LONDON PRINTED FOR THE AUTHOR, AND FOR F. C. AND J. RIVINGTON, No. 62, ST. PAUL'S CHURCH-YARD, By Bye and Law, St. John's Square, Clerkenwell. 1804.


THE present work is submitted with the utmost defer­ence to the Reader as a general and very copious eluci­dation of all the larger kinds of Shells found in this country.

At the commencement of this undertaking the Author proposed that the five volumes of which this work consists should include figures and descriptions of all the British Shells; so far at least as they could be correctly ascer­tained. The amount of these collectively, he was induced to think might be very nearly appreciated from the seve­ral works of Lister, Merret, Petiver, Walker, Pennant, and Da Costa: from the number of nondescript British Shells that came into his possession with the original col­lection of the latter writer, together with those in his own cabinet independent of them; the whole amount of which was far from inconsiderable.

[Page]In this estimate, which the Author at first conceived would be completely adequate to every purpose of his design, he afterwards perceived himself in some degree mistaken. During the course of publication he has in various instances been kindly favoured with British Shells not before described: neither are the acquisitions which he has himself discovered in several remote parts of the country altogether unworthy of attention. Many of the species thus obtained were deemed too interesting to be omitted in a work of this nature, and it was therefore thought advisable to exclude those, which, from their extreme minuteness, are usually denominated Microscopic Shells, in order to admit the most important of them. The omission of the more diminutive species, for the sake of inserting Shells of conspicuous figure, that had not been before described as English, the Author trusts will rather be considered as an advantage, than detriment to this work. Nothing of material consequence, either in the collection of the Author, or the cabinets of his friends, to which he has access, has been neglected in this selection; and he could not feel himself completely justified in extending the work beyond the limits originally prescribed for no other purpose than to introduce the Microscopic Shells.


LEPAS Balanus302, 1
—balanoides362, 3
Pholas Dactylus (Da Costa Hians (Solander)118 
Mya glycymeris142 
Mya ovalis89 
— pictorum174 
— margaritifera73 
— declivis82 
— arenaria85 
— truncata92 
— depressa101 
— praetenuis176 
— dubia108 
Solen Siliqua46 
— Legumen53 
— Ensis50 
— marginatus110 
— antiquatus114 
— pellucidus153 
Tellina inaequivalvis411
— variabilis412
— trifasciata60 
— carnaria47 
— borealis621
— rivalis622
— inaequistriata123 
— fausta98 
— fabula97 
— rigida103 
— cornea96 
— bimaculata291, 1
— tenuis292, 2
— depressa163 
Cardium aculeatum6 
— tuberculatum1072
— Echinatum1071
— laevigatum54 
— edule1241
— rusticum1242
— medium321
— ciliare322
— pygmeum323, 3
Mactra Lutraria58 
— hians140 
Mactra subtruncata126 
— Glauca125 
— solida61 
— Stultorum106 
— radiata161 
Donax Irus292, 2
— trunculus291, 1
— crenulata24 
Venus granulata83 
— fasciatus1701, 2
— Verrucosa44 
— Islandica77 
— Chione17 
— cancellata115 
— borealis130 
— undata121 
— sinuosa422
— exoleta421
— decussata67 
— striatulus68 
— lactea149 
Chama Cor134 
Arca Noae158 
— lactea135 
— caudata78 
— nucleus63 
— glycymeris (Da Costa)37 
— Pilosa (Gmel.)37 
Ostrea maxima49 
— Jacobaea137 
— varia11, 1
— obsoletus12
— subrufus12 
— pusio34 
— lineata116 
— striata45 
Anomia Ephippium26 
Mytilus rugosus141 
— modiolus23 
Mytilus Umbilicatus40 
— barbatus70 
— edulis1281
— ungulatus1282
— pellucidus81 
— Cygneus55 
— anatinus113 
— discors25 
Pinua laevis (Ingens Pennant)152 
— Muricata (Pectinata Linn?)10 
Cypraea pediculus43 
Bulla patula143 
— lignaria27 
— resiliens79 
— hydatis88 
— aperta1201
— cylindrica1202
Voluta tornatilis57 
— pallida66 
— triplicata138 
— laevis165 
Buccinum undatum104 
— reticulatum76 
— Lapillus1 [...] 
— lineatum15 
— glaciale154 
— brunneum1792
Strombus Pes pelecani4 
— costatus94 
Murex Carinatus109 
— Despectus (Linn.)180 
— Antiquus (Linn. Despectus, &c.)31 
— tuberculatus119 
Murex corneus38 
— Erinaceus35 
— costatus91 
— decollatus86 
— Bamffius1691
— emarginatus1692
— septem-angulatus1794
— elegans1793
— angulatus156 
Trochus magus81
— conulus82
— cinerarius74 
— Zizyphinus52 
— papillosus127 
— terrestris111 
— conicus1551
— cinereus1552
Turbo lineatus71 
— mammillatus173 
— littoreus331, 2
— rudis333
— cimex21, 1
— pullus22, 3, 4, 5, 6
— fontinalis102 
— lacteus90 
— pallidus1784
— duplicatus112 
— terebra222
— cinctus221, 1
— Clathrus28 
— striatus59 
— fasciatus181, 1
— perversus72 
— muscorum80 
— subulatus172 
— acutus1791
— vittatus1781
— interruptus1782
— costatus1783
— reticulatus159 
— albus177 
Helix cornea391
— lapicida392
— vortex75 
— contorta99 
— pomatia84 
— hortensis (Aspera Gmel. [...])131 
— pallida1572
— rufescens1571
— arbustorum136 
— nemoralis13 
— Zonaria65 
— hispida1511
— ericetorum1512
— tentacula93 
— vivipara87 
— auriculatia511
— stagnalis512
— fragilis1751
— fontinalis1752
— putris1682
— Bullaoides1682
Nerita littoralis202, 2
— glaucina201, 1
— intricata167 
— nitida144 
— fluviatilis162
— pallidus161
Haliotis tuberculata5 
Patella Vulgata14 
— fissura32, 2
— pellucida31, 1
— parva12, 2
— reticulata213, 3
— Ungarics211
— militaris171 
— albida129 
— lacustris147 
— oblonga150 
— intorta146 
Dentalium entalis48 
— octangulatum162 
Serpula vermicularis95 
— spirorbis9 
— granulata100 
Teredo Navalis145 
Sabella alveolata139 
— tubiformis133 



THIS class of Animals was formerly confounded with Insects and Plants: the Intestina and Mollusca were referred to the first class: the Zoophyta and Lithophyta to the latter; and some Authors had even classed the testacea, or Shells, as a branch of Mineralogy, with­out regarding the Animals inhabiting them. Linnaeus, in the Systema Naturae, comprehends the whole of these creatures in the last class of Zoology; and forms their classical character from their internal structure, as in larger and more perfect animals: COR uniloculare, inauritum; Sanie frigida, albida, Tentaculatis Vermibus. Heart fur­nished with one ventricle, without auricle; sanies cold and whitish, or colourless. The five orders of the Linnaean class Vermes are thus defined:—

  • [Page]Intestina, simple, naked, destitute of limbs.
  • Mollusca, simple, naked; but not without limbs.
  • Testacea, animal with a calcareous covering.
  • Lithophyta, animal composite, affixed to, and fabricate a calcareous base.—Coral.
  • Zoophyta, a vegetating stem like a plant; animal composite, and resemble flowers.

Linnaeus has included in the Testacea Order the whole tribe of Shells. In the generic characters he regards both the Shell and its inhabitant: in the definition of species, the former only is attended to. There are very strong arguments against the method of arrang­ing this tribe by the Animals, although it cannot be denied, that the Shells are only the coverings or habitations, and should not demand our primary attention*.

The TESTACEA are Vermes of the soft and simple kind, and are covered with a calcareous habitation. These are separated into three divisions, according to the number of valves of which the Shell con­sists. The first division includes only three genera, Chiton, Lepas, and Pholas; these are called Multivalves, and are formed of many valves, or pieces, disposed transversely on each other. The second division consists of Bivalves, or Shells of two pieces, connected toge­ther with a hinge, or cartilage. The third division is of Univalves, and have the Shell complete in one piece, as the word implies. The Linnaean genera are—

Bivalvia: conchae.
  • MYA.
  • VENUS.
  • ARCA.
  • SOLEN.
  • PINNA.
  • DONAX.
  • CHAMA.
Univalvia. spira regulari COCHLEAE.
  • BULLA.
  • TURBO.
  • CONUS.
  • MUREX.
  • HELIX.
sine spira regulari.

[Page]PLATE I.


GENERIC CHARACTER. Animal a Tethys. Shell bivalve unequal. The hinge without a tooth, having a small oval cavity.

SPECIFIC CHARACTER AND SYNONYMS. Shell almost equally convex; about thirty rays, scabrous, imbri­cated, or beset with transverse scales. One ear*.

  • OSTREA VARIA testa aequivalvi: radiis triginta scabris compressis echinatis uni aurita. Gmel.—Linn. Syst. Nat. 3324. 48.
  • P. subrufus, striis viginti quatuor, ad minimum donatus.—P. parvus, ex croceo variegatus, tenuiter admodum striatus, al­ternis fere striis paulo minoribus. List. H. Conch.
  • Pecten minor nostras, striis plurimis minoribus. Mus. Petiv. p. 86. No. 830.
  • Pectunculus echinatus fusco purpureus. Borlase Corn. p. 277.
  • [Page]Pecten varius: variegated scallop. Pen. Br. Zool. No. 64. tab. 61. fig. 64.
  • PECTEN MONOTIS: ONE EARED ESCALLOP. Parvus angustior, aequivalvis, inaequaliter auritus, strigis echinatis. Da Costa. Tab. 10. fig. 1. 2. 4. 5. 7. 9.

Many beautiful kinds of this species are found on our coasts. Some are of an uniform, obscure, reddish, or purple colour, without any markings: some are violet, and others bright yellow, or orange. The most elegant kinds are variegated with different colours, as white, red, purple, and brown. The purple kind marbled with irregular spots, and waves of white; and the coral red, with black and white mark­ings, and white on the upper part, are select specimens of these elegant varieties.

Pennant says, this species is often found in oyster-beds, and dragged up with them. "It is frequent on most of the shores of England; as in Wales; at Margate, and Sheerness, in Kent; in Sussex and Dor­setshire; in Devonshire; at Lelant and Whitsand Bay, &c. in Corn­wall; the ostium of the river Aln in Northumberland, and many other places." Da Costa.



