare to Bath and Bri­stol, and for Plenty of Trout and Crayfish. It is governed by the Lord of the Manor, as Constable, who is however chosen annually into that Office. From this Town the antient Family of the Barons of Hungerford took their Name and Title. The first of the Family was the first Speaker of the House of Commons, in 51. Edward III. They possess'd a vast Estate this Way, and in all the neighbouring Counties, which was twice forfeited for their At­tachment to the House of Lancaster. This vast Estate fell by a Daughter to the famous Lord Hast­ings, who was executed in the Reign of Richard III. when Howard, first Duke of Norfolk, had a Grant of it from that Prince, who falling with his Master in the Battle of Bosworth-Field, King Henry VII. restored it, with the Honour, to a younger Branch of the Hungerfords, who had joined him, and shared in the Glory of that Victory. But his De­scendants suffer'd Death for Treason, 31 Henry VIII. tho' Queen Mary restored them again. He was the Third of the Family who died for Treason: such Vicissitudes attended this noble Family, and their great Estate.

[Page 58]We pursued the great Road, and arrived at New­bury, situate in a most fruitful Plain, and water'd by the River Kennet, which is made navigable up to the Town, which carries on a very great Trade in Malt, &c. with London. It is governed by a Mayor, High Steward, Aldermen and Burgesses. The Streets are spacious, and the Market-place large, where there is great Store of Corn sold; and a Hall for the Business of the Corporation stands in it.

Here is also a good Charity-school, very well en­dow'd, and this Place is noted for good Trout and Crayfish.

Near this Town was a double Scene of Blood; for here were Two obstinate Battles fought at different Times, between the King's Army and the Parlia­ment's, King Charles being present at them both, and both were fought almost upon the same Spot of Ground. In these Two Battles it was observed by an experienced Soldier, who served in the King's Army, that the Generals on both Sides shewed the most exquisite Skill in the managing, posting, bringing up, and drawing off their Troops; and the Men fought with equal Bravery. In the first of these Battles the Success was doubtful, and both Sides claim'd the Advantage: in the last, the King's Army had apparently the worst of it, and yet the King in a very few Days, with a great Body of Horse, brought off his Cannon, which he had, in the Close of the Battle, thrown into Dunington Castle, and carried them away to Oxford, the Head Quarter of his Army; and this he did in the Sight of the victorious Army, facing them at the same time with a Body of Six thousand Horse; they, on the other hand, not thinking fit to draw out to at­tack him. That Retreat, in point of Honour, was equal to a Victory, and gave new Courage, as well as Reputation, to the King's Troops.

[Page 59]Part of Newbury is also known by the Name of Spinham-lands. For it arose out of the Ruins of an old Town, called Spine, the Remains of which now join to Newbury, in respect to which it was called New Borough, and for Shortness Newbury. It is noted, among other Things, for Two or Three good Inns, where Travellers are well accommodated.

This Town of Newbury was an antient Clothing Town, tho' now little of that Business remains to it; but it retains still a manufacturing Genius, and the People are generally imployed in making Shalloon, which, tho' it be used only for the Lining and Insides of Mens Cloaths, yet it becomes so generally worn both at home and abroad, that it is increased to a Manufacture by itself, and is more considerable than any single Manufacture of Stuffs in the Nation. This imploys the Town of Newbury, as also Ando­ver, a Town I have already described, and many others in different Counties of England.

Here lived the famous Jack of Newbury, the greatest Clothier that ever was in England, having 100 Looms at work in his own House. He flourish­ed in the Reign of Henry VIII. and marched at the Head of 100 of his own Men, all cloath'd and maintain'd by himself, to the Battle of Flodden-Field, where he behav'd well. He rebuilt Part of New­bury Church, and the whole Tower of it. This is One of the Two Legatee Towns (as they were called) in the Will of the famous Mr. Kenrick, who being the Son of a Clothier of Newbury, and after­wards a Merchant in London, left 4000l. to New­bury, and 7500l. to Reading, to encourage the Cloth­ing Trade, and to set the Poor at Work, besides other Gifts of extraordinary Value to the Poor.

This Gentleman's Will is to be seen at large in Stow's Survey of London, to which I refer.

[Page 60]What Improvement the Towns of Newbury and Reading have made of these great Sums, I did not inquire into.

Near Newbury the late Earl of Craven built a very stately Pile of Buildings for his own Dwelling, called Spine; but as it was never quite finished, so I do not understand, that his Lordship ever came to live in it, and some Years ago it was by a sudden Fire burnt down to the Ground. It was reported, that that Lord built this magnificent Palace, (for such it really was) at a Time when he had Hopes of marrying Madame Royale, as she was then called, viz. the Queen of Bohemia, Sister to King Charles I. who, then a Widow, lived under the Shadow of the English Coutt; but being frustrated in that View, the Earl went no farther in his Building. But his present Lordship has lately rebuilt this House, and tho' not in so grand a manner as the former, it is very commodious.

Westward, a little out of our Way, we visited the Ruins of the Castle of Donnington, just mention'd, which was seated on the Brow of a high Hill, washed by the little River Lambourn, and had been the Seat of Sir Geoffrey Chaucer, Father of English Poetry. They shew us a Place here, where, in his Days, as well as many Years since, even down to the Memo­ry of some of the Inhabitants now living, flourished a great Oak, call'd Chaucer's Oak, where they very gravely tell you he used to sit and compose his Poems.

We went forward to the Town of Lambourn, so called from the River which runs down and falls into the Kennet, near Thatcham. It is situate on the South-side of White-Horse-Hill, and has a Market. This River is remarkable for being very low in Win­ter, and high in Summer. It goes off about Michael­mas, and the sooner it goes, the more plentiful, say [Page 61] the Inhabitants, will that Year be. This Town is likewise noted for the Birth-place, or at least, the Residence of the Poet Sylvester, who celebrates the River in the following Lines:

And little Lambesbourn —
All Summer long, while all thy Sisters shrink,
Then of thy Waters Thousands daily drink;
Besides, shed Water, which in haste doth run
To wash the Feet of Chaucer's Donnington;
But while the rest are full unto the Top,
All Summer long thou dost not shed a Drop,
Nor send'st a Doit of needless Subsidy
To cram the Kennet's wantless Treasury,
Before her Stores be spent, and Springs be staid:
Then, then, alone, thou lend'st a lib'ral Aid,
Teaching thy wealthy Neighbours (mine of late)
How, when, and where, to right participate
Their Streams of Comfort to the Poor that pine,
And not to grease the still too greasy Swine;
Neither for Fame or Form (when others do)
To give a Morsel, or a Mite or two,
But sev'rally, and of a selfly Motion,
When others miss, to give the most Devotion.

At Newbury we quitted the high Road, and being desirous to see something of the North of Berkshire, we struck up to Islip, which tho' but an inconsider­able little Town, yet has a good weekly Market for Sheep.

We passed North-eastward to Wantage, a Town of some Antiquity, pretty good and neat. It is noted for the Birth-place of the renowned King Alfred, and is watered by the Och.

From Wantage we advanced into the fine and fertile Vale of White-Horse, which extends almost from Farringdon to Abington, tho' not in a direct Line. Looking South from the Vale, we see a [Page 62] Trench cut on the Side of a high green Hill, in the Shape of a Horse, and not ill done. The Trench is about a Yard deep, and fill'd almost up with Chalk; so that at a Distance you see the exact Shape of a White-Horse, so large as takes up near an Acre of Ground. From this Figure the Hill is called White-Horse-Hill, and the Vale below takes also its Name. 'Tis said to be done in order to commemorate a signal Victory; and some give it to the Saxons, whose Device was, and still is, a white Horse. West­ward of this Vale, lies Ashbury, betwixt which and Wantage is a very large Camp on the Brow of a Hill: 'tis single work'd, and of a quadrangular Form, which shews it a Roman Work.

The neighbouring Parish to this White-Horse have a Custom annually at Midsummer, to go and weed it, in order to keep it in Shape and Colour; and when they have done their Work, they end the Day in Feasting and Meriment.

We arrived at Farringdon, noted for its pleasant Situation on a Hill. It has a very good Market weekly, and is very neat and clean. In this Place may be seen the Ruins of a Castle, built by Robert Earl of Gloucester, in King Stephen's Reign. Here was also a Priory of Cistertian Monks. The Church is large and handsome.

From hence we went partly by the Forest to Abingdon, a handsome well-built Town, where the Assizes and Sessions, and other publick Meet­ings of the County, are generally held. Here is a stately Market-house, built on high Pillars, over which is a large Hall for the Assizes. The Town consists of several well-paved Streets, which centre in an open and spacious Place, where the Corn-market is kept. They make great Quantities of Malt here, and send it up by Barges to London. Here is a good Free-School, and also a Charity-School. [Page 63] The Corporation is governed by a Mayor, Two Bailiffs, and Nine Aldermen.

It is an antient Town, and was famed for Reli­gious Houses in the Time of the antient Britons. It was also famous for having several Synods held there, and for one of the noblest Abbeys in the King­dom, founded, as it is said, by Heane, Nephew to Cissa, Father to King Ina. Henry I. was educated in this Monastery.

We next came to Wallingford, called by the antient Britons Gwal Hen, i. e. Old Fort, a Place of great Figure, as well in their Days and of the Romans, as of the Saxons and Danes, the last of whom destroyed it in 1006; but it was soon rebuilt, and esteemed a Borough, in the Confessor's Time. It has been defended by a strong Castle, which has been long since demolish'd. It is still a large well-built Town, has a good Market-place and Town-hall, where the Assizes have been sometimes held, and a Quarter-session for the Borough always. It has still Two Churches standing; but one was very much damaged in the Civil Wars, when Two others here were altogether destroyed. It has Two weekly Markets, and is govern'd by a Mayor, Burgesses, &c.

Here we cross'd the Thames into Oxfordshire, and leaving Wathington, a little inconsiderable Market-town on the Left, we fell down thro' Netlebed (like­wise a Town of little Note) to Henley upon Thames, a very antient Town, the Name being deriv'd from the British Word Hen-lley, i. e. Old Place. It was formerly part of the Estate of the Barons of Hunger­ford, mentioned before. It is now a Corporation of great Account, govern'd by a Warden, Burgesses, and other Officers. It has a considerable Corn and Malt-market. The Inhabitants are mostly Maltsters, Mealmen and Bargemen, who by carrying Corn and Timber to London, get a gainful Living, and inrich [Page 64] the Neighbourhood. It has a good Free Grammar School, and also a Charity School, liberally endow'd for teaching, cloathing, and apprenticing several poor Children. Here is also an Alms-house, but meanly endowed; for tho' there are not above Six or Seven Persons in it, they have but Six-pence a-piece weekly for their Allowance.

We return'd over a wooden Bridge, into Berkshire; and as Thatcham, Woolhampton and Theal, which lie between Newbury and Reading, are at present noted only for being great Thoroughfare Towns, and full of Inns, we went no further back than Reading.

Reading is so called from the British Word Rhedin, i. e. Fern, which formerly grew in great Quantity there. It is a very large and wealthy Town, hand­somly built, the Inhabitants rich, and driving a very great Trade. The Town is situated on the River Kennet, but so near the Thames, that the largest Barges which they use, may come up to the Town Bridge, where they have Wharfs to load and unload them. Their chief Trade is by this Water-naviga­tion to and from London, tho' they have necessarily a great Trade into the Country, for the Consumption of the Goods which they bring by their Barges from London, and particularly Coals, Salt, Grocery Wares, Tobacco, Oils, and all heavy Goods.

They send from hence to London by these Barges, very great Quantities of Malt and Meal, and these are the Two principal Articles of their Loadings. Some of those Barges are so large, that I was told, they bring a Thousand, or Twelve hundred Quar­ters of Malt at a time, which, according to the ordinary Computation of Tonnage in the Freight of other Vessels, is from a Hundred to an Hundred and Twenty Ton, dead Weight.

They also send very great Quantities of Timber from Reading; for Berkshire being a well-wooded [Page 65] County, and the River Thames a convenient Con­veyance for the Timber, they transport the largest and fairest of the Timber to London, which is generally bought by the Shipwrights in the River for the build­ing Merchant-Ships. The like Trade of Timber is carried on at Henley above-mentioned, and at Maiden-head; of which in its Place.

A large Manufacture of Sail-Cloth was set up in Reading by the late Sir Owen Buckingham, Lord-Mayor of London, and many of the poor People were profitably imployed in it; but Sir Owen dying, and his Son being unhappily kill'd in a Duel a little while after, that Manufacture died also.

Here is however still a Remnant of the Woollen Manufacture, which was once carried on in it to a very considerable Degree; and this Town, as well as Newbury, has injoy'd the above-mentioned Legacies of Mr. Kenrick, to set the Poor at Work, and incourage the Clothing Trade; viz. 7500l.

Mr. Camden's Continuator says, there were once 140 Master-Clothiers in this one Town; but now they are almost all gone. During the Civil Wars in England this Town was strongly fortified, and the Remains of the Bastions and other Works are still to be seen.

There are Three Churches built of Flint and square Stones in the quincunx Fashion, with tall Tow­ers of the same. Here are also Two large Meeting-houses, besides that of the Quakers. Camden calls it a little City: it is said to contain about 8000 People, including a little Hamlet at the Bridge over the Thames. Archbishop Laud was born in this Town.

It was formerly noted for a very famous Abbey, and other Religious Foundations. The Abbey stood in a charming Situation, and large Ruins of it are still visible, built of Flint: the Walls which remain are about Eight Feet thick, tho' the Stone that [Page 66] faced them is gone. What is left is so hard cemented, that the Labour in separating them would not be answer'd by their Use. There are many Remnants of arch'd Vaults, a good Height above Ground, whereon stood, as may be presum'd, the Hall, Lodg­ings, &c. The Abbey Gate-house is yet pretty in­tire.

This was built by King Henry I. on an old Abbey, formerly erected by a Saxon Lady. That Prince was buried in it, with his Queen; but their Monuments are lost in the Ruins of the Place, and no-where to be found.

There was a famous old Castle, long since de­molished.

The Empress Maud, Daughter of Henry I. was also buried here; but her Monument is lost, as well as the others. It bore this Inscription, as we are assur'd:

Magna ortu, majorque viro, sed maxima partu,
Hic jacet Henrici filia, sponsa, parens.

Thus translated:

Illustrious in Descent, in Marriage more,
But noblest in her Offspring's Royal Pow'r,
Great Henry's Daughter, Parent, Wife, deplore.

The deceas'd Earl Cadogan, who was created Baron of Reading, by his late Majesty King George I. in 1716, built a fine large House at Caversham near Reading; which his Successor the present Lord Ca­dogan thought fit to reduce to a smaller and more convenient Size, as less regarding the outward Glare of Magnificence, than Use and Convenience.

At Reading, in the Year 1688, began the univer­sal Alarm that spread over the whole Kingdom (al­most at the same time) of the Irish being coming to cut every body's Throats; which was carried from [Page 67] Town to Town by Peoples Fears and Terrors, aggra­vated by the Menaces of an Irish Detachment of Soldiers, who were beat out of Reading by the Dutch, and prevented taking the Quarters they in­tended at Maidenhead, Colebrook, Stanes, &c.

It is impossible to express the Consternation of the People all over England on this Occasion; for the terrible Story spread (like the Undulations of the Wa­ter in a Pond, when a flat Stone is cast upon the Surface) all over the Kingdom, as I have said, in one Day; for Fear gave Wings to the News: no Post could carry it as it flew from Town to Town; and still every Messenger had Two Articles with him: 1. Not that such and such Towns were to be burnt and plundered by them; but that they were already burnt: And, 2. that the Irish were at their Heels to do the like there. And the Service this Report did to the Cause of the Revolution, is hardly to be imagined.

Twyford is about Five Miles East of Reading, and is only noted, like Theale, and the other Towns beyond Reading, for its Number of Inns, for the Accommodations of Carriers, &c.

Just beyond Theale, is Inglefield, where King Ethet­wolf routed the Danes.

From Reading I went to Great Marlow in Buck­inghamshire, which, though not in the direct Road, yet lying on the Banks of the River Thames, is pro­per enough to be spoken of, and is particularly worth Notice for several Things.

1. It is a Town of very great Imbarkation on the Thames, not so much for Manufactures wrought here, (for the Trade of the Town is chiefly in Bone­lace) but for Goods brought from the neighbouring Towns; a very great Quantity of Malt and Meal particularly being brought hither from High Wick­ham, which is one of the greatest Corn-markets on [Page 68] this Side of England, and lies on the Road from London to Oxford.

2. Between High Wickham and Marlow is a little River called the Loddon, on which are a great many Corn-mills, and some Paper-mills: the first of these grind and dress the Wheat, and then the Meal is sent to Marlow, and put on board the Barges for London; and the second make great Quantities of ordinary Printing-paper.

3. On the Thames, just by the Side of this Town, tho' on the other Bank, are Three very remarkable Mills, called the Temple-Mills, or the Brass-Mills, for making Bisham Abbey Battery Work, as they call it, viz. Brass Kettles and Pans, &c. of all Sorts. And these Works were attended with no small Suc­cess, 'till in the Year 1720. they made a Bubble of it, and then it ran the Fate of all the Bubbles at that time.

4. Next to these are Two Mills which are both of an extraordinary Kind, one for making of Thim­bles, a Work which performs to Admiration; and another for pressing of Oyl from Rape and Flax­seed, both which turn to very good Account to the Proprietors.

Hither is also brought down a vast Quantity of Beech Wood, which grows in Buckinghamshire more plen­tifully than in any other Part of England; and from whence the County itself derives its Name.

At Bisham, over-against this Town, was formerly an Abbey, and the Remains of it are still to be seen. The Estate belong'd once to the Knights Templars, and since came to the antient Family of Hobby, whereof Sir William Hobby, and Sir Edward Hobby, are noted in our Histories, the latter as having been imploy'd by Queen Elizabeth in the most important foreign Negotiations, as a learned Man, and great Antiquary. Their Monuments, with those of their Ladies and Children, are in the little Church of [Page 69] Bisham, and well worth seeing. The Seat of the Family is now in Dorsetshire; but hither they are generally all brought, when they die, to be buried with their Ancestors.

A little higher, on the same Side of the River, is Hurley, an antient Seat of the Lord Lovela [...]; and all the Male Branches of the Family b [...]g extinct, it came by the Daughter and Heires [...] o S [...]r H [...]nry Johnson of Blackwall, near Ratcliffe, who origi­nally was only a Shipwright, or Master-build [...]r, at the great Yard and Dock there, of which I shall speak in their Place. This Lady left only one Daughter, married to the late Earl of Strafford.

From hence we fell with the Thames into Maiden­head, and so came into the London Road again. It is an antient Corporation under the Government of a High Steward, a Mayor, a Steward, and Ten Aldermen, out of which they annually elect Two Bridgmasters to look after the large Timber-bridge which here crosses the Thames, for the Repair of which the Town has Three Trees annually allow'd them out of Windsor Forest. The Mayor, for the Time being, is Clerk of the Market and Coroner, and he and the Mayor for the preceding Year, and the Steward, are Justices of the Peace: they chuse yearly Two Mace-bearers. The Town is a large Thoroughfare, with many good Inns in it, and has a good Market weekly. It lies in Two Parishes, one Part of it is in Bray, famous of old for its con­forming Vicar to all Times, Changes, and Seasons.

As soon as you are out of Maidenhead, you see Cliefden on your Left, where George Duke of Buck­ingham began a magnificent and delightful Palace, which the late Earl of Orkney afterwards purchased of the Family, and finish'd; and now has the Honour to be the Summer Retreat of his Royal Highness Frederick Prince of Wales.

[Page 70]We came to Slough, a Village Five Miles East of Maidenhead, which consists almost intirely of Inns. They seem to vie with one another, and 'tis wonder­ful how they all subsist; and especially as they are opposed by the Two famous new ones of the Castle and Windmill, a little Way out of Slough, which are much more delightfully situated, and have better Accommodations.

Here we left the Road, and turn'd to the Right, and soon arriv'd at Eton, where there is the finest School for Grammar Learning, that is in Britain, or per­haps in Europe.

The Buildings, except the great School-room, are antient; the Chapel Gothick; but all has been re­paired, at a very great Expence, out of the College Stock, within these few Years, and a noble Library built for the Reception of Books.

In the great Court a fine Statue is erected to the Honour of the Founder, by Dr. Godolphin, late Dean of St. Paul's, and Provost of this College; and the Library has receiv'd several considerable Benefactions, particularly very lately, the fine Col­lection of Richard Topham, Esq formerly Keeper of the Records in the Tower, which was presented to it, by the late excellent Lord Chief Justice Reeves. And before that a Collection of Books, valu'd at 2000l. was left to it by Dr. Waddington, late Bi­shop of Chichester.

The Gardens, which extend from the College down almost to the Bank of the Thames, are well planted and kept.

This College was founded by King Henry VI. a Prince munificent in his Gifts for the Incourage­ment of Learning. Witness, besides this noble Foun­dation, that of King's College in Cambridge, to which the Scholars of Eton are annually removed; and which, had it been perfected as he designed it, would have been the noblest Building of the Kind in the [Page 71] World. But his Successor and Deposer, K. Ed. IV. took several Manors from Eton College, and bestow'd them on their Neighbours at Windsor; and had in­tended to have taken from them still more, had not the celebrated Jane Shore solicited in their Behalf.

This College has a settled Revenue of about 5000l. per Ann. and maintains a Provost, a Vice-provost, who is also a Fellow; Six other Fellows, and 70 Scholars on the Foundation, besides a full Choir for the Chapel, with necessary Officers and Servants. The School is divided into the upper and lower, and each into Three Classes; each School has One Master, and each Master Four Assistants or Ushers. None are received into the upper School, till they can make Latin Verses, and have a tolerable Knowledge of the Greek. In the lower School the Children are re­ceived very young, and are initiated into all School-learning. Besides the Seventy Scholars upon the Foundation, there are always abundance of Chil­dren, generally speaking, of the best Families, and of Persons of Distinction, who are boarded in the Houses of the Townsmen, and within the College.

The Number of Scholars instructed here used to be from 400 to 500; but has not been, for Seven Years past, more than 320.

The Election of Scholars for the University, out of this School, is made annually on the First Tuesday in August. In order to it, Three Persons are deputed from King's College in Cambridge, viz. the Provost of that College, and One Senior, and One Junior Poser, Fellows of the same; who being join'd by the Provost, the Vice-provost, and the Head Master of Eton College, call before them the Scholars of the upper Class, and examining them in the several Parts of their Learning, chuse out Twelve such as they think best qualified, and enter them in a Roll or List for the University. These Youths are not imme­diately removed from the School, but must wait till [Page 72] Vacancies fall in King's College; and as such happen, are then taken as they stand in Seniority in the Roll of Election.

When a Scholar from Eton comes to King's Col­lege, he is received upon the Foundation, and pur­sues his Studies there for Three Years; after which he claims a Fellowship, unless forfeited by Marriage, accepting of Ecclesiastick Preferments, &c. accord­ing to the Terms of the Statutes.

The Provost has a noble House and Garden, besides the Use of the College Gardens at his Pleasure.

Will you, Sir, excuse me here a few Lines to the Memory of the late excellent Lord Chief Justice Reeves, before-mentioned? This worthy and emi­nent Lawyer had a Seat in this Town, to which he constantly retired at the Close of every Term, while he was at the Bar; for he would never go the Cir­cuit, or attend the Court of Chancery; and actually declined accepting of the high Office of a Judge, while his Lady liv'd, chusing rather to spend his Vacations in Retirement with his Family, than either Honour or Profit; yet he was pursued even here with Cases for his Opinion, as being the greatest Lawyer of his Time; and these were conveyed to him by his Clerk from his Chambers in the Temple; and after he had answer'd them, he would return them thither again, without seeing the Practisers who left them.

This Gentleman lay a long time undistinguish'd in his Profession, under an invincible Modesty; in­somuch that he thought once of quitting the Bar: but a lucky Occasion happening, whereby he had an Opportunity to shew his great Parts and Learning, he was soon taken Notice of, and retain'd in every Cause of Moment; but however confined himself intirely to the Courts of Law, and chiefly to that of the King's Bench. After the Death of his Wife he was prevailed with to ascend the Bench as a [Page 73] Judge, in the last Court, which he accepted, proba­bly to alleviate and divert the Concern he was in for her Death. He was afterwards made Lord Chief Justice of the Common-pleas, in which Office he lived but Two Years. His Death was a publick Loss, and much lamented.

I am now come to Windsor, where I must for a while quit the Subject of Trade and Navigation, in order to describe the most beautiful and most plea­santly situated Castle, and Royal Palace, in the whole Isle of Great Britain.

William the Conqueror was the first of our English Monarchs, who distinguish'd Windsor. That Prince, who delighted much in Hunting, finding it a Situa­tion highly proper for that Purpose, and, as he said of it, a suitable Place for the Entertainment of Kings, agreed with the Abbot of Westminster for an Exchange, and so took Possession of it. He built a Castle here, and had several little Lodges or Hunt­ing-houses in the Forest adjoining; and frequently lodg'd, for the Conveniency of his Sport, in a House which the Monks before enjoyed near or in the Town of Windsor; for the Town is much more ancient than the present Castle, and was an emi­nent Pass upon the Thames in the Reign of the Saxon Kings.

After him King Edward III. taking an extreme Liking to that Place, resolved to fix his Summer Residence here; and accordingly laid out himself the Plan of that magnificent Palace, which, as to outward Form and Building, we now see there; for whatever has been done as to beautifying, altering, or amending the Inside and Apartments, nothing has been added to the Building itself, except that noble Terrace, which runs under the North Front, and leads to the Green on the Park, at the East Side or End of it, along which the fine Lodgings, and Royal Apartments, were at first built; all the North-part [Page 74] being then taken up in Rooms of State, and Halls for publick Balls, &c.

The House itself was indeed a Palace, and with­out any Appearance of a Fortification; but when the Building was brought on to the Slope of the Hill on the Town Side, the King added Ditches, Ram­parts, the Round Tower, and several other Places of Strength; and thence it was called a Castle.

Such a Pride did this great King take in being the Founder of this sumptuous Building, that when it was suggested to him, that William of Wickham had assumed the Honour of it to himself, it had like to have cost William all his Interest in the King's Favour, which at that time was very great; but the Prelate cleared himself by disavowing the Charge, urging that all he protended to, was to acknowlege, That the Money and the Reputation he had gained by building that Castle for the King, had been the making of him. For it seems he had caused these Words, ‘THIS MADE WICKHAM,’ to be cut in Stone in the inner Wall of the little Tower, which from him is, to this Day, call'd Win­chester Tower.

William of Wickham, whom I have before-men­tioned in my Account of Winchester, was, at that time, the Architect of the Court; and so well per­form'd his Part, that in all the Decorations and Or­naments which have been made since by succeeding Princes, they have found no Occasion to add to or diminish any thing, except it be to alter some small Matter at the Entrance to the great Stair-case, the Kitchen, and Offices below Stairs, and such-like; but the great North and East Fronts, the Square of the inner Court, the great Gates at the entering from the Town, with the Round Tower, and the [Page 75] Walls annex'd, are all standing in the very Form in which King Edward III. left them.

The only Addition in the Inside, is a fine Eque­strian Statue of King Charles II. which stands over the great Well, sunk, as may be supposed, in the first Building, for the Supply of the Castle with Water, and in which was an Engine for raising it, notwithstanding the great Depth, by very little Labour; the Contrivance and Performance of Sir Samuel Morland, an excellent Mechanick and Ma­thematician.

On the Outside, as I have said, was added the Terrace Walk, by Queen Elizabeth, where she usually walked for an Hour every Day before her Dinner, if not hindered by windy Weather, to which she had a peculiar Aversion; for she loved to walk in a mild, calm Rain, with an Umbrella over her Head.

This is really a magnificent Work; for as it is raised on a steep Declivity of the Hill, it was neces­sarily cut down a very great Depth, to bring the Foundation to a Flat equal to the Breadth, which was to be formed above. From the Foundation it was raised by solid Stone Work of a vast Thickness, with cross Walls of Stone, for banding the Front, and preventing any Thrust from the Weight of Earth within.

This noble Walk is covered with fine Gravel, and has Cavities, with Drains, to carry off the Water; so that not a Drop of Rain will rest on the Terrace, but it is dry, hard, and fit to walk on immediately after the greatest Showers. The Breadth of this Walk is very spacious on the North Side; on the East Side it is narrower. Neither Versailles, nor any of the Royal Palaces in France, Naples, or Rome, can shew any thing like this. The Grand Seignior's Terrace, in the outer Court of the Seraglio next the Sea, is what I think comes the nearest, and yet is [Page 76] not equal to it, if I may believe the Account of those who have seen it.

At the North-east Corner of this Terrace, where it turns South, to run on by the East Side of the Castle, are Steps, by which you go off upon the Plain of the Park, which is kept smooth as a Carpet, and on the Edge of which the Prospect of the Ter­race is doubled by a Vista, South over the Park, and quite up to the great Park, and towards the Forest. Here also is a small Seat, that will not contain above One, or Two at most, with an high Back and Cover for the Head, which being fixed on a Pin of Iron or Brass, the Persons who sit in it may easily turn it from the Wind, however it may blow; and enjoy a complete Calm. This is said also to be Queen Eli­zabeth's Invention, to avoid being ruffled with the Wind; and it affords no less Shelter from the Sun.

From this lofty Terrace the People within have an Egress to the Park, and to a most beautiful Walk, which neither King Edward III. nor his Successors, for some Hundreds of Years, knew any thing of, all their Prospect being from the Windows of the Castle.

On that Side of the Building which looks out upon the Terrace, are all the Royal Apartments; those of King Edward III. which were on the East Side, being now allotted to great Officers of State.

You mount into the Royal Apartments by several back Stairs; but the publick Way is up a small Ascent to a Flat or Half-pace, where there are two Entries of State by two large Stair-cases, one on the Left-hand to the Royal Apartments, and the other on the Right, to St. George's-hall and the Royal Chapel.

Before the Entrance to these on either Side, you pass thro' the Guard-chambers, where you see the Walls furnished with Arms, and the King's Yeomen of the Guard keep their Station. These Rooms [Page 77] lead as well to the fine Lodgings, as to St. George's-hall.

In the Royal Lodgings there have been so many Alterations of Furniture, that there can be no enter­ing upon a particular Description. In the Chimney-piece of one of these Apartments, is a Piece of Needle-work exquisitely fine, performed, as they say, by the Queen of Scots, during the Time of her Con­finement in Fotheringay-castle. There are several Family Pictures in the Chimney-pieces, and other Parts of those Lodgings, which are very valuable.

These Rooms look all out North towards the Terrace, and over Part of the finest and richest Vale in the World; which along the Course of the River Thames, with very little Interruption, reaches to, and includes the City of London East, and the City of Oxford West; the River, with a beautiful winding Stream gliding gently thro' the Middle of it, and in­riching by its Navigation both the Land and the People on every Side.

It may be proper to say something of the Beauties and Ornaments of St. George's-hall, tho' nothing can be said equal to what the Eye may be Witness to. 'Tis surprising, at the first Entrance, to see at the Upper-end the Picture of King William on Horse­back; under him an Ascent with Marble Steps, a Balustrade, and a half Pace, which formerly was actually there, with room for a Throne, or Chair of State, for the Sovereign to sit on, when on publick Days he thought fit to appear in Ceremony.

At the West End of the Hall is the Chapel Royal, the neatest and finest of the Kind in England: the carved Work is beyond any that can be seen in the Kingdom.

After we had spent some Hours in viewing all that was curious on this Side, we came down to the Dungeon, or Round Tower, which goes up a long, but easy Ascent of Steps, and is very high. Here we [Page 78] were obliged to deliver up our Swords, but no-where else: tho' here is nothing curious. The Governor or Constable's Lodgings are neatly furnished, but nowise extraordinary.

From this Tower you see St. Paul's Cathedral at London very plainly.

Coming down from hence we entered into the other Court, where is the great Chapel of the Garter, and the House or College for the poor Knights, as they are called.

I might go back here to the History of the Order of the Garter, the Institution of which by King Edward III. had its Original here: but this is done so fully in other Authors, that I shall only mention, That this Order was not founded on the Countess of Salisbury's Garter, as Polydere Virgil, the most con­ceited and most erroneous Author that ever wrote of the English Affairs, ridiculously asserts; but on that martial King's own Garter, which he gave as the Signal at the glorious Battle of Cressi, as St. George was given for the Word of the Day. To comme­morate which, in Honour of his brave and war­like Son, and of those Nobles and Gentlemen who shared with him in the Glory of that ever memorable Day, he instituted this Order. And here I can't forbear observing, (tho' intirely out of my way) how fond we have ever been in following Foreigners in most Things, even from the Coxcomb in Dress, up to the Historian; as is evident not only from this idle Story of the above-mentioned Author prevailing among u [...] in particular, and of his History in general, but likewise of the Performance of a late Foreign Author, of the Affairs and Transactions of this Country; whereby the Translator, and Under­take [...], to usher it out in English, got at least 10,000l. when it had nothing more, but rather much less▪ to recommend it, than any of our own English Histories.

[Page 79]The following are the Names of the first Knights of this most Noble Order.

  • King Edward III.
  • The Black Prince.
  • Henry, D. of Lancaster.
  • Thomas, Earl of Warwick.
  • Peers Capitow de la Bouch.
  • Ralph, Earl of Stafford.
  • W. Montacute, E. of Salis.
  • Roger Mortimer, Earl of March.
  • John de Lysle.
  • Bartholomew Burghersh.
  • John de Beauchamp.
  • John de M [...]un.
  • Hugh Courteney.
  • Thomas Holland.
  • John de Grey.
  • Richard Fitz Simon.
  • Miles Stapleton.
  • Thomas Wale.
  • Hugh Wortesley.
  • Nele Loring.
  • John Chandos.
  • James d' Audeley.
  • Otho Holland.
  • Henry Eam.
  • Sanchet Daubricourt.
  • Walter Paveley, alias Pevrell.

These, tho' not all Noblemen, were however Men of great Characters and Stations, either in the Army, or in the Civil Administration, and such as the Sovereign did not think it below him to make his Companions.

The lower Court of the Castle, although not so distinguished by Lodgings and Rooms of State, is nevertheless particularly glorious for the fine Chapel of the Order, a most beautiful and magnificent Work, and which shews the Greatness not only of the Court in those Days, but the Spirit and Genius of the magnanimous Founder. The Chapel is not only fine within, but the Workmanship without is extra­ordinary; nothing so antient is to be seen so beauti­ful. King's-College Chapel at Cambridge, built by Henry VI. and Henry VII.'s Chapel in Westminster-Abbey, are fine Buildings; but they are modern, compared to this, which was begun, as by the inscribed Dates upon the Walls appears, in the Year 1337.

[Page 80]The Coats of Arms, and the various Imagery and other Ornaments both inside and outside, not only of the King, but of several of the first Knights Companions, are wonderfully finished, and the Work has stood out against the Injury of Time to Admiration.

'Tis observable, that King Edward owns this Chapel was begun by his Ancestors, and some think it was by King Edward I. and that he himself was baptized in it, and there was a Castle built by William the Conqueror also: As to the Chapel, which was then called a Church, or a Convent, King Edward III. did not pull down the old Building in­tirely; but he added all the Choir to the first Model, and several other proper Parts for the Purposes in­tended, as Houses and handsome Apartments for the Canons, Dignitaries, and other Persons belonging to the Church, which are generally situated on the North Side of the Square, out of Sight, or rather skreened from the common View by the Church itself; which Dwellings are notwithstanding very good, and well accommodated for the Persons who are Possessors of them; then the King finished it in the Manner we now see it: As for the old Castle, the Building of William the Conqueror, the King pulled it down to the Foundation, forming a new Building according to the present Plan, and which stood, as above, to the Time of King Charles II. without any Alteration.

The Establishment for this Chapel was very con­siderable, by the Donation of divers Subjects, before it was set apart to be the Chapel of the Order: the Duke of Suffolk in particular, as appears in Dug­dale's Monasticon, gave near 3000 Acres of Land, 19 Manors, 170 Messuages and Tofts, and several Ad­vowsons of Churches, to it; which, with other Gifts afterwards, made the Revenue above 1000l. a Year in those Days, which was a prodigious Sum, as Money went at that Time.

[Page 81]In the Choir are the Stalls for the Knights of the Order, with a Throne for the Sovereign; also Stalls in the Middle of it for the poor Knights-Pensioners, who live in their House or Hospital on the South Side of the Square or Court in which the Church stands.

Here are to be seen the Banners of the Knights who now enjoy the Honour of the Garter: When they die, those Banners are taken down, and the Coat of Arms of the deceased Knight set up in the Place allotted for those Arms over the same Stall: so those Coats of Arms are a living History, or rather a Record of all the Knights, that ever have been since the first Institution of the Order, and how they succeeded one another; by which it appears, that Kings, Emperors, and Sovereign Princes, have not thought it below them to accept of the Honour of being Knights Companions of the Order, while at the same time it must be noted, to the Honour of the English Crown, that our Kings have never thought fit to accept of any of their Orders abroad, of what Kind soever; whereas there is an Account in the Registry of the Order, that there are reckoned up of this most Noble Company,

  • 8 Emperors of Germany.
  • 3 Kings of Sweden.
  • 5 Kings of Denmark.
  • 2 Kings of Prussia.
  • 3 Kings of Spain.
  • 6 Princes of Orange.
  • 5 Kings of France.
  • 4 Peers of France.
  • A King of Scotland, be­sides James VI.
  • 5 Kings of Portugal.
  • A King of Poland.
  • 2 Kings of Naples.
  • A King of Arragon.
  • 3 Infants of Portugal.
  • A Prince of Denmark.
  • A Bishop of Osnabrug.
  • 5 Princes of Lunenburg.
  • An Elector of Branden­burg.
  • 7 Electors Palatine.
  • 2 Electors of Saxony.
  • 2 Dukes of Lorrain.
  • 3 Dukes of Wirtenberg.
  • 2 Dukes of Holstein.
  • 2 Grandees of Spain.
  • 2 Dukes de Urbino.
  • A Duke of Savoy.
  • A Duke of Saxe Gotha.
  • A Prince of Hesse, &c.

[Page 82]Besides these Foreign Princes, there is a little Galaxy of English Nobility, the Flower of so many Courts, and so many Ages, to whose Families the Ensigns of the Order have been an Honour, and who are not the least Glory this Order has to boast of. But as to the List of the present Knights, that being subject to Fluctuation, comes not within my Design in this Letter.

Several Kings and Persons of high Rank have been buried also in this Chapel, as Edward IV. and Charles I. Here also is the Family Burying-place of the Dukes of Beauford, who are a natural Branch of the Royal Family of Lancaster.

All the Ceremonies observed here in the Instal­ment of the Knights, are so perfectly set down in Mr. Ashmole's History of the Order of the Garter, that nothing can be said but what must be a Copy from him.

As the upper Court and Building are fronted with the fine Terrace, so the lower Court, where this beautiful Chapel stands, is incompassed with a very high Wall, which goes round the West-end of the Court to the Gate; and looking South, leads into the Town, as the Gate of the upper Court looks likewise South-east into the little Park.

The Parks about Windsor are very agreeable and spacious: the little Park, as it is called, is above 3 Miles round, the great one 14, and the Forest above 30. The first is particular to the Court; the others are open for Riding, Hunting, and taking the Air, for any Gentlemen that please.

The Lodges in those Parks may be called Palaces, were they not eclipsed by the Palace itself. They have been beautified by the noble Persons to whom the Post of Rangers has been generally assigned, who, having been inriched by other Advancements, Honours, and profitable Imployments, thought no­thing too much to lay out to adorn their Apartments, [Page 83] in a Place wherein it was so much to their Honour, as well as Convenience to reside: such is the Lodge belonging once to Admiral Churchill, the Duchess of Marlborough, and others.

We left Windsor, and struck again into the Lon­don Road at Colebrook, and passed over the Heath, and thro' the Town of Hounslow, Brentford, Hamer­smith, and Kensington into London.

And here I shall conclude this Letter with assuring you, that I am, Sir,

Your humble Servant.

LETTER II. CONTAINING A Description of the City of LONDON, as taking in the City of Westminster, Borough of Southwark, and the Build­ings circumjacent.


I Am now to describe the City of LONDON, and Parts adjacent: a Work infinitely difficult to be perform'd in the narrow Compass of a Letter, since we see it so fully takes up Two large Volumes in Folio, which yet, if I may venture to give an Opinion of it, is very imperfectly executed, and has imploy'd since another very large one in Folio, written by Mr. W. Maitland, F. R. S. which has much more Merit than the Two Volumes, and contains many Things needful to be known by the Curious, which are in­compatible with the Brevity to which our narrow Limits confine us.

LONDON, as a City only, and as its Walls and Liberties line it out, might indeed be viewed in a smaller Compass, than what we propose to consider it in; for when I speak of London, in the modern [Page 85] Acceptation, I take in all that vast Mass of Buildings reaching from Blackwall in the East, to Tothill-fields in the West; and extended in an unequal Breadth from the Bridge or River in the South, to Islington North; and from Peterborough-house on the Bank­side in Westminster, to Cavendish-square; and all the new Buildings by and beyond Grosvenor and Hanover Squares to the Brentford Road one way, to the Acton Road another; a Prodigy of Buildings, that nothing in the World does, or ever did, surpass, except old Rome in Trajan's Time, when the Walls of that City were 50 Miles in Compass, and the Number of Inhabitants 6,800,000 Souls.

London, as to its Figure, must be owned to be very irregular, as it is stretch'd out in Buildings just at the Pleasure of every Undertaker of them, and as the Convenience of the People directs, whether for Trade, or otherwise. This has given it a very confused Face, and made it uncompact and unequal, being properly neither long or broad, round or square; whereas the City of Rome, was, in a man­ner, round, with very few Irregularities in its Shape.

One sees London, including the Buildings on both Sides the Water, in some Places Three Miles broad, as from St. George's in Southwark, to Shoreditch in Middlesex; or Two Miles, as from Peterborough-house to Montague-house; and in some Places not half a Mile, as in Wapping; and less in Rotherhith.

We see several Villages, formerly standing, as it were, in the Country, and at a great Distance, now joined to the Streets by continued Buildings, and more making haste to meet in the like manner; for Example,

1. Deptford: This Town was formerly reckoned at least Two Miles from Rotherhith, and that over the Marshes too, a Place unlikely ever to be inha­bited; and yet now, by the Increase of Buildings in that Town itself, and the many Streets erected at [Page 86] Rotherhith, and by the Docks and Building-yards on the River-side, which stand between both, the Town of Deptford, and the Streets of Rotherhith, are in a manner joined, and the Buildings daily increasing; so that Deptford may be reckoned a Part of the great Mass, and infinitely full of People also; and were the Town of Deptford now separated, and rated by itself, I believe it contains more People, and stands upon more Ground than the City of Wells.

2. The Town of Islington, on the North-side of the City, is in like manner joined to the Streets of Lon­don, excepting one small Field, and which is in itself so small, that there is no Doubt but in a very few Years they will be intirely joined. And the same may be said,

3. Of Mile-end, on the East End of the Town.

4. Newington-butts, in Surrey, reaches out her Hand North, and is so joining to Southwark, that it cannot now be properly called a Town by itself, but a kind of Suburb to the Borough; and if, as once was talk'd of, St. George's-fields should be built into Squares and Streets, Newington, Lambeth, and the Borough, would make but one Southwark.

That Westminster is in a fair way to shake Hands with Chelsea, as St. Gyles's is with Marybone; and Great Russel-street by Montague-house, with Totten­ham-court, is very evident; and yet all these put together, may still be called London: Whither will this City then extend, and where must a Circum­vallation Line of it be placed?

I have, as near as I could, caused a Measure to be taken of this mighty Body; and for the Satis­faction of your Curiosity, I have here given as accurate a Description of it, as I can do in so narrow a Com­pass, or without drawing a Plan of the Places.

As I am forced, in many Places, to take in some unbuilt Ground, so I have, on the other hand, been obliged to leave a great many whole Streets of Build­ings [Page 87] out of my Line: so that I have really not stretched my Calculations, to make it seem bigger than it is; nor is there any Occasion for it.

A LINE of Measurement, drawn about all the continued Buildings of the City of London, and Parts adjacent, including Westminster and Southwark, &c.

N.B. I shall sum up by Figures, 1, 2, 3, &c. the Particulars at last.

The Line begins, for the MIDDLESEX Side of the BUILDINGS,

1. AT Peterborough-house, the farthest House West upon the River Thames, and runs North-west by West by the Marshes to Tothill-fields, and passing by the Neat-houses and Arnold's Brewhouse, ends at Chelsea Road. Measured, 1 Mile, 6 Furlongs, 16 Rods.

2. Then, allowing an Interval from Buckingham-house cross the Park, about one Furlong and half to the Corner of my Lord Godolphin's Garden-Wall, the Line goes North behind the Stable-yard Build­ings, and behind Park-place, and on the Park-wall behind the Buildings, on the West Side of St. James's-street, to the Corner in Soho, or Piccadilly; then crossing the Road, goes along the North Side of the Road West, Hyde-park Gate. 1 Mile, 2 Fur­longs, 11 Rods.

3. Then the Line turns North-east by East, and taking in the Buildings and Streets, called May-fair, holds on East, till the new Streets, formed out of Hyde-house Garden, cause it to turn away North, a Point West reaching to Tyburn-road, a little to the East of the great Mother Conduit; then it goes North, and crossing the Road, takes in the West Side of Cavendish-square, and the Streets adjoining, [Page 88] and leaving Marybone, goes away East, till it reaches to Hampstead-road, near a little Village called Tot­tenham-court. 2 Miles, 5 Furlongs, 20 Rods.

4. From Tottenham-court the Line comes in a little South, to meet the Bloomsbury Buildings; then turning East, runs behind Montague and South­ampton Houses, to the North-east Corner of South­ampton-house; then crossing the Path, meets the Buildings called Queen's-square; then turning North, till it comes to the North-west Corner of the Square; thence it goes away East, behind the Buildings on the North Side of Ormond-street, till it comes to Lamb's Conduit. 1 Mile, 1 Furlong, 13 Rods.

5. Here the Line turns South, and indents to the Corner of Bedford-row; and leaving some few Houses, with the Cock-pit and Bowling-green, goes on the Back of Gray's-inn Wall to Gray's-inn-lane; then turns on the Outside of the Buildings, which are on the West Side of Gray's-inn-lane, going North to the Stone's End, when turning East, it passes to the New River Bridge without Liquor-pond-street; so taking in the Cold-bath and the Bear-garden, but leaving out * Sir John Oldcastle's and the Spaw, goes on East by the Ducking-pond to the End of New Bridewell, and crossing the Fair-field, comes into the Islington Road by the Distiller's House, formerly Justice Fuller's. 1 Mile, 2 Furlongs, 6 Rods.

6. Here, to take in all the Buildings which join Islington to the Streets, the Line goes North on the East Side of the Road to the Turk's-head Alehouse; then turning North-west, passes to the New River House; but leaving it to the West, passes by Sadler's-wells, from thence to Busby's-house, and keeping on the West Side of Islington, till it comes opposite to Canbury-house-lane, turns into the Road, and passes [Page 89] South almost to the Lane which turns East down to the lower Street; but then turns East without the Houses, and goes to the Cowkeeper's in the lower Street crossing the Road, and thro' the Cowkeeper's Yard into Frog-lane; then turning West on the South Side of the Town, just without the Buildings, joins again to the Buildings on the West Side of Wood's-close, passing behind the Sheep-market Wall. 2 Miles, 4 Furlongs, 39 Rods.

7. From Wood's-close the Line goes due East to Mount-mill, where, leaving several Buildings to the North, it passes on, crossing all the Roads to Brick­lane, to the North Side of the great new Square in Oldstreet, and taking in the Pesthouse Wall, turns South at the North-east Corner of the said Wall to Oldstreet Road; then going away East till it meets the Buildings near Hoxton-square, it turns North to the North-west Corner of the Wall of Ask's Hospital; then sloping North-east, it passes by Pimlico, the Cyder-house, and the two Walls to the North End of Hoxton, when it turns East, and inclosing the Garden-walls, comes into the Ware Road just at the King's-head in the New Buildings by the Land of Promise. 2 Miles, 16 Rods.

8. From the King's-head the Line turns South, running to the Stone's End in Shoreditch; then turn­ing East, it takes in a Burying-ground, and some Buildings in the Hackney Road, when sloping South-east by South, it goes away by the Virginia-house to a great Brewhouse, and then still more East to the Back of Wheeler-street, and then East by South to Brick-lane, crossing which, it goes away East to­wards Bethnal-green; but then turning short South, it goes towards White-chapel Mount; but being intercepted by new Streets, it goes quite up to the South End of the Dog-row at Mile-end. 1 Mile, 6 Furlongs, 19 Rods.

[Page 90]9. From the Dog-row the Line crosses the Road, and takes in a Hamlet of Houses, called Stepney; and coming back West to the Street's End at White­chapel Mill, goes away South by the Hog-houses into Church-lane, and to Rag-fair; when turning again East, it continues in a strait Line on the North Side of Ratcliff Highway, till it comes almost to the farthe [...] Glass-houses; then turning North, it sur­rounds all Stepney, and Stepney-causway, to Mile-end Road; then turning East again, and afterwards South, comes back to the new Streets on the North Side of Limehouse, and joining the Marsh, comes down to the Water-side at the Lower Shipwright Dock in Limehouse-hole. 3 Miles, 7 Furlongs, 1 Rod.

The Particulars of the Middlesex Side, put toge­ther, are as follows; viz.

1.1 :6 :16
2.1 :2 :11
3.2 :5 :20
4.1 :1 :13
5.1 :2 :6
6.2 :4 :39
7.2 :0 :16
8.1 :6 :19
9.3 :7 :1
Total18 :4 :21

For the Southwark Side of the Buildings, the Line is as follows:

HAving ended the Circumference of the Middle­sex Building at Lime-house, and the Street ex­tending towards Poplar, the Hamlets of Poplar and Blackwall, tho' very near contiguous in Buildings, being excluded, I allow an Interval of two Miles, from Poplar, cross the Isle of Dogs, and over the Thames, to the Lower Water-gate at Deptford; and tho' in measuring the Circumference of all Cities, the River, where any such runs thro' Part of the Buildings, is always measured; yet, that I may not be said to stretch the Extent of the Buildings which I include in this Account, I omit the River from Limehouse to Deptford, (where, if included, it ought to begin) and begin my Line as above.

1. From the said Water-gate at Deptford, the Line goes East to the Corner next the Thames, where the Shipwright's Yard now is, and where I find a continued Range of Buildings begins by the Side of a little Creek or River, which runs into the Thames there, and reaches quite up the said River, to the Bridge in the great Kentish Road, and over the Street there, taking in the South Side of the Street to the West Corner of the Buildings in that Street, and then measuring down on the West Side of the long Street, which runs to the Thames Side, till you come to the new Street which passes from Deptford to Rotherhith; then turning to the Left, passing on the Back-side of the King's Yard to Mr. Evelin's House, including the new Church of Deptford, and all the new Streets or Buildings made on the Fields Side, which are very many, this amounts in the Whole, to 3 Miles, 1 Furlong, 16 Rods.

[Page 92]2. From Mr. Evelin's Garden-gate the Line goes North-west, taking in all the new Docks and Yards, the Red-house, and several large Streets of Houses, which have been lately built, and by which the said Town of Deptford is effectually joined to the Build­ings, reaching from Cuckolds-point Eastward, and which are carried out, as if Rotherhith stretched forth its Arm to embrace Deptford; then for some Length Rotherhith continues narrow till you come to Church-street, where several Streets are also lately built South, and others parallel with the Street, till gra­dually the Buildings thicken, and extend farther and farther to the South, and South by East, till they cross over the East End of Horslydown to Bermondsey Church, and thence East to the Sign of the World's-end, over-against the great Fort, being the Remains of the Fortifications drawn round these Parts of Southwark in the late Civil Wars. This Extent is, by Computation, Four Miles; but being measured as the Streets indented, the Circuit proved 5 Miles, 6 Furlongs, 12 Rods.

3. From this Fort to the Corner of Long-lane, and thro' Long-lane to the Lock, at the End of Kent-street, is 1 Mile, 7 Furlongs, 2 Rods.

4. From the Corner of Kent-street to the Town of Newington-butts, drawing the Line behind all the Buildings as they stand, and round the said Village of Newington to the Haberdashers Alms-houses, and thence by the Road to the Windmill at Blackman street, is 3 Miles, 2 Furlongs, 16 Rods.

5. From the Windmill crossing St. George's-fields, on the Back of the Mint, to the Fighting Cocks, thence to the Restoration Gardens, and thence on the Outside of all the Buildings to Lambeth-wells, and on to Vaux-hall Bridge, over-against the other Fort of the old Fortifications, being just the same Length that those old Fortifications extended, tho' infinitely fuller of Buildings. This last Circuit measures 3 Miles, 5 Furlongs, 12 Rods.

[Page 93]The Particulars of the Southwark Side, put toge­ther*, are as follow; viz.

1.3 :1 :16
2.5 :6 :12
3.1 :7 :2
4.3 :2 :16
5.3 :5 :12
 17 :6 :18
Middlesex Side18 :4 :21
Total36 :2 :39

Were it possible to reduce all these Buildings to a compact Situation, 'tis generally thought, that the whole Body so put together, allowing the necessary Ground, which they now imploy for the several Trades in the Out-parts, such as the Building-yards by the River for Shipwrights, Tanners Yards, Dyers, Whitsters, &c. would take up 28 Miles in Circum­ference, very compactly built.

The Guesses that are made at the Number of Inhabitants, have been variously formed; Mr. Mait­land above-mentioned (Anno 1739) computes, that within the Walls, and the Bars, as I may say, it contains 725, 903; but Sir William Petty, famous for his Political Arithmetick, supposed the City, at his last Calculation, to contain a Million of People, and this he judges from the Number of Births and Burials; but he must take in a greater Compass than Mr. Maitland, to make up this Number; and according to this Rule, as well by what is well known of the [Page 94] Increase of the said Births and Burials, as of the prodigious Increase of Buildings, it may be very reasonable to conclude the present Number of In­habitants within the Circumference I have mentioned in my Line, to amount to about 1,500,000 Souls.

The Government of this great Mass of Building, and of such a vast collected Body of People, tho' it consists of various Parts, is perhaps the best regulated that any City can pretend to; and of late Years it boasts of several new Regulations, as to Beggars, Lights, Pavements, &c. which turn out greatly to its Advantage.

The Government of the City of London in par­ticular, and abstractedly considered, is by the Lord-Mayor, Twenty-four Aldermen, Two Sheriffs, the Recorder, and Common Council; but the Juris­diction of these is confined to that Part only which they call the City and its Liberties, which are mark'd out, except the Borough, by the Walls and the Bars, as they are called.

Besides this, the Lord Mayor and Aldermen of London have a Right Presidial in Southwark, and hold frequent Courts at St. Mary-hill in the Borough: they are also Conservators of the Bridge, and the Bridge itself is their particular Jurisdiction.

Also the Lord Mayor, &c. is Conservator of the River Thames, from Stanes Bridge in Surrey and Middlesex, to the River Medway in Kent, and, as some insist, up the Medway to Rochester Bridge.

The Government of the Out-parts is by Justices of the Peace, and by the Sheriffs of London, who are likewise Sheriffs of Middlesex; and the Govern­ment of Westminster is by a High-bailiff, constituted by the Dean and Chapter, to whom the Civil Ad­ministration is committed, and who presides in Elections of Parliament for the City of Westminster, and returns the Candidates who are chosen.

[Page 95]The remaining Part of Southwark Side, where the City Jurisdiction does not obtain, is governed also by a Bench of Justices, and their proper substituted Peace-officers; excepting out of this the Privileges of the Marshalseas, or of the Marshal's Court, the Privilege of the Marshal of the King's-bench, and the like.

A large Mass of Buildings has been erected since our Author drew this Line, consisting of many Streets and Passages, the whole Cold-bath-fields being built upon, quite up to Sir John Oldcastle's.
N.B. This Line leaves out all the North Side of Mile-end Town, from the End of the Dog-row to the Jews Burying-Ground, which is all built; also all the North Part of the Dog-row, and all Bethnal-green; also Poplar and Black-wall, which are indeed contiguous, a Trifle of Ground excepted, and very populous.
The Town of Greenwich, which may indeed be said to be contiguous to Deptford, might be also called a Part of the Measurement; but I omit it, as I have the Towns of Chelsea and Knightsbridge on the other Side, tho' the latter actually joins the Town, and the other, as also Kensington, very nearly.

That I may observe some Method in the Descrip­tion of this noble Metropolis, and avoid Repe­titions, I will divide my Subject into the following Branches.

  • I. I will give a brief Account of what the City was before the Fire, and how improved when rebuilt, and within a few Years after it.
  • II. Of the prodigious Increase of Buildings within our own Memory, down to the Year 1740,
  • III. Of the Publick Offices, and City Corporations.
  • IV. Of the Mansion-house, and other most noted Edifices, Structures and Squares, in and about London.
  • V. Of the principal Hospitals, and other charitable Institutions in about London.
  • VI. Of the Churches of London and Westminster, Southwark, &c.
  • VII. Of St. James's Palace, the Parliament-house, Westminster-hall, &c.
  • VIII. Of the Statues, and other Publick Orna­ments.
  • IX. Of the Gates of London and Westminster.
  • X. Of the Publick and Private Prisons.
  • XI. Of the Markets of London, &c.
  • XII. Of the Publick Schools and Libraries.
  • XIII. Of the Shipping in the Thames, and the Trade carry'd on by means of that noble River.
  • XIV. Of the Manner by which the City is supply'd with Water.
  • [Page 96]XV. Of the Christenings and Burials in London. The Importance of the City of London to the whole Kingdom: Of its comparative Proportion to the Publick Expence, and the disproportionate Number of Members it returns.
  • XVI. The Benefit to the Publick of a good Under­standing between the Court and City.

To begin then with the first; viz.

