LONDON: Printed in the Year 1701.

To the KING.


'TIS not the Meanest of Your Trophies, and of which Mankind speaks in Your Praise, that both Your Majesty and Your Ancestors have always been the Champions of Liberty, and the Great Defenders and Protectors of the Protestant Religion.

As such, this whole Nation made their Addresses to You, when they stood in need of a Deliverer from the Encroachments of Popish Powers and Councils.

As such, they receiv'd Your Majesty in the room of those who chose rather to Desert them, than to see them a Free Pro­testant People; and as such, they committed to Your Majesty's Government and Protection the Safety of their Religion and Liberties, which by Your Assistance they had recovered from the Invasions of Popery; and as such, the Author of these Sheets humbly Addresses them to Your Majesty.

The Protestant Religion seems to stretch forth her Hands to Your Majesty, as to her Constant Protector; You may view her in a Posture of Trembling at the Formidable Prospect of her Encreasing Enemies, and pointing to the Confederacies that are making against Her.

Providence, and the Crown You wear, claims Your Majesty's Concern for the Defence of Religion.

The Peace of Europe; the Preservation of Trade; the Leagues and Alliances made by Reasons of State, and for Interests of Go­vernment, are Things of Consequence to Kings and Nations; and Your Majesty is justly Concern'd about them.

The Liberties of this Nation, the Property of the Subject, the Encrease of Manufactures, and the Maintenance of the [Page] Poor, are Things worthy of Debates in the Great Council of the Nation, the Parliament.

But these are all Antecedent to the Great Relative Reli­gion; These are all but Circumstances to the Great Essential. Circles drawn about the Great Center Religion.

Religion is, or ought to be, the Great Concern of Kings and Nations; 'Tis for this Kings reign, and Parliaments assemble; Laws are enacted; Trade is carried on; Manufactures are improv'd; Men born, and the World made.

Your Majesty is a proper Judge, Whether the Danger of Re­ligion in Europe, represented in these Sheets, be real, or not; And the Author freely Appeals to Your Majesty for the Truth of it.

If it be real, God and the Protestant Religion calls aloud on Your Majesty and the whole Nation; That laying aside the Debates of other meaner Affairs, the whole Strength and Soul of the Kingdom should be applied to, and concern'd about the Care and Preservation of that Inestimable Treasure.

Nor may the Trifles of Property or Prerogative, or any thing else, of how great Consequence soever, have so much as room in the solemn Consultations of the Nation, till this Great Affair is settled, and so secur'd, that the Power of Popery and Su­perstition may be incapable to hurt it.

We know that the Almighty Power, from whom all Human Strength is deriv'd, is able to preserve the Protestant Reli­gion; and that without even Your Majesty, or Your Parlia­ment's Assistance.

But as He always works by Means and Instruments, and has always own'd Your Majesty as an Instrument in his Hands for this Glorious Work; so Your Majesty is desir'd to reflect, that it wou'd be a Singular Mark of Heaven's Displeasure, if for want of a Continued Regard to the Security of that Religion which God has entrusted Your Majesty and this Nation with the Protection of, He shou'd be oblig'd to re assume the Special and Immediate Care of it Himself, and take the Work out of our Hands.

[Page 1]THE DANGER OF THE Protestant Religion, FROM THE Present Prospect of a Religious War in EUROPE.

UPON the Present strange Circumstances of Affairs in Europe, Occasion'd by the Succession of a Prince of France to the Crown of Spain, People are mightily concern'd, as their several Thoughts and Interests guide them.

Some, and reason good, apprehend England especi­ally will come under many Disadvantages with respect to Trade, both in the Straights and in America, where the French will always have Assistance from the Spanish Power to encroach upon Our Trade, have the Preference in their Ports and Markets; and several other things which I cou'd enlarge on as well as another.

[Page 2] Some apprehend the Growth of the French Power at Sea, his Dangerous Neighbourhood, and his En­croaching Humour; which they give melancholy In­stances of in all the late Wars, Particularly in 1672; which 'tis needless here to repeat.

But I do not yet find any Concern express'd, or any Danger fear'd for the Protestant Religion: Methinks 'tis too certain a Token the Care of it does not lye next our hearts.

We are allarm'd at every step made by our Power­ful Neighbours, to the Detriment of our Politick In­terest: We can see Dangers to our Trade and Ship­ping at the Distance of an Age or two; form Leagues, whether right or wrong; commence Treaties, settle Alliances, and join in Confederacies and Guarranties, for the Preservation of the Ballance of Power and Trade.

But since Answering of Questions is become the Sub­ject, and some are pleas'd to Answer them before they are ask'd, give a poor Pamphleteer (or Scribler, or any thing what you please to call him) leave to ask one Question:

Where is the League or Alliance in Europe, made, or propos'd to be made, for the Preservation and De­fence of the Protestant Religion?

The Concern of Religion is not the meanest Article in the Peace of Europe.

I am not going to preach a Lecture of Divinity, to show the Value of Religion, and how near the Thoughts of it ought to lye upon our Minds; I wou'd have so much Charity, as to believe every English Protestant has a just Concern for the Prosperity, as well as the Secu­rity of his Religion.

[Page 3] But possibly every Man that does value his Religion, may not be sensible of the Danger it is in; and there­fore it may not be amiss to examine the State of the Protestant Religion, as it now stands in Europe; with respect to its own Power, and the Power of its Ene­mies.

In order to which Scrutiny, 'tis necessary to go back a little to the Original of the present Settlement on which we stand.

The Protestant Religion has been profess'd in almost all the Dominions of Europe, Spain and Italy excepted, and in most of those Countries where it has obtain'd on the Inhabitants, it has been Establish'd by Leagues and Treaties; which Establishments have generally been the Effect of bloody Wars; the Liberty the Protestants enjoy, has, next to God's Goodness, been the Purchase of the Sword, at the Price of the Blood and Treasure of the People.

For the better understanding the present Condition of the Protestants in Europe, I shall Divide them into several Heads of Nations, and Discourse of them apart, bringing their short History down to the present Time.

First, the Princes of Germany: I place them first, because they were the first that stood up for the Defence of Religion; the Chief of these are the Kings of Swe­den and Denmark, the Dukes of Brandenburgh, Saxony, and Lunenburgh, Hanover, Hess Cassel, Zell, with a Multitude of smaller Princes, States, and Cities.