SPECIFIC CHARACTER AND SYNONYMS. One large striated ear, with smooth equal shells; eight obsolete rays; of a dark purple colour. Penn. Br. Zool. No. 66. tab. 61. fig. 66.

  • PECTEN PARVUS: parvus fuscus longitudinaliter striatus, Da Costa. Br. Conch. 153. 8.

This is a very rare species; da Costa received his specimen from Cornwall.

The valves are equal and shallow; the shell thin, and semitranspa­rent; the ears unequal, one being very small. The inside is smooth and brown, with a pearly gloss. The outside is a dull purplish brown, with numerous fine longitudinal striae*, eight or ten of which are more prominent than the rest. These are surely not the obsolete rays of Pennant, as da Costa imagines; the former author must allude to the intermediate rays which are depressed and appear worn, as he describes them.




GENERIC CHARACTER. Animal Limax. Univalve, spiral, or of a taper form. Aperture somewhat compressed, orbicular, entire.

SPECIFIC CHARACTER AND SYNONYMS. Shell oblong-oval. Striae decussate, or intersect each other in a spiral direction.

  • TURBO CIMEX, testa oblongo-ovata, striis decussatis: punctis emi­nentibus. Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 1233. No. 609.
  • Turbo Cancellatus, Latticed. Turbo minimus albus cancellatim vel decussatim striatus. Da Costa Br. Conch. 104. 60. tab. 8. fig. 6. 9.

The natural size of this shell is shewn at Fig. I. together with its microscopic appearance. It is a very small species, thick, without [Page]gloss. The striae are elevated, broad, and cross each other so as to form a deep latticed-work of thick ridges. This species is noted from Cornwall and Guernsey: it is also found in the Mediterranean.


GENERIC CHARACTER. Animal Limax. Shell univalve, spiral, or of a taper form. Aper­ture rather compressed, orbicular, entire.


  • TURBO PULLUS. Turbo testa imperforata ovata laevi, apertura antice diducta. Linn. Syst. Nat. p. 1233. No. 610.
  • Turbo minimus laevis, variegatus, albo rubicundus. Small red and white variegated Whelke. Borlase Cornw. p. 277.
  • Painted, Turbo pictus. Turbo minimus laevis, albo et rubro perbelle pictus, da Costa, p. 103. 59. tab. 8. fig. 1. 3.

A minute, but elegant species; it is a very delicate shell, thin and transparent, smooth and glossy. The varieties are numerous; gene­rally [Page]white or blush-rose colour, with the markings crimson or red­dish purple, disposed in zones, spiral circles, transverse streaks, irregular waves, lines, spots, and specklings. Some are variegated with different shades of brown in a similar manner.

Fig. II. represents the natural size: Fig. III. a full grown speci­men. Fig. IV. IV. IV. are elegant varieties, as they appear under the microscope. Da Costa notes this species from the coast of Cornwall, and from Exmouth in Devonshire.




GENERIC CHARACTER. Animal Limax. Shell univalve, subconic, without spires.

SPECIFIC CHARACTER AND SYNONYMS. Shell entire, gibbous, pellucid, marked with longitudinal blue rays.

  • PATELLA PELLUCIDA: testa integerrima obovato gibba pellucida: radiis quatuor caeruleis. Gmelin. Lin. Syst. Nat. 3717. 153.
  • Patella minima laevis pellucida, aliquot caeruleis lineis eleganter insig­nita. List. Hist. Conch. tab. 543. fig. 27.
  • Patella minor, fusca, tenuis, umbone nigro ad extremitatem ante­riorem detruso, tribus inde lineis caeruleis per dorsum decurrentibus pulchre distincta. Wallace, Orkneys, p. 41.
  • Patella Anglica parva, praetenuis cymbuliformis, lineis caeruleis gut­tatis. Mus. Petiv. cent. 8. p. 68. No. 725.
  • [Page]Transparent Patella. Br. Zool. 4. No. 150. tab. 90. fig. 150.
  • Patella Laevis. Smooth Patella. Br. Zool. No. 151. an old shell.
  • Patella Caeruleata. Blue rayed. Da Costa. Br. Conch. 7. 4. tab. 1. fig. 5. 6.
  • Lepas d'eau douce demi-ovoide transparent, a trois lignes bleues. D'Avila, tab. 1. p. 428. No. 962.

In the young state, this shell is very transparent and horny, the aperture ovoid, and the margins smooth and level; it has also seve­ral longitudinal lines of bright blue colour, which extend from the vertex down the back to the margin. According to Linnaeus, these should be four in number; some authors say five, and Borlase men­tions nine. The blue colour is disposed in spots in some specimens; in others in lines; and again in some others in short and interrupted dashes. Linnaeus observes that the bright blue colour has not been found in any Shell except this.

The old shells are very different from the young ones, and have been mistaken by some Authors for distinct species. The young shell is remarkable for its pellucidity. The old ones are thicker and larger: the aperture irregular: the vertex two-thirds of the shell; and the rays of blue, dusky. Fig. I. * represents the natural size.

The Shell is found on the coast of Cornwall, and on the Dorset coast, near Weymouth. Martin, Sibbald, and Wallace, received it from the western isles of Scotland and the Orkneys.


GENERIC CHARACTER. Animal limax. Shell univalve, subconic, without spires.

SPECIFIC CHARACTER AND SYNONYMS. Oval, striated, reticulated. Vertex recurved, or bent back. A slit in the anterior part.

  • Patella Fissura: testa ovali striato-reticulata: vertice recurvo, anterius fissa. Gmelin, Linn. Syst. Nat. 3728. 192.
  • Patella integra parva, alba, cancellata, fissura notabili in margine.
  • List. II. Conch. tab. 543.
  • Petiv. Gaz. tab. 75. fig. 2.
  • Patella testa sulcato-reticulata, vertice recurvo, margine antice sursum fisso. Müller-zool-dan. 1. p. 83. t. 24. f. 7. 9.
  • rar. 1. p. 51. prodr. 2864.
  • Patella fissura. Slit. Br. Zool. t. 90. f. 152. p. 144. Da Costa Br. Conch. 11. 5. tab. 1. fig. 4.
  • Lepas d'eau douce reticulé, avec une petite fente, ou entaille. D'Avila, Cab. 1. p. 428. No. 962.

Found on the coasts of Cornwall and Devonshire.



GENERIC CHARACTER. Animal a slug. Shell univalve, spiral. The aperture much dilated, and lip expanding into a groove.

SPECIFIC CHARACTER AND SYNONYMS. Lip expanded, divided into four fingers or prongs.

  • STROMBUS PES PELECANI: testa labro tetradactylo palmato digitis angulato, fauce laevi. Gmel.—Lin. Syst. Nat. 3507. 2.
  • Cochlea testa longa acuminata, aperturae labro dilatato, duplici stria antice sinuato. Lin. Fn. Suec. 1. p. 378. No. 1323.
  • Aporrhais Quadrifidus. Four-fingered. Aporrhais subfuscus, anfrac­tibus nodosis, labro palmato quadrifido. Da Costa Br. Conch. 136. 80. Tab. 7. fig. 7.
  • Buccinum bilingue striatum labro propatulo digito. Lister H Conch. tab. 8. 65. fig. 20.
  • Strombus canaliculatus, rostratus, ore labioso, striatus, papillosus, auritus aure admodum crassa, et in quatuor ap­pendices breviores expansa, ex candida cinereus. Gualt. 1. Conch. tab. 53. fig. A.
  • [Page]Aporrhais Edinburgicus minor nodoso. Petiv. Gaz. tab. 79. fig. 6. —tab. 127. fig. 11.
  • Strombus Pes pelicani, Corvorant's foot. Penn. Br. Zool. No. 94. tab. 75. fig. 94.
  • Aile de Chauve Souris femelle, Patte D'Oye, ou Hallebarde. D'Avila Cab. p. 191. No. 344.

A very singular, but not uncommon shell on some of our coasts, as Cornwall, Devonshire, Durham and Sussex. In Carnarvonshire and Merionethshire, in Wales, on the coast of Scotland, and in the Orkneys.



GENERIC CHARACTER. Animal a slug. Shell univalve, dilated, or flat, almost open a row of orifices its length, spire near one end turned in.

SPECIFIC CHARACTER AND SYNONYMS. Oblong-oval. Outside furrowed transversely, rugged, tuberculated.

  • HALIOTIS TUBERCULATA, testa subovata, dorso transversim rugoso tuberculato. Gmel.—Linn. Syst. Nat. Conch. p. 3687. sp. 2.
  • Auris marina, major profunde sulcata, magis depressa, fusco colore obsita, intus argentea. Gualt. Ind. Conch. tab. 69. fig. 1.
  • Auris marina quibusdam: Patelli fera Rondoletti, [...] Aristo­telis; Mother of Pearl, Anglice. List. H. An. Angl. p. 167. til. 16. tab. 3. fig. 16.
  • Tuberculated Sea Ear. Pennant Br. Zool. No. 144. tab. 88. fig. 144.
  • Haliotis Vulgaris. Common Sea Ear. Da Costa, Br. Conch. p. 15. pl. 2. fig. 1, 2.

Pennant says this species is frequently cast upon the southern coast of Devonshire. It is common on the eastern coast of Sussex; and on the coast of the isle of Guernsey.—It adheres like limpets, to the rocks, when living.



GENERIC CHARACTER. Two teeth near the beak; and another remote one on each side of the shell.

SPECIFIC CHARACTER AND SYNONYMS. Shell nearly heart-shaped. Ribs high, sulcated down the middle, and beset with long canaliculated spines.

  • CARDIUM ACULEATUM: C. testa subcordata: sulcis convexis linea exaratis: exterius aculeato ciliatis.—Gmel. Linn. Syst. Conch. p. 3247. 7.
  • Pectunculus maximus insigniter echinatus. Wallace, Orkney. p. 44.
  • Coeur de boeuf. Argenville. Conch. I. p. 335. fig. B.
  • Coeur de boeuf Epineux. D'Avilla Cab. p. 355. No. 817.
  • Concha cordiformis aequilatera, umbone cardium unito, striata, striis latis canaliculatis muricata aculeis longis et acutis, aliquando recurvis in summitate striarum positis, al­bida, et parvis maculis luteis obscure fasciata. Gualt. I. Conch. tab. 72. fig. A.
  • Cardium Aculeatum. Aculeated. Penn. Br. Zool. 137. tab. 50. fig. 37.
  • Cardium Aculeatum, Spiked Cockle, A. Da Costa, Br. Conch. p. 175.