This is an authentick Account of the Matter.
A Grant for a new Market near Grosvenor-square is now (Anno 1741.) obtained.

And here having exceeded all Bounds of a Letter, for which however the Subject is an Excuse, I will close my Account of this famous Metropolis, and with it my Letter: being, Sir,

Yours, &c.

LETTER III. CONTAINING A Description of Part of Middlesex; and of the whole County of Hertford.


THE Villages round London partake of the Influence of London, as I have taken Notice in the Counties of Es­sex, Kent, and Surrey.

Hackney and Bromley are the first Villages which begin the County of Middlesex, East: for Bow, as reckon'd to Stepney, is a Part of the great Mass. This Town of Hackney is of great Extent, containing no less than Twelve Hamlets or separate Villages, tho' some of them now join, viz.

  • Church-street,
  • Homerton,
  • Wyck-house,
  • Grove-street,
  • Clapton,
  • Mare-street,
  • Well-street,
  • Cambridge-heath,
  • Shaklewell,
  • Dalstone,
  • Kingsland,
  • Newington.

All these, though some of them are very large Villages, make up but one Parish, and are within a few Years so increased in Buildings, and so well in­habited, that there is no Comparison to be made [Page 155] between their present and former State; every sepa­rate Hamlet being increased, and some of them more than trebly bigger than formerly they were.

Hackney is so remarkable for the Retreat of wealthy Citizens, that there are at this time near an Hundred Coaches kept in it.

Newington, Tottenham, Edmonton, and Enfield, stand all in a Line North from the City. The Increase of Buildings is so great in them all, that they seem to a Traveller to be one continu'd Street; especially Tottenham and Edmonton; and in them all, the new Buildings so far exceed the old, especially in their Value, and the Figure of the Inhabitants, that the Fashion of the Town is quite altered.

At Tottenham we see the Remains of an antient Building call'd the Cross, from which the Town takes the Name of High-Cross. Here is a small, but pleasant Seat of the Earl of Colerain.

Highgate and Hamstead are next on the North-side. At the first is a very beautiful House built by the late Sir William Ashurst, on the very Summit of the Hill, and with a View from the very lowest Windows over the whole Vale, to the City: and that so eminently, that they see the Ships passing up and down the River, for Twelve or Fifteen Miles below London.

As the County does not extend far this way, I take no notice of smaller Towns; nor is there any thing of Note but Citizens Houses for several Miles; except the Chace, at Enfield, which was a very beau­tiful Place, when King James I. resided at Theobalds, for the Pleasure of his Hunting; and was then very full of Deer, and all sorts of Game; but it has suf­fered several Depredations since that, and particu­larly in the Times of Usurpation, when it was stript both of Game and Timber, and let out in Farms to Tenants for the Use of the Publick.

[Page 156]After the Restoration it was laid open again; Woods and Groves were every-where planted, and the whole Chace stored with Deer: but it is not, nor perhaps ever will be, what it was.

Hampstead is risen from a little Village, almost to a City; nor could the uneven Surface, inconvenient for Building, check the Humour of the Builders; for even on the very Steep of the Hill, where there's no walking Twenty Yards together, without tug­ing up, or straddling down a Hill, the Buildings are increased to that Degree, that the Town almost spreads the whole Side of the Hill.

The Heath extends about a Mile every way, and affords a most beautiful Prospect; for we see here Hanslop Steeple one way, which is within Eight Miles of Northampton, N. W. to Landown-hill in Essex, another way East, at least Sixty-six Miles from one another. The Prospect to London, and beyond it to Banstead-downs, South; Shooters-hill, South-east; Red-hill, South-west, and Windsor-Castle, West, is also uninterrupted. Indeed, due North, we see no farther than to Barnet, which is no [...]ove Six Miles from it.

At the Foot of this Hill is an old Seat of the Earls of Chesterfield, called Bel-size; which for many Years had been neglected: but being tenanted by a certain Projector, who knew by what Handle to take the gay Part of the World, he made it a House of Pleasure and Entertainment: this brought a wonder­ful Concourse of People to the Place; and they were effectually gratified in all Sorts of Diversion; but there being too great a Licence used, it alarm'd the Magistrates, and now the House is hastening apace to Ruin.

Besides the Long Room at Hampstead, in which the Company meet publickly on a Monday Evening to play at Cards, &c. Mr. Vipand, the Master of that, built in the Year 1735, a fine Assembly-room, [Page 157] Sixty Feet long, and Thirty wide, elegantly deco­rated; every one who does not subscribe, pays half a Crown for Admittance. Every Gentleman who subscribes a Guinea for the Season, has a Ticket for himself, and for Two Ladies. Gentlemen and La­dies, who lodge in the Town, are entertain'd every Sunday for 6d. each, with Tea and Coffee; but no other Amusements.

I could not be at Hamstead without making an Excursion to Edgworth, a little Market-town, on the Road to St. Albans; for 'tis certain, that this was formerly the main Road from London to St. Alban's, being the famous high Road, call'd Wat­ling-street, which reached from London to Shrews­bury, and on towards Wales.

Near this Town, the Duke of Chandos has built one of the most magnificent Palaces in England, with a Profusion of Expence, and so well furnish'd within, that it has hardly its Equal in England. The Plaistering and Gilding are done by the famous Pargotti, an Italian. The great Salon or Hall is painted by Paolucci. The Pillars supporting the Building are all of Marble: the great Stair-case is extremely fine; and the Steps are all of Marble, every Step being of one whole Piece, about Twenty-two Feet in Length.

The Avenue is spacious and majestick, and as it gives you the View of Two Fronts, join'd, as it were, in one, the Distance not admitting you to see the Angle, which is in the Centre; so you are agreeably drawn in, to think the Front of the House almost twice as large as it is.

And yet, when you come nearer, you are again surprised, by seeing the winding Passage opening, as it were, a new Front to the Eye, of near 120 Feet wide, which you had not seen before; so that you are lost a while in looking near hand for what you so evidently saw a great way off.

[Page 158]The Gardens are well designed, and have a vast Variety, and the Canals are very large and noble.

The Chapel is a Singularity, both in its Building, and the Beauty of its Workmanship; and the Duke used to maintain there a full Choir, and had the Worship perform'd with the best Musick, after the manner of the Chapel Royal.

Two Miles from hence, we go up a smaller Ascent by the great Road; when leaving the Street Way on the Right, we enter a spacious Common called Bushy-heath, where again we have a very agreeable Prospect. On the Right-hand, we have in View the Town of St. Alban's; and all the Spaces between, and further beyond it, look like a Garden. The inclosed Corn-fields make one grand Parterre: the thick-planted Hedge-rows seem like a Wilderness or Labyrinth; the Villages interspers'd, look like so many several noble Seats of Gentlemen at a Di­stance. In a Word, it is all Nature, and yet looks like Art. On the Left-hand we see the West-end of London, Westminster Abbey, and the Parliament-House; but the Body of the City is cut off by the Hill, at which Hampstead intercepted the Sight on that Side. More to the South we have Hampton-Court, and S. W. Windsor, and between both, those beautiful Parts of Middlesex and Surrey, on the Bank of the Thames, which are the most agreeable in the World. But I must travel no farther this Way, till I have taken a Journey West from Lon­don, and seen what the Country affords that Way.

The next Towns adjacent to London, are Ken­sington, Chelsea, Hamersmith, Fulham, Brentford, Twickenham, &c. all of them near, or adjoining to the River of Thames, and which, by the Beauty of their Buildings, make good the North Shore of the River, answerable to what I have already describ'd.

[Page 159]But here I ought not to omit mentioning the new Bridge from Fulham to Putney, cross the Thames, which is a handsome wooden Fabrick, and as con­venient, by its many angular Indentings, for Foot-passengers, as for Horses and Coaches. A Toll is paid for every one that passes it, let it be ever so often in a Day; and the Rate pretty much the same as the Ferry used to be. And as the Proprietors are said to divide 10 or 12l. per Cent. from the Profits of it, 'tis pity, methinks, that Foot-passengers, who cannot wear the Bridge, should pay at all.

Kensington cannot be nam'd without mentioning the King's Palace there: it was originally an old House of the Earl of Nottingham's, of whom the late King William bought it, and then inlarg'd it as we see; some of the old Building still remaining in the Centre of the House.

The House itself fronts to the Garden Three Ways, the Gardens being now made exceeding fine, and inlarged to such a Degree, as to reach quite from the great Road in Kensington Town, to the Action Road North, more than a Mile, besides a great Track of Ground out of Hyde-Park. An artificial Mount is also erected, which affords a fine View, is planted with Ever-greens, and has a Seat upon it, which turns round with great Ease at Pleasure. The noble River that is lately dug in Hyde-Park, affords a fine View from these beautiful Gardens. The first laying out of these Gardens was the Design of the late Queen Mary, who finding the Air agreed with the King, resolved to make it agreeable to herself too, and gave the first Orders for inlarging them.

The late Queen Anne improv'd what Queen Mary began, and delighted very much in the Place; and often was pleased to make the Green-house, which is very beautiful, her Summer Supper-house.

And her late Majesty Queen Caroline completed the Whole, by the Additions just now mention'd.

[Page 160]King William, Prince George of Denmark, and Queen Anne, dy'd here.

As this Palace opens to the West, there are Two great Wings built, for receiving such as necessari­ly attend the Court, and a large Port-cocher at the Entrance, with a Postern, and a Stone Gallery, on the South-side of the Court, which leads to the great Stair-case.

It is no Wonder, the Court being so much at Ken­sington, that the Town has increased in Buildings; and indeed it abounds with handsome Houses, and has a very pretty Square.

South of this Town stands Chelsea, at which Place is the noblest Building, and one of the best Foundations of its kind in the World, for maimed and old Soldiers, built by Sir Christopher Wren.

Here also are the Physick-gardens belonging to the Company of Apothecaries of London. In it is lately built a stately and convenient Edifice, which serves at the same time for a Green-house, and Apart­ments over it for meeting of the Company of Apo­thecaries, &c. and over them are very convenient Apartments, which may be used for drying Seeds of Plants, &c. As this Ground was made a Present by Sir Hans Sloane, they have erected in the new Building, a Statue of that Gentleman; and intend to make, in due Time, an Opening down to the River, which will have a beautiful Effect upon the Thames, and receive no less Grace from it. On the Pedestal of this Statue is an Inscription expressing the Company's Gratitude to Sir Hans.

Near the Royal Hospital was, till very lately, a neat and beautiful House and Gardens built by the late Earl of Ranelagh; but they are now quite de­stroyed, being sold out in Parcels to Builders, and other Purchasers.

Sir Robert Walpole has a fine House here, and good Gardens, adjoining to the Hospital, adorn'd with noble Pictures, &c.

[Page 161]In short there is an incredible Number of fine Houses built in all these Towns within these few Years, which in other Places would pass, in a man­ner, for Palaces; and most of the Possessors whereof keep Coaches.

Among these are the late Lord Peterborough's at Parsons-Green; Lord Halifax's at Bushy-Park; Earl of Bradford's, Earl of Strafford's, Earl of Shrewsbury's, Earl of Burlington's, Sutton-Court Chiswick, Mr. Barker's, Lord Wilmington's, Gene­ral Whetham's, Holland-House, near Kensington, situated on a fine Eminence, and which now is taken by the Lord Bruce, who is making it once more a delightful Habitation; the late Secretary Johnson's, at Twickenham, and Multitudes of others.

But I must not pass over so slightly the noble Seat of the Right Hon. the Earl of Burlington, at Chis­wick; and yet I can only mention cursorily some of its Beauties: as the River his Lordship has dug in his Gardens, a very fine one indeed; from the Earth of which he has formed a noble Mount next the Road, or rather a Terrace, from which the whole Country may be viewed, and which serves at the same time, for a Defence to his Gardens on that Side, and is planted to the Road with all manner of sweet Shrubs, Roses, Honeysuckles, &c. that yield in the Season a delightful Fragrance, as well to the Passengers as to those on the Terrace; the magnificent Buildings in Imitation of antient Temples, &c. interspersed in the Gardens; the beautiful Bridge over the River in it; the fine Walks; the unbounded Prospects; seve­ral curious Statues, a noble Obelisk, delicate Vistas, and the sumptuous Buildings adjoining to the old House, commanding a fine View to the River; which, with the Pictures and valuable Curiosities withinside, altogether exceed Description.

In the Village of Hamersmith, which was former­ly a long scattering Place, full of Gardeners Grounds, [Page 162] with here and there an old House of some Bulk, we see now great Numbers of fine Houses, and a continued Range of a great Length, which makes the main Street.

I have now travers'd the best Part of Middlesex, a County made rich, pleasant and populous, by the Neighbourhood of London. The Borders of the County have Three Market-towns, Stanes, Colbrook and Uxbridge: this last is a pleasant large Town, full of good Inns, as the others are, and famous, in particular, for having abundance of fine Seats of Gentlemen, and Persons of Quality, in the Neigh­bourhood; and also for a vain Attempt made in the great Civil War, to settle the Peace of these Na­tions by a Treaty here. I should never have done, were I to pretend to describe, tho' ever so slightly, the large Towns on both Sides the River; as

  • Lambeth,
  • Battersea,
  • Wandsworth,
  • Fulham,
  • Putney,
  • Barnet,
  • Roehampton,
  • Hamersmith,
  • Mortlack,
  • Brentford,
  • Kew,
  • Richmond,
  • Isleworth,
  • Twickenham,
  • Padington,
  • Acton,
  • Ealing,

where a new Church is just finish'd; and others all crouded and surrounded with fine Houses, or rather Palaces, of the Nobility, Quality and Gentry of England.

There are but Three more Market-towns in the County, viz. Brentford, the County-town, Edg­worth, and Enfield.

And now I enter the County of Hertford, a fruitful Soil, as it is managed; for 'tis certain, it is more indebted, for its Fertility, to the Sagacity and Industry of the Husbandman, than to Nature. Rich Meadows are seldom found here; for it affords not any large Rivers: the Arable hath generally too much Gravel, or too much Clay; but these last cold [Page 163] and wet Lands have been within these Forty Years greatly improv'd by draining off the Rain-water, which stagnated on the clayey Surface, as in a Cup, and chilled the Roots of the Corn; an Invention, called Bush-draining.

The County is well-water'd for the Conveniency of the Inhabitants; tho' the Lea is the only navigable Stream in it, which has its Rise in Bedfordshire; of which more anon. But this County assumes the Honour of giving Rise unto several Rivers, viz. the Parish of Tring to the Thames, which leaving the County at Putenham, goes by Ayleshury to Thame, and thence by Wheatley-bridge to Dorchester, and falls into the Isis.

The County may be divided into Three Parts pretty equal, by Two great Roads, one Part lying between the North Road, which goes thro' Hert­ford to Nottingham, &c. and the Borders of Cam­bridgeshire North, and those of Essex East. Another Part lying between that Road and the other, which leads thro' St. Alban's to Coventry and Chester; and the third lying between this last Road, and the Bor­ders of Middlesex South, and those of Bucks West.

I shall begin with the last at East-Barnet, a Thoroughfare-town of Note, and well supplied with Inns: it lies high and pleasant, and was formerly frequented for its medicinal Waters, and now for its Swine-market. It has in its Neighbourhood several very handsome Houses of the Londoners, and which are the more pleasant by being so near the Chace.

Totteridge is near it also, and is a very pleasant Village. It is situated on a fine Eminence looking to the North, over the St. Alban's Road into the Forest; and on the South over the Edgware Road, to Har­row, &c. It is very clean, and has several very good Houses in it. The Road from Hampstead here is extremely pleasant, and so well repaired, that in the worst Season there is scarce any Water or Dirt [Page 164] remaining in it; and as it lies not on any great Road, there are no heavy Carriages passing that Way; therefore a small Expence annually, well laid out, will always keep this Road in excellent Repair.

Cheaping-Barnet lies a little North, in the St. Al­ban's Road, and is remarkable for the decisive Battle fought there on Easter-day 1468, between the Houses of York and Lancaster, in which the great Earl of War­wick, styled Make-king, was killed, with many of the prime Nobility, and 10,000 Men. The Place sup­posed to be the Field of Battle, is a green Spot near Kicks-End, between St. Alban's and Hatfield Roads, a little before they meet. The Manor is in the Property of the Duke of Chandois. A handsome Row of Six Alms-houses, for so many Widows, founded by James Ravenscroft, Esq in 1672, with a little Furniture to each, is in the Street. Queen Elizabeth built a Free School-house of Brick in the same Street, where Nine Children are taught gratis, and all other Boys at Five Shillings the Quarter.

About Two Miles N. W. from hence, on the Left-hand, lies Durhams, formerly the Seat of the Austins, but is now the Property of the Earl of Albemarle, who purchased it of Sir John Austin, and has since greatly beautified the Seat, by laying most of the neighbouring Fields belonging to the Estate, into a Park, and turning and repairing of the Roads. The House stands on an Eminence, situated in a small Valley, surrounded with pretty high Hills at a little Distance, so that in the Summer Months it is an agreeable Retirement: but the Soil all round it being a strong Clay, all the Rain which falls in Win­ter being detained on the Surface, renders the Situa­tion very cold and moist. Add to this the Want of good Water, and Timber near the House, (except the young Trees which have been planted by his Lordship) and upon the Whole it cannot be esteemed a good Seat.

[Page 165] Idlestrey or Elstre is a Village on the Roman Wat­ling-street, on the very Edge of Middlesex; but it is chiefly noted for its Situation, near Brockly-Hill, by Stanmore, which affords a lovely View cross Middlesex, over the Thames, into Surrey. Near this is Kendale Wood, where formerly was found an old Flint Wall, so hard as not to yield to the Strokes of the Pick-ax; as likewise an Oven. Mr. Philpot digging his Canal and Foundations for his Buildings, upon the Spot of the old City, Suellaniacis, found many Coins, Urns, and other Antiquities. They have a Proverb here, relating to the Antiquities:

No Heart can think, nor Tongue can tell,
What lies 'tween Brockley-Hill and Pennywel.

Pennywel is a Parcel of Closes across the Valley beyond Brockley-Hill, where Foundations are dis­cernible, and where, they say, has been a City.

About Two Miles further West lies Watford, a Market-town, Seventeen Miles from London, upon the Colne, where it hath Two Streams, which run separately to Rickmersworth. Several Alms-houses belong to this Town, and an handsome Free-school, built in 1704, and finish'd 1709, by Elizabeth Fuller, Widow; and in the Church are several handsome Monuments. The Town is very long, having but one Street, which is the publick, and so is extreme­ly dirty in Winter; and the Waters of the River, at the Entrance of the Town, are often so much swelled by Floods, as to be unpassable; and the Bridge designed as the Road at such times, is so much out of Repair, that it is very dangerous for any Carriages of Burthen to pass over it; which is a very great Disadvantage to the Town.

Cassioberry, the Seat of the Earl of Essex, is the next thing that occurs worth notice, and is elegant. The Situation is the best in the County, upon a dry Spot, within a Park of a large Extent: the [Page 166] House is built in Form of an H: the Middle and the East Wing is modern, and in good Repair; but the West Wing is very old, and by no means cor­responding with the other Parts of the House. The Front faces the South-east, and looks directly on the House in Moore-Park, on which the late Mr. Stiles expended such great Sums of Money, and which has a noble Look from Cassioberry House. In the Front of the House is a fine dry Lawn of Grass, which immediately after the heaviest Winter Rains may be rode or walked on, as on the driest Downs; and a little below the House is a River, which winds through the Park, and in the driest Seasons constantly runs with a fine Stream, affording great Plenty of Trout, Cray-fish, and indeed most other kinds of fresh-water Fish. On the North and East Sides of the House are large Wood-walks, which were planted by the famous Le Notre, in the Reign of Charles II. The Woods have many large Beech and Oak-trees in them; but the principal Walks are planted with Lime-trees, and these are most of them too narrow for their Length, and too regular for the modern Taste. On the other Side of the River, the Ground rises to a considerable Height, which affords an agreeable Variety; part of which being covered with stately Woods, appearing at a proper Distance from the Front of the House, have a fine Effect to the Eye. In short, the whole Spot (if a small Expence was bestow'd to improve and put it more in the modern Taste) would be one of the finest Places near London.

Near Cassioberry is a pleasant Seat, purchased by the late Lord Raymond, called Langleybury.

Rickmersworth is a Market-town, within Three or Four Miles West of Watford. It gave Birth to Sir Thomas White, Merchant-Taylor of London, who founded Gloucester Hall, and St. John's Col­lege [Page 167] in Oxford. Here are Two Alms-houses, one for Four, the other for Five Widows.

We visited in this Neighbourhood More-Park, with a fine House in it, of the late Duke of Mon­mouth, standing upon the Side of the Hill, facing Cassioberry, on the other Side the River. It has been allowed one of the best Pieces of Brick-work in England. Sir William Temple commends the Garden as one of the best laid-out in England. The Duchess of Monmouth, on whom it was settled by Marriage, sold it in 1720, to Benjamin-Heskins Stiles, Esq who has made it a magnificent Edifice, having built a South Front of Stone with Colon­nades, by which an Opening is made thro' the Hill that once obstructed its View toward Uxbridge. A North Front is also erected, and the Hill towards Watford cut thro' for a Vista. The Inside of the House is also adorned with admirable Work of Paint­ing. In digging this Hill, Veins of Sea-sand with Muscles in it were found.

Abbots-Langley, Twenty-two Miles from London, situated about Three Miles North of Cassioberry, in a good Air and Soil, is remarkable for the Birth of an English Pope, Nicolas Brakespear, by the Title of Adrian IV. The Emperor Frederick held his Stirrup, while he dismounted. He was choaked, as some say, by a Fish, and, as others, by a Quinsy: but it is an indelible Stain on his Memory, that, when sovereign Pontiff, he suffer'd his Mother to be main­tain'd by the Alms of the Church of Canterbury.

We proceeded to Kings-Langley, so called, be­cause Henry III. built himself a Royal House here, of which the Ruins still exist: and here was born and buried Edmund de Langley, Duke of York, Fifth Son of Edward III. and his Wife Isabel, youngest Daughter of Don Pedro, King of Castile, was also buried here, and the Tomb is in the Church of this Place.

[Page 168]We next went to Hempsted, a little further North, and about Twenty-three Miles from London, a Baili­wick Corporate Town. It has the greatest Corn-market in the County, or perhaps in England; in which 20,000l. a Week are frequently returned for Meal only. Eleven Pair of Mills stand within Four Miles of the Place, which bring a great Trade to it: but the Road is by this means so continually torn, that it is one of the worst Turnpikes round about London.

A little North of Hempsted we turn'd West, and came to Great Barkhamsted, about Twenty-four computed Miles from London. It is a very antient Town, which for many Hundred of Years has been one of the Crown Manors, which granted to it many very ample Privileges. It is now annexed to the Dukedom of Cornwall, and as such appro­priated to the Princes of Wales. The Castle and Manor are at present held by Lease from the Prince, by Edward Carey, Esq which was obtained by his Ancestors of Queen Elizabeth.

Barkhamsted has evidently been a Roman Town, by the Name of Durobrivae; and probably the Castle stands upon a Roman Foundation. Roman Coins are frequently dug up there. It is most plea­santly inviron'd with high and hard Ground, full of Hedge-rows, Pastures, and Arable, tho' situated upon a South-side of a Marsh. It extends itself far in handsome Buildings, and a broad Street In the Time of the Heptarchy it was the Residence of the Kings of Mercia; and here Wightred King of Kent and Mercia, in the Year 69, held a Parliament: here also King Ina's Laws were publish'd.

The Castle was judiciously set on the North-side of the Town, on dry Ground, amongst Springs, and made exceedingly strong by the Saxons. It was rebuilt by Moreton, Earl of Cornwall, Brother to William the Conqueror, and razed for Rebellion in his [Page 169] Son's Time, and so with the Manor fell to the Crown. Henry II. kept his Court here, and granted great Privileges to the Place. The Castle was after­wards rebuilt, as it is thought, in the Reign of King John, for the Dauphin of France, in Conjunction with the Barons, besieg'd it, and the Defendants surrender'd not till they had the King's Orders for it.

When the Castle was demolish'd, a large House was built out of its Ruins, which is beautifully situated. What now remains of it is but the third Part, and the Back of the great House; for the other two Thirds were destroyed by Fire in the Reign of Charles I. It was in King James's Time a Nursery for that Prince's Children; and Prince Henry and Prince Charles were bred up there; and in the Time of the late Troubles, Colonel Axtel, a Parliament Officer, held it. It is now in the Pos­session of the Roper Family.

The Corporation sunk in the War between the King and Parliament. In King Charles II.'s Time an Attempt was made to revive the Charter; but it was dropt. This Body Politick is now reduced to a Skeleton, like the Castle, which is only to be known by its Moats and Walls.

The Castle contains within its first Moat, Four or Five Acres. There is again a Division by another Moat. The South Part, consisting of about Two Acres, is upon a Level with most of the outward Walls and Chimneys remaining. Towards the North, across a Moat, is a high Hill or Keep, capable of defending itself against the former, if possessed by an Enemy. The Traces of the Bridge of Com­munication, and the Moat dividing these Two Places of Strength, are continued to the grand one, that takes in the whole Scite of the Fortification. The Remains of the Bridge for Entrance from the Town, [Page 170] are visible, answering exactly to the other, as the North of the first Area, which led to the Hills.

In this Town was the famous Interview between William the Conqueror and the English Nobility, in his March towards London, after his Victory over Harold. He passed the Thames at Wallingford, and was going forward to St. Albans, when the stout Abbot Frederick stopp'd his March by Trees, &c. till he could get the English Nobility together, and then he made him swear to keep inviolably the good and antient Laws of the Kingdom; yet he took away all their Lands, and divided them among his hungry Normans.

This Town gives Name to the Deanry. The Church is handsome, dedicated to St. Peter; it has had many Chapels and Oratories. On the Pillars of the Church are the Eleven Apostles, with each of them a Sentence of the Creed, and St. George killing a Dragon, on the Twelfth. These were whited over by the Zeal of the late Times, and are but lately come to Light.

The Chapel of St. John is used only by the Ma­ster, Ushers and Scholars of the Free-School. St. Leonard's Hospital was at the South-east End of the High-street, and St. James's Hospital at the other End. The Free Grammar-School was built by Dean Incent, of St. Paul's. It is a handsome Brick Structure, with an Apartment at one End for the Master, at the other for the Usher and Chantry-Clerk. It was Twenty Years in Building.

They have had other large Benefactions, which we have not room for.

Tring, being Twenty-eight computed Miles from London, is a small Market-town, stands upon the Extremity of Hertfordshire, next to Buckinghamshire, East of and near the Ikening-street.

It is very antient, and was formerly a Royal Manor; but now possessed by William Gore, Esq [Page 171] who has made a Park of 300 Acres, of which Part is on the Chiltern. In it is a beautiful Wood in­closed, lying close to the Ikening-street. Mr. Gore has beautified and wainscotted the Church in a most elegant Manner, and gives 20l. per Ann. for a Cha­rity-School. The Church is a handsome Pile of Building, with a Ring of Six Bells. The Chancel was wainscotted by Sir Richard Anderson. It is de­cent and capacious, and worthy a Choir. Both Church and Chancel are paved with Free-Stone; the Pillars are painted; the Pulpit and sounding Board are of fine Inlaid-work; and a handsome Vestry is under the Belfry.

Among other Monuments is a magnificent one for Sir William Gore and his Lady; with Inscri­ptions to their Honour, but too long for a Place here.

From Tring I passed next Eastward, and came to Gadesden-Little; where I had heard was a fine Prospect; and I wanted not Curiosity to see it. This Vill has Cawley-Wood, and Ivingo-Hills on the North-west, Aldbury-Cliffs on the South-west, Dunstable-Downs to the North. The Prospect I mean is from one Part of this Parish, to which a Common of fine Turf leads under the Duke of Bridgwater's shady Park; and a noble one it is of Three Counties, worthy of the Pencil of the greatest Artist in Landschape.

The Variety of Woods, Cliffs, Arable and Pa­sture, are charming; but they must be tempted to half a Mile's pleasant Exercise to get to the beautiful Scene.

Cawley-Wood belonging to the Duke of Leeds, is a small Covert, a Mile from hence, at the Top of a Hill, in Bucks, one of the greatest Land-marks in the South of England, which overlooks Eleven Counties. It stands as a Monument to shew, not­withstanding [Page 172] all the modern Improvements, that Nature will not be out-done by Art.

Now I am on this Subject, I shall just mention Penley-lodge, for a most delightful Retirement to a Man who wants to deceive Life, in an Habitation which has all the Charms Nature can give. There is behind a large Common of fine Turf, bounded on a Wood on the West, to which if one ascend a Quarter of a Mile, he has a View of Northampton­shire and Warwickshire. From the House a Semi­circular Prospect of Bedfordshire, Middlesex, and Bucks; a bended one towards Ivingo and Aldbury-Cliffs, with the shady Woods of the Dukes of Leeds and Bridgwater, seeming to hang over the Rivulet called Bulborn.

The Manor of Aldbury lies North-east of Tring, and in the Way to Gadesden. It belongs to the Duke of Leeds, whose Father married the Heiress of the Family of Hyde; and so does Muniborough-Hill lie in the Way from Aldbury to Little-Gadesden, and affords a handsome Prospect.

Ashridge stands near Aldbury, but in Bucks, an antient Mansion-house and fine Park, belonging to the Duke of Bridgwater.

Gadesden is famous for the Birth of John de Ga­desden, who flourished in the Beginning of the Fourteenth Century; the first Englishman who was a Court Physician, and of whose Skill Chaucer makes honourable mention, in his Doctor of Physick, pre­fix'd to his Canterbury Tales; though Dr. Freind, from John's own Books, will not allow him to de­serve it. There are several Monuments in the Chancel of this Church of the Bridgwater Family, whose finely situated Seat and Park at Ashridge, formerly a Royal House of Pleasure, and where Edward I. held a Parliament in the Nineteenth Year of his Reign, is in this Parish, but in the County of [Page 173] Bucks. The Duke is Lord of this Manor, as also of that of Great-Gadesden.

I cross'd over a Slip (as I may call it) of Bucks, which runs into Hertfordshire, between Aldbury and Kensworth-Green, which lies a little South of the Road which leads from St. Alban's to Dunstable, and is a Situation surprisingly fine, about half a Mile in Length, a good Turf, and level with Whipsnape-Woods on the Back of it, and Rows of high Trees on the other Side. Nothing but Sky is to be seen from it one Way, and the other we have only a View of the Top of a Grove, at Market-Cell. It seems to claim a Preference of every Place in the County for a Cell, yet never had one on it: it comes very little short of the famous Guy's Cliff, near Warwick. There the shady Grove, and rol­ling Stream below it, make a beautiful Scene for So­litude: here the Woods and Trees afford Shade enough, and the pure circumambient Ether, with nothing in View but the Tops of Trees, would make a Hermit think himself in another World.

Here I came into the Road, and so turned South-east for St. Alban's, thro' Flamstead Parish, where is a well-built and delightful Seat of Sir Thomas-Saunders Sebright, Bart. on a rising Ground in the middle of a Park. It is called Beechwood Manor, from the great Number of fine Beech-trees which were formerly growing here, some of which are yet remaining on the Sides of the Park. The Soil of this Park is, for the most part, dry, the Surface being shallow, on a strong or chalky Bot­tom, which renders the Turf very fine and short, and very pleasant for the Exercise of either riding or walking. It was formerly a Nunnery for a Prioress and Ten Nuns, independent of any other Convent, and then called St. Gyles in the Wood. A very serious Inscription in Flamstead Church, on a Monument of one of the Saunders Family, may [Page 174] be worth transcribing, as it certainly is a Piece of sound Doctrine, in which every living Man may find an Use.

‘"He that looks hereon, may consider how fleet­ing all worldly Comforts are, and how great a Vanity it is to place his Affection thereon. Such Things there are as worldly Comforts, 'tis true; but they ought to be look'd on as little Streams; and whoever delights in them, more than in the FOUNTAIN from whence they proceed, may soon find them dry and vanished. The Truth of which he that wrote this, hath sensibly found; and wills others to place their Affections chiefly on that OBJECT OF LOVE, which is unchange­able, and is the Centre of all true Joy and Felicity."’

Pursuing still the same Course along the great Road, we came next to St. Alban's, the capital Town of Hertfordshire, famous for deriving its Name from the Proto-martyr of England, who suf­fered so early in the fourth Century. 'Tis governed by a Mayor, 10 Burgesses, a Steward and a Cham­berlain, and is a peculiar Liberty both for Ecclesiasti­cal and Civil Government.

The Town rose out of the Ruins of old Verulam; of which so much has been said by Mr. Camden and others, that we refer to them for Particulars. In that great Man's Time, the Ruins afforded much more for the Observation of the Curious than now; for they are since dug away, for mending the High­ways. The first Verulam was stormed and taken by Julius Caesar. And here Cassibelan, a famous British King, then kept his Court. The first Destruction of the Place is supposed to have been by Boadicea, the famous British Queen, who cut off 70000 Romans in one Battle; and the second, (which was erected on the Ruins of the other) in the Wars between the Britons and Saxons; and al­most [Page 175] infinite are the Numbers of Antiquities here dug up.

The Origin of St. Alban's was owing to the Monastery built by Offa, King of the Mercians, to the Memory of St. Alban, in Expiation of his bar­barous Murder of Ethelbert, King of East-Angles, whom he had treacherously inveigled to his Court, on Pretence of marrying his Daughter; and the same Offa it was that built Hertford Cathedral, and dedicated it to St. Ethelbert, and made a Journey to Rome as further Penance, where he was absolved, tho' he kept the murder'd Prince's Dominions, and joined them to his own.

Of all the Monasteries in England, none could outshine this. Its Revenue was great, and its Pri­vileges still greater. In the Royalties it had from its Founder, and the Episcopal Powers from the Pope, none came up to it. The mitred Abbot had Precedency of all in England, and subject to no Ecclesiastical Power but the Pope immediately; and he had Episcopal Jurisdiction over both Clergy and Laity in all the Lands belonging to his Monastery. From first to last they were Forty-one in Number, and many of them Persons of great Ac­complishments, and high Birth: the 39th of which, tho' not high-born, was Cardinal Wolsey. The last Abbot was Richard Boreman, who at the Dissolu­tion quietly surrendred on the Royal Command, and accepted of a Pension for Life, of 266l. 13s. and 4d.

Two bloody Battles were fought near this Place, between the Houses of York and Lancaster; the first upon the 23d of May 1455, in which the Yorkists got the Day; the second on Shrove-Tuesday, in the 39th of Henry VI. when the martial Queen Margaret overcame the Yorkists, who had then the King in their Power, and fought under the Sanction of his Name.

[Page 176]But we must not dismiss this Subject without giving some brief Particulars of the famous Abbey Church. We have before observed, that it was founded by King Offa; but it has been rebuilt in Whole or Part several times. The Town purchased it at the Dissolution, for 400l. which prevented so noble a Fabrick being pulled down, and torn to Pieces, for making Money of the Materials; and it is made a Parish Church for the Borough. The High Altar is a curious Piece of Gothick Architecture.

Within the North Entrance is Offa on his Throne. Underneath,

Fundator Ecclesiae circa annum 793.
Quem male depictum, et residentem cernitis alte
Sublimem solio, MERCIUS OFFA fuit.

That is:

The Founder of the Church, about the Year 793.
Whom you behold ill-painted, on his Throne
Sublime, was once for MERCIAN OFFA known.

In the most Eastern Part of the Church stood the Shrine: Six Holes remain in the Pavement, where the Supporters of it were fixed. This Inscription is still to be seen. ‘S. ALBANUS VEROLAMENSIS, ANGLORUM
PROTOMARTYR, 17. Junij 293.’

On the South Side the Shrine, in the Wall of the South Isle, is Duke HUMPHREY's Monument, with the Arms of France and England quartered, and a Ducal Coronet. In Niches on the South Side are 17 Kings; the Niches on the other Side have none remaining.

Piae Memoriae V. Opt. Sacrum.
Hic jacet HUMPHREDUS, Dux ille Glocestrius olim,
Henrici sexti Protector, fraudis ineptae
[Page 177] Detector, dum ficta notat miracula coeci.
Lumen erat Patriae, Columen venerabile Regni,
Pacis amans, Musisque favens melioribus; unde
Gratum opus Oxonio, quae nunc Schola sacra refulget.
Invida sed mulier regno, regi, sibi nequam,
Abstulit hunc, humuli vix hoc dignata Sepulcro.
Invidiâ rumpente tamen, post funera vivet.

In English thus:

Sacred to the pious Memory of an excellent Man.
Interr'd within this consecrated Ground
Lies he, whom Henry his Protector found,
Good Humphrey, Glo'ster's Duke, who well could spy
Fraud couch'd within the blind Impostor's Eye*.
His Country's Light, the State's rever'd Support,
Who Peace, and rising Learning deign'd to court;
Whence his rich Library, at Oxford plac'd,
Her ample Schools with sacred Influence grac'd:
Yet fell beneath an envious Woman's Wile,
Both to herself, her King, and Kingdom, vile;
Who scarce allow'd his Bones this Spot of Land:
Yet, 'spite of Envy, shall his Glory stand.

It is but little above 30 Years ago, that, digging for a Grave, the Stairs leading down to the Vault where the Body lies, were discovered.

In the Vault is a leaden Coffin, with the Body preserved by the Pickle it lies in, except the Legs, from which the Flesh is wasted, the Pickle of that End being dried up. On the Wall at the East End of the Vault is a Crucifix painted, with a Cup on each Side of the Head; another at the Side, and a fourth at the Feet. The Vault is very neat, and hath no offensive Smell. The Coffin, we are told, had an Outside of Wood, which is intirely gone.

[Page 178]The West End of the Choir hath a noble Piece of Gothick Workmanship for the Ornament of the High Altar. Capt. Polehampton, about 30 Years ago, gave an Altar-piece, which represents the last Supper.

There are many curious Medals and Coins to be seen in the Church, which have been dug out of the Ruins of old Verulam.

This noble Fabrick hath wanted its Abbot's Zeal and Purse too, for Repairs, since it hath been a Parish Church. The Roof was preserved by Con­tribution of the Nobility and Gentry of England, many of whose Arms are put up on this Occasion; and Money has been collected several times besides for its Support: indeed such a fine Fabrick must too often stand in need of such Helps, as there is no settled Fund to maintain it.

There are Three Churches in the Town at pre­sent, besides the Abbey Church, viz. St. Michael's above-mentioned, St. Peter's, and St. Stephen's.

There were also formerly belonging to this Town St. German's Chapel, St. Mary Magdalen's Chapel, St. Julian's Hospital, the Hospital of St. Mary des Prees, the Nunnery of Sopwell, &c. But they are all demolished and secularized. There was also in the Town the Parish Church of St. Andrew; but that had dropp'd down before the Dissolution.

Near this Place is Sopwel Nunnery, where they say King Henry was married to Anne of Bolen. In the Heart of the adjoining Corporation stood one of Queen Eleanor's Crosses, demolished by the In­habitants.

In the Neighbourhood of St. Alban's is Gorhambury, where is a Statue of King Henry VIII. with other Things worthy a Traveller's Curiosity. It is now the Seat of the Lord Grimston: but what it will be always most famous for, is, that the Manor is the paternal Estate of that Mirror of all Ages, and [Page 179] Ornament of his Country for Learning, Francis Bacon, created Lord Verulam and Viscount of St. Alban's, once Lord Chancellor of England, who first revived Experimental Philosophy: Of whose Merits, Rise and Fall, we shall say nothing, but refer our Readers to his Life now lately, in 1740, published, and prefixed to a new and beautiful Edition of his Works, written by the ingenious Mr. Mallet. Sir Thomas Meautys, who had been the Secretary of this wonderful Man, and to whom he convey'd this Estate, in Gratitude, erected a Monument for him in St. Michael's Church in this Town, sitting thoughfully in an Elbow-chair.

The Monument bears this Inscription: ‘Francisc. Bacon, Baro de Verulam, Sti. Albani Viceco.
Seu notioribus Titulis,
Scientiarum Lumen, Facundiae Lex,
Sic sedebat.
Qui, postquam omnia Naturalis Sapientiae
Et Civilis Arcana evolvisset,
Naturae Decretum explevit,

Composita solvantur,
An. Dom. 1626. Aetat. 66.
Tanti Viri Mem. Thomas Meautys, Superstitis Cultor,
Defuncti Admirator.
Thus translated:

Francis Bacon Baron of Verulam, and Viscount of St. Alban's; or, by his more known Titles, The Light of the Sciences, and the Law of Eloquence, was thus accustomed to sit; who, after having unravelled all the Mysteries of Natural and Civil Wisdom, fulfilled the Decree of Nature, That Things joined should be loosed, in the Year of our Lord 1626, and of his Age 66.

To the Memory of so great a Man, this was erected by Thomas Meautys, who reverenced him while living, and admires him dead.

[Page 180]The Manor of Kingsbury was sometimes the Re­sidence of the Saxon Monarchs, whence its Name. It had a Castle, which was kept up till King Stephen's Time, when it was demolish'd, and the Scite given to the Abbey.

The Duchess Dowager of Marlborough hath a Seat here, built by the late Duke upon the River Verlam, which runs thro' the Garden; and who also built handsome Alms-houses at the Entrance of the Town.

The following remarkable Inscription and Cha­racter is cut upon the Pedestal of a fine Statue of the late Queen Anne, carved by the noted Mr. Rysbrach, and erected at St. Alban's, at the Expence of the Duchess, in Gratitude to the Memory of that excel­lent Princess:

QUEEN ANNE was very graceful and ma­jestick in her Person: Religious without Affectation. She always meant well. She had no false Ambition; which appeared, by her never complaining at King William's being preferred to the Crown before her, when it was taken from the King her Father, for following such Counsels, and pursuing such Measures, as render'd the Revolution necessary. It was her greatest Affliction, to be forced to act against him, even for Security. Her Journey to Nottingham was never concerted, but occasion'd by the great Consternation she was under at the King's sudden Return from Salisbury.

She always paid the greatest Respect to King William and Queen Mary; never insisted upon any one Circumstance of Grandeur, more than what was established in her Family by King Charles II. tho', after the Revolution, she was presumptive Heir to the Crown, and after the Death of her Sister, was in the Place of Prince of Wales.

[Page 181] Upon her Accession to the Throne, the Civil List was not increased. The late Earl of Godolphin, Lord High Treasurer of England, often said, that, from Accidents in the Customs, and Lenity in the Collection, it did not arise, one Year with another, to more than Five hundred thousand Pounds a Year.

She had no Vanity in her Expences, nor bought any one Jewel in the whole Time of her Reign.

She paid out of her Civil List many Pensions granted in former Reigns, which have since been thrown upon the Publick.

When a War was necessary to secure Europe against the Power of France; she contributed, in one Year, towards the War, out of her Civil List, One hundred thousand Pounds, in Ease of her Subjects.

She granted the Revenue arising from the First Fruits, to augment the Provisions of the poorer Clergy.

She never refused her private Charity to proper Objects.

Till a few Years before her Death, she never had but Twenty thousand Pounds a Year for her Privy Purse. At the latter End of her Reign, it did not exceed Twenty-six thousand Pounds a Year; which was much to her Honour, because it is subject to no Account. And as to her Robes, it will appear by the Records in the Exchequer, that in Nine Years she spent only Thirty-two thousand and Fifty Pounds, including the Coronation Expence.

She was extremely well-bred, treated her chief Ladies and Servants as if they had been her Equals. Her Behaviour to all that approached her was decent, and full of Dignity, and shewed Conde­scension, without Art or Meanness.

All this I know to be true.



[Page 182]At Colney is also a very handsome Seat of Sir. Henry-Pope Blunt's, standing about a Quarter of a Mile North of the Road. It seems to be very large, and the Fields and Meadows about it make it very pleasant in Summer.

Having thus gone over the first Part I proposed of this Country, which lies South and South-west of St. Alban's Road, I shall now bend my Course North-east towards Hertford, and from thence North-west, to take in such Part of the middle Division as lie between the Two capital Roads on that Side of Hertford; reserving that which lies East of it, for my Return towards London.

The next Town in my Way is Hatfield, 17 computed Miles from London: it is a Market-town; but much more famous is Hatfield House, which lies near it; from whence Edward VI. and Queen Elizabeth, were both conducted to the Throne, having resided here for some time. King James made an Exchange of this Manor in the fourth Year of his Reign, for that of Theobald's, as hereafter mentioned, with Sir Robert Cecil, afterwards Earl of Salisbury, who built this magnificent House, and made the Vineyard in the Park, thro' which the River Lee hath its Course, adorning that Garden. The Rectory of Hatfield is esteemed one of the best in England; Winwich in Lancashire, and another in Durham, have larger Revenues; but this has a better Situation.

Saundridge, which lies a little North-west of Hat­field, deserves to be mentioned, as it gave Title of Baron to the late great Duke of Marlborough; and it now belongs to his illustrious Relict, a Descendant of the Family of Jennings, of this Place. But one Thing must be observed withal, that when I was there last, the Steeple lay buried in its own Rubbish, as it had done for 40 Years together; and the Bells [Page 183] hung in the Church behind the Door; and this, I suppose, continues to be its present State.

North-Mymms stands a little East of Colney, and is remarkable for having in its Neighbourhood the Seat of the late Sir Joseph Jekyll, Master of the Rolls, in Right of his Lady, who was Heir to her late Brother the great Lord Somers. It has a most delightful Prospect. The Body of that noble Lord lies interred in the Chancel of the Church here, without any Inscription, in Allusion, as one would expect, to his Motto, Prodesse quam conspici. This Seat is now the Property of his Grace the Duke of Leeds, (who has put a great Part of the House and Gardens in good Repair) and is his Retirement from London, during any short Interval that may happen in the Sessions of Parliament.

We come now to Hertford, the County Town, 20 computed Miles from London; a Corporation, governed by a Mayor and Burgesses. It is pleasantly situated in a wholsome Air, and a dry Vale, having a good weekly Market well stored with Corn, and all sort of Provisions. It is very antient, and is built in the Form of a Y, with a Castle in the Middle of the two Horns. It contains several Streets and Lanes, well filled with handsome new-built Houses. In Edward III.'s Time, it had petitioned to be dis­burden'd of the Expence of sending Two Members to Parliament, on their Inability to pay their Repre­sentatives Wages: But 21. Jac. I. they petitioned to be restored to their Right, and succeeded.

There is a Free Grammar School for the Children of this Town, erected by Richard Hale, Esq in King James I.'s Reign. The House, being rebuilt a few Years ago, is a very good one. Of the Five Churches Hertford once had, there are but Two remaining, viz. All-Saints and St. Andrew's.

Near Hertford is a Seat of Governor Harrison situated on a Hill, which commands a Prospect of [Page 184] the Country round it, as is likewise, in its Neigh­bourhood, a Seat of the Clarks, very delightfully situated too.

The Earl Cowper has a handsome Seat near Hertingfordbury, in the Neighbourhood of Hertford, built by his Father the great Lord High Chancellor of that Name; who erected in the Church-yard a Tomb for his Mother, with an Inscription to her Honour: in this Church-yard is also the Tomb of Mrs. Eliza­beth Culling, Heiress of a Family of that Name.

The Manor of Gobions lies a little North of Hertford, and will be for ever famous on Occasion of its being the Family-seat of the great Sir Thomas More, Lord High Chancellor of England in the Reign of Henry VIII. who took off his Head, for refusing to acknowlege his Supremacy. It is now the Property of Sir Jeremy Sambroke, Bart. who for the Beauty of its Gardens, as well as the House, has made the Place one of the most remarkable Curiosities in England.

A little still farther North, at Wotton, is the Mansion-house of the Botelers, nobly situated on a rising Ground, and watered with small Streams, which fall into the Beane on the South of it. It stands in a Park beautifully consisting of Hills and Flats, and renowned for as good Timber as the Island pro­duces. About 40 Years since, one Tree was sold for 43l. 18 Horses were had to draw one Part of it, when slit, and out of it the Cutwater to the Royal Sovereign was made. Another, called the Walking-Stick, might some Years ago have been sold for Fifty Guineas; but was decaying when I was there, by the burrowing of Rabbets under it. There is a good Free-school in this Village, for poor Children; with some of whom 5l. is to be given Apprentice.

Stevenage is 28 computed Miles from London, and lies North-west of Hertford. It is a small Market-town: the Church stands upon a Hill, and consists [Page 185] of a Nave and Two Isles, and the Chancel hath a Chapel on each Side. In the Steeple is a Ring of Six Bells. Here is a good Free-school, as well for Petit as Grammar Scholars.

Walkern is near it, North-east, on the River Beane. I mention it on Account of the poor Jane Wenman, who within these 30 Years was tried for a Witch, the last, we hope, that ever will undergo such a Trial in England; for the old obsolete Law against Witches was very lately repealed. Mr. Justice Powell got a Reprieve for the poor Creature, after the Jury had found her guilty, contrary to his Directions. She lived several Years afterwards on an Allowance from the Parish. The poor Wretch had been frighted into a Confession, that she was a Witch; and thereupon was committed by Sir Harry Chauncy, of Yardlybury, who would fain have had her retract, and pacify her Accusers. This Gentleman was one of the deprived Judges of King James II. but it is said he never sat as Judge but one Day. He wrote The Antiquities of HERTFORDSHIRE.

It is reported likewise, that another Woman being tried before Judge Powell, who among other Things that constituted her a Witch, had laid to her Charge, That she could fly; Ay! said the Judge; And is this true? Do you say you can fly? Yes, I can, said she.—So you may, if you will, then, replied the Judge; I have no Law against it. And at the Trial of Jane Wenman, the Court being full of fine Ladies, the old Judge very gallantly told the Jury, ‘"They must not look out for Witches among the Old Women, but among the Young."’

I passed by Benington-place, the Seat of the antient Family of the Caesars. There was formerly a Castle there; the Hill on which it stood, still remains deep ditched.

At Siffivernes, in Codicote Parish, in the Year 1627, was a most prodigious Walnut-tree, covering [Page 186] 76 Poles of Ground. The Weight of the Boughs at last cleft the Trunk to the Ground. Mr. Penn, then Lord of the Manor, had 19 Loads of Planks out of it; a Gun-stock Maker at London had as much as cost 10l. Carriage: There were 30 Loads more of Roots and Branches. This was attested by Edward Wingate, before a neighbouring Justice of Peace, to whom Mr. Penn declared, he had been offered 50l. for the Tree. And Jasper Docura of the Parish attested, That when he was 15 Years old, the Compass of both his Arms would not reach round it at Eight times.

Hitchin is a Market-town, lying in a Bottom, out of any great Road, distant from London 30 com­puted Miles, and within three Miles of Bedfordshire. 'Tis governed by a Bailiff and Four Constables, and was formerly famous for the Staple Commodities of this Kingdom. The Church is large, dedicated to St. Mary. It consists of the Nave and Two Ayles, with Two Chapels or Chancels. The Steeple has a Ring of Six Bells, but is low, and disproportionate to the Chancel. In the North Ayle Window are Paintings of Faith, Hope, and Charity, and of the Four Cardinal Virtues; and in the next North Window, the Beatitudes. The Front hath the Twelve Apostles round it; but they have been Suf­ferers from the booted Saints of Forty-one. There are many Monuments in it. A good Free-school, and other charitable Benefactions, have been made to the Town.

I could not miss taking notice of Hexton, on the North-west Edge of the County, next Bedfordshire, where was a Battle between the Danes and Saxons, some Remains of which are visible between this Place and Luton, as large Barrows, &c. Half a Mile to the South of this Town is a fortify'd Piece of Ground, called Ravensborough Castle. The Camp is a sort of Oblong, containing about 16 Acres, the [Page 187] Fortification intire. Nature has so well strengthened it, that 1000 Men may defend it against a very great Army: it is incompassed with a Valley, and a very steep Hill, inaccessible by an Army any-where but at the Point of Entrance, which is by a gradual Ascent of a Quarter of a Mile.

The Beryslade, a House possessed by John Cross, Esq tho' low and in the Dirt, is now an agreeable Summer-house; which it owes chiefly to St. Faith's Well, a fine Spring at Ravensburg. A moory Piece of Ground, where the Spring rises, is cut into Ca­nals, which are stocked with Trouts, many of them 22 Inches long. These having been used to take their Food from the Master's Hand, out of a Bowl with a long Handle to it, come rolling up to the Surface. The Bottom is white, either from Chalk or Sand; and so transparent, that every Fish may be seen that comes out of its Hole. To preserve them from Groping, the Banks are wharfed, and in some Places supported with Timber; so that the Fish can shelter themselves underneath; and a Man must have his Head and Shoulders in Water, who stoops down to them. From hence the Water feeds a large Canal in the Garden stored with Carp and Tench; and there might be made Basons or Canals to any Dimensions.

Near Hexton is a Square Roman Camp upon a Promontory just big enough for the Purpose, and under it is a fine Spring.

Lilibo is a fine Plot of Ground upon a Hill, where a Horse-race is kept. It lies a little South of Hexton, just by the Ikening.

Near Pirton Church has been a Castle of the Saxons or Normans, with a Keep.

I proceeded next to Baldock, situated on the Ikening-street, as it leads from Dunstable to Royston. It is a large Market-town, 29 computed Miles from London. It is of chief Note for its many Maltsters. [Page 188] The Church stands in the Middle of the Town; it is a handsome high-built Edifice, with a Ring of Six good Bells. It has Three Chancels, but the Two outward are rather Chapels. The Ikening-street, about Baldock now appears but like a Field-way. Between Baldock and Icleford it goes thro' an In­trenchment, consisting of the Remains of a British Town, now called Wilbury-hill. Icleford retains the Name of the Street, which at this Place passes a Rivulet with a strong Ford, wanting Reparation.

This Street, quite to the Thames in Oxfordshire, goes at the Bottom of a continued Ridge of Hills, called the Chiltern, being Chalk, and the natural and civil Boundary between the Counties of Hertford and Bedford, very steep Northward.

As the Ikening-street and the Foss traversed the Kingdom from South-west to North-east, parallel to each other, and Watling-street crossed these quite the contrary Way with an equal Obliquity, the Herman-street passed directly North and South. This Word is Saxon, and signifies a Soldier or Warrior, which Name it obtained from being a Military Way.

It begins at Newhaven, at the Mouth of the River Ouse in Sussex, and passes on the West Side of that River, thro' Radmil, then thro' Lewis by Isfield; after which it seems to pass over the River at Sharn­bridge, and so proceeds to East Grinstead; but is lost in passing thro' the great Woods. Then thro' Surry it goes by Stane-street, Croydon, Stretham, and by its pointing we may conclude was originally designed to pass the Thames at the Ferry called Stan­gate by Lambeth, where it coincides with the Watling-street. There the Road went, before London became considerable: but since that Period the Traces of the Roads near that Capital have grown very obscure. The original Road perhaps passes thro' unfrequented Ways near Enfield, and Harman-street, which seems from thence to have borrowed its Name.

[Page 189]On the Eastern Side of Enfield Chace by Bush-hill, is a circular British Camp upon an Eminence, de­clining South-west. But the antient Road appears upon a Common on this Side Hertford by Ball's-park, and passes the River below Hertford; then, goes thro' Ware-park, and falls into the present Road on this Side Buntingford, and so to Royston, where it crosses the Ikening-street, coming from Tring thro' Dunstable, going into Suffolk. These are the principal Places upon the Two Roads, which we thought fit to mention together.

At Baldock I crossed the North Road, and got into the Third Division I proposed, next Cambridgeshire and Essex; and when I have passed thro' it, I will return back again South, and take a View of such Towns as lie on the East Side of the middle Division as I have not been at already.

In the Year 1724, between Caldecot and Henx­worth, several Roman Antiquities were dug up. Workmen, digging Gravel for the Repair of the great Northern Road, struck upon some earthen Vessels or large Urns, full of Ashes and burnt Bones, but rotten; near them a human Skeleton, with the Head towards the South-east, the Feet North-west. Several Bodies were found in the same Position, not above a Foot under the Surface of the Earth, and with Urns, great or small, near them, and Patera's of fine red Earth, some with the Impression of the Maker at the Bottom; also Glass Lacrymatories, Ampulla's, a Brass Tribulus, Six small Glasses, Two large Beads of a Green Colour, and other Frag­ments.

I went thro' the Village of Ashwell, which stands not far from Caldecot, on the Source of the Rhee, by the Borders of Cambridgeshire, which breaks out of a Rock here from many Springs, with such Force as to form a Stream remarkably clear, but so cold, that it gripes Horses not used to drink it. [Page 190] The Water here bubbles out at as many Places, and as abundantly, and in just such a Bottom under a Hill, as doth the Isis or Thames in Gloucestershire. In Domesday Book this Village is called a Borough, having Fourteen Burgesses, and a Market; antiently also it had Four Fairs. Mr. Camden thinks the Village Roman; and at half a Mile Distance, South of this Source of the Rhee, is a Spot of Ground taken in by a Vallum, and generally thought to be one of the Castra Exploratorum of the Romans; it is called Arbury Banks, and consists of about 12 Acres, and Roman Coins have been found here; but still it wants several Requisites, that go to a Roman Camp, which I have not room to particularize. Ashwell-field affords a Stone Quarry, out of which the Stones of most of the Churches of this Side, and the neighbouring Part of Bedfordshire, have been dug. The Church has a handsome Chancel, Three large Ayles, a lofty Tower at the West End, with a Ring of Six Bells, and a Chapel on the North Side the Chancel.

I now come to Royston, situated upon the utmost Northern Border of Hertfordshire, insomuch that Part of it is in Cambridgeshire, 33 computed Miles from London. The Fields about this Towns have upon almost every Eminence a Barrow, and they lie very thick by the Ikening-street, East of this Town. Here was a Monastery founded in Honour of St. Thomas à Becket, as also an Hospital, both swallowed up in the Dissolution of Henry VIII. but the Priory-church was purchased by the Inhabitants, and made a Parish-church of. It consists of a Nave, and an Ayle on each Side, and a square Tower with a Ring of Five Bells in it.

