The Effigies of Mr Duncan Campbell the Dumb Gentleman

THE HISTORY OF THE LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF Mr. DUNCAN CAMPBELL, A Gentleman, who, tho' Deaf and Dumb, writes down any Stranger's Name at first Sight; with their future Contingencies of Fortune. Now Living In Exeter Court over-against the Savoy in the Strand.

Gentem quidem nullam video neque tam humanam atque doctam; neque tam immanem tamque barbaram, que non significari fu­tura & a quibusdam intelligi pradicique posse censeat. Cicero de Divinatione, lib. x.

LONDON: Printed for E. CURLL: And sold by W. MEARS and T. JAUNCY without Temple Bar, W. MEADOWS in Cornhill, A. BETTESWORTH in Pater-Noster-Row, W. LEWIS in Covent Garden, and W. GRAVES in St. James's Street. M.DCC.XX. (Price 5s.)


I Am not unacquainted, that, ever since this Book was first promis'd by way of Advertise­ment to the World, it was greedily co­veted by a great many Persons of any Tempers, for the same reason, that it has been condemn'd by those of a more [Page 4] formal Class, who thought it was cal­culated partly to introduce a great ma­ny new and diverting Curiosities in the way of Superstition, and partly to di­vulge the secret Intrigues and Amours of one part of the Sex, to give the other part room to make favourite Scan­dal the Subject of their Discourse; and so to make one half of the fair Species very merry, over the Blushes and the Mortifications of the other half. But when they come to read the following Sheets, they will find their Expecta­tions disappointed, (but I hope I may say too) very agreeably disappointed. They will find a much more elegant Entertainment than they expected. In­stead of making them a Bill of Fare out of patchwork Romances of polluting Scandal; the good old Gentleman who wrote the Adventures of my Life, has made it his Business to treat them with a great variety of entertaining Passa­ges which always terminate in Morals, that tend to the Edification of all Rea­ders [Page 5] of whatsoever Sex, Age, or Pro­fession. Instead of seducing young, in­nocent, unwary Minds into the vicious delight, which is too often taken in reading the gay and bewitching Chi­meras of the Caballists, and in per­using the inticing Fables of new-invent­ed Tricks of Superstition, my ancient Friend, the Writer, strikes at the very Root of these Superstitions, and shews them, how they may be satisfy'd in their several Curiosities, by having re­course to time, who by the Talent of the Second-sight (which he so beauti­fully represents, how Nature is so kind frequently to implant in the Minds of Men born in the same Climate with myself) can tell you those things na­turally, which when you try to learn your selves, you either run the Hazard of being impos'd upon in your Pockets by Cheats, Gypsies and common Fortune­tellers, or else of being impos'd upon, in a still worse way, in your most last­ing Welfare, by having recourse to [Page 6] Conjurers or Inchanters that deal in Black Arts, and involve all their Con­sulters in one general Partnership of their execrable Guilt; or lastly, of imposing worst of all on your own selves, by getting into an Itch of practising and trying the little Tricks of Female Superstition, which are often more officiously handed down, by the Tra­dition of credulous Nurses and old Wo­men, from one Generation to another, than the first Principles of Christian Doctrine, which 'tis their Duty to instil early into little Children. But I hope when this Book comes to be pretty generally read among you La­dies, (as by your generous and numerous Subscriptions, I have good reason to expect) that it will afford a perfect Remedy and a thorough Cure to that Distemper, which first took its Rise from too great a Growth of Curiosity, and too large a Stock of Credulity nur­sed prejudicially up with you in your more tender and infant Years.

[Page 7] Whatever young Maid hereafter has an innocent but longing Desire to know who shall be her Husband, and what time she shall be marry'd, will, I hope, when she has read in the fol­lowing Sheets of a Man that can set her right in the Knowledge of those Points, purely by possessing the Gift of the Second-sight, sooner have re­course innocently to such a Man than use unlawful Means to acquire it, such as running to Conjurers to have his Figure shewn in their inchanted Glasses, or using any of those traditio­nal Superstitions, by which they may dream of their Husbands, or cause visionary Shapes of them to appear on such and such Festival Nights of the Year; all which Practises are not ordinarily wicked and impious, but downright diabolical. I hope that the next twenty ninth of June, which is St. John Baptist's Day, I shall not see the several Pasture Fields adjacent [Page 8] to this Metropolis, especially that be­hind Montague House, throng'd, as they were the last Year, with well drest young Ladies crawling busily up and down upon their Knees, as if they were a parcel of Weeders, when all the Business is to hunt superstitiously after a Coal under the Root of a Plan­tain, to put under their Heads that Night, that they may dream who should be their Husbands. In order to shame them out of this silly but guilty Practice, I do intend to have some Spies out on that Day, that shall dis­cover who they are, and what they have been about; and I here give notice to the Publick, that this ill-acted Co­medy (if it be acted at all this Year) must begin according to the Rule of their Superstition, on that Day precisely at the Hour of Twelve. And so much for the pretty Weeders: But as you (Ladies) have had several Magical Traditions deliver'd to you, which, if you put in Exercise and Practice, will [Page 9] be greatly prejudicial to your Honour and your Virtue; let me interpose my Counsels, which will conduct you inno­cuously to the same end, which some Ladies have labour'd to arrive at by these Impieties. Give me leave first to tell you, that tho' what you aim at may be arriv'd to by these Means, yet these Means make that a miserable Fortune which would have been a good one; because in order to know human Things beforehand, you use preterna­tural Mediums, which destroy the Goodness of the Courses, which Nature her self was taking for you, and an­nexes to them diabolical Influences, which commonly carry along with them Fatalities in this World as well as the next. You will therefore give me your Pardon likewise, Ladies, if I relate some other of these Practices, which bare relation of it self, after what I have said before, seems to me sufficient to explode them.

[Page 10] Another of the Nurses Prescriptions is this. Upon a St. Agnes's Night, the 21st Day of January, take a Row of Pins and pull out every one, one after another, saying a Pater noster, or Our Father, sticking a Pin in your Sleeve, and you will dream of her you shall marry. Ben Johnson in one of his Maskes makes some mention of this.

And on sweet St. Agnes Night
Please you with the promis'd sight,
Some of Husbands, some of Lovers.
Which an empty Dream discovers.

Now what can be more infinitely pro­phane than to use the Prayer of our Lord instituted in such a way?

There is another Prescription, which is as follows: You must lie in another County, and knit the left Garter about the right-legg'd Stocking (let the other [Page 11] Garter and Stocking alone) and as you rehearse these following Verses, at eve­ry Comma knit a Knot.

This Knot I knit,
To know the thing I know not yet,
That I may see
The Man that shall my Husband be:
How he goes, and what he wears,
And what he does all Days and Years.

Accordingly in your Dream you will see him: If a Musitian with a Lute or other Instrument; if a Scholar with a Book, &c. Now I appeal to you, Ladies, what a ridiculous Prescription is this? But yet as slight a thing as it is, it may be of great Importance if it be brought about, because then it must be construed to be done by preter­natural Means, and then those Words are nothing less than an Application to the Devil.

[Page 12] Mr. Awbrey of the Royal Society says, a Gentlewoman, that he knew, confessed in his hearing that she used this Method, and dreamt of her Hus­band whom she had never seen: About two or three Years after, as she was one Sunday at Church, up pops a young Oxonian in the Pulpit; she cries out presently to her Sister, this is the very Face of the Man I saw in my Dream. Sir William Somes's Lady did the like.

Another way is to charm the Moon thus, (as the old Nurses give out) at the first Appearance of the Moon after New-years-day, (some say any other New Moon is as good) go out in the Evening, and stand over the Sparrs of a Gate or Stile, looking on the Moon (here remark that in Yorkshire they kneel on a Ground-fast Stone) and say,

[Page 13]
All hail to the Moon, all hail to thee,
I prithee good Moon reveal to me
This Night who my Husband shall be.

You must presently after go to Bed: The aforesaid Mr. Awbrey knew two Gentlewomen that did thus when they were young Maids, and they had Dreams of those that married them.

But a great many of the wittiest part of your Sex laugh at these common Superstitions; but then they are apt to run into worse: They give themselves up to the reading of the Cabalistical Systems of Sylphs, and Gnomes, and Mandrakes, which are very wicked and delusive Imaginations.

I would not have you imagin (La­dies) that I impute these things as In­firmities and Frailties peculiar to your Sex. No; Men, and great Men too, [Page 14] and Scholars, and even Statesmen and Princes themselves have been tainted with Superstitions; and where they in­fect the Minds of such great Persona­ges, they make the deeper Impression, according to the stronger and more man­ly Ideas they have of them. Their greater degree of Strength in the In­tellect only subjects them to greater Weaknesses; such was even the great Paracelsus, the Wonder and Miracle of Learning in the Age wherein he liv­ed, and such were all his Followers, Scholars, Statesmen, Divines, and Princes that are Talismanists.

These Talismans that Paracelsus pretends to owe to the Excogitation and Invention of honest Art, seem to me to be of a very diabolical Nature, and to owe their Rise to being dedicated by the Author to the Heathen Gods. Thus the Cabalists pretending to a vast Penetration into Arts and Sciences (tho' all their Thoughts are Chimeras and [Page 15] Extravagancies, unless they be help'd by preternatural Means) say they have found out the several Methods appro­priated to the several Planets: They have appropriated Gold to the Sun on the Sunday, Silver to the Moon on the Monday, Iron to Mars on the Tues­day, Quicksilver to Mercury on the Wednesday, Tin to Jupiter on the Thursday, Copper or Brass to Venus on the Friday, and Lead to Saturn on the Saturday. The Methods they take in forming these Talismans are too long to dwell upon here. But the Properties which they pretend belong to them are, that the first Talisman or Seal of the Sun will make a Man beloved by all Princes and Potentates, and cause him to abound with all the Riches his Heart can wish. The se­cond preserves Travellers from Dan­ger, and is favourable to Merchants, Tradesmen, and Workmen. The third carries Destruction to any place where it is put; and 'tis said that a certain [Page 16] great Minister of State order'd one of these to be carry'd into England in the Times of the Revolution of Govern­ment caused by Oliver Cromwell. The fourth they pretend cures Fevers and other Diseases; and if it be put under the Bolster, it makes the Pro­prietor have true Dreams, in which he sees all he desires to know. The fifth, according to them, renders a Man lucky and fortunate in all his Businesses and Undertakings. It dissi­pates Melancholy, drives away all importunate Cares, and banishes pa­nick Fears from the Mind. The sixth, by being put into the Liquor which any one drinks, reconciles mortal Enemies, makes them intimate Friends; it gains the Love of all Women, and renders the Proprietor very dextrous in the Art of Musick. The seventh makes Women be easily brought to Bed without Pain; and if a Horseman carries it in his left Boot, himself and his Horse become invulnerable.

[Page 17] This Paracelsus and his learned Followers say is owing to the Insluence of the Stars; but I can't help argu­ing these Acts of diabolical Impiety. But as these Arts are rarely known a­mong the midling part of Mankind, I shall neither open their Mysteries, nor inveigh against them any farther.

The Persons, who are most to be avoided, are your ordinary Fortune­telling Women and Men about this Town, whose Houses ought to be a­voided as a Plague or a Pestilence, either because they are Cheats and Impostors, or because they deal with Black Arts, none of them that I know having any Pretensions to the Gift of a Second-sight. Among many, a few of the most notorious, that I can call to mind now, are as follow. The first and chiefest of these mischievous For­tune-tellers is a Woman that does not live far from the Old Bailey. And [Page 18] truly the Justice Hall in that Place is the properest Place for her to appear at, where, if she was try'd for pre­tending to give Charms written upon Paper with odd Scrawls, which she calls Figures, she would be probably convicted, and very justly condemn'd, and doom'd to have her last Journey from the Old Bailey to Newgate, and from Newgate to Tyburn. The other is a Fellow that lives in Moor­fields, in which Place, those who go to consult him, ought to live all their Life-times at the famous Palaces of the senseless Men: He is the Successor of the famous Dr. Trotter, whose Widow he marry'd; and from being a Taylor and patching Mens Garments, he now cuts Fl [...] with his Sheers upon [...], considers the Hea­vens as a Garment, and from the Spangles thereupon, he calculates Na­tivities, and sets up for a very pro­found Astrologer. The third is an ig­norant Fellow that kaws out strange [Page 19] Predictions in Crow-Alley, of whose croaking Noise I shall here take no Notice, he having been sufficiently mawl'd in the most ingenious Specta­tors. These and such Counterfeits as these I would desire all Gentlemen and Ladies to avoid. The only two really learned Men, that I ever knew in the Art of Astrology, were my good Friends Dr. Williams and Mr. Gad­bury; and I thought it necessary to pay this Esteem to their Manes, let the World judge of them what it will. I will here say no more, nor hinder you any longer, Gentlemen and Ladies, from the Diversion which my good old Friend, who is now departed this Life, has prepared for you in his Book, which a young Gentleman of my Ac­quaintance revised, and only subscribe my self,



  • CHAP. I. MR. Campbell's Descent, Fa­mily, Birth, &c. Page 8. Also an Account of Mr. Ar­chibald Campbell's Travels into Lapland, where he married a rich Lady of that Country, who was Daughter to the Under-Praefect or Deputy Governor of the District of Uma Lapmark; with some Let­ters from him to his Father in the Isle of Schetland in Scotland, par­ticularly one concerning the Birth of his Son our present Mr. Duncan Campbell. p. 16
  • [Page] CHAP. II. After the Death of Mr. Duncan Campbell's Mother in Lapland, his Father Mr. Archibald Camp­bell return'd into Scotland with his little Son and Family. His second Marriage; and how his Son being born Deaf and Dumb, was first learn'd to read and write. p. 32
  • CHAP. III. The Method of teaching Deaf and Dumb Persons to write, read, and understand a Language. p. 38
  • CHAP. IV. Young Duncan Campbell returns with his Mother to Edinburgh. The Earl of Argyll's Overthrow. The Ruin of Mr. Archibald Campbell, and his Death: Young Duncan's Prac­tice [Page] in Prediction at Edinburgh, while yet a Boy. p. 55
  • CHAP. V. An Argument proving the Perception, which Men have had, and have, by all the Senses, as Seeing, Hear­ing, &c. of Daemons, Genii, or Familiar Spirits. p. 78
  • CHAP. VI. A Narrative of Mr. Campbell's com­ing to London, and taking upon him the Profession of a Predictor; together with an Account of many strange Things that came to pass just as he foretold. p. 124
  • CHAP. VII. A Philosophical Discourse concerning the Second-sight. p. 175
  • [Page] CHAP. VIII. A Dissertation upon Magick under all its Branches, with some remarka­ble Particulars relating to Mr. Campbell's private Life. p. 205
  • The first Objection against the Existence of Spirits, and the Refutations there­of. p. 260
  • The second Objection against the Exi­stence of Witches. p. 270
  • The Appendix.

[Page]THE HISTORY OF THE LIFE AND Surprizing ADVENTURES OF Mr. Duncan Campbell.


OF all the Writings delivered in a Historical manner to the World; none certainly were ever held in greater Esteem than those, which give us the Lives of distinguished private Men at full length; and, as I may say, to the [Page 2] Life. Such curious Fragments of Biography are the Rarities, which great Men seek after with eager Industry, and, when found; prize them as the Chief Jewels and Ornaments, that enrich their Libraries: And deservedly; for they are the Beauties of the greatest Men's Lives handed down by way of Example or Instruction to Posterity, and commonly hand­ed down likewise by the greatest Men. Since therefore, Persons distinguished for Merit in one Kind or other, are the constant Subjects of such Discourses, and the most Elegant Writers of each Age have been usually the only Authors, who chuse upon such Subjects to employ their Pens, and since Persons of the highest Rank, and Dignity, and Genij of the most refined and delicate Relish, are fre­quently curious enough to be the Readers of them, and to esteem them the most valuable Pieces in a whole Collection of Learned Works. It is a Wonder to me, that when any Man's Life has something in it peculiarly Great and Remarkable in its Kind, it should not move some more skilful Writer than my self to give the Publick a Taste of it, because it must be at least vastly Entertaining, if it be not, which is next to impossible, immensly Instructive and Profitable withal.

If ever the Life of any Man under the Sun was Remarkable, this Mr. Duncan Campbell's, which I am going to treat upon, is so, to a very eminent Degree.

[Page 3] It affords such variety of Incidents, and is accompanied with such diversity of Cir­cumstances, that it includes within it, what must yield entire Satisfaction to the most lear­ned, and Admiration to Persons of a mode­rate Understanding. The Prince and the Peasant will have their several Ends of wor­thy Delight in reading it; and Mr. Camp­bell's Life is of that Extent, that it concerns and collects (as I may say) within it self eve­ry Station of Life in the Universe. Besides, There is a Demand in almost every Page, that relates any new Act of his, for the finest and closest Disquisitions that Learning can make upon human Nature, to account how those Acts could be done by him. For he daily practised, and still practices those Things naturally, which puts Art to the rack to find out how Nature can so operate in him; and his fleshly Body, by these Operations, is a living practical System or Body of new Phi­losophy, which exceeds even all those that have hitherto been compounded by the Labor and Art of many Ages.

If one that had speculated deep into ab­struse matters, and made it his Study, not only to know, how to assign natural Reasons for some strange new Acts, that looked like Miracles by being peculiar to the individual Genius of some particular admired Man, but carrying his Enquiry to a much greater height had speculated likewise, what might [Page 4] possibly be achieved by human Genius in the full Perfection of Nature, and had laid it down as a Thesis by strong Arguments, that such Things might be compassed by a human Genius (if in its true degree of Perfection) as are the hourly Operations of the Person's Life I am writing, he would have been coun­ted a wild Romantick Enthusiast, instead of a Natural Philosopher. Some of the wisest would be Infidels to so new and so refined a Scheme of Thinking, and demand Experiment, or cry it was all against Reason, and would not allow the least Tittle to be true without it. Yet the Man that had found out so great a Myste­ry, as to tell us, what Might be done by Hu­man Genius, as it is here actually done, would have been a great Man within himself; but wanting farther, Experimental Proof could lay no claim to the Belief of others, or consequently to their Esteem: But how great then is the Man, who makes it constantly his Practice, actually to Do, what would not otherwise have been thought to be of such a Nature, as might ever be acquired by mortal Capacity, tho' in its full Complement of all possible Perfection? He is not only great within himself, he is great to the World; his Experiments force our Belief, and the a­mazing Singularity of those Experiments, provokes both our Wonder and Esteem.

If any learned Man should have advanced this Proposition, that meer human Art could [Page 5] give to the Deaf-Man, what should be equal to his Hearing, and to the Dumb-Man an equi­valent for his want of Speech, so that he should converse as freely almost, as other Hearing or Talking Persons, that he might tho' born Deaf, be by Art taught, how to Read, Write, and understand any Language, as well as Students that have their Hearing, would not the World, and many even of the Learned Part of it say, that nothing could be more extravagantly Wild, more Mad and Frantick? The learned Dr. Wallis, Geome­try Professor of Oxford, did first of all lay down this Proposition, and was counted by many to have overshot the Point of Learning, and to have been the Author of a whimsical Thesis. And I should not have wondered, if, after a Man's having asserted This might be done before it was actually done, some blind devout People, in those Days, had ac­cused him of Heresy, and of attributing to Men a Power of working Miracles. The Notion of the Antipodes was by the most lear­ned Men of the Age in which St. Augustin lived, and by the Great St. Austin himself treated in no milder a manner; yet if the Abi­lity of teaching the Deaf and the Dumb a Lan­guage, proved a Truth in Experience after­wards, ought not those to turn their Con­tempt into Admiration, ought not those very People to Vote him into the Royal Society for laying down this Proposition, who, before it proved true in Fact, would have been very [Page 6] forward to have sent him to Bedlam? The first Instance of this Accomplishment in a Dumb Person, was proved before King Charles II. by this same Dr. Wallis, who was a Fellow of the Royal Society, and one of the most ingenious of that Society.

But notwithstanding this, should I come afterwards and say, that there is now living a Deaf and Dumb Man, and born so, who could by dint of his own Genius teach all others Deaf and Dumb to Read, Write, and Converse with the Talking and Hearing Part of Mankind, some would, I warrant, very religiously conclude, that I was about to in­troduce some strange new Miracle-Monger and Impostor into the World; with a Design of setting up some new Sect of Antichristian­ism, as formidable as that of the Brachmans. Should I proceed still farther and say, that this same Person so Deaf and Dumb, might be able also to shew a presaging Power, or kind of prophetical Genius (if I may be al­lowed the Expression) by telling, any strange Persons, he never saw before in his Life, their Names at first Sight in Writing, and by tell­ing them the past Actions of their Lives, and predicting to them determined Truths of fu­ture Contingencies; notwithstanding what Divines say, that In futuris contingentibus non datur determinata veritas, would not they conclude that I was going to usher in a new Mahomet? Since therefore there does exist such a Man in London, who actually is Deaf [Page 7] and Dumb, and was born so, who does Write and Read, and Converse as well as any Body, who teaches others Deaf and Dumb to Write and Read, and Converse with any Body, who likewise can, by a presaging Gift, set down in Writing the Name of any Stranger at first Sight, tell him his past Actions, and predict his future Occurrences in Fortune, and since he has practised this Talent as a Profession with great Success, for a long Series of Years, upon innumerable Persons in every State and Vocation of Life, from the Peeress to the Waiting-Woman, and from the Lady Mayoress to the Milliner and Sempstress, will it not be wonderfully Entertaining to give the World a perfect History of this so singular a Man's Life? And while we are relating the pleasant Adventures with such prodigious Variety, can any thing be more agreeably instructive in a New Way, than to intersperse the Reasons, and account for the manner how Nature, having a mind to be remarkable, performs by him Acts so myste­rious.

I have premised this Introduction, com­pounded of the Merry and the Serious, with the Hopes of engaging many curious People of all sorts to be my Readers, even from the airy nice Peruser of Novels and Romances, neatly Bound, and finely Gilt, to the grave Philosopher, that is daily thumbing over the musty and tatter'd Pieces of more solid Anti­quity. [Page 8] I have all the Wonders to tell, that such a merry kind of a Prophet has told, to Entertain the Fancies of the first gay Tribe, by which means I may intice them into some solid Knowledge and Judgment of Human Nature; and I have several solid Disquisi­tions of Learning to make, Accounting for the manner of these Mysterious Operations, never touched upon before, in due Form and Order by the Hands of the Antient or Mo­dern Sages, that I may Bribe the Judgment of this last Grave Class so far, as to endure the Intermixing of Entertainment with their severer Studies.

CHAP. I. Mr. CAMPBELL'S Descent, Family, Birth, &c.

OF the Goodness and Antiquity of the Name and Family of this Gentle­man, No body can ever make any Questi­on: He is a Campbell, Lineally Descended from the House of Argyll, and bears a di­stant Relation to the present Duke of that Name in Scotland, and who is now Consti­tuted a Duke of England, by the Stile and Title of the Duke of Greenwich.

It happens frequently, that the Birth of Extraordinary Persons is so long disputed by different People, each claiming him for their own, that the real p [...] where he first took [Page 9] Breath grows at last dubious: And thus it fares with the Person, who is the Subject of the following Sheets; as therefore it is my Proposal to have a strict regard to Historical Faith, so am I obliged to tell the Reader that I can with no certainty give an Account of him, till after he was Three Years Old; from which Age I knew him even to this Day: I will Answer for the Truths which I impart to the Publick during that Time, and as for his Birth and the Circumstances of it, and how the first Three Years of his Life passed; I can only deliver them the same Account I have received from others, and leave them to their own Judgments, whether it ought to be deemed Real or Fabulous.

The Father of our Mr. Duncan Campbell (as these relate the Story) was from his Infancy of a very curious inquisitive Nature, and of an Enterprizing Genius, and if he heard of any thing Suprizing to be seen, the Difficulty in Practise was enough to recom­mend to him the attempting to get a sight of it at any rate or any Hazard. It is certain, that during some Civil broils and troubles in Scotland, the Grandfather of our Mr. Camp­bell was driven with his Wife and Family by the Fate of War into the Isle of Schetland, where he lived many Years, and during his Residence there, Mr. Archibald Campbell, the Father of our Duncan Campbell, was Born.

[Page 10] Schetland lies North-East from Orkney, between 60 and 61 Degrees of Latitude. The largest Isle of Schetland by the Natives called the Main-Land, is sixty Miles in Length, from South-West to the North-East, and from sixteen, to one Mile, in Breadth.

The People who Live in the smaller Isles have abundance of Eggs and Fowl, which Contributes to maintain their Families du­ring the Summer.

The ordinary Folks are mostly very nim­ble and active in climbing the Rocks in quest of those Eggs and Fowl. This Exercise is far more diverting than Hunting and Hawking among us, and would certainly for the Plea­sure of it, be followed by People of greater Distinction, was it not attended with very great Dangers, sufficient to turn sport into sorrow, and which have often proved fatal to those who too eagerly pursue their Game. Mr. Archibald Campbell however delighted extreamly in this way of Fowling, and used to condescend to mix with the common People for Company, because none of the Youths of his Rank and Condition were ven­turesome enough to go along with him.

The most remarkable Experiment of this sort, is at the Isle called the Noss of Brassah: The Noss standing at sixteen fathom distance from the side of the Opposite Main; the higher and lower Rocks have two Stakes fastened in each of them, and to these there [Page]


[Page 11] are Ropes tied: Upon the Ropes there is an Engine hung which they call a Cradle, and in this a Man makes his way over from the greater to the smaller Rocks, where he makes a Considerable purchase of Eggs and Fowl; but his return being by an Ascent, makes it the more Dangerous, tho' those on the great Rock have a Rope tied to the Cra­dle, by which they draw it and the Man safe over for the most part? Over this Rock Mr. Archibald Campbell and five others were in that manner let down by Cradles and Ropes; but before they could be all drawn back again it grew Dark, and their Associ­ates not daring to be benighted, were forced to withdraw, and Mr. Campbell was the un­fortunate Person left behind, having wan­dered too far, and not minded how the Day declined being intent on his Game. He passed that Night, you may easily guess, without much Sleep, and with great Anxiety of Heart. The night too as he lay in the open Air was, to add to his Misfortune, as Boiste­rous and Tempestuous as his own mind; but in the end the Tempest proved very hap­py for him: The Reader is to understand that the Hamburghers, Bremeners and Hol­landers, carry on a great Fish Trade there. Accordingly a Holland Vessel that was just coming in the sound of Brassah, was by this Tempest driven into a Creek of the Rock, which Nature had made into a Harbonr, [Page 12] and they were Providentially saved from the bottom of the Sea by a Rock, from which humanly speaking they could expect nothing but Destruction, and being sent to the bot­tom of that Sea. As never could a Man be taken hold of with so sudden and surprizing a Disaster, so no body could meet with a more sudden and surprizing Relief than Mr. Campbell found, when he saw a Ship so near. He made to the Vessel, and begged the Hollanders to take him in; they asked him what he would give them, or said the Barbarous Sailors, we will even leave you where you are; he told them his disaster, but they asked Money and nothing else would move them: As he knew them a self inte­rested People, he bethought himself, that if he should tell them of the plenty of Fowls and Eggs they would get there; he might not only be taken in a Passenger, but made a Partner in the Money arising from the Stock; It succeeded accordingly, when he proposed it, the whole Crew were all at Work, and in four hours, pretty well stored the Vessel, and then returning on board set Sail for Holland. They offered Mr. Campbell to put him in at his own Island: But having a mind to see Holland, and being a Partner, to learn their way of Merchandize: which he thought he might turn to hi, Country Mens Advantage, he told them he would go the Voyage out with them, and see [Page 13] the Country of those who were his De­liverers, a necessary way of Speech, when one has a Design to sooth Barbarians, who but for Interest would have left him unre­deemed, and for ought they knew a perpetual sole Inhabitant of a Dreadful Rock, incom­passed round with Precipices, some, three hun­dred Fathom high. Not so, the Islanders (who are wrongly called a Savage set of Mortals) no, they came in quest of him after so bitter a Night, not doubting to find him, but fearing to find him in a Lamentable Con­dition: they hunted and ransacked every lit­tle hole and corner in the Rock, but all in vain. In one place they saw a great Slaugh­ter of Fowls enough to serve forty Families for a Week; and then they Guessed, tho' they had not the ill Fortune to meet the Eagles frequently noted to hover about those Isles, that they might have Devoured part of him on some Precipice of the Rock, and dropt the Remnant into the Sea. Night came upon them, and they were afraid of falling into the same Disaster, they went to relieve Mr. Campbell from. They returned each to their proper Basket, and were drawn up safe by their respective Friends, who were amazed that one Basket was drawn up empty which was let down for Mr. Campbell, and that there was not the least Intelligence to be had Concerning him, but the Suppositi­ous Story of his having been Devour'd by [Page 14] Eagles. The Story was told at Home; and with the Lamentation of the whole Family, and all his Friends; he was looked upon to be Murthered or Dead.

Return we now to Mr. Archibald Camp­bell still alive, and on Board the Holland Vessel; secure as he thought within himself, that from the Delivery he lately had by the Gift of Providence, he was not intended to be liable to any more Misfortunes and Dan­gers of Life, in the Compass of so small a Voyage. But his Lot was placed otherwise in the Book of Fate, than he too fondly imagined: His Time of Happiness was dated some Pages lower down, and more rubs and difficulties were to be Encountered with, before his Stars intended to lead him to the Port of Felicity. Just as he Arrived with­in sight of Amsterdam, a Terrible Storm arose, and in Danger of their Lives, for many Hours, they Weathered out the Tempest; and a Calm promising fair afresh, they made to the Coast of Zealand; but a new Hurricane prevented the Ship from coming there also; and after having lost their Masts and Rig­ging, they were driven into Lapland. There they went a Shore in order to carren and repair their Ship, and take in Provisions, while the Ship was Repairing by the Dutch, our Islander made merry with the Inhabi­tants, being the most inclined to their Super­stitious Customs; he there became acquainted [Page 15] with a very Beautiful Woman, who fell in Love with him, and after a very short space of Time he Married her. About the Time when the Ship departed, his Wife who was very Rich, was big with Child of a Son, name­ly, Mr. Duncan Campbell. He wrote a Letter by the Master of the Vessel to his Parents, in Schetland, concerning the various Adventures he had met with, which was delivered the June following, about the time of Fishing, to his Parents, and several Persons had Copies thereof, and for ought I know, some retain them to this very Day; sure I am, that many remember the Particulars of this Sur­prizing Affair, who are now living in that Island.

The Letter being very Remarkable and Singular in all its Circumstances: I shall present it the Reader Word for Word, as it was given into my Hands, together with some others which he wrote afterwards, in all which I am assured by very credible Persons, and undoubted Authorities; there are not the least Alterations, but what the Version of it from the then Scotch Manner of Expression into a more Modern English Dress, made absolutely necessary.

My Dearest FATHER,

THE same odd Variety of Accident which put it out of my Power to be Personally present with you for so long a time, put it likewise out of my Power to write to you. At last Fortune has so ordered it, that I can send a Letter to you, before I can come my self, and it is written Expresly to tell you the Adventures I have met with, which haved etained me this tedious Space of Time, from my Dear Father, and because the same Captain of a Ship that brings you this, might as easily have brought your Son to speak for himself. I shall in the next place lay before you the necessity there is for my stay a little longer among the strange Natives of the Country, where I now Inhabit, and where I am in a manner become Naturalized.

You have, no doubt of it been, informed by my Companions, some of whom I hope got safe back again, if not all, that I was lost, where many a brave Man has perished before me, by going over the high Precipices of the Mountain Brassah in a Basket, sliding down by a Rope. I must suppose I have given you the Anguish of a Father, for a Son, who you thought, had lost his Life by such a Fool har­dy Attempt, and I implore your Pardon with all the Power of Filial Contrition, Penitence and Duty. You have always shewed me such [Page 17] singular Marks of Paternal Affection, that I know your Receipt of this Letter will fill your Heart with Joy, and Cause you to Sign me an Absolution and free Pardon for all the Errors I have Committed, and think the Sufferings, I have undergone for my Rashness and Indiscretion, a sufficient Attone­ment for my Crime of making you by my Undutifulness a Partner of my Sorrows. To free you the more from this uneasiness, I know I need only tell you, that every Grief of mine is gone excepting one, which is, that I must still lose the Pleasure of seeing you a little longer. There was never surely a more bitter Night, than that which must by me be for ever remembered; when I was lost in the Moun­tain of Brassah, where I must for aught I know have liv'd for ever a wild single Inhabitant, but that the Storm which made the Night so uneasie to me, rendered the first Approach of Day-light, beyond Measure, Delightful. The first Providential Glimpse of the Morning gave me a view of a Ship driven by the Tem­pest into a Creek of the Rock, that was by Nature formed like a Harbour; a Miraculous Security of Deliverance as I thought, both for the Ships Crew and my self: I made all the haste I could, you may be sure to them, and I found them to be Dutchmen, that were come for Fish, but in lieu of Fish I instru­cted them to Load it with Eggs and Fowl, which we compassed very happily in a short [Page 18] Space of Time, and I was to be a Sharer with the Captain in the Lading, and Bar­gained to go for Holland, to see the Sale, and the Nature of Traffick, but when we were at Sea, after much bad weather we made to­wards Zealand, but we were driven upon the Coast of Finland, by a new Storm, and thence into Lapland, where I now am, and from whence I send you this Letter.

I could not come into a place so properly named for my Reception: As I had been Undutiful to you, and Fortune seemed to make me an Exile, or a Banished Man, by way of Punishment for the Vices of my Youth; so Lapland (which is a Word origi­ginally derived from the Finland Word Lappi, that is Exiles, and from the Swedish Word Lap, signifying Banished, from which two Kingdoms most of our Inhabitants were Ba­nished hither, for not embracing the Chri­stian Religion) was certainly the properest Country in the World to receive Me.

When first I entered this Country, I thought I was got into quite another World: The Men are all of them Pigmies to our Tall Brawny Highlanders; they are generally speaking, not above Three Cubits high, in­somuch that tho' the whole Country of Lap­land is immensly large, and I have heard it reckoned by the Inhabitants, to be above a Hundted German Leagues in Length, and Fourscore and Ten in Breadth: Yet I was [Page 19] the Tallest Man there, and looked upon as a Giant. The District in which I live now, is called Uma Lapmark—You must under­stand Sir, that when I Landed at North Cape, in Kimi-Lapmark, another District of Lapland; there was at that time a most Beautiful Lady come to see a Sick Relation of her Father's; who was Prefect, or Gover­nor of Uma Lapmark, which is a Post of Great Distinction—This Lady, by being frequently in the Company of French Merchants, who Traffick now and then in that Province of Uma Lapmark, understood French, and ha­ving heard of a Man six Foot and a half high, desired to see me, and when I came, she happened mightily to like my Person; and she talked French, which when I answered, she made great Signs of Joy, that she could Communicate her Sentiments to me, and she told me who she was, how Rich, and that not one in the Company besides, could understand a Syllable we said, and so I might speak my Mind freely to her; she told me the Customs of the Country, that it was divided into Cantons, like our Shires, and those Cantons into Rekars, or certain Grounds allotted to Families, that are just like our Clans. As she was beyond measure Beautiful, she was extreamly good humoured (a thing rarely to be met among Lapland Women) of a better Stature than her Country Women, and very Rich, and of good Birth; I thought [Page 20] it would be a prodigious Turn of Fortune, for a Man in my Circumstances, if I could make any Progress in her Heart, which she seemed a little to open to me, in such a man­ner, for the beginning, as if such a successful Event, if managed with Prudence, might not be despaired off. Souls that are Gene­rous are apt to Love, and Compassion is the best introducer of Love into a Generous Bo­som, and that was the best Stock I had, to go upon in my Courtship: I told her of all my Calamities, my Dangers, and my Escapes; the Goodness of my Birth, as being Allied to one of the Greatest Nobles in our Island; and still she would ask me to tell it her over again, tho' every time I told it, just at such and such Passages, she was forced to drop the Tears from her Eyes. In fine I grew more in Love with her, out of a Sense of Gratitude now, than by the Power of her Charms be­fore: The matter in a few Days, went so far, that she owned to me, I had her Heart. As to Marriage, I did not then know the Cu­stom of the Nation; I thought that if it proved only Dangerous to me, I loved her so well, that I intended to Marry her, tho' the Law was to Pronounce me Dead for it; but I did not know whether it might not be Peri­lous for her too, to Engage in such a State with me, and I resolved in that Case, rather to be singly unhappy, than to involve her in Distress, and make her the fair Companion [Page 21] of my Woes. I would not tell her so, for fear she should out of Love hide from me those Dangers, and therefore using a kind sort of Dissimulation, I conjured her to tell me the Laws and Customs of Marriages in that Country, to a tittle, and that nothing should hinder us from Happiness. She told me exactly, as I find since. Our Marriage said she, will be very hard to Compass; provi­ded we follow the strict Rule of the Coun­try. For our Women here, are bound not to see the Man, who makes their Addresses to them, in some time. His way of Courtship, is to come to the Parents, and his nearest Friends and Relations must make her Father Presents, and Supplicate him like a King, to Grant him his Daughter. The Courtship often lasts two or three Years, and sometimes has not its Effect at last: But if it has, the Woman is dragged by her Father and Bro­ther to Church, as unwilling to go to be Mar­ried, which is looked upon as a greater part of Modesty in her, according to the greater Disinclination she shews. My Father and Brother, said she, will both be against it: You have no Relations in this Country to move your Suit, I cannot be so Hypocritical, as to be dragged unwillingly to him I own I de­sire for my Lawful Husband, and therefore as I have an Inclination to you, and I dare own I have, I will not follow those methods, which I disapprove. I have talked with se­veral [Page 22] Swedes, and several Polite Frenchmen about their Manner of Espousals, and I am told, that when Souls are naturally united by Affection, the Couple so mutually and reciprocally Loving, tho' they had rather have their Parents leave if likely to be got, yet unwilling to be disappointed, only go to the next Minister's and Marry for better for worse. This way I approve of, for where two Persons naturally love each other, the rest is nothing but a modest restraint to their Wishes, and since 'tis only Custom, my own Reason teaches me, there is no Error Com­mitted, nor any harm done in breaking thro' it, upon so commendable an Occasion. I have, added she, a Thousand Rain-Deer be­longing to me, beyond my Father's Power of taking away, and a Third share in a Rekar or Clan, that is ten Leagues in Com­pass, in the Byar or Canton of Uma Lap­mark. This is at my own Disposal, and it is all your own, if you please to accept of it with me. Our Women are very coy, when they are Courted, tho' they have never so much an Inclination to their Suitor: but good Reason and the Commerce I have had with Persons of Politer Nations, than ours is, teach me that this proceeds entirely from Vanity and Affectation, and the greatest Proof of a Women's Modesty, Chastity, and Sincerity certainly consists (contrary to the general corrupted opinion) in yielding up [Page 23] her self soon into the Arms of the Man she Loves. For she that can dally with a Heart she prizes, can give away her Heart (when she is once baulked) to any Man, even tho' she dislikes him. You must Judge (my Dear Father) I must be touched with a Woman that was exceeding Beautiful, beyond any of her Nation, and who had Thoughts as Beautiful as her Person. I therefore was all in Rapture, and longed for the Matrimony, but still loved her enough to propose the Question, I resolved to her, viz. If it would not be in her Nation accounted a Clandestine Marriage, and prove of great Damage to her.

To this she answered, with all the Wisdom which could be expected from a Woman, who had given such Eminent Tokens of her Judg­ment on other points, amidst a Nation so Bar­barous in its Manners, and so Corrupt in its Principles, as Lapland is. I am, said she, answer­able to my Father, for nothing by our Laws, having no Portion of him, but only what was presented me by my Relations, at my Birth, according to Custom, in Lands and Rain-Deer. My Father is but Deputy Governor, 'tis a Swede who is the Governor of Uma, and if I pay to him at every Mart and Fair the due Tribute which must either consist of Fifty Rain-Deer, or one hundred and fifty Rixdollars, he will have the Priest that Mar­ry's us present at the Court of Justice, accord­ing [Page 24] to our Custom, and keep us in Possession of our Rights, that we may be enabled to pay Tribute to the Crown of Sweden. In­deed, before the Abolition of the Birkarti, which were our Native Judges, we could not have Married thus without Danger to us both; but now there is none at all.

My Dear Father, You must easily imagin that I could not help embracing with all tenderness so dear and so lovely a Woman. In fine, I am Married to her, I have lived very happily hitherto, and am now grown more happy, for she is big with Child; and like, before my Letter comes to your Hands, to make you a Grandfather of a pretty Boy. You will perhaps wonder, that I name the Sex of the Child, before it comes into the World; But we have a way in Lapland of finding that out, which tho' some Judicious People call Superstitious, I am really per­swaded of by Experience, and therefore I in­dulged my dear Wife's curiosity, when she signified to me, she had a Mind to make the usual Tryal, whether the Child she was going to be Delivered of, would be a Boy or a Girl.

You must understand (My Dear Father) the People here Judge of the Sex of the Child by the Moon, unto which they compare a Big-bellied Woman. If they see a Star appear just above the Moon, it is a sign it will be a Boy, but, if the Star be just below the Moon, they con [...]ecture her to be big with a Girl, [Page 25] This Observation and Remark of Laplan­ders has (I know) been accounted by some, and those Wise and Judicious Men too, to be ridiculously Superstitious; but I have been led into an easie belief of this Mystery, by a Mistress (that is Superior to Wisdom it self) Constant, and therefore probably Infallible, Experience. I therefore indulged my Wife in this her request, and went with her to the Ceremony; the Star appeared above the Moon, which Prognosticates a Boy, which I wish may, and I scarce doubt will prove true, and when she is brought to Bed, I will send you word of it. It is remarkable likewise, that a Star was seen just before the Moon, which we also count a very good Omen. For it is a custom likewise here in Lapland, to consult the Moon, as an Oracle about the Health and Vigour of the Child. If a Star be seen just before the Moon, we count it a sign of a lusty and well grown Child, without Blemish; if a Star comes just after, we reckon it a token that the Child will have some defect or deformity, or die soon after it is Born.

Having thus told you the Manners of the Country I live in at present, as much at large as the space of a Letter will permit, and rela­ted to you my own happy Circumstances, and the kindly Promises of the Heavens, that are Ushering in the Birth of my Child, I would not have you think that I addict my [Page 26] self to the Superstitions of the Country, which are very many and groundless; and a­rising partly from the remainder of Pagan Worship, which is still Cultivated among some of the more obstinate Inhabitants. I have on the Contrary, since I Married her, endeavoured to repay my Wife's Temporal Blessings to me with those that are endless, instructed her in all the Points of Religion, and made her perfectly a Christian; and she by her Devotion and Prayers for me, makes me such amends for it, that I hope in us two St. Paul's saying will be verified, viz. That the Woman shall be sanctified in her Husband, and the Husband shall be sanctified in his Wife.

However, I must take notice in this Place, with all due deference to Christianity, that tho' I am obliged to applaud the Prudence and Piety of Charles the Ninth of Sweden, who Constituting Swedish Governors over this Country, Abrogated their Practise of Super­stitions, and Art Magick upon pain of Death; Yet that King carried the point too far, and in­termingled with these Arts, the pretensions to the gift of a second sight, which you know how frequent it is with us in Scotland, and which I assure you, my Wife (tho' she durst not Publickly own it, for fear of incurring the penalty of those Swedish Laws) does as it were inherit (for all her Ancestors, before her, have had it from time Immemorial) to [Page 27] a greater degree than ever I knew any of our Country Women or Country Men.

One day this last Week she distracted me, between the extreams of Joy and Sorrow. She told me I should see you shortly, and that my coming Son would grow to be one of the most remarkable Men in England and Scot­land, for his Power of Foresight; But that I should speedily lose her, and meet with difficulties in my own Country, in the same manner as my Father (meaning you Sir) had done before me, and on the same Account, viz. Of Civil broils, and in­testine Wars in Scotland.

These Unfortunate parts of her Relati­on, I would not conceal from you, be­cause the veracity of her Notions should appear, if they are true, tho' you may be sure I much wish they all may prove false to the very last, excepting that, wherein she tells me, my Son will be greatly remarkable, and that I shall short­ly see my Dear Father, which I daily long for, and will endeavour to do, as soon as possible. Pray remember me to all Friends; Being,

Honoured Sir,
Your Most Dutiful and Loving Son, Archibald Campbell.

The Second Letter.

I Am now the happiest Man alive; the Prosperous part of my Wife's Predicti­ons, which I mentioned to you in my last, is come in some measure to pass. The Child she has brought me proves a Boy, and as fine a one, as I ever beheld, (if fondness for my own makes me not blind) And sure it can't be fondness, because other plain Cir­cumstances joined at his birth, to prove it a more than ordinary Remarkable one. He was born with a Cawl upon his Head, which we count one of the Luckiest Signs, that can be in Nature; he had likewise three Teeth ready Cut thro' the Gums, and we reckon that an undeniable Testi­mony and Promise given to the World by Nature, that she intends such a Person for her extraordinary Favourite, and that he is born for great Things, which I dai­ly beg of Heaven, may come to pass.

Since I have known for some Months, what it is to be a Father, it adds a Con­siderable weight to those Affections which I had for my Wife. I thought that my Tenderness for her was at the height of perfection before; which shews how little we know of those Parts of Nature, that we have yet never tryed, and of which we have not yet been allotted our share to [Page 29] act upon the Stage of Life. I find that I did love her then as well as a Husband could love a Wife (that is) a Wife without a Child, but the love to a Wife that has a Child, is a feeling wonderful and inexpressibly different. A Child is the Seal and the Pledge of Love, Meditating upon this, has likewise doubled my Affection to you; I loved you before as a Son, and because as such, I felt your Tender­ness; but my Love is much increased now, because I know the tenderness which you felt for me as a Father: With these pleasing images of thought, I often keep you nearer company at this vast distance, than when I lived irregularly under your Eye. These re­flexions render a Solitary Life dear to me. And tho' I have no manner of Acquaintance with her Relations, who hate me as I am told, nor indeed with almost any of the In­habitants, but my own Domesticks, and those I am forced to deal with, yet I have as much methinks, as I wish for, unless I could come over to Schetland, and live with you, which I the more ardently desire; because I think I and my Wife could be true com­forts to you, in your advanced Years; now I know what living truly is. I am daily per­swading my Wife to go with me; but she denies me with kind Expressions, and says, she owes too much to the Place (however less pleasant in it self than other Climates) where she had the happiness of first joining [Page 30] Hands with me in Wedlock, ever to part from it. But I must explain how I ask, and how she refuses. I resolved never directly and downrightly to ask her, because I know she can refuse me nothing: And that would be bearing hard upon the Goodness of her Will. But my way of perswading her, con­sists in endeavouring to make her in Love with the Place by agreeable Descriptions of it, and likewise of the Humane temper of the People; so that I shortly shall induce her to signifie to me, that it is her own Will to to come with me, and then I shall seem rather to consent to her Will, than to have moved it over to my own. These hopes I have of seeing my dear Father very shortly, and I know such News would make this Letter which I therefore send more acceptable to him, to whom I will be,

A most Dutiful and Affectionate Son till Death, Archibald Campbell.

P. S. If I cannot bring my Wife to change this Country for another, I have brought her to that pitch of Devotion, that whenever Pro­vidence, which notwithstanding her Pre­dictions, I hope, will be long yet, shall call her to change this World for another, it will [Page 31] be happy with her there; she joins with me in begging your Blessing to me, her self, and our little Duncan, whom we Christened so, out of a respect to the Name you bear.

The Third Letter.


I Am lost in Grief—I had just brought my Wife (her that was my Wife, for I have none now, I have lost all Joy) in the Mind of coming over to be a comfort to you. But now Grief will let me say no more, than that I am coming to beg comfort from you, and by this I prepare you to receive, when he comes, a Son in Tears and Mourning.