[Page]This is the largest of the Cardium, or Cockle genus, that inhabits any of the British shores. It is noted by Wallace as a Shell of the Orkneys; and also by Pennant, who likewise found it off the He­brides.—It is a thick shell, with high radiated ribs, and beset with large processes or spines that are hollowed. It is covered with a fibrous epidermis, of a blackish colour, varied with light browns; the colour beneath is white, with a faint tint of red, or rose colour.—Marginal circumference ten inches and an half.

This is one of the six rare species Da Costa could not procure for his work, and to which he alludes in the preface*.



GENERIC CHARACTER. Animal. triton. Shell of many unequal valves; affixed by a stem.

SPECIFIC CHARACTER AND SYNONYMS. Shell compressed, consists of five parts, affixed to a pedicle, or mem­braneous tube.

  • LEPAS ANATIFERA, testa compressa quinquevalvi laevi pedunculo insidente. Gmel. Linn. Syst. Nat. Conch. p. 3211. 13.
  • Balanus Anatifera compressus quinquevalvis laevis, tubo seu colle membranaceo insidente. Da Costa, Br. Conch. 253. 72. tab. 18. fig. 3.
  • Concha quinquevalvis compressa, tubulo quodam lignis aut algae ma­rinae adhaerens; animal sui generis multis cirrhis instructum continens, falso dicta anatifera. Sibbald. Mus. p. 170. No 2.
  • Lepas testa compressa basi membrana cylindricea. Fn. Suec. I. n. 1350.
  • Lepas Anatifera cum Tritone. Stalp. Obs. 2. p. 458. t. 15. Osb. it. 82.
  • [Page]Barnacle Shell, or Concha anatifera. Merret. Pin. p. 194.
  • Balanus Compressa, Flat centre Shell. Grew. Mus. p. 148. Wallace, Orkn. p. 45. fig. 1.—Mus. Petiv. p. 82. No. 802.
  • Anatiferous. Br. Zool. No. 9. tab. 38. fig. 9.
  • Concha anatifera marsine laeve. List. II. Conch. tab. 440. fig. 283.
  • S Concha anatifera subrotunda Bartholini. Lister. Conch. t. 439. f. 230.
  • [...] Tellina cancellifera striis minimis argutissime signata cinerea. Gualt, testac. t. 106. f. B.

The Lepas Anatifera is found on the coasts of England and Ireland, but more frequently on that of Scotland. It adheres by means of its branches, or pedicles, to the bottoms of ships, planks, logs, and other substances floaring in the water.

This curious marine production consists of many unequal mem­braneous branches, or arms, at the ends of which the Shells are dis­posed in an irregular manner; the larger clustering with the smaller in groups, and forming bunches of various sizes. The branches are of a fine red; the Shells of a bluish violet. The animal within is a triton, and is furnished with many cirrhi, or tentacula, with which it takes its food. These tentacula are pectinated like feathers, and hang out of the Shells when open. In the sixteenth century they were, in fact, supposed to be feathers, and hence arose the whimsical belief that a barnacle produced a goose [...]. Nor was this a vulgar opinion only; it was sanctioned by the grave details of learned naturalists of that time.* [Page]and particularly by Gerard *, whose observations are generally noticed by authors, in describing this curious species.




GENERIC CHARACTER. Animal a slug. Shell conic. Aperture nearly triangular.

SPECIFIC CHARACTER AND SYNONYMS. Pyramidal somewhat depressed; base umbilicated. The ridges of the spires rising into distinct tubercles.

  • TROCHUS MAGUS, testa oblique umbillicata: convexa, anfractibus supra obtuse nodulosis.—Gmel. Linn. Syst. Nat. Conch. p. 3567.—Sp. 7.
  • Trochus acuminatus, crebris striis transverse et undatim dispositis donatus. The wavy striated trochus, pearl-coloured. Borlase Cornw. p. 278. tab. 28. fig. 6.
  • T. magus tuberculated. Penn. Br. Zool. No. 107. tab. 80. fig. 107.
  • Sabot sorciere. Argenville Conch. I. p. 263.
  • Trochus pyramidalis umblicatus, anfractibus supra marginatis, infra nodulosis, albus, rubro variegatus. Tuberculatus. Da Costa. 25. tab. 3. fig. 1. 1.

[Page]This Shell is found on the coasts of Sussex, Dorset, Devonshire, Cornwall, Wales, &c.—It is an elegant species, commonly white, variegated with zig-zag stripes and waves of fine red, as shewn at Fig. 1. Sometimes, however, they are of a dull yellowish tint, in­stead of white, with the stripes of a dark brown. The Shell is of a rich pearl colour when the outer coat is taken off.


SPECIFIC CHARACTER AND SYNONYMS. Shell conic, imperforated at the base. A prominent wreath along the spires.

  • TROCHUS CONULUS, testa imperforata conica, laevi, anfractibus linea elevara interstinctis. Linn. Syst. Nat. p. 1230. No. 598.
  • Trochus pyramidalis parvus, ruberrimus, fasciis crebris exasperatus. List. H. Conch. tab. 616. fig. 2.
  • T. Conulus. Conule. Penn. Br. Zool. No. 104. tab. 80. fig. 104.
  • Trochus Conulus, Conule. Da Costa, Br. Conch. 21. tab. 2. fig. 4. 4.

Linnaeus proposes this as a species, (Conulus); but at the same time observes, is may be a small variety of the Trochus Zizyphinus, [Page]because, like that species, it is imperforated, and has a prominent ridge on the whirls. Pennant says, it is scarcely distinct from T. Zizy­phinus. Da Costa thinks it certainly a distinct species.

If the shell, Fig. 104. Pennant, is correct, it is of a larger growth than any of our specimens. Da Costa says, the size seldom exceeds that of a cherry kernel. Not uncommon on the shores of Sussex; and has been received from the coast of Devonshire.

Fig. II. natural size. Fig. III. magnified.



GENERIC CHARACTER. Animal a Terebella, or whimble worm. Shell tubular, adheres to other bodies, as shells, stones, &c.

SPECIFIC CHARACTER AND SYNONYMS. Small, orbicular, spiral or wreathed like a cornu ammonis; convex above, flat beneath.

  • SERPULA SPIRORBIS, testa regulari spirali orbiculata: anfractibus supra introrsum subcanaliculatis sensimque minoribus.— Gmel. Linn. Syst. Nat. Conch. p. 3740. 5.
  • Vermiculus exiguus albus nautiloides, algae fere adnascens. List. H. Conch. tab. 533.—tab. 553. Huddesford's edition.
  • Very small Worm Shells. Dale, Harw. p. 391. No. 2. and p. 455. No. 2.
  • Depressed orbicular Cochleae on Algae. Wallis. Northumb. I. p. 402. No. 41.
  • Serpula Spirorbis, Spiral. Penn. Br. Zool. No. 155. tab. 91. fig. 155.
  • Serpula Spirorbis, Spiral, Vermiculaire Nautiloide.—parva orbicu­lata et Spirali, ammoniae instar convoluta. Da Costa Br. Conch. 12.— tab. 2. fig. 11.

[Page]This species in found in abundance on most of the British shores; it adheres to shells, stones, claws of lobsters, &c. but chiefly to the leaves of Fucus serratus, and other sub-marine plants. It is a strong Shell, white, and without polish; is never complicated, or laid one on another, but are dispersed singly over whatever substances they are affixed to. Petiver calls if the Wrack Spangle, because it appears like so many white spangles on the dark-coloured leaves of the Wracks.—A piece of this sub-marine plant, with the Shells adhering to it, is a very pleasing object for the opake microscope.

Fig. I. represents the natural size of the Shells. Fig. II. shews one magnified.7



GENERIC CHARACTER. Hinge without a tooth, and placed on one side. Valves equal; open, or gape at the bottom.

SPECIFIC CHARACTER AND SYNONYMS. Shell triangular, striated; the striae beset with acute, ovated, and concave scales or prickles.

  • PINNA MURICATA: testa striata, squamis concavis ovatis acutis. Gmel. Lin. Syst. Nat. Conch. p. 3364. Sp. 4.
  • Pinna tenuis, striata, muricata. List. H. Conch. tab. 370. fig. 210.
  • Pinna fragilis. Brittle. Penn. Br. Zool. No. 80. tab. 59. fig. 80.
  • Pinna tenuis costis longitudinalibus muricatis. Muricata, Thorny. Da Costa, tab. 16. fig. 3. p. 240.
  • Pinna recta transversim et directe striata, et rugosa, striis in summi­tate aculeis exasperatis, ex fusco rubro nigricans. Gualt. 1. Conch. tab. 79. fig. D. Seb. Mus. 3. t, 92. ser. 1. f.
  • Concha Pinna. Hasselq. it. 447. n. 137.
  • Pinna lata altera. Rumf. Mus. t. 46. f. M.

[Page]Dr. Rutty mentions a Pinna ten inches long and five broad, caught near the Skerries, in Ireland; and Mr. Pennant "saw specimens of vast Pinnae, found among the farther Hebrides, in the collection of Dr. Walker, at Moffat;" but it is uncertain of what species either of these were: Mr. Pennant says, "they were very rugged on the outside, but cannot recollect whether they were of the kind found in the Mediterranean or West Indies*."

The only British species of Pinna we are acquainted with, is the P. Muricata of Linnaeus, or P. Fragilis of Pennant, and that is very rare. The latter author describes it from a specimen in the PORTLAND cabinet, which had been fished up at Weymouth, in Dorsetshire. Da Costa says, he has seen a very small one (of the same species) from the coast of Wales.—Both of these are represented in the annexed plate.

This Shell is extremely thin and brittle, and gapes open at the broadest end. It is semi-pellucid, and of a horn colour; the outside marked with longitudinal ribs, roughened with rows of small prickles. The inside is smooth, of a pale horn colour also, with a pearly lustre towards the top.



GENERIC CHARACTER. Aperture oval, ending in a short canal.