The Town became populous, on erecting the present Post-road through it, which before ran along the Ermine-street, thro' Barkw [...] [...] [...]iggleswade. It is now a good Town, and well [...], and has [Page 191] a very great Corn-market on Wednesdays, and is full of good Inns. In the Year 1716, a School-house was erected here by Contribution of the Town and Country.

Two Miles both Ways of Royston is chalky Soil; about Puckeridge it is gravelly: in other Places adjoining are Camps, and Roman Antiquities. At Hadstock is the Skin of a Danish King nailed upon the Church Doors, as reported.

Royston was a Roman Town before Roisia built her religious House here; for Roman Coins have been dug up near the Spot. There seems to be the Stamp of Roisia's Cross still remaining at the Corner of the Inn, just where the Two Roads meet. The Earl of Oxford, digging Canals at Wimple, when he had that Seat, found many Bodies, and rusty Pieces of Iron, the Remains of some Battle.

And now I bend my Course Southward, towards London.

The Church of Therfield, which lies among the Hills, a little South of Royston, is obliged to Francis Lord Bishop of Ely, once Rector of it, who paved the Chancel with Free-stone, the Area of the Altar with Marble; wainscoted the Walls, made it into the Form of a Choir, and ceiled it with Fret-work. 'Tis a Rectory of great Value, and is rated in the First-fruits Office, at 50l. a Year. Till lately was at Therfield Furniture of all Sorts for the Use of poor Peoples Weddings, such as was at Braughing; but they are now lost, or converted to other Uses, even literally to Ploughshares and Pease-hooks.

Barkway is a Market-town. The Church stands in the midst of the Town, with an Ayle on each Side, and a Tower with Five Bells, and a Turret-clock. The Creation of the World is painted on one of the Windows. In one Pane at Top is a bodily Repre­sentation of the Deity, as a Man in a loose R [...]be, down to his Feet, with the Globe before him, [Page 192] and the Motto under, De operae primae diei. The next Pane has the same, with Hands expanded, standing on the Firmament, in the midst of the Water; under which, De opere Secundae diei. The Third has the same Figure, amongst green Trees and Herbs; the Legend lost, and Three other Panes, in Order, under these. The Painting of the Fourth is lost. The Fifth has the same Figure, with Birds flying about it. A Piece of the Sixth remains, where Fowls and Beasts are brought to Adam to be named. Another Window, in the North Isle, has St. George slaying a Dragon, a Bishop, &c.

The Roman Road, called Ermine-street, passes thro' the Parish of Amsty; and all the Way upon it we find Remains of Camps and Stations, ex­actly according to the Itinerary. The Castle for­merly here, was said to be built by Eustace Earl of Bologne, at the Conqueror's Command; and it is not improbable, that there were Fortifi­cations before. It consisted of a Keep, or round artificial Hill, yet remaining, with a large and deep Fosse about it; the Mount, probably, made from the Ditch. The Barons, in King John's Time, made another Retrenchment South of it, which would contain a Garison as numerous as the Castle would hold. Henry III. obliged Nicolas de Avestic to demolish the additional Fortification, and keep up only the old one.

The Church was built in the Reign of Henry III. as is said, out of the Stones of the demolished Forti­fications made additional to the Castle. It is cer­tainly very old, and built with a low Tower in the Middle, and Two Ayles. The Chancel, perhaps, was rebuilt with the Materials of the Keep, being of later Date. It is large and lofty, and hath Stalls, as if for a Choir.

[Page 193] Buntingford is the next Town, and lies in the Cambridge Road, noted for a great Thorough-fare, 28 computed Miles from London, and owes its Being as a Town to the present Post-road through it to the North. The first Mention of it is in the Reign of Edward III. who gave a Market and a Fair to it. It is situated in Layston Parish; but has a Chapel of Brick, built by Contribution for the Inhabitants here. Dr. Seth Ward Bishop of Salisbury, who died Jan. 6. 1688, built a neat Brick-house near the Chapel, for Four poor Men, and Four poor Women, who had lived handsomely, and came to Decay thro' Misfortunes; each of which has Two Rooms below, and Two above. Buntingford Free-school owes much also to the same worthy Prelate, who had his Edu­cation in it. He built, 1683, an Hospital at Salis­bury, for Ten poor Widows of Clergymen, was a Benefactor to Layston, gave a good Sum of Money to make Salisbury River navigable; 600l. to be laid out in Land, for putting out Three poor Children Apprentices, Two out of Alseden, and One out of Layston, alternately. In short, the good Bishop seems to have thought, that the Reve­nues he reaped from the Church, ought to have some other more publick Designation, than to lift out of Obscurity a private Family.

Braughing lies a little on the East of the Road, was antiently, next to Verulam, the most considerable Place in the County, and is thought to have been the Roman Caesaromagum, situated 28 Miles from London, as by Antoninus's Itinerary. It still has some Ruins of its antient Eminence, giving Name to the Deanry and the Hundred. On the West Side the Ermin-street, now the Road to Cambridge, we find the Ruins of a Roman Camp. The Church is an handsome Building, and hath a Ring of Five good Bells.

[Page 194]Near the Church-yard is an old House, at present inhabited by poor Families, which was given with all Sorts of Furniture for Weddings. They brought hither their Provisions, and had a large Kitchen, with a Caldron, large Spits and Dripping-pan; a large Room for Merriment; a Lodging-room with a Bride-bed and good Linen; some of which Furniture was in being a few Years ago.

This Provision was also at Therfield, and the Kitchen Utensils, but lately lost.

We proceeded thro' Puckridge, a little Hamlet Town, but a great Thorough-fare, standing on the Ermin-street, where there are several good Inns for Travellers, and came to Standon, a small Market-town. The Church hath Three Ayles; the Floor of the Chancel is Seven Steps above that of the Church, and the Altar Three Steps above the Chancel-floor.

Here we turn'd short to the East, to visit Bishop-Stortford, lying on the Borders of Essex, 27 Miles from London. The Conqueror gave this Town and Castle to the Bishop of London, whence its Praenomen; and King John seized and demolished it, for the Offence of the then Bishop, who was one of those who published the Pope's Interdict against the Nation. The Town, in the same Reign, was incorporated, and returned Members to Seven successive Parlia­ments. The Bishop was restored by the same Prince, and Satisfaction made him for demolishing the Castle. The Hill or Keep of the Castle is artificial, made of Earth carried thither, with a Breast-work at Top of Stones and Morter. A Bank of Earth leads from it thro' the moory Ground, on which it was situated, to the North-east. There is a large Wall from the Top of the Hill yet remaining. The Bishop's Prison was in being in Bishop Bonner's Time; tho' all the old Buildings are since demolished. But the Castle-guard is still paid by several Places to the Bishop, besides other Quit-rents.

[Page 195]The Town is large, and well-built; it is a Thorough-fare from London to Cambridge, New-market, and St. Edmundsbury, and full of convenient Inns. It is built in the Form of a Cross, having four Streets turn'd to the Cardinal Points, and the River Stort runs thro' it.

The Church dedicated to St. Michael, is lofty, and stands on high Ground; it hath a fine Ring of Eight Bells. There were antiently Three Guilds and a Chantry founded here. In the Church are Nine Stalls on a Side, for a Choir. On the North Side the Church is a Gallery for the young Gentle­men of the School, built by Contribution; upon it Sir John Hobart's Arms, who was educated there, and a great Benefactor to this Work.

At the West End is another Gallery, built a few Years ago, upon which is an Organ; and it is ob­servable, that there was an Organ in this Church so long ago as in the Reign of Henry VII. A new Font stands before it, with a Pavement of Black and White Marble, inclosed with Iron Ralis.

There are a great Number of Monuments in the Church, particularly one in the North Ayle, for Seven Children of Edward Maphesden, who died of the Small-pox, with a Latin Inscription, deploring that heavy Dispensation.

Several Benefactions are bestowed on the Poor of this Town, particularly Two Alms-houses in Potters-street. But the greatest Ornament of the Town is the School, built 35 Years ago, by Contribution of the Gentlemen of Hertfordshire and Essex, at the Request of Dr. Thomas Tooke late Master, who also procured several Sums for completing it, from the young Gentlemen educated here. When this Gen­tleman engaged in it, it was at the lowest Ebb of Reputation; but he raised it to a great Degree of Fame, and considerably increased the Trade of the Town, by the beneficial Concourse that it [Page 196] brought thither. He revived the annual School-feast, and charged his own Estate with a yearly Present to the Preacher on that Occasion. He died May 4. 1721, after upwards of 30 Years successful and diligent Labours here. By his Interest and Care the Gallery in the Church, for the Use of the School, was erected: He gave a Chalice of 20l. Value to the Church, and was a great Benefactor to the School Library, which is a very good one, and was first set on foot by the Reverend Mr. Thomas Leigh, B. D. who was Vicar of the Church Anno 1680.

The School stands in the High-street, with the West Front to the Church-yard, consisting of Three Rooms, which, with the Stair-case, make a square Building. The Grammar School takes up half of it, all the Front to the Street; the other Two are the Library, and Writing-school. These stand upon Arches, under which are a Market and Shops, which are the Property of the Parish; and here the School was built at the Desire of the Inhabitants, who got by it a Covering for their Market, and at the same time an Ornament to their Town.

Every Gentleman at leaving the School presents a Book to the Library.

Hadham Parva stands a little North of Bishop-Stortford, and is of chief Note for being the Burying-place of the Capels, Earls of Essex.

The Manor of Rye, in the Parish of Stansted-Abbots, is famous for the Plot, called thence the Rye-house Plot, said to be formed for assassinating King Charles II. in his Return from New-market; for which several Persons suffered, and among the rest the Tenant of the Place, Rumball, a Man of a daring and intrepid Spirit.

Honesdon, separated from Essex by the Stort, de­serves to be mentioned for Three Reasons; first, for its noble Situation upon a gravelly rising Ground, [Page 197] overlooking the Meadows; 2dly, for being the Re­sidence of the Children of King Henry VIII. in whose Hands it was then, on account of its good Air, and Vicinity to London; and 3dly, for the Seat of Robert Chester, Esq built within these few Years, inclosed with a Park. It stands upon a beautiful Hill, overlooking the Meadows, the River Stort, and Part of Essex, from the back Front; from the other it hath a Prospect over great Part of Hertfordshire, and is seen from Cheshunt Common, on one hand, as St. Paul's is from the other. At the Entrance of the Avenue it hath a large Basin, thro' which runs a small Stream, and there is a graceful Plantation of Trees, with Variety of Slopes, adorned with Statues. The same Stream afterwards feeds a Canal.

We pursued our Way directly South, and came to Sawbridgeworth, or Sabsworth. Among several an­tient Monuments in the Church, is an handsome one erected to the Memory of General Lumly, Bro­ther to the then Earl of Scarborough, with an In­scription greatly to his Honour. As follows:

‘"Here lieth the Honourable HENRY LUMLEY, Esq only Brother to Thomas Earl of Scarborough; who was in every Battle, and at every Siege, as Colonel, Lieutenant-General, or General of the Horse, with King William, or the Duke of Marlborough, in Twenty Campaigns, in Ireland, Flanders, and Germany; where he was honoured, esteemed and beloved by our own Army, by our Allies, and even by the Enemies, for his singular Politeness and Humanity, as well as for all his military Virtues and Capacity. He sat long in Parliament, always zealous for the Honour of the Crown, and for the Good of his Country; and knew no Party, but that of Truth, Justice, and Honour. He died Governor of the Isle of [Page 198] Jersey, the 18th of October 1722, in the 63d Year of his Age."’

The Manor House of Pish [...]bury, in Sabsworth Parish, deserves to be mentioned on account of its remarkable Strength, (though built in Queen Elizabeth's Time) and lofty Rooms. It is situated on a clean Soil, has handsome Avenues to it, with the River Stort behind, which communicates with the Canals in the Gardens. It is in the Possession of the Family of Gardiner.

We then cross'd the Country directly West to Ware, situated 20 Miles from London, on the River Lee, in its Course from Milford. The Town stands low, upon a Level with the River. It is a Place of great Trade for all sorts of Grain, but chiefly Malt, which is conveyed in great Quantities to London, by the River Lee, which is navigable from hence; and the Barges bring Coals, &c.

It consists of one principal Street a Mile long, and other back Streets and Lanes. At an Inn in this Town is the famous great Bed, which is 12 Feet square.

Ware being 20 Miles from London, is the second Post Town from thence on the Northern Road. The next is Royston, 13 Miles further. Several Alms-houses, and a Free-school, and other Charities belong to this Town.

Thomas Byde, Esq Lord of the Manor, has a House pleasantly situated in the Park here, to which is an Ascent of every Side; also a Vineyard newly planted. One late Improvement, besides many others, is, a Cut from the Rib, which by that Means turns that Stream thro' the Park on the South Side, which is a fine Nursery and Protection for Trouts.

In the North Part of the Town was situated the Priory, now in the Possession of the Family of Hadsley.

[Page 199]An eminent Tradesman of Ware, having lost by Death a favourite Mare, which he had had many Years; in Consideration of her good Services, made, in March 1739, a grand Burying for her, and in­vited near 300 People to it. He and his Wife going next the Carcase, as chief Mourners, were followed by the rest of the Company in Couples; and about Four o'Clock she was interred in Hare-lane-field, near the Town, with great Pomp: After which the Company returned, and were treated with Plum Cake and Strong Beer, at the Mourner's House, who expressed great Concern for the Loss of the valuable Creature.

At Blake's-ware, the most Eastern Part of the Parish, is a Seat of William Plummer, Esq with a Stream called the Ash, on the East Front, which feeds a Canal and a Garden by the River-side. The chief Gardens are seen from the western Front, which being upon a Declivity, afford an handsome Prospect that Way.

A little South of Ware lies Amwell, a Village, famous for giving Rise to the New River, which pro­ceeding in a direct Course by the Church, receives a Spring which flows with great abundance. It is 20 Miles from London; but the Course of the River is computed at 36. It was begun by Sir Hugh Middleton; but he being ruined by the Project, the City of London undertook it, and by Aid of an Act of Parliament, brought it to Perfection. The yearly Profit of the River has, some Years ago, been computed at 30000l. and the Expence in supporting and keeping it up, is said to amount to half the Profit. 'Twas divided originally into 72 Shares, one Moiety whereof belonged to private Persons, and the other to the Crown: For King James I. for the sake of his Palace at Theobalds, was a great Pro­moter of it. The Crown's Moiety is since come into private Hands; who however have no Part in the [Page 200] Management; for the Corporation consists of 29 of the Proprietors of the first 36 Shares.

This River, in Fact, draws most of its Water from the Lee; which being the Property of the City of London, that Corporation opposed a Bill brought into Parliament, for giving further Powers to the New River Company, to benefit itself by the Lee River: But the Opposition availed not, and in the Session 1738-9 the Bill passed into a Law.

The Governors of the New River Company agreed with the Proprietors of the Lands on the River Lee, for a Cut of Two cubick Feet of Water from the said River, at a certain Rate; and after the Agreement, they told them they would double the Price for a Four-foot Cut; which the Proprietors agreed to, not considering the great Disproportion of the Two Cuts. And this Cut of the River Lee supplies the largest Share of the New River Water.

We kept along the great Road, thro' Hoddesdon, (which is a considerable Market-town, and noted also as a Thoroughfare) till we came to Broxbourn, which lies near it on the New River; a small, but pleasant Village, situated on a rising Ground, having plea­sant Meadows down to the River Lee. On the Left­hand of the Village is Broxbournbury, the Seat of the Lord Monson. The House is large, and in the old Gothick Style, and situated in the Middle of the Park (which has been planted and beautified of late). There are also new Offices erected at a little Distance from the House, in a Quadrangle, on the same Plan with the King's Meuse at Charing-cross. They are placed behind a large Plantation of Trees, so that they do not appear until you are near upon them, yet are at a convenient Distance from the Mansion-house, which I was informed his Lordship also proposes to rebuild.

The Manor of Theobalds is in this Neighbourhood, where formerly was built a magnificent Seat by Lord [Page 201] Treasurer Burleigh, who gave it his younger Son Sir Robert Cecil, and he exchanged it for that of Hat­field, at the Desire of King James I. who made it his Sporting Seat; and here ended his Life. From this Place Charles I. set out to erect his Standard at Nottingham. King Charles II. made a Grant of it to Monck, Duke of Albemarle, and to his Male Issue, which failing in his Son Christopher, King William gave it to Bentinck, Earl of Portland, in whose Grandson, the present Duke, it still conti­nues. In the late Civil Wars the Palace was plun­dered and defaced; and is become a poor Village, from a Royal Residence. The great Park, which was inclosed within a Wall of 10 Miles Compass, by King James, is now converted into Farms. The Place is however popular, and the New River runs just by, and sometimes thro' the Gardens of the Inhabitants. In this Neighbourhood Richard Cromwell, the abdi­cated Protector, passed the last Part of his Life in a very private Manner.

Waltham-cross is the next, and, as you enter Middlesex by the North Road, the last Place in Hert­fordshire, standing just on the Edge of Middle­sex. It is noted for, and takes its Name from, the Cross, built by King Edward I. in Honour of his beloved Queen Eleanor, whose Corps, in its Way from Lincolnshire to Westminster, rested here; as a Cross was built at every Stage where it rested, and Charing-cross was the last. That Princess's Effigies placed round the Pillar and the Arms of her Royal Consort, as well as her own, viz. England, Castile, Leon, and Poictou, are still remaining, tho' much defaced.

And thus much for the County of Hertford, with which I conclude myself, Sir,

Yours, &c.

LETTER IV. CONTAINING A Description of Part of BUCKINGHAM­SHIRE, of the County of OXFORD, and Part of WILTS.


I NOW proceed to give you an Account of my next Journey thro' Part of Bucks, into Oxfordshire, and shall touch upon some Parts of Wiltshire, of which I have not-yet taken notice.

On the Right-hand, as we ride from London to Uxbridge or to Colebrook, we see Harrow; the Church of which standing on the Summit of an Hill, and having a very high Spire, they tell us, King Charles II. ridiculing the warm Disputes among some critical Scripturalists of those Times, concerning the Visible Church of Christ upon Earth; used to say, This was it.

From Uxbridge we proceeded on the Road towards Oxford, and came to Beaconsfield, a small Town on the Road to Oxford, full of good Inns, and situated on a dry Hill, famous for the Residence of Mr. Edmund Waller, eminent for his poetical Talent.

[Page 203]Then we went on to Wickham, commonly call'd High or Chipping Wycoomb, from Coomb, a British Word for Valley. This is a large Town, consisting of one great principal Street, branching out into divers small ones. It is full of good Houses and Inns, being a great Thorough-fare from London to Oxford.

Not far from Wickham lies Amersham or Agmon­desham, a small Market-town, very antient; and a little beyond it you go thro' Chesham, a little in­considerable Market-town; and likewise Wendover, a mean, dirty corporate Town. From hence we proceeded to Aylesbury, which is the largest and best Town in the County.—It stands on a Hill, but the Country round it is low and dirty. It consists of several large Streets, and has a handsome built Market-house, which stands in a kind of Quadrangle. It has also a Town-house, where the Assizes and Sessions, and other publick Meetings of the County, are held. Provisions are here cheap and plentiful, which is owing to the rich Vale adjoining. It was a strong Town in the Beginning of the Saxons Time, and a Manor Royal in that of the Conqueror's, who parcell'd it out under this odd Tenure, That the Tenants should find Litter or Straw for the King's Bed-chambers Three times a Year, if he came that Way so often, and provide him Three Eels in Winter, and Three Green Geese in Summer; which would be but a mean Entertainment at Bed and Board for a King in these Days.

All round this Town is a large Track of the richest Land in England, extended for many Miles almost from Tame, on the Edge of Oxfordshire, to Leighton in Bedfordshire, and is called from this very Town, The Vale of Aylesbury. It is famous for fat­tening Cattle and Sheep, and 'tis frequent that they sell a Ram here for Breeding for Ten Pounds. Here it was, that conversing with some Gentlemen who understood Country Affairs, (for all Gentlemen here­abouts [Page 204] are Graziers, tho' all the Graziers are not Gentlemen) they shewed me one remarkable in­closed Field of Pasture-ground, which was lett for 1400l. per Ann. to a Grazier; and I knew the Tenant very well, whose Name was Houghton, who confirmed the Truth of it.

The late Duke of Wharton had a very fine Seat at Winchenden, and another much finer nearer Windsor, called Ubourn. But the Catastrophe that has befallen this once flourishing and truly noble Family, is too melancholy, and too well known, to be animadverted upon here.

Near this Place lies Chilton, famous for giving Birth to that steddy Patriot the Lord Chief Justice Crook, who strenuously opposed the arbitrary Mea­sures of levying Ship-money without the Authority of Parliament.

South-west of Aylesbury lies the Market-town of Tame, situated on the Side of a Meadow, and almost incompassed with Rivulets. It consists of one long broad Street. The Church is large and fine, in Form of a Cross; near which are the Ruins of a Priory. A Pot of Roman Coin was found here about 15 Years since.

The Thame joins the other Branch, named also the Thames, at Dorchester, in Oxfordshire. In this Vale of Aylesbury flourished the great and antient Family of Hampden, for many Ages, in the Enjoy­ment of very large Estates, which, like that of Wharton, are now dissipated.

At the Confluence of the Thame and Isis, stands Dorchester, a Town of Note among the antient Romans, and in the Year 634 was made a Bishop's See, till Remigius, in 1094, removed it to Lincoln. It has a very large Church, and a fine large Stone Bridge, of great Length and Antiquity.

East of Aylesbury lies Ivingo, a pleasant Market-town situate among Woods, in a Nook, or kind of [Page 205] Peninsula, which runs in between Bedfordshire and Hertfordshire.

We passed forward North-west thro' Win [...]low, a small Market-town, to Buckingham, the County-Town, situated in a low, fruitful Ground, surrounded by the Ouze on all Sides but the North. 'Tis govern'd by a Bailiff and Capital Burgesses. The Castle is now old and ruinous, and the Buildings of the Town are also old. It has Three Stone Bridges over the River, and a well-built Church, and a Chapel built by Archbishop Becket, which is now used for a Free-school. Several Paper-mills are erected on the Ouze, and the Town is divided into two Parts; one where the Church stands, and the other where the Town­hall is. The County Gaol, and Court, are kept here, and sometimes the Assizes.

Going still farther Northward, we come to the following Towns:

Stony Stratford is remarkable for standing on the Roman Causeway, called Watling-street. It is an antient and well-known Thoroughfare Town in the Chester Road from London. It is large, and well-built of Stone, has Two Churches in it, and a Cross erected by Edward I. to the Honour of his Queen Eleanor, and has a good Stone Bridge over the River. The principal Manufacture, as well in the Neigh­bourhood as in the Town, is Bone-lace.

Newport-pagnell is a large well-built, populous Town, seated on the River Ouze, over which it has Two large Stone Bridges. It carries on a great Trade in Bone-lace, and the same Manufacture imploys also the neighbouring Villages.

Oulney is a pretty good Town, where also is carried on a considerable Manufacture of Bone-lace. It lies on the Extremity of the County.

We then fell down, back again, to Buckingham; and following the great Road North-west, we came to Brackley, in Northamptonshire, situate on the River [Page 206] Ouze, an antient large corporate Town, in which are Two Parish Churches. It had formerly a College, but it is now used for a Free-school. It is governed by a Mayor and Aldermen; and the Market used to be the Staple for Wool, in that County; but it is now removed.

We next came to Banbury in Oxfordshire, on the River Charwell. It is a large Market-town under the Government of a Mayor and Aldermen. It has a considerable Trade, especially in Cheese, as all the Country round it is a rich feeding Meadow-ground. Here the famous Make-king, Earl of Warwick, surprised the Earl of Pembroke and his Brother, of the Party of Edward IV. and beheaded them.

On the Borders of this County Westward from this Town in Warwickshire, was the famous Battle of Edge-hill, fought between the Forces of King Charles I. and those of the Parliament; where, tho' the Victory was dubious, yet the Advantage, in the Event, inclined to the King's Side; for he thereupon took Lord Say's House at Broughton, and Banbury Castle, in which were 800 Foot, and a Troop of Horse.

Edge-hill lies at the West End of the Vale of Red­horse, and gives a most extensive Prospect. It is steep to the North, and on the Top of it, at Warmlington, is a strong large Entrenchment, said to be Danish, but looks more like British. On the Descent of the Hill, between Radway and Keynton, was fought the aforementioned Battle; here also they shew where the Slain were bury'd, and have a Tra­dition, that King John had a Palace, and resided at Keyntor.

There was likewise, at Cropredy Bridge, an En­counter between the Royalists and the Parliament­arians under Waller's Command.

West of Edge-hill stands Shipton, a little Town, which has a very large Market.

[Page 207] Banbury gave Title of Earl to the noble Family of Knolles, which it seems became extinct in 1632, when the last Earl died; but his Wife, marrying Nicolas Lord Vaux, had a Son by him, who took the Name of Knolles, and the Title of Earl; but was never summoned to Parliament, nor his Son after him, who is now living, and commonly called Lord Banbury.

From hence we rode Southward to Deddington, a large Town, but a very small Market. It is govern'd by a Bailiff, and did formerly return Members to Parliament.

We turned a little East, and came to Bicester, a straggling indifferent Town; but remarkable for having had once a famous City in its Neighbourhood, called Aldchester, long since passed over by the Plough; and where many Roman Coins, Stones, and other Antiquities are found; which was undoubtedly the Maima of Ravennas. Bicester is famous for excellent Malt Liquor, and has had formerly a Re­ligious House.

Islip lying directly in our Way to Oxford, we passed thro' it. It is remarkable for the Birth of Edward the Confessor, and that Dr. South, as well as other eminent Divines, were Ministers here. There are some Remains of an antient Palace still left.

From hence I came to Oxford, famous for several Things, but chiefly for its being the most flourishing and considerable University in the World.

There has been a long Contest between the Two English Universities, about the Priority of their Foundations, which perhaps will never be decided, and so I pass it over.

It is out of Question, that in the Largeness of the Place, the Beauty of Situation, the Number of Inhabitants, and of Scholars, Oxford has the Advan­tage. In short, Oxford has several Things as an [Page 208] University, which Cambridge has not; and Cam­bridge has several Things in it, which cannot be found in Oxford. For Example,

The Theatre, the Museum or Chamber of Ra­rities, the Bodleian Library, the Number of Colleges, and the Magnificence of their Buildings, are on the Side of Oxford; yet King's College Chapel, and Col­lege, is in favour of Cambridge, being one of the finest Structures of its kind that can be seen; and the new Buildings erected lately there, make that whole University still more considerable in this way.

Oxford is a noble flourishing City, so possessed of all that can contribute to make the Residence of the Scholars easy and comfortable, that no Spot of Ground in England goes beyond it. It is situated in a delight­ful Plain, on the Bank of a fine navigable River, in a plentiful Country, and at an easy Distance from London.

The City itself is large, populous and rich: and as it is adorn'd by the most beautiful Buildings of Colleges and Halls, it makes the most noble Figure of any City of its Bigness in Europe.

We shall present our Readers with a List of the Colleges and Halls in this famous City, with a brief History of them; but must observe, that as it would exceed our Limits to give an Account of the particular Benefactions by which their Revenues and Buildings are so splendidly augmented, we shall only mention such of those Benefactions as have been conferred within so few Years back, that they are not likely to be found in other Authors.



IS situate near the East Gate of the City. 'Tis so very antient, that we are left in the dark, as to the Time of its Foundation. That it was in being be­fore [Page 209] the Year 721, is certain; but how much sooner, is not evident. King Alfred could not be so pro­perly called the Founder of this University, as the Restorer, after the Danish Devastations. In the Year 1332, this College was recover'd into a State of Li­berty and Independency, by a Sum of Money, which William of Durham had left for the Maintenance of a Society of Students in Oxford, from whom it was some time call'd Durham-hall; and by other Bene­factions it increased to what it now is. It has One Master, Twelve Fellows, Ten Scholars, Two Ex­hibitioners, &c.

Before the very noble Benefaction of Dr. Rad­cliffe, it had one large beautiful Quadrangle, or square Court; the South Side of which is divided into a handsome Hall and Chapel. In a Niche before the said Quadrangle, is a Statue of the late Queen Anne; and in a Niche on the Inside of the new Quadrangle, since built, is that of Dr. Radcliffe; but not extra­ordinary either of them. The Additions to this Col­lege will be mentioned in the Abstract we shall by-and-by give of Dr. Radcliffe's Will.

The Visitors are the Vice-Chancellor and Proctors.


Stands in the North Part of the Town, in the Suburbs. It was founded by John Baliol, Father to the King of Scots of that Name, and Devorguilla his Wife. The former began it about the Year 1262; the latter, after her Husband's Death, completed and ended it, and gave it a Body of Statutes, which was afterwards inlarged by Philip Somerville, a great Benefactor to this College; but that Body was after­wards laid aside, and a more advantageous one sub­stituted in its Room, Ann. 1507, by the then Bishops of Winchester and Carlisle. This College has One Master, Twelve Fellows, Thirteen Scholars, and Three Exhibitioners, besides Four others founded by John Warner, Bishop of Rochester, for Scotsmen.

[Page 210]It has one large antient Quadrangle, on the North­side of which is the Chapel, and the Library, fur­nished with a very noble Collection of Books. Sir Thomas Wendy gave his Study to it, a few Years ago, valued at 1500l.

The Visitor is chosen by the College.


Situate on the South Side of the City, was founded by Walter of Merton, Bishop of Rochester, Lord High Chancellor of England. The Society was first planted at Maldern, in Surrey, in 1264; and he transferred it to Oxford, Ann. 1267. The Founder framed his Statutes so admirably, that they were pro­posed as a Pattern to the Founder of Peter-house, Cambridge, by King Edward I. This College has a Warden, Twenty Fellows, Fourteen Portionists, or Post-masters, &c.

The Chapel is the Parish Church of St. John Bap­tist; it is a splendid old Building. The inner large Court or Quadrangle of the College is very beautiful; it has a well-furnished Library, and a fine Garden.

The Visitor is the Archbishop of Canterbury.


Is situate on the West Side of the Schools, in the North Part of the Town. It was founded Ann. 1316, by Walter Stapledon, Bishop of Exeter, Privy Counsellor to Edward II. and Lord Treasurer of England, and named Stapledon-Inn; and called Exeter College afterwards, by Edmund Stafford Bishop of Exeter, who was a Benefactor to it. It has a Rector, Twenty-three Fellowships, &c.

It is one large Quadrangle, now made 0regular and uniform by the new Buildings, to which the most Reverend Dr. Narcissus Marsh, Archbishop of Armagh, formerly a Fellow of it, contributed 1400l. It has a very noble Front, over the Gate of which is a splendid Tower.

The Visitor is the Bishop of Exeter.


Situate on the South Side of the Town, was at first called St. Mary's College, and King's College, and was founded Anno 1324, by King Edward II. His Son Edward III. inlarging the Revenue of it with a rich Messuage, called Le Oriele, it took the Name of Oriel College. The same Prince annexed to it for a Retiring-place, in case of Pestilence, &c. St. Bartholomew's Hospital near Oxford. It has a Provost, 18 Fellows, and Twelve Exhibitioners.

It consists of one handsome regular Quadrangle.

The Visitor is the Bishop of Lincoln.


Is situate near the Parish Church of St. Peter's in the East. It was founded Anno 1340, by Robert Eglesfield, Chaplain or Confessor to Philippa, Con­sort of King Edward III. in Honour of whom he called it Queen's College, recommending it to her Royal Patronage and Protection, and to that of all future Queens of England. There were to be a Provost and Twelve Fellows, out of regard to the Number of Christ and his Apostles, and Seventy Scholars, in Allusion to the Number of the Seventy Disciples; but he died before his Design was com­pleted. The Society consists of a Provost, Fourteen Fellows, Seven Scholars, Two Chaplains, Taberders, whose Number is not always the same, &c.

Sir Joseph Williamson was a special Benefactor to this College, of late times, as Edward III. his Queen, Archbishop Grindall, and King Charles I. were be­fore. As also was its late Provost, Dr. William Lancaster, in whose Time were begun those noble and extensive Buildings, which are so justly admir'd; one Side whereof, in which are the Library, the Provost's, and other spacious and stately Lodgings, is 327 Feet long, supported by a Piazza, and adorn'd with Statues, &c. The Library is long and lofty, very magnificent without, and well-furnish'd within. [Page 212] The new Chapel and Hall, lately finish'd, answer the other Side of the College.

On the 24th of May 1733, Arthur Onslow, Esq Speaker of the House of Commons, and Chancellor to her late Majesty Queen Caroline, transmitted to the Provost 1000l. from her Majesty, as Queen Consort, and Patroness thereof, towards finishing the new Buildings; and her Majesty's Statue is erected there under a kind of Temple, supported by Pillars; but not to the Advantage which the Royal Munificence, and the good Intentions of the College, deserv'd.

And in the Year 1739, we are assured, that Mr. Michael of Richmond has left an Estate of 700l. per Annum to this College, the Income whereof is to finish the East End of the Buildings of the said Col­lege on the Plan laid down for that Purpose, and after this to commence a Foundation of Eight Fellows, at 50l. per Ann. each, and as many Scholars, at 25l. per Ann. each, to be elected from the whole Univer­sity; those on the present Foundation to be excluded. The Fellowships to be vacated after Ten Years Enjoyment; as they are at Wadham, Worcester, and Pembroke Colleges after Twenty Years.

The Visitor of this College is the Archbishop of York.


Situate on the North-east Part of the Town, was at first called, The College of the Blessed Virgin Mary; it was founded Anno 1386, by William of Wickham, Bishop of Winchester, and Lord High Chancellor, who also founded the College at Winchester. It has a Warden, 70 Fellows and Scholars, Ten Chaplains, Three Clerks, Sixteen Choiristers, &c.

Great Additions have been made to the Beauty and Buildings of this College: besides a third Story that was raised upon the Two original ones of the great Court, at the Society's Expence, Anno 1674, they have inlarged their Buildings towards the Garden, [Page 213] with two stately and uniform Wings, extending to the Garden; their Chapel is most magnificent, so­lemn and splendid, with an Organ and Choir. They have a very lofty Tower, with a Ring of fine Bells; and under that and the West End of the Chapel, a very handsome square Cloister, and a little Garden within it. Their Library is well furnished with Books and Manuscripts, and their great Garden laid out in Form. The Front of it is a Range of Iron Palisadoes, and a Gate of exquisite Work; and at the South End they have a Bowling-green. Their Hall, which is at the End of the Chapel, answers to the Magni­ficence of the rest.

The Visitor is the Bishop of Winchester.


Situate in the Middle of the City, was founded in the Year 1427, by Richard Fleming, Bishop of Lincoln; who dying before it was completed, Thomas de Rotherham, Bishop of Lincoln, afterwards Lord High Chancellor, and Archbishop of York, finish'd it Anno 1475. It has a Rector, Twelve Fellows, Two Chaplains, &c.

It has Two small antient Quadrangles, not very regular. The Chapel is beautiful, and built by Arch­bishop Williams; the Windows are very curiously painted.

The Lord Crew, Bishop of Durham, order'd to take Place from Michaelmas 1717, the following Benefactions to this College; viz. 1. Twenty Pounds a Year to the Headship, and 10l. a Year to each of the Twelve Fellowships for ever. 2. Ten Pounds per Ann. for ever to the Curates of Four Churches belonging to this College. 3. He made up the Bible-clerk's Office, and Eight Scholarships, which were before very mean, 10l. per Ann. each for ever. And, 4. Settled, to commence from Lady-day 1718, 20l. per Ann. each on Twelve Exhibitioners for ever.

The Visitor is the Bishop of Lincoln.


Its Front faces the High-street. It was sounded by Henry Chichley, Archbishop of Canterbury, for offering up Prayers for all those who fell in the Wars of Henry V. in France. It has a Warden, Forty Fellows, Two Chaplains, Three Clerks, Six Choi­risters, &c.

Before the new Buildings, it had Two Courts, the larger a regular and stately Edifice. The Chapel was very august and solemn: but the College now appears with a new Face.

Colonel Christopher Codrington, Governor of the Leeward Islands, bequeath'd to this College 10,000l. 6,000 of which he order'd to be laid out in building a Library, and the other 4,000l. in Books for it, and bequeath'd his own Library to it besides. This Li­brary is 200 Feet long within the Walls, and 32 Feet and half broad; it has Eleven large Windows to the South, and a Window of 17 Feet wide at the East End, and one at the West of the same Dimensions. It is a fine Gothick Structure, built so in Conformity to the Chapel. Against the Entrance, in a Niche, is the Statue of the Benefactor, with a suitable In­scription to his Honour; which he forbid to be mention'd on his Monument; on which is only cut the Word CODRINGTON.

Besides what will be mention'd by-and-by of the Benefactions of Dr. George Clarke, in the Abstract we shall give of his Will; that Gentleman in his Life-time adorn'd the Chapel of this College with a magnificent Marble Altar-piece, rich Furniture for the Communion-table of crimson Velvet, trimmed with Gold Lace and Fringe, Books, and Candle­sticks, &c.

Henry Portman, Esq also placed at the East End a cloathed Resurrection Piece, painted by Sir James Thornhill. And the Hon. Doddington Greville, Esq was at the Expence of painting finely the Ceiling-piece. [Page 215] And there are other additional Ornaments, which render it worthy of the Attention of the Curious.

A very handsome Monument was erected Anno 1739, in the Chapel of this College, with an In­scription upon it, in Honour of their worthy Bene­factor Dr. Clarke afore-mentioned.

The Visitor is the Archbishop of Canterbury.


Situate without the East-gate of the Town, was founded Anno 1458, by William Patten, alias Wain­fleet, Bishop of Winchester, and Lord High Chan­cellor. It has a President, Forty Fellows, a School-master, Thirty Scholars called Demies, an Usher, Three Publick Readers, Four Chaplains, Eight Clerks, Sixteen Choiristers, an Organist, &c.

When the new Buildings to this College, which they are now carrying on, are finished, and which will form a stately Quadrangle, it will be one of the finest in the University; and they have made a great Progress in them.

It had before Two Quadrangles, the innermost of which is regular, and consists of a Library and Lodgings, supported by a spacious Cloister. The Chapel and the great Tower, as also the little one in the West End of the inner Quadrangle, and the Hall, are very lofty and magnificent. They have an exceeding well furnished Library, to which Colonel Codrington gave lately 10,000l. and a good Collection of Books. Its Water-walks, as they are call'd, make this College highly delightful; they are an almost triangular Gravel-walk, fenced with Hedges and Trees on both Sides, surrounded on every Part with a running Stream, and inclosing a large Meadow. Their Grove is also a fine spacious Extent of Ground, planted with stately Vista's of Trees, one Part of which is laid out in a handsome Bowling-green.

The Visitor is the Bishop of Winchester.


Is situate in the middle of the Town, where stood an Hall of the same Name, and a monstrous Nose. It was founded by William Smyth, Bishop of Lincoln, Counsellor to Prince Arthur; and by Sir Richard Sutton Kt. It was begun in 1509, and finished 1522. It has a Principal, Twenty Fellows, Thirty-three Scholars, and Exhibitions, &c.

It consists of Two very handsome Quadrangles; in the lesser of which are the Chapel and Library, and under them a wide and pleasant Cloister, very com­pactly and elegantly built.

The Visitor is the Bishop of Lincoln.


Stands on the South Side of the Town. It was founded Anno 1516, by Richard Fox, Bishop of Winchester, Lord Privy-seal to the Kings Henry VII. and VIII. Hugh Oldham, Bishop of Exeter, gave 6000 Marks towards the Building, besides Lands towards endowing it. It has a President, Twenty Fellows, Twenty Scholars, Two Chaplains, &c.

The Structure of the first Court is antient, but within-side very regular and handsome. The Li­brary contains a noble Treasure of Books. Their Hall was beautify'd a few Years ago, and their Gar­dens, tho' small, are kept very neat. But the most spendid Part of this College is the stately Row of Lodgings erected a few Years ago by their late Pre­sident, Dr. Thomas Turner, who moreover gave them his numerous and valuable Collection of Books.

The Visitor is the Bishop of Winchester.


This College takes up a vast Extent of Ground, and stands on the South Side of the City. It was begun to be founded Anno 1515, by Cardinal Wolsey; but on his Disgrace coming into the King's Hands, and thence called King's College, his Majesty, that he might not seem to found any Part of his Fame on [Page 217] another's Bottom, called it Christ-Church, and made it an Episcopal See, Anno 1546. Afterward, Anno 1563, he joined to it Canterbury College, now called Canterbury Quadrangle, and Peckwater-Inn, now called Peckwater-Court. However, the Build­ings lay very incomplete for almost 100 Years after, when Dr. Bryan Duppa, and Dr. Samuel Fell, Deans of this House, and afterwards Dr. John Fell, Bishop of Oxford, Son of the latter, at different times, by the Help of many generous Benefactors, brought the Buildings to surprising Perfection.

This Foundation is numerous and magnificent, has a Dean, Eight Canons, 101 Students, Eight Chaplains, Eight Singing-men, Eight Choristers, and a Teacher of Musick for them, an Organist, a School-master and Usher, Forty Grammar-scholars, a Virger, &c. There is also belonging to it an Hospital in St. Alat's Parish, which has Twenty-four Poor. In the stately Tower, in the Front of the Gate, hangs the great Bell, called Tom; which was removed thither out of the Steeple of the Cathedral, by Bishop Fell. It is Seven Feet and an Inch Diameter, and Five Feet Nine Inches high; and weighs near 17,000 Pounds Weight. This Bell is tolled every Night 101 Strokes, agreeable to the Number of Students in the College, to give Warning for shutting up the Gates in the Colleges and Halls in the University.

The Buildings of this College are very large, august and splendid. The great Quadrangle has a wide and handsome Terrace round it, and a Foun­tain in the middle. Peckwater-Quadrangle is finely rebuilt. Canterbury and the Chaplains Quadrangles are also convenient Edifices. The Cathedral is lofty, but no elegant Structure; the Hall and Library high and spacious; and the latter contains a noble Col­lection of Books, to which Dr. Aldrich, late Dean, made a fine Addition. It is impossible, in my narrow [Page 218] Limits, to do Justice to this noble College, which is an University of itself. I shall only add, That Archbishop Wake, lately deceased, left to it his Library, and a large Cabinet of Medals, computed to be worth between 8 and 10,000l. besides other Bequests.

The Visitor is the King.


Stands in the North Suburbs of the Town, where once stood Durham College, founded Anno 1350, by Thomas Hatfield, Bishop of Durham. At the Dis­solution of Abbeys, it running the common Fate, Sir Thomas Pope, of Hertfordshire, purchased it of those who had got a Grant of it from King Edward VI. and obtained a Royal Licence to turn it into a Col­lege, which accordingly he did Anno 1550, by this Name. It has a President, Twelve Fellows, Twelve Scholars, &c.

It has Two Quadrangles. In the first are the Chapel, the Hall, and the Library. The Chapel was rebuilt Anno 1693, and the Work of it, both within and without, is wonderfully elegant. The Altar­piece is of Cedar inlaid: the Rails and Screen of Cedar, and all adorn'd with exquisite Carving. The Roof is inrich'd with Fretwork, and an admirable Piece of Painting, representing our Saviour's Ascen­sion. The Pavement, from the Screen to the Altar, is of black and white Marble. On the East Side of the College is a delightful Garden; and at the En­trance and End of the great Walk that goes thro' it, very noble Iron Gates, which have a Prospect open to the whole East Side of the College.

The Visitor is the Bishop of Winchester.


Is situated in the North Suburbs. It was founded Anno 1555, by Sir Thomas White, Lord Mayor of London, in the Place where stood, before the Dis­solution, St. Bernard's College, built by Archbishop [Page 219] Chichley. It has a President, Fifty Fellows and Scholars, an Organist, and Singing-men, Four Choristers, &c.

It has Two spacious and uniform Quadrangles. The inner Court was built by Archbishop Laud, and is very elegant. The East and West-sides of it are supported by noble Piazzas, in the middle of which are Two Portals finely fronted with Pillars and Carving. In one of these Fronts stands a curious Brazen Statue of King Charles I. and in the other of his Queen. Their Chapel, which has an Organ and Choir in it, is very handsome. The Library takes up the East and South Sides of the new Qua­drangle, and is well stored with Books, Manuscripts, and valuable Curiosities. The Hall is neat, and adorn'd with good Pictures. They have also a Grove, Walks, and Grass-plots, &c.

Dr. Sherard, formerly Consul at Smyrna, who died August 12. 1728, left his Library and Curiosities, which are very valuable, to this College, besides another considerable Legacy.

The Visitor is the Bishop of Winchester.


Is situate in St. Michael's Parish. It was begun, Anno 1571, by Hugh Price, Professor of Common Law in this University, Prebendary of Rochester, &c. who designed it particularly for the Benefit of his Countrymen of Wales; but the Endowment that Gentleman made of it, sinking into nothing, Queen Elizabeth, Anno 1589, gave another Charter at the Society's Request; and having styled herself their Foundress in the first, it is frequently attributed to her. It has met with so many generous Contri­butors, that it is in a flourishing State, and has a Principal, Sixteen Fellows, Sixteen Scholars, Eight Exhibitioners, &c.

It has Two large handsome Quadrangles, the inner­most very regular and uniform.

[Page 220]The Visitor is the Earl of Pembroke.


Stands in the North Skirts of the Town. Its Founders were Nicolas Wadham, of Merefield, in Somersetshire, Esq and Dorothy his Wife, Daughter of Sir William Petre, Knight, Privy-counsellor to Queen Elizabeth. He formed the Design, and died; and she, in Compliance with his Death-bed Request, completed it. It was begun Anno 1609, and finished 1613. It has a Warden, Fifteen Fellows, Fifteen Scholars, Two Chaplains, Two Clerks, &c.

This College has one large, regular, beautiful Quadrangle. The Chapel stands out behind the Quadrangle to the East, regularly answering to the Library; and its Windows are finely painted. They have a large Garden, handsomely laid out.

The Visitor is the Bishop of Bath and Wells.


Is situate on the South Side of the Town. It was formerly an Hall, and called Broadgate-hall. It was made a College by the Munificence of Thomas Tesdale, Esq and Richard Wrightwicke, B. D. with the Licence of King James I. Anno 1624. The Foundation of the first consisted of Seven Fellows and Six Scholars, the other of Three Fellows and Four Scholars. It had its Name from the Earl of Pembroke, then Chancellor.

It has one handsome Quadrangle, the Front of which is a regular neat Piece of Building. A plea­sant Garden also belongs to it.

The Visitor is the Chancellor of the University.


This College was lately called Gloucester-hall: After the Dissolution, Sir Thomas White, Lord Mayor of London, built it, for the Purpose of Education, and called it St. John Baptist-hall, tho' still it re­tained the Name of Gloucester-hall, till it acquired a [Page 221] collegiate Endowment by the noble Munificence of Sir Thomas Cooke, of Astely, in Worcestershire.

It had, before the late Dr. George Clarke's Will in its Favour, of which we shall give an Abstract by-and-by, a Provost, Six Fellows, Six Scholars, &c.

The Buildings lately added, now adding, and the fine Additions left to it by the said Gentleman, will give this College which had been in no very good Condition for some time, a very advantageous Figure in the University; and it already makes a very stately and splendid Appearance, and will be enabled to make a still better; for on the 2d of October 1740, died at her Seat near Gloucester, Mrs. Eaton, one of the Three Coheiresses of Dr. Birom Eaton, for­merly Principal of this College, when Gloucester-hall. This Lady has left a very great Estate, partly to her Relations, and partly to Acts of Munificence, such as the Foundation of Six Fellowships in Wor­cester College, for the Support of which, and the erecting a Pile of Building for them, an Estate of 700l. per Annum is bequeath'd. The Corpse of this Lady was honoured by the Attendance of the Vice-chancellor, and all the Heads of Houses, in the University.


This is a College of a very late Erection indeed; for it was but in Sept. 1740, that his Majesty's Royal Charter passed the Broad Seal, to erect HART-HALL, as it was before called, into a College; to consist of a Principal, as before; Four Seniors, and Eight Junior Fellows: so that at last the Reverend Dr. Richard Newton, the worthy Principal, after an Opposition of several Years, given by some who ought to have assisted his generous View, has obtained a Point which lay very near his Heart: tho' not till several of his worthy Friends (who would have contributed largely to its Endow­ment, had it been effected in their Time) are de­mised, [Page 222] which must necessarily be a great Dis­advantage to the good Design.

This College, as it now must be called, stands in the Parish of St. Peter's in the East. It is supposed to have its Name from the first Syllable of Elias Hartford's Surname, who was once Owner of it. Walter Stapledon, Bishop of Exeter, having bought it, converted it, Anno 1314, into an Academical Seminary, by the Name of Stapledon-hall, and en­dowed it with Maintenance for Twelve Scholars, which he removed afterwards to Exeter College, on building the same; and then this Hall resumed its own Name. It has a Stipend or Exhibition be­longing to it, of more than 16l. per Annum.

It consists of one Quadrangle, not very regular, and the present worthy Principal has made several, and had projected still greater Additions to it, which would have taken place long ago, but for the Reasons above given.

These are the Twenty Colleges, of which at present this famous University consists. There are besides Five Halls, which are Places unendow'd, tho' not destitute of Exhibitions. The Students at these sub­sist at their own Charge, are under the Government of a Principal and Vice-Principal, and pay the former for their Lodging, &c. The Principals are nomi­nated by the Chancellor, except the Principal of Edmund-hall. Their Visitor is the Chancellor.

I will give a brief Account of each of these. And


It is situate on the South Side of the Town, and had its Name from Robert St. Alban, once Proprietor of the Place. It became Academical about the Year 1230.

The Front makes but a tolerable Appearance; but the Inside falls short even of that.


Is situate in the Parish of St. Peter's in the East; and has its Name probably from one Edmund, a Citizen of Oxford, Proprietor of the Place. Anno 1557, it was purchased by Queen's College, and con­verted to its present Use.

It makes one Quadrangle; on the East Side of which stands a very neat Chapel and Library, built some Years since by the Reverend Mr. Stephen Penton, its Principal.


Situate in the Parish of St. Mary, has its Name either from that Church, which with this Hall, came to belong to Oriel College, by a Grant of King Edward II. Anno 1325, or from Oriel College, here­tofore called St. Mary Hall.

It consists of one Quadrangle, not very regular. Dr. John Hudson, Principal, built here handsome Lodgings at his own Expence.


Is situate in the North-west Part of the Town. It was called Trilleck-hall, from Two Brothers Pro­prietors of it, of that Name; one Bishop of Hereford, and the other Bishop of Rochester. Afterwards the Founder of New College bought it, and gave it to that College, Anno 1392, and from that time it was called New-Inn Hall.

The Building is antient and irregular.


Situate near Magdalen College, was built by Wil­liam Wainfleet, Bishop of Winchester, Anno 1480, for a Grammar-school. But it having Room for Academical Students, and some Additions having been made to it, it became an Academical Society. It enjoys Fifteen Exhibitions; Five of 8l. per Annum, and Ten of 10l.

The Front is the most considerable Part of it; but it has a pretty good Library.

[Page 224]What Additions have been made to some of the Colleges, by means of the Wills of Dr. Ratcliffe and Dr. Clarke, which I have just referred to, will, to avoid Repetition where I am so pressed for Room, be best seen in Abstracts of the said Wills, which may serve as a Supplement to the foregoing Accounts of the Colleges. Dr. Ratcliff's is to the following Effect:

He left an Establishment of 600l. per Ann. for Two young Physicians to travel, to be enjoyed by them for Ten Years; after which, or in case of Death, others were to succeed them, for ever.

The Remainder of the Estate charged to secure this annual Sum, he left to University College, Oxon, for purchasing perpetual Advowsons for the Members of the same.

To St. Bartholomew's Hospital, London, he left 500l. per Ann. for ever, towards mending their Diet, as his Will expresses it; and 100l. per Ann. more for ever, for buying of Linen.

Five hundred Pounds, to build the Front of University College answerable to what was be­fore built, and for building the Master's Lodgings therein, and Chambers for his Two travelling Fellows.

Forty thousand Pounds for building a Library in Oxon, and purchasing the Houses between St. Mary's and the Schools in Cat-street, for that Purpose; and when built, he bequeathed 150l. per Annum to the Library-keeper, and 100l. a Year for ever to buy Books for the same.

He charg'd all his real and personal Estate with the Payment of these great Benefactions, and other large Family Bequests; and willed that the Residue should be applied to such charitable Pur­poses as his Executors should think best.

He willed that 100l. a Year for ever should be applied to keep in Repair the said Library, to [Page 225] commence Payment in Thirty Years after his Death.

All the Livings in his Gift, he willed, should be bestowed on Members of University College, and if wanting there, to Fellows of Lincoln College.

To his Executors, who were William Bromley, Esq Sir George Beaumont, Bart. Thomas Sclater, Esq and Anthony Keck, Esq all since deceased, he left 500l. each; and a Power of nominating Two Successors to each of them, as they respec­tively died.

His Will bears Date Sept. the 13th 1714; and the Doctor died Nov. 1. the same Year.

We shall now add, That every thing being done in pursuance of this Will, which the Time since his Death would permit, it may be easily conceived what a glorious Addition the Buildings finished, and finishing by its Direction, must be to this renowned University.

George Clarke, LL. D. was several Years Repre­sentative in Parliament for the University of Oxford. and died October 12. 1736. Of whose Will take the following Abstract:

He bequeathed to the Library-keeper of Worcester College, 10l. per Ann. and to a young Gowns­man, to attend to reach down Books, 5l.

Four thousand Pounds for Building Nine Chambers at Worcester College, and finishing the Chapel and Hall there; Six of these Chambers to be for Six additional Fellows of that College, who are to have 45l. each per Ann. the other Three to be for so many additional Scholars, at 25l. per Ann. each.

Fifty Pounds per Ann. to be laid out in Books for the said College Library.

[Page 226] He orders his Trustees, as soon as they can, to purchase the Ground adjoining to Worcester Col­lege, for inlarging its Scite and Conveniencies.

To the University he gives the Whole-length Pictures of King William and Queen Mary, to be hung in the Gallery over the Schools; the Half-lengths of Lord Chancellor Clarendon, and his Son the Earl of Rochester, to be hung in the Delegates Room at the Clarendon Printing-house; and an Original, the only one, of Dr. John Radcliffe, to be hung in his Library, when built.

Also he bequeaths to the University all his Medals, and several other valuable Curiosities, which he wills may be kept in the Musaeum Ashmoleanum.

To the Worcester College Library, all his printed Books, and Prints, and such Manuscripts as his Trustees shall think fit: also to the same, all the Designs of Inigo Jones for Whitehall, which he takes notice are very valuable.

To the same College he gives a large two-ear'd Silver Cup, double-gilt, weighing 112 Ounces

To the Warden and College of All-Souls, where­of he was Fellow, all the Furniture in his Col­lege-chamber, and all that in the Lodgings he had built there, with his Prints therein, and Pictures over the Doors and Chimney-pieces, the Ceiling-piece over the Stair-case, Hercules in the Garden, and St. Luke in two Columns, to be used in the Place they now are by the said Warden, and his Successors.

To the Use of the Fellows of the said College, the Rooms under the great Dining-room, the great Dining-room itself, and the great Bed-chamber, and Garrets over them.

To All-Souls College he bequeaths also his 4th Turn of presenting to the Vicarage of Yarnton, for the Benefit of such of its Chaplains as have [Page 227] but a slender Provision; and 20l. among the College-servants.

An Augmentation, as it shall rise out of one of his Estates, to the Allowance of the Two Chaplains of All-Souls, whom he hopes the Society will appoint their Librarians.

To Queen's College he gives the Heads of Six Queens of England.

You will refer, Sir, to the Accounts I have already given of the Colleges, and to the above Abstracts of Dr. Radcliff's, and Dr. Clarke's Wills, and you will have a View of the State of these Colleges, even when the Works are finished as directed by those Gentle­men, and which will hold for Years to come without material Alteration, except in case of new Bene­factions.

I shall now give a Summary of what a Traveller may observe further in Oxford, en passant; and re­fer the more curious Inquirer to the Histories of the Place, for a more ample and particular Account, than I have room to give.

Besides these Colleges and Halls, there are some publick Buildings, which make a most glorious Ap­pearance: The first and greatest of all is the Theatre, a Building not to be equall'd by any thing of its Kind and Bigness in the World. Sir Christopher Wren was the Director of the Work. Archbishop Sheldon paid for it, and gave it to the University: there is a world of Decoration in the Front of it, and more beautiful Additions, by way of Ornament; and the inside Roof, finely painted and decorated, is never enough to be admired.

The Bodleian Library is an Ornament in itself worthy of this famous University. I have not Room for its History at large, but shall briefly observe, that the first publick Library in Oxford was erected in Durham College, now Trinity, by Richard Bishop of [Page 228] Durham, Lord Treasurer to Edward III. it was afterward joined to another, founded by Cobham Bishop of Winchester, and both inlarged by the Bounty of Humphry Duke of Gloucester, Founder of the Divinity Schools. But these Libraries being lost, and the Books embezzled, and the Place where they were deposited, quite ruinous, Sir Thomas Bodley, a wealthy and learned Knight, having, at a vast Expence, collected Books and Manuscripts from all Parts of the World, placed them in the old Library-room, built by the good Duke Humphry.

This great Work was brought to an Head the 8th of Nov. 1602, and has continued increasing by the Benefactions of great and learned Men to this Day; such as Archbishop Laud, the Earl of Pembroke, Oliver Cromwell, Selden, Digby, and other great Names.

Over it is a spacious Gallery, adorned with Pictures of Founders, Benefactors, &c. and with the antique Marbles, which were the learned Part of the inex­haustible Collection of the Earl of Arundel, which have been illustrated with the accurate Comments of Selden and Prideaux. Here are some of the most valuable Greek Monuments now in the World. Over the Porch, upon an handsome Pedestal of black Mar­ble, stands the Brass Effigies of the Earl of Pembroke, their noble and generous Chancellor, given by the late Earl, moulded by Rubens. Also a very large Collection of Greek, Roman, British, Saxon, Eng­lish, and other Coins, presented by Sir T. Roe, and other Hands. And that indefatigable and learned Collector of Books, and valuable Manuscripts, Dr. Tanner, Bishop of St. Asaph, who died December 12. 1735, bequeathed the most curious Part of his fine Collection to this noble Library.

