A TOUR Thro' the Whole ISLAND of GREAT BRITAIN. Divided into CIRCUITS or JOURNEYS. GIVING A Particular and Entertaining ACCOUNT of whatever is Curious, and worth Observation; VIZ.

  • I. A DESCRIPTION of the Prin­cipal Cities and Towns, their Situation, Government, and Commerce.
  • II. The Customs, Manners, Exer­cises, Diversions, and Imploy­ment of the People.
  • III. The Produce and Improve­ment of the Lands, the Trade, and Manufactures.
  • IV. The Sea Ports and Fortifi­cations, the Course of Rivers and the Inland Navigation.
  • V. The Publick Edifices, Seats, and Palaces of the NOBILITY and GENTRY.
  • VI. The Isles of Wight, Port­land, Jersey, Guernsey, and the other English and Scotish Isles of most Note.

Interspersed with Useful OBSERVATIONS. Particularly fitted for the Perusal of such as desire to Travel over the ISLAND.


The THIRD EDITION. With very great Additions, Improvements, and Corrections; which bring it down to the Year 1742.


With a Copious INDEX to each Volume.




THE kind Reception which the last Edition of this Work has met with, determined the Pro­prietors to spare no Expence to make the present as com­plete as the Nature of the Work would admit; and the Editor, in pursuance of their Intention, has (besides his own Ob­servations and Experience) been favour'd with such ample Materials by several curious Gentlemen, as have made it impossible to comprize the Whole in Three Volumes, as before; altho' he omitted all that could be spared, and abstracted whatever would bear it. He was therefore obliged to add a Fourth Volume.

And this he found himself under the greater Necessity of doing; because, wh [...]n he came to compare the former Edition with [Page iv] his own Notes and the Maps, he discovered many very material Omissions; particularly that the whole County of Hertford was omitted, excepting St. Albans, and one or two Villages, as also the Isles of Wight, Portland, Guernsey, Jersey, Alderney, and Sarke; together with that of Man, and the Scots Isles: That the Description of the Northern Counties of England, which abound with great Numbers of Re­markables, was also very defective: and, That the first Author had directed his Tour in several Places in such a manner, as to pass wholly by several of the best Towns, and most remarkable Places, and quite out of any Geographical Course or Order.

Then the Materials which the Editor was supplied with for Scotland, he found would swell that Part of the United King­dom to one intire Volume; which before made not half a one; and he was glad of the Opportunity of doing some further Justice to that Country, which has generally been slightly considered by those who know little of it.

It must also be observed, that the first Author had, in many Places, disclaimed Antiquities, as a Subject out of his Province: Whereas we have thought [Page v] ourselves obliged, so far as our Limits would permit, to take Notice of such, as (still remaining) may be considered as a Part of the Present State of the Counties and Places where, at this Day, they conti­nue visible; and which may, moreover, merit the Attention of a curious Traveller; and particularly of such Antiquities as have been brought to Light since the last Edition of Camden's Britannia.

For the above Reason, we have been pretty ample in our Accounts of the famous Stonehenge, and the Barrows in Wilts; and confess our Obligations on this Head, to the Learned Dr. Stukeley in his late Work on that Subject, to whom we are also beholden in several other Places.

We have likewise thought ourselves obliged to take Notice of the Benefits which several Port and Trading Towns in this Kingdom, as well in its Northern as Sou­thern Parts, have of late Years received from Acts of Parliament for inlarging and restoring of Piers and Harbours, Repairs of Roads, and for making Rivers navigable, where the Face of Affairs in their parti­cular Neighbourhoods have been any way altered or effected by those laudable Works.

[Page vi]We have, moreover, subjoined to this Edition, Lists of the Cities and Boroughs which return Members to the Parliament of Great Britain; the Lists of such Gen­tlemens Seats in each County, as we had not room to describe; likewise a brief Account of the English Bishopricks, and Lists of the Peers of England and Scotland, in such a manner as will not be subject to any other Variations than that of the total Extinction of Families; for our Intention was to carry this Piece, as much as the Nature of the Work would admit, beyond the Reach of temporary Fluctuations and Changes.

By what we have said, it will appear, that this will have the Face of a new Work, and indeed more than the Face, as will be seen by any who will take the Pains to compare the different Editions; and that therefore it was impossible to print by themselves, for the Use of the Purchasers of the last Edition, those new Observa­tions, Descriptions and Corrections which are incorporated in the present; as the Proprietors were very desirous to have done, had it been practicable. But this we may venture to promise, that tho' the Nature of this Work is such, that there must be always Room for Additions, &c. [Page vii] as new Discoveries may be made, or Alter­ations happen by Time; yet, that all such necessary Alterations and Additions shall, for the future, be printed by themselves, (after the manner of the Appendix to VOL. III. of this Edition) that the Rea­der may not be under the Necessity of re­purchasing the whole Work.

But lest it should be imagined, from any thing we have said above, that we have been so ungenerous, as to endeavour to raise a Merit to the present Edition, at the Expence of the former, we shall observe, That the good Reception which the La­bours of the Original Author met with in his first Edition, (and which also attended the second, which was printed with very great Additions and Improvements) is no bad Argument of the Value of his Performance. And indeed He well deserved that Success, who could with Justice give such an Ac­count of his Abilities for the Undertaking, as is contained in the following Paragraphs.

'The Preparations for this Work, says he, have been suitable to the Author's earnest Concern for its Usefulness. Se­venteen very large Circuits, or Journeys, have been taken thro' divers Parts sepa­rately, and Three general Tours over [Page viii] almost the whole English Part of the Island; in all which the Author has not been wanting to treasure up just Remarks upon particular Places and Things; so that he is very little in Debt to other Mens Labours, and gives but very few Accounts of Things but what he has been an Eye-witness of himself.

'Besides these several Journeys in Eng­land, he has also lived some time in Scotland, and has travelled critically over great Part of it: He has viewed the North Part of England, and the South Part of Scotland, Five several times over. All which is hinted here, to let the Readers know, what Reason they have to be satisfy'd with the Authority of the Relation; and that the Accounts here given are not the Produce of a cursory View, or raised upon the borrow'd Lights of other Observers.'

We shall only add, That if the First Edition had all these Advantages, we may very safely submit the Merit of the present to the Judgment of the candid Reader.


LETTER I. A DESCRIPTION of Part of the County of ESSEX, and of the County of SUF­FOLK, &c.


I SET out from London on my first Journey, Eastward; and took a Cir­cuit down by the Coast of the Thames thro' the Marshes or Hundreds, on the South side of the County of Essex, to Malden, Colchester, and Harwich, thence continuing on the Coast of Suffolk to Yar­mouth; thence round by the Edge of the Sea, on the North and West-side of Norfolk, to Lynn, Wisbich, and the Wash; thence back again on the [Page 2] North-side of Suffolk; thence into the County of Cambridge; and so to the West-part of Essex, end­ing it in Middlesex, near the Place where I began: reserving the Middle or Centre of the several Coun­ties to some little Excursions, which I made by themselves.

Passing Bow-Bridge, where the County of Essex begins, I came first to the Village of Stratford, which is greatly increased of late Years in Houses and Inhabitants, every Vacancy being filled up, in a manner, with the Addition of two little new-built Hamlets, as they may be called, on the Forest-side of the Town; namely, Maryland-Point, and the Gravel-Pits, one facing the Road to Woodford and Epping, and the other that to Ilford. As for the Hither-part, it is almost joined to Bow, in spite of Rivers, Canals, Marshy-grounds, &c.

The same Increase of Buildings may be seen proportionally in the other Villages adjacent, espe­cially on the Forest-side; as at Low-Layton, Lay­ton-stone, Walthamstow, Woodford, Wansted, and the Towns of West-Ham, Plaistow, Upton, &c. and this, generally speaking, of handsome large Houses, from 20l. to 50l. a Year; being chiefly the Habitations of the richest Citizens, such as are able to keep a Country, as well as a Town House, or such as have left off Trade altogether. This is so apparent, that they tell me, there are no less than Two hundred Coaches kept by the Inhabitants within the Circumference of the few Villages named above, besides such as are kept by accidental Lodgers: the Cause of which I shall inlarge upon, when I come to speak of the like in the Counties of Middlesex, Surrey, &c. where there will be still more Occasion to take notice of it.

There have been discerned within these few Years, in the Bottom of Hackney-Marsh, between Old-ford and the Wyck, the Remains of a great Stone Cause­way, [Page 3] which is supposed to have been the High­way, or great Road, from London to Essex, instead of that which now leads over the Bridge between Bow and Stratford.

That the great Road lay this Way, and that the great Causeway continu'd just over the River, where now the Temple-Mills stand, and passed by Sir Henry Hickes's House at Ruckholls, is not at all doubted; and that it was one of those famous Highways made by the Romans, there is undeniable Proof, by the several Marks of Roman Work, and by Roman Coins, and other Antiquities found there, some of which were collected by the late Reverend Mr. Strype, Vicar of Low-Layton.

From hence the great Road passed up to Layton­stone, a Place by some known now as much by the Sign of the Green-Man, formerly a Lodge upon the Edge of the Forest; and crossing by Wansted-house, the noble Seat of Earl Tilney, (of which hereafter) went over the same River, which we now cross at Ilford; and passing that Part of the great Forest, called Henault-Forest, came into the pre­sent great Road, a little on this side the Whalebone, a Place so called because a Rib-bone of a large Whale, taken in the River of Thames the Year that Oliver Cromwell died, 1658. was fixed there.

According to my first Intention, of effectually viewing the Sea-coasts of Essex, Suffolk, and Norfolk, I went from Stratford to Barking, a large Market-town, but chiefly inhabited by Fishermen, whose Smacks ride in the Thames, at the Mouth of Bark­ing Creek; from whence their Fish are sent up to London, to the Market at Billingsgate, in small Boats.

These Fishing-Smacks are very useful Vessels to the Publick upon many Occasions; as particularly in time of War they are used as Press-smacks, run­ning to all the Northern and Western Coasts to pick [Page 4] up Seamen to man the Navy, when any Expedition is at hand, that requires a sudden Equipment. At other times, being excellent Sailors, they are Ten­ders to particular Men of War; and on an Expe­dition, they have been made use of as Machines, for the blowing up fortified Ports; as formerly at St. Malo, and other Places.

The Parish of Barking is very large; and by the Improvement of Lands recovered out of the Thames, and out of the River which runs by the Town, the great and small Tithes, as the Townsmen assured me, are worth above 600l. per Annum. This Parish has two Chapels of Ease, viz. one at Ilford, and one on the side of the Forest, called New-chapel.

A little beyond the Town, on the Road to Da­genham, stood a great old House, where, Tradition says, the Gunpowder-Treason was contrived, and where all the first Consultations about it were held.

This Side of the County is rather rich from the Nature of its Land, than from the Number of its Inhabitants, which is occasioned by the Unhealthi­ness of the Air; for these low Marsh Grounds, which, with all the South-side of the County, have been gained, as it were, out of the River Thames, and the Sea, where the River is wide enough to be called so, begin here, or rather at West-Ham, by Stratford, and extend themselves from hence East­ward; growing wider, till we come beyond Til­bury, when the flat Country lies six, seven, or eight Miles in Breadth, and is both unhealthy and un­pleasant.

However, it is very good Farming in the Marshes, because the Landlords let good Peny-worths, tho' the Land is rich; for it being a Place where every body cannot live, those that venture it, will have Encouragement; and it is but reasonable they should.

[Page 5]In passing from Barking to Dagenham, we saw the Place where was the famous Breach, that laid near 5000 Acres of Land under Water; but which, after near ten Years Inundation, and the Works being several times blown up, was at last effectually stopped by Captain Perry, who for several Years had been employed in the Czar of Muscovy's Works, at Veronitza, on the River Don.

Great Part of the Lands in these Levels, especially those on this side East-Tilbury, are held by the Farmers, Cow-keepers, and Grasing-butchers, who live in and near London, who generally stock them with Lincolnshire and Leicestershire Wethers, (which they buy in Smithfield, in September and October, when the Grasiers sell off their Stocks) and feed here till Christmas or Candlemas; and tho' they are not made much the fatter here, than when bought in, yet very good Advantage accrues by the Differ­ence of the Price of Mutton between Michaelmas, when cheapest, and Candlemas, when dearest; and this is what the Butchers call, by way of Excellence, right Marsh Mutton.

At the End of these Marshes, close to the Edge of the River, stands Tilbury-fort, which may justly be looked upon as the Key of the City of London: It is a regular Fortification, the Design of it was a a Pentagon, but the Water-bastion, as it would have been called, was never built; the Plan was laid out by Sir Martin Beckman, chief Engineer to King Charles II. who also designed the Works at Sheerness. The Esplanade of the Fort is very large, and the Bastions the largest of any in England. The Foundation is laid upon Piles driven down two an end of one another, so far, till they were assured they were below the Chanel of the River, and that the Piles, which were pointed with Iron, entered into the solid Chalk-rock adjoining to the Chalk-hills on the other side.

[Page 6]The Works to the Land-side are complete; the Bastions are faced with Brick. There is a double Ditch, or Moat, the innermost of which is 180 Feet broad; a good Counterscarp, and a Covered Way marked out, with Ravelins and Tenailles; but they have not been completed.

On the Land-side there are also two small Re­doubts of Brick, but the chief Strength of this Fort on the Land-side consists in being able to lay the whole Level under Water, and so to make it im­possible for an Enemy to carry on Approaches that way.

On the Side next the River, is a very strong Cur­tain, with a noble Gate called the Water-gate in the Middle, and the Ditch is palisado'd. At the Place where the Water-bastion was designed to be built, and which by the Plan should run wholly out into the River, so to flank the two Curtains, on each side, stands a high Tower, which they tell us was built in Queen Elizabeth's Time, and was called the Block-house; the Side next the Water is vacant.

Before this Curtain, above and below the said Va­cancy, is a Platform in the place of a Counterscarp, on which are planted 106 Cannon, generally carry­ing from 24 to 46 Pound Ball; a Battery so terrible, as well imports the Consequence of that Place: be­sides which, there are smaller Pieces planted between, and the Bastions and Curtain also are planted with Guns; so that they must be bold Fellows who will venture in the biggest Ships to pass such a Battery, if the Men appointed to serve the Guns, do their Duty, as becomes them.

From hence there is nothing for many Miles together remarkable, but a continued Level of un­healthy Marshes, called The three Hundreds, till we come before Leigh, and to the Mouth of the Rivers Chelmer and Black-water, saving that the Towns of Horndon, Rayley and Rochford, lie near [Page 7] the Sea-coast, extending in the order I have named; but are of no Note. The above Rivers, united, make a large Firth, or Inlet of the Sea, which our Fishermen and Seamen, who use it as a Port, call Malden-water.

In this Inlet is Osey or Osyth Island, so well known by our London Men of Pleasure, for producing such vast Numbers of Wild-Ducks, Mallards, Teals and Wigeons, that the Island seems covered with them, at certain Times of the Year, and they go from Lon­don for the Pleasure of Shooting; and often come home very well loaden with Game; and sometimes too with an Essex Ague on their Backs, which they find a heavier Load than the Fowls they have shot.

On the Shore, beginning a little below Candy Island, or Leigh Road, lies a great Shoal or Sand, called the Black Tayl, which runs out near three Leagues into the Sea due East; at the End of it stands a Pole or Mast, set up by the Trinity-house of London, as a Sea-mark: this is called Shoe-beacon, from the Point of Land, where this Sand begins, which is called Shoeberry-ness, from a Town of that Name, which stands by it. From this Sand, and on the Edge of Shoeberry, before it, or South-west of it, all along, to the Mouth of Colchester-water, the Shore is full of Shoals and Sands, with some deep Chanels between; all which are so full of Fish, that the Barking Smacks are well employed here, and the Shore swarms, besides, with small Fisher-boats, belonging to the Villages and Towns on the Coast, which come in every Tide with what they take: and selling the smaller Fish in the Country, send the best and largest upon Horses, which travel Night and Day to London Market.

On this Shore also are taken the best and most relishing, tho' not the largest, Oysters in England: The Spot from whence they have their Appellation is a little Bank called Woelfleet, in the Mouth of the [Page 8] River Crouch, called Crooksea-water; but the chief Place where these Oysters are now had, is from Wyvenhoe, and the Shores adjacent, whither they are brought by the Fishermen, who take them at the Mouth of Colchester-water, and about the Sand they call the Spits, and carry them up to Wyvenhoe, where they are laid in Beds or Pits on the Shore to feed, as they call it; and then being barrelled up, and carried to Colchester, which is but three Miles off, they are sent to London by Land, and are from thence called Colchester Oysters.

They take also here fine Soals, which generally yield a good Price at London Market: also some­times middling Turbut, with Whitings, Codling, and large Flounders.

In the several Creeks and Openings, on this Shore, are also other Islands, but of no great Note, except Mersey, which lies between the two Openings of Malden-water and Colchester-water; and is a Place of such difficult Access, that 'tis thought a thousand Men might keep Possession of it against a great Force, whether by Land or Sea. On this account, and because if possessed by an Enemy, it would shut up all the Navigation and Fishery on that Side, a Fort was built on the South-east Point of it; and gene­rally, in a Dutch War, a strong Garison is kept there to defend it.

At this Place may be said to end, what we call the Three Hundreds of Essex, which include the marshy Country, viz. Barstable Hundred, Rochester Hundred, and Dengy Hundred.

One thing deserves mention here; which is, That all along this County it is very frequent to meet with Men that have had from Five or Six, to Fourteen or Fifteen Wives; and I was informed, that in the Marshes, over-against Candy Island, was a Farmer, who was then living with the five-and-twentieth; and that his Son, who was but Thirty-five [Page 9] Years old, had already had about Fourteen. In­deed, this Part of the Story I only had by Report, tho' from good Hands: but the other is well known, and will be attested, about Fobbing, Curringham, Thundersly, Benfleet, Prittlewell, Wakering, Great Stambridge, Cricksea, Burnham, Dengy, and other Towns of the like Situation: the Reason, as a merry Fellow told me, who said he had had about a Dozen, was this, That they being bred in the Marshes themselves, and seasoned to the Place, did pretty well; but that they generally chose to leave their own Lasses to their Neighbours out of the Marshes, and went into the Uplands for a Wife: That when they took the young Women out of the wholsome fresh Air, they were clear and healthy; but when they came into the Marshes among the Fogs and Damps, they presently changed Complexion, got an Ague or two, and seldom held it above half a Year, or a Year at most: And then, said he, we go to the Uplands again, and fetch another. So that marrying of Wives was reckoned a kind of good Farm to them. Nor do the Men in these Parts hold it out, as in other Countries; for we seldom meet with very ancient People among the Poor; insomuch, that hardly one half of the In­habitants are Natives of the Place; but such as come from other Parts for the Advantage of good Farms.

From the Marshes and low Grounds, being not able to travel without many Windings and Inden­tures, by reason of the Creeks and Waters, I came up to the antient Town of Malden, situate at the Conflux of two principal Rivers, the Chelmer and the Black-water, where they enter into the Sea. It is built in the Form of a Cross, is a Liberty in itself, and has a convenient Haven for Ships; it consists of one Street near a Mile long, besides Lanes, &c. It is governed by Two Bailiffs, Aldermen, Steward, Re­corder, &c. Here is a good publick Library, for [Page 10] the Use of the Minister and the Clergy of the Hun­dreds adjoining to the Sea, and any Gentleman may borrow a Book, upon depositing the Value of it.

The Chanel called Malden-water is navigable to the Town; where, by that means, is a great Trade for carrying Corn by Water to London; the Coun­ty of Essex being (especially on that Side) a great Corn Country. King Edward the Elder resided here whilst he built the Town and Castle of Witham in this County, and also Hertford Castle.

Malden was a Roman Colony, which Camden diffidently conjectures to be the antient Camalodunum. But Mr. Salmon will have it to be the Villa Faustini, which has been so long attributed to St. Edmund's-bury: but however that be, it was here the Bri­tons, under the valiant Queen Boadicea, cut in Pieces the tenth Legion, killed above 80,000 Ro­mans, and destroyed the Colony; but she was after­wards overthrown herself in a great Battle, 60,000 Britons slain, and herself and Daughters most in­humanly treated and disgraced, by those great Re­formers of the World, who, in her Case, forgot not only the Honour due to the Sex, but that which the truly Brave shew to the Brave in Misfortune.

Being obliged to come thus far into the Uplands, I made it my Road to pass thro' Witham, built, as I mentioned, by Edward the Elder. 'Tis a pleasant, well-situated Market-town, in which, and in its Neighbourhood, are many Gentlemen of good For­tunes and Families.

Nearer Chelmsford, hard by Boreham, is the fa­mous Seat of Beaulieu, in which King Henry VIII. very much delighted. It is the largest Edifice in the County next Audley-end, where lived the late Lord Viscount Barrington, who had the Advantage to be twice made Heir to the Estates of Gentlemen not at all related to him, at least one of them, as is mentioned in his Patent of Creation. He changed [Page 11] the Name of Shute for that of Barrington, by an Act of Parliament, and had the Dignities of a Baron and Viscount of Ireland conferred on him by K. Geo. I.

The Product of all this Part of the Country is Corn, as that of the marshy feeding Grounds is Grass, where their chief Business is breeding of Calves, which I need not say are the best and fattest, and the largest Veal in England, if not in the World.

Kelvedon, or, as it is commonly called, Keldon, lies within three Miles of Witham; which, as it is said, derives its Name from Kill-Dane, the Massacre of the Danes being begun here by the Women; but as neither Mr. Camden nor any Author of Credit mentions it, I think the Story is not to be heeded.

Colchester, the Iciani of the Romans, according to Mr. Salmon, is pleasantly situated upon an Emi­nence above the River Coln. It is a large and populous Town, adorned with handsome Streets, and, tho' it cannot be said to be finely built, yet there are abundance of good Houses in it. In the Conclusion of the late Civil War it suffered a severe Siege; which, as it made a resolute Defence, was turned into a Blockade, wherein the Garison, and Inhabitants also, suffered the utmost Extremity of Hunger, and were at last obliged to surrender at Discretion; when their two chief Officers, Sir Charles Lucas, and Sir George Lisle, were shot to Death under the Castle-wall.

The battered Walls, the Breaches in the Turrets, and the ruined Churches, still shew Marks of this Siege, except that the Church of St. Mary (where they had the Royal Fort) is rebuilt; but the Steeple, which was Two-thirds battered down, (the Besieged having a large Culverin upon it, which did much Execution) remains still in that Condition.

The Lines of Contravallation, which surrounded the whole Town, and the Forts of the Besiegers, remain very visible in many Places.

[Page 12]The River Coln, which passes through the Town, encompasses it on the North and East; and served, in Times of War, for a complete Defence on those Sides. There are three Bridges over it, and it is navigable within three Miles of the Town, for Ships of large Burden; a little lower it may receive even a Royal Navy: and up to that Part called the Hithe, close to the Houses, it is navigable for Hoys and small Barks; for which it is indebted to three Acts of Parliament passed for that purpose, one in the Reign of King William III. one in that of King George I. and the other in that of King George II.

This Hithe is a long Street, passing from West to East, on the South-side of the Town, and is so po­pulous towards the River, that it may be called, The Wapping of Colchester. There is one Church in that Part of the Town, a large Quay by the River, and a good Custom-house.

The Town chiefly subsists by the Trade of making Bays, tho' indeed all the Towns around carry on the same Trade; as Kelvedon, Witham, Coggshall, Brain­tree, Bocking, &c. and the whole County, large as it is, may be said to be employed, and in Part maintained, by the Spinning of Wool, for the Bay-Trade of Colchester, and its adjacent Towns.

The Town of Colchester has been supposed to con­tain about 40,000 People, including the Out-vil­lages within its Liberty, of which there are a great many, the Liberty of the Town being of a large Extent. The Government is by a Mayor, High-Steward, a Recorder or his Deputy, Eleven Alder­men, a Chamberlain, a Town-clerk, Assistants, and Eighteen Common-council-men.

There are in Colchester Eight Churches, besides those which are damaged, and Five Meeting-houses, whereof two for Quakers; besides one Dutch, and one French Church. Its other publick Edifices are,

[Page 13]1. Bay-hall, where the Goodness of the Manufacture of Bays made in this Town is ascertained by a Corpo­ration established for this Purpose, consisting of a Set of Men, called Governors of the Dutch Bay-hall.

2. The Guild-hall of the Town, called by them the Moot-hall; contiguous to which is the Town-gaol.

3. The Work-house for the Poor, which has been inlarged of late Years.

4. A Grammar Free-school; which has good Al­lowance to the Master, who is chosen by the Town.

5. The Castle of Colchester is a Monument of the Antiquity of the Place, it being built, as the Walls of the Town also are, with Roman Bricks; and the Roman Coins dug up here, and ploughed up in the Fields adjoining, confirm it. The Inhabitants boast much, that Helena, the Mother of Constantine the Great, first Christian Emperor of the Romans, was born there: but it would be hard to make it out; and indeed, were it our Business, we could produce strong Proofs to the contrary. Mr. Camden says, That this Castle was, in his Time, ready to fall with Age; and yet it has stood above 120 Years since, and perhaps is not much worse than it was then, altho' it received several Cannon Shot in the last Siege of the Town, which made no Impression upon it, as the Besiegers found, and therefore left off firing against it, and the rather, as the Garison made no great Use of it against them. The Queen's Head in the Market-place, and the Stable, are also Roman Buildings. There was likewise a Roman Military Way from Colchester, by Braintree, Dun­mow, and farther that Way.

There are two CHARITY-SCHOOLS set up here, and carried on by a generous Subscription, with very good Success.

From Colchester I took a Turn down to the Coast. The Land running out a great way into the Sea, South, and South-east, makes that Pro­montory [Page 14] of Land, called the Nase, well-known to Seamen who use the Northern Trade. Here one sees a Sea open as an Ocean, without any opposite Shore, tho' it be no more than the Mouth of the Thames. This Point, called the Nase, and the North-east Point of Kent, near Margate, called the North-Foreland, make the Mouth of the River, and the Port of London, tho' it be here above 60 Miles over.

But as it is pretended by some, that according to the present Usage of the Custom-house, the Port of London is not allowed to extend so far; 'tis thought proper to insert the Clause taken from the Act of Parliament, establishing the Extent of that Port.

‘"To prevent all future Differences and Disputes, touching the Extent and Limits of the Port of London, the said Port is declared to extend, and be accounted from the Promontory, or Point, called the North-Foreland, in the Isle of Thanet, and from thence Northward, in a right Line, to the Point called the NASE, beyond the Gunfleet, upon the Coast of Essex; and so continued West­ward throughout the River Thames, and the seve­ral Chanels, Streams and Rivers falling into it, to London-bridge; saving the usual and known Rights, Liberties and Privileges of the Ports of Sandwich and Ipswich, and either of them, and the known Members thereof, and of the Custom­ers, Comptrollers, Searchers, and their Deputies, of and within the said Ports of Sandwich, and Ipswich, and the several Creeks, Harbours and Havens, to them, or either of them, respectively belonging, within the Counties of Kent and Essex."’

Notwithstanding which, the Port of London, as in Use since the said Order, is understood to reach no farther than Gravesend in Kent, and Tilbury-point [Page 15] in Essex; and the Ports of Rochester, Milton, and Feversham, belong to the Port of Sandwich.

In like manner the Ports of Harwich, Colchester, Wyvenhoe, Malden, Leigh, &c. are said to be Mem­bers of the Port of Ipswich.

This Observation may suffice for what is needful to be said upon the same Subject, when I come to speak of the Port of Sandwich, and its Members, and their Privileges with respect to Rochester, Milton, Feversham, &c. in my Circuit thro' the County of Kent.

At Walton, under the Nase, they find on the Shore Copperas-stones in great Quantities; and there are several large Works called Copperas-houses, where 'tis made with great Expence.

On the North-Foreland is a new Mark, erected by the Trinity-house Men, at the publick Expence, being a round Brick Tower, near 80 Feet high. The Sea gains so much upon the Land here, by the continual Winds at South-west, that within the Memory of some of the Inhabitants, above 30 Acres of Land have been lost in one Place.

From hence we go back into the County about four Miles, because of the Creeks which lie between; and turning East again, come to Harwich, on the utmost Eastern Point of this large County.

Harwich is a Town, strong by Situation, and may be made more so by Art. The Harbour or Road is one of the securest in England, and covered at the Entrance by Landguard-fort, and a Bat­tery of Guns to the Seaward, just as at Tilbury, and which sufficiently defend the Mouth of the River. Tho' the Entrance or Opening of the River into the Sea is very wide, especially at High-water, at least two Miles, if not three, over; yet the Chanel, in which the Ships must keep and come to the Harbour, is deep, narrow, and lies only on the Side of the Fort; so that all the Ships [Page 16] which come in, or go out, must come within Gun­shot of the Fort.

The Fort is on the Suffolk Side of the Bay, but stands so far into the Sea, upon the Point of a Sand or Shoal running out towards the Essex Side, that, in a manner, it covers the Mouth of the Haven; and our Surveyors of the Country affirm it to be in the County of Essex. The making this Place, which was formerly no other than a Sand in the Sea, solid enough for the Foundation of so good a Fortifi­cation, cost many Years Labour, frequent Repairs, and a prodigious Expence; but 'tis now so firm, that neither Storms nor Tides affect it.

The Harbour is of a vast Extent; for the River Stour from Maningtree, and River Orwel from Ipswich, empty themselves here; and the Chanels of both are large and deep, and safe for all Weathers; and where they join, they make a large Bay, or Road, able to receive the biggest Ships of War, and the greatest Number that ever the World saw to­gether. In the Dutch War, great Use was made of this Harbour; and there have been 100 Sail of Men of War with their Attendants, and between 3 and 400 Sail of Colliers, all riding in it at a time, with great Safety and Convenience.

Harwich is the Port where the Packet-boats be­tween England and Holland, go out and come in: the Inhabitants are far from being famed for good Usage to Strangers, but on the contrary, are esteemed a little extravagant in their Reckonings, in the Pub­lick-houses; this has encouraged the setting up of Sloops, which they now call Passage-boats, to go directly from the River of Thames to Holland: tho' the Passage may be something longer, yet the Masters of the Sloops are said to be more obliging to Passengers, and more reasonable in the Expence, and the Vessels good Sea-boats. Harwich has been a Sufferer on this Account.

[Page 17]The People of Harwich boast, that their Town is walled, and their Streets paved with Clay, and yet that one is as strong, and the other as clean, as those that are built or paved with Stone. The Fact is indeed true; for there is a sort of Clay in the Cliff, between the Town and the Beacon-hill adjoining, which, when it falls down into the Sea, where it is beaten with the Waves and the Weather, turns gra­dually into Stone. But the chief Reason assigned is from the Water of a certain Spring or Well, which rising in the Cliff, runs down into the Sea among those Pieces of Clay, and petrifies them as it runs; and the Force of the Sea often stirring, and perhaps turning the Lumps of Clay, when Storms of Wind may give Force enough to the Water, causes them to harden every-where alike; otherwise those which were not quite sunk in the Water of the Spring, would be petrify'd but in part. These Stones are gathered up to pave the Streets, and build the Houses, and are indeed very hard. 'Tis also remarkable, that some of them, taken up before they are thoroughly petrify'd, will, upon breaking them, appear to be hard as a Stone without, and soft as Clay in the Middle; whereas others, that have lain a due time, shall be thorough Stone to the Centre, and full as hard within as without. The same Spring is said to turn Wood into Iron: but this I take to be no more or less than the Quality, which (as I mentioned of the Shore at the Ness) is found to be in much of the Stone along this Shore, of the Copperas Kind: and 'tis certain, that the Copperas-stone (so called) is found in all that Cliff, and even where the Water of this Spring has run; and I presume, that those who call the hardened Pieces of Wood, which they take out of this Well, by the Name of Iron, never tried the Quality of it with the Fire or Hammer; if they had, it is not unlikely, that they would have given some other Account of it.

[Page 18]On the Promontory of Land, which they call Beacon-hill, which lies beyond or behind the Town, toward the Sea, is a Light-house, to give the Ships Direction in their sailing by, as well as their coming into the Harbour at Night.

This Town was formerly fortify'd; but in the Reign of King Charles I. the Fortifications were demolished. It has since been ordered to be fortify'd again, and Ground has been bought accordingly, to the King's Use, by Act of Parliament: but there is nothing more done in it yet; and indeed it is many Years since the Government, having a better Secu­rity in the British Shipping, have had Occasion to fortify Towns to the Landward.

It was incorporated in the 13th of Edward II. The Harwich Men pretended a Grant from Edw. III. to take Custom-duties for Goods coming into the Haven, till on a Complaint made by the Town of Ipswich, that it was an Infringement upon their Li­berties, an Inquisition was appointed by that Prince at Ipswich in the 14th of his Reign, by which it was determined against Harwich, in favour of Ipswich.

Harwich, after all, may be said to be a neat, clean, well-built Town, enjoys a good Maritime Trade, is governed by a Mayor, &c. has a Market every Tues­day and Friday, and two annual Fairs, one on May-day, the other on October the 18th.

Landguard-fort was built in the Reign of King James I. and was a much more considerable Forti­fication than at present; having had four Bastions, named the King's, the Queen's, Holland's, and Warwick's, mounted with 60 very large Guns, par­ticularly those on the Royal Bastion, where the King's Standard was display'd, which would throw a 28 Pound Ball over Harwich; and it had a con­stant Garison, with a Chapel and many Houses, for the Governor, Gunners, and other Officers. But it has been demolished, and a small Platform made instead [Page 19] of it by the Water-side; but yet, as the particular Current of the Chanel, which Ships must keep in, as I have said, obliges them to pass just by the Fort, the Harbour is sufficiently defended on the Sea-side from sudden Invasion.

And now, being at the Extremity of the County of Essex, of which I have given you some View, as to that Side next the Sea only; I shall conclude this Part of my Circuit, by telling you, that I will take the Towns which lie more towards the Centre of the County, in my Return by the North and West Part, that I may give you a few Hints of some Towns which were near me in my Rout this way.

On the Road from London to Colchester, before I came into it at Witham, lie four good Market-towns at near equal Distance from one another; viz. Rumford, Brentwood, Ingatstone, and Chelmsford. Rumford stands first, and is noted for two Markets, one for Calves and Hogs, the other for Corn and other Provisions, mostly bought up for London Market.

At the farther End of this Town, in the Middle of a stately Park, stood Guldy-hall, vulgarly Giddy-hall, an antient Seat of one Sir Thomas Coke, Lord-Mayor of London Anno 1462. in the Reign of Edward IV. whose great Riches being his principal Crime, exposed him in bad Times to so great Suf­ferings, that tho' he was acquitted, by the In­tegrity of his Judge, of the Crimes laid to his Charge, yet he was fined to the Value very nearly of his whole Estate. It is since pulled down to the Ground, and there now stands a stately Mansion-house, built upon the Spot by Sir John Eyles, lately Lord-Mayor of London.

Brentwood and Ingatstone are two others, and are large thorough-fare Towns, full of good Inns, chiefly maintained by the Multitude of Carriers and [Page 20] Passengers, constantly passing this Way to London, with Droves of Cattle, Provisions and Manufactures.

Chelmsford is the 4th, chiefly supported by the fame Business. It is the County-town, where the Assizes are often held, and stands on the Conflux of two Rivers, the Chelmer, whence the Town derives its Name, and the Cann; and has a good Free-school belonging to it.

South-east of Brentwood lies Billiricay, a pretty considerable Market-town.

Near Chelmsford stands a Seat of the Right Ho­nourable the Earl of Fitzwalter, which is seen on the Left-hand of the Road, just before you enter the Town. The House is large, and hath been lately new fronted, so that it makes a handsome Appearance. There are also several new Planta­tions about it, and in time, if his Lordship con­tinues his Design of improving it, it will become a fine Seat.

I shall take notice, in my Return through these Parts, of the noble Seat of the Lord Petre, and his Lordship's great Improvements in this County.

At Lees, or Lee's-Priory, as some call it, is to be seen an antient House, in the Middle of a beautiful Park, formerly the Seat of the Duke of Manchester; but after the Death of the Duke it was sold to the Duchess Dowager of Buckinghamshire, and since purchased by Mr. Hoare.

Five Market-towns fill up the rest of this Part of the Country; Dunmow, Braintree, Thaxted, Hal­sted, and Coggshall; all noted for the Manufacture of Bays. But Dunmow I must particularly mention, on account of its famous old Story of its Flitch of Bacon; which is this:

One Robert Fitzwalter, a powerful Baron in this County, in the Time of Henry III. instituted a Custom in the Priory here; That whatever married Man did not repent of his being married, or differ and [Page 21] dispute with his Wife within a Year and a Day after his Marriage, and would swear to the Truth of it, kneeling upon two hard pointed Stones in the Priory Church-yard, set up for that Purpose, in Presence of the Prior and Convent, such Person should have a Flitch of Bacon.

This has been actually claimed and received, as appears by Record there; but the Priory being dis­solved, there is an End of the Flitch; and it were well, if no worse Consequence had attended the Dis­solution of Religious Houses. For as there was no Danger of many Claimants, there were the fewer to regret the Loss.

Of Braintree and Bocking I shall take notice in my Return to London.

Formerly, 'tis thought, the Forests of Epping and Henault took up all the South Part of the County; but particularly we are assured, that it reached to the River Chelmer, and into Dengy Hundred; and from thence again West to Epping and Waltham, where it continues to be a Forest still.

Probably that of Epping has been a Weald or Forest ever since this Island has been inhabited, and may shew us, in some Parts of it, where Inclosures and Tillage have not broke in upon it, what the general Face of this Island was, before the Romans landed in Britain.

The Constitution of this Forest is best seen, as to its Antiquity, by the pleasant Grant of it from Edward the Confessor, before the Norman Conquest, to Randolph Peperking, one of his Favourites, who was after called Peverell, and whose Name remains still in several Villages in this County; as particu­larly that of Hatfield Peverell, in the Road from Chelmsford to Witham, which is supposed to be originally a Park (called a Field in those Days); and Hartfield may be as much as to say, a Park for Deer; for the Stags were in those Days called Harts; [Page 22] so that this was neither more nor less than Randolph Peperking's Hart-field, or Deer-park.

This Randolph or Ralph Peverell had, it seems, a beautiful Lady to his Wife, who was Daughter of Ingelrick, one of Edward the Confessor's Noblemen: He had two Sons by her, William Peverell, a famed Soldier, and Lord or Governor of Dover-castle; which he surrendered to William the Conqueror, after the Battle in Sussex; and Pain Peverell, his youngest, who was Lord of Cambridge. When the eldest Son delivered up the Castle, the Lady above-named was there; and the Conqueror fell in Love with her, and had a Son by her, who was called William, after the Conqueror's Christian Name, but retained the Name of Peverell, and was afterwards, as Hi­story acquaints us, created by the Conqueror Lord of Nottingham.

This Lady, as is supposed, by way of Penance for her Frailty, founded a Nunnery at the Village of Hatfield-Peverell, mentioned above, where she lies buried in the Parish-church, and her Memory is preserved by a Tombstone under one of the Windows. The Grant I have mentioned being to be found in Camden, I shall not transcribe it here.

I shall now, in pursuance of my first Design, pro­ceed to the County of Suffolk.

From Harwich therefore, having a mind to view the Harbour, I sent my Horses round by Maning-tree, a good, but dirty Market-town, where there is a Timber-bridge over the Stour, or, as it is more usually called, Maningtree-water; and took a Boat for Ipswich up the River Orwel, known best by the Name of Ipswich-water, by which Passage from Har­wich to Ipswich, it is about twelve Miles.

In a Creek in this River called Lavington-creek, we saw at low Water such Shoals of Muscles, tha [...] great Boats might have loaded with them and th [...] [Page 23] Quantity scarce diminished to the Eye. Near this Creek Sir Samuel Barnardiston had a fine Seat, as also a Decoy for wild Ducks, and a very noble Estate; but it is divided into many Branches since his Death.

Ipswich is seated at the Distance of 12 Miles from Harwich, upon the Edge of the River, which take­ing a short Turn to the West, the Town forms there a kind of Semi-circle, or Half-moon, upon the Bank of the River. It is very remarkable, that tho' Ships of 500 Tuns may upon a Spring-tide come up very near this Town, and many Ships of that Burden have been built there; yet the River is scarce navigable above the Town, not even for the smallest Boats; nor does the Tide, which rises sometimes 13 or 14 Feet, and gives them 24 Feet Water very near the Town, flow much farther up the River than the Town.

No Place in Britain is qualified like Ipswich, for carrying on the Greenland Fishery; whether we re­spect the Cheapness of building and fitting out their Ships and Shalloops; furnishing, victualling, and providing them with all kind of Stores; Conveni­ence for laying up the Ships after the Voyage; Room for erecting their Magazines, Ware-houses, Roap-walks, Cooperages, &e. on the easiest Terms; and especially for the noisome Cookery, which attends the boiling their Blubber, which may be on this River, remote from any Places of Resort: then the Near­ness to the Market for the Oil, when it is made, and, which above all ought to be regarded, the Conveniency that arises from this Consideration, that the same Wind which carries them from the Mouth of the Haven, is fair to the very Seas of Greenland.

Ipswich was formerly much more considerable for Trade than at present; but yet it may be accounted a very neat and well-built Town, and much larger than many Cities; carries on still a considerable Ma­ritime [Page 24] Trade; and tho' it is but thinly inhabited, to what it has been, yet whoever looks into the Churches and Meeting-houses of a Sunday, will not, even in this Particular, think so meanly of it as some have done.

It has a very spacious Market-place; in the midst of that is a fair Cross, in which is the Corn-market. Adjoining is the Shambles or Butchery, very com­modious, and vulgarly, but erroneously, supposed to have been built by Cardinal Wolsey; for it owes its Original to a much later Date, viz. to the 40th Year of Queen Elizabeth. Behind this is the Herb-market, and in a spacious Street a little distant, is a Market for Butter, Poultry, and other Country Provisions, and another for Fish, with which the Town is served in great Plenty. It has five Market-days weekly; Tuesday and Thursday for small Meat; Wednesday and Friday for Fish; and Saturday for all sorts of Provisions. It has also five annual Fairs; one on April 23. one on May 7. and 8. one on July 25. one on the 11th and 12th of August for Cattle also; and the fifth on September 14. which is a very considerable one for Butter and Cheese, to which the whole Country round resort, to furnish themselves with Winter Stores; as do also many of the London Dealers in those Commodities, who, however, are not suffered to buy till after the first three Days of the Fair.

There are even now in this Town 12 Parish-churches, out of 14, which there once were; and two Chapels in the Corporation-liberty, out of several which have been demolished, besides Meeting-houses, &c. and it once abounded with Religious Houses, which have yielded to the Fate of the Times.

Here is also a fair Town-hall, with a spacious Council-chamber, and other commodious Apart­ments; a Shire-hall, where the County Sessions are [Page 25] held for the Division of Ipswich; a large publick Library, adjoining to a noble Hospital founded by the Town, called Christ's Hospital, for the Mainte­nance of Poor Children, old Persons, Maniacks; and in it Rogues, Vagabonds, and sturdy Beggars, are kept to hard Labour. Also adjoining to this is a good Free-school; and there is likewise the noble Foundation of Mr. Henry Tooly, Anno 1556, for poor old Men and Women.

It is a Town Corporate, governed by two Bailiffs, a Recorder, 12 Portmen, four of which, besides the Bailiffs, are Justices of the Peace, two Coroners, 24 Common-council-men, who are also High-con­stables, and 12 of them Headboroughs, and 15 Petty Constables.

Its Privileges are extraordinary; for the Bailiffs pass Fines and Recoveries, hear and determine Causes, as well Criminal as Civil, arising in the Town, and even Crown Causes, preferably to any of his Ma­jesty's Courts at Westminster. They appoint the Assize of Bread, Wine, Beer, &c. No Freeman can be obliged to serve on Juries out of the Town, or bear any Offices for the King, without his own Consent, Sheriffs for the County excepted. Nor are they obliged to pay any Tolls or Duties in any other Parts of the Kingdom, having cast the City of Lon­don in a Trial at Law for Duties demanded by the City of Freemens Ships, in the River Thames. They are intitled to all Waifs, Estrays, &c. to all Goods cast on Shore within their Admiralty-Juris­diction, which extends on the Coast of Essex be­yond Harwich, and on both Sides the Suffolk Coast; and their Bailiffs even hold their Admiralty-court beyond Landguard Fort, &c. And by a solemn Decision in their Favour by an Inquisition taken at Ipswich, in the 14th of Edward III. they carried the Point, which Harwich contested with them, of taking Custom-duties for Goods coming into Har­wich [Page 26] Haven, which was determined to belong solely to the Bailiffs and Burgesses of Ipswich, as I before hinted. In King John's Reign, there was a Mint in this Town.

I shall just mention, in this Place, tho' it be ge­nerally known, that the famous Cardinal Wolsey, Archbishop of York, was born in this Town, his Father being a Butcher in it, tho', according to Dr. Fiddes, who published his Will, he seems to have been a Man of Substance for those Times. This Prelate rose to the highest Pitch of Honour and Grandeur, that it was possible for a Subject to attain to, and was suddenly stripped of all, having been cast in a Praemunire, whereby he incurr'd a Forfeiture of all his Effects and Preferments; and being after­wards pardoned and restored to some Part thereof, particularly to the Archbishoprick of York, he was arrested for High-Treason at his Archiepiscopal Palace at Cawood in Yorkshire; and died at Leicester Abbey, as he was carrying to London, where he was buried.

The French Refugees, when they first came over to England began a little to take to this Place; and some Merchants attempted to set up a Linen Ma­nufacture in their Favour; but it did not meet with the expected Success, and at present I find very lit­tle of it. The poor People are however employ'd, as they are all over those Counties, in spinning Wooll for other Towns where Manufactures are settled.

The Country round Ipswich, as are all the Coun­ties so near the Coast, is applied chiefly to Corn, of which a very great Quantity is continually shipped off for London; and sometimes they load Corn here for Holland, especially if the Market abroad is encouraging.

There is a great deal of very good Company in this Town; and tho' here are not so many of the Gentry as at Bury, yet it has more than any other Town in the County.

[Page 27]I take this Town to be one of the most agreeable Places in England, for Families who have lived well, but may be reduced to live within a narrow Com­pass; for

  • 1. Here are good Houses, at very easy Rents.
  • 2. An airy, clean, and well-govern'd Town.
  • 3. Very agreeable and improving Company, al­most of every Kind.
  • 4. Plenty of all Manner of Provisions, whether Fish or Flesh, very good of the Kind, and very cheap.
  • 5. Easy Passage to London, either by Land or Water, the Coach going thro' to London in a Day.

The Lord Viscount Hereford had a very fine Seat and Park in this Town; the House indeed was built in the antient Taste, but very commodious; 'tis called Christ-church, and had been a Priory, or Re­ligious House, in former Times. The Green and Park is a great Addition to the Pleasantness of this Town, the Inhabitants being allowed to divert them­selves there with Walking, Bowling, &c. This Seat has been lately purchased by, and is now in the Pos­session of Claude Fonnereau, Esq

The Country round Ipswich, is an inexhaustible Store-house of Timber; of which, now their Trade of building Ships is abated, they send very great Quantities to the King's Building-yards at Chatham; which by Water is so little a Way, that they often run to it from the Mouth of the River at Harwich in one Tide.

I cannot omit in this Place the following Account of an excellent Charity for the Relief and Support of the Widows and Orphans of poor Clergymen of the County of Suffolk, which was begun in the Year 1704. by a voluntary Subscription of a small Number of Gentlemen and Clergy, in and about Ipswich and Woodbridge, and has since that Time been carried on with such great Success, that the [Page 28] yearly Collection, which in 1704. was but 6l. by gradual Advances every Year, amounted in the Year 1740. to 312l. 2s. 6d. and in the Whole 37 Years to the Sum of 4416l. 9s. 9d.

Besides the yearly Subscriptions, there have been divers Gifts and Legacies given to the said Society, to the Uses above-mentioned, to the Amount of 554l. 17s. So much of which is laid out in South-Sea Annuities, and kept for raising a capital Stock for the general Benefit of the Charity; and the In­terest arising from it hath been, and still is, every Year applied to the Relief and Support of the said Widows and Orphans, that they may not mourn without a Comforter, and that the Sons and Daughters of the poor Clergy intitled to this Relief, may not be suffered to wander as Vagabonds up and down the Earth, exposed to those Miseries and Temptations which attend upon extreme Poverty.

From Ipswich I took a Turn to Hadley, famous for the Martyrdom of Dr. Rowland Taylor, who was burnt at Aldham Common, Anno 1555. On the Place where he was martyr'd, I observed a Stone, with this Inscription:

Anno 1555.
Dr. Taylor, for defending what was good,
In this Place shed his Blood.

It has been a Town Corporate, governed by a Mayor, &c. But a Quo Warranto being brought against their Charter, in the Reign of King James II. it has not been renewed since. Here are two weekly Markets, and two annual Fairs. It deals much in Corn, and abounds with all manner of Provisions. The Town is large, and tolerably well built; but being in a Bottom, is generally dirty. Its Church is a very handsome Building, graced with a Spire Steeple, and being near the Middle of the Town, is [Page 29] an Ornament to it. 'Tis of some Note still for the Manufacture of Woollen Cloths, but not so much as formerly.

A little to the South-west lies Neyland, a large Market-town, in a Bottom; upon the Stour; over which is a very good Bridge. The Bays-trade is car­ried on here too.

Higher up to the North-west, upon the same River, stands Sudbury, situate on the Stour; which is now made navigable for Barges from Maningtree hither, and gives a great Addition to their Trade. It is a very antient Town, governed by a Mayor, and at present consists of three distinct Parishes, which have each a handsome and large Church; the Names of which are St. Gregory's, St. Peter's, and All-Saints; tho' St. Peter's is rather a Chapel of Ease to St. Gregory's. This Town is pretty well built, but the Streets, being unpaved, are dirty. It has an handsome Bridge over the Stour, leading into Essex. This Town was one of the first Places where King Edward III. placed the Flemings, whom he allured hither to teach the English the Art of manufacturing their own Wool, of which before they knew nothing; and here the Woollen Trade hath continued ever since in a flourishing Way. The Inhabitants at present employ themselves in making Says, Perpetuanas, &c.

Simon Theobald, surnamed Sudbury, Archbishop of Canterbury, translated thither from London Anno 1375. was a Native of this Town. He was mur­dered at the Instigation of one John Ball, a seditious and fanatical Preacher in Wat Tyler's Rebellion. He was a Prelate of very good Character for Learn­ing and Charity. He built the Upper-end of St. Gregory's Church in Sudbury, where his Head is still shewn: it was, not long since, intire, covered with the Flesh and Skin dried by Art, the Mouth wide open, occasioned by Convulsions thro' the hard [Page 30] Death he died, having suffered eight Blows before his Head was cut off. He founded in the Place where his Father's House stood, a neat College, which he furnished with Secular Priests, and other Ministers, and likewise endowed it bountifully.

Near Sudbury is Melford, a pleasant Village, and perhaps the largest in England, being about a Mile in Length. The Church is a very fine Edifice, and stands at the North-end of it. There were two Chantries in it. Weaver says, That on some Part of the Outside of the Church are these Words: Pray for the Souls of John Clopton, and Richard Boteler, of whose Goodys this Chapel was built; and that several of the antient Family of Clopton are there buried. This Town has given two Lord Mayors to London, Sir John Milburn, Draper, in 1521. and Sir Roger Martin, Mercer, in 1567. It has an annual Fair, divers good Inns, many handsome Houses, and creditable Inhabitants. Here lived the unhappy Mr. Drew, who in the Year 1739. was barbarously murdered; and his Son, Mr. Charles Drew, executed for it, who effected it either with his own Hands, or by those of another Person, whom he procured to do it, for the sake of enjoying his Estate. The Parricide was attended with Circumstances of great Horror; but the Parti­culars being well known, and the Fact so recent, I shall not say any more of it here.

In my Way from hence to St. Edmond's-bury, I passed due North thro' Lavenham, or Lanham, a pretty good Town, standing upon a Branch of the River Breton. It has a spacious Market-place, which was formerly of much better Account than at present. It had many Years ago great Advantage from its Trade in Blue Cloths; but tho' this is lost, yet it has a good Trade for Serges, Shalloons, Says, &c. made here; spins a great deal of fine Yarn for Lon­don, and has of late flourished much, by setting up [Page 31] a Hall for selling Wool, the Town being conveni­ently situated for that Purpose.

The Church and Steeple here are justly accounted the finest in the County. It is situate on a Hill on the West-side of the Town, the Steeple being 137 Feet high. It has Six tuneable Bells in it, and the Inha­bitants boast much of their Tenor, which, they say, out-does all the Bells in England for its deep Note; and tho' it weighs but 23 Hundred Weight, they say it sounds like a Bell of 40 Hundred. This Town is also remarkable for the many charitable Bequests made to its Poor; and gave London a Lord Mayor in 1462. in the Person of Sir Thomas Cooke, Draper, the Son of Robert Cooke of this Town.

East of Lavenham, and pretty near it, is Bildeston, a Market-town, noted for the Cloathing-trade, its good Church, its mean Buildings, and Dirtiness.

Bury St. Edmunds is situate on the West-side of the River Lach, which within these few Years has been made navigable from Lynn to Fornham, a Mile North of the Town. It is so regularly built, that almost all the Streets cut one another at Right An­gles. It stands on an easy Ascent, and overlooks a most fruitful inclosed Country on the South and South-west; on the North and North-west the most delightful champain Fields, which extend themselves to Lynn, and that Part of the Norfolk Coast; and on the East the Country is partly inclosed, and partly open. No wonder then that it is called the Montpellier of Suffolk, and even of England: and indeed a certain antient Author says no more than it deserves; ‘"That the Sun shines not upon a Town more agreeable in its Situation."’

It is governed by an Alderman, which is their chief Magistrate, a Recorder, 12 capital Burgesses, and 24 common Burgesses.

It has two plentiful weekly Markets on Wednesdays and Saturdays; and three annual Fairs; one three [Page 32] Days before and three Days after the Feast of St. Matthew; and it is generally protracted to an un­certain Length, for the Diversion of the Nobility and Gentry that resort to it, in great Numbers.

The Abbey, once so famous, was first built of Wood by Sigebert King of the East-Angles, soon after Christianity was planted here; and when finished, about the Year 638, that King retired into it, and shut himself up from the World.

King Edmund, from whom the Town takes its Name, began to reign over the East-Angles Anno 855, in the 14th Year of his Age, and reigned 15 Years; being killed Anno 870, as supposed, at Hoxne, at 29 Years old, and his Corps was 33 Years after removed to Bury. The Abbey being much enriched thereby, the Monks, who were of the Benedictine Order, found means, about the Year 1020, to get it intirely to themselves, excluding the Seculars; and King Canute, in the 4th Year of his Reign, founded a more magnificent Church, in Honour of St. Edmund, which was finished in 12 Years, and dedicated to Christ, St. Mary, and St. Edmund.

Uvius, Prior of Hulm, who was consecrated the first Abbot, Anno 1020, got the Abbey exempted from Episcopal Jurisdiction, and encompassed that and the Town with a Wall and Ditch; the Ruins of which, in several Places, are still to be seen: and the Abbots afterwards were made Parliamentary Barons. But in the Reign of King Henry VIII. it run the common Fate of all Religious Houses, and that Prince put an End to all its Glory.

When the Abbey was in its Prosperity, there was a Chapel at every one of the five Gates, and the Town abounded with Chapels and Oratories. 'Tis possible these might be Hospitals; for there was an Hospital of St. Peter's without Rishy gate; an Hospital of St. Saviour's without North-gate; an [Page 33] Hospital of St. Nicolas at or near East-gate; and God's-house, or St. John's, at the South-gate; a College of Priests with a Gild to the Holy or Sweet Name of Jesus, the Situation of which I could not find; and an House of Grey Friers at Babwell, or the Toll-gate. But at this time there are only two Churches, which indeed are very beautiful and stately, and stand in the same Church-yard; the one dedicated to St. Mary, the other, built in the Reign of Edward VI. to St. James. The latter has a convenient Library; and at the West End of the South Isle are interred James Reynolds, Esq late Lord Chief Baron of the Exchequer, and his Lady, to whose Memories two large Monuments are erected. The Church of St. Mary has, on the North-side of the Altar, (to which we approach by a fine Ascent of Six Steps) the Tomb of Mary Queen of France, Sister to Henry VIII. and Wife to Charles Brandon, Duke of Suffolk. Her Coffin is of Lead, and has this Inscription on it; Mary Queen, 1533. of France. Edmund H----. There are other hand­some Monuments in this Church.

The other most remarkable publick Buildings are the Abbey-gate, which is still a fine Monument of what the Abbey once was; the Guild hall; the Wool-hall; the Shire-house; the Market-cross; and the Grammar-School, endowed by King Ed­ward VI.

Such as is the Town for Situation, is the Neighbourhood and Gentry about it for Politeness; and no Place glories in brighter Ladies, or better Families.

In the Path-way between the two Churches it was that Arundel Coke, Esq a Barrister at Law, in the Year 1721. attempted (with the Assistance of one Woodbourne, a barbarous Assassin) an unheard-of Outrage on his Brother-in-law, Edward Cris, Esq for the sake of possessing what he had. He had in­vited [Page 34] him, his Wife and Family, to Supper with him; and in the Night, on Pretence of going to see a Friend to them both, he led him into the Church­yard, when, on a Signal he gave, the Assassin made at Mr. Crisp with a Hedge-bill, and in a most ter­rible manner mangled his Head and Face; and sup­posing him dead, there left him; and Coke returned, as if he knew nothing of the Matter, to the Com­pany. But it happening that Mr. Crisp was not killed, and coming back to Coke's House to the Company all bloody, and cruelly mangled, the shocking Sight amazed and confounded them all; Coke, that he was not dead; the rest, that he had met with so strange a Disaster. Mr. Crisp has survived this Outrage many Years, and Coke and Woodburne, the hired Assassin, were justly executed for a Villainy so detestable, that it hardly had its Parallel. The Gentleman being not killed, the Assassins were tried and condemned on the Statute for defacing and dismembring, called The Coventry Act: And Coke was so good a Lawyer, and so hardened a Wretch, that he thought to have saved himself, by pleading that he intended not to deface, but to kill. Some nice People say, the Law was a little strained in their Punishment, as the Gentleman recovered; but, surely, if in any Case the Letter might be dispensed with, and the Spirit be brought in Aid of it, it was right in this: and it would have been next to a national Disgrace, not to have a Law that would reach so flagrant and complicated a Wickedness.

There is very little or no Manufacturing in this Town, except Spinning; the chief Business of the Place depending upon the neighbouring Gentry, who cannot fail to cause Trade enough by the Ex­pence of their Families and Equipages, among the People of a Country Town. Our Monarchs, Edward I. and II. had a Mint at Bury, and some of their Pennies coined there, are yet remaining. [Page 35] Stow, in his Survey of London, p. 83. says, That here was also a Mint in King John's Time.

This Town is famous for two great Events: One, That a Parliament was held here in the Year 1447. in the 25th Year of Henry VI. The other, That at the Meeting of this Parliament, the good Humphry, Duke of Gloucester, Regent of the Kingdom, during the Absence of King Henry V. and in the Minority of his Son Henry VI. and, to his last Hour, the Safeguard of the whole Nation, and Darling of the People, was basely murdered here; by whose Death the Gate was opened to that dreadful War between the Houses of Lancaster and York, which ended in the Confusion of the very Race, who are supposed to have contrived that Murder.

As I made some Stay at Ipswich and Bury, being obliged to wait the Leisure of a Gentleman who accompanied me Part of this Journey, I made several Excursions more Inland than I had at first intended when I set out, and visited the following Towns:

As, first, Boxford, which is about Seven Miles from Sudbury, and is a neat and well-built Village, and carries on a considerable Traffick.

At Bures on the Stour King Edward was crown'd, and not at Bury. It has a good Bridge on that River. Anno 1733. the Spire of the Steeple of the handsome Church here was burnt by Lightning, the Bell-frames destroyed, and the Bells melted.

Clare is situate on the Stour, about 14 Miles from Bury, and is but a poor Town, and dirty, the Streets being unpaved. But yet the Civil and Spiri­tual Courts are held at it, and it has a good Church; and shews still the Ruins of a strong Castle, and an old Monastery. It gives Title of Earl to his Grace the Duke of Newcastle of the Pelham Family, as it did to that of Holles before.

[Page 36]Not far from Clare is Honedon, where, in the Year 1687. the Sexton, digging a Grave, found a large Quantity of Saxon Coins.

Cavendish upon the Stour deserves Mention, for giving Name to the Noble Family of the Dukes of Devonshire.

Haverhill stands partly in Essex, and partly in Suffolk. By the Ruins of a Church and Castle still to be seen here, it appears to have been of greater Consequence formerly, than at present. Now I am at this Place, I shall just mention

Ledgate, on account of its giving Birth and Name to the famous Poet, Orator, Mathematician and Phi­losopher, John Ledgate, who died in 1440. Here are to be seen the Ruins of a strong Castle.

Stoke juxta Neyland gave a Lord Mayor to London in 1503. viz. Sir William Capel, of the Drapers Company, from whom is descended the present Earl of Essex. It has a fair Church and Steeple. Gif­fard's-hall in this Parish is a noble old Seat belonging to Sir Francis Mannock, Bart. And Pendering-hall is the new-built fair Seat of Sir John Williams, Alder­man of London.

Stratford is a thorough-fare Village of great Traf­fick, and is employed in the Woollen Manufactures.

Easterbergholt, near four Miles from Stratford, and half a Mile North of the Stour, is a large and handsome Village, employ'd in the Woollen Way, but not to so great a Degree as formerly. It has a good Church, but the Steeple is in Ruins, and the Bells are rung by Hand, in a kind of Cage set up in the Church-yard. A little South of the Church is an elegant House of Sir Joseph Hankey, Alderman of London.

Hemingston may bear the Mention for the merry Tenure by which that Manor was held, according to Camden, by Serjeanty, the Possessor being obliged every Christmas-day to perform before the King one Saltus, one Sufflatus, and one Bombulus: or, as is [Page 37] read elsewhere, it was held by a Saltus, a Sufflatus, and a Pet; that is, as Camden interprets the Words, he was to dance, make a Noise with his Cheeks puffed out, and let a F--t.

Needham is a thorough-fare Town, about nine Miles North-west from Ipswich. It is tolerably well built, has several considerable Dealers in it, and formerly carried on a large Trade in the Woollen Manu­factures, which it has lost for some Years.

Bildeston is a meanly built, dirty Town, but has a good Church.

Stow-market, about three Miles from Needham, is a tolerable Town, with a spacious Church and Spire-Steeple.

And five Miles further, being eight from Bury, is Wulpit, famous for the white Bricks made there. It has a handsome Church and Spire-Steeple.

At Norton, near Wulpit, King Henry VIII. was induced to dig for Gold. He was disappointed, but the Diggings are visible at this Day.

Ixworth, about seven Miles from Bury, is a dirty, ill-built Town, with a mean Market; but is a thorough-fare Town, and has two annual Fairs.

Botesdale is a long, mean-built, dirty, thorough-fare Town; yet it is remarkable for a Grammar Free-school founded by Sir Nicolas Bacon, and established by Queen Elizabeth. The Master and Usher are to be elected out of Bennet College Cambridge, where Sir Nicolas was educated. The Master enjoys a Salary of 20 Pounds per Annum, besides the Benefit of the School-house, and the Usher eight Pounds, with a House and Yard. The School-house is now in the Gift of Edmund Britiffe, Esq Sir Nicolas also bequeathed 20l. a Year to the said College for six Scholars out of this School, to whom likewise Archbishop Tenison was said to have given six Pounds annually. There is a mean Market here every Thursday, and an annual Fair on Holy Thursday.

[Page 38] Milden-hall, about 12 Miles from Bury, is situate on the River Larke; it is a Town of very extensive Limits, pleasant and well-built, and has a noble Church, and lofty Steeple. It has a plentiful Friday Market, and a very considerable annual Fair, which lasts four Days. A little North of the Church is the Mansion-house of Sir Thomas Hanmer, Bart. who in the Reign of Queen Anne was Speaker of the House of Commons. In the Year 1507. a great Part of this Town was consumed by Fire. It furnished the City of London with two Lord Mayors, Sir Henry Barton, Skinner, Anno 1428. and Sir Wil­liam Gregory, of the same Company, Anno 1451.

Ickworth was once a Parish, but now is a noble Park, in which is the Seat of the Earl of Bristol. It is a Place of great Antiquity, and what confirms it is, what that learned Antiquarian Dr. Battley, Arch­deacon of Canterbury, writes, That in his Memory a large Pot of Roman Money was found here.

Debenham is a tolerably clean, tho' mean-built Town, and among very dirty and heavy Roads, being seated on a Hill. The Church is a good Building, the Market-place tolerable, and there is a Free-school founded by Appointment of Sir Robert Hitcham.

Crows-hall, about a Mile South-east of this Town, was formerly the Seat of the Gawdies; till Sir Charles Gawdy, Bart. convey'd it to John Pit, Esq in a Descendant of whose Family it still remains.

Mendlesham is a dirty and poor Town, but has a handsome Church, and a small Tuesday's Market.

Eye is a Town Corporate, governed by two Bailiffs, ten principal Burgesses, and 24 Common-council­men, and gives Title of Baron to the Lord Corn­wallis. It is situate in a Bottom between two Rivers, is meanly built, and the Streets dirty. Near the West-end of the Church are still to be seen some of the ruinous Walls of the Castle.

[Page 39]My Friend having finished his Business in those Parts of Suffolk, which lie round the Towns of Bury and Ipswich, gave me an Opportunity of resuming my Journey according to the Plan I laid down at the Beginning of the Letter; and so from the former of these Towns I returned by Stow-market, and Needham, to Ipswich, that I might keep as near the Coast as was proper to my designed Circuit; having determined to take the Opportunity, which he told me his Affairs would give me, of making two or three Excursions from Woodbridge, Aldborough, and South­would, to make my Observations on that Part of Suffolk, which I have not yet touched upon. From Ipswich therefore I went to visit the Sea again, and so to Woodbridge, and from thence to Orford on the Sea Coast.

Woodbridge is a Market-town, situate on the River Deben, about 11 Miles from the Sea. This River being navigable to the Town for Ships of con­siderable Burden, it drives a pretty good Trade with Holland, Newcastle, and London, and has Passage Hoys, that go to and return from London weekly. It has a fine Church and Steeple, and traded formerly in Sackcloth, and now in refining Salt. The Shire-hall is a handsome Pile of Building, where the Quarter-Sessions for this Part of the County are held, and under it is the Corn-cross. One Street in it, called Stone-street, is well-built and paved, but the rest are dirty. The Market-place and Thorough­fare are also well enough built; but the rest of the Town is mean. The Quays and Ware-houses are very commodious, and here is a Grammar-school, and an Alms-house, erected in 1587. by Thomas Seckford, Master of the Requests, for Thirteen Men and Three Women, which is well endowed. It has a pretty good Market on Wednesdays, and two annual Fairs.

Walton has been an antient Market-town, and tho' the Market is now disused, the Cross is still re­maining. [Page 40] In the neighbouring Parish of Felixstow, on the Cliff by the Sea, and about a Mile from the Colne Side of Woodbridge-haven, are discerned the Ruins of a quadrangular Castle advantageously situ­ated; of which nothing now remains but the Foun­dation of one Side of the Wall. The rest has been devoured by the Sea; and in all Probability these Remains must in a few Years undergo the same Fate. It was built principally of Rock-stones; but the many Roman Bricks still to be seen, and Roman Coins, which have been discovered among the Ruins of the Side Walls, as they have been washed away by the Sea in the present Age, are an undeniable Evidence, that it was a Place of considerable Anti­quity, probably a Roman Colony, which might give Name to the Hundred of Colnies, in which it stood.

Now begins that Part which is ordinarily called High-Suffolk; which being a rich Soil, is, for a long Way wholly employed in Dairies; and famous for the best Butter, and perhaps the worst Cheese in England: the Butter is barrelled, and sometimes pickled up in small Casks, in which it keeps so well, that I have know a Firkin of Suffolk Butter sent to the West-Indies, and brought back to England again, perfectly good and sweet, as at first.

From hence turning down to the Shore, we see Orfordness, a noted Point of Land for the Guide of the Colliers and Coasters, and a good Shelter for them to ride under, when a strong North-east Wind blows, and makes a foul Shore on the Coast.

Orford is situate on the North-west Side of the River Ore, whence it had its Name. It was formerly a Town of good Account, having a strong Castle of reddish Stone for its Defence, of which, and of a Benedictine Nunnery near the Quay, there are still to be seen considerable Ruins. The Sea has so much withdrawn itself from this Town, that it is robbed of its chief Advantage, and deserves not the Name [Page 41] of a Harbour. The Town is mean, and no one contends for an Interest in it, but such as want to make themselves a Merit in the Choice of the two Members which it returns to Parliament. It is a Town Corporate, and is governed by a Mayor, eight Portmen, and twelve Burgesses; it has also a mean Monday Market, and an annual Fair. It had the Honour to give Title of Earl to the brave Admiral Russel: but that is now extinct.

About three Miles from Orford, is Aldburgh, a Town pleasantly situated in a Valley. It has two Streets, each near a Mile long; but its Breadth, which was more considerable formerly, is not pro­portionable, and the Sea has of late Years swallowed up one whole Street. The Town, tho' meanly built, is clean and well peopled in the Sea-faring way. The Sea washes the East-side of it, and the River Ald runs not far from the South-end of it, affording a good Quay. In the adjacent Seas, Sprats, Soles, and Lobsters, are caught in abun­dance. The Town trades to Newcastle for Coals; and from hence Corn is transported. The Manor of Aldburgh, as also the Manors of Scots and Taskards in the Neighbourhood, formerly belonged to the Monastery of Snape, and were first granted with that Monastery, to Cardinal Wolsey, and soon after to Thomas Duke of Norfolk. Aldburgh is pretty well situated for Strength, and has several Pieces of Cannon for its Defence. The Church, which is a good Edifice, stands on a Hill, a little West of the Town. It is a Town Corporate, governed by Two Bailiffs, Ten capital Burgesses, and Twenty-four inferior Officers.

From Aldburgh, I passed thro' Saxminden, a little dirty Market-town, to Dunwich, a very antient Town, which, by Roman Coins dug up there, is supposed to have been a Roman Station. In the Reign of the Conqueror, it was so considerable a Place, [Page 42] that it had 130 Burgesses, and was valued to that King at 50l. and 60,000 Herrings. We read that in the Reign of Henry II. it was a very famous Village, well stored with Riches, and fortified with a Rampart, some Remains of which still appear.

Before these Times, in the Reign of King Sige­bert, Anno 630. Dunwich was a Bishop's See; and so continued, till the Conqueror made his Chaplain Bishop of it, and translated the See to Thetford, which was afterwards translated from thence to Norwich.

There were several Religious Houses in Dunwich, and, some pretend, no less than fifty Churches: but there is a certain Account of six Parish-churches, and three Chapels, besides the several Religious Houses. Four of these Parish-churches, and the three Chapels, have been long devoured by the Sea; and one of the others met with the same Fate in this Age, so that there is only one now standing; and what remains of this once famous Place, is but a pitiful Parcel of sorry Cottages.

Hereabouts they begin to talk of Herrings, and the Fishery. And here also, and at Swole or South­would, the next Sea-port, they cure Sprats in the same manner as they do Herrings at Yarmouth.

From Dunwich we went to Southwould, pleasantly situated on a Hill, and almost surrounded with the Sea, and the River Biyth, over which it has a Bridge. It drives a considerable Trade in Salt and old Beer, and in Herrings, Sprats, &c. The Church is large, and very strong. The Bay, called corruptly Sowl or Sole-bay, is a commodious Place for Anchor­age, and occasions a great Resort of Mariners to it, which adds greatly to its Trade and Commerce.

The Traffick of my Friend at Woodbridge, Ald­burgh, and this Place, gave me the Opportunity I hinted at, of making Excursions into the main-in­land Parts of Suffolk, adjacent to those Towns, [Page 43] which I shall transcribe from my Memorandum-book, in the Order I set them down.

Ufford is at present of no great Remark; but has the Ruins of a Chapel, called Sogenhoc Chapel. Richard Lufkin was Rector of this Parish 57 Years, and was buried September 23. 1678. in the 111th Year of his Age. He performed all the Offices of his Function to the last, and preached the Sunday before his Death. He was plundered in the grand Rebellion, and lost all that he had except a Silver Spoon, which he preserved by hiding it in his Sleeve.

In the Hundred of Hartsmere stands Broome, a noble old Mansion, which for many Ages has been the Seat of the noble Family of Cornwallis. In this Parish of Broome is an Alms-house for poor Widows, fronting the Hall; but not endowed.

Wickham Market is situated about four Miles from Woodbridge. The Church is built on a Hill, and tho' but 23 Yards high, affords the best Prospect of any in Suffolk; for in a clear Day, near 50 Parish-churches may be seen from it. It is now only a Village, but has some Trade, and the Civil and Spiritual Courts are held in it.

Snape was once noted for a famous Monastery, few Remains of which are to be seen. It has a con­siderable annual Fair for Horses, which lasts four Days, beginning August 11. to which the London Jockeys resort.

At Sudbourne is a fine Seat of the Lord Viscount Hereford.

At Easton is the Seat of the Earl of Rochford, formerly belonging to the Wingfield Family.

Letheringham was of Note for a little Priory, which was obtained at the Dissolution by Sir Antony Wingfield; and Sir Henry Spelman tells us, that, as a Judgment for the Sacrilege, he died without Issue Male. It was converted into a Mansion-house, and is now the Seat of the antient Family of the [Page 44] Nauntons. Sir Roger Naunton was in the Reign of King James I. Secretary of State, and Master of the Court of Wards and Liveries. He died Anno 1630. In the Abbey is a long Gallery, adorned with several valuable Pictures: And in Letheringham Church are, some elegant and magnificent Monuments of the Wingfields and Nauntons.

Rendelsham was antiently famous for being the Royal Residence of Redwald, King of the East-Angles. Hugh Fitz-Otho procured a Market and Fair for this Town, from King Edward I. Digging here about 50 Years ago, an antient Silver Crown was found weighing about 60 Ounces, supposed to have belonged to Redwald, or some other King of the East-Angles; which was sold and melted down for the sake of the Metal.

At Butley was a Priory of Canons Regular; founded by Ranulph de Glanville, chief Justice of England, to the Honour of the Blessed Virgin. The Ruins of the Abbey, which are still to be seen, shew it to have been very large; and the Gate-house is a magnificent Building: it remains intire, and is embellished in the Front with many Coats of Arms, finely cut in Stone.

Framlingham is situate North of Aldburgh, a large Town, well-built, and pleasantly seated near the Head of the River Ore; it has a spacious Market-place; the Church is built of black Flint, and is a very stately and noble Edifice, wherein several of the Mowbrays Dukes of Norfolk lie buried. The Castle is a fair Piece of Antiquity, being a large, beautiful and strong Building; and contains within the Walls now standing an Acre 1 Rood 11 Perches, and was formerly much larger. Its Walls are 44 Feet high, and thick, and are standing pretty intire; and it has 13 Towers, 14 Feet higher than the Walls, two of which are Watch-towers. It was both by Art and Nature formerly very strong. [Page 45] There are two good Alms-houses, and a Free-school, founded by Sir Robert Hitcham, (who is interred in the Church) for 40 poor Boys, who are taught to read, write, and cast Accounts, and 10l. is given to settle each of them Apprentice. This Gentleman bought of the Duke of Norfolk the Castle, Manor, &c. and gave them to Pembroke-hall in Cambridge. To this Castle Queen Mary I. retired, when the Lady Jane was proclaimed Queen by the Northum­berland Faction.