Archibald Campbell.

P. S. I have a Babe not much above two Years old, must bear the hardships of Tra­velling over the Ice, and all thro' Muscovy, for no Ships can stir here for many Months, and I cannot bear to live in this inhospitable Place, where she dyed, that only could make it easie to me, one Moment beyond the first opportunity I have of leaving it; she is in Heaven: that should make me easie: but I cannot, I am not so good a Christian as she was, I am lost and ruined.

CHAP. II. After the Death of Mr. Duncan Campbell's Mother in Lapland. His Father Archibald returned with his Son to Scotland. His Se­cond Marriage, and how his Son was taught to Write and Read.

MR. Archibald Campbell, having bu­ried his Lapland Lady, returned to Scotland; and brought over with him his Son Mr. Duncan Campbell: By that time he had been a Year in his own Country, he Married a Second Wife; a Lady whom I had known very well, for some Years, and then I first saw the Boy, but as they went into the Western Islands, I saw them not again in three Years. She being quite contrary to the cruel way much in Use among Step-Mothers, very fond of the Boy, was accustomed to say, she did, and would always think him her own Son. The Child came to be about four Years of Age (as she has related to me the Story since) and not able to speak one Word, nor to hear any noise; the Fa­ther of him used to be mightily oppressed with Grief, and complain heavily to his new Wife, who was no less perplexed that a Boy so pretty, the Son of so particular a Woman, which he had made his Wife, by strange Ac­cidents and Adventures, and a Child coming [Page 33] into the World with so many amazing Cir­cumstances attending his Birth, should lose those precious Senses, by which alone the soci­al Commerce of Mankind is upheld and maintained, and that he should be deprived of all Advantages of Education, which could raise him to the Character of being the great Man, that so many concurring incidents at his Nativity promised and betokened, he would be.

One day a Learned Divine, who was of the University of Glascow, but had visited Oxford, and been acquainted with the chief Men of Science there, happening to be in conversation with the Mother in Law of this Child, she related to him her Son's Misfor­tunes, with so many Marks of Sorrow, that, she moved the good old Gentleman's Compas­sion, and excited in him a desire, to give her what Relief and Consolation he could, in this unhappy case. His particular inclination to do her good Offices, made him reccollect, that at the time he was at Oxford, he had been in Company with one Doctor Wallis, a Man famous for Learning, who had told him, that he had taught a (born Deaf and Dumb) Man to Write, and to Read, and even to utter some sounds articulately with his Mouth; and, that he told him, he was then going to Commit to Print the Method he made use of, in so Instructing that Person, that others, in the like unfortunate Condition, [Page 34] might receive the same Benefits and Advan­tages from other Masters, which his Deaf and Dumb Pupil had received from him. A Dumb Man recovering his Speech, or a Blind Man gaining his Sight, or a Deaf one getting his Hearing, could not be more o­verjoyed, than Mrs. Campbell was at these unexpected Tidings, and she wept for Glad­ness, when he told it. The Good Gentle­man Animated and Encouraged her with the kindest Promises, and to keep alive her hopes, assured her he would send to one of the chief Booksellers in London, to enquire after the Book, who would certainly procure it him, if it was to be got, and that after­wards he would peruse it diligently, make himself Master of Doctor Wallis his Method, and tho' he had many great Works upon his Hands at that time, he would steal from his other Studies leisure enough to compleat so Charitable an Office, as teaching the Dumb and Deaf to Read, and to Write, and give her Son, who was by Nature Deprived of them, the Advantages of Speech, as far as Art would permit that Natural Defect to be supplied by her Powerful Inter­position.

When the Mother came Home, the Child, who could hear no knocking, and therefore it must be by a strange and inexplicable in­stinct in Nature, was the first, that ran to the Door, and falling in a great fit of Laugh­ter [Page 35] (a thing it was not much used to before, having on the contrary rather a Melanchol­ly cast of Complexion) it clung round its Mother's Knees, incessantly embracing and kissing them, as if just at that time it had an insight, into what the Mother had been do­ing for it, and into its own Approaching Re­lief from its Misery.

When the Mother came with the Child in her hand to the Father, to tell him the wel­come News; the Child burst afresh into a great fit of Laughter, which continued for an unusual space of time; and the scene of such reciprocal Affection and Joy between a Wife and her own Husband, on so signal an occasion, is a thing, easier to be felt by Pa­rents of a good Disposition, imagining them­selves under the same Circumstance, with re­gard to a Child they loved with fondness, than to be expressed or described by the Pen of any Writer. But it is certain, whenever they spoke of this Affair, as any Body, who knows the impatience of Parents for the Welfare of an only Child, may guess they must be often Discoursing it over, and wish­ing the time was come; the Boy, who used seldom so much as to smile at other times, and who could never hear the greatest noise that could be made, would constantly look wishfully in their Faces, and laugh immode­rately, which is a plain Indication, that there was then a wonderful Instinct in Na­ture [Page 36] as I said before, which made him fore­taste his good Fortune, and, if I may be al­lowed the Expression, The Dawnings as it were of the Second sight, were then Preg­nant within him.

To confirm this, the happy hour of his Deliverance being come; and the Doctor having procured Mr. Wallis's Book, came with great Joy, and desired to see his Pupil; scarce were the Words out of his Mouth, when the Child happened to come into the Room, and running towards the Doctor, fell on his Knees, kissed his Hand eagerly, and Laughed as before, which to me, is a Demonstration, that he had an insight into the Good, which the Doctor intended him.

It is certain, that several Learned Men, who have written concerning the Second sight, have Demonstrated by uncontestable Proofs, and undeniable Arguments, that Children, nay, even Horses and Cows, see the Second sight, as well as Men and Women advanced in Years. But of this, I shall Discourse at large, in its proper Place, having allotted a whole future Chapter for that same Subject of Second sightedness.

In about half a Year, the Doctor taught his little Dumb Pupil, First, to know his Letters, then to name any thing whatsoever, to leave off some Savage Motions, which he had taken of his own accord, before to sig­nifie his Mind by, and to impart his [Page 37] Thoughts by his Fingers and his Pen, in a Manner as intelligible, and almost as swift thro' the Eyes, as that is of conveying our Ideas to one another, by our Voices thro' the Condites and Portholes of the Ears. But in little more than two Years, he could Write and Read, as well as any Body, be­cause a great many People cannot conceive this; and others pretend it is not to be done in Nature: I will a little Discourse upon Doctor Wallis's Foundation, and shew in a Manner obvious to the most ignorant; how this hitherto, Misterious help, may be easily Administred to the Deaf, and the Dumb, which shall be the Subject of the ensuing Chapter.

But I cannot Conclude this, without tel­ling the handsome saying, with which this Child, when not quite Six Years old, as soon as he thought he could express himself well, payed his first Acknowledgment to his Ma­ster, and which Promised, how great his fu­ture Genius was to be, when so Witty a Child ripened into Man. The Words, he wrote to him, were these, only altered into English, from the Scotch.

Sir, It is no little Work, you have Ac­complished, My Thanks are too poor amends: The World, Sir, shall give you Thanks; for as I could not have expressed my self without your Teaching me, so, those that can talk, tho' they have Eyes, cannot see the Things, [Page 38] which I can see, and shall tell them, so that, in doing me this, you have done a Gene­ral Service to Mankind.

CHAP. III. The Method of Teaching Deaf and Dumb Persons to Write, Read, and understand a Language.

IT is, I must consess, in some Measure amazing to me, that Men, of any Mo­derate Share of Learning, should not natu­rally conceive of themselves, a plain Reason for this Art, and know how to Account for the Practicability of it, the Moment they hear the Proposition advanced, the Reasons for it, are so obvious to the very first Con­sideration we can make about it. It will be likewise as amazing to me, that the most ignorant should not conceive it, after so plain a Reason is given them for it, as I am now going to set down.

To begin: How are Children at first taught a Language that can hear? Are they not taught by Sounds? And what are those Sounds, but Token, and Signs to the Ear, importing and signifying such and such a Thing? If then, there can be Signs made to the Eye, agreed by the Party teach­ing [Page]


[Page 39] the Child, that they signifie such and such a Thing, will not the Eye of the Child con­vey them to the Mind, as well as the Ear? They are indeed different Marks to different Senses, but both the one and the other do e­qually signifie the same Things or Notions, according to the Will of the Teacher, and consequently, must have an equal Effect with the Person, who is to be instructed: For tho' the Manners signifying are different, the Things signified are the same.

For Example; If, after having invented an Alphabet upon the Fingers, a Master always keeps Company with a Deaf Child, and teaches it to call for whatsoever it wants, by such Motions of the Fingers, which if put down by Letters, according to each invented Mo­tion of each Finger, would form in writing a Word of a Thing, which it wanted; might not he by these regular Motions teach it's Eye the same Notions of Things, as Sounds do to the Ears of Children that Hear: The Manner of Teaching the Alphabet by Fin­gers, is plainly set down in the following Table.

When the Deaf Child has Learn't by these Motions a good Stock of Words, as Chil­dren that hear first learn by Sounds, we may methinks call not improperly, the Fin­gers of such a Dumb Infant, its Mouth, and the Eye of such a Deaf Child, its Ear. When he has learnt thus far, he must be taught to [Page 40] Write the Alphabet, according as it was A­dapted to the Motions of his Fingers: As for Instance, the five Vowels, a, e, i, o, u, by pointing to the top of the five Fingers, and the other Letters, b, c, d, &c. by such o­ther Place or Posture of a Finger, as in the above-mentioned Table is set forth, or other­wise, as shall be agreed upon. When this is done the Marks B, R, E, A, D, (and so of all other Words) Corresponding with such Fin­gers, conveys thro' his Eyes, unto his Head the same Notion, viz. the Thing signified, as the Sound we give to those same Letters, making the Word Bread, do into our Heads thro' the Ears.

This once done, he may be easily taught to understand the Parts of Speech, as the Verb, the Noun, Pronoun, &c. and so by Rules of Grammar and Syntax, to compound Ideas, and connect his Words into a Lan­guage. The Method of which, since it is plainly set forth in Doctor Wallis's Letter to Mr. Beverly. I shall set it down by way of Extract; that People in the same Circum­stances with the Person we treat of, and of the like Genius, may not have their Talents lost, for want of the like Assistance.

When once a Deaf Person has learn't so far, as to understand the common Discourse of others, and to express his Mind (tolerably well in Writing) I see no room to doubt, but that (provided Nature has endowed him with [Page 41] a proper Strength of Genius, as other Men that hear) he may become capable (upon fur­ther Improvement) of such further Know­ledge as is attainable by Reading. For I must here join with the Learned Doctor Wallis, in asserting (as to the present case before us) that no Reason can be assigned, why such a Deaf Person may not attain the understanding of a Language as perfectly as those that hear; and with the same Learned Author, I take upon me to lay down this Proposition, as certain, that allowing the Deaf Person the like Time and Exercise, as to other Men is requisite in order to attain the Perfection of a Language, and the Ele­gance of it, he may understand as well, and Write as good Language as other Men, and abating only what doth depend upon Sound, as Tones, Cadencies, and such Punctilio's; no whit inferior to what he may attain to, if he had his hearing as others have?

An Extract from Dr. Wallis, concerning the Method of Teaching the Deaf and Dumb to Read.

IT is most Natural (as Children learn the Names of Things) to furnish him (by Degrees) with a Nomenclator, containing a Competent Number of Names of Things common and obvious to the Eye (that you may shew the Thing answering to such a [Page 42] Name) and these digested under convenient Titles; and placed under them, in such con­venient order (in several Columns, or other orderly Situation in the Paper) as (by their Position) best to express to the Eye, their Re­lation or Respect to one another. As Con­traries or Correlatives, one against the o­ther Subordinates or Appurtenances under their Principle, which may serve as a kind of Local Memory.

Thus (in one Paper) under the Title Man­kind may be placed (not confusedly, but in decent order) Man, Woman, Child (Boy, Girl.)

In another Paper, under the Title Body, may be Written (in like convenient Order) Head (Hair, Skin, Ear) Face, Forehead, Eye (Eyelid, Eyebrow) Cheek, Nose (No­stril) Mouth (Lip, Chin) Neck, Throat, Back, Breasts, Side (right-side, left-side) Belly, Shoulders, Arm (Elbow, Wrist, Hand) Back, Palm) Finger (Thumb, Knuckle, Nail) Thigh, Knee, Leg (Shin, Calf, Ancle) Foot (Heel, Sole) Toe.

And when he hath Learned the Import of Words, in each Paper, let him write them in like Manner, in distinct Leaves, or Pages of a Book (prepared for that purpose) to confirm his Memory, and to have recourse to it upon occasion.

In a Third Paper, you may give him the Inward Parts. As Skull (Brain) Throat [Page 43] (Windpipe, Gullet) Stomach, Guts, Heart, Lungs, Liver, Splene, Kidney, Bladder (U­rine) Vein (Blood) Bone (Marrow) Flesh, Fat, &c.

In another Paper, under the Title Beast, may be placed Horse (Stone-horse, Gelding, Mare (Colt) Bull (Ox) Cow, Calf. Sheep, Ram (Wether) Ewe (Lamb) Hog, Boar, Sow, Pig, Dog (Mastiff, Hound, Greyhound, Spaniel) Bitch (Whelp, Puppy) Hare, Rab­bet, Cat, Mouse, Rat, &c.

Under the Title Bird or Fowl, put Cock Capon, Hen, Chick, Goose (Gander) Gosling, Duck (Drake) Swan, Crow, Kite, Lark, &c.

Under the Title Fish, put Pike, Eel, Plaice, Salmon, Lobster, Crab, Oyster, Craw-fish, &c.

You may then put Plants or Vegetables, under several Heads or Subdivisions of the same Head. As Tree (Root, Body, Bark, Bough, Leaf, Fruit) Oak, Ash, Apple-tree, Pear­tree, Vine, &c. Fruit. Apple, Pear, Plum, Cherry, Grape, Nut, Orange, Lemon. Flower, Rose, Tulip, Gilofer, Herb (Weed) Grass, Corn, Wheat, Barly, Rye, Pea, Bean.

And the like of Inanimates; as Heaven, Sun, Moon, Star, Element, Earth, Water, Air, Fire; and under the Title, Earth, Clay, Sand, Gravel, Stone. Metal, Gold, Silver, Brass, Copper, Iron (Steel) Lead, Tin (Pew­ter) Glass. Under the Title Water, put Sea, [Page 44] Pond, River, Stream. Under that of Air, put Light, Dark, Mist, Fog, Cloud, Wind, Rain, Hail, Snow, Thunder, Lightning, Rainbow. Under that of Fire; Coal, Flame, Smoak, Soot, Ashes.

Under the Title Clothes, put Woollen (Cloth, Stuff) Linnen (Holland, Lawn, Lockarum) Silk (Satin, Velvet) Hat, Cap, Band, Doublet, Breeches, Coat, Cloak, Stocking, Shoe, Boot, Shirt, Petticoat, Gown, &c.

Under the Title House, put Wall, Roof, Door, Window, Casement, Room.

Under Room, put Shop, Hall, Parlour, Dining-Room, Chamber, Study, Closet, Kitchin, Cellar, Stable, &c.

And under each of these, as distinct Heads, the Furniture or Mensils belonging thereun­to; with Divisions and Subdivisions, as there is occasion, which I forbear to Menti­on, that I be not too Prolix.

And in like manner, from Time to Time, may be added more Collections, or Clauses of Names or Words, conveniently digested, under distinct Heads, and suitable Distribu­tions; to be written in distinct Leaves or Pages of his Book, in such Order, as may seem convenient.

When he is furnished with a Competent Number of Names, though not so many as I have mentioned: It will be seasonable to teach him, under the Titles Singular and [Page 45] Plural. The Formation of Plurals from Sin­gulars; by adding S or Es. As Hand Hands, Face Faces, Fish Fishes, &c. with some few irregulars, as Man Men, Woman Wo­men, Foot Feet, Tooth Teeth, Mouse Mice, Lowse Lice, Ox Oxen, &c.

Which, except the irregulars, will serve for Possessives, to be afrer taught him, which are formed by their Primitives by like Addition of S or Es, except some few irregulars, as My Mine, Thy Thine, Our Ours, Your Yours, His, Her, Hers, Their Theirs, &c.

And in all those, and other like Cases, it will be proper first, to shew him the Parti­culars, and then the General Title.

Then teach him in another Page or Paper, the Particulars, a, an, the, this, that, these, those.

And the Pronouns, I, me, my, mine, thou, thee, thy, thine, we, us, ourours, ye, you, your, yours, he, him, his, she, her, hers, it, it's, they, them, their, theirs, who, whom, who's.

Then under the Titles Substantive Adje­ctive, teach him to Connect these, as my Hand, your Head, his Foot, his Feet, her Arm, Arms, our Hats, their Shoes, John's Coat, William's Band, &c.

And in Order to furnish him with more Adjectives, under the Title Colours, you may place, black, white, gray, green, blue, yellow, red, &c. and having shewed the particulars, let him know that these are [Page 46] called Colours. The like for taste and smell, as sweet, bitter, soure, stink.

And for Hearing: sound, noise, word.

Then for touch or feeling: hot, warm, cold, cool, wet, moist, dry, hard, soft, tough, brittle, heavy, light, &c.

From whence you may furnish him with more Examples of Adjectives with Substan­tives; as, white Bread, brown Bread, green Grass, soft Cheese, hard Cheese, black Hat, my black Hat, &c.

And then inverting the Order, Substantive, Adjective, with the Verb Copulative between. As, Silver is white, Gold is yellow, Lead is heavy, Wood is light, Snow is white, Ink is black, Flesh is soft, Bone is hard, I am sick, I am not well, &c. which will begin to give him some Notion of Syntax.

In like Manner, when Substantive and Substantive are so connected; as Gold is a Metal, a Rose is a Flower, they are Men, they are Women, Horses are Beasts, Geese are Fowls, Larks are Birds, &c.

Then as those before relate to Quality, you may give him some other Words relating to Quantity. As long, short, broad, narrow; thick, thin; high, tall, low; deep, shallow, great, big, small (little) much, little; many, few, full, empty; whole, part, piece; all, some, none, strong, weak, quick, slow, equal, nnequal, bigger, less.

[Page 47] Then words of figure: As streight, crook­ed, plain, bowed, concave, hollow, convex; round, square, three-square, sphere, globe, bowl, cube, die, upright, sloping, leaning forward, leaning backward, like, unlike.

Of Gesture; as stand, lie, sit, kneel, sleep.

Of Motion; as move, stir, rest, walk, go, come, run, leap, ride, fall, rise, swim, sink, drawn, slide, creep, crawl, fly, pull, draw, thrust, throw, bring, fetch, carry.

Then Words relating to Time; place, number, weight, measure, money, &c. are in convenient time, to be shewed him di­stinctly; for which the teacher according to his Discretion, may take a convenient Sea­son.

As likewise the Time of the Day; the Days of the Week, the Days of the Month, the Months of the Year; and other Things relating to the Almanack, which he will quickly be capable to understand, if once Methodically shewn him.

As likewise the Names, and Situation of Places, and Countries, which are conveni­ent for him to know; which may be order­ly written in his Book, and shewed him in the Map of London, England, Europe, the World, &c.

But these may be done at leisure, as like­wise the practice of Arithmetick, and other like Pieces of Learning.

[Page 48] In the mean time, after the Concord of Substantive and Adjective, he is to be shew­ed by convenient Examples, that of the No­minative and Verb. As for Instance: I go, you see, he sits, they stand, the fire burns, the sun shines, the wind blows, the rain falls, the water runs; and the like, with the Titles in the top Nominative Verb.

After this, (under the Titles Nominative Verb, Accusative) give him Examples of Verbs Transitive; as I see you, you see me, the fire burns the wood, the Boy makes the fire, the Cook roasts the meat, the Butler lays the cloath, we eat our dinner.

Or even with a double Accusative; as you teach me writing or to write, John teacheth me to Dance, Thomas tells me a Tale, &c.

After this, you may teach him the Flexi­on or Comugation of the Verb, or what is Equivalent thereunto; for in our English Tongue, each Verb hath but two Tenses, the Present and the Preter, two Participles, the Active and the Passive, all the rest is perfor­med by Auxiliaries, which Auxiliaries have no more Tenses than the other Verbs.

Those Auxiliaries are, do, did, will, would, shall, should, may, might, can, could, must, ought, to, have, had, am, be, was. And if by Examples you can insinuate the Significa­tation of these few Words, you have taught him the whole Flexion of the Verb.

[Page 49] And here it will be convenient, once for all, to write him out a full Paradigm of some one Verb, suppose to see, through all those Auxiliaries.

The Verb itself, hath but these four Words to be Learned, see, saw, seeing, seen, save that after thou, in the second Person Singular, in both Tenses, we add est, and in the Third Person Singular, in the Present Tense eth or es, or instead thereof, st, th, s, and so in all Verbs.

Then to the Auxiliaries, do did, will would, shall should, may might, can could, must ought to, we join the Indefinite see. And after have, had, am, be, was, the Passive Par­ticle seen, and so for all other Verbs.

But the Auxiliary Am or Be, is somewhat irregular in a double Form.

Am art is: Plural are, was wast was, Plural were.

Be beest be: Plural be, were wert were, Plural were.

Be, am, was, being, been.

Which, attended with the other Auxilia­ries, make us the whole Passive Voice.

All Verbs, without Exceptions, in the Active Participle are formed by adding ing, as see seeing, teach teaching, &c.

The Preter Tense, and the Participle are formed regularly, by adding ed, but are oft subject to Contractions, and other irregula­rities, sometime the same in both, sometime [Page 50] different, and therefore it is convenient here to give a Table of Verbs, especially, the most usual, for those three Cases, which may at once teach their Signification and Formati­on; as boil boiled, rost rosted rosted, bake baked baked, &c. teach taught taught, bring brought brought, buy bought bought, &c. see saw seen, give gave given, take took taken, forsake forsooke forsaken, write wrote written, &c. with many more fit to be Learned.

The Verbs being thus dispatched, he is then to learn the Prepositions; wherein lies the whole Regimen of the Noun. For Diversity of Cases we have none, the force of which is to be insinuated by convenient Ex­amples, suited to their different Significati­ons. As for Instance, Of, a piece of Bread, a pint of Wine, the colour of a Pot, the colour of Gold, a ring of Gold, a cup of Silver, the Mayor of London, the longest of all, &c.

And in like Manner, for off on upon to unto, till until, from at in within, out with­out, into out of, about over under, above be­low, between among, before behind after, for, by, with, through, against, concerning, and by this time he will be pretty well ina­bled to understand a single Sentence.

In the last Place; he is in like Manner to be taught Conjunctions, which serve to Connect not Words only, but Sentences, as and also, likewise, either or whether, neither [Page 51] nor, if then, why, wherefore, because, there­fore, but, though, yet, &c. and these Illustra­ted by convenient Examples in each case as, Because I am cold, therefore I go to the fire, that I may be warm, for it is cold weather.

If it were fair, then it would be good walking, but however, though it rain, yet I must go, because I promised with other like Instances.

And by this time his Book, if well fur­nished with plenty of Words, and those well digested under several Heads, and in good Order, and well recruited from time to time as new Words occur, will serve him in the Nature of a Dictionary and Grammar.

And in case the Deaf Person be otherwise of a good Natural Capacity, and the Teach­er of a good Sagacity; by this Method, pro­ceeding gradually step by step, you may, with diligence and due Application of Teach­er and Learner in a Years Time, or there­abouts, perceive a greater Progress than you would expect, and a good Foundation laid for further Instruction in matters of Reli­gion, and other Knowledge which may be taught by Books.

It will be convenient all along to have Pen, Ink, and Paper, ready at hand, to write down in a Word, what you signifie to him, by Signs, and cause him to write, or shew how to write, what he signifies by Signs; which [Page 52] way of signifying their mind by Signs, Deaf Persons are often very good at. And we must endeavour to learn their Language, if I may so call it, in order to teach them ours; by shewing what Words answer to their Signs.

'Twill be convenient also, as you go a­long, after some convenient Progress made, to express, in as plain Language as may be, the Import of some of the Tables; as for Instance,

The Head is the highest part of the Body, the Feet the lowest part, the Face is the fore­part of the Head, the Forehead is over the Eyes, the Cheeks are under the Eyes, the Nose is between the Cheeks, the Mouth is under the Nose, and above the Chin, &c.

And such plain Discourse put into writing, and particularly explained, will teach him by degrees to understand plain Sentences; and like Advantages, a Sagacious Teacher may take, as occasion offers itself from Time to Time.

This Extract is mostly taken out of the In­genious Dr. Wallis, and lying hid in that little Book, which is but rarely Inquired af­ter and too scarcely known; dyed in a Man­ner with that Great Man. And as he de­signed it for the General use of Mankind, that Laboured under the Misfortune of losing those two valuable Talents of Hearing and [Page 53] Speaking, I thought it might not be amiss (in the Life of so particular a Dumb Person as I am Writing) to give them this small but particular Fragment of Grammar and Syn­tax.

It is Exactly adjusted to the English Tongue; Because such are the Persons, with whom the Dr. had to deal, and such the Persons whose Benefit alone I consult in this Treatise.

One of the chief Persons, who was taught by Dr. Wallis, was Mr. Alexander Popham, Brother-in-Law (if I am not mistaken) to the present Earl of Oxford; and he was a very great Proficient in this way; and tho' he was born Deaf and Dumb, understood the Language so well, as to give under his Hand many rare Indications of a Masterly Genius.

The Uncle of his present Sardinian Maje­sty, as I have been credibly informed, had the want of the same Organs, and yet was a perfect Statesman, and wrote in five or six different Languages Elegantly well.

Bishop Burnet in his Book of Travels tells us a Story almost incredible; but tells it as a passage, that deserves our belief. It is con­cerning a young Lady at Genoa, who was not only Deaf and Dumb, but Blind too (it seems) into the Bargain; and this Lady, He assures us as a truth, could, by putting her Hand on her Sisters Mouth, know every thing she said.

[Page 54] But to Return back to England, we have many rare Instances of our own Country­men, the Principal of whom I shall mention, as their Names occur to my Memory. Sir John Gawdy, Sir Thomas Knotcliff, Sir [...] Gostwick, Sir Henry Lydall, and Mr. Richard Lyns of Oxford, were all of this Number, and yet Men Eminent in their several Capa­cities, for understanding many Authors, and Expressing themselves in Writing with won­derful Facility.

In Hatton-Garden, there now Lives a Miracle of Wit and good Nature, I mean the Daughter of Mr. Loggin, who, tho' born Deaf and Dumb, (and she has a Brother who has the same Impediments) yet writes her Mind down upon any Subject with such Acuteness, as would Amaze Learned Men themselves, and put many Students, that have passed for Wits, to a Blush, to see them­selves so far surpassed by a Woman amidst that deficiency of the common Organs. If any body speaks a word distinctly, this Lady will, by observing narrowly the Motion of the speakers Lips, pronounce the Word af­terwards very Intelligibly.

As there are a great many Families in Eng­land and Ireland, that have several, and some even have five or six Dumb Persons be­longing to them. And as a great many more believe it impossible for Persons born Deaf and Dumb to Write and Read, and [Page 55] have thence taken Occasion to say and assert that Mr. Campbell could certainly speak, I could never think it a Digression in the Hi­story of this Man's Life to set down the Grammar by which he himself was taught, and which he has taught others, (Two of which Scholars of his are boys in this Town) partly to confute the Slander made against him, and partly for the help of others Dumb and Deaf, whose Parents may by these Ex­amples be Encouraged to get them taught.

CHAP. IV. Young Duncan Campbell returns with his Mo­ther to Edinburg. The Earl of Argyle's o­verthrow. The Ruin of Mr. Archibald Campbell, and his Death: Young Duncan's practice in Prediction at Edinburg, while yet a Boy.

OUR Young Boy now between six and seven Years of Age, half a Highlander and half a Laplander, delighted in wearing a little Bonnet and Plaid, thinking it looked very Manly in his Countrymen, and his Father, as­soon as he was out of his Hanging Sleeves and left off his Boys Vest, indulged him with that kind of Dress, which is truly Antique and Heroick. In this early part of his Nonage he was brought to Edinburgh by his Mother in Law, where I my self grew afresh ac­quainted with her, his Father being then but lately Dead. Just after the Civil Commo­tion, [Page 56] and off and on have known him ever since, and Conversed with him very frequent­ly during that space of time which now is about three or four and thirty Years, so that whatever I say concerning him in the future Pages, I shall relate to the Reader from my own certain Knowledge, which, as I resolve to continue Anonymous, may perhaps not have so much Weight and Authority as if I had prefix'd my Name to the Account. Be that as it will, there are hundreds of living Wit­nesses, that will justifie each Action I relate, and his own future Actions while he lives will procure belief and credit to the precedent ones which I am going to record; so that if many do remain Infidels to my Relations and will not allow them Exact (the fate of many as credible and more Important Historians than my self) I can however venture to flatter my self that greater will be the Number of those, who will have a Faith in my Writings, than of those, who will reject my Accounts as Incredible.

Having just spoke of the Decease of Mr. Archibald Campbell, the Father of our Young Duncan Campbell: It will not be amiss here to observe how true the Predictions of his Lapland Mother were, which arose from Se­cond Sight, according to the Notices given by the Child's Father to its Grandfather in his Letter from Lapland even before it was born; which snews that the Infant held this Se­cond [Page 57] Sighted Power or Occult faculty of Di­vination even by Inheritance.

In the Year 1685. the Duke of Monmouth and the Earl of Argyle sailed out of the Ports of Holland without any Obstruction, the Earl of Argyle in May with three Ships for Scot­land, and Monmouth in June with the same Number for England.

The Earl setting out first, was also the first at Landing. Argyll having attempted to Land in the North of Scotland, and being disappointed by the Vigilance of the Bishop of the Orcades, Landed in the West, and Incamped at Dunstafne Castle in the Province of Lorn, which had belonged to him. He omitted nothing that might draw over to him all the Malecontents in the Kingdom, whom he thought more Numerous than they after­wards appeared to be. He dispersed about his Declarations, wherein, after protesting, that he had taken up Arms only in Defence of Religion and the Laws, against an injust Usurper (so he Stiled King James the Second) he invited all good Protestants, and such Scotch as would assert the Liberty to join him a­gainst a Prince, he said, was got into the Throne, to ruin the Reformation, and to bring in Popery and Arbitrary Power. Next he sent Letters to those he thought his Friends, (among whom was Mr. Archibald Campbell, who according to the vast deference payed by the Scots to their Chief, joined him, tho, [Page 58] in his heart of a quite different Principle to call them to his Assistance: He De­tached two of his Sons to make Inroades in the Neighbourhood, and compel some by Threats, others by mighty Promises to join him. All his Contrivances could not raise him above three Thousand Men, with whom he Incamped in the Isle of Boot, where he was soon in a manner Besieged by the Earl of Dunbarton, with the King's Forces, and several other Bodies Commanded by the Duke of Gordon, the Marquiss of Athol, the Earl of Arran, and other Great Men, who came from all Parts to quench the Fire before it grew to a Head.

The Earl of Argyle being obliged to quit a Post he could not make good, went over into a Part of the Country of his own Name, where having hastily Fortified a Castle called Ellingrey, he put into it the Arms and Am­munition taken out of his Ships, which lay at Anchor under the Cannon of a Fort; he E­rected near that Place. There his Rout be­gan; for going out from the Castle with his Forces to make an Incursion, one of his Par­ties was Defeated by the Marquiss of Athol, who slew four hundred of his Men; and Captain Hamilton who Attacked his Ships with some of the King's, and took them without any resistance.

[Page 59] The Earl of Dunbarton advancing towards him, at the same time, by long Marches, while he Endeavoured to secure himself by Rivers, surprized him passing the Clyde in the Village of Killern, as he was Marching towards Lenox. Dunbarton coming upon them at Night, would have staid till the next Day to Attack the Rebels, but they gave him not so much time, for they passed the River in the Night, in such Confusion, that being overcome with fear; they dispersed as soon as over. Argyle could scarce rally so many as would make him a small Guard, which was soon scattered again; Dunbarton having passed the River, and divided his For­ces to pursue those that fled. Argyle had ta­ken Guides to Conduct him to Galloway; but they mistaking the way, and leading him into a Bog, most of those, that still followed him, quitted their Horses, every Man shift­ing for himself.

Argyle himself was making back alone to­wards the Clyde, when two Resolute Servants, belonging to an Officer in the King's Army meeting him, tho' they knew him not, bid him Surrender. He fir'd at, and missed them; but they took better Aim, and wounded him with a Pistol Ball. Then the Earl drawing his two Pistols out of the Holsters, quitted his Horse, that was quite tired, and took the River. A Country Fellow, who came with those two, that had first assaulted him pur­sued [Page 60] him with a Pistol in his Hand; the Earl would have fired one of his, but the flint fail­ing he was dangerously wounded in the Head, by the Peasant. He discovered himself, as he fell Senseless; crying out, Unfortunate Argyle. This Nobleman how far soever he may be thought misled in Principle, was certainly in his Person a very Brave and a very Gallant Hero. They made hast to draw him out and bring him to himself; after which being delivered up to the Officers, the Erring unfortunate Great Man was Conducted to Edingburgh and there Beheaded.

Many Gentlemen that followed the For­tunes of this Great Man, tho' not in his Death they shared in all the other Calamities at­tending his overthrow. They most of them fled into the remotest Isles and the obscurest corners of all Scotland: Contented with the saving of their Lives; they grew Exiles and Banished Men of their own making, and Abdicated their Estates before they were known to be Forfeited, because, for fear of being informed against by the Common Fel­lows they Commanded, they durst not ap­pear to lay their Claims. Of this Number was Mr. Archibald Campbell, and this new Disaster wounded him deep into the very Heart, after so many late misadventures, and sent him untimely to the Grave. He perfectly pined away and wasted; he was six Months dying Inch by Inch, and the Dif­ference between his least Breath and his way [Page 61] of Breathing during all that time, was only, that he Expired with a greater Sigh than he ordinarily fetched every time when he drew his Breath.

Every thing the Lapland Lady had Pre­dicted so long before, being thus come to pass, we may the less admire at the wonders performed by her Son, when we consider this faculty of Divination to be so derived to him from her, and Grown as it were Here­ditary.

Our Young Prophet, who had taught most of his little Companions to converse with him by Finger, was the Head at every little Pastime and Game they Played at. Marbles (which he used to call Children's playing at Bowls) yielded him mighty Diversion; and he was so dexterous and Artist at shooting that little Alablaster Globe from between the end of his fore-finger and the knuckle of his Thumb, that he seldom missed hitting Plum (as the Boys call it) the Marble he aimed at, tho' at the distance of two or three yards. The Boys always when they played coveted to have him on their side, and by hearing that he foretold other things, used to consult him, when they made their little Matches (which were things of great Importance in their Thoughts) who should get the Victory. He used commonly to leave these trifles undeci­ded, but if ever he gave his Opinion in these trivial Affairs, the Persons fared well by [Page 62] their Consultation, for his Judgment about them was like a petty Oracle, and the end always Answered his Prediction. But I would have my Reader imagin (that tho' our Duncan Campbell was himself but a Boy) He was not consulted only by Boys; his Pene­tration and Insight into things of a high Nature, got Air, and being attested by cre­dible Witnesses won him the Esteem of Per­sons of Mature Years and Discretion.

If a Beautiful young Virgin languished for a Husband; or a Widow's Mind was in La­bour to have a second venture of Infants by another Spouse: If a Housekeeper had lost any thing belonging to her Master, still little Duncan Campbell was at Hand; he was the Oracle to be applied to, and the little Chalk'd Circle, where he was diverting himself with his play-fellows near the Cross at Edinburgh, was frequented with as much solicitation and as much credit, as the Tripos of Apollo was at Delphos in Ancient times.

It was highly Entertaining to see a Young Blooming Beauty come and slily pick up the Boy from his Company, carry him home with as much eagerness as she would her Gallant, because she knew she should get the Name of her Gallant out of him before he went, and bribe him with a Sugar Plumb to write down the Name of a Young Scotch Peer in a green Ribbon that her Mouth watered after.

[Page 63] How often after he has been wallowing in the dust have I my self seen nice squeamish Widows help him up in their gilded Chariots and give him a Pleasant ride with them, that he might tell them they should not long lie a lone; little Duncan Campbell had as much business upon his Hands as the Parsons of all the Parishes in Edinburgh. He com­monly was consulted and named the Couples before the Minister joined them; thus he grew a rare Customer to the Toyshop, from whence he most an end received Fees and Rewards for his Advices. If Lady Betty such a one was foretold that she should cer­tainly have Beau such a one in Marriage; then little Duncan was sure to have a Hobby-Horse from the Toyshop as a Reward for the promised Fop. If such a Widow that was ugly but very Rich, was to be pushed hard for as she pretended (tho' in reality ea­sily won) little Duncan upon ensuring her such a Captain or such a Lieutenant Colonel, was sure to be presented from the same Child's Warehouse with a very handsome Drum, and a Silver'd Trumpet.

If a Seampstress had an Itching desire for a Parson, she would upon the first Assurance of him, give this little Apollo a Past-board Temple or Church finely painted and a Ring of Bells into the Bargain, from the same Toy-Office.

[Page 64] If a Housekeeper lost any Plate, the Thief was certain to be catched, provided she took little Master into the Store-Room, and asked him the Question, after she had given him his Belly full of Sweet-Meats,

Neither were the Women only his consul­ters; the Grave Merchants, who were An­xious for many ventures at Sea, applied to the Boy for his Opinion of their security, and they looked upon his Opinion to be as safe as the Insurance Office for Ships. If he but told them, tho' the Ship was just set Sail and a Tempest rose just after on the Ocean, that it would have a successful Voyage, gain the Port designed, and return home safe Laden with the Exchange of Traffick and Mer­chandize; they dismissed all their Fears, ba­nish'd all their Cares, set their Hearts at ease, and safe in his Opinion, enjoyed a Calm of Mind amidst a Storm of Weather.

I my self knew one Count Cog an Eminent Gamester, who was a Person so far from be­ing of a Credulous Disposition that he was an unbeliever in several Points of Religion, and the next Door to an Infidel. Yet as much as he was a Stranger to Faith, he was Ma­stered and overpowered so far, in his incredu­lity, by the Strange Events, which he had seen come frequently to pass from the Predictions of this Child, that he had commonly daily access to this Boy to learn his more adverse and more prosperous Hours of Gaming. At [Page 65] first indeed he would try, when the Child foretold him his ill Fortune, whether it would prove true, and relying upon the mere hazard and turn of the Dye, he had always (as he observed) a run of ill Luck on those forbid­den Days, as he never fail'd of good if he chose the fortunate Hours directed by the Boy. One time above all the rest, just be­fore he was departing from Edinburgh, and when the Season of Gaming was almost over, most Persons of Wealth and Distinction with­drawing for Pleasure to their Seats in the Country, he came to young Duncan Campbell to consult; and was extremely solicitous to know, how happily or unluckily he should end that Term (as we may call it) of the Game­sters weighty Business, viz. Play, there be­ing a long Vacation likely to ensue, when the gaming Table would be empty, and the Box and Dice lie idle and cease to rattle. The Boy encourag'd him so well with his Predi­ctions on this occasion, that Count Cog went to the Toy-shop, brought him from thence a very fine Ivory T Totum (as Children call [...] pretty Set of painted and guilded little Nine pins and a Bowl, and a large Bag of Marbles and Alloys: And what do you think the Gamester got by this little Present and the Prediction of the Boy? Why without telling the least title of Falshood, within the space of the last Week's Play, the Gains of Count Cog, really amounted to no less than [Page 66] Twenty Thousand Pounds Sterling neat Mo­ney.

Having mention'd these Persons of so many different Professions by borrow'd Names, and perhaps in a manner seemingly Ludicrous; I would not have my Reader from hence take occasion of looking upon my account as fabu­lous: If I was not to make use of borrow'd Names, but to tell the real Characters and Names of the Persons, I should do injury to these old Friends of his, who first gave Cre­dit to our young Seer, while I am endeavour­ing to gain him the Credit and Esteem of new ones, in whose way it has not yet happen'd to consult him. For many Persons are very willing to ask such Questions as the foregoing ones; but few or none willing to have the Publick told they ask'd them; tho' they suc­ceeded in their Wish and were amply satisfy'd in their Curiosity. I have represented them perhaps in a ludicrous manner, because tho' they are misterious Actions they are still the Actions of a [...], and as the Rewards he re­ceiv'd for his Advices did really and truly consist of such Toys as I mentioned, so could they not be treated or in a more serious man­ner, without the Author's incurring a magi­serial Air of Pedantry, and shewing a Mind, as it were, of being mighty Grave and Senten­tious about Trifles. There are however some thing of greater Weight and Importance [...] by him in a more advanc'd Stage of Life, [Page 67] which will be deliver'd to the Publick with that Exactitude and Gravity which becomes them; and in some of those Relations, the Names of some Persons, that are concerned, shall be printed, because it will not at all be injurious to them, or because I have their leave, and they are still living to testify what I shall relate.

In the mean time as the greatest part of his Non-age was spent in predicting almost innu­merable things, which are all however redu­cible to the general Heads above-mention'd; I will not tire the Reader with any particu­lars; but instead of doing that, before I come to shew his Power of Divination, in the more active Parts of his Life, and when after re­moving from Edinburgh to London he at last made it his publick Profession: I shall ac­count how such Divinations may be made, and divert the Reader with many rare Ex­amples (taken from several faithful and un­doubted Historians) of Persons, who have done the like before him, some in one way, and some in another; tho' in this he seems to be peculiar, and to be (if I may be allow'd the Expression) a Species by himself alone in the Talent of Prediction; that he has colle­ded within his own individual Capacity all the Methods, which others severally us'd, and with which they were differently and singly gifted in their several ways of fore-seeing and fore-telling.

[Page 68] This Art of Prediction is not attainable any otherwise, than by these Three Ways; first it is done by the Company of Familiar Spirits and Genii, which are of Two Sorts; some Good and some Bad; who tell the gif­ted Person the things of which he informs other People. 2dly, It is perform'd by the Second Sight, which is very various, and dif­fers in most of the Possessors, it being but a very little in some, very extensive and constant in others; beginning with some in their Infancy, and leaving them before they come to Years; happening to others in a mid­dle Age, to others again in an old Age that ne­ver had it before and lasting only for a term of Years, and now and then for a very short period of Time; and in some intermitting, like fits as it were of Vision, that leave them for a time, and then return to be as strong in them as ever, and it being in a manner Hereditary to some Families, whose Child­ren have it from their Infancy without inter­mission to a great old Age, and even to the time of their Death, which they often fore­tell before it comes to pass to a Day, nay even to an Hour. 3dly, It is attain'd by the dili­gent Study of the lawful Part of the Art of Magick.

Before I give the Reader an account (as I shall do in Three distinct Discourses) 1st, con­cerning the Intercourse which Familiar Spi­rits, viz. the good and bad Genii have had [Page 69] and continue to have to a great degree with some select Parts of Mankind, 2dly, concern­ing the wonderful and almost miraculous Power of a Second Sight, with which many beyond all controversy have been extraor­dinarily but visibly gifted; and 3dly, con­cerning the pitch of Perfection, to which the magick Science has been carry'd and promo­ted by some adepts in that misterious Art; I will premise a few particulars about the Ge­nii, which attended our little Duncan Camp­bell, and about the Second Sight, which he had when yet a Child, and when we may much more easily believe, that the Wonders, he perform'd and wrote of, must have been ra­ther brought about by the intervention of such Genii and the mediation of such a Sight; than that he could have invented such Fables concerning them, and compassed such Predi­ctions as seem'd to want their assistance, by the mere dint of a Child's Capacity.

One Day, I remember, when he was a­bout Nine Years of Age, going early to the House, where he and his Mother liv'd, and it being before his Mother was stirring, I went into little Duncan Campbell's Room to divert myself with him, I found him sitting up in his Bed with his Eyes broad open, but as motionless as if he had been asleep, or even (if it had not been for a lively beautiful Co­lour which the little pretty fair Silver Hair'd Boy always had in his Cheeks) as if he had [Page 70] been quite dead; he did not seem so much as to breath; the Eylids of him were so fix'd and immovable, that the Eylashes did not so much as once shake, which the least Motion ima­ginable must agitate; not to say that he was like a Person in an Exstacy, he was at least in what (we commonly call) a Brown Study to the highest degree, and for the largest space of time I ever knew. I, who had been fre­quently inform'd by People, who have been present at the Operations of Second Sighted Persons, that, at the Sight of a Vision, the Eylids of the Person are erected, and the Eyes continue staring till the Object vanishes, I (Isay) sate myself softly down on his Bed-side, and with a quiet Amazement observ'd him, avoiding diligently any Motion, that might give him the least disturbance, or cause in him any avocation or distraction of Mind from the Business he was so intent upon. I re­mark'd that he held his Head side-ways with his Mouth wide open and in a list'ning Po­sture, and that after so lively a manner, as, at first general thought, made me forget his Deafness and plainly imagin he heard some­thing, till the Second thought of Reflection brought into my Mind the Misfortune that shut up all Passage for any Sound through his Ears. After a stedfast Gaze, which lasted about Seven Minutes, he smiled, and stretch'd his Arms as one recovering from a Fit of In­dolence, and rubb'd his Eyes; then turning [Page]


[Page 71] towards me, he made the Sign of a Salute, and hinted to me, upon his Fingers, his desire for Pen, Ink and Paper, which I reach'd him from a little Desk, that stood at his Bed's­feet.

Placing the Paper upon his Knees he wrote me the following Lines, which together with my Answers I preserve by me, for their Ra­rity, to this very Day, and which I have transcribed Word for Word, as they form a little Series of Dialogue.

Duncan Campbell. I am sorry I cant stay with you; but I shall see my pretty Youth and my Lamb by, and by, in the Fields, near a little Coppice, or Grove, where I go often to play with them, and I would not lose their Company for the whole World; for they and I are mighty familiar to­gether, and the Boy tells me every thing, that gets me my Reputation among the Ladies and Nobility, and you must keep it Secret.

My Question. I will be sure to keep it se­cret: But how do you know you are to meet them there to Day? Did the little Boy ap­point you?

Duncan Campbell. Yess he did, and signi­fy'd, that he had several things to predict to me, concerning People, that, he fore-knew, would come to me, the Week following, to ask me Questions.

My Question. But what was you staring at, when I came in?

Duncan Campbell. Why, at that little Boy, [Page 72] that goes along with the Lamb I speak of, and 'twas then he made me the Appointment.

My Question. How does he do it? Does he write?

Duncan Campbell. No, he writes sometimes, but oftner he speaks with his Fingers, and mighty swift; No Man can do it so quick, or write half so soon; he has a little Bell in his Hand, like that, which my Mother makes me a Sign to shake, when she wants the Servants; with That he tickles my Brain strangely, and gives me an incredible Delight of feeling in the inside of my Head; he usually wakes me with it in the Morning, when he comes to make me an Appointment. I fan­cy, 'tis what you call Hearing, which makes me mighty desirous I could hear in your way; 'tis swee­ter to the feeling, methinks, than any thing is to the tast; It is just as if my Head was tickled to Death, as my Nurse used to tickle my Sides; but 'tis a different feeling, for it makes things like little Strings, tremble in my Temples, and behind my Ears. Now I remember, I will tell you what 'tis like, that makes me believe 'tis like your Hearing, and that strange thing, which you, that can speak, call Sound or Noise: Because, when I was at Church with my Mo­ther, who told me the Bells could be heard ring­ing a Mile off: As I was kneeling on the Bench, and leaning over the top of the Pew and gnaw­ing the Board, every time, the Man pull'd the Rope, I thought all my Head beat, as if it would come to Pieces, but yet it pleased me, [Page 73] methought, rather than pain'd me, and I would be always gnawing the Board, when the Man pull'd the Rope, and I told my Mother the rea­son: The feeling of that was something like the little Bell, but only that made my Head throb as if it would break, and this tickles me and makes, as it were, little Strings on the back of my Ears dance and tremble like any thing, is not that like your way of Hearing?—If it be it is a sweet thing to hear.—It is more plea­sant than to see the finest Colours in the World,—it is something like being tickled in the Nose with a Feather till one Sneezes, or like the feeling, after one strikes the Leg, when it has been numb or asleep, only with this dif­ference, that those Two ways give a Pain and the other a Pleasure; I remember too, when I had a great Cold for about Two Months, I had a feeling something like it, but that was blunt, dull, confus'd and troublesome. Is not this like what you call Hearing?