These maintain'd a long and bloody War with the Emperor Charles the Fifth, who reduc'd them to low Circumstances; but by the Assistance of Henry the Se­cond, King of France, their Religion receiv'd the first Security by Treaty at the Peace of Passau, in the Year 1525, and was afterwards Establish'd at the Diet, at [Page 4] Augsburgh Anno 1555. But in the Year 1618, the War was renew'd again by the Emperor Ferdinand the Se­cond, who by the hand of his Old General Tilly brought the whole Protestant Interest in Germany to the Brink of Ruin.

The Bohemians were ruin'd at the Battel of Prague; the Palatinate given to the Duke of Bavaria; the Circle of the Lower Saxony over-run by Tilly; and the King of Denmark, who headed the Protestants, overthrown at the Battel of Kings-Lutter; the Dukes of Mecklenburgh, Po­meren, Bishopricks of Bremen and Halberstadt; the Countries of Slesia, Lusatia, and innumerable others seized, and in the Emperor's possession, and the Victo­rious Tilly trampled down Religion, with the Fury of a True Son of Rome.

The Protestants in this Distress, as we did lately here in a like Case, fly to a Neighbouring Prince for Pro­tection. Gustavus Adolphus, King of Sweden, a King who perhaps never had a Parallel till now, came to their Assistance with only Twelve thousand Men; he Land­ed at Straelsundt; took all the Dutchies of Pomeren and Mecklenburgh; secur'd the Duke of Brandenburgh's Coun­try, and enters Saxony just as Tilly had resolv'd to ruin it: Tilly meets him with an Army of Forty-four Thou­sand Old Soldiers, is overthrown, and his Troops en­tirely ruin'd at the Battel of Leipsick.—God, whose Instrument this Gallant King more particularly was, carried him on with such a Prodigious Course of Victory, that in Two years he over-run two Third parts of the Empire; settled all the Protestant Princes free and uninterrupted in the Possession of their Liberties and Religion.

And though he lost his Life at the famous Battel of Lutzen, though his Party was afterwards basely forsaken by the Duke of Saxony, who had been twice sav'd from [Page 5] ruin by them; though the Swedes were routed at the Battel of Nordlingen, yet they carried the War on with success, 'till they reduc'd the Emperor to demand a Peace, in which the Liberty and Religion of Germany was en­tirely setled on the Foot whereon it now stands. This is that famous Treaty of Westphalia, made in the Year 1648. and which the Protestants of the Palatinate now complain is broken; by this Peace care was taken, as it should be in all Leagues, of Religion first, and of Pro­perty afterward; the Liberty of the Protestant Religi­on in Germany has its being here, and the King of France and Sweden are Guarrantees of the Treaty.

The next general Clause of Protestants in my account shall be the Hugonots of France; these had long struggled with faithless Kings, had vigorously supported them­selves in Eight Civil Wars, under the conduct of Gas­par Coligni Admiral of France, two Princes of Condè, and the King of Navar.

The little Honour the Papists shew'd them in their Treaties, and the many Surprizes and Massacres they met with when under the protection of the Publick Faith, kept the Sword always in their hand, till at last a Breach between Hen. the III. and the House of Guise, forced that Prince, though he had used them very ill before, to throw himself into their Hands for protection, but being stabb'd by James Clement a Jacobine Fryar, he fell a Sacrifice to the fury of the Guises, and the Crown devolv'd to the King of Navar, Henry the IV. the Head of the Protestants; which King, though he chang'd his Religion to secure the Crown, yet so far he took care of the Protestant Interest, as to secure them in the free exercise of their Religion by the famous Edict of Nants; which how it has been observ'd you shall hear pre­sently.

[Page 6] The Dutch are the next in course. These being Subjects of the King of Spain, but having embrac'd the Protestant Religion, were most cruelly treated by the several Gover­nors sent from the Court of Madrid; and as Oppression is the first Motive to Complaint, they made their frequent Application to the King of Spain for redress of their Grie­vances, who answer'd them as Rehoboam did the Is­raelites; and to make his Words good, sent them Fer­dinand de Toledo Duke D' Alva, for their Governor; who boasted that he had Executed Eighteen thousand of them by the hand of the Hangman: Which bloody Proceed­ing, together with the Approach of the Spanish Inquisi­tion, which he was resolv'd to introduce drove the Peo­ple to the last Extremity, viz. To use Force in the De­fence of their Natural Rights, Lives and Religion: A Doctrine, which however it may be cried down by our Modern Politicians, has obtain'd upon the whole World, and been more or less practised by all Nations at one time or other.

This War begun by the Prince of Orange, the famous Predecessor of our present King, was carried on with various success; and the Union of the Seven Provinces, which we now call the States of Holland, was form'd head­ed and protected by him, 'till he was murther'd by Bal­thazar Gerrard, at the procurement of the Spaniards, being shot with two Bullets through the Body, as he was going from Dinner into a Withdrawing Room in his Palace at Delft.

His Successor Prince Maurice carried on the War with better success for almost Forty Years, and at last reduced the Spanish Power so low, that they rather sued for Peace than granted it; which Peace was the known Treaty of Munster; at which the Spaniard renounc'd the Sovereign­ty of the United Provinces, and declar'd them a Free State as they are this day.

[Page 7] England, Scotland, and Ireland is another Class: The Reformation obtain'd here with less difficulty, and has continued from the beginning of Queen Elizabeth, without such Opposition and Interruption as it met with abroad.

Let us now consider these Four Classes, under One General Head of Confederacy, as they were engaged in the late War, and we shall presently put the whole in the general Ballance, by which the meanest Understanding may make a judgment what is like to be the Condition of the Protestant Interest in Europe.

Almost all the Protestants of Europe, the Two Nor­thern Crowns who stood newter excepted, were unani­mously confederated in the last War against the Power of France; and though the Emperor and Spaniard, guided by Reasons of State, join'd with them, 'tis plain to all the World what difficulty the Confederates had, what Blood, what Treasure was expended to reduce the French to the Terms of an Honourable Peace.

If we re examine the Present State of Europe, we shall find it, as to the Interest of Religion, in worse Circumstances on several Accounts, than it ever yet was since the Treaties of Munster and Westphalia.

First, The Saxon, one of the most Considerable Princes of Germany, and formerly the great Barrier of the Protestant Religion on that side, is to be counted lost, their Duke turn'd Papist to get a Crown hardly worth keeping; a close Confederate with the Emperor, and dependant upon him for his support in his new gotten Kingdom.

The Electorate, though it remains Protestant, is beg­gar'd and exhausted to maintain their Prince in his New Throne; their Forces absent, and which is worse, al­ready employ'd in an Unjust and Dishonourable War with a Protestant Prince, in defiance of Leagues unbro­ken, [Page 8] and begun on frivolous pitiful Pretences, and like to be carried on to the ruin of its Author.