Blithburg was formerly a Place of good Note, but now has nothing to recommend it but its Church, which is a fine old Building, and kept in good Repair.

At Chediston, is the fine Seat of Walter Plumer, Esq who bought it lately, and rebuilt the Hall in a beautiful manner.

Halesworth is North-east of Framlingham, a large and good Market-town, situated upon the River Blyth, which runs thro' it. The Streets are clean, and partly paved. It has a very neat Church, beauti­fully decorated within, and is noted for Linen-yarn, which is spun in the Neighbourhood, and sold here.

Hoxne is the Place where Edmund King of the East-Angles was murdered by the Pagan Danes, be­cause he would not renounce his Faith, Anno 870. and his Body was removed to Bury, as above-mentioned.

Bungay is a well-frequented Market-town, plea­santly situate upon and almost surrounded with the Waveney, which is navigable thither for Barges. It lies North-east of Halesworth. Its Streets are mostly unpaved; but the Town is handsome and well-built since the great Fire, which broke out about Sun­rising on March 1. 1688-9. in a small uninhabited House; and in four Hours time consumed the whole Town, except one small Street. The whole Loss was computed at 29,896l. and upwards. It has two Parish-churches, one of which is a very noble [Page 46] one; and has a beautiful Steeple. The Ruins of a Benedictine Nunnery, and a very strong Castle, are still to be seen here. The latter was so strong, that Hugh Bigod, its Owner, in the Wars between the Empress Maud and King Stephen, with the latter of whom he sided, made this Boast upon it:

Were I in my Castle of Bungay,
Upon the River Waveney,
I would not care for the King of Cockney.

But yet he was forced afterwards to compound with King Henry II. for its Preservation. It has a Gram­mar-school with 10 Scholarships, for Emanuel College Cambridge.

In this Excursion I stretched to Beccles, still fur­ther North-east; a large ill-built Market-town, situate on the Waveney, which is navigable hence from Yarmouth to Bungay, as I have said. It has a noble Church and Steeple, and a Grammar and English School, well endowed. It has a plentiful Market, and a Common of above 1000 Acres. The Streets are well paved and clean, but the Houses are but ordinary. The Ruins of another Church, called Ingate Church are to be seen here, which was for­merly the Parish Church to the Town.

Burgh-castle scituate at the Mouth of the Wave­ney, was a Place of considerable Note in the Time of the Romans. The Walls on the East, North, and South Sides, are still standing, pretty intire; and the River being a Defence on the West, no Wall was wanting there.

I returned from these Excursions to Southwould, in order to proceed on my Journey, according to my first Plan. But it may not be amiss to mention, before I proceed, That this Town is made famous by an Engagement at Sea, in the Year 1672, between the English and Dutch Fleets, in the Bay opposite to [Page 47] the Town; in which the brave Montague Earl of Sandwich, Admiral under the Duke of York, lost his Life: his Ship, Royal Prince, carrying 100 Guns, which was under him commanded by Sir Edward Spragg, was burnt, and several other Ships lost, and about 600 Seamen.

At this Town in particular, and so at all the Towns on this Coast, from Orfordness to Yarmouth, is the ordinary Place where our Summer Friends the Swal­lows first land when they come to visit us; and here they may be said to begin their Voyage, when they go back into warmer Climates. I was some Years before at this Place, about the Beginning of October; and lodging in a House that looked into the Church-yard, I observed in the Evening an unusual Multitude of Swallows sitting on the Leads of the Church, and covering the Tops of several Houses round about. This led me to inquire what was the Meaning of such a prodigious Multitude of Swallows sitting there: I was answered, That this was the Season when the Swallows, their Food fail­ing here, began to leave us, and return to the Country, where-ever it be, from whence they came; and that this being the nearest Land to the opposite Coast, and the Wind contrary, they were waiting for a Gale, and might be said to be Wind-bound.

This was more evident to me, when in the Morn­ing I found the Wind had come about to the North­west in the Night, and there was not one Swallow to be seen.

Certain it is, that the Swallows neither come hither merely for warm Weather, nor retire merely from Cold: they, like the Shoals of Fish in the Sea, pursue their Prey; being a voracious Creature, and feeding as they fly; for their Food is the Insects, of which, in our Summer Evenings, in damp and moist Places, the Air is full; and when cold Weather comes in, and kills the Insects, then Necessity [Page 48] compels the Swallows to quit us, and follow their Food to some other Climate.

This passing and repassing of the Swallows is observed no-where so much as on this Eastern Coast; namely from above Harwich to the East Point of Norfolk, called Wintertonness, North; which is opposite to Holland. We know nothing of them any farther North; the Passage of the Sea being, as I suppose, too broad from Flambro' Head, and the Shore of Holderness in Yorkshire, &c.

This Part of England is remarkable for being the first where the Feeding and Fattening of Sheep and other Cattle, with Turneps, was first practised in England, which is made a very great Part of the Improvement of their Lands to this Day; and from whence the Practice is spread over most of the East and South Part of England, to the great enriching of the Farmers, and Increase of fat Cattle: and tho' some have objected against the Goodness of the Flesh thus fed with Turneps, and have fansied it would taste of the Root; yet upon Experience 'tis found, that there is no Reason for this Fancy.

The County of Suffolk is particularly famous for furnishing the City of London, and all the Counties round, with Turkeys; insomuch that more Turkeys are bred in this County, and the Part of Norfolk that joins to it, for Sale, than in all the rest of England.

Nor will this be found an inconsiderable Article, if it be true, that 300 Droves of Turkeys have passed, in one Season, over Stratford-bridge on the River Stour, on the Road from Ipswich to London; each Drove generally containing from 300 to 1000 Turkeys, which at 500, one with another, will be 150,000 in all; and yet the Numbers which are driven by New Market-heath, and the open Country, and the Forest, and also those by Sudbury and Clare, are much greater.

[Page 49]For the further Supplies of the Markets of London with Poultry, in which these Countries particularly abound, they have within these few Years found it practicable to make the Geese travel on foot too, and prodigious Numbers are brought up to London in like Droves from the farthest Parts of Norfolk, even from the Fen-Country, about Lynn, Downham, Wisbich, and the Washes; as also from all the East-side of Norfolk and Suffolk; and 'tis very frequent now to meet 1000, or 2000, in a Drove. They begin to drive them generally in August, when the Harvest is almost over, that the Geese may feed on the Stub­ble as they go. Thus they hold on to the End of October, when the Roads begin to be too stiff and deep for their broad Feet and short Legs to march in.

Besides such Methods of driving these Creatures on Foot, they have of late invented a new kind of Carriage, being Carts formed on purpose, with four Stories or Stages, to put the Poultry in, one above another, whereby one Cart will carry a very great Number; and for the smoother going, they drive with two Horses abreast, like a Coach; thus quarter­ing the Road for the Ease of the Poultry, and changing Horses, they travel Night and Day; so that they bring the Fowls 70, 80, or 100 Miles in two Days and one Night: The Horses are fasten'd together by a Piece of Wood lying cross-wise upon their Necks, by which they are kept even and toge­ther, and the Driver sits on the Top of the Cart, as in the publick Carriages for the Army, &c.

In this manner vast Numbers of Turkey-poults and Chickens are carried to London every Year, which yield a good Price at Market; and more out of this County than any other Part of England, which is the Reason of my speaking of it here.

In this Part, which we call High Suffolk, there are not so many Families of Gentry or Nobility, as in the other Side of the Country: But 'tis observed, [Page 50] that tho' their Seats are not here, their Estates are; and the Pleasure of West Suffolk is much of it sup­ported by the Wealth of High Suffolk: For the Richness of the Lands, and Application of the Peo­ple to all Kinds of Improvement, are scarce credible. The Farmers also are so very considerable, and their Farms and Dairies so large, that 'tis very frequent for a Farmer to have 1000l. Stock upon his Farm in Cows only.

From Southwould, Coast-wise, I proceeded to Leostoff, a considerable Market-town, standing near the Sea. It is indifferently well built. The Church, which is situate near a Mile on the West-side of the Town, is a good Building; but for the Ease of its Inhabitants, there is a Chapel in the Town, wherein divine Service is sometimes celebrated. The Ness below the North-end of the Town is (since the washing away of Eastonness) the most Eastern Point of Land in Great Britain. Its principal Trade is Fishing for Herrings and Maycril. It has a noted Market weekly on Wednesdays; and two small Fairs yearly, the one on the 1st Day of May, and the other on the 29th of September. Besides the present Chapel, here was formerly, at the South-end of the Town, a Chapel called Good-cross-chapel, which hath long since been destroyed by the Sea. This Town, having been Part of the antient Demesnes of the Crown, hath a Charter, and a Town-seal: But the greatest Privilege they now enjoy from their Charter, is, that of not serving on Juries, either at the Sessions or Assizes.

From High Suffolk, I passed the Waveney, near Schole-Inn, and so came into NORFOLK.

But, I believe, Sir, you will allow, that I have written enough in all Conscience for one Letter. I will therefore only further add, that I am,

Your humble Servant.

LETTER II. CONTAINING A Description of the Counties of NORFOLK and CAMBRIDGE, and that Part of ESSEX not touched on in the former.


IN my Journey from High Suffolk, to Norfolk, I saw at Redgrave (the Seat of the Family) a beautiful Monument of that excellent Judge Sir John Holt, with the following Inscription upon it.‘M. S.
D. Johannis Holt, Equitis Aur.
Totius Angliae in Banco Regis
per 21 Annos continuos
Capitalis Justitiarii;
Gulielmo Regi, Annae (que) Reginae,
Consiliarii perpetui;
Libertatis ac Legum Anglicarum
Assertoris, Vindicis, Custodis,
Vigilis, Acris, & Intrepidi.
Rolandus Frater Unicus & Haeres
Optime de se Merito
Die Martii Vto. 1709. sublatus est
ex Oculis nostris.
Natus 30 Decembris, Anno 1640.’
In English thus:

Sacred to the Memory of Sir John Holt, Knight, Lord Chief Justice of the King's-bench, for the Space of 21 Years successively, and of the Privy Council to King Wil­liam and Queen Anne. A vigi­lant, penetrating and intrepid Assertor, Vindicator and Guar­dian of the Liberty and Laws of England.

Rowland, his only Brother and Heir, erected this Monument to him, who deserved all things at his Hands. He departed this Life the fifth Day of March, Anno 1709. And was born the 30th of December, Anno 1642.

[Page 52]When we come into Norfolk, we see a Face of Diligence spread over the whole Country; the vast Manufactures carried on chiefly by the Norwich Weavers, employ all the Country round in spinning Yarn for them; and also use many thousand Packs of Yarn, which they receive from other Countries, even from as far as Yorkshire and Westmorland, of which I shall speak in its Place.

This Side of Norfolk is very populous, and filled with a great Number of considerable Market-towns; insomuch that between the Borders of Suffolk and the City of Norwich on this Side, which is not above 22 Miles in Breadth, are the following Mar­ket-towns, viz.

  • Thetford,
  • Dis,
  • Harling,
  • Bucknam,
  • Hingham,
  • West Deerham,
  • Attleboro',
  • Windham,
  • Harleston,
  • East Deerham,
  • Watton,
  • Loddon, &c.

Most of these Towns are very populous and large; but that which is most remarkable is, that the whole Country round them is interspersed with Villages so large, and so full of People, that they are equal to Market-towns in other Counties.

An eminent Weaver of Norwich gave me a Scheme of their Trade on this Occasion, by which, calcu­lating from the Number of Looms at that time employ'd in the City of Norwich only, he made it appear very plain, that there were 120,000 People busy'd in the Woollen and Silk Manufactures of that City only; not that the People all lived in the City, tho' Norwich is very large and populous; but they were employ'd for spinning the Yarn used for such Goods as were all made in that City.

This shews the wonderful Extent of the Norwich Manufacture, or Stuff-weaving Trade, by which so many thousand Families are maintained.

This Throng of Villages continues thro' all the East Part of the Country, which is of the greatest [Page 53] Extent, and where the Manufacture is chiefly carried on: If any Part of it be thin of Inhabitants, it is the West Part, drawing a Line from about Brandon, South, to Walsingham, North. This Part of the Country indeed is full of open Plains, and some­what sandy and barren, but yet feeds great Flocks of good Sheep.

NORWICH is the Capital of the County, and the Centre of all the Trade and Manufactures which I have just mentioned; an antient, large, rich, and populous City: If a Stranger was only to ride thro' or view the City of Norwich on ordinary Days, he would be induced to think it a Town without Inha­bitants; but on the contrary, if he was to view the City, either on a Sabbath-day, or on any publick Occasion, he would wonder where all the People could dwell, the Multitude is so great: But the Case is this; the Inhabitants being all busy at their Ma­nufactures, dwell in their Garrets at their Looms, and in their Combing-shops, as they call them, Twisting-mills, and other Work-houses; almost all the Works they are employ'd in, being done within Doors. There are in this City 32 Parishes, besides the Cathedral, and a great many Meeting-houses of Dissenters of all Denominations. The Castle is antient and decayed, and now for many Years past made use of for a Gaol.

This City, as 'tis said, was built by the Saxons out of the Ruins of Venta Icenorum, now called Caster, where some Years since were found several Roman Urns. In the Time of the Saxons it was the principal Seat of the East Angles, and was reduced to Ashes by Sueno the Dane. It was re-edified, and Famine only compelled it to yield to William the Conqueror.

The famous Rebellion of Kett, the Tanner of Windham, in the Reign of Edward VI. reduced it again to a ruinous State; but it was happily restored [Page 54] by Queen Elizabeth, who sent hither Part of the Flemings, that came over from the cruel Persecution of the Duke of Alva; to whose Industry and Ex­ample is owing the rich Manufacture of Stuffs, for which this City is so famous.

The Walls of this City are reckoned three Miles in Circumference, taking in more Ground than the City of London, within the Walls; but much of that Ground lies open in Pasture-fields and Gardens; nor does it seem to be, like some antient Places, a decayed declining Town, the Walls only marking out its antient Dimensions; for we do not see room to suppose, that it was ever larger or more populous than it is now. But the Walls seem to be placed, as if it was expected, that the City would in time in­crease sufficiently to fill them up with Buildings. There are 12 large Gates, which give Entrance to the City.

The Cathedral is a fine Fabrick, and the Spire-Steeple beautiful, and, next Salisbury, the highest in England. It is not antient, the Bishop's See having been first at Thetford, from whence it was not translated hither till the 12th Century; yet the Church has so many Antiquities in it, that our late great Scholar and Physician, Sir Thomas Brown, thought it worth his while to write a whole Book to collect the Monuments and Inscriptions in this Church, to which I refer the Reader. It has an Hospital in it, for 100 poor Men and Women, and a fine Market-cross. That called Bridewell is a large and most beautiful Building of square Flint.

The River Yare runs through it, and is navigable thus far without the Help of Locks or Stops; and being increased by other Waters, passes afterwards through a long Track of the richest Meadows, and the largest, take them all together, that are any­where in England, lying for 30 Miles in Length, from this City to Yarmouth, including the Return [Page 55] of the said Meadows on the Bank of the Waveney, South, and on the River Thyrn, North.

There are Six large Bridges over the River running thro' the City, called Hellesden, Coslany, Black-fryers, Tye-bridge, White-friers, and Bishopsgate Bridges; and to repair these Bridges, as also the Walls and Gates, and the City Wastes, Stathes and Wharfs, (which were become so ruinous, that the ordinary Revenue of the City was insufficient for that Purpose) an Act of Parliament passed in the Year 1725-6. which laid divers Tolls and Imposts on particular Goods and Merchandizes brought into the City; the Produce of which were also to repair the great Roads leading from Norwich towards Lon­don; by which means these Roads, Bridges, Walls, &c. were put into good Condition, and kept so.

One thing is proper to be mentioned here, which History accounts not for. It is this: The River Waveney is a considerable River, and of a deep and full Chanel, navigable for large Barges as high as Beccles and Bungay; it runs for a Course of about 50 Miles, between the two Counties of Suffolk and Norfolk, as a Boundary to both; and pushing for­ward, tho' with a gentle Stream, no one would doubt, when they see the River growing broader and deeper, and going directly towards the Sea, even to the Edge of the Beach, and within a Mile of the main Ocean, but that it would make its Entrance into the Sea at that Place, and afford a noble Harbour for Ships at the Mouth of it; when, on a sudden, the Land rising high by the Sea-side, crosses the Head of the River, like a Dam, checks the whole Course of it, and it returns, bending its Course West, for two Miles, or thereabouts; and then turning North, thro' another long Course of Mea­dows, (joining to those just now mentioned) seeks out the River Yare, joins its Water with hers, and both find their Way to the Sea together.

[Page 56]Some of our Historians tell a long fabulous Story of this River's being once open, and a famous Har­bour for Ships belonging to the Town of Leostof adjoining; but that Yarmouth envying the Prospe­rity of Leostof, made War upon them; and that after many bloody Battles, as well by Sea as by Land, they came at last to a decisive Action at Sea with their respective Fleets; but the Leostof Fleet being overthrown, and utterly destroyed, the Yarmouth Men either actually stopped up the Mouth of the said River, or obliged the vanquished Leostof Men to do it themselves, and bound them never to attempt to open it again.

I see no Authority for this Relation, neither do the Relators agree either in the Time or in the Par­ticulars of the Fact.

In this vast Tract of Meadows are fed a prodigious Number of Black Cattle, which are said to produce the fattest Beef, tho' not the largest, in England; and the Quantity is so great, as that they not only supply the City of Norwich, the Town of Yarmouth, and the County adjacent, but send great Quantities of them weekly, in all the Winter Season, to London.

And this in particular is worthy Remark, That the gross of all the Scots Cattle, which come yearly into England, are brought to a small Village lying North of the City of Norwich, called St. Faith's, where the Norfolk Grasiers go and buy them.

These Scots Runts, as they call them, coming out of the cold and barren Mountains of the Highlands in Scotland, feed so eagerly on the rich Pasture in these Marshes, that they thrive in an unusual man­ner, and grow very fat; and the Beef is so delicious for Taste, that the Inhabitants prefer them to the English Cattle, which are much larger and fairer to look at. Some have told me, and I believe with Truth, that there are above 40,000 of these Scots Cattle fed in this County every Year, and most of [Page 57] them in the Marshes between Norwich, Beccles, and Yarmouth.

Yarmouth is an antient Town, much older than Norwich; and tho' not extending over so much Ground, yet better built, and more complete, and not much inferior in Number of Inhabitants; and for Wealth, Traffick, and Advantage of its Situation, infinitely superior to Norwich.

It is situated on a Peninsula between the River Yare and the Sea; the two last lying parallel to one another, and the Town in the Middle: The River lies on the West-side of the Town, and being grown very large and deep, by the Receiving of all the Rivers on this side the County, forms the Haven: and the Town facing to the West also, and open to the River, makes the finest Quay in England, if not in Europe, at least equalling that of Marseilles itself.

The Ships ride here so close, as it were, keeping up one another, with their Head-fasts on Shore, that for half a Mile together, they go cross the Stream with their Boltsprits over the Land, their Bows or Heads touching the very Wharf; so that one may walk from Ship to Ship as on a floating Bridge, all along by the Shore-side. The Quay reaching from the Draw-bridge almost to the South-gate, is so spacious and wide, that in some Places 'tis near 100 Yards from the Houses to the Wharf. In this pleasant and agreeable Range of Houses are some very magnificent Buildings, and, among the rest, the Custom-house and Town-hall, and some Merchants Houses, which look like little Palaces, rather than the Dwelling-houses of private Men.

The greatest Defect of this beautiful Town seems to be, that tho' it is very rich, and increasing in Wealth and Trade, and consequently in People, there is not Room to inlarge it by new Buildings; being precluded on the West and South-sides by the River, and on the East-side by the Sea, so that there [Page 58] is no Room but on the North-end without the Gate; and there the Land is not very agreeable: but had they had a larger Space within the Gates, there would before now, have been many spacious Streets of Buildings erected, as we see is done in some other thriving Towns in England.

During the Fishing-fair, as they call it, one sees the Land covered with People, and the River with Barks and Boats, busy Day and Night, landing and carrying off the Herrings, which they catch here in almost incredible Quantities. I happened to be there during their Fishing-fair, when I told, in one Tide, One hundred and ten Barks and fishing Vessels coming up the River, all loaden with Her­rings, taken the Night before; and this, over and above what was brought on Shore on the Dean (that is the Sea-side of the Town) by open Boats, which they call * Cobles, and which often bring in two or three Lasts of Fish at a Time. The Barks often bring ten Lasts apiece.

This Fishing-fair began on Michaelmas-day, and lasts all the Month of October, by which time the Herrings draw off to Sea, shoot their Spawn, and are no more fit for the Merchants Business; at least not those that are taken hereabouts.

We have very different Accounts of the Quantity of Herrings caught here, in this Season; some have said, that the Towns of Yarmouth and Leostoff only, have taken 40,000 Lasts in a Season: I will not venture to confirm that Report; but I have heard [Page 59] the Merchants themselves say, that they have cured 40,000 Barrels of merchantable red Herrings in one Season, which (tho' far short of the other) is a very considerable Article; and it is to be added, that these are over and above all the Herrings consumed in the Country Towns of both those populous Counties, for 30 Miles from the Sea, whither very great Quantities are carried every Tide during the whole Season.

But this is only one Branch of the great Trade carried on in this Town; another Part of its Com­merce is in the exporting these Herrings after they are cured; and for this its Merchants have a great Trade to Genoa, Leghorn, Naples, Messina, and Venice, as also to Spain and Portugal; exporting likewise with their Herrings great Quantities of Worsted Stuffs, and Stuffs made of Silk and Worsted; Cam­blets, &c. the Manufactures of the neighbouring City of Norwich, and of the Places adjacent.

Besides this, they carry on a very considerable Trade with Holland, exporting a vast Quantity of Woollen Manufactures every Year. Also they have a Fishing-trade to the North Seas for white Fish, which from the Place are called the North Sea Cod.

They have likewise a considerable Trade to Nor­way, and to the Baltick, from whence they bring back Deals, and Fir Timber, Oaken Plank, Baulks, Spars, Oars, Pitch, Tar, Hemp, Flax, Canvas, and Sail-cloth; with all manner of Naval Stores, for which they generally have a Consumption in their own Port, where they build a very great Number of Ships every Year, besides refitting and repairing the old.

Add to this the Coal-trade between Newcastle and the River of Thames, in which they are so improved of late Years, that they have now a greater Share of it than any other Town in England; and have quite worked the Ipswich Men out of it, who had [Page 60] formerly the chief Share of the Colliery in their Hands.

For the carrying on all these Trades, they have a very great Number of Ships, either of their own, or employed by them; and it may in some measure be judged of by this, That in the Year 1697. I had an Account from the Town Register, that there were then 1123 Sail of Ships using the Sea, belonging to the Town, besides such Ships as the Merchants of Yarmouth might be concerned in, and be Part-owners of, belonging to any other Ports.

To all this I must add, without Compliment to the Town, that the Merchants, and even the gene­rality of Traders of Yarmouth, have a very good Reputation in Trade, as well Abroad as at Home, for fair and honourable Dealing; and their Seamen, as well Masters as Mariners, are justly esteemed among the ablest and most expert Navigators in England.

This Town, however populous and large, had till lately but one Parish-church, dedicated to St. Nicolas, tho' it is very large. It has a high Spire, which is an useful Sea-mark. It was built by that famous Bishop of Norwich, William Herbert, who flourished in the Reign of William II. and Henry I. William of Malmsbury calls him Vir pecuniosus, from the Works of Charity and Munificence, which he has left as Witnesses of his immense Riches; for he built the Cathedral Church, the Priory for 60 Monks, the Bishop's Palace, and the Parish-church of St. Leonard, all in Norwich; this great Church at Yarmouth, the Church of St. Margaret at Lynn, and of St. Mary at Elmham. He removed the Episcopal See from Thetford to Norwich, and insti­tuted the Cluniack Monks at Thetford, and gave them, or built them, a House.

But in the Reigns of Queen Anne, and the late King George I. two Acts passed for Building a new [Page 61] Church or Chapel of Ease in Yarmouth, and for enlightening the Streets of the Town, and other Purposes, all which is performed in so complete a manner as is worthy of the Place.

Also in the Year 1723. an Act passed for Clearing, Depthening, Repairing, Extending, Maintaining and Improving the Haven and Piers of Yarmouth, and for depthening and making more navigable the several Rivers emptying themselves at that Town; and also for preserving of Ships wintering in the Haven from Accidents by Fire: This Provision was a very ne­cessary one; for the Haven is so very commodious for the secure and safe lying of Ships in the Winter Season, that several hundred Sail are yearly laid up and winter in it, which lie so contiguous to one an­other, and so near the Houses, that in case of Fire, not only the Ships, but the Town, would be in Danger of being totally destroyed.

Here is one of the finest Market-places, and the best served with Provisions in England, London ex­cepted. The Streets are all exactly strait from North to South, from Lanes or Alleys, which they call Rows, crossing them in strait Lines also from East to West; so that it is the most regular-built Town in England, and seems as if it had been erected all at once upon one uniform Plan.

They have particular Privileges in this Town, and a Jurisdiction by which they can try, condemn, and execute in especial Cases, without waiting for a Warrant from Above; and this they exerted once very smartly, in executing a Captain of one of the King's Ships of War in the Reign of King Charles II. for a Murder committed in the Street; the Cir­cumstance of which did indeed call for Justice: but some thought they would not have ventured to exert their Power as they did; however, I never heard that the Government resented it, or blamed them for it.

[Page 62]It is a very well governed Town; and I have no­where in England observed the Sabbath-day so exactly kept, or the Breach of it so constantly punished, as in this Place, which I mention to their Honour.

From Yarmouth I resolved to pursue my first De­sign, viz. To view the Sea-side on this Coast, which is particularly noted for being one of the most dan­gerous and most fatal to the Sailors in all Britain; and the more so, because of the great Number of Ships which are continually going and coming this Way, in their Passage between London and all the Northern Coasts of Great Britain.

The Reason of which is, that the Shore from the Mouth of the River of Thames to Yarmouth Road, lies in a strait Line from South-south-east to North-north-west, the Land being on the West or Larboard Side. From Wintertonness, which is the utmost easterly Point of Land in the County of Norfolk, and about four Miles beyond Yarmouth, the Shore falls off for near 60 Miles to the West, as far as Lynn and Boston, till the Shore of Lincolnshire tends North again for about 60 Miles more, as far as the Humber; whence the Coast of Yorkshire, or Holderness, which is the East-Riding, shoots out again into the Sea, to the Spurn, and to Flambro' Head, as far East almost as the Shore of Norfolk had given back at Winterton, making a very deep Gulph, or Bay, between those two Points of Winterton and the Spurn Head; so that the Ships going North are obliged to stretch away to Sea from Wintertonness; and leaving the Sight of Land in the deep Bay I have mentioned, that reaches to Lynn, and the Shore of Lincolnshire, they go, as I observed, North or still North-north-west, to meet the Shore of Holderness, which, as I said, runs out into the Sea again at the Spurn; this they leave also, and the first Land they make, is called as above, Flambro' Head; so that Wintertonness and Flam­bro' Head are the two Extremes of this Course. [Page 63] There is, indeed, the Spurn Head between; but as it lies too far in towards the Humber, they keep out to the North to avoid coming near it.

In like manner the Ships which come from the North, leave the Shore at Flambro' Head, and stretch away South-south-east for Yarmouth Roads; and the first Land they make is Wintertonness, as above. Now, the Danger of the Place is this: If the Ships coming from the North are taken with a hard Gale of Wind from the South-east, or from any Point between North-east and South-east, so that they cannot weather Wintertonness, they are thereby kept within that deep Bay; and if the Wind blows hard, are often in Danger of running on Shore upon the Rocks about Cromere, on the North-coast of Norfolk, or stranding upon the flat Shore between Cromere and Wells. All the Relief they have, is good Ground-tackle to ride it out, which is very hard to do there, the Sea coming very high upon them; or if they cannot ride it out, then to run into the Bot­tom of the great Bay, to Lynn or Boston, which is a very difficult and desperate Push: so that sometimes in this Distress whole Fleets have been lost here all together.

In the same Danger are Ships going Northward; for if, after passing by Winterton, they are taken short with a North-east Wind, and cannot put back into the Roads, which very often happens, they are driven upon the same Coast, and embay'd just as the latter. The Danger on the North-part of this Bay is not the same, because if Ships going or coming should be taken short on this side Flambro', there is the River Humber open to them, and several good Roads to have recourse to; as Burlington Bay, Grimsby Road, the Spurn Head, and others, where they ride under Shelter.

The Dangers of this Place being thus considered, 'tis no wonder, that upon the Shore beyond Yar­mouth, [Page 64] there are no less than Four Light-houses kept flaming every Night, besides the Lights at Castor, North of the Town, and at Goulston, South. All which are to direct the Sailors to keep a good Offing, in case of bad Weather, and to prevent their running into Cromere-bay, which the Seamen call the Devil's Throat.

As I went by Land from Yarmouth North-west, along the Shore towards Cromere aforesaid, and was not then fully Master of the Reason of these things, I was surprised to see, in all the Way from Winterton, that the Farmers, and Country People had scarce a Barn, Shed, Stable, or Pales to their Yards and Gardens, or a Hog-stye, or Necessary-house, but what was built of old Planks, Beams, Wales and Timber, &c. the deplorable Wrecks of Ships, and Ruins of Mariners and Merchants Fortunes; and in some Places were whole Yards filled, and piled up very high, with the same Stuff laid up for the like building Purposes.

About the Year 1692. there was a melancholy Example of what I have said of this Place: A Fleet of 200 Sail of light Colliers went out of Yarmouth Roads with a fair Wind, to pursue their Voyage, and were taken short with a Storm of Wind at North-east. After they were past Wintertonness, a few Leagues, some of them, whose Masters made a better Judgment of Things, or who were not so far out as the rest, tacked and put back in time, and got safe into the Roads; but the rest, pushing on, in hopes to keep out to Sea, and weather it, were by the Violence of the Storm driven back, when they were too far embay'd to weather Wintertonness, a above; and so were forced to run West, every one shifting for themselves, as well as they could; some run away for Lynn Deeps, but few of them (the Night being so dark) could find their Way thither; some, but very few, rid it out, at a Distance; the [Page 65] rest, being above 140 Sail, were all driven on Shore, and dashed to Pieces, and very few of the People on Board were saved. At the very same unhappy Juncture, a Fleet of loaden Ships were coming from the North, and being just crossing the same Bay, were forcibly driven into it, not able to weather the Ness, and so were involved in the same Ruin as the light Fleet was; also some coasting Vessels loaden with Corn from Lynn and Wells, and bound for Holland, were with the same unhappy Luck just come out, to begin their Voyage, and some of them lay at Anchor: these also met with the same Mis­fortune, so that in the whole, above 200 Sail of Ships, and above 1000 People, were lost in the Disaster of that one miserable Night, very few escaping.

Cromere is a Market-town close to the Shore of this dangerous Coast: I know nothing it is famous for (besides its being thus the Terror of the Sailors) except good Lobsters, which are taken on that Coast in great Numbers, and carried to Norwich, and in such Quantities sometimes too, as to be conveyed by Sea to London.

Farther within the Land, and between this Place and Norwich, are several good Market-towns, and a great many Villages, all diligently applying to the Woollen Manufacture, and the Country is exceeding fertile, as well in Corn as Pasture; particularly, (which was very pleasant to see) the Pheasants were in such great Plenty, as to be seen in the Stubble like Cocks and Hens; a Testimony tho' (by the way) that the County had more Tradesmen than Gentle­men in it. Indeed this Part is so intirely given up to Industry, that what with the Seafaring-men on the one Side, and the Manufactures on the other, we saw no idle Hands here, but every Man busy. Some of the principal of these Towns are;

  • [Page 66]1. Hickling and North-Waltham, noted only for a Market each.
  • 2. Alsham, a poor Town, noted for Knitters.
  • 3. Worsted, for the Invention and twisting of Yarn, so called; also famed for Stockens and Stuffs.
  • 4. Catton, noted for a brazen Hand being carried before the Steward of the Demesne, instead of a Mace, and for a Bridge over the Duze.
  • 5. Reepham, for a good Malt-market; having no Church at all out of three: for there are only the Ruins of one of them standing.
  • 6. Holt, for giving two Lord Mayors of the Name of Gresham (who were Brothers) to London, in 1537. and 1547.
  • 7. Fakenham, noted for nothing at all, but for­merly for having Salt-pits; and,
  • 8. St. Faiths, whither the Drovers bring their Black Cattle to sell to the Norfolk Graziers, as I observed above.

Not far from Cromere is Gresham, the Birth-place of the generous Founder of the Royal Exchange and Gresham Col [...]ge, London.

From Cromere we rode on the Strand or open Shore to Weyburn Hope, the Shore so flat, that in some Places the Tide ebbs out near two Miles From Weyburn West lies Clye, where there are large Salt-works, and very good Salt made, which is sold all over the County, and sometimes sent to Holland and [...] [...]ick. From Clye we go to Marham and to Wells, all Towns on the Coast, in each whereof there is a very considerable Trade carried on with Holland for Corn, which that Part of the County is very full of, besides the great Trade driver here from Holland, back again; which I take to be a Trade carried on with much less Honesty than Ad­vantage, especially while the Art of Smuggling was so much in Practice, which the Laws have of late [Page 67] rendered more difficult than it was; tho' far from suppressing it.

The Seven Burnhams, which are so many small Towns called by the same Name, and each employed in the same Holland Trade as Marham and Wells, lie on and near the Sea-coast to the North-west of Walsingham.

From the Sea-coast we turned to the South-west, thro' Snetham, a small Market-town, to Castle-Rising, an old decayed Borough Town, with hardly Ten Families in it, which yet sends Two Members to Parliament; but shews a great many Marks of Roman, Saxon, and Danish Antiquities in and about it.

On our Left we saw Walsingham, an antient Town, famous for the old Ruins of a Monastery there, and the Shrine of our Lady, as noted as that of St. Thomas-a-Becket at Canterbury; hence called, Our Lady of Walsingham. Two Wells here are still called by the Name of the Blessed Virgin.

Near this Place, at Raynham, is the Seat of the Lord Viscount Townshend; and not far distant, at Houghton, that noble new-built one of Sir Robert Walpole; the Gardens and Plantations of which are very large and beautiful.

The general Plan and Front of the House and Offices extend to 450 Feet; the great Hall is a Circle of 40 Feet; the Salon 40 by 30 Feet; and all the other Rooms in the four great Apartments are 18 Feet high; the Attick Story is 12 Feet high, and the Rustick Story the same, all above Ground, under which is an intire Story of Cellars all arched. The Front to the great Entrance extends to 166 Feet, lying open to the Park. The Building is finished with two Towers, dressed with two Rustick Venetian Windows. The Section of the great Hall all in Stone, the most beautiful in England. The whole Building is of Stone, and without pretending [Page 68] to excuse any seeming or real Defect, it may be truly said to be a House of State and Conveniency worthy of a Prince's Residence.

This stately Structure, begun in the Year 1722. was completely finished, Inside and Outside, in the Year 1735. the noble Founder having had the singular Felicity all the time to continue at the Helm of Affairs, as he does still, Anno 1741.

On the Foundation-stone, placed in the South-east Angle, is this Inscription:Hic me posuit
Quem tu non nescies, Posteritas;
Fandamen ut essem Demus
In Agro Natali extruendae,
24o die Maii, A. D. MDCCXXII.
Faxit Deus,
Postquam nea urus aevi Dominus
Diu laetatu fuerit, ab [...]lutâ,
Incolumens tueantur incolumes,
Ad summam Diem,
Et Nati Natorum, & qui nascentur
ab illis.
Which may be Englished thus. ‘Here that Sir ROBERT WAL­POLE, with whom, O Poste­rity! thou shalt not be unac­quainted, has fixed me to stand as the Foundation of a Seat de­signed to be built in his native County, the 24th Day of May in the Year 1722. God grant, that after its Master, to a ma­ture Old Age, shall have long enjoy'd it in Perfection, his latest Descendants may safely and se­curely possess it to the End of Time.’

The noble Founder had doubtless in his Thoughts, in this Inscription, the uncertain State of Prime Mi­nisters, and of the superb Structures built by them in the Height of their Power in all Ages and Countries; and we hope the Merits of him and his Descendants to their native Country may induce the Almighty to give a Fiat to his Prayer.

We proceeded hence to Lynn, another rich and populous Port-town, well built, and well situated, at the Mouth of the River Ouse; which has the greatest Extent of inland Navigation, of any Port in England, London excepted. The Reason where­of is, that more navigable Rivers empty them­selves here into the Sea, including the Washes, [Page 69] which are Branches of the same Port, than at any one Mouth of Waters in England, except the Thames and the Humber. By these navigable Rivers the Merchants of Lynn supply about six Counties wholly, and three Counties in Part, with their Goods, especially Wine and Coals; viz. By the little Ouse, they send their Goods to Brandon and Thetford; by the Lake, to Mildenhall, Barton-Mills, and St. Edmundsbury; by the River Grant to Cambridge; by the great Ouse itself, to Ely, to St. Ives, to St. Neots, to Barford-bridge, and to Bed­ford; by the River Nyne, to Peterboro'; by the Drains and Washes to Wisbich, to Spalding, Market-deeping, and Stamford; besides the several Counties, into which these Goods are carried by Land Carriage, from the Places where the Navigation of those Rivers ends; which has given Rise to this Observa­tion on the Town of Lynn, That they bring in more Coals, than any Sea-port between London and Newcastle, and import more Wines than any Port in England, except London and Bristol; their Trade to Norway, and to the Baltick Sea, is also great in Proportion, and of late Years they have extended it farther to the Southward.

There are many Gentry, and consequently more Gayety, in this Town than in Yarmouth, or even Norwich, the Place abounding in very good Com­pany; and indeed it is so considerable, that it merits as particular a Description as the Nature of this Work will admit; and which, therefore, I will give as succinctly as I can.

To begin then: This Town was first called Lynn-Episcopi, as the Property of the Bishop of Norwich, till the Dissolution of Monasteries by King Henry VIII. when that Prince, becoming its Possessor, conferred on it the Name of Lynn Regis.

[Page 70]It is situated towards the Mouth of the Great Ouse, encompassed with a deep Trench, walled almost all round, containing about 2400 Houses, and divided by four Rivulets arched over with about 15 Bridges. It extends along the East-side of the River; which in high Spring-tides flows above 20 Feet perpendi­cular, and is about the Breadth of the Thames above Bridge, for the Length of a Mile, and is divided into nine Wards. On the North-end, towards the Sea, stands St. Anne's Fort, with a Platform of 12 large Guns, commanding all Ships which pass by the Harbour; and towards the Land, besides the Wall, there are nine regular Bastions and a Ditch, nearly in the Form of a Semicircle, which make it above half a Mile in Breadth. The Town is so antient as to be supposed the same with Maiden-Bower, ac­cording to several old Historians.

It has many remarkable Places, which deserve a more particular Description than I have Room for: however, I shall touch upon them briefly; as, St. Margaret's Church, the Town-hall, Bridewell, the Custom-house and Exchange, the Market-cross, St. Nicolas's Chapel, All-Saints Church, the Free-School, the Hospitals, the Statue of King James II. King John's Sword and Cup, the common Stath-yard, the Lady's Mount, the publick Libraries, the King's Stath-yard, and other Remarkables, of which in their Order; and first of St. Margarets Church.

This Church, which was formerly an Abbey, and is one of the largest Parochial Churches in England, is adorned with a very fair and high Lanthorn, covered with Lead, containing the Clock-bell, lately cast, which may be heard all over the Town. Its Height is 132 Feet. At the West-end stands a Stone Tower, 82 Feet high; and facing the Street a Moon-dial, designed to tell the Increase and Decrease of that Planet, with the exact Hour of the Day▪ It moves by Clock-work. Over the Tower is a [Page 71] Spire 193 Feet high in form of a Pyramid; near to which is the Bell-tower built of Free-stone, 86 Feet high, containing a Ring of eight Bells. In this Church is kept the Bishop's Court, when he comes hither on his Visitation.

The Town-house, called Trinity-hall, is an antient and noble Building, which makes a fine Appearance.

Adjoining to it is the House of Correction called Bridewell, with Apartments proper for the Reception of such as are put there; who beat and dress Hemp during their Confinement.

The Exchange is a fair Structure of Free-stone, with two Orders of Columns, situated in the Middle of the Town, and built at the Expence of Sir John Turner, Knight; and within it is the Custom-house, containing several commodious Apartments.

The Market-house is a new Edifice of Free-stone, in the modern Taste, 70 Feet high, erected on four Steps, neatly adorned with Statues, and other Em­bellishments; with an Inscription giving an Account of its former Condition, and present Rebuilding.

St. Nicolas's Chapel is very antient, and stands at the North-end of the Town. It is an Appendage to St. Margaret's, and is esteemed one of the fairest and largest religious Fabricks in England; it has a Bell-tower of Free-stone, and a pyramidical octan­gular Spire over it, both which together are 170 Feet from the Ground.

All-Saints Church, in South-Lynn, belonged for­merly to the Carmelite and White Friers, on the Ruins of whose Monastery it is built. Tho' not large, it is neat, solid and regular, in form of a Cross, within a Church-yard well walled in.

On the North-side of St. Margaret's Church-yard is the Free-school, a strong and beautiful Building.

The only Fabrick formerly belonging to any re­ligious Order, now standing, is the Grey-Fryers Steeple, a noted Sea-mark; which was repaired and [Page 72] amended out of the Ruins of a demolished Chapel in the Year 1539. It may not be amiss to mention here a remarkable and laudable Order, that was made in the Year 1588. That on every first Monday in the Month there should be a Meeting of the Mayor, Aldermen, some of the Common-Council, and the Preachers, in order to settle Peace and Quietness be­tween Man and Man, and to decide all manner of Controversies: this was called The Feast of Recon­ciliation.

In the Parish of All-Saints is a small Hospital for four poor Men to live rent-free. St. Mary Magdalen's Hospital, founded in the Reign of King Stephen, for a Prior, and 12 Brethren and Sisters, continued in a flourishing Condition about 400 Years; and devolved to the Crown at the making the Statute for Dissolution of religious Houses in the Reign of Edward VI. in whose Time it was robbed, and almost levelled with the Ground, by Kett's Mutineers, at their Return from their frustrated At­tempt to surprise Lynn: so that it remained destitute of Brethren and Sisters, except some poor People, whom the Mayor and Burgesses maintained with Design to support the antient Hospital, till King James I. upon Petition restored them their Lands, granted them many Privileges, and incorporated them: but in the Year 1643. it was a second time destroy'd by Fire by the Earl of Manchester's Forces, when they besieged Lynn, then standing out for the King. In the Year 1649. the Corportation rebuilt it very commodiously, as at present, with two Courts, a Chapel, and convenient Apartments for the Master, Brethren, and Sisters, and several Inscriptions com­memorating the late Disaster. It is now committed to the Care of Two of the Elder Aldermen, chosen for that Purpose by the other Governors.

There is in the great Market-place a Statue erected in the Year 1686. to the Honour of King James II. [Page 73] with an Inscription that may serve for a Satire on the undue Compliments which are frequently paid to Princes, during the Time of their Prosperity. It stands on a Pedestal, which has several Embellish­ments, and is inclosed within a Palisade of Iron. The Inscription is as follows:Non immemor
Quantum Divinis invictiss. Principis
Virtutibus debeat,
Hanc Regiae Majestatis Effigiem,
Aeternum Fidei et Obsequii
Monumentum, erexit
S. P. Q. L.
Anno Salutis 1686.’
In English, thus:‘The Aldermen and Common Coun­cil of Lynn, not forgetting how much they owe to the divine Virtues of the invincible King James II. as a lasting Monu­ment of their Faith and Loyalty, have erected this Statue of his Royal Majesty, Anno 1686.’

In 1682. an old ruinous Building, which was once a Chapel, was, by the Corporation, and other In­habitants, made a publick Receptacle for poor Chil­dren to learn to spin Wooll: here they are also taught to read. It is now, by Act of Parliament, settled and vested in the Guardians of the Poor.

There was a Church formerly in the Town, dedi­cated to St. John, and belonging to the Hospital of that Name, both which are alike extinct.

The Corporation boasts of having been presented by King John with a very rich double-gilt Cup and Cover, weighing 73 Ounces, which is preserved to this Day, and used on publick Occasions; and at the same time a large Sword, with a Silver Mount­ing, from his own Side, as is engraven on the In­scription on the Hilt.

The Entrance into the common Stath-yard from the Tuesday Market is by two large Gate-ways with habitable Rooms over them. It is a beautiful large square Area, with a commodious Quay or Wharf, surrounded with Ware-houses and Granaries for all sorts of Merchandize with spacious Vaults.

[Page 74]At a small Distance from the Town, stands a ruinous Pile, called The Lady's Mount, or Red Mount; wherein formerly was a Chapel dedicated to the Blessed Virgin, which served as a Receptacle for Pilgrims travelling this Way towards the cele­brated Convent of Our Lady at Walsingham.

The Library at St. Nicolas was erected by a vo­luntary Subscription of several Hundred Pounds; to which the late Lord Townshend, (who took his Title of Baron from this Town) Sir Robert Walpole, Sir Charles Turner, and Robert Britiffe, Esq deceased, were considerable Benefactors. There is also another Library at St. Margaret's, to which the late Thomas Thurlin, D. D. President of St. John's in Cam­bridge, bequeathed all his Books; and also left an Exhibition of Six Pounds a Year to a poor Scholar, who should go from the Grammar-school to St. John's College in Cambridge; and forty Shillings yearly towards the Cloathing three of the poorest Inhabitants of Gaywood, &c.

The Inhabitants of Lynn suffer great Inconvenience from the want of fresh-water Springs within the Town; with which Element, however, they are supplied from a River running by Gaywood, and by leaden Pipes from Middleton and Mintling.

The Church of St. Edmund, in North-Lynn, was long ago intirely swallowed up by the Sea.

The King's Stath-yard is a very handsome Square, with Brick Buildings fronting each Way; in the Centre of which stands the Statue of James I. in a Nich fronting the West. Here the greatest Part of imported Wines are landed, as it has a convenient Quay, and large Wine-vaults.

At the South-end of the Town stood an Oil-mill, framed in Holland, and brought over hither near 100 Years ago. It gave a pleasant Prospect to every Part of the Town; but in the Year 1737. was consumed by Fire

[Page 75]From what has been said, it will be observed, that the Situation of this Town renders it capable of being made very strong; and in the late Wars it was so, a Line of Fortification being drawn round it at a Distance from the Walls; the Ruins, or rather Remains of which Works appear to this Day; nor would it be a hard Matter to restore the Bastions, with the Ravelins and Counterscarp, upon any sud­den Emergency, to a good State of Defence; espe­cially because they are able to fill all their Ditches with Water from the Sea, in such a manner as that it cannot be drawn off.

They pass over here in Boats into the Fen Coun­try, and over the famous Washes into Lincolnshire; but the Passage is very dangerous and uneasy; for here Passengers often miscarry, and are lost; but then it is usually on their venturing at improper times, and without the Guides, which if they would be persuaded not to do, they would very rarely fail of going or coming safe.

From Lynn, I bent my Course Southward to Downham, where is an ugly wooden Bridge over the Ouse; at which, as Hollingshead informs us, in October 1568. were taken 17 monstrous Fishes, from 20 to 27 Feet long.

When we were at Downham, we took a Turn to the antient Town of Thetford, situated partly in Norfolk, and partly in Suffolk. It was raised on the Ruins of the antient Sitomagus, which was destroy'd by the Danes. It is at present but meanly built; but by the Ruins of Churches and Monasteries still remaining, appears to have been formerly of great Account; and even so far back as the Time of King Edward the Confessor, it had 947 Burgesses, and in that of William the Conqueror 720 Mansions. On the Suffolk Side there now remain the Ruins of six Churches and Monasteries, and there were several others in the Town; but now there are but three [Page 76] Parish Churches standing intire, one on the Suffolk, and two on the Norfolk Side. It is, however, a Town Corporate, governed by a Mayor, Aldermen and Common-council; has three annual Fairs, a plentiful weekly Market, and is a kind of See suffragan to that of Norwich. In the 7th Year of King James I. an Act passed for the Founding of an Hospital, a Grammar-school, and Maintenance of a Preacher in this Town for ever, according to the last Will of Sir Richard Fulmarston: And Sir Joseph Williamson, Secretary of State to King Charles II. built here a new Council-house, and was otherwise a good Benefactor to the Place. The Lent Assizes are usually held here.

From Thetford we crossed the Ouse, to Brandon, which gives the Title of an English Duke to Duke Hamilton of Scotland. This is no ill-built Town, and has a good Church belonging to it. It gave a Lord Mayor to London, Anno 1445; viz. Sir Simon Eyre, Draper, who built Leadenhall for the Use of the City, and left 5000 Marks, a very great Sum in those Days, to charitable Uses. Brandon has lost its Market, but stands conveniently upon the Ouse, over which it has a Bridge, and a Ferry, to convey Goods to and from the Isle of Ely, to which we directly bent our Course.

We made an Excursion from Ely Northwards up to the Fens; but we saw nothing that Way worth our Curiosity, or remarking, but deep Roads, vast Drains and Dykes of Water, which are all navigable; but with all this, a very rich Soil, bearing a great Quantity of Hemp, but a bad unwholsome Air.

Wisbich, however, which lies on the Northern Extremity of the County, has not only been of Note in the Conqueror's Time, who built a Castle here; but is now a well-built Market-town, has a good Town-hall, and is esteemed the best Trading-town in the Isle, as having the Convenience of good [Page 77] Water-carriage to London, whither they send great Quantities of Oil and Butter, and bring back all sorts of Commodities, with which the whole Isle is furnished; for it has a plentiful Market.

A good way lower down, to the South, are the two Market-towns of Mersh and Thorney; the first is very inconsiderable, the other is delightfully situ­ated; and the Land about it very fruitful in Grass and Trees.

The Isle of Ely is encompassed with the Ouse, and other Waters. The City is situated on a Hill, in the Middle of a great Plain. It is full of Springs, insomuch that in the principal Street, in the East Part of the Town, there are Wells bricked up Knee-high almost at every hundred Yards, which the whole Year generally overflow from one to another, all the way down the Declivity of the Hill on which the Town stands. The Soil is exceeding rich, and the City is encompassed with Gardens, the Produce of which is so excellent, that it furnishes all the County for 20 Miles round, even as far as Cambridge, and St. Ives; the former of which has almost all its Garden-stuff from hence. Great Quantities of Strawberries are cultivated here, particularly of the white Wood sort.

The most remarkable thing that I observed of the Minster was, that it is seen for many Miles round; but is so old, that it seems to totter with every high Gust of Wind.

On the East-side of the Cam, a little below Ely, stands Soham, a little Market-town towards the Borders of Suffolk, near the Marshes, which were formerly dangerous to pass; but now there is a Causey made, which leads very securely over them. Here are the Remains of an antient Church, which was ruined by the Danes.

We proceeded from hence to Newmarket. Near Snaybell, as we went, we saw a noble Seat of Ad­miral [Page 78] Russel, created Earl of Orford, for the glorious Victory obtained under his Command over the French Fleet, and the burning their Ships at La Hogue.

The Situation of this House is low, and on the Edge of the Fen Country; but the Building is fine, the Apartments noble, and the Gardens well-finished. On the Earl's Death it devolved to Samuel Sandys, Esq in Right of his Wife, one of the Earl's Heirs, who now possesses it.

Arriving at Newmarket in the Month of October, I had the Opportunity to see the Horse-races, and a great Concourse of the Nobility and Gentry, as well from London, as from all Parts of England; but they were all so intent, so eager, so busy upon what is called the sharping Part of the Sport, of Wagers and Bets, that to me they seemed rather like so many Horse-coursers in Smithfield, than Persons of Dig­nity and Quality, who descend so low as even to circumvent one another; and, if I may speak it, pick one another's Pockets. To see a Person of Distinction who, perhaps, being ennobled, his Word of Honour, by the Laws of the Land, is to be esteemed and received with equal Sanction as an Oath in our Courts of Justice, level himself with a Groom, or a Riding-boy, and put his Credit and Honour in his Hands with a Bribe, to betray his Master and his Trust, is a thing scarce credible among those who are really Men of Honour; and yet it is too often the Case, to the indelible Shame of Men of Rank and Quality be it spoken in particular, and to the Reproach of the Nation in general! How different is this Conduct from that of those in the Circus at Rome? How much more different from those who gained so much Honour in the Grecian Races? What Pindar could be found in these Days to celebrate them? What must his Subject be, Tricks and Circumventions! Alas! How dege­nerate! And yet these Races were instituted with [Page 79] a very good Intent, to raise an Emulation in our Nobility and Gentry, to keep up and preserve a Race of good Horses, in Honour of the Nation in general; but as the Institution is debased, it is not the best Horse that wins the Race; but that which is destined for it by a Combination.

Before I was let into the Secret, as 'tis called, which is indeed nothing but the knavish Part of the Sport, I was much diverted with these Races; but when I was, I rejoiced not a little at the Regulation that it has met with from the Power that only had Authority to make it. For this Diversion becoming a publick Nuisance, by spreading itself in little Matches all over the Kingdom, the Legislature took Cognizance of it, and in the 13th of King George II. a Law passed, which injoins as follows; viz.

  • That none but the Owners of Horses shall enter them, and but one Horse at a Time.
  • That no Plate under 50l. Value shall be run for, on Penalty of 200l.—and 100l. to such as shall advertise, print, or publish any Advertise­ment of a Plate to be run for of less Value than 50l.
  • Five Years old Horses to carry 10 Stone; Six, 11; Seven, 12; on the Forfeiture of the Horse, and 200l. The Race to be begun and ended in one Day.
  • Matches to be at Newmarket; and Black-Ham­bleton, Yorkshire, only; on Penalty of 200l.
  • But Gifts left for annual Races not to be alter'd.
  • Somersetshire Penalties to go to Bath Hospital.
  • Entrance Money to be paid to the second-best Horse.

I went in the Intervals of the Sport to see the fine Seats of the Gentlemen in the neighbouring County; for this Part of Suffolk, being an open champain Country, and in a healthy Air, is formed for Plea­sure, and all kinds of rural Diversion; Nature, [Page 80] as it were, inviting the Gentlemen to visit her, where she is plentifully furnished to receive them; and the Country is accordingly in a manner covered with fine Palaces of the Nobility, and pleasant Seats of the Gentry.

Euston-hall, the Seat of the Duke of Grafton, lies in the open Country towards the Side of Norfolk, not far from Thetford; a Place capable of all that is pleasant and delightful in Nature, and greatly im­proved by Art.

From thence I went to Rushbrook, formerly the Seat of the noble Family of Jermyns, lately Lord Dover, and now of the House of Davers. Then we saw Brently, the Seat of the Earl of Dysert, and the antient Palace of my Lord Cornwallis, with several others most agreeably situated, and adorned with the Beauties-both of Art and Nature.

Newmarket is a handsome well-built Town, and being a Thorough-fare, reaps no small Advantage by that means as well as from the Races. It con­sists chiefly of one long Street, the North-side of which is in Suffolk, and the South in Cambridgeshire. The King has a House of his own, where he resides when he thinks fit to come to the Races. The Town has two Churches belonging to it, and a Free-school endowed by King Charles II.

We entered Cambridgeshire out of Suffolk with all the Advantage that can be imagined; just upon those pleasant and agreeable Plains, called Newmarket-Heath. Across which extends a Fortification, or Ditch, with a Rampart, commonly called The Devil's Dyke, as Works of an extraordinary Nature are generally, by the Vulgar, attributed to that Prince of Darkness thro' the Nation; but among the Gentry it is best known by the Name of Rech Dyke, from Rech, a small Market-town lying near the Heath. It is sup­posed to have been the Boundary of the Kingdom of the East-Angles.

[Page 81]Passing this Ditch, we see from the Hills called Gogmagog, or rather Hogmagog, a rich and pleasant Vale Westward, covered with Corn-fields, Gentle­mens Seats, Villages; and at a Distance, to crown all the rest, that antient and truly famous Town and University of Cambridge, Capital of the County.

Cambridgeshire, except the Fen Country, is almost wholly a Corn Country; and of that Corn five Parts in six of all they sow, is Barley, which is generally sold to Ware and Royston, and other great Malting-towns in Hertfordshire, and is the Fund from whence that vast Quantity of Malt, called Hertfordshire Malt, is made, which is esteemed the best in Eng­land. As Essex, Suffolk and Norfolk, are taken up in Manufactures, and famed for Industry, this County has no Manufacture at all; nor are the Poor, except the Husbandmen, noted for any thing so much as Idleness and Sloth, to their Scandal be it spoken! What the Reason of it is, I know not.

On the Top of Hogmagog Hills appears an antient Camp, or Fortification, with a treble Rampart and Ditch, which most of our Writers say was neither Roman nor Saxon, but British. King James II. caused a spacious Stable to be built in the Area of this Camp, for his Running-horses, and made old Mr. Frampton Master or Inspector of them: The Stables remain still there, tho' they are not often made use of. The Earl Godolphin has here a fine House on the very Summit of the Hill, to which his Lordship frequently resorts, especially in the Racing-season.

As we descended Westward, we saw the Fen Country on our Right, almost all covered with Water like a Sea. The Michaelmas Rains, having been very great that Year, sent down vast Floods of Water from the Upland Countries; and those Fens being the Sink of no less than 13 Counties, they are often thus overflowed. The Rivers which thus empty themselves into these Fens, and carry off the [Page 82] Water, are the Cam or Grant, the Great Ouse, and Little Ouse, the Nene, the Welland, and the River which runs from Bury to Milden-hall. The Counties which these Rivers drain, as above, are those of

  • Lincoln,
  • *Cambridge,
  • *Huntingdon,
  • *Bedford,
  • Warwick,
  • Oxford,
  • Leicester,
  • *Northampton.
  • Rutland,
  • Norfolk,
  • Suffolk, and
  • Essex.
  • Those mark'd with (*) empty all their Waters this Way, the rest but in Part.

In a Word, all the Water of the Middle Part of England, which does not run into the Thames or the Trent, comes down into these Fens.

In these Fens are abundance of those admirable Pieces of Art call'd Duckoys, and it is incredible what Quantities of Wild-fowl of all sorts, Duck, Mal­lard, Teal, Wigeon, &c. they take in them every Week during the Season: It may indeed be guessed at in some measure by this, that there is a Duckoy not far from Ely, which yields the Landlord 500l. a Year clear of the Charge of maintaining a great Number of Servants for the Management; from whence alone they assured me at St. Ives, (a Town on the Ouse, whither the Fowls are always brought to be conveyed to London) that they generally sent up 3000 Couples a Week.

There are more of these about Peterborough, from whence Waggon Loads are sent up twice a Week to London. I have seen these Waggons, before the Act of Parliament to regulate Carriers, drawn by ten or twelve Horses apiece, they were loaden so heavy.

As these Fens appear overwhelm'd with Water, I observed that they generally at this latter Part of the Year appear also covered with Fogs; so that, when the Downs and higher Grounds of the adja­cent Country glistered with the Beams of the Sun, [Page 83] the Isle of Ely seemed wrapped up in Mist and Darkness, so that nothing could be discerned but now and then the Cupola of Ely Minster.

One could hardly see this from the Hills, without Concern for the many thousand Families confined to those Fogs, who had no other Breath to draw, than what must be mixed with the choaking Vapours, which spread over all the Country: but notwith­standing this, the People, especially those that are used to it, live as healthy as those in a clearer Air, except now-and-then an Ague, which they make light of; and there are great Numbers of very antient People among them. An Act passed a few Years ago for the effectual Draining and Preservation of Haddenham Level in the Isle of Ely, which contains 6500 Acres, which were overflowed chiefly thro' the Neglect of preserving and clearing the Out-falls into the Sea; and as these Grounds are naturally very rich and fertile, it may be imagined what a Benefit must accrue to the Publick by this means, when the Draining and Recovery of them can be completed.

Having been at Sturbridge-fair, when it was in its Height in the Month of September, the Year before I was at Newmarket, I must say, that it is not only the greatest in the whole Nation, but I think in Europe; nor is the Fair at Leipsick in Saxony, the Mart at Frankfort on the Main, or the Fairs at Nuremberg, or Ausburg, reputed any way com­parable to this at Sturbridge *.

It is kept in a large Corn-field, near Casterton, extending from the Side of the River Cam, towards the Road, for about half a Mile square.

If the Field be not cleared of the Corn before a certain Day in August, the Fair-keepers may trample it under-foot, to build their Booths or Tents. On [Page 84] the other hand, to balance that Severity, if the Fair-keepers have not cleared the Field by another certain Day in September, the Plowmen may re-enter with Plow and Cart, and overthrow all into the Dirt; and as for the Filth, Dung, Straw, &c. left behind by the Fair-keepers, which is very considerable, these become the Farmers Fees, and make them full Amends for the trampling, riding, carting upon, and hardening the Ground.

It is impossible to describe all the Parts and Cir­cumstances of this Fair exactly; the Shops are placed in Rows like Streets, whereof one is called Cheap-side; and here, as in several other Streets, are all Sorts of Traders, who sell by Retale, and come chiefly from London. Here may be seen Goldsmiths, Toymen, Brasiers, Turners, Milaners, Haberdashers, Hatters, Mercers, Drapers, Pewterers, China-ware-houses, and, in a Word, all Trades that can be found in London; with Coffee-houses, Taverns, and Eating-houses in great Numbers and all kept in Tents and Booths.

This great Street reaches from the Road, which, as I said, goes from Cambridge to Newmarket, turn­ing short out of it to the Right towards the River, and holds in a Line near half a Mile quite down to the River-side. In another Street parallel with the Road are the like Rows of Booths, but somewhat larger, and more intermingled with Wholesale Dealers; and one Side, passing out of this last Street to the Left-hand, is a great Square, formed of the largest Booths, called the Duddery; but whence so called, I could not learn. The Area of this Square is from 80 to 100 Yards, where the Dealers have room before every Booth to take down and open their Packs, and to bring in Waggons to load and unload.

This Place being peculiar to the Wholesale Dealers in the Woollen Manufacture, the Booths, [Page 85] or Tents are of a vast Extent, have different Apart­ments, and the Quantities of Goods they bring are so great, that the Insides of them look like so many Blackwell-halls, and are vast Warehouses piled up with Goods to the Top. In this Duddery, as I have been informed, have been sold 100,000 Pounds-worth of Woollen Manufactures in less than a Week's time; besides the prodigious Trade carried on here by Wholesale-men from London, and all Parts of Eng­land, who transact their Business wholly in their Pocket-books, and meeting their Chapmen from all Parts, make up their Accounts, receive Money chiefly in Bills, and take Orders. These, they say, exceed by far the Sales of Goods actually brought to the Fair, and delivered in Kind; it being frequent for the London Wholesale-men to carry back Orders from their Dealers, for 10,000 Pounds-worth of Goods a Man, and some much more. This especially respects those People, who deal in heavy Goods, as Wholesale Grocers, Salters, Brasiers, Iron-merchants, Wine-merchants, and the like; but does not exclude the Dealers in Woollen Manu­factures, and especially in Mercery Goods of all sorts, who generally manage their Business in this manner.

Here are Clothiers from Halifax, Leeds, Wake­field and Huthersfield in Yorkshire, and from Roch­dale, Bury, &c. in Lancashire, with vast Quantities of Yorkshire Cloths, Kerseys, Pennistons, Cottons, &c. with all sorts of Manchester Ware, Fustians, and Things made of Cotton Wooll; of which the Quantity is so great, that they told me there were near 1000 Horse-packs of such Goods from that Side of the Country, and these took up a Side and Half of the Duddery at least; also a Part of a Street of Booths were taken up with Upholsters Ware; such as Tickens, Sackens, Kidderminster Stuffs, Blankets, Rugs, Quilts, &c.

[Page 86]In the Duddery I saw one Warehouse, or Booth, consisting of six Apartments all belonging to a Dealer in Norwich Stuffs only, who, they said, had there above 20,000l. Value in those Goods.

Western Goods had their Share here also, and se­veral Booths were filled with Serges, Duroys, Drug­gets, Shalloons, Cantaloons, Devonshire Kersies, &c. from Exeter, Taunton, Bristol, and other Parts West, and some from London also.

But all this is still out-done, at least in Appear­ance, by two Articles, which are the Peculiars of this Fair, and are not exhibited till the other Part of the Fair, for the Woollen Manufacture, begins to close up: These are the WOOLL, and the HOPS. There is scarce any Price fixed for Hops in England, till they know how they sell at Sturbridge-fair; the Quantity that appears in the Fair is indeed prodigious, and they take up a large Part of the Field, on which the Fair is kept, to themselves; they are brought directly from Chelmsford in Essex, from Canterbury and Maidstone in Kent, and from Farnham in Surrey; besides what are brought from London, of the Growth of those and other Places.

Inquiring why this Fair should be thus, of all other Places in England, the Centre of that Trade, and so great a Quantity of so bulky a Commodity be carried thither so far; I was informed by one thoroughly acquainted with that Matter, That Hops, for this Part of England, grow principally in the two Counties of Surrey and Kent, with an Exception only to the Town of Chelmsford in Essex, and there are very few planted any-where else.

There are indeed in the West of England some Hops growing; as at Wilton, near Salisbury; at Hereford and Broomsgrove, near Wales, and the like; but the Quantity is inconsiderable, and the Places so remote, that none of them come to London.

[Page 87]Formerly in the North of England, few Hops were used, their Drink being chiefly pale smooth Ale, which required but little Hops; and conse­quently they planted none North of Trent. But as for some Years past, they not only brew great Quantities of Beer in the North, but also use Hops in the Brewing their Ale much more than they did before, so they all come South of Trent to buy their Hops; and here being vast Quantities brought, 'tis great Part of their back Carriage into Yorkshire, and Northamptonshire, Derbyshire, Lancashire, and all those Counties; nay, of late, since the Union, even so far as Scotland; for I must not omit here also to mention, that the River Grant, or Cam, which runs close by the North-west Side of the Fair, in its Course from Cambridge to Ely, is navigable; and that by this means, all heavy Goods are brought to the Fair-field, by Water-carriage from London, and other Parts; first to the Port of Lynn, and then in Barges up the Ouse, from the Ouse into the Cam, and so to the very Edge of the Fair.

In like manner great Quantities of heavy Goods, and Hops among the rest, are sent from the Fair to Lynn by Water, and shipped there for the Humber, to Hull, York, &c. and for Newcastle upon Tyne, and by Newcastle, to Scotland. Now, as they do not yet plant Hops in the North, tho' the Consumption there is great and increasing daily, this is one Reason why at Sturbridge-fair there is so great a Demand for them: besides, there were very few Hops, if any worth naming, growing in all the Counties even on this side Trent, above 40 Miles from London, those Counties depending on Sturbridge-fair for their Supply; so the Counties of Suffolk, Norfolk, Cam­bridge, Huntingdon, Northampton, Lincoln, Leicester, Rutland, and even to Stafford, Warwick and Wor­cestershire, bought most of, if not all, their Hops at Sturbridge-fair.

[Page 88]This is a Testimony of the prodigious Resort of the trading People of all Parts of England to this Fair; where surprising Quantities of Hops formerly have been sold.

The Article of Wooll is of several Sorts; but principally Fleece Wooll, out of Lincolnshire, where the longest Staple is found, the Sheep of those Parts being of the largest Breed.

The Buyers are chiefly the Manufacturers of Nor­folk, Suffolk, and Essex, and it is a prodigious Quan­tity they buy.

Here I saw what I have not observed in any other County of England, a Pocket of Wooll, which seems to have been at first called so in Mockery, this Pocket being so big, that it loads a whole Waggon, and reaches beyond the most extreme Parts of it, hanging over both before and behind; and these ordinarily weigh a Ton or 2500 lb. Weight of Wooll, all in one Bag.

The Quantity of Wooll only, which has been sold at this Place at one Fair, has been said to amount to 50 or 60,000l. in Value; some say, a great deal more.

By these Articles a Stranger may make some Guess at the immense Trade which is carried on at this Place; what prodigious Quantities of Goods are bought and sold, and what a vast Concourse of Peo­ple are seen here from all Parts of England.

I might proceed to speak of several other Sorts of English Manufactures, which are brought hither to be sold; as all Sorts of wrought Iron, and Brass Ware from Birmingham; edged Tools, Knives, &c. from Sheffield, Glass Wares, and Stockens, from Nottingham and Leicester; and unaccountable Quantities of other Things of smaller Value every Morning.

To attend this Fair, and the prodigious Crouds of People which resort to it, there are sometimes no [Page 89] less than 50 Hackney Coaches, which come from London, and ply Night and Morning to carry the People to and from Cambridge; for there the Gross of them lodge; nay, which is still more strange, there are Wherries brought from London on Wag­gons, to ply upon the little River Cam, and to row People up and down, from the Town, and from the Fair, as Occasion presents.

It is not to be wondered at, if the Town of Cambridge cannot receive or entertain the Numbers of People that come to this Fair; for not Cambridge only, but all the Towns round are full; nay, the very Barns and Stables are turned into Inns, to lodge the meaner Sort of People: As for the Fair People, they all eat, drink, and sleep in their Booths, which are so intermingled with Taverns, Coffee-houses, Drinking-houses, Eating-houses, Cooks Shops, &c. and so many Butchers and Higglers from all the neighbouring Counties come in every Morning with Beef, Mutton, Fowls, Butter, Bread, Cheese, Eggs, and such Things, and go with them from Tent to Tent, from Door to Door, that there's no Want of Provisions of any Kind, either dressed, or undressed.

In a Word, the Fair is like a well-governed City, and there is the least Disorder and Confusion (I be­lieve) that can be seen any-where, with so great a Concourse of People.

Towards the latter End of the Fair, and when the great Hurry of Wholesale Business begins to be over, the Gentry come in, from all Parts of the County round; and tho' they come for their Diver­sion, yet 'tis not a little Money they lay out, which generally falls to the Share of the Retalers; such as the Toy-shops, Goldsmiths, Brasiers, Ironmongers, Turners, Milaners, Mercers, &c. and some loose Corns they reserve for the Puppet-shews, Drolls, Rope-dancers, and such-like; of which there is no [Page 90] Want. The last Day of the Fair is the Horse-fair, where the Whole is closed both with Horse and Foot-races, to divert the meaner Sort of People only; for nothing considerable is offered of that Kind, and the late Act, I presume, must have put an End to the former. Thus ends the whole Fair, and in less than a Week more, scarce any Sign is left, that such a thing has been there, except by the Heaps of Dung and Straw, and other Rubbish which is left behind, trod into the Earth, and is as good as a Summer's Fallow for the Land; and as I have said above, pays the Husbandman well for the Use of it.

I should have mentioned, that here is a Court of Justice always open, and held every Day in a Shed built on purpose in the Fair: this is for keeping the Peace, and deciding Controversies in Matters arising from the Business of the Fair. The Magi­strates of the Town of Cambridge are Judges in this Court, as being in their Jurisdiction, or they holding it by special Privilege. Here they determine Mat­ters in a summary way, as is practised in those we call Pye-Powder Courts in other Places, or as a Court of Conscience; and they have a final Authority with­out Appeal.

Having just mentioned the Puppet-shews, Drolls, &c. with which the People are entertained during the Time of this Fair, I cannot but relate a deplorable Accident that happened on this Occasion, at Barn­welt in this Neighbourhood, as follows.

On the 8th of September, 1727. about Eight at Night, a Puppet-shew being to be acted in a Barn built of Barnwell Stone, and thatched with Straw, a Fellow attempted to thrust himself in without pay­ing; but being refused, and the Door locked, and, as some report, nailed, to keep out Intruders, the Villain threatened he would set the Barn on Fire over their Heads, in Revenge. There was a Place ad­joining to the Barn, where were Hay and Straw; and [Page 91] a Boy setting down a wooden Lantern with a short Candle in it at a little Distance, whilst he was look­ing thro' a Hole at the Sight, the villainous Fellow aforesaid beat the Lantern about, till the Fire took the Straw, which he left burning, and run away. There was a Floor above them, and the Flame, getting into the false Roof, spread like Wildfire. The People, in the utmost Consternation, all making to the Door, which opened inwards, fell upon one another, and became, as it were, so many Barri­cadoes to hinder its being opened: and just at this fatal Crisis, the Fire having seized some, and dread­ful Shrieks and Cries resounding from all, the Floor fell in, and smothered almost all; for not above five or six escaped of the Whole, and about 120 Men, Women, and Children, miserably perished. The next Day it was one of the most shocking Sights that ever was beheld, to see the Relations of the unhappy Persons flocking thither, to find and own the Bodies, some of their Brothers, some of their Children, some of their Wives and Husbands, which they found Difficulty enough to discover; for some of them had their Heads burnt off, some their Legs, some their Hands and Arms, and others, in a man­ner, consumed to Ashes. And at last, most of the mangled Bodies were carried in Carts, and put pro­miscuously into a large Hole dug in the Church-yard for that Purpose. Among the unfortunate Sufferers were several young Gentlewomen of considerable Fortunes. About four Years after this, another terrible Fire happened, which almost consumed the whole Town of Barnwell.

Within these few Years, a fine Road, of about four Miles in Length, is completed, from the Town of Cambridge to Hogmagog-hills; which, by reason of the Badness of the Way in that Place, is an ex­ceeding useful Benefaction to the Town; which generous Work was done in pursuance of the Will [Page 92] of William Wortes, Esq of Cambridge, as I think they told me the Gentleman's Name was.

The Two Universities of Cambridge and Oxford are so much the Glory of this Nation, that it would be an almost unpardonable Defect in me, not to take particular Notice of them. I shall refer that of Ox­ford to its proper Place; and here give as brief an Account as I can of this of Cambridge, and of the Originals and Founders of the several Colleges, to­gether with the Favours and Advantages that have been within these few Years conferred upon it by his late Majesty, and other Benefactors.

The Town is governed by a Mayor and Alder­men; but with regard to the Government of the University, that has a Chancellor, eligible every three Years, aut manere in eodem Officio durante tacito consensu Senatus Cantabr. He hath under him a Commissary, who holds a Court of Record of Civil Causes for all privileged Persons and Scholars, under the Degree of Master of Arts.

They have also a High Steward, chosen by the Senate, and holding by Patent from the University.

The Vice-Chancellor is annually chosen on the 4th of November, by the Body of the University, out of Two Persons nominated by the Heads of Colleges.

Two Proctors are also annually chosen, as at Oxford; as also are Two Taxers, who, with the Proctors, have Cognizance of Weights and Measures, as Clerks of the Market.

The University has also a Custos Archivorum, or Register; Three Esquire Beadles, One Yeoman Bea­dle, and a Library-keeper.

The Vice-chancellor sometimes visits the Taverns and other Publick-houses in his own Person: but the Proctors do it very frequently, and have Power to punish offending Scholars, and to fine the Publick-houses who entertain them after Eight at Night in the Winter, or Nine in Summer.