My Question. It is the finest kind of hear­ing, my Dear, it is what we call Musick. But what sort of a Boy is that, that meets you? And what sort of a Lamb?

Duncan Campbell. Oh! tho' they are like other Boys and other Lambs which you see, they are a Thousand Times prettier and finer; you never saw such a Boy nor such a Lamb in your Life-time.

My Question. How big is he? As big as you are? And what sort of a Boy is he?

[Page 74] Duncan Campbell. He is a little little pret­ty Boy, about as tall as my Knee, his Face is as white as Snow, and so are his little Hands; his Cheeks are as red as a Cherry, and so are his Lips; and, when he Breaths, it makes the Air more perfum'd than my Mother's sweet Baggs that she puts among the Linnen; he has got a Crown of Roses, Cowslips, and other Flowers upon his Head, such as the Maids gather in May; his Hair is like fine Silver Threads, and shine like the Beams of the Sun; he wears a loose Veil down to his Feet, that is as Blue as the Sky in a clear Day, and embroider'd with Spangles, that look like the brightest Stars in the Night; he carries a Silver Bell in one Hand, and a Book and Pencil in the other; and he and the little Lamb will dance and leap about me in a Ring as high as my Head; the Lamb has got a little Silver Collar with Nine little Bells upon it; and every little piece of Wooll upon its Back, that is as white Milk, is tied up all round it in Puffs like a little Misses Hair, with Ribbons of all Colours; and round its Head too are little Roses and Violets stuck very thick into the Wooll that grows upon its Forehead, and behind and be­tween its Ears in the Shape of a Diadem. They first meet me dancing thus; and after they have danc'd sometime, the little Boy writes down wonderful things in his Book, which I write down in mine; then they dance again, till he rings his Bell, and then they are gone [Page 75] all of a sudden I know not where; but I feel the tickling in the inside of my Head caus'd by the Bell less and less, 'til I don't feel it at all, and then I go home, read over my Lesson in my Book, and when I have it by heart, I burn the written Leaves, according as the little Boy bids me, or he would let me have no more. But I hear the little Bell again, the little Boy is angry with me, he pull'd me Twice by the Ear, and I would not displease him for any thing; so I must get up and go immediately, to the Joy and Delight of my Life.

I told him he might, if he would promise me to tell me further another time; he said he would, if I would keep it secret. I told him I would, and so we parted; tho' just be­fore he went, he said he smelt some Venison, and he was sure they would shortly have some for Dinner; and nothing was so sure as that, my Man had my Orders to bring a Side of Venison to me the next Day to Mrs. Camp­bell's, for I had been hunting, and came thi­ther from the death of a Deer that Morning; and intended as usual to make a stay there for Two or Three Days.

There are I know many Men of severe Principles, and who are more Strict, Grave and Formal, in their manner of thinking, than they are Wise; who will be apt to judge of these relations, as things merely Fabulous and Chimerical, and, not contented with be­ing dis-believers by themselves, will la­bour [Page 76] to insinuate into others this pernicious Notion, that it is a sign of Infirmity and Weakness in the Head, to yield them Credit. But tho' I could easily argue these Sir Gravities down; tho' a Sentence or Two would do their Business, put them beyond the Power of replying, and strike them Dumb, yet do I thing it not worth my while; their greatest and most wonted Objection against these Eu­demons and Kakodemons, being, that it arises all from the work of fancy, in Persons of a me­lancholick Blood. If we consider the nature of this Child's Dialogue with me, will it not be more whimsically strange and miraculous, to say, that a Child of Nine Years old had only a fancy of such things as these, of which it had never heard any Body give an account, and that it could by the mere strength of Ima­gination predict such things as really after came to pass, than it is (when it does so strangely predict things) to believe the Child does it, in the manner itself owns it does, which is by the intervention of a good Demon, or a happy Genius. Departing therefore from these singular wise Mens Opinions, who will believe nothing Excellent can happen to o­thers, which it has not been their Lot to en­joy a share of, I shall take my farewel hastily of them (without loosing my own time or theirs) in the Words of the ingenious and learned Monsieur le Clerc. Acerbos homines non Moror, Indignos quippe, qui haec studia [Page 77] tractent, aut quorum Judicii ulla ratio habe­etur.

I shall rather see how far these things have lain open to the Eyes of, and been explain'd by the ancient Sages; I will relate who a­mong them were happy in their Genii, and who among the Moderns, whose Examples may be Authorities for our Belief; I will set down as clearly as I can, what Perception Men have had of Genii or Spirits, by the sense of seeing, what by the sense of hearing, what by the sense of feeling, touching or ta­sting, and in fine, what Perception others have had of these Genii by all the Senses, what by Dreams and what by Magick, a thing rarely to be met with at once in any single Man, and which seems particular to the Child, who was the Subject of our last little historical Account. When I have brought Examples and the Opinions of wise Philosophers, and the Evidence of undeniable Witnesses, which one would think sufficient to evince Persons of the Commerce Men have with Spirits, if they were not past all sense of Conviction: I shall, not so much to corrobo­rate what I say, as to shame some Wiseacres, who would by their frail Reason scan all things, and pretend to solve the Mysteries ascribed to Spirits as Facts merely natural, and who would banish from the Thoughts of Men all belief of Spirits whatsoever, I shall I say (in order to put to shame these Wise­acres, [Page 78] if they have any Shame left) produce the Opinions of the Fathers as Divines, shew the Doctrines of Spirits in general to be con­sistent with Christianity, that they are de­liver'd in the Scripture and by Christian Tra­dition, in which if they will not acquiesce, I shall leave them to the Labyrinth of their own wild Opinions, which in the end will so perplex their Judgments of things, that they will be never able to extricate them­selves, and these different Heads will be the Subject of the Chapter ensuing, and will (or I am greatly mistaken) form both an instru­ctive edifying and entertaining Discourse, for a Reader really and truly intelligent, and that has a good taste and relish for sublime things.

CHAP. V. An Argument proving the Perception, which Men have, and have had, by all the Senses, as seeing, hearing, &c. of Demons, Genii, or familiar Spirits.

IT is said in the Ninth Book of the Mo­rals of Aristotle, it is better to come at the probable Knowledge of some things a­bove us in the Heavens, than to be capable of giving many Demonstrations relating to things here below, This is no doubt an ad­mirable Proposition, and speaks the lofty aims [Page 79] of that sublime Mind from whence it pro­ceeded. Among all the disquisitions in this kind, none seem to me more excellent, than those, which treat concerning the Genii, that attend upon Men and guide them in the A­ctions of Life. A Genius or Demon of the good Kind is a sort of mediate Being, between Humane and Divine, which gives the Mind of Man a pleasant Conjunction with Angelick and Celestial Faculties, and brings down to Earth a faint participation of the Joys of Heaven. That there have been such fortu­nate Attendants upon wise Men, we have many rare Instances. They have been ascri­bed to Socrates, Aristotle, Plotinus, Porphyri­us, Jamblicus, Chicus, Scaliger and Cardan. The most celebrated of all these Ancients was Socrates; and as for his having a Genius or Demon, we have the Testimonies of Plato, Xenophon and Antisthenes, his Contemporaries, confirm'd by Laertius, Plutarch, Maximus Ty­rius, Dion Chrysostonius, Cicero, Apuleius, Fi­cinus and others, many of the Moderns be­sides Tertullian, Origen, Clemens Alexandrinus, Austin and others; and Socrates himself in Plato's Theage, says: By some Divine Lot I have a certain Demon, which has followed me from my Childhood as an Oracle; and in the same place intimates that the way he gain'd his Instruction was by hearing the Demon's Voice. Nothing is certainly so easy as for Men to be able to contradict things tho' ne­ver [Page 80] so well attested with such an air of Truth, as to make the Truth of the History doubted by others as well as themselves, where no demonstrative Proof can be brought to con­vince them. This has been the easy Task of those who object against the Demon of So­crates; but when no demonstrative Proof is to be had on either side, does not Wisdom incline us to lean to the most Probable? Let us then consider whether the Evidences are not more credible, and Witnesses of such a thing are not Persons of more Authority, than these Men are, who vouchsafe to give no reason but their own Incredulity for maintaining the contrary, and whether those therefore by the right rule of judging, ought not much sooner than these, to gain over our Assent to their Assertions?

We will however, laying aside the Histo­ries of those ancient Times, the sense where­of, by various Readings and Interpretations being put upon the Words, is render'd ob­scure and almost unintelligible, descend to more modern Relations, the Facts whereof shall be placed beyond doubt, by reason of the Evidences we will bring to attest them, and shall consequently prove the perception Men have of Spirits or Genii by every Sense.


We will first begin as to the perception of Spirits by the Sight.

[Page 81] Mr. Glanvil in his Collections of Relations, for proving Apparitions, Spirits, &c. tells us of an Irish Man, that had like to have been carried away by Spirits, and of the Ghost of a Man who had been Seven Years dead, that brought a Medicine to his Bed-side.

The Relation is thus.

A Gentleman in Ireland, near to the Earl of Orrery's sending his Butler one After-noon to buy Cards; as he pass'd a Field, to his Won­der, he espy'd a Company of People sitting round a Table, with a deal of good Cheer before them, in the mid'st of the Field: And he going up towards them they all arose and saluted him, and desir'd him to sit down with them; but one of them wisper'd these Words in his Ear.—Do nothing this Company invites you to. Hereupon he refus'd to sit down at the Table, and immediately Table and all that belong'd to it were gone, and the Com­pany are now dancing and playing upon Mu­sical Instruments. And the Butler being de­sir'd to join himself with them, but he refu­sing this also, they all fall to Work, and he not being to be prevail'd with, to accompany them in working any more than in feasting or dancing, they all dis-appear'd, and the But­ler is now alone, but instead of going for­wards, home he returns, as fast as he could drive, in a great Consternation; and was no sooner enter'd his Master's Door, but he fell down and lay sometime Senseless, but coming [Page 82] again to himself, he related to his Master what had passed.

The Night following there comes one of his Company to his Bed-side, and tells him, that if he offered to stir out of the Doors the next Day, he would be carried away. Here­upon he kept within; but towards the Eve­ning having need to make Water, he adven­tur'd to put one Foot over the Threshold, several standing by, which he had no sooner done but they espy'd a Rope cast about his Middle; and the poor Man was hurried a­way with great Swiftness, they following him as fast as they could, but could not o­vertake him, at length they espy'd an Horse­man coming towards him, and made Signs to him to stop the Man whom he saw co­ming near him, and both ends of the Rope, but nobody drawing; when they met he laid hold of one end of the Rope, and imme­diately had a smart blow given him over his Arm with the other end; but by this means the Man was stopp'd, and the Horse-man brought him back with him.

The Earl of Orrery hearing of these strange Passages, sent to the Master to desire him to send this Man to his House, which he ac­cordingly did, and the Morning following or quickly after, he told the Earl that his Spectre had been with him again, and assur'd him that that Day he should most certainly be carry'd away, and that no Endeavors should [Page 83] avail to the saving of him; upon this he was kept in a large Room with a considerable Number of Persons to guard him, among whom was the famous Stroaker Mr. Grea­trix, who was a Neighbour. There were beside other Persons of Quality, Two Bishops in the House at the same time, who were consulted concerning the making use of a Me­dicine, the Spectre or Ghost prescrib'd, of which mention will be made anon, but they determin'd on the Negative.

Till part of the Afternoon was spent all was quiet, but at length he was perceiv'd to rise from the Ground, whereupon Mr. Grea­trix and another lusty Man clapt their Arms over his Shoulders, one of them before him and the other behind, and weigh'd him down with all their Strength; but he was forcibly taken up from them, and they were too weak to keep their hold, and for a considerable time he was carry'd into the Air, to and fro over their Heads, several of the Company still running under him to prevent his receiv­ing hurt, if he should fall, at length he fell, and was caught before he came to the Ground and had by that means no hurt.

All being quiet till Bed-time, My LORD order'd Two of his Servants to lie with him, and the next Morning he told his Lordship, that his Spectre was again with him, and brought a wooden Dish with grey Liquor in it and bid him drink it off; at the first sight [Page 84] of the Spectre he said he endeavour'd to awake his Bed-fellows, but it told him, that that Endeavour should be in vain; and that he had no cause to fear him, he being his Friend, and he that at first gave him the good Advice in the Field, which had he not followed, he had been before now perfectly in the Power of the Company he saw there; he added, that he concluded it was impossible, but that he should have been carried away the Day be­fore, there being so strong a Combination a­gainst him; but now he could assure him there would be more Attempts of that na­ture, but he being troubled with Two sorts of sad Fits, he had brought that Liquor to cure him of them, and bid him drink it; he peremptorily refusing, the Spectre was angry, and upbraided him with great dis-ingenuity, but told him, however, he had a kindness for him, and that if he would take Plantane Juice, he should be well of one sort of Fits, but he should carry the other to his Grave: the poor Man having by this somewhat re­cover'd himself, ask'd the Spectre whether by the juice of Plantane he meant that of the Leaves or Roots? It reply'd the Roots.

Then it ask'd him whether he did not know him? He answer'd no; it reply'd I am such a one: The Man answer'd, he had been long dead: I have been dead, said the Spectre or Ghost, Seven Years, and you know, that I liv'd a loose Life, and ever since I have [Page 85] been hurried up and down in a restless Con­dition with the Company you saw, and shall be to the Day of Judgment: Then he pro­ceeded to tell him, that had he acknowledg'd God in his ways, he had not suffer'd such severe things by their Means; and further said, you never pray'd to God that Day be­fore you met with this Company in the Fields.

This Relation was sent to Dr. Henry More by Mr. E. Fowler, who said, Mr. Greatrix told it several Persons: The Lord Orrery al­so own'd the Truth of it; and Mr. Greatrix told it to Dr. Henry More himself, who par­ticularly inquired of Mr. Greatrix about the Man's being carried up into the Air, above Mens Heads in the Room, and he did expresly affirm that he was an Eye-witness thereof.

A Vision which happened to the ingenious and learned Dr. Donne, may not improperly be here inserted. Mr. Isaac Walton writing the Life of the said Doctor, tells us, that the Doctor and his Wife living with Sir Robert Drury, who gave them a free Entertainment at his House in Drury-lane; it happen'd that the Lord Haye was by King James sent in an Ambassy to the French King Henry IV. whom Sir Robert resolv'd to Accompany, and in­gag'd Dr. Donne to go with them, whose Wife was then with Child, at Sir Robert's House. Two Days after their arrival at Paris Dr. Donne was left alone in that Room, in [Page 86] which Sir Robert and he, and some other Friends, had dined together. To this Place Sir Robert return'd within half an Hour; and as he left, so he found Dr. Donne alone, but in such an Extasy, and so alter'd in his Looks, as amaz'd Sir Robert to behold him, inso­much that he earnestly desir'd Dr. Donne to declare, what had befallen him in the short time of his Absence. To which Dr. Donne was not able to make a present Answer; but after a long and perplex'd Pause, did at last say, I have seen a dreadful Vision, since I saw you, I have seen my dear Wife pass Twice by me, through this Room, with her Hair hanging about her Shoulders, and a dead Child in her Arms, this I have seen since I saw you. To which Sir Robert reply'd, sure, Sir, you have slept, since I saw you, and this is the Result of some melancholy Dream, which I desire you to forget, for you are now awake. To which Dr. Donne's reply was, I cannot be surer that I now live, than that I have not slept since I saw you, and am as sure at her Second appearing she stop'd and look'd me in the Face and vanish'd. Rest and Sleep had not alter'd Dr. Donne's Opini­on the next Day; for he then affirm'd this Vision with a more deliberate and so confirm'd a Confidence, that he inclin'd Sir Ro­bert to a faint Belief, that the Vision was true, who immediately sent a Servant to Drury House, with a Charge to hasten back [Page 87] and bring him Word whether Mrs. Donne were alive; and if alive, what Condition she was in as to her Health; The Twelfth Day the Messenger return'd with this Ac­count: That he found and left Mrs. Donne very Sad and Sick in Bed, and that after a long and dangerous Labour, she had been deliver'd of a dead Child, and upon Exa­mination the Abortion prov'd to be the same Day, and about the very Hour, that Dr. Don­ne affirm'd he saw her pass by in his Cham­ber. Mr. Walton adds this as a Relation; which will beget some Wonder, and well it may, for most of our World are at pre­sent possess'd with an Opinion, that Visions and Miracles are ceas'd; and though 'tis most certain that Two Lutes being both Strung and tuned to an equal Pitch, and then one play'd upon, the other, that is not touched, being laid upon the Table at a fit distance will (like an Eccho to a Trumpet) warble a faint audible Harmony in answer to the same Tune, yet many will not believe that there is any such thing as a Sympathy with Soals, &c.


I shall next relate some little Histories, to shew what Perception Men have had of Spirits by the Sense of hearing. For (as Wierus says) Spirits appear sometimes invi­sibly, [Page 88] so that only a Sound, Voice or Noise, is perceived by Men, viz. a Stroke, Knock­ing, Whistling, Sneezing, Groaning, Lament­ing or clapping of the Hands, to make Men attent to Enquire or Answer.

In Luther's Colloquia Mensalia, &c. set forth in Latin at Francfort, Anno 1557. it being a different Collection from that of Aurifa­ber, which is translated from High Dutch into English. We have the following Re­lation.

It happen'd in Prussia, that as a certain Boy was Born, there presently came to him a Genius, or what you please to call it (for I leave it to Mens Judgments) who had so faithful a Care of the Infant, that there was no need either of Mother or Servant; and, as he grew up, he had a like care of him: He went to School with him, but so, that he could never be seen, either by himself, or any others in all his Life. Afterwards he travelled into Italy, he accompanied him, and, whensoever any Evil was like to hap­pen to him, either on the Road or in the Inn, he was perceiv'd to foretel it by some Touch or Stroke; he drew off his Boots as a Servant; if he turn'd his Journey a­nother way, he continued with him, hav­ing the same care of him in foretelling E­vil; at length he was made a Canon, and as, on a time, he was sitting and feasting with his Friends, in much Jollity, a vehe­ment [Page 89] Stroke was struck on a sudden, on the Table, so that they were all terrify'd; pre­sently the Canon said to his Friends, be not afraid, some great Evil hangs over my Head. The next Day he fell into a great Fever, and the Fit continued on him for Three whole Days, till he died, miserably.

Captain Henry Bell in his Narrative pre­fix'd to Luther's Table, printed in English, Anno, 1652. having acquainted us how the German Copy printed of it had been disco­ver'd under Ground, where it had lain hid Fifty Two Years, that Edition having been supprest by an Edict of the Emperor Rudol­phus II. so that it was Death for any Person to keep a Copy thereof, and having told us that Casparus Van Spar a German Gentleman, with whom he was familiarly acquainted, while he negotiated Affairs in Germany for King James I. was the Person that discover'd it, Anno 1626. and transmitted it into Eng­land to him, and earnestly desired him to Translate the said Book into English, says, he accordingly set upon the Translation of it many times, but was always hinder'd from Proceeding in it by some intervening Business. About Six Weeks after he had receiv'd the Copy, being in Bed with his Wife one Night, between Twelve and One of the Clock, she being asleep, but himself awake, there ap­pear'd to him an ancient Man standing at his Bed's-side array'd all in White, having a long [Page 90] and broad white Beard, hanging down to his Girdle, who taking him by his right Ear said thus to him, Sirrah! Will you not take time to Translate that Book, which is sent unto you out of Germany? I will shortly pro­vide for you both Place and Time to do it, and then he vanish'd: Hereupon being much affrighted he fell into an extream Sweat, so that his Wife awaking and finding him all o­ver Wet, she ask'd him what he ail'd? He told her what he had seen and heard; but he never regarded Visions nor Dreams, and so the same fell out of his Mind. But a Fort­night after, being on a Sunday at his Lodging in King's-street, Westminster, at Dinner with his Wife, Two Messengers were sent from the whole Counsel-board, with a Warrant to carry him to the Gate-house Westminster, there to be kept till further Order from the Lords of the Council; upon which Warrant he was kept there Ten whole Years close Prisoner, where he spent Five Years of it in Translating the said Book, having good Cause to be mindful of the old Man's saying: I will short­ly provide for you both Place and Time to Translate it.

Tho' the Perception of Spirits chiefly af­fects the hearing and seeing Faculties, yet are not the other Senses without some Par­ticipation of these genial Objects, whether Good or Evil; for as St. Austin says, the evil Work of the Devil creeps through all [Page 91] the Passages of the Senses; he presents him­self in Figures; applies himself to Colours, adheres to Sounds, introduces Odors, infuses himself in Savors, and fills all the Passages of Intelligence; sometimes cruelly torment­ing with Grief and Fear, sometimes sporting­ly diverting Man or taunting with Mocks; and on the other Hand, as the learned Wab­ter Hilton (a great Master of contemplative Life) in his Scale of Perfection, sets forth, that Appearances or Representations to the corporeal Senses, may be both Good and E­vil.

But before I conclude upon this Head, to give still more Weight and Authority to the Perception Men have had of these Genii, both by the Senses of hearing and seeing, I will relate Two very remarkable Fragments of History of this kind, told us by Persons who demand our Credit, and done within the Memory of our Grandfathers and Fa­thers.

The first is concerning that Duke of Buck­ingham who was stab'd by Felton, August the Twenty Third 1628.

Mr. Lilly the Astrologer in his Book enti­tuled Monarchy or no Monarchy in England, printed in Quarto, 1651. Having mention­ed the Duke of Buckingham, writes as fol­lows. Since I am upon the Death of Buck­ingham, I shall relate a true Story of his being [Page 92] admonished often, of the Death he should die, in this Manner.

An aged Gentleman, one Parker, as I now remember, having formerly belonged unto the Duke, or of great Acquaintance with the Duke's Father, and now retired, had a Demon appeared several Times to him in the shape of Sir George Villiers, the Duke's Fa­ther: This Demon walk'd many Times in Parker's Bed-chamber, without any Action of Terror, Noise, Hurt or Speech; but at last, one Night, broke out in these Words: Mr. Parker, I know you loved me formerly, and my Son George at this Time very well, I would have you go from me, (you know me very well to be his Father old Sir George Villiers of Leicestershire) and acquaint him with these and these Particulars, &c. and that he above all refrain the Council and Company of such and such, whom he then nominated, or else he will come to Destru­ction, and that suddenly. Parker, though a very discreet Man, partly imagined himself in a Dream all this Time; and being unwil­ling to proceed upon no better Grounds, for­bore addressing himself to the Duke; for he conceived, if he should acquaint the Duke with the Words of his Father, and the man­ner of his appearance to him, (such Appa­ritions being not usual) he should be laugh'd at, and thought to Doat, in regard he was aged. Some few Nights past without fur­ther [Page 93] Trouble to the old Man, but not very many Nights after, old Sir George Villiers ap­peared again, walk'd quick and furiously in the Room, seem'd angry with Parker, and at last said, Mr. Parker, I thought you had been my Friend so much, and loved my Son George so well, that you would have acquainted him with what I desired, but I know you have not done it; by all the Friendship that ever was betwixt you and me, and the great Respect you bear my Son, I desire you to de­liver, what I formerly commanded you, to my Son. The old Man seeing himself thus sollicited, promised the Demon he would, but first argued it thus, that the Duke was not easy to be spoken withal, and that he would account him a vain Man to come with such a Message from the Dead; nor did he con­ceive the Duke would give any Credit to him; to which the Demon thus answer'd. If he will not believe you have this Discourse from me, tell him of such a Secret (and nam'd it) which he knows none in the World ever knew but myself and him. Mr. Parker be­ing now well satisfy'd that he was not asleep, and that the Apparition was not a vain Delu­sion, took a fit Opportunity, and seriously ac­quainted the Duke with his Father's Words, and the manner of his Apparition. The Duke laugh'd heartily at the Relation, which put old Parker to a stand, but at last he assumed Courage, and told the Duke that he acquaint­ed [Page 94] his Father's Ghost, with what he found now to be true, viz. Scorn and Derision; but my Lord, says he, your Father bid me acquaint you by this Token, and he said it was such as none in the World but your Two selves did yet know; hereat the Duke was amazed, and much astonished, but took no Warning or Notice thereof, keeping the same Company still, advising with such Counsel­lors, and performing such Actions as his Fa­ther by Parker countermanded; shortly after, old Sir George Villiers in a very quiet but sorrowful Posture, appears again to Parker, and said, Mr. Parker, I know you deliver'd my Words to George my Son, I thank you for so doing, but he slighted them, and now I only request this more at your Hands, that once again you repair to my Son, and tell him, that, if he will not amend, and follow the Counsel I have given him, this Knife or Dagger (and with that he pull'd a Knife or Dagger from under his Gown) shall end him; and do you Mr. Parker set your House in or­der, for you shall die at such a Time. Mr. Parker once more engag'd, though very un­willingly, to acquaint the Duke with the last Message, and so did; but the Duke desir'd him to trouble him no further with such Mes­sages and Dreams, and told him he perceiv'd he was now an old Man and doted; and with­in a Month after meeting Mr. Parker on Lambeth Bridge; said, now, Mr. Parker, what [Page 95] say you of your Dream? Who only return'd; Sir, I wish it may never have success, &c. But within Six Weeks after, he was stab'd with a Knife, according to his Father's Ad­monition before-hand, and Mr. Parker died soon after he had seen the Dream or Vision perform'd.

This Relation is inserted also in the Great Lord Clarendon's History, and in Sir Richard Baker's Chronicle. The Lord Clarendon in his History Vol. 1. L. 1. having given some Relations, says, that amongst others, there was one (meaning this of Parker) which was upon a better Foundation of Credit, than u­sually such Discourses are founded upon. And he tells us that Parker was an Officer in the King's Wardrobe in Windsor Castle, of a good Reputation for Honesty and Discretion, and then about the Age of Fifty Years or more. This Man had in his Youth been bred in a School in the Parish where Sir George Villiers, the Father of the Duke lived, and had been much cherish'd and obliged in that Season of his Age, by the said Sir George, whom after­wards he never saw. About Six Months be­fore the miserable End of the Duke of Buck­ingham the Apparition was seen; after the Third Appearance he made a Journey to London, where the Court then was; he was very well known to Sir Ralph Freeman, one of the Masters of the Requests, who had married a Lady that was near allied to the [Page 96] Duke, and was himself well receiv'd by him. He inform'd the Duke with the Reputation and Honesty of the Man, and Sir Ralph Free­man carry'd the Man the next Morning, by Five of the Clock, to Lambeth, according to the Duke's Appointment, and there presented him to the Duke, who receiv'd him courte­ously at his landing, and walk'd in Conference near an Hour with him, and Sir Ralph's and the Duke's Servants at such a distance, that they heard not a Word; but Sir Ralph al­ways fix'd his Eyes on the Duke, who some­times spoke with great Commotion and Dis­order; and that the Man told Sir Ralph in their return over the Water, that when he mentioned those particulars that were to gain him Credit, the Duke's Colour changed, and he swore he could come to that Knowledge only by the Devil; for that those particulars were known only to himself, and to one Per­son more, who, he was sure, would never speak of them. So far the Lord Clarendon.

I will now subjoin an authentick Relation, which Mr. Beaumont tells us at the end of his Book of Genii or familiar Spirits, printed in the Year 1705. he had just before receiv'd from the Mouth of the then Bishop of Glou­cester himself. It is as follows, Word for Word.

Sir Charles Lee, by his first Lady, had only one Daughter, of which she died in Child­birth; and when she died, her Sister, the [Page 97] Lady Everard desir'd to have the Education of the Child; and she was by her very well educated, till she was Marriageable; and a Match was concluded for her with Sir Wil­liam Perkins, but was then prevented in an extraordinary manner. Upon a Thursday Night she thinking she saw a Light in her Chamber after she was in Bed, knock'd for her Maid, who presently came to her; and she ask'd why she left a Candle burning in her Chamber? The Maid said she left none, and there was none, but what she brought with her at that Time. Then she said it was the Fire: But that the Maid told her was quite out, and said she believ'd it was only a Dream; whereupon she said it might be so, and compos'd herself again to Sleep, but about Two of the Clock she was awaken'd a­gain, and saw the Apparition of a little Wo­man between her Curtain and her Pillow; who told her she was her Mother, and that she was Happy, and that by Twelve of the Clock that Day, she should be with her; whereupon, she knock'd again for her Maid, called for her Cloaths, and when she was dress'd, went into her Closet, and came not out again till Nine; and then brought out with her a Letter sealed to her Father, brought it to her Aunt, the Lady Everard, told her what had happen'd, and desir'd, that, assoon as she was Dead, it might be sent to him; but the Lady thought she was suddenly fallen [Page 98] Mad; and thereupon sent presently away to Chelmsford for a Physician and Surgeon, who both came immediately, but the Physician could discern no Indication of what the Lady immagined, or of any Indisposition of her Body; notwithstanding the Lady would needs have her let Blood, which was done accor­dingly; and when the young Woman had patiently let them do what they would with her, she desir'd that the Chaplain might be called to read Prayers, and when Prayers were ended she took her Gittar and Psalm­book, and sat down upon a Chair without Arms, and play'd and sung so melodiously and admirably, that her Musick-master, who was then there, admired at it; and near the Stroke of Twelve, she rose and sat herself down in a great Chair with Arms, and pre­sently fetching a strong Breathing or Two, immediately expired, and was so suddenly Cold, as was much wonder'd at by the Phy­sician and Surgeon. She died at Waltham in Essex, Three Miles from Chelmsford; and the Letter was sent to Sir Charles at his House in Warwickshire: But he was so afflicted with the death of his Daughter, that he came not till she was buried; but when he came he caus'd her to be taken up, and to be buried by her Mother at Edmunton, as she desir'd in her Letter. This was about the Year one Thousand Six Hundred and Sixty Two, or Sixty Three. And this Relation the Right [Page 99] Reverend the Lord Bishop of Gloucester had from Sir Charles Lee himself; and Mr. Beau­mont printed it in his Book above-mentioned, from the Bishops own Mouth.

The Relations which I have given above, are not like the trifling Accounts too often given of these things, and therefore causing grave ones to be ridiculed in common with them. They are of that Nature, that, who­ever attempts to ridicule them, will, instead of turning them into Jest, become the Object of Ridicule himself.

The first Story, which has in it such amaz­ing Circumstances, and such uncommon and dreadful Incidents concerning the Butler in Ireland, is (as the Reader sees) attested by no less a Personage than an Earl of Orrery, Two Bishops, and many other Noblemen and Gen­tlemen, being present and Eye-witnesses of what the Earl said. What greater Testimo­ny would the most Incredulous have? They say such things are told for Interest; what Interest could an Earl and many Noblemen have in promoting such an Imposture? The Incredulous say, likewise great and learned Men delight sometimes in putting Frauds up­on the World, and after laugh at their Credu­lity: Would a Number of noble Lay-men chuse Two Prelates to carry on such a Fraud; and would Two pious Bishops probably Combine with several, and some Servants there present, in spreading such a Deceit? 'Tis past believ­ing, [Page 100] and it demands the strictest of moral Faith that can be given, to the most unque­stion'd History, that the Pen of Man ever wrote.

The Second Story is founded, first, upon the Experience of one of the most ingenious Men of that Age, Dr. Donne, and then upon the Proof made by his Friend, Sir Robert Drury, who could at first scarce believe it; and shall we doubt the Credit of Men, whose Company (for their Credit be it spoken) a British Ambassador was proud of gaining?

The Third Story is told by Luther himself, who began the great Work of the Reformation.

The Fourth is told by one that was a King's publick Minister, and told from his own Trial of the matter where he could have no Interest in the telling it.

The Fifth is related by those great Histo­rians, the Lord Clarendon, and Sir Richard Baker, as a Truth rely'd upon by themselves, and fit to be credited by their Readers.

The Sixth and last was related to Mr. Beaumont, by the Lord Bishop of Gloucester, who receiv'd the Account from Sir Charles Lee himself, to whose Grand-daughter the Matter happen'd.

Men who will not believe such things, as these, so well attested to us, and given us by such Authorities, because they did not see them themselves, nor any thing of the like Nature, ought not only to deny the Demon [Page 101] of Socrates, but that there was such a Man as Socrates himself; they should not dispute the Genii of Caesar, Cicero, Brutus, Mark Anthony, but avow that there were never any such Men existing upon Earth, and over­throw all credible History whatsoever. Mean while all Men, but those, who run such Lengths in their fantastical Incredulity, will, from the Facts above-mentioned, rest satisfied, that there are such things as evil and good Genit, and that Men have sometimes a Com­merce with them by all their Senses, parti­cularly those of seeing and hearing, and will not therefore be startled at the strange Frag­ments of Histories, which I am going to re­late of our young Duncan Campbell, and look upon some wonderful Adventures which he perform'd by the Intervention of his familiar Demon or Genius, as Falshoods, only because they are uncommon and surprizing, more e­specially since they were not done in a corner, but by an open way of Profession of a predi­ctor of Things, in the Face of the Metropolis of London, where he settled Young, as will appear in the Progress of his Life. However, some People, notwithstanding all this, may al­ledge, that though a Man may have a Genius appear to him, so as to convey into his Mind, through his Senses, the knowledge of things that are to come to pass, yet this happens, but on very eminent and extraordinary Occa­sions. The Murder for Example of a prime [Page 102] Minister, and the Favourite of a Monarch, in such a manner as it was perform'd on the Great Buckingham, by Felton, was a thing so uncommon, that it might perhaps deserve, by the Permission of Heaven, an uncommon Prediction: The others likewise are Instances Eminent in their way, particularly that of the Lady Everard's Niece; For that young Lady being then Marriageable, and a Trea­ty for that end being on Foot with Sir Wil­liam Perkins; the Divine Providence fore­seeing that such a State might call away her Thoughts, hitherto bent on him and spiritual Affairs, and fix them on the Trifles of this World, might perhaps permit her to be cal­led by a holy Mother to the State of Hap­piness, she before her enjoy'd, least her Daugh­ter's Mind should change, and she go into the Ways of a Sinner. But if these Super­eminent, these scarce and rare Examples, may be admitted of Man's holding a Conversa­tion with the spiritualiz'd Beings of another World; it will however be far below the Dignity of humane Reason methinks, to make such large Concessions to People, who pre­tend to Converse that wonderful way, as to allow them the Credit of being able to do it upon every slight Occasion, and every in­different Occurrence of human Life.

I cannot help acknowledging, that a Man of Wisdom may, at first Thought, make such an Objection; but Reflection will presently [Page 103] retract it, and the same good Sense that taught him to make an Objection so well upon the first Thought, will teach him, upon Second Thoughts, to acquiesce in the Answer.

Infants may have no doubt the Benefit of such an attending Genius, as well as People more advanc'd in Years; as may be seen in one of the Instances, which is a very famous one, relating to the Boy Born in Prussia, who was attended by one constantly from the Time of his Birth to his Death. Besides it is a mistake in the Understanding, to im­magin, that Death, which is the determina­tion and end of Life, is of more Consequence to be known than the manner of regulating that Life; for in reality, according to the right way of considering, Death, or the de­termination of a Man's Life, derives its Im­portance from the Steps which he took in the due regulation of it; and therefore e­very the least Step, proper to be taken for the due regulation of Life, is of more Con­sequence to be known, than the Death of a Person, though this at first sight carries the Face of Significance, and the other no­thing better than the look of a Trifle. Mar­riage for example is a Step in Life of the utmost Importance, whether we consider that Estate with regard to this, or the next World. Death is but the finishing of one Person, but Marriage may be the introducing of many into the World with Happiness; it is there­fore [Page 104] a thing of more importance to be known before-hand, and consequently more worthy of the communication of a Genius to the Man with whom he convers'd. Possidonius tells us, that a certain Rhodian dying, nominated Six of his equals, and said who should die first, who next, and so on, and the event an­swer'd the Prediction; why then (tho' some People are apt to make a Jest of it) may not a Man by the intervention of his good Ge­nius, tell a Woman, that is to have Six Hus­bands, who she shall have first, who next, and so on, and the event answer the Predi­ction? If Men of Learning may acquire such Knowledge, as to attain to extraordinary Things by their ordinary Faculties, why may not ordinary Things be taught others in this extraordinary way? For will any-body say that it is easier for a Man to accommodate himself to the knowledge of a Demon or Ge­nius, than for a Demon or Genius to accom­modate himself to the Knowledge of a Man? Certain it is indeed that if this good Genius (that induces a Man with a prophetick kind of Science) be any thing resembling a good Angel, the primary end of his being permitted to direct Mankind, must consist in Things re­lating more to their Welfare hereafter; yet I know not why they may not sometimes in­spire, or openly direct them in human Know­ledge, and in things relating to human Life, so they are of a good Tendency; more espe­cially [Page 105] since such a good Inspiration may be a counterballance to the bad Knowledge which some have been inspir'd with by evil Spirits. I would not be thought to go too far in a Point of this Nature, and have therefore (though perhaps I could say much more if I follow'd entirely my own private Opinion, and would venture to introduce it here, in Order to com­municate it to others, and make it a publick one) said no more on this Head than what Divines generally teach.

But the most unxeceptionable Mistress, that teaches these Things to be in Nature, is Ex­perience. If we had very many People gifted this way, the extraordinary Thing would have been become ordinary, and therefore I can't help wondering that it should be so ordinary a Thing for wise Men themselves to wonder too much at Things, because they are extra­ordinary, and suspect them as Frauds, because they are uncommon.

There has scarce been any period of Time in which some Person of this prophetick Class has not existed, and has not been consulted by the greatest of Men, and their Predictions found at the long run to come true; ignorant Men always rise to their Belief of them by Experience, and the most learned Men sub­mit their great Opinions to Experience, but your Men of midling Talents, who make up their want of Reason with bustling Obstinacy and noisy Contradiction, have been and still [Page 106] continue to be their own Opposers, and with­out discovering the reason for what they say, they content themselves with having the laugh on their sides, and barely affirming without proving, that it is a kind of ideal Juggle and intellectual Legerdemain, by which these mo­dern Predictors impose things upon the Eye of Reason, as the corporeal Eye is impos'd upon by slight of Hand; but it is a strange thing that Men of such quick Reason can't give us a Sample of the Frauds. Thus I re­member to have read (I can't tell where) a Story of some Courtiers, who, when a great Artist of Legerdemain was to act before the King, pretended to be so quick sighted, that nothing he did should escape their Discovery, were left by his nimble Fingers in the Dark, and forc'd at last with Blushes to own they had no better Eyes than other People. In a Word, if People will be led by Suspicions and re­mote possibilities of Fraud and Contrivance of such Men, all Historical Truth shall be ended, when it consists not with a Man's private Humour or Prejudice to admit it. Now therefore to prove by Experience and un­deniable Testimonies, that these kind of Genii will submit to little Offices in order to bring Men to greater Good; I will give the Reader Three or Four curious Passages, that will set the reasonable Reader at ease, and prepare him for reading the Passages of Mr. Campbell's Life with Pleasure, and as a fine History of won­derful [Page 107] Facts, that though they seem to sur­pass Belief, yet ought to have his Credit.

What in Nature can be more trivial than for a Spirit to employ himself in knocking on a Morning at the Wainscot by the Beds-head of a Man who got drunk over Night, ac­cording to the way that such things are or­dinarily explain'd? And yet I shall give you such a Relation of this, that not even the most devout and precise Presbyterian will offer to call in Question. For Mr. Baxter in his Hi­storical Discourse of Apparitions writes thus.

There is now in London an understanding sober pious Man, oft one of my Hearers, who has an elder Brother, a Gentleman of con­siderable Rank, who having formerly seem'd Pious, of late Years does often fall into the Sin of Drunkenness; he often Lodges long to­gether here in his Brother's House; and when­soever he is Drunk and has slept himself So­ber, something knocks at his Bed's-head, as if one knock'd on a Wainscot: When they remove his Bed it follows him: Besides other loud Noises, on other Parts where he is, that all the House hears, they have often watch'd him, and kept his Hands least he should do it himself: His Brother has often told it me, and brought his Wife a discreet Woman to attest it; who avers moreover, that as she watch'd him, she has seen his Shoes under the Bed taken up, and nothing Visible to touch them. They brought the Man himself [Page 108] to me, and when we ask'd him, how he dare Sin again after such a warning, he had no ex­cuse: But being Persons of Quality, for some special Reason of worldly Interest I must not name him.

Two things are remarkable in this Instance. (says Mr. Baxter) first, What a powerful thing Temptation and fleshly Concupiscence is, and what an harden'd Heart Sin brings Men to; if one rose from the Dead to warn such Sin­ners, it would not of itself perswade them.

Secondly, (says Mr. Baxter) It Poses me to think what kind of Spirit this is, that has such a care of this Man's Soul, which makes me hope he will Recover. Do good Spirits dwell so near us, or are they sent on such Messages? Or is it his Guardian Angel? Or is it the Soul of some dead Friend that Suf­fers? and yet retaining Love to him as Dives to his Brethren would have him saved? God yet keeps such things from us in the Dark.

So far we have the Authority of the re­nown'd and famous Mr. Baxter, who makes this knocking of the Spirit at the Bed's-head (though what we commonly call frivolous) an important Errand.

Another Relation of this kind was sent to Mr. John Beaumont (whom I myself personally know and which he has inserted in his Ac­count of Genit or familiar Spirits) in a Letter by an ingenious and learned Clergy-man of Wil [...]shire ▪ who had given him the Relation [Page 109] likewise before by Word of Mouth. It is as follows.

Near Eighty Years since, in the Parish of Wilcot (which is by the Devizes) in the Vi­car's House, there was heard for a conside­rable Time the sound of a Bell, constantly tolling every Night; the occasion was this: A debauch'd Person who liv'd in the Parish, came one Night very late and demanded the Keys of the Church, of the Vicar, that he might ring a Peal, which the Vicar refus'd to let him have, alledging the unseasonable­ness of the Time, and that he should by grant­ing his Desires give a disturbance to Sir George Wroughton and his Family, whose House ad­joined to the Church-yard. Upon this refu­sal the Fellow went away in a Rage, threat­ning to be reveng'd of the Vicar, and going some time after to the Devizes, met with one Cantle or Cantlow, a Person noted in those Days for a Wizard; and he tells him how the Vicar had serv'd him, and begs his help to be even with him. The Reply Cantel made him was this; does he not love ring­ing? He shall have enough of it: And from that Time a Bell began to Toll in his House, and continued so to do till Cantell's Death, who confess'd at Fisherton Goal in Sarum, (where he was confin'd by King James du­ring his Life) that he caus'd that Sound, and that it should be heard in that Place during Life. The Thing was so notorious, that [Page 110] Persons came from all Parts to hear it. And King James sent a Gentleman from London, on purpose to give him Satisfaction concern­ing the Truth of the Report. Mr. Beaumont had likewise this Story as he tells from the Mouth of Sir George Wroughton's own Son; with this remarkable Circumstance, that if any in the House put their Heads out of the Window, they could not hear the Sound, but heard it immediately again as soon as they stood in the Room.

The Reader here sees that good and bad Genit exercise themselves upon very little Functions, knocking at Bed's-heads, and ring­ing of Bells. For Proof of this we have the Testimonies of Two Divines, of a Man of Quality and Probity, and the same Satisfa­ction that a learned King had, who sent to inquire into the matter; and after this there can be I think no room for Doubt.

But to carry the Point still nearer Home; Inasmuch as I know some will leave no Stone unturn'd, to make the extraordinary Actions, which the Person, whose Life I write, has perform'd, appear Impostures, and inasmuch as for this End they may say, that though many People may have been gifted in this extraordinary manner, yet not so as to make a Profession of it, and therefore from thence they take their Suspicions, I shall in this Place to remove every nicest Scruple they can have touching this Affair, give the Reader one [Page 111] Instance of this kind likewise, before I pro­ceed with my History,

There lived not many Years since a very aged Gentlewoman, in London, in Water-lane, by Fleet-street, whose Name was Pight, who was endow'd with a prophetick Spirit: And the ingenious Mr. Beaumont (whom I perso­nally knew and who had a familiar Genius himself) gives the World this Account of her. She was very well known (says he) to many Persons of my Acquaintance now living in London. Among others, a Gentleman, whose Candour I can no way suspect, has told me, that he often resorted to her, as to an Oracle; and that assoon as he came into her Presence, she would usually tell him, that she knew what he was coming for, for that she had seen his Spirit for some Time before: And without his saying any thing to her, she would com­monly tell him what the Business was, which he came to consult her about, and what the Event of it would be; which he always found to fall out as she said, and many other Per­sons now living can testify the like Experience of her as to themselves.

Before I conclude this Chapter, I am wil­ling to give the Publick one further little Hi­story of the like kind with the foregoing ones, with this only difference, that if it be valued according to the worth the World has al­ways attributed to the very ingenious Person whom it concerns, it will be far the most fa­mous [Page 112] of them all, and therefore fittest to fi­nish this Chapter, and to crown this part of the Work, in which we are showing that Persons have had a Perception of Genii or Spirits, not visible at the same time to others.

The famous Torquatus Tasso Prince of the Italian Poets, and scarce inferior to the im­mortal Virgil himself, and who seems to in­joy the intermingled Guifts of the most ac­curate Judgment of this Latin Poet, and the more fertile and copious invention and fancy of the Greek one, Homer, strongly asserted his own Experience in this kind. His Life was written and published in French, Anno 1692. by D. C. D. D. V. who, in his Preface, tells us, that, in what he writ, he has follow­ed chiefly the History given us in Italian by John Baptista Manso, a Neapolitan Gentleman, who had been a very intimate Friend to Tas­so. In his Life, among other things, he ac­quaints us, that Tasso was naturally of that melancholick Temperament, which has al­ways made the greatest Men, and that this Temperament being aggravated by many Hardships he had undergone, it made him sometimes beside himself, and that those me­lancholick Vapors being dispatched, he came again to himself, like those, that return from Fits of the falling Sickness, his Spirit being as free as before. That, near his latter End, he retired from the City of Naples, to his Friend Manso, at Bisaccia, a small Town in [Page 113] the Kingdom of Naples, where Manso had a considerable Estate, and passed an Autumn there in the Diversions of the Season.

And here the French Author gives us an Account of Tasso's sensible Perception of a Genius as follows. As, after these Amuse­ments, he usually retired to his Chamber, to entertain himself there with his Friend Manso, the latter had the opportunity to inquire into one of the most singular Effects of Tasso's Melancholy, (of this heroick Melancholy, as I may call it) which raised and brightened his Spirit, so far it was from depressing or rend­ring it obscure; and which, among the An­cients, would have reasonably caus'd them, to have ascribed a familiar Demon to him, as to Socrates. They were often in a warm de­bate, concerning this Spirit, with which Tas­so pretended to have so free a Communica­tion. I'm too much your Friend, said Manso, to him, one Day, not to let you know, what the World thinks of you, concerning this thing, and what I think of it myself. Is it possible, that, being inlightened as you are, you should be fall'n into so great a Weakness, as to think you have a familiar Spirit; and will you give your Enemies that advantage, to be able to prove by your own acknowledg­ment, what they have already published to the World? You know they say, you did not publish your Dialogue of the Messenger, as a fiction; but you would have Men believe, [Page 114] that the Spirit, which you make to speak there, was a real and true Spirit: Hence Men have drawn this injurious Consequence, that your Studies have embroil'd your Imagina­tion, so that there is made in it a confused mixture of the Fictions of the Poets, the In­ventions of the Philosophers, and the Doctrine of Religion.