The Palatinate, another Protestant Electorate, by the Succession of the House of Newburgh is fallen into the hands of the Papists, and now in the Power of a Prince, who in confidence of a support from the Emperor his Brother in Law, is making the first open Infractions into the Treaty of Westphalia, and persecutes his Prote­stant Subjects with all the rigor and cruelty of a Bigot­ted Prince, who thinks he thereby does God good ser­vice, and expects to be well paid for it.

The Protestants of Bohemia and Hungary are both remote, and both absolutely crush'd under the weight of the Imperial Rigor.

The Protestants of France, who I rank'd in the second Class, and were once a powerful Branch, are quite lost, sunk and gone; either supprest and driven to Popery at home, in defiance of the Edict of Nants; or like the Ten Tribes of Israel, scatter'd abroad into so many unknown Countreys, that they have lost them­selves, and in one Age more will be quite sunk out of Name and Memory.

England was at the brink of Ruin, and the Founda­tion of the Protestant Religion stood absolutely under­min'd, the Devil like Guy Fauks in the Gunpowder-Polt standing with the Dark Lanthorn and Match in his hand, till the people took such a Fright, as put the Na­tion into Fits, of which they could never be cur'd till they had spewed out that Generation of Vipers that would have betrayed their Religion to the Pope, and their Country to the French.

God and the Prince of Orange, the one as Author, the other as Instrument, help'd us out; and I say without flattery, No Man can have a sense of the Goodness of the First, and have no Gratitude for the Good-will of [Page 9] the Last: And 'tis a just Cause of Wonder to con­sider what sort of Protestants they are, who have forgot the condition the Protestant Religion was in at the first coming over of our present King; and I would be glad to hear a Jacobite Protestant, if such a Heterogeneous thing can be, answer me this Question,

How any English Protestant, without mortgaging his Sen­ses and Religion, can so much as wish either that King James should have continued King, or should return to be King in the same Temper, Power, and other Cir­cumstances as he was in when his Present Majesty was invited over?

Thus we see several considerable Branches of the Pro­testant Power quite Lost.

The Swede, who is one of the most Potent Princes in Europe, in the part of the World where he is particular­ly useful, we find his hands full with two faithless Neighbours, and the flame of a War broke out, which if he be not timely assisted, may burn him out of Ger­many.

He is a young King, though by what appears, likely to come behind none of his most Glorious Ance­stors; and we have seen one Snare laid for him already, which if the English and Dutch had not untied, would have entangl'd him sufficiently; however, as he is, there can but small help be obtain'd from him, for the general safety of the Protestant Religion, who is now suing at the Courts of his Allies for Aid against the Pole and the Muscovite.

It were to be wish'd the Protestants of England would agree to give such speedy and powerful assistance to the Swede in this juncture, as may effectually free him from both his Assailants, and put him into a posture to enter into a general Alliance for the defence of Religion, if there should be occasion.

[Page 10] There are some other Circumstances which weaken the Protestant Interest; and that is the Temper of the Danes, whose King seems disobliged in the highest man­ner against the English, Dutch, and Swedes; and some have said, how true I do not determine, not very zealous for the Protestant Religion—At least, no great mat­ters are to be relied on from him, in case such a War should break out, unless you will suppose him to be first thoroughly reconciled to those three foremention'd Powers.

Whether the Business of making the Elector of Bran­denburgh King of Prussia, and the Duke of Hannover E­lector of Brunswick, may not cool the Zeal of those Prin­ces, in favour of the Emperor, I shall not deter­mine

Upon the whole it appears, that the whole strength of the Protestant Power in Europe, lies now upon the English and Dutch, and the German Princes in the Circles of Suabia, and the Lower Saxony.

I shall next examine the growth and power of Popery, which plac'd in a just Balance with the rest, will need but a short Inference to shew any rational man the dis­proportion of power that lies between them.

The Popish Powers of Europe are as follow.

The French; a whole and entire Monarchy, undivided at home, and free from the incumbrance of Protestants among them, who had several times in former Wars ei­ther byas'd their Power in favour of the Protestants, as in the Reign of Henry the II. or diverted their Designs by Civil Wars at home, as in the days of Lewis the XIII. But the present King of France having not broken the Edict of Nants only, but abolished it, has entirely broke the Body of the Hugonot Party, and rooted the very name of it out of his Kingdom; so that the French Power be­ing [Page 11] altogether Popish, and united under the greatest King France ever saw, may justly stand foremost as the First Champion of Popery in Europe.

I shall not enlarge here on the formidable Power of France, how he has shown himself a Match for the grea­test part of Europe; nor upon the zeal and fiery rage of the French King against the Protestant Religion; they are things so known in Europe, that it is needless to add any thing to our Apprehensions that way. Let the French Protestants, who are scatter'd over the face of all Chri­stendom, be a daily Memorandum to us on that Head.

The Emperor, though he be the first Prince in Europe, I place next to the French, because I think him some­thing inferior in power to France, at this time especially, in the Circumstances we now are treating of, disjointed from the Protestant part of the Empire.

By the Emperor here we are to understand the Empe­ror and the Popish part of the Empire, which may thus be enumerated.

The Emperor, the King of Hungary, and Bo­hemia, the Elector Duke of Bavaria, a warlike and powerful Prince, and always a Champion of Popery; the Elector Palatine, the Electors of Ments, Trier and Cologn, with the Bishop of Munster, and some smaller Popish Prin­ces of the Empire.

The Third Head of Power on the Popish side is the Spaniard, under which Name I comprehend all the Prin­ces and Powers of Italy, with the Pope the Grand Image of Antichrist, the Duke of Savoy, the King of Portugal, and the Provinces of Flanders.

I have purposely omitted here the Swiss and Grisons, because being some Popish, some Protestant, and lying out of the way, they can neither add nor diminish in the case in hand, but will be hired on both sides, as the Par­ties [Page 12] find occasion for them, or can spare Money to pay for them.

It might seem needless to make any Remarks here on the Powers on one side and the other; those who are ac­quainted but in a tolerable measure with the present State of Europe, must be convinc'd of this just conse­quence, That there is no manner of Comparison to be made.

But since our Saviour directs those who go out to War, to consider whatever they are able with their Ten Thou­sand to encounter the Twenty Thousands of their Ene­mies, let us recollect the Debate, and consider the case, if it were now coming to a War.