[Page 93]As to the Antiquity of the University of Cam­bridge; the Story goes, That Cantaber, a Spaniard, 270 Years before Christ, first founded it; and that Sebert, King of the East-Angles, restored it, Anno Christi 630. Afterwards, as the learned Camden observes, it lay a long time neglected, and was overthrown by the Danish Storms, till all Things revived under the Norman Government. Soon after Inns, Hostels, and Halls were built for Students, tho' without Endowments. There are now 16 Col­leges and Halls, which differ only in Name, being equally endowed and privileged; 16 Masters, 406 Fellowships; about 662 Scholarships, 236 Exhi­bitions; and the whole Number of Masters, Fellows, Scholars, Exhibitioners, and other Students, are about 1500.

I shall now give a brief Account of the Colleges, and begin with

1. PETER-HOUSE. Which was founded by Hugh Balsham, Bishop of Ely, Anno 1257, when only Prior of Ely. But at first the Scholars had no other Conveniences than Chambers, which exempted them from the high Rates imposed on them by the Townsmen for Lodgings. The Endowment was settled by the same Hugh when Bishop, Anno 1284, for a Master, 14 Fellows, &c. Which Number might be increased or diminished according to the Improvement or Di­minution of their Revenues. It seems to have taken its Name from the Church of St. Peter, in its Neighbourhood.

2. CLARE-HALL Was founded in the Year 1340, by Richard Ba­dew, Chancellor of the University, with the Assist­ance of the Lady Elizabeth Clare, Countess of Ul­ster. He had before built a House called University-hall, wherein the Scholars lived upon their own Expence for 16 Years, till it was accidentally de­stroyed [Page 94] by Fire. The Founder, finding the Charge of Rebuilding would exceed his Abilities, had the kind Assistance of the said Lady, thro' whose Libe­rality it was not only rebuilt, but endowed. It has been lately new-built, all of Free-stone, and is one of the neatest and most uniform Houses in the Uni­versity, and delightfully situated on the Banks of the River, which forms for it a Kind of natural Canal.

3. PEMBROKE-HALL Was founded in the Year 1347, by the Lady Mary St. Paul, Countess of Pembroke, third Wife to Audomare de Valentia, Earl of Pembroke; who having been unhappily slain at a Tilting on his Wedding-day, she intirely sequestered herself from all worldly Delights, and, amongst other pious Acts, built this College, which has been much augmented since by the Benefactions of others.

4. ST. BENNET's, or CORPUS-CHRISTI COLLEGE, Was founded by the Society of Friers in Corpus-Christi, in the Year 1346. This arose out of Two Guilds or Fraternities, one of Corpus Christi, and the other of the Blessed Virgin, which after a long Emulation, being united into one Body, by a joint Interest built this College, which took its Name from the adjoining Church of St. Benedict. Their greatest modern Benefactor was Dr. Matthew Parker, once Master of the College, and afterwards Archbishop of Canterbury, who by his prudent Management recovered several Rights of the College; and, besides Two Fellowships, and Five Scholarships, gave a great Number of excellent MSS. to their Library, which were mostly collected out of the Remains of the old Abbey-Libraries, Colleges, and Cathedrals, and chiefly relate to the History of England.

[Page 95] 5. TRINITY-HALL Was founded about the Year 1353, by William Bateman, Bishop of Norwich. It was built upon a Place which once belonged to the Monks of Ely, and was a House for Students before the Time of Bishop Bateman, who by Exchange for the Advow­sons of certain Rectories, got it into his own Pos­session. He was a great Master of Civil and Canon Law; whereupon the Master, two Fellows, and three Scholars, (the Number appointed by him at the first Foundation) were obliged to follow those two Studies. It has been since much augmented by Benefactors, and the Number of its Members is pro­portionably increased.

6. GONEVIL AND CAIUS COLLEGE. Anno 1348, Edmund Gonevil founded a Hall, called after his Name, upon the Place where now are the Orchard and Tennis-court of Bennet-college. But within Five Years after it was removed into the Place where it now stands, by Bishop Bateman, Founder of Trinity-hall. Anno 1607, John Caius, Doctor of Physic, improved this Hall into a new College, since chiefly called by his Name; and it has of late Years received considerable Embellishments, &c.

7. KING'S COLLEGE Was founded in the Year 1451, by King Henry VI. It was at first but small, being built by that Prince for a Rector and 12 Scholars only. Near it was a little Hostel for Grammarians, built by William Bingham, which was granted by the Founder to King Henry, for the Inlargement of his College. Where­upon he united these two, and having inlarged them by adding the Church of St. John Zachary, founded a College for a Provost, 70 Fellows and Scholars, three Chaplains, &c. The Chapel belonging to this College is deservedly reckoned one of the finest Buildings of its Kind in the World. It is 304 Feet [Page 96] long, 73 broad, and 91 high to the Battlements, and has not one Pillar in it. It has 12 large Windows on each Side, finely painted, and the Carving, and other Workmanship of the numerous Stalls, sur­passes any thing of the Kind. It constitutes one Side of a large Square; for the Royal Founder de­signed, that the College should be a Quadrangle, all of equal Beauty: but the Civil Wars in which he was involved with the House of York, prevented his accomplishing it; and the Prosecution of his good Design was reserved to our own Time; for what has been added within these few Years past, is not only an Ornament to the College, but to the whole University: and it is to be hoped, that the College will be enabled, in Time, to finish the noble Work. This new Part runs from the West-end of the Chapel, a little detached from it to the Southward, and makes another Side of the Square, and contains spacious Chambers and Apartments, being 236 Feet in Length, and 46 in Breadth, built with great Regularity, and modern Beauty.

Febr. 1734, the Workmen digging for the Foun­dation of the new Buildings of this College, found a great Number of Broad Pieces of Gold, of the Coin of King Henry V. exceeding fair. As soon as it was known, the Governors of the College got out of the Workmens Hands a considerable Number, which they made Presents of to their particular Benefactors, and divided among themselves, and the Fellows of the College; but it is supposed, that the Workmen secreted many; for this Coin was very scarce before, but after this was much easier to be met with.

8. QUEEN'S COLLEGE Was founded by Queen Margaret of Anjou, Wife of King Henry VI. in the Year 1448; but the trou­blesome Times that followed, would not give her leave to complete the Fabrick. The first Master [Page 97] of it, Andrew Ducket, procured great Sums of Mo­ney from well-disposed Persons, towards finishing of this Work, and so far prevailed with Queen Eliza­beth, Wife of King Edward IV. that she perfected what her professed Enemy had begun. The Reve­rend Mr. Ferdinando Smithes, Senior Fellow of Queen's College, who died in November 1725. gave 1500l. to the same, to be appropriated to the Use of three Batchelors of Art, till the Time of their taking their Masters Degree.

9. CATHARINE-HALL Was founded in the Year 1459 by Robert Wood­lark, third Provost of King's College, and the Hall was built over-against the Carmelites House, for one Master and three Fellows; and the Numbers have been since greatly increased, as well as the Revenues. A great Part of it is lately new-built, and may be said to be a beautiful and regular Fabrick.

10. JESUS COLLEGE Was founded Anno 1497 by John Alcocke, Bishop of Ely, out of an old Nunnery dedicated to St. Rade­gund, given him by King Henry VII. and Pope Julius II. on account of the scandalous Incontinence of the Nuns, in order to be by him converted to this Use. And this Prelate established in it, a Master, Six Fellows, and Six Scholars. But their Numbers have been much increased by great Benefactions.

11. CHRIST'S COLLEGE Was founded by the Lady Margaret Countess of Richmond, Mother to King Henry VII. Anno 1506. upon the Place where God's House formerly stood. She settled there a Master and 12 Fellows, &c. which Number in King Edward VI's Time being com­plained of as favouring of Superstition, by alluding to our Saviour and his 12 Disciples, that Prince added a 13th Fellowship, with some new Scholarships. This College has been within these few Years past adorned with a very fine new Building.

[Page 98] 12. ST. JOHN'S COLLEGE Was founded about the Year 1506 by the same Lady, upon the Place where, Anno 1134, Nigel or Neal second Bishop of Ely founded an Hospital for Canons Regular; which by Hugh de Balsham was converted into a Priory dedicated to St. John, and by the Executors of the said Countess of Richmond, into a College, under the Name of the same Saint. For she died before it was finished, which retarded the Work for some Time; but it was afterwards carried on by her said Executors: And in the Begin­ning of the Reign of King James I. was greatly inlarged with fair new Buildings. This College, pleasantly situated by the River, is no less remarkable for its Number of Students, and its beautiful Groves and Gardens, than for its strict and regular Discipline. It has a noble Library, which has been of late Years greatly augmented, by the Accession of the Library of Dr. Gunning, late Bishop of Ely, who bequeathed the same to it.

13. MAGDALEN COLLEGE Was founded Anno 1542 by Thomas Audley, Lord Chancellor of England, and was afterwards inlarged and endowed by Sir Christopher Wrey, Lord Chief Justice of England. This College stands by itself on the North-west Side of the River, and hath been of late Years improved and adorned by a handsome Piece of Building. A Fellowship of a considerable Value has been lately founded at this College, which is appropriated to Gentlemen of the County of Norfolk, and called The Travelling Norfolk Fellowship.

To the Library of this College was left a valuable Collection of Pamphlets, by ------ Pepys, Esq as also great Numbers of Papers relating to the Navy and Admiralty. The Benefactor bequeathed the Presses as well as the Books and Papers, and they are kept in the manner he left them.

[Page 99] 14. TRINITY COLLEGE. Was founded Anno 1546 by King Henry VIII. out of three others: St. Michael's College built by Hervie of Stanton, in the Time of Edward II. King's-hall, founded by Edward III. and Fishwick's Hostel. Its worthy Master, T. Nevil, Dean of Can­terbury, repaired or rather new-built this College, with that Splendor and Magnificence, that for Spa­ciousness, and the Beauty and Uniformity of its Buildings, it is hardly to be outdone. All which has been since still further improved, by a most noble and stately Library, begun by the late famous Dr. Isaac Barrow: A Building, for the Bigness and De­sign of it, says a Right Reverend Prelate, perhaps not to be matched in these Kingdoms. Nor is the Learning of the present Master easily to be parallel'd, any more than the Troubles given to the College by the Contention between him on the one Side, and the College and Bishops of Ely, its Visitors, on the other: which, take them all together, in their Causes, Progress, and invalid Decision against him, as it hitherto proves, is one of the most extraordinary Affairs that ever happened in the University.

15. EMANUEL COLLEGE Was founded Anno 1584 by Sir Walter Mildmay, Chancellor of the Exchequer to Queen Elizabeth, in a Place where was formerly a Convent of Domi­nicans, founded in the Year 1280. by the Lady Alice, Countess of Oxford. After the Suppression of Monasteries it came into the Possession of Mr. Sherwood, of whom Sir Walter seems to have bought it. It has a very near Chapel, built not many Years ago, by the Bounty of Dr. William Sancroft, Archbishop of Canterbury, and others. And the Library belonging to it has received of late Years a fine Addition, by the valuable Collection of Books of the same Archbishop, given to it on the Decease of that Prelate.

[Page 100] 16. SIDNEY-SUSSEX COLLEGE Was founded by virtue of the Will of the Lady Frances Sidney, Countess of Sussex, who died Anno 1589, and by her Will left 5000l. for the founding of a College, to be called Sidney-Sussex. It was erected on the Place where formerly the Monastery of Grey Friers built by King Edward I. had flou­rished. But tho' this College owes its Rise to the Bequest of this Lady, and the Care of her Execu­tors, it is exceedingly improved by the Benefactions of Sir Francis Clerk, who besides erecting a Set of new Buildings, augmented the Scholarships, and founded four Fellowships with eight Scholarships more; and moreover Sir John Brereton left to it above 2000l.

These are the Sixteen Colleges or Halls in this University.

The New Senate-house is a fine Edifice, and with the Schools, the University-Library, and some other Buildings intended to be erected opposite to it, will form a stately Quadrangle. It is in Length 101 Feet, and in Breadth 42; and is adorned with fluted Pillars, a triangular Pediment, and other beautiful Decorations.

The Schools of this University were at first in private Houses, hired from Ten Years to Ten Years for that Purpose, by the University, in which Time they might not be put to any other Use. After­wards Publick Schools were built at the Charge of the University, in or near the Place where they now stand; but the present Fabrick, as it is now built of Brick and rough Stone, was erected partly at the Expence of the University, and partly by the Con­tributions of several Benefactors.

The University Library was first built by Rothe­ram Archbishop of York, who, with Tonstal Bishop of Durham, furnished it with choice Books; few whereof are to be found at present. But it con­tained [Page 101] nevertheless about 14000 Books, when his late Majesty King George I. was graciously pleased, in the Beginning of his Reign, to purchase the large and curious Library of Dr. John Moor, Bishop of Ely, who died July 30. 1714; and as a Mark of his Royal Favour, to bestow it upon this Uni­versity.

There have been very lately great Additions and Alterations made in the Library, for the better Dis­position of this valuable Royal Present, which con­sisted of upwards of 30,000 Volumes, and cost the King 6000 Guineas. And we cannot but observe, in this Place, That the late Lord Viscount Towns­bend, having understood that the University, to shew their Gratitude, and do Honour to the Memory of his late Majesty King George I. intended to erect a Statue of that Prince in the said Library, was pleased to offer to cause the same to be carved and set up at his own Expence; which generous Tender was received by the University in the Manner it deserved, and with Circumstances equally to their own and his Lordship's Honour. And in the Month of October 1739. in pursuance thereof, a fine Marble Statue of this great Prince was accordingly erected in the Senate-hall of King's College; on which are the following Inscriptions; viz. On the Front:GEORGIO
Optimo Principi,
Magnae Britanniae Regi,
Ob insignia ejus in banc Academiam
Senatus Cantabrigiensis
In perpetuum
Grati Animo Testimonium
Mortuo ponendam
That is, ‘The Senate of Cambridge has de­creed, That this Statue should be erected to his late most ex­cellent Majesty George I. King of Great Britain, as a perpetual Monument of their Gratitude, for his signal Benefits to this University.’ [Page 102]On the Left:‘CAROLUS
Vicecomes Townshend,
Summum tum Academiae, tum
Reipublicae Decus,
Pro Eximia, qua Regem Coluerat,
Pietate, Preque singulari,
Qua Academiam feverat,
Caritate, Statuam
A Senatu Academito Decretam
Sumptibus suis e Marmore
Faciendam Locavit.
That is, Charles Lord Viscount Townshend, a principal Ornament both of the University and the State, agree­ably to his singular Loyalty to­wards his Prince, and the par­ticular Affection, wherewith he had cherished the University, en­gaged to have the Statue, which was decreed by the Senate of Cambridge, made of Marble at his own Expence.’ ‘CAROLUS Filius
Vicecomes Townshend,
Virtutum aeque ac Honorum
Paternorum Haeres,
Quam Pater Morte subita abreptus
Imperfectam reliquerat,
Atque in hoc ornatissimo
Academiae Loco collocandam,
That is, Charles the Son, Lord Viscount Townshend, Heir alike to the Virtues and Dignities of his Fa­ther, has caused the Statue, which his Father, seized by sud­den Death, had left imperfect, to be finished, and erected in this most honourable Place of the University.’

This great King was not contented with having given this noble Instance of his Royal Bounty to the University of Cambridge, but in the Year 1724 was graciously pleased to confer another Mark of his Favour upon them, and which extended not only to that, but to the University of Oxford; in creating a new Establishment in a most useful Branch of Learning, which was much wanted, and for which till then there had been no Provision: which was to appoint two Persons not under the Degree of Master of Arts, or Batchelor of Laws, skilled in Modern History, and in the Knowledge of Modern Languages, to be nominated King's Professors of Modern History, one for the University of Cambridge, and the other for that of Oxford; who are obliged to read Lectures in the Publick Schools, at parti­cular Times, each of which Professors to have a [Page 103] Stipend of 400l. per Annum; out of which each Professor is obliged to maintain, with sufficient Sala­ries, Two Persons at least, well qualified to teach and instruct in writing and speaking the said Languages gratis, Twenty Scholars of each University, to be nominated by the King, each of which is obliged to learn Two, at least, of the said Languages.

The same excellent Prince also was pleased to ap­point Twelve Persons, chosen out of each of the Universities, to be Preachers in the Royal Chapel of Whitehall, at stated Times, with handsome Salaries; and declared that he would cause a particular Regard to be had to the Members of the Two Universities in the Dispositions of those Benefices which fell in the Royal Gift.

Some other Benefactions to this University, with­in these few Years past, are as follow.

Dr. John Woodward, who died April 25. 1728, left to the University of Cambridge a Sum of Money, for erecting a Professorship for Natural Philosophy, with a Provision of 150l. per Annum for the Support and Maintenance of the same for ever. He likewise bequeathed to the said University his Collection of Fossils, and other natural Curiosities, and such a Part of his Library moreover, as was necessary to illustrate his said Collection.

On the Death of Mrs. Addenbroke (Mar. 1720) Widow of an eminent Physician of that Name, the Sum of about 4000l. devolved to this University; which, by the Doctor's Will, is to be applied to the Building and Furnishing a Physical Hospital in Cam­bridge, in which poor diseased People are to be ad­mitted for Cure, gratis. The Master and Fellows of Catharine-hall are appointed Trustees of this Charity.

I shall not here enter into the puerile Dispute, (which has so much engaged several learned Pens, that might have been better employed) whether this [Page 104] University, or that of Oxford, is the most ancient. Their Emulation ought to be more worthily founded; and indeed they have so much to boast, as to the great and shining Ornaments they have respectively produced to Church and State, and the Figure they make in the Commonwealth of Learning, that it is strange so trifling a Contention should have been so warmly maintained.

Cambridge-castle was built by William the Con­queror, as one of those many which he erected in divers Parts, to curb his newly conquered People. It was strong and stately, and had in it, among other spacious Apartments, a most magnificent Hall. This being neglected, the Stones and Timber of it were afterwards begged of Henry IV. by the Master and Fellows of King's-hall, towards the Building of their Chapel. Nothing is now standing but the Gate­house, which is the Prison, and an artificial high Hill of a steep Ascent, and level at Top.

The Town of Cambridge is very large, most of its Streets are narrow, the Houses very ill-built, and the greatest Part of them much out of Repair; so that, were it not for the Colleges, and other publick Edifices, it would make a very mean Appearance.

From Cambridge the Road lies North-west, on the Edge of the Fens, to Huntingdon; on which stands the little Market-town of Caxton, remark­able for the Birth-place of Caxton, the first Printer in England. The Roman Way passes from Arington S. E. thro' Holm into this Town, and so on to Papworth, higher up on the same Road; which three last-mentioned Places are Villages only. On this Side, 'tis all an agreeable Corn Country, adorned with several Seats of Gentleman; but the chief is Wimple-Hall, formerly built at a vast Ex­pence, by the late Earl of Radnor. It was after­wards bought by his Grace John Holles Cavendish, late Duke of Newcastle; in a Partition of whose vast [Page 105] Estate, it fell to Edward late Earl of Oxford and Mortimer, in Right of his Lady, the only Daughter of the said Duke; who brought the Earl this Estate, and many others, sufficient to denominate her one of the richest Heiresses in Great Britain; but his Lordship parted with, it a little before his Death, to the Right Hon. the Lord Chancellor Hardwick, who now possesses it. It is situated in a very dirty Country; and notwithstanding the Cost bestowed upon it from its first Owner to this Time, the Gardens and Build­ings are both in a very bad Taste.

From Cambridge, my Design obliging me, and the direct Road in part concurring, I came back thro' the West Side of the County of Essex, to Saffron-Walden, passing by Linton, a small Market­town of no Note, saying that a Roman Military Way falls into the Ikening here.

Saffron-Walden is a fair Town, with a good Church, where stands a Monument of the Lord Audley, Chancellor to King Henry VIII. who made him a Grant of certain Lands belonging to a dissolved Monastery near this Town, which takes its Name from the great Quantities of Saffron which formerly grew in the Grounds, and were cultivated here­abouts, and answered exceeding well in the Manu­facturing; but how it came into Decay, nobody could account to me, though there may be still seen a great many Acres of Saffron-ground about this Town. This Commodity was never known to grow in England, till the Reign of Edward III. This Town gives Title of Baron to the Earl of Suffolk, whose eldest Son is by Courtesy called Lord Walden.

Near this Town, on the Side of Cambridge Road, stands the noble and stately Palace of Audley-Inn, on Audley-end, formerly the largest Palace of any in England; and tho' a great Part of it has been pulled down, is still one of the most magnificent Structures [Page 106] in the whole Kingdom. It was built out of the Ruins of the above-mentioned Monastery, by Thomas second Son of Thomas Duke of Norfolk, who married the only Daughter and Heir of the afore-named Lord Audley. This Thomas was summoned into Parlia­ment in Queen Elizabeth's Time, as Lord Audley of Walden; and was afterwards created Earl of Suffolk by King James I. to whom he was first Chamber­lain, and afterwards Lord High-Treasurer. It was designed for a Royal Palace for that King, and when it was finished with all the Elegance and Politeness of Taste of the Times, the King was invited to see it; and as he passed to Newmarket, he took up a Night's Lodging there. And after having viewed it with great Surprise and Astonishment, the Earl asked him, How he approved of it? Who answer'd, Very well. But troth, Man, said he, 'tis too much for a King; but it may do for a Lord High-Treasurer; and so left it upon the Earl's Hands, who is reported to have had then an Estate of 50,000l. a Year, which has been gradually decaying ever since, and is now reduced to about 3000l. a Year with Incumbrances upon it. King Charles II. purchased this House, and so it became, what it was originally designed for, a Royal Palace. The King mortgaged the Hearth-tax to the Earl, to answer the Purchase-money; and appointed James, then Earl of Suffolk, House-keeper thereof, with a Salary of 1000l. a Year; which Office continued in the Family till the Revolution, when the Hearth-tax was abolished. And the Exigence of the State being such as it could not afford to pay the Purchase-money, King William III. regranted the said House to the Family; upon which Henry, Earl of Suffolk, (who in his Father's Life-time was created Earl of Bindon, to qualify him to hold the Marshal's Staff) pull'd down a great Part of this noble Edifice, and reduced it considerably. And yet it is still very large, and [Page 107] makes a grand Appearance. You enter in at a large wide Pair of Iron Gates into a most spacious Court-yard, on each Side of which was formerly a Row of Cloysters, in which stood the Out-offices belong­ing to the House; which have been all pulled down, and supplied with a Stone Wall. You pass in at the Fore-front, thro' Part of the House, into a large open Quadrangle, inclosed by four different Parts of the House, and almost surrounded with Cloysters. The Apartments above and below are very lofty and spacious; and there is a very long wide Gallery, which extends the whole Length of the Back-front of the House. The Gardens are very indifferent, but very capable of Improvement. Behind the House is a fine Park, extending to Saffron-Walden, well stored with Deer, but not over-burdened with Timber; in which there is a rising Spot of Ground, whereon if the House had been erected, it would have had a much better Effect as to Prospect; for its present Situation is low, neither are the Grounds about it very fertile, or, I think, healthy.

But however great and magnificent this noble House appears, it bears an indelible Stain, if what is said be true, That it was built with Spanish Gold, upon the Ruin of the Great and Learned Ralegh, who fell by the Revenge of Spain, the Arts of Gundamor, the Avarice of Suffolk, and the unpardonable Weak­ness of his own King. But the present Earl's Mind is more nobly endowed than that of his great An­cestor, as being a generous and truly charitable Nobleman, which he has testified by many bene­ficent Acts among his poor Neighbours, especially during the great Frost in the Winter of 1739.

At a little Town called Littlebury, not far from Audley-Inn, is a House which was erected by the famous Mr. Winstanley, who built Eddy-stone Light-house, and perished in it, as I shall mention in its Place. Here he had made many odd Contrivances [Page 108] of Chairs running on Springs, &c. which usually much surprised Strangers, who came to see the House. The Person appointed to shew it generally placed the greatest Stranger into a particular Chair, which, on touching the Spring, ran backward thro' the House into the Garden. The same Gentleman was famous also for his Water-works, full of whimsical, but ingenious Contrivances.

But I ought not to omit, that near Icleton and Strethal, upon the River Cam, lies Chesterford; where, in the Year 1719, were discovered the Vestigia of a Roman City. The Foundation of the Walls is very apparent quite round, tho' level with the Ground, including about 50 Acres. Great Part of it serves for a Causeway to the publick Cambridge Road from London. The Crown Inn is built upon it. In the North-west End of the Town is the Foundation of a Roman Temple. Many Ro­man Coins have been found in the Borough-field, as they term the antient City, whose Name was Cam­boritum, according to Dr. Stukely. In this Parish, they say, has been a Royal Manor. Not far off, by Audley-Inn, is a great Roman Camp, upon an Eminence, where now stands an Hunting-tower of Brick.

A little North of this Part of the Country rises the River Stour, which, for a Course of fifty Miles or more, parts the two Counties of Suffolk and Essex; passing thro' or near Haveril, Clare, Cavendish, Halsted, Sudbury, Buers, Nayland, Stretford, Ded­ham, Manningtree, and into the Sea at Harwich.

As we came on this Side, we saw at a Distance Braintree and Bocking, two large and populous Towns, which join together, being parted by a little Stream of Water. These were formerly very rich and flourishing, occasioned by the great Trade for Bays, which were manufactured in such Quantities in these two Towns, as to send weekly to London [Page 109] Four, Five, or Six Waggons laden with them; but this Trade having greatly decreased in a few Years, the Inhabitants are in a very miserable Condition at present; for by an Increase of their Poor, their Parish Rates are risen so high, as in the Year 1738 the Poors Rate in Bocking Parish was Nine Shillings in the Pound; which, together with their other Rates and Taxes, rendered it very burdensome to all the Inhabitants: and at the same time, the Small Pox having infested both the Towns, their Markets were almost deserted by the Country People. The Parish of Bocking is a Deanery, and the living is valued at upwards of 500l. per Annum.

Near Braintree is the Parish of Black Notely, in which are a few scattered Houses, scarcely worth noticing, except for the Memory of the late learned Mr. Ray, who resided many Years in this Place, and was buried in the Church-yard, over whose Grave a Monument was erected, with an Inscription in Latin; which being long, we shall refer the Learned to the Original, and content ourselves with giving the English, for the sake of our common Readers, and in regard to so great a Man, who was an Ho­nour to his Country. It may be thus rendered:

"The mortal Part of the most learned John Ray, A. M. is deposited in this narrow Tomb; but his Writings are not confined to one Nation; and his Fame, every-where most illustrious, renders them immortal. Formerly he was Fellow of Trinity-College in Cambridge, and of the Royal Society in London, a singular Ornament of both. In every kind of Science, as well divine as human, most expert. And, like a second Solomon, (to whom alone, perhaps, he was inferior) from the Cedar to the Hyssop, from the largest of Ani­mals to the smallest Insects, he arrived at a con­summate Knowledge. And not only did he most accurately discourse of Plants spread over the [Page 110] Face of the whole Earth; but, making a most strict Search, even into its inmost Bowels, what­ever deserved Discussion throughout all Nature, he describ'd. While on his Travels abroad, he dili­gently discovered what had escaped the Observation of others, and first brought to Light many things most worthy of Remark. Further than this, he was endowed with so unaffected a manner of Behaviour, that he was learned without Pedant­ry; of a sublime Genius, and at the same time (which is rarely known) of an humble and modest Disposition. Not distinguished by an illustrious Extraction; but (what is greater) by his own Virtue. Little solicitous about obtaining Wealth and Titles, he chose rather to deserve than to possess them. Content with his own Lot, he grew old in a private Station, worthy a more ample Fortune. In every other respect he readily observed Moderation; in Study, none.

"To conclude: To all these Perfections he added a Piety free from Artifice; bearing an intire and hearty Veneration for the Church of England, which he confirmed with his last Breath. Thus, happily, in a virtuous Retirement, lived he, whom the present Age reveres, and Posterity will admire."

N.B. This Monument beginning to want Repair, by standing exposed in the Church-yard, hath been lately removed, and set up in the Chancel of Black Notely Church. To the former Epitaph is added, on the Table on the East-side, a Latin Inscription, which may be thus rendered:

‘"This Cenotaph, formerly exposed to the open Air in the Church-yard, defaced by the Injuries of the Weather, and just falling into Ruins, was by J. Legge, M. D. repaired, and removed under Shelter, March 17. 1737."’

[Page 111]The Country hereabout is very pleasant, having many Risings and Falls, with great Plenty of Water. The Fields are well cultivated, so as to render the whole Face of the Country like a Garden. But what is often very surprising to Strangers, is, the Nakedness of most of the large Trees growing in their Hedge Rows, and on the Sides of the Road, even in the Month of May; at which time few of them have put out any Leaves; but, upon Inquiry, I found they were a peculiar Sort of Elm, which rarely puts out Leaves before the Middle of May; and this is one of the most common Trees of this Country.

Near Braintree is Felsted, a small Place, but noted for a flourishing Free-School, of an antient Foundation.

Near to this is the Priory of Lees, which I men­tioned before (P. 20.); and hence keeping the Lon­don Road, I came to Chelmsford, mentioned also before, and Ingatestone, five Miles West, which I mention again, as I promised, (Pag. 20.) to have an Opportunity to speak of the noble Family of Lord Petre, and of the Improvements making at his Seat near this Place, by the present Lord, who is a Noble­man of fine Taste, and great Qualities.

Ingatestone-hall, one of his Lordship's Seats, lies at a small Distance from the publick Road, on the Right-hand, about a Quarter of a Mile short of Ingatestone Town.

The House is situated very low, so as not to be seen at a small Distance. It is a very large, irregular Building, and the Gardens are old; tho' there were many Alterations made in them for the better, by the present Lord, before he came of Age; but as this was not the Seat where he intended to reside, so his Lordship did not employ his fine Genius in modelling of these Gardens; but his whole Thoughts were bent to embellish his noble Seat at Thorndon, which [Page 112] is situated on a rising Ground, about three Miles on the Right-hand of Brentwood in Essex: where his Lordship has been some Years laying of a Plan for a House and Gardens, which when executed, will be an Honour to the Nation.

The House, when finished, will be 265 Feet in Front, exclusive of the Offices. The principal Front is to the South-east Aspect, where is designed a spacious Court. Before this is designed a Ter­race-walk near 200 Feet broad, and of a great Length; on the other Side of this, will be a Lawn of Grass, containing near 200 Acres of Land, which is bounded by Plantations of Trees, and handsome Farms.

On the Back-front of the House is a noble Range of Stoves, for tender Exotick Plants; which when finished will far exceed whatever has been done of this Nature, even by the greatest Princes in Europe.

The Park, which lies on the North-east and North-west Side of the House, is very large, and well stocked with Timber, which, fully grown, adds greatly to the Beauty of the Place. In many Parts of this Park are large Inclosures, which have been made by the present Lord, and are converted to Nurseries, which are completely stored with all Trees and Shrubs, that will live in the open Air in this Climate; so that when these Trees are planted out, according to his Lordship's Design, it will be the most beautiful and complete Plantation perhaps in Europe.

Thro' the Park there is already an Avenue cut, leading from Brentwood to the House, three Miles in Length; on each Side of it are designed Planta­tions of Trees, in regular Clumps, which, when finished, will have a noble Effect, as People pass thro', up to the House.

[Page 113]The Kitchen-garden is already finished, and laid out with equal Elegance and Usefulness. This is situated behind the Offices, so that it does not ap­pear in Sight from the House, and is detached from the other Gardens; and thereby is not exposed to Strangers, who may have Admittance to walk thro' the Pleasure-garden and Plantations.

In short, the whole Plan is the most extensive and grand of any yet executed in this Kingdom.

In the Parish-church of Ingatestone are to be seen the Monuments of his Lordship's Ancestors, who by a constant Series of beneficent Actions to the Poor, and Bounty upon all charitable Occasions, gained to themselves an affectionate Esteem thro' all that Part of the Country, such as no Prejudice arising from a Difference in Religion could or ought to impair; for great and good Actions command our Respect, whatever the Opinions of the Donors may be.

From hence we crossed the Country to the great Forest, called Epping Forest, reaching almost to Lon­don. The Country on that Side of Essex is called the Roodings, I suppose because there are no less than ten Towns almost together, called by the Name of Roding; and is famous for good Land, good Malt, and dirty Roads; the latter being in the Winter hardly passable for Horse or Man. In the Midst of this we see Chipping Onger, Hatfield Broad-Oak, Epping, and many Forest-towns, famed also for Husbandry, and good Malt. On the South-side of the County is Waltham-abbey, which was formerly a Monastery, built by Harold Son to Earl Godwin, in Honour of the Cross. The Town is said to be built and peopled by one Tovius towards the Latter-end of the Saxons Reign. This Town is seated on the River Lee, where the Streams, being divided, in­close several small Islands, which in times of great Floods are commonly overflowed: but these Meadows [Page 114] produce great Plenty of Grass in Summer, so that here are many Dairy Farms which turn to good Account.

The Abbey is turned into a Seat, which is now in the Possession of ---- Jones, Esq The Gardens belonging to this House, were, some Years since, in great Repute; but since the Taste for inclosed Gardens has been condemned, they have been little frequented, unless by some curious Persons, to see the Tulip-tree, which grows on a Grass-plat near the House, and is one of the finest and most flourish­ing of the Kind in England, producing annually a great Quantity of Flowers in the Month of July.

At this Abbey was bury'd the Body of King Harold, slain in the great Battle in Sussex against William the Conqueror, whose Mother begged that Favour of the Conqueror; but no Monument was built for him, only a flat Grave-stone, on which was significantly engraven, Harold Infelix!

From hence I came again over the Lower or Western Part of the Forest, where it is bespangled with Villages, filled with fine Seats, most of them built by Citizens of London; but the Lustre of them seems to be intirely eclipsed by the magnificent Palace of Earl Tilney, which I barely mentioned, (Pag. 3.) and intimated that I would touch upon it again; as I shall now briefly do. This noble Seat was prepared by his Lordship's Father Sir Josiah Child, in his Life-time, who added to the Advantage of its Situation a vast Number of Rows of Trees, planted in curious Order for Avenues and Vista's, all leading up to the Spot of Ground where the old House stood.

In the Place adjoining, the present Lord, before he was ennobled, and some Years before he began the Foundation of his new House, laid out the most spacious Pieces of fine Ground in Gardens, that are to be seen in this Part of England. The Green-house [Page 115] is an excellent Building, fit to entertain a Prince; 'tis furnished with Stoves, and artificial Places for Heat, from an Apartment which has a Bagnio, and other Conveniencies, which render it both useful and pleasant; and these Gardens have been so much the Admiration of the Publick, that it has been the general Diversion of the Citizens to go out to see them, till the Crouds grew so great, that his Lordship was obliged to restrain the shewing them to particular and stated Times.

The House was built since these Gardens were finished. It is all of Portland Stone in the Front, which gives it a most magnificent Effect at a Distance; as the Nature of that Stone, except in London, where it is tinged with Smoke, is to grow whiter and whiter, the longer it stands in the open Air.

As the Fore-front of the House looks through a long Row of Trees, reaching to the great Road at Leighton-stone; so the Back-front respects the Gar­dens, from which you fall down an easy Descent, which lands you upon the Terrace, and gives a most beautiful Prospect to the River, which is all formed into Canals and Openings, to answer the Views from above; and beyond the River, the Walks and Wildernesses go on to such a Distance, and in such a Manner, up the Hill, as they before went down, that the Sight is lost in the Woods adjoining, and it looks all like one continued planted Garden, as far as the Eye can see.

I have not Room in this Letter to say half what might be said of this truly noble Palace, nor for a particular Description of the beautiful House and Gardens erected at Low-Layton, by the late Sir Fisher Tench; which the Duke d'Aumont, Embas­sador from France, about the Year 1711, said was one of the neatest Boxes he had seen in Eng­land; and so shall hasten to conclude this Letter.

[Page 116]From Earl Tilney's House, and the rest of the fine Dwellings on that Side of the Forest, (for there are several very good Houses at Wanstead, only that they seem, as I have said, all lost in the Lustre of his Lordship's Palace) I went South, towards the great Road over that Part of the Forest called the Flats: And by this Turn came necessarily on to Stratford, where I set out. And here I shall conclude my second Letter, with assuring you, that I am

Your most Humble Servant.



I SHALL begin my Account of the famous County of Kent at Deptford. It was antiently called West-Greenwich, and is a very large Town, and of late so very much improved, that a hand­some new Church has been built there, dedicated to St. Paul.

Here was built, by King Henry VIII. a Store-house, who also incorporated certain Officers by the Name of Master and Wardens of the Holy Trinity: These were to take care of the Building, Keeping and Conducting of the Royal Navy. Their Hall or House was adjoining to the Church: and the Trea­surer of the Navy had also a convenient House at the Dock for his Residence.

Here is a Foundation belonging to the said Cor­poration of Trinity-house, by whom it was built at different Times, and in two Places, not quite con­tiguous. The old Part contains 21 Houses, the new 38, for decayed Pilots or Masters of Ships, [Page 118] or the Widows of such; the Men are allowed 20s. the Women 16s. per Month.

But what Deptford is most noted for, is its noble Dock, where the Royal Navy was used to be built and repaired, till it was found more convenient to build the larger Ships at Woolwich, as I shall men­tion in its Place: notwithstanding which, the whole Area of the Yard is now inlarged to more than double what it formerly was: it has a wet Dock of Two Acres, for Ships, and another of an Acre and half, for Masts; besides an Inlargement of its Store-houses, Dwelling-houses, Launches, &c. suitable to it.

Near the Dock is a Seat belonging to Sir John Evelyn, which is called Say's-court. This was ori­ginally in the Family of the Magmenots, who were Normans, one of whom was Lord Warden of the Ports, and Governor of Dover-castle.

The Red House at Deptford was a noted Collection of Warehouses, and Storehouses for many Sorts of Merchandizes, and particularly Hemp, Flax, Pitch, Tar, &c. But on Thursday the 5th of July 1739, a dreadful Fire broke out there, which consumed the same. The Loss was incredible; for the Ma­terials were so combustible, that nothing could be saved, nor could the Flames be extinguished, till they had nothing to prey upon.

From Deptford I proceeded to Greenwich, one of the most delightful Spots of Great Britain. The Park, in which is the fine Observatory called Flam­stead-house, from the late famous Mathematician of that Name, the Royal House, but more especially the noble Hospital, deserve particular Notice.

The Ground on which Part of this Hospital now stands, is the same on which was formerly situated the Royal Palace of our Kings. Here Henry VIII. held his Feasts with Jousts and Tournaments; and the Ground, which was called the Tilt-yard, is [Page 119] the Spot on which the East Wing of the Hospital is built.

The Park was inlarged, walled about, and planted, by King Charles II. soon after the Restoration; and the Design or Plan of a Royal Palace was then laid out, one Wing of which was finished in a magni­ficent Manner, and makes now the First Wing of the Hospital, towards London.

The Royal Palace now remaining was originally built by Humphrey Duke of Gloucester, surnamed the Good, Brother of Henry VI. and called by him Placentia. King Henry VII. much inlarged it, added to it a small House of Friers-Mendicant, and finished a Tower begun by Duke Humphrey on the Top of the Hill, where now stands the Royal Obser­vatory; from which is a most pleasant Prospect down to the winding River, and the green Meadows. It was completed by King Henry VIII. and afterwards much inlarged and beautified by Henry Howard, Earl of Northampton, who dwelt in it. Here Queen Mary and Queen Elizabeth were born, and here died King Edward VI.

The Hospital was founded by King William and Queen Mary, in the Year 1694, for the Relief of Seamen, their Widows, and Children, and Encou­ragement of Navigation. Three Tables are hung up at the Entrance into the Hall, which record the Names of several generous Benefactors to this noble Charity, amounting in the Whole to the Sum of 58,209l. And in the Year 1732, the forfeited Estate of the late Earl of Derwentwater, (being, by means of the Right Honourable the Lord Viscount Gage, a Peer of Ireland, recovered out of the Hands of certain pri­vate Persons, who had purchased the same at a Rate vastly disproportioned to the Value) amounting to near 6000l. per Annum, was given by Parliament to carry on and complete this Work; which will en­able them to prosecute it with Vigour and Success; [Page 120] and accordingly they have made a great Progress since that time in the second Wing, and other Parts of this sumptuous Edifice.

The Hall is very noble, and finely painted by the late Sir James Thornhill. At the Upper-end of it, in an Alcove, are represented the present Royal Family, the late Princess Sophia, King George I. King George II. and Queen Caroline, the Queen Dowager of Prussia, the Prince of Wales, the Duke, and the five Princesses. On the Ceiling, over the Alcove, are her late Majesty Queen Anne, and Prince George of Denmark. And on the Ceiling of the Hall, are King William, and Queen Mary, with several fine em­blematical Figures.

On a Pedestal in the Middle of the Area of the Hospital, fronting the Thames, is a Statue of his Majesty King George II.

Anno 1705, 100 disabled Seamen were the first that were received into this Hospital; but the present Number was made up in December 1737, a complete 1000. To each 100 Pensioners Six Nurses are allowed, who are to be Seamens Widows, at 10l. per Annum, and 2s. per Week more to those who attend in the Infirmary. Their common Cloathing is Blue, with Brass Buttons.

The Church of Greenwich is a very handsome new-built Edifice, dedicated to St. Alphage, Archbishop of Canterbury, who is said to have been killed by the Danes on the Spot where the Church stands, Anno 1012.

There are two Free-Schools in this Parish, one founded by Sir William Boreman, Kt. The other was set up by Mr. John Roan, who left his Estate for Teaching Boys in Reading, Writing, and Arith­metick; allowing 2l. per Annum for each Boy's Cloaths: their Number is Twenty.

There is also a handsome College in this Town, which fronts the River, for the Maintenance of [Page 121] Twenty poor Men and a Master, founded and well endowed by Henry Earl of Northampton, and com­mitted by him to the Care of the Mercers Company of London. A Chapel belongs to this College, where the Earl's Body is laid, which, as well as his Monument, was removed hither a few Years ago, from the Chapel of Dover Castle, whereof he was Constable.

This Town may be said to be one of the genteelest, as well as pleasantest, in England; the Inhabitants are many of them Persons of Note and Fashion, who have served abroad in the Fleets or Armies, and here pass the Remainder of their Days in Ease and Delight, having the Pleasure to reflect upon the Dangers they have gone thro', and the faithful and honourable Parts they have acted on the publick Stage of Life, in their Country's Cause.

A Market was erected in the Year 1737, at this Town, the Direction of which is in the Governors of the Hospital; and the Profits which shall arise from it, are to be carried to the Use of that fine Foundation.

The River of Thames is here very broad, and the Chanel deep, and the Water at some very high Spring-tides is salt; but in ordinary Tides, sweet and fresh.

The Country behind Greenwich adds to the Plea­sure of the Place: Black-heath, both for Beauty of Situation, and an excellent Air, is not out-done by any Spot of Ground in England.

Near this is a vast Hill, used as a Butt for Archers, and in great Request among the neighbouring People, till King Henry VIII's Time; whence it took the Name of Shooters-hill.

On the East-side of Black-heath stands the Hospital built by Sir John Morden, Bart. a Turkey Merchant. Several Years before his Death, which happened in 1708, he erected this spacious Structure, in form of a [Page 122] College, solely at his own Charge, in a Field called Great Stone Field, not far from his own Habitation, for the Reception of poor, decayed, honest Mer­chants, whereof in his Life-time he placed Twelve there. But by reason of great Losses, they were reduced to Four in the Lady Morden's Time, who was forced to retrench the Expences of the House, because the Share allotted her by the last Will of Sir John, and some Parts of his Estate, did not answer so well as was expected.

When she died, Sir John's whole Estate coming to the College, the Number was again increased, and there are at this Time 35 poor Gentlemen in the House; and the Number not being limited, they are to be increased as the Estate will afford; for the Building was designed for, and will conveniently hold 40.

Seven Turkey Merchants have the Direction and Visitation of this Hospital, and the Nomination of the Persons to be admitted into it; and as often as any of these Seven die, the Survivors are to chuse others to fill up that Number.

Every Treasurer of this Hospital has 40l. per Annum. There is also a Chaplain, who is to read Prayers twice a Day in the Chapel, and to preach twice every Sunday. His Salary at first was 30l. a Year; but the Lady Morden doubled it at her Death. She was in other respects a Benefactress to the College; and as she put up her Husband's Statue in a Niche over the Gate of the College, the Trustees have also put up hers in another Niche adjoining to that of her Husband.

The Pension is 20l. per Annum each. At first they wore Gowns, with the Founder's Badge; which they have not done for some Years.

The Chapel within the College is neatly wain-scotted, and hath a costly Altar-piece, and it has a Burying-place adjoining, for the Members of the [Page 123] College. The Founder, according to his own De­sire, was buried in a Vault under the Communion-table of this Chapel.

The Chaplain, the Treasurer, the Merchants, are all indispensably obliged to be resident there; and unless in case of Sickness, no other Persons are to reside, live, or lodge there; and no Person is to be admitted as a Pensioner, who cannot bring a Certi­ficate to prove himself upwards of 60 Years of Age.

In a Word, as the Situation of the Place is pleasant, the Air very good, and the Endowment very suffi­cient, this may be said to be one of the most com­fortable and elegant Pieces of Charity in England.

Near this College is the noble House, or rather Palace, of Sir Gregory Page, Bart. whose Father was a Brewer at Greenwich, a few Years ago. It is one of the finest Seats in England, belonging to a private Gentleman; and the Park, Gardens, and Country round it, contribute to make it a most de­lightful and truly noble Habitation.

It was begun and intirely raised and covered in the Space of Eleven Months, which shews how soon a large Building may be finished, where Money, the Sinews of Building, &c. is not wanting.

Over this Heath the famous Roman Watling-street ran, towards Shooters-hill; and so on to Rochester, Canterbury, and Dover. Here are great Numbers of small Tumuli, with some large and eminent ones, out of which Bones have been dug by the late learned Dr. Gale, (who resided many Years on this Heath) which shew that many Persons of Eminence have been formerly buried here.

On this Heath the Danish Army lay a great while encamped, A. D. 1011; and many Trenches, and other Remains of the Lines of Camps, are still visible.

On the other Side of the Heath, North, is Charl­ton, a well-built pleasant Village. The Church was [Page 124] beautified and repaired by Order of Sir Edward Newton, Bart. who was Tutor to King James the First's Son, Prince Henry; and it is one of the finest Churches in this County.

At the Entrance of this Village, fronting Black-heath, stands the antient House built by Sir Edward Newton, who had this Manor granted to him by King James I. It is a long Pile of Building in a Gothick Taste, having Four Turrets on the Top: the Court before the House is spacious, at the Entrance of which are too large Gothick Piers to the Gates, and in a Line on the Out-side of the Wall is a long Row of Cypress Trees, which are some of the oldest in England. On the Back of the House are large Gardens, remaining in the same Taste in which they were formerly laid out; and behind these is a small Park, which joins to Woolwich Common. This House is now in the Possession of the Earl of Egmont.

Near the Church are two fine Houses, one of which was built by the late Lord Romney, who married a Daughter of Sir Cloudesly Shovel; the other was in the Possession of the late Governor Hunter, before he went to Jamaica.

These Houses stand on the Edge of the Hill, having their Gardens sloping down towards the River, which, tho' it renders the Prospect to the River very delightful in the Heat of Summer, yet as it exposes their Gardens to the North Winds, their Fruit-trees are generally blighted; and in the Spring, when the Wind usually blows from the North, and East, these Gardens are so much exposed to them, that it is very few Days, during that Season, that Persons can walk with any Pleasure in them.

It is true, that in these Gardens you have a large Reach of the River in View, so that every Tide of Flood, a great Number of Ships are generally sailing by to London; as in the Tide of Ebb, many are [Page 125] passing toward Gravesend; which affords a very de­lightful Sight, as it shews the great Trade carried on by the Metropolis: yet as the Country on the other Side of the Water is a dead Flat for a great Number of Miles, and this often covered with Water in Winter, so the Winds not only come very cold over this Flat, but also bring Fogs, Damps, and a very unwholsome Air with them, which greatly diminishes the Pleasure of these Seats.

Charlton is noted for the Fair held in its Neigh­bourhood on St. Luke's-day, Octob. 18. called Horn-fair; the Rudeness of which, in a civilized, well-governed Nation, may well be said to be unsufferable. The Mob at that Time take all Kinds of Liberties, and the Women are especially impudent that Day; as if it was a Day that justified the giving them­selves a Loose to all manner of Indecency with­out any Reproach, or without incurring the Cen­sure which such Behaviour would deserve at another time.

And this in a Circumstance, which (far from be­ing to be gloried in) ought to be discountenanced by the Sex, as fixing the Brand of Incontinence on too many of them, which they have little Reason to be proud of.

A vulgar Tradition gives the following Origin to this disorderly Fair: It pretends to say, that one of the Kings of England, some say, King John, who had a Palace in this Neighbourhood, at Eltham, being a hunting near Charlton, then a pitiful Ham­let only, and separated from his Attendants, entered into a Cottage, and found the Mistress of it alone; and she being handsome, the King took a Liking to her, and having prevailed over her Modesty, just in the critical Moment, her Husband came in; and vowing to kill them both, the King was forced to discover himself, and to compound with Gold for his Safety, giving him moreover all the Land from [Page 126] thence as far as the Place now called Cuckold's Point; and making him Master of the whole Hamlet, established a Fair in favour of his new Demesne; and in Memory thereof, Horns, and Wares, and Toys of all Sorts made of Horn, are sold at this Fair.

Thro' this Town lies the Road to Woolwich, a Town situated on the Bank of the River, and wholly taken up by, and in a manner raised from, the Yards and Works erected there for the Naval Service. For here, when the Business of the Royal Navy in­creased, and Queen Elizabeth built larger and greater Ships of War than were usually employed before, new Docks and Launches were erected, and Places prepared for the Building and Repairing Ships of the largest Size; because here was a greater Depth of Water, and a freer Chanel, than at Deptford.

The Docks, Yards, and all the Buildings belong­ing to it, are encompassed with a high Wall, and are exceeding spacious and convenient; and so prodigi­ously full of all Sorts of Stores of Timber, Plank, Masts, Pitch, Tar, and other Naval Provisions, as can hardly be calculated.

Besides the Building-yards, here is a large Rope­walk, where the biggest Cables are made for the Men of War; and on the East, or Lower-part of the Town, is the Gun-yard, commonly called the Park, or the Gun-park; where is a prodigious Quantity of Cannon of all Sorts for the Ships of War, every Ship's Guns apart; heavy Cannon for Batteries, and Mortars of all Sorts and Sizes; inso­much that, as I was inform'd, here have been some­times laid up, at one Time, between seven and eight Thousand Pieces of Ordnance, besides Mortars and Shells almost beyond Number.

Here also is the House where the Firemen and Engineers prepare their Fire-works, charge Bombs, Carcasses, and Granadoes for the publick Service.

[Page 127]Here is usually a Guard-ship riding, especially in time of War. The Town of late Years is much inlarged and beautified, several fine Docks, Rope­yards, and capacious Magazines added; and the Royal Foundery for Cannon repaired and improved. The Thames is here at high Water near a Mile over, and the Water salt upon the Flood; and as the Chanel lies strait East and West for about three Miles, the Tide runs very strong, and the River is intirely free from Shoals and Sands, and has seven or eight Fathom Water; so that the biggest Ships may ride here with Safety, even at low Water.

The Parish-church of Woolwich has been lately re­built as one of the Fifty new Churches, in a very handsome manner.

From this Town, till we come to Gravesend, the whole Shore is low, and spread with Marshes and unhealthy Grounds, except some few Intervals, where the Land bends inward, as at Erith, Green­hythe, North-fleet, &c. in which Places the Chalk Hills almost join the River; and from thence the City of London, the adjacent Countries, and even Holland and Flanders, are supplied with Lime, or with Chalk to make it.

From these Cliffs on the River-side, the Rubbish of the Chalk, which they must be otherwise at the Charge of removing, is bought and fetched away by Lighters and Hoys, and carried to all the Forts and Creeks in the opposite County of Essex, and even to Suffolk and Norfolk, and sold there to the Farmers to lay upon their Land, which they do in prodigious Quantities; and are glad to give from 2s. 6d. to 4s. a Load for it, according to the Distance.

This is the Practice in all the Creeks and Rivers in Essex, even to Malden, Colchester, the Nase, and into Harwich Harbour up to Maningtree, and Ips­wich; as also in Suffolk, to Aldborough, Orford, Dun­wich, Swold, and as high as Yarmouth in Norfolk.

[Page 128]Thus the barren Soil of Kent (for such the chalky Grounds are esteemed) make the strong clayey Lands of Essex rich and fruitful; and the Mixture of Earth forms a Composition, which out of two barren Ex­tremes, makes one prolifick Medium.

Behind these marshy Grounds in Kent, at a small Distance, lies the Road from London to Dover, on which, or near it, are several good Towns; for Example, Eltham, formerly a Royal Palace, when the Court was kept at Greenwich; and Queen Eli­zabeth, who (as before said) was born at Greenwich, was often carried to Eltham by her Nurses, to draw in the wholsome Air of that agreeable Place; but at present there are few or no Signs of the old Palace to be seen.

It is now however a pleasant Town, very hand­somely built, full of good Houses; and many Fa­milies of rich Citizens inhabit there, who bring a great deal of good Company with them.

Near Eltham lies Chesilhurst, where is the Bury­ing-place of the Family of the Walsinghams, who resided in this Parish for several Generations.

In this Parish is an antient Seat called Frog-pool, or Fragnall, which in the Reign of King Henry III. was in the Possession of Thomas le Barbur, who in the 38th Year of the late King's Reign, had a Charter of Free-Warren for his Lands here. This Seat is now in the Possession of Mr. Tryon, a Merchant of London.

This Village is famous for the Retirement of the famous Mr. Camden, who resided here for several Years, and here composed the greatest Part of his Annals of Queen Elizabeth.

Near this are several other Towns and Villages, as Bexley, Crayford, Wilmington, Foots-cray, North-cray, &c. which being Places of little Note, I shall pass over with only observing, that about these Vil­lages are many Woods, chiefly of Birch, from whence [Page 129] the Broom-makers in Kent-street, Southwark, are supplied with their Birch, which bring in a consider­able Profit to the Land-owners.

From this Side of the Country, all pleasant and gay, we go over Shooter's-hill, where the Face of Things seems quite altered; for here we have but a chalky Soil, and far from rich; much overgrown with Coppice-wood, which is cut for Faggots and Bavins, and sent up by Water to London. Here they make those Faggots which the Wood-mongers call Ostrey-wood, and in particular those small light Bavins which are used in Taverns in London to light their Faggots, and are called in the Taverns a Brush, and by the Wood-men Pimps. 'Tis incredible what vast Quantities of these used to be laid up at Wool­wich, Erith, and Dartford; but since the Taverns in London are come to make Coal-fires in their upper Rooms, that Trade declines; and tho' that Article would seem to be trifling in itself, 'tis not immate­rial to observe what an Alteration it makes in the Value of those Woods in Kent, and how many more of them than usual are yearly grubbed up, and the Land made fit for the Plough.

In July 1739, a very good Design was begun to be put in Execution on Shooters-hill, a Number of Hands being employ'd in cutting a new Road, wide enough for three Carriages to pass abreast on the Eastern Descent of the Hill, which was formerly so narrow that it was impossible for a Passenger, if way-laid, to escape falling into a Ruffian's Hands, and which gave Occasion to many Robberies being committed here.

Dartford is a handsome large Town, having many good Houses in it, and is finely watered by two or three very good Springs; the River goes thro' the Town, and discharges itself into the Thames. On this River the first Paper-mill in England was built, by Sir John Spillman, in the Reign of King Charles I. [Page 130] who granted him a Patent, with a Salary of 200l. per Annum for his Encouragement.

The first Mill also for Slitting of Bars of Iron for making of Wire, was on this River.

There are two Church-yards here, one about the Church, and the other on the Top of the Hill to­wards North-fleet; in the latter of which you may look over the Tower of the Church, the Ground rising suddenly so very high.

Here is a very good Market for Corn on Satur­days, and an annual Fair on the 22d of July.

January 31. 1737-8, the Powder-mill at Dart­ford blew up, with this remarkable Circumstance, That tho' all the Servants were about their respective Employments, not one of them received any Hurt. And it is further remarkable, that within eight Years, this is the fourth Time that this Mill has been blown up, and no Damage done by the Disaster to the Persons of the People belonging to it.

Gravesend lies on the North-side of Kent, on the River Thames, about six Miles North-east from Dartford, and about the same Distance from Rochester. The Town of Gravesend and Milton were incorpo­rated in the 10th Year of Queen Elizabeth, by the Name of the Port-Reeve, Jurats and Inhabitants of the Towns of Gravesend and Milton. As this Place is the most frequented Passage of taking Boat for London, by Persons who come from Dover, Rochester, &c. or thro' any Part of Kent, from foreign Parts, so Queen Elizabeth ordered the Mayor, Aldermen, and Companies of the City of London, to receive all eminent Strangers and Embassadors here, in their Formalities, and so to attend them to London in their Barges, if they came up by Water: and if they came by Land, they were ordered to meet them on Black-heath, on Horse-back, in their Gowns. So much did that wise Queen consult the Honour and Grandeur of the City!

[Page 131]King Henry VIII. raised here a Platform of Guns, and another at Milton, as well as two others over-against them on the Essex Side, for the Security of the River. But since the Erection of Tilbury-fort, these have been demolished.

In the Year 1380, this Town was burnt by the French and Spanish Galleys, and the Enemies carried away most of the Inhabitants Prisoners.

Here is a very handsome Charity, given by one Mr. Henry Pinnock, in the Year 1624, of 21 Dwel­lings, and a House for a Master Weaver to employ the Poor: And a good Estate is also settled for the Repairs.

In this Town, on the East-side, is still standing the Body of an antient Chapel, which seems to have belonged to some Religious House, for Places in the Walls of the Vault remain still for Holy Water. A Market is kept here on Wednesdays and Saturdays, and an annual Fair on the 13th of October, which lasts a Week.

There have been very great Improvements made of the Lands near this Town within a few Years past, by turning them into Kitchen-gardens, the Land being fresh for this Purpose, as also pretty moist, and the Town having good Quantity of Dung made in it, with which they manure the Land: it pro­duces very good Garden-stuff in great Plenty, wherewith they not only supply the Towns for several Miles round, but also send great Quantities to the London Markets; particularly Asparagus, which is so much esteemed, that the Name of Gravesend will bring a better Price than what is brought from any other Place, this having obtained a much greater Reputation than Battersea, which was some Years since famous for Asparagus.

As Gravesend is the great Ferry (as they call it) between London and East-Kent. It is hardly credible what Numbers of People pass here every Tide, as [Page 132] well by Night as by Day, between this Town and London. Almost all the People of East-Kent, when they go for London, go no farther by Land than this Town; and then for 6d. in the Tilt-boat, or 1s. in a small Boat or Wherry, are carried to London by Water.

Another Thing for which this Town is worth notice, is, that all the Ships which go to Sea from London, take, as we say, their Departure from hence; for here all outward-bound Ships must stop, come to an Anchor, and suffer what they call a second Clear­ing; (viz.) here a Searcher of the Customs comes on board, looks over all the Coquets or Entries of the Cargo, and may, if he pleases, romage the whole Lading, to see if there are any more Goods than are entered; which however they seldom do, tho' they forget not to take a Compliment for their Civility, and besides being well treated on board, have gene­rally Three or Five Guns fired in Honour to them, when they go off.

The Method of causing all Ships to stop here is worth observing, and is as follows:

When a Merchant-ship comes down from Lon­don, (if they have the Tide of Ebb under Foot, or a fresh Gale of Wind from the West, so that they have what they call Fresh-way, and the Ships come down apace) they generally hand some of their Sails, haul up a Fore-sail or Main-sail, or lower the Fore­top-sail, so to slacken her Way, as soon as they come to the Old Man's Head; when they open the Reach, which they call Gravesend Reach, which begins about a Mile and half above the Town, they do the like, to signify that they intend to bring to, as the Sailors call it, and come to an Anchor.

As soon as they come among the Ships that are in the Road, (as there are always a great many) the Centinel at the Block-house on Gravesend Side fires his Musket, which is to tell the Pilot he must bring [Page 133] to; if he comes on, as soon as the Ship passes Broad-side with the Block-house, the Centinel fires again, which is as much as to say, Why don't you bring to? If he drives a little farther, he fires a third time, and the Language of that is, Bring to immediately, and let go your Anchor, or we will make you.

If the Ship continues to drive down, and does not let go her Anchor, the Gunner of the Fort is call'd; and he fires a Piece of Cannon, tho' without Ball; and that is still a Threat, tho' with some Patience, and is to say, Will you come to an Anchor, or will you not? If he still ventures to go on, by which he gives them to understand he intends to run for it, then the Gunner fires again, and with a Shot; and that Shot is a Signal to the Fortress over the River, viz. Tilbury Fort, (which I describ'd in my Account of Essex, p. 5.) and they immediately let fly at the Ship from the Guns on the East Bastion, and after from all the Guns they can bring to bear upon her: It is very seldom that a Ship will venture their Shot, because they can reach her all the Way to the Hope, and round the Hope-Point almost to Hole-Haven; tho' 'tis said, this has been done once or twice: but the Oc­casion must be very extraordinary to make a Ship run the Risque. As for Ships coming in, they all go by here without any Notice taken of them, unless it be to put Waiters on board, if they are not supply'd be­fore.

On the 24th of August 1727, a dreadful Fire happen'd here, which burnt down and destroyed the Church, and the greatest Part of the Town; and in 1731, an Act of Parliament passed for rebuilding the Church, as one of the Fifty new ones; and the Town too, being mostly rebuilt, makes a better Appearance for the Calamity it underwent.

The Passage to and from Gravesend to London is now made more commodious and safe for Passengers than before, by Act of Parliament passed in 1736-7, [Page 134] for regulating the Company of Watermen, &c. be­tween Gravesend and Windsor; which limits the Number of Passengers to Forty at the most, on board the Tilt-boats, and Ten at most by the Wherries; di­rects the Burden of the said Boats; prohibits close Decks and Bails nailed down in the Wherries; pre­scribes the Times of Departure of the Tilt-boats and Wherries, and the Age of the Watermen navigating the said Boats, and directs a Punishment against such Wa­termen as wilfully lose their Tide, or set the Passen­gers on Shore two Miles short of the Place to which they are bound. And the Rulers of the Watermens Company are thereby obliged to provide Officers at Billinsgate, and at Gravesend, who, as near as is possible, Night and Day, at every Time of High-Water, and first of Flood, are, at the respective Places, to ring publickly a Bell set up for that Pur­pose, for Fifteen Minutes, to give Notice to the Tilt­boats and Wherries to put off, and make the best of their Way, without lying by, or putting on Shore, being within two Miles of their respective Ports. Which excellent Provisions must be a great Ease and Safety to all Persons who are obliged to use this Pas­sage.

A remarkable Occurrence happening the last Time I was at Gravesend, deserves to be mentioned here in Honour to a brave and excellent English Mariner. The Case was thus:

On Saturday, December 16. 1738, the Ship Anne and Thomas, Captain Ogilvie, Commander, outward-bound for Africa, lying at Gravesend, was, by the boiling over of a Kettle of Pitch, set on Fire: to ex­tinguish which, the Crew at first made an Attempt; but finding the Flames increase upon them, they were all upon the Point of leaving her, for Fear of 100 Bar­rels of Gunpowder which were on board: when hap­pily the Mate, returning from a Visit he had been making to a Brother Officer of a neighbouring Ship, [Page 135] stopp'd their Design, and with a noble Resolution, cutting the Boats clear of the Ship, told them they had no Means left to escape perishing, either by Fire or Water, but by heartily joining their Endeavours to extinguish the Flames. When they found themselves in so bad a Dilemma, they unanimously attempted it, and after some time providentially got it under, to the no small Joy of the Town of Gravesend, as well as of all the Ships near them, who were in the utmost Consternation for Fear of the Gunpowder, and every Moment in Expectation of the terrible Blow.

We see nothing remarkable on the Road hereabouts but Gad's-Hill, a noted Place for robbing of Seamen, after they have received their Pay at Chatham. Here it was that a famous Robbery was committed in or about the Year 1676, which deserves to be men­tioned: It was about Four o'Clock in the Morning, when a Gentleman was robb'd by one Nicks on a Bay Mare, just on the Declivity of the Hill, on the West Side. Nicks came away to Gravesend, and, as he said, was stopp'd by the Difficulty of getting the Boat, near an Hour, which was a great Discouragement to him; but he made the best Use of it, as a kind of Bait to his Horse: from thence he rode cross the County of Essex, to Chelmsford: here he stopp'd about half an Hour to refresh his Horse, and gave him some Balls; from thence to Braintree, Bocking, Wethersfield; then over the Downs to Cambridge, and from thence, keeping still the cross Roads, he went by Fenny Stratford to Godmanchester and Huntingdon, where he baited himself and his Mare about an Hour; and, as he said himself, slept about half an Hour; then hold­ing on the North Road, and keeping a full Gallop most of the Way, he came to York the same After­noon; put off his Boots and riding Cloaths, and went dress'd as if he had been an Inhabitant of the Place, to the Bowling-green, where, among other Gentlemen, was the Lord-Mayor of the City. He, singling out [Page 136] his Lordship, studied to do something particular, that the Mayor might remember him by; and then takes Occasion to ask his Lordship what o'Clock it was, who pulling out his Watch, told him the Hour, which was a Quarter before, or a Quarter after Eight at Night.

Upon a Prosecution for this Robbery, the whole Merit of the Case turn'd upon this single Point; the Person robb'd swore to the Man, to the Place, and to the Time, in which the Fact was committed; but Nicks, proving by the Lord-Mayor, that he was as far off as Yorkshire at that Time, the Jury acquitted him on a bare Supposition, that it was impossible the Man could be at two Places so remote, on one and the same Day.

On the Road from Gad's-Hill to Rochester, are very large Cherry-Orchards, especially on the Right­hand of the Road: these Cherries are sent up to Lon­don in Hoys, and were formerly a great Branch of Trade to the Land-owners of this Country; but of late Years there has been such Plenty of this Fruit, that they have scarce paid for gathering and sending to London, which has occasioned many of the Owners of these Orchards to destroy them.

From Gad's-Hill we come to Rochester-Bridge, the longest, highest, and the strongest built of all the Bridges in England, except that of London. Some indeed say, the Bridge of Newcastle upon Tyne ex­ceeds all the Bridges in England for Strength; but then it is neither so high, nor so long, as this at Ro­chester. It is supported by eleven Arches, and was built by Sir Robert Knowles in the Reign of Henry IV. and railed in with Iron at the Charge of Archbishop Warham.

The River Medway, at this Place, is very broad and rapid, foaming most violently. Rochester was the Roman City Durobrivis, and was very strong, be­ing wall'd about and ditch'd. Many Antiquities have [Page 137] been found hereabouts. This City stands in an An­gle of the River, and seems to have been of a square Form, the Watling-street running directly thro' it. Most of the Walls still remain; and a large Piece of the Roman Wall, made of Rubble-stone laid sloping side-ways, is to be seen near that Angle below the Bridge, encompassed by the River with Roman Bricks in several Places.

Rochester, Stroud, and Chatham, are three di­stinct Places, but in a manner contiguous.

Rochester has suffer'd very much by Fire and War. It consists chiefly of a large ill-built broad Street. Stroud is separated from it only by a Bridge, and may alone pass for a small City, and is well-built, but has nothing very remarkable in it.

The Castle of Rochester was erected by King Wil­liam I. out of one Angle of the River. The Walls of the great Tower now left, are four Yards thick. The Body of the Cathedral is of the original Stru­cture before the Conquest, and repair'd by Bishop Gun­dulph, an Architect, who likewise built the Castle. The great Tower is call'd Gundulph's Tower. The chalky Cliff under the Castle Wall, next the River, is a romantick Sight. The Rapidity of the Stream wastes it away, and then huge Tracts of the Wall fall down. On the North Side of the North-west Tower of the Church is Gundulph's Effigies. The Front of the Church is of the old Work, but a new Window put in the Middle. The Eastern Gate of the City was pull'd down not very long ago, the Stones of which were of a Roman Cut. The Town-house and Charity-school are two of the best pub­lick Buildings in Rochester and Stroud, except the Churches.

But Chatham being the chief Arsenal of the Royal Navy of Great Britain, is the most considerable of the Kind in the World. The private Buildings, as the Houses of the Sea-Officers, Directors, Inspect­ors, [Page 138] and Workmen belonging to the Royal Navy, are well-built, and many of them stately. But the publick Edifices there are indeed, like the Ships themselves, surprisingly large, and in their several Kinds beautiful. The Ware-houses, or rather Streets of Ware-houses, and Store-houses for laying up the Naval Treasure, are the largest in Dimension, and the most in Number, that are any-where to be seen in the World. The Rope-walks for making Cables, and the Forges for Anchors and other Iron-work, bear a Proportion to the rest; as also the Wet-dock, Canals, and Ditches, for keeping Masts and Yards of the greatest Size, where they lie sunk in the Wa­ter to preserve them: The Boat-yard, Rope-yards, the Anchor-yard, Forges, Founderies, all not easy to be described.

We come next to the Stores themselves, for which all this Provision is made; and first, to begin with the Ships that are laid up there: The Sails, the Rig­ging, the Ammunition, Guns, great and small Shot, small Arms, Swords, Cutlasses, Half-pikes, with all the other Furniture belonging to the Ships that ride at their Moorings in the River Medway, Powder excepted, which is generally carried to particular Ma­gazines, to avoid Disaster, all these Stores are re­posited in separate Buildings and Store-houses appro­priated for the Furniture of every Ship, and may be taken out on the most emergent Occasion, without Confusion.

Besides these, are Ware-houses for laying up the Furniture, and Stores for Ships in general, and for the furnishing other Ships to be built, or for repair­ing and supplying the Ships already there, as Occa­sion may require.

For this Purpose there are separate and respective Magazines of Pitch, Tar, Hemp, Flax, Tow, Resin, Oil, Tallow; also of Sail-cloth, Canvas, Cables, standing and running Rigging, ready fitted, and Cor­dage [Page 139] not fitted; with all Kinds of Ship-chandlery Necessaries, such as Blocks, Tackles, Runners, &c. with the Cooks, Boatswains, and Gunners Stores, and also Anchors of all Sizes, Grapnells, Chains, Bolts, and Spikes, wrought and unwrought Iron, Cast-Iron Work, such as Pots, Caldrons, Fur­naces, &c. also Boats, spare Masts and Yards, with a great Quantity of Lead and Nails, and other Ne­cessaries, too many to be enumerated.

To observe these Things deliberately, one would almost wonder what Ships they were, and where they should be found, which could either for Building or Repairing, Fitting or Refitting, call for such a Quan­tity of all these Things; but when, on the other hand, one sees the Ships, and considers their Dimen­sions, and consequently the Dimensions of all Things which belong to them; how large, how strong every thing must be; how much of the Materials must go to the making every thing proportionable to the Oc­casion, the Wonder would change its Prospect, and one would be as much amazed to think how and where they should be supply'd.

The particular Government of these Yards is very remarkable, the Commissioners, Clerks, Accomp­tants, &c. within Doors; the Store-keepers, Yard-keepers, Dock-keepers, Watchmen, and all other Officers without Doors, with the Subordination of all Officers one to another respectively, as their De­grees and Offices require. The Watchmen are set duly every Night at stated and certain Places within the several Yards, with every one a Bell over his Head, which they ring or toll every Hour, giving so many Strokes as the Hour reckons; and then one taking it from another through every Part of the Yard, and of all the Yards, makes the Watch be perform'd in a very exact and regular manner. In the River is a Guard-boat, which, like the Main-guard in a Garison, rows the Grand Rounds at cer­tain [Page 140] Times, by every Ship in the River, to see that the People on board are at their Post: If the Man placed to look out in each Ship, does not call, Who comes there? the Guard-boat boards it immediately, to examine into the Defect of Duty.

The Expedition that has been sometimes used here in fitting out Men of War, is scarce credible; for the Workmen told us, That the Royal Sovereign, a First Rate of 106 Guns, was riding at her Moorings, intirely unrigg'd, and nothing but her three Masts standing, as is usual when a Ship is laid up; and that she was completely rigg'd, all her Masts up, her Yards put to, her Sails bent, Anchors and Cables on board, and the Ship sailed down to Black-Stakes in Three Days, Sir Cloudesly Shovell being then her Captain.

I do not vouch the Thing; but when I consider, first, that every thing lay ready in her Store-houses, and wanted nothing but to be brought out and car­ried on Board; a Thousand or Fifteen hundred Men to be employ'd in it, and more, if they were wanted; and every Man knowing his Business perfectly well; Boats, Carriages, Pullies, Tackles, Cranes, and Hulk all ready; I do not know but it might be done in one Day, if it was tried. Certain it is, the Dexterity of the English Sailors in those things is not to be matched by any in the World.

The Building-yards, Docks, Timber-yard, Deal-yard, Mast-yard, Gun-yard, Rope-walks, and all the other Yards and Places set apart for the Works belonging to the Navy, are like a well-order'd City; and tho' you see the whole Place, as it were, in the utmost Hurry, yet you see no Confusion; every Man knows his own Business; the Master-builders appoint the Working or Converting, as they call it, of every Piece of Timber, and give to the other Head-work­men or Foremen, their Moulds for the squaring and cutting out of every Piece, and placing it in its pro­per Byrth (so they call it) in the Ship that is in [Page 241] Building; and every Hand is busy in pursuing those Directions, and so in all the other Works.

Rochester has a Market on Fridays, and it hath, by Grant from King Henry I. two annual Fairs, viz. May the 19th, and Nov. the 30th. The Ground on that Side of the Town next the River is very low and marshy, being overflowed by every high Tide, which renders the Situation unpleasant, and the Air unwholsome, from the Vapours which arise from these salt Marshes.

It may not be amiss in this Place to take Notice, that there is in the River Medway, at Rochester, and in several of its Creeks and Branches within the Ju­risdiction of the City, an Oyster-Fishery, which is free to every one who has served Seven Years Appren­ticeship to any Fisherman or Dredger, who is free of the said Fishery; and the Mayor and Citizens of Ro­chester hold a Court, commonly call'd An Admiralty-Court, once a Year, or oftener, when Occasions have required it, for the regulating of the said Fishery, and to prevent Abuses committed in it. In these Courts they appoint, from Time to Time, when Oysters shall and shall not be dredged and taken, which they call Opening and Shutting the Grounds; after the Quantity each Dredgerman shall take in a Day, which is usually called Setting the Stint. They have a Power to go on board, and enforce these Orders; and when they have found them not duly observed, or that the Brood or Spat has been taken which should have been preserved, they seize and throw into the River and Creeks the Brood, or such Oysters as have ex­ceeded the prescribed Quantity.

Persons who dredge or fish for Oysters, not being Free of the Fishery, are called Cable-hangers, and are presented and punished by the Court. Every li­censed Dredger pays six Shillings and Eight-pence yearly to the Support of the Courts. But several licen­tious Persons having, in Process of Time, contested [Page 142] the Authority of this Court, and great Inconveniences arising from it, to the endangering the Fishery, and to the Destruction of all good Order and Rule, the Cor­poration and Free Dredgermen apply'd to Parliament, and an Act passed, Anno 1729, establishing the Juris­diction of the City of Rochester, and enforcing the Au­thority of the said Courts; and since that another Act explaining and supplying Defects; so that at present this Fishery is in a flourishing Condition, and all the fair Dealers in this Commodity find their Account in it.