In the Year 1740, by the Death of Mrs. Crew, Relict of George Crew, Esq an Estate of 80l. per Annum is fallen to the Head Librarian's Post, which [Page 229] before was very inconsiderable, tho' it required a constant Residence. This was a Legacy of the late Right Reverend and Right Honourable Nathanael Crew, Lord Bishop of Durham, who was such a good Benefactor to Lincoln College as we have mentioned.

Other curious Things in Oxford are, the Schools, (which are now beautifully repaired, and the Names and Arms of old Benefactors renewed and repainted) the Museum, the Chamber of Rarities, the Collec­tion of Coins, Medals, Pictures, and antient Inscrip­tions, the Printing-house, the Physick-garden, the University and other Churches, the Convocation-house, &c. all worthy of a particular Description, had I room to give it.

The University is govern'd by a Chancellor, chosen by Scrutiny or Collection of Votes; he is generally one of the first Noblemen of the Kingdom.

By a High-steward, chosen by the Chancellor.

By a Vice-chancellor, who must be one of the Heads of a College, recommended to the University by the Chancellor.

By Two Proctors, chosen annually by Turn out of the Colleges.

The other Officers are the publick Orator, and the Keeper of the Archives, Beadles, Virger, &c.

But tho' I have said so much of the University, I must not quite forget the City. Let me then ob­serve, That before Baliol College they shew the Stone in the Street, which marks the Place of the Martyrdom of Archbishop Cranmer and Bishop Ridley, then upon the Banks of the Ditch, without the City Walls, which went along where the Theatre now stands.

Beyond the River, stood Oseny Abbey, founded 1129. Upon the Bridge is a Tower, call [...]d Frier Bacon's Study, from that famous and learned Monk.

[Page 230]Over another Bridge, on the Isis, we went to see Ruleigh Abbey, where some Ruins still remain, turn'd to a common Brewhouse.

Of the Castle remains a square high Tower, by the River-side, and a lofty Mount, or Keep, walled at Top, with a Stair-case going downward.

The White-friers was a Royal Palace, and near a Green called Beaumonds, they shew'd us the Bottom of a Tower upon the Spot where the valiant Richard I. was born.

Without the Town, on all Hands, are to be seen the Fortifications erected in the late Civil Wars.

As to the City, tho' the Colleges make up Two-thirds of it, and are still elbowing for more Room, yet 'tis large and regular, the Streets are spacious, clean, and strait; the Place pleasant and healthful, the Inhabitants genteel and courteous; the Churches many and elegant, especially Allhallows; and taking it altogether, and including the Grandeur and En­dowment of the Colleges, their Chapels, Halls, Li­braries, Quadrangles, Piazza's, Gardens, Walks, Groves, &c. it must be consider'd as the first Uni­versity in the World, as I have before mention'd.

On the Left-hand, on the other Side the River, the last Remains of Godstow Nunnery are situated among the sweet Meadows. Here fair Rosamond had a remarkably fine Tomb; but before the Disso­lution, scarce could her Ashes rest, whose Beauty was thought guilty, as one says, even after Death.

I cannot leave Oxford without making one Ob­servation, with regard to those who insist, that it was to the Piety of the Popish Times which we owe the first Institution of the University itself, the Foundation and Endowment of the particular Col­leges, and the Encouragement arising to Learning from thence: all which I readily grant; but would have them remember too, that tho' those Foundations stood, as they tell us, 800 Years, and that the Re­formation, [Page 231] as they say, is not above 200 Years standing, yet Learning has more increased, and the Universities flourish'd more; more great Scholars been produced, greater Libraries been raised, and more fine Buildings been erected, in these 200 Years, than in the 800 Years of Popery; and I might add, as many great Benefactions have been given, not­withstanding this very momentous Difference, that the Protestants Gifts are merely Acts of Charity to the World, and Acts of Bounty, in Reverence to Learning, and learned Men, without the grand In­citement of the State of their own Souls, and those of their Fathers, which were to be pray'd out of Purgatory, and get a ready Admission into Heaven.

Oxford was for many Years advantaged by the Neighbourhood of the Royal Court, while several Kings of England, being taken with the fine Situation of Woodstock, made their Palace there the Place of their Summer Retreat.

Dr. Plott allows it to have been a Royal House ever since King Alfred; and a Manuscript in the Cotton Library confirms it; and that King Henry I. was not the Founder of it, but only rebuilt it. And as for Henry II. who kept his fair Rosamond in it, he made only some Additions to it, for the Entertain­ment and Security of his beautiful Mistress. Not­withstanding which, the Queen, having got Access to her in the King's Absence, as Tradition informs us, dispatch'd her by Poison.

When I was first at Woodstock some Years ago, I saw part of the old Palace, and the famous Labyrinth of fair Rosamond; but now these are destroy'd. Her Bathing-place or Well, as it is called, is left; a quadrangular Receptacle of pure Water, immediately flowing from a little Spring under the Hill, over­shadow'd with Trees; near which are some Ruins of Walls and Arches. King Ethelred called a Parlia­ment here. It has been a Royal Seat, as I have said, [Page 232] from most antient Times. Henry I. inclosed the Park. Across this Valley was a remarkably fine Echo, that would repeat a whole Hexameter, but impair'd by the Removal of these Buildings. A stately Bridge, or Rialto rather, now leads along the grand Approach to the present Castle: one Arch is above 190 Feet Diameter; a Cascade of Water falls from a Lake down some stone Steps into the Canal that runs under it.

The new Palace of Blenheim is a vast and magni­ficent Pile of Building; a Royal Gift to the high Merit of the invincible Duke of Marlborough. The lofty Hall is painted by Sir James Thornhill, the Ceiling by la Guerre. The Rooms are finely inrich'd with Marble Chimney-pieces and Furniture, but more by the incomparable Paintings and Hangings, which latter represent the principal Glories of the Duke's Life. Among the Pictures are many of Rubens's best and largest Pieces; that celebrated one of himself, his Wife and Child, among others: Van­dyke's King Charles I. upon a Dun Horse, of great Value: and the famous Loves of the Gods, by Titian; a Present from the King of Sardinia. The Gallery is worthy Admiration, lined with Marble Pilasters, and whole Pillars of one Piece, supporting a most costly and curious Entablature, excellent for Matter and Workmanship, the Window-frames of the same, and a Basement of black Marble quite round. Before it, is stretched out a most agreeable Prospect of the fine Woods beyond the great Valleys. What is of the most elegant Taste in the whole House, is of the Duchess's own Designing. The Chapel is equal to the rest. The Garden is a very large Plot of Ground taken out of the Park, and may still be said to be a Part of it, well-contriv'd by sinking the outer Wall into a Foss, to give a View quite round, and take off the odious Appearance of Con­finement and Limitation to the Eye. It is within [Page 233] well adorn'd with Walks, Greens, Espaliers, and Vista's, to divers remarkable Objects, that offer them­selves in the circumjacent Country. Over the Pedi­ment of this Front of the House is a curious Marble Busto of Lewis XIV. bigger than the Life, taken from the Gate of the Citadel of Tournay. The Orangery is a pretty Room. Near the Gate of the Palace is the House where our famous Chaucer was born. At the Entrance into the Castle from the Town, her Grace has erected a noble triumphal Arch, to the Memory of the Duke; and has set up a vast Obelisk in the principal Avenue of the Park, whereon is inscribed the best Account of the Duke's Actions and Character, that ever was penn'd in the same Compass; and if done by the masterly Hand of that extraordinary Genius, to whom I have heard it attributed, must be a double Triumph to the Memory of the Duke, since his Merits extorted so noble a Testimony from a Person who was once engaged in Measures quite opposite to those, which derived upon his Grace so exalted a Reputation, and who was thought to be at that Time one of his principal Adversaries.

The Inscription does so much Honour to the Me­mory of the Duke, and at the same time to the British Nation, that I cannot deny to myself the Pleasure of inserting it here, as follows:

The Castle of Blenheim was founded by Queen ANNE,
In the Fourth Year of her Reign,
In the Year of the Christian Aera 1705;
A Monument design'd to perpetuate the Memory of the
Signal Victory
Obtained over the French and Bavarians,
Near the Village of Blenheim,
On the Banks of the Danube,
The Hero not only of this Nation, but of this Age:
Whose Glory was equal in the Council and in the Field;
[Page 234]Who by Wisdom, Justice, Candour, and Address,
Reconciled various, and even opposite Interests;
Acquired an Influence
Which no Rank, no Authority can give,
Nor any Force but that of superior Virtue;
Became the fixed important Centre,
Which united, in one common Cause,
The principal States of Europe;
Who by military Knowlege, and irresistible Valour,
In a long Series of uninterrupted Triumphs,
Broke the Power of France,
When raised the highest, when exerted the most;
Rescued the Empire from Desolation;
Asserted and confirmed the Liberties of Europe.

Philip, a Grandson of the House of France, united to the Interests, directed by the Policy, supported by the Arms of that Crown, was placed on the Throne of Spain. King WILLIAM III. beheld this formidable Union, of Two great, and once rival Monarchies. At the End of a Life spent in defending the Liberties of Europe, he saw them in their greatest Danger. He provided for their Security in the most effectual Manner. He took the Duke of MARLBOROUGH into his Service.

Embassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
To the States General of the United Provinces,

The Duke contracted several Alliance before the Death of King WILLIAM. He confirmed and improved these. He contracted others, after the Accession of Queen ANNE; and reunited the Confederacy, which had been dissolved at the End of a former War, in a stricter and firmer League.

Captain-General and Commander in Chief
Of the Forces of GREAT BRITAIN,

The Duke led to the Field the Army of the Allies. He took with surprising Rapidity Venlo, Ruremonde, Ste­venswaert and Liege. He extended and secured the Fron­tiers [Page 235] of the Dutch. The Enemies, whom he found insulting at the Gates of Nimeghen, were driven to seek for Shelter behind their Lines. He forced Bonne, Huy, Limburgh, in another Campaign. He opened the Com­munication of the Rhine, as well as the Maes. He added all the Country between these Rivers to his former Conquests. The Army of France, favoured by the Defection of the Elector of Bavaria, had penetrated into the Heart of the Empire. This mighty Body lay exposed to immediate Ruin. In that memorable Crisis, the Duke of MARLBOROUGH led his Troops with un­exampled Celerity, Secrecy, Order, from the Ocean to the Danube. He saw: He attacked: Nor stopped, but to conquer the Enemy. He forced the Bavarians, sustained by the French, in their strong Intrenchments at Schellenberg. He passed the Danube. A second Royal Army, composed of the best Troops of France, was sent to reinforce the first. That of the Confederates was divided. With one Part of it the Siege of Ingol­stadt was carried on. With the other the Duke gave Battle to the united Strength of France and Bavaria. On the 2d Day of August 1704, he gained a more glorious Victory than the Histories of any Age can boast. The Heaps of Slain were dreadful Proofs of his Valour. A Marshal of France, whole Legions of French, his Prisoners, proclaimed his Mercy. Bavaria was subdued, Ratisbon, Augsbourg, Ulm, Meminghen, all the Usurpa­tions of the Enemy, were recovered. The Liberty of the Diet, the Peace of the Empire, were restored. From the Danube, the Duke turned his victorious Arms towards the Rhine, and the Moselle. Landau, Treves, Traerbach, were taken. In the Course of one Campaign the very Nature of the War was changed. The Invaders of other States were reduced to defend their own. The Frontier of France was exposed in its weakest Part to the Efforts of the Allies.

That he might improve this Advantage, that he might push the Sum of Things to a speedy Decision, the Duke of MARLBOROUGH led his Troops early in the following Year once more to the Moselle. They, whom he had saved a few Months before, neglected to second [Page 236] him now. They, who might have been his Compa­nions in Conquest, refused to join him. When he saw the generous Designs he had formed, frustrated by private Interest, by Pique, by Jealousy, he returned with Speed to the Maes. He returned; and Fortune and Victory returned with him. Liege was relieved; Huy retaken. The French, who had pressed the Army of the States-General with superior Numbers, retired behind In­trenchments, which they deemed impregnable. The Duke forced these Intrenchments, with inconsiderable Loss, on the 7th Day of July 1705, He defeated a great Part of the Army which defended them. The rest escaped by a precipitate Retreat. If Advantages proportionable to this Success were not immediately obtained, let the Failure be ascribed to that Misfortune which attends most Confederacies; a Division of Opi­nions, where one alone should judge; a Division of Power, where one alone should command. The Dis­appointment itself did Honour to the Duke. It became the Wonder of Mankind how he could do so much under those Restraints, which had hindred him from doing more.

Powers more absolute were given him afterwards. The Increase of his Powers multiplied his Victories. At the opening of the next Campaign, when all his Army was not yet assembled; when it was hardly known, that he had taken the Field; the Noise of his Triumphs was heard over Europe. On the 12th of May 1706, he attacked the French at Ramillies. In the Space of Two Hours the whole Army was put to Flight. The Vigour and Conduct, with which he improved this Success, were equal to those, wherewith he gained it. Louvain, Brussels, Malines, Liere, Ghent, Oudenard, Antwerp, Damme, Bruges, Courtray, surrendered. Os­tend, Menin, Dendermond and Aeth, were taken. Bra­bant and Flanders were recovered. Places which had resisted the greatest Generals for Months, for Years; Provinces disputed for Ages; were the Conquests of a Summer. Nor was the Duke content to triumph alone. Solicitous for the general Interest, his Care [Page 237] extended to the remotest Scenes of the War. He chose to lessen his own Army, that he might enable the Leaders of other Armies to conquer. To this it must be ascribed that Turin was relieved; the Duke of Savoy reinstated; the French driven with Confusion out of Italy.

These Victories gave the Confederates an Opportunity of carrying on the War on every Side into the Dominions of France. But she continu'd to enjoy a kind of peaceful Neutrality in Germany. From Italy she was once alarm'd, and had no more to fear. The intire Reduction of his Power, whose Ambition had caused, whose Strength supported the War, seemed reserved for him alone, who had so triumphantly begun the glori­ous Work.

The Barrier of France, on the Side of the Low-Countries, had been forming for more than half a Century. What Art, Power, Expence could do, had been done to ren­der it impenetrable. Yet here she was most exposed; for here the Duke of MARLBOROUGH threatened to attack her.

To cover what they had gained by Surprize, or had been yielded to them by Treachery, the French marched to the Banks of the Schelde. At their Head were the Princes of the Blood, and their most fortunate General the Duke of Vendosme. Thus commanded, thus post­ed, they hoped to check the Victor in his Course. Vain were their Hopes. The Duke of MARLBOROUGH passed the River in their Sight. He defeated their whole Army. The Approach of Night concealed, the Proximity of Ghent favoured their Flight. They neglected nothing to repair their Loss, to defend their Frontier. New Generals, new Armies appeared in the Netherlands. All contributed to inhance the Glory, none were able to retard the Progress, of the confederate Army.

Lisle, the Bulwark of this Barrier, was besieged. A nu­merous Garison, and a Marshal of France, defended the Place. Prince EUGENE of Savoy commanded, the Duke of MARLBOROUGH covered and sustained the Siege. The Rivers were seized, and the Communication with [Page 238] Holland interrupted. The Duke opened new Commu­nications with great Labour, and much greater Art. Through Countries over-run by the Enemy, the neces­sary Convoys arriv'd in Safety. One alone was attacked. The Troops which attacked it were beat. The Defence of Lisle was animated by Assurances of Relief.

The French assembled all their Force. They marched towards the Town. The Duke of MARLBOROUGH offered them Battle, without suspending the Siege. They abandoned the Enterprize. They came to save the Town. They were Spectators of its Fall.

From this Conquest the Duke hastened to others. The Posts taken by the Enemy on the Schelde were surprised. That River was passed the second time, and notwith­standing the great Preparations made to prevent it, without Opposition.

Brussels, besieged by the Elector of Bavaria, was relieved. Ghent surrendered to the Duke in the Middle of a Win­ter remarkably severe. An Army, little inferior to his own, marched out of the Place.

As soon as the Season of the Year permitted him to open another Campaign, the Duke besieged and took Tour­nay. He invested Mons. Near this City, the French Army, covered by thick Woods, defended by noble Intrenchments, waited to molest, nor presumed to offer Battle. Even this was not attempted by them with Impunity. On the last Day of August 1709, the Duke attacked them in their Camp. All was employed; nothing availed against the Resolution of such a General, against the Fury of such Troops. The Battle was bloody. The Event decisive. The Woods were pierced. The Fortifications trampled down. The Enemy fled. The Town was taken. Doway, Bethune, Aire, St. Venant, Bouchain, underwent the same Fate in Two succeeding Years. Their vigorous Resistance could not save them. The Army of France durst not attempt to relieve them. It seemed preserved to defend the Capital of the Monarchy.

The Prospect of this extreme Distress was neither distant nor dubious. The French acknowleged their Con­queror, and sued for Peace.

[Page 239]These are the Actions of the late Duke of MARLBOROUGH,
Performed in the Compass of a few Years,
Sufficient to adorn the Annals of Ages.
The Admiration of other Nations
Will be conveyed to latest Posterity,
In the Histories even of the Enemies of BRITAIN.
The Sense which the British Nation had
Of his transcendent Merit,
Was expressed
In the most solemn, most effectual, most durable manner.
The Acts of Parliament * inscribed on this Pillar
Shall stand
As long as the British Name and Language last,
Illustrious Monuments
Of BRITAIN's Gratitude.

At Woodstock they make the fine Steel Chains for Watches, and other Things of polish'd Steel.

From Woodstock I went North-west to Chipping-Norton, which must have been once a Town of great Trade, by the Number of Merchants, as they are called on the Brasses over their Monuments; and besides, the Name Chipping denotes as much. There are Marks of a Castle by the Church; and Roman Coins are frequently found here. The Church is a good Building, and after a curious Model.

Hence we rode to see Rowldrich Stones, a little Stone-henge, being a Circle of great Stones standing upright, some of them from Five to Seven Feet high, and probably the Vestigia of an old British Temple, as that was; and Mr. Toland positively asserts, that they were so.

[Page 240]At Tidmerton Parish is a large Camp of an orbicular Form, on the Summit of an Hill, which is doubly intrenched, and able to contain a great Army.

When I was at Banbury, I should have mentioned Bloxham, which lies North of it; where is a fine Church, the Steeple of an odd, but agreeable Make.

Near Bloxham, is also the famous Parish of Bright-well, of which it was observed, that there had not been an Alehouse, nor a Dissenter from the Church, nor any Quarrel among the Inhabitants, that rose so high as to a Suit of Law, within the Memory of Man. But they could not say it was so still, espe­cially as to the Alehouse Part; tho' very much is still preserved as to the Unity and good Neighbour­hood of the Parishioners, and their Conformity to the Church.

Being now on the Side of Warwickshire, as is said before, I still went South, and passing by the Four Shire Stones, we saw where the Counties of Oxford, Warwick, and Gloucester, join all in a Point; one Stone standing in each County, and the fourth touch­ing all Three.

Entering Gloucestershire here, Westward, we came, after a Mile's Ride, to Moretonhenmarsh, a small Town which had formerly a Market, but now discontinued: it lies on the great Road to Worcester. And the famous Roman Fosseway, which coming out of Warwickshire, enters this County at Lemington, which lies North-east of this Town, strikes thro' it, and also thro' Stow and North-Leach, down to Cirencester, Southward.

Hence we come to the famous Cotswold-downs, so eminent for the best of Sheep, and finest Wool in England: Fame tells us, that some of these Sheep were sent by King Richard I. into Spain, and that from hence the Breed of their Sheep was raised, which now produce so fine a Wool, that we are obliged to fetch it from thence at a great Price, for making our finest Broad Cloaths.

[Page 241]Upon these Downs we had a clear View of the afore-mentioned famous Fosse, which evidently crosses all the Middle Part of England, and is to be seen and known (tho' in no Place plainer than here) quite from the Bath to Warwick, and thence to Leicester, to Newark, to Lincoln, and on to Barton, upon the Bank of Humber.

We observed also how several cross Roads as antient as the Fosse, join'd it, or branched out of it; some of which the People have by antient Usage, tho' corruptly, called also Fosses: For Example,

The Ackmanstreet, which is an antient Saxon Road, leading from Buckinghamshire thro' Oxfordshire, to the Fosse, and so to the Bath; this joins the Fosse be­tween Burford and Cirencester. Also Grimes-dyke, from Oxfordshire, Wattle-bank, or Aves-ditch, from the same, and the Would-way, call'd also the Fosse, crossing from Gloucester to Cirencester.

Many Seats of the Nobility are to be found in these Parts; Cornbury, Lord Clarendon's; Ditchley, Lord Litchfield's; Hathorp, the late Duke of Shrewsbury's, new built of Stone very beautifully.

The Lech, the Coln, the Churn, and the Isis, all rise in the Cotswould Hills, and joining together, make a full Stream at Lechlade near this Place, and become one River there, and are called the Thames, which begins there to be navigable; and Barges may be seen at the Quay, taking in Goods for London: which makes Lechlade very populous. Of which Town more by-and-by.

Stow on the Would, which is the next Town we came to, is but indifferent to look at; but is, or rather has been, remarkable for its Two annual Fairs, fa­mous for Hops, Cheese, and Sheep, of which, 'tis said, that above 20,000 are generally sold at one Fair, and that the Toll of these Fairs and the Markets, amount to 80l. a Year. The Parish is very large, being 12 Miles in Compass, and consists of Meadow, [Page 242] Arable, and Pasture. Here is a good large Rectory Church standing on a Hill, with a high Tower on the South-side of it, which is seen a great Distance off. Here is also an Hospital, Alms-house, and Free-school, all well endow'd; besides other Charities.

Northleche is also a Market-town, governed by a Bailiff and Two Constables, and is named from the River Leche, which runs through it. Here is a Vicarage Church, large and spacious, having Ayles on each Side, and handsome Windows, with a large Tower. Here is a Grammar-school, free for all the Boys of the Town, endow'd with 80l. a Year. And 'tis said, that the Founder, falling afterwards into Misfortunes, solicited for the Master's Place of his own School, but could not obtain it from the Trustees.

Here we quitted the Roman Fosse, and went East-ward to Burford in Oxfordshire. King Henry II. gave this Town a Charter, Guildam & omnes consue­tudines, quas habent liberi Burgenses de Oxenford; but they are almost all now lost: however it retains some Marks of a Corporation still, being governed by Two Bailiffs, and other inferior Officers. It is famous for Saddles, and, lying near the Downs, draws great Profit from the Horse-races, which are frequent here. At this Place was convened a Synod in 685, against the Error of the British Churches in the Observance of Easter.

At Battle-edge, near this Town, Cuthred, King of the West Saxons, beat Ethelbald, King of the Mercians, in a pitch'd Battle, and threw off his Yoke. The Inhabitants celebrate yearly, on Mid­summer-eve, a kind of Festival, which, they say, commenced in Honour of this Battle. It was here the learned Dr. Heylin (descended originally from an antient Family in Wales) was born; and the famous Speaker Lenthal had a Seat, and died here.

[Page 243]Being so near Witney, we could not forbear taking a Ride to see a Town so famous for the Manufactures of Blanketing and Rugs, which thrive here in a most extraordinary manner. Here are at work 150 Looms continually, for which above 3000 People, from Eight Years old and upward, are daily imploy'd in Carding, Spinning, &c. and consume above 100 Packs of Wool weekly. The Blankets are usually 10 or 12 Quarters wide, and very white, which some attribute to the abstersive nitrous Waters of the River Windrush, wherewith they are scoured; but others believe it is owing to a peculiar way of loose Spinning they use here; and others again are of Opinion, that it proceeds from both. But however that be, this Town has engrossed the whole Trade in that Commodity, and increases daily in its Repu­tation. They likewise make here the Duffield Stuffs, a Yard and three Quarters wide, which are carried to New England and Virginia, and now much worn even here in Winter. Here are likewise a great many Fellmongers, who having dressed and stained their Sheep-skins, make them into Jackets and Breeches, and sell them at Bampton; from whence they are dispersed all over the neighbouring Counties. Here is a good Free-school, and a fine Library be­longing to it.

Witney is an antient Town, and of good Repute before the Conquest; but it is a long, straggling, un­couth Place, tho' full of Inhabitants. 'Twas one of the Manors which Alwinus, Bishop of Winchester gave to the Church of St. Swithin's there, on Queen Emma's happily passing over the Fire Ordeal.

At Astal, a Village in the Road between Burford and Witney, is a Barrow which stands very high, and is supposed to be the Sepulchre of some Person of great Note.

Southward lies Bampton, on the Borders of the County next Berkshire. It is an antient Market-town, [Page 244] likewise in Repute before the Conquest: it is noted for the greatest Market for Fellmonger-wares in England, which come from Witney, and for nothing else that I know of, saving that the People talk'd much of a Family of the Woods (that dwelt here and at Brisenorton) who hear always a great Knocking before any of them die.

Turning here West, we enter'd Gloucestershire again, and came to Lechlade, which lies on the great Road to Gloucester. It is probable, that it was antiently a Roman Town upon the Thames; for a very plain Roman Road runs from hence to Cirencester. Some say, that it was once a famous University for teaching Latin, as Creeklade was for Greek.

The antient Building lately discovered by digging in a Meadow near Lechlade, deserves a particular Mention: it is 50 Feet long, 40 broad, and Four high; supported with 100 Brick Pillars, curiously inlaid with Stones of divers Colours, of Tesseraick Work; and supposed to be a Roman Bath.

Not far from it are the Two Towns called Sarney; so named, in British, from the Roman Causways; for Sarn, in that antient Language, and at present, imports a paved Way. The River Lech runs thro' it, and discharges itself into the Thames. A great Num­ber of Barges go from hence to London.

From Lechlade we proceeded West to Fairford, a small Market-town, thro' which runs the River Coln, which has Two large Bridges over it. A great many Medals and Urns have been often dug up here, and there are several Barrows in the adjoining Fields, (which seem to have been a Scene of warlike Actions) the Monuments of the Slain interred here.

A great many Charities are still subsisting in this Town; but what it is most noted for is its Church, and the admirable Painting in its Windows: of which take the following Description and History.

[Page 245] John Tame, a Merchant of London, purchased this Manor of King Henry VII. (to whom it descended from the Beauchamps, Earls of Warwick) and have­ing taken a Prize-ship bound for Rome, wherein he found a great Quantity of painted Glass, he brought both the Glass and the Workmen into England. The Glass was such a Curiosity, that Mr. Tame built this Church at Fairford (dedicating it to the Virgin Mary); which is in Length 125 Feet, and 55 in Breadth; and has Three Chancels, a good Vestry, and a noble Tower, arising from the Midst of it, adorned with Pinacles; and the Windows of the Church, 28 in Number, he caused to be glazed with this invaluable Prize, which remains intire to this Day, the Admiration of all that see it.

Mrs. Farmer (a Daughter of the Lord Lemster) gave 200l. to be laid out in mending and wiring the Windows: this has preserved them from Acci­dents. And in the grand Rebellion, the Impropriator Mr. Oldworth, and others, (to their great Praise be it remembred) took down the Glass, and secured it in some secret Place, thereby preserving it from Fa­natick Rage. The Painting was the Design of Albert Durer, a famous Italian Master; and the Colouring in the Drapery, and some of the Figures, is so well perform'd, that Vandyke affirmed, the Pencil could not exceed it.

The Subject is all Scripture History, viz. The Ser­pent tempting Eve; God appearing in the burning Bush to Moses, when a Shepherd; the Angel con­ducting Joshua to War; Gideon's Fleece; the Queen of Sheba's Visit to Solomon; King David judging the Amalekite Regicide; Samson slaying the Phi­listines, killing the Lion, and his being betray'd by Dalilah; Solomon's Judgment between the Two Harlots; and the Figures of the Twelve Major Prophets.

[Page 246]But the greatest Part is taken up with Stories of the New Testament: The Angel appearing to Zacharias; Joseph and Mary contracted; the Visitation of Mary by the Angel, and her visiting her Cousin Elizabeth; our Saviour born in a Stable; the Shepherds and Magi visiting him there; Herod waiting the Return of the wise Men; Christ circumcised; the Puri­fication of the Holy Virgin; Simeon with our Saviour in his Arms; Joseph's Flight into Egypt; Herod slaying the young Children of Bethlehem; the Assumption of the Virgin, and Joseph and her seeking Jesus at the Feast: our Saviour's Transfigu­ration, Mary anointing his Head: the Disciples going to embalm him, and the Angel relating to them his Resurrection; Christ's Appearance to Mary Magdalen; his riding to Jerusalem on an Ass; Zaccheus, and the People strewing Palm-branches, and Children crying Hosanna; his Praying in the Garden; Judas betraying him; Pilate judging him, and washing his Hands from the Guilt; the Crucifixion between two Thieves, the Women standing by, and the Soldiers watching him; Joseph of Arimathea begging the Body, and receiving it; his Burial by Nicodemus and others; the Darkness at the Passion, and Michael contending with the Devil.

Christ's travelling to Emmaus, and his Appearance to the Eleven, and afterwards to Thomas; the Disciples going a Fishing, and Christ's appearing to them, with the breaking of the Net, and broiling of the Fish; Christ's Ascension, and the Descent of the Holy Ghost in cloven Tongues.

In the West Window is the Last Judgment curi­ously designed, and well executed, containing a vast Number of Incidents relating thereto.

In the rest of the Windows are many historical Passages, that happened after Christ's Ascension; viz. The Twelve Apostles at large, with the Article of the Creed they are said to be severally the Authors of; [Page 247] the Four Evangelists, as writing the Gospels; Four principal Fathers of the Church, viz. St. Jerom, St. Gregory, St. Ambrose, and St. Austin; the Worthies that have preserved the Christian Church, in four Upper-windows of the Middle Ayle on the South Side, and the Persecutors thereof in the four opposite Windows.

I have been as brief as possible in this Description, being so much confined in my Limits; but a curious Traveller will be highly delighted with this noble Work. And I shall only add, That John Tame, Esq the pious and worthy Founder, who died in the Year 1500, lies buried on the North Side of the Church, under a raised Marble Monument.

On the Churn, one of the Rivers I have just named, stands Cirencester, (or Cicester, for Brevity) the antient Corinium of the Romans, and said to be rebuilt by Cissa, a Viceroy under one of the Saxon Kings, a great and populous City; then inclosed with Walls and a Ditch of vast Compass, which may be traced quite round. The Foundation of the Wall is also very visible in most Places. A good Part of this Circuit is now Pasture, Corn Fields, and Gardens, besides the Scite of the present Town. Antiquities are dug up here every Day; old Foundations, Houses and Streets, and many Mosaick Pavements with Rings, Intaglia's, and Coins innumerable, especially in one great Garden called Lewis Grounds, which might have been the Praetorium or General's Quarters; for Llys, in British, signifies a Palace. Large Quantities of carved Stones are carried off yearly in Carts, to mend the Highways, besides what have been used in Building. A fine Mosaick Pavement was dug up here Anno 1723, with many Coins. One Mr. Richard Bishop lately dug up in his Garden a Vault 16 Feet long, and 12 broad, supported with square Pillars of Roman Brick, three Feet and an half high, on which was a strong Floor of Terrace. [Page 248] Near it are now several other Vaults, on which Cherry-trees grow. These might have been the Foundations of a Temple; for in the same Place they found several Stones of the Shafts of Pillars Six Feet long, and large Stone Bases, with Cornices very handsomely moulded, and carved with Modilions and other Ornaments, which are now converted into Swine-troughs, and Pavements before the Door. Capitals of these Pillars were likewise found. A Mosaick Pavement near it, and intire, is now the Floor of his Privy.

Half a Mile West of the Town, on the North Side of the Fosse Road, at a Place called Quern, other Antiquities are to be seen worth an Antiquary's Attention; but I must not take up too much Room in describing them.

Little of the Abbey is now lest, besides Two old and indifferent Gate-houses. The Church is a very handsome Building; the Windows are full of painted Glass; and it has a fine lofty Tower. East of the Town, about a Quarter of a Mile, is Starbury Mount, a Barrow, where Roman Coins have been dug up. West, behind Lord Bathurst's Garden, is Grismund's Mount, of which several Fables are told.

Cirencester is still a very good Town, populous and rich, full of Clothiers, and driving a great Trade in Wool, which is brought from the Inland Counties of Leicester, Northampton, and Lincoln, where the largest Sheep in England feed, and where are but few Manufactures. The vast Quantities sold here are almost incredible. The Wool is bought up here, chiefly by the Clothiers of Wiltshire and Gloucester­shire, for the Supply of that great Cloathing-trade, which I have mentioned already: they talk of 5000 Packs in a Year.

The Town is governed by Two High Constables. It has Two weekly Markets; one on Monday, for Corn, Cattle, and Provisions; and on Friday, for [Page 249] Wool chiefly. It has also Five Fairs, Three for all Sorts of Commodities, and Two for Cloth only. Here is a fine large beautiful Church with Two Ayles, supported by strong Pillars. The Chancel is handsomely decorated. It has Five Chapels adjoin­ing to it, and has a Tower very neat and lofty, with an excellent Ring of Bells in it. The Windows shew some beautiful Remains of exquisite painted Glass. There is a Free-school, and divers Hospitals and Alms-houses in this Parish.

The Churn runs from hence down Southward to Creeklade in Wiltshire, which is said to have been antiently a very noted Place, containing 1300 Houses, and that an University was here founded by the antient Britons, for teaching Greek, as I have said, as Lech­lade was for Latin; which University was removed, as they pretend, by the Saxons, to Oxon: but, I doubt, these are Monkish Accounts; for Creeklade, which they would have to signify a Greek Town, is a Corruption of the British Word Kerigg gwlade, i. e. a stony Country. The Churn and the Rey fall, here, into the Thames. Here is a good Free-school.

North-west of Cirencester, upon a Hill, stands Stroud, a little Market-town, noted for Clothing, and particularly for dying excellent Scarlet. The Church is 90 Feet long, and 40 broad. The Chancel is 33 Feet long, and 16 wide. At the West End of the Church rises a high Spire Steeple, and a Tower in the Middle.

North of it stands Paynswick, a Market-town, situate in the wholsomest Air in the County, on the River Stroud, where the Cloathing-trade is also car­ried on. The Church is a Vicarage, and very handsome, with Two Chancels, a North Ayle, and a neat Spire.

Lower to the South-west of Cirencester stands Minching Hampton; so called, because it belonged to the Minching Nuns at Caen in Normandy. Here [Page 250] is a good Rectory Church worth 200l. a Year, large, in the Form of a Cross with Ayles on each Side, and a Tower with Battlements rising in the Middle. In the North Ayle are a great many Inscriptions of Be­nefactions. And in the South Ayle is a Statue lying cross-legg'd, with a Sword and Shield by him, and his Wife lying at his Feet.

Then we came to Tetbury, one of the Cloathing Towns I mentioned; a considerable Market-town, situate on a rising Ground, in a healthy Air, but scarce of Water in Summer. 'Tis well-built, has a large Market-house well frequented for Yarn; and there is a lesser Market-house, for Cheese, Bacon, and other Commodities. 'Tis govern'd by a Bailiff, and at the End of the Town is a long Bridge, whereof one half is in Wiltshire. The Church is a Vicarage, worth 120l. a Year: 'tis a good Build­ing, large and handsome, in which are divers Monu­ments. Here is a Free-school and an Alms-house. It had formerly a Castle built by Dunwallo Malmu­fius, a British Prince. The Town seems to be well furnished with every thing but Water, which is so scarce, that the Inhabitants are obliged to buy it at the Rate sometimes of 18d. for a Hogshead. In this Parish rises the River Avon, which runs thro' Bristol, and afterwards falls into the Severn.

A little to the North of this Town is a Meadow called Maudlin Meadow, because, as I was told, it belongs to Magdalen College in Oxford. Here the Inhabitants shewed me the Head of a Spring, which flowing from thence runs along a Hedge-trough, and some Tops of the Wood, that grows in the Hedge, rotting, and falling into this Rill of Water, are, by it, turned into Stone. I took up a great many of them, which are generally in the Shape of the Pipes (as they are commonly called) which the Peruke-makers curl their Hair upon, and of a whitish stony Substance. I broke divers of them, and in the [Page 251] middle found generally a Stick of Wood, some as big as a Goose-quill, others larger; some had but a thin stony Crust about them, in others the Stick was no biggar than a large Needle: again, some had no Stick in them, but only a Hole thro' them, like that of a Tobacco Pipe; and in some others, I could per­ceive no woody Substance, nor Hole at all, but the Whole was a soft Kind of Stone.—Hence I guess, that the Sand which the Water brings down with it, gathers and crusts about those Sticks; and that, in time, the Stick consumes, and the stony or sandy Substance fills up and supplies its Place. And I would hence recommend it as an Inquiry, Whether those other Transmutations of this Kind, that we meet with in the Natural History of this and other Nations, be not brought about in the like manner.

And now I am dipp'd into this Work of Nature, let me digress a little, and take notice of the Astroites, or Star-stones, found at Lassington in this County, which have that peculiar Quality of Motion when put into Vinegar.—In the Fields, near Badminton, are found cylindrical and spherical Stones, almost as big as Cannon Balls. And on the Hills about Aldely, are found Stones of the same Kind with those I found about Watchet in Somersetshire, resembling all Kinds of Shell-fish: these, I must confess, are, of the two, more astonishing, because they are found on the Hills; for if they were, as Fracastorius conjectures, Animals ingendered in the Sea, no good Account of their being here found can be given, unless we suppose them brought hither by the general Deluge.—The Water of the River Stroud, in this County, is esteemed the best for Dying Scarlets, which draws many Clothiers to settle in that Neigh­bourhood. And lest I should be thought too tedious, let me but just mention the Diamonds (Bristol Stones rather) found near the Banks of the River Avon. That soft, easy-to-be-wrought Stone at Great Ban­ington, [Page 252] called Puff-stone, prodigiously strong and last­ing; a great deal af of which hath been used in the Repairs of Westminster Abbey.

Wickwar, a small Market-town, but a very an­tient Corporation, governed by a Mayor, is the next. The Church is a large Edifice, with Two Chancels. The Tower is at the West End, and is high, adorn'd with Pinacles. Here is a Free-school.

Chipping Sodbury lies a little farther in the Road, an antient Borough-town, under a Mayor, Aldermen and Burgesses. As it is a great Thorough-fare to Bristol, it is full of good Inns. It has several Streets besides Lanes, and a good Market; and a large spa­cious Church, which, however, is but a Chapel of Ease to Old Sodbury. Here is the greatest Cheese-market in England, except Atherstone in War­wickshire.

Here we dropp'd the Road, and fell down South­ward, directly to Marshfield, another of the Cloath­ing Towns I spoke of. It consists of one Street of old Buildings near a Mile long. It has a Market, and drives also a great Trade in Malt, and is noted for good Cakes. 'Tis governed by a Bailiff. Here is a good Vicarage Church, with several Monuments and Inscriptions in the Ayles, and the Chancel. Here is an Alms-house well endow'd, and a Chapel to it.

We crossed the great Road from London to Bristol here, as at Cirencester we did that from London to Gloucester; and keeping still the Fosseway, arrived at Bath. But here I shall conclude this Letter, and am, Sir,

Yours, &c.

LETTER V. CONTAINING A Description of Part of the Counties of Somerset, Gloucester, Warwick, Wor­cester, Hereford, and Monmouth.


I Closed my last Letter with my Arrival at BATH, in Somersetshire; and I shall now proceed with giving you an Account of what is most remarkable in it.

The Antiquity of this City, and of the famous Baths in it, must be allow'd to be very great, even tho' we should doubt of what is insisted on in the Inscription under the Figure of King Bladud, placed in the King's Bath, which says, that this Prince (whom Mr. Camden calls Blayden, or Bladen Cloyth, i. e. Southsayer) found out the Use of these Baths, 300 Years before our Saviour's Time.

Bath is a Spot of Ground, which our Countrymen ought to esteem as a particular Favour of Heaven. It lies in a great Valley, surrounded with an Amphi­theatrical View of Hills; and its Situation on the West Side of the Island is a considerable Addition to its Delights, as being the less liable to the rude Shocks of [Page 254] Tempests. But the Romans were induced prudently to make a Station here by the admirable hot Springs. The Walls are almost intire, and perhaps the Work of the Romans, except the upper Part, which seems repaired with the Ruins of Roman Buildings; for the Lewis-holes are still left in many of the Stones, and, to the Shame of the Repairers, many Roman In­scriptions, some sawn across, to fit the Size of the Place. The Level of the City is risen to the Top of the first Walls, thro' the Negligence of the Magistracy, who, in this, and all other great Towns, connive at the Servants throwing Dirt and Ashes into the Streets. These Walls inclose but a small Com­pass, of a pentagonal Form. There are four Gates on four Sides, and a Postern on the other. From the South-west Angle have been an additional Wall and Ditch carried out to the River; by which short Work the Approach of an Enemy on two Sides is intercepted, unless they pass the River. The small Compass of the City has made the Inhabitants croud up the Streets to an unseemly and inconvenient Narrowness. It is, however, handsomely built, mostly of new Stone, which is very white and good. The great Additions made, and still making, to the Buildings here, I shall mention by-and-by.

It was of old a Resort for Cripples, and dis­eased Persons; and we see the Crutches hang up at the several Baths, as the Thank-offerings of those who came hither lame, and went away cured. But now we may say it is a Resort of the Sound, as well as the Sick, and a Place that helps the Indolent and the Gay to commit that worst of Murders, that is to say, to kill Time.

To such it is indeed a constant Round of Diver­sion. In the Morning the young Lady is brought in a close Chair, dressed in her Bathing-cloaths, to the Cross-bath. There the Musick plays her into the Bath, and the Women who tend her, present her [Page 255] with a little floating Wooden Dish, like a Bason; in which the Lady puts a Handkerchief, and a Nosegay, and of late the Snuff-box is added. She then traverses the Bath, if a Novice, with a Guide; if otherwise, by herself; and having amus'd herself near an Hour, calls for her Chair, and re­turns to her Lodgings.

The rest of the Diversion is at Mrs. Hayes's, for­merly Harrison's, a stately Room, and Mrs. Wilt­shire's, who has now the Apartments that were the late Mrs. Lindsey's, where not long since was the Bowling-green. And perhaps Mr. Leake, who keeps one of the finest Booksellers Shops in Europe, has more than a Chance for half an Hour of each Per­son's Company now-and-then, and to be sure a Subscription, which is but five Shillings the Season, for taking home what Book you please; but Persons of Quality generally subscribe Gold, and I think it is the very best Money laid out in the Place, for those who go for Pleasure or Amusement only. In the Afternoon there is frequently a Play, tho' the Decorations are mean, and indeed the Performances too. In the Evening, People assemble at the great Rooms, and there are Balls twice a Week. 'Tis also the Fashion of the Place, for the Company to go every Day pretty constantly to hear Divine Service at the great Church, and at St. Mary's Chapel in Queen's-square, where are Prayers twice a Day.

'Tis remarkable that for many Hundreds of Years, the Medicinal Virtues of these Waters have been useful to the diseased People by Batheing only; whereas of late Years they are found to be no less healthful in many Cases taken inwardly; insomuch, that more come to drink than to bathe; nor are the Cures they perform this way, less valuable than the outward Application.

Gaming used to obtain here, as at all publick Places, to a scandalous Degree; but the Act pro­hibiting [Page 256] that pernicious Practice; has a good deal checked its Progress. This Act passed in the 12th of King George II. and suppresses, on the Penalty of 200l. and 50l. the Adventures, the following Games by Name; viz. The Ace of Hearts, Pharaoh, Bas­set, Hazard; also all Sales, Raffles, Lotteries, Mathematical Machines, &c. Sales by Lotteries are declared void, and what is put up by them for­feited; nor are Convictions to be vacated for want of Form.

But this Act being eluded by new Games set up, a Clause was inserted in the Horse-racing Act, Anno 13 Geo. II. prohibiting Passage, and all other Games with Dice, except what are play'd on the Back­gamon Tables.

As to the more particular Nature and Virtues of the Waters, I have been favoured, by a very eminent Physician, with the following curious Account of tham, and their Original.

Of Bath Waters.

The Bath Waters certainly owe their Heat to a Mixture and Fermentation of two different Sources, distilling from the Tops of two different Mountains (Clarton and Landsdown) meeting in the Valley where the Town stands; for all Hills are Nests of Metals or Minerals, and their Bellies are cavernous and hollow. It is not therefore improbable, that on Clarton Down there should lie the sulphurous Matter which must rise by Impregnation from that excellent Stone Quarry, which hardens in the Air, and grows cased with a nitrous Coat by Time, and cold Wea­ther, and is so readily cut out and carved into any the most exquisite Shapes. This the Discovery and Property of the worthy, charitable, and pious Ralph Allen, Esq For all Mineral Waters owe their Virtue to an Impregnation of Rain Water, generated from the Clouds, which are compressed in their Course by [Page 257] Mountains or Eminences, and fall on the re­spective included Mineral. And every one knows, that a due Mixture of Sulphur, and Filings of Iron, moistened with Water, will produce any Degree of Heat. This Quarry therefore must have a large Quantity of sulphurous or bituminous Matter in its Composition, as will be evident to a Natural Philo­sopher, from these mentioned Qualities of the Stone. Neither is it improbable, that the ferruginous or iron-tinctured Water takes its Rise from Lansdown Quarry, the Stone on it being hard, and on the Top flinty, black, and acrimonious, as Iron Ore is known to be. These Two Mountains, thus tinged by Rain Water falling from the proper Heights, meet in some Caverns in the Valley; and, there fermenting produce that hot, milky, soft, salutiferous Beverage, called Bath Water, far beyond any hot mineral Waters for its Delicacy, and supportable, tho' comfortable Heat, to any other such Water hitherto discovered on the habitable Globe, as it possesses that Milkiness, Deter­gency, and middling Heat so friendly adapted to weaken'd animal Constitutions, which all other hot Waters want in the due Degree; either being too hot, or too cold, to do any great Good in Cases where they are proper. These Waters are beneficial in al­most all chronical Distempers, and can hurt in none, except in Hemorrhages, Inflammations, or bad Lungs, unless they be over-dosed in Quantity, or too high and too hot a Regimen be joined with them; for they always procure a great Appetite, and good Spirits, if cautiously managed; but if high Meats, and strong Liquors, be indulged, they will create inflam­matory Disorders. However, in weak Stomachs, decayed Appetites, Colicks, low Spirits, in the Intervals of the Fits of the Gout and Stone; in Rheumatisms, Palsies, nervous Disorders; and, in a Word, all those called the Cold Diseases; but most eminently, in all the Disorders of the chyliferous Tube, [Page 258] or the Stomach and Belly not inflamed, they are more kindly and beneficial than any Medicine known in Nature; and introduce a natural Warmth, and a new internal Heat, into decayed, worn-out, super­annuated Constitutions; and if a light Regimen, due Exercise, and good Hours, be joined with them, they would truly work Wonders: but by the Neglect of these, their Efficacy is often lost, and their Credit brought into Question.

Great Additions have been made to the Buildings here within these few Years; particularly by the Duke of Chandos.

Without the Walls, a stately new Square is erected, with a fine Chapel, and the Middle is in­closed by Rails, and handsomely laid out within.

In the Centre is a lofty Obelisk 70 Feet high from the Foundation, and terminated in a Point. Level with one's Eye is the inclosed Inscription: ‘IN MEMORY

The Bath-stone, which I have mention'd before, affords a fine Opportunity to imbellish and give a noble Look to the Buildings here, and at a very cheap Rate; for the Front of the Houses on the North Side of the Square cost no more than 500l. tho' it is above 200 Feet in Extent, and inriched with Co­lumns [Page 259] and Pilasters in the Corinthian Order. All the Danger is, that they will over-build themselves now they are got into the Humour, and make it less worth while to those who let Lodgings, the prin­cipal Business of the Place; but then People of Fortune, settling there, will make amends for it; since no less than 70 or 80 Families are already be­come constant Inhabitants, and others are daily taking Houses.

The Grove too, near the Abbey-church, now cal­led Orange-square, in Compliment to the Prince of Orange, when there, has several handsome new-built Houses; and a monumental Stone is erected, with an Inscription in Honour to the Prince of Orange, and the Place; his Highness having been obliged to visit Bath for his Health, just before he married the Princess Royal of England, and received great Benefit by the Waters. This likewise was erected by the famous Mr. Nash, to whose good Management and Behaviour Bath is greatly indebted; every one submitting with Delight to the Regulations he imposes, with regard to Decorum, and the Oeconomy of the Place.

The Inscription on the Stone above, is as follows:In Memoriam
Principi Auriaco
Aquarum Thermalium Potu,
Favente DEO,
Feliciter Restitutae.
Thus translated: ‘In Memory of the happy Resto­ration of the Health of the Prince of Orange by the drink­ing of the Bath Waters, thro' the Favour of GOD, and to the extreme Joy of Britain, 1735.’

General Wade, one of the Representatives in Par­liament for this City, has given a fine Altar-piece to the great Church there: He has also been at the Charge of having the Picture drawn of every one of his Electors, (the Members of the Corporation) and set up round the Town-hall; and his own too he has [Page 260] suffer'd to be put up over the Entrance, as if he would make good that Pass, and keep them all to Duty. At the Upper-end of the Hall are lately set up the Pictures of the Prince and Princess of Wales, a Present made by their Royal Highnesses to the Cor­poration, who likewise before presented it with a fine large wrought Silver Cup and Waiter, gilt.

There is a very great Narrowness of Spirit in most of the Inhabitants at Bath: but, indeed, it is the same in all publick Places of Resort. They have but their Seasons; and they are so hungry by that time they come about, that they look upon a new Comer, as a Person to be shared and divided among them: for this Reason you'll always find them with both Hands open to receive; and not one to com­municate, or do a generous Office, without a Benefit in Possession or Reversion. And when they receive a Favour at your Hands, 'tis with such an Air, as if it were their Due, and they quitted Scores with you by their Acceptance of it.

The Abbey-church is a venerable Pile, and has many Monuments in it. But the principal Front is almost blasphemously decorated, if it may be call'd decorated, with the Figures of God the Father, and Saints and Angels, the Work of Superstition. This Cathedral, tho' beautiful, is but small; and on the Spot probably stood the Roman Temple of Minerva, Patroness of the Baths. Before it, was an hand­some square Area, but of late Years deformed with Houses.

On the South Side are the justly renowned hot Springs collected into a square Area, called the King's Bath. The Corporation erected within these few Years that pretty neat Building before it, call'd the Pump-room, for the Company to meet in, who drink the Water, convey'd hither by a Marble Pump from the Bottom of the Springs, where it is near boiling-hot.

[Page 261]This Water is admirably grateful to the Stomach, striking the Roof of the Mouth with a fine sulphur­ous and steely Taste, like that of the German Spaw or Pyrmont. Tho' you drink off a large Pint-glass, it is so far from creating a Heaviness or Nausea, that you immediately perceive yourself more alert. At first it operates by Stool, and especially Urine. It is of sovereign Efficacy to strengthen the Bowels, re­store their lost Tone, and renew the vital Heat. But I have already mention'd its excellent Qualities.

The King's Bath is an oblong Square, the Walls full of Niches, perhaps the Romans Work. There are Twelve on the North Side; Eight on the East and West; about Four larger Arches on the South. At every Corner are the Steps to descend into it, and a Parapet or Balustrade with a Walk round it.

The Springs were doubtless separated from com­mon Springs by the Romans, and fenced in with a durable Wall. There goes a probable Tradition of subterranean Canals of their making, to carry off the other Waters, lest they should mix with these, and destroy the Heat.

It is remarkable, that at the cleansing of the Springs, when they set down a new Pump, they constantly find great Quantities of Hazel-nuts, as in many other Places among subterraneous Timber. These, Dr. Stukeley doubts not, are the Remainder of the univer­sal Deluge, which the Hebrew Historian tell us was in Autumn, Providence by that means securing the Revival of the Vegetable World.

In the Bath People stand up to the Chin, Men and Women, and stew, mostly in the way of Gallantry.

Many are the Diseases which here find a Remedy, when judiciously applied, as I observ'd above. The Confleunce hither is greater in Summer, than in Winter, tho' the latter, of the two, seems the more preferable Season for medicinal Purposes.

[Page 262]Behind the Southern Wall of the King's Bath, is a less Square, named the Queen's Bath, with a Ta­bernacle of Four Pillars in the midst. This is of more temperate Warmth, as borrowing its Water from the other. There are likewise Pumps and Pumping-rooms, for pouring hot Streams on any Part of the Body; which in many Cases is very salutary.

In the South-west Part of the Town are two other Baths, not to be disregarded.

The Hot-bath is not much inferior in Heat to the King's Bath; it is a small Parallelogram, with a Stone Tabernacle of Four Pillars in the midst.

The Cross-bath near it is triangular, and had a Cross in the middle. Hard by is an Hospital built and endow'd by a Prelate of this See. The Water in these two Places rises near the Level of the Streets.

On the South Side of the Cathedral are some Parts of the Abbey left, and the Gate-house belonging to it.

Within these few Years, by a Contribution, a cold Bath for the Benefit of the Infirm was made at a Spring beyond the Bridge.

Two Roman Inscriptions have been set in the Eastern Wall of the Cathedral, fronting the Walks; which, besides the Injuries of the Weather, are exposed to the mischievous Sport of Boys, who throw Stones at them.

The several Baths are very indifferently kept, as their Use so much increases. But a fine Design is now on foot to make convenient Slips, with Dressing-rooms, and Apartments for Pumping on People, without going into the Bath, and for inlarging the Pump-room so as to hold four or five Pumps.

The greatest Decency is observed here by both Sexes; and while Mr. Nash lives, it must be always so. There is a very good Conveniency of Chairs, of which there are great Plenty, and very genteel ones, [Page 263] to go to any Part within the Walls, and even to the adjoining Buildings without, for 6d. provided the Distance does not exceed 500 Yards; but if it does, the Fare is 1s. and for this the Chairmen are obliged to go a Mile. In short, it is a delightful Place enough, when you are in it, but a dreadful one to come at, down high Hills, in some Places like Precipices: but Health or Pleasure obliges People to dispense with this Difficulty.

Bath being invironed with Hills, there are few pleasant Walks out of the Town, or even Rides, without clambering much to Landsdown-hill, or that called Clarton-down.

It is for this Reason, that very few People care to keep Coaches here. And the Hill up to Lansdown, particularly, is so steep, that the late Queen Anne was extremely frighted in going up: her Coachman stopping to give the Horses Breath, and the Coach wanting a Dragstaff, it ran back in spite of all the Coachman's Skill; the Horses not being brought to strain the Harness again, or pull together for a good while, and the Coach putting the Guards behind in great Confusion: at last some of the Servants, setting their Heads and Shoulders to the Wheels, stopt them by mere Force.

The General Hospital now near finished in this City, for the Reception of the sick Poor all over the Kingdom, is a very noble Design. The first Stone of it was laid the 6th of July 1738. It is built where the old Play-house stood, and is a noble Pile of Building, 100 Feet in Front, and 90 Feet deep. It is capable of receiving 150 poor Cripples. Its chief Benefactor is Mr. Allen, of whom we shall say more anon, who gave all the Wall-stone, Free-stone ready wrought, Paving-stone, and Lime used in it. The Prince and Princess of Wales have like­wise been great Promoters of the Work.


[Page 264]A very great Design is now also begun in this City, of which the following is a brief Account.

On the 10th of March 1739-40, the first Stone of a new Square was laid, in the Gardens adjoining to the publick Walks. The principal Side of this Square is to have the Appearance of one House, 520 Feet in Front, and 260 Feet in Depth, but is to be divided into 40 Houses: each Front is to have 63 Windows, and each End 31. Two of the other Sides are to serve as Wings to the principal Side: each Wing is to contain 24 Houses upon a perfect Square of 210 Feet, and the Front of these Wings are every one to have 25 Windows; so that when the whole Building is viewed in Front, it will shew 113 Windows, extend 1040 Feet, and from the distant Hills look like one grand Palace. The three Piles of Building will be adorned with above 300 Columns and Pilasters in the Corinthian Order:—Upon the Corner of every Pile there will be a Tower, and in every Front will be a Centre-house and a Pediment.

A noble House for publick Assemblies is to be erected by Subscription in this Square; the Ball­room will be like an Egyptian Hall, and contain in Length 90 Feet, and Breadth 52 Feet. The As­sembly-room will be 90 Feet long. There will be a Garden for the Ladies to walk in; a Bowling-green for the Gentlemen; a grand Parade of 200 Yards long, a Terrace 500 Yards in Circumference, a Portico of the same Dimensions, with divers other Walks in common for all People, and so disposed, that Gentlemen and Ladies may walk at any Season of the Year, at any Hour of the Day, and in any Weather. So that by these great Improvements Bath will be rendered one of the most agreeable Places in the World; for, facing this Square, a Bridge with an Arch of 102 Feet opening will be built over the River, by which People of Distinction may go to [Page 265] the Downs, as into their own Gardens, for the Air and Exercise.