I'll allow that the Protestants on every side were firm­ly leagu'd together by their own Interest for their gene­ral preservation; and that all private Divisions, petty Disputes and Quarrels among themselves were at least laid aside for the present, till the Common Danger was over; which if it be not true, I wish it were.

I must suppose also that which I think there is too much reason to fear, that the Popish Powers before men­tioned, whether ally'd or no, should join in a Common Design to suppress their Protestant Neighbours; and whether jointly or separately it matters not much, should fall upon those which lay next them.

Having rang'd the Powers of either Party, 'tis necessa­ry to declare the posture of such a War, in case it should ever come to pass.

If ever the Popish Powers of Europe should enter into a Confederacy to attack the Protestants, it would be thus.

The Dutch would be fallen upon by the French on one side; and the Spanish Netherlands being in the hands of the Papists, the Barrier of Flanders is lost, by which means the War is brought home to their own Doors, [Page 13] and the first Shock must fall on their Frontiers, where they must defend themselves against the Spaniards on the side of Sluice, Bergen Op Zoom, Breda, and the Bosch, against the French on the Maes and the Rhine, from Maestricht to Nimeguen, and against the Munsterians on the Frontiers of Groninghen to the side of Embden and the Sea.

Nor wou'd their Fleet stand them in any stead, the War wou'd be all by Land: They must maintain Three Royal Armies at least to keep the Field, or their Ene­mies will break into their Country, and make them maintain both Armies in a place.

The Dutch are not insensible of the Truth of this, as may be plainly prov'd by the Care and vast Expence they have been at to protect Flanders in all the last War; from which all the Benefit they have propos'd to themselves, has been the Maintaining a good Barrier between Them and France, and thereby keeping the War from their own Country.

The German War will in all probability be on the Banks of the Elb, the Oder, and the Main: The Pro­testant Countries lye from the Oder to the Rhine, and contain the whole Circles of the Upper and the Lower Saxony, and a small part of the Circles of Westphalia, Franconia, and Suabia.

But the Weight of the War on the Protestants must lye on the Elb and the Main: On the Elb the Imperialists will have their main Forces to Attack the Dukes of Brandenburgh and the Princes of the House of Lunenburg; and on the Main, the Hessian, with the Princes of the Lower Saxony, will be Attackt by the Duke of Bavaria, the Prince Palatine, and the Electors of Treves, Mentz, and Cologn; backt still by the Em­peror, the French, and the Spaniards.

[Page 14] The Swedes and Brandenburghers will again have the Emperor on their backs upon the Oder, with the Poles to assist him.

Here, if ever such a Time shall happen, the War will be very bloody; and were not the French to join on the Banks of the Main, perhaps the Emperor might have his hands full: But a French Army to fall in among the Princes of the Circles of Franconia and West­phalia, is an Article not to be consider'd without giving up the Cause; Nothing but the Angel of God in the Army of Senacherib, can prevent their Total Destru­ction.

I foresee I shall be attackt by a sort of Men, who are Carrying on Designs of their own, and think every Man aims at them with Arguments like these.

  • 1. This is Discovering the Weakness of the Prote­stants, and leading their Enemies by the hand to de­stroy them; betraying our Friends, or exposing them. Or,
  • 2. This is frighting the World with Chimera's of our own brain, which perhaps may never come to pass. Dangers as likely, as that the Turks may Over-run Christendom, and Extirpate the whole Christian Reli­gion: Things to come to pass, when the Sky shall fall.
  • 3. This is another Shift to bring England to a Ne­cessity of a Standing-Army, which some people migh­tily want, to subject her Liberty to the Arbitrary De­signs of her Enemies.

For the First I answer: 'Tis no Discovery at all; and they that will make such an Objection, must sup­pose the Popish Princes of Europe very dull, if they do not know it as well as we.

[Page 15] But to make my Answer as short as the Question: They who please to inform themselves, will find that in the several Audiences of the French Ambassadors at Rome, his Holiness gave the most Christian King seve­ral Exhortations to restore Peace to the Church; which we find explain'd at Paris in the Speeches made to the King of France by the Pope's Nuncio, where he Ex­horts him again to Peace with the Spaniards, that their United Arms might be employ'd in the Extirpation of Heresy.

If I shou'd need Arguments to convince Men, that the French know as well as we the Power of the Prote­stant Princes, I cou'd refer them to a late French Pamph­let, printed at Paris, and Re printed at Rome, Entitu­led La Crusade, which laments the Catholick Princes tearing out the Bowels of their Mother the Church; and Exhorts them very passionately to employ their Victori­ous Arms to the Extirpation of Heresy, and the De­struction of the Enemies of God and the Blessed Vir­gin.

2. As to the Improbability of the matter, and its be­ing a Chimera, &c.

First, Gentlemen, it is no such Improbable thing nei­ther; for what has been, may be. Charles the Fifth un­dertook it single-handed against all the Protestants in his time; and though the French Opposed him, he went a great way with the Work; for he reduc'd them to such low Terms, that had not the Treaty at Passau been obtain'd by the Power of France, the Protestant Religion had been totally suppress'd in Germany.

Secondly, The French have absolutely Effected it up­on one of the most Considerable Branches of Protestants, and thereby shown us a Test of their Good will to the whole, and given an Instance of the possibility of the practice.

[Page 16] Thirdly, The Protestant Power was never in weaker Circumstances, nor the Popish in stronger, if they shou'd but Unite: So that I must own, if they do not attempt it, they slip a manifest Opportunity, and must be count­ed Fools too; which, by the way, we never found them to be.

3. As to England, Standing-Armies, Liberty, Arbi­trary Power, and the like, I must crave leave to say a little. I have no mind to meddle with the Disputes of Politicians, nor know nothing of those who have De­signs either way.

They that wou'd Enslave our Liberty by Standing-Armies; and they that wou'd leave us naked to our Enemies, or put us out of a Posture to help our Friends, are equally Enemies to the Protestant Religion.

They that wou'd make our Kings out of Love with their Protestant Subjects, or our People jealous of a Pro­testant King, are Beautefeus of their native Coun­try, and want to see her again involv'd in Blood, that she may not be able to protect or defend the Protestant Religion.

They who wou'd advance the Prerogative of Kings to the Ruin of the Subjects Properties; and They who wou'd subdue the English Monarchy, and the Just Power of the King to the Will and Pleasure of a Party, equally drive at the Destruction of Our Constitution, and in that of the Protestant Religion.

'Tis not Arbitrary Power which is the present Case, nor Standing-Armies, nor Liberty, nor Property, but the Protestant Religion. Let England have a care she does not take so much Care of her Liberties, as to for­get her Religion: But let us so see the one done, as not to leave the other undone.