It is about sixteen or eighteen Miles from Rochester Bridge to Sheerness Fort by Water, on the River Medway; of this it is about fourteen Miles to Black-stakes; the Chanel is so deep all the Way, the Banks so soft, and the Reaches of the River so short, that, in a Word, 'tis the safest and best Harbour in the World; and we saw two Ships of eighty Guns, each riding afloat at Low-water, within Musquet-shot of Rochester Bridge. The Ships ride as in a Mill-pond, or a Wet-dock, except that being moored at the Chains, they swing up and down with the Tide; but as there is Room enough, they are moored in such manner, that they cannot swing foul of one another; nor did I ever hear of any Accident that befel any of the King's Ships here by Storms and Weather, ex­cept in that dreadful Tempest in 1703, when the Royal Catharine was driven on Shore, and, receiving some Damage, sunk; and the Ship also being old, could not be weigh'd again.

There are Two Castles on the Shore of this River, the one at Upnor, where is a good Platform of Guns, and which guards Two Reaches of the Ri­ver, and is supposed to defend all the Ships which ride above, between that and the Bridge; also on the other Shore is Gillingham Castle, form'd for the same Purpose, and well furnish'd with Guns which com­mand the River; besides which there is a Fort or Platform of Guns at a Place call'd The Swamp, and [Page 143] another at Cockham Wood. But these are principally added since the Time that the Dutch made that me­morable Attempt upon the Royal Navy in this River on the 22d of June, in the Year 1667; for at that Time all was left unguarded, and there were but Four Guns that could be used at Upnor, and scarce so many at Gillingham, the Carriages being rotten and broken; and, in a Word, every thing concurring to invite the Enemy. There were about Twelve Guns at the Isle of Shepey, where now Sheerness Fort is built; but the Dutch soon dismounted most of them; after which they went boldly up to Black-stakes with their whole Squadron; and after that Seven of their biggest Men of War went up as high as Upnor, where they did what Mischief they could, and went away again, carrying off the Royal Charles, a First-rate Ship of 100 Guns, and burning the London, and several others, besides damaging most of the Ships that were within their Reach; and, all things consider'd, it was a Wonder, that they went away without ruining all the rest of the Navy that was in that River.

This Alarm gave England such a Sense of the Con­sequence of the River Medway, and of the Docks, and Yards at Chatham, and of the Danger the Royal Navy lay exposed to there, that all these Doors, which were open then, are lock'd up and sufficiently barr'd since; and 'tis not now in the Power of any Nation, unless they were Masters at Land as well as Sea, to give us such another Affront; for besides all these Ca­stles, Lines of Guns, and Platforms on each Side the River Medway, as we go up, there is now a Royal Fort built at the Point of the Isle of Shepey, call'd Sheerness, which guards that Entrance into the River. This is a regular Fortification, and has such a Line of heavy Cannon commanding the Mouth of the River, that no Fleet of Men of War could at­tempt to pass by, as the Dutch did, without hazarding being torn to pieces. I took a View, while I was in [Page 144] these Parts, of Cobham-hall, six Miles from Chatham, the Seat of the Earl of Darnley, a handsome Brick-house, remarkable for the excellent Marble Chimney-pieces in most of the Rooms.

At Raynham Church near Rochester, we saw se­veral Monuments of the Family of the Earl of Tha­net; and the Steeple is reckoned a Sea-mark.

SHEERNESS is not only a Fortress, but a good Town with several Streets in it, and Inhabitants of several Sorts, but chiefly such whose Business obliges them to reside here. The Officers of the Ordnance have here an Office; they being often obliged to be at this Place many Days together, especially in Time of War, when the Rendezvous of the Fleet is at the Nore, to see to the furnishing every Ship with mi­litary Stores, as Need requires, and to cheque the Officers of the Ships in their Demands of those Stores, and the like.

Here is also a Yard for building Ships, with a Dock, intended chiefly for repairing Ships that may meet with any sudden Accident. But then it is to observed, that those are generally but for Fifth and Sixth-rate Ships, small Frigates, Yachts, and such Vessels; tho' once, when I was there, I saw one upon the Stocks of Sixty-four Guns. This Yard is a late Thing also, and built many Years since the Fort.

Shepey-Isle is supposed to be so called from its being one of the first Places in England, where Sheep were kept, or from its affording a great Plenty of those useful Animals. This Island is encompassed with the mix'd Waters of the Thames, and the Medway on the West; with the Swalle on the South, and with the main Ocean on the North and East. It hath great Plenty of good Corn, but wants Wood. It is about twenty-one Miles in Compass.

Here are several Tumuli in the marshy Parts all over the Island, some of which the Inhabitants call Coterels; these are supposed to have been cast up in [Page 145] Memory of some of the Danish Leaders, who were buried here; for the Danes have often made this Island the Scene of their Ravages and Plunder.

There was antiently a Bridge and Causeway, be­tween this Isle and Harty: this was called Threm­bethe-bridge, as afterwards the Ferry was called Tre­mod-Ferry: The common Way into this Island, from the main Land of Kent, is by King's-Ferry, where a long Cable of about a hundred and forty Fathom, being fastened at each End across the Water, serves to get over the Boat by hand.

On the main Side of the Ferry is a small Stone-building, which will hold Nine or Ten Persons: this is said to have been erected by one George Fox, who staying once there a long while in the Cold, wait­ing for the Ferry-boat, and being much affected with it, he built this Place to shelter others from the like Inconvenience. For the Maintenance of this Ferry, and keeping up the Highway leading to it, thro' the Marshes for above a Mile in length, the Land Oc­cupiers tax themselves one Penny per Acre for fresh Marsh-land, and one Penny for every Ten Acres of salt Marsh-land per Ann. This Tax, together with some Lands belonging to the Ferry, has from time to time kept the said Ferry and Causeway, with a Wall against the Sea, in good Repair; as also the Boats, Cables, and a House for the Ferry-keeper, who is obliged to tow all Travellers over free, except on four Days yearly, viz. Palm-monday, Whit-mon­day, St. James's-day and Michaelmas, when a Horse­man pays Two-pence, and a Footman one Penny: But on Sundays, or after Eight o'Clock at Night, there is no Passage gratis; so that at such Times, the Ferry-keeper will demand Six-pence of every Horseman, and Two-pence of every Footman; and in these Cases the Land Occupiers pay as well as Strangers. The Keeper of this Ferry is allowed 24l. per Ann. by the Land Occupiers, beside what he [Page 146] makes in carrying over Passengers in the Night-time, and on Sundays: And to this he has another Perqui­site added; which is to dredge for Oysters within the Compass of his Ferry-loop, which extends one Tow's Length, (as they term it) i. e. sixty Fathoms on each Side of the Castle.

In the upper Grounds of this Island, is great Plenty of good Corn; but equal Scarcity of fresh Water, most of their Springs being brackish; tho' within a few Years past, a Well was sunk so deep as to lie below the Bed of the Sea, which has furnish'd the Garison at Sheerness with fresh Wa­ter: but before this the People of the Garison had a Yacht, which was employ'd in bringing fresh Water from Deptford.

A great Number of Marine Plants grow in the salt Marshes, which occasions the Curious in Botany to visit this Island frequently in the midst of Summer, when the Plants are in their Per­fection.

At the South-west Point of the Isle of Shepey, where the East Swale parts from the West, and passes on as above, stands Queenborough; so called by King Edward III. in Honour of his Queen Philippa, Daughter to William Earl of Hainault and Holland. Here was a Castle erected by King Edward, as a Defence of the Mouth of the River Medway. In the Building of this Castle that Prince was assisted by William of Wickham, who was then Surveyor of the King's Works, and afterwards made Bishop of Winchester. This Castle was afterwards repaired in the Year 1536, by King Henry VIII. who at the same time built others at Deal, Walmer, &c. for the Defence of the Sea-coasts. The Governors of Queen-borough Castle were formerly honoured with the Title of Constable; and by the List of them, it appears, that many of them were Men of great Consideration.

[Page 147]This Castle was standing in the Year 1629; for Mr. Johnston, in his little Book, intituled, Iter Plan­tarum Investigationis ergo susceptum, tells us, That he saw there a noble large Dining-room, or Hall, round the Top of which were placed the Arms of the Nobility and Gentry of Kent; and, in the Middle, those of Queen Elizabeth, with the following Latin Verses under, in great Letters:

Lilia virgineum pectus regale leonis
Significant; vivas virgo, regas (que) leo:
Umbra placet vultus, vultus quia mentis imago;
Mentis imago placet, mens quia plena Deo:
Virgo Deum vita, regina imitata regendo,
Viva mihi vivi fiat imago Dei.
Qui Leo de Juda est, et Flos de Jesse, leones
Protegat et flores, Elizabetha, tuos.
A. D. 1593.

In English thus:

Lilies the Lion's Virgin Breast explain;
Then live a Virgin, and a Lion reign.
Pictures are pleasing; for the Mind they shew;
And in the Mind the Deity we view.
May she, who God in Life and Empire shows,
To me th' eternal Deity disclose!
May Jesse's Flow'r, and Judah's Lion, deign
Thy Flow'rs and Lions to protect, O Queen!
A. D. 1593.

At present there are not any Remains of this Castle to be seen; the Ground where it stood is moated round; and there is a Well about 40 Fathom deep, still remaining. By the several Ordinances which were made by King Edward III. relating to Naval Affairs, it appears this Place was then very famous; but at present it is a miserable dirty Fishing-town; yet has a Mayor, Aldermen, &c. and sends Two Bur­gesses [Page 148] to Parliament; altho' the chief Traders of this Town seem to be Ale-house-keepers, and Oyster-catchers, and their Votes at an Election for Parlia­ment-men are the principal Branch of their scanda­lous Traffick. A pernicious Practice! too much fol­lowed in better Towns, and which may one Day be of fatal Consequence to the Liberties of Britain.

Here we took Boat, and went up the East Swale, to Milton, or Middleton, as formerly called, which lies, as it were, hid among the Creeks; for 'tis al­most out of Sight as well by Water as by Land, and yet it is a large Town, has a considerable Saturday Market, for Corn, Fruit, and other Provisions; and the Oysters taken in the Grounds about this Town, are the most famous of any in Kent. This Town is governed by an Officer, who is called by the old Saxon Name Port-reve; he is chosen an­nually on St. James's-day, and he supervises the Weights and Measures all over the Hundred of Milton. It had antiently a Royal Palace for the Kentish Kings.

From hence, keeping the Coast, and the great Road together, for they are still within View of one another, we come to Sittingburn, formerly a Market-town, but still a considerable Thorough-fare, and full of good Inns.

Just by the Town are the Ruins of a Fortification raised by King Alfred, when in Pursuit of the Danes, called Bavord-castle. They boast here much, of one Norwood having entertained King Henry V. on his triumphant Return from France; and tho' the Entertainment was, according to the Times, very elegant, yet the whole Expence of it amounted to no more than 9s. and 9d.

From Sittingburn we came to Feversham; which is a large fair Town, having one long and broad Street: it has a very good Market-house, where the Market is kept on Wednesdays and Saturdays; and [Page 149] there are Two annual Fairs in this Town, of Ten Days each; viz. on February the 14th, and on August the 1st. This Town is well peopled, and in a very flourishing State, being in the Neighbour­hood of one of the best Parts of Kent, and having a very commodious Creek to bring in, or carry out their Goods; but many of the Inhabitants have carried on the Smuggling Trade for Years, for which this Creek lies very convenient. Brandy, and often French Wines, are sold here at very low Rates, especially at such times as the Smugglers have been apprehensive of Discovery; to prevent which they have been known to sell their Wines to any Persons who would venture to purchase them, for 2d. per Quart.

The Fishermen here have a very good Custom: They will admit no one to take out his Free­dom, unless he be a married Man. The Trade for Oysters here with the Dutch is so large, as to bring in between 2 and 3000l. per Annum, ready Money, from Holland, for this Commodity only.

At Feversham are the Remains of a Monastery founded by King Stephen, where he was buried with his Family. At present nothing is left but two Gate-houses, of mean Structure. At the Dissolution, they say, the Coffin of Lead, which held the Royal Body, was taken up and sold; but the Corps was thrown into the Thames, and taken up by some Fishermen. Here, in the Year 903, King Ethelstan enacted Laws.

It was at the Mouth of this Swale, namely, at Shellness, so called from the Abundance of Oyster-shells always lying there, that the Smack in which the late King James II. embarked for his Escape into France, ran on Shore, and being boarded by the Fishermen, the King was taken Prisoner; and I must mention it to the Reproach of the People of Feversham, whatever the Conduct of that unfortunate [Page 150] Prince had been, that the Fishermen and Rabble treated him, even after they were told who he was, with the utmost Indecency, using his Majesty with such personal Indignity, and giving him such oppro­brious and abusive Language, and searching him in so rude a manner, that the King himself said, he was never more apprehensive of losing his Life than at that Time. He was afterwards carried by them up to the Town, where he was not much better treated for some time, till some neighbouring Gentlemen of the County came in, who understood their Duty better, by whom he was preserved from farther Vio­lence, till Coaches and a Guard came from London, by the Prince of Orange's Order, to conduct him with Safety and Freedom to London; where he was much better received.

While I was near this Town some Years before, a terrible Accident happened; namely, the blowing up of a Powder-mill, which stood upon the River, close to the Town; the Blast shatter'd the whole Town, broke the Windows, blew down Chimneys, and Gable-ends; and several People were killed at the Powder-house itself, tho' not any, as I remember, in the Town. But what was most remarkable in it all, was, that the eldest Son of the Master of the Powder-mill, a Youth of about Fifteen Years of Age, who was not in the Mill, or near it, when it blew up, but in a Boat upon the River, rowing cross for his Diversion, was killed by a Piece of the Ma­terials of the Mill, which were blown up into the Air, and fell down upon him in the Boat.

After I have mentioned the Tombs of King Stephen and his Queen, in Feversham, I know nothing else this Town is remarkable for, except the most no­torious Smuggling Trade, which I have mentioned, and which is carried on partly by the Assistance of the Dutch, in their Oyster-boats; nay, even the Owling Trade, or clandestine Exporting of Wool, [Page 151] seems removed from Romney Marsh, to this Coast; and a great deal of it has been carried on between the Mouth of the East-Swale and the North Foreland.

From this East-Swale, and particularly from these last Three Towns, Queenborough, Milton, and Fe­versham, the Fish-market at Billinsgate is supplied with several Sorts of Fish; but particularly with the best and largest Oysters, such as some call Stewing, others, Milton Oysters; as they are from the Essex Side with a smaller and greater Sort, called Wallfleet.

I shall now cross the Hills from Milton to Maid­stone, on the River Medway, near 10 Miles distant from Rochester to the South-east.

Maidstone is a very antient Town: the River Medway, over which it has a Bridge, is navigable up to it by large Hoys, of 50 or 60 Tons Burden, the Tide flowing quite up to the Town. In 1739, an Act passed for making it further navigable, of which I shall take proper Notice, when I come to speak of the Timber in Sussex.

Here is carried on a Manufacture of Linen-thread, and likewise, in the Neighbourhood, are great Plan­tations of Hops, which were supposed to be first planted here at the Beginning of the Reformation, which gave Occasion to that old Distich,

Hops, Reformation, Bays, and Beer,
Came into England all in a Year.

Maidstone is eminent for Plenty of Provisions, for Richness of Lands, and for the best Market in the County, not excepting either Rochester or Canter­bury. It has also a handsome Bridge, which, in the Opinion of some, is inferior only in Length to that of Rochester.

From this Town, and the neighbouring Parts, London is supplied with more Particulars than from any single Market-town in England; which I men­tion in pursuance of my first Resolution of observing [Page 152] how every Part of England furnishes something to the City of London.

  • 1. From the Weald of Kent, which begins but about Six Miles off, and particularly from that Part which lies this Way, they being the large Kentish Bullocks.
  • 2. From hence are brought great Quantities of the largest Timber for Supply of the King's Yards at Chatham, and often to London; most of which is at present brought by Land-carriage to Maidstone.
  • 3. From the Country adjoining, great Quantities of Corn are brought up to London; also Hops, Apples, and Cherries.
  • 4. A Kind of Paving Stone, about Eight or Ten Inches square, exceeding durable, used to pave Court-yards, &c.
  • 5. Fine white Sand for the Glass-houses, esteemed the best in England for melting into Flint-glass, and Looking-glass Plates; and for the Stationers Use also, vulgarly called Writing-sand.

All that Side of the County which I have men­tioned, as it is marshy and unhealthy, by its Situa­tion among the Waters, is chiefly inhabited by Ship-builders, Fishermen, Seafaring-men, and Husband­men, and such as depend upon them; and very few Families of Note are found among them. But as soon as we come down Boxley-hill from Rochester, or Hollingbourn-hill from Milton, to the well-watered Plain on the Banks of the Medway, we find the Country every-where bespangled with po­pulous Villages, and delicious Seats of the Nobility and Gentry; and especially on the North-side of the River, beginning at Aylesford on the Medway, the Seat of the Earl of that Name, and looking East towards the Sea, to Eastwell near Ashford, the Seat of the Earl of Winchelsea.

Among these are the antient Families of Fane, Colepeper, Deerham, Honywood, Wotton, Roberts, Hales, &c.

[Page 153]This genteel Neighbourhood makes Maidstone a very agreeable Place to live in; for here is what is not often found, namely, a Town of very great Business and Trade, and yet full of Gentry, and good Company.

There is not much Manufacturing in this County: what is left is chiefly at Canterbury, and in this Town of Maidstone, and its Neighbourhood. The Manufacture of this Town is principally Linen-thread, as I have said, which they make to pretty good Perfection, tho' not extraordinary fine. At Cranbrook, Tenterden, Goudhurst, and other Villages in the Neighbourhood of this Place, was once a considerable Cloathing-trade carried on; and the Yeomen of Kent, of whom so much has been famed, and who inhabited these Parts, were generally much enriched by it; but that Trade is now quite decay'd, and scarce Ten Clothiers left in all the County.

The Farmers, and Descendents of these Clothiers, upon the Elections of Members for the County, shew themselves still there; for there are ordinarily 14 or 1500 Freeholders brought from this Side of the County, who for the Plainness of their Appearance are called the Grey Coats of Kent; but are so con­siderable, that whoever they vote for, is sure to carry it; and therefore the Gentlemen are very careful to preserve their Interest among them.

This Town of Maidstone is a Peculiar of the Archbishop of Canterbury, who is the proper In­cumbent, and puts in a Curate to officiate for him. The Archbishop has a Palace here, which is esteemed very antient, to which there is a Chapel belonging. The Architecture is Gothick, but good of the Kind; and some Parts of it have been repaired after the mo­dern Manner. Maidstone is a Roman Station, named Vagniacis or Madviacis, from the British Word Maedwaeg the Meadows on the River Vaga, which [Page 154] are here beautiful. The Archiepiscopal Palace was founded by John Ufford, and finished by Simon Islep. The College or Hospital was erected by Archbishop Boniface, and a Chantry by Thomas Anindel, now the Free-school. About the Year 1720, several Canoes were dug up, made of hollowed Trees, in the Marshes of the River Medway above Maidstone, one of which is used for a Boat to this Day. In the Hands of Dr. Dodd at Addington, near Malling, in the Year 1720, a British Coin of Amber was found, in the Foundation of a Stone Wall. The convex Side was plain; on the Concave was a British Horse, rude enough. The Assizes are generally held here, and always the County Elections; and it is governed by a Mayor, and Twelve Jurats.

Charing, not far off, was the antient Durolenum, situated upon a Spring of the River Len. Here the Archbishops of Canterbury had a castellated Palace, given them by some of the first Saxon Kings, of which there are large Ruins.

In my Way to Maidstone, on a former Journey, I saw Mareworth Castle, a pretty Fabrick, belong­ing to the Earl of Westmorland and on a rising Ground, within a Mile of Aylesford, viewed an Antiquity, vulgarly called Ketts-cotty-house, which are three great Stones piled on each other, and deemed the Tombs of Kentigern and Horbus, two Danish Princes, slain in Battle, and there bury'd.

In prosecuting my Journey from Maidstone to Canterbury, I cannot help mentioning Lenham, a Town about 17 Miles distant from that City; in re­lation to which the Rt. Rev. Continuator of Camden records the following extraordinary Circumstance.

‘"At Lenham, says he, is a thing exceeding remarkable, mentioned on the Tomb of Robert Thompson, Esq in the Church there, who was Grandchild to that truly religious Matron, Mary Honeywood, Wife of Robert Honeywood, of Charing, [Page 155] Esq She had at her Decease, lawfully descended from her, 367 Children; 16 of her own Body; 114 Grandchildren; 228 in the third Generation; and 9 in the fourth. Her Renown liveth with her Posterity: her Body lieth in this Church, and her Monument may be seen in Marks-hall, in Essex, where she died."’

From hence I pursued my Journey to Canterbury, which all Writers agree was called, by the Britons, Kent, and is the Duroverno [...] of the Romans; of which Town, and its Antiquities, so much has been said, and so accurately, that I need do no more than mention it briefly. However, I observe here.

1. That Augustine, the Monk, the first Christian Preacher that came from Rome into this Island, settled in this Place: but that he was the first that preached Christianity in the Island (as some have suggested) is a Mistake; as the famous Conference between him and the Monks of Banchor in Wales, sufficiently testify.

2. That Seven Bishops of Canterbury, including that Augustine; lie buried here in one Vault.

3. That Thomas à Becket, Archbishop of this See, insulted the King his Sovereign in an unsufferable Manner; insomuch that in the Reign of Henry II. he was here murdered by the Connivance, as some say, of the King; and they shew what they call his Blood upon the Pavement at this Day.

4. That they shew the Stone-steps ascending to his Shrine, (he being afterwards canonized) worn away to a Slope, by the Knees of the Pilgrims, who visited it.

5. That the Bodies of King Henry IV. and of Edward the Black Prince, are buried here, and the magnificent Effigies of the latter, very curiously carved, lies on his Tomb or Monument. Here is a pretty Chapel, originally design'd for the Celebration of Masses for the Soul of King Henry IV.

[Page 156]6. That the immense Wealth offered by Votaries and Pilgrims, for several Ages, to the Shrine of Becket, was such, that the famous Erasmus, who saw it, says of it thus: ‘"All shone, sparkled, glittered with rare and very large Jewels; and even in the whole Church appeared a Profuseness above that of Kings."’ In short, Gold was one of the meanest Treasures of his Shrine: and at the Dissolution, as Dugdale observes, the Plate and Jewels filled Two great Chests, each whereof re­quired Eight Men to carry out of the Church. And Camden says, the Name of Christ, to whom it was dedicated, was almost laid aside for that of St. Thomas.

7. That all this immense Treasure, with the Lands and Revenues of the whole Monastery, were seized upon by King Henry VIII. at the general Suppression of Religious Houses, except such as are annexed to the Deanery and Chapter, and to the Revenue of the Archbishoprick, which are not very considerable. There is an old Picture of Becket's Martyrdom, and an antient Painting upon the Wall, of the Siege of Jerusalem, in the Habits of our Ancestors.

8. Here are also to be seen the Monuments of Cardinal Courticello, Cardinal Pole, Archbishop Chichley; Bp. Peckham's, carved in Wood upwards of 450 Years ago; Bishop Wharton, the Duke of Clarence, Archbishop Langton; with many others of less Account.

The Cathedral is a large and noble Pile of Build­ing: very curious Remnants of painted Glass are still to be seen in the Windows. It is intirely vaulted with Stone, and of a very pretty Model; but much too high for its Breadth, as all Gothick Buildings were. The Metropolitan Chair is of grey Marble, standing behind the High Altar. The Cloisters are pretty good, and near them a very large Chapel, called the Sermon-house, wainscotted [Page 157] with Irish Oak. Under it is a large Protestant French Church, given first by Queen Elizabeth to the Walloons, who fled hither from the Persecution of the Duke d'Alva. The Number of these Re­fugees has been since very much increased by French Protestants obliged to leave their native Country, thro' the Cruelty of Louis XIV.

The Close where the Houses of the Prebendaries stand, is very spacious and fair, and a great many very good Houses are built in it, and some with good Gardens.

Here are many Remains of Roman and Saxon Buildings. The City is strongly walled about, and many Towers at due Intervals, a deep Ditch close underneath, and a great Rampart of Earth within. The Materials of the Walls are chiefly Flint.

The Castle was built in the Reign of King William I. of the same Form, and the Walls of the same Thickness, with that of Rochester. Dungeon­hill, a very high Mount, seems to have been Part of the old Castle. Opposite to it, without the Walls, is an Hill, seeming to have been raised by the Danes, when they besieged the City. The Top of Dun­geon-hill is equal to the Top of the Castle, and ex­hibits a fine Prospect over the City and Country.

Of Augustine's Monastery, two Gates remain next the City, and both very stately. Perhaps one be­longed to King Ethelbert's Palace, the other to the Monastery, which doubtless was very splendid; for it covers a great Compass of Ground, and is sur­rounded with a very high Wall. There were con­tinual Quarrels between the Monks of Augustine and of Thomas à Becket, both very rich, and very con­tentious.

Near this Monastery is a vast angular Piece of a Tower, (besides half of another) about 30 Feet high, which has been undermined by digging away a Course at Bottom, in order to be thrown down; [Page 158] but it happened only to disjoint itself from the Foun­dation, and lodged itself in the Ground in the pre­sent inclining State. Thus being equally poised, it presents a View of Terror, and forbids a too near Access.

The adjacent Close is full of religious Ruins, and in a Corner of it are the Walls of a Chapel, said to have been a Christian Temple before Augustine's Time, and reconsecrated by him to St. Pancras. Near it is a little Room, said to have been King Ethelbert's Pagan Chapel. The Vulgar say, here are the Marks of the Devil's Claws.

Eastward of this, and farther out of the City, is St. Martin's Church, said to be Augustine's first See, and the Place whither King Ethelbert's Queen used to repair to divine Service. It is built mostly of Roman Brick. In the Middle is a very large old fashioned Font, supposed to be that where the King was baptized.

North of the City is a very small Remainder of St. Gregory's Chapel, founded probably by Augustine to the Honour of that Pope, his Patron.

The City has been much advantaged by the Set­tlement in it of Two or Three thousand French Protestants, Men, Women, and Children, owing to the above-mentioned Expulsion of the Protestants under Louis XIV.

The Employment of those Refugees was chiefly Broad Silk Weaving, which has suffered several Changes and Alterations; but is still carried on here to some Account.

But what has added most to the Advantage of Canterbury, is the Hop-grounds all round the Place, to the Amount of several Thousand Acres, inso­much that Canterbury was, for some time, the greatest Plantation of Hops in the whole Island; but now they have a Rival, if not an Over-match, about Farnham, as I shall observe in its Place.

[Page 159]In January 1738, were found in a Shave belong­ing to the Estate of Sir John Hales, who lives in this Neighbourhood, and within his Manor of Tun­stall near Sittingbourn, several Hundreds of broad Pieces of Gold, which were thought to be con­cealed in the Time of the late Civil Wars by an An­cestor of Sir John. They were found by a poor Boy, who was rambling in the Coppice; and not knowing what to make of them, was playing with some of them at a Farmer's in the Neighbourhood of Canterbury, and the Farmer got Possession of them; but not being able to keep the Secret, he refunded 624 of the Broad-pieces for the Use of the Crown: Tho' Sir John laid Claim to the Whole.

The Shore from Whitstable, and the East-Swale, affords nothing remarkable but Sea-marks, and small Towns on the Coast, till we came to Margate, noted for King William's frequently Landing here in his Returns from Holland, and for shipping a vast Quantity of Corn for London Market, most, if not all of it, the Product of the Isle of Thanet, in which it stands. There is lately erected here a Salt-water Bath, which has performed great Cures in nervous and paralytick Cases, and in Numbness of the Limbs; and seems every Day to become more and more in Request.

But it may not be unacceptable to transcribe a few Lines from Camden, in Honour to the Industry of the Inhabitants in this Part of the Isle of Thanet, which I recommend to the Admiration, for I doubt it would be too much to say Imitation, of the rest of Britain, both North and South. It is as follows:

‘"Nor must I here omit the mention of a Thing very much to the Honour of the Inhabitants of Thanet, those especially who live near the Roads or Harbours of Margate, Ramsgate, and Brod­stear; namely, that they are exceeding industrious, [Page 160] and are, as it were, amphibious Creatures, and get their Living both by Sea and Land: they deal in both Elements, are both Fishers and Plough­men, both Husbandmen and Mariners; and the self-same Hand that holds the Plough, steers the Ship. According to the several Seasons, they make Nets, fish for Cod, Herring, Mackarel, &c. go to Sea themselves, and export their own Com­modities. And those very Men also dung their Ground, plough, sow, harrow, reap, inn, be­ing quick and active in both Employments; and so the Course of their Labours runs round. And when there happen any Shipwrecks, as there do here now and then, (for those Shallows and Shelves so much dreaded by Seamen lie over-against it; namely, the Godwin, the Brakes, the Four-foot, the Whitdick, &c.) they are extremely industrious to save the Lading."’ I shall only add, That it is highly to the Reputation of those People, if they continue to deserve this excellent Character; but I have heard of some late Instances, that are not at all to their Honour in this latter Particular.

At Stanar in the Isle of Thanet, the Rutupiae of the Romans, is to be seen the Sepulchre of Vortimer, King of the antient Britons, who having vanquished the Saxons in many Battles, and at last driven them out of the Island, ordered, before his Death, that he should be buried here, on a fond Conceit that his Corpse would fright them from landing any more upon this Coast. Like the great Scipio, who having subdued the Carthaginians, ordered his Tomb to be turned towards Africa, to fright them from the Coast of Italy. But the poor Britons soon found the Difference between a King in the Field, and one in the Grave.

On the North-east Point of this Land, is the Promontory, or Head-land, which I have often [Page 161] mentioned, called the North-Foreland; which, by a Line drawn due North to the Nase in Essex, about Six Miles short of Harwich, makes the Mouth of the River of Thames, and the Port of London. As soon as any Vessels pass this Foreland from London, they are properly said to be in the open Sea; if to the North, they enter the German Ocean; if to the South, the Chanel, as 'tis called, that is, the narrow Seas between England and France; and all the Towns or Harbours before we come this Length, whether on the Kentish or Essex Shore, are called Members of the Port of London.

From this Point Westward, the first Town of Note is Ramsgate, a small Port; the Inhabitants are mighty fond of having us call it Romans-gate; pre­tending that the Romans, under Julius Caesar, made their first Attempt to land here, and that, being driven back by a Storm, he soon returned, and coming on Shore with a good Body of Troops, beat back the Britons, and fortify'd his Camp, just at the Entrance of the Creek, where the Town now stands; while others as positively assert, that that great Com­mander first landed at Deal; as I shall observe anon.

Richborough-castle is a Mile distant from Stanar and Sandwich. At the Foot of it runs the River coming from Canterbury. This River at first dis­charged itself into the Sea by Ebbesflete, North of the Roman City Rutupiae, now Stanar; till the Sand pouring so directly upon it, obliged the Stream to slide under the Cliff by Richborough-castle, and so by Sandwich. The Castle is a most noble Rem­nant of Roman Antiquity. The Walls on Three Sides are pretty intire, and in some Places still about 25 or 30 Feet high, without any Ditch. The Side next the Sea being upon a kind of Cliff, the Top of the Wall is but level with the Ground. Here, in the latter Times of the Empire, the Legio II. Aug. was quartered. And from the Condition of the [Page 162] Walls it must have been destroy'd with great Vio­lence, probably by the Saxons. In the Way to Sandwich, upon an Eminence, is the Remainder of an Amphitheatre made of Turf, probably for the Exercise and Diversion of the Garison. Before Sandwich Gates are two Roman Tumuli, on one of which stands a Windmill. And South of Sandwich, on the Sea-shore, are Six large and broad Celtic Tu­muli, at equal Distances. This flat Coast is fenced against the Ocean by the Sand-downs. From Sand­wich as far as Hythe, the Coast of France was visible all the Way as we rode. The Reverend Mr. Lewis has published, within these few Years, a curious History of the Isle of Thanet, to which I shall refer for several Particulars, which deserve the Attention of a Traveller.

Sandwich, one of the Cinque-ports, lies in the Bottom of a Bay, at the Mouth of the River Stour, formerly a Town of great Repute and Trade. It decay'd in the Saxons Time, and was utterly ruined by the Danes. Being raised again, it had the Mis­fortune to be reduced to Ashes in King John's Reign; after which it was rebuilt. But in the Reign of Q. Mary, the Mouth of its Harbour was so choaked up by a Ship of great Burden, which sunk in it, and gave Opportunity to the Sands and Beach so to fill it up, that it was incurable: the Town of conse­quence fell to Decay, and it is now a very poor Place.

Sandwich is noted for Carrots, which are brought to London during the Winter Season; and from hence it is that most of the Markets are supplied with these Roots, which are esteemed the sweetest, as they are also the largest which are produced in Eng­land, or perhaps in Europe.

From this Place also the Seedsmen in London are furnished with the greatest Quantity of their Seeds: the Land being light, sandy, and fresh, is very good [Page 163] for producing most Sorts of Seeds, and the Ground being pretty low, the Seeds do not so often receive a Blight, as in many other Places.

Not far from hence is Wingham, which gives Title of Baron to Earl Cowper. From hence I went to Deal, called by Caesar Dola, having landed not far from this Place. It is the famous Road for Ship­ping, so well known all over the trading World by the Name of the Downs, and where almost all Ships which arrive from Foreign Parts for London, or go from London to Foreign Parts, and pass the Chanel, generally stop; the Homeward-bound, to dispatch Letters, send their Merchants and Owners the good News of their Arrival, and set their Passengers on Shore; and the Outward-bound, to take in fresh Provisions, to receive their last Orders, Letters, and Farewels from Owners, and Friends, &c. Some­times, when the Wind presents fair, Ships come in here, and pass thro' at once, without coming to an Anchor; for they are not obliged to stop, but for their own Convenience.

The Downs would be a very wild and dangerous Road for Ships, were it not for the South-Foreland, a Head of Land forming the East Point of the Kentish Shore; and is called the South, as its Situation re­spects the North-Foreland; and which breaks the Sea off, which would otherwise come rolling up from the West, to the Flats or Bank of Sands, which for Three Leagues together, and at about a League, or League and half Distance, run parallel with the Shore, and are dry at low Water; so that these two, breaking all the Force of the Sea, on the East, South, and South-west, make the Downs accounted a very good Road.

And yet on some particular Winds, and especially, if they over-blow, the Downs proves such a wild Road, that Ships are driven from their Anchors, and often run on Shore, or are forced on the said Sands, [Page 164] or into Sandwich-bay, or Ramsgate-pier, in great Distress; this is particularly when the Wind blows hard at South-east, or at East-by-north, or East-north-east, and some other Points; and terrible Havock has been made in the Downs at such times.

But the most unhappy Instance that can be given of any Disaster in the Downs, was in the time of that terrible Tempest, which we call, by way of Distin­ction, The Great Storm, being on the 27th of Nov. 1703: Unhappy in particular, for that there chanced at that time to be a great Part of the Royal Navy come into the Downs, in their way to Chatham, to be laid up.

Five of the biggest Ships had the good Fortune to push thro' the Downs the Day before, finding the Wind then blew very hard, and were come to an Anchor at the Gunfleet; and had they had but one fair Day more, they had been all safe at the Nore, or in the River Medway at Black-stakes.

There remained in the Downs about 12 Sail, when this terrible Tempest began, at which time England may be said to have received the greatest Loss that ever happened to the Royal Navy at one time, either by Weather, by Enemies, or by any Accident whatso­ever. The short Account of it is as follows:

The Northumberland, a Third Rate, carrying 70 Guns, and 353 Men; the Restoration, a Second Rate, carrying 76 Guns, and 386 Men; the Sterling Castle, a Second Rate, carrying 80 Guns, and 400 Men, but had only 349 Men on board; and the Mary, a Third Rate, of 64 Guns, having 273 Men on board; these were all lost, with all their Men, except one Man out of the Mary, and 70 Men out of the Sterling-Castle, who were taken up by Boats from Deal.

All this is besides the Loss of Merchants Ships, which was exceeding great, not here only, but in almost all the Ports in the South and West of Eng­land, and also in Ireland.

[Page 165]The Town of Deal carries on some Foreign Trade, and is very much improved of late Years, to which the great Resort of Seamen to it from the Ships in the Downs has not a little contributed.

I took a Niew of Sandown-castle, Deal and Wal­mer-castles.

Sandown-castle is composed of four Lunets of very thick arched Work of Stone, with many Port-holes for great Guns. In the Middle is a great round Tower, with a Cistern at-top; and underneath, an arched Cavern Bomb-proof. A Foss encompasses the Whole, to which is a Passage over a Draw-bridge.

Deal-castle and Walmer-castle are, like the former, all built, as I have said, by K. Henry VIII. to guard this Coast. Between Walmer-castle and Deal was probably the Spot where Caesar landed in his first Ex­pedition, because it is the first Place where the Shore can be ascended North of Dover; and exactly answers his assigned Distance of eight Miles. In his second Ex­pedition, with many more Ships, and upon a perfect Knowledge of the Country, he might land at Deal.

Dover stands in a most romantick Situation: it is a great Valley, and the only one about this Coast, where Water is admitted inwards of the Cliff, which is here very high. The Sea formerly came a good way higher up, and made a large Port. Anchors have been found above the Town. The Roman City Dubris was to the South of the River. The Watling street enters it as Bigin-gate, coming very strait from Canterbury over Barham-down, where it is very perfect. Some of the Walls are left. The Churches are of a very antique Make: that of St. Martin is Collegiate, founded by Wightred King of Kent, and is a venerable Ruin. It was built in Form of a Cross. Of the Priory, now a Farm-house, are large Remains. The Hospital over­against it is made a Store-house. Here the Knights Hospitalers or Templers lodged, as they came into, [Page 166] or went out of the Kingdom. The Piers which form the Haven or large Bason, are costly and great Works. Above is a Fort with four Bastions of mo­dern Date. The broad Beach, which lies at the Mouth of this great Valley, and was the Harbour in Caesar's Time, is very delightful. One long Street here is nam'd Snaregate, from the most tre­mendous Rocks of Chalk, which project directly over the Houses.

Dover Castle is very large, and situated upon a Rock rugged and steep on every Side; but towards the Sea it rises to an extraordinary Height. Tho' of late Years neglected, it was once so well fortify'd, and of such Importance, as to be accounted the Key of England. And William the Conqueror, when he had an Eye upon the Kingdom, took an Oath of Harold, that he should deliver into his Hands this Castle with the Well, which is Sixty Fathoms deep, and said to be the Work of Julius Caesar. In short it was the strongest old Fortification in the World; and takes up thirty Acres of Ground.

In the late War with France, 1500 Prisoners were confined in the great Castle. The Brass Gun, call'd Queen Elizabeth's Pocket-Pistol, is a great Curiosi­ty, twenty-two Feet long. It is excellently well wrought, requires Fifteen Pounds of Powder, and carries a Ball Seven Miles. Here are Two very old Keys, and a brass Horn, which seem to be the En­signs of Authority belonging to the Constable of the Castle, or Lord Warden of the Cinque Ports. One Part of the Fortifications consists of a circular Work, in which stands an old Church, said to have been built by Lucius, the first Christian King in Britain, out of some of the Roman Ruins; for there are huge Quantities of Roman Brick laid into the Work; and the Remainder is of Stone, originally cut by the Romans. It is in Form of a Cross, and has a square Tower in the Middle. The Stone Windows are of [Page 167] much later Date than the Building: but the greatest Curiosity is the Pharos or Roman Watch-tower, standing at the West-end of the Church. This Building was made use of as a Steeple, and had a pleasant Ring of Bells, which Sir George Rooke pro­cur'd to be carried away to Portsmouth. Since when, the Lead which cover'd it, has been taken away by Order of the Officers of Ordnance; so that this rare Piece of Architecture is left exposed to the Sea and Weather. Here was found a Coin of Diocle­sian. The Erpinghams Arms are patch'd up against one Side of the Pharos; so that it seems to have been repair'd in the Days of King Henry V. when the Lord Erpingham was Warden of Dover-castle.

Upon another Rock over-against that on which the Castle is situated, and almost as high, are the Remains of an old Watch-tower, now vulgarly called Bredenstone, otherwise Devil's-drop, from the Strength of the Mortar. Here the new Constable of the Castle is sworn. Under this Place King Henry VIII. built the Mole or Pile called the Pier, that Ships might ride therein with great Safety. But tho' it was done with vast Labour and Expence, by large Beams fastened in the Sea, bound together with Iron, and great Piles of Wood and Stone heap'd upon all; yet the Fury of the Sea was soon too hard for the Work, and the Timbers beginning to disjoint, Queen Elizabeth expended great Sums upon it. And several Acts have passed to repair and re­store the same; which also including the Restora­tion and Preservation of the Harbour of Rye, I shall take Notice of both, when I mention that of Rye.

Dover, the Portus Dubris of the Romans, is one of the Cinque Ports, and was formerly bound to send twenty-one Ships for the Wars. It affords a See to the Suffragan of the Archbishop of Canter­bury, as often as any such is appointed. Most of the Business relating to these Ports in general is done, [Page 168] and all the Courts kept here. The other Cinque Ports are Hastings, Hythe, Romney and Sandwich. Hast­ings has two Appendages, namely, Winchelsea and Rye, which, as well as Hastings, are in Sussex, and the others in Kent; they have all great Privileges: their Burgesses are called Barons; who on the Co­ronations of our Sovereigns, support the Canopies over their Heads, have a Table at the King's Right Hand, the Canopy for their Fee, and enjoy other Privileges. The Lord Warden of these Five Ports is generally one of the first Noblemen in the King­dom.

The Packets for France go off here, as also those for Ostend, with the Mails for Flanders, and all those Ships which carry Freights from New-York to Holland, and from Virginia to Holland, come gene­rally hither, and unlade their Goods, enter them with the Custom-house Officers, pay the Duties, and then enter them again by Certificate, reload them, and draw back the Duty by Debenture, and so they go away for Holland.

As we pass from Dover to the smaller Cinque Ports of Hythe, Romney, and Rye, we see Folkstone, a little Village now, which the Sea has made great Inroads upon; but which formerly made a greater Figure. A copious Spring went thro' the Town. Two Pieces of old Wall, seemingly Roman, hang frightfully over the Cliff. Here are some old Guns, one of Iron of a very odd Cast, doubtless as old as the Time of King Henry VIII. Many Ro­man Coins have also been found. And here a Nun­nery was built by Eanswide, Daughter of Eadbald, King of Kent. This Place is now principally of Note for a Multitude of Fishing-boats belonging to it, which are one Part of the Year employed in catching Mackarel for the City of London. The Folkstone Men catch them, and the London and Barking Mackarel-Smacks, of which I have spoken [Page 169] at large in Essex, come down and buy them, and whisk away to Market under such a Croud of Sails, that one would wonder they could bear them. About Michaelmas these Folkstone Barks, among others from Shoreham, Brighthelmston and Rye, go away to Yar­mouth and Leostoff, on the Coast of Suffolk and Nor­folk, and catch Herrings for the Merchants there. It hath been observed of some Hills in the Neigh­bourhood of Folkstone, as the Right Rev. Continu­ator of Camden takes Notice, that they have visibly sunk and grown lower, within the Memory of Man.

Sandgate Castle, situated in the Bottom of Two Hills, on the Sea-shore, hath about Sixteen Guns to defend the Fishing-craft from the Insults of Priva­teers, in Time of War: it hath several good Houses about it, and was built by King Henry VIII.

After we have passed this Castle, we enter upon the Beach. Here are many Springs, which descending from the higher Ground, sink immediately into this Beach, rendering it a little boggy.

Hythe, one of the Cinque Ports, stands on the Edge of the less Ridge; but the Marsh has inter­cepted it from the Sea.

Hythe in Saxon signifies a Port or Station; but at present it hardly answers the Name; for the Sands have so choaked it up, that the Sea is shut out from it to a great Distance. This Town, as also West-Hythe, from which the Sea retir'd above 200 Years ago, owe their Original to Lemanis, or Limne, a Roman Port, of which more anon, now a little Village adjoining, which was formerly a very fa­mous Port, before it was shut up with Sands, thrown in by the Sea, which gave Rise to the two Hythes before-mentioned, which, in their Turns, have met with the same Fate. A particular Providence hap­pened at Hythe, April 24. 1739. About Eleven o'Clock the Steeple of their Church, in which were [Page 170] Six Bells, fell down. About Ten Persons were pre­sent when it fell, waiting in the Church-porch for the Keys to go up into the Steeple for a View; but some Delay being made in bringing them, they hap­pily receiv'd no other Damage than being terribly frightened. In a Vault under the Church we saw a vast Heap of human Bones, some of an extraordi­nary Size, said to be gathered up after a bloody Bat­tle fought between the Britons and Danes.

About a Mile distant from it is Saltwood-Castle, a very strong Seat of the Archbishop of Canterbury. The outer Wall has Towers and Battlements, and a deep Ditch. Within, and on one Side, stands the main Body of the Palace. There are two great and high Towers at the Gate of this, over which are the Arms of Archbishop Courtney, the Founder. This inner Work has a stronger and higher Wall, with a broad embattled Parapet at top. Within is a Court, but the Lodgings are all demolish'd. The Floor of the ruinous Chapel is strongly vaulted. In the Middle of the Court is a large square Well, seemingly Roman. They say that Anchors have been dug up hereabouts, which makes it likely that the Romans had here an Iron Forge; and some will have it, that the Sea came up formerly to it, and ground this Opinion on these Anchors found here.

A little Way further, at the End of the Stane-street, the Roman Road from Canterbury, is the Port of Lemanis or Limne mention'd above. At Limne Church, from the Brow of the Hill, may be dis­cern'd the ruinous Roman Walls, situate almost at the Bottom of the Marshes. A pretty Brook, which rises from the Rock, West of the Church, runs for some Space on the East Side of the Wall; then passes thro' it, and so along its lowermost Edge, by the Farm-house at Bottom: here Coins have been found. Once the Sea-bank broke, and ad­mitted the Ocean into all the adjacent Marshes. [Page 171] The Port is now call'd Shipway, where the Lord Warden of the Cinque Ports was formerly sworn, the Courts kept, and all the Pleas relating thereto, till Dover superseded it. The People of Limne had a Horn and Mace, the remaining Ensigns of their Authority.

Romney is a large fine Village, and likewise a Cinque Port; it is the chief Town of the Marsh-Grounds, which were antiently part of the Sea, called Romney Marsh, and has Old Romney and Lech for its Members. It is seated on a high Hill of Gravel and Sand, and on the West Side of it, had a pretty large Harbour guarded against most of the Winds, before the Sea retir'd from it. In the Year 1287, when the Town was at its Height, it was divided into Twelve Wards, had Five Pa­rish Churches, a Priory, and an Hospital for the Sick. But it has been dwindling till it came to its present low Condition, ever since the Reign of Ed­ward I. when an Inundation of the Sea destroy'd Men, Cattle and Houses, threw down a whole po­pulous Village called Prom-Hill, and remov'd the Rother, (in British Yz Odz) which used to empty itself into the Sea at Romney, out of its Chanel, stopping up its Mouth, and opening it a nearer Pas­sage into the Sea by Rye; leaving here only a little Bay for Fishing-boats.

From Romney-Marsh the Shore extends itself a great way into the Sea, and makes that Point of Land called Dengyness. Just by the River Rother, stands the little Town of Appledore, which, by Dis­use, has lost its Market, and is of no Note now. The Sea formerly came up to it.

Tenterden, a Mayor Market-town, lies a little to the N. W. of Appledore, near the Weald. It has a very good and high Steeple, which they say was the Cause of the Godwin-Sands, which was an Estate that belonged to Earl Godwin, and was guarded [Page 172] from the Sea by a Wall; but they were so intent on building the Steeple, that the Wall was neglected, and the Land overflowed, which they could never afterwards recover.

Ashford, also a Mayor-town, stands on the great Road, upon the River Stour. It is a pretty well built Market-town. The Church is large, and was formerly Collegiate: they hold Pleas for any thing not exceeding twenty Marks.

Newenden deserves to be mentioned for what it once was, having been formerly a fine City, which Camden calls Anderida. It was destroy'd by the Saxons, but rebuilt in the Reign of Edward I. and called Newenden, as much as to say, according to Camden's Etymology, a new City in a little Val­ley. It had then an Harbour much frequented; but it is now a most miserable Village, with a few poor Houses in it; the best an Ale-house, and the Church is ill-built, and out of Repair. It has a very indifferent Bridge over the Rother, a rapid Ri­ver, which divides at this Place Kent from Sussex, and about Nine Miles off empties itself into the Harbour of Rye. Roman Coins have been dug up here.

North-west of Newenden is Cranbrook, a large Market-town, noted for having been one of the first Places where the Cloth-manufacture was set up in England, which is now very much in its Wane here. But here I will conclude my Third Letter; and am, Sir,

Yours, &c.

LETTER IV. CONTAINING A DESCRIPTION of the County of SUSSEX, other Parts of KENT, and Part of HANTS, SURREY, &c.


I NOW enter the County of Sussex, and shall begin my Letter with the Account of Rye.

It is situated in the most Eastern Part of Sussex, upon an Hill, which is encompassed with Rocks, that are inaccessible on the Sea-side. There is nothing now but some Remains of its old Walls to be seen, and the Ditches are almost filled up. Its Trade is in Hops, Wool, Timber, Kettles, Cannon, Chim­ney-backs, &c. which are cast at the Iron-works at Bakely, about Four Miles from Rye, on the North-west, and Breed, about Five Miles distant South-west. It is a very great Misfortune, that its Harbour has been so much damaged by the Sea, and neglected; for it is almost filled up in several Places, where it was formerly the deepest, and most con­venient. Some considerable Families, who have Lands near, have taken Advantage of this, to ex­tend [Page 174] them further upon those Sands, which the Sea in Storms has thrown up against them; and by digging Ditches, and making Drains, there are now Fields and Meadows, where antiently was nothing but Water. By this means Ships only of a middle Size can come within any convenient Distance of the Town, whereas formerly the largest Vessels, and even whole Fleets together, could anchor just by the Rocks, on which the Town stands; and as this Port lies over-against Dieppe in France, and that there is no other Port between Portsmouth and Do­ver, which can receive Ships of Burden, not only the Danger of the Sea, but in Time of War, of the Enemy, were escaped by the Conveniency of this Harbour. But it being by the Means I have mentioned, and by the Inning of the Chanel and waste Lands, (which prevented the Flux and Re­flux of the Tide) in Danger of being utterly lost, an Act of Parliament passed in 1721, which enacts, That no new Walls, Banks, Dams, or Stops, shall thereafter be erected on either Side of the Water, that might stop or alter the Flux or Reflux of the Sea, between the Mouth of the Harbour, bounded by the Camber and Castle-Points, and New Shutt near Craven Sluice.

In 1723 another Act passed for completing the Repairs of the Harbour of Dover, and for restore­ing the Harbour of Rye to its antient Goodness, which still continued to be choak'd up, and almost ruin'd, by the Shifting of the Beach without, and Settling of the Sullage within, and stopping the Flux of the Tide, which this Act proposed should have its free Course thro' the Scotch-flat and Craven Sluices, or into such other Cut or Chanel as should be found most proper and expedient.

And in 1724 another Act passed for making the last Act more effectual, so far as it related to the Harbour of Rye, in which a Power was given to [Page 175] change the Design of making a Passage by the above-named Sluices, and to open a new Cut from the Winchelsea Chanel, right out to the Sea. And they actually began, in pursuance of this Act, to cut a broad and deep Canal, which was to be car­ried to the Sea on the Side of Winchelsea, for the Use of the two Boroughs. But still these Provisions being found insufficient, another Act pass'd in 1737-8, for continuing the Term and Powers granted by the former Acts, for repairing the Harbour of Dover, and for restoring that of Rye to its antient Goodness, to which I must refer the Reader.

The Houses of Rye are well-enough built, and of Brick, tho' generally old-fashion'd; but there are some very neat ones of a modern Taste. There is a small Settlement of French Refugees in this Town, mostly Fishermen; they have a Minister of their own, who is paid by the Archbishop of Canterbury. The Church is handsome and large; but there are so many Dissenters in the Town, and so few of the Establish'd Church, that they have wall'd off, and converted the Western Part of it into a Magazine for Planks. But there are two well-built Meeting-houses, one for the Presbyterians, and the other for the Quakers. Another Church, which belong'd to a Monastery now demolish'd, is also turn'd into a kind of Store-house for Planks, Hops, and other Mer­chandize. At the North-east of Rye are the Re­mains of an old Fort, which commands the Town and Harbour, and serves for the Town-gaol.

His late Majesty King George I. on his Return from Hanover, January 3. 1725-6, was obliged to put in here, after a very dangerous and tempestuous Passage, the Fleet being unable to make Dover; and it was then experienced, what a Benefit it would have been to have had this only considerable Haven, as it formerly was, between Portsmouth and Dover, restor'd to its pristine flourishing State; for his Ma­jesty [Page 176] was under great Difficulties to land there, and the larger Ships were unable to follow him.

This Town was, as I have said, one of the Ap­pendages, as Winchelsea was the other, to Hastings, as a Cinque-port, and enjoy'd the same Privileges.

Old Winchelsea stood upon the Sea-shore, about Two or Three Miles from the Place where the New stands. It had formerly a large and spacious Har­bour, was a Place of great Trade, and had no less than Eighteen Churches in it. But it was intirely destroyed by the Sea, and that small Part which is not bury'd in the Sands, is now Marsh and Mea­dow-land. To the S. E. of Rye, and the N. W. of New Winchelsea, is still to be seen, in the Midst of a large Plain, an old Tower, which probably stood by the Sea.

New Winchelsea is said to have been built by King Edward I. partly on a Hill about Two Miles from the Old, and the like Distance from Rye, and partly in a little Valley, where it had an Harbour; but Anno 1250, the latter Part of this met with the same Fate as the former. It never was comparable to the old Town, having but three Parish Churches when it flourish'd, and now there only remains the Chan­cel of one, which is more than large enough for the Inhabitants. But yet the Town was every­where accommodated with fine stone arch'd Vaults for stowing of Merchandize, and was laid out with admirable Regularity, the Streets being divided into 32 Quarters. Some of the Stone-work of the Three Gates are still to be seen. The Sea is now above a Mile distant from it, the Harbour being choaked up with Sands; and Grass grows not only where the Harbour was, but even in the Streets; and in­deed there are only a few Houses remaining in the upper Part of the Town. Among the Ruins of the Walls to the S. E. are the Remains of a Castle, as some say; or of a Monastery, as others will have it.

[Page 177] Hastings is the Chief of the Five Cinque-ports, and with its Two Members above, was obliged to furnish the King with Twenty Ships for any Naval Expedition, in Recompence for the ample Immuni­nities it enjoy'd, as one of the Five Ports. It is about Eight Miles from Winchelsea. It consists of Two great Streets, with a Parish Church in each, and has several good Houses; but its Harbour, for­merly so famous, is now a poor Road for small Vessels, having been ruined by the Storms that from time to time have been so fatal to its neighbouring Ports of Rye and Winchelsea. We saw here the Ruins of an ancient Castle; and about Three Miles off, Bull-hide Haven, where William the Con­queror is said to have landed in his Invasion of Eng­land; tho' some say it was at Hastings, and others at Pevensey, an Harbour more Westward, which has likewise been destroy'd by the Sea; but be that as it will, it was at Hastings that he muster'd his Army, after he had burnt his Ships, being deter­min'd to conquer or perish in the Attempt; or rather, as another Author has observ'd, that he might not be obliged to divide his Army, which must have been the Case, if he had preserv'd his Ships; and probably, while he made an Advance into the Country, at the Head of part of his Army, Harold might have stepp'd in between, and cut off those who were left to guard the Ships, and then with more Ease have attack'd, and, perhaps, beat that Part commanded by the Norman himself.

The decisive Battle which he fought Anno 1066, with King Harold, was upon a Plain call'd Heath­field, about Seven Miles from Hastings, for an Ac­count of which I shall refer to the Historians. In the Place where Harold's Body was found, the Norman instituted an Abbey of Benedictine Monks, dedicating it to St. Martin; and from the Fight aforesaid, it is called Battle-Abbey; and soon drew to it, by a [Page 178] Fair held every Sunday and Holiday, such a Resort, that it became a handsome Town. It still retains the Name of Battle, and some Remains of the Ab­bey are yet to be seen, and make Part of the House of the Lord Viscount Montacute, a Roman-catho­lick Peer; of which more in another Place.

A little beyond Hastings to Bourn, we ride upon the Sands in a strait Line for Eighteen Miles, all upon the Coast of Sussex, passing by Pemsey, or Peven­sey Haven afore-mentioned, and the Mouth of the River, which comes from Battle, without so much as knowing, that there was a River, the Tide being out, and all the Water sinking away in the Sands. This Town of Battle is remarkable for little now, but making the finest Gun-pow­der, and the best perhaps in Europe. Near Battle they shew us a Hill with a Beacon upon it, now called Beacon-hill, but was formerly call'd Standard-hill; where the Norman set up his Great Standard of Defiance, the Day before the decisive Battle with Harold and the English.

From the Beginning of Romney-marsh, that is to say, at Sandgate, or Sandfoot Castle, near Hythe, to this Place, the Country is a rich fertile Soil, full of feeding Grounds; and an incredible Number of large Sheep are fed every Year upon them, and sent up to London Market. These Romney-marsh Sheep are counted rather larger than the Leicestershire and Lincolnshire Sheep, of which so much is said else­where.

Besides the vast Flocks of Sheep, as above, abun­dance of large Bullocks are fed in this Part of the Country; and especially those they call Stall'd or House-fed Oxen, from their being kept within the Farmers Sheds or Yards all the latter Season, where they are fed for the Winter-market, and generally deemed the largest Beef in England.

[Page 179]In Romney-marsh, as in other Parts of England, are found great Timber-trees, lying at Length under Ground, as black as Ebony, and fit for Use, when dried in the Sun.

From hence it was that, turning North, and tra­versing the deep, dirty, but rich Part of these Two Counties, my Curiosity led me to see the great Founderies, or Iron-works, which are in this Coun­ty, and where they are carried on at such a pro­digious Expence of Wood, that even in a Country almost all over-run with Timber, they begin to complain of the great Consumption of it by those Furnaces, and the Apprehension of leaving the next Age to want Timber for building their Navies. I must own however, that I conceived that Com­plaint was intirely groundless, the Three Counties of Kent, Sussex, and Hampshire, (all which lie con­tiguous one to another) being an inexhaustible Store-house of Timber for this Purpose.

After I had been fatigued in passing this deep and heavy Part of the Country, I thought it would not be foreign to my Design, if I refreshed myself with a View of Tunbridge-wells, which were not then above 12 Miles out of my Way.

When I came to the Wells, which were Five Miles nearer to me than the Town, supposing me then at Battle, to the Southward of them, I found a great deal of good Company there; and particularly made an Observation, that those People who have nothing to do any-where else, seem to be the busiest People at Tunbridge.

After the Appearance is over at the Wells, (where the Ladies are all in Deshabile) and at the Chapel, the Company go home; and, as if it was another Species of People, or a Collection from another Place, you are surprised to see the Walks covered with Ladies completely dressed, and gay to Profu­sion; [Page 180] where rich Cloaths, Jewels, and Beauty, dazzle the Eyes from one End of the Range to the other.

As for Gaming, Sharping, Intriguing, as also Fops, Beaux, and the like, Tunbridge used to be as full of these as most other publick Places; but the Act lately passed against Gaming has, in a great measure, cured this Evil. Of this Act I shall say more, when I come to Bath.

The Air here is excellent, and the Provisions of all Sorts very reasonable: particularly they are sup­plied with excellent Fish, of almost all Sorts, from Rye, and other Towns on the Sea-coast; and I saw a Turbut of near twenty Pounds Weight sold there for Three Shillings. In the Season of Mackarel, they have them here from Hastings, within three Hours of their being taken out of the Sea; and the Differ­ence which that makes in their Goodness, I need not mention.

They have likewise here abundance of Wild-fowl, of the best Sorts; such as Pheasants, Partridges, Woodcocks, Snipes, Quails, &c. particularly they have from the South-downs the Bird called a Wheat­ear, or which I think I may call the English Orto­lan,—the most delicious Taste for one Mouthful, (for 'tis hardly more) that can be imagined; but these are very dear at Tunbridge: they are much cheaper at Seaford, Lewes, and that Side of the Country.

Tunbridge is situated upon the little River Tunn, which runs into the Medway hard by. On the Southern Bank of the River are to be seen the Ruins of an old Castle, built by a natural Son of Richard I. Duke of Normandy, who, as Mr. Camden tells us, exchanged his Lordship of Bryany in that Duchy for Tunbridge. The Church is a modern Building; the Houses in the Town are mostly ill-built, and the Streets sorrily paved.

[Page 181]The Wells are about Four Miles from the Town, and the Rocks about Ten Miles from them, and worth a Traveller's Curiosity to see, as they are several prodigious Heaps of firm Stone Rocks, tho' some Miles distant from the Sea.

The Buildings at the Wells have much the Ad­vantage of those in Tunbridge, and may be said to constitute a large and populous Town themselves. There is a Church, or rather Chapel of Ease, which is very neat. This new Town, as I may call it, stands in a Bottom between Two Hills, one of which is called Mount Sion, and the other Mount Ephraim, which are generally covered with good Houses, fine Gardens, and Fruit-trees. The Wells might be more properly called Spelhurst Wells; for the Water rises in a Parish of that Name. The Well which contains them is well-paved, like a Cistern, and surrounded with a low Wall, with a Pair of Stairs to go down. The Company walk upon the Two above-named Hills, after they have drank the Waters, and divert themselves with Bowls, Dancing, or other Exercises, as the Weather will permit, and the Physicians prescribe. Near the Well is a long Gallery, paved and covered over, wherein to walk in bad Weather, and while they are taking the Waters, and where likewise the Band of Musick have place. There are also Rooms to drink Choco­late or Coffee, and to play at Cards, &c. likewise a Hall to dance in. Not far off the Well is a Market well stored with Provisions of all Sorts.

A very eminent Physician is of Opinion, that the Waters of Bath, Tunbridge, Chiltenham, (or Scarborough, which partake of the same Qualities) and Bristol, make the general Kinds of most of the various Mineral Waters on the Globe; and that he therefore who understands these, cannot be much at a Loss to determine the Virtues and Effi­cacy [Page 182] of any new Kind. And as this learned Gentle­man has favoured me with his Opinion of these several Waters, I shall communicate the same in their respective Places.

And, first, this is what he says of the Nature, Efficacy and Qualities of these of Tunbridge.

‘"Tunbridge Waters, says he, are nothing but an Impregnation of Rain, or compressed Cloud­waters in some of the Eminencies of the neigh­bouring Country. And indeed all Hills, and conspicuous Elevations, are mere hollow Nests of some Minerals. Iron and Sulphur are the most common and universal Minerals; and almost all Kinds of Stone fit for making Fences or Edifices, have in their Composition one or both of them. All the Varieties of hard, black, dark or greyish Stones, abound with ferrugineous Particles; and Iron is so necessary, especially in Countries be­tween the Tropicks and the Poles, for Husbandry, that there is scarce a Mile square within this Com­pass, where it may not be found with its im­pregnated Waters. This is demonstrable by the Action of the Loadstone on most Minerals, the Magnet itself seeming to be scarce any thing but a purer Clod of Iron: and pure polished Iron, we know, with very simple Management, be­comes highly magnetick. Hence we account for the Frequency of chalybeat Mineral Waters, of some Degree of Strength or other, so readily to be found between the Poles and Tropicks. And this is a bountiful Provision of Nature to those colder Climates, where animal Food, and fermented Liquors, are so necessary for the Support, Com­fort, and greater Proportion of animal Force required in them, for their Defence from the Swarming of ravenous Animals, and for hunting animal Food, where the Vegetable is neither so proper, nutritive, nor abounding, as in these [Page 183] kindlier Climates between the Tropicks to­wards each Side of the Equator. Mineral Chalybeat Waters brace the Solids, which animal Food, and fermented Liquors, in any Plenty, are apt to relax; and wind up the Springs of animal Motion, to keep the Blood fluid, which the just mentioned Indulgencies are disposed to thicken. Soft Stone, Marl, alkalious Clay, and all Kinds of bituminous Earths, have a larger Quantity of Sulphur in them; for Sulphur, Oil, and Bitumen, always leave Earth brittle, spongy, and alkalious (Alkalies being only an harder earthy Sponge); and when the watry Impregna­tions meet, they naturally produce by Fermentation some Degree of Heat in the Mixture. There is in Nature, as this learned Gentleman thinks, but one kind of Salt, which is Nitre; and that the Variety arises from a Mixture of Sulphur, Earth, or Iron, in different Proportions combined in their Composition. Nitre however, and Sea­salt, have their principal Efficacy from the pre­dominant Principle in their Texture: and thus Tunbridge Waters are only a finer Solution of blue Vitriol, or natural Salt of Steel, or Rain-waters, inimitable by Art in such salutary Effects as Nature always produces. For Example: Tho' Art may imitate, in precious Stones, all the Va­rieties of Colours, Reflexions, Refractions, and Emissions of Light; yet there is always some one peculiar Property, as of Hardness, Weight, or Water, which discovers the Sophistication. In like manner, all the Wines on the Globe may be so imitated, that neither Eye, nor Palate, nor the Perception of their Effects on Animal Bo­dies, can discover the Fiction; and this without one Drop of the Juice of the Grape, from the saccharine Quality only of almost all Fruits, Seeds, [Page 184] or Herbs: yet by analysing them in some proper Menstruum, the Cheat may be found out. Thus we may imitate all the several Mineral Waters on the Earth, and pretty nearly conciliate all their general or grosser salutary Virtues on diseased Ani­mals: yet there is an unaccountable Something in the Taste, Lightness on the Stomach, Chear­fulness and Alacrity they give, which all our Skill can never bestow. The Principle of In­dividuation, the Size of their last and least Par­ticles, the Proportion of the several Parts of the Composition to the watry Menstruum, and the due Time of their Impregnation, are and ever will be unknown to us; as will consequently the Degree required to wind up, strengthen and con­tract the relaxed Solids of diseased human Bodies, to such a Height, that they may be enabled to grind, dissolve, and thin the concreted Juices, as these active, strong, and invigorating Waters of Tunbridge usually do: for in all robust Con­stitutions but partially depraved, in the cold chronical Distempers of such Habits, in nervous Disorders, and low Spirits, in weak Digestions, and gross Habits, they are extremely successful, especially in the hotter Seasons of the Year."’ Thus far this learned Gentleman.

During the time I was at Tunbridge formerly, I made an Excursion to Knowl-house, about Seven Miles from Tunbridge, and One from Sevenoak, be­longing to the Duke of Dorset: it is situated in the Middle of a Park, and at that time was an antient Stone Fabrick; but had nothing more remarkable in it, than some excellent Pictures.

I left Tunbridge, and came to Lewes, through the deepest, dirtiest, but in many respects the richest, and most profitable Country in all that Part of England.

[Page 185]The Timber I saw here was prodigious, as well for Size as Plenty, and seemed in some Places suffered to grow, only because it was so far off of any Na­vigation, that it was not worth carrying away. In dry Summers, indeed, a great deal is carried away to Maidstone, and other Places on the Medway; and sometimes I have seen one Tree on a Carriage, which they call there a Tug, drawn by 22 Oxen; and even then 'tis carried so little a Way, (being thrown down, and left for other Tugs to take up, and carry on) that sometimes 'tis Two or Three Years before it gets to Chatham; for if once the Rains begin, it stirs no more that Year, and sometimes a whole Summer is not dry enough to make the Roads passable.

And here I shall observe, according to my Pro­mise, p. 151. That in the Year 1739-40, an Act passed, intituled, An Act to revive, explain and amend an Act made in the 16th and 17th Years of the Reign of his late Majesty K. Charles II. intituled, An Act for making the River of Medway navigable, in the Counties of Kent and Sussex: And which, when completed, must be of very great Use to the Publick, as well as to the Counties of Kent and Sussex in particular.

The Preamble to this Act will set this Matter in a proper Light, and it is to this Effect; That the above-mentioned Act of Parliament of the 16th and 17th of Charles II. was never yet carried into Exe­cution; altho' the making the said River navigable was likely to be of great Utility to the Publick, by reason of great Quantities of Timber growing on the Wealds of Kent and Sussex, which is allowed to be the best in the Kingdom, for the Use of the Royal Navy, and which now, thro' the Badness of the Roads in those Parts, cannot be convey'd to any Market but at a large Expence.

That therefore the present Undertakers, being desirous to begin, carry on and complete the Navi­gation [Page 186] of such Part of the antient River Medway and Streams falling into it, as run from Forest-row in Sussex, to Maidstone in Kent, this Act incorporates them for that Purpose, by the Name of The Com­pany of Proprietors of the Navigation of the River Medway.

We must refer to the Act itself for farther Parti­culars, and shall only observe, That when this Work is completed, it will be of inconceivable Ad­vantage to the Publick; not only for the excellent Timber which it will be a Means of conveying to proper Markets, but for the easy and speedy Carriage of Iron, Ordnance, Balls, and other Materials of War forged in or near the said River, which at some times of the Year cannot be brought thro' the Wealds of the Two Counties; and for the Carriage of Wood, Corn, Grain, Hay, Hops, Wooll, Leather, and all manner of Provisions, as also of Coals, Lime, Stone Wares, and all other Necessaries and Commodities, to the great Improvement of Trade and Commerce.

A few Miles North-west of Tunbridge lies Seven­oak, so called from Seven large Oaks that grew near the Place. It is a Market-town, governed by a Warden and Assistants; but is noted for nothing more than being a great Thorough-fare Town. It has a good Hospital for maintaining and teaching poor Children, erected by Sir William Sevenoak, Lord Mayor of London, who was a Foundling, and took his Name from the Town.

Lewes is a pleasant Town, large, well-built, agree­ably situated in the Middle of an open Champain Country, and on the Edge of the South-downs, the most delightful of their Kind in the Nation; it lies on the Bank of a little wholsome fresh River, within 12 Miles of the Sea, and was formerly in­compassed with a Wall; but there are few Re­mains of it now to be seen. But what contributes to the Advantage of this Town is, that both it and [Page 187] the Country adjacent, are full of Gentlemen of good Families and Fortunes; of which the Pelhams must be named with the first, whose Chief is his Grace the Duke of Newcastle. Here are also the antient Families of Gage, Shelly, &c. formerly Roman-catholicks, but now Protestants, with many others, Lewes has Five Churches in it. Near it is an old demolish'd Castle, in the Neighbourhood of which was fought that bloody Battle between King Henry III. and his Barons; the Event of which constrained the King to accept of hard Conditions of Peace, and to give his Son as an Hostage for Per­formance.

I ought not to forget, that Newhaven in this Neighbourhood was formerly noted for its safe and good Harbour for Ships of considerable Burden; but for want of a Provision for maintaining the Timber Piers, which it had for Time immemorial, it was quite neglected, and the Harbour choaked up with Sand and Beach, and the Piers were rotten and decay'd. To remedy these Evils, an Act passed, Anno 1731, for Repairing and Keeping in Repair the said Piers and Harbour. And when brought to Effect, not only Lewes, but the adjacent Parts, as well as the whole Kingdom, will be the better for it.

From Lewes, following still the Range of the South-Downs, West, we ride in View of the Sea, and on a fine Carpet Ground, for about 12 Miles to Brighthelmston, a poor Fishing-town, old-built, and on the very Shore of the Sea. Hence again, as I mentioned at Folkstone and Dover, the Fishermen, having large Barks, go away to Yarmouth, on the Coast of Norfolk, to the Fishing Fair there, and hire themselves out for the Season to catch Herrings for the Merchants; and they tell us, that these make a very good Business of it.

The Sea is very unkind to Brighthelmston, having by its continual Encroachments, so gained upon [Page 188] the Town, that in a little time more the Inhabitants may reasonably expect it will eat away the whole Place, above 100 Houses having been devoured by the Water in a few Years past.

From hence, still keeping the Coast on the Left, we come to Shoreham, a Sea-faring Town, chiefly inhabited by Ship-carpenters, Ship-chandlers, and all the several Trades depending upon the Building and Fitting up of Ships, which is their chief Business. They are indeed justly noted for good Sailors, and for building neat and stout Sea-boats, which yet, in Strength and Duration, do not come up to those of Yarmouth, Ipswich, and the North.

The Builders of Ships seem to have settled here chiefly because of the exceeding Quantity and Cheapness of Timber in the Country behind them; being the same wooded Country I mentioned above, which still continues thro' this County and the next. The River this Town stands upon, tho' not navigable for large Vessels, yet serves to bring down this large Timber in Floats from Bramber, Steyning, and the Country adjacent; which is, in a manner, all co­vered over with Timber.

Here in the Compass of about Six Miles are Three Borough Towns, sending Members to Parliament, (viz.) Shoreham, Bramber, and Steyning. Shoreham and Steyning are pretty little Market-towns; but Bramber, after I have mentioned the Ruins of an old Castle, hardly deserves the Name of a Town, having not above 20 Families in it, and of them but few above asking Alms, as you ride by. The chief House in the Town, when I was there, was a Pub­lick-house, the Landlord whereof boasted, that upon an Election, just then over, he had made 300l. of one Pipe of Canary.

This is not the only Town in this County, where the Elections have been scandalously mercenary, in­somuch that it has been said, there was in one King's [Page 189] Reign more Money spent at Elections than all the Lands in the Parishes were worth, at 20 Years Purchase. I shall name in particular but one more, and that is Winchelsea, which is rather the Skeleton of an antient City, than a real Town, where the old Gates stand near Three Miles from one another over the Fields, and the very Ruins are so buried, that they have made good Corn Fields of the Streets, and the Plough goes over the Foundations, nay, over the first Floors of the Houses, and where nothing of a Town seems to remain; yet at one Election for Members, the Struggle was such, between Sir John Banks, and Colonel Draper a neighbouring Gentle­man, that I was assured the latter spent 11,000l. and lost it too. What the other spent, who opposed him, may be guessed at, seeing he who spent most was always sure to carry it.

Near Steyning, the famous Baronet of the Name of Fagg hath an antient Seat. And thence passing by the Seat of Sir John Shelly, prettily situated in the Middle of a Grove, we come to Arundel, a decay'd Town also. It stands near the Mouth of the River Arun, which heretofore had a good Harbour called Arundel Port, or the Harbour of Little Hampton, capable of receiving Ships and Vessels of a con­siderable Burden; but a Beach being thrown up by the Sea, it was quite choaked up, and the Navigation of the Arun obstructed, so that the Harbour was rendered in a manner useless. But in the Year 1733, an Act passed for erecting Piers in, and for Repair­ing and Keeping in Repair the Harbour there, by cutting a Chanel thro' the Beach and old Piers, and erecting Locks, &c.

One great Advantage to the Country from this River, is the Shipping off great Quantities of large Timber here; which is carried up the Thames to Woolwich and Deptford, and up the Medway to Chatham; as also Westward to Portsmouth, and even [Page 190] to Plymouth, to the new Dock there, and indeed to all the King's Yards, where the Business of the Navy is carried on. The Timber shipped off here is esteemed the best and largest that is brought by Sea from any Part of England; also great Quantities of Knee Timber are had here, the largest of which is valuable in its kind above the strait Timber.