SPECIFIC CHARACTER. Ovated, terminates in a sharp point, spirally ridged. Pillar lip broad.

  • BUCCINUM LAPILLUS: testa ovata acuta striata laevi, columella pla­niuscula.—Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 1202. No. 467.
  • Cochlea testa crassa ovata utrinque producta; spiris quinque spiraliter sulcatis; aperturae labro undulato. Faun. Suec. p. 378. No. 2167.
  • Buccinum minus, albidum, asperum, intra quinas spiras finitum. List. H. An. Ang. p. 15S. tit. 5. tab. 3. fig. 3.
  • Buccinum brevi rostrum supra modum crassum, ventricosius, labro denticulato: Purpura Anglicana. List. H. Conch. tab. 965. fig. 18.—ET B. brevi rostrum, album den­ticulo unico ad imam columellam. Purpura Angli­cana. Fig. 19.
  • Purple marking Whelke. Borlase Corn. p. 277. tab. 28. fig. 11.
  • English purple. Smith Cork. p. 318.
  • Horse wrinkles. Smith Waterford. p. 272.
  • Small purple Whelke. Wallis Northumb. p. 401.
  • Baccinum lapillus, Massy. Penn. Br. Zool. 4. No 89. tab. 72. fig. 89.
  • [Page]Buccinum canaliculatum minus, crassum varicolor, striatum, seu Purpura Anglicana. Purpuro-buccinum. Da Costa Br. Conch. tab. 7 fig. 1. 2. 3. 4. 9. 12.

This is a strong, thick shell, generally about one inch and a half length, of a full pyramidal shape, with a point acute; it has five spires, furrowed: the ridges of the lower wreath notched, or scaled, and very rough. Within the mouth it has five long parallel teeth.

The colours are various, often of a simple and uniform yellowish brown, sandy, or clay colour; sometimes quite white, or white tinged with violet, and fasciated with yellow or brown; the latter are the most elegant varieties of B. Lapillus.—These shells are found in great abundance near low water-mark, on many of the shores of Great-Britain. It is one of the species that yields the purple dye ana­logous to the purpura of the ancients; and though the value of its dye has been long superseded by the cochineal insect, the shells that produced it are objects of curiosity. The Tyrian purple was the most admired, and is known to have been extracted from a species of the Murex; but other purples of inferior lustre are also mentioned by the ancients. Da Costa imagines that the liquor of this Whelke (Buccinum Lapillus) was a valuable purple to the ancient English, and quotes the authority of Bede, who lived about the seventh cen­tury, for this opinion. "There are," says Bede, "snails in very great abundance, from which a scarlet or crimson dye is made, whose elegant redness never fades, either by the heat of the sun, or the in­juries of rain, but the older it is, the more elegant*"

[Page]In 1684, Mr. Cole, of Bristol, described the process of extracting the purple of this shell, in the Philosophical Transactions. His ac­count is as follows:

"The Shells being harder than most of other kinds, are to be broken with a smart stroke with a hammer, on a plate of iron, or firm piece of timber (with their mouths downwards) so as not to crush the body of the fish within; the broken pieces being picked off, there will appear a white vein, lying transversely in a little furrow, or cleft, next to the head of the fish, which must be digged out with the stiff point of a horse-hair pencil, being made short and tapering. The letters, figures, or what else shall be made on the linnen (and perhaps silk too) will presently appear of a pleasant light green colour, and if placed in the sun, will change into the following colours, i. e. if in winter, about noon; if in summer, an hour or two after sun-rising, and so much before setting; for, in the heat of the day in summer, the colours will come on so fast, that the succession of each colour will be scarcely distinguished. Next to the first light green, it will appear of a deep green, and in a few minutes change into a sea-green; after which, in a few minutes more, it will alter into a watchet-blue; from that, in a little time more, it will be of a pur­plish-red; after which, lying an hour or two, (supposing the sun still shining) it will be of a very deep purple-red, beyond which the sun can do no more.

"But then the last and most beautiful colour, after washing in scalding water and soap, will (the matter being again put into the sun or wind to dry) be of a fair bright crimson, or near to the prince's colour, which, afterwards, notwithstanding there is no use of any stiptick to bind the colour, will continue the same, if well ordered, [Page]as I have found in handkerchiefs that have been washed more than forty times; only it will be somewhat allayed from what it was after the first washing. While the cloth so writ upon lies in the sun, it will yield a very strong and foetid smell, as if garlick and assafoetida were mixed together."



GENERIC CHARACTER. Animal a Tethys. Shell bivalve unequal. The hinge without a tooth, having a small oval cavity.

SPECIFIC CHARACTER AND SYNONYMS. Shell thin. Twenty longitudinal rays, finely striated; ears unequal; colours various; generally red.

  • PECTEN TENUIS, subrufus, maculosus, circiter viginti striis majori­bus, at laevibus, donatus. List. H. An. Angl. p. 85. tab. 5. fig. 30.
  • PECTEN SUBRUFUS. Penn. Br. Zool. No. 63. tab. 60. fig. 63.
  • PECTEN PICTUS: mediocris, fere aequivalvis, tenuis, variis coloribus perbelle variegatus. Da Costa. Br. Conch. p. 144. sp. 3.
  • Pectunculus pennatus striis dense notatus, luteo purpurascens. Pecten altis striis albo purpureis transverse variegatis insignis; & Pectunculus purpurascens vittis albis circularibus variegatus. Borlase Cornw. p. 277. tab. 28. fig. 18, 21 and 22.

[Page]This elegent species is found on several of the shores of Great Bri­tain and Ireland, particularly those of Cornwall, Dorset, and Nor­thumberland. It is generally about two inches and an half in length. Shell thin and rather convex. The inside is smooth and glossy, and commonly white, though sometimes of a brownish colour. The colours of the outside very various and beautiful. Da Costa enume­rates the chief varieties, as, 1. almost white, and white charged with brown, red, or purple; 2. uniform bright yellow, and pale yellow, with white; 3. uniform brown, and brown, red, or purplish grounds with white, &c. all these colours are elegantly blended and variegated, sometimes marbled or mottled or disposed in zones, girdles, broad longitudinal rays, &c.

Fig. 1. represents a fine coloured specimen of the variegated red and white kind. Fig. 2. The uniform deep orange, which we appre­hend is less common.



GENERIC CHARACTER. Aperture or mouth contracted and lunated.

SPECIFIC CHARACTER AND SYNONYMS. Imperforated, subrotund, thin, pellucid. Mouth semi-lunar; generally girdled with streaks: and of various colours.

  • HELIX NEMORALIS: testa imperforata subrotunda laevi diaphana fasciata, apertura subrotundo-lunata. Linn. Faun. Suec. 2186.—Gmel. Linn. Syst. Nat. Conch. p. 3647. 108.
  • Cochlea citrina aut leucophaea, non raro unicolor, interdum tamen unica, interdum etiam duobus, aut tribus, aut quatuor plerumque vero quinis fasciis pullis distincta. List. H. An. Angl. p. 116. tit. 3. tab. 2. fig. 3.
  • Cochlea imperforata, interdum unicolor, interdum variis fasciis depicta. FASCIATA girdled. Da Costa, Br. Conch. p. 76. sp. 41.
  • Helix Nemoralis, variegated. Penn. Br. Zool. No. 131.

[Page]Prof. Gmelin, in the last edition of the Systema Naturae, enumerates no less than thirty-one varieties of this beautiful land Shell. Da Costa describes six principal varieties in his British Conchology*. Some of the kinds are rare, others extremely common, living in trees, hedges and gardens. It is a widely diffused species being found in every part of Europe as well as Great Britain.



GENERIC CHARACTER. Animal Limax. Shell univalve, subconic, without spires.

SPECIFIC CHARACTER AND SYNONYMS, Oblong ovoid with about fourteen obsolete angles, margins deep or dilated.

  • PATELLA VULGATA: testa subangulata: angulis quatuor decim obsoletis margine dilato acuto.—Gmel. Linn. Syst. Nat. Conch. p. 3697.—Sp. 23 β Schroet. n. Litterat 3. p. 62. n. 117 γ Knorr. Vergn 6. t. 27. f. 8.
  • Patella integra ex livido cinerea, striata. DA COSTA. Br. Conch. p. 3. pl. 1. fig. 1, 2, 8.
  • Patella ex livido cinerea striata. List. Hist. Anim. Angl. p. 195. tit. 40. tab. 5. fig. 40.
  • Patella Vulgata, Common. Penn. Br. Zool. 4. No. 145. tab. 89. fig. 145.
  • Patella integra. Klein, Ostracol. p. 115. §. 283. No. 10.
  • Lepas Argenville, p. 21.

[Page]The Limpet is common on all the European shores. The outside is generally encrusted with filth, balani, &c. beneath which, it has an epidermis of a blackish colour. The shells vary exceedingly in colours, not only in the different stages of growth, but also in the adult state. When young, the colours are remarkably vivid and elegantly disposed; the shell flat and the margins deeply crenated: those of full growth are on the contrary very conic and the colours less brilliant. The margins irregular and the ridges more obsolete. Some authors have considered several varieties as distinct species. Da Costa among others, deems the Patella depressa of Pennant, no other than a young variety of the common kind.



GENERIC CHARACTER. Whelkes whose mouths are cut short at top, for the gutter or beak does not ascend, but bends and falls on the back, oblique or awry, exactly like the mouth of a soal or flat fish. Da Costa.

SPECIFIC CHARACTER. Small, pyramidal, or sharp pointed at bottom. Dark brown, lineated spirally with white.

BUCCINUM LINEATUM: recurvirostrum minimum pullum, lineis albidis spiraliter distinctum. Da Costa, Br. Conch. p. 130. sp. 77.

This species is found in great abundance on the coast of Cornwall. The annexed plate exhibits several magnified figures of the most ele­gant varieties, together with the natural size.




GENERIC CHARACTER. Globose. Aperture semiorbicular.

SPECIFIC CHARACTER Semitransparent. Wreaths rather prominent. Mouth semilunar, very patulous. Umbilicus large.

Nerita Corneus, spira paululum exserta. Pallidulus Da Costa. p. 51. Sp. 29.

Da Costa says "This species is rare, for I have only received some few shells from the coasts of Kent and Dorset." He also con­siders it an undescribed shell.


SPECIFIC CHARACTER. AND SYNONYMS. Small, spotted, streaked, and reticulated.