I am not ignorant, answer'd Tasso, of all that is spread abroad in the World, on the account of my Dialogue: I have taken care divers Times to dis-abuse my Friends, both by Letter and Word of Mouth: I prevented ev'n the Malignity of my Enemies, as you know, at the Time I publish'd my Dialogue. Men could not be ignorant that I compos'd it for the young Prince of Mantua, to whom I would explain, after an agreeable manner, the principal Mysteries of the Platonick Phi­losophy. It was at Mantua itself, after my Second Flight from Ferrara, that I form'd the Idea of it, and I committed it to Paper a lit­tle after my unfortunate Return. I address'd it to this Prince, and all Men might have read in the Epistle Dedicatory, the Protestation I there make, that this Dialogue being writ according to the Doctrine of the Platonicks, which is not always conformable to reveal'd Truths; Men must not confound what I ex­pose there as a Philosopher, with what I be­lieve as a Christian. This distinction is by so much the more reasonable, that at that Time [Page 115] nothing extraordinary had happened to me, and I spake not of any Apparition. This can be attested by all those with whom I lodged or whom frequented in this Voyage; and there­fore there is no reason for confounding the Fi­ction of my Dialogue, with what has happen'd to me since. I am perswaded of all you say to me, reply'd Manso, but truly I cannot be of what you believe, at present, concerning your­self. Will you imagin, that you are in Com­merce with a Spirit? And I ask you of what Order is that Spirit? Shall we place him in the number of the Rebels, whom their Pride precipitated into the Abyss? Or of the Intel­ligences, who continued firm in Faith and Submission to their Creator? For there is no mean to take in the true Religion, and we must not fall into the extravagances of the Gnomes and Silphs of the Cabalists.

Now the Spirit in Question cannot be a Demon: You own that instead of inspiring you any thing contrary to Piety and Religion, he often fortifies in you the Maxims of Chri­stianity; he strengthens your Faith by pro­found reasonings, and has the same Respect with you for sacred Names and Things, Nei­ther can you say that it's an Angel; for, tho' you have always led a regular Life, and far from all Dissoluteness; tho' for some Years past you have apply'd yourself, after a par­ticular manner, to the Duties of a true Chri­stian, you will agree with me, that these sorts [Page 116] of Favors are not common; that a Man must have attained to a high degree of Sanctity, and not be far from the pureness of Celestial Spirits, to merit a familiar Converse, and bear a Harmony with them. Believe me there is nothing in all these Discourses, which you imagin you have with this Spirit. You know, better than any Man, those Symptoms, which the black Humours, wherewith you are tor­mented, causes in you. Your Vapours are the source of your Visions, and yourself would not iudge otherwise of another Person, to whom a like thing should happen; and you will come to this in your own respect also, if you will make a mature Reflection, and apply yourself, to blot out, by an effort of Reason, these Immaginations, which the vi­olence of your evil Effect causes in you. You may have Reason, reply'd Tasso, to think so of the things that pass in me; but, as to my­self, who have a sensible Perception of them, I am forced to reason after another manner. If it were true that the Spirit did not shew himself to me, but in the violent assault of my Vapours: If he offer'd to my Immagi­nation, but wandring and confus'd Species, without Connection or due Sequel; if he us'd to me frivolous reasonings, which ended in nothing; or it having begun some solid rea­soning, he broke it off on a sudden, and left me in Darkness, I should believe with you, that all things, that pass, are but mere Dreams [Page 117] and Phantoms: But it's quite otherwise: This Spirit is a Spirit of Truth and Reason, and of a Truth so distinct, of a Reason so sublime, that he raises me often to Know­ledges, that are above all my reasonings, tho' they appear to me no less clear; that he teaches me things, which, in my most profound Meditations, never came into my Spirit, and which I never heard of any Man, nor read in any Book. This Spirit therefore is somewhat of real; of whatsoever Order he be, I hear him and see him, nevertheless for its being impossible for me to comprehend and define him. Manso did not yield to these Facts, which Tasso would have pass'd for Proofs: He press'd him with new Questions, which were not without Answers. Since you will not believe me on my Word, said Tasso to him, another Day, after having well dis­puted, I must convince you by your own Eyes, that these things are not pure Imagi­nations: And the next Day conversing toge­ther in the same Chamber, Manso perceiv'd that, on a sudden he fix'd his Eyes towards the Window, and that he stood, as it were, immovable; he call'd to him and [...]ogg'd him many times, but instead of answering him, see there the Spirit, says Tasso, at last, that has been pleased to come and visit me, and to entertain himself with me; look on him, and you will acknowledge the Truth of what I say.

[Page 118] Manso somewhat surprized, cast his Eyes towards the Place he shewed him, and per­ceiv'd nothing but the Rays of the Sun pas­sing through the Glass, nor did he see any thing in all the Chamber, though he cast his Eyes round it with Curiosity, and he desir'd him to shew him the Spirit, which he look'd for in vain, while he heard Tasso speak with much Vehemency. He declares in a Letter, which he writ concerning this to the Admi­ral of Naples, that he really heard no other Voice, but Tasso's own: But they were some­times Questions made by him to the pretended Spirit, sometimes Answers, that he made to the pretended Questions of the Spirit, and which were couch'd in such admirable Terms, so efficacious, concerning Subjects so elevated, and so extraordinary, that he was ravished with Admiration, and dared not to interrupt him. He hearken'd therefore at­tentively, and being quite beside himself at this mysterious Conversation, which ended at last by a recess of the Spirit; as he found by the last Words of Tasso; after which Tasso turning himself to him, well, said he, are your doubts at last dissipated? On the contrary, answer'd Manse, I am more imbroiled than ever; I have truly heard wonderful things; but you have not shewed me, what you pro­mised me; you have seen and heard, resumed Tasso perhaps more than—he stop'd here; and Manso, who could not recover [Page 119] himself of his surprize, and had his Head fil­led with the Ideas of this extraordinary En­tertainment, found himself not in a condition to press him farther. Mean while he enga­ged himself not to speak a Word to any Man of these things he had heard, with a design to make them Publick, though he should have Liberty granted him. They had many other Conversations concerning this matter, after which Manso own'd he was brought to that pass, that he knew not what to think or say, only, that, if it were a Weakness in his Friend to believe these Visions, he much fear'd it would prove contagious to him, and that he should become at last as credulous as him­self.

Dr. Beaumont, who is still living, and with whom I have had formerly some acquaint­ance myself, has set down, among the others, this Relation at large concerning Tasso, and gives this reason for it; because, says the Doctor, I think it contains a sufficient Answer to what many learned Friends have said to myself on the like occasion.

Perhaps it may not be ungrateful to the Reader, if I subjoin here the short Elogium writ on Tasso, by the famous Thuanus, which is as follows.

Torquatus Tasso died about the Forty Fifth Year of his Age, a Man of a wonderful and prodigious Wit, who was seized with an incu­rable Fury in his Youth, when he lived at the [Page 120] Court of Ferrara, and nevertheless, in lucid Intervals, he writ many things, both in Verse and Prose, with so much Judgment, Elegancy, and extreme correctness of Style, that he turn'd, at length, that Pity, which many Men had con­ceiv'd for him, into an Amazement; while by that Fury, which, in others, makes their Minds outragious, or dulls them, after it was over, his Understanding became as it were more purified, more ready in inventing things, more acute in aptly disposing them after they were invented, and more copious in adorning them with choice Words and weight of Sentences; and that which a Man of the soundest Sense would scarce Excogitate at his leisure, with the greatest Labour and Care immaginable, he, after a violent Agitation of the Mind set beside itself, naturally perform'd with a wonderful Felicity, so that he did not seem struck with an alienation of Mind, but with a divine Fury. He that knows not these things, which all Men know, that have been in Italy, and concerning which, himself sometimes complains, though modestly, in his Writings; let him read his Divine Works, and he must necessarily conclude, either, that I speak of a­nother Man than Tasso, or that these things were Written by another Man than Tasso.

After having given my Readers so many memorable Accounts, concerning the Percep­tion Men have had, in all Ages, and still con­tinue to have, of Genii or familiar Spirits, by all the Senses, as seeing, hearing, &c. which [Page 121] Accounts have been attested by Men of the greatest Learning and Quality, if any of them still remain dissatisfied, I am contented, and desire them, for their Punishment, to lay down the Book, before they arrive at the more pleasant Parts of it, which are yet to come, and not to read one Tittle further. These unbelieving Gentlemen shall then be at Liberty, according as their different Spi­rits dictate, to ridicule me in the same man­ner, as many more learned and greater Men, than I, have been satyriz'd, before my Time, by Persons of a like infidel Temper, who would fain pass Incredulity upon the World, as Wisdom, and they may, with all the free­dom in Nature, bestow upon me those merry Appellations, which, I very well know, such extraordinary Freethinkers, immagin to be­long of Right to any Author, that either be­lieves himself, or would possess the World with an Opinion and Belief, that there is such a thing, as the holding Commerce and Con­versation, in this habitable World, with Ge­nit and familiar Spirits. I shall only first tell them all I have to say to terminate the Dis­pute between them and me.

Those, who, to give themselves the Air and Appearance of Men of solid Wisdom and Gravity, load other Men, who believe in Spi­rits, with the Titles of being Men of Folly, Levity, or Melancholy, are desired to learn, that the same Folly (as they are pleas'd to [Page 122] term it) of Opinion is to be found in the great­est Men of Learning that ever existed in the Universe. Let them, in order to be convin­ced of this, read, Apuleius's Book de deo So­crat. Censorinus's Book de die Nat. c. 3. Por­phyrius in his Book de Abstinentia, Agrippa in his Treatise de Occult. Phil. l. 3. c. 22. and also c. 21. Natalis comes in his Myth. l. 4. c. 3. Maraviglia in his Pseudomantia. Disser­tation. 9. and 11. and Animadversion. 10. Pla­to in his Timaeus & Cratylus, Ammianus Mar­cellinus's History Book 21. Hieronimus Car­danus in his Book de vitâ propriâ. c. 47. The great Kircher in his Oedipus Oegyptiacus. Vol. 3. p. 474. Pausanius in Cliac. Poster. That im­mortal Orator Cicero Lib. 1. de divinatione. Lib. 2. de Naturâ Deorum, the Histoire pro­digieuse, written by Pere Arnault. And a Book intituled Lux Etenebris, which is a Col­lection of modern Visions and Prophesies in Germany, by several Persons; translated into Latin by Jo. Amos. Comenius, printed at Am­sterdam, 1655. And if they will be at the pains of having due recourse to these Quota­tions, they will find, that all these Men, whose Learning is unquestionable, and most of whom have been in a firm and undisputed Possession of Fame for many Centuries, have all una­nimously agreed in this Opinion, (how foolish soever they may think it) that there ever was and ever would be a Communication held be­tween some select Men and Genii or familiar [Page 123] Spirits. I must therefore desire their Pardon, if I rejoice, to see them remain Wise by them­selves, and that I continue to be esteemed by them a Fool among so much good Company.

Others, out of a mere contempt of Reli­gion, or cowardly, for fear of being thought Pusillanimous by Men, turn Bravo's to Heaven, and laugh at every Notion of Spirits as imbi­bed from the Nurse or imposed upon us by Priests, and may top these Lines upon us with an elegant and a convincing magisterial Sneer, though the divine Socrates was of our Opi­nion, and even experienc'd it to be true, having a Genius himself.

The Priests but finish, what the Nurse began,
And thus the Child imposes on the Man.

These bring into my Mind, a saying of Sir Roger L'Estrange on Seneca, which I must apply to Socrates: I join in Opinion with a Christian Heathen, while they remain Hea­then Christians.

The Third sort, out of a pretended Vene­ration to Religion and Divinity, may call me Superstitious and Chimerical. To them I answer, I will continue Chimerical and Su­perstitious with St. Austin; who gives the same Opinion in his Civitate Dei with Ludo­vicus Vives, let them be solider and more religious Divines than St. Austin in disown­ing it. Thus I bid these austere Criticks [Page 124] heartily farewel; but let my better natured Readers go on and find a new Example of this Conversation, being held with the Genii by our Duncan Campbell.

CHAP. VI. A Narrative of Mr. Campbell's coming to London and taking upon him the Profession of a Predictor; together with an Account of many strange things that came to pass just as he foretold.

TO proceed on regularly with the Life of young Duncan Campbell, I must let the Reader know that he continued thus con­versing with his little Genius, as is set forth above in the Dialogue he had with me, and predicting many things of the like Nature, as I have described, till the Year 1694. when he was just Fourteen Years of Age, and then he left Scotland.

But before I come to speak of the manner of his departure from thence, his half native Country, inasmuch as his Father was of that Country, and he had his Education there. (what Education he could have being Deaf and Dumb) I must let the Reader know that in the Year 1692. my very good Friend Mrs. Campbell, his Mother in Law, died, and left [Page 125] him there at Edinburgh, an Orphan of Twelve Years of Age.

He was, I may venture to say, the most beautiful Boy of that Age I ever knew; and the sensible Reader, who considers a Child of good Birth, with the Misfortunes of being Deaf and Dumb, left Fatherless and Mother­less in the wide World, at Twelve Years Old, without any Competency for his Maintain­ance and Support, without any Relations, in a manner, that knew him or assisted him, all the little Fortune, his Father had, having been lost in the civil Commotions in Scotland, as I have related above, need not hear me describe the Compassion, I, and many more, had for him; because such a Reader must certainly feel in his own Bosom the same live­ly Acts of Pity and Commiseration, at the hearing of such a Mishap, as I had at the see­ing it, or at least as I have now reviv'd a­fresh within me at the relating it.

However, it came so to pass, that a Person of the Name of Campbell, and who was a di­stant Relation of the Boy, though he himself was but in indifferent Circumstances, was resolv'd to see him provided for one way or another, in a manner somewhat suitable to his Condition, and till that Time to take the best care of him himself, that he was able.

Several Ladies of Quality, who had known his Perfections, coveted to make the Boy one of their Domesticks, as a Page, or a Play­fellow [Page 126] to their Children; for though he could not speak, he had such a Vivacity in all his Actions, such a sprightliness of Behaviour, and such a Merriment accompanying all his Gestures, that he afforded more Entertain­ment, than the prettiest and wittiest little Pratlers at those Years are wont to do. Mr. Campbell had certainly accepted of some of these fortunate Offers for his little Cousin, which were many of them likely to prove very Advantageous, if it had not been put in his Head by some Friends, particularly myself, that if he had a mind to dispose of the Boy in that manner, the best way he could take, would be, to present him to the late Earl of Argyle, who for his Name sake, and for his Father's sake, as well as the Qualifications and Endowments of the Boy, would more naturally (according to all Pro­bability) take a greater pleasure and delight in him, and consequently provide better for him, and with a more lasting Care, than any other Person of Quality, that had a sudden liking to him which might change, and took him as a Stranger out of a bare Cu­riosity. Mr. Campbell was by these Reasons over-rul'd in the disposal of his little Dumb Prophetical Cousin, as he call'd him, and re­solv'd that an Offer should be made of him to the present illustrious Duke of Argyle's most noble Father. But it so unfortunately hap­pened, that the Earl making very much a [Page 127] longer stay at London, than was expected, Mr. Campbell, the Uncle, sent our young Dun­can Campbell, his Nephew, handsomely ac­couter'd, and with a handsome Summ of Money in his Pocket, by Sea, with Captain Meek of Kircaldie, to London, with Letters of Recommendation to the Earl's Favour, and just a few Days before young Duncan arrived in London, the Earl was set out on his Journey to his Seat in Scotland.

I had now left him for near Three Years, not having seen him, since about a Year after his Mother's Death; and then coming to London, I had by mere accident an Appoint­ment to meet some Scotch Gentlemen at the Buffalo at Charing-cross. There happen'd at that Time to be a great Concourse of Scotch Nobility there at an Entertainment, and one of the Ladies and Gentlemen passing by and seeing one of my Friends, desir'd him to come in, and told him both he and his Compani­ons should be very welcome to partake of the Diversion. The Lady told him they had got a lovely Youth, a Scotch Miracle among them, that would give us exquisite Delight, and write down to us all the Occurrences of our future Lives, and tell us our Names upon our first Appearance. The Moment I heard of it, Duncan Campbell came into my Head; but as it is a thing not rare to be met with in Scotland, for Second sighted Persons to tell such things, and as the Earl of Angyle was [Page 128] in the North, I thought little Duncan had been under his Protection and with him, and did not dream of meeting with him there, and accordingly told my Friend, before I went in, that I believed I knew a Lad in Scotland would exceed this in Fore-sight, let him be as dexterous in his Art as he would.

As soon as I enter'd the Room, I was sur­priz'd to find myself encompass'd and sur­rounded by a Circle of the most beautiful Fe­males that ever my Eyes beheld. In the Centre of this Angelick Tribe was seated a heavenly Youth, with the most winning comeliness of Aspect, that ever pleased the Sight of any Be­holder of either Sex; his Face was divinely Fair, and ting'd only with such a sprightly Blush, as a Painter would use to Colour the Picture of Health with, and the Complexion was varnish'd over by a blooming, like that of flourishing Fruit, which had not yet felt the first Nippings of an unkind and an uncivil Air; with this Beauty was join'd such a smiling draught of all the Features, as is the result of Pleasantry and good Humour. His Eyes were large, full of Lustre, Majestick, well set, and the Soul shone so in them, as told the Spectators plainly, how great was the in­ward Vivacity of his Genius: The Hair of his Head was thick and reclin'd far below his Shoulders; it was of a fine Silver Colour, and hung down in Ringlets like the curling Tendrils of a copious Vine. He was by the [Page 129] Women entertain'd, according to the Claim, which so many Perfections joining in a Youth just ripening into Manhood, might lay to the benevolent Dispositions of the tender Sex. One was holding the Bason of Water, ano­ther washing a Hand, a Third with a Towel drying his Face, which another Fair had gree­dily snatch'd the Pleasure of washing before, while a Forth was disposing into order his Silver Hairs with an Ivory Comb, in an Hand as White, and which a Monarch might have been proud to have had so employ'd in adju­sting the Crown upon his Head; a Fifth was setting into Order his Crevat; a Sixth stole a Kiss, and blush'd at the innocent Pleasure, and mistook her own Thoughts as if she kiss'd the Angel and not the Man; and they all ra­ther seem'd to adore than to love him, as if they had taken him not for a Person that en­joy'd the frequent Gift of the Second Sight, but as if he had been some little Prophet pe­culiarly inspired, and while they all thus ad­mired and wonder'd they all consulted him as an Oracle. The surprize of seeing a young Man so happy amidst the general concurring Favours of the Fair, made me be for a while lost in a kind of delightful Amazement, and the consideration of what Bliss he was pos­sess'd, made me scarce believe my own Eyes, when they told me it was Duncan Campbell, who I had left an unhappy Orphan at Edin­burgh. But so it was, though he was much [Page 130] altered in Stature being now shot up pretty fast in his Growth since I had seen him, and having gain'd a kind of a fix'd Comportment, such as we may daily observe in those, who are taking leave of their Minority, and step­ping into a Stage of maturer Life.

The first remarkable thing I knew him do in London, being in this splendid Company, where there were so many undoubted Wit­nesses of Quality too, that had ocular Proof of his Predictions at that publick Tavern: I chuse to Record it here in the first Place, according to its due Order. It was in the Year 1698.

Among this Angelical Class of Beauties, were Dr. W [...]lw [...]d's Lady and Daughter. Upon Earth there was not sure a more beau­tiful Creature than the Daughter was; she was the leading Light of all the sparkling Tribe; and Otway's Character suits her ex­actly; for she was among Ten Thousand emi­nently Fair. One would imagin prosperous and lucky Fortune was written upon her Face, and that nothing unhappy could be read in so fair a Book; and it was therefore the unani­mous Consent of all, that, by way of good Omen to the rest, his Predictions should be­gin to be open'd luckily that Day, and that therefore he should first of all be consulted a­bout her.

Accordingly the Mother to be satisfied of his Talent, before she proceeded to any o­ther [Page 131] Questions, ask'd him in writing if he knew the young Lady, her Name, and who she was. After a little ruminating and pon­dering upon the matter, and taking an exact View of the Beauty, he wrote down her Name, told Mrs. W [...]lw [...]d she was her Daugh­ter, and that her Father was a Doctor. Con­vinced by his so readily telling the Name and Quality of Persons he had never seen in his Life-time, that Fame had not given a false Character of his Capacity, she proceeded in her Questions as to her future Fortune. He gaz'd a fresh at her very eagerly for some time, and his Countenance during that time of viewing her seem'd to be rufled with a­bundance of Disturbance and Perplexity. We all imagin'd that the Youth was a little touch'd at the Heart himself with what he saw, and that instead of telling hers, he had met in her bright Eyes with his own Destiny, the Destiny of being for ever made a Slave and a Captive, to so many powerful and al­most irresistable Charms.

At length, after having a long Debate within himself, which we thought proceed­ed from the struglings of Love and Passion, he fetching a great Sigh, which still con­vinced us more, took the Pen and wrote to Mrs. W [...]lw [...]d, that he beg'd to be excus'd, and that his Pen might remain as Dumb and Silent as his Tongue, on that Affair. By this Answer we concluded one and all, [Page 132] that our former Conjectures were true, and we join'd in pressing him the more earnestly to deliver his real and sincere Opinion con­cerning the Accidents upon which the future Fortunes of her Life were to turn and de­pend. He shew'd many mighty Reluctances in the doing it; and I have often since con­sidered him in the same Anguish as the late great Dr. Ratcliff, who was endeavouring by Study to save a certain fair One, whom he lov'd with a vehemence of Temper, and who was (as his Reason told him) got far away beyond the reach of the Art of Physick to recover. At last he wrote in plain Terms, that his backwardness and unwillingness to tell it, arose from his wishes that her For­tune would be better than his certain Fore­knowledge of it told him it would be, and beg'd that we would rest satisfied with that general Answer, since it was in so particular a Case, where he himself was a well-wisher, in vain, to the Lady about whom he was consulted. The young Lady herself thinking, that, if she knew any Disasters, that were to befal her, she might by knowing the nature of them beforehand, and the time when they were likely to happen, be able by timely Prudence and Forecast to avert those Evils; with many beseechings, urg'd him to reveal the fatal Secret. After many struggles to a­void it, and as many Instances made to him, both by Mother and Daughter, for the dis­covery [Page 133] of his Prescience in that Point, he comply'd with very great difficulty, and blot­ting the Paper with Tears that trickled fast from his Eyes, he gave her the lamentable Scroll, containing the Words that follow, viz. I wish it had not fallen to my Lot to tell this Lady, whom every Body, that but once looks at her, must admire, though they must not have leave to love, that she is not much longer to be possessor of that lovely Face, which gains her such a number of Adorers. The small Pox will too soon turn a Ravisher, and rifle all those Sweets and Charms that might be able to vanquish a King, and to subdue a Conqueror of mighty Battles. Her Reign is doom'd alass to be as short as it is now Great and Universal: I believe she has interval Beauties of the Mind, not the least inferior to those external Excellencies of the Body, and she might perhaps by the power of her Mind alone, be absolute Queen of the Affections of Men, if the small Pox threaten'd not too surely to be her further Enemy, and, not contented to destroy the Face, was not perversely bent to destroy the whole Woman. But I want Words to ex­press my Sorrow.—I would not tell it, if you did not extort the baneful Secret from my Bosom.—This fair Creature, whose Beauty would make one wish her Immortal, will by the cruel means of the small Pox, give us too sudden a Proof of her Mortality.—But nei­ther [Page 134] the Mother nor herself ought too much too repine at this, seeing it appears to be the Decree of Providence, which is always to be interpreted, as meant for our Good, and see­ing it may be the means of translating her the sooner only to her kindered Angels, whose Beauty she so much resembles here on Earth, and to be among the lowest Class, of whom is better than being the greatest Beauty of the World here below, and wearing an Imperial Crown.—While I comfort you, I can't help the force of Nature, which makes me grieve myself, and I only give you, because you com­pel me to it, so particular and so exact an Answer, to so particular and so exacting a Question.

The Mother, who took the Paper, was prudent enough to conceal from the Daugh­ter, what he said, but Nature would force its way, and bubled from her Eyes; and the Daughter perceiving that, press'd hard to see it, and wept at the consideration that hard Fate (though she knew not particularly what way) was to befal her. Never surely was any thing so beautiful in Tears, and I obtain'd of the Mother to see the Writing.—At last, in general Terms, to free her from a suspense of Mind, it was told her that some Trouble should happen to her that would diminish her Beauty. She had Courage enough to hear that Misfortune with disdain, and crying, if that be all, I am arm'd, I dont place much [Page 135] Pride in that, which I know Age must shortly after destroy, if Trouble did not do it be­fore; and she dry'd up her Tears, and (if what Mr. Bruyere says be true, viz. that the last thing a celebrated Woman thinks of when she dies, is the loss of her Beauty) she shew'd an admirable Pattern of female Philosophy, in bearing such a cruel Prediction with such unspeakable Magnanimity, as exceeded even the Patience of stern Stoism, considering she was a Woman, to whom Beauty is more dear than Life.

If any Evil, that is impending over Peo­ples Heads, could be evaded by Fore-know­ledge, or eluded by Art, she had the fairest opportunity of having this Prediction annul­led (which would have been more to the sa­tisfaction of the Predictor than knowing it verified) than ever any Woman had. Her Mother was specifically told, that the fatal Di­stemper should be the small Pox; her Father was, and is still, a very Eminent Physician; and Distempers of that kind, especially, are much more easily prevented, by Care, than cur'd by Art, and by Art more easily set a­side, when there is a timely warning given to a Physician to prepare the Body against the danger of the Poison, than when the Di­stemper has once catch'd hold of a Body at unawares, when it is unpurg'd of any gross Humours that may accompany it. But nei­ther the Fore-knowledge and Caution of the [Page 136] Mother, nor the Skill and Wisdom of the great Physician her Father, were sufficient to ward off the approaching Harm, that was written in the Books of Fate. Not many Suns had finished their yearly Courses, be­fore she was forc'd to submit to the inevi­table Stroak of Death, after the infectious and malicious Malady had first ravag'd her Beauty, rioted in all her Sweets, and made an odious deform'd Spectacle of the Charmer of Mankind. The Death of the Daughter work'd hard upon the Mother's Bowels, and dragg'd her speedily after her, with a broken Heart to the Grave.

This Lady, whose Fortune so great and so distinguish'd an Assembly had chosen to hear as a happy Fore-runner and lucky Omen of all their own, which were to be ask'd after­wards in their turns, proving so contrary to their Expectations already unfortunate in the Prediction, and having been in Tears about the matter dishearten'd all the rest of the Beauties from consulting him further that Day. The Person, who kept the Tavern, by Name Mrs. Irwin, alledg'd that as some People were very fortunate and others un­fortunate upon the same Day; so one Lady might be before told a mishap one Mi­nute, and another Lady all the Prosperity in Nature the very next Minute following, and therefore that what the unfortunate Lady had heard was not to be taken as Ominous, or [Page 137] as what could Malignantly influence the Day, neither ought it to be the least hinderance to any who had the curiosity of being let into the Secrets of Time before-hand. However, whether the Ladies were convinc'd or no; if she prevail'd over their Belief in that Point, she could not prevail over their Humour, which (though they might not believe the former Prediction ominous to themselves) was naturally aw'd for fear of the like, per­adventure, for a Time, and so it was agreed, nemine Contradicente, as a witty Lady wrote it down, that no more Petitions should for that Day be presented by any of that Com­pany to his Dumb, yet oracular, Majesty. Mrs. Irwin, however, would have her way; said she did not presume to such Honour as to call herself of that Company, and that therefore she might consult him without breaking through the Votes of the Assembly. Many endeavour'd to disswade her, but as she was passionately fond of knowing future E­vents; and had a mighty itch to be very in­quisitive with the Oracle, about what might happen, not only to herself, but her Posteri­ty; it was agreed that he should have the liberty of satisfying her Curiosity, since she presum'd her Fortune was sure to be so Good, and was so forward and eager for the know­ledge of it. But (alass!) such is too often the fantastical Impulse of Nature unluckily depraved, that it carries often into wishes of [Page 138] knowing, what when known we would be glad to unknow again, and then our Memory will not let us be untaught.

Mrs. Irwin was at that time in a pretty commodious way of Business, every thing in Plenty round about her, and liv'd more like a Person of Distinction, that kept such a Cel­lar of Wine, open House, and a free Table, than like one who kept a Tavern. She brought in her Three pretty Children, that were then almost Babies, the youngest having not long been out of the Nurses Arms, or trusted to the use of its own Legs. These Children she lov'd as a Mother should love Children; they were the delight of her Eyes all Day, and the Dream of her Imagination all Night. All the Passions of her Soul were confin'd to them; she was never pleas'd but when they were so, and always angry if they were cross'd; her whole Pride was centered in them, and they were cloath'd and went attended more like the Infants of a Princess, than of a Vintner's Relict. The Fortune of these was what she had near at Heart, and of which she was so eager of being immediately apprized. Her Impatience was proportiona­ble to the love she had for them, and which made her wish to fore-know all the Happiness that was like to attend them. She sate chear­fully down, presented one to him, and smil­ing wrote the Question in general Terms, viz. is this Boy to be Happy or Unhappy. [Page 139] A melancholy Look once more spread itself all over the Face of the Predictor, when he read the too inquisitive Words, and he seem'd mightily to regret being ask'd a Question, to which he was by his Talent of fore-seeing, compell'd to give so unwelcome an Answer. The Colour of the poor Woman flush'd and vanish'd alternately, and very quick, and she look'd not quite like the Picture of Despair, but a disconsolate Woman, with little Hopes on one Hand, and great Doubts and dismal Fears on the other. She profess'd she read great Evil in the Troubles of his Face, thank'd him for his good nature, told him, that they all knew, that though he could fore-tell, he could not alter the acts and decretals of Fate, and therefore desir'd him to tell her the worst; for that the Misfortunes, were they never so great, would be less dreadful to her, than re­maining in the State of Fear and Suspension. He at last wrote down to her that great and unexpected and even unavoidable Accidents would involve the whole Family in new Ca­lamities, that the Son she ask'd him about would have the bitterest task of Hardship to go through withal, while he lived, and that to finish all more unhappily, he would be basely and maliciously brought to an untimely End, by some mortal Enemy or other, but that she should not trouble herself so much on that head, she would never see it, for it would happen some Years after she was de­parted [Page 140] from the World. This melancholy Account clos'd up the Book of Predictions for that Day, and put a sad stop to all the pro­jected Mirth and Curiosity. Now I must tell the Reader how and when the event answer'd the Prediction. And in a few Words it was thus; poor Mrs. Irwin, by strange Accidents decay'd in the World, and dying Poor, her Sons were forc'd to be put out Apprentices to small Trades, and the Son, whom the above­mentioned Prediction concern'd, was, for stealing one Cheese from a Man in the Hay­market, severely prosecuted at the Old Bailey, and on Wednesday the Twenty Third of De­cember, 1713. hang'd at Tyburn, with several other Criminals.

The Two foregoing Passages are of so tra­gical a Nature, that it is time I should re­lieve the Minds of my Readers, with some Histories of Ladies, who consulted him with more Success and Advantage, to whom his Predictions were very entertaining, when they so came to pass in their Favour, the Relation whereof, will consequently be agreeable to all Readers, who have within them a mixture of happy Curiosity and good Nature.

Two Ladies, who were the most remarka­ble Beauties in London, and the most courted, turn'd at the same time their Thoughts to Matrimony, and being satiated, I may say, wearied with the Pleasure, of having conti­nually after them a great number and variety [Page 141] of Adorers, resolv'd each, about the same time, to make a choice of their several Men, to whom, they thought, they could give most Happiness, and from whom they might re­ceive most. Their Names (for they are both Persons of Distinction) shall be Christallina and Urbana. Christallina was a Virgin, and Urbana a young Widow. Christallina engross'd the Eyes, the Hearts, and the Sighs, of the whole Court, and wherever she appeared, put any Court Lady out of her Place, that had one before in the Heart of any Youth; and was the celebrated Toast among the Beau Monde. Urbana's Beauty made as terrible Havock in the City: All the Citizens Daugh­ters, that had many Admirers, and were in fair Hopes of having Husbands, when they pleas'd themselves; assoon as Urbana had lost her old Husband, found that they every Day lost their Lovers, and 'twas a general fear a­mong the prettiest Maids, that they should remain Maids still, as long as Urbana remain'd a Widow. She was the Monopolizer of City Affection, and made many Girls, that had large stocks of Suiters, Bankrupts in the Trade of Courtship, and broke some of their Hearts, when her Charms broke off their Amours.—Well but the Day was near at Hand, when both the Belles of the Court and the City Damsels were to be freed from the ravages, which these Two Tyrants, triumphant in Beauty, and insolent in Charms, made among [Page 142] the Harvest of Love. Each had seen her proper Man, to whom the Enjoyment of her Person was to be dedicated for Life. But it being an Affair of so lasting Importance, each had a mind to be let into the knowledge of the consequences of such a Choice, as far as possible, before they step'd into the irrevo­cable State of Matrimony. Both of them happen'd to take it into their Heads, that the best way to be entirely satisfied in their Cu­riosity, was to have recourse to the great Pre­dictor of future Occurrences, Mr. Duncan Campbell, whose Fame was at that Time spread pretty largely about the Town. Christallina and Urbana, were not acquainted with each other, only by the report which Fame had made of Beauty. They came to Mr. Camp­bell's on the same Day, and both with the same resolution of keeping themselves con­ceal'd and under Masks, that none of the Company of Consulters, who happen'd to be there, might know who they were. It hap­pened that on that very Day, just when they came, Mr. Campbell's Rooms were more than ordinarily crowded, with curious Clients of the fair Sex, so that he was oblig'd to desire these Two Ladies, who express'd so much precaution against, and fear of having their Persons discover'd, to be contented with only one Room between them, and with much ado, they comply'd with the request, and condescended to sit together Incog. Distant [Page 143] Compliments of Gesture pass'd between them, (the dress and comportment of each making them appear to be Persons of Figure and Breed­ing) and after Three or Four modish Curte­sies down they sat, without so much as once opening their Lips, or intending so to do. The Silence between them was very formal and profound for near half an Hour, and nothing was to be heard but the snapping of Fans, which they both did very tuneably and with great Harmony, and plaid, as it were in Con­sort.

At last one of the civil well bred Mutes, happening to Sneeze, the other very gracefully bow'd, and before she was well aware, out popp'd the Words—Bless you Madam, the fair Sneezer return'd the Bow, with an—I thank you Madam. They found they did not know one another's Voices; and they began to talk very merrily together, with pretty great confidence, and they taking a mutual liking from Conversation, so much familiarity grew thereupon instantly between them, that they began not only to unmask, but to unbosom themselves to one another, and confess alternately all their Secrets. Chri­stallina own'd who she was, and told Urbana the Beau and Courtier that had her Heart. Urbana as franckly declared that she was a Widow, that she would not become the La­dies Rival, that she had pitch'd upon a Se­cond Husband, an Alderman of the City. [Page 144] Just by that time they had had their chat out, and wish'd one another the pleasure of a successful Prediction, it came to Christallina's turn to visit the Dumb Gentleman, and re­ceive from his Pen oracular Answers, to all the Questions she had to propose. Well, he accordingly satisfied her in every Point she ask'd him about; but while she was about this; one of Mr. Campbell's Family going with Urbana to divert her a little: The Widow railed at the Virgin as a Fool, to immagin that she should ever make a Conquest of the brightest Spark about the Court, and then let she some random bolts of Malice to wound her Reputation for Chastity: Now it became the Widow's turn to go and consult: And the same Person of Mr. Campbell's Family, in the mean time entertain'd Christallina. The Maid was not behind hand with the Widow; she rail'd against the Widow, represented her as sometimes a Coquette, sometimes a Lady of Pleasure, sometimes a Jilt, and lifted up her Hands in Wonder and Amazement, that Urbana should immagin so rich a Man, as an Alderman, such a one, should fall to her Lot. Thus Urbana swore and protested that Chri­stallina could never arrive at the Honour of being the Wife to the courtly Secretarius, let Mr. Campbell flatter her as he would; and Christallina vow'd, that Campbell must be a downright Wizard, if he foretold, that such a one as Urbana would get Alderman Stiff­rump [Page 145] for a Husband, provided a Thing so im­probable should come to pass.

However, it seems, Duncan had told them their own Names and the Names of their Suiters, and told them further, how soon they were both to be married, and that too directly to their Heart's content, as they said rejoicing­ly to themselves, and made their mutual Gra­tulations.

They went away each satisfied, that she should have her own Lover, but Christallina laugh'd at Mr. Campbell for assigning the Al­derman to Urbana; and Urbana laugh'd at him for promising the Courtier to the Arms of Christallina.

This is a pretty good Figure of the Tem­pers of Two reigning Toasts, with regard to one another.

First, Their Curiosity made them, from resolving to be concealed, discover one ano­ther wilfully, from utter Strangers grow as familiar as old Friends in a Moment, swear one another to Secrecy, and exchange the Sentiments of their Hearts together, and from being Friends become envious of each o­ther's enjoying a Similitude of Happiness; the Compliments made on either side Face to Face, were, upon the turning of the Back, turn'd into Reflections, Detraction, and Ridi­cule; each was a Self-lover and Admirer of her own Beauty and Merit, and a Despiser of the other's.

[Page 146] However, Duncan Campbell, proved at last to be in the right; Urbana was wrong in her opinion of Christallina's want of power over Secretarius, and Christallina was as much out in her opinion, that Urbana would miss in her aim of obtaining Stiffrump: For they both prov'd in the right of what they thought, with regard to their own dear single Persons, and were made happy according to their Ex­pectations, just at the time foretold by Mr. Campbell.

Christallina's ill Wishes did not hinder Ur­bana from being Mistress of Alderman Stiff­rump's Person and Stock, nor did Urbana's hinder Christallina from shewing herself a shining Bride at the Ring in Secretarius's gil­ded Chariot, drawn by Six Prancers of the proud Belgian Kind, with her half dozen of Liveries, with Favours in their Hats, wait­ing her return at the Gate of Hyde-park.

Both lov'd and both envy'd, but both al­low'd of Mr. Campbell's Fore-knowledge.

Having told you Two very sorrowful Pas­sages, and one tolerably successful and enter­taining; I shall now relate to you another of my own knowledge, that is mix'd up with the Grievous and the Pleasant, and checquer'd, as it were, with the Shade and the Sun-shine of Fortune.

Though there are Vicissitudes in every Stage or Life under the Sun; and not one ever ran continually on with the same series [Page 147] of Prosperity; yet those Conditions, which are the most liable to the signal Alterations of Fortune, are the Conditions of Merchants; for profest Gamesters I reckon in a manner as Men of no condition of Life at all; but what comes under the Statute of Vagabonds.

It was indeed, as the Reader would guess, a worthy and a wealthy Merchant, who was to run through these different Circumstances of Being. He came and visited our Mr. Camp­bell, in the Year, 1707. he found him amidst a Croud of Consulters; and being very ea­ger and solicitous to know his own Fortune, just at that critical juncture of time, he begg'd of him (if possible) to adjourn his other Clients to the Day following, and sacrifice that one wholly to his use; which as it was probably more important than all the others together, so he wrote down that he would render the time spent about it more advantagious to Mr. Campbell; and, by way of previous En­couragement, threw him down Ten Guineas as a retaining Fee.

Mr. Campbell, who held Money in very lit­tle esteem, and valued it so much too little, that he has often had my Reprehensions on that head, paused a little, and after looking earnestly in the Gentleman's Face, and read­ing there, as I suppose, in that little space of time in general, according to the power of the Second Sight, that what concern'd him was highly momentous, wrote him this An­swer, [Page 148] that he would comply with his requests, adjourn his other Clients to the Day follow­ing, and set apart all the remnant of that, till Night, for inspecting the future Occur­rences, of which he had a mind to be made a Master.

There is certainly a very keen Appetite in Curiosity: It cannot stay for satisfaction; it is pressing for its necessary repast, and is with­out all patience: Hunger and Thirst are not Appetites more vehement and more hard and difficult to be repress'd, than that of Curio­sity: Nothing but the present Now is able to allay it. A more expressive Picture of this I never beheld, than in the Faces of some, and the murmurs and complaints of others, in that little inquisitive Company, when the unwelcome Note was given about signifying an Adjournment, for only Twenty Four Hours.

The Colour of a young Woman there, came and went a Hundred times (if possible) in the space of Two Minutes; she blush'd like a red Rose this Moment, and in the switch of an Eye-lash she was all over as pale as a white one: The Suiter, whose Name, her Heart had gone pit a pat for the space of an Hour, to be inform'd of from the Pen of a Seer, was now deferr'd a whole Day longer; she was once or twice within an ace of swooning a­way; but he comforted her in particular, by telling her (though he said it only by way of [Page 149] jest) that the Day following would be a more lucky Day to consult about Husbands, than the present, that she came on. The Answer was a kind of Cordial to her hopes, and brought her a little better to herself.

Two others, (I remember) Sisters and old Maids, that it seems were Misers, Women ordinarily drest, and in blue Aprons, and yet by relation worth no less than Two Thousand Pounds each, were in a peck of Troubles a­bout his going and leaving them unsatisfied. They came upon an enquiry after Goods that were stolen, and they complained that by next Morning at that time, the Thief might be got far enough off, and creep into so remote a corner, that he would put it beyond the power of the Devil, and the art of Conjura­tion to find him out, and bring him back a­gain. The disturbance and anxiety that was to be seen in their Conntenances, was just like that, which is to be beheld in the Face of a great losing Gamester, when his all, his last great Stake, lies upon the Table, and is just sweeping off by another winning Hand into his own Hat.

The next was a Widow, who boune'd, be­cause, as she pretended, he would not tell her what was best to do with her Sons, and what Profession it would be most happy for them to be put to; but in reality all the Cause of the Widow's fuming and fretting, was, not that she wanted to provide for her [Page 150] Sons, but for herself; she wanted a Second Husband, and was not half so solicitous about being put in a way of educating those Child­ren she had already, as of knowing when she should be in a likelyhood of getting more. This was certainly in her Thoughts, or else she would never have flounc'd about in her Weed, from one end of the Room to the o­ther, and all the while of her Passion smile by Fits upon the Merchant, and leer upon a young pretty Irish Fellow that was there. The young Irish-man made use of a little Eye­language: She grew appeas'd, went away in quite a good humour, skutled too airily down Stairs, for a Woman in her cloaths, and the reason was certainly that she knew the mat­ter before, which we took notice of presently after: The Irish-man went precipitately after her down Stairs without taking his leave.

But neither were the Two Misers for their Gold, the Virgin for a first Husband, nor the Widow for a Second, half so eager, as ano­ther married Woman there, was for the death of her Spouse. She had put the Question in so expecting a manner for a lucky Answer, and with so much keen desire appearing plain­ly in her looks; that no big belly'd Woman was ever more eager for devouring Fruit; no young hasty Bridegroom, just married to a Beauty, more impatient for Night and En­joyment, than she was to know, what she thought a more happy Moment, the Moment [Page 151] of her Husband's last agonizing Gasp. As her Expectation was the greatest, so was her Dis­appointment too, and consequently her Dis­order upon his going and leaving her unre­solv'd. She was frantick, raging and impla­cable; she was in such a Fury at the delay of putting off her Answer to the Day following, that in her fury, she acted as if she would have given herself an Answer, which of the Two should die first, by choaking herself upon the spot, with the Indignation that swell'd in her Stomach, and rose into her Throat on that oc­casion. It may look like a Romance to say it; but indeed they were forc'd to cut her Lace, and then she threw out of the Room with great Passion.—But yet had so much of the enraged Wife left, (beyond the enrag'd Wo­man) as to return instantly up Stairs, and signify very calmly, she would be certain to be there next Day, and beseech'd earnestly that she might not meet with a Second Dis­appointment.

All this hurry and bustle created a stay, a little too tedious for the Merchant, who be­gan to be impatient himself, especially when Word was brought up, that a fresh Company was come in: But Mr. Campbell was deny'd to them; and to put a stop to any more In­terruptions, the Merchant and the dumb Gentleman agreed to slip into a Coach, drive to a Tavern in the City, and settle matters of Futurity over a Bottle of French Claret.

[Page 152] The first Thing done at the Tavern, was Mr. Campbell's saluting him upon a piece of Paper by his Name, and drinking his Health. The next Paper held a Discourse of condo­leance for a Disaster that was past long since, namely a great and considerable loss that hap­pen'd to his Family, in the dreadful Confla­gration of the City of London. In the Third little Dialogue which they had together, he told the Merchant that Losses and Advan­tages were general Topicks, which a Person unskill'd in that Art might venture to assign to any Man of his Profession; it being next to impossible that Persons who traffick should not sometimes gain, and sometimes lose.—But said Mr. Duncan Campbell I will sketch out particularly, and specify to you some fu­ture Misfortunes, with which you will una­voidably meet: 'Tis in your Stars, it is in Destiny that you should have some Trials, and therefore when you are forewarn'd take a prudent care to before-arm'd with Patience, and by longanimity, and meekly, and resig­nedly, enduring your Lot, render it more easy, since Impatience can't avert it, and will only render it more burthensome and heavy. He gave these Words to the Merchant; who press'd for his Opinion that Moment. By your leave (resuming the Pen said the Dumb Gentleman in writing) we will have this Bottle out first and tap a fresh one, that you may be warm'd with Courage enough to re­ceive [Page 153] the first Speculative onsett of ill fortune, that I shall predict to you, with a good grace, and that may perhaps enable you to meet it, when it comes to reduce it self into action, with a manful Purpose and all becoming Re­solution. The Merchant agreed to the Pro­posal, and put on an Air of the careless and in­different as well as he could, to signify that he had no need to raise up an artificial Courage from the auxiliary forces of the Grape. But Nature, when hard press'd, will break thro' all disguises, and not only notwithstanding the Air of Pleasantry he gave himself, which ap­pear'd forced and constrain'd, but in spite of Two or Three sparkling and enlivening Bum­pers, a Cloud of Care would ever and anon gather and shoot heavily cross his Brow, tho' he labour'd all he could to dispel it as quick­ly, and to keep fair Weather in his Counte­nance. Well, they had crack'd the first Bot­tle and the Second succeeded upon the Table, and they call'd to blow a Pipe together. This Pipe Mr. Campbell found had a very ill Effect: It is certainly a pensive kind of Instrument; and fills a Mind any thing so disposed with disturb­ing thoughts, black fumes, and melancholy va­pours, as certainly as it doth the Mouth with smoke. It plainly took away even the little Sparks of Vivacity, which the Wine had given before; so he wrote for a truce of fi­ring those sort of noxious Guns any longer, and they laid down their Arms by consent, and [Page 154] drank off the Second Bottle. A Third im­mediately supply'd its place, and at the first Glass the opening of the Bottle, Mr. Campbell began to open to him his future case, in the following Words. Sir, you have now some Ventures at Sea from such and such a Place to such a value. Don't he discomforted at the News which you certainly will have within three Months, (but 'twill be false at last) that they are by three different Tempests made the Prey of the great Ocean, and enrich the Bottom of the Sea, the Palace of Neptune. A worse Storm than all these attends you at home, a Wife who is and will be more the Tempest of the House wherein she lives. The high and lofty Winds of her Vanity will blow down the Pillars of your House and Family; the High-tide of her Extravagance will roll on like a resistless Torrent and leave you at low Water, and the Ebb of all your Fortunes. This is the Highest and the most cutting Disaster that is to befal you; your real Ship­wreck is not foreign but domestick; your bosom Friend is to be your greatest Foe, and even your powerful Undoer for a time; mark what I say, and take Courage, it shall be but for a time, provided you take Courage; it will upon that condition be only a short and wholesome taste of Adversity given to you, that you may relish returning Prosperity with Virtue, and with a greater Return of thanks to him, that dispenses it at pleasure to Man­kind. [Page 155] Remember Courage and Resignation is what I advise you to; use it (as becomes you) in your Adversity, and believe that as I foretold that Adversity, so I can foretel a Prosperity will again be the consequence of those Virtues; and the more you feel the one, ought not to cast you down, but raise your hopes the more, that he who foretold you that so exactly, could likewise foretel you the other. The Merchant was by this put into a great suspence of Mind, but somewhat ea­sier, by the Second Prediction being annex'd so kindly to the first fatal one. They crown'd the Night with a flask of Burgundy, and then parting, each went to their respective Homes.