The River Avon runs by the Back of the Town; and on the Banks of it, Mr. Allen, who is the Genius of the Place, and whose Works and In­ventions there, next to the Waters, are better worth the Attention of the Curious, than any thing in Bath, has a fine Wharf, and other convenient Places, to shape, to work, to imbark the Stones of many Tons Weight, which he digs from the Quarry, on the adjacent Hill. This he does by an admirable Machine, which runs down the Hill by Grooves placed in the Ground, without Horses or any other Help, than one Man to guide it, who also by a particular Spring can stop it in the steepest Part of the Hill, and in the swiftest Part of its Motion. These Stones he can carry by the Avon to Bristol, whence they may be transported to any other Part of England; and the new Works of St. Bartholomew's Hospital, London, are built with them. He is build­ing for himself a very magnificent House of this Stone, with a fine Chapel, and noble Stables and Offices; and has delightful Gardens laid out with a Profusion of Fancy, yet with great Oeconomy, as to the Expence: for, in short, Mr. Allen is con­tented with the Situation of his House and Gardens, (and indeed well he may, for it is a very fine one) and, instead of forcing Nature by a great Expence to bend to Art, he pursues only what the natural Scite points out to him, and, by so doing, will make it one of the cheapest, and at the same time one of the most beautiful Seats in England. He levels no Hills, but enjoys the Beauty of the Prospects they afford; he cuts down no Woods, but strikes thro' them fine Walks, and next-to-natural Mazes; and has, by that means, a delightful Grove always filled with Birds, which afford the rural Ear a Musick transcending all others. Nor does he want for fine Conveniencies [Page 266] of Water; and as he is a Gentleman who is not enter'd into the present fashionable Schemes of ridi­culing Religion and Scripture, he has a Figure of Moses striking the Rock, and the Water gushing out of it, which forms a sort of natural Cascade, whence his Bason is supplied; and is a pretty Allusion to his producing all his Works from the Stone Quarry in his Neighbourhood. This is the same Mr. Allen, who first invented the Cross-Post, so useful for the Con­veyance of Letters to Places, which before were, in that Particular, at the greatest Uncertainty. The Taste of this Gentleman in his Gardening, &c. is so aptly described by Mrs. Chandler of the Place, in an ingenious Poem, called, The Description of BATH, that the following Quotation from it, must be acceptable.

Thy Taste refin'd appears in yonder Wood,
Not Nature tortur'd, but by Art improv'd;
Where cover'd Walks with open Vistas meet,
An Area here, and there a shady Seat.
A thousand Sweets in mingled Odours flow
From blooming Flow'rs, which on the Borders grow.
In num'rous Streams the murm'ring Waters thrill,
Uniting all, obedient to thy Will;
Till, by thy Art, in one Canal combin'd,
They thro' the Wood in various Mazes wind;
From thence the foaming Waves fall rapid down,
In bold Cascades, and lash the rugged Stone.
But here their Fury lost, the calmer Scene
Delights the softer Muse, and S [...]ul serene:
An ample Bason, Centre of the Place,
In Lymph transparent holds the scaly Race;
Its glassy Face, from ev'ry Ruffle free,
Reflects the Image of each neighb'ring Tree;
On which the feather'd Choir's melodious Throng,
By Love inspir'd, unite in tuneful Song;
Their tuneful Song the echoing Woods resound,
And falling Waters add a solemn Sound:
Sure this the Muses haunt; 'tis hallow'd Ground!

[Page 267]At Walcot has been a Camp, and many Roman Antiquities have been found. Lord Winchelsea has an Urn, a Patera, and other things taken out of a Stone Coffin, wherein was a Child's Body, half a Mile off the Bath.

When one is upon Kingsdown, and has pass'd all the Steeps and Difficulties of the Ascent, there is a plain and pleasant Country for many Miles into Gloucestershire, and two very noble Houses, the one built by Mr. Blathwait, late Secretary at War; and the other is call'd Badmington, a Mansion of the Duke of Beaufort.

Nor must we forget to mention the handsome Monument erected by Order of the late Lord Lans­down, to the Honour of Sir Bevil Granville, his Lordship's Ancestor, with an Inscription recording the Action in which he fell. It is built on the Brow of Lansdown-Hill, on the very Spot, as near as pos­sible, where that brave Gentleman was kill'd, in the Action between him and Sir William Waller, in the late Civil Wars; of which Lord Clarendon and others give Account.

I ought not to omit, that in the Session of Par­liament 1738-9, an Act passed for inlarging the Terms and Powers granted by Two former Acts of Parliament, for Repairing and Inlarging the High­ways between the Top of Kingsdown-Hill and the City of Bath; and for Amending several other Roads leading from Bristol, and other Places, to Bath; and for cleansing, paving, and enlightening the STREETS, and regulating the CHAIRMEN there; and for keeping a regular Nightly WATCH, within the said City and Liberties: All which, when ef­fected according to the Intention of the Act, will be a great Conveniency to Bath, and to Persons resort­ing to it.

I will just mention also, that at Chipping-Norton-Lane, near Bath, was a Fight between the Forces [Page 268] of King James II. and those of the Duke of Mon­mouth, in which the latter had the Advantage, and, if they had pursu'd it, would have gain'd a complete Victory. An old Elm-Tree, standing near Stanton-Drew, in a Road leading three Ways, afforded a sad Testimony of the Event of the Duke's Enterprize; for it was all overspread with the Heads and Limbs of the unfortunate Persons engag'd in his Cause, who suffer'd by the Sentence of the merciless Jefferies.

About Twyfordton, not far from Bath, is a fallow Field, call'd Marsbury-Field, with but little Quan­tity of Earth upon the Rock. This was very full of fossile Shells, which had preserv'd their natural Colour of Blue and White as perfectly as at first.

In Chu Parish is Bowditch, so call'd from its cir­cular Form; it was a large Camp on a Hill trebly fortified, whence you may behold the Isles of Flat­holm and Steepholm in the Sea. Here is a petrifying Spring. This Country abounds with Coal-pits. The Slates which lie upon it, and have not re­ceiv'd their due Quantity of Sulphur, so as to make perfect Coal, are most curiously mark'd with Im­pressions of Plants, particularly those of Fern. This is indeed a Rock, full of Springs, a very bad Road for Travelling, consisting of short and steep Valleys, narrow Lanes, intricate, dark, and hard. The Ground is very rich, and bears much Wood. The Neatness of the Houses even of the poorer Sort of People is remarkable, being generally whited over, and imbel­lish'd with little Gardens. We come in Ten Miles from Bath to the City of Bristol, the greatest, the richest, and the best Port of Trade in Great-Britain, London only excepted.

Bristol has been formerly a Place of Strength, and had a Castle, in which King Stephen was kept Pri­soner some time by Maud the Empress. It was be­sieged in the Civil Wars, and made a good Defence. The Castle stood till the Time of Oliver Cromwell, [Page 269] who demolish'd it. It is a County-Town, and one of King Henry VIII.'s new Bishopricks.

The Merchants of this City have not only the greatest Trade, but they trade with a more intire In­dependency upon London, than any other Town in Britain. And 'tis evident in this Particular, viz. That whatsoever Exportations they make to any Part of the World, they are able to bring the full Returns back to their own Port, and can dispose of them there; which is not the Case in any other Port in England; where they are often oblig'd either to ship part of the Effects in the Ports abroad, on the Ships bound to London; or to consign their own Vessels to London, in order both to get Freight, and dispose of their own Cargoes.

But the Bristol Merchants, as they have a very great Trade abroad, so they have always Buyers at home for their Returns, and that such Buyers, that no Cargo is too big for them. To this Purpose, the Shopkeepers in Bristol, who in general are Whole­sale-men, have so great an Inland Trade among all the Western Counties, that they maintain Carriers, just as the London Tradesmen do, to all the princi­pal Countries and Towns from Southampton in the South, even to the Banks of the Trent, North; al­though they have no navigable River that Way.

Add to this, That, as well by Sea, as by the Na­vigation of two great Rivers, the Wye, and the Se­vern, they have the whole Trade of South-Wales, as it were, to themselves, and the greatest Part of that of North-Wales; and as to their Trade to Ire­land, it is prodigiously increas'd since the Revolu­tion, notwithstanding the great Trade which of late the Merchants of Liverpool also drive with that Kingdom.

The greatest Inconveniencies of Bristol are its Si­tuation, its narrow Streets, and the Narrowness of its River; and we might mention also another [Page 268] [...] [Page 269] [...] [Page 270] Narrow; that is, the Minds of the Generality of its People; for, let me tell you, the Merchants of Bri­stol, tho' very rich, are not like the Merchants of London: the latter may be said (as of old of the Merchants of Tyre) to vie with the Princes of the Earth; whereas the former, being rais'd by good For­tune, and Prizes taken in the Wars, from Masters of Ships, and blunt Tars, have imbib'd the Manners of these rough Gentlemen so strongly, that they trans­mit it to their Descendants, only with a little more of the Sordid, than is generally to be found among the British Sailors; and I would advise the rich ones among them, if they would be a little more polite and generous, than they usually are, to travel, but not out of England neither; I mean only to Lon­don (that is, from the second great Trading Town to the first); and they will see Examples worth their Imitation, as well for princely Spirit, as upright and generous Dealings.

The Corporation being very tenacious in not admit­ting Persons to trade in their Liberty, who are not Freemen, there are not so many new Buildings, and Improvements of Streets, &c. at Bristol, as would otherwise be. As for the City itself, there is hardly Room to set another House in it. The great Square, called Queen's, formerly the Mead, where the Ground was subject to the Hazard of Inundations, is now so rais'd, that it is free from that Inconvenience: It is very handsomely built and inhabited, and a fine Eque­strian Statue of King William III. erected in the middle of it, done by the famous Rysbrack.

The Quay along the River is very noble, and well filled with all Sorts of Merchandize, and a handsome Row of Houses fronts it. And I was inform'd, when I was there last, that in order to make the Back of this City more commodious than ever, the Cor­poration have purchased several Houses adjoining to the Back-Gate, in order to pull them down, and [Page 271] make all flush from the Conduit on the Back, clear round to the Quay; which when finish'd, will be one of the completest Harbours in Europe. This Quay is reckoned the longest in England. It has a Crane on it, the Workmanship of the late ingenious Mr. Padmore, which is not to be equalled in Europe. The Merchants are greatly benefited by it, in the extraordinary Dispatch it gives to the discharging of their Ships.

College-Green is deemed the healthiest Situation in the City.

There is erected within these few Years an Assem­bly Room, for Entertainment and Amusement of the Gay, as at other considerable Places; for Luxury must always follow Riches. It is a very handsome Building, and stands in the Way from the City to the Hot-well.

The old Theatre at Stokes-Croft is also alter'd into a commodious Room for an Assembly, which is held every Tuesday during the Winter.

There were, when I was there, no less than fif­teen Glass-Houses in Bristol, which is more than are in the City of London: they use indeed, them­selves, a very great Number of Glass Bottles, which they send fill'd with Beer, Cyder, and Wine, to the West-Indies, much more than goes from London; also vast Numbers of Bottles are now used for send­ing the Water of St. Vincent's Rock, not only all over England, but, we may say, all over the World.

This Hot-well, or Water of St. Vincent's Rock, is without the City, at the Confluence of the two little Rivers, and on the North-side of the Stream. Not many Years since, this Spring lay open at the Foot of the Rock, and was covered by the salt Water at every Tide; and yet it preserved both its Warmth and Virtue intire.

The Rock, tho' hard to Admiration, has since that been work'd down, partly by Labour, and partly [Page 272] blown in Pieces by Gunpowder; and an handsome large House is built upon it, where they have good Apartments for entertaining distemper'd Persons. The Well is secur'd, and a good Pump is fix'd in it, so that they have the Water pure and unmix'd from the Spring itself, and they export vast Quantities; for this Water keeps its Virtue better than that of Bath.

The following curious Account of the Bristol Wa­ters, I am indebted for to the same eminent Physi­cian, who favoured me with the learned Account of the Nature, and Efficacy of the Bath and Tun­bridge Waters.

The Bristol Waters, he says, seem only a natural Lime-water, or pure Element impregnated with a natural unburnt Limestone. All the Hills and Moun­tains round that Water are nothing but a Quarry of natural unburnt Limestone, which is daily dug up there for Building, and manifests itself to the Senses. This makes these Bristol Waters, one of the purest, best, and most salutary, mere aqueous Elements on the Globe, to cool all over-heated Bowels, and to lessen all preternatural Discharges. But the small Milk-warmth in them, when immediately pump'd up, upon the Well's being drain'd of the Influx of the Tide, shews there is some other Principle in them besides natural Limestone: and that in Nature can be no other than some weak Impregnation of Sulphur with Nitre or Sea Salt, or perhaps a slight Touch of Iron. The Stones are some reddish, some blackish, that are digg'd out of the Mountains circumjacent, but all of them natural Limestone. These reddish and blackish Colours in the Stones necessarily imply Sulphur and Iron; and these Three Principles, by chymical Processes and Mixtures, are discovered in some small Proportion in the Waters. They are excellent in all scorbutick and nervous Atrophies, in Hecticks, weak Lungs, all Inflammations in what­ever [Page 273] Part, all preternatural Evacuations; in short, in all acrid Juices and viscid Blood, being a natural Simple Alcali; and in the first Stages of a Phthisis Pulmonum; and if early had recourse to, and long continued under a low, cooling, nutritive Regimen, they would probably stop the Growth and Causes of most chronical Distempers.

There are 17 Parishes in the City, but 19 Churches, including the Cathedral and the Church of St. Mark. There are besides those Churches, several Meeting-houses, for the different Sectaries, viz. Independents, Quakers, and Baptists.

The Cathedral is far from extraordinary.

Several of the Churches are very neat, and beau­tifully decorated, and worthy a Traveller's Attention. That of St. Mary Radcliffe, or Redcliff, is a noble and stately Edifice. It is very large and spacious, and has a fine Steeple or Tower.

In it is a very antient Monument for Mr. William Cannings, Burgess and Merchant of Bristol, the Foun­der of the Church, and a great Benefactor otherwise to the City of Bristol.

On one Part of the Monument is a Latin Inscrip­tion, full of Abbreviations; and, on the other Side, in English, an Inscription to his Praise, which I have not room to insert.

Here is also an Inscription on the Monument of Sir William Penn, Knt. Vice-Admiral of England, the Fa­ther of the great William Penn, one of the Heads of the Quakers, who was a Native of the City of Bristol.

A great Face of Seriousness and Religion appears at Bristol, and the Magistrates are laudably strict in exacting the Observation of the Sabbath, consider­ing the general Dissoluteness that has broken in almost every-where else.

One thing they deserve high Commendation for; and that is the Neatness observ'd in keeping their Churches, and the Care they take in preserving the [Page 274] Monuments and Inscriptions of those bury'd in 'em. A Practice scandalously neglected almost every-where else in England, and even at Places we might men­tion, where Money (another scandalous Practice) is exacted for seeing them. This Care of the Monu­ments of the Dead brings many Visitors to their Churches of travelling Strangers, who are always pleas'd with it, and make Comparisons in its Favour, tho' very little to the Credit of some others, who are more negligent. 'Tis indeed strange, That the Heirs and Families of the Deceased should not think them­selves more concern'd, than they generally are, to keep up the Monuments of their Ancestors. With great Piety, and at a great Expence, the next Heir, or the most oblig'd, rears a Monument to the Deceas'd, and it is dedicated, too, professedly, to Posterity. In a very little while, the Monument is cover'd with Dust and Cobwebs, and the Inscription often effaced. Com­mon Decency does not succeed to this Piety, and it becomes a Monument of the Ingratitude or Neglect of the Survivors, rather than an Honour to the De­ceas'd.

Methinks Vanity alone, the common Inducement to these Erections, should inspire another Manner of Acting. I cannot account for it any other way, but that from the Prince to the Peasant, as a Family generally lies together in one Vault or Tomb, very few are willing to see or think of their Coffins; and hence it is, That some Men often look upon their very Heirs as Memento Mori's. Unhappy Narrow­ness of Mind, equally to be lamented and despis'd!

Bristol is supposed to have an hundred thousand Inhabitants in the City, and within three Miles of its Circumference; and they say, above Three Thou­sand Sail of Ships belong to that Port.

'Tis very remarkable, That this City is so well supply'd with Coals, that tho' they are all brought by Land Carriage, yet they are generally laid down [Page 275] at the Doors of the Inhabitants, at seven, eight, or nine Shillings per Chaldron.

The Situation of the City is low, but on the Side of a rising Hill. The Ground Plat of it is said very much to resemble that of old Rome, being circular, with a something greater Diameter one way than an­other, but enough to make it oval; and the River cutting off one small Part, as it were, a Sixth, or less, from the rest.

The Bridge over the Avon is exceeding strong, the Arches very high, because of the Depth of Wa­ter, and the Buildings so close upon it, that in pas­sing the Bridge, you see nothing but an intire full-built Street. The Tide of Flood rises here near six Fathom, and runs very strong.

They draw all their heavy Goods here on Sleds, or Sledges, which they call Gee-hoes, without Wheels. This kills a Multitude of Horses; and the Pavement is worn so smooth by them, that in wet Weather the Streets are very slippery, and in frosty Weather 'tis dangerous walking.

The noble Charities of Mr. Edward Colston, a worthy Merchant of Bristol, and his Foundations, are an Honour to the Place, and to the Memory of that excellent Man: and I am sorry, that my narrow Limits will not permit me to give a particular Account of them.

But I ought not to omit, that one of his Cha­rities only, cost him 25000l. and that is the noble Hospital or Alms-house erected by him, in the Year 1691, upon his own Ground, on St. Mi­chael's-Hill. The Front and two Sides are fac'd with Freestone: it contains a Chapel neatly adorn'd, 24 Apartments, and other Conveniencies, for 12 Men, and 12 Women. The elder Brother receives 6s. and each of the others 3s. weekly, besides an Allowance for Coal, &c. To a Clergyman is paid the Sum of 10l. yearly, for reading the Common [Page 276] Prayer twice every Day, except when Prayers are read in St. Michael's Church, at which every Mem­ber of this Alms-house is to attend.

In the Year 1696, he also purchas'd a Piece of Ground in Temple-street, and built at his own Charge a School and Dwelling-house, for a Master to instruct 40 Boys, in Writing, Arithmetick, and the Church Catechism. The Boys are likewise to be cloathed.

And his other Charities and Benefactions were without Number.

On St. Peter's Day, June 29. 1738, was open'd at the Mint, an Infirmary for this City, for the Re­ception of the sick, lame, and distressed Poor, after the Example of those in London, Winchester, &c. It is denominated St. Peter's Hospital, and very liberal Contributions have been made to it; and par­ticularly, we are told, that John Elbridge, Esq Comptroller of the Customs in this City, who dy'd February 1738-9, besides many other charitable Do­nations, bequeathed 5000l. to this Infirmary, besides endowing a Charity School on St. Michael's Hill, which he built several Years before his Death, for edu­cating and cloathing a certain Number of poor Girls.

Large Pieces of Ground are clear'd for building a Market, and a magnificent Exchange; the former in High-street, and the latter in Corn-street. The old Buildings which have been destroy'd for that Pur­pose, have cost the Chamber of this City upwards of Twenty thousand Pounds. And on the 10th of March 1740-1, the first Stone of the Exchange was laid by the Mayor, with great Ceremony, with several Pieces of Gold and Silver Coin under it, and this Inscription, on the Stone: Regnante GEORGIO II. Pio, Felici, Augusto, Libertatis & Rei Mercatoriae Domi Forisque Vindice, primarium Lapidem hujusce Aedificii, Suffragio Civium, & Aere publico extructi, posuit HENRICUS COMBE, Praetor, A. C. MDCCXL.’ [Page 277]That is, In the Reign of GEORGE II. Pious, Prosperous, August, Vindicator, at Home and Abroad, of Li­berty and Trade, HENRY COMBE, Mayor, placed the First Stone of this Structure erected by the Votes of the Citizens, and at the publick Ex­pence, A. D. 1740.’

This Edifice when finish'd, will be one of the com­pletest of its Kind in Europe.

The old Library in King-street is rebuilding in a very handsome Manner, as is also Merchant-Taylors-Hall in Broad-street, a Freestone Building near 70 Feet long, and Breadth proportionable.

From this City I had Thoughts of coasting the Marshes or Border of Wales, especially South-Wales, by tracing the Rivers Wye and Lug, in Monmouth and Herefordshire: but chang'd my Mind on Occa­sion of the Danger of the Ferries over the Severn. In the mean time, I resolv'd to follow the Course of this famous River, by which I should necessarily see the richest, most fertile, and most agreeable Part of England; the Banks of the Thames only excepted.

From Bristol, West, you enter the County of Gloucester, and keeping the Avon in View, you see King-Road, where the Ships generally take their De­parture, as ours at London do from Gravesend, and Hung-Road; and where they notify their Arrival, as ours for London do in the Downs. The one lies within the Avon, the other in the Severn Sea. In­deed great Part of Bristol is in the Bounds of Glou­cestershire, though it be a County of itself. From hence going away a little North-west, we come to the Pill, a convenient Road for Shipping, and where therefore they generally run back for Ireland, or for Wales. There is also, a little farther, an ugly, dan­gerous, and very inconvenient Ferry over the Severn, to the Mouth of Wye; namely, at Aust; which I shall mention again presently.

[Page 278]As we turn North towards Gloucester, we lose the Sight of the Avon, and, in about two Miles, exchange it for an open View of the Severn Sea, which you see on the West Side, and which seems as broad as the Ocean there; except that you see two small Islands in it, and that looking N. W. you discern plainly the Coast of South-Wales; and particularly, a little nearer hand, the Shore of Monmouthshire. Then, as you go on, the Shores begin to draw towards one another, and the Coasts to lie parallel; so that the Severn appears to be a plain River, or an Aestu­arium, somewhat like the Humber, or as the Thames is at the Nore, being 4 to 5 and 6 Miles over; and is indeed a most raging and furious kind of Sea. This is occasion'd by those violent Tides call'd the Bore, which flow here sometimes 6 or 7 Feet at once, rol­ling forward like a mighty Wave: so that the Stern of a Vessel shall on a sudden be lifted up 6 or 7 Feet upon the Water, when the Head of it is fast a-ground.

After Coasting the Shore about 4 Miles farther, the Road being by the low Salt Marshes kept at a Distance from the River; we came to Aust Ferry, from a little dirty Village call'd Aust; near which you come to take Boat.

This Ferry lands you at Beachly in Monmouth­shire, so that on the Outside it is call'd Aust Passage, and on the other Side Beachly Passage. From whence you go by Land two little Miles to Chep­stow, a large Port Town on the River Wye. But of that Part I shall say more in its Place.

Here is a good neat Chapel, with an high Tower at the West-end, adorned with Pinacles.

This Place is memorable from a Circumstance in the Reign of King Edw. I. who being here, invited Lewellin Prince of Wales, who was on the other Side, to come over and confer with him, and settle some Matters in Dispute between them; but the [Page 279] Prince refused, and the King thereupon cross'd over to him, who, in a Rapture of Generosity, leap'd into the Water, to receive the King in his Boat, telling him, His Humility had conquer'd his Pride, and his Wisdom triumphed over his Folly.

When we came to Aust, the hither Side of the Passage, the Sea was so broad, the Fame of the Bore of the Tide so formidable, the Wind also made the Water so rough, and, which was worse, the Boats to carry over both Man and Horse appear'd so very mean, that, in short, none of us car'd to venture: so we came back, and resolv'd to keep on the Road to Gloucester.

Thornbury is a Market Town, and hath a Custo­mary Mayor and 12 Aldermen, and was given in the Conqueror's Time to the famous Fitz-Hammon. Here are the Foundations of a large Castle, design'd but never finish'd, by the Duke of Buckingham in King Henry VIII.'s Time. Here is a spacious Church built Cathedral-wise, it has fine wide Ayles, and 3 Chancels, with a high and beautiful Tower. Here is a Free-School and 4 small Alms-houses.

On the right lies Wotton, a pretty Market-town, governed by a Mayor elected annually at the Court-Leet. 'Tis famous for its Cloathing Trade. The Church, which is a Vicarage, is large, and hath Two wide Ayles, and an high handsome Tower, adorned with Battlements and Pinacles. There are in it di­vers Tombs, Monuments, and Inscriptions, chiefly for the Family of Berkley. Here is a Free-school and some Charity-houses.

Directly North of this Town lies Dursley, a good Cloathing and Market Town, governed by a Bailiff and 4 Constables, and has been formerly noted for sharp, over-reaching People, from whence arose a Proverbial Saying of a sharp Man, He is a Man of Dursley. The Church is good, hath 2 Ayles, and an handsome Spire.

[Page 280]Turning North-west, we came to Berkley, a noted Town, so called from Berk, a Beech, and Leas, Pas­ture. It is the largest Parish in the County, and consists of rich Meadow-grounds, and above 30 Parishes depend on this Manor, for which a Fee­farm Rent was paid, in King Henry II.'s Time, of 500l. 17s. 2d. which shews the vast Extent and Value of this Estate. It belongs to the present Earl of Berkley, who is also Baron of Dursley. Adjoin­ing to this Town is the strong Castle of Berkley, a magnificent, tho' antique Building, and the antient Seat of this noble Family, from whence it derives its Name as well as Title, ever since the Time of King Henry II. who gave it to Robert Fitzharding, who assumed the Name of Berkley, and from whom the present Earl is lineally descended. King Edw. II. of England, as all our learned Writers agree, was murder'd in this Castle; as King Richard II. was in that of Pontefract, in Yorkshire; but I refer to our Histories for these horrid Facts. They shew the Apartments, where they say that King was kept a Prisoner: but they do not admit that he was kill'd there. The Place is rather antient, than pleasant or healthful, lying low, and near the Water. Here is a large spacious Church, with an Ayle on each Side, and a Chapel adjoining, which is the Burial-place of the Family, a neat Vestry, and a strong high Tower.

On the Right of the Road is Stanley, a little Mar­ket-town, where was formerly a Priory, the Ruins whereof appear still. The Church is built in the Form of a Cross, with a Tower in the middle.

A great Improvement has been lately made in these Parts; for the Earl of Berkley has just finished (1740) a great Bulwark at Frampton upon Severn, near this Place, called Hock-Crib, the Design of which is to inforce the River Severn, by Art's-Point, into its former Chanel. It is said his Lordship intends to [Page 281] build another, four Miles below the former, by which he will undoubtedly gain a large Tract of Land, contiguous to what is call'd the New Grounds, infe­rior to none in England for the Richness of its Soil.

From hence we saw, across the River, the antient Forest of Dean, which once contained 30000 Acres of Land, being Twenty Miles long, and so full of Wood, that it was very dangerous to travel through it. Its Oak was famous for Shipping, the Glory of our own, and so much the Envy of other Nations, that the famous Spanish Armada had it in special Charge to burn it. The great Number of Iron Forges near it has greatly lessened, tho' not con­sum'd the Wood, which is still preserved with great Care. It is subject to Forest-Laws, and the Iron-Miners have here a Court also.

From hence to Gloucester, we see nothing consi­derable, but a most fertile, rich Country, and a fine River, but narrower, as you go Northward, till, a little before we come to Gloucester, it ceases to be navigable by Ships of Burden, but continues to be so, by large Barges, above an hundred Miles farther, not reckoning the Turnings and Windings of the River: besides that it receives several large and na­vigable Rivers into it.

Gloucester (call'd by the Britons, Caer-glow, i. e. Fine City, and in Imitation of it Glevum by the Ro­mans) abounds much with Crosses and Statues of the Kings of England, and has an handsome Prospect of Steeples, some without a Church; for in the late Civil Wars, when it held out vigorously against King Charles I. and was then very strong, it suffer'd much; for its Eleven Churches were then reduced to Five, and all its Walls and Works were demolished. The City is still tolerably built; and here is a large Stone Bridge over the Severn, the first next the Sea. Here are several Market-houses supported with Pillars, one a very old one of Stone, in Gothick Architecture, [Page 282] antient and uncommon, now turn'd into a Cistern for Water.

The old Proverb, As sure as God's at Gloucester, certainly alluded to the vast Number of Churches and religious Foundations here; for you can scarce walk past 10 Doors, but somewhat of that sort occurs.

The Cathedral is an old venerable Pile. The Western Part is old and mean; but from the Tower, which is very handsome, you have a most glorious Prospect Eastward, thro' the Choir finely vaulted at top; and the Ladies Chapel to the East Window, which is very magnificent. On the North-side lies that unfortunate King Edw. II. in an Alabaster Tomb, and, out of the Abundance of pious Offerings to his Remains, the Religious built this Choir; and the Votaries to his Shrine, for some time after his Death, could hardly find Room in the Town. So changeable are the Tempers of Men! and so little a Space is requir'd to dispose the Minds of the fluctu­ating Many, to Hosannah or Crucify!

Before the High Altar in the Middle of the Church, lies the equally unfortunate Prince Robert, eldest Son of the Conqueror, after a miserable Life for many Years before his Death. But his Monument re­mains, and his Bones are at Rest; which is more than can be said of the Monument of his younger Brother, King Henry I. who, as the second Brother William Rufus had done, robbed him of his Right, and no Traces of his Monument are left at Reading-Abbey, where he was bury'd with his Queen. He lies in a wooden Tomb, with his Coat of Arms painted, and upon it his Effigies in Irish Oak, cross­legg'd like a Jerusalem Knight. The famous Strong­bow, who subdued Ireland, lies buried in the Chapter-house.

The Cloysters in this Cathedral are exquisitely beautiful, in the Style of the Chapel of King's-College, Cambridge. There are large Remains in the City [Page 283] of Abbeys of Black and White Friers. A Mile or two distant is Robin Hood's Hill, as it is called, which affords now a pleasant Walk for the Citizens, and from which they are attempting to supply the City with Water, which it much wants. By this City, the Rickning Way runs from the Severn's Mouth into Yorkshire.

The Inhabitants boast much of the Antiquity of their first Cathedral, which they pretend had Bishops and Preachers here Anno 189: The first Cathedral, we say; for, it has been, as reported, thrice destroy'd by Fire.

William the Conqueror gave this City and Castle to the famous Robert Fitz-Hammon, afterwards Lord of Glamorgan. Edol, one of the British Nobles, who at­tended King Vortigern to the Congress appointed by Hengist, was Earl of this Place. He was a Man of great personal Strength, and seeing the Saxons draw­ing forth their conceal'd Weapons, he disarm'd one of them, and fought valiantly; but being overpower'd by Numbers, he escap'd to this City, after having kill'd 70 Saxons with his own Hands. Afterwards, in a Battle fought against the Saxons near the River Don, he fix'd his Eye upon Hengist, and never quitted him, till he took him Prisoner, and struck off his Head.

In the little Isle of Alney, near this Town, the famous single Combat was fought between Edmund Ironside and Canute the Dane, for the whole King­dom, in Sight of both their Armies.

The City is governed by a Mayor, 12 Aldermen, and 24 Common-council-men. It has also an High-Steward, (who is usually a Nobleman) and a Re­corder. They are allow'd the highest Marks of magistratical Honour, Scarlet Gowns, the Sword, and Cap of Maintenance, and 4 Sergeants at Mace. Here are 12 Companies, the Masters whereof attend the Mayor on all publick Occasions in their Gowns, [Page 284] and with Streamers. It has a large Quay and Wharf on the River for Trade, and a Custom-house. Here is also a Town-hall for the Assizes and publick Bu­siness, which they call the Booth-hall, and great Part of the Castle is still standing.

The first Protestant Bishop of this Church was that truly Reverend and Religious Divine, Dr. John Hooper, who was burnt to Death in the Cemetery of his own Cathedral, in the Reign of Queen Mary.

The Whispering-place in this Cathedral formerly pass'd for a kind of Wonder among the Vulgar; but since, Experience has taught the easily-compre­hended Reason of the Thing; and there is now the like in the Church of St. Paul, London.

Here is great Provision for the Poor by Hospitals; particularly Bartholomew's Hospital maintains 54 Men and Women, to whom belong a Minister, Phy­sician and Surgeon. And Sir Thomas Rich, Bart. a Native of this Place, gave 6000l. by Will, for a Blue-Coat Hospital, wherein are educated 20 poor Boys; and 10 poor Men and 10 Women are main­tain'd, and cloath'd annually. Besides these and three more, there are many Benefactions to encou­rage young Tradesmen, and place out Boys Appren­tices. And they have lately erected an Infirmary here, after the laudable Example of that of Win­chester, &c.

At Lassington, near Gloucester, are found certain Stones about the Breadth of a Silver Peny, and Thick­ness of a Half-crown, called Astroites or Star-stones, being fine-pointed like a Star, and flat. They are of a greyish Colour, and the flat Sides are naturally finely engraven, as it were. But I have taken No­tice of these before.

From Gloucester we kept Eastward, and soon came to Cheltenham, a Market-town, where is still a pretty good Trade carried on in Malt, but not so considerable as formerly. Here is a good Church in [Page 285] the Form of a Cross, with Ayles on each Side, and a Spire rising in the Middle, noted for a good Ring of Bells. But what is more remarkable is, that the Minister is to be nominated by, and must be a Fellow of, Jesus-College, Oxon, (tho' the Vicarage is but 40l. a Year) but approv'd of by the Earl of Gains­borough; and he can't hold it more than six Years. Here is a Free-school, an Hospital, and some other Charities.

The Mineral Waters lately discovered at Chelten­ham, which are of the Scarborough Kind, are what will make this Place still more and more remarkable, and frequented. An eminent Physician has obliged me with the following Account of their Nature, and Qualities.

These Waters, he observes, were first found out by the Flocks of all the neighbouring Pigeons going constantly thither to provoke their Appetites, as well as to quench the uncommon Thirst of these salacious hot Birds. I have been informed, says he, by a Phy­sician of Credit and Experience, who had made all the common Trials on them, and observed their Effects on many Persons of various Constitutions, and in different Distempers, who had drank them, That, on Evaporation, they were found to contain, in a Gallon, eight Drachms of a nitrous Salt, with two Drachms of an alcalious Earth: That they were compounded of a large Quantity of Nitre, to which they owed their purgative Virtue; a light Sulphur, which the fetid Dejections manifested; and a vola­tile Steel, discoverable by a transparent blue Colour, when mix'd with an Infusion of Nut-galls. Alca­lious Spirits have no Effect on them; but they fer­ment with Acids. He further adds, That there might be found some other Materials in their Com­position, perhaps, if more minutely examined and tortured: but that these mentioned Principles were evident and incontestable, and were sufficient to ac­count [Page 286] for all their Effects and Operation; the others (if there be any) being of little Efficacy. In the Operation they empty the Bowels according to their Dose, but gently, mildly, and easily, without Sick­ness, Nausea, Gripes, or causing great Lowness, far beyond any artificial Purges whatsoever. They give a good Appetite, an easy Digestion, and quiet Nights, in all Nephritick and Gouty Cases, when not under the Fit; in all Rheumatick, Scrophulous, Scorbutic, or Leprous Cases; but especially in Spermatic, Uri­nary, or Haemorrhoidal Cases, he thinks them so­vereign, and not to be match'd. In a Word, in all Inflammatory Cases of whatever Kind, and what­ever Part, he thinks them one of the most salutary Means which can be used. Those of pretty strong Nerves, and firm Constitutions, bear them with high Spirits, great Pleasure, and Profit; but they do not at all suit with those of weak Nerves, Paralytick, Hypo­chondriack, or Hysterick Disorders, or those who are subject to any kind of Fits, Cramps, or Convulsions: they ruffle such too much, as generally all Purga­tives do. He thinks they have a great Affinity to the Scarborough Waters, and might do great Cures in most Chronical Distempers, if Exercise, and a proper Regimen, were directed with them.

Following the Road towards Warwick directly, we arriv'd at Winchcomb, a small Market-town, situate in a Bottom, in the midst of good Pasture and Arable Lands, but of no great Account. The Church is a good Building, hath two Ayles, a large Chancel, and a lofty Tower adorn'd with Battlements and Pina­cles. It is remarkable, that it is a Curacy worth no more than 10l. a Year, tho' the Impropriation is worth 300l. annually. Here was formerly a very rich Abbey, whereof the Abbot was Mitred, founded by Offa King of Mercia.

Here we turned from the Road, and struck N.W. to Tewksbury, encompassed with 4 Rivers; the Avon [Page 287] and Carran on the N. the Severn on the W. and the Swyliate on the S. 'Tis govern'd by 2 Bailiffs, and 24 Burgesses; and its Neighbourhood to Cotswold-Downs makes the Cloathing Trade flourish here. It is a large and very populous Town, situate upon the Warwickshire River Avon, so call'd to distinguish it from the Bristol Avon, and others. The Town was long famous for its Mustard-balls, as also for a great Manufacture of Stockens; as are also Camp­den in this County, and Pershore in Worcestershire.

The great old Church at Tewksbury may be called one of the largest Churches in England, that is not Collegiate or Cathedral. It is very high, has two spacious Ayles, a stately Tower, and a large Chancel. The Communion-Table is one intire Marble Stone near 14 Feet long, and 3 and ½ broad.

The Town is famous for the decisive Battle fought between the Houses of Lancaster and York, in the Reign of King Edward IV. of the latter House, who was Conqueror.

As Tewksbury lies on the Borders of Worcestershire, we soon entered that County, and came to Upton, an antient Market-Town of some Note upon the Severn, over which it has a good Bridge. Roman Coins are frequently dug up here.

On the Left, Westward of this Town, and which parts this County from that of Hereford, are Mal­vern Hills, which consist of large Mountains, prodi­giously high and lofty, gradually rising one above another for about 7 Miles together. On these Hills are two Villages, call'd Great Malvern and Little Malvern, at the Distance of about Two Miles from each other, each having had formerly an Abbey of Benedictines, the last lying in a dismal Cavity be­tween the Hills. On the very Top of these Hills may be seen the Ruins of a prodigious Ditch, which Gilbert Earl of Gloucester dug, to separate his Posses­sions [Page 288] from those of the Church of Hereford. On these Hills are 2 Medicinal Springs, called Holy Wells: one is good for the Eyes, and putrid fetid Livers; and the other for Cancers.

From Upton we travelled North-east, and came to Pershore, which lies on the lower London Road to Worcester: it is said to be so called from the great Number of Pear-trees, which thrive plentifully here. It is a pleasant Market-Town lying on the Avon, and famous for the Stocken Trade, as I have men­tioned before.

Eastward of this Town stands Evesham, situate on a gentle Ascent from the same River, over which it hath a Bridge of 7 stately Arches. It is an antient Mayor-town, and has the Privilege to try Felons. It is memorable for the decisive Battle, wherein Simon Montfort and the Barons were defeated by Prince Edward, afterwards King Edward I. who thereby released his Father out of Captivity. Here are 2 Churches, with small Spire Steeples; but nei­ther of them has any Bells, which have been re­moved to a famous Tower built by Abbot Litchfield, and stands near these Churches.

All around this Town lies that fruitful and plen­tiful Country, call'd from this Place, The Vale of Evesham, which runs all along the Banks of the Avon, from Tewksbury to Pershore, and to Stratford upon Avon, in the South Part of Warwickshire; which River is so far navigable.

The Parish Church of Stratford is very old. In it we saw the Monument of the inimitable Shake­speare, whose Dramatick Performances set him at the Head of the British Theatre, and will make him renown'd to the End of Time. His Busto is in the Wall on the North-side of the Church, and a flat Grave-stone covers the Body, in the Ayle just un­der him; on which Grave-stone these Lines are written:

[Page 289]
Good Friend, for Jesus' sake, forbear
To move the Dust that resteth here.
Blest be the Man that spares these Stones;
And curst be he, that moves my Bones!

Over the Avon at Stratford is built a fair Stone Bridge of 14 Arches, with a long Causeway at the West End of it, wall'd on both Sides.

The Navigation of this River Avon is an exceeding Advantage to all this Part of the Country, and also to the Commerce of the City of Bristol. For by this River they drive a very great Trade for Sugar, Oil, Wine, Tobacco, Iron, Lead, and, in a Word, all heavy, Goods which are usually carried by Water almost as far as Warwick; and in Return, the Corn, and especially Cheese, are carried back from Glou­cestershire and Warwickshire, to Bristol; for Glou­cester Cheese is excellent of the kind, and this County drives a great Trade in it.

This Vale extending itself in Warwickshire, and under the Ridge of little Mountains call'd Edge-hill, is there call'd the Vale of Red-horse. All the Grounds, put together, make a most pleasant Corn Country, especially remarkable for the Goodness of the Air, and Fertility of the Soil.

Not far from Stretford, on the Borders of this County of Worcester, is Alcester, a Market-town, much frequented by Dealers in Corn: it is of great Antiquity; as appears by old Foundations of Build­ings made of Roman Brick, and Gold, Silver and Brass Coins found here. The old Roman Way, called Ikenild-street, passes thro' the Town.

Gloucestershire must not be passed over, without some Account of another pleasant and fruitful Vale, which crosses part of the Country, from East to West, on that Side of the Cotswold, and which is called Stroud-water; famous not only for the finest Cloths, but for dying those Cloths of the beautifulest [Page 290] Scarlets, and other grand Colours, that are any­where in England, perhaps in any Part of the World. Here I saw Two Pieces of Broad-cloth made, one Scarlet, the other Crimson in Grain, which were sent as Presents, the one to the late King George, whilst Elector, and the other to his present Majesty, which were very graciously accepted. The Cloth was valued at 45s. per Yard, and was well worth it; for nothing so rich of that kind had been ever made in England before, as I was informed.

The Clothiers lie all along the Banks of this River, for near 20 Miles, and in the Town of Stroud, which lies in the middle of it, as also at Paynswick, which I have mentioned before. The River makes its Way to the Severn, about Five Miles below Gloucester.

From Tewksbury, North, it is 12 Miles to Worcester, along the Banks of the Severn, where I was wonderfully delighted with the Hedge-rows, lin'd all the Way with Apple and Pear-trees, full of Fruit, and those so common, that any Passengers, as they travel the Road, may gather and eat what they please. Here also, as well as in Gloucestershire, you meet with Cyder in the Publick-houses, sold as Beer and Ale is in other Parts of England, and as cheap.

We saw at a Distance, in a most agreeable Situa­tion, the Seat of Sir Herbert Perrot Pakington, a Baronet of a very antient Family.

On the other Side of the Severn, at Whitley-court, five Miles from Bewdly, and seven from Worcester, the Lord Foley has a Seat, situate in a large Park.

Worcester, the Branonium of the Romans, seems to have been built by them to curb the Silures on the other Side of the Severn, and in Imitation of the Roman Name the Britons called it Caer Wran­gon. It is situate in a Valley on the Severn, which tho' generally rapid elsewhere, glides on here very gently. It is a large, populous, antient, well-built [Page 291] City, and the best paved in England. The Foregate-street is the most regular and beautiful that can be seen out of London. The Guild-hall is a very fine Building; but the Statues on the Outside disgrace it.

There is a good old Stone Bridge over the Severn, which stands exceeding high from the Surface of the Water, and has a Tower upon it, said to be built by the Romans. But as the Stream of the Severn is contracted here by the Buildings on either Side, there is evident Occasion sometimes for the Height of the Bridge, the Waters rising to an incredible Degree in the Winter-time.

The Commandery here formerly belonging to St. John's of Jerusalem, is now possessed by Mr. Wylde, and is a fine old House of Timber, in the Form of a Court. The Hall, roof'd with Irish Oak, makes one Side of it, built for the Reception of Pilgrims. The Windows are adorn'd with Imagery, and Coats Armorial of stained Glass. It stands just without the South Gate of the City in the London Road, where the Heat of the famous Battle happen'd between King Charles II. and Oliver Cromwell; and they frequently find Bones of the Slain, on digging in the Garden. Above in the Park is to be seen a great Work of Four Bastions, called the Royal Mount, whence a Vallum and Ditch run both ways to incompass this Side of the City. Here, 'tis probable, the Storm began, when the Royalists were driven back into the City with great Slaughter, and the King escaped being made a Prisoner in the narrow Street at this Gate, by a loaded Cart of Hay pur­posely overthrown, which gave him time to retire at the opposite Gate to Boscobel, or White Lady's.

A Mile and half above the South Gate, on the Top of the Hall, is the celebrated Perrywood, where Cromwell's Army lay, and which affords a fine Pro­spect over the County.

[Page 292]The Cathedral is an antient Building. The Body of the Church makes no extraordinary Appearance on the Outside. The Tower is low, without any Spire, only four very small Pinacles on the Corners; and yet it has some little Beauty in it, more than the Church itself. The upper Part has some Images in it, but decay'd by Time. In it is bury'd the restless King John; not where now his Monument stands, which is in the Choir, before the high Altar; but under a little Stone before the Altar of the Eastermost Wall of the Church. On each Side of him, on the Ground, lie the Effigies of the two Bishops, his chief Saints, Wolston and Oswald, from whose Neigh­bourhood he hoped to be safe. The Image of the King probably lay here also upon the Ground, now elevated upon a Tomb in the said Choir.

On the South Side of the High Altar is a large and handsome Stone Chapel over the Monument of Prince Arthur, eldest Son of Henry VII. who died at Ludlow, as his Tomb-stone specifies, Anno 1502; and whose Relict Catharine Infanta of Spain, his Brother Henry VIII. marrying, after 20 Years Wedlock, was divorced from, to make way for Anna Bolen. The Choir of this Chapel is exquisite Workmanship; but suffered much in the late Civil Wars.

Here is also, among other noted Monuments, one for that famous Countess of Salisbury, who dancing before Edward III. in his great Hall at Windsor, dropt her Garter, which the King taking up, honoured it so much (as the idle Story goes) as to make it the denominating Ensign of The most Noble Order of the Garter; but this I have refuted under my Account of Windsor. Tho', that the Countess did drop her Garter, is Fact; and the King might gallantly, to silence the Jests and Railleries of the Court, wear it during the Entertainment, instead of his Garter of the Order. But the Motto was given [Page 293] in Allusion to the Order of Knighthood, and not of the Garter.

The Monument is very fine, and there is this re­markable in it; that there are several Angels cut in Stone about it, strewing Garters over the Tomb.

There are several other antient Monuments in this Church, which I have not Room to mention.

The Cloisters are very perfect, and the Chapter-house is large, supported, as to its arched Roof, by one umbilical Pillar. 'Tis now become a Library, is well furnish'd, and has many good antient MSS.

There is a large old Gatehouse standing, and near it the Castle with a very high artificial Mount or Keep, nigh the River.

The Bridge I have mention'd has six Arches, and the Banks of the Severn look very beautiful on each Side, being inriched with pleasant Meadows.

This City is governed by a Mayor and Aldermen. It has Two Chamberlains, a Recorder, a Town-clerk, Two Coroners, a Sword-bearer, Four Ser­geants at Mace, and a Sheriff; being, like Glou­cester, a County of itself, divided into Seven Wards, in which are Twelve Parish Churches.

The Inhabitants are generally esteem'd rich, being full of Business, occasion'd chiefly by the Cloathing-trade, of which the City and the Country round carries on a great Share, as well for the Turkey as the Home Trade. The Number of Hands, which it imploys in this Town and adjoin [...]ng Villages, in Spinning, Carding, Rowing, Fulling, Weaving, &c. is almost incredible. One Part of the Town is wholly possessed by Welsh People, who speak their own Language, and are imploy'd in this Manufacture. So that this City, which was formerly so great a Griev­ance to the great ones of that Principality, now administers Subsistence to a vast Number of the meaner ones.

[Page 294]It is adorn'd by a capacious and beautiful Structure, called the Publick Workhouse; in which Children of both Sexes are trained up to the Knowlege of Trade, and the Practice of Religion and Virtue; by whose Labour also the Aged and Decrepid are supported. This laudable Institution continued several Years to the great Benefit of the City, till at last the Guardians of it having contracted a Debt of upwards of 300l. they returned the Poor back to their respective Parishes; and the whole Charity being frustrated, and put an End to, the Corporation let out the Building for a Hop-market, Warehouses, &c. to pay the incurr'd Debt, either Principal or Interest.

Hereupon their worthy Representative Samuel Sandys, Esq and other Gentlemen, procured an Act of Parliament for restoring it to its first laudable End; which Act took place from June 1730, and will be a lasting Monument to the Honour of the disinterested and publick-spirited Gentleman, to whose unwearied Application, and inflexible Resolution, it was owing: for it must be observed, that alienated Charities are some of the hardest things in the World to be restored.

Opposite to this Workhouse, Robert Berkley, of Spetchley, Esq erected a fine Hospital for Twelve poor Men, and gave 2000l. to build it, and 4000l. to endow it.

Here are besides Three Grammar-schools, and Seven Alms-houses, all liberally indow'd. St. Nicolas Church, in this City, has been lately re­built, and is a neat and commodious Edifice.

And the Church of All-saints in this Town be­ing in so ruinous a Condition, that Part of it actually fell down; and the rest being ready to fall, an Act passed, Sess. 1737-8, for taking down and rebuilding the same.

From Worcester I made some Excursions, to visit the Towns and Country Northward; and first came [Page 295] to Droitwych, a corporate Bailiwick-town, which has Four Churches, and is pretty wealthy. 'Tis famous for excellent White Salt, which is made here from the Summer to the Winter Solstice; no [...] but they may make Salt all the Year long, but they fear to over-stock the Market. It appears, by Doomsday-book, they made Salt here before the Conquest. The Salt Springs are very good, and productive of Plenty of Brine; and the Town lies on the River Salwarp.

Proceeding directly on, in the Road, we arrived at Broomsgrove, a large Bailiwick-town, likewise on the River Salwarp, where the Clothing-trade is pretty briskly carried on. It is the Centre of Four Roads; one leads to Coventry, and Leicester; an­other to Warwick, and so to London; a Third to Worcester; and the Fourth to Shrewsbury.

Between Worcester and Spetchley was St. Oswald's Hospital, demolished in the Reign of Queen Eliza­beth. But Dr. Fell, Bishop of Oxford, after the Restoration, recover'd much of the Possessions, and erected a fair and large Hospital, which comfortably maintains Twelve poor Men.

Kidderminster is a Town in this County of Worcester, very considerable for its Woollen Trade, particularly the Weaving of what they call Lindsey-woolsey, in which the Inhabitants are almost wholly imploy'd. It is a large, but yet compact and popu­lous Town, situated on the Stour, and govern'd by a Bailiff, Twelve Capital Burgesses, Twenty-five Common-council-men, &c. In its Church is a cross-legg'd Monument of Sir Thomas Acton.

Stourbridge is also situate upon the River Stour, over which it has a very good Bridge, whence its Name. This Town deals greatly in Glass Manu­facture of all Sorts, and also in Iron Works of all Sorts; and is vastly improved of late Years, both in Houses and Inhabitants. At Swinford, near Stour­bridge, is a noble Hospital for Sixty Boys, erected by [Page 296] the First Founder of the noble Family of Foley, which deserves the Attention of a Traveller, and the Praise of all Men. At Stourbridge also fine Stone Pots are made for Glass-makers to melt their Metal in, also Crucibles, &c. the Clay, of which these Things are made, being almost peculiar to the Place.

Birmingham is a very populous Town, and full of Iron Manufactories, especially of the smaller Sorts; in which the Inhabitants so greatly excel, that their Works are carried to all Parts of the World in great Quantities. The Town is, of late Years, greatly improved and inlarged by many new Buildings both publick and private; particularly a new Church built by virtue of an Act of Parliament passed in the 7th of Queen Anne, which is dedicated to St. Philip. This Town is in Warwickshire, on the Borders of this County, situated on the Side of a Hill, and has a most plentiful Market.

A little below Worcester, Westward, the Severn receives a River of a long deep Course, which comes from Shropshire, called the Teme, on which stands a small Market-town called Tenbury, but of little Note. I passed this River formerly in my Way to Ludlow, at Broadway, a little Village; but now I went by the Way of Bewdley, on the Side of Shropshire.

In this Course we saw Two fine Seats not very far from the Severn, viz. the Lord Foley's, and the Earl of Bradford's, as we did before a most delicious House, belonging to the Lord Conway. Indeed this Part of the County, and all the County of Salop, is filled with fine Seats of the Nobility and Gentry, which we have not Room to describe.

Bewdley or Beau-lieu, i. e. fine Place, said to be so called from its pleasant and delightful Situation upon the Side of a Hill declining to the Severn, is a small Bailiff Market-town, well supplied with Corn, Malt, Leather, and Caps, which the Dutch Seamen buy, [Page 297] called Monmouth Caps, and noted for the Palace which King Henry VII. built here for his Son Prince Arthur, called Tickenhall. It had a very fine Park about it, which, with the House, was destroy'd by the furious Enthusiasts in the Civil War.

A Mile off is Ribsford, the Seat of Lord Herbert of Cherbury, pleasantly surrounded with Woods. Here is a good Picture of William the First Earl of Pembroke.

The Ends of the Hills towards the River are ge­nerally Rocks: and Blackston-hill has an Hermitage cut out of it, with a Chapel, and several Apartments. Near it is a pretty Rock upon the Edge of the Water, covered with Oaks, and many curious Plants.

Not far from Cherbury Park is the Parish of Roch, where the famous Augustine's Oak stood, so called from a Conference held under it by Augustine and the British Bishops, about the Celebration of Easter, and preaching God's Word, and administring Baptism after the Rites of the Church of Rome, which the British Bishops refused.

I thought once to have returned to Worcester, and so proceeded to Herefordshire, and down to Mon­mouth, and so round the Coast of Wales. But being desirous to take in, first, the South Part of Shrop­shire, I followed the Severn up North, and came to Bridgenorth, a very antient and noted Town, said to be built by Queen Aethelfleda, in the Time of the Heptarchy: it consists of Two Towns, the High and the Low, which are separated by the Severn, but united by a fair Stone Bridge of Seven Arches, which hath a Gate and Gate-house. The Situation is plea­sant, the Air healthy, the Prospect delightful and com­modious for Trade. It hath been fortified with Walls and a Castle, which are now in Ruins; and the Area in the last is converted to a fine Bowling-green. The Streets are many, and well paved. It is go­verned by a Bailiff, Twenty-four Aldermen, and other [Page 298] inferior Officers. It is noted for good Gun-makers and its Stocken Manufacture. It has a well-replenished Market, and Five Fairs annually, Two whereof hold Three Days, which are much resorted to, and abound with Horses, Black Cattle, Sheep, Butter, Cheese, Bacon, Linen Cloth, and Hops, in great Plenty. Here are Two Churches, and tho' the Parishes are large, and the Town very populous, are very indifferently indowed, and so is the Free-school. There is a hollow Way cut thro' the Rock, leading from the high Town to the Bridge, of the Depth of 20 Feet, in some Parts of it, and likewise many Vaults and Dwellings are hewn out of the Rock.

From hence we advanced in the direct Road to Shrewsbury, and came to Great Wenlock, an antient incorporated Town, governed by a Bailiff and Bur­gesses; but noted for nothing extraordinary.

Leaving Shrewsbury for my Observation at my Re­turn from Wales thro' Cheshire, we turn'd short here, and fell down Southward to Ludlow, famed more for its Beauty than Antiquity; for it seems, the Castle, which was so truly magnificent, was built by Roger de Montgomery in the Conqueror's Time.

But before I speak more of this Castle, I shall observe, that on the Extremity of this County, in a kind of Promontory, which runs in between Montgo­meryshire and Radnorshire, upon the Clun, lies.

Bishops Castle, a small Market Bailiwick Town; and not very far from it, just at the Entrance into Montgomeryshire, is a noted Place called Bishops­ [...]ott; where is an Acre of Ground surrounded with an Intrenchment. The Clun meets the Teme at Ludlow, and both, united, run to Clebury, a small Town on the Borders of Worcestershire, where it falls, as I mentioned before, into the Severn.

The Castle of Ludlow shews plainly in its Decay, what it was in its flourishing Estate: it is the Palace of the Prince of Wales, in Right of his Principality.

[Page 299]Its Situation is indeed most beautiful; there is a most spacious Plain or Lawn in its Front, which formerly continued near Two Miles; but much of it is now inclosed. The Country round it is exceeding pleasant, fertile, populous, and the Soil rich; nothing can be added by Nature, to make it a Place fit for a Royal Palace. It is built in the North-west Angle of the Town upon a Rock, commanding a delightful Prospect Northward; and on the West is shaded by a lofty Hill, and washed by the River. The Battle­ments are of great Height and Thickness, with Towers at convenient Distances. That Half which is within the Walls of the Town, is secured with a deep Ditch; the other is founded on a solid Rock. A Chapel here has abundance of Coats of Arms upon the Panels, as has the Hall, together with Lances, Spears, Firelocks, and old Armour.

It will be no Wonder, that this noble Castle is in the very Perfection of Decay, when we acquaint our Readers, that the present Inhabitants live upon the Sale of the antient Materials. All the fine Courts, the Royal Apartments, Halls, and Rooms of State, lie open, abandon'd, and some of them falling down; for since the Courts of the President and Marches are taken away, here is nothing that requires the Attendance of any publick People; so that Time, the great Devourer of the Works of Men, begins to eat into the very Stone Walls, and to spread the Face of Ruin upon the whole Fabrick. Over several of the Stable-doors are the Arms of Queen Elizabeth, the Earls of Pembroke, &c.

The Town of Ludlow is likewise fortify'd with Walls, thro' which are Seven Gates. It is well-built, and a Place of good Trade; but, to be sure, it is not the better for the ruinous State of the Castle, and the abolishing of the Court held there for the Marches. It stands on the Edge of the two Coun­ties, [Page 300] Shropshire and Worcestershire, but is itself in the first.

On the South-side of the Town runs the Teme, over which is a good Bridge. The River has several Dams across it, in the Nature of Cataracts, whereby abundance of Mills are turn'd; and great is the Roar of the superfluous Waters.

Ludlow has a very good Church with an handsome Tower, and a pleasant Ring of Six Bells. The Windows are full of painted Glass pretty intire.

There are some old Monuments of the Lords Presidents, &c. and an Inscription upon the North Wall of the Choir, relating to Prince Arthur, elder Brother to King Henry VIII. who died here, and in this Spot his Bowels were deposited. It is said, That his Heart was taken up some time ago in a leaden Box.

In the Eastern Angle of the Choir is a Closet, antiently called The Godhouse, where the Priests se­cured their consecrated Utensils. The Window is strongly barred on the Outside. The Church is de­dicated to St. Laurence: and in the Market-place is a Cistern or Conduit, on the Top of which is a long Stone Cross, bearing a Niche, in which is the Image of that Saint.

West of the Church was a College, now con­verted to a private House. There was a rich Priory out of the Town, on the North Side of which are but few Ruins to be seen, except a small Church, which formerly belonged to it. The Welsh call this Town Lye Twysoy, i. e. the Prince's Court. Mr. Camden calls the River Teme the Tem'd, and another River which joins it just at this Town, the Corve, whence the rich flat Country below the Town is call'd Corvesdale. It is governed by Two Bailiffs, Twelve Aldermen, a Recorder, Twenty-five Common-council-men, and other inferior Officers; and has the particular Privilege of trying and executing [Page 301] Criminals. It has an Alms-house for 30 poor People.