  • NERITA FLUVIATILIS; N. testa rugosa labiis edentulis.—Linn. Syst. Nat. p. 125. 3. No. 723.
  • Nerita parvus fluviatilis, elegantur maculatus, fasciatus, aut reticu­culatus. Flaviatilis. Da Costa Br. Conch, p. 48. Sp. 27.
  • Nerita fluviatilis, é coeruleo virescens, maculatus, operculo sub­rufo lunato et aculeato datus. List. H. An. Angl. p. 136. tit. 20. tab. 2. fig. 20.
  • Nerita fluv. exiguus, recticulate variegatus, Small netted Thames nerit. Mus. Petiv. p. 67. No. 718.
  • Nerita fluviatilis, River. Penn. Br. Zool. No. 142. tab. 87. fig. 142.

This species is very frequent in rivers. It is small; of an ovoid shape, and very elegantly variegated with black, white, red, green, &c.—The star denotes the natural size of the shell.



GENERIC CHARACTER. Bivalve. Hinge furnished with three teeth; two near each other, the third divergent from the beaks.

SPECIFIC CHARACTER AND SYNONYMS. Shell smooth with fine transverse wrinkles, a strong cartilage on one slope, and a long pointed oval depression on the other.

  • VENUS CHIONE: testa transverse subrugosa laevi, cardinis dente pos­teriori lanceolato. Gmel. Linn. Syst. Nat. Conch. p. 3272. sp. 16.
  • P. GLABER, SMOOTH Pectunculus major crassus, politus, castaneus, lucide radiatus. Da Costa. Br. Conch. p. 184. sp. 22.
  • Pectunculus maximus crassus, laevis fere radiatus. Mus. Petiv. p. 86. No. 833.—Curvirostrum. Leigh. Lanca­shire. tab. 3. fig. 5.
  • Venus Chione, β Rumf. Mus. t. 42. f. G.
  • Venus Chinone, γ Chemn. Conch. 6. t. 33. f. 334.

"This species," says Da Costa, "is rare in England. I found it at Mount's Bay in Cornwall, where the fishermen told me they call [Page]it Queen Fish; it is also found near Fowey and other shores of that county. I have seen some from Weymouth, and Mr. Petiver received it from the island of Purbeck, in Dorsetshire. Dr. Leigh mentions that it is got on the coasts of Cheshire."

Pennant has not noticed this Shell. Linnaeus described it as an Asiatic species in the Systema Naturae, but adds it is perhaps an Eu­ropean species also. In the last edition by Gmelin, it stands expressly as a British Shell. Habitat in Mari Britannico, &c.

This Shell is thick, strong and heavy: the outside smooth and glossy, with numerous concentric transverse wrinkles, and several faint rays in a longitudinal direction. The margins are plain. The inside milk white and glossy.



GENERIC CHARACTER. Animal Limax. Univalve, spiral, or of a taper form. Aperture somewhat compressed, orbicular, entire.

SPECIFIC CHARACTER AND SYNONYMS. Six spires. White marbled or fasciated with black.

  • TURBO FASCIATUS, Fasciated. Penn. Br. Zool. No. 119. tab. 82. fig. 119.
  • Buccinum exiguum fasciatum et radiatum. List. H. Conch. tab. 19. fig. 4.

This is one of the six species Da Costa marks with a roman letter, because he could not procure the originals to figure and describe in the British Conchology. It is figured in the British Zoology of Pennant, who says it is very frequent in Anglesea, in sandy soils near the coast.




GENERIC CHARACTER. The hinge usually furnished with three teeth. Shell generally sloping on one side.

SPECIFIC CHARACTER. AND SYNONYMS. Subrotundand somewhat triangular, smooth and whitish. Two ob­long sanguineous red spots on the inside.

  • TELLINA BIMACULATA: testa triangulo-subrotunda latiore laevi albida: intus maculis duabus sanguineis oblongis. Linn. F. Suec. 11. No. 2135.—S. N. p. 1120.
  • T: minima laevis alba, intus maculis duabus sanguineis oblongis no­tata. Binaculata. Da Costa. Br. Conch. p. 213. 45.

This singular species is found on the shores of Lancashire and Hampshire.


SPECIFIC CHARACTER AND SYNONYMS. Thin. Subrotund, glossy;—colour sometimes red

  • TELLINA PLANATA: Concha testa subrotunda glabra incarnata. Linn. F. Suec. 1. p. 381. No. 1335.
  • Tellina testa-ovata compressa, transversim substriata laevi: margi­nibus acutis, &c. S. N. p. 1117. No. 52.
  • Tellina valde tenuis, parva, subrotunda, plerumque rubra. Tenuis Thin. Da Costa. Br. Conch. p. 210. Sp. 43.
  • Tellina parva, intus rubra, ad alterum latus sinuosa. List. Conch. tab. 405. fig. 250.
  • Tellina laevis intus et extra rubra, ad latus sinuosa. Ib. fig. 251.
  • Tellina planata. Plain. Penn. Br. Zool. No. 29. tab. 48. fig. 29.

Found on many of our shores, as Kent, Essex, Cornwall, &c. Some of the varieties are extremely delicate, and prettily streaked with pale red and white: many are entirely white, or white tinged with yellow. Some are orange colour; but the rarest kind is deep violet or purple.




GENERIC CHARACTER. Globose. Aperture semiorbicular.

SPECIFIC CHARACTER AND SYNONYMS. Umbilicated, glossy. Spires swelled, obtuse. Umbilicus large and deep with the inner lip greatly spread on the body wreath. A chain of short brown marks along the spires.

  • NERITA GLAUCINA: testa umbilicata laevi, spira obtusiuscula, um­bilico semiclauso: labio gibbo dicolore. Linn. Syst. Nat. p. 1251. No. 716.
  • Nerita Glaucina. Livid. Penn. Br. Zool. No. 141. tab. 87. fig. 141.
  • Cochlea Catena. Chain Nerit. C. Umbilicata albo rufescens fasciis maculatis, maxime ad imos orbes distincta. Da Costa, Br. Conch. p. 83. sp. 45.

This Shell is not uncommon on the shores of the Essex and Kentish coasts; on the sandy shores of Lincolnshire, Dorsetshire, Devonshire, [Page]Cornwall, &c. The same species is found in the Mediterranean and the West Indies. The colours are very fine, particularly in the young Shells.


SPECIFIC CHARACTER AND SYNONYMS. Shell thick, smooth vertex flat. Inner lip spread obliquely.

  • NERITA LITTORALIS: T. testa laevi, vertice carioso, labiis edentulis, Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 1253. No. 724.
  • Nerita vulgaris, unicolor, flavus aurantiacus, vel fuscus, aut fasciatus, aut reticulatim variegatus. Littoralis. Da Costa, Br. Conch. p. 50. sp. 28. List. H. Conch. tab. 697, fig. 39.
  • Nerita Littoralis. Strand. Pen. Br. Zool. No. 143. tab. 87. fig. 143.

This Shell is very common on all the British coasts, particularly the fine yellow kinds. Those with broad bands or girdles, and also such as are reticulated with dark greenish colour on a light ground, are rare varieties of this species.



GENERIC CHARACTER. Animal Limax. Shell univalve, subconic, without spires.

SPECIFIC CHARACTER AND SYNONYMS. Shell entire, conic, acuminated, striated, with the vertex turning down, or hanging over one side.

  • PATELLA UNGARICA: testa integra conico acuminata striata vertice hamoso revoluto. Linn. Syst. Nat. p. 1259. No. 761.
  • PATELLA HUNGARICA. Bonnet. Penn. Br. Zool. No. 147. tab. 90. fig. 147.
  • Patella integra, albescens, striata, vertice spirali, intus rosacea. Da Costa, Br. Conch. p. 12. sp. 6.
  • Lepas Bonnet de Dragon. D'Avila, Cab. l. p. 86. 87. No. 32. 34.

"This species is only found on the Cornish coast, and even is very scarce there, being most generally dredged some miles from the shore; for the Shell is so thin, that it will hardly bear rolling from its native spot to the beach. It is generally found affixed to a species of escal­lops, called frills, in Cornwall." Da Costa.


SPECIFIC CHARACTER. Shell small, entire, without gloss, whitish, faintly rayed with red.

  • PATELLA PARVA: integra, parva, sublaevis, albescens radiis ruben­tibus. Da Costa Br. Conch. p. 7. sp. 3.

Da Costa considers this as a nondescript species; he received several specimens of it from the coasts of Dorsetshire, but never from any other of the British shores, and therefore proposes it as a scarce Shell.

It is rather larger than a pea, thin, and semipellucid; of a depressed conic shape, and the vertex inclining very much to one side. The inside is whitish, outside the same, with a few longitudinal rays of pale red, or purplish brown.


SPECIFIC CHARACTER AND SYNONYMS. Small, ash colour, reticulated. Vertex perforated.

  • P. LARVA RETICULATA. Patella parva cinerea, vertice perforata. Da Costa Br. Conch. p. 14. sp. 7.
  • PATELLA GRAECA. STRIATED. Penn. Br. Zool. No. 153. tab. 89. fig. 153.
  • PATELLA CLATHRATA. Klein. Ostrac. p. 116.—284. No. 2. List. H. Conch. tab. 527. fig. 2.?

Pennant says, this species inhabits the west of England. The specimens in Da Costa's collection were also fished up near Wey­mouth, in Dorsetshire. This is a rare Shell, and is not known to in­habit any other of the British coasts.

This Shell is about three quarters of an inch in length, half an inch in breadth, and one quarter of an inch in heighth. The out­side is deeply reticulated, or wrought with prominent longitudinal and transverse ridges. The vertex inclines to one end, and is perforated; its aperture is of an oblong form, and about one tenth of an inch in length.




GENERIC CHARACTER. Animal Limax. Univalve, spiral, or of a taper form. Aperture somewhat compressed, orbicular, entire.

SPECIFIC CHARACTER AND SYNONYMS. Whitish, variegated with brown. Spires swelled and ridged: two particularly large, broad, roundish ridges, in the middle of each spire.

  • TURBO CINCTUS: strombiformis medius albus pullo variegatus, anfractibus porcis tumidis latis & spirabilibus cinctus. Da Costa Brit. Conch. p. 114. sp. 66. Tab. 7. fig. 8.
  • Turbo Exoletus. Linn. Syst. Nat.?