The Reader may perchance wonder how I, who make no mention of my being there, (as in Truth I was not at the Tavern) should be able to relate this as of my own knowledge; but if he pleases to have patience to the end of the Story, he will have entire satisfaction in that Point.

About half a Year after, the Merchant came again, told him that his Prediction was too far verify'd, to his very dear cost, and that he was now utterly undone, and beyond any visible means of a future recovery, and doubt­ing least the other fortunate Part of the Pre­diction was only told him by way of Encou­ragement, (for groundless Doubts and Fears always attend a Mind implung'd in Melan­choly) besought him very earnestly to tell [Page 156] him candidly and sincerely, if there was no real Prospect of Good, and rid him at once of the Uneasiness of such a Suspension of Thought; but pray too, said he, with all the vehemence of repeated Expostulation, satisfy me, if there are any further hopes on this side the Grave?

To this Duncan Campbell made a short, but a very significant reply in writing. May the Heaven's preserve you from a threat'ning dan­ger of Life. Take care only of yourself, great and mighty care, and if you outlive Friday next, you will yet be great and more fortunate, than ever you was in all the height of your former most flourishing space of Life. He colour'd inordinately when Dun­can Campbell said Friday, and conjur'd him to tell him as particularly as he could what he meant by Friday. He told him he could not particularize any further, but that great Dan­ger threaten'd him that Day; and that with­out extraordinary Precaution, it would prove fatal to him, even to death. He shook his Head, and went away in a very sorrowful Plight. Friday past, Saturday came, and on that very Saturday Morning came likewise the joyful Tidings that, what Ventures of his were given over for lost, at Sea, were all come safe into the Harbour. He came the Moment he receiv'd those dispatches from his Agent, to Mr. Duncan Campbell's Apartment, embrac'd him tenderly, and saluted him with [Page 157] much gladness of Heart, before a great Room full of Ladies, where I happen'd to be pre­sent at that time; crying out in a loud Voice, before he knew what he said, that Mr. Campbell had sav'd his Life, that Friday was his Birth-day, and he had intended with a Pistol to shoot himself that very Day. The Ladies thought him mad; and he, recover'd from his Exstacy, said no more, but sate down, till Mr. Campbell dismiss'd all his Clients; and then we Three went to the Tavern together, where he told me the whole little History or Narrative, just as is above related.

The Fame which Mr. Duncan Campbell got by the foregoing, and several other Predi­ctions of the like kind, was become very large and extensive, and had spread itself into the remotest Corners of this Metropolis. The Squares rung with it, it was whisper'd from one House to another, through the more mag­nificent Streets, where Persons of Quality and Distinction reside, it catch'd every House in the City, like the News of Stock from Ex­change-alley, it run noisily through the Lanes and little Thorough-fares where the poor in­habit; it was the Chat of the Tea-table, and the Babble of the Streets, and the whole Town, from the top to the bottom, was full of it. Whenever any Reputation rises to a degree like this, let it be for what Art or Accomplishment or on what account soever it will, Malice, Envy and Detraction, are sure [Page 158] to be the immediate Pursuers of it with full Mouth, and to hunt it down, if possible, with full Cry. Even the great Nostra-damus, tho' favour'd by Kings and Queens, (which always without any other reason creates Enemies) was not more pursued by Envy and Detra­ction for his Predictions in Paris and through­out France, than our Duncan Campbell was in London, and even throughout England. Various, different, and many were the Ob­jections rais'd to blot his Character and ex­tenuate his Fame, that, when one was con­futed, another might not be wanting to sup­ply its place, and so to maintain a course and series of back-biting, according to the known Maxim.—Throw dirt, and if it does not stick, throw dirt continually, and some will stick.

Neither is there any wonder; for a Man, that has got Applauders of all sorts and con­ditions, must expect Condemners and Detra­ctors of all sorts and conditions likewise. If a Lady of high Degree, for example, should say smiling, (though really thinking absolute­ly what she says) for fear of being thought over-credulous:—Well, I vow, some things Mr. Campbell does are surprizing after all; they would be apt to incline one to a belief, that he is a wonder of a Man, for one would imagin the things he does impossible;—why then a Prude with an assumed supercilious Air, and a scornful Tihee, would in order to seem more wise than she was, reply; Laud, [Page 159] Madam, 'tis more a wonder to me that you can be imposed upon so.—I vow to Gad, Madam, I would assoon consult an Almanack­maker, and pin my Faith upon what he pricks down; or believe, like my Creed, in the cross which I make upon the Hand of a Gypsie.—Lard, Madam, I assure your La'ship he knows no more than I do of you.—I assure you so, and therefore believe me.—He has it all by hear-say.—If the Lady that believ'd it, should reply, that if he had notice of every Stranger by hear-say, he must be a greater Man than she suspected, and must keep more Spies in pay, than a Prime Minister. The Prude's Answer would be with a loud Laugh and gig­gling out these Words.—Lard, Madam, I assure you nothing can be more easy; and so take it for granted. Because she was inclin'd to say so, and had the act of Wisdom on her side, forsooth, that she appear'd hard of be­lief, (which some call hard to be put upon) and the other Lady credulous, (which some though believing upon good grounds are call'd) and so thought foolish; the Prude's Answer would be thought sufficient and con­vincing.

Thus Malice and Folly, by dint of Noise and Impudence, and strong though empty Assertions, often run down Modesty and good Sense. Among the common People it is the same, but only done in a different manner. For Example, an ordinary Person that had [Page 160] consulted, might say (as he walk'd along) There goes the dumb Gentleman, who writes down any Name of a Stranger at first Sight. Steps up a blunt Fellow, that takes Stub­borness for Sense, and says—that is a con­founded Lye; he is a Cheat and an Impostor, and you are one of his Accomplices. He'll tell me my Name, I suppose, if you tell it him first. He is no more dumb than I am; he can speak and hear as well as us, I have been with those that say they have heard him; I wish I and Two or Three more had him in our Stable, and I warrant you with our Cart-whips we would lick some Words out of his Chops, as dumb as you call him.—I tell you 'tis all a Lye and all a Bite.—If the other desires to be convinc'd for himself by his own Experience.—The rougher Rogue, who perhaps has stronger Sinews than t'other, answers, if you lye any further, I will knock you down, and so he is the vulgar Wit, and the Mouth of the Rabble-rout, and thus the Detraction spreads below with very good success, as it does above in another kind.

As there are Two comical Adventures in his Life, which directly suit and correspond with the foregoing Reflections, this seems the most proper Place to insert them in. The first consists of a kind of Mobb-way of Usage he met with from a Fellow, who got to be an Officer in the Army, but by the following Behaviour will be found unworthy of the Name, and the Commission.

[Page 161] In the Year 1701, a Lady of good Quality came and address'd herself to him much after the following manner. She told him she had Choice of Lovers, but preferr'd one above the rest; but desir'd to know his Name, and if she made him her Choice, what would be the subsequent Fate of such a Matrimony. Mr. Duncan Campbell very readily gave her down in writing, this plain and honest Re­ply; that of all her Suiters, she was most in­clin'd to a Captain, a distinguish'd Officer, and a great Beau, (naming his Name) and one that had a great many outward engaging Charms, sufficient to blind the Eyes of any Lady that was not thoroughly acquainted with his Manner of living. He therefore as­sured her, (and thought himself bound, be­ing conjured, so to do, having received his Fee, though there was Danger in such plain and open Predictions,) that he was a Villain and a Rogue in his Heart, a profligate Game­ster, and that if she took him to her Bed, she would only embrace her own Ruin. The Lady's Woman, who was present, being in Fee with the Captain, resolving to give Intelli­gence, for fear the Officer her so good Friend should be disappointed in the Siege: slily shuf­fled the Papers into her Pocket, and made a Present of them to the military Spark. Fir'd with Indignation at the Contents, he vow'd Revenge; and in order to compass it, con­spires with his female Spy about the Means. [Page 162] In fine, for fear of losing the Lady though he quarrel'd with Duncan Campbell, a Method was to be found out how to secure her by the very Act of Revenge. At last it was re­solv'd to discover to her, that he had found out what she had been told by Mr. Campbell, but the Way how he had been inform'd was to remain a Secret. He did do so and ended his Discovery with these Words: I desire, Madam, that if I prove him an Im­postor, you would not believe a Word he says.—The Lady agreed to so fair a Propo­sal.—Then the Captain swore that he him­self would never eat a Piece of Bread more till he had made Mr. Campbell eat his Words; nay he insisted upon it, that he would bring him to his Tongue, and make him own by Word of Mouth, that what he had written before was false and calumnious. To which the Lady answer'd again, that, if he perform'd what he said, she would be convinced. This brave military Man, however, not relying upon his own single Valour and Prowess, to bring about so miraculous a thing as the mak­ing a Person, that was dumb, to speak: He took with him for this End three lusty Assistants to combine with him in the Assassination. The Ambuscade was settled to be at the Five Bells Tavern in Witch-street in the Strand. After the Ambush was settled with so much false Courage the Business of decoying Mr. Campbell into it, was not practicable any other way, [Page 163] than by sending out false Colours. The La­dy's Woman, who was by her own Interest tied fast to the Interest of the Beau, was to play the trick of Dalila, and betray this deaf and dumb Sampson (as he will appear to be a kind of one in the sequel of the Story) into the Hands of these Philistines. She smooths her Face over with a complimenting Lye from her Mistress to Mr. Campbell, and acted her Part of Deceit so well that he promis'd to follow her to the Five Bells with all haste; and so she skuttled back to prepare the Cap­tain, and to tell him how lucky she was in Mischief; and how she drew him out by Smiles into Perdition. The short of the Story is, when they got him in among them, they endeavour'd to assassinate him; but they miss'd of their Aim; yet 'tis certain they lest him in a very terrible and bloody Condition; and the Captain went away in as bad a Plight as the Person was left in, whom he assaulted so cowardly with Numbers, and to such Disad­vantage. I was sent for to him upon this Disaster, and the Story was deliver'd to me thus, by one of the Drawers of the Tavern, when I inquir'd into it. They began to ban­ter him, and speaking to him as if he heard, ask'd him if he knew his own Fortune; they told him it was to be beaten to Death. This was an odd way of addressing a deaf and dumb Man. They added they would make him speak before they had done. The Boy [Page 164] seeing he made no Reply, but only smiled; thought what pass'd between them was a Jest, with an old Acquaintance, and withdrew a­bout his Business. The Door being fasten'd, however, before they began the honourable Attack they vouchsafed to write down their Intent, in the Words above-mentioned which they had uttered before, to make sure that he should understand their meaning, and what this odd way of Correction was for. All the while the Maid, who had brought him into it, was peeping through a Hole, and watch­ing the Event, as appears afterwards. Mr. Campbell wrote them the following Answer, viz. that he hop'd for fair Play; that he un­ders [...]d Be [...]r-garden as well as they; but if a Gentleman was amongst them, he would expect gentlemanly Usage. The Rejoinder they made to this, consisted it seems not of Words but of Action. The Officer in Con­junction with another Ruffian, one of the strongest of the Three he had brought, com­menced the Assault. As good luck would have it, he warded off their first Blows (it seems) with tolerable Success, and a Wine­quart-pot standing upon the Table, Duncan took to his Arms, and at Two or Three quick Blows, well manag'd, and close laid in upon the Assailants, fell'd them both to the Ground. Here it was that the Maid discover'd her Knowledge of it, and Privity to the Plot, to the whole House; for the no sooner sees the [Page 165] famous Leader, the valiant Captain, lie sprau­ling on the Floor with bleeding Temples, but she shriek'd out, with all the Voice she could exert, Murder, Murder, Murder! Alarm'd at this Out-cry, the Master and all the At­tendants of the Tavern scamper'd up Stairs, burst into the Room, and found Duncan Camp­bell struggling with the other Two, and the Quart-pot still fast clench'd in his Hand, which they were endeavouring to wrench from him. The Drawers rescu'd him out of their Hands, and inquir'd into the Matter. The Maid in a fright confess'd the whole Thing. The Officer and his Associate rub'd their Eyes as recovering from a stunning Sleep, reel'd as they went to rise, paid the Reckoning, and slunk pitifully away, (or as the Rakes Term for it is,) they brush'd off, and for all their Odds had the worst of the Lay. I who had some Authority with Mr. Campbell, by reason of my Years, and the strict Acquaintance I had with his Mother, when I came and found him in that pickle, and had the whole Relation told me by the People of the House, though I could not forbear pitying him within my own Mind, took upon me to reprehend him, and told him that these Hard­ships would by Providence be daily permitted to fall upon him (for he met with them Twenty Times) while he continued in that irregular way of Living and spending his Time, that might be so precious to himself [Page 166] and many others, in Drunkenness and De­bauchery; and I think the Lessons I wrote down to him upon that Head, though a lit­tle severe just at that juncture, were notwith­standing well tim'd, and did, as I guess'd they would, make a more solid Impression in him than at any other. In all these Scuffles (whether it is that being deaf and dumb an Affront works deeper upon a Man, and so renders him far more fierce or resolute) it must be said, that, though Nature has been kind in making him very Strong, Robust, and Active with all, yet he has bore some Shocks, one would imagin beyond the Strength of a Man, having sometimes got the better of Five or Six Russians in Rencounters of the like kind.

The next Banter he met with was in a gentler way, from an unbelieving Lady, and yet she came off with very ill success, and the Banter turn'd all upon herself in the End.

A Lady of Distinction (whose Name shall therefore be conceal'd in this Place) came with Two or Three of her special Friends, who took her for the most merry innocent spotless Virgin upon Earth, and whose Mo­desty was never suspected in the least by her Relations or Servants that were nearest a­bout here after having rally'd Mr. Campbell [...] several frivolous Questions, doubting his [...], and vexing and teazing him with [...] beyond all Patience, was [Page 167] by him told, that he did not take Fees in his Profession to be made a Jest of like a common Fortune-teller, but to do real Good to those who consulted him, as far as he was able by his Predictions; that he was treated with more Respect by Persons of a higher Condition, though her own was very good, and so of­fer'd her Guinea back again with a Bow and a Smile. She had a little more Generosity of Spirit than not to be a little nettled at the Proffer she had caus'd by so coarse an Usage. She affected appearing grave a little, and told him she would be serious for the future, and ask'd him to set down her Name, which she had neglected before, to ask other Questions that were nothing to the purpose. He pro­mis'd to write it down, but pausing a little longer than ordinary about it, she return'd to her former way of uncivil Merriment and ungallant Raillery. She repeated to him in Three or Four little scraps of Paper one after another as fast as she could write them, the same Words, viz.—That he could not tell her Name, nor whether she was Maid, Wife, or Widow; and laugh'd as if she would split her Sides, triumphing to the rest of her Com­panions, over his Ignorance and her own Wit, as if she had pos'd him and put him to an entire Stand. But see what this over-ween­ing Opinion of Security ended in: The Man of the Second Sight, was not to be so easily baffled. Vex'd at being so disturb'd, and co­ming [Page 168] out of his brown Study, he reaches the Paper and begins to write.—Now it was the Lady's turn to suffer, she had deserv'd hearty Punishment, and it came into her Hands with the Note, to a degree of Severity; (as you will perceive by the Contents of it just now.)—She read it, and swooning away, drop'd from her Chair. The whole Room being in a bustle, I that was in the outward Chamber ran in: While Mr. Campbell was sprinkling Water in her Face, a Lady snatch'd up the Note to read it, at which he seem'd migh­tily displeas'd; I therefore who understood his Signs recover'd it out of her Hands by Stra­tagem, and ran to burn it, which I did so quick, that I was not discover'd in the Cu­riosity, which I must own I satisfied myself in, by reading it first; a Curiosity rais'd too high, by so particular an Adventure, to be overcome in so little a Time of Thought, as I was to keep it in my Hands, and so I came by the knowledge of it myself, without being inform'd by Mr. Campbell. This shews how a sudden Curiosity, when there is not Time given to think and correct it, may overcome a Man as well as a Woman; for I was never over-curious in my Life, and though I was pleas'd with the Oddness of the Adventure, I often blush'd to myself since for the unmanly Weakness, of not being able to step with a Note, from one Room to another, to the Fire­side, without peeping into the Contents of it. [Page 169] The Contents of it were these. Madam, since you provoke me, your Name is—You are no Widow, you are no Wife, and yet you are no Maid; you have a Child at Nurse at such a Place, by such a Gentleman, and you were brought to Bed in Leicestershire. The Lady convinc'd by this Answer, of his strange and mystical Power, and pleas'd with his Civility, in endeavouring to conceal from others the Secret, after so many repeated Pro­vocations, though she shew'd great Disorder for that Day, became one of his constant At­tenders some time after, and would not take any Step in her Affairs, without his Advice, which she often has said since, she found very much to her Advantage. She was as serious in her dealings with him afterwards, and im­prov'd by being so, as she was gay and turbu­lent with him before, and smarted for it. In fine, she was a thorough Convert, and a Vo­tary of his; and the only Jest she us'd after­wards to make, concerning him, was a civil Witticism to his Wife; to whom she was wont, every now and then, smiling, to ad­dress herself, after this manner. Your Hus­band, Madam, is a Devil, but he is a very handsome, and a very civil one.

Not long after this came another Lady, with a like intent, to impose upon him, and was resolv'd (as she own'd) to have laugh'd him to scorn, if she had succeeded in her At­tempt. She had very dexterously dress'd her [Page 170] self in her Woman's Habit, and her Woman in her own; her Footman squired the new made Lady in a very gentlemanly Dress hir'd, for that purpose of a disguise, from Monmouth­street. The strange and unknown Masquera­ders enter'd Mr. Campbell's Room with much Art. The Fellow was by Nature of a clean Make, and had a good Look, and from fol­lowing a genteel Master, when he was young, copy'd his Gait a little, and had some Appear­ance of a Mien, and a tolerable good Air a­bout him. But this being the first time of his being so fine, and he a little vain in his Temper, he over-acted his Part; he strutted too much; he was as fond of his Ruffles, his Watch, his Sword, his Cane, and his Snuff­box, as a Boy of being newly put into Breech­es; and view'd 'em all too often to be thought the Possessor of any such things long. The Affe­ctation of the Chamber-maid was insufferable; She had the Toss of the Head, the Jut of the Bum, the side-long Leer of the Eye, the impe­rious Look upon her Lady, now degraded in­to her Woman, that she was intolerable, and a Person without the Gift of the Second Sight, would have guess'd her to have been a prag­matical Upstart, tho' 'tis very probable, that during that time, she fancy'd herself real­ly better than her Mistress: The Mistress acted her Part of Maid the best, for it is ea­sier for genteel Modesty to act a low Part, than for affected Vanity to act a high one. She [Page 171] kept her distance like a Servant, but would, to disguise things the better, be every now and then pert, according to their Way, and give Occasion to be chid. But there is an Air of Gentility in-born and in-bred to some People, and even when they aim to be awkward, a certain Grace will attend all their minutest Actions and Gestures, and command Love, Respect, and Veneration. I must there­fore own, that there was not need of a Man's being a Conjurer, to guess who ought to be the Lady, and who the Maid; but to know who absolutely was the Lady, and who was the Maid, did require that Skill. For how many such real Ladies have we, that are made so from such Upstarts, and how many gen­teel waiting Women of great Descent, that are born with a Grace about them, and are bred to good Manners. Mr. Campbell's Art made him positive in the Case; he took the Patches from the Face of the Maid, and plac'd them on the Mistrisses; he pull'd of her Hood and Scarf and gave it the Lady, and taking from the Lady her Ridinghood, gave it the Maid in exchange; for Ladies at that time of Day were not enter'd into that Fashion of cloaking themselves. Then he wrote down that he should go out, and ought to send his Maid in to undress them quite, and give the Mistriss her own Cloaths and the Maid hers, and with a Smile wrote down both their Names and commended her contrivance; but [Page 172] after that, it was remark'd by the Lady, that he pay'd her less Respect than she expected, and more to her Footman, who was in Gen­tleman's Habit, whom he took by his Side, and told a great many fine things; whereas he would tell the Lady nothing further. The Lady nettled at this, wrote to him that she had Vanity enough to believe that she might be distinguish'd from her Maid in any Dress; but that he had shown his want of Skill in not knowing who that Gentleman was. Mr. Campbell told her her mistake in sharp Terms; and begging her pardon assured her he knew several Chamber-maids as genteel and as well-born as her, and many Mistresses more aukward and worse-born than her Maid; that he did not go therefore by the Rule of guess and judging what ought to be, but by the Rule of Certainty, and the Knowledge of what actually was. She however unsatisfy'd with that Answer perplex'd him mightily to know, who the Man was. He answer'd he would be a great Man.—The Lady laugh'd scornfully, and said she wanted to know who he was, not what he would be.—He an­swer'd again.—He was her Footman, but that she would have a worse.—She grew warm and desired to be inform'd, why, since he knew the Fellow's Condition, he respected her to little and him so much; and accused him of want of practising Manners, if he had not went of Knowledge. He answer'd, Ma­dam, [Page 173] since you will be asking Questions too far.—This Footman will advance himself to the Degree of a Gentleman, and have a Woman of Distinction to his Wife; while you will degrade yourself by a Marriage to be the Wife of a Footman. His Ambition is laudable, your Condescension mean, there­fore I give him the Preference, I have given you fair warning and wholesome advice, you may avoid your Lot by Prudence; but his will certainly be what I tell you.

This coming afterwards to pass, exactly as was predicted, and his disappointing so many that had a mind to impose upon him, has render'd him pretty free from such wily Con­trivances since, though now and then they have happen'd, but still to the mortification and disappointment of the Contrivers. But as we have not pretended to say, with regard to these things, that he has his Genius always at his Elbow or his Beck, to whisper in his Ear the Names of Persons, and such little constant Events as these; so, that we may not be deemed to give a fabulous Account of his Life and Adventures, we think ourselves bound to give the Reader an insight, into the particular Power and Capacity which he has, for bringing about these particular Perform­ances, especially that of writing down Names of Strangers at first Sight, which I don't doubt will be done to the satisfaction of all [Page 174] Persons, who shall read the succeeding Chap­ter, concerning the Gift of the Second Sight.

CHAP. VII. Concerning the Second Sight.

MR. Martin lately publish'd a Book, in­tituled, A Description of the Western Isles of Scotland, called by the Ancient Geogra­phers Hebrides. It contains many curious Par­ticulars, relating to the natural and civil Hi­story of those Islands, with a Map of them; and in his Preface he tells us, that perhaps it's Peculiar to those Isles, that they have ne­ver been described, till now, by any Man, that was a Native of the Country, or had travell'd them as himself has done; and in the Conclusion of the said Preface, he tells us, he has given here such an Account of the Second Sight, as the nature of the thing will bear, which has always been reckon'd sufficient a­mong the unbyass'd Part of Mankind; but for those, that will not be satisfy'd, they ought to oblige us with a new Scheme, by which we may judge of Matters of Fact. The chief Par­ticulars he has given us concerning the Se­cond Sight, are here set down, by way of Ab­stract or Epitome, that they may not be too tedious to the Reader.

[Page 175] 1. In the Second Sight the Vision makes such a lively Impression on the Seers, that they neither see nor think of any thing else, but the Vision, as long as it continues. And then they appear Pensive or Jovial, according to the Object, which was presented to them.

2. At the Sight of a Vision, the Eye-lids of the Person are erected, and the Eyes continue staring till the Object vanish, as has often been observ'd by the Author and others pre­sent.

3. There is one in Skye, an Acquaintance of whom observ'd, that when he sees a Vision, the inner Part of his Eylids turns so far up­wards, that, after the Object disappenrs, he must draw them down with his Fingers, and sometimes employs others to draw them down, which he finds to be much the easier way.

4. The Faculty of the Second Sight does not lineally descend in a Family, as some ima­gin; for he knows several Parents that are endow'd with it, but not their Children; and so on the contrary: Neither is it acquir'd by any previous Compact; and after a strict Enquiry, he could never learn from any a­mong them, that this Faculty was commu­nicable any way whatsoever.

Note, That this Account is differing from the Account that is given by Mr. Aubrey, a Gentleman of the Royal Society; and I think Mr. Martin's Reason here against the Descent [Page 176] of this Faculty from Parents to Children, is not generally conclusive. For tho' he may know Parents endow'd with it, and not Chil­dren; and so vice versâ; yet there may be Parents, who are endow'd with it, being qua­lify'd as Mr. Aubrey has said, (viz. both be­ing Second Sighted, or even one to an extra­ordinary Degree) whose Children may have it by descent. And as to this Faculty's being any otherways communicable (since the Ac­counts differ) I must leave it to a further Ex­amination.

5. The Seer knows neither the Object, Time nor Place of a Vision before it appears, and the same Object is often seen by different Persons, living at a considerable distance from one another. The true Way of judging as to the Time and Circumstance of an Object, is by Observation; for several Persons of Judge­ment without this Faculty, are more capable to judge of the Design of a Vision, than a No­vice that is a Seer. As an Object appears in the Day or Night, it will come to pass sooner or later accordingly.

6. If an Object be seen early in the Morn­ing (which is not frequent) it will be accom­plish'd in a few Hours afterwards: If at Noon, it will commonly be accomplish'd that very Day: If in the Evening, perhaps that Night; if after Candles be lighted, it will be accom­plish'd that Night: It's later always in Ac­complishment, by Weeks, Months, and some­times [Page 177] Years, according to the Time of the Night the Vision is seen.

7. When a Shroud is perceiv'd about one, it's a sure Prognostick of Death; the Time is judg'd according to the Height of it about the Person; for if it be not seen above the Middle, Death is not to be expected for the space of a Year, and perhaps some Months longer; and as it is frequently seen to ascend higher towards the Head, Death is conclu­ded to be at hand in a few Days, if not Hours, as daily Experience confirms. Examples of this kind were shown the Author, when the Persons, of whom the Observations were made, enjoy'd perfect Health.

There was one Instance lately of a Pre­diction of this kind, by a Seer that was a Novice, concerning the Death of one of the Author's Acquaintance; this was communi­cated to a few only, and with great Confi­dence: The Author being one of the Number, did not in the least regard it, till the Death of the Person, about the Time foretold, con­firm'd to him the certainty of the Prediction. The foresaid Novice is now a skilful Seer, as appears from many late Instances: He lives in the Parish of St. Mary's, the most Nor­thern in Skye.

8. If a Woman be seen standing at a Man's left Hand, it's a Presage that she will be his Wife, whether they are married to others, or unmarried, at the Time of the Apparition. [Page 178] If Two or Three Women are seen at once, standing near a Man's left Hand, she that is next him will undoubtedly be his Wife first, and so on, whether all Three, or the Man, be single, or married, at the Time of the Vi­sion; of which there are several late Instances of the Author's Acquaintance. It's an ordi­nary thing for them to see a Man, that is to come to the House shortly after; and tho' he be not of the Seers Acquaintance, yet he not on­ly tells his Name, but gives such a lively Description of his Stature, Complexion, Ha­bit, &c. that upon his Arrival he answers the Character given of him in all respects. If the Person so appearing be one of the Seer's Acquaintaince, he can tell by his Countenance whether he comes in good or bad Humour. The Author has been seen thus, by Seers of both Sexes, at some Hundreds of Miles Di­stance: Some that saw him in this manner, had never seen him personally, and it hap­pen'd according to their Visions, without any previous Design of his to go to those Places, his coming there being purely accidental; and in the Nineteenth Page of his Book, he tells us, that Mr. Daniel Morrison a Minister, told him, that upon his landing in the Island Ro­na, the Natives receiv'd him very affectio­nately, and addressed themselves to him with this Salutation: God save you Pilgrim! You are heartily welcome here, for we have had repeated Apparitions of your Person amongst [Page 179] us; viz. after the manner of the Second Sight.

9. It's ordinary with them to see Houses, Gardens, and Trees, in Places void of all Three, and this in process of Time uses to be accomplish'd; of which he gives an Instance in the Island of Skye.

10. To see a Spark of Fire fall upon one's Arm, or Breast, is a Fore-runner of a dead Child to be seen in the Arms of those Per­sons, of which there are several fresh In­stances.

To see a Seat empty at the time of one's sitting in it, is a Presage of that Person's Death quickly after.

When a Novice, or one, that has lately obtain'd the Second Sight, sees a Vision in the Night-time without Doors, and comes near a Fire he presently falls into a Swoon.

Some find themselves, as it were in a Croud of People, having a Corpse which they carry along with them; and after such Visions the Seers come in sweating, and describe the Peo­ple that appear'd; if there are any of their Acquaintance among them, they give an Account of their Names, and also of the Bearers. But they know nothing concerning the Corpse.

All those, that have the Second Sight, do not always see these Visions at once, though they are together at the Time; but if one, who has this Faculty, designedly touch his [Page 180] fellow Seer, at the Instant of a Vision's appear­ing, then the Second sees it as well as the First.

11. There is the way of fore-telling Death by a Cry, that they call Taisk, which some call a Wrath in the Low-land. They hear a loud Cry without Doors, exactly resembling the Voice of some particular Person, whose Death is foretold by it, of which he gives a late Instance, which happen'd in the Village Rigg in Skye Isle.

12. Things are also fore-told by smelling sometimes, as follows. Fish or Flesh is fre­quently smelt in the Fire, when at the same Time neither of the Two are in the House, or, in any probability like to be had in it, for some Weeks or Months. This Smell se­veral Persons have, who are endued with the Second Sight, and it's always accomplish'd soon after.

13. Children, Horses, and Cows, have the Second Sight, as well as Men and Women ad­vanc'd in Years.

That Children see it, it is plain, from their crying aloud at the very Instant, that a Corpse or any other Vision appears to an ordinary Seer: Of which he gives an Instance in a Child, when himself was present.

That Horses likewise see it's very plain, from their violent and sudden starting, when the Rider, or Seer in Company with them, sees a Vision of any kind by Night or Day. It's [Page 181] observable of a Horse, that he will not go forward that way, till he be led about at some distance from the common Road, and then he is in a Sweat: He gives an Instance of this in a Horse, in the Isle of Skye.

That Cows have the Second Sight, appears from this; that if a Woman milking a Cow happens to see a Vision by the Second Sight, the Cow runs away in a great fright at the same time, and will not be pacify'd for some time after.

In Reference to this Paracelsus, Tom. 9. l. de arte presagâ, writes thus, ‘'Horses also have their Auguries, who perceive, by their Sight and Smell, wandering Spirits, Witches and Spectres, and the like Things; and Dogs both see and hear the same.'’

Here in the next place the Author answers Objections that have lately been made against the Reality of the Second Sight.

First, It's objected, that these Seers are vi­sionary and melancholy People, who fancy they see Things, that do not appear to them or any Body else.

He answers, The People of these Isles, and particularly the Seers, are very Temperate, and their Diet is simple and moderate in Quantity and Quality; so that their Brains are not, in all probability, disordered by un­digested Fumes of Meat or Drink. Both Sexes are free from Hysterick Fits, Convul­sions, and several other Distempers of that [Page 180] Sort. There are no Madmen among them, nor any Instance of Self-murther. It's ob­served among them, that a Man drunk never has a Vision of the Second Sight; and he that is a Visionary would discover himself in other things as well as in that; nor are such, as have the Second Sight, judg'd to be Visionaries by any of their Friends or Acquaintaince.

Secondly, It's objected, that there are none among the Learned able to oblige the World with a satisfactory Account of these Visions; therefore they are not to be believed.

He answers, If every Thing, of which the Learned are not able to give a satisfactory Ac­count, shall be condemn'd as False and Impos­sible, we shall find many other Things, gene­rally believ'd, which must be rejected as such.

Thirdly, It's objected, that the Seers are Im­postors, and the People, who believe them, are credulous, and easy to be impos'd upon.

He answers, The Seers are, generally illi­terate, and well-meaning People, and altoge­ther void of Design; nor could he ever learn that any of them made the least gain of it; neither is it reputable among them to have that Faculty: Beside the People of the Isles are not so credulous as to believe an Impos­sibility, before the thing foretold be accom­plish'd; but when it actually comes to pass, afterwards it is not in their Power to deny it, without offering Violence to their Senses and Reason: Beside, if the Seers were Deceivers, [Page 183] can it be reasonable to imagin, that all the Islanders, who have not the Second Sight, should combine together, and offer Violence to their Understandings and Senses, to force themselves to believe a Lye from Age to Age? There are several Persons among them, whose Birth and Education raise them above the Suspicion of concurring with an Imposture, merely to gratify an illiterate and contemp­tible sort of Persons. Nor can a reasonable Man believe, that Children, Horses, and Cows, could be engaged in a Combination to per­swade the World of the Reality of a Second Sight.

Every Vision that is seen, comes exactly to pass, according to the rules of Observation, though Novices and heedless Persons do not always judge by those Rules; concerning which he gives Instances.

There are Visions seen by several Persons, in whose Days they are not accomplish'd; and this is one of the Reasons, why some Things have been seen, that are said never to have come to pass; and there are also several Visions seen, which are not understood till they are accomplish'd.

The Second Sight is not a late Discovery, seen by one or two in a Corner, or a remote Isle; but it's seen by many Persons of both Sexes, in several Isles, separated about Forty or Fifty Leagues from one another: The In­habitants of many of these Isles never had [Page 184] the least Converse by Word or Writing: And this Faculty of seeing Visions having con­tinued, as we are inform'd by Tradition, ever since the Plantation of these Isles, without being disproved by the nicest Sceptick after the strictest Inquiry, seems to be a clear Proof of its Reality.

It's observable, that it was much more common Twenty or Thirty Years ago, than at present; for One in Ten does not see it now, that saw it then.

The Second Sight is not confin'd to the We­stern Isles alone, the Author having an Ac­count that it's in several Parts of Holland, but particularly in Bommel, where a Woman has it, for which she is courted by some, and dreaded by others. She sees a Smoak about one's Face, which is the fore-runner of the death of a Person so seen, and she actually foretold the deaths of several that lived there. She was living in that Town a few Winters ago.

The Second Sight is likewise in the Isle of Man, as appears by this Instance. Captain Leathes the chief Commander of Bellfast in his Voyage 1690, lost Thirteen Men by a vio­lent Storm, and upon his landing in the Isle of Man, an ancient Man, Clerk to a Parish there, told him immediately that he had lost Thirteen Men there; the Captain enquired how he came to the Knowledge of that; he answer'd that it was by Thirteen Lights, which [Page 185] he had seen come into the Church-yard; as Mr. Sacheverel tells us in his late Description of the Isle of Man. Note, that this is like the Sight of the Corpse-candles in Wales, which is also well attested.

Here the Author adds many other Instances concerning the Second Sight of which I shall set down only a few.

A Man in Knockow, in the Parish of St. Mary's, the northermost Part of Skye, being in perfect Health, and sitting with his fellow Servants at Night, was on a sudden taken ill, drop'd from his Seat backward, and then fell a vomiting; at which the Family was much concern'd, he having never been subject to the like before; but he came to himself soon after, and had no sort of Pain about him. One of the Family, who was accustomed to see the Second Sight, told them that the Man's Illness proceeded from a very strange Cause, which was thus. An ill-natur'd Woman (whom he named) who lives in the next ad­jacent Village of Bornskittag, came before him in a very angry and furious Manner, her Countenance full of Passion, and her Mouth full of Reproaches, and threaten'd him with her Head and Hands, till he fell over, as you have seen him. This Woman had a Fancy for the Man, but was like to be disappointed as to her marrying of him. This Instance was told the Author, by the Master of the [Page 186] Family, and others, who were present when it happen'd.

Sir. Norman Macklead, and some others, playing at Tables, at a Game called in Irish, Falmermore, wherein there are Three of a Side, and each of them throw the Dice by turns, there happened to be one difficult Point in the disposing of one of the Table-men: This obliged the Gamester to deliberate, before he was to change his Man, since, upon the dis­posing of it, the winning or losing of the Game depended; at length the Butler, who stood behind, advised the Player, where to place the Man, with which he comply'd and won the Game. This being thought extraordi­nary, and Sir Norman hearing one whisper him in the Ear, ask'd who advis'd him so skilfully? He answer'd it was the Butler, but this seem'd more strange, for it was generally thought he could not play at Tables. Upon this Sir Norman ask'd him how long it was since he had learn'd to play? And the Fellow own'd that he had never play'd in his Life, but that he saw the Spirit Brownie (a Spirit usually seen in that Country) reaching his Arm over the player's Head, and touching the Part with his Finger, where the Table-man was to be placed. This was told the Author by Sir Norman, and others, who happen'd to be present at the Time.

Daniel Bow alias Black, an Inhabitant of Bornskittag, who is one of the precisest Seers [Page 187] in the Isles, foretold the death of a young Woman in Minginis, within less than Twenty Four Hours before the Time, and accordingly she died suddenly in the Fields; though at the Time of the Prediction she was in perfect health; but the Shrou'd appearing close about her Head, was the Ground of his Confidence, that her Death was at Hand.

The same Person foretold the Death of a Child in his Master's Arms, by seeing a Spark of Fire fall on his left Arm, and this was like­wise accomplish'd soon after the Prediction.

Some of the Inhabitants of Harries, sailing round the Isle of Skye with a Design to go to the opposite Main-land, were strangely sur­prized with an Apparition of Two Men hanging down by the Ropes that secured the Mast, but could not conjecture what it meant; they pursued their Voyage, but the Wind turning contrary, they were forced into Broad­ford, in the Isle of Skye, where they found Sir Donald Mackdonald keeping a Sherriffs Court, and Two Criminals receiving Sentence of Death there. The Ropes and Mast of that very Boat were made use of to hang those Criminals. This was told the Author by several, who had this Instance related to them by the Boat's Crew.

Several Persons, living in a certain Fami­ly, told the Author, that they had frequently seen Two Men standing at a Gentlewoman's left-hand, who was their Master's Daughter; [Page 188] they told the Men's Names, and being her Equals, it was not doubted but she would be marry'd to one of them; and perhaps to the other, after the Death of the first. Sometime after a Third Man appeared, who seemed always to stand nearest to her of the Three, but the Seers did not know him, though they could describe him exactly; and, within some Months after, this Man, who was seen last, actually came to the House, and fully answer'd the Description given of him, by those, who never saw him, but in a Vision; and he mar­ry'd the Woman shortly after: They live in the Isle of Skye, and both themselves and o­thers confirm'd the Truth of this Instance, when the Author saw them.

Archibald Mack Donald of the Parish of St. Mary's in the Isle of Skye, being reputed fa­mous in his Skill of foretelling things to come by the Second Sight, happening to be in the Village Knockow one Night, and before Sup­per, told the Family, that he had just then seen the strangest Thing he ever saw in his Life: viz. A Man with an ugly long Cap, always shaking his Head; but that the strangest of all was a little kind of an Harp, which he had, with Four Strings only, and that it had Two Hart's-horns fix'd in the front of it: All that heard this odd Vision fell a laughing at Archibald, telling him, that he was dreaming, or had not his Wits about him, since he pre­tended to see a Thing which had no Being, [Page 189] and was not so much as heard of in any Part of the World. All this could not alter Archi­bald's Opinion, who told them, that they must excuse him, if he laugh'd at them, after the Accomplishment of the Vision. Archibald re­turned to his own House, and within Three or Four Days after, a Man with a Cap, Harp, &c. came to the House, and the Harp, Strings, Horns, and Cap, answer'd the Description of them at first View, and he shook his Head when he play'd; for he had Two Bells fix'd to his Cap. This Harper was a poor Man, who made himself a Buffoon for his Bread, and was never seen before in those Parts, and at the Time of the Prediction he was in the Isle of Barray, which is about Twenty Leagues distant from that Part of Skye. This Rela­tion is vouch'd by Mr. Daniel Martin, and all his Family, and such as were then present, and they live in the Village where this hap­pened.

One Daniel Nicholson, Minister of St. Ma­ry's in Skye, the Parish, in which Mr. Archi­bald Mac Donald lived, told the Author; that, one Sunday, after Sermon, at the Chappel Uge, he took an occasion to inquire of Archi­bald, if he still retain'd that unhappy Faculty of seeing the Second Sight, and wish'd him to get rid of it, if possible; for, said he, it's no true Character of a good Man. Archibald was highly displeas'd, and answer'd that he hoped he was no more unhappy than his Neighbours, [Page 190] for seeing what they could not perceive. I had, said he, as serious Thoughts as my Neighbours in time of hearing a Sermon to Day, and even then I saw a Corpse laid on the Ground close to the Pulpit; and I assure you it will be accomplish'd shortly, for it was in the Day-time. There were none in the Pa­rish then Sick, and few are buried at that lit­tle Chappel, nay sometimes not one in a Year. Yet when Mr. Nicholson return'd to preach in the said Chappel, a Fort-night or three Weeks after, he found one buried in the very Spot, named by Archibald. This Story is vouch'd by Mr. Nicholson the Minister, and several of the Parishioners still living.

Note, That it's counted by many an Argu­ment of somewhat evil attending this Fa­culty of the Second Sight, because there are Instances given of some Persons, who have been freed of it, upon using some Christian Practices. But I shall hereafter show that this Opinion cannot be entirely true.

Sir Norman Mac-Lead, who has his Resi­dence in the Isle of Bernera, which lies be­tween the Isles of N. Vist and Harries, went to the Isle of Skye about Business, without ap­pointing any Time for his Return; his Ser­vants, in his Absence, being all together in the large Hall at Night; one of them, who had the Second Sight, told the rest they must remove, for there would be abundance of o­ther Company in the Hall that Night: One of [Page 191] his fellow Servants answered, that there was very little Likelyhood of that, because of the Darkness of the Night, and the Danger of coming through the Rocks, that lie round the Isle: But within an Hour after, one of Sir Norman's Men came to the House, bidding them provide Lights, &c. for his Master had newly landed.

Sir Norman being told of this, called for the Seer and examin'd him about it. He an­swer'd, that he had seen the Spirit Brownie, in humane Shape, come several times, and make a show of carrying an old Woman, that sate by the Fire, to the Door, and at last seem'd to carry her out by Neck and Heels, which made him laugh heartily, and gave oc­casion to the rest to conclude him Mad, to laugh so much without any Reason. This Instance was told the Author by Sir Norman himself.

Four Men from the Isle of Skye and Harries, went to Barbadoes, and staid there some Years; who, though they had wont to see the Second Sight in their native Country, never saw it in Barbadoes; but upon their Return to England, the first Night after their landing, they saw the Second Sight; as the Author was told by several of their Acquaintaince.

John Morrison, who lives in Bernera of Har­ries, wears the Plant called Fuga Daemonum sewed in the Neck of his Coat, to prevent his seeing of Visions, and says, he never saw [Page 192] any since he first carried that Plant about him.

A Spirit, by the Country People called Brownie, was frequently seen in all the most considerable Families in the Isles, and North of Scotland, in the Shape of a tall Man, having very long brown Hair: But within these Twenty Years past he has been seen but rarely.

There were Spirits also that appeared in the shape of Women, Horses, Swines, Cats, and some like fiery Balls, which would fol­low Men in the Fields, but there have been but few Instances of these for upwards of Forty Years past.

These Spirits us'd also to form Sounds in the Air, resembling those of an Harp, Pipes, crowing of a Cock, and of the grinding of Hand-mills: And sometimes Voices have been heard in the Air at Night, singing Irish Songs; the Words of which Songs some of the Au­thor's Acquaintances still retain, one of them resembled the Voice of a Woman, who died sometime before, and the Song related to her State in the other World. All these Accounts, the Author says, he had from Persons of as great Integrity, as any are in the World. So far Mr. Martin whose Account is so long, that I have given the Reader only a short A bridge­ment thereof; and shall therefore satisfy my­self, without relating any further Passages, by directing the Reader to others also, learned [Page 193] Men, who have written on the same Subject. Laurentius Ananias printed a Volume in Latin at Venice, Anno 1581, about the Nature of Daemons, where, in the Third Book he writes concerning the Second Sight.—The learned Camerarius does the like, and names a Per­son of his own Acquaintance, whom he te­stifies to have had that Gift. St. Austin him­self testifies something (not very different from what we now call the Gift of the Second Sight) of one Curina, who lived in the Country of Hippo in Africa.—Bonaysteau tells us some­thing like it in his Disc. de Excell. & Dig. Hominis, concerning the Spirit of Hermoti­mus.—So do likewise Herodotus and Maximus Tyrius about the Spirit of Aristaeus.—Cardan does the same in his De rerum variet. l. 8. c. 84. of his Kinsman Baptista Cardan a Student at Pavia.—Baptista Fulgosus tells us of what we call the Second Sight, in other Words, in his L. 1. Fact. & dict. memorab. c. 6. Among our own Country-men: The Lord Henry Howard in the Book he writ against supposed Prophecies, in his Seventeenth Chapter tells us a wonderful Story, of this Kind of Sight; and sure that noble Lord may be look'd upon as an unexceptionable Testimony, in a Story he relates of his own Knowledge, he having o­therwise little Faith in things of this kind. Mr. Cotton Mather, a Minister of New England, in his Relation of the Wonders of the invisible World, inserted in his Ecclesiastical History of [Page 194] that Country, printed in London, Anno 1702 in Folio, has given us several Instances of this kind, as also of many other diabolical Opera­tions. Mr. Baxter's Book concerning the Cer­tainty of the World of Spirits, has the like Proofs in it. Mr. Aubrey Fellow of the Roy­al Society, has written largely concerning Second sighted Persons; so has Mr. Beaumont in his Book of Genii and familiar Spirits, who has collected almost all the other Accounts together, and many others, whose very Names, it would be tedious, to recite: How­ever, as there are a few more Passages very curious in themselves; I will venture so far upon the Reader's Patience, as not only to recite the Names of the Authors, but the Accounts themselves, in as succinct and brief a manner, as it is possible for any one to do.

Mr. Th. May, in his History, Lib. 8. writes, that an old Man (like an Hermit) Second sight­ed, took his leave of King James I. when he came into England: He took little notice of Prince Henry, but addressing himself to the Duke of York, [since King Charles I.] fell a weeping to think what Misfortunes he should undergo; and that he should be one of the most miserable and most unhappy Princes, that ever was.

A Scotch Noble-man sent for one of these Second sighted Men out of the High-lands to give his Judgment of the then great George Villiers, Duke of Buckingham. As soon as ever [Page 195] he saw him; Pish, said he, he will come to Nothing, I see a Dagger in his Breast; and he was stabb'd in the Breast by Captain Felton, as has been at large recounted in some of the foregoing Pages.

Sir James Melvin hath several the like Pas­sages in his History.

A certain old Man in South Wales, told a great Man there of the Fortune of his Family, and that there should not be a Third Male Generation: It has fallen out accordingly.

Sir. William Dugdale with his own Mouth inform'd several Gentlemen, that Major Ge­neral Middleton (since Lord) went into the High-lands of Scotland, to endeavour to make a Party for King Charles I. An old Gentle­man (that was Second sighted) came and told him that his Endeavour was good; but he would be unsuccessful; and moreover, That they would put the King to death: And that several other Attempts would be made, but all in vain: But that his Son would come in, but not reign in a long Time: But would at last be restored. This Lord Middleton had a great Friendship with the Laird Bocconi, and they made an Agreement, that the first of them that died, should appear to the other in Ex­tremity. The Lord Middleton was taken Prisoner at Worcester Fight, and was Prisoner in the Tower of London, under Three Locks. Lying in his Bed Pensive Bocconi appeared to him; my Lord Middleton ask'd him if he [Page 196] were dead or alive? He said, dead, and that he was a Ghost; and told him that within Three Days he should escape, and he did so, in his Wife's Cloaths; when he had done his Message he gave a frisk and said

Givanni Givanni, 'tis very strange
In the World to see so sudden a Change.