King Henry VIII. establish'd here the Court of the President and Council of the Marches, before-men­tioned, and all Causes of Nisi prius, or of Civil Right, were try'd here, before the Lord President and Coun­cil; but this Court, being grown a great Grievance to the Publick, was intirely taken away by Act of Parlia­ment, in the first Year of King William and Queen Mary.

From Ludlow, we took our Course still due South to Lemster, or Leominster, a large Market-town on the River Lug, over which it hath several Bridges. 'Tis governed by a Bailiff. The Church, which is very large, has been in a manner rebuilt, and is now very beautiful. This Town is noted for its fine Wool, and the best Wheat, and consequently the finest Bread; and also for the best Barley, whence Lemster Bread, and Weobly Ale, are become a pro­verbial Saying.

It is a Town of brisk Trade in Wool, Hat-making, Leather, &c. and lies in a Valley exceedingly luxu­riant. Three Rivers of a very swift Current go thro' the Town, besides others very near. The Inhabitants make great use of these by Mills, and other Machinery in the various Branches of their Trade. On the North-side of the Church was a considerable Priory, Two Ayles of which belong now to the Church, and Two others of more lightsome Work have been added. The Mayor has a long black Rod to walk with, tipt with Silver. There are some poor Remains of the Priory, chiefly a little Chapel, which probably be­long'd to the Prior's Family. Underneath it runs a pretty Rivulet, which us'd to grind his Corn, now converted to a Fulling-mill. Near it are very large Ponds for Fish, which used to furnish the Monks on fasting Days. There was a fine Gate-house, pull'd [Page 302] down not long ago, near the Ambry or Almery Close, where they gave their Scraps away to the Poor.

Pembridge, Weobly, and Kyneton lie South-west of Lemster, and form in their Situation a kind of Triangle. They are all Market-Towns, and the first is pretty considerable for the Cloathing Trade; the second for Ale; but the third for nothing that I know of.

The County on our right, as we came from Lud­low, is very fruitful and pleasant, and is called the Hundred of Wigmore, from which the Earl of Ox­ford takes the Title of Baron. Here we saw the two antient Castles of Brampton Brian, and Wigmore, both belonging to the late Earl's Grandfather, Sir Ed­ward Harley. Brampton is a stately Pile, but not kept in full Repair. The Parks are fine, and full of large Timber.

We were now on the Borders of Wales, properly so called; for from the Windows of Brampton-Castle, you have a fair Prospect into the County of Radnor, which is, as it were, under its Walls; nay, even this whole County of Hereford was a Part of Wales, and so deem'd for many Ages. The People of this County too boast, that they were a Part of the an­tient Silures, who for so many Ages withstood the Roman Arms, and could never be intirely conquer'd. They are a diligent and laborious People, chiefly ad­dicted to Husbandry; and they boast, that they have the finest Wool, the best Hops, and the richest Cyder in all Britain; and possibly with some Reason; for the Wool about Leominster, and in the Hundred of Wigmore, and the Golden Vale, as it is call'd for its Richness, on the Banks of the River Dove, (all in this County) is as fine as any in England, the South-down Wool not excepted. As for Hops, they plant abundance all over this County, and they are very good. And for Cyder, it is the common Drink of the County, and is so very good, and so cheap, that [Page 303] we never found fault, though we could get no other Drink for Twenty Miles together. Great Quanti­ties of this Cyder are sent to London, even by Land-Carriage, though so very remote, which is an Evi­dence in its Favour beyond Contradiction.

One would hardly expect so pleasant and fruitful a Country as this, so near the barren Mountains of Wales; but 'tis certain, that not any of our Southern Counties, the Neighbourhood of London excepted, come up to the Fertility of this County.

From Lemster it is Ten Miles to Hereford, the chief City, not of this County only, but of all the Counties West of the Severn. In the time of the late Civil Wars it was very strong, and being well fortify'd, and as well defended, supported a tedious and very severe Siege; for besides the Parliament's Forces, who could never reduce it, the Scots Army was call'd to the Work, who lay before it, till they laid above 4000 of their Bones there, and at last it was rather surrendered by the fatal Issue of the War, than by the Attack of the Besiegers.

It had before this Six Parish-churches; but Two of them were demolish'd at that time. It has an Hospital liberally endow'd for 12 poor People.

The City of Hereford probably sprung from the Ruins of the Roman Ariconium, now Kenchester, three Miles off, higher up the River Wye, but not very near it, which may be a Reason for its Decay.

Kenchester stands upon a little Brook, call'd the Ine, which thence encompassing the Walls of Here­ford, falls into the Wye.

Archenfield seems to retain the Name of Ariconium. Nothing remains of its Splendor, but a Piece of a Temple, probably, with a Nich which is Five Feet high, and Three broad within, built of Brick, Stone, and indissoluble Mortar. There are many large Foundations near it. A very fine Mosaick Floor, a few Years ago, was found intire, which was soon [Page 304] torn to Pieces by the ignorant Country-people. A Bath was here found by Sir John Hoskyns about Seven Feet square, the Pipes of Lead intire: those of Brick were a Foot long, Three Inches square, let ar­tificially into one another; over these, I suppose, was a Pavement.

This, as Dr. Stukeley observes, is an excellent Invention for heating a Room, and might well be introduced among us in Winter-time.

In another Place is a Hollow, where burnt Wheat has been taken up. All around the City you may easily trace the Walls, some Stones being left every­where, tho' over-grown by Hedges and Timber­trees. The Situation of the Place is a gentle Emi­nence of a squarish Form; the Earth black and rich, overgrown with Brambles, Oak-trees, full of Stones, Foundations, and Cavities, where they have been digging, and found many Coins, &c. Colonel Dant­sey has pav'd a Cellar with square Bricks dug up here. The Earl of Coningsby has adorn'd the Floor of his Evidence-room with them.

This City is overlook'd and shelter'd towards the North with a prodigious Mountain of steep Ascent; on the Top stands a vast Camp, with Works altoge­ter inaccessible, which is call'd Credon-hill. At the Summit, you are presented with the most glorious and extensive Prospect, as far as St. Michael's Mount, in Monmouthshire; crown'd with Two Tops, and of considerable Resort among Zealots of the Romish Persuasion, who believe this holy Hill was sent hither by St. Patrick out of Ireland, and that it works Won­ders in several Cases.

On the other side, is the vast Black Mountain, which separates Brecknockshire from this County. The Town underneath appears like a little Copse. Dinder-hill, whereon is a Roman Camp, stands on the contrary Bank of the Wye.

[Page 305]And upon the Lug are Sutton-walls, another vast Roman Camp upon a Hill overlooking a beautiful Vale, which was the regal Residence of the power­ful King Offa; but chiefly remarkable for the Mur­der of young King Ethelbert, whom he allur'd thither under Pretext of courting his Daughter, and who was buried in the neighbouring Church of Marden, situate in a Marsh by the River-side. Hence his Body was afterwards convey'd to Hereford, and enshrin'd; but the particular Place cannot be found.

In the North Wing of the Cathedral of Hereford, is the Shrine, where the Body of Cantilupe, the great Miracle-monger in the West of England, was depo­sited; which Wing was built by himself, and on the Wall his Picture is painted. All round are the Marks of Hooks, where the Banners, Lamps, Re­liques, and the like Presents were hung up. And the Riches of this Place were doubtless very consi­derable; for it is well guarded against the Assaults of Thieves. The Shrine is of Stone, carv'd round with Knights in Armour.

The Church is very old and stately. The Spire is not high, but handsome, and there is a fine Tower at the West End. The Roof, Ayles, and Chapel, have been added to the more antient Part by suc­cessive Bishops, as also the Towers, Cloisters, &c. The Choir, tho' plain, is handsome, and there is a very good Organ.

The Chapter-house, which was very beautiful, was destroy'd in the Civil Wars. About Four Win­dows are left standing; and the Springing of the Stone Arches between, are of fine Ribwork, which compos'd the Roof, of that Sort of Architecture, wherewith King's-college-chapel was built. Two Windows were pull'd down by Bishop Bisse, which he us'd in new fitting up the Episcopal Palace. Under the Windows, in every Compartiment, was painted a King, Bishop, Saint, Virgin, or the like; some [Page 306] of which were distinct enough, tho' so long expos'd to the Weather.

Here are a great Number of Monuments of Bishops, and many valuable Brasses and Tombs.

Between the Cathedral and Palace, is a most vene­rable Pile, built and roof'd with Stone, consisting of Two Chapels, one above the other; the upper dedi­cated to St. Magdalen; the lower, which is some Steps under-ground, to St. Catharine.

The Castle was a noble Work, built by one of the Edwards before the Conquest, strongly wall'd and ditch'd. There is a very lofty artificial Keep, having a Well fac'd with good Stone: and by the Side of the Ditch a Spring consecrated to St. Ethelbert, with an old Stone Arch.

Without the Walls are the Ruins of Black-Friers Monastery, and a pretty Stone Cross intire; round which the Cloisters were originally built, as now the Cloisters of the Cathedral inclose another such. These Crosses were in the nature of a Pulpit, whence a Monk preach'd to the People in the open Air, as now practis'd in the Cloisters of some Colleges in the Universities once a Year.

The neighbouring Hill, call'd Dynmaur, or The great Hill, makes amends for the Tediousness of climbing it, by the Pleasure we receive from its woody Crest, and extensive Prospect.

At the City of Hereford, we could not but in­quire into the Truth of the Story so famous, that the Right Reverend Bishop Gibson has mention'd it in his Continuation of Camden, of the removing the Two great Stones near Sutton; which the People confirm'd to us. The Story is thus:

Between Sutton and Hereford, in a common Mea­dow call'd the Wergins, were plac'd Two large Stones for a Water-mark; one erected upright, and the other laid athwart. In the late Civil Wars, about the Year 1652, they remov'd to about twelvescore [Page 307] Paces Distance, and nobody knew how; which gave occasion to a vulgar Notion, That they were carried thither by the Devil. When they were set in their Places again, one of them requir'd nine Yoke of Oxen to draw it.

Lidbury lies Eastward of Hereford, near the South End of the Malvern Hills. It is a fine, well-built Market-town, situate in rich clayey Grounds, and much inhabited by Clothiers. Here is an Hospital for the Poor, well indowed.

Not far from Lidbury, is Colwal; near which, upon the Waste, as a Countryman was digging a Ditch about his Cottage, he found a Crown or a Coronet of Gold, with Gems set deep in it. It was of a Size large enough to be drawn over the Arm with the Sleeve. The Stones of it are said to have been so valuable, as to be sold by a Jeweller for One thou­sand Five hundred Pounds.

Hereford, tho' a large and populous City, may yet be said to be old, mean-built, and very dirty, lying low, and on the Bank of the Wye, which some­times incommodes them very much, by the violent Freshes that come down from the Mountains of Wales; for all the Rivers of this County, except the Diffrin-Doe, come out of Wales.

One thing remarkable, which we must not omit, is, that the College still retains its Foundation Laws, and the Residentiaries are oblig'd to Celibacy; but otherwise, they live a very happy, easy, and plentiful Life; being furnish'd upon the Foot of the Founda­tion, besides their Ecclesiastical Stipends.

In the Beginning of the Year 1738, they began to pull down the old Gothick Chapel belonging to the Bishop's Palace at Hereford, in order to erect a Pile in a politer Taste, for the publick Service. The demolish'd Chapel was said to be as old as the Con­quest.

[Page 308]Between Leominster and this City, is another Hampton-Court, the Seat of the late Earl of Coningsby. That Lord was, from an Irish Peer, made an English one, by his late Majesty King George I. And having no Son, his Daughter was created by the same Prince in the Life-time of her Father, Baroness and Vis­countess Coningsby of Hampton-Court, in order that her Descendants might be intitled to a Peerage. She marry'd Sir Michael Newton, Bart. and Knight of the Bath. This is a fine Seat built by Henry Bolin­broke Duke of Lancaster, afterwards King Henry IV. in the Form of a Castle, situate in a Valley upon a rapid River, under Coverture of Dynmaur. The Gardens are very pleasant, terminated by vast Woods covering all the sloping Side of the Hill. There is a plentiful Supply of Water, on all Sides of the House, for Fountains, Basins, and Canals. Within, are excellent Pictures of the Earl's Ancestors and others, by Holben, Dobson, Vandyke, Sir P. Lully, &c. an Original of the Founder King Henry IV. of Queen Elizabeth, the Duchess of Portsmouth, &c.

The Windows of the Chapel are well painted: there are some Statues of the Coningsbies.

Here are two new Stone Stair-cases, after a Geo­metrical Method. The Record-room is at-top of a Tower arch'd with Stone, pav'd with Roman Brick, and has an Iron Door. From the Top of the House goes a Stair-case, which, they say, has a subterraneous Conveyance into Dynmaur Wood.

The Park is very fine, Eight Miles in Circum­ference, and contains about 1200 Head of Deer. There are extensive Prospects on one Side reaching into Wiltshire, on the other over the Welsh Moun­tains; Lawns, Groves, Canals, Hills and Plains. There is a Pool Three Quarters of a Mile long, very broad, and included between Two great Woods. The Dam, which forms it, and is made over a Valley, cost, 800l. and was finish'd in a Fortnight by 200 [Page 309] Hands. A new River is cut quite thro' the Park, the Chanel of which, for a long way together, is hewn out of the Rock. This serves to inrich vast Tracts of Lands, which before were barren. Here also are new Gardens and Canals laid out, and new Plantations of Timber in proper Places.

Warrens, Decoys, Sheepwalks, Pastures for Cattle, &c. supply the House with all Sorts of Convenien­cies and Necessaries, without having recourse to a Market.

Westward of Hereford the Golden Vale before-men­tioned, extends itself along the River Dore, which runs thro' the midst of it, and is call'd by the Britons, Duf­frin Dore: it is call'd the Golden Vale, from its plea­sant Fertility in the Spring, when it is cover'd over with a yellow Livery of Flowers. It is encompassed with Hills, which are crown'd with Woods.

From Hereford, keeping the Bank of Wye as near as we could, we came to Ross, a good old Town, fa­mous for Cyder, a great Manufacture of Iron-ware, and its Trade on the River Wye.

From hence we came at about Eight Miles more into Monmouthshire, formerly a Welsh, but now an English County, and to the Town of Monmouth. It is a Place of great Antiquity, and is fair, large, and well-built, situate at the Conflux of the Wye and Munnow, whence the Town has its Name; it stands in the Angle where the Rivers join, and has a Bridge over each River, and a third over the River Trothy, which comes in just below the other.

This Town shews Marks of great Antiquity, and, by the Remains of Walls, Lines, Curtains, and Bas­tions, that it has been very strong, and, by its Situa­tion, that it may be made so again. It is a Borough-town, govern'd by Two Bailiffs, Common-council­men, and Town-clerk. It has a very considerable Corn-market. It was famed for the Strength of the [Page 310] Castle in the Time of William I.; and is the Birth-place of our renown'd King Henry V. Conqueror of France; and likewise of one of our antient Histo­rians, Jeoffry of Monmouth, a fabulous Writer. At present 'tis not very flourishing; yet it drives a con­siderable Trade with the City of Bristol, by the Na­vigation of the Wye.

This River having receiv'd Two large Streams, the Munnow, and the Trother, becomes a very noble River; and with a deep Chanel, and a full Current, hurries away towards the Sea, carrying also Vessels of a considerable Burden hereabouts.

Near Monmouth, the Duke of Beaufort has a fine Seat, call'd Troy-house.

Lower down, upon the Wye in this Shire, stands Chepstow, the Sea-port for all the Towns seated on this River and the Lug, and where their Commerce seems to centre. Hither Ships of good Burden may come up, and the Tide runs with the same impe­tuous Current as at Bristol; the Flood rising ordi­narily from Six Fathom, to Six and a half at Chepstow Bridge, which is a noble one indeed, built of Tim­ber, and no less than 70 Feet high from the Surface of the Water, when the Tide is out. And that this was not a needless Height, was evident in Ja­nuary 1738, when the Water rose at the Bridge up­wards of 70 Feet, and very much damag'd it: one Man lost above 130 Head of Cattle, which, with other Damages it did there, and in the adjacent Places, were computed at 7 or 8000l. Chepstow has a well frequented Market, especially for Corn. The Bridge, as half of it is in Gloucestershire, is maintained at the Expence of both Counties.

Two Miles from this Town is the famous Passage over the Severn, on this Side call'd Bleachly, and on the other Aust, as I have mention'd before. Here Offa's Dyke begins, and passing through Radnor­shire, [Page 311] extends itself up to Flintshire, and so to the River Dee, which parts Wales from Cheshire.

We turn'd Northwards, and arrived at Aberga­venny, which is a large well-built and well-inhabited Market-town, situate at the Mouth of the Gavenny running into the Usk. It carries on a considerable Trade in Flanels, which the Country People manu­facture at home, and bring hither to sell. It is a great Thorough-fare from the Western Parts of Wales to Bristol and Bath by Chepstow, and to Gloucester by Monmouth; and so crossing the River thro' Col­ford and the Forest of Dean.

The Fuel in this County is Pit-coal, and is very cheap, insomuch that they sell a Horse-load for Two-pence, at the Pit-mouth; and 'tis common, in the meanest Cot to see a good Fire.

Great Quantities of Corn are exported out of this County; and 'tis frequent, that the Bristol Mer­chants send their Ships hither to load for Portugal, and other foreign Countries. And indeed it is noted for producing as good Wheat and other Grain, as any County in the Kingdom; and yet it is very surprise­ing, that Lands here never sell for more than 20 or 21 Years Purchace. The current Language of the County is Welsh among the Vulgar, but the Gen­tlemen speak English generally.

As I am now just upon entering Wales, I will conclude this Letter with assuring you, that I am,

Yours, &c.

LETTER VI. CONTAINING A Description of the greatest Part of the Principality of Wales.


I Thought I should not pay the Princi­pality the Respect it so well deserves, if I did not begin a Letter with the Description of it; it being the Country of that brave People, who had an ori­ginal Right to the whole Island, and made so noble a Stand in Defence of their Liberties and Independ­ency; and at last, rather than submit to a foreign Yoke, chose to be free in this remote and inaccessible Part of it.

The two first Counties which border West upon Monmouthshire, are Brecknock and Glamorgan, and are very mountainous on the East Side, which gives a Traveller a terrible Apprehension of the Country he is this way entering into, and an Expectation of meeting with nothing that is agreeable; but he is not long before he is undeceived, and finds the Re­ward of his Trouble. In that Part of Monmouthshire which joins the Two Counties, begins the rising of [Page 313] the Hills. Kyrton-Beacon, Tumberlow, Blorench, Penvail, and Skirridan, are some of the Names of these horrid Mountains, and are all in this Shire; and I could not but fansy myself in View of Mount Brennus, Little-Barnard, and Great-Barnard, among the Alps.

We now entered South Wales; which contains the Shires of Glamorgan, Brecknock, Radnor, Caermar­then, Pembroke, and Cardigan.

Brecknockshire is a mere inland County, as Radnor is; the English jestingly (and I think not very impro­perly) call it Break-neck-shire: 'tis mountainous to an Extremity, except on the Side of Radnor, where it is something more low and level. It is well wa­tered by the Wye, and the Uske, two Rivers men­tion'd before. Upon the latter stands the Town of Brecknock, the Capital of the County, well-built, and the Assizes are kept at it. It is very antient, and indeed, to mention it here once for all, there are more Tokens of Antiquity to be seen every-where in Wales, than in any particular Part of England, ex­cept the Counties of Cumberland and Northumberland. Here we saw Brecknock-mere, a large or long Lake of Water, Two or Three Miles over; of which they have a great many Fables, not worth relating: the best of them is, that a certain River, call'd the Lhe­weni, runs thro' it, and keeps its Colour in Mid­chanel, distinguish'd from the Water of the Lake, and, as they say, never mingles with it. They take abundance of good Fish in this Lake, so that, like the River Theisse, in Hungary, they say it is Two-thirds Water, and One-third Fish. The Country People affirm, that once a City stood here, but, that by the Judgment of Heaven, for the Sins of its Inhabitants, it sunk into the Earth, and the Wa­ter rose up in the Place of it. I observe the same Story is mention'd by Mr. Camden, with some Dif­ference in the Particulars: I believe my Share of it, [Page 314] but 'tis remarkable, that Mr. Camden, having lost the old City Loventium, mention'd by Ptolemy to be hereabouts, is willing to account for it by this odd Story.

It was among the Mountains of this County that the famous Glendower shelter'd himself, and taking Arms on the deposing Richard II. proclaimed him­self Prince of Wales; they shew us several little Re­fuges of his in the Mountains, whither he retreated; and from whence, again, he made such bold Excur­sions into England, as to have put Henry IV. to very great Difficulties.

Tho' this County be so mountainous, Provisions are exceeding plentiful, and also very good all over the Country; nor are these Mountains useless, even to the City of London, as I have noted of other Counties; for from hence they send yearly great Herds of Black Cattle to England, and which are known to fill our Fairs and Markets, even that of Smithfield itself.

The yellow Mountains of Radnorshire are the same, and their Product of Cattle is the same; nor did I meet with any thing worth noticing, except Mo­numents of Antiquity. The Stories of Vortigern, and Roger of Mortimer, are in every old Woman's Mouth here. There is here a great Cataract or Water-fall of the River Wye, at a Place call'd Rha­jadr Gwy in Welsh, which signifies the Cataract or Water-fall of the Wye; but we did not go to see it, by reason there was a great Flood out at that time, which made the Way dangerous. There seemed to us a kind of Desart too, on that Side, which is scarce passable by Strangers; so we made it our North Boundary for this Part of our Journey.

We shall only add; That Radnor is the Shire Town, and hath a Castle; that Presteigne in Radnor­shire is a well-built Town, and the Assizes are held there.

[Page 315]Entering Glamorganshire, from Radnor and Breck­nock, we beheld Monuchdenny-hill on our Left, and the Black Mountains on the Right, and all a Ridge of horrid Rocks and Precipices between, over which, if we had not had good Guides, we should never have found our Way; and indeed, we began to repent our Curiosity, in going out of the common Road, as not having met with any thing worth the Trouble; and the Country looking so full of Horror, we thought to have given over the Enterprize, and have left Wales out of our Circuit: But after a Day and a Night engaging thus with Rocks and Mountains, our Guide brought us down into a most agreeable Vale, opening to the South, and a pleasant River running through it, call'd the Taaffe; and following its Course, we came in the Evening to the antient City of Landaff, and Town of Caerdiff, standing almost together.

Landaff in Glamorganshire, is the Seat of the Epi­scopal See, and a City; but so small, that it has not a Market; but Caerdiff, which is lower on the River, is the Port and Town of Trade; and has a very good Harbour opening into the Severn Sea, about four Miles below the Town.

The Cathedral is a neat Building, and very an­tient; they boast that this Church was a House of Religious Worship many Years before any other was founded in the Island, and that the Christian Religion flourish'd in its primitive Purity, from the Year 186, till the Pelagian Heresy overspread this Country; which being afterwards rooted out, they plac'd St. Dobricius, as the first Bishop, in this Town of Lan­daff, then call'd Launt [...]n: The Bishop of Landaff had formerly the Title of Archbishop; the three first Bishops were afterwards sainted for their eminent Holiness of Life, and the Miracles they are said to have wrought. 'Tis observable the Cathedral was antiently but 20 Foot long, and 10 broad, and had neither Steeple nor Bells, nor had they any other [Page 316] Cathedral from the Year 386, to the Year 1107, when Bishop Urban built the present Church, with some Houses for the Clergy adjoining, in the Nature of a Cloister.

Tho' the Church is antient, yet the Building is good, and the Choir neat, and pretty well kept.

The South Part of Glamorganshire is pleasant, agreeable, and very populous, insomuch that it is called The Garden of Wales. Its Soil is fertile and rich, and the low Grounds are so well cover'd with Grass, and stock'd with Cattle, that they supply the City of Bristol with Butter in very great Quantities salted and barrel'd up, just as Suffolk does the City of London.

Caerphyli-Castle in Glamorganshire, is one of the noblest Pieces of Ruins in the whole Island. It was larger than any Castle in England, that of Windsor excepted; and from what remains of it, was as beautiful in its Architecture, as it is remarkable in its Ruins.

Neath is a Port where the Coal-Trade is pretty considerable, tho' it stands up within Land.

Swanzy is also a Sea-port, and a very considerable Town for Trade, with a very good Harbour: Here is also a very great Trade for Coals, and Culm, which they export to all the Ports of Somerset, Devon, and Cornwall, and even to Ireland; so that some­times may be seen a hundred Sail of Ships at a time loading Coals here; which greatly enriches the Coun­try, and particularly this Town; it stands on the River Twye, or Taw: 'Tis very remarkable, that most of the Rivers in this County chime upon the Letters T and Y, as Taaf, Tawy, Tuy, Towy, Tyevy.

There are lately Mineral Waters found out at Swanzy, which are reported to be of great Efficacy in Fluxes and Haemorrhages of all Sorts. Consumptions, if not too far gone, Diabetes, Palsies, Rheumatisms, [Page 317] Dropsies, and other Distempers, are said to fall before these Styptick and Restorative Waters. They may certainly have very good Effects in many difficult Cases; but it is doing an Injury to the Reputation of any Medicine in the World, to make it a Catholicon, and good for every thing.

Kynfig-Castle, is now the Seat and Estate of the Lord Mansel, who has here also a very noble Income from the Collieries; which formerly denominated Sir Edward Mansel, one of the richest Commoners in Wales. The Family was innobled by her late Majesty Queen Anne.

In this Neighbourhood, near Margan Mynydd, we saw the famous Monument mention'd by Mr. Cam­den, on a Hill, with the Inscription, which the Vul­gar are so terrify'd at, that nobody cares to read it; for they have a Tradition from Father to Son, that whoever ventures to read it, will die within a Month. We did not scruple the Adventure, but when we came to try, the Letters were so defac'd by Time, that we were effectually secur'd from the Danger; the Inscription not being any thing near so legible, as it seems it was in Mr. Camden's time.

The Stone Pillar is about 4 or 5 Feet high, and one Foot thick, standing on the Top of this Hill; there are several other such Monuments in Radnor­shire, and other Counties in Wales, as likewise in Scotland.

Having thus touch'd on what is most curious on this Coast, we pass'd thro' the Land of Gowre; and going still West, we came to Caermarthen, or Kaer-Vyrdhin, as the Welsh call it, the Capital of the County of Kaermardhinshire.

This is an antient and a very handsome Town, pleasantly situated on the River Towy, which is navi­gable up to the Town, for Vessels of a moderate Burden, and over which is a large Bridge. The Town is well-built, and populous; it is lately much [Page 318] increas'd, and is still increasing; and the County round it is the most fruitful of any Part of Wales, and con­tinues to be so thro' all the Middle of the County, and a great Way into the next; nor is this County so mountainous and wild, as the rest of this Part of Wales: But it abounds in Corn, and in fine flourish­ing Meadows, as good as most are in Britain, and in which are fed a very great Number of good Cattle.

The Chancery, and Exchequer, for the South Part of the Principality, were usually kept at this Town, till the Jurisdiction of the Court and Marches of Wales was taken away. This Town was also fa­mous for the Birth of the old British Prophet, Mer­lin, of whom so many things are fabled, and who flourish'd in the Year 480: And here also the old Britons often kept their Parliaments, or Assemblies of their wise Men, and made their Laws. The Town was fortify'd in former times, but the Walls are not to be seen now, and scarcely the Ruins of them. The People in this Town and Country are reckon'd the wealthiest and politest in Wales.

Here we saw near Kily-Maen Llwyd, on a great Mountain, a Circle of mighty Stones, very much like Stone-henge in Wiltshire, or rather like the Roll-rich Stones in Oxfordshire; and tho' the People call it Bruarth Arthur, or King Arthur's Throne, we see no reason to believe, that it had any relation to him.

The next County West, is Pembrokeshire, the most extreme Part of Wales on this Side. It is a rich, fertile, and plentiful Country, lying on the Sea-coast, where it has the Benefit of Milford-Haven, one of the greatest and best Ports in Britain. Mr. Camden says, it contains 16 Creeks, 5 great Bays, and 13 good Roads for Shipping, all distinguish'd as such by their Names; and some say, a thousand Sail of Ships may ride in it.

[Page 319]Part of Pembrokeshire is inhabited by the Descen­dants of the Flemings, placed there by King Henry I. and that County is called, Little England beyond Wales.

Before we quitted the Coast, we saw Tenbigk, the most agreeable Town on all the Sea-coast of South-Wales, except Pembroke, being a very good Road for Shipping, and well frequented. Here is a great Fishery for Herring in its Season, a great Colliery, or rather Export of Coals, and they also drive a very considerable Trade to Ireland.

From hence, the Land, bearing far into the Sea, makes a Promontory, call'd St. Goven's-Head, or Point. But as we found nothing of Moment there, we cross'd over the Isthmus to Pembroke, which stands on the East Shore of the great Haven of Milford.

This is the largest and richest, and at this Time the most flourishing Town of South-Wales, except Carmarthen. Here are a great many Gentlemen and Merchants, and some of the latter are Men of good Business; and they told us, there were near 200 Sail of Ships belong'd to the Town, small and great; in a Word, all this Part of Wales is a rich and flourishing Country, very pleasant, fertile, and well cultivated.

This is the Place also made particularly famous for the Landing of King Henry VII. then Earl of Richmond.

From hence, being resolv'd to see the utmost Ex­tent of the County, West, we ferry'd over the Haven, and went to Haverford, by some call'd Haverford-West, a County in itself; and from thence to St. David's. Haverford is a good Town, strong, well-built, clean, and populous.

From hence to St. David's, the Country begins to look dry, barren, and mountainous.

St. David's is now a Bishop's See only, but was formerly an Archbishop's, which was transferr'd to Dole in Britany, where it still remains.

[Page 320]The venerable Aspect of this Cathedral Church shews, that it has been a beautiful Building. The West-end or Body of the Church is tolerable; the Choir is kept neat; the South Isle without the Choir, and the Virgin Mary's Chapel, which makes the East­end of the Church, are in a manner demolish'd, and the Roofs of both fallen in.

There have been a great many eminent Persons bury'd here, besides such whose Monuments are de­fac'd by Time. Here is St. David's Monument, to whom the Church is dedicated, the Monument of the Earl of Richmond, as also of the famous Owen Tudor; Here are also four antient Monuments of Knights-Templars, known by their Figures lying cross-legg'd; but their Names are not known, and there are six several Monuments of Bishops, who presided over this Church, besides St. David.

This Saint, they tell us, was Uncle to King Ar­thur, that he lived to 146 Years of Age, that he was Bishop of this Church sixty-five Years, being born in the Year 496, and died Anno 642; that he built twelve Monasteries, and perform'd abundance of Mi­racles.

There was a very handsome House for the Bishop, with a College, all built in a Close by themselves; but they are now in Ruins.

Here, the Weather being very clear, we had a full View of Ireland, though at a very great Distance. The Land here is call'd St. David's-Head. They reckon up 114 Bishops of this See, since it began, to the Year 1740.

A late Bishop of this See was Dr. Thomas Wat­son, of whom the World has heard so much, being depriv'd, after a long Debate, on a Charge of Simony. I shall not inquire into the Merits of the Case; but he bestow'd great Sums on charitable Designs.

From hence we turn'd North, keeping the Sea in our West Prospect, and a rugged mountainous Coun­try [Page 321] on the East, where the Hills even darken'd the Air with their Height. As we went on, we past by Newport, on the River Nevern, a Town having a good Harbour, and consequently a good Trade with Ireland.

Here we left Pembrokeshire, and after about 22 Miles came to Cardigan, a well-inhabited Town, on the River Tyvy, over which it has a fair Stone Bridge: 'Tis a very noble River indeed, and famous for its Plenty of the best and largest Salmon in Britain.

The Country People told us, that they had for­merly Beavers here, which bred in the Lakes among the Mountains, and coming down the Stream of Tyvy, destroy'd the young Frye of Salmon, and therefore the Country People destroy'd 'em. We thought they only meant the Otter, till I found afterwards, that Mr. Camden mentions also, that there had been Bea­vers seen here formerly.

This Town of Cardigan was once possess'd by the great Robert Fitz-Stephen, who was the first Briton that ever attempted the Conquest of Ireland; and had such Success with a Handful of Men, as after­wards gave the English a Footing there, which they never quitted afterwards, till they quite reduc'd the Country, and made it, as it were, a Province to England.

The Town is large and populous, has a fair Church, and is walled about, and fortified with a Castle, but that Part is now not much minded. It has a good Trade with Ireland, and is enrich'd very much, as is all this Part of the Country, by the famous Lead Mines, formerly discover'd by Sir Carbery Price, which are the greatest, and perhaps the richest in England; and particularly as they require so little Labour and Charge to come at the Ore, which in many Places lies within a Fathom or two of the Surface, and in some, even bare to the very Top. There are also Silver Mines in this County.

[Page 322]Going North from the Tyvy about 25 Miles, we came to Aberystwith, that is to say, the Town at the Mouth of the River Ystwith. It is a populous, but a dark, smoaky Place; and we fansy'd the Peo­ple look'd as if they had liv'd continually in Coal or Lead Mines. However, they are rich.

The County of Cardigan is in no wise comparable to either of those Welsh Counties which we have already pass'd through, there being a great deal of bar­ren Lands in it. However, it is so full of Cattle, that 'tis said to be the Nursery, or Breeding-Place for the whole Kingdom of England, South by Trent; but this is not a Proof of its Fertility; for tho' the feeding of Cattle indeed requires a rich Soil, the breeding them does not, the Mountains and Moors being as proper for that Purpose as richer Land.

Now we enter'd North-Wales; only I should add, that as we pass'd, we had a Sight of the famous Plymlymon-Hill, out of the East-side of which, rise the Severn, and the Wye; and out of the West-side of it, rise the Rydall and the Ystwyth. This Moun­tain is exceeding high, and though it is hard to say which is the highest Hill in Wales, yet I think this bids fair for it; nor is the County, for 20 Miles round it, any thing but a continued Ridge of Mountains: So that for a few Days we seem'd to be conversing in the upper Regions; for we were often above the Clouds a great way, and the Names of some of these Hills seem'd as barbarous to us, who spoke no Welsh, as the Hills themselves.

Passing these Mountains North, we enter'd North Wales, which contains the Counties of Montgomery, Merioneth, Caernarvon, Denbeigh, and Flint Shires, and the Isle of Anglesea.

In passing Montgomeryshire, we were so tired with Hills and Mountains, that we wish'd heartily we had kept close to the Sea Shore; but we had not much mended the matter, if we had, as I understood [Page 323] afterwards. The River Severn is the principal Beauty of this County, which rising out of the Plymlymon Mountain, as I have said, receives in a short Course so many other Rivers into its Bosom, that it becomes navigable before it gets out of the County, at Welsh-Pool, on the Edge of Shropshire.

Montgomery is a fashionable Place, and has many fair Dwellings in it, and some very good Families.

The Vales and Meadows upon the Banks of the Severn are exceedingly ornamental and profitable, and 'tis said, that the Water of the Severn, like that of Nile, when it overflows, impregnates the Valleys by the Slime it leaves behind it; all the Country is very fruitful, where-ever this River runs. The Town of Montgomery lies not far from this River, on the outer Edge of the County, next to Herefordshire. This was, it seems, a great Frontier Town in the Wars between the English and the Welsh, and was beautify'd and fortify'd by King Henry III. but it is not now so very considerable, though a good Town still, pleasantly situated, and has a Castle.

This County has been long noted for an excellent Breed of Welsh Horses, which, though not very large, are exceeding valuable, and much esteem'd all over England. All the North and West Part of the County is mountainous and stony. We saw a great many old Monuments in this Country, and Roman Camps, where-ever we came; and especially, if we met any Persons curious in such things, we found they had many Roman Coins.

Merionethshire, or Merionydshire, lies West from Montgomeryshire, on the Irish Sea, or rather the Ocean; for St. George's Chanel does not begin till further North; and it is extended on the Coast, for near 35 Miles in Length, all still mountainous and craggy. The principal River is the Tovy, which rises among the unpassable Mountains, which range [Page 324] along the Centre of this Part of Wales, and which we look at with Astonishment, for their prodigious Height. Some of the Hills have particular Names, but otherwise we called them all, The Black Moun­tains, and they well deserve the Name. Some think 'tis from the unpassable Mountains of this County, that we have an old Saying, That the Devil lives in the Middle of Wales, tho' I know there is another Meaning given to it; in a word, Mr. Camden calls these Parts the Alps of Wales.

There are but few large Towns in all this Part, nor is it very populous; much of it being scarce habitable, but 'tis said, there are more Sheep in it, than in all the rest of Wales. On the Sea Shore however, we saw Harleigh, or Harlech-Castle, which is still a Garison, and kept for the Guard of the Coast; but 'tis of no other Strength, than what its Situation gives it.

In the middle of these vast Mountains (and form­ing a very large Lake, viz. near its first Sources) rises the River Dee, of which I shall speak again in its proper Place.

Here, among almost innumerable Summits, and rising Peaks of nameless Hills, we saw the famous Kader-Idricks, which, some are of Opinion, is the highest Mountain in Britain, another call'd Rarau­vaur, another call'd Mowywynda; and still every Hill we saw, we thought higher than all that ever we saw before.

We inquired here after that strange Phaenomenon, which was not only seen, but fatally experienc'd, by the Country round this Place, namely of a livid Fire, coming off from the Sea, and setting on Fire Houses, Barns, Stacks of Hay and Corn, and poisoning the Herbage in the Field; of which there is a full Account given in the Philosophical Trans­actions: And as we had it confirm'd by the general Voice of the People, I shall take notice, That the [Page 325] Transactions particularly observe, that the Eclipses of the Sun in Aries have been very fatal to this Place; and that the Years 1542, and 1567, when the Sun was eclipsed in that Sign, it suffer'd very much by Fire; and after the latter Eclipse of the two, the Fire spread so far, that about 200 Houses in the Town and Suburbs of Caernarvon, were con­sum'd.

This mountainous Country runs away North thro' Merionethshire, and almost thro' Caernarvonshire, where Snowden-hill, of a monstrous Height, accord­ing to its Name, had Snow on the Top in the Be­ginning of June; but it does not continue the Year round, as some have asserted.

These unpassable Heights were doubtless the Re­fuges of the Britons, when, in their continual Wars with the Romans and Saxons, they were over­power'd.

That Side of the County of Caernarvon, which borders on the Sea, is not so mountainous, and is both more fertile, and more populous. The prin­cipal Place in this Part is Caernarvon, a good Town, with a Castle built by Edward I. to curb and re­duce the wild People of the Mountains, and secure the Passage into Anglesea. That Prince also kept his Court often here; and here his eldest Son and Successor, Edward II. was born, who was there­fore call'd Edward of Caernarvon. This Edward was the first of the Sons of the Kings of England, vested with the Title of Prince of Wales: And here were kept the Chancery and Exchequer of the Princes of Wales, for the North Part of the Prin­cipality, as it was at Caermarthen for the South Part. It is a small, but strong Town, clean, and well-built; and, considering the Place, the People are very cour­teous and obliging to Strangers. It is seated on the Firth or Inlet call'd Meneu, parting the Isle of Anglesea, or Mona, from the main Land; and here [Page 322] [...] [Page 323] [...] [Page 324] [...] [Page 325] [...] [Page 326] is a Ferry over to the Island, called Abermenai-Ferry ▪ And from thence a direct Road to Holyhead, whithe [...] we went for no other Purpose, than to have anothe [...] View of Ireland; tho' we were disappointed, the Weather being bad and stormy.

Whoever travels critically over these Mountains of South-Wales and Merionethshire, will think Stone­henge in Wiltshire, and Roll-rich Stones in Oxfora­shire, no more Wonders, seeing there are so many such in these Provinces, that they are not thought strange of at all, nor is it doubted, but they were generally Monuments of the Dead; as also are the single Stones of immense Bulk, of which we saw so many, that we gave over remarking 'em. Some measur'd from 7, 8, to 10, and one 16 Feet high, being a whole Stone, but so great, that the most of the Wonder is, where they were found, and how dragg'd to the Place; since, besides the steep Ascents to some of the Hills, on which they stand, it would be hardly possible to move some of them, now, with 50 Yoke of Oxen. And yet a great many of these Stones are found confusedly lying one upon another on the utmost Summit or Top of the Gly­der, and other Hills in Merioneth, or Caernarvon­shire; to which it is next to impossible, that all the Power of Art, and Strength of Man and Beast, could carry them, and the Vulgar make no Difficulty of saying, The Devil set them up there.

One of these monumental Stones is to be seen a little way from Harleigh-Castle: It is a large Stone lying flat, supported by three other Stones at three of the four Angles, tho' the Stone is rather oval than square; it is almost 11 Feet long, the Breadth un­equal; but in some Places it is from 7 to 8 Feet broad, and it may be supposed has been both longer and broader; 'tis in some Places about two Feet thick, but in others, 'tis worn almost to an Edge by Time. The three Stones that support it, are about [Page 327] 20 Inches square; 'tis supposed there have been four, two of which, that support the thickest End, are near 8 Feet high, the other not above three Feet, being suppos'd to be settled in the Ground, so that the Stone lies sloping, like the Roof of a Barn. There is another of these to be seen in the Isle of Anglesea; the flat Stone is much larger and thicker than this; but we did not go to see it. There are also two Circles of Stones in that Island, such as Stone-henge, but larger.

This is a particular kind of Monument, and there­fore I took Notice of it; but the others are generally single Stones of vast Magnitude, set up on one End, Column-wise, which being so very large, are likely to remain till the End of Time: but are generally without any Inscription, or regular Shape, or any Mark, to intimate for whom, or for what, they were so placed.

These Mountains are indeed so like the Alps, that except the Language of the People, one could hardly avoid thinking he is passing from Grenoble to Susa, or rather thro' the Country of the Grisons. The Lakes also, which are so numerous here, make the Similitude the greater: nor are the Fables which the Country People tell of these Lakes, much unlike the Stories which we meet with among the Switz­ers, of the famous Lakes in their Country. Mr. Camden's Continuator tells us of 50 or 60 Lakes in Caernarvonshire only. We did not count 'em, but I believe, if we had, we should have found them to be more, rather than less.

Here we met with the Char Fish, the same kind which we saw in Lancashire, and also in the Lakes of Switzerland, and no-where else, that I have heard of, in Europe. The Welsh call it the Torg [...]ch.

There is nothing of Note to be seen in the Isle of Anglesea, but the Town and the Castle of Beau­maris, which was also built by King Edward I. [Page 328] and call'd Beau-marsh, or the Fine Plain; for here the Country is very level and plain, and the Land is fruitful and pleasant. The Castle was very large, as may be seen by its Remains; and that it was strong, the Situation will tell also; but 'tis now of no Use.

As we went to Holyhead, by the South Part of the Island from Newborough, and came back thro' the Middle to Beaumaris, we saw the whole Extent of it; and indeed, it is a much pleasanter Country than any Part of North-Wales, that we had yet seen; and particularly is very fruitful in Corn and Cattle.

Here we cross'd the Streight of Meneu again, and came to Bangor, at the Place where King Ed­ward I. intended to have built a great Stone-bridge: It would indeed have been a Work fit for so great a King: But the Bottom being doubtful, and the Sea in that Place sometimes very raging and strong, the Workmen thought it impracticable; and though the King was very positive in his Design for a great while, yet he was prevail'd with at last to decline it.

Bangor is a Town noted for its Antiquity. It is a Bishop's See, but has an old, mean-looking, and almost despicable Cathedral Church.

This Church boasts of being one of the most antient in Britain, the People say, the most antient; and that St. Daniel (to whom it was dedicated) was first Bishop here, in the Year 512. They allow that the Pagans, perhaps of Anglesea, ruin'd the Church, and possess'd the Bishoprick after it was built, for above one hundred Years; nor is there any Ac­count of it from the Year 512 to 1009: After this, the Bishoprick was ruin'd again by one of its own Bishops, whose Name was Bulkeley, who, as the Monasticon says, not only sold the Revenues, but even the very Bells; for which Sacrilege it is said he was struck blind.

It is certainly at present no rich Bishoprick; yet the Bishops are generally allow'd to hold some other [Page 329] good Benefice in Commendam, and the Preferment seems to be a grateful Introduction to the Clergy, as the Bishops are generally translated from hence to a more profitable one; and very few Gentlemen of the Function have dy'd Bishops of Bangor; so that, in some Sense, a Bishop of this See may be said to be immortal.

From Bangor we went North, (keeping the Sea on our Left-hand) to Conway. This is the poorest, but pleasantest Town in all this County for the Big­ness of it; it is seated on the Bank of a fine River, which is not only pleasant and beautiful, but is a noble Harbour for Ships, had they any Occasion for them there; the Stream is deep and safe, and the River broad, as the Thames at Deptford: It only wants a Trade suitable to so good a Port; for it in­finitely outdoes Chester, and Liverpool too.

In this Passage, we went over the famous Preci­pice call'd Penmaen-maur, which I think Fame has made abundance more frightful than it is; for tho' the Rock is indeed very high, and, if any one should fall from it, he would be dash'd in Pieces, yet, on the other hand, there is no Danger of it, a Wall being built all the Way, on the Edge of the Preci­pice, to secure Passengers: Those who have been at the Hill or Pass of Enterkin in Scotland, know very well, the Danger there is much greater than here; and the frequent Loss of Lives, both of Man and Horse, will testify the same.

We have but little remarkable in the Road from Conway to Holywell, but Craggs and Rocks all along the North Shore of Denbeigh, till we came to Den­beigh the County Town, which has a Castle of great Strength; it is a large, populous Place, and has a good Trade carry'd on by Tanners and Glovers. This Town carries something in its Countenance of its Neighbourhood to England; but that which was most surprising, after such a tiresome and fatiguing [Page 330] Journey, over the inhospitable Mountains of Me­rioneth and Caernarvonshire, was, that descending now from the Hills, we came into a most plea­sant, fruitful, populous, and delicious Vale, full o [...] Villages and Towns, the Fields shining with Corn▪ just ready for the Reapers, the Meadows green and flowery, and a fine River, of a mild and gentle Stream, running thro' it: Nor is it a small or casua [...] Intermission, but we had a Prospect of the Country open before us for above 20 Miles in Length, and from 5 to 7 Miles in Breadth, all smiling with the same kind of Complexion; which made us think our­selves in England again, all on a sudden.

In this pleasant Vale, turning North from Den­beigh, and following the Stream of the River, we came to St. Asaph, in Flintshire, a small City, with a Cathedral, being a Bishoprick of tolerable good Value, though the Church is old: It is but a poor Place, and ill-built, although the Country is so plea­sant and rich all round it. There are some old Mo­numents in this Church, but none of any Note, nor could we read the Welsh Inscriptions.

From hence we came to Holywell: The Story of it is, that the pious Virgin, St. Winifred, being ravish'd and murder'd, this healing Water sprung out of her Body when buried. The Romanists be­lieve it, as 'tis evident, from their thronging hither to receive Benefit from the healing Virtue of the Water, which they do not hope for as medicinal, but as miraculous, and think it heals them by vir­tue of the Intercession and Influence of this famous Virgin, St. Winifrid.

The Chapel dedicated to this Holy Virgin, is cut out of a solid Rock, and Numbers of Pilgrims re­sort to it, with great Devotion. Under this Chapel, the Water gushes out into a great Stream, and the Place where it breaks out, is form'd like a Basin or Cistern, in which they bathe: The Water is intensly [Page 331] cold, and indeed there is no great Miracle in that Point, considering the Rocks it flows from, where it is impregnated by divers Minerals; the Virtue of which, and not of the Saint, I suppose, work the greatest Part of the Cures, that may be suppos'd to be effected there.

There is a little Town near the Well, which may, indeed, be said to have risen from the Con­fluence of People thither; for almost all the Houses are either Publick Houses, or let into Lodgings; and the Priests who attend here, and are very numerous, appear in Disguise: Sometimes they are Physicians, sometimes Surgeons, sometimes Gentlemen, and sometimes Patients, or any thing, as Occasion pre­sents. Nobody takes notice of them, as to their Religion, though they are well known, no not the Roman Catholicks themselves; but in private they have their proper Oratories in certain Places, whi­ther the Votaries resort; and good Manners has pre­vail'd so far, that no Protestant, let him know what he will, takes Notice of it, or inquires where one goes, or has been gone.

The principal Towns in Flintshire, are, 1. Flint, the Shire Town, but so small, that it has not a Market. 2. St. Asaph, before-mention'd. 3. Caer­wys, the chief Market-Town of the County.

From hence we pass'd by Flint-Castle, a known Place, but of no Consequence now; and directly to Wrexham, deemed the largest Town in North-Wales, having heard much of a fine Church there, but we were greatly disappointed: There is indeed a very large Tower or Steeple, as some call it, adorn'd with Imagery; but far from fine: The Work is mean, the Statues without any Fancy or Spirit; and as the Stone is of a reddish crumbling Kind, like the Cathe­dral at Chester, Time has made it look gross and rough.

There are a great many antient Monuments in this Church, and in the Church-yard also; but none of [Page 332] Note, and almost all the Inscriptions are in Welsh. The Church is large; but they must be much mis­taken, who tell us 'tis one of the finest in England; for it falls short in that respect, of even those Churches which are as old as itself.

This Town is large, well-built and populous; and besides the Church, there are two large Meeting-Houses, in one of which, we were told they preach in Welsh one Part of the Day, and in English the other. Here is a great Market for Flannel, which the Factors buy up of the poor Welsh People, who manufacture it; and thence it is sent to London; and is a considerable Manufacture thro' all this Part of the Country, by which the Poor are very pro­fitably imploy'd.

We could not omit seeing the once famous Ban­chor, which Malmsbury confounds with the Episcopal Bangor; and were pleas'd to see there a fine Stone Bridge over the Dee. This was once a City, and the Monastery was so famous, that in the Time of the British Kings it was said to contain 2400 Monks, who in their Turns (viz. 100 each Hour of the 24) reading Prayers and singing Psalms continually, Divine Service was perform'd Day and Night without In­termission. But now not so much as the Ruins are to be seen, and as all the People in the little Vil­lage, that takes place of it, spoke Welsh, we could find no body that could give us any Intelligence. So effectually had Time eras'd the very Foundations of the Place.

This is said to be the Birth-place of that Arch-here­tick Pelagius, who from hence began to broach his heretical Opinions, which afterwards so terribly over­spread the Church. Camden observes, that this Ban­gor is situated in the County of Flint.

But before I have intirely done with the Princi­pality, give me leave to observe briefly a few things with relation to this Journey, and the Gentlemen of Wales.

[Page 333]Tho' this Journey, and especially over such mon­strous Hills and Precipices, as those in Merioneth and some other Shires, was a little heavy to us, yet were we well supported through it, for we generally found their Provisions very good and cheap, and pretty good Accommodations in the Inns.

The Welsh Gentlemen are very hospitable; and the People in general very obliging and conversable, especially to Strangers. When we let them know, we travell'd merely in Curiosity to view the Country, their Civility was heightened to such a Degree, that nothing could be more friendly, and they were will­ing to tell us every thing that belong'd to their Coun­try, and to shew us all that we desir'd to see.

They value themselves much upon their antient Heroes, as Caractacus, Owen ap Tudor, Prince Lewellin; and particularly upon the Antiquity of their Families, and laugh at a Pedigree, that can't be trac'd higher than the Conquest. It must be own'd, that the Gentlemen, justly claim a very antient Descent, and have preserv'd their Families intire, for many Ages: They receive you well into their Houses, treat you very handsomely, are very gene­rous; and indeed, nothing is wanting within Doors; and, what is more, they have generally very good Estates to support their Hospitality; but they are very jealous of Affronts, and soon provok'd to An­ger, which is seldom allay'd without Satisfaction; and then become as soon reconcil'd again.

I will now put an End to this Letter, with assure­ing you, that

I am, &c.

LETTER VII. CONTAINING A Description of Part of Cheshire, North­amptonshire, and Leicestershire.


I Continued at Chester for some time, except that I made two or three Ex­cursions into the neighbouring Country, and particularly into that Part of Shrop­shire which I had not view'd as I went; as also into the North, and North-west Parts of Cheshire. But I should first acquaint you, that Malpas, through which I came from Wales, is situate on a high Hill, and was formerly strengthened by a Castle, which is now in Ruins. The Church is a stately Building, and stands on the most eminent Part of the Town: It has 2 Rectors, who do Duty alternately. The Town consists of 3 Streets, and is well pav'd; has a good Market, a Grammar-School, and an Hospital.

The first Trip I made, was into the Cestria Cher­sonesus, as I think we may properly call it: It is bounded by the two great Firths, or Arms of the Sea, [Page 335] the one call'd the Mouth of the Dee, and the other of the two Rivers Mersey and Weaver, which form it into a Peninsula. It is about 16 Miles long, 6 or 7 over, and has not one Market Town in it, tho' it is exceeding rich and fertile; occasion'd possibly by the Neighbourhood of two such great Towns, as Chester and Liverpool.

Going down from Chester, by the Rhoodee, as they call it, that is, the Marshes of the River Dee, and coasting the River after it is grown broader than the Marshes, the first Place of any Note which we come to, is Nesson, where, in the late Irish War, most of the Troops embark'd for that grand Ex­pedition: From hence the Vessels go away to High-lake, where they ride safe in their Way, as the Ships from London lie in the Downs, till the Wind pre­sents for their respective Voyages.

But to return to Chester. It is a fine old City and Colony of the Romans; and many Antiquities have been found in it. It has four Churches beside the Cathedral, which is a Pile venerable for Antiquity, but in no extraordinary Condition. There are Sha­dows of many Pictures on the Wall, but defac'd. At the West End, in Niches are some Images of the Earls Palatine of Chester. The adjoining Abbey is quite ruin'd. The Walls round the City are kept in very good Repair, at the Charge of the Corpo­ration, and afford a pleasant, airy Walk. The Ex­change is a neat Building, supported by Columns 13 Feet high, of one Stone each. Over it is the City-hall, a well-contrived Court of Judicature. The Castle was formerly the Palace, where the Earls assembled their Parliaments, and enacted Laws inde­pendent of the Kings of England, determining all Causes themselves. It has always a Garrison kept in it. The Piazza's or Rows, as they call them, do not in my Opinion, add any thing to the Beauty of the City; but, on the contrary, serve to make it look [Page 336] both old and indifferent. These Rows are certain long Galleries, up one Pair of Stairs, which run along the Side of the Streets, before all the Houses, tho' joined to them, and, as is pretended, they are to keep the People dry in walking along. This they do indeed effectually, but then they take away all the View of the Houses from the Street, nor can a Stranger, that was to ride thro' Chester, see any Shops in the City; besides, they make the Shops themselves dark, and the Way in them is dark, dirty, and un­even.

The best Ornament of the City is, that the Streets are very broad and fair, and run thro' the whole City in strait Lines, crossing in the middle of it as at Chichester: The Walls afford a very pleasant Walk, as I have said, round the City, and within the Battlements, from whence you may see the cir­cumjacent Country, and particularly on the Side of the Rhoodee, which is a fine large low Green, on the Bank of the Dee, which in Winter is often under Water by the Inundations of the River. Be­yond the Rhoodee, may be seen from the Walls of Chester the County of Flint, and the Mountains of Wales.

The Castle is a good firm Building, and strong, tho' not fortify'd with many Outworks: There is always a good Garrison kept in it. 'Tis said this Castle was built, or at least repair'd, by Hugh Lupus, the famous Earl of Chester, Nephew to William the Conqueror, as was also the Church; the Body of whom was lately (Anno 1723) discover'd, as is supposed, in an old ruinous Building called, The Chapter-house.

It was first wrapp'd in Leather, and then inclos'd in a Stone Coffin. The Skull and all the Bones were very fresh, and in their proper Position; and, what is more remarkable, the String which ty'd the Ankles together, was whole and intire, altho' it was then upwards of 650 Years since the Interrment.

[Page 337] Chester is but a modern Bishoprick, being so made in the Year 1541. when King Henry VIII. di­vided it from Lichfield. They tell us, that King Edgar, who conquer'd all this Part of Britain, and was rowed up the Dee in his Royal Barge by Seven, or, as some say, Eight Kings, himself steering the Helm, founded the great Church, which Lupus finish'd and endow'd.

Here is a noble Stone Bridge over the Dee, very high and strong built, and 'tis needful it should be so; for the Dee is a most furious Stream at some Seasons, and brings a vast Weight of Water with it from the Mountains of Wales.

Chester has long given Title of Earl to the Prince of Wales, eldest Son of the King.

Chester was formerly an Harbour for Shipping; but the Sea had long ago withdrawn itself; and the River Dee was so choaked up, that Vessels of Bur­den could not come within some Miles of it; so that an Act of Parliament passed in the Year 1732, for rendering it navigable. And in Pursuance thereof, the Undertakers, raised a Sum of 47,830l. which they have expended in cutting and perfecting a new Chanel for the River Dee, of near Ten Miles in Length, and in making proper Dams and Sluices, into which they have turned the said River; so that it is actually navigable at this Time for Ships and Vessels of considerable Burdens to the Quay, or Key, of Chester, where they load and unload Goods and Merchandize. This Success encourag'd the Un­dertakers to apply to Parliament (1740-1), for further Powers to complete the same, and for uniting the said Undertakers into a Company for that laud­able Purpose.

This County, though so remote from London, is one of those which contributes much to its Support, as well as to that of several other Parts of England, by its excellent Cheese, which they make here in [Page 338] such Quantities, that, as I am told from very good Authority, the City of London only takes off 14000 Tons every Year; besides vast Quantities which they send to Bristol and York, and also to Scotland and Ireland; so that the Quantity of Cheese made here, must be prodigiously great. Indeed, the whole County is imploy'd in it, and Part of its Neigh­bourhood too; for though it goes by the Name of Cheshire Cheese, yet great Quantities of it are made in such Parts of Shropshire, Staffordshire, and Lan­cashire, as border upon Cheshire.