This is a very rare Shell. Da Costa says he has received it only from the coasts of Lincolnshire and Lancashire.


SPECIFIC CHARACTER AND SYNONYMS. Shell slender. Spires twelve, striated spirally. Six of the striae rather prominent.

  • TURBO TEREBRA: testa turrita anfractibus carinis sex acutis. Gmel. Linn. Syst. Nat. Conch. p. 3608. sp. 81.
  • Cochlea testa longa subulata, spiris, duodecim striatis. Linn. Faun. Suec. I. p. 378. No. 1322. 2. No. 2171.
  • Buccinum tenue, dense striatum, duodecim minimum spiris donatum. List. H. An. Angl. p. 161. tit. tab. 3. fig. 8.
  • Strombiformis medius albus rufo variegatus, anfractibus striatis. Te­rebra. Da Costa Brit. Conch. p. 112. sp. 65.
  • Turbo Terebra. Auger. Penn. Br. Zool. No. 113. tab. 81. fig. 113.

The colours in this species vary exceedingly; the ground colour is generally white, or cream colour, with the streaks, dots, and markings of brown, pale red, or orange. The length is from one inch and an half to two inches or more.

[Page]It is not uncommon on many of the British coasts*. Adanson has a variety of it (β) from Senegal; and other authors mention the same species as a native of the East Indian and African seas.



GENERIC CHARACTER. The hinge toothless, and consists of a longitudinal furrow.

SPECIFIC CHARACTER. AND SYNONYMS. Shell large, blackish: one side angulated near the middle, the other straight; but gibbous towards the beaks, and blunted or obtuse at the upper end.

  • MYTILUS MODIOLUS: testa laevi, margine anteriore carinato, natibus gibbis, cardine sublaterali.—Gmel. Linn. Syst. Nat. Conch. p. 3354. Sp. 14.
  • Mytilus magnus nigrescens. Modiolus. Da Costa. Br. Conch. p. 219. sp. 49. tab. 15. fig. 5.
  • Musculus papuanus authorum. Rumph. Mus. tab. 46. fig. B.
  • M. Modiolus, Great Muscle. Penn. Br. Zool. p. 113. 77. tab. 46. fig. 77.
  • Musculus papaunus. Adans. Seneg. 1. t. 22. f. C. List. H. Conch. tab. 359. fig. 198. Gualt. test. t. 91. H. L. Rumph. Mus. t. 46. f. B. C? D?

[Page]Mytilus Modiolus is the largest species of this genus that inhabits the British shores; being from six to seven inches in length, and three in breadth. It is a strong and heavy shell; the outside is of a blackish colour inclining to purple. It is covered with a thin filmy brown epidermis, and often with balani and other remains of crustaceous animals. Within, it is smooth and pearly, and sometimes richly coloured with a variety of vivid hues, in which red, purple and green chiefly predominate. These shells lie only in deep waters, and are never cast upon shore; but sometimes they seize the bait of the ground lines, and are hauled up by the fishermen.

Da Costa received the M. Modiolus, of a small size, from the Margate flats in Kent; from Cornwall and other English shores. The specimen figured in the annexed Plate is from Scarborough in Yorkshire; those found on the coast of Wales and Scotland, and particularly the Orkneys, are not inferior in point of size to those from Scarborough.



GENERIC CHARACTER. Bivalve. One side very obtuse, margin crenated. Hinge various, generally of two teeth.

SPECIFIC CHARACTER AND SYNONYMS. One side very blunt or truncated: thickly striated longitudinally. Margin serrated.

  • DONAX RUGOSA: testa antice rugosa gibba, marginibus crenatis. Linn. Syst. Nat. p. 1127. No. 104. Mus. reg. p. 494. No. 50.
  • DONAX DENTICULATA: testa anterius obtusissima: labiis transverse rugosis, margine denticulato, nymphis den­tiformibus. Gmel. Linn. Syst. Nat. Conch. p. 3263. sp. 6.
  • Cuneus ex albo & violaceo radiatus, intus vero violaceus, latere altero gibbo & truncato. TRUNCATUS. Truncated Purr. Da Costa, Br. Conch. p. 205. sp. 40.
  • Tellina intus ex viola purpurascens, in ambitu serrata. List. Hist. An. Angl. p. 190. tit. 35. tab. 5. fig. 35.
  • [Page]Tellina crassa, admodum leviter striata, intus violacea. List. H. Conch. tab. 375. fig. 216.—376.—218. 219.
  • DONAX DENTICULATA. Purple. Penn. Br. Zool. No. 46.

This is a very elegant and remarkable species: the annexed Plate exhibits five of its most singular varieties. The young shells are sometimes quite white, or white faintly marked with brown, red or violet; the old shells are of a deep violet without, and variously marked with the same on the outside. Very common on the western coasts of England, and also on those of Ireland and Scotland.




GENERIC CHARACTER. The hinge tootheless, and consits of a longitudinal furrow.

SPECIFIC CHARACTER. AND SYNONYMS. Shell oval, somewhat diaphanous and horny. Outside divided into three compartments; the two exterior striated longitudinally; the middle transversely, with extremely fine striae.

  • MYTILLUS DISCORS: testa ovali cornea subdiaphana, antice lon­gitudinaliter posterius transversaliter striata.—Gmel. Linn. Syst. Nat. Conch. p. 3356. sp. 21.
  • Mytillus minor tenuis areis tribus distinctus. Discors. Da Costa, Br. Conch. p. 221. sp. 51.

The discovery of this rare species on our coast, is ascribed by Da Costa to Dr. Richard Pultney, F. R. S. of Blandford in Dorset­shire; he found it on an ascidia at Weymouth in that county. It [Page]has also been met with in Greenland, Iceland, and Norway; and is likewise noted as a native of the Southern Ocean*.

The shell found on the British coast is very small, brittle, and semi­transparent. The outside is of a brownish or rosy colour, tinged with green. The inside smooth, glossy, and somewhat pearly.



GENERIC CHARACTER. Bivalve. Valves unequal: one gibbous towards the beak, the other flat, and perforated near the hinge.

SPECIFIC CHARACTER, AND SYNONYMS. Roundish: pellucid, much wrinkled. Flat valve perforated.

  • ANOMIA EPHIPPIUM: testa suborbiculata rugosa plicata planiore perforata. Gmel. Lin. Syst. Nat. Conch. p. 3340. sp. 3.
  • Anomia. Subrotunda plicata pellucida levis, valva planiore perforata. Tunica cepae. Da Costa. Br. Conch. p. 165. tab. 11. fig. 3.
  • Huitre. Pelure d'oignon, Angenv. Conch. 2. p. 316. tab. 22. fig. C. 11. p. 277. tab. 19. fig. C.
  • The perforated Oyster. Petiv. Mus. p. 85. No. 823.
  • Anomia Ephippium, larger. Penn. Brit. Zool. No. 70. tab. 62.

[Page]The Anomia Ephippium is frequently found on the common oyster, to the shell of which it adheres by means of a strong tendinous liga­ture, which passes through the perforation of the upper valve. This Shell is of an irregular form; the outside rugged and filmy; the in­side smooth, pearly, and glowing with a variety of elegant tints. in different specimens the colours vary considerably, some being of a rich purple, others pale red, brown, or deep yellow, and all with a silvery hue.



GENERIC CHARACTER. Shell sub-oval. Aperture oblong, very patulous, and smooth or even. One end rather convoluted.

SPECIFIC CHARACTER AND SYNONYMS. Oblong, oval, narrow towards one end, and somewhat umbilicated, (or rather convoluted). Striated transversely.

  • BULLA LIGNARIA: testa obovata oblongiuscula transverse striata, vertice subumbilicato. Linn. Syst. Nat.
  • BULLA LIGNARIA major, leviter et dense transverse striata. Da Costa. Br. Conch. p. 26. sp. 14. tab. 1. fig. 9.
  • Concha veneris major, leviter et dense striata. List. H. Conch. tab. 714. fig. 71.
  • Bulla lignaria. Wood. Penn. Brit. Zool. No. 83. tab. 70. fig. 83.
  • Oublie, ou papier roalé, tonne a bouche entiere. D'Avila. Cab. p. 206, No. 387.

This species is not very common. It is found on the coasts of Cornwall, Devonshire, and Dorsetshire, and also on several of the coasts of Ireland.

[Page]The length is generally from one inch and an half to two inches; the shell is brittle and without gloss, of a light, brownish colour, wrought transversely, with fine striae, and many narrow whitish veins. Its Latin and English names are derived from its supposed resemblance to a piece of veined wood.

This Shell is very open; its animal a slug.



GENERIC CHARACTER. Animal Limax. Univalve. spiral, or of a taper form. Aperture somewhat compressed, orbicular, entire.

SPECIFIC CHARACTER AND SYNONYMS. Shell taper, without umbilicus. Spires swelled and separated by a deep channel. Several regular elevated ribs or ridges extend in a longitudinal direction from the aperture to the apex.

  • TURBO CLATHRATUS: testa turrita ex umbilicata: anfractibus contignis laevibus. Gmel. Lin. Syst. Nat. Conch. p. 3603. sp. 63. — Faun. Suec. 2170.
  • Strombiformis minor albus aut pullo variegatus, costis longitudinalibus elatis eleganter distinctus. CLATHRATUS. Da Costa, Br. Conch. p. 115. sp. 67. tab. 7. fig. 11.
  • Cochlea variegata, striis raris admodum eminentibus exasperatae. List. H. Conch. tab. 588. fig. 51.
  • Turbo-Clathratus. Barred Wentletrap. Penn. Br. Zool. No. 111. tab. 81. fig. 111. 111. A.
  • Fausse scalata. D'Avila, p. 221. No. 427.

[Page]This is one of the most singular species that is found on the British coasts. It is very analagous to the famous Scalaris or Wentletrap of the East Indies, which bears such a high price amongst Conchologists; and from this analogy it is called the False Wentletrap. Its length is about an inch, and sometimes two inches or even more. The mouth is perfectly round, and bordered with a thick ring; from this ring arise several distinct equi-distant prominent ridges, generally eight in number, which extend the whole length of the shell in an obliquely longitudinal direction. These ridges appear the more remarkable and prominent, as the spires are very convex or swelled, and sepa­rated from each other by a deep spiral channel. The colour of most specimens is milk white, but is sometimes obscured with brown, or marked transversely with distinct circles of ferruginous interrupted lines.