And then gather'd up and vanished. This Ac­count Sir. William Dugdale had from the Bi­shop of Edenburgh: And this Account he hath writ in a Book of Miscellanies, which is now reposited (with other Books of his) in the Musaeum at Oxford.

Thus the Reader sees what great Autho­rities may be produced to prove that wonder­ful and true Predictions have been delivered by many Persons gifted with the Second Sight. The most learned Men in almost all Nations, who are not in all likelyhood deceiv'd them­selves. The most celebrated and authentick Historians, and some Divines, in England, who, 'tis not to be thought, have combined together and made it their Business to obtrude upon us Falsehoods; Persons of all Ranks, from the highest to the lowest, in Scotland, who, it would be even Madness to think, would join in a Confederacy to impose Tricks upon us, and to perswade us to the greatest of Impostures as solemn Truths delivered from their own Mouths; all these (I say) have unanimously and (as it were) with one Voice asserted, repeated, and confirm'd, to us, [Page 197] that there have been at all Times, and in many different Nations, and that still there are Persons, who, possess'd with the Gift of a Second Sight, predict Things that wonderfully come to pass; and seem to merit very little less than the Name of Prophets, for their mi­raculous Discoveries. Now if any Man should come, and without giving the least manner of Reason for it, (for there is no Reason to be given against such Assertions) declare his dis­belief of all these authentick, though strange, Accounts; can he with Reason imagin that his Incredulity shall pass for a Token of Wis­dom? Shall his Obstinacy confute the Learned? Shall his Want of Faith be thought justly to give the Lye to so many Persons of the highest Honour and Quality, and of the most undoubted Integrity? In fine, shall his Infidelity, by a re­verse kind of Power to that which is attribu­ted to the Philosophers Stone, be able to change the Nature of Things, turn and transmute Truth into Falsehood, and make a down right plain Matter of Fact to be no more than a Chimera, or an Ens Rationis? And shall a manifest Ex­perience be so easily exploded?

Taking it therefore for granted, that no modest Man whatsoever, (though never so hard of Belief, which is certainly as great a Weakness as that of too much Credulity) will make bold openly to declare his dis-belief of Things so well attested; and taking it much more for granted still, that it is impossible for [Page 198] any Man of common Sense to have the Front of declaring his Dis-belief of them in such a manner, as to urge it for an Argument and a Reason why others should dis-believe them too; taking this, I say, as I think I very well may, for granted, I think there remains nothing further for me to offer, before I con­clude this Chapter, except a few Remarks, as to the Similitude there is between those Actions, which I have related above to have been performed by Mr. Campbell, and these Actions, which so many learned ingenious and noble Authors, as I have just now quoted, have asserted to have been performed by Per­sons, whom they knew to be gifted with the Second Sight.

As to what is said (several Pages above) concerning Duncan Campbell, when a Boy at Edinburgh, that he even told his little Com­panions, who would have Success at their little Matches, when they play'd at Marbles; and that he inform'd a great Gamester there whose Name I have disguised under that of Count Cog, what Times he should chuse to play if he would win, as ludicrous as it may have appear'd to be, and as much as it may have seem'd to my Readers to carry with it nothing better than the Face of Invention, and the Air of Fiction; yet if they will be at the pains of comparing that Passage of Dun­can Campbell's, with the Account given in this Chapter from the Mouth of Sir Norman [Page 199] Maclead, concerning a Man, who, though he never play'd at Tables in his Life, instructed a skilful Gamester, when he was at a stand, to place one of his Men right, upon which the whole Game depended, which the igno­rant Fellow, when ask'd how he came to do it, said he was directed to by the Spirit Brownie; whoever I say will be at the pains of comparing these Passages together, will find they bear a very near resemblance, and that the way we may most reasonably account for Duncan Campbell's Prediction, when he was a Boy, must be, that he was at that time di­rected by his little Genius or familiar Spirit, which I described in the precedent Pages, as this Fellow was by the Spirit Brownie, accor­ding to Sir Norman Maclead's Assertion, which Spirit Brownie, as Mr. Marten a very good and credited Writer assures us, in his History of the Western Islands dedicated to the late Prince George of Denmark, is a Spirit usually seen all over that Country.

If the Reader recollects, He will remember likewise that, in the little Discourse, which I mentioned to have been held between me and this Duncan Campbell when a Boy con­cerning his little Genius, I there say, the Boy signified to me, that he smelt Venison, and was sure that some would come to his Mo­ther's House shortly after; accordingly I came thither that Morning from the Death of a Deer, and order'd a part of it to be brought [Page 200] after me to her House. Now Mr. Marten's Twelfth Observation about the Second Sight in this Chapter clears it plainly up that this Knowledge in the Boy proceeded from the Gift of Second Sight. Not to give the Rea­der too often the Trouble of looking back in order to judge of the Truth of what I say; I will here repeat that Observation; which is as follows. Things are also foretold by Smelling sometimes: For Example Fish or Flesh is frequently smelt in the Fire, when at the same time neither of the Two are in the House, or, in any probability, like to be had in it, for some Weeks or Months. This Smell several Persons have, who are endued with the Se­cond Sight, and its always accomplish'd soon after.

But I will here omit any further Remarks by way of accounting how he compass'd his Predictions, when a Boy, either by the In­tervention of his Genius, or the Gift of a Se­cond Sight; and examin how nearly those Things, which I have related to have been done by him in his more advanc'd Years, when he took up the Profession of a Predictor in London, correspond with the Accounts giv­en us in this Chapter about a Second Sight, and how near a Resemblance the Things done by him bear to those Things that are so well at­tested to have been perform'd by others, thro' the efficacious Power of this wonderful Fa­culty.

[Page 201] First then, if we have a mind to make a tolerable guess, which way Mr. Campbell came acquainted that the Death of the beautiful young Lady, Mrs. W [...]lw [...]d was so near at Hand, and that, tho' she was so universally admired, she would die unmarried; the Ac­counts given of other Second sighted Persons in the like Cases, will put us in the most pro­bable way of guessing right. This is ex­plain'd by the Seventh Observation in this Chapter, where it is said from Mr. Marten, that when a Shroud is perceiv'd about one, it's a sure Prognostick of Death; the Time is judg'd according to the Height of it, about the Person; for if it be not seen above the Middle, Death is not to be expected for the space of a Year or longer, but as it comes nearer to the Head it is expected sooner; if to the very Head, it is concluded to be at Hand within a few Days, if not Hours. Of this we have an Example of which Mr. Mar­ten was an Eye-witness, concerning the Death of his own Acquaintance; but he did not in the least regard it, till the Death of the Per­son, about the Time foretold, confirm'd to him the Certainty of the Prediction.

Secondly, As to the ignominious Death, that Irwin came to, and which He predicted to his Mother, so long before, when she was in flourishing Circumstances, and when there was no appearance, that any of her Children should be brought to a beggarly Condition, [Page 202] and learn among base Gangs of Company to thieve, and be carried to the Gallows: The Story told in this Chapter of some of the Inha­bitants of Harries, sailing round the Isle of Skye, and seeing the Apparition of Two Men hang­ing by the Ropes on the Mast of their Ves­sel, and when they came to the opposite Main-Land, finding Two Criminals just sentenc'd to Death, by Sir Donald Mac Donald, and see­ing their own very Mast and Ropes made choice of for their Execution, clears up the manner how Mr. Campbell might predict this of Irwin likewise by the force of the Second Sight.

Thirdly, As to Mr. Campbell's telling Chri­stallina the Belle and chief Toast of the Court, and Urbana the reigning Beauty of the City, that they should shortly be married, and who were to be their Husbands; it is a Thing he has done almost every Day in his Life to one Woman or other, that comes to consult him about the Man she is to be married to; the manner, he probably takes in doing this, may be likewise explain'd by the foregoing Story in this Chapter, about the Servants, who said they saw Three Men standing by the left Hand of their Master's Daughter; and that he, that was nearest would marry her first whom they plainly and exactly described, tho' they had never seen him but in their Vision, as appeared afterwards. For within some Months after the very Man described did [Page 203] come to the House, and did marry her. Vide the Eight Observation of the Second Sight.

Fourthly, As to the Predictions deliver'd by Mr. Campbell to the Merchant, which are set down at length in the foregoing Chapter, I know no better way at guessing the manner how the Second Sight operated in him at that Time, than by comparing them to these Two Instances, which I briefly repeat, because they are set down at length before, in this Chapter. And first it may be ask'd how did the Second Sight operate in Mr. Campbell, when it gave him to know, that the Merchant's Ships, which repeated Intelligences had in appearance confirm'd to be lost, were at that time safe, and would return securely home into the Harbour designed? The best way of accounting for it, that I know, is by the Story that Sir Norman Mack-Lead is above affirm'd to have told with his own Mouth concerning a Servant of his, who rightly foretold his re­turning Home and landing on the Isle of Ber­ [...]era one Night, where his Residence is, when there was very little or no likelyhood of it, because of the Darkness of the Night, and the Danger of coming through the Rocks that lie round the Isle. When Sir Norman exa­min'd him about it; he answer'd that he knew it by a Vision of the Spirit Brownic: and hence it may be the most probably conjectured that Mr. Campbell's Knowledge of the Merchant's Ships being safe, came from a Vision of his [Page 204] particular Genius or familiar Spirit which we spoke of before. What I have already in­stanced in, is (I think) sufficient with regard to the wonderful Things which Mr. Camp­bell has perform'd either by the Intervention of a Genius or the Power of a Second Sight. But as he has frequently done a great many amazing Performances, which seem to be of such a Nature, that they can't be well and clearly explain'd to have been done either by the Intervention of his familiar Spirit and Genius, or by the Power of the Second sighted Faculty, we must have recourse to the Third Means, by which only such Predictions and Practices can be compass'd, before we expound these new Mysteries, which appear like incre­dible Riddles, and Aenigma's at the first; and this Third Means which we must have recourse to, for expounding these strange Acts of his, is a due consideration of the Force and Power of Natural Magick, which together with a Nar­rative of the Acts, which he seems magically to bring about, will be the Subject of the following Chapter.


BUT before we proceed to our Disqui­sitions concerning the Power and Effica­cy of natural Magick, and examin what my­sterious Operations may be brought about and compass'd by magical Practices, and before we take a further Survey of what Mr. Camp­bell has perform'd in this kind, that relates to his Profession and the publick Part of his Life, which concerns other People as well as himself; I shall here relate some singular Ad­ventures, that he pass'd thoro' in his private Life, and which regard only his own Person. In order to this, I must return back to the Year 1702, about which time some unac­countable Turns of Fortune attended him in his own private Capacity, which must be very surprizing and entertaining to my Rea­ders, when they find a Man, whose Fore-sight was always so great a Help and Assistance to others, who consulted him in their own fu­ture Affairs, helpless (as it has been an Ob­servation concerning all such Men in the ac­count of the Second Sight) and blind in his own future Affairs, toss'd up and down by inevitable and spightful Accidents of Fortune, and made the May-game of Chance and Ha­zard, as if that way-ward and inconstant Goddess was resolv'd to punish him, when [Page 206] she catch'd him on the blind Side, for having such a quick insight and penetrating Faculty in other Peoples Matters, and scrutinizing too narrowly into her Mysteries, and so some­times preventing those fatal Intentions of hers, into which she would fain lead many Mor­tals hood-wink'd, and before they knew where they were. In this Light, these mighty and famous Seers seem to be born for the Benefit and Felicity of others, but at the same time to be born to Unhappiness themselves. And cer­tainly, in as much as we consider them as useful and beneficial often, but always satisfactory, to Persons, who are curious in their Inquiries about their Fortunes; it will be natural to those of us, who have the least Share of Ge­nerosity in our Minds, to yield our Pity and Compassion to them, when they are remar­kably unfortunate themselves; especially when that Calamity seems more particularly to light upon them for their Ability, and Endeavour to consult the good Fortune of other Folks.

About the abovementioned Year 1702, Dun­can Campbel grew a little tired of his Profession. Such a multitude of Followers troubled him, several of whom were wild Youths and came to banter him, and many more too inquisitive Females, to teaze him with endless Imper­tinences, and who, the more he told them, had still the more to ask, and whose Curio­sity was never to be satisfied: And besides this he was so much envy'd, and had so many [Page 207] malicious Artifices daily practised against him, that he resolv'd to leave off his Profession. He had (I know) follow'd it pretty closely from the time I first saw him in London, which was I think in the beginning of the Year 1698, till the Year 1702, with very good Success; and in those few Years he had got together a pretty round Summ of Mony. Our young Seer was now at Man's Estate, and had learn'd the Notion that he was to be his own Gover­nour, so far as to be his own Counsellor too in what Road of Life he was to take, and this Consideration (no doubt) work'd with a deeper Impression on his Mind, than it usu­ally does on others that are in the same blos­soming Pride of Manhood, because it might appear more natural for him to believe, that he had a sufficient Ability to be his own pro­per Adviser, who had given so many others, and some more aged than himself, Counsel, with very good Success. Now every expe­rienc'd Person knows, that when Manhood is yet green, it is still in the same dangerous Con­dition as a young Plant, which is liable to be warp'd by a Thousand cross fortuitous Acci­dents, if good Measures be not taken to sup­port it against all the contingent Shocks it may meet with from the Weather or other­wise. Now it was his Misfortune to be made averse to Business, which he lov'd before, by having too much of it, and to be so soured by meeting with numerous Perplexities and [Page 208] malicious Rubs laid in his way by invidious People, (who are the useless and injurious Busy­bodies, that always repine at the good of o­thers, and rejoice to do harm to the Diligent and Assiduous, though they reap no Profit by it themselves;) that he was disgusted and de­terr'd entirely from the Prosecution of a Pro­fession, by which he got not only a compe­tent but a copious and plentiful Subsistence. Nay indeed this was another Mischief arising to him from his having so much Business, that he had got Money enough to leave it off, when the Perplexities of it had made him willing to do so, and to live very comfortably and handsomely, like a Gentleman without it, for a time; and we know the youngest Men are not wont to look the farthest before them, in matters that concern their own Wel­fare. Now inasmuch as he had thus taken a Disgust to Business and Application, and was surfeited (as I may say) with the Perplexities of it, it must be as natural for him, we know, to search for Repose in the contrary extream, viz. Recreation and Idleness, as it is for a Man to seek Rest after Toil, to sleep after a Day's Labour, or to sit down after a long and tiresome Walk. But there are two very di­stinct sorts of Idleness, and two very different kinds of Recreation; there is a shameful Idle­ness which is no better than down-right Sloth; and there is a splendid kind of Indo­lence, where a Man having taken an Aversion [Page 209] to the Wearisomeness of a Business which pro­perly belongs to him, neglects not however to employ his Thoughts, when they are va­cant from what they ought more chiefly to be about, in other Matters not entirely un­profitable in Life, the Exercise of which he finds he can follow with more abundant Ease and Satisfaction. There are some Sorts of Recreations too, that are mean, fordid, and base; others, that are very innocent, though very diverting, and that will give one the very next most valuable Qualifications of a Gentleman, after those, which are obtained by a more serious Application of the Mind. The Idea which I have already given my Readers of our Duncan Campbell, will easily make them judge, before I tell them, which way, in these two Ways, his Genius would naturally lead him; and that, when he grew an idle Man, he would rather indulge him­self with applying his Mind to the shining Trifles of Life, than be wholly slothful and unactive; and that when he diverted him­self he would not do it after a fordid base manner, as having a better taste and a relish for good Company; but that his Recreations would still be the Recreations of a Gentle­man. And just, accordingly, as my Readers would naturally judge before-hand in his Case, so it really happened. The Moment he shook of Business, and dismiss'd the Thoughts of it, his Genius led him to a very gallant [Page 210] Way of Life; in his Lodgings, in his Enter­tainments in paying and receiving Visits, in Coffee-houses, in Taverns, in fencing Schools, in Balls and other publick Assemblies, in all ways in fine both at home and abroad, Dun­can Campbell was a well comported and civil fine Gentleman; he was a Man of Pleasure, and nothing of the Man of Business appeared about him. But a Gentleman's Life without a Gentleman's Estate, however shining and pleasant it may be for a time, will certainly end in Sorrow if not in Infamy; and com­paring Life (as Moralists do) to a Day, one may safely pronounce this Truth to all the splendid Idlers, I have mention'd, that if they have sunshiny Weather till Noon, yet the After-noon of their Life will be very stormy, rainy and uncomfortable, and per­haps just at the end of their Journey, to carry on the Metaphor throughout, close in the dark­est kind of Night. Of this, as I was a Man of Years and more experienc'd in the World than he, I took upon me to forewarn Mr. Campbell, as soon as I perceiv'd the first dange­rous Fit of this elegant Idleness had seiz'd him. But when will young Men, by so much the more head-strong as they have less of the Beard, be guided and brought to learn, and when shall we see that happy Age, in which the grey Heads of old Men shall be clapp'd upon the Shoulders of Youth? I told him, that in this one thing he ought to consult me, [Page 211] and acknowledge me to be a true Prophet, if I told him the end of the seeming merry Steps in Life, he was now taking, would in­fallibly bring him to a Labyrinth of Difficul­ties, out of which if he extricated himself at all, he would at least find it a laborious piece of Work. His Taste had been already vitia­ted with the Sweets which lay at the top of the bitter Draught of Fortune, and my honest rugged Counsel came too late to prevail, when his Fancy had decoy'd and debauch'd his Judgement, and carry'd it over into another Interest. I remember I writ down to him the moral Story, where vicious Pleasure and Virtue are pictured by the Philosopher to ap­pear before Hercules, to court him into two several Paths. I told him more particu­larly since he had not an Estate to go th [...] with the gentlemanly Life (as he call'd it) that, if he follow'd the alluring Pleasures, which endeavour'd to tempt Hercules, he would in­volve himself at last in a whole heap of Mi­series, out of which it would be more than an Herculean Labour for him to disentangle himself again. If he had been a Man that could have ever heard with either, I would have told the Reader in a very familiar Idi­om, that he turn'd the deaf Ear to me; for he did not mind one Syllable nor Tittle of the Prescriptions I set down for him, no more than if he had never read them; but, varying the Phrase a little, I may say at least, when [Page 212] he should have look'd upon my Counsel with all the Eyes he had, he turn'd the blind Side upon it. I was resolv'd to make use of the Revenge natural to a Man of Years, and there­fore apply'd that reproachful Proverb to him, which we Ancients delight much in making use of to Youths, that follow their own false and hot Imaginations, and will not heed the cooler Dictates of Age, Experience, and Wisdom. Accordingly I wrote down to him these Words and left him in a seeming Pas­sion. I am very well assured, young Man, you think me, that am Old to be a Fool; but I, that am Old, absolutely know you who are a young Fellow, to be a down-right Fool, and so I leave you to follow your own ways, till sad and woful Experience teaches you to know it your ownself, and makes you come to me to own it of your own accord. As I was go­ing away after this tart Admonition and se­vere Reprimand, I had a Mind to observe his Countenance, and I saw him smile, which I rightly construed to be done in contempt of the advice of Age, and in the Gaiety and Ful­ness of Conceit, which Youth entertains of its own fond Opinions and hair-brain'd rash Resolves. He was got into the Company of a very pretty set of Gentlemen, whose For­tunes were far superior to his; but he follow'd the same genteel Exercises, as Fencing, &c. and made one at all their publick Entertain­ments; and so being at an equal Expence, [Page 213] with those, who could well afford to spend, what they did, out of their Estates; he went on very pleasantly for a time, still spending and never getting, without ever considering, that it must, by inevitable consequence, fall to his Lot at last to be entirely reduced to a State of Indigence and Want. And what com­monly heightens the Misfortune of such Men (and so of all Gentlemens younger Brothers,) who live upon the ready Money that is given them for their Portions, is, that the Prospe­rity they live in for a time gains them Credit enough, just to bring them in Debt, and ren­der them more Miserable, than those very Wratches, who never had either any Money or Credit at all. They run themselves into Debt out of Shame, and to put off the evil Day of appearing ruin'd Men as long as they can, and then when their Tempers are sou­er'd by Adversity, they grow tir'd of their own Lives, and then in a Quarrel they or some other Gentleman, may be, is run thorough, or else being hunted by Bayliffs, they Exer­cise their Swords upon those Pursuers. Thus where Gentlemen will not consider their Cir­cumstances, their very Prosperity is a Cause of, and aggravates their Misery, their very Pride (which was a decent Pride at first) in keeping up and maintaining their Credit, sub­jects them too often to the lowest and the meanest Acts, and their Courage, which was of a laudable Kind, turns into a brutish and [Page 214] savage Rage; and all the fine, esteem'd flou­rishing and happy, Gentleman ends, and is lost in the contemn'd poor and miserable Desperado, whose Portion at last is Confine­ment and a Goal, and sometimes even worse, and what I shall not so much as name here. Into many of these Calamities Mr. Campbell had brought himself, before it was long, by his heedlesness, and running, according to the wild Dictates of Youth, counter to all sound and wholesome Advice. He had (it seems) run himself into Debt, and one Day, as he was at a Coffee-house the Sign of the Three Crowns in great Queen-street, in rush'd Four Bayliffs upon him, who being directed by the Creditor's Wife, had watch'd him into that House, and told him they had a Warrant a­gainst him, and upon his not answering, they being unacquainted with his being deaf and dumb, offer'd to seize his Sword. He start­led at their offering of Violence, and taking them for Russians (which he had often met with) repell'd the Assaulters, and drawing his Sword, as one Man, more bold than the rest, closed in with him, he shorten'd his Blade, and in the Fall pinn'd the Fellow through the Shoulder, and himself through the Leg, to the Floor. After that he stood at Bay with all th [...] Four Officers, when the most mischievous Assailant of them all, the Creditor's Wife, [...] to step into the Fray, and very bar­borously took hold of that nameless Part of [Page 215] the Man, for which, as she was a married Woman, Nature methinks should have taught her to have a greater Tenderness, and almost squeez'd and crush'd those Vitals to death. But at last he got free from them all, and was going away as fast as he could, not knowing what Consequences might ensue. But the Woman who aim'd herself at committing Murder, in the most savage and inhuman Manner, ran out after him, crying out Mur­der, Murder, as loud as she could, and alarm­ed the whole Street. The Bayliff's following the Woman, and being bloody from Head to Foot, by means of the Wound he receiv'd, gave Credit to the Outcry. The late Earl Ri­vers's Footmen happening to be at the Door ran immediately to stop the suppos'd Mur­derer, and they indeed did take him at last, but perceiv'd their Mistake, and discovered that instead of being Assistants in taking a Man, whom they thought to be a Murderer endeavouring to make his Escape from the Hands of Justice, they had only been trick'd in by that false Cry to be Adjutants to a Bay­liff in retaking a Gentleman who, by so gallant a Defence, had rescu'd himself from the Dan­gers of a Prison; and when they had disco­ver'd this their Mistake they were mighty sorry for what they had done. The most a­ctive and busy among the Earl's Footmen was a Dutch Man, and the Earl happening to be in a Room next the Street, and hearing the [Page 216] Outcry of Murder, step'd to the Window, and seeing his own Servants in the midst of the Bustle, examin'd the Dutch Man how the Matter was, and, being told it, he chid the Man for being concern'd in stopping a Gen­tleman that was getting free from such trou­blesome Companions. But the Dutch Man excused himself, like a Dutch Man, by ma­king a very merry Blunder for a Reply. Sa­cramente, said he, to his Lord, if I had thought they were Bayliffs, I would have fought for the poor dumb Gentleman, but then why had not he told me they were Bailiffs my Lord?

In short, Duncan Campbell was carry'd off as their Prisoner; but the Bayliff, that was wounded, was led back to the Coffee House where he pretended the Wound was Mortal, and that he despair'd of living an Hour. The Proverb however was of the Fellow's Side, and he recover'd sooner than other People ex­pected he could. Assoon as all Danger was over, an Action for Damages and smart Mo­ney (as their Term is) was brought against Mr. Campbell; the Damages were exaggera­ted and the Demand was so extravagant, that Duncan Campbell was neither able, just at that Time, nor willing, had he been able, to pay so much, as he thought, in his own Wrong, and having no Bail, and being asham'd to make his case known to his better sort of Friends, who were both able and willing to help him at a dead List, he was hurry'd away [Page 217] to Goal by the Bayliffs, who shew'd such a malignant and insolent Pleasure, as commonly attends powerful Revenge, when they put him into the Marshalsea. There he lay in Confinement Six Weeks, till at last Four or Five of his chief Friends came by mere Chance to hear of it; immediately they con­sulted about his Deliverance and unanimously resolved to contribute for his Enlargement, and they accordingly went cross the Water to­gether, and procured it out of Hand.

Two of his Benefactors were Officers, and were just then going over to Flanders. Dun­can Campbell, to whom they communicated their Design, was resolved to try his Fortune in a Military Way, out of a roving kind of Humour, raised in him partly by his having taken a sort of Aversion to his own Profession in Town, and partly, by his finding, that he could not live, without following a Profession as he had done, any longer. He over a Bot­tle frankly imparted his Mind to them at large; he signify'd to them that he hoped, since they had lately done him so great a Fa­vour, in freeing him from one Captivity, they would not think him too urgent, if he press'd for one Favour further, upon Natures so ge­nerous as theirs, by whom he took as great a Pleasure in being obliged, as he could re­ceive in being capable of obliging others. He wrote to them that the Favour he meant was to redeem him from another Captivity, al­most [Page 218] as irksome to him, as that, out of which they had lately ransom'd him. This Captivity, continued he, is, being either forc'd to follow my old Profession, which I have taken an en­tire Disgust to, for a Maintenance, or being forc'd to live in a narrower Way than suits with my Genius, and the better Taste I have of higher Life. Such a State, Gentlemen, you know, is more unpalatable than Half-pay; it is like either being forc'd to go upon the for­lorn Hope, or else like a Man's being an entire­ly cashier'd and broken Officer, that had no younger Brother's Fortune, and no other Sup­port but his Commission. Thus though you have set my Body at Liberty, my Soul is still under an Imprisonment, and will be till I leave England, and can find means of visiting Flanders, which I can do no otherwise than by the advantage of having you for my Con­voy. I have a mighty longing to Experience some part of a Military Life, and I fancy, if you will grant me your Interest, and intro­duce me to the valiant young Lord Lorne, and be Spokes-men for a dumb Man, I shall meet with a favourable Reception, and as for you (Gentlemen) after having named that great Patron and Pattern of Courage and Conduct in the Field, I can't doubt but the very Name I bear, if you had not known me, would have made you taken me for a Person of a Military Genius, and that I should do nothing but what would become a British [Page 219] Souldier, and a Gentleman; nothing in fine, that should make you repent the Recom­mendation.

These generous and gallant Friends of his, it seems, comply'd with his Request, and pro­mis'd they would make Application for him to the Lord Lorne, and Duncan Campbell had nothing to do but to get his Bag and Baggage ready and provide himself with a Pass. His Baggage was not very long a getting toge­ther, and he had it in tolerable good Order, and as for his Pass, a Brother of the Lord Forbes was so kind, as to procure him one, upon the first Application Duncan made to him.

Accordingly in a few Days afterwards they went on Board, and having a speedy and an easy Passage, arrived soon at Rotterdam. Dun­can met with some of his English Acquaint­ance in that Town, and his Mind being pret­ty much bent upon rambling, and seeing all the Curiosities, Customs, and Humours, he could, in all the foreign Places he was to pass thorough; he went out of a Frolick with some Gentlemen, next Day, in a Boat to an adjacent Village, to make merry over a home­ly Dutch Entertainment, the intended Repast being to consist of what the Boors there count a great Delicacy, brown Bread and white Beer. He walk'd out of sight from his Com­pany, and they lost one another; and stroling about by himself at an unseasonable Hour, as [Page 220] they call it there after the Bell has toll'd, Duncan Campbell, who neither knew their Laws, nor if he had, was capable of being guided by the notice which their Laws ordain, was taken into Custody in the Village for that Night, and carry'd away the next Day to Williamstadt, where he was taken for a Spy, and put into a close Imprisonment for Three or Four Days.

But some Scotch Gentlemen, who had been in Company with Mr. Campbell at Mr. Cloy­sterman's a Painter in Covent-garden, made their Application to the Magistrate and got him releass'd: He knew his Friends the Of­ficers, that carried him over, were gone for­ward to the Camp, and that there was no Hope of finding them at Rotterdam, if he should go thither, and so he resolv'd since he had had so many Days Punishment in Wil­liamstadt, to have Three or Four Days Plea­sure there too by way of Amends, before he would set out on his Journey after his Friends. But on the Third Night he got very much in Drink; and as he went very boisterously and disorderly along, a Sentry challeng'd him; and the want of the Sense of Hearing had like to have occasion'd the Loss of his Life. The Sentry fir'd at him and narrowly miss'd him; He was taken Prisoner, not without some Re­sistance, which was so far Innocent, as that he knew not any reason, why he should be feized: but very troublesome and unwarranta­ble [Page 221] in so orderly a Town; so the Governor's Secretary, after the matter was examined in­to, judging it better for the unhappy Gentle­man's future Safety, advis'd him to return home to his own Country, and accordingly bespoke him a Place in a Dutch Ship called Yowfrow Catherine, for his Passage to England.

Duncan Campbell had taken up this Hu­mour of rambling first, of his own accord, and the Troubles which he had run himself into by it, we may reasonably suppose, had pretty well cur'd him of that extravagant Itch; and there is little doubt to be made, but that he rejoyc'd very heartily, when he was got on Board the Ship to return to En­gland; and that, in his new Resolutions, he had reconciled himself to the Prosecution of his former Profession, and intended to set up for a Predictor again assoon as he could arrive at London. But now Fortune had not a Mind to let him go off so; he had had his own Fancy for rambling, and now she was resolv'd to have hers, and to give him his bellyful of Caprice. Accordingly when the Dutch Ship called Yowfrow Catherine, was making the best of her Road for London, and each Person in the Vessel was making merry, fill'd with the Hopes of a quick and prosperous Passage; a French Privateer appeared in sight, crouding all the Sails she could, and bearing towards them with all haste and diligence. The Pri­vateer was double-mann'd, and carry'd Thir­ty [Page 222] Guns: The Dutch Vessel was defenceless in comparison; and the People on Board had scarce time to think, and to deplore that they should be made a Prey of, before they actu­ally were so, and had Reason enough given them for their Sorrow. All the Passengers, to a single Man, were stripp'd, and had French Sea-mens Jackets in exchange for their Cloaths. Duncan Campbell had now a Taste given him of the Fate of War, as well as of the Humour of travelling, and wish'd himself again, I warrant him, among his greatest Croud of Consulters, as tiresome as he thought Business to be, instead of being in the Middle of a Crew of Sea-Savages. The Town, where the Dumb-prisoner was at last confin'd, was Denain. There happened to be some English Fryers there, who were told by the others, who he was, and to them he apply'd himself in writing, and receiv'd from them a great deal of civil Treatment. But a certain Man of the Order of Recollects, happening to see him there, who had known him in England, and what Profession he followed, caused him to be called to Question as a Man that made use of ill means to tell Fortunes. When he was question'd by a whole Society of these religious Men, he made them such pertinent and satisfactory Answers in writing, that he convinced them he had done nothing for which he deserv'd their Reprimand; and they unanimously acquitted him. The Heads of [Page 233] his Defence, as I have been informed, were these.

First, He alledg'd that the Second Sight was in-born and in-bred in some Men; and that every Country had had Examples of it more or less; but that the Country of Scotland, in which he was educated from an Infant, a­bounded the most of any with those sort of People: And from thence he said he thought he might very naturally draw this Conclu­sion, that a Faculty that was in-born and in­bred to Men, and grown almost a national Faculty among a People, who were remark­ably Honest, Upright and well-meaning Peo­ple, could not, without some Impiety, be im­puted to the Possessors of it as a Sin; and when one of the Fathers rejoin'd, that it was remark'd by several Writers, of the Second Sight, that it must be therefore Sinful, be­cause it remain'd no longer among the People when the Doctrines of Christianity were ful­ly propagated, and the Light of the Gospel increased among them; and that afterwards it affected none but Persons of vicious Lives and an ill Character. To this Objection Mr. Campbell reply'd, that he knew most (even ingenious) Writers had made that Remark concerning the Second Sight, but beg'd leave to be excused, if he ventured to declare, that it was no better than a vulgar and common Error; and the Reasons were these, which he alledg'd in his own behalf, and to confirm his [Page 224] Assertion, he told them Men of undoubted Probity, Virtue and Learning, both of their own Religion, (viz. the Roman Catholick) and also of the Reform'd Religion, and in seve­ral Nations had been affected, and continued all their Lives to be affected, with this Second sighted Power, and that there could be there­fore no room to fix upon it the odious Cha­racter of being a sinful and vicious (not to say that some call'd it still worse, a diabolical) Talent. He said he would content himself with making but two Instances, because he believ'd those Two would be enough to give Content to them, his Judges too, in that Case. In his first Instance he told them that they might find somewhat relating to this in Nicolaus Hemingius, who in his Tracts de Su­perstitionibus Magicis, printed at Copenhagen, Anno 1575, informs the World; that Petrus Palladius, a Bishop of Seelandt, and Professor of Divinity at Copenhagen, could, from a part of his Body affected, foretel from what part of the Heavens Tempests would come, and was seldom deceiv'd. One of the Father's immediately ask'd him if he understood La­tin?—To this Duncan Campbell reply'd no. Oh! Said the Fryer then, I don't remember that Book was ever translated into English that you mention:—But rejoin'd Duncan Campbell, the Passage I mention'd to you, I have read in an English Book, and Word for Word, according to the best of my Memory, [Page 225] as I have written it down to you.—In what English Book said the Fryer?—I don't re­member the Name of the Book, Duncan Camp­bell answer'd, but very well remember the Passages, and that it was in a Book of Au­thority, and which bore a Credit and good Re­pute in the World; and you being Scholars, may, if you please, have recourse to the learn­ed Original, and I doubt not but you'll find, what I say, to be a Truth.—For the Second Instance, he told them; that, in Spain, there are those they call Saludadores, that have this kind of Gift. There was (continued he in Writing) one of your own Religion, vene­rable Fathers, and of a religious Order, nay a Fryer too, that had this Gift: He was a noted Dominican, said he, and though I for­get his Name, you may by writing a Letter to England learn his Name. He was a devout Portuguese belonging to Queen Catherine Dow­ager's Chappel; and had the Second Sight to a great degree, and was famous and eminent for it. They then ask'd him what was the full Power he had to do by the Second Sight. He answer'd, that as they had intimated, that they had perused some of the skilful Wri­ters concerning the Second Sight, he did not doubt but they had found (as well as he could tell them) that as to the Extent of Peoples Knowledge in that secret way, it reach'd both present, past, and future Events. They fore­see Murders, Drownings, Weddings, Burials, [Page 226] Combats, Manslaughters, &c. of all which there are many Instances to be given. They commonly foresee sad Events a little while before they happen; for Instance, if a Man's fatal End be Hanging, they'll see a Gibbet, or Rope about his Neck; if Beheading, they'll see a Man without a Head; if Drowning, they'll see Water up to his Throat; if Stab­bing, they'll see a Dagger in his Breast; if un­expected Death in his Bed, they'll see a wind­ing Sheet about his Head: They foretel not only Marriages, but of good Children, what kind of Life Men shall lead, and in what Con­dition they shall die, also Riches, Honours, Preferments, Peace, Plenty, and good Wea­ther: It's likewise usual with Persons, that have lost any Thing, to go to some of these Men, by whom they are directed, how, with what Persons, and in what Place, they shall find their Goods. It is also to be noted, that these Gifts bear a Latitude, so that some have it in a far more eminent Degree than others; and what I have here written down to you, you need not take as a Truth from me, but as it concern'd me so nearly, I remember the Pas­sage by heart, and you will find it very near Word for Word, in Dr. Beaumont's Book of familiar Spirits. Ay said the Fryers, but you have a Genius too that attends you as we are inform'd. So, reply'd Duncan Campbell, have all Persons, that have the Second Sight in any eminent Degree; and to prove this I will [Page 227] bring no less a Witness than King James, who, in his Demonology, Book the Third and Chap­ter the Second, mentions also a Spirit call'd Brownie, that was wont formerly to haunt divers Houses, without doing any Evil; but doing, as it were, necessary turns up and down the House; he appear'd like a rough Man, nay, some believ'd, that their House was all the Sonsier, as they call'd it, that is, the more lucky, or fortunate, that such Spirits resorted there. With these replies the Fryers began to own they were very well satisfy'd, and ac­quiese'd in the Account he had given of him­self, as a very good, true, and honest Account: But they told him they had still a further Ac­cusation against him, and that was that he practis'd Magick Arts, and that he us'd, as they had been inform'd, unlawful Incanta­tions. To this he made Answer, that there were two Kinds of Magick, of which, he knew, they, that were Men of learning, could not be ignorant. The Art Magick, which is Wicked and Impious, continued he, is that which is profess'd, and has been profess'd at all Times in the World, by Witches, Magi­cians, Diviners, Inchanters, and such like no­torious Profligates, who by having an unna­tural Commerce with the Devil, do many strange, prodigious, and preternatural Acts a­bove and beyond all humane Wisdom; and all the Arguments I ever did or ever will de­duce (continued he) from that black Art, is a [Page 228] good and a shining Argument: It is this, O Fathers, I draw a Reason from these prodi­gious Practices of Wizards, Magicians, In­chanters, &c. and from all the Heathen Ido­latry and Superstition, to prove, that there is a Deity; for from these Acts of theirs, be­ing preternatural and above humane Wisdom, we may consequently infer that they proceed from a supernatural and immaterial Cause, such as Demons are. And this is all the Know­ledge I ever did or ever will draw from that black hellish Art. But (Fathers!) there is another Kind of Art Magick call'd natural Magick, which is directly opposite to theirs, and the Object of which Art is to do spiritual Good to Mankind, as the Object of theirs is to torment them, and induce them to Evil. They afflict People with Torments, and my Art relieves them from the Torments they cause. The publick Profession of these Ma­gical Arts has (as you know, Fathers, 'tis a common Distinction between black and white Magick,) been tolerated in some of the most famous Universities of Christendom, though afterwards for a very good Reason in Poli­ticks, making it a publick Study to such a Degree was very wisely retrench'd by a Pro­hibition. If this therefore be a Fault in your own Opinions, hear my Accusers, but if not you will not only excuse but commend me.

The Fryers were extreamly well pleased with his Defence: But one of them had a [Page 229] Mind to frighten him a little if he could, and ask'd him what he would say, if he could pro­duce some Witches lately seiz'd, that would swear he had been frequently at their unlaw­ful Assemblies, where they were making their waxen Images, and other odd mischievous Inventions in black Magick, to torment Folks; what if I can produce such Evidence against you, wrote the Father to him by way of strengthening the Question, will you not own that we have convicted you then? And when he had wrote the Note he gave it Duncan Campbell, with a Look that seem'd to express his Warmth and Earnestness in the Expostu­lation. Duncan Campbell took the Paper and read it, and far from being startled, return'd this Answer, with a Smile continuing in his Face, while he wrote it. No said he, Fathers, by your leave, they will only prove me a good Magician by that Oath, and themselves more plainly Witches. They will prove their Love to torment good Folks, and only shew their Hatred to me an innocent Man, but wise enough to torment 'em by hindering 'em from tormenting others. The Fathers were well pleas'd with the Shrewdness of the An­swer: But Duncan Campbell had a mind to exert his Genius a little farther with the good Fryer, who thought likewise he had put him a very shrew'd Question; so taking up ano­ther Sheet of Paper; Fathers, said he, shall I entertain you with a Story of what pass'd, [Page 230] upon this Head, between two religious Fa­thers (as you all of you are) and a Prince of Germany, in which you will find that mine ought to be reputed a full Answer to the Question, the last learned Father was pleased to propose to me? The Story is somewhat long, but very much to the purpose, and en­tertaining: I remember it perfectly by heart, and if you will have Patience while I am writing it, I don't doubt but that I shall not only satisfy you, but please you, and oblige you, with the Relation. The Author I found it in quotes it from Fromannus (I think the Man's Name was so, and I am sure my Author calls him a very learned Man) in his Third Book of Magical In­cantation, and, tho' I don't understand the Language the Original is writ in, yet I date venture to say upon the Credit of my English Author, from whom I got the Story by heart, that you will find me right, when ever you shall be pleased to search.

The Fryers were earnest for the Story and express'd a desire that he would write it down for them to read, which he did in the following Words. N [...]te; that I have since compared Mr. Duncan Campbell's Ma­nuscript with the Author's Page out of which he took it, and find it Word for Word the same; which shews how incomparable a Memory this deaf and dumb Gentleman has got, besides his [Page 231] other extraordinary Qualifications. The Story is this.

‘"A Prince of Germany invited two reli­gious Fathers, of eminent Virtue and Learn­ing, to a Dinner. The Prince, at Table, said to one of them: Father! Think you we do right in hanging Persons, who are accused by Ten or Twelve Witches, to have appear'd at their Meetings or Sab­baths? I somewhat fear we are imposed on by the Devil, and that it is not a sofe Way to Truth, that we walk in by these Accusations; especially, since many great and learned Men every where begin to cry out against it, and to charge our Consci­ences with it: Tell me therefore your Opini­on. To whom the Fathers being somewhat of an eager Spirit said: What should make us doubtful in this Case? Or what should touch our Consciences, being convicted by so many Testimonies? Can we make it a Scruple, whether God will permit inno­cent Persons should be so traduc'd? There is no Cause for a Judge to stick at such a Number of Accusations, but he may pro­ceed with Safety. To which when the Prince had reply'd, and much had been said Pro and Con on both Sides about it, and the Father seem'd wholly to carry the Point, the Prince at length concluded the Dispute; saying, I am sorry for you, Fa­ther, that in a Capital Cause you have con­demn'd [Page 232] yourself, and you cannot complain if I commit you to Custody: For no less than Fifteen Witches have deposed, that they have seen you, ay, start not! You your own self, at their Meetings: And to show you that I am not in Jest, I will presently cause the publick Acts to be brought, for you to read them. The Father stood in a Maze, and with a dejected Countenance had nothing here to oppose but Confusion and Silence, for all his learned Eloquence."’

As soon as Mr. Campbell had wrote down the Story; the Fathers perused it, and seem­ed mightily entertain'd with it. It put an end to all further Questions, and the Man, whom they had been trying for a Conjurer, they joined in desiring, upon distinct Pieces of Paper, under their several Hands, to come frequently and visit them, as being not only a harmless and innocent, but an extraordi­nary well-meaning good and diverting Com­panion. They treated him for sometime af­terwards during his Stay, with the Friend­ship due to a Country-man, with the Civi­lity that is owing to a Gentleman, and with the Assisiance and Support, which beloag'd to a Person of Merit in Distress. Money they had none themselves it seems to give him, being Menditants, by their own Prosession; but they had Interest enough to get him quite free from being Prisoner; he participated of their Elemosinary Table, had a Cell allow'd him [Page 233] among them in what they call their Dormi­tory; he had an odd Coat and a pair of Trow­zers made out of some of their brown coarse Habits, by the poor unfashionable Taylor or Botcher belonging to the Convent, and at last they found means of recommending him to a Master of a French Vessel, that was ready to set Sail, to give him a cast over the Channel to England; and to provide him with the Ne­cessaries of Life, till he got to the Port. This French Vessel was luckier than the Dutch one had been before to our dumb Gentleman, it had a quick and prosperous Passage, and ar­riv'd at Portsmouth; and as soon as he landed there, he having experienc'd the Misfortunes and Casualties, that a Man in his Condition wanting both Speech and hearing was liable to, in Places where he was an utter Stranger to every Body, resolv'd to make no Stay but move on as fast as he could towards London. When he came to Hampton Town, considering the indifferent Figure he made, in those odd kind of Cloaths, which the poor Fryers had equipp'd him with, and that his long Beard and an uncomb'd Wigg added much to the Disguise; he was resolved to put on the best Face, he could, in those aukward Circum­stances, and stepp'd into the first Barber's Shop he came at to be trimm'd and get his Wigg comb'd and powder'd. This proved a very lucky Thought to him; for as soon as he stepp'd into the first Barber's Shop, who [Page 234] should prove to be the Master of it, but one Tobit Yeats, who had served him in the same Capacity at London, and was but newly set up in the Trade of a Barber-Surgeon at Hamp­ton Town, and followed likewise the Profes­sion of School-master. This Tobit Yeates had shaved him quite, before he knew him in that Disguise; and Mr. Campbell, though he knew him presently, had a mind to try if he should be known himself first: At length the Barber finding him to be a dumb Man by his ordering every thing with Motions of the Hand, and Gestures of the Body, look'd at him very earnestly, remember'd him, and in a great Surprize, called for Pen, Ink and Pa­per, and begg'd to know how he came to be in that Disguise; whether he was under any Misfortune, and Apprehension of being dis­cover'd, that made him go in so poor and so clownish a Habit, and tender'd him any Ser­vices, as far as his little Capacity would reach, and desir'd him to be free, and command him; if he was able to assist him in any thing. These were the most comfortable Words, that Duncan Campbell had read a great while. He took the Pen and Paper in his turn; re­lated to him his whole Story, gave the poor Barber thanks for his good natured Offer, and said he would make so much use of it, as to be indebted to him for so much Money as would pay the Stage Coach, and bear him in his travelling Expences up to London, from [Page 235] whence he would speedily return the Favour with Interest. The poor honest Fellow, out of Gratitude to a Master, whose Liberality he had formerly experienc'd, immediately furnish'd Mr. Duncan Campbell with that little Supply, expressing the Gladness of his Heart that it lay in his Power; and the Stage Coach being to set out within but a few Hours, he ran instantly to the Inn to see if he could get him a Place. By good luck there was Room, and but just Room for one more, which pleas'd Duncan Campbell mightily when he was ac­quainted with it by his true and trusty Ser­vant the Barber; for he was as impatient to see London again, it seems, as he had been before to quit it. Well, he had his Wish; and when he came to London, he had one Wish more for Fortune to bestow upon him, which appear'd to begin to grow kind again, after her fickle Fit of Cruelty was over; and this Wish was, that he might find his former Lodgings empty, and live in the same House, as he did, when he follow'd his Prosession. This too succeeded according to his Desire, and he was happily fix'd once more to his Heart's Content in his old Residence, with the same People of the House round about him, who bore him all that Respect and Af­fection (and shew'd all that Readiness and Willingness to serve him on every Occasion and at every turn) which could be expected from Persons, that let Lodgings in Town to [Page 236] a Gentleman, whom they esteem'd the best Tenant they ever had in their Lives or ever could have.

Immediately the Tidings of the dumb Gen­tleman's being return'd home from beyond Sea, spread throughout all the Neighbour­hood, and it was nois'd about from one Nigh­bourhood to another, till it went through all Ranks and Conditions, and was known as well in a Day or Two's Time, all the Town over, as if he had been some great Man be­longing to the State, and his Arrival had been notified to the Publick in the Gazette, as a Person of the last Importance. And such a Person he appear'd indeed to be taken for, e­specially among the fair Sex, who throng'd to his Doors, Croud after Croud, to consult with him, about their future Occurrences in Life.

These curious Tribes of People, were as various in their Persons, Sex, Age, Quality, Profession, Art, Trade, as they were in the Curiosity of their Minds, and the Questions they had intended to propound to this dumb Predictor of strange Events, that lay yet as Embrio's in the Womb of Time, and were not to come, some of them, to a Maturity for Birth, for very many Years after, just as por­celain Clay is stored up in the Earth by good Artificers, which their Heirs make China of half a Century, and sometimes more than an Age, afterwards.