In Reading some late Pamphlets Pro and Con about the Danger of Trade, and the Power of our Enemies, I [Page 17] observe some are for maintaining Confederacies with Foreign States, and Alliances with Neighbours, and some are against it.

Truly, Gentlemen, in the Case I am Treating, I Rank all the Powers of Europe into two Classes only, Papist and Protestant: And we are supposing the Popish Powers shou'd link themselves together in a Confede­racy for the Extirpation of Protestants, whom they call Hereticks, let any Rational Man make the Consequence: What shou'd Protestants do? Can any human Methods preserve them, but a strict Union among themselves to join in their mutual Defence?

I know better than to reflect on Parliaments: But if a Parliament of Protestants forgets the Safety of the Pro­testant Religion, they neglect the chief Work they as­semble about.

Trade, Liberty, Property, Right and Wrong, Justice and Equity, are Things the Convocated Assemblies of the People are call'd together about; and they are in the right: but these are but the subservient Preliminaries to preserve a State or Country in Peace, that they may with their joint Force resolve, and be able to defend and secure their Religion.

The Protestant Religion is the Fundamental of the English Constitution; and I hardly ever remember the Assembling a Parliament in England, but they had their Grand Committee for Religion. What those Commit­tees have done of late towards the propagating or se­curing Religion, is best known to them who can search the Journals of the House; nor is it proper for me to examine.

I am not for prescribing Methods how the Protestant Religion is to be Defended; but I crave leave to give some Hints from the present Circumstances of Affairs, to awaken Protestants, that they may see their Religion is [Page 18] aim'd at by the Popish Powers of Europe; a weak Poli­tician may foresee, That if ever a Union shou'd happen between the French, Spaniards, and Germans, all the Protestants of Europe, except us, are lost and undone, unless some wonderful Revolution, which a wiser Head than mine cannot foretel, shou'd happen.

Wherefore I desire only of Parliaments, of Prote­stants and Kings, that they wou'd condescend so far, as to take the poor Distressed Protestant Religion into their Care: Let it be by such Ways and Means, as to their Honour in their Great Wisdom shall seem meet. If it may be done without Standing-Armies or Confedera­cies abroad, with all our hearts: If the Walls of Jeri­cho will fall down at the Sounding of Rams-horns, never let us raise Batteries, or plant Cannon against them.

Here is no room to talk of Pretences and Shooing-horns for Standing-Armies; God and the Protestant Religion calls upon all the Professors of it in Europe to look to themselves, and to stand up for the City of our God: And if the Enemies of the Church of Christ say, A Con­federacy, they are to give the Curse of God on all those who shall refuse to help the Lord against the Mighty.

In this Case a War of Religion will require us to lay aside all our ill-natur'd Animosities: Here is no Foreign­ers, no Refugees, no Dutch Men; 'Tis a Protestant, is the General Term; as in Two Armies that are to Engage, where One Party wears a White, and the Other a Green Signal in their Hats, they do not enquire what Nation any Man is of; but if any of the White Party meets a Souldier with the Green in his Hat, Down with him; if they see another with the White in his Hat in Distress, Relieve him is the word.

In this Cause of Religion, Gentlemen, if the Swede, or the Dane, or the most remote Nation be Attackt, we are only to examine if the Protestant Religion be his Sig­nal; [Page 19] if so, we ought to help and relieve them, let them be what Nation or People soever; and let Natural and Political Aversions be never so great, if our Enemy's house be on fire, we'll endeavour to put it out, if it be for nothing else but for fear it shou'd burn our own: When the Protestants in any part of Europe are Attackt, Proximus Ardet; Let us consider, if ever the Fire of Po­pery consumes the Protestant Powers of Europe, the Flame will certainly catch hold of us in England.

Some Gentlemen have said lately, That Confederacies and Alliances never are of any Advantage to England, because we live by our selves in an Island, and have a good Fleet.

I shall not examine whether what they say will hold in Matters of Policy and Government: But, Gentlemen, let me tell you, If the English Nation shou'd see the Rest of the Protestants of Europe destroy'd, without helping them, even with all her Forces, upon this principle, That we are safe, having a good Fleet; shou'd we not expect, besides all the other fatal ill Consequences, our Saviour shou'd rank us among those, who when he was an hungry, gave him no meat; or, when he was in Distress, gave him no help, which is all one.

But because I wou'd a little prescribe in the Case too, and come to Answering Questions as well as other peo­ple, I shall enquire, What England ought to do?

I Answer, Principiis obsta; prevent the Conjunction of Popish Powers; crush the Leagues and Confederacies of Popish Princes in the beginnings of them, and by all possible Methods keep them from such a Union as is here supposed to be aim'd at.

This is the way to take away the Cause, that the Effect may vanish: This takes away all shadow of designing a Standing-Army; there will be no Occasion to Fight; divide but the Interests of the Popish Powers of Eu­rope; [Page 20] if you can do so, you certainly divide their For­ces.

The late War is a certain Demonstration that they will never unite against Religion, if they cannot unite their Interests. Whoever gives themselves leave to exa­mine, will plainly see 'tis Interest, not Religion, governs Princes. I refer for it to the Answer the Emperor gave to King James when he demanded Assistance of him against King William. When having told King James, ‘"That if he had rather hearkened to his friendly Re­monstrances, made him by the Imperial Ambassador the Count de Kaunitz, than the Deceitful Insinuati­ons of the French; and if he had put a stop by Force to the many Breaches made by the French in the Trea­ty at Nimeguen, of which he was Guarrantee, and had entred into Consultations with the Imperial Court, and their Confederates, he might have quieted the Minds of his People; and then enumerating the Cru­elties of the French, chiefly in the Catholick Coun­tries, exceeding the Turks themselves;’ the Emperor concludes, ‘"That the Interest and Safety of the Em­pire is a sufficient Argument to justify his not assist­ing him on account of the Popish Religion against the Protestants, having a Papist to Encounter with, who on account of Interest and publick Safety, ought in the first place to be Opposed; and that for mutual Preservation and Defence he must be justified in ta­king Measures, with all those, meaning the Prote­stants, who are concern'd in the same Design.’

Thus we see when joint Interest and Preservation is the Case, even the Popish Princes themselves think it justifiable to join in Confederacies, even with Hereticks, to suppress an unjust Invasion of an encroaching Neigh­bour, though a Catholick.