This River, and the old, decay'd, once famous Castle at Arundel, which has the Privilege to give to its Possessor the Title of an Earl and Peer of the Realm, without Creation, and which belongs to the noble Family of Howard, Earls of Arundel, and Dukes of Norfolk, is all that is remarkable here; except it be, that in the Church are Four old and stately Monuments of the Earls of Arundel, and that in this River are catch'd the best and largest Mullets in England, a Fish very good in itself, and much valued by the Gentry round, and often sent up to London.

From hence to the City of Chichester are 12 of the most pleasant and beautiful Miles in England, whether we go by the Hill, or Downs, or by the Plain, or inclosed Country.

To the North of Arundel, and at the Bottom of the Hills, and consequently in the Weald, is the Town of Petworth, a large handsome Country Market-town, and very populous; and as it stands upon an Ascent, and is dry and healthy, it is full of Gentle­mens Families, and good well-built Houses, both in the Town and Neighbourhood; but the Beauty of Petworth is the antient Seat of the old Family of Piercy, Earls of Northumberland, now extinct; whose Daughter, the sole Heiress of all his vast Estates, married Charles Seymour Duke of Somerset; and among other noble Seats brought his Grace this of Petworth.

The Duke pull'd down the antient House, and on the same Spot built from the Ground one of the [Page 191] best-modell'd Houses then in Britain: it had the Misfortune to be once almost demolished by Fire, but the Damage has been fully repaired.

The Apartments are very noble, well contrived, and richly furnished; but it cannot be said, that the Situation of the House is chosen so happily, as to boast of equal Judgment with the rest; the Avenues to the Front want Space, the House stands, as it were, with its Elbow to the Town; its Front has no Vista answerable, and the West Front look'd not to the Parks or fine Gardens, but to the old Stables.

To rectify this, when it was too late to order it any other way, the Duke was obliged to pull down those noble Buildings; I mean the Meuse, or Stables, the finest of their kind in all the South of England, and equal to some Noblemens whole Houses: and yet even the demolishing the Pile has done no more than opened a Prospect over the Country, whereas, had the House been set on the rising Ground, on the Side of the Park, over-against the North Wing of the House, and a little more to the Westward, the Front had been South to the Town, the back Front to the Parks; but now all these Advantages lie on one Angle, or opposite to one Wing of the House. Nevertheless it is a noble Pile of Building, and by far the finest in all this Part of Britain.

From Petworth West, the Country is a little less woody than the Weald; and a great many fine Seats begin to shew their Heads above the Trees; as the Duke of Richmond's Seat at Godwood, near Chi­chester; the Seats of the late Earl of Tankerville, and the Earl of Scarborough; and a great many others.

But the Seat of the Right Honourable the Lord Visc. Montacute, called Cowdrey, near Midhurst, the Midae of the Romans, deserves a particular Mention. It is situated in a Valley encompassed with Lawns, [Page 192] Hills, and Woods, thrown into a Park, the River running underneath, which renders the Place very agreeable in Summer, but makes it dampish in Winter. The House is square, and at each Corner is a Gothick Tower, which have a very good Effect, when viewed from the rising Grounds. The Hall is ceiled with Irish Oak, after the antient manner. The Walls are painted with Architecture by Roberti, the Statues by Goupé, the Stair-case by Pelegrini. The large Parlour or Room at the End of the Hall, is of Holbein's Painting; where that great Artist has described the Exploits of King Henry VIII. before Boloigne, Calais, his Landing at Portsmouth, his magnificent Entry into London, &c. In the other Rooms are many excellent Pictures of the Ancestors of the Family, and other History Paintings of Hol­bein, relating to their Actions in War. The whole Circuit of Rooms are stately and well-furnished, adorned with many Pictures. There is a long Gallery with the Twelve Apostles as big as the Life; another very neat one, wainscotted with Norway Oak, where are many antient Whole-length Pictures of the Fa­mily, in their proper Habits. There are four History-pieces, two Copies of Raphael's Marriage of Cupid and Psyche; several old religious and military Paint­ings from Battle-abbey.

The Park is very noble, having a great Variety of Grounds in it, and is well wooded with Pines, Firs, and other Evergreen-trees, which are grown to a large Size; and here are some of the largest Chesnut-trees perhaps in England. The Valleys which run thro' the Park, are well supplied with Water, which keeps the Grass in a constant Verdure.

Chichester is a neat and pretty large City walled round. The River Lavant runs under Part of the Walls. Two principal Streets cross it at right Angles upon the cardinal Points, where stands a curious [Page 193] Cross, and Market-house upon Pillars, erected by Bishop Read. The Church takes up one of these Quadrants. It is remarkable for Two Side-isles on both Sides, and the Pictures of all the Kings and Queens of England since Cissa, (the South Saxon Monarch, who made this his Royal Seat; and repaired the antient Roman Castle or Walls, leaving his Name to the Place) on the Southern Wall, as on the op­posite Wall, all the Bishops. The Spire is a Piece of excellent Workmanship, but it received such a Shock some Years ago, that it was almost miracu­lous, that the Steeple did not fall down; which, if it had, would probably have demolished the whole Church.

It was what the Inhabitants call a Fire-ball, or rather Lightning, which broke upon the Steeple, with such irresistible Force, that it drove several great Stones out of it, and carried them clear off, to a prodigious Distance from the Steeple. One of these Stones, of at least a Ton Weight, was blown over the South Side or Row of Houses in the West Street, and fell on the Ground in the Street, at a Gentleman's Door, on the other Side of the Way: and another of them, almost as big, was blown over both Sides of the said West Street, into the same Gentleman's Garden, and no Hurt done by either of them. This Account I relate from a Person of undoubted Credit, who was an Eye-witness, and saw the Stones. The Breach made thereby in the Spire, tho' within about 45 Feet of the Top, was incredibly large, and yet the Steeple stood fast, and is now very substantially repaired; which shews, that it was originally an admirably sound and well finished Piece of Workmanship. The Monuments of Bishop Carleton and Bishop King are in this Church, whose Effigies are curiously done in Marble.

In the Year 1723, in digging a Foundation at Chichester, was found, pretty deep in the Ground, a [Page 194] large Stone Six Feet long and Three broad, with a Roman Inscription on it. In digging up the Stone, a few of the Letters were eras'd, but they were easily supplied.Neptuno et Minervae Templum, pro salute domus divinae, ex auctoritate Tiberii Claudii, Cogidubni regis, legati Augusti in Britannia, Collegium fa­brorum, et qui in eo a sacris, vel honorati sunt, de suo dedicaverunt; donante aream Pudente Pudentini filio. That is, ‘This Temple was dedicated to Neptune and Mi­nerva, for the Safety of the Imperial Family, by the Authority of Tiberius Claudius. It was erected by the College of Artificers of King Cogidubnus, Augustus's Lieutenant in Britain, and by those who officiated as Priests, or were honoured in it, at their own Expence; the Ground being given by Pudens, the Son of Pu­dentinus.

This Stone was presented to his Grace the Duke of Richmond, who has placed it in a Temple on a Mount in his Garden at Godwood, between two Sta­tues of Neptune and Minerva.

This City is not a Place of much Trade, nor is it very populous; but within these few Years they are fallen into a new way of managing the Corn Trade here, which turns very well to Account; for whereas the Farmers, generally speaking, used to carry all their Wheat to Farnham Market, which is very near Forty Miles by Land-carriage, and from some Parts of the Country more than that, some money'd Men of Chichester, Emsworth, and other Places adjacent, join'd their Stocks together, and built large Granaries near the Crook, where the Vessels come up; and here they buy and lay up all [Page 195] the Corn which the Country on that Side can spare; and having good Mills in the Neighbourhood, they grind and dress the Corn, and send it to London in the Meal, by long Sea.

This is a great lessening to Farnham Market; but if the Market at London is supply'd, the coming by Sea from Chichester is every whit as much a pub­lick Good, as the encouraging of Farnham Market, which is of itself the greatest Corn-market in Eng­land; Hempstead in Hertfordshire, and London, ex­cepted. This carrying of Meal by Sea is now pra­ctised from several other Places on this Coast, even as far as Southampton.

Chichester, besides the Cathedral, has Five small Churches. About Three Miles from it, is a House of his Grace the Duke of Richmond, called Godwood. It was the antient Seat of the Earls of Northum­berland, and in a very ruinous Condition; but the Duke of Richmond has lately built some Offices, which are to correspond with a Mansion-house de­sign'd by Colin Campbel, and publish'd by him in his Vitruvius Britannicus.

His Grace has a noble Menagerie, where he keeps a great Variety of foreign Animals and Birds; but the Park is small and ill-planted.

However, it has an easy Descent to the East, South and South-west, with the Prospect of a rich and beautiful Landskip, bounded by the Sea for Thirty Miles in Length. The Isle of Wight terminates the South-west Prospect, and the famous St. Rooks­hill covers it from the North.

About Three Miles to the East of Godwood, lies Charlton, a small Village, remarkable for being the Seat of Fox-hunters; here are many small Hunting-houses built by Persons of Quality, who reside there during the Season for Fox-hunting; but the most beautiful of these Buildings, is that of his Grace the Duke of Richmond.

[Page 196]Here is also a large Room, which was design'd by the Right Hon. the Earl of Burlington, where the Gentlemen Fox-hunters dine every Day toge­ther, during their Stay at the Village.

By the Side of this Village is a Forest, which was formerly in the Possession of the Lumlies, but has been for some Years his Grace the Duke of Rich­mond's, who has greatly beautified it, by cutting fine Ridings thro' the several Parts of it, and making many new Plantations therein.

From Chichester, the Road lying still West, we pass in Sight of the Earl of Scarborough's fine Seat at Stansted, a House surrounded with thick Woods, thro' which there are the most agreeable Vista's cut, that are to be seen any-where in Eng­land; and particularly at the West Opening, which is from the Front of the House, they sit in the Dine­ing-room, and see the Town and Harbour of Ports­mouth, the Ships at Spithead, and also at St. Helen's; which, when the Royal Navy happens to be there, is a most glorious Sight.

In our Passage to Portsmouth, we pass'd by Fare­ham, and by Portchester, a Castle built out of a Roman City.

In Portsmouth Haven a Thousand Sail of the big­gest Ships may ride secure. The Mouth is not so broad as the Thames at Westminster, and that secur'd on Gosport Side by Charles Fort, James Fort, Bo­rough Fort, and Block-house Fort, which has a Plat-form of above 20 great Guns level with the Water. On the other Side by Portsmouth, stands South-sea Castle, built by King Henry VIII. The Govern­ment has within these few Years bought more Ground for additional Works, and no doubt it may be made impregnable; for a shallow Water may be brought quite round it. The Yards, the Docks, the Store-houses, where all the Furniture is laid up [Page 197] in the exactest Order, so that the Workmen can find any Implement in the Dark, exceed Imagina­tion; as do the immense Quantities of all sorts of military and naval Stores. The Rope-house is 870 Feet long, one continued Room, almost a Quarter of a Mile. I had the Pleasure of seeing a great Cable made here: it requires 100 Men to work at it, and so hard is the Labour, that they can work but Four Hours in the Day. The smallest Number of Men continually employed in the Yard is 1000, and that but barely sufficient.

Here is also a good Counterscarp, and double Mote, with Ravelins in the Ditch, and double Palisadoes, and advanc'd Works to cover the Place from any Approach, where it may be practicable. The Strength of the Town is also considerably aug­mented on the Land-side, by the Fortifications raised of late Years about the Docks and Yards; and those Parts made a particular Strength by themselves; and tho' they are indeed in some Sense independent one of another, yet they cover and strengthen one another, so that they cannot be separately attack'd on that Side, while they are both in the same Hands.

Edw. IV. began these Fortifications; Henry VII. considerably augmented them; Charles II. much im­prov'd them; and King James II. greatly added to them. I was sorry to leave this amazing Scene of naval Grandeur, for the Sight of a wretched Sta­tue of King William III. gilt indeed in an extraor­dinary manner, but the very worst of all the bad Works of this kind I have yet seen. I observ'd the great Quantity of Water and Ditches hereabout is apt to render the Place aguish.

These Docks and Yards are now like a Town by themselves, and are a kind of Marine Corporation within themselves; there being particular large Rows of Dwellings, built at the publick Charge, within the new Works, for all the principal Officers of the [Page 198] Place; especially the Commissioner, the Agent of the Victualling, and such-like.

The Town of Portsmouth is a well inhabited, thriving Corporation; and hath been greatly enriched of late by the Fleet's having so often and so long lain there, as well as large Fleets of Merchant-men; besides, the constant fitting out of Men of War here, and the often paying them at Portsmouth, has made a great Resort of People to it. Mr. Camden, so long ago as the Reign of Queen Elizabeth, takes notice, that Ports­mouth was populous in time of War, but not so in time of Peace: but now the Business of the Navy is so much increased, and so much of it always done here, that it may be said, that there is more to do at Ports­mouth now in time of Peace, than was then in time of War.

The Government of the Place is by a Mayor and Aldermen, &c. and the Civil Government is no more interrupted by the Military, than if there was no Garison there: so that we have very seldom had any Complaint either of Want of Discipline among the Soldiers, or Want of Prudence in the Magistrates.

Since the Increase of Business at this Place, the Confluence of People has been so great, that the Town not admitting any Inlargement for Buildings, a kind of Suburb, or rather a new Town, has been built on the heathy Ground adjoining, which is so considerable, that it threatens to outdo, for Numbers of Inhabitants, and Beauty of Buildings, even the Town itself; and the rather, as it is unconfin'd by the Laws of the Garison, and unincumber'd with the Corporation Burdens, Freedoms, Town-duties, Ser­vices, and the like.

Next we arriv'd at the Portsdown Hills, which are of Chalk, and at a reasonable Distance from the Shore extend themselves into Sussex.

Here we turn'd to admire the Face of the Ground we had pass'd. The Ports, Creeks, Bays, Ocean, [Page 199] Castles and Ships, the Isle of Wight, Portchester, the considerable Town of Gosport, Portsmouth, Southamp­ton, Chichester, and all the Coast from Portland Isle to Sussex, were comprehended under one View.

From Portsmouth, West, the Country lies low and flat, is full of Creeks and Inlets of the Sea and Ri­vers, all the Way to Southampton, so that we ferry over three times in about 18 Miles; besides going over the Bridge at Tichfield. The first of these Fer­ries is at Portsmouth itself, (viz.) cross the Mouth of the Harbour, from the Point above-mention'd, to Gosport, a large Town, and of great Trade, espe­cially in time of War. From thence we ride to Tich­field as above, where we pass the River Alre, which rises in the same County at Alresford, or near it, which is not above Twenty-two Miles off; and yet it is a large River here, and makes a good Road below, call'd Tichfield-bay. Thence at about Four Miles we pass another River at Busselton, narrow in Breadth, but exceeding deep, and eminent for its being able to carry the largest Ships: here is a Build­ing-yard for Ships of War; and in King William's Time, Two Eighty-gun Ships were launch'd here. It seems, the Safety of the Creek, and the Plenty of Timber in the Country behind it, is the Reason of Building so much in this Place.

From hence, when we come opposite to South­ampton, we pass another Creek, being the Mouth of the River Alre, which comes down from Winchester, and is both very broad and deep; and the Ferry­men having a very sorry Boat, we found it danger­ous enough passing it. On the opposite Bank stands the antient Town of Southampton, on the other Side of which comes down another large River, called the Test, entring Southampton Water by Red-bridge; so that the Town of Southampton stands upon a Point running out into the Sea, between Two very fine Rivers, both navigable for some Way up the Coun­try, [Page 200] and particularly useful for the bringing down Timber out of one of the best wooded Counties in Britain; for the River on the West-side of the Town comes by the Edge of New-forest: here we saw a prodigious Quantity of Timber, of an uncommon Size, vastly large, lying on the Shore of the River, for above Two Miles in Length, which they told us was brought thither from the Forest, and left there to be fetch'd by the Builders at Portsmouth-dock, as they had Occasion for it.

In riding over the South Part of Hampshire, I made this Observation, That notwithstanding the very great Consumption of Timber since the Revo­lution, by Building or Rebuilding almost the whole Navy; and notwithstanding so many of the King's Ships were built hereabouts, besides abundance of large Merchant-ships, which were about that time built at Southampton, at Red-bridge, and at Busselton, &c. yet I saw the Gentlemens Estates, within Six, Eight, or Ten Miles of Southampton, so over-grown with Wood, and their Woods so full of large well­grown Timber, that it seem'd as if they wanted Sale for it, and that it was of little Worth to them. In one Estate at Hurseley in particular near Win­chester, formerly belonging to Mr. Cromwell, Grand­son to Oliver Cromwell, tho' the whole Estate was not above 800l. per Ann. in Rent, they might have cut Twenty thousand Pounds worth of Timber down, and yet have left the Woods in a thriving Con­dition; in another Estate between that and Peters­field, of about 1000l. per Ann. they told me they could fell a Thousand Pounds a Year in good large Timber fit for Building, for Twenty Years together, and do the Woods no Harm. The late Colonel Norton also, whose Seat at Southwick was within Six Miles of Portsmouth, and within Three of the Wa­ter-carriage, had, as I was told, at that time, an immense Quantity of Timber upon it, some growing [Page 201] within Sight of the very Docks in Portsmouth. Far­ther West it is all the same, and as I rode thro' New­forest, I saw the antient Oaks of many hundred Years standing, grown white with Age, and perish­ing with their wither'd Tops in the Air.

I shall give other Hints of the like, when I come to speak of Hertfordshire, Buckinghamshire, Berk­shire, and the Counties which we call Inland, where the Timber is but of small Value, for want of Wa­ter-carriage to bring it away; likewise again of the Counties Northward, bordering upon the Humber, and upon all the Northern Rivers, not to say a Word of Ireland; which is still a Store-house of Timber, more inexhaustible, if possible, than England.

But having mention'd the late Col. Norton, we cannot pass over in Silence his extraordinary Will, which made so much Noise in the World.

This Gentleman dy'd in Dec. 1732, and left his Real Estate of about 6000l. per Ann. and a Per­sonal, said to be to the Value of 60,000l. to the ‘"Poor, Hungry, and Thirsty, Naked and Stran­gers, Sick and Wounded, and Prisoners, to the End of the World."’ And appointed the Parlia­ment of Great Britain to be his Executors; and in case of their Refusal, the Bishops; and left his Pictures, and other Valuables to the King. But his Will has been since set aside on the score of Insanity, strong Marks of which it carry'd in the Face of it.

This Gentleman was famous for acting several Parts in Plays with great Propriety, particularly the Part of Falstaff in Shakespear's Henry the Fourth, and the Merry Wives of Windsor, at a neat Theatre erected by himself, at his House at Southwick, to which, in a Vacation, he often drew down and en­tertain'd the most celebrated London Actors.

This Gentleman's Seat at Southwick was formerly an old Monastery, and many of the Walls of it are yet remaining; the House being a Part of it: the Situa­tion [Page 202] is very low and wet, having a great deal of boggy Ground about it; but from the House the Park rises to the highest Point of Portsdown, mention'd above, where there are two very large Clumps of Scots Fir-trees, which were planted by the late Col. Norton, and have thriven so well (tho' greatly exposed to the Sea Winds) as to become a Land-mark at a consider­able Distance at Sea, and may be seen near Twenty Miles at Land. Between these two Clumps of Trees, I was informed, that Gentleman intended to have erected a lofty Building; which must have had an exceeding good Effect: for from the level Ground on this Spot, you have a full View of Ports­mouth Town, Harbour and Docks, under the Eye; and St. Helen's in the Isle of Wight, is another Point of View, with an unbounded Prospect of the Sea to the South-east; and on the Land-side, a large ex­tensive Vale, well planted and cultivated, bounded with Hills spread with Woods, and the South downs covered with Sheep, just under the Eye; so that this Prospect may be justly esteemed one of the finest in England.

Southampton is a truly antient Town, which hav­ing been many Years decaying in its Trade, of late has very much improv'd in that of Portugal Wines, which are imported here and sent into many Places inland, where formerly the London Merchants used to deal; and that in great measure owing to the Du­ties being easier at Southampton than at London. They also carry on some Trade with the Isles of Jersey and Guernsey; and not a little, as their Enemies say, of the Smuggling Trade. The Town is large and populous, has a fair High-street, a spacious Key; and, if its Trade should thoroughly revive, is able to con­tain great Numbers of People. There is a French Church, and no inconsiderable Congregation belong­ing to it. Here are still some Merchants who trade to Newfoundland for Fish, which they carry to [Page 203] the Streights, &c. and some Ship-building also is carried on here, tho' not near so much as formerly.

This Town had formerly the sole Privilege from the Crown of importing Wines from thence; which, tho' a vast Advantage to it, the Corporation either wantonly or corruptly sold to London.

The Situation of Southampton between two Rivers was to its Advantage formerly, in point of Strength; and is besides strongly wall'd with very large Stones, full of those little white Shells, like Honey-combs, which grow upon the Back of Oysters. This is a sort of Stone extremely hard, and seems to be ga­ther'd near the Beach of the Sea. These Walls have many Lunets and Towers, in some Places double ditch'd; but the Sea encompasses near half the Town. It was built in the Reign of Edward III.

I observe they have a Method of breaking the Force of the Waves here, by laying a Bank of Sea-ore, as they call it. It is composed of long, slender and strong Filaments, like pill'd Hemp, very tough and durable; I suppose thrown up by the Sea: and this performs its Work better than Walls of Stone, or na­tural Cliff.

At the South-east Corner, near the Quay, is a Fort with some Guns upon it, call'd the Tower. On one was an Inscription, denoting its being erected by King Henry VIII. in the Year 1542. In the North-west Corner was a strong Castle, with a Mount, wall'd about at-top as a Keep: upon this a round Stone Tower, with a winding Ascent.

The Main of this Town consists of one broad Street, running thro' its Length. There are many old religious Ruins, and great Ware-houses, Cellars, Store-houses, &c. The old Roman City call'd Trau­santum, stood more Eastward upon the Banks of the River Itching, coming from Winchester, where now is a Hamlet nam'd St. Mary's. There is a handsome new Church built upon the Ruins of an old one, [Page 204] which, they say, was burnt in some French Wars. It is near the present Ferry, and opposite to Bittern, where was an old Roman Castle, surrounded with a Ditch, into which the Sea-water flow'd. It was ruin'd in the Danish Wars, and Southampton arose from its Ashes. This Place is memorable for the Ex­periment of King Canute, who to silence the vain Flattery of his Courtiers, seated himself on the Banks of the River, with all his Regal Apparatus, and commanded the Tide not to approach his Footstool.

About a Mile from this Town, on the Banks of the River Itching, is a vast large Pile of Earth, which rises in the Form of a Cone, from a large wide Foun­dation of great Extent and Circumference, which they call Bevis-Mount. It is supposed to be an an­tient Fortification, thrown up by the Saxons, under the Command of Bevis, to oppose the Passage of the Danes over the River, who lay encamp'd on the other Side. The River is not very large, but the Tide running up into it a good Way beyond the Town, forms a kind of Bay just under this great Mount, which being contiguous to an Estate belonging to the late Earl of Peterborough, his Lordship purchased it, and converted it into a kind of Wilderness; and as it is full of Trees and Brambles, he has cut through them divers circular Walks and Labyrinths, so very intricate, that it is hardly possible to avoid being lost in them. His Lordship used frequently to divert himself by dropping his Friends in the midst of this Wilderness, and, stealing away, let them wander up and down, till they found their Way out of it. The Mount terminates above, as is feign'd of Parnassus, in a kind of Fork; and between the two Spires is a Bowling-green or Parterre, adorn'd with fine Italian Marble Statues, brought by his Lordship from abroad. It lies open on the Side-facing the River, and when the Tide is in, gives a most agreeable Prospect. On one Side of this Parterre, declining gradually from the [Page 205] Top of one of the Spires to the Green, is planted a little Vineyard, exposed to the South; and on the other Side, on the very Summit of the Spire, stands a fine Summer-house, very elegantly built and contrived, with a good Cellar under it, where his Lordship kept his Wines, having no good Cellerage at his House, which is near a quarter of a Mile from the Mount, from which his Lordship called it Bevis-Mount. He intended to rebuild the House, and convert all the Grounds lying between it and the Mount, into Gardens, had he lived a little longer. The Beauty of the Improvements which his Lordship has made in this Mount, are hardly to be conceived. He has adorn'd it with Statues, Grottoes and Alcoves, and diversify'd it up and down with something new and surprising, at every turn, peculiar to his own fine Taste and Genius in Gardening, wherein no Nobleman excell'd, and few equall'd him in Europe. He left this little Seat, and Lands about it, to his Lady, who now enjoys them.

There are as many things fabled here of Bevis, as there are in Wales and Cornwall of King Arthur, both of whom have suffer'd much from Legendary Writers and Tradition; for as King Arthur per­form'd many brave and valiant Acts in War, and was of great bodily Strength, so Bevis, who was a Saxon Lord, was a Man of much military Courage and Conduct, as well as personally strong. He was a great Opposer of the Normans, and followed them down to Wales, and gave them Battle, near Caerdiff, in Glamorganshire, but was there defeated. 'Tis said his Sword may be still seen at Arundel Castle; yet there are some who, from the Fables, with which their Stories are mingled, doubt whether ever there were such Persons as either of them.

I here took a Passage over to the Isle of Wight, and in Two Hours arriv'd at Cowes, by the Way passing by Calshot Castle, where some Years ago were to be [Page 206] seen the Main-top-mast Head of a Dutch Man of War, sunk in that Place, a very dangerous Sand lying there in the middle of the Current.

Cowes is the chief Sea-port Town in this Island; and in Time of War the general Place of Rendez­vous for Merchant-ships waiting for Convoys, being secur'd, in some measure, by the Guns of the Ca­stle, but more by the Neighbourhood of Portsmouth. We walked Four Miles, and came to

Newport, the principal Town in the Island; large and populous. At a pretty strong Castle, about a Mile distant, resides the Governor.

The Island is very pleasant, and so fruitful, that one Year's Crop will serve the Inhabitants for Seven Years; who therefore supply Portsmouth, and the Parts adjacent, with the Surplus. It abounds par­ticularly in Corn, Cattle, Hares, Rabbets, Wild­fowl, Fish, &c. It is Sixty Miles in Circumfe­rence: its Militia is the best disciplined in England. Its Wool, in Fineness, is next to that of Cotswold. Carisbrook Castle is famous for being the Place of Im­prisonment of King Charles I. Sanham, in this Island, has also a Castle; so has South-Yarmouth, so called, to distinguish it from Great-Yarmouth, in Norfolk. Spithead between Portsmouth and this Island, and St. Helen's, near to the Isle of Wight, are famous for the Rendezvous of the Royal Navy of England. Appledore-come is a very beautiful Seat in this Isle, belonging to Sir Robert Worsley, B [...]rt.

This Island is also noted for having been once ad­vanced to the Title of a Kingdom, by King Hen­ry VI. in behalf of Henry Beauchamp, Earl of War­wick, his great Favourite, who was crown'd King of Wight, and of the Isles of Jersey and Guernsey, in 1445, but dying Two Years after, the Isle lost the Title of a Kingdom. For King Edward IV. who succeeded Henry, bestow'd this Island upon his Father-in-law, Richard Woodville, Earl Rivers, [Page 207] with the Title of Lord of Wight, as the late Earl of Derby was Lord of the Isle of Man.

Returning to Southampton, I was at the Extent of my intended Journey West, intending to look no farther this Way for the present. I went North-east, leaving Winchester a little on the Left, and came into the Portsmouth Road at Petersfield, a Town chiefly noted for good Inns, and standing in the Middle of a Country overgrown with a prodigious Quantity of Oak-timber. From hence we came to Alton, and in the Road thither began a little to taste the Pleasure of the Western Downs, which reach from Winchester almost to that Place.

The Duke of Bolton has Two very noble Seats in this Country, one between Alton and Alresford; and one at Basing, of which hereafter. Alton is a small Market-town, of no Note, neither is there any considerable Manufacture in all this Part of Eng­land, except a little Drugget and Shalloon-making; otherwise the whole Counties of Kent, Sussex, Sur­rey and Hampshire, are not employ'd in any consider­able Woollen Manufacture.

From Alton we came to Farnham, a large populous Market-town, the farthest that Way in the County of Surrey, from London; and, excepting Hempstead and London, as we observ'd above, the greatest Corn-market in England, particularly for Wheat, of which so vast a Quantity is brought hither every Market-day, that a Gentleman told me, he once counted 1100 Teams of Horse, all drawing Waggons, or Carts, loaden with Wheat; every Team of which is supposed to bring a Load, which is Forty Bushels, in the whole 44,000 Bushels; but I do not take upon me to affirm this for Truth of my own Knowledge, tho' I know some have thought the Quantity has been much more; but this also was, I suppose, before the People of Chichester and Emsworth on one Side, [Page 208] and Southampton, Tichfield, and Redbridge on the other, took to the Trade of sending their Wheat in Meal to London by Sea, as I mentioned before.

The Toll-dish, some Market-days, used to amount to above a Load of Wheat; and yet about 100 Years ago, it was so short of it, that one Busk, whose Pro­perty it was, sold it for Forty Shillings; so greatly was this Manufacture increased within that Period. But if Farnham has been a Loser by the Method late­ly fallen upon by the People of Chichester and South­ampton, it has made itself amends by another Pro­duct, which it has taken to within these Twenty Years past, and that is Hops, which it has so vastly improved in, that it may be said to outdo Canter­bury, Maidstone, and any of the Places in Kent, most noted for that Commodity; and this not only in Quantity, but Goodness. In short, all the Neigh­bourhood about Farnham is one general Hop-ground; and to shew the Excellency of the Product, Farn­ham Hops now lead the Price at all the Markets in England.

At this Town is a Castle built by a Bishop of Winchester, which has been in a constant Succession possessed by the Bishops of the Diocese ever since King Stephen's Time to this Day, and is their usual Place of Residence. This Palace is a magnificent Structure, deeply moated, and strongly wall'd, with Towers at proper Distances. It stands upon the Edge of an Hill, where is a fine Park. One large and broad Street of the Town below-hill fronts the Castle. The Main of the rest of the Town, con­sists of a long strait Street, crossing it at right An­gles. The River went parallel to it on the South.

About Two Miles from Farnham, is More-park, formerly the Seat of Sir William Temple, who, by his Will, ordered his Heart to be put into a China-bason, and buried under a Sun-dial in his Garden, which was accordingly perform'd. This House is [Page 209] situated in a Valley, surrounded on every Side with Hills, having a running Stream thro' the Gardens, which, with a small Expence, might be made to serpent thro' all the adjoining Meadows, in a most delightful manner. At about a Quarter of a Mile from the House, is a large Grotto in the Side of a Hill, from whence you may command a Prospect of the Meadows and Woods which lie below it; and these are bounded again by Hills, which makes the whole one of the most romantick Places imagin­able.

From Farnham, that I might take in the whole County of Surrey, I took the Coach Road over Bagshot-heath, and that great Forest, as it is call'd, of Windsor.

Bagshot-heath, which at present is a horrid bar­ren Country, is capable of great Improvement, as may be judg'd by the several Inclosures on the Bor­ders of it, and some in the Centre also, which from being in the same Condition, (as we at present see the whole Face of the Country thereabouts, very barren, producing nothing but Heath and Whorts) now produces good Corn and Grass, and in some Parts are good Plantations of Trees, which thrive well. On the Edge of this Heath are several Seats of Noblemen; but those which require Notice are, first, the Right Hon. the Earl of Arran's, which is a large Inclosure, the Wood-walks and other Plan­tations being upward of Two Miles in Circum­ference; and the Park, which runs on the other Side of the House, is upward of Three Miles. The Plantations in this Inclosure have made good Pro­gress, which is a Proof, that the Soil thereabout is capable of great Improvement.

The next Seat is that of the Right Hon. the Earl of Anglesea, which is an antient House, situated very near the Church, and almost surrounded with large Trees, so that only the Front appears to View.

[Page 210]The Duke of Roxborough has also a Seat in this Place, where his Grace used to reside a great Part of the Summer and Autumn, for the Pleasure of Shooting, being very fond of that Sport.

This Desert lies extended so much, that some say there is not less than 100,000 Acres of this barren Land that lies all together, reaching out every Way in the Three Counties of Surrey, Hampshire, and Berkshire; besides a great Quantity of Land, almost as bad as that between Godalmin and Petersfield, on the Road to Portsmouth, including some Hills call'd the Hind-head, and others.

It may not be amiss to take notice of a common Mistake in relation to Bagshot Mutton, so much valued by the Gentry, which they suppose to be fed there, and from the Poorness of the Soil, render'd smaller than most other Mutton in Eng­land, whereas I am credibly inform'd, that none of the Sheep are fed at Bagshot, being brought from and fed upon Hampshire Downs, and all kill'd by the Butchers of Bagshot, and sent to London.

Thro' this Desert, for I can call it no less, we come into the great Western Road, leading from London to Salisbury, Exeter, &c. and pass the Thames at Stanes.

The Bridge of Stanes, and Egham Causeway, which are part of the Highway from London, to the West of England, having been, for some time, in a ruinous and dangerous Condition, and the Tolls and Duties laid by an Act passed in the Reign of Henry VIII. and another in that of Queen Eliza­beth, amounting to no more than the clear Sum of 45l. per Annum, the Bridgemasters were obliged to exact at the Ferry there exorbitant Rates for con­veying Passengers over the Thames, in order the bet­ter to support the said Bridge and Causeway; and yet all proving insufficient, as well as burdensome, an Act passed in the Session of 1739-40, for the more [Page 211] effectual Maintenance and well-keeping of them both; and will be a great Benefit to Passengers, as also to the River, and the Towns adjacent; and the Act provides, that in case of the Reparation of the Bridge, or any other Accident which shall hinder Passengers or Carriages going over the Bridge, the Ferry shall exact no higher Rate for conveying over such Passengers, &c. than are laid for passing over the Bridge.

Here recollecting that I had yet left the Inland Towns of the Two Counties of Kent and Sussex, and great Part of the County of Surrey, out of my Ac­count; and that having, as it were, taken a Circuit round the Coast only, I had a great many Places worth viewing to give an Account of; I therefore left Windsor, on one Side of the River, and Hamp­ton-Court on the other, to be the Subject of another Letter; and resolv'd to finish my present Purpose in the Order I had begun it, that is to say, to take in the whole Country as I came on; that I might make as few Transitions as possible from one remote Part of England to another.

From Stanes therefore I turn'd S. and S. E. to Chertsey, another Market-town, and where there is a Bridge over the Thames: this Town is noted for the Burial-place of Henry VI. whence his Bones were afterwards removed to Windsor by Henry VII. and also by its being the Retreat of the incomparable Cowley, where he lived distant from the Hurries of the Court and Town, intirely taken up in Country Business, Farming and Husbandry, for his Diver­sion, and where he also dy'd.

From this Town, wholly employ'd in Malting, and in Barge Carriages down the River to London, I went away South to Working, a private Country Market-town, so out of the Way, that 'tis very little heard of in England. It claims however some Honour, from its being once the Residence of a [Page 212] Royal Branch of the Family of Plantagenet, the old Countess of Richmond, Mother to King Henry VII. who made her last Retreat here, where the King her Son built, or rather repair'd, an old Royal House, on purpose for her Residence, and where she ended her Days in Honour and Peace; the former Part of her Life having been much exposed to Storms and Dangers under the turbulent Reigns of the Two preceding Monarchs.

From hence we came to Guilford, a well known and considerable Market-town. Here sometimes the Assizes are held, but always Elections for Par­liament Men for the County. The River, which, according to Mr. Camden, is called the Wey, and which falls into the Thames at Oatlands, is made navigable to this Town, which adds greatly to its Trade; and by this Navigation a very great Quan­tity of Timber is brought down to London, not from the Neighbourhood of this Town only, but even from the woody Parts of Sussex and Hampshire above Thirty Miles from it, the Country Carriages bring­ing it hither in the Summer by Land. This Navi­gation is also a great Support to the Corn-market at Farnham: for as the Meal-men, and other Deal­ers, buy the Corn at that Market, a good deal of it is brought to the Mills on this River; which is not above Seven Miles distant, and being first ground and dress'd, is then sent down in the Meal by Barges to London, at a small Expence.

Here is a small Remainder of an old Manufacture, in the Clothing-trade; and it extends itself to Godalmin, Haselmere, and the Vale Country, on the Side of the Holmwood, (of which I shall speak on another Occasion) quite to Darking. These Cloths of a middling Price have formerly been in great Re­pute, but afterwards lost their Credit for some time, till, by the Application and Skill of the Clothiers, of late they revived, whilst the Clothiers of Cran­brook [Page 213] and Tenterden in Kent, whose Goods are of the same Kind, are almost sunk to nothing, as I have already observed.

This Clothing-trade, however small, is yet very assisting to the Poor of this Part of the Country, where the Lands, as I have noted, are but indifferent, the Inhabitants generally Cottagers, living chiefly by the Commons and Heath Ground thereabouts.

On Wednesday the 23d of April 1740, the Upper Church at Guilford in Surrey fell down. It was an antient Building, and, not long before, 750l. was expended upon it in Repairs; there was Preaching in it on the Sunday before, and Workmen were employ'd in taking down the Bells, who providentially had quitted the Spot about a Quarter of an Hour before the Accident happened, so that not one Person re­ceived any Hurt, tho' great Numbers were Spectators: Three Bells had been taken down, and the other Three fell with the Steeple, which broke the Body of the Church to Pieces, tho' the Steeple received but little Damage by the Fall.

From Guilford the Road to Farnham is very re­markable; for it runs along West from Guilford, upon the Ridge of a high chalky Hill, no wider than the Road itself, and the Declivity begins on either hand, at the very Hedge that bounds the Highway, and is very steep and high. From this Hill is a Prospect either way, so far, that 'tis sur­prising; insomuch that one sees to the North, or North-west, over Bagshot-heath, one way, to the South-east into Sussex, the other way, almost to the South-downs, and West to an unbounded Length, where the Horizon only restrains the Eye. This Hill being all Chalk, a Traveller feels the Effect of it in a hot Summer's Day, when the Reflection of the Sun make the Heat almost insupportable. This Hill reaches from Guilford so far as within a Mile and a half of Farnham.

[Page 214]The Hill, or rather the Ascent of it from Guil­ford, is called St. Catharine's-hill; on the Summit whereof stands the Gallows, which is so placed, that the Towns-people, from the High-street, may sit at their Shop-doors, and see the Criminals executed.

Near Guilford, on the Left-hand Side of the Road leading to Godalmin, are the Remains of an antient Chapel, situated on the Summit of a Hill, so as to be seen at a considerable Distance every way. This is called St. Catharine's Chapel. The Mate­rials with which this was built, are a sort of Tile, which when broken, has the Appearance of Iron within; and the Cement which joins these Titles, is now so hard, as scarcely to be penetrated with the strongest Instrument. The only Remains of this Chapel, are the outside Walls, which being built with these Materials, have resisted the Weather, and the common Fate of Things.

The great Road from London to Chichester, and from London to Portsmouth, lying thro' Guilford, it is consequently a Town very well furnished with Inns for Accommodation of Travellers, as is God­almin also, the next Town, within Three Miles of it, noted likewise, of late Years, for the Place of Residence of the Impostor Mary Tofts, who so long amused Statesmen, Physicians, Anatomists, and, in short, all Degrees of Men, learned and un­learned, with her infamous Rabbet-productions, &c.

From Guilford lies a Cross-road, as it may be called, to London, not frequented by Coaches or Carriers, or the ordinary Passengers to London, tho' 'tis by some reckoned the nearest Way, and is with­out Question much the pleasanter Road, if not the pleasantest in this Part of England; viz. From this Town to Leatherhead, 10 Miles; from Leather­head to London, over Banstead-downs, 15 Miles; or, if you please, by Epsom, 17 Miles; which, tho' [Page 215] it is called the farthest Way, makes Amends abun­dantly by the Advantage and Pleasantness of the Road.

In the Road from Guilford to Epsom, being 15 Miles, you meet with a Town almost at every Two Miles End, in or near which is a handsome Seat. The Road is always good, being a very hard Gravel. On the Right-hand of the Road lie the Downs, which have constantly a great Number of Sheep feeding on them; and on the Left, the Parks, Gardens, and cultivated Fields, belonging to the several Gentlemen who inhabit those Seats; all which render the Road very pleasant and agreeable.

The Seat of the Lord Onslow, which is the first on the Road from Guilford, is but indifferently situated; the Front which faces the Road, is ob­scured by the Wood, so that it can be seen only in one Point of View; and the House standing very low, does not command any Prospect from the neighbouring Downs: the Avenues to it are very narrow, and the Building, tho' very large, is exe­cuted in a very bad Taste.

On the same Road lies an antient Seat, now in the Possession of James Fox, Esq which tho' an old Building, yet having an open Situation, in Front, toward the Downs, is rendered very pleasant; and the present Possessor, being a Person of fine Taste, is beautifying the House within, and making pleasant Plantations about it; which will be a great Embellish­ment to the Seat.

Near this Road also lies the Seat of the Honourable Sir Conyers Darcy; which is situated on an Emi­nence, so as to be seen many Miles distant. The House is a large new Edifice, having a Park behind it, and is pretty well timbered on every Side. I ought not to omit mentioning the Seat of the late Arthur Moore, Esq at Fetcham, near Leatherhead, now in the Possession of Thomas Revel, Esq where no [Page 216] Cost has been spared to make a most beautiful Situ­ation by Nature more delightful by Art.

Two Miles from Guilford, on the Banks of the Wey, is a fine Seat, which belonged, when I saw it, to the late Denzil Onslow, Esq called Pyrford, and is exceeding pleasant, especially for the beautiful Intermixture of Wood and Water in the Park, Gardens, and Grounds adjoining; whereby that Gentleman, whose Genius lay wonderfully in im­proving Lands, and rendering Things more profitable and pleasant, brought Pyrford to such a Perfection, as to be inferior to very few, if any, of the finest Houses in Surrey. Adjoining to the Park is a very convenient and ingenious Decoy, the first of the Kind in this Part of England.

At the North-east End of this Range of fine Seats, is Leatherhead, a little Thoroughfare-town, with a Stone Bridge over the Mole, a River so called, from its remarkable Sinking into the Earth, at the Foot of Box-hill, near a Village called Mickleham, and working its Way under Ground like a Mole, rising again at or near this Town of Leatherhead; where its wandering Streams are united again, and form a pretty large River, as they were before, running to­gether under Leatherhead Bridge, and from thence to Cobham, and so it pursues its Course to the Thames, which it joins at Molesey, which doubtless takes its Name from the River.

And here I cannot but take Notice of an unac­countable Error, into which all the Writers I have met with have unwarily fallen, on account of this little River hiding itself in the Earth, and finding its Way under Ground, from the Foot of Beechworth, or Betsworth-castle, near Box-hill, and then rising again at Leatherhead, as above; as if the Water had at once ingulph'd itself in a Chasm of Earth, or sunk in a Whirlpit. The great Camden has not a little contributed to this Error in his Account thereof; [Page 217] but as he is in some measure set right by an Obser­vation and Note in the last Edition of his Britannia, by the Right Rev. Continuator, I shall have the less Occasion to insist upon the Matter; and shall there­fore refer to them, and only mention what I have myself observed on this Occasion, having resided some time in the Neighbourhood.

The Current of the River being much obstructed by the Interposition of Box-hill, which, interrupt­ing its free Course, forces the Waters to find their Way thro' as well as they can; and in order to this, coming near that Part called the Stomacher, the Waters sink insensibly away, lessening the Stream for near Two Miles, and these Chanels they call the Swallows; and the whole Ground on the Bank of the River, where it is flat and low, is full of these subterraneous Passages; so that if on any sudden Rain the River swells over the Banks, it is observed not to go back into the Chanel again when the Flood abates, but to sink away into the Earth in the Mea­dows, where it spreads.

These Swallows, for there are many, and not one called the Swallow, as is said in Mr. Camden; tho' they diminish the Stream much, do not so drink it up, as to make it disappear: but when it crosses the Roof near Mickleham, it runs very sharp and broad, nor did I ever know it without Water in the driest Summer in that Place. On the contrary, I have known it so deep, the Waggons and Carriages have not dared to go thro'.

Below this Place the Hills rise again on the other Side very high, and particularly on the Ridge, which the Country People call the Ashcomb-hills, and they seem to force the River again West; so it surrounds most of the Park formerly belonging to Sir Richard Studdolph, and has several Bridges upon it; and by this time indeed, so much of it is sunk away, that sometimes the Chanel, tho' full of Water in Pits and Holes, [Page 218] cannot be perceived to run; but this must be in a very dry Season, and still the Chanel is visible, where it runs at other times rapidly enough.

This Part, which has the least Water, continuing about half a Mile, we then perceive the Stream very visibly to be increased; so that it takes Vent again, now, in thousands of little Springs, till, in another half Mile, it is an ample River again, and passes in full Streams under Leatherhead Bridge, as above.

A further Proof of the gradual sinking away of the Water, take as follows: In October 1676, there happened a very sudden hasty Land-flood, which swelled the River to a very great Height; and parti­cularly so high, that at Beechworth-castle, and at other Gentlemens Seats, near the River, where they had Fish-ponds that were fed by the River, it over­flowed their Ponds, and carried off all their Fish. Sir Adam Brown lived then at Beechworth-castle; and his Son, and the young Gentlemen of the neighbour­ing Families, disturbed at the Loss of their Fish, came all down to Darking; where they raised a little Troop of the young Fellows and Boys of the Town, and all went together, to that Part of the River which runs by the Foot of the Stomacher of Box-hill.

There was a low flat Piece of Meadow-ground, lying close to the River on one Side; just opposite to which, the Hill, lying also close to the River, made up the Bank on the other: this Piece of Ground might contain about Four or Five Acres, and lying hollow in the Middle, like the Shape of a Dripping­pan, was by the Overflowing of the River so full of Water, that the Bank, which lay close to the River, tho' higher than the rest, was not to be seen.

The Gentlemen set themselves to raise this Bank, so as to separate the Water in the hollow Part of the Field, from that in the River, and then made a Re­turn to it, at the Upper, or East-end of the Field; so that no more Water could run into the Field from [Page 219] any Part of the River. And the Event was, that in about Two Nights and a Day, exclusive of the Time they took in making their Dams, the Water sunk all away in the Field; and the Fish being sur­rounded, were caught, as it were, in a Trap; and the Purchace fully recompensed their Labour; for the like Quantity of Fish, great and small, I believe, was never taken at once in this Kingdom, out of so small a River.

This Story I mention, as a Demonstration of the Manner of this River losing itself under Ground, or being swallowed up, as they call it; for this Field, where the Water sunk away is just at the Place, which Mr. Camden calls Swallow, near the Village of Mickleham, and under the Precipice of the Hill; and yet the Water was Two Nights and a Day sink­ing leisurely off. And in this manner, and no other, does so much of the River as passes under Ground, sink away.

The Town of Darking is eminent for several little Things worth Observation; as, first, for the great Roman Highway, called Stoney-street, which passes thro' the Church-yard of this Town: Secondly, for a little Common or Heath, called the Cottman Dean, or the Heath of Poor Cottages, (for so the Word signifies) belonging to the Town; and where their Alms-house stands, which some learned Physicians believe to be the best Air in England: Thirdly, for Mr. Howard's House and Garden, called Deepden; which stand in a small Valley, environed with steep Hills on every Side; the Level-ground about the House was laid out into pleasant Walks and Gardens, which were planted with a great Variety of Exotick Trees and Plants, and the Hills were planted with Trees on every Side (excepting the South Aspect) which was planted with Vines; and formerly there has been some tolerable good Wine made there, tho' the Hill is so steep, that it is very difficult to walk up [Page 220] it. At present the Gardens and Vineyard are neg­lected, and many of the Exotick Trees have been destroy'd. On the Summit of the Hill, above the Vineyard, is a Summer-house, from which, in a clear Day, you may discern the Sea over the South-downs, near Arundel.

The Market of Darking is the most famous in England, for Poultry; and particularly for the fattest Geese, and the largest Capons. They are brought hither from as far as Horsham in Sussex; and 'tis the Business of all the Country, on that Side, for many Miles, to breed and fatten them up; and some are so large, as to be little inferior to Turkeys; I have seen them sold for 4s. to 4s. 6d. each, and weighing from 4 to 5 or 6 lb. a-piece.

On Holy Thursday, here is also a Fair, chiefly for Lambs, and the greatest in England of that Kind: I have passed over the so much celebrated House of Mr. Evelyn at Wotton, near Darking, not that it is not worth Notice; but because so many others have said so much of it.

From Box-hill, and particularly from this Part of it, is a fair View, in clear Weather, quite over the Weald of Sussex, to the South-downs; and by the Help of Glasses, the Town of Horsham, Ashdown Forest, the Duke of Somerset's House at Petworth, and the South-downs, as they range between Bright­helmston and Arundel, may be plainly seen; besides an unbounded Prospect into Kent.

The Vale beneath this Hill is, for many Miles East and West, called the Holmward, or Holmsdale; in the woody Part of which are often found Out-lying Red Deer; and in the Days of King James II. or while he was Duke of York, they have hunted the largest Stags here that have been seen in England. The Duke took great Care to have them preserved for his own Sport; but they have, since that, been most of them destroy'd.

[Page 221]This Holmward is now chiefly overgrown with Furz; but was famous for producing such Quantities of Strawberries, that they were carried to Market by Horse-loads.

It is suggested, that this Place was in antient Times the Retreat for many Ages of the native Britons, whom the Romans could never drive out; and, after that, it was the like to the Saxons, when the Danes harassed the Nation, and ravaged the Country where-ever they came. On this Account they retain here in Memory the following Lines:

This is Holmesdale,
Never conquer'd, never shall.

The Country, tho' wild still, and perhaps having the same Countenance now in many Places, as it had a thousand Years ago; yet in other Places is culti­vated, and has Roads passable enough in the Summer quite thro' it, on every Side, and the Woods are in a great measure cleared off.

Keeping along the Bottom of these Hills, and yet not entering into this Vale, the Country is dry, sandy or gravelly, and full of Gentlemens Houses, and good Towns; tho' if we go but a little to the Right-hand South, into the wild Part, 'tis a deep, strong, and, in the wet Season, an unpassable Clay.

In passing thro' Holmesdale (upon the Ridge of Mountains which extend from Kent to the Land's-end) you come to Wotton, a small Village, near which is the antient Seat of the Evelyns, which is situated amongst Meadows, having pleasant Streams of Wa­ter passing thro' them, and the neighbouring Hills covered with Woods, which renders the Situation pleasant in the Summer-season; but the Roads about it being very bad in Winter, it is not so convenient an Habitation at that Season.

Near this Place is situated Lith-hill, which rises gradually from hence, for near Three Miles to the [Page 222] South; from the Top of which you have a full Prospect of the whole Counties of Surrey and Sussex, Part of Hampshire, Berkshire, Oxfordshire, Bucking­hamshire, Hertfordshire, Middlesex, Kent, and Essex; the whole Extent of this Prospect being thought near 200 Miles, and that without the Help of Glasses.

Travelling East at the Foot of the Hills, we came to Rygate, a large Market-town, situated in the Valley of Holmesdale; where are still to be seen the Ruins of a Castle, with a long Vault, and a Room at the End of it; in which 'tis said the Barons who were in Arms against King John, held their private Meetings.

Near this also are two miserable Borough Towns, which nevertheless send each of them Two Members to Parliament, to wit, Gatton under the Side of the Hill, almost at Rygate; and Bleechingly more East­ward.

At Nutfield, between Rygate and Beechingly, is another Branch of the Family of Evelyn, who have flourished there many Years.

From hence, crossing still all the Roads leading from London into Sussex, we came again to a Village called Godstone, which lies on the Road from London to Lewes.

And keeping on East, we came to Westerham, a neat, handsome, well-built Market-town, the first in Kent on that Side. The late Earl of Jersey built (or rather finished, for it was begun by a private Gentleman) a very noble House here, called Squirries, which is now in the Possession of John Warde, Esq Son to Sir John Warde, who was Lord Mayor of London in the Year 1724. The House stands on a small Eminence, regarding the Land in the Front; but on the Back of the House, the Ground rises very high, and is divided into several steep Slopes, which renders the Situation [Page 223] damp and cold. Near the House are some Woods, thro' which the present Possessor has cut several Ridings; and on the other Side of the Hill, behind the House, arise Nine considerable Springs, which unite at a small Distance; and these form the River Dart, which runs thro' Dartford, and afterwards discharges itself into the Thames.

All this Part of the Country, from Guilford to this Place, is very agreeably pleasant, healthy, and fruitful; and is overspread with good Towns, Gentlemens Houses, populous Villages, abundance of Fruit, with Hop-grounds and Cherry-orchards, and the Lands well cultivated; but all on the Right-hand, that is to say, South, is over-grown with Timber, has abundance of waste and wild Grounds, and Forests, and Woods, with many large Iron-works, at which they cast Iron-caldrons, Chimney-backs, Furnaces, Retorts, Boiling-pots, Iron Cannon, Bomb-shells, Stink-pots, Hand-gre­nadoes, Cannon-ball, &c.

From hence going forward East, we come to Riverhead, a Town on the Road from London to Tunbridge; and then having little to speak of in Kent, except some petty Market-towns, such as Wrotham, commonly called Rootham, Town-Malling, Cranbrook, and the like, of which I have taken some Notice before; I turned North, and came to Bromley, a Market-town, made famous by an Hospital, or College, built there by Dr. John Warner, Lord Bishop of Rochester, for the Relief of 20 poor Widows of loyal and orthodox Clergy­men, who are allowed each 20l. per Annum, and a Chaplain 50l. and has had many Gifts and Charities bestowed on it since.

Near this Town we turned away by Beckenham, and thro' Norwood to Croyden; in the Way we saw Dulwich or Sydenham-wells, where great Crouds of the lower Class of People throng every Summer from [Page 224] London, to drink the Waters there and at Stretham; and the rather, because it lies so near London, that they can walk to it in the Morning, and return at Night.

Croydon has a great Corn-market, but chiefly for Oats and Oatmeal for the Service of London. The Town is large, and full of Citizens from London: in it is the antient Palace of the Archbishops of Can­terbury, and several of them lie buried in the Church here; particularly Archbishop Whitgift, who not only repaired the Palace, but built and endowed the famous Hospital, (which is for a Warden and 28 Men and Women) and the Free-school.

From hence we passed by Beddington, where is the Seat or Mansion-house of the antient Family of the Carews. The House is noble, and the Gardens fine; yet Architects say, that the two Wings are too deep for the Body of the House; that they should either have been more asunder, or not so long. The Court before them is extremely fine, as is the Canal in the Park, before the Court, having a River running thro' it; the Gardens take up all the flat Part of the Park, with Vista's, or Prospects, for Two or Three Miles. The Orange-trees con­tinue, and are the only ones in England that grow in the natural Ground: they have moving Houses to shelter them in the Winter from the Inclemencies of our Climate, and are loaded with Fruit in the Summer. They have stood in the Ground where they now grow, above 100 Years.

From hence it is but a little Mile to Cashalton, a Country Village situate among innumerable Springs of Water, which, all together, form a River in the very Street of the Town, and joining the other Springs, which come from Croydon and Beddington, make one Stream, called the Wandell. This Village, tho' lying among such delightful Springs, is yet upon firm Chalk; and having the Downs adjoining, makes [Page 225] the most agreeable Spot on this Side of London, as is abundantly testify'd by its being crouded, as it were, with fine Houses of the Citizens of London; some of which are built with such a Profusion of Expence, that they look rather like Seats of the Nobility, than the Country-houses of Citizens and Merchants. Mr. Scawen, Knight of the Shire for this County, design'd a noble House here; but it is not proceeded with. That which once belonged to Sir John Fel­lows, Sub-governor of the South-Sea Company in the fatal Year 1720, was built by Dr. Ratcliff; but the Gardens were made by Sir John. It was purchased by the Right Honourable Philip Lord Hardwick, Lord High Chancellor of Great Britain, by whom it was lately sold to William Mitchel of Huntingdon, who now possesses it. I cannot dwell on the Description of all the fine Houses in this and the neighbouring Villages: I shall speak of them again in bulk with their Neighbours of Mitcham, Stretham, Tooting, Clapham, and others; but I must take a Trip here cross the Downs to Epsom.

Banstead-downs need no Description other than this, that being so near London, and surrounded as they are with pleasant Villages, the Ground smooth, soft, level and dry, (even in but a few Hours after Rain) they conspire to make the most de­lightful Spot of Ground of that Kind, in all this Part of Britain.

About four Miles over those delicious Downs bring us to Epsom, a well-built, large, and hand­some Village, which abounds with fine Houses, the Retreats principally of the London Merchants. It was very much frequented a few Years ago, on account of its Mineral Waters, which issue from a rising Ground nearer Ashted than Epsom: but they are now, tho' not impaired in their Virtues, yet pretty much so in their Reputation; possibly owing, more than any thing else, to the Place being too near [Page 226] London for a Journey for the Quality and Gentry; according to the old Saying, Far-fetch'd and dear­bought is fittest for the Ladies. The Hall, Galleries, and other publick Apartments, are run to Decay; and there remains but one House on the Spot, which is inhabited by a Countryman and his Wife, who carry the Waters in Bottles to the adjacent Places.

There are a great many fine Seats around this Place, which we have not Room to describe: such as the Lord Baltimore's, Lady Fielding's, Mr. Mitchell's at Cashalton, just mention'd, Mr. Scawen's, and many others; particularly that formerly called Nonsuch, which was once a Royal Palace, and finely situated. King Charles II. gave it to the Duchess of Cleveland, and she sold it to my Lord Berkeley, who built a fine Seat with the Materials of it, near Epsom, called Durdans. Nonsuch is now but a Farm-house, and Durdans is in the Possession of the Lord North and Guilford; but his Royal Highness Frederick Prince of Wales has lately taken it for a pleasurable Retreat, when he is not disposed to go so far as Cliefden in Bucks.

From Epsom, that I might thoroughly visit the County of Surrey, I rode over stiff Clays, and thro' very bad Roads, to Kingston; from whence I had a fine View of Hampton-court, at a Distance; but that I reserve for another Journey.

Kingston is a good Market-town, remarkable for a Free-school, erected and endowed by Queen Elizabeth; an Alms-house built in 1670 by Alder­man Cleaver of London, and endowed with Lands of 80l. a Year, a House were formerly resided the great Earl of Warwick, surnamed Make-king, be­sides Coomb, which was likewise his, but now in the Family of the Harveys; from whence the Wa­ters of certain Springs are said to be conveyed in leaden Pipes under the Road, and the Thames, to Hampton-court, Three Miles in Length. Several of [Page 227] the old Saxon Kings were not only crowned, but had their actual Residence here; whence it took its Name of Kingstown. It had once the Privilege of sending Burgesses to Parliament, but now that is lost.

From hence turning Southward, on the Road to Guilford, we come to Esher, where was formerly a Seat built by Cardinal Wolsey, to which, during his Ministry, he frequently retired for Amusement. The Gate to this Gothick Building remaining, was turned into a Dwelling-house, which was lately sold to the Right Honourable Henry Pelham, Esq who has beautified the old Part, and made additional Buildings to it in the same Gothick Style, and laid out the Grounds about it in so elegant a Taste, as makes it one of the finest Seats in the Neighbourhood of London: but the House stands so low, as not to be seen until you come very near it; and the River Mole, running near the Back of the House, renders it very damp, which greatly diminishes the Pleasure of the Place, tho' there has been no Cost spared to render it elegant.

Near Esher, on the Left-hand of the great Road, lies Claremont, which was a small House built under a Hill covered with Wood, by the late Sir John Vanbrugh, and purchased by his Grace the Duke of Newcastle, who has been at a great Expence in beau­tifying the Gardens, &c. and has added to the House a great Extent of Buildings, in the same Style with the original House; and has also built one large Room, in which his Grace entertains Foreign Em­bassadors, and where all the magnificent Dinners which the Duke makes in the Country, are served up. The House is situated so near the Hill, that the Moisture issuing from thence, occasions it to be very damp; and the Winds, being reverberated back from the Woods on the House, cause most of the Chimneys to smoke, so that this is a bad Habitation [Page 228] in Winter: but as it is the Place to which his Grace usually retires from publick Business, whenever his Leisure will permit, he has not spared Expence to render it as agreeable as possible; tho', as several Per­sons have had the Contrivance of his Gardens and Buildings, there is not any uniform Taste to be found in either, which is greatly to be regretted, since the noble Owner has been so much intent on having it worthy of himself.

From hence, turning on the Right towards the River of Thames, we pass Walton, and Weybridge, where are several fine Seats; but particularly those of the Earls of Lincoln, and Portmore.

In the first of these is a noble Terrace-walk, ele­vated so high above the Level of the neighbouring Ground, as to afford a Prospect of the Country, as also a View of the River.

The other Seat was beautified by the Countess of Dorchester, in the Reign of King James II. Here is a Walk planted with Acacia Trees, which at that Time were esteemed great Curiosities.

The Country hereabout is very low and flat, so that in Winter the Meadows are generally flooded, which renders the Air damp and cold, and the Roads are sometimes almost impassable; but in Summer the Meadows afford a good Quantity of Hay, which sufficiently recompenses the Owner for the Disad­vantage of Situation.

Near Weybridge is a pleasant small Seat, now in the Possession of Philip Southcoat, Esq called Wo­bourn-farm. The House is situated low, but is not very damp; and has the Advantage of being screen'd from the Violence of strong Winds, by tall Trees in the Neighbourhood. In the Front of the House is a small Island, which in Summer is stocked with Sheep, who are constantly feeding in View of the principal Rooms of the House. The Water sur­rounding this Island is conducted in a serpentine [Page 229] Form, so as to have little Resemblance to Art. The Fields above the House are kept very neat, being rolled and fed; so that there is a fine Carpet of Grass, the Walks round them being made dry by Gravel, and, on each Side, planted with sweet Shrubs and Flowers, in a rural manner. At the Upper-part of these Fields, is a Spot of Ground laid out in Gardens, which, being too regular, do not so well correspond with the other Parts, which are laid out to answer the Name of a Farm, very pro­perly: but this Part has something of too much Stiffness and Regularity to agree with the rest.

From this Spot of Ground is a most delightful Prospect over a large Extent of Meadows bounded by the River Thames, which winds in an agreeable manner; and having frequently large West Country Barges floating in it, with their broad Sails, appear as so many moving Objects in a Picture, and greatly enliven the Prospect.

From hence also are seen Ten or Twelve Villages, and several fine Houses; and Chertsey Bridge appears as if it were intended for a principal Object. Indeed the whole Spot may justly be deemed one of the sweetest Retirements near London.

Keeping the River now on my Left, as I did be­fore on my Right-hand, drawing nearer to London, we came to Ham and Petersham, little Villages; the first, famous for a most pleasant Palace of the late Duke of Lauderdale, close by the River, now possessed by the Earl of Dysert; a House King Charles II. used to be frequently at, and was exceedingly pleased with. The Avenues of this fine House to the Land-side, lead up to the End of the Village of Petersham, where the Wall of New Park comes also close to the Town, on the other Side; in an Angle of which stood a most delicious House, built by the late Earl of Rochester, Lord High Treasurer in King James II.'s Reign, as also in Part of Queen Anne's [Page 230] Reign. This fine House was burnt down in the Year 1720, by an accidental Fire, so sudden and furious, that the Family, who were all at home, had scarce time to save their Lives.

Nor was the House, tho' so exquisitely finished, so beautiful within and without, the greatest Loss sustained; the rich Furniture, the curious Collection of Paintings, and the inestimable Library of the first Earl of Clarendon, Lord Chancellor of England, and Author of that most excellent History of the Rebellion, of which the World knows so much, were here wholly consumed; a Loss irreparable, as the latter contained among other valuable Things, several Manuscripts relating to those Times, and to Things transacted by himself and by the King his Master, both at Home and Abroad, besides other rare and curious Collections made by that noble and learned Author in foreign Countries.

The Offices escaped the Fate the House met with: and on the same Spot of Ground, where the House stood, the Right Honourable the Lord Harrington, Secretary of State, erected another, after the Design of the Right Honourable the Earl of Burlington; and when I have said this, I need not say it is equally a convenient and elegant Edifice. The Front indeed next the Court, has not a very striking Appearance, being very plain, and the Entrance into the House not greatly to be praised: But the South Front next the Garden, tho' very plain, yet is bold and regular. The Apartments next the Garden, which are chiefly designed for State, are also very elegant, and beauti­fully finished.

The Gardens, which before were crouded with Pluntations near the House, are now laid open in Lawns of Grass; and the Kitchen-garden, which was situated on the East-side of the House, is re­moved out of Sight, and that Ground is now con­verted to an open Slope of Grass, which leads up to [Page 231] a Terrace of great Length; from which is a Prospect of the River Thames, the Town of Twickenham, and all the beautiful Seats round about that Part of the Country, almost to Kingston-bridge. On the other Side of the Terrace, on a rising Ground, is a large Plantation of Wood; and on the Summit of the Hill is erected a fine Pleasure-house, which commands a Prospect of the Country every Way, for many Miles; so that by Foreigners this View is esteemed the most beautiful of any near London.

From hence we came to Richmond, lately the de­lightful Retreat of his Majesty and his Royal Con­sort the Queen, who took great Delight therein to the Time of her Death; and made not only vast Improvements and Alterations there, but purchased several fine Houses on Kew-green; as that of Lady Eyre, for his Royal Highness the Duke; that of Sir Thomas Abney for the Princesses; and his Royal High­ness Prince Frederick, mean while, made considerable Improvements in the fine House and Gardens belong­ing formerly to the Lady Capell; while her Majesty was used to divert herself at her Royal Dairy-house, and in her beautiful Hermitage, Merlin's Cave, and in other charming Improvements, which she made in the Park and Gardens of this delightful Place. All which are so well known, that we need not insist upon them.

The Court, being so near, must needs have filled Richmond, which was before a most agreeable Re­treat for the first and second-rate Gentry, with a great deal of the best Company in England. And indeed this Town, and the Country all round it, have much increased in Buildings lately.

The Lord Viscount Palmerston, the worthy Son and Successor to the Honour and Estate of the great Sir William Temple, has a fine Seat and Gardens (hard by) at Sheen: The Gardens were finished, as well as contrived, by the great Genius of Sir William; [Page 232] and as they were his last Delight in Life, so they were every way suited to be so, to a Man of his Sense and Capacity, who knew what kind of Life was best fitted to make a Man's last Days happy.

It is not easy to describe the Beauty with which the Banks of the Thames shine on either Side of the River, from hence to London, much more than our Ancestors, even but one Age ago, knew any thing of. If for pleasant Villages, great Houses, Palaces, Gardens, &c. it was true in Queen Elizabeth's Time, according to the Poet, that The Thames with Royal Tyber may compare; What may be said of it now? when, for One fine House to be seen then, there are, for aught I know, an hundred, even as you sit in a Boat, and pass up and down the River.

First, beginning from Ham-house, as above, Rich­mond Palace salutes the Eye, being formerly no more than a Lodge in the Park, but now makes a Royal Figure.

From Richmond to London the River Sides abound with Villages, and those Villages so full of beautiful Buildings, charming Gardens, and rich Habitations of Gentlemen of Quality, that nothing can equal it; no, not the Country for 20 Miles round Paris, tho' that indeed is a kind of Prodigy.

It is impossible to view these Countries from any rising Ground. and not be ravished with the delight­ful Prospect. For Example, Suppose you take your View from the little rising Hills about Clapham, if you look to the East, there you see the pleasant Villages of Peckham and Camberwell, with some of the finest Dwellings about London: then turning South, we see Loughborough House near Kennington; the Duchess of Bedford's at Stretham; other fine Seats about Croydon; a whole Town of fine Houses at Cashalton; Sir Nicolas Carew's and others, at [Page 233] Beddington; Sir Theodore Janssen's, and that lately built by the Duchess Dowager of Marlborough, at Wimbleton; other fine Houses at Tooting; besides a very great Number in Clapham itself. On the South-west also you have Mr. Harvey's at Coomb, formerly the Palace of the afore-mentioned Make-king, Earl of Warwick, and from him called Coombnevil; with all the Villages mentioned above, and the Country adjoining, filled with the Palaces of the British No­bility and Gentry already spoken of; looking North, behold, to crown all, a fair Prospect of the City of London, the most glorious Sight, without Exception, that the World at present can shew, or perhaps could since the Sacking of Rome.

It is impossible in one Journey to describe effectu­ally this Part of the County of Surrey, lying from Kingston to London and Greenwich, where I set out: that is, including the Villages of Richmond, Petersham, Eastsheen, Mortlake, Putney, Wandsworth, Barn-elms, Battersea, Wimbleton, Tooting, Clapham, Camberwell, Peckham and Deptford; and I must therefore quit the ample Subject, and come to South­wark, a Suburb to, rather than a Part of London: but of which this may be said with Justice, that it would be A Royal City, were not London by.

To give you a brief Description of Southwark, it might be called a long Street, of about Nine Miles in Length, as it is now built on Eastward; reaching from Vaux-hall to London-bridge, and from the Bridge to Deptford, and up to Deptford Bridge, which parts it from Greenwich, all the Way wind­ing and turning as the River does; except only in that Part, which reaches from Cuckold's-point to Deptford, which winds somewhat more than the River.

[Page 234]In the Centre, which is opposite to the Bridge, it is thicken'd with Buildings, and may be reckoned near a Mile broad; viz. from the Bridge to the End of Kent-street and Blackman-street, and about the Mint.

The Borough of Southwark is exceeding populous. Take it as it was antiently bounded, it contained Nine Parishes; but as it is now extended, and joins with Deptford, it contains Eleven large Parishes.

The first Thing we meet with considerable, is at the Spring-garden, just at the Corner, where the Road turns away to go from Vaux-hall Turnpike towards Newington. There are the Remains of the Lines cast up in the Time of the Romans, which were repaired in the Civil Wars, as a Fortification to this Part of the Town; at the Corner was a very large Bastion, or Fort, which commanded the Pass on that Side; and farther on, at the Corner of St. George's-fields, by the Ducking Pond, was an­other; the Water of what is now called the Duck­ing Pond, still appears to have been the Moat to the Fort; and the Lines are still so high, and undemo­lished, that it would be no difficult Matter to repair and perfect them again.

That this was formerly a Roman Camp or Station, is plain, from the many Roman Urns and Coins, Opera Tessellata, and other Antiquities, which have been frequently dug up hereabouts. And as there are pretty good Authorities of antient London lying on the South-side of the Thames, it is but a rea­sonable Conjecture, that these Lines were cast up and fortified, to prevent the Incursions of the Britons into Kent; for the Military Way crossed the River at the Horse-ferry at Lambeth, from thence pro­ceeded to Vaux-hall, then turned round to the Ducking Pond, went on to the Wind-mill in St. George's-fields, where it crossed the Road to the End of Kent-street; where there was a very strong [Page 235] Fortification of Stone, the Foundations of which were dug up in the Year 1685; this ran cross a Garden about a Quarter of a Mile from the Stones-end. In digging up of this Foundation there appeared two antient Pillars of a large Gate; upon each of them had been placed Heads with two Faces curiously cut in Stone, one of which was taken up; but the other lying in a Quicksand, from whence the Springs flowed out pretty freely, was rendered more difficult to be taken up; and the Curiosity of the People be­ing not very great, they contented themselves with getting up one of the Heads; which was placed over the Gardener's Door, where it remained for several Years, until it was known to the Learned Dr. Woodward, who purchased it, and kept it in his valuable Collection of Curiosities. These Lines were drawn from hence to the Grange near Bermond­sey-street; where you see another Fort so plain, and so undemolished, (the Grass now growing over the Works, and tho', on the Bastion itself, there is frequently Corn sowed) that it is almost as visible as it was when it was first thrown down. By the Direction of these Lines, it is very manifest, that Southwark was once well fortified; for these Lines seem to have been thrown up from the Thames at Lambeth, quite round to the Thames at Deptford; which takes in the whole Extent, on the Land; and the Thames was a Barrier on the other Side.

A farther Description of Southwark I refer till I come to speak of London, as one general Appellation for the Two Cities of London and Westminster; for all the Borough of Southwark, and all the Buildings and Villages included within the Bills of Mortality, make but one LONDON, in the general Appellation. I am, &c.

LETTER V. CONTAINING A Description of Part of the County of MIDDLESEX, Part of HANTS, and the County of WILTS, &c.


AS I came down from Kingston, in my last Circuit, by the South Bank of the Thames, on the Surrey Side of the River; so I go up to Hampton-court, now, on the North Bank, and on the Middlesex Side; which I mention, because, as the Sides of the Country bordering on the River lie parallel, so the Beauty of the Country, the pleasant Situations, the Splendor of innumerable fine Buildings, Noblemens and Gentlemens Houses, and Citizens Retreats, are so equal a Match to what I had described on the other Side, that one knows not to which to give the Preference: but as I must speak of them again, when I come to write of the County of Middlesex, which I have now purposely omitted; I pass them over here, except the Palace of Hampton only, which I mentioned in Middle­sex, for the Reasons above.

[Page 237] Hampton-court lies on the North Bank of the River Thames, about Two small Miles from Kingston. It was built by Cardinal Wolsey, and fell to the Crown, when the King seized his Effects and Estate, as did also Whitehall, another House of the Cardinal's building.

Whoever knew Hampton-court before it was begun to be rebuilt, or alter'd, by the late King William, must acknowledge, it was a very complete Palace then, and fit for a King; and tho' it might not, according to the modern Method of Building, or of Gardening, pass for a Thing exquisitely fine, yet it shewed a Situation exceedingly capable of Improve­ment, and of being made one of the most delightful Palaces in Europe.

This her Majesty Queen Mary was so sensible of, that while the King had ordered the pulling down the old Apartments, and building them up in that most beautiful Form, which we see them now appear in, her Majesty, impatient of enjoying so agreeable a Retreat, fixed upon a Building formerly made use of chiefly for landing from the River, and therefore called the Water Gallery; here she ordered all the little, neat, curious Things to be done, which suited her own Conveniency, and made it the pleasantest little Place within Doors, that could pos­sibly be made; tho' its Situation would not allow it to stand after the great Building was finished.

The Queen had here her Gallery of Beauties, being the Pictures, at full Length, of the principal Ladies in her Retinue. Her Majesty's Apartments for her private Retreat only, were exquisitely fur­nished, and there were among the Furniture several curious Pieces of her own Work.

The Ground on the South-west Side of the Building, has received many Alterations since the pulling down of the Water-gallery (which stood before this handsome Front of the House, and inter­cepted [Page 238] the Prospect of it from the River). This Spot was then laid out into small Inclosures, sur­rounded with tall Hedges, to break the Violence of the Winds, and render them proper for the Reception of such Exotick Plants in Summer, as were removed out of the Conservatories during that Season. In each of these Places is contrived a Bason, which is constantly supplied with Water for the Support of these Plants in dry Weather; and as these are situated near the great Apartments, most of the Plants may be viewed from the Windows: and the lower Part of the House, under the great Apartments, being contrived for a Greenhouse, the Plants need not be carried far, when they are removed out or into the Conservatory, which was very properly contrived by the Designers.