Turbo Clathratus is found on several of the British coasts.




GENERIC CHARACTER. Bivalve. Frontal margin very blunt.

SPECIFIC CHARACTER AND SYNONYMS. Shell shallow, glossy. Outside fasciated with brown and purple. Inside purple. Margin crenated.

  • DONAX TRUNCULUS: testa antice laevi intus violacea, marginibus crenatis. Linn. Syst. Nat.
  • Tellina subfusca angustior, inter purpurascens. List. H. Conch. tab. 376. fig. 217.
  • Cuneus angustior laevis subfuscus vittis purpurascentibus fasciatus vittatus. Da Costa, Br. Conch. p. 207. sp. 41.
  • Donax trunculus. Yellow. Penn. Br. Zool. No. 45. tab. 55. fig. 45.

This pretty species is about one inch and a half in length. It is found on the coasts of Essex, Sussex and Cornwall, and also on those of Wales, Scotland and Ireland.


SPECIFIC CHARACTER. Oval. Outside rugged or wrinkled transversely with numerous raised membranous waved laminae or foliations.

  • DONAX IRUS: testa ovali, rugis membranaceis erectis striatis cincta. Cuneus parvus albescens, rugis foliaceis et membranaceis erectis transversim cinctus. Foliatus. Da Costa. Brit. Conch. p. 204.—Sp. 39. tab. 15. fig. 6.

Found in abundance in Cornwall buried in the sands, and not uncommon on the shores of Dorsetshire.




GENERIC CHARACTER. Animal Triton. Shell of many unequal valves; affixed by a stem.

SPECIFIC CHARACTER AND SYNONYMS. Shell conic, deeply furrowed, or wrought with prominent longi­tudinal ridges. Operculum sharp pointed.

  • LEPAS BALANUS: testa conica sulcata fixa, operculis acumunatis. Linn. Syst. Nat. p. 1107.
  • Balanus majusculus valvis porcatis. Porcatus. Da Costa, Br. Conch. p. 249. sp. 69.

Frequent on the British coasts, adhering to rocks, shells, &c.— It is large and strong species, being seldom less than the size of a filbert, of a conic form and rugged appearance, and is wrought with very prominent longitudinal ridges.


SPECIFIC CHARACTER. Shell somewhat conic. Ribs equidistant and diverging from the aperture. Operculum sharp pointed.

  • LEPAS COSTATA: testa subconica operculis acutis: valvulis costatis.

This curious and rare species, which has not been hitherto de­scribed or figured, was found by the late T. Adams, Esq. of Pem­broke, adhering to pieces of broken rock, and is in the possession of the Rev. T. Rachett, of Spetisbury, Dorset, to whose liberality we indebted for figures of this, and several other British shells not in­cluded in our own collection.


SPECIFIC CHARACTER. Conic. Smooth, valves pointed at the apex: aperture very small. LEPAS CONOIDES: testa conica laevi valvulis acuminatis, apertura angustissuna.

Found by Mr. Bryer of Weymouth, affixed to the Lepas anatifera.



GENERIC CHARACTER. Spiral, rough. The aperture ending in a strait and somewhat pro­duced gutter or canaliculation.

SPECIFIC CHARACTER AND SYNONYMS. Mouth wide, oval and somewhat elongated and cancellated at the upper end. Spires eight.

  • MUREX DESPECTUS: testa patulo subcaudata oblonga anfractibus octo. Gmel. Linn. Syst. Nat. p. 3547.
  • Buccinum album laeve, maximum, septem minimum spirarum. List. H. An. Angl. p. 155. tit. 1. tab. 3. fig. 1.
  • Buccinum rostratum majus crassum, orbibus paululum pulvinatis. List. H. Conch. tab. 913. fig. 4.
  • Murex Despectus. Despised. Penn. Br. Zool. t. 78. fig. 93.
  • Buccinum canaliculatum magnum crassum striatum album. MAG­NUM. Da Costa tab. 6. fig. 4. p. 120.

This is the largest of the turbinated univalves found in the British seas. It inhabits deep water, and is said to be a common shell on the [Page]Essex, Sussex, and many other of the English shores as well as in Scotland, the Orkneys and many of the Irish shores also. On the Dorset coast it is rare.

It is frequently drawn up with oysters, and is sometimes eaten; but as it is coarse food, it more commonly furnishes bait to fisher­men.

The largest shells of this sort, found in our seas, sometimes ex­ceeds five inches in length; it is a strong, thick, and heavy shell; of a whitish colour on the outside; within of a most lovely yellow, inclining to orange, smooth, and very glossy.




GENERIC CHARACTER. Two teeth near the beak; and another remote one on each side of the shell.

SPECIFIC CHARACTER AND SYNONYMS. Shell somewhat heart-shaped, and furrowed longitudinally, retuse on one side.

  • CARDIUM MEDIUM: testa subcordata, antice retusa longitudinali­ter striato sulcata. Linn. Syst. Nat. n. 77. p. 1122. List. Conch. t. 316. fig. 152. Gualt. t. 83. f. b. Chemn. Conch. t. 16. fig. 162.—165.

This shell has not hitherto been noticed as of English growth. Our specimen, which differs in no respect from those found in the Mediterranean sea, was found near Hartlepoole, on the coast of Durham.


SPECIFIC CHARACTER AND SYNONYMS. Shell roundish, inclining to heart shape. Ribs longitudinal, trian­gular, and beset along the ridges with thin spines.

  • CARDIUM CILIARE: testa subcordata, sulcis elevatis triquetris: extimis aculeato ciliatis. Linn. Syst. Nat. p. 1122. 80.
  • Pectunculus albus exiguus, muricibus insigniter exasperatus. Wal­lace Orkn. p. 44.
  • Pectunculus minimus triquetrus Essexiensis. Petiv. Gaz. tab. 93. fig. 11.
  • Cardium parvum tenue, costis triquetris aculeatis. Parvum. Da Costa Brit. Conch. p. 177. 17.

Pennant describes this species as having eighteen ribs, and Da Costa about fifteen; we have specimens that agree, in this respect, with the descriptions of both authors. The shell figured by the first is the size of a hazel nut; the latter says, he has never seen it larger than a nutmeg: a worn shell, with the habit of this species, that has been found since, is full twice that size.

This delicate shell is found on several of our coasts, as Cornwall, Dorsetshire, and Devonshire; also in the Orkneys.


SPECIFIC CHARACTER AND SYNONYMS. Nearly heart-shaped, somewhat angulated, furrows imbricated or beset with recurvated scales.

  • CARDIUM PYGMAEUM: testa subcordata, subangulata, sulcis recur­vato imbricatis.
  • Cardium exiguum. Gmel. Linn. Syst. Nat. p. 3255. sp. 37? List. Conch. t. 317. f. 154. Testacea minuta rariora t. 3 f. 83.

Size of a large currant, of a reddish brown, or sometimes whitish colour.

Found in Kent, and at Falmouth, in Cornwall




GENERIC CHARACTER. Animal Limax. Univalve, spiral, or of a taper form. Aperture some­what compressed, orbicular, entire.

SPECIFIC CHARACTER AND SYNONYMS. Shell with five spires: the first much swelled, the turban tapering and sharp pointed; striated spirally. Lip thin, and much spread on the pillar.

  • TURBO LITTOREUS: testa subovate acuta striata, margine columnari plano. Linn. Syst. Nat. p. 1232. No. 607. Fn. Sv. 2. 2169.
  • Turbo Littoreus, Periwinkle. Penn. Br. Zool. No. 109. tab. 81. fig. 109.
  • Turbo-pyramidalis crussus fuscus, striis crebris praeditus. Littoreus. Da Costa, Br. Conch. p. 98. 55.

It is needless to enter into detail on a species so well known as the Common Periwinkle; yet it may be proper to observe, these shells, in many instances, vary considerably. The young shells are reddish, [Page]whitish, yellowish, or brown, of various hues, sometimes uniform, or without any markings; at others, girdled spirally with darker colours. The adults also are sometimes bright red, orange, chesnut, or whitish, or olive, with, and sometimes without, the spiral lineations. They vary no less in size than in colours; and those of the Orkneys, in par­ticular, are quadruple, the size of those on the Irish or English coast.

It is said, the name Periwinkle is a corruption of Petty Winkle, or small Winkle, or Whelk.

Fig. I. I., &c. Adult vanities of Turbo Littoreus. Fig. II. II. the young shells.


SPECIFIC CHARACTER. Shell somewhat tapering, without umbilicus. Volutions of the spires, or turban swelled. Lip thick, and glossy within.

This shell has been kindly communicated by Dr. Maton, as a new species. It is noticed in the first volume of that gentleman's Obser­vations on the WESTERN COUNTIES; but has not, we believe, been hitherto figured. It was discovered on the banks of the Tamar, in Devonshire, near Bere-Alston, and is thus described:

[Page]"In the mud appeared a species of Turbo, which, though very similar to T. Littoreus (the common Periwinkle), has some cha­racters that seem to authorize its being considered as a different shell. The anfractus are much more swollen, as it were, than in the above species; the spire is more depressed; and, besides, there is no ap­pearance of striae, either transversely or longitudinally. This shell has a sort of distorted or rude contour, that may, perhaps, entitle it to the appellation of T. Rudis. Its colour is greenish." Page 277. vol. 1.



GENERIC CHARACTER. Animal a Tethys. Shell bivalve, unequal. The hinge without a tooth, having a small oval cavity.

SPECIFIC CHARACTER AND SYNONYMS. Eared. With about forty longitudinal rays. Shell irregular, or distorted.

  • Concha testa aurita, striis circiter quadraginta. Linn. F. Suec. 1. p. 384. No. 1345.
  • Pecten minimus angustior, inaequalis fere et asper, sinu ad cardinem cylindraceo, ceberrimis minutissimisque striis donatus. List. Hist. Angl. p. 186. tit. 31. tab. 5. fig. 31.
  • Pecten Pusio. Writhed. Penn. Br. Zool. No. 65. tab. 61. fig. 65.
  • Pecten minor alba, contusa proteiformis. Petiv. Gazoph. tab. 94. fig. 2.
  • Twisted Pectines of Stroma. Wallace, Orkn. p. 43, 44
  • Pecten parvus inaequalibus, informis, striatus. DISTORTUS, DIS­TORTED. Da Costa, Br. Conch. p. 148. tab. 10. fig. 3. 6.