From whence I draw this short Consequence,

[Page 21] That if you keep the Popish Powers of Europe from Uniting their Interests, you, in effect, keep them from Uniting their Forces, and thereby from Invading the Protestant Religion.

By preventing the Union of the Popish Powers, possi­bly some may suppose, I mean, that England shou'd En­gage in a New War with France, to support the Title of the Arch-Duke Charles to the Crown of Spain; and there comes in the Old Story, a Standing-Army, again by head and shoulders.

Why truly, Gentlemen, If ever we pretend to have a War, whether it be with France, or any body else, we must certainly have an Army of our own, or some bodies else, or we shall make but sorry work on't.

Whether those Gentlemen wou'd not chuse to see the Protestant Religion in Europe sunk and lost, rather than see an Army raised in England, I cannot conclude? But this I am bold to affirm, That they who had rather run the risque of the Protestant Religion, than of their Li­berties, value their Freedom above their Religion, and may very well be suspected to have no Religion at all.

Now the Risque is not equal neither; for we have had Armies in England, and have lost our Liberties; and we have had Armies in England, and have not lost our Liberties. The Difference lies here, That we had Armies rais'd to Enslave us, and they did it; but the last were raised to Defend us; and when that was done, submitted the Military to the Civil Power, and left our Liberties entire. I wou'd say also, but that I shall of­fend some folks, That the grand Difference lay in the Kings we had.

Some of our Kings design'd our Ruin, and in a great measure compleated it by Standing-Armies; but a King that protects the Laws by a principle of Honour and Justice, can make Armies that are so fatal to Liberty, [Page 22] be the protection of Liberty: So that really it has been our Kings of pious Memory, who have been Agents of the People's Ruin; and the late War has shown the World, that Armies may be rais'd and laid down again, if Kings, who Command them, please but to say the word, without ruining a Nation's Liberties.

On the Other hand; If Religion be attackt, it must be defended, or 'twill be lost.

Thus far I have ventur'd to touch the nice Article of an Army in England; I hope every Englishman will agree with me in this, That I had rather see an Army in Eng­land and run the hazard of our Liberties, than see the Protestant Religion in Europe trodden down for want of our helping to defend it.

But these are General Points only.

There are a great many Methods to be prescrib'd how the Protestant Religion may be Defended, and yet no standing Forces raised or maintain'd in England, and so our Liberties may not be in danger; and the first is touch'd at already, prevent the Union of Popish Powers and Interest, and you'll need no fighting.

Whether this may be done by giving powerful Assi­stances to the Emperor, to carry on the Pretensions of the House of Austria; or by appearing in the Mediterranean with a good Fleet, to confirm the Italian Princes in the Interests of the Emperor; or by sending over what For­ces we have in England and Ireland, to make a Diver­sion, in Conjunction with the Dutch, on the Rhine, or in Flanders, or by what other Ways or Means it may be done, with or without an Army, 'tis all one, so it be but done, that the Protestant Religion may be protected, and the Papists prevented from Overturning us with a General destruction.

But that no Man may have any shadow to suspect me guilty of a Design to Argue for a Standing-Army, [Page 23] which is the great Bugbear of the Times, or at least made the Watch-word of a Party that wou'd be thought to be more Zealous for our Liberty than any body else; I'll put it on another point: Our Neighbours may be so assisted by our Money, as never to want our Men; and so, Gentlemen, you will be try'd whether 'tis your Liberty or your Money that so much stir has been made about; and if we shall let our Protestant Neighbours sink, rather than part with our Money to support them; then the Truth will come out, That 'tis our Money which was at the bottom of the matter: For really, Re­ligion and Liberty are so much in the same Interest, that 'tis very seldom they Clash; and he that shall re­fuse to defend his Religion for fear of his Liberty, de­serves to lose both.

Thus we are got over the point, that our Neighbours may be supported, the Protestant Religion defended, and the Union of the Popish Powers of Europe prevent­ed, by the Protestants at this time falling in, to support the Emperor in his just Pretensions on the Spanish Domini­ons; and all this without a Standing-Army in England.

Our Pamphleteers need not dispute about the Con­sistency or Inconsistency of an Army with the Eng­lish Constitution, nor whether they that are for or against it are the best Subjects: I am sure he that has the greatest Concern for the Protestant Religion, is most likely to be the best Christian; They need not Enter­tain us with their Discourses of the Danger of our Li­berties and Properties from a Standing-Army, with their little Reflections on the King, by way of Excla­mations against the sad Consequences which may hap­pen, or may not happen; They need not enter into the Histories of Standing-Armies, nor tell us the Won­derful Power of our most Formidable Militia: But the Case will be alter'd when your Protestant Brethren call [Page 24] for Assistance, if you are afraid to trust Arms in the hands of your own Countrymen: As truly Englishmen are dangerous Fellows when in Arms, very surly, and loth to be Disbanded without their Pay. If therefore we do not think it safe to Trust our Own people, never let us desert the Protestant Cause; for Germany and Swisser­land are Inexhaustible Store-houses of Men: If you will but assist the Protestants with Money, 'twill be the same thing; or if we assist the Emperor at this time, it may be the same thing; for Prevention is all one as Execution, or rather the better of the two.

And this leads us to consider what, with submission to better Judgments, seems to me to be the only possible Means to prevent the Union between the Popish Powers of Europe, and therein the Ruin of the Protestants.

I have said already, Our way is to Crush the Confe­deracies of the Papists; and if I do say, that the Only way to do so, is to prevent the Crown of Spain de­scending by Will to a Prince of the House of Bourbon; and that Prince marrying a Daughter of the House of Austria, I shall believe I am in the Right, till I can hear a better method propos'd.

This Union is much easier prevented than it will be dissolv'd; Treaties and Alliances may disappoint it. Now whereas Armies and Fleets will hardly defeat it afterward, if the House of Bourbon and Austria Unite, and Conform the Interests of their Dominions, they can have no body to bend their Arms against, but the Protestants, or the Mahometans.

I see no War can be Rais'd in Europe, but what will of Course run into a War of Religion: For if the Po­pish Princes agree in Interests, they can have nothing to quarrel about: And to confirm this, I appeal to a Review of the General History of Europe: In which I offer to make it appear, That setting aside the Quar­rels [Page 25] between the French and the Spaniards, and between the English and the Dutch, almost all the Wars of Eu­rope have been Wars of Religion.