The Soil is extraordinarily good, and the Grass has a peculiar Richness in it, which disposes the Kine to give a great Quantity of Milk, which is very sweet and good; and this Cheese Manufacture increases every Day, raises the Value of the Lands, and en­courages the Farmers to keep vast Stocks of Cows; which of themselves contribute to improve and en­rich the Land.

While we were station'd, as I may say, at Chester, I made a Trip to several Places round about it. And particularly to the fine old Seat of the Lord Dela­mere, and the spacious Forest which gives Title to that noble Family. They say here was formerly an old City, now called the Chamber on the Forest, pro­bably some Fort or Camp to secure the Road. From hence is so fine a Prospect of the Welsh Mountains, that I never before beheld such a noble Scene of Nature. Beeston-Castle is on our left, built upon a Precipice. This Forest is noted for great Plenty of Red and Fallow Deer, and is a great Relief for Fish, Fowl, and Turf, to the neighbouring Towns, whereof there are a great many small ones about this Forest, and thro' the upper Part of it the Weaver takes its Course. The chief Town hereabout is Fr [...]desham, famous formerly for a Castle, and the Seat of the Family of the Savages, which however is but a mean Market-town. Near this Place is also [Page 339] the famous Seat of Rock-Savage, built on the Ascent of an Hill belonging to the same Family, whereof the last was the late Earl Rivers.

On the South Side of the Park stands Beeston-Castle, upon an Hill environ'd with Mountains, and yet overlooks almost the whole County. It is very strong, covers a great Extent of Ground, and is adorn'd with many Towers. It gives Name to an antient Family in this County.

From Chester we kept directly on East to Middle­wich, a large Market-town, with a spacious Church, but chiefly noted for making Salt; where are Two excellent Brine-seeths.

We followed the Weaver directly North to North­wich also famous for Brine-springs, and for making great Quantities of the finest Salt by boiling the Water in large iron Pans of small Depth. As fast as the Salt crystallizes, they rake it out, and dry it in wicker Baskets of a conick Form. The Duty it brings in is very considerable.

Within these Fifty Years, on the South-side of the Town, they discover'd a great many Mines of Rock-salt, which they continually dig up, and send in great Lumps to the maritime Ports, where it is dissolv'd, and made into eating Salt. We were let down by a Bucket 150 Feet deep to the Bottom of the Salt Quarry, a most pleasant subterraneous Pro­spect, looking like a Cathedral supported by Rows of Pillars, and Roof of Crystal, all of the same Rock, transparent and glittering from the numerous Candles of the Workmen, labouring with their Steel Pick-axes in digging it away. This Rock-work extends to several Acres.

There is a good Church at Northwich, with a fine Roof, and semicircular Choir.

At Lawton-yates they bore 60 Yards deep for the Salt Spring; at Hassal 47; at Wheelock 18; about Middlewich less; at Northwich it rises to open Day; [Page 340] which seems to intimate, that the salt Spring runs be­tween Layers of the Earth in an horizontal Line. Upon Boring, it rises with great Impetuosity, so that the Workmen have scarce Time to get out of the Wells. This is all along the Side of a Brook that comes from a remarkable Hill called Mawcop, upon the Edge of Staffordshire; so that the Ground rises above the true Level in the mentioned Proportion.

From Northwich we travell'd North-east, and came to Knutsford, a good Town, and finely situated. A Brook runs thro' it, and divides it into two. It has a Market and Town-house, and a pretty good Pa­rochial Church.

Altringham and Stockport, Two small Market-towns, lie higher up Northward, the first near, and the other upon the Borders of Lancashire; and hear­ing of nothing remarkable in them, we turned South-east from Knutsford to Macclesfield, which they call in this County Maxfield.

Macclesfield is situate in the Forest of the same Name, a Town of great Antiquity, and very fair and spacious. 'Tis under the Government of a Mayor, and enjoys many particular Privileges by virtue of the Court and Liberties of the Forest. It has a good Church with a high Spire Steeple, and a College adjoining to it, in which are buried a great many of the Savages: and here is also a good Free-school, and a thriving Manufacture of Buttons.

From hence we veer'd about, and came South-west to Congleton, near the Borders of Staffordshire, a fair Mayor-town and well-water'd on all Sides. It has Two Churches, and is noted for a good Trade in Gloves.

We then came to the Market-town of Sandbach, which is delightfully situated on a Branch of the Weaver. It has a fair Church, and in the Market-place stand Two Crosses of Stone, with the History [Page 341] of Christ's Passion ingraven on them. The Ale here is deservedly famed.

From Sandbach we went on Southward, and came to the great London Road at Namptwich, which stands upon it. This Town is well-built, and the Streets look fair, having a great many Gentlemens Houses in them. The Church is a noble Edifice in the Form of a Cross, with the Steeple rising from the Middle; but the Maintenance of the Minister is mean and pitiful. The Inhabitants are rich, and carry on a good Trade in most sort of Commodities, but principally in making Salt and Cheese, the latter exceeding all that is made in the County, as the Soil this Way is esteemed the best, and, as 'tis said, was called by King Edward I. the Vale Royal.

Thus having made my Circuit round the County, I shall go from hence South to Whitchurch in Shrop­shire. But I must first note two things of Cheshire: 1. That there is no Part of England, where there are equal Numbers of Gentry, of such antient and noble Extraction: Mr. Camden is very particular in their Names and Descents, to whom therefore I must refer. 2. That it is a County Palatine, and has been so for many Ages, and its Government is distinct from any other, and very particular; it is administred by a Chamberlain, a Judge Special, who is call'd Chief Justice of Chester, two Barons of the Exchequer, three Sergeants at Law, a Sheriff, an At­torney, an Escheator, and all proper and usual sub­ordinate Officers; and the Jurisdiction of all these Offices is kept up, and preserv'd very strictly; only we are to note, that the Judge Special, as he is call'd, tries only civil Causes, not criminal, which are left to the ordinary Judges of England, who go the Cir­cuits here, as in other Places.

Whitchurch is a pleasant, large, and populous Town, and has a very good Church, in which is the famous Monument of the great Talbot, first E. of Shrewsbury, [Page 342] who was call'd in his Time the English ACHILLES, and who was so renown'd in the Wars of France, that no Man in that Kingdom dared to encounter him single-handed. He had ingraven on one Side of his Sword, Sum Talboti, and on the Reverse, Pro vincere inimicos meos. His Epitaph is as follows, in capital Letters: ‘ORATE PRO ANIMA PRAENOBILIS DO­MINI, DOMINI IOHANNIS TALBOTT, QUONDAM COMITIS SALOPIAE, DOMINI TALBOTT, DOMINI FURNIVALL, DO­MINI VERDON, DOMINI STRANGE DE BLACKMERE, ET MARESCHALLI FRAN­CIAE, QUI OBIIT IN BELLO APVD BVR­DEWS VII. IVLII MCCCCLIII.’

This Town has a good Market, and a great many Gentry near it, whereof some are Roman-catho­licks. They tell us, that this Town, when King Charles I. remov'd his Standard from Nottingham to Shrewsbury, raised a whole Regiment for his Service.

From hence we turn'd South, and passing by Wem, the Title given by King James II. to his Lord Chan­cellor Jefferies, thence we came to Elsmere, which gives Title of Baron to the Duke of Bridg­water, and is famous for a great Lake or Mere, which gives the Town its Name, and which the People pretend has in some Places no Bottom. This Place is remarkable for good Fish.

And further on West, on the Confines of Den­bighshire, stands Oswestry, a Bailiwick Market-town, famous formerly for the Sale of Welsh Cottons and Flanels, but now only for the last. It is inclosed with a Wall, and a Ditch, and fortified with a Castle, and has a good Church without the Gate covered with [Page 343] Lead. From hence we came the same Night to Shrewsbury.

Shrewsbury is supposed to have been built out of the Ruins of the antient Uriconium. In the Reign of William the Conqueror, Roger Earl of Montgo­mery built a Castle here, on the North Side, and a stately Abbey, some Ruins of which are still to be seen. It is a beautiful, large, pleasant, populous, and rich Town; full of Gentry, and yet full of Trade too; for here likewise is a great Manufacture, as well of Flanel, as also of white Broad-cloth, which inriches all the Country round it.

The Severn in part surrounds this Town, just as the Thames does the Isle of Dogs; so that it makes the Form of an Horse-shoe. Over it are two fine Stone Bridges, upon one of which is built a very noble Gate, and, over the Arch of the Gate, the Statue of the great Llewellin, the Idol of the Welsh, and their last Prince of Wales.

This is really a Town of Mirth and Gallantry, something like Bury in Suffolk, or Durham in the North, but much bigger than either of them, or in­deed than both together.

Over the Market-house is kept a kind of Hall for the Manufactures, which are sold here weekly in very great Quantities; they speak all English in the Town, but on a Market-day you would think you were in Wales.

Here is the greatest Market, the greatest Plenty of good Provisions, and the cheapest that is to be met with in all the Western Part of England. The Severn supplies them here with excellent Salmon, but 'tis also brought in great Plenty from the Dee, which is not far off, and abounds with a very good Kind, and is generally larger than in the Severn. As an Ex­ample of the Cheapness of Provisions, we paid here, in a publick Inn, but a Groat a Night for Hay, and Sixpence a Peck for Oats, for our Horses, which is [Page 344] cheaper than we found it in the cheapest Part of the North of England; all our other Provisions were in Proportion; and there is no doubt but the Cheap­ness of Provisions, joined to the Pleasantness and Healthiness of the Place, draws a great many Fami­lies hither, who love to live within the Compass of their Estates.

Mr. Camden calls it a City: and 'tis indeed equal to several good Cities in England, and superior to some. Near this Place was fought the bloody Battle between Henry Hotspur, and Henry IV. King of England, in which the former was kill'd, and all his Army overthrown, and the Place is called Battle­field to this Day.

Here are Five Churches, Two of them with lofty Spires. St. Chad's, and St. Mary's, are said to be antiently collegiate. There are abundance of antient Monuments in them all, which I have not room to mention.

This Town will for ever be famous for the Re­ception it gave to King Charles I. who, after setting up his Standard at Nottingham, and finding no En­couragement there, remov'd to Shrewsbury, being in­vited by the Gentry of the Town and Country round, where he was receiv'd with such a general Affection, and hearty Zeal, that his Majesty recover'd him­self from the Discouragement of his first Step at Nottingham, and raised and compleated a strong Army in less Time than could be imagin'd; insomuch that, to the Surprize of the Parliament, and indeed of all the World, he was in the Field before them, and advanced upon them so fast, that he met them Two-thirds onward of his Way to London, and gave them Battle at Edge-hill, near Banbury.

But the Fate of the War turning afterwards against the King, the Weight of it fell heavy upon this Town, and almost ruin'd it.

[Page 345]But they are now fully recover'd, and it is one of the most flourishing Towns in England. The Walls and Gates are yet standing, but useless; and the old Castle is gone to Ruin, as is the Case of almost all the old Castles in England.

It should not be forgotten, that notwithstanding the Healthiness of the Place, here broke out first that unaccountable Plague, call'd, The Sweating Sickness, Anno 1551; which spread itself thro' the whole King­dom, and afterwards into several foreign Nations.

Here is a good Free-school, the most considerable in this Part of England; built and endow'd by Q. Elizabeth, with a very sufficient Maintenance for a Chief or Head-Master, and Three Under-Masters or Ushers. The Buildings are very spacious, and particularly the Library, which has a great many Books in it. The School-masters have also very handsome Houses to dwell in; so that the whole has the Face of a College.

There was a fine School here before, erected by the Town's-people, and maintain'd several Years by their Contribution. But the Queen took the Matter into her own Hands, and built the whole Fabrick new from the Ground, endowing it liberally out of her own Royal Bounty.

Here I was shew'd a very visible and remarkable Appearance of the great antient Road or Way call'd Watling-street, which comes from London to this Town, and goes on from hence to the utmost Coast of Wales. Remains of a Stone Bridge are to be seen in the Bottom of the River, when the Water is low. This Road is raised a good Height above the Soil, and so strait, that upon an Eminence you may see it Ten or Fifteen Miles before you, and as much be­hind, over many Hill-tops answering one the other as a Vista of Trees.

We lodg'd at an Inn called Ivesey-bank, on the Borders between Staffordshire and Shropshire. About [Page 346] a Mile off in a large Wood stands Boscobel-house, or White-Ladies, as some call it, where the Pendrils lived, who preserved King Charles II. after Worcester Battle, and famous for the Royal Oak. The Grand­daughter of that William Pendril still liv'd in the House, when I was there. The Floor of the Gar­ret, which is a Popish Chapel, (formerly a Nunnery in Possession of the Family of Cooksey) being matted, prevents any Suspicion of a little Cavity with a Trap­door over the Stair-case where the King was hid. His Bed was artfully plac'd behind some Wainscot, that shut up very close. A Descendant of the Cook­seys still keeps the Gloves and Garters, which his Majesty left behind him.

The said Chapel is still standing, and has some painted Saints upon the Wall at one End.

A Bow-shot from the House, just by a Horse­track passing thro' the Wood, stood the Royal Oak, into which the King and Col. Carlos climbed, by means of the Hen-roost Ladder, when they thought it no longer safe to stay in the House, the Family reaching them Victuals with the Nut-hook. It hap­pened, as the People related it to us, that whilst the King and Colonel were in the Tree, a Party of the Enemy's Horse, sent to search the House, came whi­stling and talking along this Road; and when they were just under the Tree, an Owl flew out of a neighbouring Tree, and hover'd along the Ground, as if her Wings were broken, which the Soldiers merrily pursued.

The Tree is now inclos'd within a Brick Wall, the Inside whereof is cover'd with Laurel, of which we may say, as Ovid did of that of the Augustan Pa­lace,—Mediamque tuebere quercum. For the Oak is in the Middle, almost cut away by Travellers, whose Curiosity leads them to see it. Close by the Side grows a young thriving Plant from one of its Acorns.

[Page 347]After the Restoration, the King, reviewing the Place, no doubt, with very different Emotions to what he had when he was in it, gather'd some of the Acorns, and set them in St. James's Park or Gar­den, and us'd to water them himself. If we may judge of the Value the King put upon his Preserva­tion, and Royal Person, it was worth 200l. per Annum, and one should think a King, if worth any thing, worth that; for so much he gave to Pendril, and it now remains in the Family. Over the Door of the Inclosure is this Inscription cut in Marble:

Felicissimam arborem, quam in asylum potentissimi regis Caroli II. Deus O. M. per quem reges regnant, hic crescere voluit, tam in perpetuam rei tantae memoriam, quam specimen firmae in reges fidei, muro cinctam posteris commendant Basilius & Jana Fitzherbert.
Quercus amica Jovi.

That is,

Basil and Jane Fitzherbert recommend to Poste­rity this most fortunate Tree, which the All­gacious and Almighty God, by whom Kings reign, ordained here to grow, to be the Asylum of the most potent Prince, King Charles II. and have begirt it with a Wall, as well in per­petual Remembrance of so great an Event, as a Testimony of their firm Allegiance to Kings.
— The Oak belov'd by Jove.

Ten Miles South-east of Shrewsbury stands Great Wenlock, an antient Borough and good Market-town. The noted Wreken-hill stands higher up, North of it, between the Watlingstreet and the Se­vern, and within a Mile of Wroxeter, the famous Roman Station. It ascends gradually from a pleasant level Ground, strikes out a pretty great Length, and is well adorn'd with Trees. 'Tis the highest [Page 348] Ground in all the County, and gives a fine Prospect all around it.

Following the Watling street North, we came to a small Market-town call'd Wellington, of very little Note; and still keeping the Street, we arrived at New­port on the Borders of Staffordshire, a little Mar­ket-town, where is one of the noblest Foundations for a School in the whole Kingdom, endowed by one Adams, an Haberdasher of London, to the Value of 7000l. The School is 70 Feet long, 22 wide, and the same in Height, a Library, a House for both the Master and Usher, 60l. a Year to the first, and 30l. to the other, and a Garden to each House of an Acre, and Two Acres for the Boys to play in. Near it he has likewise built an Alms-house, and gave 550l. towards building the Town-house. Over the School-door is this Distich:

Scripsisti haeredem patriam, tibi quae dedit ortum:
Scriberis ergo tuae, jure, pater patriae.

That is,

Thy Country is thy Heir: and therefore we
Justly esteem thy Country's Parent Thee.

Between this Town and Drayton, a small Market-town, higher up Northward, and likewise on the Borders of Staffordshire, is Bloreheath, famous for a Battle fought between the House of York and that of Lancaster, wherein Nevil Earl of Salisbury for the former, with 5000 Men only, beat Lord Audley with 10000 Men, after a most bloody Engagement.

Entering Staffordshire, we quitted the said Street­way, a little to the left, to see Stafford the County-town, and the most considerable, except Litchfield, in the County. In the Way we pass'd thro' a small, but antient Town, call'd Penkrige, vulgarly Pank­rage, probably the Penn [...]erucium of the Romans, [Page 349] where happen'd to be a Fair. We were surprised to see the prodigious Number of the finest and most beautiful Horses that can any-where be seen, brought hither from Yorkshire, the Bishoprick of Durham, and all the Horse-breeding Counties in England: we were told there were not less than an hundred Joc­keys or Horse-kopers, as they call them there, from London, to buy Horses for Sale. Also an incredible Number of Gentlemen attended with their Grooms, to buy Hunters and good Road Horses. In a Word, I believe I may mark it for the greatest Horse-Fair in the World, for Horses of Value, and especially those we call Saddle-Horses; tho' there were great Numbers of fine large Stone-Horses for Coach and Draught too.

From hence we came in Two Hours easy Riding to Stafford, on the River Sow. 'Tis an antient Town, and gives Name to the County; but we thought to have found in it something more worth go­ing so much out of the Way for. It is however neat and well-built, and pleasantly seated in low Grounds, and is lately much increased, and grown rich by the Clothing-trade. It is governed by a Mayor, and other inferior Officers, consists of Two Parishes, and has a good Free-school. 'Tis said this Town retains the antient Custom of Borough English, which is, that the youngest Sons inherit the Lands of their Fathers within the Town. Here is likewise a fine square Market-place, where stands the Shire-Hall, and the Streets are well paved.

We tarry'd here a few Days, in order to visit the Towns lying on each Side of it, with more At­tention and Convenience.

Eccleshall lies North-west of Stafford, and is a pretty Market-town noted for Pedlery-wares; and a little Market-town call'd Stone, lies upon the Trent.

[...] Line stands still further North, [...] Trent. 'Tis govern [...]d by a [Page 350] Mayor, Two Justices, Two Bailiffs, and Common-council, and holds Pleas under 40s. The Streets are large, broad, and pav'd; but the Houses are low, and generally thatch'd: the Clothing-trade flourishes here, and the Town is surrounded with Coal-pits. Here are the Ruins of an old Castle. The Coals here are cut out in Slices, and shine with all the va­rious Colours of a Peacock's Tail, and therefore are call'd Peacock-Coals.

Dr. Plot, as an Instance of the Growth of Stones, mentions, that near this Place was found a Stone, with a Man's Skull, Teeth and all, inclosed in it. And here is an excellent Device for the Taming of Shrews: they put a Bridle into the Scold's Mouth, which deprives her of the Power of Speech, by which she is led about the Town, and expos'd to publick Shame, till she promises Amendment.

Betley, a little Market-town, lies West of New­castle, upon the Borders of Cheshire.

Breewood is a pretty Market-town, lying South-west of Stafford. And due South stands

Wolverhampton, a very antient Town, situate on an Hill, which is well-built, pav'd, and inhabited. Here the Trade of Lock-making is carry'd on to great Perfection. In its Church are several old Mo­numents, and a Brass Statue of Sir Richard Leveson, who engag'd the Spaniards under Sir Francis Drake. The Pulpit is very old, and of Stone; and in the Church-yard is a very old Stone Cross. From the Hill, on which the Town is situated, run Four weak Springs of different Qualities, which is the only Water they have to supply this large and populous Town.

Walsal, East of Wolverhampton, is a good, pleasant Corporate-town, governed by a Mayor, and situate on the Top of an Hill. This Place is famous for Iron­mines and Iron-works; such as Spurs, Bridle-bits, Stirrups, Buckles, &c. in which there is a consider­able Trade carried on.

[Page 351]Upon the Extremity of the County, South, just on the Borders of Worcestershire, is situate upon a high Mountain, the famous antient Castle of Dudley, a Building of great Extent with Trenches about it, cut out of a Rock, and hath a high Tower upon it, on the South-side. It was built by Dodo a Saxon, in 700. Great Part of it is in Ruins, and the rest is converted into a noble Seat, where the Lord Dudley and Ward resides. The Castle over-tops all the Trees that surround it, and has a most extensive Prospect over Five Shires, and into part of Wales. In the Hall of this Castle is a Table all of one intire Plank, which, before it was fitted up there, was 25 Yards long, and 1 Yard in Breadth; but being too long for the Hall, 7 Yards and 9 Inches of it was cut off, and made a Table for the Hall of a neighbouring Gen­tleman. What a prodigious Oak must this have been, that had a Length of 25 Yards, and a Diameter of one Yard from one End to the other!

The Town of Dudley lies near it, but in Wor­cestershire; and is only remarkable for being in a dif­ferent County from the Castle.

The People in this County have been more par­ticularly famous than any other for good Footman­ship; and there have been, and still are among them, some of the fleetest Runners in England; which must be owing to their exercising themselves to it from their Childhood; for running Foot-races seems to be the general Sport or Diversion of the Country.

Near Stafford we saw Ingestre, where the late Walter Chetwynd, Esq built, or rather rebuilt, a very fine Church at his own Charge, and where the late Lord Chetwynd has, with a Profusion of Expence, laid out the finest Park and Gardens that are in this Part of England.

I am now at the utmost Extent of my proposed Limits for this Circuit; for Ingestre Parks reach to [Page 352] the very Banks of the Trent. So I turn'd to the Right, and intending for Litchfield, in the Way we saw Beaudesert, a famous old Seat, said to be built by Hugh Lupus, Earl of Chester. The Name indeed intimates it to be of Norman or French Original; at present it is in the noble Family of Paget, Earl of Uxbridge, who is styled Baron of Beaudesert. The Park is very fine, and its Situation exceeding pleasant, but the House is antient. In the Park is a famous Piece of Antiquity, viz. a large Camp or Fortifi­cation, surrounded with a double Trench, very large and deep.

From hence 'tis about four or five Miles to the City of Litchfield, the principal, next to Chester, of all the North-west Part of England; nor indeed is there any other, but this and Coventry, in the whole Road from London to Carlisle, which is on the Edge of Scotland.

At Rugely, which is an handsome well-built Town, finely situated near the Trent, we came into the great Lancashire and Cheshire Road, or the North-west Road from London, which passing through this City from Warrington-bridge in Cheshire, falls into the Watling-street, mention'd before, about Three Miles South-east from the Town, and crosses another an­tient Causeway or Road, call'd Icknild-street, about a Mile out of the City; so that Litchfield lies, as it were, at the joining of all those great Roads. But instead of going directly to Litchfield, we struck out of the Road, and went North-east to Bromley, a pretty Market-town; and from thence East to Tutbury on the Skirts of Derbyshire: It has a small Market-town with a Castle in it.

Some Miles Southward stands Burton upon Trent, where the Clothing-trade is carried on with great Advantage. It is famous for its noble Bridge over the Trent, consisting of 34 Arches, and of the Length [Page 353] of 515 Yards. It is built of Free-stone cut and squared.

From hence we returned South-west to Litchfield, which is a fine, neat, well-built, and pretty large City. It rose from the Ruins of the Roman Eto­cetum a Mile off, now called Chesterfield-wall, from some Reliques of its Fortifications. There is a kind of slow, sluggish Water which runs, or rather glides heavily, thro' it, and so on for Four or Five Miles farther into the Trent, but takes a swifter Motion as soon as it is out of the Town. This Water parts the City into Two: one Part is call'd the Town, and the other the Close; in the first is the Market-place, a fine School, and a very handsome Hospital well endow'd. This Part is much the largest and most populous: but the other is the fairest, has the best Buildings in it, and, among the rest, the Cathedral Church, one of the finest and most beautiful in England.

There are Two fine Causeways, which join the City and the Close, with Sluices to let the Water pass; but those were cut thro' in the Time of the late intestine Wars in England; and the Close, which is wall'd about, and was then fortify'd for the King, was very strong, and stood out several Attacks against Cromwell's Men, and was not at last taken without great Loss of Blood on both Sides, being gallantly defended, and at last taken by Storm.

There are in the Close, besides the Houses of the Clergy Residentiaries, a great many very well-built, and well-inhabited Houses, which made Litchfield a Place of good Company, above all the Towns in this or the neighbouring Counties of Warwickshire or Derbyshire.

The See is very antient, and was once Archiepi­scopal, made so by King Offa; and Eadulph the Archbishop was Metropolitan of all the Kingdom of the Mercians, and East-Angles; but it did not hold [Page 354] it; then it suffer'd another Diminution, by having the See of Chester taken away, which was once Part of this.

They told us here a long Story of St. Chad, for­merly Bishop of this Church, and how he liv'd an Eremitical Life here, by the Spring near Stow Church, in a little Hovel or Cell. But the Bishops, since that Time, fare better, and make shift with a very fine Palace in the Close, and the Residentiaries live in Proportion to them.

They have another Legendary Story also at Litch­field; namely, that a thousand poor People, being instructed in the Christian Faith by the Care of Offa King of the Mercians, were all martyr'd here in one Field by the Pagans; and that in the Field where they were so murder'd, King Oswy of Northumber­land caused a great Church to be built; and from thence the City bears for its Device an open Field, with mangled Carcasses lying dispers'd about in it, as if murder'd, and left unburied.

The Church, for the Elegancy and Regularity of the Building, may be esteemed one of the most com­plete in England. The West-end is richly decorated with the Statues of all the Kings who reigned in Jerusalem, from David to the Captivity. But it is too flat, and wants Projection, or, as Architects call it, Relief, to give it Boldness. The Two Towers are much too low for their Breadth, and look very heavy for want of Windows, especially where the Bells hang. The circular Stair-cases projecting octa­gonally at one Angle only of each, without any of the other Three Angles answering, is a great Irre­gularity. But the Spires above them are carried up in an exceeding beautiful Taste, much beyond any other Gothick Spires that I have seen. The middle Tower and Spire of this Church are much higher than those at the West-end, and are equally beau­tiful.

[Page 355]The Spire designed for the Middle of Westmin­ster-Abbey, is an Imitation of the middle Spire of this Church.

The great Window over the middle Door is very large, and its Pediment finely adorn'd, a large Cross finishing the Top of it.

The Imagery and carv'd Work on the Front, as above, suffer'd much in the late unhappy Times; and they told us, the Cross over the West Window was frequently shot at by the rude Soldiers; but that they could not shoot it down.

The Saints of those Days also intirely ruin'd all the Ornaments of the Inside, with the Brass Inscrip­tions, Tombs, &c. It is built in the midst of a Bog for Security, and held out some fierce Attacks for King Charles I. and what the Outside suffer'd, has been very well repair'd since the Restoration, as well by the famous Bishop Hacket, as by the Bounty of several noble and generous Benefactors.

The Monasticon makes Mention of a Shrine given here for the Holy St. Chad, or St. Cedda, which cost 200,000l. but I conceive that to smell as much of the Legend, as the Miracles of St. Chad himself; since such a Gift at that Time must be equal to Two Millions of our Money.

Antient Camps are found in the Neighbourhood of Litchfield.

From Litchfield we came to Tamworth, a fine plea­sant trading Town, eminent for good Ale, and good Company, of the middling Sort; and also for a fine Charity of the famous Bookseller, Mr. Guy, who built and endow'd the noble Hospital in Southwark, called by his Name. The Town stands on the River Tame, which runs through it, and divides it into Two Parts, one Part whereof is in this County, and the other in Warwickshire. It is a Bailiwick Town, and a Place of good Account, tho' it has been much more considerable. Here was antiently a Palace of [Page 356] the Mercian Kings, and there is still remaining a square Trench, call'd the King's Dyke. This Town was given by the Conqueror to the Marmyons, who built the Castle here, and were hereditary Cham­pions of England, from whom that Office descended to the Dymokes of Lincolnshire.

From Tamworth we came to Sutton-Colefield, a little Town situated in an excellent Air, and among pleasant Woods, tho' but in a barren Soil; and then we came into the great Road again at Coleshill in War­wickshire, a small, but very handsome Market-town; from whence we came to Coventry, the Sister City to Litchfield, and join'd in the Title of See, which was for some little Time seated here, but afterwards return'd to Litchfield.

Coventry is a City of large Extent and populous, and drives a very great Trade: the Manufacture of Tammies is their chief Imploy, and next to that, weaving of Ribbons of the meanest kind, chiefly black. The Buildings are very old, and in some Places very much decayed; the Timber-built Houses project forwards into the Street towards one another, insomuch that in the narrow Streets they almost touch at the Top; a Method of Building formerly much practised in London.

The Tale of the Lady Godiva, who rode naked thro' the High-Street of this City, to purchase its Exemption from oppressive Taxes, is held for so cer­tain a Truth, that they will not have it question'd upon any Account whatsoever; and in Memory of it, the Inhabitants make a Procession yearly with a naked Figure of a Woman riding on Horse-back thro' the City; and the Picture of the poor Fellow who peep'd out of the Window to see her, is still kept up, looking out of a Garret in the High-Street of the City: but Mr. Camden says positively, nobody look'd at her at all. Two Parliaments have been held in this City, both remarkably denominated; one [Page 357] in the 6th of King Henry IV. called Parliamentum Indoctorum; the other in the 38th of King Henry VI. called Parliamentum Diabolicum, because of the At­tainder pass'd in it against the House of York and its Partisans.

At the Restoration of King Charles II. the Walls and Towers of the City were demolish'd, by that Prince's Command, and only the Gates of it left standing; by which the Beauty and Strength of the rest may be guess'd at.

This City is a County incorporate of itself, and has a great many Towns within its Liberties, holds Pleas, and is govern'd by a Mayor, 10 Aldermen, and Sub-officers; but it had only Two Parish Churches, that of the Holy Trinity, and the Church of St. Michael, which were unable to hold half the Inhabitants, till the Year 1734, when an Act passed for making the Church of Bablack in Coventry a Parish Church, and for appointing a District or Parish thereto, and for enabling the Master and Usher of the Free Grammar-school within the said City, to be the Rector and Lecturer of the said Parish Church, for all time to come. This is called in the Act the Parish Church of St. John the Baptist in the City of Coventry. Besides these Three Churches and Parishes, it has Four Steeples; and the Cross is notedly one of its greatest Ornaments. The Roads are kept well pav'd to it for a Mile round. Here is a good Free-school, founded by John Hales, Esq by the Name of the School of King Henry VIII. the Master of which is to be, for the future, the Minister of the new Parish Church, as I have mentioned. It has a good Library; and there is also an Hospital for the Poor. But here is no Cathedral, as some have falsly said; neither is the great Church, so called, either Collegiate or Conventual; but only a Monastery or Priory.

[Page 358]Yet this City contended a great while for thi [...] Honour, but could not carry it. In King Henry VIII.'s Time, the Priory being dissolv'd, the Church, which they would have call'd a Cathedral, was re­duc'd to a private Parish Church, and continues so to this Day: 'tis also an Archdeaconry, and the Bishop is styled Bishop of Litchfield and Coventry.

The Spire of the great Church is however very beautiful, and 100 Yards high. There is another good Church in the same Yard; the Cross, a fine Gothick Work, 66 Feet high; and in Niches are the Statues of several of the English Kings. At the South-end of the Town stands a tall Spire by itself, being what is left of the Grey Friers Conventual Church. The Town-house is worth seeing; the Windows of it are painted Glass, representing some of the old Kings, Earls, &c. who have been Benefactors to the Town.

And a Copy of Latin Verses are there to be read, in Praise of their Royal Benefactors, in which are named the Edwards, the Henries, the Black Prince, Queen Elizabeth, the Duke of Northumberland, and the great Earl of Leicester.

From Coventry we could by no means pass the Town of Warwick, the Distance too being but about Six Miles, and a very pleasant Way on the Banks of the River Avon: 'Tis famous for being the Residence of the great Guy, Earl of Warwick, of whom Tra­dition has deliver'd down to us so many hyperbolical Accounts, that it is hardly possible to distinguish his real Actions from what are fabulous. He flourished in the Reign of Athelstane, and decided the Fate of the Kingdom by Compact, in single Combat with Colbrond the Dane, a Man of gigantick Stature, whom he slew, and afterwards led a Hermit's Life, till his Death. They shew us here his Castle, his Helmet, his Sword, and tell abundance of things of [Page 359] him, which have some Appearance of History, tho' not much Authority to support them. So I leave that Part to the curious Searchers into Antiquity, who may consult Mr. Camden, Rous, Dugdale, and other Antiquaries on that Subject, who tell us the Castle was built before our Saviour's Time, and has been a Place of great Consideration ever since.

As to Warwick, it is really a fine Town, pleasantly situated on the Bank of the Avon, over which is a large and stately Bridge, the Avon being now grown a pretty large River. Warwick has suffer'd much from all Quarters. It was once destroy'd by the Picts and Scots; after which the famous Caractacus (who at the Head of the Silures oppos'd the Romans so long) rebuilt it, erecting there also a Palace for himself. Then the Romans under Ostorius, and after them the Saxons, greatly damaged it; and lastly, the ravaging Danes ruined it.

Tho' it was a Corporation by Prescription, yet it took a Charter from Philip and Mary, and since from James I. and is now governed by a Bailiff, and 12 Burgesses. It has a handsome Stone-built Market-house upheld by Pillars; and here is a good Free-school, and a well-endow'd Hospital for decayed Gentlemen. Tho' it has been always accounted a handsome well-built Town, yet the Face of it is now quite alter'd and improv'd; for having been almost wholly reduc'd to a Heap of Rubbish, by a terrible Fire, which hap­pen'd the Fifth Day of September 1694, by the mere Accident of a Spark being blown from a Stick, as it was carried cross a Lane, to the Damage of 96,000l. it was rebuilt by Act of Parliament, and that in so noble and beautiful a manner, that few Towns in England make so fine an Appearance.

The Church and lofty Tower is new-built, except the East-end, which is old, and very good Work. There are many fine Brass Monuments of the Earls of Warwick, and others; also one of the Earl of [Page 360] Essex, Queen Elizabeth's unhappy Favourite; and many Chapels and Confessionaries. In the Chapter-house on the North-side is a Tomb of the Lord Brook. The Castle stands upon the River Avon on a solid Rock, from whose Bowels that and the whole Town may be said to have been dug. The Terrace of the Castle, like that of Windsor, overlooks a beautiful Country, and sees the Avon running at the Foot of the Precipice, from above 50 Feet per­pendicular Height; for the solid Rock, from the Ri­ver on which it stands, it 40 Feet high, but on the North-side it is even with the Town. The Build­ing is old, but has been often repair'd and beautify'd; and 'tis now a very agreeable Structure both within and without. The Apartments are very nicely con­trived, and the Communication of the remotest Parts of the Building, one with another, is so well pre­serv'd by Galleries, and by the great Hall, which is very magnificent, that one finds no Irregularity in the whole Building, notwithstanding its antient Plan, as it was a Castle, built for Strength rather than a Palace to dwell in for Pleasure.

A Stone Bridge with a Dozen Arches is at the Castle; across is a Stone-work Dam, where the Water falls over it as a Cascade under the Castle Wall. It is fenc'd with a deep Mound, and strong embattled double Walls and lofty Towers. On one Side the Area is a very high Mount. There are good Apartments and Lodgings next the River, the Residence of the Lord Brook. The Priory, on the North-east of the Town overlooks a pleasant woody Vale. There are a great many curious original Pictures in the Castle, by Vandyke and other good Hands, of Kings, Queens, and other noble Person­ages, both English and Foreign.

A Mile out of Town, on the Side of a Hill, is a pretty retired Cell, called Guy-cliff. In an old Chapel is Guy's Statue, Eight Feet high. The [Page 361] Fence of the Court is intire Rock, in which are cut Stables and Out-houses. They shew'd us the rough Cave, where they say the famous Guy dy'd an Hermit.

While I was station'd, as I may say, at Warwick, I took a Turn about the Country, to view such Places of Note, as lay something out of my intended Rout. And first, passing a Rivulet, I came to the antient Tripontium, plac'd in a pleasant little Valley, the Sides of which are pretty steep. The Road on the opposite Hill looks perfectly like a Perspective-scene at the Theatre. This is a Roman Station, rightly plac'd at Dovebridge upon the Avon, running by Rugby to Warwick. The Stream here divides into two, with a Bridge over each. Upon one is a short Inscription in Stone, shewing the three Counties which repair it.

Near this Place, at Legers-Ashby in Northampton­shire, has been an old Town, as they say, destroy'd by the Danes. Catesby, who hatch'd the Powder-plot, own'd the Town.

We went on to Daventry, a considerable Market-town, govern'd by a Mayor, Aldermen, Steward, and 12 Freemen. It lies on the great Road to Chester, and is consequently a great Thorough-fare, and well furnish'd with good Inns; for it subsists chiefly by the great Concourse of Travellers that pass that way. It lies also on the old Watling-street Way. The Road was turn'd to pass through the Town, and runs on to Dunsmore-heath, where it crosses the Fosse, and one Branch goes on to Coventry, and the other joins the Fosse, and goes on to a Place call'd High-cross, of which further anon, where it falls into the old Wat­ling-street, and both meet again near Litchfield.

It is a most pleasant Curiosity to observe the Course of these old famous Highways, the Ikenild Way, the Watling-street, and the Fosse; in which one sees so lively a Representatation of the antient British, [Page 362] Roman and Saxon Governments, that one cannot help recalling those Times to the Imagination; and though I am confin'd to such narrow Limits in this Work, yet a Circuit or Tour thro' England would be very imperfect, if I should take no Notice of these Ways, seeing in tracing them we necessarily come to the principal Towns, either that are or have been in every County; and likewise in mentioning their Remains, we give some Account of them as in their present State, which falls directly in with my Design.

From Daventry we went a little out of the Road, to see a great Camp, call'd Burrow-hill, upon the North End of an Eminence, cover'd over with Fern and and Goss. Here used to be kept a Horse-race. They say this was a Danish Camp, and every thing hereabouts is attributed to the Danes, because of the neighbour­ing Daventry, which they suppose to be built by them. The Road hereabouts too being overgrown with Daneweed, they fansy it sprung from the Blood of the Danes, slain in Battle; and that if upon a certain Day in the Year you cut it, it bleeds. Origi­nally, it seems to have been Roman, but perhaps new-modell'd by the Danes.

In Norton Town Road a Cornu Ammonis lies neglected, too big to bring away.

At Weedon is shewn the Scite of King Wolfhere's Palace; the Saxon Kings of this Province residing here. The Pastures call'd, The Ashes are the Roman Camp. St. Werberg, Daughter of King Wolfhere, and Abbess to the Nunnery in this Place, had here a Chapel. Abundance of very fine Stone, and many Roman Coins, have been dug up. Weedon now contains two Parishes, and has been a Market-town.

Towcester is a considerable Town between two Ri­vulets, which encompass it almost round.

Old Stretford stands on the opposite Side of the Owse to Stony-Stratford; in the Fields thereabouts are found many Roman Coins.

[Page 363]A little North of the Horseshoe-inn stood Queen Eleanor's Cross, which was pull'd down in the Civil Wars.

To the West of Stretford stands Whaddon-hall, upon very high Ground, affording a most beautiful Prospect. This Manor formerly belong'd to the Lords Grey; one of whom, a Knight of the Garter, is buried in the Church. Here is the original Picture of Dr. Willis, the Progenitor of the present Possessor, with many of his MSS. Letters, Consultations, Lectures, and other Works unpublish'd. The Poets Spencer and the Duke of Bucks honour'd this Place with their Residence. Still higher stands Stukely: The Church is very intire, tho' built before the Conquest, in the plain antient manner.

I now come to Northampton, the handsomest Town in all this Part of England; but here, as at Warwick, the Beauty of it is owing to its Disaster; for it was so effectually burnt down, that very few Houses were left standing; and, altho' the Fire began in the Day-time, the Flame spread itself with such Fury, and Speed, that they tell us, a Towns­man being two Miles off, upon a Hill, on the South-side of the Town, saw the Fire at one End of it, just as it began; and before he could reach the Town, with all the Speed he could, the other End was in Flames also. 'Tis now finely rebuilt with Brick and Stone, and the Streets made spacious and wide. It has four Churches, two Hospitals, and a Charity-school well endow'd. The Market-place is square and spacious; the Assize-house is built after the Corinthian Order. Allhallows Church is a pretty Edifice, with a Cupola, and a noble Portico, before it, of 8 lofty Ionick Columns. Upon the Ba­lustrade is a Statue of King Charles II. It is situ­ate on the River Nyne, over which there are two handsome Bridges, and is walled in; and on the West side are the Remains of an old Castle, upon an Emi­nence. [Page 364] 'Tis govern'd by a Mayor, two Bailiffs, a Recorder, &c. All-Saints Church before-mention'd stands in a Centre, where four large spacious Streets terminate. The publick Buildings are esteem'd the finest that can be seen in any County-town in Eng­land, being all new-built. But that Writer took very little Notice of Northampton, or rather had never seen it, who told us of a Cathedral, a Chapter-house, and a Cloyster.

The great Inn called the George, at the Corner of the High-Street, looks more like a Palace than an Inn, and cost above 2000l. building; and so generous was the Owner, that, as we were told, when he had built it, he gave it to the Poor of the Town.

This is counted the Centre of all the Horse-Mar­kets, and Horse-Fairs in England, there being here no less than four Fairs in a Year. And indeed North­ampton is reckoned the Navel of England. Here they buy Horses of all Sorts, as well for the Saddle as for the Coach and Cart; and hither [...]ll the Jockeys from London resort to purchase Horses.

Near Northampton is the antient Royal House of Holmeby, which was formerly in great Esteem, and by its Situation is capable of being made a truly Royal Palace. But the melancholy Reflection of the Imprisonment of King Charles I. in this House, and his being violently taken hence again by the Rebels, has cast a kind of Disgrace upon the Place, so that it has been forsaken. The House and Estate was purchas'd by the Duchess of Marlborough, and be­came Part of the Jointure which was settled on the Marchioness of Blandford. It is at present possessed by a Farmer, who has pull'd down Part of the Out-houses, and converted the remaining Part into Barns, Stables, &c.

A little way off of Northampton is Naseby, where the bloody and fatal Battle was fought between the [Page 365] Royalists and Parliamentarians, upon a fine Plain, where at present stands a Wind-mill; and on it, are the Marks of several great Holes, where the Slain were buried; and near this is Guildsborough, so nam'd from a Roman Camp, of a square Form, and deep Ditch, called The Burrows.

The Town of Towcester is of large Extent, and very populous; and having but one Parish Church, which is two Miles distant from the Hamlet of Al­thorpe and Foxcoate, in which there was a Chapel of [...]ase, but officiated in only once a Month, by the Vicar of Towcester, though 'tis computed there are 400 Souls in the said Hamlet, who in the Winter-time cannot attend Divine Service at Towcester; and several Benefactions having been given, in case the said Hamlet should be erected into a Parish: For all these Reasons, an Act passed, Sess. 1737. for making the Chapel in the Hamlet of Althorpe and Foxc [...]te a Parish Church, and for appointing a Di­strict or Parish thereto; and, according to the Con­dition of one of the Benefactions, enabling the Master of the Free Grammar-school, within the said Hamlet, to be Vicar of the new Parish Church.

The Seat of the Earl of Pomfret, near Towcester, is a stately Building, and stands pleasantly amidst good Plantations of Wood, Vista's, and fine Prospects. In the grand View to the back Front, beyond the Garden, is a large and long Canal. Several curious Pictures are in the House. But what inhances the Glory of this Seat is, the vast Number of Greek and Roman Marbles, Statues, Busto's, Bas-reliefs, Urns, Altars, &c. Part of the invaluable Collection of the great Earl of Arundel, and which are worthy of a Journey through half the Globe to behold. The Hall is a fine lofty Room, and the great Stairs are painted in Fresco by Sir James Thornhill.

Towcester is a pretty Town of Roman Antiquity; through which, in a strait Line, runs the Watling-street. [Page 366] The Inhabitants of all Ages are here imploy'd in a silken Manufacture, and Lace-making. The Town consists of one long Street, and is almost intirely incompass'd with Water.

The House late the Earl of Sunderland's, at Al­thorpe, now belonging to the Hon. John Spencer, Esq Brother to his Grace the present Duke of Marl­borough, who is Earl of Sunderland, has within these few Years changed its Face to much Advantage. This antient Seat was rebuilt with great Improvement, by Robert Earl of Sunderland, Grandfather to the pre­sent Duke of Marlborough; and is particularly noted for a magnificent Gallery, furnish'd with a large Collection of curious Paintings, by the best Hands.

The Park is laid out and planted, after the Man­ner of that at Greenwich, and was design'd by Le Notre, the same Person who planted St. James's Park, and Cassioberry; as also several other Parks and Gardens in England.

There is a noble Piece of Water here, on which is lately built a fine Vessel, completely equipp'd; as his Grace the Duke of Bedford has also at his Seat at Woburn-Abbey. There is likewise on this Water a fine Venetian Gondola, Canoes, &c. But this Water is situated too near the House, and occasions so great a Damp, that some of the Pictures in the Gallery are mildew'd thereby.

At a convenient Distance from the House, is lately built a handsome Square of Offices, and near these is a large Kitchen-Garden finely walled and planted, in which is a handsome Building, for the Residence of the Gardener, which is a Model of an Italian Villa.

From hence we went North towards Harborough, and in the Way, in the Midst of deep dismal Roads, the dirtiest and worst in all that Part of the Country, we saw Boughton, the noble Seat of the Duke of Montagu, a House built by the first Duke, very [Page 367] much after the Model of the Palace of Versailles; the treble Wings projecting and expanded, forming a Court or Space wider and wider, in proper Stades, answerable to the Wings, the Body of the House closing the whole View.

The Hall is a very noble Room; on the Ceiling is a Convocation of the Gods, admirably painted, as are many Suites of Rooms, Stair-cases, Galleries, &c. beside the great Number of Portraits and other curious Pictures. The Gardens contain 90 Acres, adorn'd with Statues, Flower-pots, Urns of Marble and Metal, many very large Basons, with Variety of Fountains playing, Aviaries, Reservoirs, Fish-ponds, Canals, Wildernesses, Terraces, &c. The Cascade is very fine, and a whole River running thro' the Length of the Gardens, is diversify'd most agreeably to com­plete its Beauty.

The Park is walled round with Brick, and so finely planted with Trees, and in such an excellent Order, that I saw nothing more beautiful, no not in Italy it­self, except that the Walks of Trees were not Orange and Lemon, and Citron, as it is in Naples, and the Abruzzo, and other Southern Parts of Italy.

A Mile off is Geddington, where, in a Trivium, stands one of the Stone Crosses, built by King Ed­ward I. in Memory of his Queen Eleanor. These are said to be the Places where the Corps of that Princess rested, and Crosses erected, viz. Lincoln, Newark, Leicester, Geddington, Northampton, Stony-Strat­ford, Dunstable, St. Albans, Waltham, Cheapside, Charing-cross.

On Willoughby Side of the Road is an Hillock, call'd Cross-hill, where the Country-people observe an anniversary Festival. Willoughby Brook plays in delightful Meanders along a Valley between Corn­fields, with a moderate Water, unless raised by Rains. Here several brass and silver Coins have been found, and some of Gold. The People have a Notion of [Page 368] great Riches being hid under-ground; and there is a vulgar Report, that under one Balk or Mere, that is, Division, between the ploughed Fields, there is as much Money, as would purchase the whole Lord­ship; but they dare not dig, they pretend, for fear of Spirits. Mosaic Pavements, Coins, Pot-hooks, Fire-shovels, &c. have been also found.

In Willoughby Town is an handsome Cross of one Stone, five Yards long. The Parliament Soldiers had ty'd Ropes about it to pull it down; but the Vicar quench'd their Zeal with some strong Beer, after having harangued them concerning its Innocence.

At Cossington, near the River Wrek, is a vast Bar­row, 350 Feet long, 120 broad, 40 high, or near it, very handsomely work'd up on the Sides, and very steep. It is call'd Shipley-hill, from a great Captain of that Name, who, they say, was here buried. On the Top are several oblong doubled Trenches cut in the Turf, where the Lads and Lasses of the adjacent Villages meet on Easter-monday to recreate them­selves with Cakes and Ale.

At Erdborough is a strong Roman Camp, 800 Feet long, of a delightful Prospect. Near it is a petrify­ing Spring.

But I must not omit, as I had like to have done, the Town of Wellingborough in the County of North­ampton.

It was a large, well-built, and well-inhabited Town, with a fine Church, and Free-school. A dreadful Fire which happen'd here in July 1738, has made the Town still more beautiful, tho' the Occasion was too melancholy to be wish'd for. It began at a Dyer's House in the Town, about two in the After­noon, and in the Space of Six Hours consumed near 220 Houses, besides Out-houses, Barns, Stables, &c. amounting in the Whole to upwards of 800, mostly in the South and East Parts of the Town. The Wind being high, and but little Water to be had, [Page 369] the Fire was so fierce and violent, that it seem'd to break out at twenty Places at once, and the Inha­bitants were in such Confusion, that but few of them had Time to save any Goods, and many only the Cloaths on their Backs. As it happen'd chiefly among the Trading Men and Farmers, the Loss upon them was very heavy. But it was a good deal alle­viated by the signal Charity of the neighbouring Gentlemen and others, which saved many of the poor Sufferers from perishing for Want.

In the Month of March, following this dreadful Fire, another happen'd at Findon, two Miles from Wellingborough, which consumed 16 Houses.

From Boughton we went on to Harborough, a good Market-town, and great Thorough-fare, in­tending to go forward to Leicester; but Curiosity turn'd us West a little, to see an old Town call'd Lutterworth, famous for being the Birth-place of John Wickliff, the first Preacher of the Reformation in England, whose Disciples were afterwards called Lollards.

The Church was lately beautify'd, and pav'd with a costly Pavement of chequer'd Stone; and the Pews are new, and every thing in it both in Church and Chancel, except the Pulpit, of thick Oak-Planks, six-square, which is preserv'd on account of its being Wickliff's Pulpit.

Being thus got a little out of our Way, we turn'd West into the Watling-street Way, at High-cross, where the Foss crosses it, and which, I suppose, occasion'd the Name, leaving Rugby in Warwickshire, a small Town, noted only for a great Number of Butchers, on the South-west of us. At this Cross we seem'd to be in the Centre, and highest Ground of England; for from hence Rivers run every way. The Fosse went across the Back-side of our Inn, and so towards Bath. Here are divers Roman Antiqui­ties: [Page 370] its antient Appellation was Benonis. The late Earl of Denbigh, and the Gentlemen in the Neigh­bourhood, erected here a Cross of an handsome Design, but of mouldering Stone, thro' the Deceit of the Architect. It consists of four Dorick Columns, re­garding the four Roads, with a gilded Globe and Cross at-top, upon a Sun-dial. On two Sides, be­tween the four Tuscan Pillars, which compose a sort of Pedestal, are these Inscriptions: Vicinarum provinciarum, Vervicensis scilicet & Lei­cestrensis, ornamenta, proceres patriciique, auspiciis illustrissimi Basilii comitis de Denbigh, hanc columnam statuendam curaverunt, in gratam pa­riter & perpetuam memoriam Jani tandem a serenissima Anna clausi, A. D. M.DCC.XII.’ Thus translated: ‘The Noblemen and Gentry, Ornaments of the neighbouring Counties of Warwick and Leicester, at the Instances of the Right Honourable Basil Earl of Denbigh, have caused this Pillar to be erected, in grateful as well as perpetual Remembrance of Peace at length restored by her Majesty Queen Anne, in the Year of our Lord M.DCC.XII.’

The Inscription on the other Side runs thus: Si veterum Romanorum vestigia quaeras, hic cernas, viator. Hic enim celeberrimae illorum viae mili­tares sese mutuo secantes ad extremos usque Bri­tanniae limites pr [...]currunt: hic stativa sua habue­runt Vennones; & ad primum abhinc lapidem castra sua ad Stratam, & ad Fossam tumulum, Claudius quidam cohortis praefectus habuisse vi­detur. Which may be thus rendered: ‘If, Traveller, you search for the Foot-steps of the antient Romans, here you may behold them. For [Page 371] here their most celebrated military Ways, crossing one another, extend to the utmost Boundaries of Britain: Here the Vennones kept their Quarters; and at the Distance of one Mile from hence, Claudius, a certain Commander of a Cohort, seems to have had a Camp towards the * Street, and to­wards the Fosse a Tomb.’

The Watling-street, measuring from Chester thro' London and Dover, makes a strait Line with Rome. Which seems to have been so contriv'd by the great Founders, that in travelling upon it they might have the Satisfaction of reflecting, that they were going upon the Line which led to the Capital of the Empire.

To proceed, we kept the Street-way till we came into the Leicester Road, which we followed East to Hinkley, a Market-town, situate on a Hill very pleasantly. This Town is noted for a large hand­some Church, and a high Spire-Steeple all of Stone, in which is a Chime of excellent Bells.

From hence we turn'd North-west, and came to Nun-Eaton, an ordinary manufacturing Town, on the River Anker, and then Northward to Atherston; and so made a kind of serpentizing Tour of it along the Borders of the two Counties of Warwick and Leicester, sometimes in one and sometimes in the other.

Atherston is a Market-town famous for a great Cheese-Fair, on the 8th of September, from whence the Cheese-Factors carry the vast Quantities of Cheese they buy to Sturbridge Fair, which begins about the same Time, but holds much longer; and here 'tis sold again for the Supply of the Counties of Essex, Suffolk, and Norfolk.

[Page 372]A little North-west of Atherston stands Polesworth, formerly a Market-town; but since the Dissolution of a famous Nunnery, which was there, the Market was discontinued.

From Atherston we turn'd East again, into Leicester­shire, to see Bosworth-field, famous for the great Battle which put an End to the Reign of Richard III. and to the long and bloody Contention between the Red Rose and the White, or the two Royal Houses of York and Lancaster; which, as Fame tells us, had cost the Lives of 11 Princes, 23 Earls and Dukes, 3000 Noblemen, Knights, and Gentlemen, and 200,000 of the common People. We view'd the Spot of Ground where the Battle was fought; and at the Town they shew'd us several Pieces of Swords, Heads of Lances, Barbs of Arrows, Pieces of Pole-Axes, and such-like Instruments of Death, which they said were found by the Country People in the several Grounds near the Place of Battle, as they had occasion to dig, or trench, or plough up the Ground.

Within three Miles of this Place is an antient Market-town, of the same Name, lying on a Hill, in a very healthy and pleasant Air. The Soil all round it is fruitful, both for Tillage and Pasture.

Hence I pass'd directly North to Ashby de la Zouch, on the Skirts of Derbyshire, a very pleasant Town, lying between two Parks. It consists but of one Street, in which stands a pretty Stone Cross; the Church is large and handsome, and 'tis famous for four good Horse-Fairs in the Year.

We then pass'd South-east into Leicestershire. The Earl of Stamford has a good old Hunting-seat on this Side of the Country, call'd Bradgate, and a fine Park at Grooby; but they were too much out of our Way: so we came on thro' a fine Forest to Leicester.

Leicester is an antient large and populous Town, containing five Parishes; 'tis the Capital of the County [Page 373] of that Name, and stands on the River Soar, which rises not far from High-cross, just mention'd: It is a Borough and Corporation Town, whereof the chief Magistrate is a Mayor, who is assisted by a Recorder, Aldermen, and Common-council. Here are three Markets weekly, well supply'd with Provisions. A considerable Manufacture is carry'd on here, and in several of the Market-towns around, for weaving of Stockens by Frames; and one would scarce think it possible so small an Article of Trade could imploy such Multitudes of People as it does; for the whole County seems to be busy'd in it: as also Notting­ham and Derby, of which hereafter.

The County of Leicester is in part also taken up in Country Business, more particularly in breeding and feeding Cattle. Most of the Gentlemen are Grasiers, and in some Places the Grasiers are so rich, that they grow Gentlemen; 'tis not an uncommon thing for Grasiers here to rent Farms from 500l. to 2000l. a Year.

The Sheep bred in this County and Lincolnshire, which joins to it, are, without Comparison, the lar­gest, and bear not only the greatest Weight of Flesh on their Bones, but also the greatest Fleeces of Wool on their Backs, of any Sheep in England: and hence it is, that these Counties becomes vast Magazines of Wool for the rest of the Nation. Nor is the Wool less fine because of the great Quantity; but as 'tis the longest Staple, as the Clothiers call it, so it is the finest Wool in the whole Island, some few Places excepted; such as Leominster in Herefordshire, the South Downs in Sussex, and such little Places, where the Quantity is small and insignificant, compar'd to this Part of the Country; for the Sheep-breeding Country reaches from the River Anker, on the Bor­der of Warwickshire, to the Humber, at the farthest End of Lincolnshire, which is near 100 Miles in Length; and from the Bank of Trent, in Lincolnshire [Page 374] and Leicestershire, to the Bank of Ouse, bordering on Bucks, Bedford, Cambridge, and Huntingdon Shires, above 60 Miles in Breadth.

These are the Funds of Sheep which furnish the City of London with their large Mutton, in such pro­digious Quantities. There are indeed a few Sheep of a large Breed, which are brought up from Rom­ney Marsh, and the adjoining low Grounds in Kent and Sussex; but they are few, and indeed scarce worth naming, compar'd to what are produc'd in these Counties.

The Horses bred, or rather fed here, are the largest in England, being generally the great black Coach and Dray-horses; of which so great a Number are continually sent up to London, that one would think so little a Spot as this of Leicestershire, could not possibly produce so many. But the adjoining Counties of Northampton and Bedford have of late come into the same Business. The chief Supply, however, is from this County, from whence the other Counties rather buy them, and feed them up as Jockeys and Chapmen, than breed them up from their Beginning.