[Page 237] These Shoals of Customers, who were to fee him well for his Advice as we may sup­pose, now he stood in need of raising a fresh Stock, were unquestionably, as welcome and acceptable to him, as they appeared too troublesome to him before, when he was in a State of more Wealth and Plenty.

Fortune, that does nothing moderately, seem'd now resolv'd, as she had been ex­treamly cruel before, to be extreamly kind to him. He had nothing to do from early in the Morning till late at Night, but to read Questions, and resolve them as fast, as much frequented Doctors write their Pre­scriptions and Recipe's, and like them al­so to receive Fees as fast. Fortune was in­deed mightily indulgent to the Wants she had so suddenly reduc'd him to, and reliev'd him as suddenly by these Knots of Curioso's, who brought him a Glut of Money. But one single fair Lady, that was one of his very first Consulters after his Return, and who had receiv'd satisfactory Answers from him in o­ther Points, before he went abroad; prov'd (so good Fortune would have it) worth all the rest of his Customers together, as nume­rous as they were, and as I have accordingly represented them.

This Lady was the Relict or Widow of a Gentleman of a good Estate, and of a very good Family, whose Name was Digby, and a handsome Jointure she had out of the E­state. This Lady, it seems, having been with [Page 238] him in former Days, and seen him in a more shining Way of Life, (for he had taken a Humour to appear before all his Company in that coarse odd Dress, made out of the Fryer's Habit, and would not be perswaded by the People of the House to put on a Nightgown, till he could provide himself with a new Suit) was so curious, among other Questions, as to ask him, whether he had met with any Misfortunes, and how he came to be in so slovenly and wretched a Habit? Here Mr. Campbell related the whole Story of his Tra­vels to her, and the Crosses and Disappoint­ments he had met with abroad. The Tears, he observ'd, would start every now and then into her Eyes, when she came to any doleful Passage, and she appear'd to have a mighty compassionate kind of feeling, when she read of any Hardship more than ordinarily me­lancholy, that had befallen him. Mr. Camp­bell, it is certain, had then a very good Pre­sence, and was a handsome and portly young Man; and, as a great many young Gentle­men derive the seeming Agreeableness of their Persons from the Taylor and Perruque-ma­ker, the Shoe-maker and Hosier, so Mr. Camp­bell's Person on the other Hand gave a good Air and a good Look to the aukward Garb he had on; and I believe, it was from seeing him in this odd Trim (as they call it,) the Ladies first took up the humour of calling him the handsome Sloven: Add to this that [Page 239] he look'd his Misfortune in the Face with a jolly Countenance, and smiled even while he was penning the Relation of his Calamities: All which are certainly Circumstances that first sooth a generous Mind into a State of Compassion, and afterwards heighten it in the Breast wherein it is conceiv'd. Hence it came that this pretty and good natur'd Widow, Mrs. Digby, when she had express'd her Com­miseration of him by her Looks, began to take the Pen and express it in very tender Terms: Neither did she think that Expression in Words a sufficient Testimony of the Com­passion she bore to him; the Generosity of her Mind did lead her to express it in a more substantial manner still, and that was to shew it plainly by a very benevolous Action. She laid a Purse of Twenty Guineas before the Table, and at the same time smiling, point­ed to the Table, as signifying her desire that he would accept it, and running to the Door drop'd a Curtesy, and skuttled away; and by the same civil Act as she oblig'd him, she put it out of his Power to refuse being so ob­liged; so that, though the Present was very handsome, the manner of giving it was still handsomer. If being a handsome young Man of Merit in Distress, and bearing his Misfor­tunes with an equal Mind, are powerful Mo­tives to excite Compassion in the Mind of a generous Lady, so the Generosity of a young agreeable Widow express'd in so kind and so [Page 240] benevolous a Way, to a young Gentleman, when he had been tasting nothing but the bitter Draughts of Fortune before, must stir up an Affection in a Mind that had any sense of Gratitude: And truly just such was the Effect that this Lady's Civility had upon Mr. Duncan Campbell. He conceiv'd, from that Moment, a very great Affection for her; and resolv'd to try whether he could gain her, which he had no small Grounds to hope, from the Esteem, which she appear'd to bear to­wards him already. I remember Mr. Dry­den makes a very beautiful Observation of the near Alliance there is between the Two Passions of Pity and Love in a Woman's Breast, in one of his Plays. His Words are these: For Pity still fore-runs approaching Love As Light'ning does the Thunder. Mr. Bruyere a most ingenious Member of the French A­cademy has made another Remark, which comes home to our present purpose. He says, That many Women love their Money better than their Friends; but yet value their Lovers more than their Money. According to the Two Re­flections of these fine Writers upon the Tem­pers of the Fair, Mr. Campbell had hopes e­nough to ground his Courtship upon; and it appeared so in the End by his proving Suc­cessful: She from being a very liberal and friendly Client, became at last a most Affe­ctionate Wife. He then began to be a House­keeper, and accordingly took a little neat one, [Page 241] and very commodious for his Profession, in Monmouth Court. Here I must take leave to make this Observation; That, if Mr. Campbell inherited the Talents of his second­sighted Mother, he seem'd likewise to be an Heir to his Father Mr. Archibald Campbell, both in his strange and accidental Sufferings by Sea, and likewise in his being reliev'd from them, after as accidental and strange a man­ner, by an unexpected Marriage, just like his Father's. And here we return again to take a new Survey of him in the course of his publick Practice as a Predictor. The Ac­counts I shall give of his Actions here, will be very various in their Nature from any I have yet presented to the Reader; they are more mysterious in themselves, and yet I shall en­deavour to make the manner of his operating in this kind as plain as (I think) I have the foregoing ones, and then I flatter my self they must afford a fresh Entertainment for every Reader, that has any curiosity and a good taste for things of so extraordi­nary a Kind. For what I have all along pro­pounded to myself from the beginning, and in the progress to the end of this History, is, to interweave entertaining and surprising Narratives of what Mr. Campbell has done, with curious and instructive Enquiries into the nature of those Actions, for which he has rendred himself so singularly famous. It was not therefore suitable to my purpose, to clog [Page 242] the Reader with numerous Adventures al­most all of the same Kind, but out of a vast number of them to single some few of those that were most remarkable, and that were Mysteries, but Mysteries of very different sorts. I leave that Method of swelling distorted and commented Trifles into Volumes, to the writers of Fable and Romance; if I was to tell his Adventures with regard, for Exam­ple, to Women that came to consult him, I might perhaps have not only written the Stories of eleven thousand Virgins that died Maids, but have had Relations to give of as many marry'd Women and Widows, and the Work would have been endless. All that I shall do therefore is to pick out one parti­cular each of a different Kind, that there may be variety in the Entertainment. Upon Ap­plication to this Dumb Man, one is told in the middle of her Health, that she shall die at such a time; another, that she shall sicken, and upon the moment of her recovery, have a Suiter and a Husband; a Third, who is a celebrated Beauty with a multitude of Ad­mirers round about her, that she shall never become a Wife; a Fourth that is marry'd, when she shall get rid of an uneasy Husband; a Fifth that hath lost her Goods, who stole them, where and when they shall be resto­red; a Sixth, that is a Merchant, when he shall be Undone, and how and when he shall recover his Losses, and be as great on [Page 243] the Exchange as ever; a seventh, that is a Gamester, which will be his winning and which his losing Hour; an eighth, how he shall be involv'd in a Law-suit, and whether the Suit will have an adverse or a prosperous Issue; a ninth, that is a Woman, with choice of Lovers, which she shall be most happy with for Life; and so on to many others, where every Prediction is perfectly new and surprizing, and differs from the o­ther in almost every Circumstance. When a Man has so extensive a Genius as this at foretelling the future Occurrences of Life, one Narrative of a sort is enough in Con­science to present the Reader with, and se­veral of each kind would not methinks be entertaining, but tiresome; for he that can do one thing in these kinds by the power of Prediction, can do ten thousand; and those who are obstinate in extenuating his Talents, and calling his Capacity in question, and that will not be convinc'd by one In­stance of his Judgment, would not own the conviction if ten thousand Instances were given them. The best Passages I can recom­mend to their Perusal, are those, where Per­sons, who came purposely to banter him under the colour of consulting him, and cover'd over their sly Intentions with bor­row'd Disguises, and came in Masquerades, found all the Jest turn'd upon themselves in the End, which they meant to our famous [Page 244] Predictor, and had the discouragement of seeing their most conceal'd and deepest laid Plots discovered, and all their most witty Fetches and wily Contrivances defeated, till they were compelled universally to acknow­ledge, that endeavouring to impose upon the Judgment of our Seer, by any hidden Artifice and Cunning whatsoever, was effec­tually imposing upon their own. His unu­sual Talent in this kind was so openly known, and so generally confess'd, that his Know­ledge was celebrated in some of the most witty Weekly Papers that ever appear'd in Publick. Isaac Bickerstaff, who diverted all the Beaumond for a long space of time with his Lucubrations, takes occasion in several of his Papers, to applaud the Speculations of this dumb Gentleman in an admirable vein of Pleasantry and Humour, peculiar to the Writer, and to the Subject he writ upon. And when that bright Author, who join'd the uttermost Facetiousness with the most solid Improvements of Morality and Learn­ing in his Works, laid aside the Title of a Tatler, and assumed the Name of a Specta­tor and Censor of Men's Actions, he still every now and then thought our Duncan Campbell a Subject worthy enough to em­ploy his farther Considerations upon. I must take notice of one Letter sent concerning him to the Spectator, in the Year, 1712, which was at a time when a Lady wanted [Page 245] him, after he had remov'd from Monmouth Street to Drury Lane.


ABout two Years ago I was called upon by the younger part of a Country Family, by my Mother's side related to me, to visit Mr. Campbell the dumb Man; for they told me that was chiefly what brought them to Town, having heard Wonders of him in Essex. I, who always wanted Faith in such Matters, was not easily prevailed on to go; but lest they should take it ill, I went with them, when, to my own surprize, Mr. Campbell related all their past Life; (in short, had he not been prevented, such a Discovery would have come out, as would have ruin'd their next Design of coming to Town, viz. buying Wedding Cloaths.) Our Names—tho' he never heard of us before, and we endeavoured to conceal, were as familiar to him as to ourselves. To be sure, Mr. Spectator, he is a very learned and wise Man. Being impatient to know my For­tune, having paid my Respects in a Family Jacobus, he told me (after his manner) among several other things, that in a Year and nine Months I should fall ill of a new Fever, be given over by my Physici­ans, but should with much difficulty re­cover: [Page 246] That the first time I took the Air afterwards, I should be address'd to by a young Gentleman of a plentiful Fortune, good Sense, and a generous Spirit. Mr. Spectator, he is the purest Man in the World, for all he said is come to pass, and I am the happiest She in Kent. I have been in Quest of Mr. Campbell these three Months, and cannot find him out: Now hearing you are a dumb Man too, I thought you might correspond and be a­ble to tell me something; for I think my self highly obliged to make his Fortune, as he has mine. 'Tis very possible your Worship, who has Spies all over this Town, can inform me how to send to him: If you can, I beseech you be as speedy as pos­sible, and you will highly oblige your con­stant Reader and Admirer,

Dulcibella Thankley.


ORDERED, That the Inspector I em­ploy about Wonders, enquire at the Golden-Lion opposite to the Half-Moon Tavern in Drury-lane into the Merit of this silent Sage, and report accordingly.—Vide the 7th Volume of Spectators No. 474. being on Wednesday September the 3d. 1712.

But now let us come to those Passages of his Life the most surprizing of all, during the time that he enjoy'd this Reputation, and when he prov'd that he deserved the Fame he enjoy'd. Let us take a Survey of him while he is wonderfully curing Persons la­bouring under the misfortune of Witchcraft, of which the following Story will be an emi­ment Instance, and likewise clear up how he came by his Reputation in Essex, as menti­oned in the above-mentioned Letter to the Spectator.

In the Year 1709, Susanna Johnson, Daughter to one Captain Johnson, who liv'd at a place adjacent to Rumford in Essex, going one Morning to that Town to buy Butter at the Market, was met there by an old miserable-looking Woman, just as she had taken some of her Change of the Mar­ketwoman [Page 248] in Copper, and this old Woman rather demanded than begg'd the Gentle­woman to give her a Penny. Mrs. Johnson reputing her to be one of those hateful People that are call'd sturdy Beggars, refused it her, as thinking it to be no act of Charity, and that it would be rather gratifying and indul­ging her Impudence, than supplying or sa­tisfying her Indigence. Upon the refusal, the old Hag with a Face more wrinkl'd still, if possible, by Anger, than it was by Age, took upon her to storm at young Mrs. John­son very loudly, and to threaten and me­nace her: But when she found her common Threats and Menaces were of no avail, she swore she would be reveng'd of the young Creature in so signal a manner, that she should repent the Denial of that Penny from her Heart before she got home, and that it should cost her many Pounds to get rid of the Consequences of that Denial and her Anger. The poor innocent Girl despised these last words likewise, and getting up on Horseback, return'd Homewards; But just as she got about half way her Horse stop'd, and no means that she could use would make him advance one single step; but she staid a while to see if that would humour him to go on. At last the Beast began to grow unruly, and snorted and trembled as if he had seen or smelt something that frighted him, and so fell a kicking desperately till he threw [Page 249] the Girl from the Saddle, not being able to cling to it any longer, tho' a pretty good Horsewoman of her Years; so much were the Horse's Motions and Plungings more than ordinarily violent.

As Providence would have it, she got not much harm by the Fall, receiving only a little Bruise in the right Shoulder; but she was dreadfully frighted. This Fear added Wings to her Feet, and brought her home as speedily of herself as she usually came on Horseback. She immediately, without any other sign of Illness than the pallid Colour with which Fear had disorder'd the Com­plexion of her Face, alarm'd all the Family at home with the Story, took her Bed up­on it, complain'd of inward Rackings of the Belly, and was never at case unless she lay doubled up together her Head to her Knees, and her Heels to her Rump, just like a Fi­gure of 8. She could not be a single Mo­ment out of that Posture without shrieking out with the violence of anxious Torments and racking Pains.

In this condition of Misery, amidst this a­gony of Suffering, and in this double Po­sture, was the poor wretched young Gentle­woman brought to Town; Physicians were consulted about her, but in vain; she was carry'd to different Hospitals for assistance, but their Endeavours likewise prov'd ineffec­tual: At last she was conducted to the Col­lege [Page 250] of Physicians; and even the collective Wisdom of the greatest Sages and Adepts in the Science of Physick was pos'd to give her any Prescription that would do her service, and relieve her from the inexplicable Ma­lady she labour'd under. The poor incurable Creature was one constant Subject of her com­plaining Mother's Discourse in every Company she came into. It hapned at last, and very pro­videntially truly, that the Mother was thus condoling the Misfortune of her Child among five or six Ladies, and telling them among other things, that by the most skilful Persons she was look'd upon to be bewitch'd, and that 'twas not within the power of Physick to compass her Recovery: They all having been acquainted with our Mr. Duncan Campbell, unanimously advised her to carry her Daugh­ter to his House and consult with him a­bout her. The Mother was overjoy'd at these tidings, and purposed to let no time slip where her Child's Health was so deeply con­cerned. She got the Ladies to go with her and her Child, to be Eye-witnesses of so ex­traordinary a piece of Practice, and so emi­nent a trial of Skill.

As soon as this dismal Object was brought into his Room, Mr. Duncan Campbell lifted up her Head and look'd earnestly in her Face, and in less than a Minute's time signify'd to the Company, that she was not only be­witch'd, but in as dreadful a Condition al­most [Page 251] as the Man that had a Legion of Fiends within him.

At the reading of these words the unhap­py Creature rais'd up her Head, turn'd her Eyes upwards, and a Smile (a thing she had been a stranger to for many Months) overspread her whole Face, and such a kind of Colour as is the flushing of Joy and Gladness, and with an innocent tone of Voice she said, she now had a firm belief she should shortly be deliver'd. The Mother and the rest of the Company were all in Tears, but Mr. Camp­bell wrote to them that they should be of good Heart, be easy and quiet for a few Mo­ments, and they should be convinc'd that it was Witchcraft, but happily convinc'd by see­ing her so suddenly well again. This brought the Company into pretty good Temper; and a little after, Mr. Campbell desir'd she might be led up Stairs into his Chamber and left there alone with him for a little while; this occasioned some small Female Specula­tion, and as much Mirth as their late Sor­row, alleviated with the hopes of her Cure, would permit.

This you may be sure was but a snatch of Mirth, just as the nature of the thing would allow of; and all sorts of Waggery being laid instantly aside, and remov'd almost as soon as conceiv'd, the poor young thing was carry'd in that double Posture up Stairs. She had not been much above half an Hour there, [Page 252] when by the help only of Mr. Campbell's Arm she was led down Stairs, and descended into that Room full of Company as a Miracle appearing in a Machine from above; she was led backward and forward in the Room, while all gaz'd at her for a while with joyful Asto­nishment, for no Arrow was ever more strait than she. Mr. Campbell then prevail'd with her to drink a glass of Wine, and immedi­ately after she evacuated Wind, which she had not done for some Months before, and found herself still more amended and easy: And then the Mother making Mr. Campbell some small Acknowledgment at that time, with the promise of more, and her Daugh­ter giving Thanks, and all the Company com­mending his Skill, took their Leaves and de­parted with great demonstrations of Joy. I shall here, to cut the Story short, signify, that she came frequently afterwards to make her Testimonials of Gratitude to him, and con­tinues to enjoy her Health to this very Day at Greenwich, where she now lives, and will at any time, if call'd upon, make Oath of the Truth of this little History, as she told me herself with her own Mouth.

The next thing therefore it behoves me to do in this Chapter is, to give some satisfactory account of Magick, by which such seeming mysterious Cures and Operations are brought about.

[Page 253] This Task I would perform in the most perspicuous and most convincing manner I can; for Magick I know is held to be a very hard and difficult Study by those Learned, and universally unlawful and diabolical by those Unlearned, who believe there is such a Science attainable by Human Genius. On the other hand, by some Learned Men, who believe there is no such Science, it is repre­sented as an inconsistent System of Supersti­tions and Chimera's; and again laugh'd at as such by the Unlearned, who are of an incre­dulous Temper: What I would therefore undertake to do in this place, is to shew the Learned Men, who believe there is such an Art, that the attainment to a tolerable Know­ledge of the manner how magical Practices may be brought about, is no such difficult Matter as they have represented it to them­selves; and by doing this, I shall make the System of it so plain, that while the Learn­ed approve of it, the Unlearned too, who are not of an unbelieving Kind, may under­stand clearly what I say; and the Learned Men who have rejected this Science as chi­merical, may be clearly convinced it is real; and then there is nothing left but obstinate unbelieving Ignorance, which I shall not here pretend by Arguments to lead into Sense, but leave it to the work of Time. In fine, I will endeavour to induce Men of Sense to say, that, what has been accounted mysteri­ous, [Page 254] is deliver'd in a plain, easy, and convin­cing manner, and to own that they approve, while Men of the lower Class of Under­standing, shall confess and acknowledge that they themselves understand it, and that what has hitherto been represented as arduous and difficult to a great Genius, is adapted and ren­der'd not only clear, but familiar to Persons of midling Talents. In this Work therefore I shall follow the strictest Order I can (which of all things render a Discourse upon any Subject the most clear;) and that it may be plain to the commonest Capacity, I will first set down what Order I intend to follow.

First, I will speak of Magick in general.

Secondly, Of Magick under its several Di­visions and Subdivisions.

Thirdly, Concerning the Object of Art, as it is Good or Bad.

Fourthly, Of the Persons exercising that Art in either Capacity of Good or Bad, and by what means they become capacitated to exercise it.

In the Fifth place, I shall come to the several Objections against the Art of Magick, and the Refutation of those Objections.

The first Objection shall be against the Ex­istence of good and bad Spirits. The Refu­tation of which will consist in my proving the Existences of Spirits both Good and Bad, by Reason, and by Experience.

[Page 255] The second Objection that will be brought, is to contain an Allegation that there are no such Persons as Witches now, and an Ar­gument to support that Allegation, drawn from the Incapacity and Impossibility of any thing's making (while itself is incarnate) a Contract with a Spirit. This Objection will be answer'd by proving the reality of Wit­ches from almost Universal Experience, and by explaining rationally the manner how the Devils hold Commerce with Witches; which Explication is back'd and authoriz'd by the Opinion of the most Eminent Divines and the most Learned Physicians.

From hence, Sixthly and lastly, We shall conclude on the side of the good Magick, that as there are Witches on the one hand that may afflict and torment Persons with Daemons, so on the other hand there are lawful and good Magicians that may cast out Daemons from People that are possess'd with them.

And First as to Magick in general; Ma­gick consists in the Spirit by Faith, for Faith is that MAGNET of the Magicians by which they draw Spirits to them, and by which Spirits they do great things, that ap­pear like Miracles.

Secondly, Magick is divided into three sorts, viz. Divine, Natural, and Diabolical. And Natural Magick is again sub-divided in­to two kinds, Simple and Compound: And Natural Compound Magick is again likewise [Page 256] divided into two Kinds, viz. Natural-di­vine Magick, and Natural-diabolical Magick. Now, to give the Reader a clear, and a distinct Notion of each several Species of Magick here mentioned, I set down the following De­finitions.—Divine Magick is a Celestial Sci­ence, in which all Operations, that are won­derfully brought about, are performed by the Spirit of God.—Natural Magick is a Science, in which all the mysterious Acts that are wrought, are compass'd by Natural Spirits.—But as this Natural Magick may be exercised about things either in a manner indifferent in themselves, or mere morally Good, and then it is mere natural Magick; or else about things Theologically good, and transcendently bad; and then it is not mere­ly and Natural Magick, but Mix'd and Com­pound. If Natural Magick be exercised a­bout the most holy Operations, it is then mix'd with the Divine, and may then be cal­led, not improperly, Natural-divine Magick. But if Natural Magick troubles itself about compassing the wickedest Practices, then is it promiscuous with the Demoniacal, and may not improperly be called Natural dia­bolical Magick.

Thirdly, The Object of this Art is doing Wonders out of the ordinary appearing course of Nature, which tend either to great good or bad, by the help and Mediation of Spirits good and bad.

[Page 257] Fourthly, As to the Persons exercising that Art in either way, whether good or bad, and by what Means they become capaci­tated to act it, the Notion of this may be easily deduced from the Notions of the Art itself, as considered above in its each diffe­rent Species; for as all Magick consists in a Spirit, every Magician acts by a Spirit.

Divine Magicians that are of God are spoke of in the sacred Book, and therefore I shall not mention the Passages here, but pass them over (as ought in a Book like this) with a profound and reverential Silence, as well as the other Passages, which speak of Natural and Daemoniacal Magicians; and in all I shall speak of them in this Place, I shall only speak of them with Regard to humane Rea­son and Experience, and conclude this Head with saying, that Natural Magicians work all Things by the Natural Spirits of the Ele­ments; but that Witches and Daemoniacal Magicians, as Jannes and Jambers in Aegypt were, work their magical Performances by the Spirit of Daemons, and 'tis by the Means of these different Spirits that these diffe­rent Magicians perform their different Ope­rations.

These Things thus distinctly settled and ex­plained, 'tis now we must come and ground the Dispute, between those who believe there are no such Things as Magicians of any Kind, [Page 258] and those who assert there are of all the Kinds above specify'd.

Those who contend there are, have re­course to Experience, and relate many well­witness'd Narratives, to prove, that there have been in all Times, and that there are still Magicians of all these Kinds: But those, who contend that there are no such Persons, will give no ear to what the others call plain Ex­perience; they call the Stories (let whatever Witnesses appear to justify them) either fa­bulous Legends invented by the Authors, or else Tricks of intellectual Logerdemain im­posed by the Actors, upon the Relators of those Actions. Since therefore (they say) tho' the Believers in Magick bragg of Expe­rience never so much, it may be but a fal­lible Experience; they reasonably desire to know, whether these Gentlemen that stand for Magick can answer the Objections which they propose, to prove, that the Practice of Magick, according to the System laid down, is inconsistent with Reason, before they will yield their Assent. Let the Stories be never so numerous, appear neverso credible, these un­believing Gentlemen desire to be try'd by Rea­son, and aver till that Reason is given; they will not be convinc'd by the Number of Sto­ries, because, tho' numerous, they are Stories still, neither will they believe them because they appear credible; because seeming so is [Page 259] not being so, and Appearances, tho' never so fair, when they contradict Reason, are not to be swallowed down with an implicit Faith as so many Realities. And thus far, no doubt, the Gentlemen, who are on the unbelieving Side, are very much in the right on't. The learned Gentlemen on the other hand, who are persuaded of this mighty mysterious Pow­er, being lodged in the Hands of Magicians, answer, that they will take upon them to re­fute the most subtle Objections brought by the learned Unbelievers, and to reconcile the Practicability of magical Mysteries by the Ca­pacity of Men, who study that Art, to right Rules and Laws of Reasoning, and to shew, that some Stories (tho' never so prodigi­ous) which are told of Magicians, demand the Belief of wise Men on two Accounts; because as Experience backs Reason on the one hand, Reason backs Experience on the other, and so the Issue of the whole Argu­ment (whether there are Magicians or not) is thrown upon both Experience and Reason. These Arguments on each side, I shall draw up fairly pro and con; for I don't pretend to be the Inventor of them my self, they belong to other Authors many Years ago; be it enough for me to boast of, if I can draw them up in a better and closer Form together, than they have yet appeared in: In that I take upon my self a very great Task; I erect my self as it were into a kind of a Judge; I will sum up the [Page 260] Evidences on both sides, and I shall, where­ever I see Occasion, intimate which side of the Argument bears the most Weight with me; but when I have enforced my Opinion as far as I think needful, my Readers like a Jury are still at Liberty to bring in their Ver­dict, just as they themselves shall see fit; and this naturally leads me, where I promised to come to in the fifth Part of this Discourse, to the several Objections against the Power of Art Magick, and the Refutation of those Objections.

The first Objections being against the Existence of Spirits, and the Refutations thereof.

THE first Objection, which they who reject Magick make use of, is, deny­ing that there are any such Things as Spirits about which, since those, who defend the Art, say it intirely exerciseth itself, the Ob­jectors contend, that if they can make out that there are no such Beings as Spirits, all Pretensions to the Art must be intirely ground­less, and for the future exploded.

To make this Part out, that there are no Spirits, the first Man they produce on their Side is undoubtedly one of very great Cre­dit and Authority, inasmuch as he has justly born for many Centuries the Title of a [Page 261] Prince of Philosophers. They say, that Aristo­tle in his Book de Mundo, reasons thus against the Existence of Spirits, viz. That since God can do all Things of himself, he doth not stand in Need of ministring Angels and Dae­mons. A Multitude of Servants shewing the Weakness of a Prince.

The Gentlemen, who defend, the Science make this Reply, they allow the Credit and Authority of Aristotle as much as the Ob­jectors: But as the Objectors themselves, de­ny all the Authorities for the Spirits, and de­sire that Reason may be the only Ground they go upon; so the Refuters, on their Parts, desire, that Aristotle's ipse dixit may not be absolutely pass'd upon them for Argument, but that his Words may be brought to the same Touchstone of Reason, and proved if they are Standard. If this Argument, say they, will hold good, Aristotle should not suppose Intelligencies moving the Caelestial Spheres; for God sufficeth to move all with­out ministring Spirits; nor would there be Need of a Sun in the World, for God can enlighten all Things by himself, and so all second Causes were to be taken away; there­fore there are Angels and ministring Spirits in the World, for the Majesty of God, not for his Want of them, and for Order, not for his Omnipotency. And here, if the Ob­jectors return and say, who told you that there are Spirits? Is not yours a precarious [Page 262] Hypothesis? Mayn't we have leave to recri­minate in this Place? Pray, who told Aristo­tle that there were Intelligencies that moved the Caelestial Spheres? Is not this Hypothesis as precarious as any Man may pretend that of Spirits to be? And we believe there are few Philosophers at present, who agree with Aristotle in that Opinion; and we dare pro­nounce this to be ours, that Aristotle took his Intelligencies from the Hebrews, who went according to the same whimsical, tho' pretty Notion, which first gave Rise to the Fiction of the Nine Muses: But more than all this, it is a very great Doubt among learned Men, whe­ther this Book de Mundo be Aristotle's or no.

The next Thing the Objectors bring a­gainst the Existence of Spirits, is, that it is Nonsense for Men to say that there are such Beings of which it is impossible for a Man to have any Notion, and they insist up­on it that it is impossible for any Man to form an Idea of a spiritual Substance. As to this part, the Defendants rejoin, that they think our late most judicious Mr. Lock, in his cla­borate and finish'd Essay on humane Under­standing, has fairly made out, that Men have as clear a Notion of a spiritual Substance as they have of any corporeal Substance, Matter, or Body; and that there is as much Reason for admitting the Existence of the one, as of the other; for that if they admit the latter, it is but Humour in them to deny the former. It [Page 263] is in Book the 2d, Chap. 29. where he rea­sons thus: ‘"If a Man will examine himself, concerning his Notion of pure Substance in general, he will find he has no other Idea of it, but only a Supposition of he knows not what Support of such Quality which are ca­pable of producing simple Ideas in us, which Qualities are commonly called Accidents. Thus if we talk or think of any particular sort of corporeal Substance, as Horse, Stone, &c. tho' the Idea we have of either of them be but the Complication or Collection of those several simple Ideas, or sensible Quali­ties, which we use to find united in the Thing call'd Horse or Stone; yet because we can­not conceive how they should subsist alone not one in another, we suppose them to ex­ist in and be supported by some common Sub­ject, which Support we denote by the Name of Substance, tho' it be certain we have no clear or distinct Idea of that Thing we sup­pose a Support. The same happens concern­ing the Operations of our Mind, viz. Think­ing, Reasoning, and Fearing, &c. which we concluding not to subsist of themselves, and not apprehending how they can belong to Body; we are apt to think these the Ac­tions of some Substance which we call Spirit: Whereby it's evident, that having no other Notion of Matter, but something, wherein those many sensible Qualities, which affect our Senses, do subsist, by supposing a Substance, [Page 264] wherein Thinking, Knowing, Doubting, and a Power of Moving, &c. do subsist, we have as clear a Notion of the Nature or Substance of Spirit, as we have of Body; the one being snpposed to be (without knowing what is the Substratum to those simple Ideas, which we have from without, and the other supposed (with a like Ignorance of what it is) to be the Substratum of these Operations which we experiment in ourselves within). 'Tis plain then, that the Idea of corporeal Substance in Matter, is as remote from our Concep­tions and Apprehensions as that of spiritual Substance, and therefore from our not having any Notion of the Substance of Spirit, we can no more conclude its not Existence, than we can for the same Reason deny the Existence of Body; it being as rational to affirm there is no Body, because we cannot know its Es­sence, as it's called, or have the Idea of the Substance of Matter, as to say, there is no Spirit, because we know not its Essence, or have no Idea of a spiritual Substance."’ Mr. Lock also comparing our Idea of Spirit with our Idea of Body, thinks there may seem ra­ther less Obscurity in the former than the latter. Our Idea of Body, he takes to be an extended solid Substance, capable of com­municating Motion by Impulse; and our Idea of Soul is a Substance that thinks, and has a Power of exciting Motion in Body by Will or Thought. Now, some perhaps will say, [Page 265] they comprehend a thinking Thing which perhaps is true; but, he says, if they consider it well, they can no more comprehend an ex­tended Thing; and if they say, they know not what it is thinks in them, they mean they know not what the Substance is of that thinking Thing; no more, says he, do they know what the Substance is of that solid Thing; and if they say, they know not how they think, he says, neither do they know how they are extended, how the solid Parts are united, or where to make Extension, &c.

The learned Monsieur le Clerc, who gene­rally knows how far humane Reason can bear, argues consonantly to what is before deliver'd by Mr. Lock, in his Coronis added to the end of the fourth Volume of his Philosophi­cal Works, in the third Edition of them, where he writes as followeth.

When we contemplate the corporeal Na­ture, we can see nothing in it but Extension. Divisibility, Solidity, Mobility, and various Determinations of Quantity, or Figures; which being so, it were a rash Thing, and contrary to the Laws of right Reasoning, to affirm o­ther Things of Bodies; and consequently from mere Body, nothing can be deduced by us, which is not joined in a necessary Con­nexion with the said Properties: Therefore those, who have thought the Properties of perceiving by Sense, of Understanding, Will­ing, [Page 266] Imagining, Remembring, and others the like, which have no Affinity with corporeal Things to have risen from the Body, have greatly transgressed in the Method of right Reasoning and Philosophising, which hath been done by Epicurus, and those, who have thought as he did, having affirmed our Minds to be composed of corporeal Atoms: But whence shall we say, they have had their Rise? truly, they do not owe their Rise to Matter which is wholly destitute of Sense and Thought, nor are they spontaneously sprung up from nothing, it being an ontological Maxim of most evident Truth, that nothing springs from nothing.

Having thus given the Reader the first Ob­jections made against the Existence of Spirits, and the Refutations thereof, I must now frank­ly own on which side my Opinion leans, and for my Part, it seems manifest to me that there are two Beings; we conceive very plainly and distinctly, viz. Body and Spirit, and that it would be as absurd and ridiculous to deny the Existence of the one, as of the other: And really, if the Refuters have got the better in their Way of Reasoning, they have still a much greater Advantage over the Objectors, when they come to back these Reasons with fresh Arguments drawn from Experience. Of this, there having been many undoubted Narratives given in the foregoing [Page 267] Pages, concerning the Apparitions of Spirits, I shall refer the Reader back again to them, and only subjoin here one or two Instances, which may, if required, be prov'd upon Oath, of Spirits seen by two Persons of our Duncan Campbell's own Acquaintance. In the Year 1711, one Mrs. Stephens, and her Daughter, were together with Mr. Campbell, at the House of Mr. Ramell's, a very great and noted Weaver at Haggerstone, where the rainy Weather detained them till late at Night. Just after the Clock struck Twelve, they all of them went to the Door to see if the Rain had ceased, being extremely desirous to get home. As soon as ever they had open'd the Door and were all got together, their appear'd before them a Thing all in White, the Face seem'd of a dismal pallid Hue, but the Eyes thereof fiery and flaming like Beacons, and of a saweer Size. It made its Approaches to them, till it came up within the Space of about three Yards of them, there it fixt and stood like a Figure agaze, for some Mi­nutes; and they all stood likewise stiff like the Figure, frozen with Fear, Motionless, and Speechless: When all of a sudden it vanish'd from their Eyes; and that Apparition to the Sight was succeeded by a Noise, or the Ap­pearance of a Noise, like that, which is occa­sioned by the Fighting of twenty mastiff Dogs.

[Page 268] Not long after, Mrs. Anne Stephens, who lived in Spittlefields, a Woman well known by her great Dealings with Mercers upon Ludgate-Hill, sitting in her House alone, and musing upon Business, happened by Ac­cident to look behind her, and saw a dead Corps, to her thinking, lie extended upon the Floor, just as a dead Corps should be, ex­cepting that the Foot of one Leg was fix'd on the Ground as it is in a Bed, when one lies with one Knee up; she look'd at it a long while, and by degrees at last stole her Eyes from so unpleasing and unexpected an Ob­ject. However a strange kind of a Curiosi­ty overcame her Fears, and she ventured a second Time to turn her Head that Way, and saw it, as before, fix'd for a considerable time longer, but durst not stir from her Seat; she again withdrew her Eyes from the horri­ble and melancholy Spectacle, and resum'd the Courage, after a little Reflection, of view­ing it again, and resolving to ascertain her­self if the Vision was real, by getting up from her Seat and going to it, but upon this third Retrospection she found it vanish'd. This Relation she writ down to Mr. Duncan Campbell, and has told before Mrs. Ramell, her own Sister, and many other very credita­ble Persons. Now as to these Arguments from Experience, I shall also deliver my Opi­nion; I dispute not but that learned Men, who have obstinate Prepossessions, may pro­duce [Page 269] plausible Arguments, why all Things should be thought to be done by Imposture which seem strange to them, and interfere with their Belief; and truly thus far their Humour may be indulged, that if only one Person relates a very strange and surprising Story, a Man may be more apt to think it is possi­ble for that Person to lie, than that so strange a Relation should be true; but if a considera­ble Number of Persons of several Countries, several Religions, several Professions, several Ages, and those Persons look'd upon to be of as great Sagacity as any the Country af­ford, agree in Relations of the same Kind, tho' very strange, and are ready to vouch the Truth of them upon Oath after having well consider'd Circumstances; I think it a Vio­lation of the Law of Nature to reject all these Relations as fabulous, merely upon a self-presuming Conceit, unless a Man can fair­ly shew the Things to be impossible, or can demonstrate wherein those Persons were im­posed on; for from hence, I form the follow­ing conclusive Argument. What is possible ac­cording to Reason, grows probable according to Belief, where the Possibility is attested to have reduc'd itself into Action by Persons of known Credit and Integrity. Now, not on­ly the Possibility of the Existence of Spirits, but the actual Existence thereof is proved a­bove by logical Demonstration; therefore are we to believe both by the Course of logical [Page 270] Reason, and moral Faith, that those Existen­cies have appeared to Men of Credit, who have attested the Reality thereof upon Oath.

Second Objection against the Existence of Witches.

THESE Objectors go on to say, that provided they should allow there is an Existence of Spirits, yet that would be still no Argument how Magick should subsist, be­cause they deny that it is impossible for a Man in his Body to have a Commerce, much less make a Contract with Spirits; but here a­gain the Refuters alledge, they have both Experience and Reason on their Sides. As a joint Argument of Reason and Experience, they tell you, that the numerous Witches which have in all Countries been arraigned and condemned upon this Occasion, are evident Testimonies of this Commerce, and Contract being held and made with Spirits. They pre­tend to say, that these Objectors call not their, the Refuters, Judgment so much in Question, who contend that there is a magick Art, as they call in Question the Judgment of all the wisest legislative Powers in Christendom, [Page 271] who have universally agreed in enacting penal Laws against such capital Offenders.

But here the Objectors return and say, that it being impossible for us to shew the man­ner how such a Contract should be made, we can never, but without Reason, believe a Thing to be, of which we can form no per­fect Idea. The Refuters, on the other hand, reply with the learned Father le Brune; it's manifest, that we can see but two sorts of Beings; Spirits and Bodies, and that since we can reason but according to our own Ideas, we ought to ascribe to Spirits what cannot be produced by Bodies. Indeed, the Author of the Republick of Learning, in the Month of August, Anno 1686, has given us a rough Draft for writing a good Tract of Witchcraft, which he looks upon as a Desideratum. Where among other Things he writes thus; Since this Age is the true Time of Systems, one should be contriv'd concerning the Commerce that may be betwixt Daemons and Men.

On this Passage, Father le Brune writes thus. ‘"Doubtless here the Author complies with the Language of a great many Persons, who, for want of Attention and Light, would, have us put all Religion in Systems. What­ever Regard I ought to have for many of those Persons, I must not be afraid to say, that there is no System to be made of those Truths, which we ought to learn distinctly by Faith, because we must advance nothing [Page 272] here, but what we receive from the Oracle. We must make a System to explain the Ef­fects of the Loadstone, the Ebbing and Flow­ing of the Sea, the Motion of the Planets; for that the Cause of these Effects is not evi­dently signified to us, and many may be con­ceived by us; and to determine us, we have need of a great number of Observations, which, by an exact Induction, may lead us to a Cause that may satisfie all the Phoenomena. It's not the same in the Truths of Religion, we come not at them by groping, it were to be wish'd Men spoke not of them, but after a decisive and infallible Authority. It's thus we should speak of the Power of Dae­mons, and of the Commerce they have with Men; it's of Faith, that they have Power, and that they attack Men, and try to seduce them divers Ways. It is true indeed, they are sometimes permitted to have it over the Just, tho' they have it not ordinarily, but over those, that want Faith, or Fear, not to partake of their Works; and that to the last particu­larly, the disorder'd Intelligencies try to make exactly succeed what they wish; inspiring them to have Recourse to certain Practises by which those seducing Spirits enter into Com­merce with Men."’ Thus far Father le Brune. But still these Objectors demand to know, by what Means this Commerce may be held be­tween Daemons and Men, and urge us to de­scribe the Manner; or pretend that they have [Page 273] still reason to refuse coming into the Belief of a Thing, which we would impose upon them, tho' wholly ignorant of it ourselves: To that, the Refuters answer thus, That both Christian Divines, and Physicians agree, (as to the manner how, which they are so cu­rious in enquiring after,) that Daemons stir up Raptures and Extasies in Men, binding or loosing the exterior Senses, and that either by stopping the Pores of the Brain, so that the Spirits cannot pass forth, (as it's done natu­rally by Sleep) or by recalling the sensitive Spirits, from the outward Senses to the in­ward Organs, which he there retains: So the Devil renders Women Witches extatical and Magicians, who, while they lie fast asleep in one Place, think they have been in divers Pla­ces, and done many Things. This the learned Objectors say proceeds from no Daemon, but from the Disease call'd an Epilepsy; but, on the other hand, the more learned Refuters insist upon it, that these Extasies are not epi­leptick Scizures: This, say they, appears from Bodin, in his Theatre of universal Nature, where he says, ‘"That those, that are wrapt by the Devil, feel neither Stripes nor Cut­tings, nor no Wresting of their Limbs, nor burning Tortures, nor the Application of a red hot Iron; nay, nor is the Beat of the Pulse, nor the Motion of the Heart per­ceived in them; but afterwards, returning to themselves, they feel most bitter Pains [Page 274] of the Wounds received, and tell of Things done at 600 Miles distance, and affirm themselves to have seen them done."’ The ingenious Dr. Ader, makes an admirable phy­sical Distinction between this kind of Exta­sie, and a Syncope, or Stupor, caused by narcotick Medicines. Sennertus, in his In­stitutio Medica, writes of the Daemoniacal Sopor of Witches, who think they are car­ry'd thro' the Air, dance, feast, and have Copulation with the Devil, and do other Things in their Sleep, and afterwards believe the same Things waking. Now, he says, ‘"Whe­ther they are really so carry'd in the Air, &c. or being in a profound Sleep, or only Dream they are so carry'd and persist in that Opini­on, after they are awake: These Facts or Dreams cannot be natural; for it cannot be, that there should be so great an Agree­ment in Dreams, of Persons differing in Place, Temperament, Age, Sex, and Stu­dies, that in one Night, and at the same Hour, they should, in concert, dream of one and the same such Meeting, and should agree, as to the Place, Number, and Qua­lity of the Persons, and the like Circum­stances; but such Dreams are suggested from a preternatural Cause, viz. from the Devil to his Confederate, by the Di­vine Permission of an Almighty Power, where Punishments are to be permitted to be inflicted upon reprobate Sinners."’

[Page 275] Whence also, to those Witches sincerely converted, and refusing to be any more pre­sent at those diabolical Meetings, those Dreams no longer happen, which is a Proof that they proceeded, not before, from a natural Cause.

Here begins the great Point of the Dispute as to that Branch of Magick, which we call Na­tural Magick. The Objectors may tell us, that they will freely own, that there may be an Existence of Spirits, that there may be an Existence of Witches, that by a divine Power Men may be influenced, so far as to have a Communication with good Spirits, and that from thence, they may become spiritual divine Magicians: They will likewise, perhaps, as freely grant, that by the Intervention of a Daemon, Things preternatural may be brought about by Persons, who have studied the Daemoniacal Magick, but then what they principally insist upon, is, that it must be contradictory to all humane Reason, to ima­gine that there can be such a Thing as Na­tural Magicians; and thus far they may form their Argument. They say, that the Persons, who contend for the magick Art, own, that all that is brought about by Magick, is by the Assistance and Help of a Spirit, and that consequently, what is Effected by it, must be preternatural: Now, they say, it is a Thing inconsistent by a Natural Power, to bring about a preternatural Effect; therefore, there [Page 276] can be no such Thing as Natural Magick, which has within itself the Efficacy of de­stroying those Acts done by Magicians, in the Diabolical.

To this, the Refuters take leave to reply, that the Foundation, upon which the Argu­ment is built, is wrong grounded; they have admitted, that, in diabolical Art Magick, there may be a Commerce held between Men and Spirits, by which several preternatural Effects may be brought about; and the Reason they assign for it there, is, because there is a pre­ternatural Agent concerned therein, the Devil: But then, say they, in Natural Magick, you can pretend to no such Agent, and there­fore to no such preternatural Effect. This Argument contains within it two Falacies: First, as to the Commerce held between a Man and a Daemon, there is nothing pre­ternatural in getting the Acquaintance; the Will of the Man is entirely Natural, either naturally good, or naturally corrupted: The black Spirit that converseth with him, it is acknowledg'd is not so, but it is from the Will of the Man; not from the Power vested in the Devil, that the Acquaintance first grows, therefore the Acquaintance it self is natural, tho' it arises from the last Corruption and De­pravations of Nature, but being made with a preternatural Existence tho' the Cause of the Acquaintance be corruptedly Natural, yet the intermediate Cause or Means after that [Page 277] Acquaintance is not so, and therefore the Ef­fect of that intermediate Cause may be wonderful, and seem to be out of the ordi­nary Course of Nature. Now, since it is ge­nerally allow'd, that there are Natural Spirits of the Elements as well as Divine and In­fernal, what we have to prove is only this; that Man by Natural Magick may have a Commerce with Natural Spirits of their Elements, as Witches may have with the Spirits or Daemons. Now, as we said before, the Commerce itself depends upon the Will of the Person, and is therefore Natural, and consequently may as well subsist between the one as the other; for the Devil cannot force a Man to hold a Commerce with him whe­ther he will or no. The second Falacy is calling the Effect preternatural, no other­wise than as it connotates the Agent that brought it about, which is a spiritual Agent; for the Effect is (in itself consider'd) Natural, and brought about by second Causes that are Na­tural, by the Devil's Penetration, who is sub­tile enough to make use of them for such and such Ends. Now Men by Natural Spi­rits, which are of a Faculty thoroughly sub­tle, may as well with natural second Causes compass the Remedy of an evil Spirit, as the Devil is able to infect Men with it. From these Speculations a farther plain Consequence may be deduced, how a Man may, by the pure Force of Natural Magick, cure a Person that [Page 278] is infested with Evils by a Daemon; for how is it that a Daemon infests any Body with his evil Motions? It's true, he is a preternatural Agent, but the evil Effect he does, is brought about by Natural Causes. For how does a Daemon stir up Raptures or Extasies in Men? why he does it (as we are told above) by bind­ing or loosing the exterior Senses, by stop­ping the Pores of the Brain, so that the Spi­rits cannot pass forth: And this, the Art of Physick can compass by its Drugs, and Sleep causes the same Thing very naturally of itself; therefore as the Evil itself is Natural, the Re­medy, that is Natural, will certainly over­come it: But then, say you, why can't those Persons be cured by Physicians? I answer, not because their Remedies are not in them­selves sufficient to cure the Evils themselves, but because generally Physicians don't ad­minister their Drugs as Christians, but as Phy­sicians; and when they prescribe them to the Sick, they generally prescribe to them only purely consider'd as Patients, not as Christians, and therein they come to fail: Because the Agent, the Devil, is a subtle Spirit that brings the Evil, and alters its Situation before the Remedy, which would master it otherwise, can take any Effect; which Agent, the Devil, is employ'd by the horrible and impious Faith of the Antiphysician, viz. the black Magi­cian: But, if the Physician would act the Chris­tian, at the same time, so far as to have a [Page 279] Faith that Things ordain'd in the Course of Nature, for the Good of Man, would have its Effects in spite of a Devil, if taken with a good Faith by the Patient: That all good Things ordain'd to be for the natural Re­covery of Men, if they took it with Thank­fulness to the Sender, would have due Effect; why then the Natural Spirits of the Elements would resist the farther Agency of the Dae­moniacal Spirit, and then nothing but the Natural Evil (caused at first by the Daemon) remaining in the Person without the farther Superintendency of the Daemon, might de­monstratively be taken away by the mere na­tural Remedy or Medicine. And thus good and pious Physicians making use of such pro­per Remedies as their Skill teaches them, and having an honest Faith, that the Goods of Nature intended for the Use and Benefit of Man, if received by the Patient with the same good Faith, is above the Power of the Devil to frustrate, may not improperly be called Natu­ral Magicians. These Arguments of mine, I shall now take Leave to back by Experience.