[Page]Dissimilar as the several figures in this plate may appear, they are merely accidental varieties in size, growth, and colour of an individual species. These shells are generally about an inch, or more, in length, and of a somewhat globose shape; but so extremely irregular and dis­torted, that it can with difficulty be defined. Dr. Wallace calls these shells the twisted pectines of Stroma, a little island that lies in the Pightland Frith; he found them on some parts of the Orkneys, where he observed extraordinary cross and strong tides. The irregular form of these pectines rather surprised him. He adds, "I cannot think the odd strange tumbling the tides make there, can contribute any thing to that frame; yet, after all, I never see them in any other place."—These shells are now found on several of the English shores, as York­shire, Scarborough, Mouth of the River Tees, and Dorsetshire; and are also frequent in the fossil state, in the chalk pits of Kent and Surry. Both valves are convex, and much distorted, but the under one is usually the most irregular; the ribs are numerous, close set, longitu­dinal, and prominent. The inside of the lower valve is smooth and white, when alive, and that of the upper has a pearly gloss. The outside is generally of a dingy white, or yellowish cast; sometimes pale violet, or russety; or white mottled, and varied with brown, or brilliant red.

The ears of this shell are large, and nearly equal, but are often so distorted as to appear much otherwise. It is proper to observe, that though the irregular form this shell assumes may be attributed to some injury is has sustained in its growth, every shell of this species is constantly found with the same distorted appearance. This circum­stance leaves no reason to doubt that such distortions are characteristic of this extraordinary and peculiar species.



GENERIC CHARACTER. Spiral, rough. The aperture ending in a strait and somewhat pro­duced gutter or canaliculation.

SPECIFIC CHARACTER. AND SYNONYMS. Shell subangular, rugose, or covered entirely with raised scales or points. Spires six.

  • MUREX ERINACEUS: testa multifarium subfrondoso-spinosa, spirae anfractibus retuso coronatis, cauda abbrevi­ata. Linn. Syst. Nat. 526. p. 1216.— Gmel. Linn. Syst. Nat. p. 3530.
  • Buccinum majus canaliculatum, rostratum, ore labioso, fimbriatum, umblicatum, ore angusto, oblongo, rugosum, costu­latum, striis eminentibus reticulatim exasperatum, albidum. Gualt. 1. Conch. Tab. 49. fig. H.
  • MUREX ERINACEUS. Urchin. Penn. Br. Zool. No. 95. tab. 76. fig. 95. Seba. Mus. 3. t. 49. fig. 78, 79.—Martin. Conch. 3. t. 110. f. 1026—8.
  • Buccinum longirostrum medium subangulatum, porcis spiralibus dis­tinctum. Porcatum. Da Costa. tab. 8. fig. 7.7. p. 133.

[Page]Found on the coast of Cornwall, and Dorsetshire, and also on that of Hilbree island in Cheshire.




GENERIC CHARACTER. Animal Triton. Shell of many unequal valves: affixed by a stem.

SPECIFIC CHARACTER AND SYNONYMS. Sell rather depressed and ribbed obliquely.

  • LEPAS INTERTEXTA: testa subdepressa oblique costata.
  • Lepas striata. Penn. Br. Zool. t. 38. f. 7. Walker test. min. rar. f. 87.

This rare species is the Lepas intertexta of the Portland Museum; it was fished up at Weymouth, adhering to a valve of the Ostrea sub­rufus.

The shells of this genus are in general very complex in structure, the present is particularly so. Several shells of the natural size is re­presented on the orange space of the Ostrea, Fig. I.—Three figures are added to exhibit their magnified appearance; to distinguish these, the space is coloured green.


SPECIFIC CHARACTER AND SYNOYMS. Shell conic truncated, of six valves. Operculum bifid.

  • LEPAS BALANOIDES: testa conica truncata; operculo obtuso Linn. Faun. Suec. 1. p. 385. No. 1348 2. No. 2123.
  • Balanus vulgaris parvus conicus é senis laminis compositus, vertice operculo bifido rhomboide occuluso. Da Br. Conch. p. 248. sp. 68. tab. 17. fig. 7.
  • Balanus cinereus, velut é senis laminis striatis compositus, ipso vertice altera testa, bifida, rhomboide occluso. Balani parva species. List. H. An. Angl. p. 196. tit. 41. tab. 5. fig. 41.

These shells are found in the greatest abundance on all the British shores, adhering to rocks, shells, &c. &c.

Da Costa says, this species, when not affixed on flat, but unevea surfaces, sometimes, but rarely, extend down into a pretty long rugged tubular stalk or root. This variety is noted by Pennant, and an ex­traordinary, but mutilated specimen of it, is shewn at fig. 3.


LEPAS balanus301.1.
— balanoides362.3.
— costata302.
— conoides303.
— intertexta361.
— anatifera7 
Tellina bimaculata291.1.
— tenuis292.2.
Cardium aculeatum6 
— medium321.
— ciliare322.
— pygmeum323.3.
Donax crenulata24 
— trunculus291.1.
— irus292.2.
Venus Chione17 
Ostrea varia11.1.1.
— subrufus12 
— pusio34 
— obsoletus12.
Anomia Ephippium26 
Mytilus modiolus23 
— discors25 
Pinna muricata10 
Bulla lignaria27 
Buccinum Lapillus11 
— Lineatum15 
Strombus Pes Pelecani4 
Murex despectus31 
— Erinaceus35 
Trochus magus81.
— Conulus82.3.
Turbo littoreus331.2.
— rudis333.
— terebra222.
— cinctus221.1.
— clathrus28 
— fasciatus181.1.
— cimex21.1.
— pullus22.
Helix nemeralis13 
Nerita glaucina201.1.
— Lttoralis202.2.
— fluvialitis162.
— pallidus161.
Haliotis tuberculata5 
Patella vulgata14 
— ungaria211.
— parva212.2.
— reticulata213.3.
— pellucida31.1.1.
— fissura32.
Serpula spirorbus9 


PATELLA vulgaris, common14 
Patella parva, small212.2.
Patella coeruleata, blue rayed31.1.
Patella fissura, slit32.2.
Patella pileus morionis major, large fool's cap211.
Patella reticulata, reticulated masque limpet213.3.
Haliotis vulgaris, common5 
Serpula spirorbis, spiral9 
Bulla lignaria, wood27 
—conulus, conule82.3.
Trochus tuberculatus, knobbed81.
Nerita Fluviatilis. River162.
Nerita Littoralis. Strand202.2.
Nerita Pallidulus, pale161.
Cochlea fasciata, girdled13 
Cochlea catena. Chain20.1.1.
Tutho fasciatus. Fasciated181.1.
Turbo Littoreus, periwinkle331.2.
Turbo pictus, painted22, 3, 4, 5, 6
Turbo cancellatus, latticed21.1.
Strombiformis terebra, auger222.
Strombiformis cinctus, girdled221.1.
Strombiformis clathratus, barred or false wentletrap28 
Buccinum magnum, large31 
Purpuro-Buccinum, purple whelke11 
Aporrhais quadrifidus, four fingered4 
Pecten pictus, painted12 
Pecten distortus, distorted34 
Pecten monotis, one eared11.1.
Pecten parvus, small12.
Anomia tunica cepae, onion peel26 
Cardium aculeatum, spiked6 
Cardium parvum, sm [...]ll322.
Pectunculus glaber, smooth17 
Cuneus fasciatus, fasciated  
Cuneus foliatus, foliated292.2.
Cuneus truncatus, truncated24 
Cuneus vittatus, ribband291.1.
Mytilus Modiolus, great23 
Mytilus discors, divided25 
Pinna muricata, thorny10 
Balanus vulgaris, common362.3.
Balanus porcatus, ridged301.
Balanus anatiferus barnacle7 


ACULEATUM, Cardium, Spiked Cockle6 
Anatifera, Lepas, Barnacle7 
Balanoides, Lepas362.
Balanus, Lepas301.1.
Bimaculata Tellina, Double Spot Tellen191.1.
Chione, Venus17 
Ciliare, Cardium322.
Cimex, Turbo, Latticed Whelk21.1.
Cinctus, Turbo, girdled221.1.
Clathratus, Turbo, False Wentletrap28 
Conoides, Lepas, Conio Acornshell303.
Conulus, Trochus, Conule82.3.
Costata, Lepas, Ribbed Acorn-shell302.
Despectus Murex, Despised Whelk31 
Discors, Mytilus, divided251.
Erinaceus, Murex35 
Fasciatus, Turbo, fasciated181.1.
Fissura, Patella, Slip Limpet3 
Fluviatilis, Nerita, River Nerit162.2.
Glaucina, Nerita, Chain Nerit201.1.
Hungarica, Patella, Large Fool's Cap, Limpet211.1.
Intertexta Lepas, Striated Acorn Shell361.
Irius Tellina, Foliated Purr292.2.
Lapillus, Buccinum, Massy, or Purple Whelk11 
Lignaria Bulla27 
Lineatum, Buccinum, lineated15 
Litoralis, Nerita202.2.
Littoreus, Turbo331.1.2.
Magus, Trochus, Tuberculated Top Shell81.
Medium Cardium, Pigeon's Heart Cockle321.
Mediolus Mytilus23 
Muricata Pinna, Thorny Wing, or Sea Ham10 
Nemoralis, Helix, Girdled Snail13 
Obsoletus, Pecten12.2.
Pallidulus, Nerita, Pale Nerit161.
Pellucida, Patella, Blue Rayed Limpet31.1.
Pes Pelecani, Strombus, Corvorant's Foot4 
Pullus, Turbo, Painted Whelk22.3.4.3.
Pusio, Ostrea, distorted34 
Pygmeum, Cardium, Small Cockle323.
Reticulata, Patella, Reticulated Mask Limpet213.
Rudis, Turbo, Thicklipped333.3.
Subrufus, Ostrea12 
Spirorbis, Serpula, Wrackspangle9 
Tenuis, Tellina, Thin Tellen192.2.
Terebra, Turbo222.2.
Trune-culus, Tellina291.1.
Tuberculata, Haliotis, Tuberculated Sea Ear5 
Varia Ostrea, Variegated, or One-eared Scallop1 
Vulgata, Patella, Common Limpet14 

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