And that I may not be thought to speak without­book, I refer the Reader to Examine,

1. The Wars in Germany, which, with some few In­termissions, lasted from the Year 1508, to 1648, being 140 Years; and begun on pretence of Recovering the Lands of the Church, sequester'd by the Duke of Saxo­ny, and ended by the Conquests of King Gustavus and his Generals, at the Treaty of Westphalia; in which War, that Great Conquering King lost his Life, and confirm'd what I am saying in his last Words, which some Histories tell us were thus: being wounded with a Carabin-shot, and ask'd by a German Trooper who he was, Answer'd I am the King of Sweden, who do Seal the Re­ligion and Liberty of the German Nation with my Blood.

2. The Wars in the Low-Countries begun with the Spa­nish Inquisition being Introduc'd into the Netherlands, and Continued to the Peace of Munster, with the In­termission of Twelve years Truce only, and ended in the Liberty of the Protestant States, being declar'd free by the King of Spain; which War Philip the Second of Spain declar'd a little before his Death, had cost him 564 Millions of Ducats, and the Expedition to In­vade England 12 Millions.

3. The Civil Wars of France, which began in the Reign of Henry the Second, and Eight several Times engag'd the whole Kingdom; and after that was carried on by Henry the Fourth against the Guises, and the League backt by the whole Power of Spain, on account of Religion, and never had any long Cessation till the Edict of Nants, and the Peace of Vervins.

I forbear to Instance any more, being unwilling to enter into the Miseries of our Native Country: but I think the Matter admits of no dispute. That if the Uni­on we speak of should ever come to pass, there hardly [Page 26] can Commence any War in Europe but what must be upon the account of Religion. Europe has really no­thing else to quarrel about, or nothing but what Neigh­bours and Guarrantees can oblige one another to de­cide without a Rupture, as lately it was in the Case of the Dane and the Duke of Holstein.

Religion is the only Dispute left: What bloody Bat­tels have been fought! How has Europe been fill'd with Slaughter between those powerful Princes, Charles the Fifth, and Francis the First, for the Kingdom of Na­ples, for the Dutchy of Savoy and Millan, and for the Frontiers of Burgundy and Flanders!

What incredible Expences, and how many heaps of slaughter'd Carcasses has the Quarrels between the French and the Imperialists cost on the Banks of the Rhine and the Moselle, and between the French and the Spaniards in our Age in Catalonia and Flanders! These have been the Capital Wars of Europe; and if the Uni­on between France and Spain be compleated, the Cause is remov'd, and the Effects cease of Course: There can be no War in this part of the World but what must Engage the Protestants, unless the Protestants shou'd fall out among themselves; which wou'd be worse still. Hitherto the Wars between the Popish Powers has been the Safety of the Protestants; if one potent Prince has Attackt them, the Jealousy of another has Defended them. The Protestants have from the very beginning been shel­ter'd and protected only by the Animosities and Jealousies maintain'd between the French and the House of Austria.

I cannot liken the Protestants of Europe to any thing more aptly than to the City of Hamburgh, between the Danes and the Dukes of Brandenburgh and Lunen­burgh; or to the Duke of Savoy's Dominions, between the Spaniards, French, and Italians.

If the City of Hamburgh had had but one of those Neighbours, it had either been no City at all, or their City, long ago: but the Jealousy and Misunderstanding [Page 27] of those Princes is the Security of the Hamburghers.

Either the French or the Spaniards had long ago An­nexed the Dutchy of Savoy to their Estates, had the one been but willing to sit still, and let the other Enjoy it.

Charles the Fifth had certainly subdued all the Prote­stants in the Empire, if Henry the Second of France had not upheld them; and that not from any kindness he had to them, but that he was not Easy to see the Em­peror be so Great. Afterward the Emperor himself en­courag'd the Protestants of France, and suffer'd Men to be Levied in the Empire for the King of Navarr; lest he being quite suppress'd, the French shou'd be at leisure to quarrel with him. Thus the Jealousies between the Powers of France and Germany have been the Security of the Protestant Religion in Europe.

Since that, in our Memory, the Emperor and King of Spain, both Papists, Declar'd War against France, and Form'd the Tripple Alliance only to save the Protestant States of Holland from falling into the hands of the French Anno 1672, when our Protestant King, Charles the 2d, of pious Memory, did his Utmost to Overthrow them, and subject them to an Absolute French Conquest.

If any man shall be so weak as to Reply in the Lan­guage of some late Pamphlets, What's all this to us? What does the Union of Spain and Germany, or of any body else, signify to us? I crave leave to Answer such a Question, by saying as our Saviour to the Pharisees, And I also will ask you a Question:

What signifies the Protestant Religion to us? And if they will undertake to Answer the Last, I will promise to Answer the First.

I might go on here to give Instances how near the Pro­testant Religion has been to be suppress'd in England, and what a just Concern other Nations have always had for its preservation.

But setting that aside, for we do not love to hear of it: I desire only to re-mind the Reader, That the Par­liaments [Page 28] of England, together with our Protestant Kings and Queens, have always express'd deep Resentments at the Danger of the Protestant Religion, and of our Pro­testant Neighbours; and have always thought it became them by Treaties and Intercessions to procure their Re­pose, or by Money and Forces to assist them to defend themselves.

And after giving some Instances, I shall examine the Reasons of it, and see if the same Reasons do not now call on us for the same Proceedings.

Queen Elizabeth, after she had provided for the Safety of Religion at home; her next Care was to assist her Protestant Neighbours. What vast Sums of Money did she Give and Lend; what Number of Troops did she Raise to support the Hugonots in France, and Prince Mau­rice in the Netherlands; Even before she had any actual War with the Spaniard? The Histories of those Times rec­kon up above 80000 English Soldiers, including Volun­teers, that fought during that long War, in the Quarrel of the Protestant Religion in the Low-Countries; where they behav'd themselves so well, and gain'd such Reputation, that 40 Years afterwards, when our Civil Wars broke out in England, an Old Low-Country Soldier was always counted a Man of Value.

Queen Elizabeth sent at several times 40000 Men to the Assistance of the French Hugonots under Hen. the 4th.

After the Death of Queen Elezabeth, King James the First, though he had not Courage enough to break with Spain in the just Quarrel of the Palsgrave, King of Bohe­mia; yet we find the English Nation and Parliament all along Resenting, not so much the Injury of that Family, as the Ruin of the Protestants of the Palatinate; and se­veral Bodies of Men were sent over to Count Mansfield to defend it; though by the Craft of the Spaniard the Scotish King was Cajol'd into an easy Deserting the Cause both of the Protestant Religion and his own Family.