In the South-west Part of the Country rise four considerable Second-rate Rivers, which run every one a directly contrary Course in a most remarkable Manner.

1. The Avon, which runs by Rugby, and goes away to Warwick South-west.

Of this River the Poet elegantly sings:

Yet rolling Avon still maintains its Stream,
Swell'd with the Glories of the Roman Name.
Strange Pow'r of Fate! Unshaken Moles must waste,
While Things that ever move, for ever last.

2. The Soar, which runs by Leicester, and goes away to the Trent, North-west.

[Page 375]3. The Anker, which runs by Nun-Eaton, and goes away to Atherston, North; and so on to Tam­worth, West.

4. The Welland, which runs by Harborough, and goes away to Stamford, North-east.

I ought not to omit observing, that as the Town of Leicester was formerly very strong and well fortify'd, being advantageously situated for that Pur­pose, the River covering it half way about, so it was again fortify'd in the late unhappy Wars, and being garison'd by the Parliament Forces, was assaulted by the Royalists, who, after an obstinate Defence, took it Sword in Hand, which occasion'd a terrible Slaugh­ter. They preserve here a most remarkable Piece of Antiquity, being a Piece of Mosaick Work at the Bottom of a Cellar; 'tis the Story of Acteon, and his being kill'd by his own Hounds, wrought as a Pave­ment, in a most exquisite Manner; the Stones are only of two Colours, White, and Brown, and very small.

The Castle here, before it was dismantled, was a prodigious Building. It was the Court of the great Henry Duke of Lancaster, who added to it 26 Acres of Ground; which he inclos'd with a very strong Wall of square Stone, 18 Feet high, and called it his Novum opus, vulgarly now the Newark, where the best Houses in or near Leicester are, and do still continue extra-parochial. The Hall and Kitchen of this Place remain still intire, as Testimonies of the Grandeur of the Whole; the former being so lofty and spacious, that the Courts of Justice, which in Assize-time are held there, are at such a Distance, as to give no Disturbance to one another. There are several Gate-ways to enter this Palace; and that which faces the East, has an Arch that is deemed a curious Piece of Architecture; over which in the Tower is kept the Magazine for the Militia of the County.

[Page 376]Beneath this Castle was a very fair Collegiate Ho­spital, in the Church whereof, Henry Earl of Lan­caster, and Henry his Son the first Duke of it, were bury'd; the Hospital was built by the Duke in his old Age, and appropriated for the Maintenance of 100 poor People, in which also he placed a Dean and twelve Canons, Prebendaries, with as many Vicars and other Ministers, and ten able Women to serve and assist the Poor and Weak. This, with Divine Service therein, doth in some measure still subsist by certain Stipends paid out of the Duchy of Lancaster. Another Hospital built by Sir William Wigston, in the Reign of King Henry VIII. is in a very flourish­ing Condition there.

Leicester is the Ratae Coritanorum of the Romans. The Trace of the Roman Wall is discoverable with­out Difficulty, especially in the Gardens about Senvy­gate, with a Ditch, which is very visible. This was repair'd by Edelfleda, a noble Saxon Lady, in the Year 914. The old Work call'd Jewry-wall is composed of Rag-stone, and Roman Brick.

Not far off is a Place call'd Holy-bones, where abundance of Bones of Oxen have been dug up, which were the Remains of the Roman Sacrifices.

At Leicester many Roman Coins are found; a Pot full of them was dug up at the Entrance into White­friers. There are also many great Foundations. At St. Mary de Pree's Abbey a Body was dug up, sup­posed to be Cardinal Wolsey's.

Since its Dissolution it has been made a Dwelling-house, which has nothing left but the naked Walls, and the Spot of the Abbey is turned into a Garden. The only thing worth seeing in it, is a pleasant Ter­race-walk, supported by an embattled Wall, with Lunets hanging over the River, and shaded with Trees.

In the Time of the Saxons, St. Margaret's Church was an episcopal See, and was very fine. Here, say some, King Richard III. was buried.

[Page 377]Half a Mile Southward from Leicester, upon the Edge of the Meadows, is a long Ditch, call'd Raw­dikes; on the Banks of which, according to Tradi­tion, King Charles I. stood to behold the Storm of the Town. That Prince lay at the Vicarage-house at Elston.

South-east of Leicester lies Billesden, a Market-town of no Note: and further South still, is Hallaton, another Town noted for its Poverty, in the midst of a rich Soil.

The Fosse-way leads from hence through the North-west Part of this County; but entering Nottingham­shire, it inclines North-east, through the Vale of Belvoir, or, as it is commonly call'd, of Bever, to Newark. In all this long Tract, we pass through a rich and fertile Country, having in our Coast North-eastward the noble River Trent, for twenty Miles to­gether, often in our View.

But some Miles North of Leicester the River Wrek, which comes from the North-east, and the Stour, which runs North-west, form a kind of Y; the Stour from Leicester Southward making the Tail. In the Course last-mentioned we passed through Montsorrel and Loughborough, both Market-towns, lying on the Fosse, which runs nearly parallel with the Stour, and makes one Side of the Y. The first is situate under a great Eminence, and has a good Stone Bridge over the Stour; and the other is seated among rich Meadow-ground, and is a fine agreeable Town. And on the Wrek, which makes the other Side of the Y, stand Melton Mowbray, a large well-built consider­able Market-town, situate in a fertile Soil, almost sur­rounded with a little River, call'd the Eye, over which it has two fine Bridges; and also Waltham on the Would, (i. e. on the Downs) which is but a mean Market-town.

Belvoir-castle, standing within Lincolnshire, but on the Edge of Leicestershire, is a truly noble Situa­tion, [Page 378] tho' on a very high Precipice; 'tis the antient Seat of the Dukes of Rutland, a Family risen by just Degrees to an immense Height both of Honour and Wealth. I shall mention the House again in my Return out of Lincolnshire.

Bingham in Nottinghamshire lying in our Way to Newark, we pass'd through it. It is but a small Market-town, but is noted for a Parsonage of great Value.

At Newark one can hardly see, without Regret, the Ruins of that famous Castle, which through all the civil War in England, kept a strong Garison for the King to the last, and so cut off the greatest Pass into the North that is in the whole Kingdom; nor was it ever taken, 'till the King, press'd by the Calamity of his Affairs, put himself into the Hands of the Scots Army, which lay before it, and then commanded the Governor to deliver it up; after which it was demolish'd, that the great Road might lie open and free; and it remains in Rubbish to this Day.

The Castle was built here by Alexander Bishop of Lincoln, in the Reign of King Stephen; and the Town took its Name from that New Work.

This Town was certainly rais'd from the neigh­bouring Roman Cities, and has been wall'd about with their Remains. The Northern Gate is composed of Stones seemingly of a Roman Cut: and perhaps they had a Town here; for many Antiquities are found about it. Here are two fine Stone Crosses. A Gentleman, digging to plant some Tree by the Fosse Road Side, discover'd four Urns in a strait Line, and at equal Distances, in one of which was a brass Lar, or Houshold-God, an Inch and half long, but much consum'd by Rust.

Newark is a very handsome well-built Town, situate on the Trent, under the Government of a Mayor and 12 Aldermen. The Market-place is a [Page 379] noble Square, and the Church is large and spacious, with a curious Spire, which, were not Grantham so near, might pass for the finest and highest in all this Part of England. The Trent divides itself here, and makes an Island, and the Bridges lead just to the Foot of the Castle Wall; so that, while this Place was in the Hands of any Party, as I have before hinted, there was no Travelling but by their Leave; but all the Travelling into the North at that Time was by Nottingham Bridge.

I am, Sir, yours, &c.


  • ABbot of Glastenbury, his prodigious State and Riches Pag. 29, 30. His Inn 33
  • Abbots Langley 167
  • Abergavenny 311
  • Abermenai Ferry 326
  • Aberystwith 322
  • Abingdon 61, 62, 63
  • Abury 51
  • Acteon, Mosaick Work re­presenting that Fable 375
  • Acton, Sir Thomas 295
  • Adam of Scott, his Monu­ment 54
  • Adams, Mr. his noble Bene­factions 348
  • Adrian IV. Pope, his Pride, and shameful Avarice 167
  • Aethelfleda, Queen 297
  • Alabaster, where found 21 St. Alban 174. Inscription on his Shrine 176
  • St. Alban, Robert, gives Name to Alban-hall p. 222
  • St. Albans 174 to 178
  • Albemarle, Earl of 164
  • Alcester 289
  • Aldbury 172
  • Aldchester 207
  • Aldely 251
  • Aldrich, Dr. 217
  • Alexander, Bishop of Lin­coln 378
  • Alfred, King 47, 61, 209, 231
  • Allen, Mr. his Generosity and Publick Spirit, an Honour to Bath 263, 265, 266
  • Alney, Isle 283
  • Althorpe 365, 366
  • Altringham 340
  • Alwinus, Bishop of Win­chester 243
  • Amersham 203
  • Amsty 192
  • Amwell 199
  • Anderson, Sir Richard 171
  • Anglesey, Isle 325, 327, 328
  • [Page]Anker, River 371, 373, 375
  • St. Anne's Hill 51
  • Anne, Queen, improves Ken­sington 159. Dies there 160. Her Statue, and Character by the Duchess of Marlborough 180, 181. Another Statue 209. Frighted at Lansdown-hill 263
  • Arbury Banks 190
  • Archenfield 303
  • Ariconium ibid.
  • Arthur, King 4. His Well 27. Where bury'd 28, 29. Nephew to St. David 320
  • Arthur, Prince 292, 300
  • Arundel, Earl of, his Mar­bles 228, 365
  • Arundel, Trerice 3
  • Arundel, Wardour ibid.
  • As sure as God's at Glou­cester, whence deduced 282
  • St. Asaph 330, 331
  • Ash, the Stream 199
  • Ashbury 62
  • Ashby de la Zouch 372
  • The Ashes 362
  • Ashridge 172
  • Ashwell 189, 190
  • Astal 243
  • Astroites 251
  • Athelstane, King 43, 44
  • Atherston 371
  • Atherstone 252
  • Audley, Lord, defeated 348
  • Augustine's Oak 297
  • Avon, River 37, 38, 44, 47, 250, 251, 265, 275, 277, 286, 287, 288, 289, 358, 359, 360, 361, 374
  • Aust Ferry p. 277, 278, 279, 310
  • Axbridge 34
  • Axe River ibid.
  • Axtel, Col. a Parliament Officer 169
  • Aylesbury 203
  • Bacon, Lord, his Monument and Inscription 178, 179
  • Badmington 51, 267
  • Badminton 25
  • Baldock 187, 188
  • Baliol, John 209
  • Bampton 243, 244
  • Banbury 206, 207
  • Banbury, Earl of 207
  • Banchor 332
  • Bangor 328, 329. Its Bi­shops, how immortal 329
  • Barker, Mr. his Seat 161
  • Barkhamsted 168 to 170
  • Barkway 191, 192
  • Barnstable Town, Haven, and Bay 9, 10, 11, 12
  • Barnstable Water 13
  • Bath 253 to 265
  • Bath Waters, their Virtues 256 to 258
  • Battle-edge 242
  • Battlefield 344
  • Beachwood Manor 173
  • Beacon-ash 27
  • Beaconsfield 202
  • Beane, River 184, 185
  • Beaudesert 352
  • Beaufort, Duke of 267, 310
  • Beaumaris 327, 328
  • Beaumonds 230
  • [Page]Becket, Archbishop p. 205
  • Bedford, Duke of 366
  • Beeston-castle 338, 339
  • Bel-size 156
  • Belvoir-castle 377, 378
  • Benington-place 185
  • Benonis 370
  • Bensford 43
  • Berkeley 280
  • Berkeley, Earl of ibid.
  • Berkeley, Robert, Esq his Hospital 294
  • Beryslade 187
  • Betley 350
  • Bewdley 296
  • Bicester 207
  • Bidiford 9, 10, 11, 12
  • Billesden 377
  • Bingham 378
  • Birmingham 296
  • Bisham 68
  • Bishop, Mr. Richard, disco­vers a Roman Work 247
  • Bishops-castle 298
  • Bishops-mott ibid.
  • Bishop-Stortford, and its famous School 194 to 196
  • Bisse, Bishop 305
  • Blackdown Hills 18
  • Black Mountains 315, 324
  • Blackston-hill 297
  • Bladud, King 253
  • Blake, Admiral 22
  • Blake's-ware 199
  • Blathwait, Mr. his Seat 267
  • Bleachly 278, 310
  • Blenheim-house 232 to 239
  • Bloreheath 348
  • Blorench 313
  • Bloxham 240
  • Blundel, Peter, the Clothier, founds Tiverton Free­school p. 15
  • Blunt, Sir Henry Pope, his Seat 182
  • Boadicea, Queen 174
  • The Boar, what 23, 278, 298
  • Bodley, Sir Thomas 228
  • Bodmyn 4
  • Boreman, Richard, Abbot of St. Albans 175
  • Boscobel-house 346
  • Bossiney 4
  • Bosworth-field 372
  • Botelers, their Seat 184
  • Boughton 366, 367
  • Bow 154
  • Bowditch 268
  • Brackley 205, 206
  • Bradford 36, 38, 47
  • Bradford, Earl of, his Seat 161, 296
  • Bradgate 372
  • Brampton-Brian 302
  • Mrs. Branch, and her Daughter executed 26
  • Branonium 290
  • Brass-mills 68
  • Braughing 191, 193, 194
  • Bray, Vicar of 69
  • Brecknock 313
  • Brecknock-mere ibid.
  • Brecknockshire describ'd 312, 313, 314
  • Breewood 350
  • Brentford 162
  • Brews, River 43
  • Bridge from Fulham to Put­ney 159
  • Bridgenorth 297, 298
  • Bridgwater 22, 28
  • [Page]Bridgwater, Duke of p. 172, 342
  • Brightwell 240
  • Bristol 268 to 277
  • Bristol Stones 251
  • Bristol Waters, their Virtues p. 272, 273
  • Broadway 296
  • Brockly-hill 165
  • Bromley 154, 352
  • Brook, Lord 360
  • Broomsgrove 295
  • Broxbourn 200
  • Broxbournbury ibid.
  • Bruce, Lord 51, 52, 161
  • Bruton 27, 43
  • Buckingham 205
  • Buckingham, Sir Owen 65
  • Bucks, Duke of 363
  • Bulborn, Rivulet 172
  • Bulkeley, Bishop of Bangor, his Sacrilege 328
  • Buntingford 193
  • Burford 242
  • Burlington, Earl of, the English Vitruvius 52. his Seat 161. See also Vol. III. Page 287
  • Burrow-hill 362
  • The Burrows 365
  • Burton upon Trent 352
  • Bush-draining, what 163
  • Bushy-heath 158
  • Byde, Thomas, Esq his Seat 198
  • Cadbury-castle 26, 27
  • Cadby, William, the Gar­dener, his Collection of Gods p. 49
  • Cadogan, Earl 66
  • Caer Bladdon, a British Prince 43
  • Caerdiff 315
  • Caermarthen p. 317, 318 325
  • Caernarvon 325
  • Caernarvonshire described 325, 327
  • Caerphyli-castle 316
  • Caerwys 331
  • Caesar Family 185
  • Caesar, Julius, takes Veru­lam 174
  • Calne 49
  • Camalet 26
  • Camel, River 3, 4
  • Camelford ibid.
  • Campden 287
  • Cannings, Mr. William, his Monument 273
  • Cantilupe, the Miracle-mon­ger 305
  • Capels, Earls of Essex 196
  • Caractacus rebuilds War­wick 359
  • Cardigan 321
  • Cardiganshire described 322
  • Carey, Edward, Esq 168
  • Carlos, Col. 346
  • Caroline, Queen, adorns Kensington 159. Her Munificence, and Statue 212
  • Carran, River 287
  • Cassibelan, King 174
  • Cassioberry 165, 166
  • Castellum Danis 3
  • Castle-Carey 43
  • Castle Inn 70
  • [Page]Castlecomb p. 47
  • Catesby, the Traitor 361
  • Catharine, Infanta of Spain 292
  • Cavesham 66
  • Cawley Wood p. 17
  • Cestria Chersonesus, 334, 335
  • St. Chad's Shrine 355
  • Chamber on the Forest 338
  • Chandos, Duke of. 157, 158, 164
  • Charles I. engages the Par­liament Army twice at Newbury 58. Where bu­ried 82. A Benefactor to Queen's College in Ox­ford 211. His and his Queen's Statues 219. His Picture 232. His Im­prisonment 364
  • Charles II. his Equestrian Statue 75. His Jest on the Visible Church 202. His Escape after Wor­cester Fight 291, 346. His Royal Gratitude 347.
  • Charwell, River 206
  • Chaucer, Sir Geoffrey 60. Commends John de Ga­desden 172
  • Chauncy, Sir Harry, com­mits Jane Wenman 185
  • Cheaping-Barnet 164
  • Chedder 34
  • Cheese Trade 40 to 42
  • Chelsea 160
  • Cheltenham 284 to 286
  • Cheltenham Waters, their Virtues 285, 286
  • Chepstow p. 310
  • Chesham 203
  • Cheshire described 337, 338, 341
  • Cheshunt Common 197
  • Chester 334 to 337
  • Chester, Robert, Esq his Seat 197
  • Chesterfield-wall p. 353
  • Chetwynd, Lord 351
  • Chetwynd, Walter, Esq ibid.
  • Chichley, Henry, Arch­bishop of Canterbury 214, 218, 219,
  • Chiltern 188
  • Chilton 204
  • Chippenham 47
  • Chipping-Norton 239, 267,
  • Chipping-S [...]dbury 252
  • Chisbury 54
  • Chiswicke 161
  • Chu Parish 268
  • Churn, River 241, 247, 249
  • Cirencester 247 to 249
  • Cissa, the Viceroy 54, 247
  • Clarke, Dr. George, his Benefactions to All-Souls College 214, 215, 221. Abstract of his Will 225 to 227
  • Clarks, their Seat 184
  • Clebury 298
  • Cliefden 69
  • Clothing Trade 38 to 40
  • Clun, River 298
  • Cobham, Bishop of Win­chester 228
  • Codicote Parish 185
  • [Page]Codrington, Col. Christo­pher, his Library and Statue p. 214, 215
  • Coinage Towns 4
  • Colbrond, the Giant 358
  • Colbrook 162
  • Colebrook 83
  • Colerain, Earl of, his Seat 155
  • Coleshill 356
  • Colne, River 165, 241, 244
  • Colney 180
  • Colston, Mr. Edward, his Charities 275, 276
  • Columb, River 17
  • Columb-Davids ibid.
  • St. Columbs 3
  • Columbstock 17
  • Columbton ibid.
  • Colwal 307
  • Combemerton 14
  • Congleton 340
  • Coningsby, Earl of 304, 308
  • Conway 329
  • Conway, Lord 296
  • Cooke, Sir Thomas, en­dows Worcester College 221
  • Copse-castle 53
  • Corinium 247
  • Cornbury-house 241
  • Cornu Ammonis, a neglected one 362
  • Corve, River 300
  • Corvesdale ibid.
  • Cossington 368
  • Cotswold 240, 241
  • Cotton, Sir Francis, where born 48
  • Coventry 356 to 358
  • Cowper, Earl, his Seat 184
  • Cranme, Archbishop, where martyr'd p. 229
  • Craven, Earl of, seeks to marry the Queen of Bohe­mia 60
  • Credon-hill 304
  • Creeklade 244, 249
  • Crew, George, Esq and Mrs. 228
  • Crew, Lord, Bishop of Dur­ham 213, 229
  • Cromwell, Oliver, his Be­nefaction to the Bodleian Library 228
  • Cromwell, Richard, his Re­tirement 201
  • Crook, Lord Chief Justice 204
  • Cropredry Bridge, Action there 206
  • Cross-hill 367
  • Culling, Mrs. Elizabeth, her Tomb 184
  • Cunetia 50
  • Cuthred, King, beats Ethel­bald 242
  • Danby, Earl of 44
  • Daneweed, Tradition con­cerning it 362
  • St. Daniel, first Bishop of Bangor 328
  • Danish King, the Skin of of one 191
  • Danesey, Col. 304
  • Dantsey Manor and Barony 44 to 47
  • Daventry 361, 362
  • St David, his Monument 320
  • St. Davids 319, 320
  • [Page]Dean Forest p. 281
  • Deddington 207
  • Dee, River 311, 324, 332, 335, 336, 337
  • Delamere, Lord, his Seat 338
  • Denbeigh 329
  • Denbeigh, Earl of, his Cross 370
  • Denbeighshire described 329, 330
  • Deptford 85, 88
  • Devizes 37, 48
  • Devonshire described 8
  • Devorguilla, Wife to John Baliol 209
  • Diamonds, Cornish 5
  • Diffrin-Doe, River 307, 309
  • Digby, his Benefaction to the Bodleian Library 228
  • Dinder-hill 304
  • Ditchley-house 241
  • St. Dobricius 315
  • Dodo, the Saxon 351
  • Don, River 283
  • Donnington-castle 58, 60
  • Dorchester 204
  • Dove, River 302
  • Dovebridge 361
  • Drayton 348
  • Droitwych 295
  • Druids, a Temple of theirs 51
  • Dudley 351
  • Dudley and Ward, Lord, his Seat ibid.
  • Du [...]smore Heath 361
  • Du [...]wallo Malmusius 250
  • Duppa, Dr. Bryan 217
  • Du [...]er, Albert, the Painter 245
  • Durhams p. 164
  • Durobrivae 168
  • Dursley 279
  • Dymokes, Champions of England 356
  • Dynmaur 306
  • Eadulph, Archbishop 353
  • Ealing 162
  • East-Barnet 163
  • Eaton, Mrs. her Legacy 221
  • Eaton, Dr. Birom ibid.
  • Eccleshall 349
  • Echo, a remarkable one 232
  • Edelfleda, a Saxon Lady 376
  • Edgar, King 31, 337
  • Edgehill 206, 289
  • Edgworth 157, 162
  • Edmonton 155
  • Edmund, Proprietor of Ed­mund-hall 223
  • Edmund Ironsides, his Duel with Canute 283
  • Edol, Earl of Gloucester, His Valour 282
  • Edward the Confessor 207
  • Edward I. 80, 172, 201, 205, 210, 278, 279, 288, 325, 329, 335, 341, 367
  • Edward II. Founder of Oriel College 211. Grants St. Mary-hall to it 223. Murdered 280. His Shrine 282. First English Prince of Wales 325
  • Edward III. improves Wind­sor 73 to 75. His Apart­ments 76. Institutes the [Page] Order of the Garter p. 78, 292. Where baptized 80. Favours Buntingford 193. Inlarges the Revenue of Oriel College 211. And a Benefactor to Queens ibid.
  • Edward IV. transfers seve­ral Manors from Eton to Windsor 71. Where bu­ried 82
  • Edward VI. his Residence 182. Grants a Licence to turn Durham College, in Oxford, into Trinity College 218
  • Egbert, King, overthrows the Danes and Britons 5
  • Eglesfield, Robert, Founder of Queen's College in Oxford 211
  • Elbridge, John, Esq his Legacy 276
  • Eleanor, Queen, several Crosses built in Honour of her 201, 205, 363, 367
  • Elizabeth, Queen, her pe­culiar Aversion and Fancy 75. Her Invention to avoid the Wind 76. Her Free-school 164. Her Re­sidence 182. Styled Foun­dress of Jesus College in Oxford 219. Completes Wadham College 220. Builds a Free-school at Shrewsbury 345
  • Elsmere 342
  • Elston 377
  • Elstre 165
  • Emma, Queen, passes the Fire Ordeal p. 243
  • Enfield 155, 156, 162
  • Erdborough 368
  • Ermine-street 192
  • Essex, Earl of, his Seat 165. His Monument 360
  • Ethelbald, King 242
  • Ethelbert, King, murder'd 175, 305. His Spring 306
  • Ethelred, King 231
  • Ethelwolf, King 67
  • Etocetum 353
  • Eton 70 to 73
  • Evesham 288
  • Eustace, Earl of Bologne 192
  • Ex, River 14, 19
  • Exmore ibid.
  • Fairfax, General, defeats Goring 25
  • Fairford 244 to 247
  • St. Faith's Well 187
  • Farmer, the Honourable Mrs. 245
  • Farringdon 61, 62
  • Fell, Dr. John, Bishop of Oxford 217, 295
  • Fell, Dr. Samuel 217
  • Findon 369
  • Fire, livid, a dangerous Phaenomenon 324, 325
  • Fitzharding, Lord 27
  • Fitzstephen, Robert, Con­queror of Ireland 321
  • Flamstead Parish 179
  • Flat-Holmes, Isle 22
  • [Page]Fleming, Richard, Bishop of Lincoln p. 213
  • Flint 331
  • Flint-castle ibid.
  • Flodden-field Fight 59
  • Foley, Lord 290, 296, 377
  • Fosse Road 27, 241, 362, 369
  • Four Shire Stones 240
  • Fox, Richard, Bishop of Winchester 216
  • Foxcoate 365
  • Frampton 280
  • Francis, Bishop of Ely 191
  • Frederick, Prince of Wales, Inscription to his Honour 258. His Present to the Corporation of Bath 260. His and the Princess's Benefactions to the Hospi­tal there 263
  • Freind, Dr. 171
  • Frier Bacon's Study 229
  • Frodesham 338
  • Frome-Sellwood 37, 43
  • Froxfield 54 to 57
  • Fuller, Elizabeth, her Free­school 165
  • Gadesden 172
  • Gadesden, John de ibid.
  • Gadesden-Little 171
  • Gainsborough, Earl of 285
  • Gardiner Family 198
  • Garter, List of the first Knights 79. Foreign Princes invested with it 81
  • Gavenny, River 311
  • Geddington p. 367
  • George I. 290
  • George II. ibid.
  • George, Prince of Denmark 160
  • Gilbert, Earl of Gloucester 287
  • Glamorganshire described 312, 316
  • Glastenbury 27 to 32
  • Glendower, Prince of Wales 314
  • Gloucester 281 to 284
  • Gloucester, Robert, Earl of 62
  • Glyder 326
  • Gobions 184
  • Godiva, Lady, her Story 356
  • Godolphin, Dr. his Statue 70
  • Godstow Nunnery 230
  • Golden Vale 302, 309
  • Gore, Sir William, and his Lady's Monument 171
  • Gore, William, Esq his Seat ibid.
  • Gorhambury 178
  • St. Goven's Head 319
  • Gowre 317
  • Granville, Sir Bevil 267
  • Grasiers, the richest 373
  • Great Banington 251, 252
  • Great Barkhamsted 168 to 170
  • Great Bedwin 53
  • Great Malvern 287
  • Great Marlow 67, 68
  • Great Wenlock 298, 347
  • The Green 49
  • Gregory, Sir William 55
  • Greville, Doddington, Esq 214
  • [Page]Grey Weathers, what p. 49, 50
  • Greys, Lords 363
  • Grimston, Lord 148
  • Grindall, Archbishop 211
  • Grismund's Mount 248
  • Grooby 372
  • Guildsborough 365
  • Guy, Earl of Warwick 358. His Statue 360. His Cave 361
  • Guy, Mr. his Charity 355
  • Guy-cliff 360
  • Hacket, Bishop 355
  • Hackney 154, 155
  • Hadham Parva 196
  • Hadsley Family 198
  • Hadstock 191
  • Hale, Richard, Esq his Grammar-school at Hert­ford 183
  • Hales, John, Esq his Free­school at Coventry 357
  • Halifax, Earl of, his Seat 161
  • Hallaton 377
  • Hamersmith 161, 162
  • Hampden Family 204
  • Hampton-court 308
  • Hamstead 155, 156, 157
  • Harborough 369
  • Harelane-field 199
  • Harleigh-castle 324, 327
  • Harley, Sir Edward 302
  • Harri [...]on, Governor, his Seat 183
  • Harrow 202
  • Hartford, Elias, Owner of Hart-hall p. 222
  • Hartland 9
  • Hastings, Lord, executed 47, 57
  • Hatfield 182
  • Hatfield-house ibid.
  • Hatfield, Thomas, Bishop of Durham 218
  • Hathorp-house 241
  • Haverford 319
  • Havisdike 53
  • Heane founds an Abbey 63
  • Heightsbury 48
  • Hengeston-hill 5
  • Hengist, a Cornish General ibid.
  • Hengist, the Saxon, put to Death 283
  • Henley upon Thames 63, 64, 65
  • Henry I. where educated 63. Where buried 66, 282. Rebuilds Woodstock 231. Incloses the Park there 232. Settles the Flemings in Pembrokeshire 319
  • Henry II. searches for King Arthur's Tomb 28. His Court at Barkhamstead 169. Adorns Woodstock 231. Grants Burford a Charter 242. Grants Ro­bert Fitzharding Berkley-castle 280
  • Henry III. his Palace at Kings-Langley 167. Causes a Fortification to be demolished 192. For­tifies Montgomery 323
  • [Page]Henry IV. builds Hampton-court in Herefordshire p. 308. Defeats Hotspur 344
  • Henry V. where born 310.
  • Henry VI. his noble Foun­dation 70
  • Henry VII. where he landed 319
  • Henry VIII. his Nuptials with Lady Jane Seymour 53. With Anna Bolen 178. His Statue ibid. Puts Sir Thomas More to Death 184. Residence of his Children 197. Names Christ-church in Oxford 216, 217. His conscientious Divorce 292. Establishes the Court of the Marches at Ludlow 301. Makes Chester a Bishop's See 337
  • H [...]rbert, Lord, of Cher­bury 297
  • Hercules's Promontory 9
  • Hereford 303 to 307
  • Hereford, Marquis of 52
  • Herefordshire described 302, 303
  • Herman-street 188, 189
  • Hertford 183
  • Hertford, Lord, his Seat 50
  • Hertfordshire described 162, 163
  • Hertingfordbury 184
  • Hexton 186
  • Heylin, Dr. 242
  • High-cross 361, 369
  • Highgate 155
  • Highlake 335
  • Highways, antient ones p. 361, 362
  • High-Wickham 67, 68
  • Hindon 48
  • Hinkley 371
  • Hitchin 186
  • Hobart, Sir John 195
  • Hobbes, Mr. 44
  • Hobbes, the Family 68, 69
  • Hock-Crib 280
  • Hoddesden 200
  • Holland-house 161
  • Holmeby-house 364
  • Holy-bones 376
  • Holyhead 326
  • Holywell 330, 331
  • Holy Wells 288
  • Honesdon 196, 197
  • Hooper, Bishop, martyr'd 284
  • Hopton, Lord, disbands his Army 5. Defeats the Parliament Forces, and takes General Chudleigh Prisoner 6
  • Horses, the largest 373
  • Hoskins, Sir John 304
  • Hubba, King, slain 13
  • Hubbestow 14
  • Hudson, Dr. John, Prin­cipal of St. Mary Hall 223
  • Humber, River 23
  • Humphrey, Duke of Glou­cester, his Monument and Inscription 176, 177. Founder of the Divinity-schools in Oxford 228
  • Hungerford Family 47, 57
  • Hurlers, Stones so called 6, 7
  • Hurling Match 7, 8
  • Jack of Newbury p. 59
  • James I. converts Mr. Sal­keld 18. His Residence 155. His Childrens Nur­sery 169. Exchanges Hatfield Manor 182, 201. Promotes the N [...]w River Project 199
  • Icleford 188
  • Idlestrey 165
  • Jefferies, Judge, his Cru­elty 268
  • Jekyll, the late Sir Joseph, his Seat 183
  • Jennings Family 182
  • Jeoffry of Monmouth 310
  • Ikenild-street 289
  • Ilfordcomb 12, 13
  • Ilfordcomb Harbour 13
  • Ilminster 18
  • Ina, King, his Palace 26. Builds Glastenbury Church 29
  • Incent, Dean of St. Paul's 170
  • Ine, the Brook 303
  • Ingestre 351, 352
  • Inglefield 67
  • John, King, surrenders Bark­hamsted-castle 169. Demo­lishes and restores Bishop-Storford 194. His Pa­lace 206. His Tomb 292
  • John, King of France, where imprisoned 26
  • Johnson, Secretary, his Seat 161
  • Johnson, Sir Henry 69
  • Joseph of Arimathea, Tra­dition concerning him 28
  • Irish, general Alarm con­cerning them p. 66, 67
  • Isabel, Duchess of York 167
  • Isca, River 14
  • Isis, River 163, 204, 230, 241
  • Islington 86
  • Islip 61, 207
  • Ivel, River 26
  • Ivelchester ibid.
  • St. Ives 1, 2
  • St. Ives Bay 1
  • Ivingo 204
  • Kader-Idricks 324
  • Kemish, Rectory of 55
  • Kenchester 303
  • Kendale Wood 165
  • Kennet, River 50, 51, 58, 60, 64
  • Kennith castle 146
  • Kenrick, Mr. his Will 59, 65
  • Kensington 159, 160
  • Keynton 206
  • Kidderminster 295
  • Kily-Maen Llwyd 318
  • King-Road 277
  • Kingsbury 180
  • Kingsdown 267
  • Kings-Langley 167
  • Knutsford 340
  • Kyneton 27, 302
  • Kynfig-castle 317
  • Kyrton-Beacon 313
  • La Guerre, the Painter 232
  • Lambourn 60
  • Lambourn, River 60, 61
  • [Page]Lancaster, Henry, Duke and Earl of p. 375, 376
  • Lancaster, Dr. William 211
  • Landaff 315, 316
  • Lands, Method of improving them 42, 43
  • Landsdown, Lord 267
  • Landsdown-hill 263, 267
  • Langley, Edmund de, Duke of York 167
  • Langleybury 166
  • Langport 25
  • Lanhidrock 2
  • Lar, a Brass one, found 378
  • Lassington 251, 284
  • Laud, Archbishop 65, 228
  • Lavington 48
  • Launceston 4, 5, 6
  • Lea, River 163
  • Lech, River 241, 242, 244
  • Lechlade 241, 249
  • Lee, River 182, 198, 200
  • Leeds, Duke of 171, 172, 183
  • Legers-Ashby 361
  • Leicester 372, 373, 375, 376
  • Leicestershire described 373, 374
  • Leigh, Reverend Mr. Tho­mas 196
  • Lemingt [...]n 240
  • Le Notre 166, 366
  • Lenthal, the Speaker 242
  • Leominster 301, 302
  • Leucomagus 53
  • Leveson, Sir Richard 350
  • Lewellin, Prince of Wales, his generous Compliment to Edward I. 278, 279. His Statue 343
  • Lheweni, River p. 313
  • Lidbury 307
  • Liliho 187
  • Litchfield 352, 353 to 355
  • Litchfield, Abbot 288
  • Little Malvern 287
  • Loddon, River 68
  • Loman, River 14
  • LONDON 84 to 153. Mea­surement of it 87 to 93, Number of Inhabitants 93, 94. Government 94. 95. Considered more par­ticularly in Sixteen Arti­cles:
    • I. A brief Account of what the City was before the Fire, and how improved when rebuilt, and within a few Years after it 96 to 98
    • II. Of the prodigious In­crease of Buildings within our own Memory, down to the Year 1740. 99 to 102
    • III. Of the Publick Offices, and City Corporations 102 to 106
    • IV. Of the Mansion-house, and other most noted Edi­fices, Squares and Publick Structures, in and about London 106 to 112
    • V. Of the principal Hospi­tals, and other charitable Institutions in and about the City of London 113 to 119
    • VI. Of the Churches of London, Westminster, and [Page] Southwark p. 119 to 128
    • VII. Of St. James's Pa­lace, the Parliament-house, Westminster-hall, &c. 129 to 131
    • VIII. Of the Statues, and other publick Ornaments in and about the Cities of London and Westminster 131 to 135
    • IX. Of the Gates of Lon­don and Westminster 135 to 137
    • X. Of the publick and pri­vate Prisons 137, 138
    • XI. Of the Markets of Lon­don 138 to 143
    • XII. Of the publick Schools and Libraries 143 to 145
    • XIII. Of the Shipping in the Thames, and the Trade carried on by means of that noble River 145 to 147
    • XIV. Of the Manner by which the City is supplied with Water 147 to 150
    • XV. Of the Christenings and Burials in London, &c. Of the Importance of the City of London to the whole Kingdom. Of its comparative Proportion to the publick Expence of the Kingdom, and the dispro­portionate Number of Mem­bers it returns 150 to 152
    • XVI. The Benefit to the Publick of a good Under­standing between the Court and City 152, 153
  • Long-leat p. 27
  • Lovelace, Lord 69
  • Loventium 314
  • Loughborough 377
  • Lovibond, Nicolas, Vicar of Wadbridge, builds a Bridge there 3
  • Louis XIV. his Marble Busto 233
  • Lower-way 23
  • Ludlow 298, 299 to 301
  • Ludlow-castle 298, 299
  • Lug, River 277, 301, 305, 310
  • Lumley, General, his Mo­nument 197
  • Lundy, Island 17
  • Lupus, Hugh, Earl of Chester 336, 337, 352
  • Lutterworth 369
  • Lyteford 27
  • Macclesfield 340
  • Madern-hills 2
  • Maidenhead 69
  • Maimar 207
  • Maitland, Mr. his History of London 84
  • Make-king, Earl of War­wick 164, 206
  • Malmsbury 43, 44
  • Malpas 334
  • Malvern-hills 287
  • Mansel, Lord 317
  • Mansel, Sir Edward ibid.
  • Maphesden, Edward, Monu­ment over his Seven Chil­dren 195
  • [Page]Marden p. 305
  • Mare, ridiculous Burying of one 199
  • Margan Mynydd, delusory Prophecy concerning a Mo­nument near it 317
  • Margaret, Queen, overcomes the Yorkists 175
  • Margaret, Mother of Henry VII. 12
  • Market-cell 173
  • Marlborough 50
  • Marlborough, Duchess of, her Seat 180. Her Cha­racter of Queen Anne 180, 181. Purchases Holmeby-house 364
  • Marlborough, Duke of, his Palace, Obelisk, and ele­gant Inscription 232 to 239
  • Marmyons, Champions of England 356
  • Marsbury-Field 268
  • Marsh, Dr. Narcissus, Arch­bishop of Armagh 210
  • Marshfield 252
  • Mary, Queen of Scots, her Needle-work 77
  • Mary II. designs the Gardens at Kensington 159
  • Mary Magdalen, her Image 6
  • St. Mary de Pree's Abbey 376
  • Maud, Empress, Inscription on her Monument 66. Takes King Stephen Prisoner 268
  • Maudlin Meadow 250
  • Maurice, Prince, routs Sir William Waller 51
  • Mawcop 340
  • Meautys, Sir Thomas p. 179
  • Melton-Mowbray 377
  • Mendip-hills 23, 33, 34, 35
  • Menen Firth 325, 328
  • Merchants of London and Bristol compared 269, 270
  • Mere 48
  • Merionethshire described 323
  • Merlin, where born 318
  • Mersey, River 10, 335
  • St. Michael's [...]
  • St. Michael's Church upon the Torr 27, 28
  • Middlesex described 162
  • Middleton, Sir Hugh 199
  • Middlewick 339
  • Milbourn 26
  • Mile-end 86
  • Milford-haven 318, 319
  • Minching Hampton 249, 250
  • Minehead 20
  • Modishole 3
  • Moncke, Duke of Albe­marle 201
  • Monmouth 309, 310
  • Monmouth, Duke of, his Rebellion 19. Defeated 34. His House 167. His Advantage over James II. 268
  • Monmouthshire described 311, 312, 313
  • Monson, Lord 200
  • Montagu, Duke of, his Seat 366, 367
  • Montfort, Simon, defeated 288
  • Montgomery 323
  • Montgomery, Roger de 298
  • Montgomeryshire described 322, 323
  • [Page]Montsorrel p. 377
  • Monuchdenny-hill 315
  • Moore-Park 166, 167
  • Mordaunt, Lieutenant-Gene­ral Lewis 47
  • Mordred, King Arthur's Nephew 4
  • More, Sir Thomas 184
  • Moreton, Earl of Corn­wall 168
  • Moretonhenmarsh 240
  • Morland, Sir Samuel 75
  • Mowywynda 324
  • Muniborough-hill 172
  • Munnow, River 309, 310
  • Namptwich 341
  • Naseby 364, 365
  • Neath 316
  • Neson 335
  • Netlebed 63
  • Nevern, River 321
  • Nevil, Earl of Salisbury, his Victory 348
  • New River 199, 200, 201
  • Newark 375, 378, 379
  • Newbury 58 to 60
  • Newcastle under Line 349, 350
  • Newington 155
  • Newington-butts 86
  • Newport 5, 321, 348
  • Newport-pagnell 205
  • Newton, Dr. Richard, Prin­cipal of Hertford College 221
  • Newton, Sir Michael 308
  • Norfolk, Howard, Duke of 47
  • Northampton 363, 364
  • North-Cadbury p. 26
  • Northleche 242
  • North-Mymms 183
  • Northwich 339
  • Norton 382
  • Novum opus, what 375
  • Nun-Eaton 371
  • Nyne, River 363
  • Oak, Royal, the Inscription on it 346, 347
  • Och, River 61
  • Offa, King, murders Ethel­bert, and is absolved 175, 305. Inscription under his Picture 176. Founds an Abbey 286. Makes Litchfield an Archbishop­rick 353. Causes 1000 Persons to be made Chri­stians 354
  • Offa's Dyke 310, 311
  • Okehampton 12
  • Old Stretford 362
  • Oldham, Hugh, Bishop of Exeter 216
  • Oldworth, Mr. preserves the Glass of Fairford Church 245
  • Onslow, Arthur, Esq 212
  • Orange, Prince of, Inscription in Memory of his Cure 259
  • Oseny Abbey 229
  • Oswald, Bishop 292
  • St. Oswald's Hospital 295
  • Oswestry 342
  • Oswy, King of Northumber­land 354
  • Oulney 205
  • [Page]Ouse, River p. 23, 205, 206
  • Owen Tudor's Monument 320
  • Oxford 207 to 231
  • Oxford, Earl of 191, 302
  • Padstow 3
  • Parliamentum Diabolicum 357
  • Parliamentum Indoctorum 357
  • Parr, River 25
  • Parrat, River 22
  • St. Patrick removes a Hill 304
  • Paynswick 249, 290
  • Peacock-Coals, what 350
  • Pebbles, their Use 21
  • Pelagius, the Arch-heretick 332
  • Pembridge 302
  • Pembroke 319
  • Pembroke, Earl of 228
  • Pembrokeshire describ'd 318, 319
  • Pendril Family 346, 347
  • Penkrige 348
  • Penley-lodge 172
  • Penmaen-maur 329
  • Penn, Sir William 273
  • Pennocrucium 349
  • Pennywel 165
  • Penton, Mr. Stephen, Prin­cipal of Edmund-hall 223
  • Penvail 313
  • Peris, the Priest, his Picture and Inscription 53
  • Perrywood 291
  • Pershore 287, 288
  • Peterborough, late Earl of, how cheated by his Te­nants at Dantsey p. 45, 46. His Seat 161
  • St. Peter's Hospital 276
  • Petre, Sir William 220
  • Petrifying Spring 250. Ac­counted for 251
  • Philippa, Queen 211
  • Philips-Norton 43
  • Philpot, Mr. finds some An­tiquities 165
  • Pictures, profane ones of the Deity in Barkway Church 191, 192
  • Pill-Road 277
  • Pirton Church 187
  • Pishobury Manor-house 198
  • Plot, Dr. 350
  • Plummer, William, Esq his Seat 199
  • Plymouth Sound 8
  • Plynlymon-hill 322
  • Polehampton, Captain, his Gift at St. Albans 178
  • Polesworth 372
  • Polydore Virgil 78
  • Pomfret, Earl of, his Seat 365
  • Pope, Sir Thomas 218
  • Popham, Lord Chief Ju­stice 18
  • Popish and Protestant Times compared 230, 231
  • Porlock 14, 20
  • Portland, Earl and Duke of 201
  • Portman, Henry, Esq 214
  • Pot-walloners, what 19
  • Powell, Judge, his Opinion concerning Witches 185
  • [Page]Presteigne p. 314
  • Price, Hugh, Founder of Jesus College 219
  • Price, Sir Carbery, his Lead Mines at Cardigan 321
  • Prideaux-house 3
  • Prophecy, a punning one 31
  • Puckeridge 191, 194
  • Puff-stone 251
  • Quantock 22
  • Quern 248
  • Radcliffe, Dr. 209. Abs­tract of his Will 224, 225
  • Radnor 314
  • Radnor, Earl of 2
  • Radnorshire described 314
  • Ranelagh, Earl of, his House 160
  • Raranvaur 324
  • Ratae Coritanorum 376
  • Ravensborough-castle 186, 187
  • Ravenscroft, James, Esq his Alms-house 164
  • Rawdikes 377
  • Raymond, Lord 166
  • Reading 64 to 67
  • Red-horse, Vale of 289
  • Reeves, Lord Chief Justice 70, 72, 73
  • Ree, River 249
  • Remigius 204
  • Rhee, River 189, 190
  • Rhoodee 335, 336
  • Rib, the Stream 198
  • Ribsford p. 297
  • Rich, Sir Thomas, his Ho­spital 284
  • Richard I. where born 230. Sends Sheep into Spain 240
  • Richard III. 372. Where buried 376
  • Richard, Bishop of Durham 227, 228
  • Richmond, Earl of, his Monument 320
  • Rickmersworth 165, 166, 167
  • Rickning Way 283
  • Ridley, Bishop, where mar­tyred 229
  • Rivers, Earl of 339
  • Robert, Son of the Con­queror, his Tomb 282
  • Robin Hood's Hill 283
  • Roch, Parish 297
  • Rock-Savage 339
  • Roe, Sir Thomas, his Col­lection of Coins 228
  • Roger, Bishop of Salisbury 48
  • Roisia, her Religious House 191
  • Roman Antiquities 189
  • Roman Camps 62, 187, 368
  • Roman Coin 204
  • Roman Highways 361, 362
  • Roper Family 169
  • Rosamond, Concubine to Henry II. 230, 231
  • Ross 309
  • Rotherham, Thomas de, Archbishop of York 213
  • Rotherhith 85, 86
  • Roundway Down 51
  • [Page]Rowldrich Stones p. 239
  • Royston 190, 191, 198
  • Rubens, the Painter 232
  • Rugby 361, 369
  • Rugely 352
  • Ruleigh Abbey 230
  • Rumball executed 196
  • Runway 48
  • Rutland, Dukes of 378
  • Rydall, River 322
  • Rye Manor 196
  • Rye-house Plot ibid.
  • Salisbury, Countess of, her Garter 78. Her Tomb 292
  • Salisbury, Earl of, his Seat 182
  • Salisbury Plain 42
  • Salkeld, the Royal Convert 18
  • Salt upon Salt, what 10
  • Salwarp, River 295
  • Sambroke, Sir Jeremy 184
  • Sanbach 340
  • Sandys, Samuel, Esq 294
  • Sarney 244
  • Savage Family 338, 339, 340
  • Savernack Forest 51, 52
  • Saunders Family, Inscription on the Monument of one of them 173, 174
  • Saundridge 182
  • Sawbridgeworth 197
  • Sebright, Sir Thomas Saun­ders, his Seat 173
  • Sedgmore 34
  • Selden, Mr. 228
  • Selwood Forest 43, 48
  • Senvy-gate p. 370
  • Severn, River 23, 250, 266, 277, 278, 280, 281, 287, 290, 296, 310, 315, 322, 323, 343
  • Seymour, Sir John 53, 54
  • Shakespeare, his Tomb 288, 289
  • Sheep, the best 373, 374
  • Sheldon, Archbishop 227
  • Sherard, Dr. 219
  • Shipley-hill 368
  • Shipton 206
  • Shipton-Mallet 43
  • Shore, Jane, solicits in fa­vour of Eton College 71
  • Shrews, a Method of Taming them 350
  • Shrewsbury 343 to 345
  • Shrewsbury, Earl of, his Seat 161
  • Siffivernes 185, 186
  • Silures 302
  • Skirridan 313
  • Sloane, Sir Hans, his Sta­tue 160
  • Slough 70
  • Smyth, William, Bishop of Lincoln 216
  • Snowden-hill 325
  • Sour, River 373, 374
  • Somers, Lord, his modest In­terrment 183
  • Somerset, Duchess Dowager of, her Alms-house at Froxfield 55 to 57
  • Somersetshire described 18, 23 to 25, 35, 36
  • Somerton 26
  • Somerville, Philip 209
  • Sopwell Nunnery 178
  • [Page]South, Dr. p. 207
  • South Petherton 26
  • Sow, River 349
  • Spencer, the Poet 363
  • Spencer, John, Esq his Seat 366
  • Spine 59, 60
  • Spinham-lands 59
  • Stafford 348, 349
  • Stafford, Edmund, Bishop of Exeter 210
  • Stamford, Earl of 372
  • Stamford, a London Mer­chant, builds a Bridge at Barnstable 11, 12
  • Standon 194
  • Stanes 162
  • Stanley 280
  • Stansted-Abbots Parish 196
  • Stapledon, Walter, Bishop of Exeter 210, 222
  • Starbury Mount 248
  • Steep-Holmes, Isle 22
  • Stephen, King 268
  • Stevenage 184, 185
  • Stiles, Mr. 166, 167
  • Stockport 340
  • Stone 349
  • Stones, curious ones 21, 22. Monumental 326, 327
  • Stony-Stratford 205
  • Stort, River 195, 196, 197, 198
  • Stour, River 295, 377
  • Stourbridge 295, 296
  • Stow-house 6
  • Stow on the Would 241, 242
  • Strafford, Earl of, his Seat 161
  • Stratford upon Avon 288, 289
  • Stratton p. 6
  • Strongbow, Conqueror of Ireland 282
  • Stroud 249, 290
  • Stroud, River 249, 251, 289, 290, 297
  • Stukeley 363
  • Suellaniacis 165
  • Suffolk, Duke of 80
  • Sunderland, Earl of 366
  • Sutton 27
  • Sutton-Colefield 356
  • Sutton-court 161
  • Sutton-walls 305
  • Swanzy 316, 317
  • Swinford 295
  • Swyliate, River 287
  • Sylvester, the Poet 61
  • Taaffe, River 315
  • Talbot, Earl of Shrewsbury; his Monument 341, 342
  • Tamar, River 8
  • Tame 204
  • Tame, John, Esq builds Fairford Church 245, 247
  • Tame River 355
  • Tamworth ibid.
  • Tanner, Dr. Bishop of St. Asaph 2 [...]8
  • Tavistock 12
  • Taunton 18, 19, 22
  • Taunton-dean 18
  • Tavy, River 12
  • Taw, River 9, 10, 11, 13, 14
  • Teme, River 296, 300
  • Temple-Mills 68
  • Tenbigh 319
  • [Page]Tenbury p. 296
  • Tenure, one demonstrative of the Moderation of our antient Kings 203
  • Terrible-castle 5
  • Tesdale, Thomas, Esq Founder of Pembroke Col­lege in Oxford 220
  • Tetbury 250
  • Tewksbury 286, 287
  • Thame, River 204
  • THAMES 64, 65, 67, 68, 69, 70, 77, 163, 165, 204
  • Thatcham 60, 64
  • Theal 64, 67
  • Theobalds 155, 200, 201
  • Therfield 191
  • Thornbury 279
  • Thornhill, Sir James 214, 232
  • Tickenhall 297, 298
  • Tidmerton Parish 240
  • Titian 232
  • Tiverton, and its famous School 14 to 17
  • Tone, River 18, 22
  • Topham, Richard, Esq Keeper of the Records in the Tower 70
  • Torr, the Hill 27, 30, 31
  • Torrington 12
  • Tottenham 52, 155
  • Totteridge 163, 164
  • Towcester 362, 365
  • Towridge, River 9, 10, 11, 14
  • Towy, River 317
  • Trefusis-house 2
  • Trent, River 23, 349, 352, 353, 374, 377, 379
  • Trevena p. 4
  • Trillecks, Brethren, Bishops 223
  • Tring 170, 171
  • Tripontium 361
  • Trothy, River 309, 310
  • Troy-house 310
  • Trubridge 36, 38, 47
  • Tumberlow 313
  • Turner, Dr. Thomas, Pre­sident of Corpus Christi College in Oxford 216
  • Tutbury 352
  • Twickenham 161
  • Twye, River 316
  • Twyford 67
  • Twyfordton 268
  • Tyvy, River 321
  • Vale of Aylesbury 203, 204
  • Vale-Royal 341
  • Vandyke, the Painter 232, 360
  • Vaux, Lord 207
  • Ubourn 204
  • Verlam, River 180
  • Verulam 174, 178
  • Ufcolumb 17
  • St. Vincent's Rock and Well 271, 272
  • Mr. Vipand's Long-room, and Assembly-room 156, 157
  • Upper-way 23
  • Upton 287
  • Urban, Bishop 316
  • Uriconium 343
  • Usk, River 311, 313
  • Uxbri [...]ge 162
  • [Page]Uxbridge, Earl of p. 352
  • Wadbridge 3
  • Waddington, Bishop of Chi­chester 70
  • Wade, General 259, 260
  • Wadham, Nicolas and Do­rothy 18, 220
  • Wake, Archbishop 218
  • Walcot 267
  • Wales describ'd 312 to 333
  • Walkern 185
  • Walking-stick, the Tree so called 184
  • Waller, Edmund 202
  • Wallingford 63
  • Walnut-tree, a prodigious one 185, 186
  • Walpole, Sir Robert, now Earl of Orford, his House 160
  • Walsal 350
  • Walter of Merton, Bishop of Rochester 210
  • Waltham-cross 201
  • Waltham on the Would 377
  • Wansdyke 54
  • Wantage 61
  • Ward, Bishop of Salisbury 193
  • Ware 198, 199
  • Warminster 47
  • Warmlington 206
  • Warner, John, Bishop of Rochester 209
  • Warwick 358 to 360
  • Warwick Earls of, their Monuments 359
  • Watchet 20, 21, 251
  • Watford p. 165
  • Watlington 63
  • Watling-street 345, 361, 371
  • Watson, Dr. Thomas, Bp. of St. David's 320
  • Weaver, River 335, 338, 340
  • Weddings, Provision for those of poor People 191, 194
  • Weedon 362
  • Welland, River 375
  • Wellingborough 368, 369
  • Wellington 17, 18, 348
  • Wells 33
  • Welsh Gentlemen, their Cha­racter 333
  • Welsh-Pool 323
  • Wem 342
  • Wendover 203
  • Wendy, Sir Thomas 210
  • Wenman, Jane, the sup­posed Witch 185
  • Weobly 302
  • St. Werburgh 362
  • Wergins, the Stones, removed 306, 307
  • Westbury 47
  • Whaddon-hall 363
  • Wharton, Duke of, his Seats 204
  • Whetham, General, his House 161
  • Whitchurch 341, 342
  • White, Sir Thomas 166, 218, 220
  • White-friers Palace 230
  • White-horse-hill 60, 62
  • White-horse-vale 61, 62
  • Whiteshole-hill 48
  • [Page]White-thorn, the supposed miraculous Blowing of one p. 28
  • Whiting, Abbot, his fatal Bravery 30, 31
  • Whitley-court 290
  • Wickham 203
  • Wickliff, John 369
  • Wickwar 252
  • Wightred, King 168
  • Wigmore 302
  • Wigston, Sir William, his Hospital 376
  • Wilbury-hill 188
  • William I. improves Wind­sor 73, 80. His Inter­view with the English Nobility 170. Gives Bi­shop-Stortford to the Bp. of London 194. Gives Gloucester City and Castle to Robert Fitz-Hammon 283
  • William III. his Equestrian Picture 77. Purchases Kensington Palace 159. Dies there 160. His Statue 270
  • William of Durham 209
  • William of Malmsbury 44
  • William of Wickham, his artful Vanity 74. Founds New College 212
  • William Patten, alias Wain­fleet, Bishop of Winchester 215, 223
  • Williams, Archbishop 213
  • Williamson, Sir Joseph 211
  • Willis, Dr. 53. His Pic­ture, &c. 363
  • Willoughby Brook p. 367. And Town 368
  • Wilmington, Earl of, his Seat 161
  • Wilmot, Lord 51
  • Wilts described 38 to 43
  • Wimple 191
  • Wincaunton 27, 43
  • Winchcomb 286
  • Winchelsea, Lord 27, 49, 267
  • Winchenden 204
  • Windrush, River 243
  • Windsor 73 to 83
  • St. Winifrid, her Story 330
  • Winslow 205
  • Witney 243
  • Woden, the Saxon Idol 54
  • Wokey-hole 34
  • Wolf-hall 53
  • Wolfhere, King 362
  • Wolsey, Cardinal, Abbot of St. Albans 175. Founds Christ-church in Oxford 216. His Body where found 376
  • Wolston, Bishop 292
  • Wolverhampton 350
  • Wood, Family, Warning preceding their Deaths 244
  • Woodstock 231, 239
  • Woolhampton 64
  • Worcester 290 to 294
  • Wotton 184, 279
  • Wreck, River 368, 377
  • Wreken-hill 347
  • Wren, Sir Christopher 160, 227
  • [Page]Wrestling, the Cornishmen eminent for that Exercise p. 8
  • Wrexham 331, 332
  • Wrey, Sir Bourchier 13
  • Wrightwicke, Richard, B.D. Founder of Pembroke Col­lege in Oxford 220
  • Wroxeter 347
  • Wye, River p. 269, 277, 278, 303, 304, 307, 309, 310, 313, 314, 322
  • Wylde, Mr. his Seat 291
  • Ystwith, River 322

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  • 1. A New Voyage to Italy, with curious Observations on several other Countries; as Germany, Swit­zerland, Savoy, Geneva, Flanders, and Holland: Toge­ther with useful Instructions for those who shall Travel thither. The fifth Edition, with large Additions through­out the Whole, and adorned with several new Figures. By Mr. Misson. In 4 Vols. 8vo.
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