Besides, what we have urged from Rea­son, concerning the Power of Natural Ma­gick, we shall only subjoin, that Divines themselves hold that Natural Magick, and also Natural Divinations, and Prophecies, are proved by Quotations from that venerable Writ which is their Guide; and bring Proofs from the same also, that by Natural Magick [Page 280] Daemons are also cast forth, but not all kinds of Daemons, and so many Works of Effica­cy are wrought by Natural Magick: They tell you, such was the Pythonissa that raised the Apparition to Saul, which appeared in a Body of Wind and Air. Thus, if a Per­son by Natural Magick should cast out Dae­mons, it does not follow, that this was also from Divine Magick; and if Daemons are cast out by Natural Magick, by one that is in the Fear of God, it does not follow that he is a true Magician of God, but if it ex­orbitates to Daemoniacal, then it is condemned; and when Natural Magick keeps within its Bounds, the Divines tell us, it is not con­demn'd in the venerable Book which is the Christian's sure Guide. But, inasmuch as the Law­fulness even of Natural Magick has been called in Question by others, I shall, in an Appendix join'd to this Treatise, examine that Matter both according to the Reasons of our Eng­lish Laws, and according to the best stated Rules of Casuistry that I am a Master of; still submitting my Judgment to the superior Judgment of those who are profess'd Di­vines and Lawyers: And if my Opinions prove erroneous, I am willing to retract them; and therefore, in this place, there remains nothing farther for me to do, but only, as I have shewn, on the one hand, how Natural Ma­gick, and its powerful Operations are prov'd by Reason; to shew, on the other hand, how [Page 281] far Reason in these Cases, is likewise back'd and supported by well-evidenc'd Practice, and notorious Experience. And to do this, after having mentioned one memorable Instance, which I refer the Reader to in the Body of the Book, concerning the Performances of Mr. Greatrix, to which a Lord Orrery was a Witness in Ireland; I shall, to avoid Pro­lixity, bring the other Testimonials of Prac­tice, from the Success which our Duncan Campbell himself has had in this Way on other Occasions.

In the Year 1713, lived in Fanchurch-street, one Mr. Coates, a Tobacco-Merchant, who had been for many Years sorely tormented in his Bo­dy, and had had Recourse for a Cure to all the most eminent Physicians of the Age, even up to the great Dr. Ratcliff himself; but all this mighty Application for Relief was still in vain: Each Doctor own'd him a Wonder and a Mystery to Physick, and left him as much a Wonder as they found him. Nei­ther could the Professors of Surgery guess at his Ailment, or resolve the Riddle of his Dis­temper; and after having spent, from first to last, above a thousand Pounds in search of proper Remedies, they found the Search ineffectual: The learned all agreed, that it could proceed from nothing else but Witchcraft; they had now indeed guess'd the Source of his Illness, but it was an Ill­ness of such a Kind, that, when they had [Page 282] found it out, they thought themselves not the proper Persons to prescribe to him any Remedies. That Task was reserv'd, it seems, for our Duncan Campbell, who, upon some Body's Information or other, was sent for to the betwiched Patient Mr. Coates, who found him the Wonder, that the others had left him, but did Wonders in undertaking and compassing his Cure. I remember, one of the Ingredients made use of, was boiling his own Water, but I can't tell how 'twas used; and, upon turning over the Books of some great Physicians since, I have found, that they themselves have formerly deliver'd that, as one part of the Prescriptions for the Cure of Patients in like Cases. But as there are other Things, which Mr. Campbell performs, that seem to require a Mixture of the Second­sight, and of this Natural Magick before they can be brought about, I will entertain the Reader with one or two Passages of that sort likewise, and so conclude the History of this so singular a Man's Life and Adventures.

In the Year 1710, a Gentlewoman lost about six Pounds Worth of Flanders-lace, and inasmuch as it was a Present made to her Husband, she was concerned as much as if it had been of twenty Times the Value; and a Lady of her Acquaintance com­ing to visit her, to whom she unfolded a­mong other Things in discourse this little Dis­aster: The Lady smiling, reply'd, with this [Page 383] Question, did you never hear, Madam, of Mr. Duncan Campbell? It is but making your Ap­plication to him, Things that are lost, are im­mediately found; the Power of his Know­ledge, exceeds even the Power of Laws; they but restrain, and frighten, and punish Robbers, but he makes Thieves expiate their Guilt, by the more virtuous Way of turning Restorers of the Goods they have stoln. Madam, re­join'd the losing Gentlewoman, you smile, when you tell me this, but really, as much a Triflc as it is, since 'twas a Present to my Husband, I can't help being sensibly concern­ed at it, a Moment's Disappointment to him in the least Thing in Nature, creates in me a greater Uneasiness, than the greatest Disap­pointment to my single self could do, in Things of Moment and Importance. What makes me smile, said the Lady, when I speak of it, or think of it, is the Oddness and Pe­culiarity of this Man's Talent in helping one to such Things, but, without the least Jest, I as­sure you, that I know, by Experience, these Things come within the Compass of his Know­ledge; and I must seriously tell you, for your farther Satisfaction, that he has help'd me, and several of my Friends, to the finding a­gain Things lost, which were of great Value. And is this, without laughing, true, said the lo­sing Fair, very gravely, and demurely, like a Per­son half believing, and desirous to be fully confirmed in such a Belief? The Lady, she [Page 284] advis'd with, did then ascertain her of the Truth of the Matter, alledging that, for a single half Guinea, he would inform her of her Things, and describe the Person that convey'd them a­way. No sooner was this Gentlewoman con­vinc'd, but she was eager for the Tryal, so­licited her Friend to conduct her to Mr. Campbell; and upon the first Word of Con­sent, she was hooded and scarf'd immediate­ly, and they coach'd it away in a Trice to Mr. Campbell's House, whom they luckily found within.

The Ladies had not been long seated, be­fore he wrote down the Name of this new Client of his, exactly as it was, viz. Mrs. Saxon. Then she was in good Hopes, and with much Confidence, propounded to him the Question about the Lace. He paused but a very little while upon the Matter, before he describ'd the Person that took it, and satisfy'd her, that in two or three Days she would be Mistriss of her Lace again, and find it in some Book, or Corner of her Room. She presented him a Half-guinea, and was very contentedly go­ing away; but Mr. Campbell very kindly stop'd her, and signify'd to her, that, if she had no more to offer to him, he had something of more Importance to reveal to her: She sate full of Expectation while he wrote this new Matter; and the Paper he deliver'd to her contain'd the following Account. As for the Loss of a little bit of Lace, it is a [Page 285] mere Trifle; you have lost a great many hundreds of Pounds, which your Aunt (nam­ing her Name) left you, but you are bubbled out of that large Sum. For while you was artfully required down Stairs about some pretended Business or other, one Mr. H [...]tt [...]n, convey'd your Aunt's Will out of the Desk, and several other Things of Value, and wri­ting down the Names of all the Persons con­cern'd, which put Mrs. Saxon in a great Con­sternation: He concluded this Paper, with bid­ding her go home with a contented Mind, she should find her Lace in a few Days, and as she found that Prediction prove true, she should afterwards come and consult about the the Rest.

When she came home (it seems) big at first with the Thoughts of what she had been told, she rifled and ransack'd every Corner, but no Lace was to be met with; all the next Day, she hunted in the like manner, but frighten'd the whole Time, as if she thought the Devil was the only Person could bring it, but all to no Purpose; the third Day her Curiosity abated, she gave over the Hopes of it, and took the Prediction as a vain Delusion, and that, what she gave for it, was on­more Money thrown away after what had been lost before. That very Day, as it com­monly happens in such Cases, when she least dreamt of it, she lighted on't by Acci­dent and Surprize. She ran with it in her [Page 286] Hand immediately to her Husband, and now she had recover'd it again, told him of the Loss of it, and the whole Story of her ha­ving been at Mr. Campbell's about it; and then amplifying the Discourse about what he had told her besides, as to more considera­ble Affairs, she said, she resolv'd to go and con­sult him a little farther about them, and begg'd her Husband to accompany her. He would fain have laugh'd her out of that Opinion and Intent, but the End was, she persuaded him into it, and prevailed upon him to seem at least very serious about the Matter, and go with her to the Oracle, assuring him there was no room for doubting the same Success.

Well! to Mr. Campbell's they accordingly came, and after Mr. Saxon, in Deference to his Wife's Desire, had paid our Predictor a handsome Complement of Gold; Mr. Dun­can Campbell saluted him in as grateful a manner, with the Assurance, that there was in Kent, a little Country House with some Lands appertaining to it, that was his in right of his Wife: That he had the House, as it were, before his Eyes, that tho' he had ne­ver substantially seen it, nor been near the Place where it stood, he had seen it figura­tively as if in exact Painting and Sculpture, that particularly it had four green Trees be­fore the Door; from whence he was positive, that if Mr. Saxon went with him in quest [Page 287] of it, he should find it out, and know it as well the Moment he come near it, as if he had been an Inhabitant in it all his Life.

Mr. Saxon, tho' somewhat of an Unbe­liever, yet, must naturally wish to find it true, you may be sure, and yet partly doubting the Event, and partly pleased with the visionary Pro­mise of a Fortune henever expected, laugh'd very heartily at the Oddness of the Adventure, and said, he would consider, whether it would not savour too much of Quixotism, to be at the Expence of a Journey on such Frolicks, and on such a chimerical Foundation of airy Hopes, and that then he would call again and let Mr. Campbell know his Mind upon that Point.

In every Company he came into, it serv'd for Laughter and Diversion; they all, how­ever, agreed 'twas worth his while, since the Journey would not be very expensive, to go it by way of Frolick. His Wife one Morning, saying, that she did remember some talk of a House, and such Things as Mr. Campbell had describ'd, put him forward upon the Adven­ture; and upon Mr. Saxon's proposing it to his Brother Barnard, Mr. Barnard favour'd the Proposal as a Joke, and agreed upon the Country Ramble. They came on Horseback to Mr. Campbell's, with a third Horse, on which the Dumb Predictor was mounted, and so on they jogg'd into Kent towards Sevenoak, be­ing the Place which he describ'd. The first Day they set out, was on a Saturday Morning in June, [Page 288] and about Five that Afternoon they arrived at the Black-Bull at Sevenoak in Kent. It being a delicate Evening, they took an a­greeable Walk up a fine Hill gracefully adorn'd with Woods to an old Seat of the Earl of Dorset's: Meeting, by the way, with an old Servant of the Earl's, one Perkins, he offer'd Mr. Barnard, who (it seems) was his old Ac­quaintance to give them all a Sight of that fine ancient Seat.

After they had pleased themselves with viewing the antique Nobility of that stately Structure, this Perkins went back with them to their Inn, the Bull at Sevenoak. They, that could talk, were very merry in Chat; and the Dumb Gentleman, who saw them laugh, and wear all the Signs of Alacrity in their Countenances, was resolv'd not to be behind with their Tongues, and by Dint of Pen, Ink, and Paper, that he made Signs should be brought in, was resolv'd (if one might be said to crack without Noise) to crack his Jest as well as the best of 'em; for it may be tru­ly said of him, that he seldom comes into any even diverting Company, where he is not the most diverting Man there, and the Head (tho' we can't call him the Mouth) of the chearful Society. After having ey'd this Per­kins a little, and being grown, by his Art, as we may suppose, as familiar with the Man's Humour, as if he had known him as many Years as Mr. Barnard: Pray, Mr. Barnard, [Page 289] quoth he in writing) how comes it, you that are so staunch and so stiff a Whig, should be so acquainted, and so particularly fami­liar, with such an old Papist, and so vio­lent a Jacobite, as I know that Mr. Per­kin (whom I never saw nor had any Notice of in my Life) to be? And pray, reply'd Mr. Barnard, what reason have you beyond a Pun to take him for a Jacobite? Must he be so, because his Name is Perkin? I do as­sure you in this, you shew yourself but lit­tle of a Conjurer; if you can tell no more of Houses than you do of Men, we may give over our search after the House you spoke of (here the Reader must understand they discoursed on their Fingers, and wrote by Turns). Mr. Campbell reply'd seriously, laying a Wager is no Argument in other Things, I own, but in this I know it is, because I am sure, af­ter we have laid the Wager, he will fairly confess it among Friends, since it will go no farther, and I (said Mr. Campbell) will lay what Wager you will apiece with you all round. Hereupon, Mr. Barnard, who had known him a great many Years, was the first that laid, and many more, to the Number of five or six follow'd his Example; the De­cision of the Matter was deferr'd till next Day at the Return of the old Man to the Inn; they being about to break up that Night, and go to Bed.

[Page 290] The next Day being Sunday, the Land­lord carry'd his Guests to see the Country, and after a handsome Walk, they came thro' the Church-yard. They were poring upon the Tombs; no Delight can be greater to Mr. Campbell than that; and really, by the fre­quent Walks he usually takes in Westminster-Abbey, and the Church-yards adjacent to this Metropolis, one would imagine he takes De­light to stalk along by himself on that dumb silent Ground, where the Characters of the Persons are only to be known, as his own Meaning is, by Writings and Inscriptions on the Marble. When they had sufficiently survey'd the Church-yard, it grew near Din­ner-time, and they went homewards; but before they had got many Yards out of the Church-yard, Mr. Campbell makes a full Stop, pointing up to a House, and stopping his Friends a little, he pulls out of his Pocket a Pencil and Paper, and notes down the fol­lowing Words; That, That is the House my Vision presented to me, I could swear it to be the same, I know it to be the same, I am certain of it. The Gentlemen with him remark'd it, would not take any farther notice, at that Time, intending to inquire into it with Secrecy, and so went on to the Inn to Dinner.

As merry as they had been the Night be­fore after Supper, they were still more inno­cently chearful this Day after Dinner, till the [Page 291] Time of Service begun. When the Duty of the Day was perform'd and over, they re­turn'd to divert and unbend their Minds with pleasant, but harmless Conversation. I suppose no Body, but a Set of very great Formalists, will be offended with Scandal or Scruples, that to Travellers just ready to de­part the Town; Mr. Perkin came on that good Day and decided the Wagers, by own­ing to all the Company (Secrecy being first enjoined) that he was a 'Roman Catholick, tho' no Body of the Family knew it in so many Years as he had lived there, which was before Mr. Campbell was born. This, and other innocent Speeches, afforded as much Chearfulness as the Lord's Day would allow of.

On the next Day, being Monday, they sent for one Mr. Toland Toler, an Attorney of the Place, to find out to whom that House belong'd, but by all the Inquiry that could possibly be made with convenient Secrecy, no Body could find it out for a long time, but at last it came to light and appear'd to be justly to a Tittle as Mr. Campbell had predicted.

Being now satisfy'd the next Day, our three Travellers return'd for London; and the two vocal Men were very jocular upon their Ad­venture, and by their outward Gesticulations gave the prophetical Mute his Share of Di­version. Mr. Barnard, as they pass'd into a Farmhouse-yard, remark'd that all the Hogs [Page 292] fell a grunting and squeaking more and more; as Mr. Campbell came nearer (who, poor Man! could know nothing of the Jest, nor the Cause of it, till they alighted and told it him by Signs and Writing) said to Mr. Saxon laughing, now we have found out our House, we shall have only Mr. Campbell home again by himself, we have no farther Need of the Devil, that accompany'd him to the Country, up to Town with us, there are o­ther Devils enow to be met with there he knows, and so this, according to the Fashion of his Predecessor Devils, is enter'd into the Herd of Swine.

However, the Event of this Journey (to cut the Story short) procured Mr. Saxon a great Insight, upon inquiry, into several Af­fairs belonging to him, of which he would otherwise have had no Knowledge; and he is now engaged in a Chancery Suit to do him­self Justice, and in a fair way of recovering great Sums of Money, which, without the Consultation he had with this Dumb Gen­tleman, he had in all likelihood never dreamt of.

In the Year 1711, a Gentleman, whose Name shall be, in this Place, Amandus, famed for his exquisite Talents in all Arts and Sciences, but particularly for his Gentleman like and entertaining manner of Conversation, whose Company was affected by all Men of Wit, who grew his Friends, and courted by all [Page 293] Ladies of an elegant Taste, who grew his Admirers: This accomplish'd Gentle­man, I say, came to Mr. Campbell, in or­der to propound a Question to him, which was so very intricate, and so difficult to an­swer, that, if he did answer it, it might ad­minister to himself, and the Ladies he brought with him, the Pleasure of Admiration in see­ing a Thing so wonderful in itself perform'd; or, on the other hand, if he did not make a satisfactory Reply to it, then it might af­ford him and the Ladies a very great De­light, in being the first that puzzled a Man, who had had the Reputation for so many Years of being capable of baffling all the wittiest Devices and shrewd Stratagems that had been, from time to time, invented to baffle his Skill, and explode his Penetration in the Second-sight, and the Arts which he pretended to. The Persons, whom Amandus brought with him, were the illustrious La­dy Delphina, distinguish'd for her great Qua­lity, but still more celebrated for her Beauty, his own Lady the admired Amabella, and a young blooming pretty Virgin whom we will call by the Name of Adeodata, about which last Lady the Question was to be put to Mr. Campbell. Adeodata, it seems, was the natural Daughter of this very fine Gentleman, who had never let her into the Knowledge of her own Birth, but had bred her up from her Infancy, under a borrow'd Name, in the [Page 294] Notion that she was a Relation's Daughter, and recommended to his Care in her Infan­cy. Now the Man that had the Second­sight, was to be try'd: It was now to be put to the Proof, if he could tell Names or no? Amandus was so much an Unbeliever as to be willing to hazard the Discovery—Amabella and Delphina were Strangers to her real Name, and ask'd Duncan Camp­bell, not doubting but he would set down that which she ordinarily went by: Ama­bella had indeed been told by Amandus, that Adeodata was the natural Daughter of a near Friend of his; but who this near Friend was remain'd a Secret: That was the Point which lay upon our Duncan Campbell to disco­ver. When the Question was proposed to him, what her Name was, he look'd at her very stedfastly and shook his Head, and after some Time, he wrote down, that it would be a very difficult Name for him to fix upon. And truly so it prov'd; he toil'd for every Letter till he sweated; and the La­dies laugh'd incontinently, imagining that he was in an Agony of Shame and Confu­sion at finding himself poz'd. He desired Amandus to withdraw a little, for that he could not so well take a full and proper Sur­vey of Ladies Faces, when a Gentleman was by. This Disturbance and Perplexity of his, af­forded them still more subject of Mirth; and that Excuse was taken as a Pretence, and [Page 295] a put-off to cover his Shame the better and hide from one at least, that he was but a downright Bungler in what he pretended to be so wonderful an Artist. However, after two Hours hard Sweat and Labour, and viewing the Face in different Shades and Lights, (for I must observe to the Reader that there is a vast deal of Difference, some he can tell in a Minute or two with Ease, some not in less than four or five Hours, and that with great Trouble) he undeceived them with Regard to his Capacity. He wrote down, that Adeodata's real Name was Aman­da, as being the natural Daughter of Aman­dus. Delphina and Amabella were surpriz'd at the Discovery; and Amandus, when he was call'd in, owning it a Truth, his Wife Amabella applauded the curious Way of her coming by such a Discovery, when Adeo­data was just marriageable, took a Liking to her as if her own Daughter; and every Thing ended with Profit, Mirth and Chearfulness. I could add a thousand more Adventures of Mr. Campbell's Life, but that would prove te­dious; and as the Town has made a great De­mand for the Book, it was thought more pro­per to conclude it here. The most diverting of all, are to be found best to the Life in original Letters that pass'd between Mr. Camp­bell and his Correspondents, some select ones of which will be shortly publish'd in a little Pock­et-volume for the farther Entertainment of such [Page 296] Readers as shall relish this Treatise: In which the Author hopes, he shall be esteem'd to have endeavour'd at the Intermingling of some cu­rious Disquisitions of Learning, with enter­taining Passages, and to have ended all the merriest Passages with a sober, instructive, and edifying Moral, which even to those who are not willing to believe the Stories, is reckon'd sufficient to recommend even Fables them­selves.


IT is not that Mr. Duncan Camp­bell stands in need of my Argu­ments, to prove that he is, in no respect, liable to the Acts of Par­liament made against Fortune­tellers, &c. that I undertake the writing of this Appendix, the true Reason thereof be­ing the more completely to finish this Un­dertaking: For having, in the Body of the Book it self, fully proved a Second-Sight, and that the same frequently happens to Persons, some of them eminently remark­able for Piety and Learning, and have from thence accounted for the Manner of Mr. Campbell's performing those Things he pro­fesses, to the great Surprize, and no less Sa­tisfaction of all the Curious who are plea­sed to consult him; and at the same time proved the Lawfulness of such his Perfor­mances [Page 298] from the Opinions of some of the most Learned in holy Science; I thought it not improper to add the following short Appendix, (being a Summary of several Acts of Parliament made against Fortune­tellers, Conjurers, Egyptians, Sorcerers, Pretenders to Prophesy, &c. with some proper Remarks, suited to our present Pur­pose) as well to satisfie them who are fan­tastically Wise, and obstinately shut their Eyes against the most refulgent Reason, and are wilfully deaf to the most convincing and persuasive Arguments, and thereupon cry out, that Mr. Campbell is either an Im­postor and a Cheat, or at least a Person who acts by the Assistance of unlawful Powers; as also to put to silence the no less waspish Curs, who are always snarling at such, whom Providence has distinguish'd by more excellent Talents than their Neigh­bours. True Merit is always the Mark, a­gainst which Traducers level their keenest Darts; and Wit and Invention oftentimes join Hands with Ignorance and Malice to foil those, who excel. Art has no greater Enemy than Ignorance; and were there no such thing as Vice, Virtue would not shine with half its Lustre. Did Mr. Campbell perform those wonderful Things he is so deservedly famous for, as these Cavillers say, by holding Intelligence with Infernal Powers, or by any unjustifiable Means, I [Page 299] am of Opinion he would find very few, in this atheistical Age, who would open their Mouths against him, since none love to act Counter to the Interest of that Master they industriously serve. And did he, on the o­ther Hand, put the Cheat upon the World, as they maliciously assert, I fancy he would then be more generally admired, especially in a Country where the Game is so univer­sally, artfully, and no less profitably play'd, and that with Applause, since those Preten­ders to Wisdom merrily divide the whole Species of Mankind into the two Classes of Knaves and Fools, fixing the Appellation of Folly only upon those, whom they think not Wise, that is, wicked enough to have a Share with them in the profitable Guilt.

Our Laws are as well intended by their wise Makers to skreen the Innocent, as to punish the Guilty; and where their Penal­ties are remarkably severe, the Guilt they punish is of a proportionable size. Art, which is a Man's Property, when acquir'd, claims a Protection from those very Laws which false Pretenders thereto are to be try'd and punished by, or else all Science would soon have an end; for no Man would dare make use of any Talent Providence had lent him, and his own industrious Applica­tion had improved, should he be immedi­ately try'd and condemn'd by those Statutes, [Page 300] which are made to suppress Villains, by every conceited and half learned Pedant.

'Tis true indeed those excellent Statutes, which are made against a sort of People, who pretend to Fortune-telling, and the like, are such as are well warranted, as being built upon the best Foundation, viz. Reli­gion and Policy: and were Mr. Campbell guilty of any such Practice, as those are made to punish, I openly declare, that I should be so far from endeavouring to de­fend his Cause, that I would be one of the first that should aggravate his Crime, there­by to enforce the speedier Execution of those Laws upon him, which are made a­gainst such Offenders. But when he is so far from acting, that he doth not even pre­tend to any such Practice, or for counte­nancing the same in others, as is manifest from the many Detections he has made of that sort of Villany, which the Book fur­nishes us with, I think my self sufficiently justified for thus pleading in his Defence.

I cannot but take Notice, in Reading the Statutes made against such Offenders, our wise Legislature hath not in any part of them seem'd so much as to imply, that there are in reality any such wicked Persons as they are made against, to wit, Conjurers, &c. but that they are only Pretenders to those infernal Arts, as may reasonably be [Page 301] inferr'd from the Nature of the Penalties they inflict; for our first Laws of that sort only inflicted a Penalty, which affected the Goods and Liberty of the Guilty, and not their Lives, tho' indeed they were afterwards forced to heighten the Punishment with a Halter; not that they were better convinc'd, as I humbly conceive, but because the Crimi­nals were most commonly Persons who had no Goods to forfeit, and to whom their Li­berty was no otherwise valuable, but as it gave them the opportunity of doing Mischief. In­deed our Law-Books do furnish us with ma­ny Instances of Persons, who have been try'd and executed for Witchcraft and Sorcery, but then the wiser part of Mankind have taken the Liberty to condemn the Magistrate, at that time of Day, of too much Inconsideration, and the Juries of an equal share of Credulity: And those who have suffer'd for such Crimes, have been commonly Persons of the lowest Rank, whose Poverty might occasion a Dis­like of them in their Fellow-Creatures, and their too artless Defence subject them to their mistaken Justice; so that upon the whole, I take the Liberty to conclude, and, I hope, not without good Grounds, that those Laws were made to deter Men from an idle Pretence to mysterious and unjustifi­able Arts, which, if too closely pursued, commonly lead them into the darkest Villa­ny, not only that of deceiving others, but [Page 302] as far as in them lye, making themselves Slaves to the Devil: And not to prevent and hinder Men from useful Enquiries, and from the Practice of such Arts, which tho' they are in themselves mysterious, yet are, and may be lawful.

I would not however be thought, in con­tradiction to my former Arguments, to as­sert, that there never were, or that there now are, no Persons such as Wizards, Sorcerers, &c. for by so doing, I should be as liable to be censur'd for my Incredulity, as those who defame Mr. Campbell on that Account, are for their want of Reason and common Ho­nesty. Holy and prophane Writ, I confess, furnishes us with many Instances of such Per­sons; but we must not from thence hastily infer, that all those Men are such who are spightfully branded with the odious Guilt; for were it in the Devil's Power to make every wicked Man a Wizard, and Woman a Witch, he soon would have Agents enough to shake this lower World to Atoms; but the Almighty, who restrains him, likewise restrains those.

Having premised thus much, I shall now proceed to consider some of the Acts of Par­liament themselves; the Persons against whom they were made, and the Necessity of making the same. And some of the first Acts we meet with, were those which were made against a sort of People called Egyptians, [Page 303] Persons, who, if in reality such, might, if any, be suspected of practising what we call the Black Art, the same having been for many Ages encouraged in their Country; nay, so much has it been by them favour'd, that it was introduced into their superstiti­ous Religion (if I may without an Absurdi­ty call it so) and made an essential Part thereof: And, I believe, Mahometism has not much mended the Matter, since it has imperiosly reigned there, or in any respect reform'd that idolatrous Nation. Now the Mischief these Persons might do (being so much in the Devil's Power) among the un­wary, was thought too considerable not to be provided against; and therefore our wise Legislature, the more effectually to prevent the same, by striking at the very Founda­tion, made an Act in the 22 H. VIII. 8. That if any, calling themselves Egyptians, do come into this Realm, they shall forfeit all their Goods; and being demanded, shall depart the Realm within fifteen Days, upon pain of Imprisonment: and the Importers of them, by another Act, were made liable to a heavy Penalty. This Act was continu'd by the 1 P. and M. Conjuration, Witchcraft, Inchantment, and Sorcery, to get Money, or consume any Person in his Body, Members, or Goods, or to provoke any Person to un­lawful Love, was by the 33 H. VIII. 14. and the 5 Eliz. 16. and the 1 Jac. I. 12. made [Page 304] Felony; and by the same 33 H. VIII. 14. it was made Felony to declare to another any false Prophesies upon Arms, &c. but this Act was repealed by the 1 Ed. VI. 12. but by another Act of the 3 and 4 of Ed. VI. 15. it was again enacted, that all such Per­sons who should pretend to Prophesies, &c. should, upon Conviction, for the first Offence forfeit Ten Pounds, and one Year's Impri­sonment; and for the second Offence, all his Goods and Imprisonment for Life. And by the 7 Ed. VI. 11. the same was made to continue but 'till the then next Sessions of Parliament. And by the 5 Eliz. 15. the same Act was again renewed against fantas­tical Prophesiers, &c. but both those Acts were repealed by the 1 Jac. I. 12.

Thus far we find, that for Reasons of State, and for the Punishment of particular Persons, those Acts were made and repealed, as oc­casion required, and not kept on foot, or in­deed were they ever made use of, as I can remember in my reading, against any Per­sons whose Studies led them into a useful Enquiry into the Nature of Things, or a lawful Search into the Workings of Na­ture itself, by which means many Things are foretold long before they come to pass, as Eclipses, and the like, which Astrologers successfully do, whose Art has been in all Ages held in so great Esteem, that the first Mo­narchs of the East made it their peculiar [Page 305] Study, by which means they deservedly ac­quired to themselves the Name of Magi or Wise Men; but, on the contrary, were pro­vided against Persons profligate and loose, who, under a Pretence and Mask of Science, commit vile and roguish Cheats; and this will the more plainly appear, if we consider the Letter and express Meaning of the follow­ing Acts, wherein the Persons I am speaking of, are described by such Characters which suf­ficiently prove the Assertion: For in the 39 of Eliz. 4. it was enacted, That all Persons calling themselves Scholars going about beg­ging, sea-faring Men, pretending Losses of their Ships and Goods at Sea, and going about the Country begging, or using any subtile Craft, feigning themselves to have Knowledge in Phi­siognomy, Palmistry, or any other the like crafty Science, or pretending that they can tell Destinies, Fortunes, or such like fantastical Imaginations, shall be taken and deem'd Rogues, Vagabonds, sturdy Beggars, and shall be stripp'd naked from the Middle upwards, and whip'd till his or her Body be bloody. And by the 1 Jam. 1. 12. for the better restraining of the said Offences, and for the farther pu­nishing the same, it was farther enacted, That any Person or Persons using Witchcraft, Sorce­ry, &c. and all their Aiders, Abettors, and Counsellors, being convicted, and attainted of the same Offences, shall suffer Pain of Death, as Felons without the Benefit of Cler­gy: [Page 306] Or to tell and declare in what place any Treasure of Gold and Silver should or might be found in the Earth, or other secret Places: Or where Goods or Things lost or stol'n should be found or become: Or to provoke any Person to unlawful Love, such Offender to suffer Imprisonment for one whole Year with­out Bail or Mainprize, and once in every Quar­ter of the said Year shall in some Market-Town or upon the Market-Day, or at any such Time as any Fair shall be kept there, stand openly in the Pillory by the Space of six Hours, and there shall openly confess his or their Offence; and for the second Offence shall suffer Death as Felons without the Benefit of Clergy.

That these Laws were made against a Set of Villains, whose natural Antipathy to Ho­nesty and Labour, furnish'd them with Pre­tensions to an uncommon Skill, thereby the more easily to gull and cheat the superstitiously credulous, and by that means discover from them some such Secrets that might far­ther them in perpetrating the more consum­mate Villany, is plain from the very Words and Expressions of the very Acts themselves, and the Description of the Persons they are made against; and not, as I before observed, to prevent and hinder Men from the lawful In­quiry after useful, delightful, and profitable Knowledge.

Mr. Campbell, who has been long a settled and reputable Inhabitant in many eminent [Page 307] Parts of the City of London, cannot, I am sure, be look'd upon as one of those these Acts of Parliament were made against, un­less we first strip the Acts themselves of their own natural, express and plain Meaning, and cloath them with that which is more obscure, unnatural, forced, and constrain'd a Practice, which, if allowed, would make them wound the Innocent and clear the Guilty, and ren­der them not our Defence but our greatest Evil; they would, by that means, become a perfect Aenigma, and be so far from being ad­mired for their Plainness, that they would be even exploded like the Oracles of the Heathen for their double Meaning.

If Mr. Campbell has the Second-Sight, as is unquestionable from the allowed Maxim, that what has been may be again, and by that means can take a View of Contingencies, and future Events; so long as he confines these Notices of approaching Occurrences to a good Purpose, and makes use of them only inno­cently and charitably to warn Persons from doing such Things, that according to his Con­ceptions would lead them into Misfortune, or else in putting them upon such Arts that may be of Use and Benefit to themselves and Posterity, always having a strict Regard to Morality and Religion to which he truly ad­heres: Certainly, I think, he ought so much the more to be admired for the same, by how much the more this his excellent Knowledge [Page 308] is surpassing that of other Men, and not be therefore unjustly upbraided with the injuri­ous Character of a Cheat, or an ill Man: however this I will presume to affirm, and I doubt not but to have my Opinion confirm'd by the learned Sages of the Law, that this his innocent Practice, and I venture to add honest one too, doth by no means intitle him to the Penalties of the before-mentioned Laws made against Fortune tellers, and such sort of profli­gate Wretches; which it is as great an Absur­dity to decry, as it would be to call him, who is a settled and reputable Inhabitant, a Stroller, or wandring Beggar.

Again, It is true, that Mr. Campbell has re­lieved many that have been supposed to have been Bewitched, as is related and well attested in the Book of his Life; but will any one from thence argue that he himself is a real Conjurer or Wizard, because he breaks the Chains by which those unhappy Wretches were bound? No surely, for if that were the Case, we might then as well indict the Physician who drives away a malignant Distemper, and roots out its latent Cause by his mysterious Skill in Plants and Drugs; or conclude that the Judge who condemns a Criminal is for the same Reason guilty of the self-same Crime for which the Offender is so by him condemned. Persons who delight in such unnatural Con­clusions, must certainly be in Love with the greatest Absurdities, and must intirely aban­don [Page 309] their natural Reason, before they can be brought to conclude that the Prince of Dark­ness would assist Men in destroying his own Power.

The best Answer I can afford those Men is Silence; for if they will not argue upon the Principles of Reason, or be guided by her Dic­tates, I think them no more fit to be contend­ed with in a rational and decent manner than Bedlamites, and such who are bereft of all Un­derstanding. A Rod is the best Argument for the back of a Fool, and Contempt the best Usage that ought to be shewn to every head­strong and ignorant Opponent.

In a word, I know of no Branch of Mr. Campbell's Practice that bears the least Resem­blance to those Crimes mentioned in the fore­going Acts. That he can and doth tell Peoples Names at first Sight, tho' perfect Strangers to him, is confessed by all who have made the curious Enquiry at his Hands; but what part of the Acts, I would fain know, is that against? Knowledge, and a clear Sight into things not common, is not only an allowable, but a com­mendable Qualification; and whether this Knowledge in him be inherent, accidental, or the result of a long Study, the Case is still the same; since we are assured he doth it by no unlawful Intelligence, or makes use of the same to any ill purpose, and therefore is undoubted­ly as lawful as to draw natural Conclusions from right Premisses. Hard is the Fate of any [Page 310] Man to be ignorant, but much harder would his Lot be, if he were to be punished for being Wise, and, like Mr. Campbell, excelling others in this kind of Knowledge.

Much more might be said in Defence of Mr. Campbell and the Art he professeth, but as the Arguments which are brought against him by his Enemies on the one hand, are trivial and ill-grounded, I therefore think they de­serve no farther Refutation; so on the other, his Innocency is too clear to require it.

After having thus taken a Survey of Mr. Campbell's Acts, with regard to their Legality according to the Statutes and the Laws of the Nation wherein he lives, we will consider next, whether according to the stated Rules of Casuistry, among the great Divines eminent for their Authority, it may be lawful for Mr. Campbell to predict, or for good Chri­stian Persons to visit his House, and consult him about his Predictions. I have upon this Head examin'd all the learnedest Casuists I could meet with in ancient Times, for I cannot meet (in my reading) with any Mo­derns that treat thoroughly upon this Case, or I should rather have chosen them, because perhaps the Seond-Sight was less known in those antient Days than it has been since, and so might escape their Notice.

My Design is first to give the Reader a distinct Summary of all that has been said of this Matter, and to do it as succinctly and [Page 311] briefly as possible, and then to argue myself from what they agree upon, as to this Man's particular Case.

That the Reader may have recourse to the Authors themselves, if they have a Curiosity, and find that I don't go about to impose up­on their Judgments, I will here tell the Rea­der where he may find the whole Contents of the following little Abstract of Divinity and Casuistry, because it would be a tedious piece of Work to set down the Words of each of them distinctly, and quote them eve­ry one round at the end of their several dif­ferent Sentences, which tend to the same Meaning, but I will strictly keep to the Sense of them all; and I here give the Reader their Names, and the Places, that he may consult them himself, if his Inclination leads him to be so curious; Thomas Aquinas 4. Distin. 34. quaestio. 1. Art. 3. Bona, 2. Dist. 7. Art. 2. Quaest. 1. Joannes Major, 4. Dist. 34. quaest. 2. Sylvester, Verbo Malefico. quaest. 8. Rosella, Verb. Impedimentum 15. cap. 18. Tabiena, Verb. Imped. 12 Vers. Cajetan, Tom. 2. Opusc. 12. de Malefic. Alphonsus a Cast. Lib. 10. de Justâ Haereticorum punitione. cap. 15. Cosmus Philiarchus, de Offic. Sacerdot. p. 2. 1. 3. cap. 11. Toletus in Summa. lib. 4. cap. 16. Spineus, in Tract. de Strigibus. Petrus Binsfield, in Tract. de Confessionibus Maleficorum.

[Page 312] These Divines have generally written up­on impious Arts of Magick, which they call by the Name of Divination; and this Divina­tion (as they term it) they divide into two Kinds, the One, in which the Devil is ex­presly invoked to teach hidden and occult things; the Other, in which he is tacitly cal­led upon to do the same. An express In­vocation is by Word or Deed, by which a real Pact is actually made with the Devil, and that is a Sin that affects the Death of the Soul, according to the Laws of Theology, and ought to effect the Death of the Body, according to Civil and Political Laws. The tacit Invo­cation of Daemons is then only, when a Man busies himself so far with such Persons, that it is meet and just that the Devil should be permitted to have to do with him, though it was opposite to the Intention of the Man.

But then this express Invocation again is sub­divided into several Species, according to the diverse manners by which the Devil instructs these Men.

The first is Enchantment, which I need not describe, and of which I will speak no more, because it is what every Body knows to be de­testable, and no Body ought to know the Art thereof.

The second is Divination by Dreams, when any Instructions are expected from the Devil by way of Dream, which is a capital Crime.

[Page 313] The third is called Necromancy, which is, when by the use of Blood and Writing, or Speaking certain Verses the Dead seem to rise again, and speak and teach future things. For tho' the Devil can't recal a Soul departed, yet he can (as some have thought) take the Shape of the dead Corpse, himself actuate it by his Subtilty, as if it was inform'd with a Soul. And some affirm, that by the Divine Permission, the Devil can do this, and spake so in the Case of Samuel and Saul. But Divines of a more solid Genius attribute that Power only to the Deity, and say, with Reason, that it is beyond the Devil's Capacity. But it is certain this was a Divination done in dead Animals by the Use of their Blood, and therefore the word is de­rived from the Greek [...], which significs Dead, and [...], which signifies Divination.

The fourth Species is called Divination by the Pythians, which was taken from Apollo, the first Diviner, as Thomas Aquinas says in his Secundâ secundae qu. 95. Artic. 3.

The fifth is called Geomancy, which is when the Devil teaches any thing by certain Signs appearing in the earthly Bodies, as in Wood, Iron, or polishd Stones, Berylls, or Glass.

The Sixth is named Hydromancy, as when a Daemon teaches any thing by Appearances in the Water.

The seventh is stiled Aeromancy; and 'tis when he informs People of such things by Fi­gures in the Air.

[Page 314] The eighth is entituled Pyromancy; that is, when it instructs People by Forms appear­ing in the Fire.

The ninth is termed Aruspicy; which is, when by Signs appearing in the Bowels of sa­crificed Animals the Daemon predicts at Altars.

Thus far, as to express Divination, or Invo­cation of the Devil, which is detestable, and the very consulting of Persons, that use such unlawful Means, is according to the Judgment of all Casuists, the high Road to eternal Dam­nation.

Now as to tacit Divination or Invocation of the Devil, that is divided into two sub­altern Kinds. The first Kind is, when for the sake of knowing hidden things, they make use of a vain and superstitious Disposition existing in things to judge from; which Dis­position is not of a sufficient Virtue to lead them to any real Judgment. The second Kind of tacit Divination is, when that Knowledge is sought by the Disposition of those things, which Men effect on purpose and of their own accord, in order to come by and acquire that Knowledge.

Both these kinds of tacit Divination are again subdivided into several Species, as are particularly mentioned by St. Thomas, Secun­dâ Secundoe. Quaest. 95. Artic. 3. Gregory de Valentine, Tomo 3. Disput. 6. quaest. 12. Puncto 2. Toletus in Summâ. Lib. 4. cap. 15. And Michael Medina Lib. 2. de rectâ in [Page 315] Deumfide: post sanctum Augustinum. Lib. 2. de Doct. Christ. cap. 19. & sequen.

The first of these Kinds of tacit Divination, contains under it the following several Species.

The first Species is called Genethliacal, which is when from the Movement or Situa­tion of the Stars, Mens Nativities are calcula­ted and enquired into so far, as that from such a Search they pretend to deduce the Know­ledge of human Effects, and the contingent Events that are to attend them. This Thomas Aquinas, and Sixtus Quintus condemns; but I shall with Humility and Submission to great­er Judgments enquire hereafter into their Rea­sons, and give my Opinion why I think this no evil Art; but I submit my Opinion, if, after it is given, it is thought erroneous.

The second is Augury, when any thing is predicted from the chattering of Birds, or the voice of Animals, and this may be either law­ful, or unlawful. If it comes from natural In­stinct (for Brutes having only a sensitive Soul, have their Organs subject to the Disposition of the greater Bodies in which they are contain­ed, and principally of all to the Celestial Bo­dies) his Augury is not amiss. For if when Crows are remark'd to Kaw (as the Vulgar Phrase is) more than ordinary, it is, judging ac­cording to the Instinct of their Nature, if we ex­pect Rain, and we may reasonably depend up­on it, we shall be right if we foretel Rain to be at hand. But sometimes the Devils actuate [Page 316] those Brute Animals to excite vain Ideas in Men, contrary to what the Instinct of their Nature compels them to. This is superstitious and unlawful, and forbid in holy Writ.

The third is Aruspicy, when from the Flight of Birds or any other Motion of any Animals whatsoever, Persons pretend to have an In­sight and a penetrative Knowledge into oc­cult and hidden Matters.

The fourth consists in Omens, when for Example a Man from any Words which others may have spoken on purpose or by accident, pretends to gather a way of looking into and knowing any thing of Futurity.

The fifth is Chiromancy, which consists in making a pretence to the Knowledge of future things by the Figures and the Lines of the Hands: And if it be by consulting the Shoul­der-bones of any Beast, it goes by the name of Spatulamancy.

As the first kind of Divination, by a tacit Invocation of the Devil, is divided into the five Species above mentioned; so also is the second kind of tacit Divination or Invocation of the Devil, divided into two Species by St. Thomas of Aquin, Secunda secundae, quaestione nonage­simâ quintâ articulo tertio, and too tedious to insert here.

Now all these ways are by these Divines counted wicked, and I set them down that People may avoid them. For how many Gyp­sies and Pretenders to Chyromancy have we in [Page 317] London and in the Country? How many that are for Hydromancy, that pretend in Water to shew Men mighty Mysteries? And how ma­ny in Geomancy, with their Berylls and their Glasses, that, if they are not under the Instiga­tion of the Devil, propagate the Scandal at least by being Cheats, and who ought to be punish'd, to the utmost Severity, as our English Laws enact? Mr. Campbell, who hates, con­temns, and abhors these ways, ought, methinks, to be encouraged by their being restrain'd; and People of curious Tempers, who always receive from him moral and good Instructions, which make 'em happy in the Conduct of Life, should be animated in a publick Man­ner to consult him, in order to divert the curious Itch of their Humours from consult­ing such wicked Impostors, or diabolical Prac­ticers, as too frequently abound in this Na­tion, by reason of the inquisitive Vulgar, who are more numerous in our Climate, than any I ever read of.

But now to argue the case of Conscience with Regard to his particular Practice by way of the Second-Sight, whether, in foro Con­scientiae, it is lawful for him to follow it, or others to consult him? The Divines above­mentioned having never had any notice of that Faculty in all likelihood, or if they had never mentioning it, makes it a point more difficult for me to discuss; but I think they have stated some Cases, by the making of [Page 318] which my Premisses, I can deduce from all the learned Men I have above quoted a Conclusion in favour of our Mr. Duncan Campbell, and of those who consult him; but my Opinion shall be always corrected by those who are wiser than my self, and to whom I owe entire Submission. I take leave to fix these Premisses from them first, and to form my Argument from them afterwards in the following manner.

First, It is allowed by all these Divines, that a Knowledge which one may have of future Things within the Order of Nature, is, and may be lawful.

Secondly, They imply, that where Justice is not violated, it is lawful both to predict, and to consult.

Thirdly, Many of them, but particularly Au­reolus puts this Question: Is it lawful to go to one that deals in the Black Art, to per­suade them to cure any innocent Body, that ano­ther Necromancer or Dealer in the Black Art may have maliciously afflicted, and torment­ed with Pains? And some of these Casuists, particularly Aureolus, say, it is lawful on such an Occasion to go to such a Conjurer, because the end is not Conjuration, but freeing a Per­son from it.

But I take leave to dissent from these great Men, and think they are in a double Mistake; [Page 319] first in stating the Question, and then in ma­king such an Answer, provided the Question had been stated right.

The Question is founded upon this Supposi­tion (which is past by as granted), viz. that one Necromancer could release a Person bewitched by another, which is absolutely false; for it's against the Nature of the Devil to be made an Instrument to undo his own Works of Im­piety: But admitting and not granting this to be possible, and the Question to be right­ly stated, why still these Casuists are out in their Answer? It is lawful, reply they, be­cause the end of going to the Conjurers, is not Conjuration, but freeing a good Person from it: But the end is not the Point here to be consider'd, it is the Medium which is bad, that is to be consider'd. It is by Con­juration, (according to their Hypothesis) the other Conjuration is to be dissolved; and does not the common Rule, that a Man must not do Evil that Good may come of it, for­bid this Practice? And to speak my Opinion plainly in that case, the Friend that should consult a Conjurer for that end, would be only so kind to put his own Soul in danger of being guilty of Hell-torments, to relieve his afflicted Friend from some bodily Pains, which 'twould be a Virtue in him to suffer with Patience and Resignation.

Others almost all Divines indeed agree, that it is and may be lawful to go to a Conjurer [Page 320] that torments another, and give him Money not to afflict the Patient any longer; because that's only feeing him to desist from acting after his conjuring manner.

These Premisses thus settled, if we allow the Second-Sight to be in-born and in-bred, and natural and common to some Families, which is proved in the Book; and if all that Mr. Campbell has predicted in that Second-sighted way terminates with moral Advice, and the Profit of the Consulter, and without the Vio­lation of Justice to others, as the Book shews all throughout; if he can relieve from Witch­craft, as it seems Oath is to be had he can, which no one that deals in Black Art can do, why then I need not draw the Conclusion, e­very Reader will do it naturally; they will a­vow all the strictest Laws of Casuistry and Mo­rality to be in favour of Mr. Campbell and his Consulters.


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