At the West-end of this Spot was a large Hot-house, for the maintaining such tender Exotick Plants, as require a large Share of Warmth to pre­serve them in this Climate. Of all these Parts of Gardening Queen Mary was so very fond, that she allowed a handsome Salary to Dr. Plukenet, a very learned Botanist, for overlooking and registering the curious Collection of Plants, which were then in that Garden; but, since the Death of that Queen, these Things have been so much neglected, that very few of the most curious Plants are now in Being there, which is much to be lamented; for, however the Taste for this Part of Gardening may have with Reason been neglected by private Persons, yet, surely, at a Royal Palace, all these Things should be kept up in the utmost Magnificence, as an Encou­ragement to Ingenuity, and for the Honour of the Kingdom. This Taste was, by Lewis XIV. of France, carried to a very great Height; and had the Persons employed by that Prince been so well ac­quainted with the Construction of these Conserva­tories, as many of the English are at this Day, we [Page 239] might have expected, in his Royal Gardens, to have seen most of the curious Plants in the known Parts of the World.

Here stand advanced, on Two Pedestals of Stone, Two Marble Vases, or Flower-pots, of exquisite Workmanship; the one done by an Englishman, and the other by a German. 'Tis hard to say which is the best Performance, tho' the doing of it was a kind of Trial of Skill between them; but it gives us room, without any Partiality, to say they were both Masters of their Art.

The Parterre on that Side descends from the Ter­race-walk by Steps, and on the Left a Terrace goes down to the Water-side, overlooking the Gar­den on the Eastward Front, and affords a most plea­sant Prospect.

This Part of the Garden was at first laid out in a Parterre of Scroll-work in Box, which was not only very costly at first making, but was also very ex­pensive in keeping constantly clipped; which, to­gether with the ill Scent, which frequently reached to the Royal Apartments, occasioned its being de­molished, and the Ground disposed into another Form. And if at the same time all the shorn ever-green Trees had been thrown out, and a finer Disposition made of the Ground, it would have much better corresponded with the noble Apartments which over­look it, than it does at present.

On the North Side of the House, where the Chapel, and some Part of the old Buildings, required to be covered from View, the Ground was laid out in a Wilderness, with a Labyrinth surrounded by high Espalier Hedges; and this was, at that time, thought one of the finest disposed Parts of the Gar­den. But as the whole Contrivance of the Plan­tations is in regular strait Walks, bounded on each Side by tall clipped Hedges, which divide the whole Ground into angular Quarters, to every Person of [Page 240] Taste it must be very far from affording any Pleasure, since nothing can be more disagreeable than to be immured between Hedges, so as to have the Eye confined to a strait Walk, and the Beauty of the Trees growing in the Quarters, intirely secluded from the Eye. And at the same time as you are walking in this unmeaning Plantation, you are denied the Benefit of Shade, by being confined to these regular Walks, where it would be deemed an unpardonable Fault, to suffer the neighbouring Trees to diffuse their Branches over these shorn Hedges; so that, in the midst of a Wood, a Person may faint for Shade in a sultry Day, the Air being excluded from these Walks by the taller Trees in the Quarters; and pent up Air is much more troublesome in hot Weather, than the Heat of the Sun in the most open exposed Plain.

As this Wilderness lies opposite to Bushy-park, so there was designed a grand Entrance thro' it to the Palace, fronting the Gates of the Park; where Two large Pillars were erected, to support a mag­nificent Iron Gate, which was designed to have been put up there; but how it came to be left unfinished, and the pitiful low Gates (which by no means cor­respond with the Pillars) put in the Place, I could never learn.

The House itself is every way answerable on the Outside to the beautiful Prospect, and the Two Fronts are the largest, and, beyond Comparison, the finest of the kind in England. The great Stairs go up from the second Court of the Palace on the Right­hand, and lead you to the South Prospect.

King William brought into England, and placed here in a Gallery, built purposely for them, the famous Cartoons, as they are called, which are Five Pieces of such Paintings, as are not to be match'd in Eu­rope. It is reported, but with what Truth, I know not, that the late French King offer'd 100,000 Louis [Page 241] d'Ors for these Pictures. The King brought a great many other fine Pieces to England, and from him the Love of fine Paintings so universally spread itself among the Nobility and Persons of Figure all over the Kingdom, that it is incredible what Collections have been made by English Gentlemen since that Time; and how all Europe has been romaged, as we may say, for Pictures to bring over hither, where, for Twenty Years together, they brought in vast Profit to such as collected them for Sale. But the Rates are abated since, and we are now glutted with the Copies and Frauds of the Dutch and Flemish Painters, who have imposed grosly upon us.

Queen Mary lived not to see this Palace com­pletely finish'd; and, 'tis said, King William de­sign'd to have made it more capacious and noble, had he lived.

After the Death of King William, Hampton-Court seem'd in a manner neglected. It is an Ob­servation made by some, that Hampton Court has, ever since the Time of King Charles I. been fa­voured by every alternate Prince; King Charles I. delighting in Country Retirements, took great Plea­sure here, and, had he liv'd, had purposed to im­prove it considerably; but it became at last one of his Prisons.

King Charles II. may well be said to have a Dis­like to the Place, for the Treatment his Royal Fa­ther met with there; and particularly as Cromwell afterwards made it his Summer Residence. He there­fore chose Windsor, and bestow'd a vast Sum in beau­tifying the Castle there, which brought it to the Perfection we see it in at this Day, some few Al­terations excepted, made in the Time of King Wil­liam.

King James took but little Delight in retired Palaces, his Bent and Taste inclining another way. [Page 242] But King William fix'd upon Hampton-Court, and improv'd it as before-mention'd.

Queen Anne being taken up for one Part of her Reign, in her kind Regards to the Prince her Spouse, was obliged to consult his Health, and reside where that confin'd him, which for the most part was at Kensington, where he died; but her Majesty always discover'd her Delight for Windsor, where she chose the little House, as 'twas call'd, opposite to the Castle, and frequently took the Air in her Chaise in the Parks and Forest.

In the Reign of King George I. Hampton-Court came into Request again.

From Hampton-Court, I directed my Course for a Journey into the South-west Part of England; and, to take up my Beginning where I concluded my last, I cross'd to Chertsey on the Thames, a Town I men­tion'd before; from whence crossing the Black De­sart of Bagshot, I took in my Way to Hampshire, Ockingham in Berkshire, lying on the Skirts of Wind­sor Forest: it is a pretty large Town, and has a well-frequented Market, and a good Market-house in the Middle. It is govern'd by an Alderman, Recorder and Burgesses, has a Free-school, and like­wise an Hospital, with a Chaplain belonging to it. It carries on a good Trade in Silk Stockens and Cloth.

From hence I fell down towards Basingstoke, which is situate in the midst of Woods, and rich fertile Pastures: the Country round about is spread with the Houses of the Nobility and Gentry. A little before we came to the Town, we pass'd by a House built out of the Ruins, and on the Scite of Old Basing-house, a famous Fortress in the Time of the Civil Wars, belonging to the then Marquis of Winchester, Ancestor of the Duke of Bolton.

[Page 243]This House, garison'd by a resolute Band of old Soldiers, under the Command of the Marquis, was a great Curb to the Parliament Party throughout that whole War; till, after a vigorous Defence, it was taken, and the brave Marquis in it, by Crom­well, who, in Revenge for the obstinate Resistance it made, put almost all the Garison to the Sword, and burnt down the noble Fabrick to the Ground, which he said was fitter for the Residence of an Emperor than a Subject. The present House is in no wise equal to the Magnificence which Fame gives to the antient House; whose Strength of Building was such as to resist the Battery of Cannon in seve­ral Attacks. 'Tis incredible what Booty the Gari­son of this Place pick'd up, lying, as they did, just on the great Western Road, where they intercepted the Carriers, plunder'd the Waggons, and suffer'd nothing to pass; to the great Interruption of the Trade of the City of London.

Basingstoke is a Corporation, and a large populous Town: it has a good Market for Corn, espe­cially Barley, as there are a great many Maltsters there. Some few Years ago a Manufacture of making Druggets and Shalloons, was set up here, and as successfully carried on, which employs a great Num­ber of poor People.

Near this Town a bloody Battle was fought in 871, between the Saxons and Danes.

From this Town the great Western Road goes on to Whitchurch, a mean Town, which however has a Market, and is govern'd by a Mayor. North-east of which lyes Kingsclere, a pleasant Market-town on the Oxford Road from Basingstoke. It was an­tiently famous for having been the Seat of the Saxon Kings, and from thence takes its Name.

But I had like to have forgot the famous Vin­domia, or Silchester, which is situated in Hants, [Page 244] on the Borders of Berkshire, and is famous for its An­tiquity.

Its Situation is very high, hid with Wood. Many were the Roman Roads which met here, tho' now scarce any; which is one Reason why 'tis so little known: another is its want of Inns for the Accom­modation of Travellers; for Aldermaston, a pretty neat Village, beautifully situated, which is Three Miles distant, is the nearest Town where Lodging is to be found. The Walls of this City are standing, more or less perfect, quite round; perhaps the most intire in the Roman Empire, especially the North­side, which is a most agreeable Sight. It is com­posed of Flint and Rag-stone. There was a broad Ditch quite round, and now almost impassable, and full of Springs. Here-and-there Roman Bricks are left in the Walls. Tho' on the Outside they are of a considerable Height, yet the Ground within is so raised, as nearly to be equal to the Top, and that quite round cover'd with Oaks, and other Timber­trees, of no mean Bulk. Constantius, the Son of Constantine the Great, is said to have built it, and sow'd Corn in the Track of the Walls, as an Omen of their Perpetuity. Now indeed the whole City is arable, and in the Fields Roman Bricks, and other Reliques, are scatter'd, and Coins daily found. It has only one Farm-house and a Church. The Reverend and Learned Mr. Betham, late Minister of this Place, is buried under the North Wall of the Chancel without-side; within is another Monu­ment of a Person of Quality. They both were drown'd in Fleet-ditch. A Spring rises from under the Wall of the Church-yard.

Five hundred Feet without the City, on the North-east Side, is a great Curiosity, which the Vul­gar think was a Castle, but in reality an Amphi­theatre, in all respects like that of Dorchester. This [Page 245] noble Antiquity has from Time immemorial been a Yard for Cattle, and a Watering-pond; so that it is a Wonder their Trampling has not defaced it much more than it has. My Resolution being to take in my Way what I had pass'd by before, I was obliged to go off to the Left-hand, to Alresford and Winchester.

Alresford was a flourishing Market-town, and tho' it had no great Trade, and very little, if any, Ma­nufactures, yet, what is very remarkable, there was no Collection made in the Town for the Poor, nor any low enough to take Alms of the Parish.

But this happy Circumstance, which so distin­guish'd Alresford from all her Neighbours, was brought to an End in 1710, when, by a sudden and surprising Fire, the whole Town, with both the Church and Market-house, was reduced to a Heap of Rubbish; and, except a few poor Huts at the remotest Ends of the Town, not a House left stand­ing. The Town is since very handsomely rebuilt, and the neighbouring Gentlemen contributed largely to the Relief of the People, especially by sending in Timber towards their Building.

Here is a very large Pond, or Lake of Water, kept up to a Head by a strong Battre d'eau, or Dam, which, 'tis said, was made by the Romans; and is part of the great Roman Highway, which leads from Winchester to Alton, and, as supposed, on to London, tho' we no-where see any Remains of it, except between Winchester and Alton, and chiefly between this Town and the last mention'd.

Near this Town, a little North-west, the Duke of Bolton has another Seat, which tho' not large, is a very handsome beautiful Palace, and the Gardens not only very exact, but very finely situate, the Pro­spect and Vista's noble and great, and the Whole very well kept. His Grace has no less than Three Seats almost within Sight of one another, viz. Ab­botstone, Basing, and Hawkwood.

[Page 246]From hence at the End of Seven Miles over the Downs, we come to the very antient City of Win­chester, called in British Caer Gwent, which signi­fies the white Town, from the chalky Hills near it. Not only the great Church, which is so famous all over Europe, and has been so much talk'd of, but even the whole City, has, at a Distance, a venerable and antient Face; and yet here are many modern Buildings too, and some very handsome; as the College Schools, with the Episcopal Palace, built by Bishop Morley, since the Civil Wars; the old Palace of the Bishop having been ruin'd by that known Church-Incendiary, Sir William Waller, and his Crew of Plunderers; who, if my Information is not wrong, destroy'd more Monuments of the Dead, and defac'd more Churches, than all the Round-heads in England beside.

This Church, and the Schools also, are accurately describ'd by several Writers, especially by the Mo­nasticon, where their Antiquity and Original is fully set forth: the Outside of the Church is as plain and coarse, as if the Founders had abhorr'd Ornaments. There is neither Statue, nor a Niche for a Statue, to be seen on all the Outside, no carv'd Work, no Spires, Towers, Pinacles, Balustrades, or any thing but mere Walls, Buttresses, Windows, and Quoins, neces­sary to the Support and Order of the Building: it has no Steeple, but a short Tower cover'd flat, as if the Top of it had fallen down, and it had been cover'd in haste to keep the Rain out, till they had Time to build it up again.

But the Inside of the Church has many very good things in it, and worth Observation; it was for some Ages the Burying-place of many English, Saxon, and Norman Kings; whose Remains the im­pious Soldiers, in the Civil Wars, threw against the painted Glass. The Reliques of some of these, at the Repair of the Church, were collected by Bishop [Page 247] Fox, and, being put together into Six large wooden Chests, lin'd with Lead, were again interr'd at the Foot of the great Wall in the Choir, Three on one Side, and Three on the other; with an Account whose Bones are in each Chest, viz. Rufus, Egbert, Adulphus, Edredus, Edmundus, Canutus, and those of Queen Emma. Queen Mary was here marry'd to Philip of Spain. The Chair used in that Cere­mony is still preserv'd. In the Body of the Church is a pretty Cross of Gothick Workmanship, but ill repair'd. The Steps ascending to the Choir make a fine Shew, having the Statues of King James I. and his Son Charles, in Copper, finely cast; the first on the Right-hand, and the other on the Left, as you go up to the Choir.

The Choir is said to be the longest in England. The Ornaments of the Choir are the Effects of the Bounty of several Bishops; the fine Altar (the no­blest in England by much) was given by Bishop Mor­ley; the Roof, and the Coat of Arms of the Saxon and Norman Kings, by Bishop Fox; and the fine Throne for the Bishop in the Choir, was given by Bishop Mew in his Life-time; and it was well it was; for if he had order'd it by Will, there is Rea­son to believe it had never been done: that Reverend Prelate, notwithstanding he enjoy'd so rich a Bi­shoprick, scarce leaving Money enough behind him to pay for his Coffin.

There are a great many Persons of Rank buried in this Church, besides the Saxon Kings mention'd above; particularly, here lies, as they told us, un­der a grey Marble, Lucius, the first Christian King of this Island, who dy'd 180 Years after Christ; and, as is pretended, founded the Church where the Cathedral now stands. There are also the Monuments of Bishop Fox, Founder of Corpus Christi College, Oxon; Bishop Wainfleet, Founder of Magdalen Col­lege, in the same University; in Regard to whose [Page 248] Memory the said College keep his Monument in neat Repair. He is represented lying at length with a Heart in his Hand. The Tomb of William of Wickham, the magnificent Founder of this Cathe­dral, very richly gilt. Just under the Altar lies a Son of William the Conqueror, without any Monu­ment; and behind the Altar, under a very fine Mo­nument, lies the famous Lord Treasurer Weston, Earl of Portland, Lord High Treasurer of England in the Reign of King Charles I. His Effigies is in Copper Armour, at full Length, with his Head rais'd on Three Cushions of the same, and is a very magnificent Work. There is also a very fine Monu­ment of Cardinal Beaufort, in his Cardinal's Robes and Hat.

The Monument of Sir John Cloberry deserves Notice more for his Story, than for any thing ex­traordinary in the Figure. This Gentleman was the Person solely entrusted with the Secret of the Re­storation of King Charles II. as the Messenger that pass'd between General Monk on one hand, and Mr. Montague, and others intrusted by King Cha. II. on the other; by which Service Sir John, then a private Musqueteer only, raised himself to the Ho­nour of a Knight, with the Reward of a good Estate from the Bounty of the King.

It may not be amiss to say a Word or two of the famous William of Wickham, who built the Body of the Church.

He was a Courtier before a Bishop; and tho' he had no large Share of Learning, he was a great Pro­moter of it: his natural Genius was much beyond his acquired Parts, and his Skill in Politicks beyond his Ecclesiastick Knowledge. He is said to have put his Master, King Edward III. to whom he was Secretary of State, upon the Two great Projects which made his Reign so glorious; viz. (1.) Upon setting up his Claim to the Crown of France, which [Page 249] brought on the War with France, in which that Prince was three times victorious in Battle. (2.) Upon instituting the Order of the Garter; in which he obtain'd the Honour for the Bishops of Winche­ster to be always Prelates of the Order, as an Ap­pendix to the Bishoprick; and he himself was the first: the Ensigns of that Honour are join'd with his Episcopal Ornaments, in the robing of his Effi­gies on the Monument above.

To the great Honour of this Bishop there are other Foundations of his, as much to his Fame as that of this Church, of which I shall speak in their Places, but particularly the College in this City, which is a noble Foundation indeed. The Building consists of Two large Courts, in which are the Lodgings for the Masters and Seventy Scholars, and in the Centre a very noble Chapel; beyond that, in the second Court, are the Schools, with a large Cloister beyond them, and some Inclosures laid open for the Diversion of the Scholars. There also is a great Hall, where the Scholars dine. In the Chapel Window belonging to the College is good painted Glass of Imagery. In the middle of the Cloisters is the Library, a strong Stone Building, well contriv'd to prevent Fire.

In digging the Foundation of a House near the College, in a Stone Coffin, was found a Stone set in a Gold Ring, with this Inscription in very odd Cha­racters; supposed to be about the Sixth Century, Domino Comite fidele meo, i. e. The Lord being my Guide and faithful Companion.

Over the Door of the School stands a very good Statue of the Founder, made by Cibber, whose Workmanship are the two excellent Figures over Bethlehem-gate, the Father of that excellent Come­dian Colley Cibber, Poet-Laureat.

The Scholars have Exhibitions at a certain time of Continuance here, if they please to study, in [Page 250] the new College at Oxford, built by the same noble Benefactor.

The Clergy here live very elegantly in the Close belonging to the Cathedral; where, besides the Bi­shop's Palace, mentioned above, are very good Houses, and very handsomely built, for the Preben­daries, Canons, and other Dignitaries of this Church: The Deanry is a very pleasant Dwelling, the Gar­dens are large, and the River runs thro' them; but the Floods in Winter sometimes much incommode them.

This School has fully answer'd the End of the Founder, who, tho' he was no great Scholar, resolv'd to erect a House for making the Ages to come more learned than those that went before; and many learned and great Men have been edu­cated here.

As the City stands in a Vale on the Bank, and at the Conjunction of Two small Rivers, so the Coun­try rising every way, but just as the Course of the Water keeps the Valley open, you must necessarily, as you go out of the Gates, go up Hill every way: but when once ascended, you come to the most charming Plains, and most pleasant Country of that Kind in England; which continues, with very small Intersections of Rivers and Valleys, for above Fifty Miles, as I shall observe more particularly in the Sequel of this Journey.

At the West Gate of this City was antiently a Castle, in which, 'tis said, the Saxon Kings kept their Court, which however is doubtful, and must be meant of the West-Saxons only. As to the Tale of King Arthur's round Table, and his Two Dozen of Knights, which Table being one Piece of Wood, supported by Marble Pillars, they still shew in the Town-hall, said to be Part of the said Castle, as a Piece of Antiquity of 1200 Years standing, and has, as they pretend, the Names of the said Knights in [Page 251] Saxon Characters, and yet such as no Man can read: all this Story I see no Ground to give the least Credit to.

Where this Castle was said to stand, the late King Charles II. mark'd out a very noble Design; which, had he lived, would certainly have made that Part of the Country the Resort of the Quality and Gentry of all Parts of the Kingdom; for the Country hereabout far exceeds that of Newmarket-heath, for all kinds of Sport and Diversion.

The Building was so far prosecuted, that the Front next the City was carried up to the Roof, and cover'd; but what was further intended was not proceeded on. There was a Street of Houses de­signed from the Gate of the Palace down to the Town, but it was never begun to be built; the Park mark'd out was exceeding large, near Ten Miles in Circumference, and ended West upon the open Downs, in View of Stockbridge.

This House, with a Royal Revenue, was after­wards settled by Parliament, as an Appenage upon Prince George of Denmark for his Life, in case he had out-liv'd the Queen: but his Royal Highness dying before her Majesty, all Hope of seeing this Design perfected, or the House finish'd, is now va­nish'd. And his late Majesty King George I. made a Present to the Duke of Bolton of the fine Pillars of Italian Marble, which were to have supported its Stair-case.

There are several other publick Edifices in this City, and in the Neighbourhood, which I have not Room to describe, as the Hospitals, and Building adjoining near the East-gate. Towards the North is a Piece of an old Monastery undemolish'd, and which is still preserv'd to the Religion, being the Residence of some private Roman Catholick Gentlemen, where they have an Oratory, and, as they say, live still ac­cording to the Rules of St. Benedict. This Building is call'd Hide-house; and as they live very usefully, [Page 252] and to the highest Degree obliging among their Neighbours, they meet with no Obstruction from any body.

Beyond the River Eastward is a high Hill call'd St. Giles's, from an Hospital whose Ruins only are now visible; and a Church-yard seeming to have been a Camp, besides the Marks of Bastions, and Works of Fortifications in the modern Style. Here Waltheof, Earl of Northumberland and Huntingdon, was beheaded by Order of King William I. whose Body was carried to Crowland, and said to work Mi­racles.

Winchester is a Place of no Trade, other than is naturally occasion'd by the Inhabitants of the City, and neighbouring Villages, one with another: here is no Manufacture, no Navigation; there was in­deed an Attempt to make the River navigable from Southampton, and it was once made practicable; but it never answered the Expence, so as to give En­couragement to the Undertakers to keep it up.

Here is a great deal of good Company; and Abundance of Gentry being in the Neighbourhood, it adds to the Sociableness of the Place: the Clergy also here, are, generally speaking, rich, and very numerous.

The magnificent Hospital called Holy-cross, on the South of this City, at a Mile's Distance on the Road to Southampton, is worth Notice: it was founded by Bishop Blois. The Church is in the Form of a Cross, and has a large square Tower. Every Traveller, that knocks at the Door of this House, in his Way, and asks for it, claims the Relief of a Piece of white Bread, and a Cup of Beer; and this Donation is still continued. A Quantity of good Beer is set apart every Day to be given away; and what is left is distributed to other Poor, but none of it kept to next Day.

[Page 253]How the Revenues of this Hospital, which should maintain the Master, and Thirty private Gentlemen, whom they call Fellows, but ought to call Brothers, are now reduced to maintain only Fourteen, while the Master lives in a Figure equal to the best Gen­tleman in the County, would be well worth the Inquiry of a proper Visitor, if such can be nam'd. 'Tis a Thing worthy of Notice, when publick Charities, design'd for the Relief of the Poor, are imbezzled by the Rich, and turn'd to the Support of Luxury and Pride.

An Infirmary is establish'd lately in this Town, by voluntary Subscription, after the laudable Examples of those of St. James's Westminster, and St. George's at Hyde-Park Corner, and has met with great Success, being principally owing to the Zeal and Pains of the Reverend Doctor Alured Clarke. I have not room to say all that might be said on this Head, and so must refer you to the Account given by the Doctor, of the Rise and Progress, Rules and Orders, of this excellent Institution.

I made an Excursion from Winchester, to see the antient Town of Romsey, noted for its delightful Situation, having all round it Woods, Corn-fields, Meadows and Pastures. The River, and Rivulets, which are many, have a rapid Course. The Town was questionless Roman, and its Name declares as much. The Church is a noble Pile of Architecture, arch'd with Stone, in Form of a Cross, with Semi-circu­lar Chapels in the upper Angles. The Churches hereabouts called Minsters, as Wimburn-minster, in the neighbouring County of Dorset, were built by the Saxon Kings, as soon as they became Christian. At the West-end is the Piece of an old Wall, pro­bably belonging to the Nunnery built here by King Edgar.

[Page 254]Returning to Winchester we struck up North-west and came to Stokebridge, a poor sorry Borough Town, noted for its Corruption in electing Members of Par­liament, and being a great Thorough-fare on the South-western Road: it has however a great many good Inns, and as well provided as any on that Road, tho' it has no Market.

The ingenious Sir Richard Steele once represented this Town in Parliament; and tho' he was power­fully opposed, yet carried his Election by a Stra­tagem, which made all the Women of his Side: Hav­ing made a great Entertainment for the Burgesses and their Wives, and after having been very free and facetious among them, he took up a large Ap­ple, and stuck it full of Guineas, and declared it the Prize of that Man, whose Wife should be first brought to-bed after that Day Nine Months. This occasioned a great deal of Mirth, and what with the Entertainment, and with the Hopes of getting the Prize, the good Women prevailed on their Hus­bands to vote for Sir Richard, whom they to this Day commemorate; and, as it is said, once made a strong Push to get a standing Order of the Corpora­tion made, that no Man should be received as a Can­didate for that Borough, who did not offer himself upon the same Terms.

Still rising Northward, we arriv'd at Andover, a Mayor, Market and Borough Town, and also noted for being a great Thorough-fare on the direct Western Road, as well from Newbury to Salisbury, as from London to Taunton, and all the manufacturing Towns of Somersetshire, whereby it is greatly inriched, and is a thriving, handsome, well built and populous Town. It is very healthy and pleasantly situated just on the Borders of those Downs, which are commonly, tho' not properly called Salisbury-plain. Near this Town is a Village called Weyhill, where the open Down Country begins; and here upon these Downs [Page 255] is the famous Weyhill, where the greatest Fair for Sheep in the Nation is kept; and principally of Ewes for Store-sheep for the Farmers of the Counties of Berks, Oxford, Bucks, Bedford, Hert­ford, Middlesex, Kent, Surrey and Sussex, who send for them to this Place.

From Andover we bent our Way towards Wilt­shire, by Quarley-hills, on the West-side of which are the Remains of a great Fortification, consisting of two outward Trenches, and other Works of great Strength; and then entering that County, and leaving Luggershall (a small Hamlet-town, noted only for having been formerly the Castle of Jeoffrey Fitzpiers, on the North of us, we came to Ambresbury, a very antient Town, pretty large, standing on the River Avon, and having several good Inns, but its Market is much decayed, and almost discontinued. It is said to have taken its Name from Ambrius, who founded here a Monastery of Benedictines, long before the coming in of the Saxons, who destroyed it, or from Aurelius Ambrose, a Bri­tish Prince, who rebuilt it, and fill'd it with 300 Monks, to pray for the Souls of those noble Britons who were slain by the Treachery of the perfidious Hengist, the Saxon, who massacred here 300 of the antient British Nobility, in cold Blood, whom he had invited with their King Vortigern, to meet him there without Arms, to treat of a League of Amity, and rejoice together.

The treacherous Saxon sav'd only the King, whom he obliged to give him near a Third of his King­dom Eastward, before he would set him at Liberty.

The Monastery at Ambresbury was converted into a Nunnery, and Eleanor, King Henry III.'s Queen retir'd and dy'd here; whose Example induced the Princess Mary, King Edward's second Daughter, and Thirteen Noblemens Daughters, to take the Veil together in this House.

[Page 256]The stupendous Piece of Antiquity called Stone-henge, deserves our particular Notice; and I shall therefore borrow from Dr. Stukeley's Piece lately published, intituled, Stone-henge, a Temple restored to the British Druids, the following brief Account and Description of it, referring to that elaborate Performance itself (which well deserves the Atten­tion of the Learned and Curious) for a more satis­factory Account, and for the Doctor's Reasons for his Hypothesis, which we think he has made out with as much Certainty, as the Nature of the Subject will admit.

The Wiltshire Downs, or Salisbury-Plain, as this Gentleman observes, is one of the most delightful Spots in Britain; and Stone-henge, by the extravagant Grandeur of the Work, has attracted the Admira­tion of all Ages. Mr. Camden himself says of it, That he was grieved, that the Founders of it could not be traced out: but Dr. Stukeley has very happily made it more than probable, that it was a Temple of the British Druids, and (the Cathedral, as it may be called) the chief of all their Temples in this Island.

The Stones of which it was composed are not factitious; for that would have been a greater Won­der, than to bring them together to the Place where they are; but undoubtedly were brought Fifteen or Sixteen Miles off, prodigious as they are, from those called the Grey Weathers, near Abury on Marlbo­rough Downs, all the greater Stones, except the Altar, being of that sort; for that, being designed to resist Fire, is of a still harder kind; 'tis a Com­position of Crystals of red, green, and white Co­lours, cemented by Nature with opaque Granules, of flinty or stony Matter. The Stone at the upper End of the Cell, which is fallen down and broken in half, the Doctor tells us, weighs above Forty Tons, and would require above 140 Oxen to draw [Page 257] it, and yet is not the heaviest Stone neither. Judge then what a stupendous Labour it was to bring toge­ther, so many Miles, such a Number as were used here; and this has induced many inconsiderate Peo­ple to imagine, that the Founders had an Art of making Stone, which has been lost for so many Ages.

The present Name is Saxon, tho' the Work is be­yond all Comparison older, signifying a hanging Rod or Pole, i. e. a Gallows, from the hanging Parts, Architraves, or rather Imposts; and pendulous Rocks are still in Yorkshire called Henges. But the an­tient Name was most probably the Ambres, for which our learned Author, to whom we refer, gives very satisfactory Reasons; and hence the adjacent Town of Ambresbury, which I have taken Notice of, has its Name.

Stone-henge stands not upon the Summit of a Hill, but near it, however: at half a Mile Distance the Appearance is awful; but as you come up the Ave­nue, in the North-east of it, which Side is most perfect, the Greatness of its Contour fills the Eye in an astonishing manner. It is inclosed in a circular Ditch, which having passed, we ascend Thirty-five Yards before we come at the Work. The Stones are chissell'd, and far from rude, tho' not cut to that Preciseness as the Ruins in Old Rome, and the In­side of them had more Pains taken with them then the Outside; for so, as our Author observes, the polite Architects of the Eastern World were wont to do; not like our London Builders, who carve every Moulding, and croud every Ornament they borrow from Books, on the Outside of the publick Structures, that they may the more commodiously gather the Dust and Smoke.

When you enter the Building, whether on Foot or Horseback, and cast your Eyes around upon the yawning Ruins, you are struck into an ecstatick Re­verie, [Page 258] which no one can describe, and they only can be sensible of, who feel it. Other Buildings fall by piece-meal, but here a single Stone is a Ruin. Yet is there as much undemolish'd as enables us suf­ficiently to recover its Form when in its most perfect State. When we advance farther, the dark Part of the ponderous Imposts over our Heads, the Chasms of Sky between the Jambs of the Cell, the odd Constru­ction of the Whole, and the Greatness of every Part, surprises. If you look upon the perfect Part, you fansy intire Quarries mounted up into the Air; if upon the rude Havock below, you see, as it were, the Bowels of a Mountain turn'd inside out.

The whole Work, being of a circular Form, is about 108 Feet in Diameter, from out to out. The Intention of the Founders was this: the whole Circle was to consist of Thirty Stones, each Stone to be * Four Cubits broad, each Interval Two Cubits; Thirty times Four Cubits is twice Sixty: Thirty times Two Cubits is Sixty; so that thrice Sixty Cubits completes a Circle, whose Diameter is Sixty. A Stone being Four Cubits broad, and Two thick, is double the Interval, which is a Square of Two Cu­bits. Change the Places between the Stones and their Intervals, and it will make a good Ground-plot for a circular Portico of Greek or Roman Work. Tho' these Bodies of Stone, which are in the Nature of Imposts or Cornices, never had, or were intended to have, any Mouldings upon them, like Greek and Roman Works, they are wrought perfectly plain, and suitable to the Stones that support them; and the Chisseling of the upright Stones is only above Ground; for the Four or Five Feet in Length below Ground, is left in the original natural Form. The upright Stones are made very judiciously to diminish a little [Page 259] every way; so that at-top they are but Three Cu­bits and a half broad, and so much nearer as to suf­fer their Imposts to meet a little over the Heads of the Uprights, both within-side and without; by which means the Uprights are less liable to fall or swerve.

It is to be fear'd some indiscreet People have been digging about the great Entrance, with ridiculous Hopes of finding Treasure, and so have loosen'd the chalky Foundation; for the upper Edge of the Im­post overhangs no less than Two Feet Seven Inches, which is very considerable in a Height of Eighteen. The whole Breadth at the Foundation is but Two Feet and an half; and this noble Front is now chiefly kept up by the Masonry of the Mortaise, and Tendon of the Imposts.

The Contrivance of the Founders in making Mor­taises and Tenons between the upright Stones and the Imposts, is admirable; but so contrary to any Practice of the Romans, that it alone oversets their Claim to the Work. These Tenons and Mortaifes of this outer Circle are round, and fit one another very aptly. They are Ten Inches and one half in Diameter, and resemble half an Egg, rather than an Hemisphere, and so effectually keep both Uprights and Imposts from Luxation, that they must have been thrown down with great Difficulty and Labour. The whole Height of Upright and Impost is Ten Cubits and an half; the Upright, Nine; the Impost over the grand Entrance is in its middle Length Eleven Feet Ten Inches, and so is larger than the rest, and it is also a little broader, measuring on the Inside.

Of the outer Circle of Stone-henge, which in its Perfection consisted of Sixty Stones, Thirty Up­rights, and Thirty Imposts, there are Seventeen Uprights left standing, Eleven of which remain con­tinuous by the grand Entrance, Five Imposts upon them. One Upright at the Back of the Temple, leans upon a Stone of the inner Circle. There are [Page 260] Six more lying upon the Ground, whole or in Pieces, so that Twenty-four out of Thirty are still visible at the Place. There is but one Impost more in its proper Place, and but Two lying upon the Ground; so that Twenty-two are carry'd off. Hence our Author infers, this Temple was not defac'd when Christianity prevailed; but that some rude Hands carried the Stones away for other Uses. So much for the larger Circle of Stones with Imposts.

As to the lesser Circle, which never had any Im­posts, it is somewhat more than Eight Feet from the Inside of the outward one, and consists of Forty lesser Stones, forming, with the outward Circles, as it were, a circular Portico, a most beautiful Work, and of a pretty Effect; they are flat Parallelograms, as those of the outer Circle; and their general and design'd Proportion is Two Cubits, or Two and an half, as suitable Stones were found. They are a Cubit thick, and Four and one half high, which is more than Seven Feet; this was their stated Propor­tion, being every way the half of the upper Uprights. These Stones are of a harder Composition than the rest, as the better to resist Violence, as they are lesser, and they have sufficient Fastenings in the Ground. There are but Nineteen of the Forty left; but Eleven of them are standing in situ, Five in one Place contiguous, Three in another, Two in another.

The Walk between these Two Circles, which is 300 Feet in Circumference, is very noble, and very delightful.

The Adytum, or Cell, into which we may sup­pose none but the upper Order of Druids were to enter, is composed of certain Compages of Stones, which our Author calls Trilithons, because made each of two upright Stones, with an Impost at top, and there are manifestly Five of these remaining; Three of which are intire, Two are ruin'd, in some mea­sure, but the Stones remain in situ. It is a magni­ficent [Page 261] Niche Twenty-seven Cubits long, and as much broad, measuring in the widest Place. The Stones that compose it, are really stupendous; their Height, Breadth, and Thickness are enormous, and to see so many of them placed together in a nice and critical Figure, with Exactness; to consider, as it were, not a Pillar of one Stone, but a whole Wall, a Side, an End of a Temple, of one Stone; to view them curiously, create such a Motion in the Mind as Words cannot express. One very remarkable Par­ticular in the Constitution of this Adytum, has escap'd all Observers before our Author, which is this: as this Part is composed of Trilithons set two and two on each Side, and one right before, they rise in Height and Beauty of the Stones, from the lower End of the Adytum to the upper End. That is, the two hithermost Trilithons corresponding, or those next the grand Entrance, on the Right-hand, and on the Left, are exceeded in Height by the Two next in Order; and those are exceeded by that be­hind the Altar, in the upper End of this Choir; and their Heights respectively are Thirteen Cubits, Four­teen Cubits, Fifteen Cubits.

The Imposts of these are all of the same Height, and Ten Cubits may be supposed their medium Mea­sure in Length. The Artifice of the Tenons and Mortaises of these Trilithons and their Imposts, what Conformity they bear to that of the outer Circle, is exceedingly pretty, every thing being done very geometrically, and as would best answer every Purpose from plain and simple Principles; and 'tis wonderful, that in the Management of such prodi­gious Stones as these are, fix'd in the Ground, and ramm'd in like Posts, there is not more Variation in the Height, Distance, &c.

Of these greater Stones of the Adytum, as is ob­served before, there are none wanting, being all on the Spot, Ten Uprights, and Five Cornices. The [Page 262] Trilithon first on the Left-hand is intire in situ, but vast­ly decay'd, especially the Cornice, in which such deep Holes are corroded, that in some Places the Daws make their Nests in them. The next Trilithon on the Left is intire, composed of three most beautiful Stones. The Cornice, happening to be of a very du­rable English Marble, has not been much impair'd by the Weather. Our Author took a Walk on the Top of it, but thought it a frightful Situation. The Trilithon of the upper End was an extraordinary Beauty; but probably, thro' the Indiscretion of some body digging between them and the Altar, the noble Impost is dislodg'd from its airy Seat, and fallen upon the Altar, where its huge Bulk lies unfractur'd. The Two Uprights that supported it, are the most delicate Stones of the whole Work. They were, our Author thinks, above Thirty Feet long, and well chissell'd, finely taper'd and proportion'd in their Dimensions. That Southward is broken in two, lying upon the Altar. The other still stands intire; but leans upon one of the Stones of the inward Oval; the Root-end, or unhewn Part of both, is raised some­what above Ground. The Trilithon towards the West is intire, except that some of the End of the Impost is fallen clean off, and all the upper Edge is very much diminish'd by time. The last Trilithon, on the Right-hand of the Entrance into the Adytum, has suffer'd much. The outer Upright, being the Jamb of the Entrance, is still standing; the other Upright and Impost are both fallen forwards into the Adytum, and broke each into Three Pieces, as sup­posed, from digging near it. That which is stand­ing has a Cavity in it, which Two or Three Persons may [...]it in warm from the Weather.

Stone-henge is composed of Two Circles and Two Ovals, respectively concentrick. The Stones that form these Ovals rise in Height as nearer the upper End of the Adytum; and their mediate Measure is [Page 263] Four Cubits and Four Palms. They are of a much harder Kind than the larger Stones in the lesser Cir­cle; the Founders no doubt intending, that their lesser Bulk should be compensated by Solidity. Of these there are only Six remaining upright; the Stumps of Two are left on the South-side by the Altar; one lies behind the Altar dug up, or thrown down, by the Fall of the Upright there. One or Two were pro­bably thrown down by the Fall of the Upright of the first Trilithon on the Right-hand; a Stump of an­other remains by the Upright there still standing.

The whole Number of Stones may be thus com­puted. The great Oval consists of Ten Uprights; the inner with the Altar of Twenty; the great Cir­cle of Thirty; the inner of Forty, which are One hundred upright Stones; Five Imposts of the great Oval; Thirty of the great Circle; the Two Stones on the Bank of the Area; the Stone lying within the Entrance of the Area, and that standing without; there seems to be another lying on the Ground, by the Vallum of the Court, directly opposite to the Entrance of the Avenue: all added together make just One hundred and forty Stones, the Number of which Stone-henge, a whole Temple, is composed. Behold the Solution of the mighty Problem! the magical Spell, which has so long perplex'd the Vulgar, is broken! They think it an ominous thing to count the true Number of the Stones, and whoever does so shall certainly die after it!

As to the Altar, it is laid toward the upper End of the Adytum, at present flat on the Ground, and squeez'd into it, as it were, by the Weight of the Ruins upon it. 'Tis a kind of blue coarse Marble, such as comes from Derbyshire, and laid upon Tombs in our Churches and Church-yards. Our Author believes its Breadth is Two Cubits Three Palms, and that its first intended Length was Ten Cubits, equal to the Breadth of the Trilithon, before which it lies. [Page 264] But it is very difficult to come at its true Length. 'Tis Twenty Inches thick, a just Cubit, and has been squar'd. It lies between the two Centres, that of the Compasses and that of the String; leaving a con­venient Space quite round it, no doubt as much as was necessary for this Ministration.

The Heads of Oxen, Deer, and other Beasts have been found upon digging in and about Stone-henge, undoubted Reliques of Sacrifices, together with Wood-ashes. Mr. Camden says, Mens Bones have been found hereabouts; he means in the adjacent Bar­rows, and such our Author saw thrown out by the Rabbets, which have been brought hither of late Years, and by their burrowing threaten these noble Ruins; as the greedy Plough more and more invades the neigh­bouring Plain.

But eternally, as he observes, is to be lamented the Loss of that Tablet of Tin, which was found at this Place in the Time of Henry VIII. inscribed with many Letters; but in so strange a Character, that neither Sir Thomas Elliot, a learned Antiquary, nor Mr. Lilly, First High Master of St. Paul's School, could make any thing out of; and which, no doubt, was a Memorial of the Founders, written by the Druids; and had it been preserv'd till now, would have been an invaluable Curiosity.

In the Year 1635, as they were plowing by the Barrows about Normanton-Ditch, they found so large a Quantity of excellent Pewter, as, at a low Price, they sold for Five Pounds. There are several of these Ditches, being very narrow, which run across the Downs, which perhaps are Boundaries of Hun­dreds, Parishes, &c. These Pewter Plates might very possibly have been Tablets, with Inscriptions; but falling into such rude Hands, they could no more discern the Writing, than interpret it. No doubt, says Dr. Stukeley, this was some of the old British Stan­num, which the Tyrian Hercules, surnam'd Melcar­thus, [Page 265] first brought ex Cassiteride Insula, or Britain: Which Hercules lived in Abraham's Time, or soon after.

Mr. Webb tells us, the Duke of Buckingham dug about Stone-henge, perhaps much to the Prejudice of the Work. Mr. Webb also did the like, and found what he imagined was the Corner of a Thuribulum.

Mr. Hayward, late Owner of Stone-henge, like­wise dug about it, and found Heads of Oxen, and other Beasts Bones, and nothing else.

Dr. Stukeley himself, in 1723, dug on the Inside of the Altar, about the middle, Four Feet along the Edge of the Stone, Six Feet forward toward the mid­dle of the Adytum: at a Foot deep he came to the solid Chalk, mix'd with Flints, which had never been stirr'd. The Altar was exactly a Cubit-thick, i. e. Twenty Inches Four-fifths, but broken in Two or Three Pieces by the ponderous Masses of the Imposts, and one upright Stone of that Trilithon, which stood at the upper End of the Adytum, being fallen upon it. Hence appears the Commodiousness of the Founda­tion for this huge Work! They dug Holes in the so­lid Chalk, which would of itself keep up the Stones as firm as if a Wall was built round them; and no doubt but they ramm'd up the Interstices with Flints. But he says, he had too much Regard to the Work, to dig any-where near the Stones. He took up an Ox's Tooth above Ground, without the Adytum, on the Right-hand of the lowermost Trilithon Northward.

The Time our Author assigns for the building of Stone-henge is not long after Cambyses's Invasion of Egypt; when he committed such horrid Outrages there, and made such dismal Havock with the Priests and Inhabitants in general, that they dispersed them­selves to all the Parts of the World; some as far as the East-Indies; and some, it is not questioned, as far Westward, into Britain, and introduced some of their Learning, Arts and Religion among the Druids, [Page 266] and perhaps had a Hand in this very Work, the only one where the Stones are chissell'd; all other Works of theirs being of rude Stones, untouch'd of the Tool, exactly after the Patriarchal and Jewish Mode, and therefore older than this; and this Conjecture is the more probable, because, at the time mention'd, the Phoenician Trade was at its Height, which afforded a readier Conveyance hither. This was before the se­cond Temple at Jerusalem was built; before the Grecians had any History.

For farther Particulars of this stupendous Work, and other curious Matters relating and adjacent to it (such as its Antiquity before the Time of the Belgae, the Romans, the Saxons, and Danes; of the Wans­dike; of Vespasian's Camp at Ambresbury; the Intro­duction of the Druids into Britain, which he puts about Abraham's Time; its antient Name, [the Am­bres]; the Water Vases of Stone-henge; the Avenue to it; the Cursus); we must refer our Readers to the Work itself, having already exceeded the narrow Bounds to which the Nature of our Design confines us. But this we may add, that doubtless they had some Method in former Days, in foreign Countries, as well as here, to move heavier Weights than we now find practicable. How else did Solomon's Work­men build the Battlement, or additional Wall, to support the Precipice of Mount-Moriah, on which the Temple was erected; which was all built of Pa­rian Marble, each Stone being Forty Cubits long, Fourteen broad, and Eight Cubits thick. And so much for this celebrated Temple of Stone-henge.

We shall now proceed to give some Account of the famous Barrows on these Downs, and we shall borrow from the same learned Author, the following curious Particulars relating to them.

The Tops of all the Hills, or rather easy Eleva­tions, round Stone-henge, are in a manner cover'd over with th [...]se Barrows, which make an agreeable [Page 267] Appearance, adorning the bare Downs with their Figures. This Ring of Barrows, however, reaches no farther, than till you lose Sight of the Temple, as we now make no doubt to call Stone-henge, or thereabouts. Many, from the great Number of these sepulchral Tumuli here, injudiciously conclude, that there have been great Battles upon the Plain, and that the Slain are buried there; but they are really no other than Family Burying-places set near this Temple, for the same Reason as we bury in Church-yards, and consecrated Ground.

We may readily count Fifty at a time in Sight from the Place, especially in the Evening, when the sloping Rays of the Sun shine on the Ground be­yond them. They are most of them of a very ele­gant Bell-like Form, and done with great Nicety; in general they are always upon elevated Ground, and in Sight of the Temple, as we have said; for they all regard it, and are assuredly the single Sepulchres of Kings and great Personages buried, during a con­siderable Space of Time, and in Peace. There are many Groups of them together, as if Family Burial-places; and the Variety in them seems to indicate some Pre-eminence in the Persons interred. Most of them have little Ditches around; in many is a circular Ditch, 60 Cubits in Diameter, with a very small Tumulus in the Centre. Sixty, or even 100 Cubits, is a very common Diameter in the large Barrows. Often they are set in Rows, and equi­distant, so as to produce a regular and pretty Ap­pearance, and with some particular Regard to the Parts of the Temple, the Avenues, or the Cursus. Upon every Range of Hills, quite round Stone-henge, are successive Groups of Barrows for some Miles; and even that nam'd King-barrow, by Lord Pembroke's Park Wall at Wilton, which our Author calls the [Page 268] Tomb of Carvilius, is set within View of Stone-henge.

In 1722, the late Lord Pembroke opened a Bar­row, in order to find the Position of the Body ob­served in those early Days. He pitched upon one of the double Barrows, where two are inclosed in one Ditch. He made a Section from the Top to the Bottom, an intire Segment from Centre to Circum­ference. The Composition was good Earth quite thro', except a Coat of Chalk of about Two Feet thick, covering it quite over, under the Turf. Hence it appears, that the Method of making these Barrows, was to dig up the Turf for a great Space round, till the Barrow was brought to its intended Bulk; then with the Chalk dug out of the inviron­ing Ditch, they powder'd it all over. And the No­tion of Sanctity annexed to them, forbad People trampling on them till perfectly settled and turfed over; whence the Neatness of their Form to this Day. At the Top or Centre of this Barrow, not above Three Feet under the Surface, my Lord found the Skeleton of the Interred, perfect, of a reason­able Size, the Head lying Northward towards Stone-henge.

The Year following, by my Lord's Order, Dr. Stukeley began upon another double Barrow. He began upon the lesser, and made a large Cut on the Top from East to West. After the Turf, he came to the Layer of Chalk, as before, then fine Garden Mould. About Three Feet below the Surface, a Layer of Flints humouring the Convexity of the Barrow, which are gathered from the Surface of the Downs in some Places, especially where it has been ploughed. This being about a Foot thick, rested on a Layer of soft Mould another Foot; in which was inclosed an Urn full of Bones. The Urn was of unbaked Clay, of a dark reddish Colour; crumbled into pieces. It had been rudely wrought with small [Page 269] Mouldings round the Verge, and other circular Chanels on the Outside, with several Indentions between, made with a pointed Tool. The Bones had been burnt, and crouded all together in a little Heap, not so much as a Hat-crown would contain; the Collar-bone, and one side of the Under-jaw remaining very intire. It appears to have been a Girl of about Fourteen Years old, by their Bulk, and the great Quantity of Female Ornaments mixed with the Bones; as great Numbers of glass Beads of all Sorts, and of divers Colours, most yellow, one black; many single, many in long Pieces, notched between, so as to resemble a String of Beads, and these were generally of a blue Colour. There were many of Amber, of all Shapes and Sizes, flat Squares, long Squares, round, oblong, little and great; like­wise many of Earth, of different Shapes, Magni­tude and Colour; some little and white, many large and flattish, like a Button, others like a Pully; but all had Holes to run a String thro', either thro' their Diameter or Sides: Many of the Button Sort seem'd to have been covered with Metal, there being a Rim worked in them, wherein to turn the Edge of the Covering. One of these was covered with a thin Film of pure Gold. These were the young Lady's Ornaments, and had all undergone Fire, so that what would easily consume, fell to-pieces as soon as handled; much of the Amber burnt half thro': this Person was a Heroine; for we found the Head of her Javelin in Brass. At Bottom are two Holes for the Pin that fastened it to the Staff; besides, there was a sharp Bodkin, round at one End, square at the other, where it went into the Handle. Our Author preserved whatever is permanent of these Trinkets; but recompos'd the Ashes of the illustrious Defunct, and covered them with Earth, leaving visible Marks at Top of the Barrow having been open'd (to dissuade any other [Page 270] from again disturbing them): and this was his Practice in all the rest.

He then opened the next Barrow to it, inclosed in the same Ditch, which he supposed the Husband or Father of this Lady. At 14 Inches deep, the Mould [...]ng mixed with Chalk, he came to the intire [...]ton of a Man, the Skull and all the Bones [...]ingly rotten and perished, thro' Length of Time: tho' this was a Barrow of the latest Sort, as he [...]ctured. The Body lay North and South, the Head to the North, as that Lord Pembroke [...]ed.

Next he went Westward to a Group of Barrows, [...] Stone-henge bears East-north-east. Here is a large Barrow ditch'd about, but of an antient Make. On that Side next Stone-henge are Ten lesser, small, [...] were, crouded together. South of the great [...] Barrow, larger than those of the Gr [...]up, but not equalling the first: it would seem, that a Man and his Wife were buried in the Two larger, and that the rest were of their Children or Dependents. One of the small ones, 20 Cubits in Diameter, he cut thro', with a Pit Nine Feet in Diameter, to the Surface of the natural Chalk, in the Centre of the Barrow, where was a little Hole cut. A Child's Body, as it seems, had been burnt here, and covered up in that Hole; but thro' Length of Time consumed. From Three Feet deep he found much Wood-ashes, soft, and black as Ink, some little Bits of an Urn, and black and red Earth very rotten; some small Lumps of Earth red as Vermilion; some Flints burnt thro'; toward the Bottom, a great Quantity of Ashes, and burnt Bones. From this Place he counted 128 Barrows in Sight.

Going from hence more Southerly, is a circular dish-like Cavity, 60 Cubits in Diameter, dug in the Chalk, like a Barrow reversed. 'Tis near a great Bar­row, the least of the South-western Group. This [Page 271] Cavity is Seven Feet deep in the Middle, extremely well turn'd; and out of it, no doubt, the adjacent Barrow is dug. The Use of it seems to have been a Place for sacrificing and feasting in Memory of the Dead, as was the antient Custom. 'Tis all over­grown with that pretty Shrub Erica Vulgaris, then in Flower, and smelling like Honey. He made a large cross Section in its Centre, upon the Cardinal Points, and found nothing but a Bit of red earthen Pot.

He then dug up one of those he calls Druids Barrows, a small Tumulus, inclosed in a large circular Ditch. Stone-henge bears hence North-east. He made a cross Section Ten Feet each way, Three Feet broad over its Centre upon the Cardinal Points: At length he found a squarish Hole cut in the solid Chalk, in the Centre of the Tumulus; it was Three Feet and an half, i. e. Two Cubits long, and near Two Feet broad, i. e. One Cubit, pointing to Stone-henge directly. It was a Cubit and an half deep from the Surface. This was the Domus exilis Plutonia, covered with artifi­cial Earth, not above a Foot thick from the Surface. In this little Grave he found all the burnt Bones of a Man, but no Signs of an Urn. The Bank of the circular Ditch is on the Out [...]ide, and is 12 Cubits broad. The Ditch is Six Cubits broad, (the Druid's Staff); the Area is 70 Cubits in Diameter. The Whole 100.

He opened another of these of like Dimensions, next to that Lord Pembroke first opened, South of Stone-henge; and found a burnt Body in a Hole in the Chalk, as before.

In some other Barrows he opened, were found large burnt Bones of Horses and Dogs, along with human; also of other Animals, as seem'd of Fowl, Hares, Boars, Deer, Goats, or the like; and in a great and very flat old-fashioned Barrow, West from Stone-henge, among such Matters, he found Bits of [Page 272] red and blue Marble, Chippings of the Stones of the Temple, so that probably the Interred was one of the Builders. Homer tells of Achilles slaying Horses and Dogs at the Funeral of his Friend Patroclus.

Lord Pembroke told the Doctor of a Brass Sword dug up in a Barrow here, which was sent to Oxford. In that very old Barrow near Little Ambresbury, was found a very large Brass Weapon of 20 Pounds Weight, like a Pole-ax, said to be given to Colonel Wyndham. In the great long Barrow farthest North from Stone-henge, which our Author supposes to be an Archdruid's, was found one of those Brass Instru­ments called Celts, which he thinks belong'd to the Druids, wherewith they cut off the Misleto. Mr. Stallard of Ambresbury gave it to Lord Bur­lington, now in Sir Hans Sloane's Cabinet, 13 Inches long. They dug a Cell in a Barrow East of Ambres­bury, and it was inhabited for some time. There they saw all the Bones of a Horse. We find evidently, adds the Doctor, these antient Nations had the Custom of burning their dead Bodies, probably before the Name of Rome. So Lacrymatories we read of in Scripture, antienter than Greek or Roman Times. Psalm lvi.8.

Salisbury Plains are certainly the most charming that can any-where be seen. The numerous Flocks of Sheep all around, which way soever we turn, are a fine Sight; 'tis ordinary for these Flocks to con­tain from 3000 to 5000 each; and several private Farmers hereabouts have Two or Three such Flocks.

But 'tis more remarkable still, how a great Part of these Downs comes, by a new Method of Husbandry, not only to be made arable, but to bear plentiful Crops of Wheat, tho' never known to our Ancestors to be capable of any such Thing; nay, they would probably have laughed at any one that had gone about to plough up the wild Downs and Hills, which they thought only fit for Sheep-walks; but Experi­ence [Page 273] has made the present Age wiser, and more skilful in Husbandry; for by only folding the Sheep upon those Lands, after they are turn'd up with the Plough, (which generally goes within Three or Four Inches of the solid Rock of Chalk) they become abundantly fruitful, and bear very good Wheat, as well as Rye and Barley. I shall say more of this, when I come to speak of the same Practice farther in the Country.

This plain open Country continues in Length from Winchester to Salisbury 25 Miles, from thence to Dorchester 22 Miles, thence to Weymouth six Miles, so that they lie near 50 Miles in Length and Breadth; they reach also in some Places fron 35 to 40 Miles: Those who would make any practicable Guess at the Number of Sheep which usually feed on these Downs, may take it from a Calculation made, as I was told, at Dorchester, that there were 600,000 Sheep fed within the Circumference of Six Miles around that Town.

As we passed this open plain Country, we saw the Ruins of a great many old Roman and British Camps, and other Remains of the antient Inhabitants of this Kingdom, and of their Wars, Battles, Entrench­ments, Encampments, Buildings, and other Forti­fications, which are indeed very agreeable to a Tra­veller, that has read the History of the Country.

Old Sarum, which is the next Place we come to, is as remarkable as any of these, where there is a double Entrenchment, with a deep Graff, or Ditch, to either of them. 'Tis said it was a Roman Station, and the antient Sorbiodunum. It was deserted in King Henry III.'s Time, for want of Water, when the Inhabitants founded New Sarum. The old City is of an orbicular Form, erected on one of the most elegant Designs imaginable. It was, first, a Fortress of the antient Britons. The Prospect of this Place is at present very august, and would have afforded us [Page 274] a most noble Sight, when in Perfection. In the Angle to the North-west stood the Cathedral, and Episcopal Palace. The City fills up the Summit of an high and steep Hill, near the Bottom of which runs the River Avon. Here Synods and British Par­liaments have formerly been held; and hither the States of the Kingdom were summoned to swear Fealty to William I. In this City was the Palace of the British and Saxon Kings, and of the Roman Em­perors. Near it is one Farm-house, and that is all which is left of this antient City: yet this is called the Borough of Old Sarum, and sends Two Mem­bers to Parliament, who are chosen by the Proprietors of certain Lands. Whom those Members can justly say they represent, would however be hard for them to answer.

Salisbury is a large, well-built, and pleasant City; and the Founders of it seemed to have run from one Extreme to another; for as the old City wanted Water, this has rather too much, the Water run­ning thro' the Middle of every Street, which, I think, does not add to the Beauty of the Town, but just the contrary; for it keeps the Streets always dirty, full of Wet and Filth, and Weeds, even in the Middle of Summer.

The City lies at the Confluence of Two Rivers, the Avon, and the Willy, each of them singly a con­siderable River, but very large, when joined to­gether; and yet much larger, when they receive the Nadder, a third River, which joins them near Cla­rendon Park about Three Miles below the City; when, with a deep Chanel, and a Current less rapid, they run down to Christ-church, where they empty themselves into the Sea. From that Town upwards, to within Two Miles of Salisbury, they are made navigable; but the Strength of the Stream would not permit to make them so up to the City.

[Page 275] Salisbury, and all the County of Wilts, are full of a great Variety of Manufactures; and those too of the most considerable in England; as the Cloath­ing Trade, and that of Flanels, Druggets, and also several other Sorts of Manufactures, of which in their Place.

Salisbury has, in particular, Two remarkable Ma­nufactures that flourish in it, which employ the Poor all around; namely, fine Flanels, and Long Cloths for the Turkey Trade, called Salisbury Whites.

The Close adjacent to the Cathedral, in which live the Canons and Prebendaries, is so large and well-built, that it looks like a fine City of itself.

The Cathedral is famous for the Height of its Spire, which is without Exception the highest and the handsomest in England, being from the Ground 410 Feet, and yet the Walls so exceeding thin, that at the Upper-part of the Spire, upon a View made by the late Sir Christopher Wren, the Wall was found to be less than five Inches thick; upon which a Consultation was had, whether the Spire, or at least the Upper-part of it, should be taken down, it being supposed to have received some Damage by the great Storm in the Year 1703; but it was resolved in the Negative, and Sir Christopher ordered it to be strengthened with Bands of Iron Plates, which have effectually secured it; and I have heard some of the best Architects say, it is stronger now than when it was first built.

They tell us here long Stories of the great Art used in laying the first Foundation of this Church, the Ground being marshy and wet, occasioned by the Chanels of the Rivers; that it was laid upon Piles, according to some; and upon Woolpacks, according to others: But this is not to be believed by those who know, that the whole Country is one Rock of Chalk, even from the Tops of the highest Hills, to the Bottom of the deepest Rivers. And the Foun­dation [Page 276] of Woolpacks is, no doubt, allegorical, and has respect to the Woollen Trade.

This Church was begun by Bishop Poore, continu'd by Robert Bingham, and William of York, and finished by Giles de Brideport, Bishop of this See, all in the Space of 40 Years. The Model is after the Figure of a Cross; and it cost an immense Sum of Money; but it must be acknowledged, that the Inside of the Work is not answerable, in the Decoration of Things, to the Workmanship with­out. The Painting in the Choir is mean, and more like the ordinary Method of a common Drawing­room, or Tavern-painting, than that of a Church. The Carving is good, but there is very little of it, and it is rather a fine Church, than finely set off.

But it now makes a better Appearance than it has done, having very lately been repaired by the Contri­butions of the Bishop and Prebendaries, set on foot by Bishop Sherlock, who, it seems, thought that the Dignitaries ought to support what supported them; and that all they got by the Church was not designed merely to make or inrich their Families.

The ordinary Boast of this Building, in the fol­lowing Verses, must not be omitted:

As many Days as in One Year there be,
So many Windows in One Church we see;
As many Marble Pillars there appear,
As there are Hours throughout the fleeting Year;
As many Gates as Moons One Year do view:
Strange Tale to tell, yet not more strange than true!

Some of the Windows which escaped the Fury of the Zealots of 1641, are well painted.

There are some very fine Monuments in this Church; particularly in that they call the Virgin Mary's Chapel, behind the Altar, is a noble Monu­ment for a late Duke and Duchess of Somerset, with [Page 277] their Pourtraits at full Length. The late Duchess of Somerset, of the Piercy Family, also her Daughter the Marchioness of Caermarthen, and a second Son of her Grace, both by the present Duke, are like­wise interred here.

The Figure of one Bennet, who endeavoured to imitate our Saviour in Fasting Forty Days and Forty Nights, as is there represented, carried his Point so far, that being reduced to a Skeleton, he fell a Victim to his presumptuous and enthusiastick Folly. The Bodies of the Bishops Jewell, Uvall, Chest, were also interred here. Here is likewise a Monument to the beneficent Dr. Seth Ward, Bishop of this See, who founded (amidst other Benefactions, which we shall take notice of in Hertfordshire) a handsome College for the Widows of Ten Ministers, allowing to each 15l. per Annum; and which has been since obliged to Dr. Gilbert Burnet, Bishop of this See.

They shew you also the Monument of the Lord Stourton, in the Reign of Philip and Mary, which is made remarkable by a particular Incident; as follows:

This Lord Stourton, being guilty of a Murder, which was aggravated with very bad Circumstances, could not obtain the usual Grace of the Crown, to be beheaded; but Queen Mary positively ordered, that, like a common Malefactor, he should die at the Gallows. After he was executed, his Friends desiring to have him bury'd at Salisbury, the Bishop would not consent, that he should be buried in the Cathedral, unless, as a farther Mark of Infamy, they would submit to this Condition, (viz.) That the silken Halter in which he was hanged, should be placed over his Grave in the Church, as a Monu­ment of his Crime; which was accordingly done, and there it is to be seen at this Day.

The putting this Halter up here, was not so won­derful to me, as it was, that the Posterity of that [Page 278] Lord, who remained in good Rank some Time after, should never prevail to have that Mark of Infamy taken from the Tomb of their Ancestor.

The Cloister is 160 Feet square, the inner Cioister 30 Feet wide, with 10 Arches on each Side, the Top vaulted, and covered with Lead. Over the East Walk of the Cloister, is a spacious Library, but not over-well stocked with Books. The Chapter-house is Octagon, and is 150 Feet in Circumference; the Roof bearing all upon one small Marble Pillar in the Centre, which seems so feeble, that it is hardly to be imagined it can be any great Support to it, which makes it the more curious; and indeed, I believe, it is hardly to be matched in Europe.

The Corporation of Sarum have lately purchased a very fine Original Piece of Painting of her late Majesty Queen Anne, drawn by the celebrated Dahl, and have put it up in the Council-chamber of the City. This Picture formerly belonged to the Society of Gentlemen (all Members of Parliament) known by the Name of the October Club, and was set up in the great Room belonging to the Bell (now Crown) Tavern in Westminster, where they used to meet till the Death of Queen Anne.

In 1736-7, an Act passed for the better Repair­ing and Paving the Highways, Streets, and Water-courses within this City, and for Enlightening the Streets, Lanes, and Passages, and better regulating the Nightly Watch.

From hence directing my Course to the Sea-side, in pursuit of my first Design of viewing the whole Coast of England; I left the great Road, and went down the East-side of the River towards New-Forest and Lymington; and here I saw the antient House and Seat of Clarendon, which gives Title to the Earl of that Name. This Place should be called Clorendon, from the memorable Roman Camp, half a Mile off the Park, near the Roman Road, made or repaired by [Page 279] Constantius Chlorus, Father of Constantine. It is a beautiful Fortification, of a round Form, upon a dry chalky Hill. Within is a circular Ditch, sup­posed to be a less Sort of Camp for the Summer. The Park is a sweet and beautiful Spot. Here King John built a Palace, where several Parliaments have been held. Part of the Fabrick is still left, tho' they have for many Years been pulling it down. The Meterials are chiefly Flint, and it was built upon the Side of an Hill, but no way fortified, tho' it took up much Ground. This Palace is called the Manor, and from it lies a subterraneous Passage to the Queen's Manor. Between the Camp and the Park, was a Roman Road, from Sorbiodunum, or Old Sarum, to Winchester.

But this being a large County, and full of memo­rable Branches of Antiquity, and modern Curiosity, I made several little Excursions from this beautiful Spot, to view the Northern Parts of the County.

I have mentioned, that this County is generally a vast continued Body of high chalky Hills, whose Tops spread themselves into fruitful and pleasant Downs and Plains, upon which great Flocks of Sheep are fed, &c. But the Reader is desired to observe, these Hills and Plains are most beautifully intersected, and cut thro', by the Course of divers pleasant and profitable Rivers; along, and near the Banks of which, there always is a Chain of fruitful Meadows, and rich Pastures, and those interspersed with a great many pleasant Towns, Villages, and Houses, and among them many of considerable Magnitude; so that, while you view the Downs, and think the Country wild and unin­habited, yet when you come to descend into these Vales, you are surprised with the most pleasant and fertile Country in England.

No less than Four of these Rivers meet all to­gether, at or near the City of Salisbury, the Waters [Page 280] of Three of which run thro' the Streets of the City; viz. the Nadder, the Willy, and the Avon. 1. The Nadder rises near the End of the Blow Mill Course, and passes by Chilmark, a pleasant Village, noted for its Quarries of very good white Stone, which rises in many Dimensions, insomuch that there is now a single Stone lying over the Mouth of the Quarry like an Architrave, full 60 Feet long, 12 in Thick­ness, and perfectly without Flaw. 2. The Willy rises about Warminster; runs by Yarnbury, a vast Roman Camp (where some distinguish Vespasian's Name; a great semicircular Work at the Entrance; over-against which, on the other Side the Willy, is another Camp); then running by Orchestra, re­markable for a Kind of Grass 25 Feet in Length, with which they fatten Hogs, it gives Name to Wilton, and forms the Canal before the Front of Wilton House; and then joining the Nadder, runs thro' the Gardens at the End of the Avenue. 3. The Avon rises from under a great Ridge of Hills, which divide Wiltshire into North and South, adorn'd with the Wansdike. It passes Southward thro' a great Number of Villages to Ambresbury.

What is most worth a Man of Curiosity's seeing in this County, is Wilton House. It is situated in a pleasant Vale, having Wilton Town on one Side, and a spacious Park on the other.

The Building was begun in the Reign of Hen. VIII. The great Quadrangle was finished in the Time of Edward VI. and the Porch was designed by Hans Holbein. The Hall-side, being burnt down some Years ago, was rebuilt by the late Thomas Earl of Pembroke, then Lord High-Admiral of England, in a very noble and sumptuous manner. The other Parts, rebuilt by the first Philip Earl of Pembroke, were all designed by the famous Inigo Jones, and finished by him in the Year 1640.

[Page 281]The Canal before the House lies parallel with the Road, and receives into it the whole River Willy, or at least is able to do so; it may indeed be said, that the River is made into a Canal. When we come into the Court-yards before the House, there are several Pieces of Antiquity to entertain the Cu­rious; as particularly a noble Column of Porphyry, with a Marble Statue of Venus on the Top of it; which, as they told me, is 32 Feet high, and of excellent Workmanship, and that it came last from Candia, but formerly from Alexandria.

As the late Earl of Pembroke was a Nobleman of great Learning, beyond most Men of his high Rank, and a Master of Antiquity, he took Delight in col­lecting such valuable Pieces of Painting and Sculpture, as made Wilton House a perfect Museum, or Re­ceptacle of Rarities; and we meet with several Things there, which are to be found no-where else in the World. I shall particularize but a few; for a Volume might be employ'd in a full Description of them.

The Piece of our Saviour's washing his Disciples Feet, which they shew you in one of the first Rooms you go into, is admirable. At the Foot of the great Stair-case is a Bacchus as large as the Life, done in fine Peloponnesian Marble, carrying a young Bacchus on his Arm, the young one eating Grapes, and shewing by his Countenance, he is pleased with the Taste of them. One ought to stop every Two Steps of this Stair-case, as we go up, to contemplate the vast Variety of Pictures that cover the Walls, and of some of the best Masters in Europe; and yet this is but an Introduction to what is beyond them.

The great Geometrical Stair-case itself is deservedly admired, and was the first of this Kind in England; and the rich and magnificent Door-case can hardly be parallell'd.

[Page 282]'Tis universally acknowledged, that the grand Apartment is one of the noblest Pieces of Archi­tecture that has been hitherto produced; particularly the Salon; which is 60 Feet long, 30 high, and 30 broad; and when you are enter'd these grand Apartments, such Variety strikes upon you every Way, that you scarce know to which Hand to turn yourself first. On one Side you see several Rooms filled with Paintings, all so curious, and various, that it is with Reluctance you leave them; and looking another way, you are called off by a vast Collection of Busts, and Pieces of the greatest Antiquity of the Kind, both Greek and Roman.

In one End of the grand Room is the celebrated Family-picture by Vandyke, 20 Feet long, and 12 Feet high, containing 13 Figures as big as the Life; which rather appear as so many real Persons, than the Production of Art: and all the other Pictures there are of the same incomparable Hand. It would be endless to describe the whole Set of the Family-pictures, which take up this Room, unless we would enter into the Roof-tree of the Family, and set down a Genealogical Line of the whole House.

After this fine Range of Beauties are seen, we are far from being at an End of our Surprize: there are three or four Rooms still upon the same Floor, filled with Wonders: nothing can be finer than the Pictures themselves, nothing more surprising than the Number of them. At length you descend the Back­stairs, which are large, tho' not like the other, where not a Hand's Breadth is left vacant between the Pictures; and even the upper Rooms have some very good Pieces in them.

In most of the Apartments are Marble Chimney-pieces of the most exquisite Workmanship, all carv­ed in Italy, with many curious Statues, Basso Re­lievo's, and Pictures of the most famous Masters. [Page 283] The Loggio in the Bowling-green, (which has Pil­lars beautifully rusticated, and is inriched with Niches and Statues) the Grotto, (the Front of which is curiously carved without, as it is all Marble within, and has black Pillars of the Ionic Order, with Capi­tals of white Marble, and Four fine Basso Relievo's from Florence) the Stables, and other Offices, are all Beauties in their Kind, which would tire De­scription.

The Collection of Head-pieces, Coats of Mail, and other Armour for both Horse and Man, are also a Curiosity. They shew those of King Henry VIII. Edward VI. and of an Earl of Pembroke, nick­named Black Jack, which he wore when he besieged and took Bulloign in France, being the General who commanded in chief under the King; they are very curious and imboss'd. Twelve other complete Suits of Armour, of extraordinary Workmanship, are also there; the rest, being about 100, are only for common Horse-men.

The Garden Front is justly esteemed one of the best Pieces of the renowned Inigo Jones, and is 194 Feet long.

The Gardens are on the South of the House, and extend themselves beyond the River, a Branch of which runs thro' one Part of them; and still South of the Gardens is the great Park, which reaches be­yond the Vale; the View opens to the great Down, which is properly called, by way of Distinction, Salisbury-plain, and leads from the City of Salisbury, to Shaftsbury. Here also his Lordship has a Hare­warren, as 'tis called, tho' improperly. It has indeed been a Sanctuary for the Hares for many Years; but the Gentlemen complain, that it mars their Game; for that, as soon as they put up a Hare for their Sport, if it be any-where within two or three Miles, away she runs for the Warren, and there is an End of their Pursuit. On the other hand, [Page 284] it makes all the Countrymen turn Poachers, and destroy the Hares, by what Means they can. The present Earl of Pembroke, who, as his Father had, has also a fine Taste in Architecture, has made a further Improvement with regard to Prospect, at this noble House, throwing down the Walls of the Garden, and making instead of them the newly in­troduced Haw-haw Walls, which afford a boundless View all around the Country from every Quarter. His Lordship has also built a most magnificent Bridge over the River in his Garden, which is esteemed the principal Ornament without Doors of this noble Seat.

From this pleasant and agreeable Place I returned to Clarendon. The Road from Wilton to Shafts­bury, called The Ten Mile Course, is a fine Ridge of Downs, continued upon the Southern Bank of the River Nadder, with a sweet Prospect to the Right and Left all the way over the Towns and the Country on both Sides. The late Earl of Pembroke has placed a number'd Stone at every Mile, for the Benefit of Travellers. Between the 5th and 6th Mile is a pretty large Camp, called Chiselbury, probably Roman in the Decline of the Empire. At the End of this Course are three or four Celtic Bar­rows. In this Hill is a Quarry of Stone very full of Sea Shells. Not far off, in the Parish of Tisbury, near Warder-castle, is a great Entrenchment in a Wood, which was probably a British Town near the Nadder.

Returning, we see, upon the highest Eminence which overlooks Wilton, and the fertile Valley at the Union of the Nadder and Willy, the noted Place called King-barrow, mentioned p. 267. This is certainly Celtick, says Dr. Stukeley, and, with great Probability, the very Tomb of that Carvilius, who attacked Caesar's Sea-camp in order to divert his renown'd Enemy from his close Pursuit of Cassibelan. [Page 285] This Prince is supposed to have kept his Royal Re­sidence at Carvilium, now Wilton, near which Place King Edgar's Queen spent the latter Part of her Life in a religious Retirement, and for that Purpose built a House there.

The Downs and Plains in this Part of England being so open, and the Surface so little subject to Alteration, there are more Remains of Antiquity to be seen upon them, than in other Places; and, as they tell us, no less than Three-and-fifty antient Incampments, or Fortifications, in this one County; some of which are very visible, and are of different Forms, and erected by different Nations; as British, Danish, Saxon, and Roman; particularly at Ebb­down, Burywood, Oldburgh-hill, Cummerford, Round­way-down, St. Anne's-hill, Bratton-castle, Clay-hill, Stournton-park, Whitecole-hall, Battlebury, Scrath­bury, Yanesbury, Frippsbury, Suthbury-hill, Ambres­bury, mentioned before; Great Bodwyn, Easterley, Merdon, Aubery, Martenscil-hill, Barbury-castle, &c. At Aubery, or Aukbury, in particular, on the East Side of the Avon, by Great Dornford, is a very large Camp, covering the whole Top of a Hill. On the other Side of the River, a little higher up, is Vespasian's Camp, called The Walls. Near these are two other Camps, which seem Remains of Vespasian's Victories, and intimate that he subdued the Country by Inches.