In the Reign of K. Charles the First, what vast Sums [Page 29] of Money were given by the Parliament to assist the Pro­testants of Rochelle; which tho' by the Mis application of the Court and the Duke of Buckingham, did them little service; yet 'tis plain by it, that the Parliament knew the Protection of our Protestant Neighbours, was a Work the whole Nation had a just Concern in, both on Civil as well as Religious Accounts.

After this you have 6000 Men at a time twice raised, besides Recruits, and sent by Sea as far as Pomerania to assist the King of Sweden in the Quarrel of the Protestants in Germany.

In the Year 1679, the Parliament of England address'd K. Charles the 2d to Enter into such Leagues and Allian­ces with our Protestant Neighbours, as might effectually preserve Flanders from falling into the hands of the French; and I refer to the Words of that Address, where you have the whole People of England Remonstrating of what Consequence the preservation of Flanders was to the English Nation; and which stands as an Invincible Argument against our Modern Politicians, who are for no Leagues nor Confederacies, nor Neghbours, and think England a Match for all the World.

These seem to be Instances enough, and 'tis matter of Wonder to me, what sort of Amphibious, Neutral Crea­tures those Protestants are, which shall ask what signifies the Protestants abroad to England? Supposing there was no real Danger of our selves in the Case.

Let us examine, in the next place, the Reasons which have all along induc'd the English Nation to assist their Protestant Neighbours: and they are of two sorts;

Reasons of Religion, and Reasons of State: And I'll be very short with them both, because they are touch'd at already.

Reasons of Religion, are such as Charity, which obliges the Strong to protect and defend the Weak, when they are oppress'd and injur'd, and unable to defend them­selves: The several Commands of our Saviour, for the [Page 30] Relief of such as are in Distress, Illustrated by the Story of the Good Samaritan, the Declaration which our Savi­our has made, That whatsoever is done to the least of his, is done unto himself, and shall be Rewarded accordingly, and the like.

Reasons of State are principally the Great Doctrine of Self-preservation, which branches it self in such Methods as these:

  • Keeping Danger at a distance.
  • Keeping a good Barrier between Our selves and pow­erful Neighbours, that you may not be forced to a De­fensive War.
  • Preventing the Union of Neighbours of different In­terests from Our selves.

2dly. Preserving publick Peace; which is best done

  • By strong Alliances and Guarrantees:
  • By keeping an Equality of Parties, or a General Balance of Power:
  • And by being always in such a posture of Defence, as to make it dangerous for a Neighbour to break with you.

These, with many others, are the Reasons why our Princes, and our Parliaments too, have always thought it both their Duty and their Interest to protect and de­fend the Protestant Religion abroad, and have always been very tender of the Injuries done them by their Po­pish Adversaries, and resented them accordingly.

I shall give one Instance more: I hope the Reason of State will not be lik'd the worse for the Statesman; and that was Oliver Cromwell; who being sollicited by the Protestant Vaudois in Savoy, used all his Interest to mediate with the Duke their Prince for a Relaxation of their Miseries; and in his Letters both to the Duke and the French King, af­ter a great deal of fruitless Intercession, threatens to turn all the Roman Catholicks out of England and Ireland, and seize their Effects, if some speedy Regard be not had to the Afflictions of the distressed Protestants. I refer the [Page 31] Reader for the Particulars, to the Latin Copies of the Let­ters wrote on that Subject by his Secretary of Foreign Dis­patches, the Learned Milton; in which there are Reasons given why the English Nation shou'd think themselves oblig'd to concern themselves in the Sufferings of the Protestants.

But methinks it shou'd be needless to go any farther than the Journals of our own Parliaments since the Re­storation; where it will evidently appear, that English Parliaments have always had a deep Resentment at the Growth of Popery, and the Danger of the Protestant Re­ligion; and there is, no doubt, but an English Parliament will ever maintain the same Sentiments.

The Growth of Popery is certainly dangerous to the Protestant Religion; They are the two Buckets in the Well, the two Scales on the Beam of Power; if One comes up, the Other must go down; if you add to the Weight of One, it will lift the Other out of its place.

Let all those who wou'd stand Neuter in this Cause of Religion, remember that God Almighty has declar'd against such as are lukewarm Christians: There is no Neuter Gender in Religion. In the Cause of Religion, They who are not for him, are against him; the Defence of the Protestant Religion calls upon all Men who have any Value for it, to appear in the time of its Danger: De­fend Religion and Politick Interests will be easily secur'd: à jove Principium, God and your Country; but first God, and then your Country.

In short, though I am no Prophet, nor the Son of a Prophet, I think a man with but a small Talent of forcast, may be able to foretel, That if we are wanting to God in the due and vigorous defence of his Church and Wor­ship, which is in English, the Protestant Religion; his Providence has so wisely disposed the matter, and made our Liberty so dependant on, and relative to our Religi­on, that it is morally impossible Liberty in England can be any longer liv'd than Religion. Popery and Slavery [Page 32] are like Sin and Death, direct Consequences of one ano­ther; and whenever we think fit to admit the first, any body may promise us the last.


I Cannot conclude this matter without remembring two Exceptions that lie against any body's pleading the Cause of Religion.

First, That in all the ill practices of the World, the Re­volutions of States, Rebellions of Subjects, and Tyranny of Princes, Religion is the Mask to hide the Deformity of the Monster conceal'd.

Secondly, That God is Omnipotent, and the Protestant Religion is under his immediate protection, that he is able to defend it without means, and against probability.

To the First, I make answer in the words of the Prince of Denmark, in the Letter he wrote to the late K. James, on his joining with the Prince of Orange, our present King, at his coming in to England;

That were not Religion the most justifiable Cause, it would not be made the most specious Pretence.

And to this Quotation I shall add; You may as well argue against the Christian Church administring the Eu­charist, because Hen. VII. Emperor of Germany was poi­son'd by a Consecrated Host.

As to the Second Argument, 'Tis true God governs the World, and in his governmen [...] of the World he has ordered that we should govern our selves by Reason. God has subjected even the ways of his Providence to Ratio­nal Methods, and Outward Means agree to it. The great Chain of Causes and Effects is not interrupted, even by God himself; if it be, it is on Extraordinary Occasions, which we call Miracles.

Now according to the Nature of Causes and Conse­quences, the Argument for our care of Religion must be good; as to those people who look for Miracles, I have nothing to say to them.


This keyboarded and encoded edition of the work described above is co-owned by the institutions providing financial support to the Text Creation Partnership. This Phase I text is available for reuse, according to the terms of Creative Commons 0 1.0 Universal. The text can be copied, modified, distributed and performed, even for commercial purposes, all without asking permission.