North of these is Martin's-hall-hill, a vast Sta­tionary Roman Camp. On two Sides the Precipice is dreadfully steep. The Earl of Winchelsea has a Brass Alexander Severus found here; on the Reverse, Jupiter fulminans. On the West Side, at Top of the Hill, without the Camp, is a round Pit full of good Spring-water, always to the Brim (but never overflowing) in the dryest Summers; which at those Seasons is of the greatest Service to the Country round; and Thousands of Cattle are every Day [Page 286] driven thither, from a considerable Distance, to drink. I am informed, there is such another upon the Top of Chute-hill, South-east from hence, very high, and no other Water within some Miles of it. The Prospect from Martin's-hall is exceeding fine.

At Farlo, not far from Clarendon-Park, was the Birth-place of Sir Stephen Fox, and where the Town, sharing in his good Fortune, shews several Marks of his Bounty; as particularly the building a New Church from the Foundation, and getting an Act of Parliament passed, for making it Parochial, it being but a Chapel of Ease before to an adjoining Parish: also Sir Stephen built and endowed an Alms-house here for Six poor Women, with a Master and a Free-school. The Master is to be a Clergyman, and to officiate in the Church, which, including the School, is a very good Maintenance.

I am now to pursue my first Design, and shall take the West Part of Wiltshire in my Return, where are several Things to be still taken notice of. In the mean time I went on to Langbro', a fine Seat of my Lord Colerain, which is very well kept.

From hence in my Way to the Sea-side I came to New-Forest, of which I have said something already with relation to the great Extent of Ground; which lies waste, and has a vast Quantity of large Timber.

This Part of the Country is a lasting Monument of the Conqueror's Tyranny and Oppression, who laid it open and waste for a Forest, and for Game; for which Purpose he unpeopled the Country, pulled down the Houses and the Churches of several Parishes and Towns, and of abundance of Villages, turning the poor People out of their Habitations and Possessions, for the sake of his Deer. The same Histories likewise record, that Two of his own Sons, and particularly his immediate Successor William Rufus, lost their Lives in this Forest; William Ru­fus [Page 287] being shot with an Arrow directed at a Deer, which glancing on a Tree, changed its Course, and striking the King full on the Breast, killed him. And another Son, whilst in hot Pursuit of the Game, was caught up by the Boughs of a Tree, and hanged like Absalom. These they relate as just Judgments of God on the cruel Devastation made here by the Conqueror, and they still shew the Tree on which the Arrow glanced. In King Charles II's Time, the Tree was ordered to be sur­rounded with a Pale, great Part of which is now fallen down; and whether the Tree be really so old or not, is to me a great Question, the Action being about 700 Years ago.

I cannot omit mentioning here a Proposal made some Years ago to the Lord Treasurer Godolphin, for repeopling this Forest, which I can be more particular in than any other Man, because I had the Honour to draw up the Scheme, and argue it before that noble Lord, and some others who were principally concerned at that time in bringing over, or rather providing for, when they were come over, the poor Inhabitants of the Palatinate; a Thing in itself commendable; but, as it was managed, made of no Benefit to England, and miserable to those poor People.

Some Persons being ordered by the noble Lord above-mentioned, to consider of Measures how those poor People should be provided for, without Injury to the Publick, NEW FOREST in Hampshire was singled out to be the Place for them.

Here it was proposed to draw a great square Line, containing 4000 Acres of Land, marking out Two large Highways or Roads thro' the Centre, crossing both Ways, so that there should be 1000 Acres in each Division, exclusive of the Land contained in the said Cross-roads.

[Page 288]Then to single out 20 Men and their Families, who should be recommended as honest industrious People, expert in, or at least capable of being in­structed in Husbandry. To each of these should be parcelled, but in equal Distributions, 200 Acres of this Land; so that the whole 4000 Acres should be distributed to the said 20 Families, for which they should have no Rent to pay, and be liable to no Taxes, but such as would provide for their own Sick or Poor, repairing their own Roads, &c. This Exemption to continue for 20 Years, and then to pay each 50l. a Year to the Crown.

To each of these Families, it was proposed to advance 200l. in ready Money, as a Stock to set them to work, and to hire and pay Labourers, to inclose, clear, and cure the Land; which it was supposed, the first Year, could not be so much to their Advantage as following Years, allowing them Timber out of the Forest to build themselves Houses and Barns, Sheds and Offices, as they should have Occasion; also for Carts, Waggons, Ploughs, Harrows, and the like necessary Things.

These 20 Families would, by the Consequence of their own Settlements, employ and maintain such a Proportion of others of their own People, that the whole Number of Palatines would have been provided for, had they been many more than they were, and that without being any Burden upon, or Injury to the People of England; on the contrary, they would have been an Advantage, and an Addition of Wealth and Strength to the Nation, and to the Country in particular, where they should be thus seated.

Two Things would have been answered by the Execution of this Scheme; viz.

  • 1. That the annual Rent to be received for all those Lands after 20 Years, would abundantly pay the Publick for the first Disburses, which [Page 289] would amount to 80,000l. that Rent being then to amount to 40,000l. per Annum.
  • 2. More Money than would have done this, was thrown away upon them here, to keep them in Suspense, and afterwards starve them; sending them a begging all over the Nation, and ship­ping them off to perish in other Countries.

The Spot where the Design was laid out, was near Lindhurst, in the Road from Rumsey to Lymington: whither I now directed my Course.

Lymington is a little, but populous Sea-port, stand­ing opposite to the Isle of Wight, in the narrow Part of the Streight, which Ships sometimes pass thro' in fair Weather, called the Needles; and right against the antient Town of South-Yarmouth, in that Isle which I have mentioned before. This Town of Lymington is chiefly noted for making excellent Salt; from whence all these South Parts of England are supplied, as well by Water as Land-carriage.

From hence are but few Towns on the Sea-coast West, tho' several considerable Rivers empty them­selves into the Sea; nor are there any Harbours or Sea-ports of Note, except Pool. As for Christ-church, tho' it stands at the Mouth of the Avon, which, as I have said, comes down from Salisbury, and brings with it all the Waters of South and East Parts of Wiltshire, and receives also the Stour and Piddle, Two Dorsetshire Rivers, which bring with them all the Waters of the North Part of Dorsetshire; yet it is a very inconsiderable poor Place, scarce worth seeing, and less worth mentioning in this Account. But here I will close this my fifth Let­ter, with assuring you, that I am

Yours, &c.



[...] NOW enter into the County of Dor­set; and first I rode North-west into it, to see the antient Town of Wim­burn, or Wimburnminster. It stands [...] large extended fertile Vale, like a M [...]ow, with much Wood about it. [...] with Fish. Here was a Nun­nery [...] Year 712, by Cuthberga, Sister to King [...]. The Church is a very great one, an­tient, and well-built, with a very firm strong square Tower, [...] high; but was, without doubt, much [...] it stood a most ex­ [...] [...] may be cre­ [...], [...] its Situation [...] question, [...].

[Page 291]In this Church are the Monuments of several noble Families, and of King Etheldred, who was slain in Battle by the Danes. He was a Prince fam'd for Piety and Religion, and, according to the Zeal of those Times, was esteem'd a Martyr; because he died fighting for his Religion and his Country, against the Pagan Danes. The Inscription upon his Grave is preserv'd, and has been carefully repair'd so as easily to be read, and is as follows:In hoc loco quiescit Corpus S. Etheldredi, Regis West Saxonum, Martyris, qui Anno Dom. DCCCLXXII. xxiii. Aprilis, per Manus Da­norum Paganorum Occubuit. That is, ‘Here rests the Body of St. Etheldred, King of the West Saxons, and Martyr, who fell by the Hands of the Pagan Danes, in the Year of our Lord 872, the 23d of April.

Here also are the Monuments of the great Mar­chioness of Exeter, Mother of Edward Courtney, Earl of Devonshire, and last of the Family of Court­neys, who enjoy'd that Honour; as also of John de Beaufort, Duke of Somerset, and his Wife, Grand­mother of King Henry VII. by her Daughter Mar­garet Countess of Richmond.

This last Lady I mention, because she was Foun­dress of a very fine Free-School, which has since been inlarg'd, and had a new Benefactress in Queen Elizabeth, who augmented the Stipend, and annex'd it to the Foundation. The famous Cardinal Pool was Dean of this Church before his Exaltation.

The Inhabitants of Wimburnminster are numerous, but poor, and chiefly maintain'd by the Manufacture of knitting Stockens, which employs great Part of [Page 292] the County of Dorset, of which this is the first Town Eastward.

Wimbourn St. Giles's, in this Neighbourhood, is a very handsome Seat belonging to the Earl of Shaftes­bury.

From hence I went to Ringwood, upon the River Avon, over a deep sandy Moor. 'Tis a large thriving Place, full of good new Brick Houses, seated by the Side of a great watry Valley, the River dividing it­self into several Streams, and frequently overflowing large Quantities of the Meadow. Here they deal pretty much in Leather, Stockens, Druggets, and narrow Cloth.

South of Wimburn, over a sandy, wild and barren Country, we came to Pool, a considerable Sea-port, and indeed the most considerable in all this Part of England; for here I found some Ships, some Mer­chants, and some Trade; especially here was a good Number of Ships fitted out every Year to the New­foundland Fishing, in which the Pool Men have been particularly successful for many Years past.

The Town sits in the Bottom of a great Bay, or Inlet of the Sea, which, entering at one narrow Mouth, opens to a great Breadth within the Entrance, and comes up to the very Shore of this Town; it runs also West up almost to Warcham, a little below which it re­ceives the Froom and Piddle, the Two principal Ri­vers of the County.

This Place is famous for the best and biggest Oy­sters in all this Part of England, which the People of Pool pretend to be famous for pickling; and they are barrell'd up here, and sent not only to London, but to the West-Indies, and to Spain, Italy, and other Parts. 'Tis observ'd, more Pearl are found in the Pool Oysters, and larger, than in any others in England.

As the Entrance into this large Bay is narrow, so it is made narrower by an Island called Branksey, [Page 293] which lying in the very Mouth of the Passage, divides it into two, and where there is an old Castle, call'd Branksey Castle, built to defend the Entrance, and was of no small Advantage to the Trade of this Port, in the time of the late War with France.

Wareham has been a Roman Town. There has been a Castle by the Water-side, West of the Bridge, built by King William I. perhaps upon the Roman. 'Tis an old Corporation, now decay'd, the Sands obstructing the Passage of the Vessels. And Pool being better seated, from a Fisher-Town, has risen to be a rich Sea-port. They say here have been a Mint, and many Parish-Churches, of which Three remain. I saw a ruinous Religious House, as I pass'd by the River Frome. This Haven is of vast Extent, like a Sea, having a narrow Entry. Two Rocks about Corf-Castle have an odd Appearance hence.

South of Wareham, and between the Bay I have mention'd, and the Sea, lies a large Track of Land, which being surrounded by the Sea, except on one Side, is call'd an Island, tho' it is really more pro­perly a Peninsula. This Track of Land is better inhabited than the Sea Coast of this West End of Dorsetshire generally is, and the Manufacture of Stockens is carry'd on there also. It is call'd The Isle of Purbeck, and has in the middle of it a large Market-town, call'd Corf; and from the famous Castle there, the whole Town is now call'd Corf-Castle.

This Part of the Country is eminent for vast Quarries of Stone, which is cut out flat, and used in London in great Quantities, for paving Court-yards, Alleys, Avenues to Houses, Kitchens, Foot-ways on the Sides of the High-streets, and the like; and is very profitable to the Place, as also in the Num­ber of Shipping employed in bringing it to London. There are also several Rocks of very good Marble, [Page 294] only that the Veins in the Stone are not black and white, as the Italian, but grey, red, and other Co­lours. It is also noted for excellent Tobacco-pipe Clay, sold at London for Thirty Shillings per Ton.

From hence to Weymouth we rode in View of the Sea. The Country is open, and in some re­spects pleasant, but not like the Northern Parts of the Country, which are all fine Carpet Ground, and the Herbage so sweet, that their Sheep are esteem'd the best in England, and their Wool extremely fine.

From hence we turned up to Dorchester, the County Town. It is regular and clean. The Isening-s [...]reet enters it by the North of Winterburn at West-gate. This is by the ignorant Country-people referr'd to the Work of the Devil, who, they say, cast it up in a Night's time. The Foundations of the antient Roman Wall appear qui [...]e round the Town; but Eastward a Street is built upon it, and the Ditch fill'd up: 'tis still call'd The Walls; for that way the Town is swell'd out into a considerable Village, with a Church, and handsome Tower, nam'd Fordington or Farington. There are Three other Churches in the Town, and the Streets are wide and handsome. On the South and West Side, with­out the Walls, a handsome Walk of Trees is planted, looking pleasantly into the Country; tho' being com­mon S [...]camores, they are inconvenient by harbouring Flies. The Banks of the River here are steep; for the Town stands on high Ground. Beyond the River are Meadows, and warm sandy Lands; on this Side, the fine chalky Downs, pleasant for riding, and pro­fitable in excellent Grain. The Air must needs be wholsome, the Climate warm, and a sufficient Di­stance from the Sea. The People of Fordington rose in Arms, and prevented the Farmers from levelling a great Barrow. The late Rev. Mr. Place, known for his Philosophical Works, liv'd here, and possess'd a great Quantity of Roman Coins, call'd here Dorn-money, [Page 295] or King Dor's Money. Near this Place is a noble Roman Amphitheatre. The Vulgar call it Maumbury; but have no Notion of its Purpose, tho' 'tis a common Excursion for the Inhabitants; and the Terrace on the Top is a noted Place of Ren­dezvous, affording an agreeable circular Walk, a Pro­spect of the Town, and wide Plains of Corn Fields all around.

Dorchester is a regular Town, with handsome wide Streets, but the Houses, tho' built of Stone, are old and low. It is kept very clean, by reason of its high Situation, and the River on which it is situated.

The Inhabitants Care in setting the able Poor to work, and relieving the Aged and Impotent, is high­ly praise-worthy. And Sir Josiah Child, in his Treatise on Trade, recommends their Example as worthy to be followed by other Places. It is famous also for excellent Beer.

On the pleasant Downs round this Town, they told me, there were 600,000 Sheep fed within Six Miles of the Town every way, which is 12 Miles in Diameter, and 36 Miles in Circumference; and when I viewed the Country round, I confess I could not but incline to believe it.

It is observable of these Sheep, that they are ex­ceedingly fruitful; and the Ewes generally bringing Two Lambs, they are for that Reason bought by all the Farmers thro' the East Part of England, who come to Burford Fair in this County for that Pur­pose; and carry them into Kent and Surrey Eastward, and into Buckinghamshire, Bedfordshire, and Oxford­shire North. Even our Banstead-Downs in Surrey, so fam'd for good Mut [...]on, is supplied from this Place. The Herbage of these Downs is full of the most aromatick Plants, such as nourish the Sheep to a great Degree, and the Sheeps Dung again nourishes that; so that the Valleys are render'd extremely [Page 296] fruitful by the washing of the Water in hasty Showers from off these Hills.

From Dorchester it is Six Miles to the Sea-side South, and the Ocean in View almost all the Way: The first Towns we come to are Weymouth and Mel­comb, two Towns lying at the Mouth of a little Rivulet, call'd The Wey, for it scarce deserves the Name of a River: however, the Entrance makes a very good, tho' small Harbour, and they are join'd by a wooden Bridge, so that nothing but the Har­bour parts them; yet they are separate Corporations, and choose each of them Two Members of Parlia­ment.

Weymouth is a sweet, clean, agreeable Town, (considering its low Situation) and close to the Sea: 'tis well-built, and has a great many substantial Merchants in it, who drive a considerable Trade, and have a great Number of Ships belonging to the Town: they carry on, in time of Peace, a Trade with France; but besides this, they trade also to Portugal, Spain, Newfoundland, and Virginia; and have a large Correspondence up in the Country for the Consumption of their Returns. The Wine and Newfoundland Trade are both considerable here; and they have a Custom-house and good Key.

Without the Harbour is an old Castle, call'd Sandfoot Castle; and over-against them is Portland Castle, situated in the Isle of that Name, and the Road called Portland Road, which affords a safe Harbour for Ships in bad Weather.

From this Isle of Portland comes our best and whitest Free-stone, with which the Cathedral of St. Paul's, the Monument, and all the publick Edi­fices in the City of London, are chiefly built; and the Quarries whence these Stones are dug, are well worth the Observation of a Traveller.

The Island is indeed little more than one conti­nued Rock of Free-stone, about Seven Miles in Com­pass, [Page 297] and the Height of the Land is such, that from this Island they see, in clear Weather, above half over the Chanel to France, tho' here 'tis very broad. The Sea off this Island, and especially to the West of it, is counted the most dangerous Part of the British Chanel. Due South, there is almost a continued Disturbance in the Waters, by reason of what they call Two Tides meeting; which I take to be no more than the Sets of the Currents from the French Coast, and from the English Shore: this they call Portland Race; and several Ships, not aware of these Currents, have been embay'd to the West of Portland, and driven on Shore on the Beach, (of which I shall speak presently) where they have been lost.

To prevent this Danger, and guide the Mariner in these Distresses, they have set up Two Light-houses on the Two Points of that Island, which are very useful and serviceable to Ships.

This Island, tho' seemingly miserable, and thinly inhabited, yet the Inhabitants being almost all Stone-cutters, we found there were no very poor People among them; and when they collected Money for the rebuilding St. Paul's, they got more in this Island than in the great Town of Dorchester.

Tho' Portland stands a League from the main Land of Britain, yet it is almost join'd by a pro­digious Riff of Beach, that is to say, of small Stones cast up by the Sea, which runs from the Island so near the Shore of England, that they ferry over with a Boat and a Rope, the Water not being above half a Stone's-throw over; and the said Riff of Beach ending, as it were, at that Inlet of Water, turns away West, and runs parallel with the Shore quite to Abbotsbury, a Town about Seven Miles beyond Weymouth.

I name this to explain what I said before, of Ships being embay'd and lost here: this is when, coming [Page 298] from the Westward, they omit to keep a good Offing, or are taken short by contrary Winds, and cannot weather the high Land of Portland; but are driven between Portland and the main Land, and run on Shore on that vast Beach.

On the Inside of this Beach, and between it and the Land, is the said Inlet of Water, which they ferry over, as above, to pass and repass to and from Portland. This Inlet opens at about Two Miles West, grows very broad, and makes a kind of Lake within the Land of a Mile and a half broad, and near Three Miles in Length, the Breadth un­equal. At the farthest End West of this Water is a large Decoy, and the Verge of the Water well grown with Wood, and proper Groves of Trees for Cover for the Fowl. In the open Lake, or broad Part, is a continual Assembly of Swans: here they live, feed and breed; and the Number of them is such, that, I believe, I did not see so few as 7 or 8000. We saw several of them upon the Wing, very high in the Air; whence we supposed, they flew over the Riff of Beach, which parts the Lake from the Sea, to feed on the Shores.

From this Decoy West, the Lake narrows, and at last almost closes, till the Beach joins the Shore; and so Portland may be said not to be an Island, but Part of the Continent. And now we came to Abbotsbury, a Town antiently famous for a great Monastery, and now eminent for nothing but its Ruins.

From hence we went on to Bridport, a pretty large, but not well-built Corporation Town on the Sea Shore: here we saw Boats all the way on the Shore fishing for Mackerel, which they take in the easiest manner imaginable, and in such prodigious Plenty, that there has been a Watch set to prevent Farmers dunging their Land with them, which, it was thought, might be apt to infect the Air.

[Page 299]In the Year 1722 an Act passed for restoring and rebuilding the Haven and Piers of Bridport, in or­der to bring it to its antient flourishing State; for heretofore it was a Place of great Trade and Com­merce; but by reason of a great Sickness, which formerly swept away the greatest Part of its most wealthy Inhabitants, and by other Accidents, the Haven became neglected, and choaked with Sands; the Piers fell to Ruin, and the Town, of conse­quence, to Decay; so that there was no Security for Ships that happened to be driven by Stress of Wea­ther into the deep and dangerous Bay, wherein the Haven formerly was, which occasioned frequent Shipwrecks. The Act therefore authorizes the Bai­liffs and Burgesses of Bridport to levy certain Tolls and Duties on divers Merchandizes, &c. in order to restore the said Piers and Harbour.

Bridport was formerly the only Place for twisting of Ropes for the Royal Navy: and it is still used for that Purpose, the neighbouring Lands yielding plen­ty of Hemp.

From Bridport we came to Lyme, a Town par­ticularly made famous by the Landing of the Duke of Monmouth, June 11. 1685, in the Time of King James II. with only Twelve Men. Many of his Party were afterwards put to Death on the Spot, and their Limbs hung up in the Town. Before that Time the Duke of Tuscany set Footing here in his Tour to England.

This is called Lyme-Regis: it is a Town of good Figure, and has in it several eminent Merchants, who carry on a considerable Trade to France, Spain, Newfoundland, and the Streights; and tho' they have neither Creek or Bay, Road or River, they have a good Harbour; and such as is not in all Bri­tain besides, if in the World.

It is a massy Pile of Building, consisting of high and thick Walls of Stone, raised, at first, with all [Page 300] the Methods that Art could devise, and maintain'd now with very little Difficulty: the Walls are raised in the main Sea, at a good Distance from the Shore. It consists of one main and solid Wall of Stone, large enough for Carts and Carriages to pass on the Top, and to admit Houses and Ware-houses to be built on it; so that it is broad as a Street. Opposite to this, but farther into the Sea, is another Wall of the same Workmanship, which crosses the End of the first, and comes about with a Tail, parallel to that.

Between the Point of the first or main Wall, is the Entrance into the Port; and the second or op­posite Wall breaking the Violence of the Sea from the Entrance, the Ships go into the Basin, and ride there as secure as in a Mill-pond, or Wet-dock.

This Work is call'd the Cobb: the Custom-house Officers have a Lodge and Ware-house upon it. It might be strengthen'd with a Fort, and the Walls themselves are firm enough to carry what Guns they please to plant upon it; but they did not seem to think it needful: and as the Shore is convenient for Batteries, they have some Guns planted in proper Places, for the Defence of the Cobb, and the Town.

This Town is under the Government of a Mayor and Aldermen, and may pass for a Place of Wealth, considering the Bigness of it. Here we found the Merchants began to trade in the Pilchard Fishing, tho' not to so considerable a Degree as they do farther West; the Pilchards seldom coming up so high East­ward as Portland, and not very often so high as Lyme.

I visited from hence some of the Towns in the North-west Part of this Country, as Blandford, on the River Stour, in the Road between Salisbury and Dorchester, a handsome well-built Town, pleasantly seated in a Flexure of the River, before charming [Page 301] Meadows, and rich Lands. Wood thrives exceed­ingly here. Indeed this County is a fine Variety of Downs, Woods, Lawns, Arable and Pasture Land, rich Valleys, and an excellent Air. The dry Easter­ly Winds, the cold Northern, and the Western Moisture, are temper'd by the warm Southern saline Breezes, wasted hither from the Ocean. But Bland­ford is chiefly famous for making the finest Bone­lace in England, where they shewed me, in my first Visit to it, some so exquisitely fine, as I think I never saw better in Flanders, France, or Italy, and which they said they rated at above 30l. Sterling a Yard.

This was the State and the Trade of the Town, when I was there in my first Journey: but June 4. 1731, the whole Town, except Twenty-six Houses, was consumed by Fire, together with the Church. The Consternation of the People was so great, and the Fire so furious, that few saved any Goods.

An Act passed in 1732, for the better and more easy Rebuilding of this Town, and for determining Differences touching Houses and Buildings burnt down or demolished therein; and as several wise Re­gulations were made by it, Blandford now makes a much better Appearance than ever.

From Blandford I went West to Stourbridge, which, and the Country round, is employ'd in the Manu­facture of Stockens; it was once famous for making the finest, best, and highest-pric'd knit Stockens in England; but that Trade is much decay'd, by the Increase of the Knitting-stocken Engine, or Frame. which has destroyed the Hand Knitting-trade for fine Stockens thro' the whole Kingdom, of which I shall speak in another Place.

From hence I came to Shireburn, a large and po­pulous Town, with One Collegiate or Conventual Church, and may justly claim to have more Inhabit­ants in it than any Town in Dorsetshire, tho' it is [Page 302] neither the County Town, nor sends Members to Parliament. It was once a Bishop's See, which was removed to Salisbury. The Church is still a Reve­rend Pile, and shews the Face of great Antiquity. Here begins the Wiltshire Medley Cloathing, tho' this Town be in Dorsetshire; of which I shall speak at large in its Place.

Shaftesbury is also on the Edge of this County, ad­joining to Wiltshire and Dorsetshire, being Fourteen Miles from Salisbury, over that fine Down or Car­pet Ground, call'd Salisbury-plain. It is not an extraordinary Town; but situated upon the Top of a high Hill, and which closes the Plain or Downs, and whence a new Scene is presented, (viz.) a Pro­spect of Somerset and Wiltshire, where 'tis all in­closed, and grown with Woods, Forests, and planted Hedge-Rows; the Country rich, fertile and popu­lous, the Towns and Houses standing thick, and being large and full of Inhabitants, and those Inha­bitants fully employ'd in the richest and most valua­ble Manufacture in the World, (viz.) the English Cloathing, as well the Medley, or mix'd Cloathing, as Whites, both for the Home and foreign Trade; on which I shall be more particular in my Return thro' the West and North Part of Wiltshire.

Shaftesbury has however lately received some Im­provements from the Generosity of a neighbouring Gentleman, and particularly in a fine Plantation on the Top of Park-Hill; which he was so kind as to indulge the Inhabitants with for a Place of Walking and Diversion; but attempting, on the Strength of his good Offices to the Town, to prescribe to them in the Choice of a Member of Parliament, he has not met with the grateful Return he might have expected, Violence having been done to the very Plantation he had so generously devoted to the pub­lick Service and Pleasure of the Inhabitants.

[Page 303]In my Return to my Western Progress, I pass'd some little Part of Somersetshire, as thro' Evil, or Yeovil, upon the River Ivil; in going to which we descend a long steep Hill, called Babylon-hill; but from what Original, I could find none of the Country People able to inform me.

Northward upon an high sandy Hill, by the Bank of the River Ivel, is a Roman Camp called Chesterton; under which lies the Town of Sandy, the Salinae of the Romans, where abundance of Roman and British Antiquities have been found, and immense Quantities of Coins.

Yeovil is a Market-town of good Resort, and some little Cloathing is carried on, in and near it. Its main Manufacture at this Time is Gloves. It deals also in Corn, Cheese, Hemp, and all Sorts of Provisions.

It cannot pass my Observation here, that when we are come this Length from London, the Dialect of the English Tongue, or the Country way of expressing themselves, is not easily understood. It is true, that it is so in many Parts of England besides, but in none in so gross a Degree as in this Part. As this Way of boorish Speech is in Ireland called the Brogue upon the Tongue, so here 'tis named Jouring. It is not possible to explain this fully by Writing, because the Difference is not so much in the Orthography, as in the Tone and Accent; their abridging the Speech, Cham, for I am; Chill, for I will; Don, for do on, or put on; and Doff, for do off, or put off; and the like.

From Evil or Yeovil we came to Crookorn, thence to Chard, which immediately brought me into Devonshire.

It may not be unacceptable here to insert a general Description of this large County, which may con­vey to the Reader some Idea of the Nature of the [Page 304] Soil, its Productions, and the Method of Improve­ment as well as the Manufactures, and Merchandizes, on which the Trading Part of the Inhabitants subsist.

To begin then: The Western Part of the County bordering on Cornwall, viz. about Tavystock, Brid­destow, Oakhampton, Holsworthy, Bideford, Great Torrington, Chulmleigh, Chagford, Moreton, Hamp­sted, and all round the Skirts of Dartmore, as well as that large Forest itself, consists of a very coarse, moory, or fenny Soil, very barren in its Nature; in some Places productive of nothing but a dwarf Kind of Furze of little or no Value. At other Places grow nothing but Rushes, or a coarse, four Kind of Pasturage, which the Cattle will not feed upon; and therefore it dries up and withers into a Sedge. The Soil here is generally a stiff Clay, thro' which the Water cannot soak away: this renders it very unhealthy, especially to Sheep, which in those Parts are of a small Kind, and very subject to the Rot, which (in wet Seasons especially) destroys them in great Numbers: and what adds to the Malady is, that neither the Industry of the Husbandman (for which this County is deservely famous) nor any Com­post that has yet been found out, will to any purpose cure this Sterility.

The principal, and indeed the only profitable Return that the Inhabitants can make out of those Lands, is by breeding Black Cattle, for which they are very well adapted; for here are bred those fine Oxen, in great Numbers, which, by the Drovers of Somersetshire, and thereabouts, are brought up, and in their flat Feeding Lands, betwixt Bridge-water and Wells, (which I have seen almost covered with them) fattened fit for Smithfield Market, where they drive, and sell them to the Londoners, who have not so good Beef from any other Part of the Kingdom.

[Page 305]The Northern Parts of the County are of a quite different Nature from the former; for this generally consists of a dry healthy Soil, especially about Ilford­combe, South Moulton, Dulverton, and all along the Brim of the Forest of Exmore. Those Downs are far from being a luxuriant Feeding, but are very good Grazing for Sheep; and being well dressed with Lime, (which is brought over hither by Water from Wales) Dung, Sand, and other Compost, manured by the indefatigable Labour of the Inhabitants, produce tolerable Crops of Corn. I say tolerable ones; for tho' they far exceed the Productions in Dorset, Wilts, Hants, &c. (where Sluggishness so far prevails as to leave Dame Nature destitute of the least human Assistance) the Fertility is by no means comparable to that of the Eastern and Middle Parts of the County, in the former of which a rich Marl, in some Parts, and a fertile, sandy Soil in others; and in the latter a fat, strong Soil, of a deep-red Colour, intermixed with Veins of different Kinds of Loam, produce very great Crops of Corn, and Pease of the best Kind, not to be excelled in the whole Island. Neither doth it fall behind in Mea­dow Ground, and Pasturage, Clover, Eaver, and Trefoil Grass, and Turneps; as is evident to a Per­son who goes thro' any of the Markets, and beholds the fine, well-fed Beef and Mutton, with which they are plentifully stored.

About Teingmouth, Dartmouth, Totnes, Modbury, Plymouth, Ashburton, and all the South Parts of the County, (called the South-Hams) the Lands are ge­nerally of a different Kind from any of the former; in most Places very good for Arable and Pasture, but especially for Cyder Fruits. A great Part of this large Track lies on a Stratum of Marble, which the Inhabitants break up, and burn into Lime; and therewith dress their Lands, to their very great Im­provement. Neither is this all the Advantage they [Page 306] make of those Quarries; for in many of them is found Stone, which for its Hardness, Soundness, and beautiful Veinings, rivals the best Italian Marbles, and falls very little, if any thing, short of them in Lustre. Great Quantities of this Stone are sent to London, and other Places, where they are wrought up for the noblest Purposes. At other Places on this South-coast, are Quarries of Slate, for covering Houses, and this likewise of the best Kind; which are not only fetched away by Land-carriage, to the Distance of Ten, Twelve, and Sixteen Miles, but great Quantities of them are sent Coast-wise, to all the Towns on the British Shore; and exported to Holland, Flanders, and other Places beyond Sea.

The Reader will not, by this Description, con­clude that the Lands in any Part of the County are all one and the same Kind; Downs, Fens, Rocks, and Wood-grounds, are interspersed among the best Lands; as there are also some good Arable and Pasture, amongst the most desolate and barren; and whoever looks round him in his own Situation, will know in what Sense to take this general Description. To proceed:

At divers Places are found large Quantities of very good Oak Timber, as well as Ash, Elm, Beech, &c. and such of it as grows in Places whence it can be convey'd either by Land or Water-carriage, to Ply­mouth Dock, are there served in for the Use of his Majesty's Navy.

Coppice-wood is so very plenty, that altho' the Woollen Manufacturers take off great Quantities in Charcoal, and yet greater Quantities are expended in common Firing, (there being no Coal raised in this County) yet the Price is so low, that the Lands where it thrives well, will not generally pro­duce more than 5s. per Acre (communibus annis). The Lands in Devonshire, save only the Forest of Dartmore, Hallden-hill, and some Heaths, Moors, [Page 307] and coarse Downs of no very large Extent, (which, for the most part, are not capable of Improvement, not even by Devonshire Husbandry) are divided into small Inclosures, and (in Places where any Shrubs will grow) by quickset Hedges, banked up Four or Five Feet high with Earth. And as the Inclosures are small, so are the Farms or Tenements in these Parts, even to a very manifest Inconvenience: for the general Method here is, for Gentlemen to lease out the Tenements of their Manors for 99 Years, determinable on Three Lives; taking Fines for such Leases, and reserving no more than about One Shilling in the Pound of the yearly Value.

By this means, Men of small Fortunes find an Opportunity to lay out the little Money they have, in what they call Purchasing an Estate, which like­wise serves for a Settlement upon a Wife, for the Money she brings. Hence a Family comes on, and craves a Maintenance out of a Farm of perhaps 20l. a Year; which surely can produce but a very poor one: whereas 2 or 300l. sunk in this Purchase, would have enabled him to manage a Farm of 200l. a Year; out of which, by Industry and good Ma­nagement, the Family might not only live in a more plentiful manner, the Children be better educated, and instructed to understand the Business of the Farm; but Money likewise laid up every Year to­wards setting them out in the same Method of living. This I take to be the principal Cause of the Poverty and Hardship that appears in Country Places, and of the Difficulty of getting a good Tenant at Rack-rent, for any Farm whose Value exceeds 100l. a Year.

I should have mentioned, that in my Way to Chard, I passed thro' Axminster, a pretty considerable Market-town, and the first in the County of Devon. The great Western Road to London goes thro' this Town. Here my Curiosity led me to go into the [Page 308] Church, and view the Monuments of the Saxon Princes (or rather the Bishop of Sherburne and Two Dukes) who were slain at the Battle of Brunaburgh in that Neighbourhood, fought by King Athelstane with Seven Danish Princes; over whom he obtained the Victory, in a Field thence called King's-field to this Day. The Monuments of those Saxon Worthies were under Arches in the Walls of the Church, Two of which have been lately filled up.

Here, in Memory of the Victory, King Athel­stane founded a Minster for Seven Priests, which in After-ages were reduced to Two; for whom a Portion of Land was allotted called Priest-aller, which, with the Parsonage, now belongs to Two Prebendaries of the Church of York. The Manor continued in the Crown till the Reign of King John, who gave it to the Lord Brewer, a Daughter and Coheir of which Family (Alicia) brought it in Marriage to Lord Mobun of Dunstar, whose Poste­rity, with Consent of King Henry III. Anno Gra­tiae, 1246. 8. Id. Jan. regnant. H. Fil. Johann. Reginaldus Mohun filius Reginaldi & Aliciae Brewer fundavit Abbatiam de Newnham in Maner. de Ax­minster in Com. Devon. Abbot Gill, the 8th of March, 31 Hen. VIII. surrendered it to the King. The yearly Value, at that time, was 227l. 7s. 7d.

Ford Abbey is in this Neighbourhood, heretofore a stately Fabrick, lofty and very magnificent, adorned with curious Carvings and Embellishments of the Gothick kind, some of whose Beauties still remain, as may be seen in a modern Print thereof, published by Mr. Buck. It was first founded by Adeliza, Daughter of Baldwin de Brioniis, Baron of Oak­hampton, Anno 1140, and dedicated to the Virgin Mary, for Cistercian Monks: At the Surrender it was valued at 381l. 10s. 8d. Half-penny, yearly.

Near Axminster lies Kilmington, quasi Kill-men-town, from the great Slaughter there made at the [Page 309] Battle before-mentioned; and Membury, i. e. Maim-burgh, whither the Maimed in that Battle were sent to be relieved; now famous for the best Devonshire Cheese.

At Northleigh, or rather, at Uplime, (which Ma­nor was formerly the Inheritance of the Abbey of Glastonbury) was born Mr. Nathanael Carpenter, the Author of the Treatise of Geography, and divers others Tracts that bear his Name.

Cullyford, in this Neighbourhood, was the Habi­tation of Sir Thomas Gates, who in 1609, bound to Virginia, (of which Colony he was then made Go­vernor) was in a violent Tempest shipwreck'd, and with Sir George Somers cast on Shore, by which Accident they were made the first Possessors of the Island of Bermudas, or Summer Island.

This Track abounds with Lands, which were formerly appropriated to Churches and Religious Houses; viz. at Smallridge, Axmouth, Farwood, Salcombe, Dunkerwell, (a Monastery of Cistercian Monks) Sidbury, Sidmouth, Branscombe, Monketon, Luppit, Awlscombe, and at divers other Places; which from the Richness of the Soil makes good the Observation, That the Religious of those Days, made it their chief Endeavour to possess themselves of the best Things of this World.

At Tidwell, alias Tideswell, is a Pond or Pool, which boils up like that of the same Name at Weeden, in Derbyshire. The same Road I was before in, brought me from Axminster to Honiton.

This is a large and beautiful Market-town, very populous and well-built; and is so very remarkably paved with small Pebbles, that on both Sides the Way a little Chanel is left shouldered up; so that it holds a small Stream of fine clear running Water, with a little square Dipping-place left at every Door; so that every Family in the Town has a clear clean running Rivulet (as it may be called) just at their [Page 310] own Door; and this is much finer, pleasanter, and more agreeable to look on, than that at Salisbury, which they so much boast of.

Here we see the first of the Serge-manufacture of Devonshire; a Trade too great to be described in Miniature. It takes up this whole County, which is the largest and most populous in England, Yorkshire excepted; but Devonshire is so full of great Towns, and those Towns so full of People, and those People so universally employ'd in Trade and Manufactures, that it cannot be equall'd in England, nor perhaps in Europe.

Honiton stands in the best and pleasantest Part of the whole County; and I cannot but recommend it to Gentlemen who travel this Road, that if they observe the Prospect at Honiton for half a Mile, till they come down the Hill, and to the very Entrance into Honiton, the View of the Country is the most beautiful Landskip in the World, and I do not remember the like in any one Place in England. 'Tis observable, that the Market of this Town was kept originally on the Sunday, till it was changed by the Direction of King John. This Town is now much employ'd in the Trade of Lace-making.

On the Road from Honiton they have a beautiful Prospect almost all the Way to Exeter, which is 12 Miles.

On the Left-hand of this Road lies the Town of St. Mary Ottery, so called, as some say, from the River Otter, and that from the Otters found formerly in it. This Town was given by King Edward the Confessor to the Church of St. Mary at Roan in Normandy; but was afterwards bought by Grandison, Bishop of Exeter, who made of it a Quarter College in 10 Edward III. and therein placed secular Priests, with other Ministers, to whom he gave the whole Manor, Parish, Tythes, Fines, Spi­ritual Profits, &c. which amounted to 304l. 2s. 10s. yearly.

[Page 311] Bicton, formerly Bicheton, was given by William the Conqueror, to one of his Servants, called William Porto. It afterwards reverted to the Crown, and by Henry I. was given to one John Janitor, so called from his Office; for by his Tenure, he was to keep the Prison for this County, by which Service it is held to this Day, by the worthy Owner thereof Henry Rolle, Esq who is at this time Knight of this Shire. His Ancestor, Sir Henry Rolle, Esq had it by Marriage with Anne, the Daughter of Sir Thomas Dennis, to whose Family it came from the before-mentioned Janitor, thro' Ballister, Sackville, and Coplestone.

From hence we came to Exeter, the Capital of the County of Devon, a City which hath often changed its Name: for it was the Pen-Caer and Caer-Eske of the Britons; the Augusta of the Romans; the Isca of Ptolemy; the Isca-Damnoniorum of An­tonine; the Exancester of the Saxons, which was afterwards abreviated to Excester and Exeter, from the great Number of Monks there. It had for some time the Name of Monketon, but at length, from that large River which washes its Walls, and bears the Name of Exe, (whether from the Forest of that Name where it rises, or the Forest from it, I can­not determine) it retains that of Exeter, which it seems now to be varying for Exon. It was first fortified with a Stone Wall (which still remains in­tire) by King Athelstane; and was for some time the Seat of the West-Saxon Kings.

That the Romans were here, is highly probable, among other Proofs, from their Coins, that have been dug up at divers Places: in particular, a Gold one of Nero at Exeter; one of Theodosius, near Barn­staple; several Silver ones of Severus, and other Emperors; but especially from a great Quantity of them dug up about Twenty Years since at Exeter, within the Close, together with the Urn in which [Page 312] they were buried. I saw a great Number of those, some of which were of Silver; but the greatest Part of them were a Mixture of Tin and Copper; they had the Impression of Gordianus, Philippus, and other Emperors.

King Athelstane founded here a Monastery to St. Mary and St. Peter, for Monks of the Order of St. Benedict. The Chapel of St. Mary now fitted up for a Library, and furnished with a pretty great Number of Books, (which are but of little Use, because placed in a very confused Order) is the very Eastermost Part of the Cathedral, and was doubtless the first Beginning of that now handsome Fabrick. King Etheldred founded also, within the Close, a House for Monks, and another for Nuns. Divers other Religious Houses, as the Priories of St. James, St. Nicolas, St. John Baptist; the Grey Fryers, &c. were the Work of After-ages.

The Walls are in pretty good Repair, and make a Walk round the City, with the Pleasure of seeing a fine Country on opposite Hills, full of Wood, rich Ground, Orchards, Villages, and Gentlemens Houses. The Beauty of the Place consists of one long Street, called High-street, broad and strait. The Houses are of a very old, but good Model, spacious, commodious, and not inelegant. This Street is full of Shops well furnished, and all sorts of Trades look brisk. The People are industrious and courteous: the Fair Sex are truly such, as well as numerous; their Complexion, and generally their Hair, of a fair Cast: they are genteel, disengaged, of easy Carriage, and good Mien. There has been of late a vast Increase of Buildings within and with­out the City. The Situation renders it of Necessity clean, dry and airy. The Soil thither from Honyton is rather sandy than stony; whence it must needs be very healthful. There are many Booksellers. In Dr. Musgrave's Garden an Head of the Empress [Page 313] Julia Domna, of a Colossean Size, was dug up. The Head-dress is suitable to those Times; and neither the Manner nor Carving are despicable, tho' the Graver has not done it Justice. 'Tis the noblest Relique of British Antiquity which we know of this Sort: 'tis 21 Inches from the Top of the Attire to the Chin, and belonged to a Statue of 12 Feet Pro­portion, originally set upon some Temple or Palace. There is also an Inscription of Camillus.

This Country remarkably abounds with Persons afflicted with the Gout; which is attributed to the Custom of marling the Lands with Lime, and the great Use of poor, sweet Cyder, especially among the meaner People.

In the Northern Angle of the City, and highest Ground, stands Rugemont-castle, once the Residence of the West-Saxon Monarchs, afterwards of the Earls of Cornwall. 'Tis of a squarish Figure, not very large, inviron'd with a high Wall, and deep Ditch. It has a Rampire of Earth parallel to the Top of the Wall, forming a Terrace, which over­looks the City and Country. Here are the Assize-house, and a Chapel.

The Bridge over the Exe is of great Length, and has Houses on both Sides, and at both Ends, with a considerable Vacancy in the Middle. In the Guild-hall are the Pictures of General Monk, and the Princess Henrietta-Maria.

The Bishop's See of this Western Diocese hath had several Removes; for it was first at Bodmyn for the County of Cornwall, and since that at Tawton for this County. Afterwards both were joined and placed at Crediton. And lastly, about the Year 1050, King Edward the Confessor, and his Queen Edyth, inthroned Leofricus (who had been Three Years Bishop of Crediton) into the See of Exeter, in the following very solemn manner:

[Page 314]On the South-side of the high Altar, in the Ca­thedral, were erected (and are there still to be seen perfect, as when first made) Three Seats, or Alcoves, adorned with Gothick Carvings, to the Height of about 25 Feet, which are supported with Brass Pillars; in the Middle of these was the Bishop installed, by the King and Queen. The Form of Words thus:

I Kynge Edward, taking Leofricke bye the Ryghte [...]aunde, and Edythe my Queene bye the Leste, doe installe hym the fyrste and most famous Byschoppe of [...]ron, wythe a grate Desyre of Aboundance of Blessynges to all such as shall furder and encrease the same; but wythe a fearful and execrable Curse on all such as shall diminish or take anye thynge from it.

The Church was about 400 Years in building, and very remarkable it is to behold the Uniformity with which it was carried on; for nobody can dis­cover the least Incongruity in the Parts; so much is it like the Workmanship of one and the same Architect.

There are some antient funeral Monuments in the Cathedral; but first, as Matter of the greatest An­tiquity, let me take notice of the Bishop's Throne in the Choir, which, at the Dissolution of Episco­pacy in King Charles I.'s Time was (as a useless Thing) taken down; but whether the Workman imploy'd to do it were well affected to that Order, or else had some private Instructions from some­body in Power, who foresaw that it would some time or other be of Use again, certain it is, that a great deal of Care was taken of the Materials; for it is now replaced, and every Part of it as sound and good as when first made. The Gothick Carvings about the Canopy are at least 60 Feet high, and a vast deal of good Workmanship (of that Kind) [Page 315] there is about it: it is, I believe, coeval with the See.

The antique Monuments, as I before mentioned, to be seen here, are particularly those of Humphry Bohun Earl of Hereford, Hugh Courtenay, Earl of Devon, and his Lady; the Lord Chichester, Sir Peter Carew, Sir Thomas Speke, Sir Richard Stapleton, Dowrich of Dowrich; the Bishops Leofricus, Staf­ford, Branscombe, Oldham, Bradbridge, Lacy, Cary, and others, especially that of Bishop Stapleton, the pious Founder of Exeter-college in Oxford; which Society, in grateful Remembrance of their Bene­factor, have lately repaired and beautified his Monu­ment, which in regard to some of the Carvings about it, excess any thing I ever saw of so old a Date in the Gothick way.

The Altar-piece, done 100 Years ago, is a Re­presentation of the Inside of the Church in Perspective, an exquisitely fine Piece of Painting, and (excepting only a little Injury it received from the Swords of the Saints Militant in the great Rebellion) exceedingly well preserved. The fine painted Glass, of which there is a great deal, underwent the Fury of the same pious Reformers, who after they had made a forcible Entry, and ‘"taken to themselves this House of God in Possession,"’ under the Umbrage of an Ordinance of Parliament of the 28th of August 1643, broke out the best of those Paintings, and irretrievably ruined all the Scripture History therein represented: neither was their Rage confined to those brittle Materials; for the carved Figures of the Patriarchs, Prophets, Kings, &c. of which there were a great many, be­came Objects of their furious Zeal and Ignorance; for there the maimed Bodies are now to be seen, some without the Head; others have lost one or both Legs, or Arms, &c. all of them some way or other mangled. And having by this means taken away what they feared would draw them into [...], they [Page 316] divided this Cathedral by a Partition-wall betwixt the Choir and the main Body of it, one of which Di­visions was made use of by an Independent, and the other by a Presbyterian Congregation.

And now, that I am taking notice of the Deco­rations of this magnificent Piece of Antiquity, let me just mention, that in one of its Towers is a very large Bell of about Sixty hundred Weight; and, in the other, a fine Ring of Ten large ones. An Organ of very good Workmanship, and supported by a Tetra-style of very beautiful Gothick Columns, stands where the before-mentioned Partition-wall did. The largest Pipes in this Instrument are of a great Length, and 15 Inches in Diameter, which is said to be Two Inches more than those at Ulm, which is so famed for its Largeness.

The well-finished Alcove of modern Work, for the Bishop, and the Pulpit, and Pews of the like, in the Nave or Body of the Church, together with the neat Marble Font, and the Two Suits of Hangings for the Choir, one of Tapestry, and the other of Velvet, and the fine Suit of gilt Plate for the Com­munion Service, is all that I shall further add about the grave and well-adapted Ornaments and Furniture of this Temple, or House of God.

To complete this Description with a Circumstance which I think ought by no means to be passed over: The Solemnity, Decency, and affecting Harmony, with which the Service, and Musick vocal and instru­mental, is generally performed, by the Choral-vicars, Organist, and Choristers; and (which is well worthy of Imitation*) the numerous Congregation, which, [Page 317] Winter and Summer, attend the daily Prayers at Six in the Morning; and their grave and pious Behaviour there; I say, all this together, render this Cathedral a Glory to the Diocese, the Envy of other Choirs, and the Admiration of Strangers.

Other antique Buildings of a publick Nature are the Chapter-house and Cloisters, the Bishop's Palace, the Houses belonging to the Dean, the Chancellor, Treasurer, and other Dignitaries of the Church; the Guildhall, the Walls, and Gates of the City, with those of the Castle, and the Close; the Hospital of St. John the Baptist, 20 Parish Churches within the City and Liberties thereof, the Bridge over the River Exe, a large and very handsome Conduit for Water, in the Centre of the Four principal Streets; to which may be added, some Chapels and Alms-houses yet standing, and the Ruins of divers others; which are Monuments of the Piety of their Founders, and the Impiety of those who neglect them.

Modern Buildings of a publick Nature this City hath not many to boast of: St. Paul's, (one of the Twenty Churches before-mentioned) the Chancellor's House, a very handsome and well contrived Work-house for the Poor, Three or Four Meeting-houses, a Quay for landing Goods, and a Custom-house, in­clude all that have been erected within 40 Years past.

The Civil Government of this City is by a Mayor, Aldermen, and Common-council; a Recorder, Sheriff, Four Stewards, a Chamberlain, and Town-clerk, who are attended by a Sword-bearer, who wears the Cap, and carries the Sword given by King Henry VII. before them to Church, and on all pub­lick Processions; Four Serjeants at Mace, and as many Staff-bearers; the former in Gowns, and the latter in Liveries, with Badges; and, which adds not a little to their Splendor, they keep a Band of Four Musicians in constant Pay.

[Page 318]There are, moreover, Twelve Companies of in­corporated Trades, who, on publick Occasions, and on Gaudy-days, walk in the Mayor's Train, dressed in Gowns, each Company having a Beadle, in a laced Cloak, bearing the Ensigns of their several Professions, to usher them.

For supplying the Inhabitants with Water, there is brought-in a pretty large Quantity by subterraneous Pipes, from some Springs in the Parish of St. Sidwell, without East-gate, Part of which is reposited for com­mon Use in the Conduit before-mentioned, and an­other Part is conveyed to the Houses of the Bishop, Dean, Canons, &c. within the Close, and to a common Pump, just at the West Entrance of the Cathedral. But all this would be far short of a sufficient Supply, and therefore an exceeding good Engine is fixed in the River, the great Wheel of which working by the same Water, forces the River Water thro' Elm-trees bored for that Purpose, into a large Reservoir, fixed about 20 Feet above Ground, in the highest Part of the City adjoining to the Guildhall; from whence, thro' other Pipes, it is dispersed to all Parts of the City in great Plenty. The Expence of which, to each House-keeper that will have it, is from 15 to 30s. a Year, according to the Quantity their Oc­casions require.

The River Exe was, heretofore, in its main Stream navigable to the Walls of the City; but, on a Difference between the Mayor, and the then Earl of Devon, on a very trifling Occasion; viz. Which of their Purveyors should be first served with a Pot of Fish in the Market, that Earl revenged himself by choaking the Mouth of the River, and by making Weirs with Timber, Sand, &c. thereby intirely ruining the Navigation thereof farther up than Top­sham. And so great was the Power and Obstinacy of the Earl at that time, that tho' the Citizens ob­tained [Page 319] a Decree in Equity for their Relief, it was never executed.

To remove this Inconvenience, the Inhabitants, about 40 Years since, by Aid of an Act of Parlia­ment, at a great Expence perfected a Work, which had been begun above 100 Years before; they cut a new Chanel for the Water, cross which they placed Sluices or Flood-gates: thro' the lowermost of those Gates, they let in the flowing Tide, the Ebb of which immediately shuts the Gate, and that keeps up a Body of Water for about Two Miles, sufficient to carry up the Vessels so far in their Way; at which Place another of those Gates shuts, after the Vessel is past it, by Capsterns there fixed for that Purpose. It must be considered, that the Floor of the Dyke is thus far on a Level, and consequently the Water of an equal Depth, without the Inconvenience of any Current, the lower Sluice being shut as before.

The whole Declivity from the Quay at Exeter, to the lowermost Flood-gate at Topsham, which gives the River its Current, is about Eight or Ten Feet, all which is sunk at once here, above this second Sluice; and therefore, in order to bring up Ships over this Fall, it was necessary, that a third Flood­gate should be added; which is accordingly done, at about 200 Feet from the former. And now, the Ship being between these two Flood-gates, (the lower being kept shut) the uppermost of the two is opened, and by this means the Water between them raised to a Level with that of the Remainder of the Dyke above; and the Ship, by this Contrivance, floats freely over the rising Ground; and thence, on the fresh Water, (for the Tide is of no farther Use) for about Two Miles more, which brings her to the Head of the Works, where there is another Flood-gate; and this ponds the whole River, so as to throw the waste Water, over a strong Stone Weir, into its natural Chanel. The Water so kept back [Page 320] by this Upper-sluice, and the Weir, makes a stag­nant Pool above; and here the Vessels lie at their Moorings, and unload at a Quay adjoining to the City Walls.

Semper fidelis, is the Motto to the City Arms; and how just a Title they have thereto, will appear from their Behaviour, when they have been attacked by the Enemies of their lawful Sovereign, of which take the following short Sketch:

1. When the Town was quitted by the Romans, the Citizens defended it against the Saxons for their then lawful Masters, the Britons; and held it out for 300 Years, after the Eastern Parts of the Island had submitted.

2. When they had been compelled to admit the Saxons into a sort of Co-ordinate Power with them, they courageously withstood the Danes, and tho' at last overcome by them, they took the first Oppor­tunity, and joined with King Alfred, who with their Assistance routed the Danes.

3. After this, as long as they were able, they up­held a Share of Government with the Saxons, un­til King Athelstane wholly subdued them, and (as before-mentioned) fortified the Town with a Wall and Gates. This generous Prince was so well pleased with their Bravery, that he granted them many Privileges and Immunities.

4. In the Year 875, the Citizens again defended themselves stoutly against the Danes, who came upon them by Sea, but landed, and formed a Camp on the North-side thereof, in a Place called Danes-castle to this Day, where their Trenches are yet to be seen.

5. The Town held out for a Month, against Swain King of Denmark, and was at last taken by Treachery.

[Page 321]6. When William the Conqueror came against it, the Citizens defended themselves until a Part of the City Wall fell down.

7. The loyal Townsmen took Part with Maud (their undoubted Sovereign) against King Stephen, and were at last reduced by Famine.

8. In 1469, the Earl of Devon came before it in behalf of the then rightful Claimant King Edw. IV. and the Citizens delivered it up, sending away the Lords and others of the Lancastrian Party to Calais.

9. They shew'd their Loyalty to King Henry VII. by defending the Town against Perkin Warbeck, the Pretender of that Time. In Testimony whereof, that King gave them the Sword and Cap; which Regalia are no small Part of their Pomp, to this Day.

10. The rebellious Commons of Devon and Cornwall met with a very stout Resistance here, and tho' grievously pinched with Famine, the Town held it out until the 6th of August; when they were relieved by the Lord Russel. In Memory of which that is still a Gaudy-day, and a Sermon is preached yearly on the Occasion, by the Mayor's Chaplain.

11. In the grand Rebellion it was twice besieged, and held out for the Royal Cause until the King's Affairs grew every-where desperate. And as soon as General Monk appeared in Opposition to the illegal Powers, the Citizens assembled themselves, and de­clared for a free Parliament.

12. When the Prince of Orange landed at Torbay, and sent a Detachment to take Possession of this City, the Inhabitants received them but coldly; and tho' they knew themselves incapable of making any Resistance, and were as sensible as other Parts of the Kingdom, of the Danger they were in from arbitrary Power; yet were they very tender of [Page 322] joining in any Affair that might be construed a Rebellion to their lawful Prince.

To the Account of Religious Houses, and Lands formerly appropriated thereto, let me add here, the Priory of Polesloe, and that of Cowick, each of them but one Mile from Exeter; at a greater Distance, (but must be mentioned here, or not at all) Canons-leigh, Canons-Teing, Indio; and larger than either of these, the Abbey of Buckfastleigh, Part of whose Ruins are yet to be seen, and not one Instance is there amongst them all, that contradicts my former Observations in relation to the Goodness of the Soil.

Near the Mouth of the River Exe, on the West Banks thereof, is Powderham-castle, now, and for many Ages past, the Seat of a Family of Courtenays, Descendants from the Earl of Devon of that Name. This Seat, built in the manner of a Castle, is a very grand Piece of Antiquity; and was the Work of Isabel, the Daughter of Baldwin de Rivers, and Widow of William de Fortibus, in the Reign of King Henry III.

Halldown is a pretty large, dry, heathy Common of about Seven Miles in Length, and about Three in Breadth, which, tho' separated by some inclosed Grounds of a pretty good Nature, seems to be the same Vein of Land, of which the Forest of Dart­more, and the downy Part of Ashburton, Ilsington, Bridford, &c. consist.

On the North, and quite home to the Brink of this Down, is that rich Track of Land which I have already described, as Part of the most fertile Soil in this County.

Tho' this Down is in itself a very flinty barren Soil; yet is its Situation so delightful, the open Prospect, both by Sea and Land, so engaging, and the whole Circuit thereof so adapted to rural Re­creations, that the like Number of Gentlemens Seats as lie round the Skirts thereof within so little [Page 323] Compass of Ground, are not to be met with at any Place that I know of, save only about London; which is not only a Confirmation of what I have observed, but a very great Addition to the Delight arising from the large Extent of the View.

And here it cannot be foreign to my Subject to insert the Names of those genteel Habitations, and that of their several worthy Owners and Possessors.

  • 1. Ugbrook, the Lord Clifford, Baron of Chud­leigh; a Family of great Honour and Worth, tho' of the Romish Persuasion.
  • 2. Dawlish, the Country Seat of the Right Reve­rend Dr. Weston, present Lord Bishop of Exon.
  • 3. Powderham-castle, the Honourable Sir William Courtnay, Bart.
  • 4. Hallden, Sir Thomas Chudleigh.
  • 5. Lyndridge, the Reverend Dr. John Finney.
  • 6. Mowlish, William Oxenham, Esq
  • 7. Newhouse, William Oxenham, Esq
  • 8. Peamore, thr two Daughters and Heiresses of the late Stephen Northleigh, Esq
  • 9. Canons-Teing, ---- Hellyar, Esq
  • 10. Oxton, William Martyn, Eq;
  • 11. Trehill, Waltham Savery, Esq
  • 12. Kenbury, Samuel Cooke, Esq
  • 13. Kenn, John Short, Esq
  • 14. Holloway, ------ Geare, Esq
  • 15. Whiteway, Gilbert Yard, Esq
  • 16. Doddescombleigh, Richard Duck, Esq
  • 17. Maurhead, Thomas Balle, Esq
  • 18. Wood, Thomas Comyns, Esq
  • 19. Place, formerly a House of the Bishops of Exon, late Robert Woolcombe, Esq
  • 20. Indio, Caleb Juglett, Esq
  • 21. Park-place, John Langdon, Esq
  • 22. Bellemarsh, James Shepherd, Esq
  • 23. Lowell, James Shepherd, Esq
  • 24. Burrough, ------ Davenport, Esq
  • [Page 324]25. Bowhay, formerly the Seat of ------ Petre, Ancestor of the present Lord Petre.

Exeter is particularly famous for two Things, which we seldom find united in the same Town; viz. That it is full of Gentry, and yet full of Trade and Manufactures.

The Serge-market held here every Week, is very well worth a Stranger's seeing, and, next to the Brigg Market at Leeds in Yorkshire, is the greatest in England. The People assured me, that at this Market is generally sold from 60 to 70 to 80, and sometimes a Hundred thousand Pounds Value in Serges in a Week.

The Exe, or Esk, is a very considerable River, and the principal in the whole County, and by the Contrivance we have mentioned, Ships of 150 Tons now come up to the City.

Exeter drives a very great Correspondence with Holland, as also directly to Portugal, Spain and Italy; shipping off vast Quantities of their Woollen Manufactures, especially to Holland, the Dutch giving very large Commissions here for the buying of Serges, Perpetuanas, and such Goods; which are made not only in and about Exeter, but at Crediton, Honiton, Culliton, St. Mary Ottery, Newton-bushell, Ashburton, and especially at Tiverton, Cullumpton, Bampton, and all the North-east Part of the County; which Part is, as it may be said, fully imploy'd, the People made rich, and the Poor well maintained by it. Some are of Opinion, however, that Exeter has of late Years visibly diminished in its Trade, some Part of which has, it is said, removed itself to other Quarters.

On the North-side of the Castle, (and which was formerly its Counterscarp) is a very beautiful Terrace-walk, bounded by a double Row of fine Elms, and extended round one Quarter of the City; viz. from the East-gate to the North-gate. This, for the [Page 325] Fineness of the Air, Length of the Walk, and the Landschape in View, is not perhaps inferior to any thing of the kind in England.

This County, and this Part of it in particular, has been famous for the Birth of several Persons, eminent as well for Learning and Arts, as for War: Parti­cularly, 1. Sir William Petre, who was Secretary of State, and Privy-Counsellor to King Henry VIII. Edward VI. Queen Mary, and Queen Elizabeth; and Seven times sent Embassador into foreign Countries.

2. Sir Thomas Bodley, famous, and of grateful Memory to all learned Men, and Lovers of Letters, for his collecting and establishing the best Library in Britain, which is now at Oxford, and is called after his Name the Bodleian Library.

3. Sir Francis Drake, born at Plymouth.

4. Sir Walter Raleigh.

5. The learned Mr. Richard Hooker, Author of the Ecclesiastical Polity, &c.

6. Dr. Arthur Duck, a Civilian, well known by his Works among the learned Advocates of Doctors Commons.

7. Dr. John Moreman of Southold, famous for being the first Clergyman in England, who ven­tured to teach his Parishioners the Lord's Prayer, Creed, and Ten Commandments in the English Tongue; and reading them publickly in the Parish Church of Mayenhennet, in this County, of which he was Vicar.

8. Dr. John de Brampton, a Man of great Learn­ing, who flourished in the Reign of Henry VI. was famous for being the first that read Aristotle publickly in the University of Cambridge, and for writing several learned Books, which are now lost.

9. Peter Blundel, a Clothier, who built the Free-School at Tiverton, and endowed it very hand­somely.

[Page 326]10. Sir John Glanvill, a noted Lawyer, and one of the Judges of the Common-Pleas.

11. Serjeant Glanvill, his Son, as great a Lawyer as his Father.

12. Sir John Maynard, an eminent Lawyer of later Years; one of the Commissioners of the Great Seal under King William III. All these Three were born at Tavistock.

13. Sir Peter King, Recorder of London, Lord Chief Justice of the Common-Pleas, several Years Lord High-Chancellor of England, and created a Peer of this Realm.

14. General Monk, the great Instrument in the Restoration of our Civil and Ecclesiastical Govern­ment, Laws and Liberty.

15. The great Duke of Marlborough, Captain-General of the English Forces in Q. Anne's Wars.

I shall take the North Part of this County in my Return from Cornwall; so I must now lean to the South-coast, for in going on indeed we go South-west.

About 22 Miles from Exeter, and thro' Newtonbushel, a large, but meanly built Market-town, we go into the antient Town of Totness, on the River Dart. It was formerly of great Note, and still is a pretty good Town, and has some Trade, but has more Gentlemen in it than Tradesmen of Note: they have a very fine Stone Bridge here over the River, which being within 7 or 8 Miles of the Sea, is very large, and the Tide flows 10 or 12 Feet at the Bridge. Here we had the Diversion of seeing them catch Fish, with the Assist­ance of a Dog; in this manner: On the South Side of the River, and on a Slip, or narrow Cut or Chanel made on purpose, stands a Corn-mill; the Mill-tail, or Floor for the Water below the Wheels, is wharfed up on either Side with Stone, above High-water Mark, and for above 20 or 30 Feet in Length below it, on that Part of the River toward the Sea. [Page 327] At the End of this Wharfing is a Grating of Wood, the Cross Bars of which stand bearing inward, sharp at the End, and pointing towards one another, as the Wires of a Mouse-trap.

When the Tide flows up, the Fish can with Ease go in between the Points of these Cross-bars, but the Mill being shut down, they can go no farther upwards; and when the Water ebbs again, are left behind, not being able to pass the Points of the Grating, which like a Mouse-trap keeps them in; so that they are left at the Bottom with about a Foot, or a Foot and half Water. We were carry'd hither at Low-water, where we saw about 50 or 60 small Salmon, from 17 to 20 Inches long, which the Coun­try-people call Salmon Peal; and to catch these, they throw in a Net on a Hoop at the End of a Pole, the Pole going cross the Hoop, which, in some Places, they call a Shove Net. The Net being fix'd at one End of the Place, they put in a Dog, who is taught his Trade before-hand, at the other End, and he drives all the Fish into the Net; so that only holding the Net still in its Place, the Man took up Two or Three-and-thirty Salmon Peal at the first time.

Of these we had Six for our Dinner, for which they ask'd a Shilling only; and for such siz'd Fish, and not so fresh, I have seen 6s. 6d. each given at a London Fish-market, whither they are sometimes brought from Chichester by Land-Carriage. They have also delicate Trouts here.

This excessive Plenty of so good Fish, (other Provisions being cheap in Proportion) makes the Town of Totness a very good Place to live in; espe­cially for such as have large Families, and but small Estates; and many such are said to come into those Parts on purpose for saving Money.

This Town made itself remarkable for the Ad­dress of the Inhabitants to King George I. on the Union of the Emperor and King of Spain, by the [Page 328] Treaty of Vienna: they profess'd their Zeal and Loyalty to his Person; and when the good Town of Totness had but a very insignificant Share of Pro­perty, assur'd the King of their Readiness to grant not only 4s. a Pound Land-tax, but to give into the Bargain the other 16s. if his Majesty's Service requir'd it; together with several other extravagant Declarations of Zeal and Ostentation, which made them the Subject of Ridicule all over the Kingdom, for being so lavish in their Professions, when, as a Corporation, they had little or nothing to give.

About Ten Miles North of Totness, lies Ashbur­ton, a good Market-town, and Thoroughfare from Exeter to Plymouth. This is one of the Four Stan­nary Towns for the County of Devon, and lies but a little Way in from the Forest of Dartmore. The principal Trade of this Town, and indeed all the Towns and Villages in the whole County, is in the Woollen Manufacture.

The Three other Stannary Towns are Tavistock, Plympton, and Chagford, the last of which is a very poor inconsiderable Place, and neither that nor Plympton are capable of entertaining the Suitors, if the Lord Warden should be ever inclined to ad­journ the Court thither.

And now having mentioned this Court of Stan­nary, it may not be improper to give a further De­scription thereof.

By divers Charters granted to the Tinners by King Edward I. &c. the Court is to be held at Crockeren Torr, a noted Hill and Rock in the mid­dle of the Forest, far distant from any House: the Lord Warden of the Stannaries is the Judge of this Court, on whose Summons the Jurors appear, who are generally Gentlemen within the Juris­diction. I had my Information from a Gentleman, who, if I mistake not, told me he had served as a Juror; and that when the Earl of Bath was Lord [Page 329] Warden, and held a Court there, he was attended by 300 Gentlemen well mounted.

At this desolate Place (where no Refreshment is to be had, but what the Company bring with them, no Shelter from the Weather, nor any thing to sit upon, but a Moor-stone Bench) the Court is called: but then the next Act of the Steward is to adjourn to one of the Stannary Towns, (usually Tavistock) and the Company immediately makes the best of their Way thither.

At this Court, in former Times, when the Tin Mines in this County were in a flourishing State, a great deal of Business was dispatched; the Price of the Tin was fix'd, Differences in relation to the Works adjusted, and Acts made for Regulation of every thing relating thereto. Several Presentments of the Jurors are printed, and this Meeting is vulgarly called, The Parliament for the Stannaries; the Place of Meeting in the Forest, The Parliament House; and the Presentment of the Jurors, Acts of Parlia­ment.

The Abbey of Tavistock, the Priory at Plympton, and the Monastery at Buckland Monachorum, were very large Endowments; and their Scite well esta­blishes the Observation I have several times before made, in relation to the Fertility of the Soil where those Orders of Men generally seated themselves. An Observation, I have made rather to confirm that of other Writers, than as Matter of Wonder or Reflection; for would it not be strange, if the Ec­clesiasticks should not be as capable of chusing for themselves as other People? or that they should chuse the worst, if they might have the best?

At Tavistock I saw some stately Remains of that grand Building; and among other things, part of the Butments of the Arch of a Bridge over the Tavy, which the Inhabitants call Guile-bridge, and relate the following Story; viz. That one Childe, Owner [Page 330] of the Manor of Plymstock, made his Will, and gave the said Lands to the Church where his Body should be buried; and that afterwards, hunting in the Forest, he lost his Company and his Way, and tho', as his last Shift, he kill'd his Horse, and got into the warm Belly of him, he at length died there with the Extremity of Cold. The Body, after some Search, was found by the Tavistoch Men, (who had, by some means, come to the Knowledge of his Will) and by them carried away towards their Abbey. The Plymstock Men, hearing thereof, lay in Ambush for them at a Bridge, where they appre­hended they must pass: but in this they were de­ceived; for the Priests built a slight Bridge on Pur­pose, over which they carried the Corps; by which Statagem they obtain'd the said Land; and hence, says the Tradition, this is called Guile-bridge.

From Totness we went still South about Seven Miles (all in View of the River) to Dartmouth, a Town of Note, seated at the Mouth of the River Dart, where it empties itself into the Sea, at a very narrow, but safe Entrance. The Opening into Dartmouth Harbour is not broad, but the Chanel deep enough for the biggest Ship in the Royal Navy: The Sides of the Entrance are high mounded with Rocks; without which, just at the first Narrowing of the Passage, stands a good strong Fort beyond a Platform of Guns, which commands the Port.

The narrow Entrance is not much above half a Mile, and then it opens and makes a Basin, or Har­bour, able to receive 500 Sail of Ships, where they may ride with the greatest Safety, and the Entrance may be chain'd up on Occasion. I went out in a Boat to view this Entrance, and the Castle or Fort that commands it; and coming back with the Tide of Flood, I observ'd some small Fish to skip and play upon the Surface of the Water; upon which I ask'd, What Fish they were? Immediately one of the [Page 331] Rowers or Seamen started up in the Boat, and throw­ing his Arms abroad, as if he had been mad, cries out as loud as he could bawl, A Scool! a Scool! The Word was taken on the Shore as hastily as it would have been on Land, if he had cry'd Fire; and by that Time we reach'd the Quays, the Town was all in a kind of an Uproar.

The Matter was, that a great Shoal, or, as they call it, a Scool of Pilchards, came swimming with the Tide, directly out of the Sea into the Harbour. The Boat-owner lamented his being unprepared for them; for he said, that if he could but have had a Day or two's Warning, he might have taken 200 Tun of them; in short, nobody was ready for them, ex­cept a small Fishing-boat or Two; one of which went into the Middle of the Harbour, and at Two or Three Hawls took about 40,000.

It was observ'd, that beyond the Mouth of the Har­bour was a whole Army of Porpoises, which, it seems, pursu'd these Pilchards, and, 'tis probable, drove them into the Harbour. The Scool drove up the River a great Way, even as high as Totness Bridge, as we heard afterwards; so that the Country-people, who had Boats and Nets, caught as many as they knew what to do with.

Dartmouth is situated on the West-side of this Ba­sin, or Harbour, in a kind of a Semicircle, on the Ascent of a steep Hill, which, tho' large and popu­lous, is but meanly built; yet the Quay is large, and the Street before it spacious. Here live some very flourishing Merchants, who trade very prosperously, and to the most considerable trading Ports of Spain, Portugal, Italy, and the Plantations; but especially to Newfoundland, and from thence to Spain and Italy with Fish; and they drive a good Trade also in their own Fishery of Pilchards, which is hereabouts car­ried on with the greatest Number of Vessels of any Port in the West, except Falmouth.

[Page 332] Dartmouth, like other Towns in Devonshire, is full of Dissenters, who have here a very large Meet­ing-house. The French burnt it in Richard I.'s Time, and attempted it afterwards, but were bravely re­pulsed, and chiefly by the Women, who fought de­sperately, and took Monsieur Castel, their General, Three Lords, and Twenty-three Knights Prisoners, and made a great Slaughter among them besides; but how this glorious Action fell to the Share of the Women, and whether the Men were inactive, or absent, is not mentioned.

A little to the Southward of this Town, and to the East of the Port, is Torbay, a very good Road for Ships, about Twelve Miles in Circuit, tho' sometimes, especially with a Southerly or South-east Wind, Ships have been obliged to quit the Bay, and put out to Sea, or run into Dartmouth for Shelter.

In the Bottom of this Bay is a beautiful, well-built, and finely-situated House, call'd Torr-Abbey, for­merly a Religious House; but now the Inheritance of — Cary, Esq. Vespasian is said to have landed here, when he came to attack Arviragus, King of Britain. And here it was that King William III. enter'd with a Fleet of 6000 Transports, and 50 Sail of Men of War, under the Conduct of Admiral Herbert, since Lord Torrington.

About Three Miles to the West of Dartmouth, is a little Fishing-town, call'd Brixham, remarkable for a Spring of Water, that ebbs and flows very sensi­bly; a Description of which may not be unacceptable, especially as the Account I give of it is the Result of my own Observations; for I had so much Patience as to sit by it for Fourteen Hours together, and carefully observe its Periods, and the Quantity of its ebbing and flowing.

The Situation of this Spring is pretty near the Foot of a large Ridge of Hills, and the Quantity of Wa­ter that flows from it is considerable. It falls into [Page 333] a large Basin, where it is very easy to observe (by lying in an inclining Plain) the perpendicular Height of its Ebbing and Flowing, as well as the Time be­tween high and low Water.

By a careful Observation of a great Number of Fluxes and Refluxes, I find, that when it proceeds regularly, (as it does sometimes for Eight Hours to­gether) it is Eleven times in an Hour: for thus the 10th of July 1733, I observ'd it high Water at 8h. 31′ in the Morning, and continued to observe it until 3h. 3′ in the Afternoon; in which Interval of Seven Hours it had ebb'd and flow'd exactly Seventy-seven times.

There happens sometimes an Intermission of those Ebbings and Flowings; for in the Morning of the same Day, I observ'd that from 6h. 37′, to 6h. 58′, it had no Motion at all; and at another time I found it to intermit for an Hour, or more.

The Basin which receives the Water, contains, as I guess, about Twenty Feet in Area; and the per­pendicular Height of the Flowing, when I observ'd it, (which was in the Middle of Summer, and at a dry Season) was various, viz. sometimes an Inch and three Quarters, and at other times not above half an Inch; but generally about one Inch and one Eighth.

The Reader will be rather pleased with this De­scription, as it may, in some measure, confirm that ingenious, and very probable Hypothesis, which was read by Dr. Atwell before the Royal Society, and is publish'd in their Transactions, touching reci­procating Springs; and of this (which is called Lay-well) in particular.

From Dartmouth we went to Plympton before-mentioned, as a poor Town, though it was formerly of great Account, and the Glory of the antient Earls of Devon, where are Tenures at this Day, called Castle-guard, for defending and repairing the Walls of the Castle, which however is now in Ruins. From [Page 334] thence the Road lies to Plymouth, Distance about Six Miles.

Plymouth is indeed a Town of Consideration and Importance. The Situation of it is between Two very large Inlets of the Sea, and in the Bottom of a large Sound or Bay, which is incompass'd on every Side with Hills, and the Shore generally steep and rocky, tho' the Anchorage is good, and it is pretty safe Ride­ing. In the Entrance to this Bay, lies a large and most dangerous Rock, which at High-water is co­ver'd, but at Low-tide lies bare, where many a good Ship has been lost, when they have thought all their Dangers at an End.

Upon this Rock, which was called the Eddystone, from its Situation, the ingenious Mr. Winstanley, whom I have mention'd before, p. 107. undertook to build a Light-house for the Direction of Sailors, and with great Art and Expedition finish'd it: which Work, considering its Height, the Magnitude of its Building, and the little Hold there was to fasten it to the Rock, stood to Admiration, and bore out many a bitter Storm.

Mr. Winstanley often visited, and frequently strengthen'd the Building by new Works; and was so confident of its Firmness and Stability, that he usually said, to those who doubted its Standing in hard Weather, that he only desir'd to be in it, when a Storm should happen.

But in the dreadful Tempest of Nov. 27. 1703, when he happen'd to be so unhappy as to have his Wish, he would fain have been on Shore, making Signals for Help; but no Boats durst go off to him; and in the Morning after the Storm, nothing was to be seen but the bare Rock, the Light-house being gone, in which Mr. Winstanley, and all that were with him, perish'd; and a few Days after, a Merchant's Ship, call'd the Winchelsea, Homeward-bound from Virginia, not knowing the Light-house was down, [Page 335] ran foul of the Rock, and was lost with all her Lade­ing, and most of her Men: but there is now another Light-house built on the same Rock by the Corpo­ration of Trinity-house, in Pursuance of an Act of Parliament passed in the Fifth of Queen Anne.

As Plymouth lies in the Bottom of this Sound, in the Centre between the Two Waters, so there lies against it, in the same Position, an Island which they call St. Nicolas, on which is a Castle that commands the Entrance into Ham-Ouze, and indeed that also into Catwater in some Sort. On the Shore, over-against this Island, is the Citadel of Plymouth, a small, but regular Fortification, inaccessible by Sea, but not ex­ceeding strong by Land; except that they say the Works are of a Stone hard as Marble, and would not soon yield to the Batteries of an Enemy: but that is a Language our modern Engineers laugh at. It is surrounded with a deep Trench, out of which was dug the Stone that built the whole Citadel, which is about three Quarters of a Mile in Circumference, and has 300 great Guns on its Walls, which stand thickest towards the Sea. Several Guns are also planted on part of the old Fort, lying almost level with the Water, all which gives the greatest Security to the Ships in the Harbour.

The Town stands above the Citadel, upon the same Rock, and lies sloping on the Side of it, towards the East, the Inlet of the Sea (which is call'd Catwater, and is a Harbour capable of receiving any Number of Ships, and of any Size) washing the Eastern Shore of the Town, where they have a kind of natural Mole, or Haven, with a Quay, and all other Con­veniencies for bringing in Vessels for loading and un­loading; nor is the Trade carried on here inconsi­derable in itself.

The other Inlet of the Sea, as I term it, is on the other Side of the Town, and is cal'd Ham-Ouze, being the Mouth of the River Tamar, a considerable [Page 336] River, which parts the Two Counties of Devon and Cornwall. Here the War with France making it necessary, that the Ships of War should have a Re­treat nearer Hand than at Portsmouth, the late King William order'd a wet Dock, with Yards, dry Docks, Launches, and Conveniencies of all kinds for build­ing and repairing of Ships, to be built. These wet and dry Docks are about Two Miles up the Ham-Ouze, and for the Neatness and Excellency of the Work, exceed all that were ever built of the Kind, being hewn out of a Mine of Slate, and lin'd with Portland Stone. The dry Dock is built after the Mould of a First-rate Man of War, and the wet Dock will contain Five of the same Bigness. What follow'd these, as it were of Course, was the Build­ing of Store-houses and Ware-houses for the Rigging, Sails, naval and military Stores, &c. of such Ships as may be appointed to be laid up there, with very handsome Houses for the Commissioners, Clerks, and Officers of all kinds usual in the King's Yards, to dwell in. It is, in short, now become as com­plete an Arsenal, or Yard, for building and fitting out Men of War, as any the Government are Ma­sters of; and perhaps much more convenient than some of them, tho' not so large; and this has occa­sion'd a proportional Increase of Buildings to the Town.

Here are Two fine Churches, and Two or Three Meeting-houses for Dissenters, and French Refugees; as also a Free-school, and an Hospital for Blue-coat Boys.

Opposite to this Place, on the other Side Ham-Ouze, is situated Mount Edgcumbe, the Seat of Richard Edgcumbe, Esq deem'd one of the noblest Prospects in England; overlooking at once the Sea, the Har­bour, Citadel, and Town of Plymouth, and the County adjacent for a great Way.

[Page 337]From Plymouth we pass the Tamar, over a Ferry to Saltash, a little poor shatter'd Town, the first we set Foot on in the County of Cornwall. The Tamar here is very wide, and the Ferry-boats bad, so that I thought myself well off, when I got safe on Shore in Cornwall.

Mr. Carew publish'd, in the Reign of King James I. a very judicious Survey of this County, dedicated to Sir Walter Raleigh. The Reader may there inform himself, in a very particular manner, of its Natural History, and the Produce, Customs, and Rarities, which it abounds with. Among other Cu­riosities, he may there find complete Lists of the Knights Fees, Barons, Knights, and Men at Arms, together with the Survey of the Acres taken by So­lomon de Roff, and his Fellows, Justices itinerant, at Launceston, in the Reign of King Edward I. by which Survey it appears, that this County contain'd, at that Time, 5555 Acres; and the Author tells us, that a Cornish Acre, or one fourth Part of a Knight's Fee, contained Nine Farthings Land, each of which was, as he thinks, about Thirty of our Statute Acres. If all this be true, then that County con­tained, at that time, One million and Five hundred thousand Acres, which is more, by one Third, than it is now estimated to be, and doth, in some mea­sure, strengthen the Conjecture, that a great Part of the Land on this Coast is devoured by the Sea, and that the Scilly Rocks were formerly a Part of the Land, tho' now Ten Leagues distant.

Among the natural Productions of this County, ought not to be omitted their Slate, the best in Europe for covering of Houses; the Moor-stone, which, by a very laborious Polishing, (a Matter very lately attempted) equals in Beauty the Egyptian Granate. I take no Notice of the Gold, Silver, Copper, Tin, Lead; the Marble, Agat, Coral, [Page 338] and even Diamonds, which are here found, because these have been observ'd by all who mention the Productions of this Western County; and for the same Reason shall omit the manner of their working their Mines, and refining the Ore.

The Inhabitants have been remarkable for their Strength of Body; witness, among numberless others, John Bray, who carried on his Back Six Bushels of Meal, of Fifteen Gallons to the Bushel, and the Miller, a Man of Twenty-four Years of Age, on the Top of it; also John Roman, who carried, at one time, the whole Carcase of an Ox.

Saltash seems to be the Ruins of a larger Place, it is govern'd by a Mayor and Aldermen, has many Privileges, sends Members to Parliament, has the sole Oyster-Fishing in the whole River, which is considerable. It has also Jurisdiction upon the Ri­ver Tamar, down to the Mouth of the Port, so that they claim Anchorage of all small Ships, that enter the River: their Coroner sits upon all Bodies that are found drown'd in the River, and the like. Here is a good Market, and it is very much benefited by the Increase of the Inhabitants of Ply­mouth, as lying near the Dock at the Mouth of Ham-Oze; for those People choose rather to go to Saltash to Market by Water, than to walk to Plymouth by Land for their Provisions: because, first, as they go in the Town-boat, the same Boat brings home what they buy, so that it is much less Trouble; secondly, because Provisions are bought much cheaper at Sal­tash than at Plymouth: and of late, they have some Ships that use the Newfoundland Fishery.

There is no other Town up the Tamar, till we come to Launceston, the County Town, which I shall take in my Return, except Kellington, a pretty good Market and Portreve Town, where is a good Market-house, and a neat Church, which, as well as the other Buildings in the Town, are in good Con­dition; [Page 339] so I turn'd West, keeping the South Shore of the County, to the Land's-end.

From Saltash I went to Leskard, about Seven Miles. This is a considerable Town, well-built, has People of Fashion in it, and a very great Market: it is one of the Five Stannary Towns, and was once still more eminent, and had a good Castle, and a large House, where the antient Dukes of Cornwall kept their Court: it also enjoy'd several considerable Privileges, especially by the Favour of the Black Prince, who, as Prince of Wales, and Duke of Cornwall, resided here: and in Return, they say, this Town, and the Country round it, raised a great Body of stout young Fellows, who entered into his Service, and followed his Fortunes in his Wars. But these Buildings are so decay'd, that there are now scarce any of the Ruins of the Castle, or of the Prince's Court, remaining. Here was also antiently a Chapel, much resorted to by Pilgrims in Po­pish Times; and in the Town is a Fountain of very clear Water, to which many miraculous Cures were attributed.

It still boasts of its Guild, or Town-hall, on which is a Turret with a fine Clock; a good Free-School, well provided; a very fine Conduit in the Market-place; an antient large Church, dedicated to St. Martin; and a large new-built Meeting-house for the Dissenters; which I name, because they assured me there were but Three more, and those inconsiderable, in all the County of Cornwall; whereas in Devonshire, which is the next County, there are reckoned about 70, some of which are exceeding large and fine.

This Town is also remarkable for the Defeat of the Parliament Army by Sir Ralph Hopton, and for a very great Trade in all Manfactures of Leather, such as Boots, Shoes, Gloves, Purses, Breeches, &c. and some Spinning of late Years is set up here, [Page 340] encourag'd by the Woollen Manufacturers of Devonshire.

Between these Two Towns of Saltash and Leskard, is the Borough of St. Germans, now a Village, de­cay'd, and without any Market, but the largest Parish in the whole County; in the Bounds of which are contained 17 Villages, and the Town of Saltash among them; for Saltash Church, it seems, was but a Chapel of Ease to St. Germans. It has been antiently a Bishop's See, which was translated from Bodmyn hither, and afterwards from St. Germans to Crediton, then one of the best Towns in the County, and thence to Exeter. This Town takes its Name from St. German, Bishop of Auxerre in Burgundy, who came over from France, to preach against the Heresy of Pelagius, which then began to spread in England, and took up his Residence here. The Ruins of the Episcopal Palace at Cuttenbeck, a Mile and half from the Town, which afterwards dwindled into a Farm-house, are still visible. A Gentleman of the Name of Elliott was lately a great Benefactor to this Town, having endowed a publick School there, repaired the Sessions-house, and beautify'd the Church; where he was buried, and has a fine Italian party-coloured Marble Monument erected to his Memory by his Widow. There is still an Episcopal Chair in the Church, and several other Seats belonging to Canons. The Town stands on a rising Ground, and is built in the Form of an Amphitheatre.

In the Neighbourhood of these Towns are many pleasant Seats of Cornish Gentry, who are indeed very numerous, and the most sociable, generous, and kind Neighbours to one another that are to be found; and usually intermarry among themselves; from whence, they say, the Proverb, That all the Cornish Gentlemen are Cousins. It is the very same in Wales, where the greatest Compliment that one Gentleman can make to another of the same County, is to call [Page 341] him Cousin. There is a great Conformity of Man­ners, Customs, and Usages between the Welsh and Cornish, who are accounted of the same Origin, and Descendants also of the antient Britons; and there is likewise a great Affinity between the old Cornish and Welsh Language.

On the Hills North of Leskard, and in the Way between that Town and Launceston, are many Tin Mines, and some of the richest Veins of that Metal in the whole County; which when cast at the Blow­ing-houses into Blocks, are sent to Leskard to be coined.

From Leskard, in our Course West, we are ne­cessarily carried to the Sea-coast, because of the River Fowey, which empties itself into the Sea, at a very large Mouth; and hereby, this River rising in the Middle of the Breadth of the County, and run­ning South, and the River Camel rising not far from it, and running North, with a like large Chanel, the Land from Bodmyn to the Western Part of the County, is almost made an Island, and in a manner cut off from the Eastern; the Isthmus, or Neck of Land between, being not above Twelve Miles over.

In the Parish of St. Cleer is a Piece of Antiquity, which they call, The other Half-stone, which are indeed Two Stones fixed in the Ground; and by Mortaises in each, they seem to have been heretofore joined together. Both of them were curiously wrought by Diaper-work-carvings; but one of them hath an Inscription in very antique Characters, as follows: [Page 342]

[inscription on stone]

Which seem to express thus much; Doniert. Rogavit pro Anima; implying that Dungarth or Doniert (King of Cornwall, who was drown'd A. D. 872.) gave this Land for the Good of his Soul.

Not far distant is a Heap of large Stones, under which lies a great Stone, fashioned like a Cheese, and seems to the Eye, as if it were press'd into that Form by the Weight that lies upon it; and hence they call it Wring-cheese.

On the South from Leskard we come to Foy, or Fowey, an antient Borough-town, and formerly very large and potent; for the Foyens, as they were then call'd, were able to fit out large Fleets, not only for Merchants Ships, but even of Men of War; and with these, not only fought with, but several times vanquished and routed, the Squadron of the Cinque­port Men, who in those Days were very powerful.

Mr. Camden observes, that the Town of Foy quar­ters some Part of the Arms of every one of those Cinque-ports with their own; intimating, that they had at several times triumph'd over them all: and indeed they were once so powerful, that they fitted out their Fleets against the French, and took several of their Men of War, when they were at Variance with England, and enriching their Town by the Spoil of their Enemies.

[Page 343] Edward IV. favour'd them much; and because the French threaten'd to come up their River with a powerful Navy to burn their Town, he caused Two Forts to be built at the publick Charge, for its Security, the Ruins of which are still to be seen: but the same King Edward was some time after so disgusted at the Townsmen, for officiously falling upon the French, after a Truce was proclaimed, that he effectually disarmed them, took away their whole Fleet, Ships, Tackle, Apparel and Furniture; and since that time we do not read of any of their Naval Exploits, nor that they ever attempted to recover their Strength at Sea. However, Foy, at this time. is a very fair Town; it lies extended on the East Sid, of the River, for above a Mile, the Buildings fair, and there are a great many flourishing Merchants in it, who have a great Share in the Fishing-trade, espe­cially for Pilchards. In this Town, is also a Coinage for the TIN, of which a great Quantity is dug up in the Country North and West of the Town. The Church at Fowey is antient, and very fine.

The River Fowey, which is very broad and deep here, was formerly very navigable by Ships of good Burden as high as the Borough-town of Lestwithiel, an antient, and once a flourishing, but now a decay'd Place, and as to Trade and Navigation quite desti­tute; which is occasioned by the River being filled up with Sand.

Lestwithiel was called, in the British Times, Pen Uehel Coed, i. e. an high Place with Wood. It be­came since the antient Residence of the Dukes of Cornwall. The Ruins of a Castle belonging to them are still to be seen, on a rising Ground, at a little Distance from the Town. The Church is an hand­some Edifice; but the Steeple carries the Marks of the Civil Wars in the Reign of Charles I. when the great Hall and Exchequer of the said Dukes of Cornwall were also utterly defaced. Some say this [Page 344] Town was formerly the County Town and still retains several Advantages which supports its Figure; as, 1. That it is one of the Coinage or Stannary Towns. 2. The common Gaol for the whole Stan­nary is here, as are also the County Courts for Cornwall.

There is a mock Cavalcade kept up at this Town, which is very remarkable; the Particulars, as they are related by Mr. Carew, in his Survey of Cornwall, take as follows:

‘"Upon little Easter Sunday, the Freeholders of this Town and Manor, by themselves, or their Deputies, did there assemble: amongst whom, one, (as it fell to his Lot by turn) bravely apparell'd, gallantly mounted, with a Crown on his Head, a Sceptre in his Hand, and a Sword borne before him, and dutifully attended by all the rest, also on Horseback, rode thro' the principal Street to the Church: the Curate in his best Beseen solemnly received him at the Church-yard Stile, and con­ducted him to hear Divine Service. After which, he repaired with the same Pomp to a House provided for that Purpose, made a Feast to his Attendants, kept the Table's-end himself, and was served with kneeling Assay, and all other Rights due to the Estate of a Prince: with which Din­ner the Ceremony ended, and every Man re­turned Home again. The Pedigree of this Usage is deriv'd from so many Descents of Ages, that the Cause and Author out-reach Remembrance. Howbeit, these Circumstances afford a Conjecture, that it should betoken Royalties appertaining to the Honour of Cornwall."’

Behind Foy, and nearer to the Coast, at the Mouth of a small River, which some call Loe, tho' with­out any Authority, stand Two Borough-towns op­posite to one another, bearing the Name of East Loe, and West Loe. These are both good trading [Page 345] Towns, and especially for Fish; and, which is very particular, are, like Weymouth and Melcomb in Dorsetshire, separated only by the Creek or River; and yet each of them sends Members to Parliament. These Towns are joined together by a very beauti­ful and stately Stone Bridge, having 15 Arches.

East Loe was the antienter Corporation of the Two, and some Ages ago the greater and more considerable Town; but now they tell us West Loe is the richest, and has the most Ships belonging to it; but has neither Church or Chapel, nor Meeting-house in it. Were they put together, they would make a very handsome Sea-port Town.

Passing from hence, and ferrying over Foy River, we come into a large Country without many Towns in it of Note, but very well furnished with Gentle­mens Seats, and a little higher up with Tin Works.

The Sea making several deep Bays here, they who travel by Land are obliged to go higher into the Country, to pass above the Water, especially at Tre­wardreth-bay, which lies very broad, above Ten Miles within the Country; which passing at Tre­wardreth, a Town of no great Note, tho' the Bay takes its Name from it, the next Inlet of the Sea is the famous Firth, or Inlet, called Falmouth Haven. It is certainly, next to Milford Haven in South Wales, the fairest and best Road for Shipping that is in the whole Isle of Britain; whether we consider the Depth of Water for above 20 Miles within Land; the Safety of Riding, shelter'd from all kind of Winds or Storms; the good Anchorage, and the many Creeks, all navigable, where Ships may run in and be safe.

There are Six or Seven very considerable Places upon this Haven, and the Rivers from it: viz. Grampound, Tregony, Truro, Penryn, Falmouth, St. Mawes, and Pendennis. The Four first of these send Members to Parliament; altho' the Town of Falmouth, as big as all of them together, (Truro ex­cepted) [Page 346] and richer than Ten such, sends none. But how so considerable a Sea-port and Town, comes to be debarr'd that Privilege, doth not appear. 'Tis certain, that a great Number of small inconsiderable Boroughs in this County do now enjoy it; but until the 6th of Edward VI. none but Launceston, Leskard, Lestwithiel, Truro, Bodmyn, Helston, and Bossiney, sent any. And whether it were then im­posed on the rest as a Punishment, or conferred as a Favour, is uncertain. I cannot agree with those who think it was obtain'd at their Request, by the Interest of their Duke, because they were invested with it by King Edward VI. and Queen Elizabeth, when no Person bore that Title.

St. Mawes, and Pendennis or Pen-dinas, (which signifies in the old British, the End or Head of a City) are Two Fortifications placed at the Points, or Entrance, of this Haven, opposite to one another, tho' not with a Communication or View. They are very strong; the former principally by Sea, having a good Platform of Guns, pointing 'thwart the Cha­nel, and planted on a Level with the Water; but Pendennis Castle is strong by Land as well as by Water, is regularly fortified, has good Out-works, and generally a strong Garison, and each of them has a Governor.

St. Mawes, otherwise called St. Mary's, has a Town annex'd to the Castle, and is a Borough, sending Members to Parliament; but has neither Church, Chapel, Meeting-house, Fair, or Market, in it.

The Town of Falmouth is by much the richest, and best trading Town in this County, tho' not so antient as its Neighbour Town of Truro; and in­deed, is in some things obliged to acknowlege its Seigniority, and the Truro Men receive several Du­ties collected in Falmouth; particularly Wharfage for the Merchandizes landed, or shipped off: but the [Page 347] Town of Falmouth has gotten the Trade, at least the best Part of it, from the other, which is chiefly owing to the Situation; for lying upon the Sea, but within the Entrance, Ships of the greatest Bur­den come up to the very Quay, and the whole Royal Navy might ride safely in the Road; whereas the Town of Truro, lying far within, and at the Mouth of Two fresh Rivers, is not navigable for Vessels of above 150 Tons, or thereabouts; the Trade at Truro being chiefly, if not altogether, for the Ship­ping off of Block TIN and COPPER Ore, the latter being lately found in large Quantities in some of the Mountains between Truro and St. Michael's, and which is much improv'd since the several Mills are erected at Bristol, and other Parts, for the Ma­nufactures of Battery-ware, as 'tis called.

Falmouth is well-built, has abundance of Shipping belonging to it, is full of rich Merchants, and has an increasing Trade, because of the setting up of late Years the English Packets between this Port and Lisbon, which occasions a new Commerce between Portugal and this Town, amounting to a very great Value.

It is true, Part of this Trade was founded in a clandestine Commerce, carried on by the said Packets at Lisbon; where being the King's Ships, and claim­ing the Privilege of not being searched or visited by the Custom-house Officers, they found Means to carry off great Quantities of British Manufactures, which they sold on Board to the Portuguese Mer­chants, and they convey'd them on Shore, as 'tis supposed, without paying Custom.

But the Government there getting Intelligence of it, and Complaint being made in England also, where it was found to be prejudicial to the fair Mer­chant, that Trade has been effectually stopp'd; but the Falmouth Merchants, having by this means gotten a Taste of the Portuguese Trade, have maintained it [Page 348] ever since in Ships of their own. These Packets bring over vast Quantities of Gold in Specie, either in Moidores, or in Bars of Gold, on Account of the Merchants at London.

The Custom-house for all the Towns in this Port, and the Head-collector, is established at this Town, where the Duties, including those of the other Ports, are very considerable. Here is also a very great Fish­ing for Pilchards, and the Merchants of Falmouth have the chiefest Stroke in that gainful Trade.

Truro, tho' it gives Place to Falmouth, is however a considerable Town. It stands up the Water North-and-by-east from Falmouth, in the utmost extended Branch of the Haven, at the Conflux of Two Rivers, which, tho' not of any long Course, have a very good Appearance for a Port, and make a large Wharf between them in the Front of the Town; and the Water here makes a very good Port for small Ships, tho' it be at the Influx, but not for Ships of Burden. There are at least Three Churches in it, but no Dissenters Meeting-house, that I could hear of.

Tregony, or Tregenen, (which in British signifies the Mouth-town) is a Borough-town upon the same Water North-east from Falmouth, distant about 16 Miles from it, but is a Town of very little Trade; nor indeed have any of the Towns so far within the Shore, notwithstanding the Benefit of the Water, any considerable Trade, but what is carried on under the Merchants of Falmouth or Truro.

Grampound is a Market-town and Borough, about Four Miles farther up the Water. This Place indeed has a Claim to Antiquity, and is an Appendix to the Duchy of Cornwall, of which it holds at a Free-farm Rent, and pays to the Prince of Wales, as Duke, 10l. 11s. 1d. per Annum. It has no Parish-church, but only a Chapel of Ease to an adjacent Parish. Here are some Remains to be seen [Page 349] of the famous Coedfala, which, in the British, signifies Felon-wood, granted, with all the Lands in it, to the Town, in King Edward III.'s Time.

Penryn, another Borough-town, is up the same Branch of the Haven as Falmouth, but stands Four Miles higher towards the West, upon a Hill; yet Ships come to it of as great a Size as can come to Truro. It is a very pleasant agreeable Town, and for that Reason has many Merchants in it, who would perhaps other­wise live at Falmouth. The chief Commerce of these Towns, as to their Sea-affairs, is the Pilchards, and Newfoundland Fishing, which is very profitable to them all. It had formerly a Conventual Church, with a Chantry, and a Religious House, a Cell to Kirton; but they are all demolished, and scarce the Ruins of them distinguishable enough to know one Part from another. This Town is full of Orchards, and looks like a Town in a Wood. The Sea em­braces it on each Side. Its Name is British, as all those Words beginning with Pen, and Tre, and Lan, (which occur often in this County) are.

Quitting Falmouth Haven, from Penryn West, we came to Helston, another Borough-town, at about Seven Miles Distance: It stands upon the little River Cober, which however admits the Sea so into its Bosom, as to make a tolerable good Harbour for Ships, a little below the Town. It is the Fifth Town allowed for the Coining TIN, and several of the Ships called Tin Ships are laden here.

This Town is large and populous, and has Four spacious Streets, an handsome Church, and a good Trade. Beyond this is a Market-town, tho' of no Resort for Trade, called Market-Jew: it lies indeed on the Sea-side, but has no Harbour or safe Road for Shipping.

At Helford is a small but good Harbour, between Falmouth and this Port, where many times the [Page 350] TIN Ships go in to load for London; also here are a good Number of Fishing Vessels for the Pilchard Trade, and abundance of skilful Fishermen.

Pensance, in British, Pensand, i. e. the Head, or End of the Sand, is the farthest Town, of any Note, West, being 254 Miles from London, and within about Ten Miles of the Promontory called the Land's-end; so that this Promontory is from London 264 Miles, or thereabouts. This is a Mar­ket-town of good Business, well-built and populous, has a good Trade, and a great many Ships belonging to it, notwithstanding it is so remote. Here are also a great many good Families of Gentlemen, tho' in this utmost Angle of the Nation: and, which is yet more strange, the Veins of Lead, Tin, and Copper Ore, are said to be seen, even to the utmost Extent of Land at Low-water Mark, and in the very Sea. So rich, so valuable a Treasure is contained in these Parts of Great Britain, tho' they are supposed to be very poor, because so remote from London, which is the Centre of our Wealth.

Between this Town and St. Burien, a Town midway between it and the Land's-end, stands a circular Temple of the Druids, consisting of 19 Stones, the Distance between each being 12 Feet, and a 20th in the Centre, much higher than the rest; and are not unlike those at Stonehenge in Wiltshire. The Parish where they stand is called Biscard-woune, from whence the antient and now noble Family of Bos­cawen derives its Name.

In Cleer Parish in this County, Six or Eight Stones of prodigious Bigness likewise stand up in a Circle; a Monument of the like Nature.

These are probably, as those at Stonehenge and Burien, Remains of Druids Temples.

And we shall mention in this Place, that at Stanton­drew, in Somersetshire, is another Temple of the Druids, called The Weddings.

[Page 351]The Maen-amber, near this Town of Pensance, was also a very remarkable Stone, which, as Mr. Camden tells us, tho' it be of a vast Bigness, yet might be moved with one Finger, notwithstanding a great Number of Men could not remove it from its Place. It was destroy'd, as one of the same Sort was in Fifeshire, Scotland, by one of Oliver's Go­vernors: for these Reformers had a Notion of these Works being of a superstitious kind.

Maen is a British Word for a great Stone: There is one of these Stones, as Dr. Stukely tells us, in Derbyshire; and Mr. Toland acquaints us, that there are also such in Ireland, as well as Wales; he gives the following Account of this Piece of Antiquity.

‘"At a Place called Maen-amber, says he, is a Heap of Stones roundish, and of vast Bulk; but so artificially pitch'd on flat Stones, sometimes more, sometimes fewer in Number, that touching the great Stone lightly, it moves, and seems to totter, to the great Amazement of the Ignorant; but stirs not, at least not sensibly, when one uses his whole Strength."’

Near Pensance, but open to the Sea, is that Gulph they call Mounts-bay, named so from a high Hill standing in the Water, which they call St. Michael's Mount; the Seamen call it only the Cornish Mount. It has been fortify'd, tho' the Situation of it makes it so difficult of Access, that, like the Bass in Scotland, there needs no Fortification. Like the Bass too, it was once made a Gaol for Prisoners of State, but now it is wholly neglected. Here is a very good Road for Shipping, which makes the Town of Pensance a Place of good Resort.

A little up in the Country towards the North-west is Godolchan, which tho' a Hill, rather than a Town, gives Name to the antient and now noble Family of Godolphin; and nearer on the Northern Coast is Ryalton, which gives the second Title to the Earl [Page 352] Godolphin. This Place also is infinitely rich in Tin Mines.

But I must not end this Account at the utmost Extent of the Island of Great Britain West, without visiting those kind of Excrescences of the Island, the Rocks of Scilly, where many good Ships are almost continually dashed in Pieces, and many brave Lives lost, in spite of the Mariner's best Skill, or the Light-houses and other Sea-marks best Notice.

These Isles, called in Latin, Silurum Insulae, are supposed by some to be the Cassiterides of the An­tients: they lie about 60 Miles from the Land's-end, and are a Cluster of small Islands, to the Number, as some reckon, of 145. Scilly was once the chief in Estimation. But St. Mary being the fruitfullest and largest, tho' but Nine Miles about, has now the Pre-eminence; and it has a very good Harbour, fortify'd with a Castle built by Queen Elizabeth. These Isles were conquer'd by Athelstane, one of the Saxon Kings, and from his Time they are deemed a Part of the County of Cornwall.

These Islands lie so in the Middle between the Two vast Openings of the North and South narrow Seas, or, as the Sailors call them, the Bristol Cha­nel, and The Chanel, (so called by way of Eminence) that it cannot, or perhaps never will be avoided, but that several Ships in the Dark of the Night, and in Stress of Weather, may by being out in their Reckonings, or other unavoidable Accidents, mistake; and if they do, they are sure, as the Sailors call it, to run Bump ashore upon Scilly, where they find no Quarter among the Breakers; but are beat to pieces, without any Possibility of Escape.

One can hardly mention the Rocks of Scilly, with­out letting fall a Tear to the Memory of Sir Cloudesly Shovel, and all the gallant Spirits with him; who, in the Admiral Ship, with Three Men of War, and all their Men, running upon these Rocks, right afore [Page 353] the Wind, in a dark Night, were lost, and not a Man saved, in his Return from a fruitless Expedition against Toulon.

They tell us of Eleven Sail of Merchant Ships Homeward-bound, and richly laden from the South-ward, who had the like Fate, in the same Place, a great many Years ago; and that some of them com­ing from Spain, and having a great Quantity of Bul­lion or Pieces of Eight on board, the Money frequently drives on Shore still, and that in good Quantities, especially after stormy Weather.

This may be the Reason why, as we observed during our short Stay here, several Mornings after it had blown something hard in the Night, the Sands were covered with Country People, running to and fro to see if the Sea had cast up any thing of value. This the Seamen call going a shoring; and it seems they often find good Purchace. Sometimes also dead Bodies are cast up here, the Consequence of Ship­wrecks among those fatal Rocks and Islands; as also broken Pieces of Ships, Casks, Chests, and almost every thing that will float, or roll on Shore by the Surges of the Sea.

Nor is it seldom that the savage Country People scuffle and fight about the Right to what they find, and that in a desperate manner; so that this Part of Cornwall may truly be said to be inhabited by a fierce and ravenous People, like those on the Coast of Sussex; for they are so greedy and eager for Prey, that they are charged with strange, bloody, and cruel Dealings, even sometimes with one another; but especially with poor distressed Seamen, when they are forced on Shore by Tempests, and seek Help for their Lives, and where they find the Rocks them­selves not more merciless, than the People who range about them for their Prey.

Here also, as a farther Testimony of the immense Riches which have been lost at times upon this Coast, [Page 354] we found several Engineers and Projectors with Diving Engines, attempting to recover what had been lost, and that not always unsuccessfully.

From the Tops of the Hills, on this Extremity of the Land, you may see out into what they call the Chaps of the Chanel; which, as it is the greatest Inlet of Commerce, and the most frequented by Merchant Ships of any Place in the World; so one seldom looks out to Sea-ward, but something new presents of Ships passing, or repassing, either on the great or lesser Chanel.

This Point of the Lizard, which runs out to the Southward, and the other Promontory mentioned above, make the Two Angles, or Horns, as they are called, from whence 'tis supposed this Country re­ceived its first Name of Cornwall, or, as Mr. Camden says, Cornubia in the Latin, and in the British, Kerneu, as running out in two vastly extended Horns.

The Lizard Point is still more useful (tho' not so far West) than the other, which is more properly called the Land's-end, being more frequently first discovered from the Sea; and is therefore the general Guide, and the Land which the Ships chuse to make first; being then sure, that they are past Scilly.

Nature has fortify'd this Part of the Island of Bri­tain in a strange manner, and so as is worth a Tra­veller's Observation.

First, there are the Islands of Scilly, and the Rocks about them; which are placed like Out-works to resist the first Assaults of this Enemy the Ocean, and so break the Force of it; as the Piles or Stirlings (as they are called) are placed before the solid Stone-work of London-bridge, to fence off the Force, either of the Water, or Ice, or any thing else that might be dangerous to the Work.

Then there are a vast Number of sunk Rocks, (so the Seamen call them) besides such as are visible, and [Page 355] above Water; which gradually lessen the Quantity of Water, that would otherwise lie with an infinite Weight and Force upon the Land. 'Tis observed, that these Rocks lie under Water for a great way off into the Sea on every Side the said Two Horns or Points of Land; so breaking the Force of the Water, and lessening the Weight of it.

But besides this, the whole Terra Firma, or Body of the Land, which makes this Part of the Isle of Britain, seems to be one solid Rock, as if it was formed by Nature to resist the otherwise irresistible Power of the Ocean. And indeed, if one was to observe with what Fury the Sea comes on sometimes against the Shore here, especially at the Lizard Point, where there are but few, if any Out-works, (as I call them) to resist it; how high the Waves come rolling forward, storming on the Back of one an­other, particularly when the Wind blows off Sea, one would wonder, that even the strongest Rocks themselves should be able to resist and repel them. But, as I said, the Country seems to be one great Body of Stone, and prepar'd so on purpose.

And yet, as if all this was not enough, Nature has provided another strong Fence, and that is, that these vast Rocks are, in a manner, cemented toge­ther by the solid and weighty Ore of TIN and COP­PER, especially the latter, which is plentifully found upon the very outmost Edge of the Land, and with which the Stones may be said to be solder'd together, lest the Force of the Sea should separate and disjoint them, and, breaking in upon these Fortifications of the Island, destroy its chief Security.

This is certain, that there is a more than ordinary Quantity of Tin, Copper, and Lead also, fixed by the Great Author of Nature in these very remote Angles; so that the Ore is found upon the very Surface of the Rocks a good way into the Sea, and does not only lie, as it were, upon or between the Stones among the [Page 356] Earth, which in that Case might be wash'd from it by the Sea; but is even blended or mix'd in with the Stones themselves, so that the Stones must be split into Pieces to come at it. By this Mixture the Rocks are made exceedingly weighty and solid, and thereby still the more qualified to repel the Force of the Sea.

Upon this remote Part of the Island we saw great Numbers of that famous kind of Crows, which is known by the Name of the Cornish Chough: they are the same kind which are found in Switzerland among the Alps, and which, Pliny pretended, were peculiar to those Mountains, and calls the Pyrrhocorax. The Body is Black, the Legs, Feet, and Bill, of a Yellow, almost to a Red. I could not find, that it was affected for any good Quality it had, nor is the Flesh good to eat, for it feeds much on Fish and Carrion; it is counted little better than a Kite, for it is of a ravenous Quality, and is very mischievous; it will steal and carry away any think it finds about the House, that is not too heavy, tho' not fit for its Food; as Knives, Forks, Spoons and Linen Cloths, or whatever it can fly away with; sometimes, they say, it has stolen Bits of Firebrands, or lighted Candles, and lodged them in the Stacks of Corn, and the Thatch of Barns and Houses, and set them on Fire.

I might take up many Sheets in describing the va­luable Curiosities of this little Chersonese, called the Land's-end, in which lies an immense Treasure, and many Things worth Notice, besides those to be found upon the Surface: but I am too near the End of this Letter. If I have Opportunity, I shall take Notice of some Part of what I omit here, in my Return by the Northern Shore of the County. In the mean time,

I am, &c.
The END of VOL. I.


  • ABbotsbury Page 297, 298
  • Addenbroke, Dr. 103
  • Addington 154
  • Alcocke, Bishop of Ely 97
  • Ald, River 41
  • Aldburgh ibid.
  • Aldermaston 244
  • Aldham Common 28
  • Alexander Severus, his Coin 285
  • Alfred, King, raises a For­tification 148. Routs the Danes 320
  • Alphage, St. Archbishop of Canterbury, kill'd 120
  • Alre, River 199
  • Alresford 245
  • Alsham 66
  • Alton 207
  • Alva, Duke de, his Perse­cution 157
  • Ambresbury 255
  • Ambrius founds a Monastery ibid.
  • Amphitheatre 162. An­other 294
  • Anderida 172
  • Andover 254
  • Anglesey, Earl of, his Seat 209
  • Anindel, Thomas 154
  • Anne and Thomas, Accident which befel that Ship 134, 135
  • Anne, Queen, delights in Windsor 242
  • St. Anne's Fort 70
  • Appledore 171
  • Appledore-come 206
  • Arington 104
  • Arran, Earl of, his Seat 209
  • Arthur, King, his round Table 250, 251
  • Arun, River 189
  • Arundel ibid.
  • Arundel, Earl of, without the Royal Creation 190
  • Ashburton 328
  • Ashcomb-hills 217
  • Ashford 152, 172
  • [Page]Asparagus, the best p. 131
  • Athelstane, King, where he enacted Laws 149. Founds a Minster 308. A Mo­nastery 312. Subdues Exe­ter 320. Conquers the Isles of Scilly 352
  • Aubery 285
  • Audley, Thomas, Lord Chan­cellor 98. His Monument 105
  • Audley-end 105
  • Augustine, the Monk 155. His Monastery 157. Cha­pel 158.
  • Aumont, Duke de, his Opi­nion of Sir Fisher Tench's Seat 115
  • Avon, River 274, 280, 285, 292
  • Aurelius Ambrose, King, rebuilds a Monastery 255
  • Axminster 307
  • Aylesford 152
  • Bacon, Sir Nicolas 37
  • Badew, Richard 93
  • Bagshot-heath 209, 210
  • Bakely 173
  • Ball, John, a seditious Preacher 29
  • Balsham, Hugh, Bishop of Ely 93. Institutes a Pri­ory 98
  • Banstead-downs 225
  • Barham-downs 165
  • Barking 3 to 7
  • Barnardiston, Sir Samuel, his Seat 23
  • Barnwell 90, 91
  • Barrington, Lord Viscount 10
  • Barrow, Dr. Isaac 99
  • Barrows describ'd 266 to 272
  • Barnstable Hundred 8
  • Barton, Sir Henry 38
  • Basingstoke 242, 243
  • Bateman, William, Bishop of Norwich 95
  • Battle-abbey 178
  • Battley, Archdeacon 38
  • Bavard-castle 148
  • Beacon-hill Light-house 18, 178
  • Beaufort, Cardinal, his Mo­nument 248
  • Beaulieu 10
  • Beccles 46
  • Beckenham 223
  • Becket, Thomas à 155, 156
  • Beckman, Sir Martin 5
  • Beddington, 124, 232, 233
  • Beechworth-castle 218
  • Bennet, his Enthusiasm 277
  • Bentley, Dr. Richard 99
  • Bevis-mount 204, 205
  • Bicton 311
  • Bigin-gate 165
  • Bigod, Hugh, his Boast 46
  • Bildeston 31
  • Billericay 20
  • Bingham, William 95
  • Birch Woods 128
  • Bittern 204
  • Black-heath 121
  • Black Jack, Earl of Pem­broke 283
  • Black-Notely 109
  • Blackstakes 142
  • Black Tayl, the Sand 7
  • [Page]Blackwater, River p. 6
  • Blandford 300, 301
  • Bleechingley 222
  • Blithbury 45
  • Blois, Bishop 252
  • Blow-mill-course 280
  • Blundel, Peter 325
  • Blyth, River 42, 45
  • Boadicea, Queen 10
  • Bocking 108, 109
  • Bodley, Sir Thomas 325
  • Bolton, Duke of, his Seats 207, 245
  • Boniface, Archbishop of Can­terbury 154
  • Boreman, Sir William 120
  • Boscawen, Family 350
  • Botesdale 37
  • Boxford 35
  • Box-hill 216
  • Boxley-hill 152
  • Braintree 108
  • Bramber 188
  • Brampton, Dr. John de 325
  • Brandon 76
  • Branksey 292, 293
  • Bray, John, his Strength 338
  • Bredenstone 167
  • Breed 173
  • Brentley 80
  • Brentwood 19
  • Brereton, Sir John 100
  • Bridport 298, 299
  • Brighthelmston 187, 188
  • Bristol, Earl of, his Seat, 38
  • Britiffe, Edmund, Esq 37
  • Britiffe, Robert, Esq 74
  • British Camps 273
  • Brixham 332, 333
  • Bromley 223
  • Broome 43
  • Brown, Sir Thomas 54
  • Brunaburgh Battle 308
  • Buckfastleigh 322
  • Buckland Monachorum 329
  • Bull-hide Haven 177
  • Bungay 45
  • Bures 35
  • Burgh-castle 46
  • St. Burien 350
  • Burnet, Bishop 277
  • Bury St. Edmunds 31 to 35
  • Busselton 199
  • Butley 44
  • Calshot-castle 205
  • Cam, River 77, 82, 108
  • Camalodunum 10
  • Camberwell 232
  • Camboritum 108
  • Cambridge Town and Uni­versity 92 to 104. Castle 104
  • Cambridgeshire, described 80, 81
  • Camden, the Place of his Retirement 128. Quoted 159. Rectify'd 216, 217
  • Camel, River 341
  • Candy Island 7
  • Cann, River 20
  • Canons-leigh, and Canons­teing 322
  • Canterbury 155 to 158
  • Canute, King, founds a Church 32. His Com­mand to the Tide 204
  • Capel, Sir William 36
  • [Page]Carew, Mr. his Survey of Cornwall p. 337
  • Carisbrook-castle 206
  • Carleton, Bishop, his Monu­ment 193
  • Carrots, the best, where 162
  • Carvilium 285
  • Carvilius, his Tomb 268, 284
  • Cashalton 224, 225, 232
  • Cassiterides 352
  • Caster 53, 64
  • Castle-Rising 67
  • St. Catharine's Hill 213, 214
  • Catton 66
  • Cawtater 335
  • Cavalcade, an extraordinary one 344
  • Cavendish 36
  • Caxton, first English Printer 104
  • Chagford 328
  • Chanel 352
  • Chaps of the Chanel 354
  • Chard 303
  • Charing 154
  • Charlton in Kent 123, 124, in Sussex 195
  • Chatham 137 to 141
  • Chediston 45
  • Chelmer, River 6, 20
  • Chelmsford 20, 111
  • Chertsey 211. Its Bridge 229
  • Chefilhurst 128
  • Chest, Bishop 277
  • Chesterford 108
  • Chesterton 303
  • Chichester 192 to 195
  • Chichley, Archbishop, his Monument 156
  • Child, Sir Josiah 141
  • Chilmark 280
  • Chipping-Onger 113
  • Chiselbury 284
  • Choughs, Cornish ones 356
  • Christ-church, in Wilts 274, 289
  • Chute-hill 286
  • Cibber, Statues made by him 249
  • Cinque-ports 168
  • Cissa, King 193
  • Clapham 232, 233
  • Clare 35
  • Clare, Lady Elizabeth 93
  • Claremont 227, 228
  • Clarence, Duke of, his Mo­nument 156
  • Clarendon-house 278
  • Clarke, Dr. Alured 259
  • Cleaver, Alderman 226
  • St. Cleer 341, 350
  • Clerk, Sir Francis 100
  • Cloberry, Sir John, his Monument 248
  • Clothing Trade 212, 213
  • Clyde 66
  • Cobb 300
  • Cober, River 349
  • Cobham 216
  • Cobham-hall 144
  • Cobles, what 58
  • Cockham Wood 143
  • Coke, Arundel, Esq con­demn'd for a barbarous Outrage 33, 34
  • Coke, Sir Thomas 19
  • Colchester 11 to 13
  • Colchester-water 7. Oysters taken there 8
  • Coln, River 12
  • Colnies Hundred 40
  • [Page]Constantius builds Silchester p. 244
  • Constantius Chlorus makes a Road 278, 279
  • Coombe 226, 233
  • Corse 293
  • Cornish Choughs 356
  • Cornwall described 337, 338
  • Cornwallis, Ld. his Palace 80
  • Coterels, what 144
  • Cottman, Dean 219
  • Courticello, Cardinal, his Monument 156
  • Courtney, Archbishop 170
  • Cowdrey 191, 192
  • Cows 205, 206
  • Cowick Priory 322
  • Cowley, his Retirement 211
  • Cranbrook 153, 172
  • Crockhaven Torr 328, 329
  • Cromere 65
  • Cromere Bay, what called by the Sailors 64
  • Crook, River 194
  • Crookhorn 303
  • Crooksea-water 8
  • Crouch, River ibid.
  • Cows-hall 38
  • Croydon 224, 232
  • Cuckold's Point 126
  • Cullyford 309
  • Cuthberga builds a Mona­stery 290
  • Cuttenbeck 340
  • Dagenham 5
  • Dahl, his fine Painting of Queen Anne 278
  • Darcy, Sir Conyers, his Seat 215
  • Darking 219, 220
  • Dart, River 223, 326, 330
  • Dartford 129, 130
  • Dartmouth 330 to 332
  • Davers, their Seat 80
  • Deal 163 to 165
  • Deben, River 39
  • Debenham 38
  • Deepden 219
  • Dengy Hundred 8
  • Dengyness 171
  • Deptford 117, 118
  • Devil's-drop 167
  • Devil's-dyke 80
  • Devonshire described 307
  • Devonshire, Earl of, his violent Resentment on a trifling Account 318
  • Dioclesian, his Coin 167
  • Dola 163
  • Dorchester 294, 295
  • Dorn-money, what ibid.
  • Dover 165 to 168.
  • Dover Castle 166
  • Downham 75
  • Downs 163 to 165
  • Drake, Sir Francis 325
  • Drew, Mr. murder'd 30
  • Druids, one of their Temples 350
  • Dubris 165
  • Duck, Dr. Arthur 325
  • Ducket, Andrew 97
  • Duckoys 82
  • Dulwich-wells 223, 224
  • Dungarth, King of Corn­wall, drown'd 342
  • Dungeon-hill 157
  • [Page]Dunmow, the Flitch of Bacon in the Priory there p. 20
  • Dunwich 41
  • Durdans 226
  • Durobrivis 136
  • Durolenum 154
  • Duroverus 155
  • Dutch, their Attempt on the Royal Navy 143
  • Duze, River 66
  • Dysert, Earl of, his Seat 80
  • Eanswide, Princess, builds a Nunnery 168
  • East-Angles, the Boundary of that Kingdom 80
  • Easterbergholt 36
  • East-Loe 344, 345
  • Easton 43
  • East-Tilbury 5
  • Eastwell 152
  • Ebbesflete 161
  • Eddystone 334
  • Edgar, King, builds a Nun­nery 253
  • Edmund, King 32. Where murdered 45
  • Edward the Elder, King 10
  • Edward III. places the Fle­mings at Sudbury 29. Founder of King's-hall 99. Builds Queenborough ana the Castle 146. Makes several Ordinances re­lating to Sea Affairs 147
  • Edward the Black Prince 155
  • Edward IV. begins Ports­mouth Fortifications 197. His capricious Conduct to the Foy-men 343
  • Edward VI. his Benefactions to Christ's-college 97. His Armour 283
  • Egham Causway 210
  • Egmont, Earl of, his Seat 124
  • Eleanor, Consort of Henry III. 255
  • Elizabeth, Consort of Ed­ward IV. 97
  • Elizabeth, Queen, sends the Flemings to Norwich 54. Builds larger Ships than were used before 126. Her Care for the Gran­deur of the City of Lon­don 130. Inscription to her Honour 147. Gives the Walloons a Church 157. Her Pocket-pistol 166. She builds a Cas­tle 352
  • Elliott ------ a Benefactor to St. Germans 340
  • Eltham, 125, 128
  • Ely 77
  • Epping Forest 21, 113, 114, 116
  • Epsom 225, 226
  • Erasmus, his Description of Thomas à Becket's Shrine 156
  • Erpingham, Lord 167
  • Esher 227
  • [Page]Essex describ'd p. 2, 4, 11, 111
  • Ethelbert King, his Palace 157. Pagan Chapel 158. His Queen ibid.
  • Etheldred, King, his Monu­ment 291. Founds Two Convents 312
  • Exe, River 311, 317, 318, 322, 224
  • Exeter, Marchioness of, her Monument 291
  • Exeter City 311 to 322
  • Eye 38
  • Eyles, Sir John, his House 19
  • Eyre, Sir Simon 76
  • Fagg, Sir Robert, Bart. his Seat 189
  • St. Faith's 56, 66
  • Fakenham 66
  • Falmouth Haven and Town 346 to 348
  • Farnham 196
  • Farlo 286
  • Farnham 207, 208
  • Farnham Market 194, 195
  • Feast of Reconciliation at Lynn 72
  • Felixstow 40
  • Felsted 111
  • Fens 75, 76, 81, 82, 83
  • Fetcham 215
  • Feversham 148 to 151
  • Fishes, Seventeen monstrous ones taken 75. Great Number caught at once 218, 219
  • Fishwick's Hostel p 99
  • Fitzwalter, Earl of, his Seat p 20
  • Flamstead-house p 118
  • Flats p 116
  • Fleet-ditch, a Person of Quality, and the Reverend Mr. Betham, drowned there p 244
  • Folkstone p 168
  • Fonnereau, Claude, Esq his Seat p 27
  • Ford-abbey p 308
  • Fordington p 294, 295
  • Fornham p 31
  • Fowey, River p 343
  • Fox, Bishop, his Monument p 247
  • Fox, George, his Stone Build­ing p 145
  • Fox, James, his Seat p 215
  • Fox, Sir Stephen, his Benefi­cence p 286
  • Foy p 342, 343
  • Framlingham p 44
  • Frampton, Mr. p 81
  • Fulmerston, Sir Richard, his Will p 76
  • Frog-pool p 128
  • Froom, River p 292, 293
  • Gad's-hill p 135
  • Gale, Dr. digs Bones out of several Tumuli p 123
  • Gates, Sir Thomas, ship­wreck'd p 309
  • Gatton p 222
  • [Page]George I. his Benefactions to the Universities of Cam­bridge and Oxford p. 101, 102, 103. His dangerous Voyage 175, 176. Brings Hampton-court into Re­quest 242
  • George II. his Statue at Greenwich 120
  • St. Germans 340
  • Giffard's-hall 36
  • St. Giles's-hill 252
  • Gillingham-castle 141
  • Glanvill, Sir John, and Ser­geant 326
  • Godalmin 214
  • Godolchan 351
  • Godolphin, Earl, his Seat 81
  • Godstone 222
  • Godwood 191, 194, 195
  • Gogmagog-hills 81
  • Gonevil, Edmund 95
  • Goodwin Sands 171
  • Gosport 199
  • Goudhurst 153
  • Grampound 345
  • Grant, River 82
  • Gravel-pits 2
  • Gravesend 130 to 135
  • Green-Man 3
  • Greenwich 118 to 121
  • Gregory, Sir William 38
  • Gresham, the Town 66
  • Greshams, Brothers, Lord-Mayors of London ibid.
  • Grey-coats of Kent 153
  • G [...]le-bridge 329, 330
  • G [...]ford 212, 213, 214
  • Guldy hall 19
  • Gundulph, Bishop, his Ef­figies 137
  • Gunning, Bishop of Ely 98
  • Gunpowder Treason, where contriv'd 4
  • Hackney Marsh, Stone Causeway there 2
  • Haddenham Level 83
  • Hadley 28
  • Hales, Sir John 159
  • Halesworth 45
  • Halldown 322
  • Ham 229
  • Ham-Ouze 335, 336
  • Hampton-court 236 to 242
  • Hankey, Sir Joseph, his Seat 36
  • Hanmer, Sir Thomas, his Seat ibid.
  • Harold, King, builds a Mo­nastery 113. His Grave­stone 114
  • Harrington, Lord, his Seat 230, 231
  • Hartsmere Hundred 43
  • Harwich 15 to 17
  • Hastings 177
  • Hatfield-Peverel 21, 22
  • Haverhill 36
  • St. Helens 206
  • Helford 349, 350
  • Helston 346
  • Hemingston, its merry Te­nure 36
  • Henault Forest 3, 21
  • Hengist, his Treachery 255
  • [Page]Henry II. 46. Connives at the Murder of Thomas à Becket p. 155
  • Henry III. his Battle with the Barons 187
  • Henry V. some of his Broad­pieces found 96
  • Henry VI. the Founder of King's College 95. Makes the Isle of Wight a King­dom 206
  • Henry VII. abolishes a Nun­nery 97. Inlarges Green­wich Palace, &c. 119. Augments Portsmouth For­tifications 197. Removes the Bones of Henry VI. 211. Gives the Sword to the City of Exeter 317
  • Henry VIII. his Seat 10. Demolishes the Abbey at Bary 32. Digs in vain for Gold 37. Changes the Name of Lynn Epi­scopi to Regis 69. Foun­der of Trinity College Cambridge 99. Builds a Store-house, and esta­blishes the Corporation of Trinity-house at Dept­ford 117. Holds his Feasts at Greenwich 118. Com­pletes Greenwich Palace 119. Repairs Queenbo­rough Castle, and builds others 146. Seizes on the Monastery at Canterbury 156. Builds Dover-pier 167. Builds Sandgate-castle 169. Builds South­ampton Fort 203. His Armour 283
  • Herbert, William, Bishop of Norwich 60
  • Hereford, Lord Viscount, his Seat 27
  • Hertford-castle 10
  • Hervey of Stanton 99
  • Hickling 66
  • Hide-house 251, 252
  • Hitcham, Sir Robert 38
  • Hithe, at Colchester 12
  • Hoare, Mr. his Seat 20
  • Hogmagog-hills 81
  • Hollingbourn-hill 152
  • Holm 104
  • Holmward 220, 221
  • Holt, Lord Chief Justice, his Monument 51
  • Holt, the Town 66
  • Holy-cross Hospital 252
  • Honedon 36
  • Honiton 309, 310
  • Hooker, Mr. Richard 325
  • Hop-grounds 158
  • Hops, great Plantations of them 151
  • Hopton, Sir Ralph, defeats the Parliament Army 339
  • Horndon 6
  • Horn-fair 125
  • Horse-races 78
  • Houghton 67
  • Hoxne 32, 45
  • Humphrey, Duke of Glon­cester 35, 119
  • Hunter, Governor, his Seat 124
  • Hurseley 200
  • Hythe 169
  • [Page]James I. incorporates St. Mary Magdalen's Hospi­tal p. 72
  • James II. deprives Hadley of its Charter 28. His Statue, and its servile Inscription 72, 73. Builds a Stable on Hogmagog-hills 81. Ill treated 149, 150. Adds to Portsmouth Fortifications 197
  • Jane, Lady, proclaimed Queen 45
  • Iciani 11
  • Ickworth 38
  • Icleton 108
  • Jewell, Bishop 277
  • Ilford 4
  • Indio 322
  • Infirmary at Winchester 253
  • Ingatestone 19
  • Ingatestone Hall and Town 111
  • Inigo Jones 283
  • John, King, his Gifts to the Corporation of Lynn 73. His amorous Adventure at Charlton 125. Builds a Palace 279. Changes the Day of Honiton Mar­ket 310
  • Jones ----- Esq his Seat 114
  • Jouring, what 303
  • Ipswich 23 to 27
  • Isening-street 294
  • Islip, Simon, Archbishop of Canterbury 154
  • Itching, River 203, 204
  • St. Ives 82
  • Ivil, River 303
  • Julia Domna, her Head 312, 313
  • Julius Caesar, where supposed to land 161, 163, 165
  • Julius II. Pope, abolishes a Nunnery 97
  • Ixworth 37
  • Kellington 338
  • Kelvedon 11
  • Kennington 232
  • Kent described 117, 127, 128, 129, 152
  • Kentigern and Horbus, their Tomb 154
  • Kett, his Rebellion 53, 72
  • Kett's-cotty-house 154
  • Kew-green 231
  • Kilmington 308
  • King, Bishop, his Monument 193
  • King, Lord Chancellor 326
  • King-barrow 267, 284
  • Kingsclere 243
  • King's-ferry 145
  • Kingston 226
  • Knowles, Sir Robert 136
  • Knowl-house 184
  • Lack, River 31
  • Landguard Fort 15, 16, 18
  • Land's-end 354, 356
  • [Page]Langbro' p. 286
  • Langton, Bishop, his Monu­ment 156
  • Larke, River 38
  • A Last, what 58
  • Lavant, River 192
  • Lavenham 30
  • Lavington-creek 22
  • Launceston 338
  • Layton, or Leighton-stone 3, 115
  • Leaden-hall 76
  • Leatherhead 216
  • Lech 171
  • Ledgate 36
  • Lee, River 113
  • Lee's Priory 20, 111
  • Leigh 6
  • Lemanis 169
  • Len, River 154
  • Lenham ibid.
  • Leostoff 50
  • Leskard 339
  • Lestwithiel 343, 344
  • Letheringham 43
  • Lewes 186, 187
  • Limne 169, 170, 171
  • Linton 105
  • Lisle, Sir George 11
  • Lith-hill 221, 222
  • Littlebury 107
  • Lizard Point 354, 355
  • Loe, River 344
  • London, the Ship, burnt 143
  • Loughborough-house 232
  • Low-Layton 115
  • Lucas, Sir Charles 11
  • Lucius, King, 166, 247
  • Lufkin, Richard 43
  • Luggershall 255
  • Lyme-Regis 299, 300
  • Lymington 289
  • Lynn 68 to 75
  • Madviacis 153
  • Maen-amber 351
  • Magmenots, a Norman Family 118
  • Maiden-bower 70
  • Maidstone 151, 153
  • Malden 9
  • Malden-water 7
  • Manchester, Earl of 72
  • Maningtree 22
  • Mareworth-castle 154
  • Margaret, Queen 96
  • Margaret, Countess of Rich­mond 97, 98
  • Margate 159
  • Marham 66
  • Market-Jew 349
  • Marlborough, Duke of 326
  • Martin, Sir Roger 30
  • Martin's-hall-hill 285, 286
  • Mary, Queen of France 33
  • Mary I. retires to Framling­ham-castle 45. Orders the Lord Stourton to be hang'd 277
  • Mary II. founds the Hospital at Greenwich 119. Her Apartments at Hampton-court 237. Fond of Gar­dening 238
  • Mary, Princess, becomes a Nun 255
  • St. Mary's Hamlet 203
  • St. Mary Isle 352
  • [Page] St. Mary Ottery p. 310
  • Maryland Point 2
  • Maud, Empress 46. Assisted Exeter 321
  • Maumbury, what 295
  • St. Mawes 346
  • Maynard, Sir John 326
  • Medway, River 136, 141, 142, 143, 146, 151, 152, 154, 181, 185, 186
  • Melcomb 296
  • Melford 30
  • Membury 309
  • Mendlesham 38
  • Merlin's Cave 231
  • Mersey Island 8
  • Mersh 77
  • Mew, Bishop 247
  • St. Michael's College 99
  • St. Michael's Mount 351
  • Mickleham 216
  • Midae 191
  • Midhurst ibid.
  • Milburn, Sir John 30
  • Milden-hall 38
  • Mildmay, Sir Walter 99
  • Milton 148
  • Mineral Waters, their Vir­tues 181 to 184
  • Mines, Tin, Copper, and Lead 227
  • Mole, River 216 to 219
  • Molesey 216
  • Monk, General, his Picture 313. Where born 326
  • Monmouth, Duke of 299
  • Montacute, Lord Viscount 178. His Seat 191, 192
  • Moor, Bishop of Ely 101
  • Moor-stone 337
  • Morden, Sir John, his Ho­spital at Black-heath 121 to 123
  • More-park 208, 209
  • Morley, Bishop of Win­chester 246
  • Mount-Edgcumbe 336
  • Mount's-bay 351
  • Mullets, where the best caught 190
  • Nadder, River 274, 280, 284
  • Nase, the Promontory 14
  • Needham 37
  • Needles, the Streight so called 289
  • Nene, River 82
  • Nero, his Gold Coin 311
  • Nevil, Dean of Canterbury 99
  • New-chapel, (a Chapel of Ease) 4
  • Newenden 172
  • New Forest 200. Propo­sal for settling the Pala­tines there 287 to 289
  • Newhaven 187
  • Newmarket 78, 80
  • Newmarket Heath 80
  • New Park 229
  • Newport 206
  • Newton, Sir Henry, his Seat 124
  • Newton-bushel 326
  • Neyland 29
  • Nicks, the Highwayman, [Page] his prodigious Expedition p. 135, 136
  • St. Nicolas 335
  • Nigel, second Bishop of Ely 98
  • Nonsuch 226
  • Norfolk describ'd 52, 53, 56, 65. Duke of, his extraordinary Privilege 190
  • Northampton, Henry How­ard Earl of, founds a College at Greenwich 120, 121
  • North-Foreland 14. Brick Tower there 15. Its Si­tuation 161
  • Northleigh 309
  • North Waltham 66
  • Norton 37
  • Norton, Colonel 200 to 202
  • Norwich 53, 54
  • Norwood 223
  • Ockingham 242
  • Old Basing-house 242
  • Old Sarum 273, 274
  • Onflow, Lord, his Seat 215
  • Orchestra 280
  • Ore, River 40, 44
  • Orford 40
  • Orford, Earl of 78
  • Orfordness 40
  • Orwel, River 16, 22, 23
  • Osey Island 7
  • Ouse, River 68, 77
  • Ouse, Great and Little 82
  • Oyster-fishery at Rochester 141. The best where 151
  • Palmerston, Lord Viscount, his Seat 231, 232
  • Paper-mill, the first in Eng­land 129
  • Papworth 104
  • Parker, Archbishop of Can­terbury 94
  • Park-hill 302
  • Peckham 232
  • Peckham, Bishop, his Mo­nument 156
  • Pelham, Henry, Esq his Seat 227
  • Pembroke, Earl of, his Im­provements at Wilton-house 281
  • Pendennis 346
  • Pendering-hall 36
  • Penryn 349
  • Pensance 350
  • Pepys ---- Esq 98
  • Perry, Captain, stops Da­genham Breach 5
  • Peterborough 82
  • Peterborough, Earl of, his Maze 204
  • Petersfield 207
  • Petersham 229
  • Petre, Lord 111
  • Petre, Sir William 325
  • Petworth 190
  • Pevensey Harbour 177, 178
  • Peverell, Randolph, his Story 22
  • Pheasants, where in great Plenty 65
  • Philippa, Queen 146
  • [Page]Piddle, River p. 289
  • Piercies, Earls of Northum­berland, their Seat 190
  • Pilchards, a great Shoal of them 331. Fishing for them 348, 349, 350
  • Pinnock, Mr. Henry 131
  • Placentia 119
  • Plymouth 334 to 336
  • Plympton 328, 329, 333
  • Pole, Cardinal, his Monu­ment 156
  • Polesloe Priory 322
  • Pool 289, 292
  • Poore, Bishop 276
  • Port of London, its Extent 14
  • Portchester 196
  • Portland and Castle 296 to 298
  • Portsdown-hills 198
  • Portsmouth 196 to 198
  • Powderham-castle 322
  • Powder-mill blown up 150
  • Prom-hill overflow'd 171
  • Purbeck 293
  • Purford 216
  • Pyrrhocorax 356
  • Quarley-hills 255
  • Queenborough 146 to 149
  • Raleigh, Sir Walter 325
  • Ramsgate 161
  • Ray, the learned Mr. his Monument 109, 110
  • Rayley 6
  • Raynham 67, 144
  • Rech 80
  • Rech-dyke ibid.
  • Redbridge 199
  • Redgrave 51
  • Redhouse at Deptford burnt 118
  • Redwald, King of the East-Angles 44
  • Reepham 66
  • Rendleham 44
  • Richborough-castle 161
  • Richmond 231
  • Richmond, Duke of, his Forest 196
  • Richmond, Countess of, her Retirement 212
  • Ringwood 292
  • Riverhead 223
  • Roan, Mr. John 120
  • Rochester 136, 137, 141, 142
  • Rochester Bridge 136
  • Rochester, Earl of, his House burnt 229, 230
  • Rochester Hundred 8
  • Rochford 6
  • Rocks, the natural Fortifi­cation of Britain 354 to 376
  • Roding 113
  • Rolle, Henry, Esq his Te­nure 311
  • Roman Camp, and Military Way 234, 235, 273
  • Roman Inscription 194
  • Roman, John, his Strength 338
  • [Page]Romney, Ld. his Seat p. 124
  • Romney, the Village 171
  • Romney Marsh ibid.
  • Old Romney ibid.
  • Romsey 253
  • Roodings 113
  • Rooke, Sir George 167
  • Rother, River 171, 172
  • Rotherham, Archbishop of York 100
  • Roxborough, Duke of, his Seat 210
  • Royal Catharine sunk 142
  • Royal Charles carry'd off 143
  • Royal Sovereign, how soon fitted out 140
  • Rufus, William, his Fate 286, 287
  • Rugemont-castle 313
  • Rumford 19
  • Russel, Lord, relieves Exeter 321
  • Rushbrook 80
  • Rutupiae 160
  • Ryalton 351
  • Rye 173
  • Rygate 222
  • Saffron-Walden 105
  • Salinae 303
  • Salisbury 272 to 278
  • Salisbury Plains 272, 273
  • Saltash 337
  • Saltwood-castle 170
  • Sancroft, Archbishop of Can­terbury 99
  • Sandfort-castle 296
  • Sandgate-castle 169
  • Sandown-castle 165
  • Sandwich 162
  • Sandy 303
  • Sandys, Samuel, Esq 78
  • Sanham 206
  • Saxminden 41
  • Say's-court, the Seat of Sir John Evelyn 118
  • Scarborough, Earl of, his Seat 191
  • Scilly Rocks 352
  • Scots Runts, where and how fatten'd 56
  • Sea-coast of Yarmouth very dangerous 62 to 64. dread­ful Instances of it 64, 65
  • Seckford, Thomas 39
  • Seven Burnhams 67
  • Sevenoak 186
  • Sevenoak, Sir William ibid.
  • Severus, his Silver Coins 311
  • Shaftesbury 302
  • Sheen 231
  • Sheep, great Numbers of them 295
  • Sheerness 142, 143, 144
  • Shelly, Sir John, his Seat 189
  • Shelness 149
  • Shepey Isle, 143 to 146
  • Sherlock, Bishop 276
  • Ships, how caused to stop at Gravesend 132, 133
  • Shipway 171
  • Shirebourn 301, 302
  • Shoe-beacon 7
  • Shoeberry ibid.
  • [Page]Shoeberryness p. 7
  • Shooters-hill 121, 129
  • Shoreham 188
  • Shovell, Sir Cloudesly 140 His Fate 352, 353
  • Sigebert, King 32
  • Silchester 243, 244
  • Silurum Insulae 352
  • Sitomagus 75
  • Sittingbury 148
  • Slate, the best 337
  • Smithies, Mr. Ferdinando 97
  • Snape Monastery 41, 43
  • Snare-gate 166
  • Snaybell 77
  • Snetham 67
  • Sogenhoc Chapel 43
  • Sohan 77
  • Somers, Sir George, ship-wreck'd 309
  • Somerset, Duke of, his noble Seat 190, 191
  • Sorbiodunum 273
  • South-Foreland 163
  • Southampton, 199, 202 to 204
  • Southwark 233 to 235
  • Southwick 200
  • Southwould 42. Sea-fight in its Bay 46, 47
  • Sowl bay 42
  • Spillman, Sir John 129
  • Spithead 206
  • Spits, Sands so called 8
  • Spring-garden 234
  • Squirries 222
  • Stanar 160
  • Standard-hill 178
  • Stanes-bridge 210, 211
  • Stane-street 170
  • Stannary Towns 328, 329
  • Stansted-house 196
  • Stanton-drew 359
  • Steele, Sir Richard, his Stratagem 250
  • Stephen, King 46. Founds a Monastery at Feversham 149. His and his Queen's Tombs 150
  • Steyning 188
  • Stoke juxta Neyland 36
  • Stokebridge 254
  • Stomacher 217
  • Stone-henge 256 to 266
  • Stoney-street 219
  • Storm, the great 164
  • Stour, River 16, 22, 35, 36, 108, 172, 289, 300
  • Stourbridge 301
  • Stourton, Lord, his Crime, Execution, and Monu­ment 277
  • Stow-market 37
  • Stratford, in Essex 2
  • Stratford, in Suffolk 36
  • Strethal 108
  • Stretham 224, 232
  • Stroud 137
  • Sturbridge Fair 83 to 90
  • Sudbourne 43
  • Sudbury 29
  • Sudbury, Simon Theobald, Archbishop of Canterbury ibid.
  • Suffolk, Subscription for the Widows and Orphans of Clergymen there 27, 28
  • Suffolk, High, described 40, 49, 50. For what par­ticularly [Page] famous p. 48
  • Suffolk, West, how sup­ported 50. Part of it de­scribed 79
  • Sussex described 185
  • Swain, King, takes Exeter 320
  • Swale, River 146
  • Swallows, Account of their Departure 47
  • Swallows in the River Mole 217, 219
  • Swamp 142
  • Tamar, River 335, 336, 337, 338
  • Tankerville, Earl of, his Seat 191
  • Tavistock 328, 329
  • Tavy, River 329
  • Taylor, Dr. Rowland, mar­tyr'd 28
  • Temple, Sir William, his Will 208
  • Tench, Sir Fisher, his Seat 115
  • Ten-mile-course 284
  • Tenterden 153, 171
  • Test, River 199
  • Thames, River 121, 124, 127, 229, 232
  • Thanet, Earls of, several of their Monuments 144
  • Thanet Isle 159
  • Theodosius, his Coin 311
  • Thetford 54, 75
  • Thompson, Robert, Esq his Tomb 154
  • Thorndon 111 to 113
  • Thorney Isle 77
  • Thornhill, Sir James, his fine Paintings at Green­wich 120
  • Three Hundreds, Marshes in Essex so called 6. Their Names 8. Fatal to the Fair Sex, and why ibid.
  • Thrembethe-bridge 145
  • Tichfield 199
  • Tidwell 309
  • Tilbury Fort 5, 6
  • Tilney, Earl, his Seat 114, 115
  • Timber, prodigious Quanti­ties still remaining in Eng­land 185, 190
  • Tin Mines 355, 356
  • Tofts, Mary, the Rabbet-woman 214
  • Tonstal, Bishop of Durham 100
  • Tooting 233
  • Torbay 332
  • Torr-abbey ibid.
  • Totness 326 to 328
  • Town-Malling 223
  • Townshend, late Lord Vis­count, his Benefactions 74, 101
  • Travelling Norfolk Fellow­ship 98
  • Trausantum 203
  • Tregony 345, 348
  • Tremod-ferry 145
  • Trewardreth Bay and Town 345
  • Truro 345, 346, 347, 348
  • Tulip-tree, a fine one 114
  • [Page]Tunbridge p. 179 to 184
  • Tunn, River 180
  • Tunstall, Broad-pieces found there 159
  • Turkeys, prodigious Droves of them 48, 49
  • Turneps, where first used for feeding Cattle 48
  • Vaga 153
  • Vagniacis ibid.
  • Venta Icenorum 53
  • Venus, her Marble Statue, 281
  • Vespasian, where he landed 332
  • Ufford 43
  • Ufford, John, Archbishop of Canterbury 154
  • Villa Faustini 10
  • Vindomia 243
  • Vortimer, King, his Sepul­chre 160
  • Uplime 309
  • Upnor 142
  • Uvall, Bishop 277
  • Uvius, Prior of Hulm 32
  • Wainfleet, Bishop, his Mo­nument 247, 248
  • Waller, Sir William, ruins the Bishop's Palace at Win­chester, &c. 246
  • The Walls 285, 294
  • Walmar-castle 165
    • Walpole, Sir Robert, his Seat 67. His singular Felicity 68. Inscription on the Foundation stone of his House ibid.
  • Walsingham 67
  • Waltham-abbey 113
  • Waltheof, Earl, beheaded by William I. 252
  • Walton, in Essex, Copperas found there 15
  • Walton in Suffolk 39
  • Walton in Surry 228
  • Wansdike 280
  • Wansled-house 3, 116
  • Ward, Bishop, his Bene­faction, and Monument 277
  • Wareham 293
  • Warham, Archbishop, rails Rochester Bridge with Iron 136
  • Warminster 280
  • Warner, Bishop of Rochester 223
  • Warwick, Earl of, and King of Wight, his Pa­lace 206, 233
  • Watermen, Act for regu­lating them 134
  • Watling-street 123, 137, 165
  • Waveney, River 45, 46, 50, 55
  • Weald 190
  • The Weddings 350
  • Welland, River 82
  • Wells 66
  • Westerham 222
  • West-Hythe 169
  • West-Loe 344, 345
  • [Page]Wey, River p. 212, 216, 296
  • Weybridge 228
  • Weyburn-Hope 66
  • Weyhill 254, 255
  • Weymouth 294, 296
  • Whalebone 3
  • Wheatear, the Bird 180
  • Whitchurch 243
  • Whitgift, Archbishop, his Charities 224
  • Wickham Market 43
  • Wight, Isle 205 to 207
  • Wightred, King of Kent 165
  • William the Conqueror translates the See of Dunwich to Thetford 42. Takes Norwich 53. Builds a Castle at Cambridge 104. Obliges Harold to take an Oath 166. Where he landed 177. His de­cisive Battle, ibid. Insti­tutes an Abbey ibid. His Tyranny 286
  • William of Wickham, As­sistant to Edward III. in building Windsor-castle 146. His Monument 248. His History 248, 249
  • William III. restores Aud­ley-end to the Earl of Suf­folk 106. Founds Green­wich Hospital 119. Im­proves Hampton-court 237. His Taste for Paint­ing 240, 241 Where he landed 332. Causes a wet Dock to be built at Plymouth 336
  • Willy, River 274, 280, 281, 284
  • Wilton-house, and Town 280, 285
  • Wilts describ'd 279
  • Wimbleton 233
  • Wimbourn, St. Gyles's 292
  • Wimburn-minster 253, 290, 291, 292
  • Wimple-hall 104
  • Winchelsea, Old and New 176, 189
  • Winchelsea, the Ship, lost 334, 335
  • Winchester, Bishop of, his Palace 208
  • Winchester 246 to 253
  • Windsor Forest 209
  • Wingham 163
  • Winstanley, Mr. his inge­nious Contrivances 107, 108. His unhappy Fate 334
  • Wintertonness 62
  • Wisbich 76
  • Witham Town and Castle 10
  • Wobourn-farm 228, 229
  • Woelfleet Bank and Oysters 7
  • Woking 211 212
  • Wolsey, Cardinal, his Birth, and various Fortunes 26. His Seat 227
  • Women, their Bravery and Success at Dartmouth 332
  • Woodbridge 39
  • Woodlark, Robert 97
  • Woodward, Dr. his Bene­factions to the University [Page] of Cambridge p. 103
  • Woolwich 126, 127
  • Worsted 66
  • Wotton 220, 221
  • Wren, Sir Christopher, strengthens Salisbury Spire 275
  • Wrey, Lord Chief Justice 98
  • Wring-cheese, what 342
  • Wrotham 223
  • Wulpit 37
  • Wyvenhoe 8
  • Yare, River 54, 55, 57, 58
  • Yarmouth 57 to 62
  • Yarmouth, South 206
  • Yarnbury 280
  • Yeomen of Kent 153
  • Yeovil 330

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