THE WHOLE Faithfully Extracted from the JOURNALS of the VOYAGERS.

  • DRAKE, undertaken in 157 [...] ▪80
  • CAVENDISH, 1586▪88
  • COWLEY, 1683-86
  • DAMPIER, 1689▪9 [...]
  • COOKE, 1708-11
  • ROGERS, 1708-11
  • ANSON, undertaken in 1740-44
  • BYRON, 1764-66
  • WALLIS, 1766▪68
  • CARTERET, 1766-68
  • And COOK, 1768-71

TOGETHER WITH That of SYDNEY PARKINSON, Draftsman to JOSEPH BANKS, Esq who circumnavigated the Globe with Capt. COOK, in his Majesty's Ship the ENDEAVOUR.

AND The Voyage of Mons. BOUGAINVILLE round the World, Performed by Order of the French King. Illustrated with Maps, Charts, and Historical Prints.


To which is added, An APPENDIX. Containing the JOURNAL of a VOYAGE to the NORTH POLE, by the Hon. Com­modore PHIPPS. and Captain LUTWIDGE.


LONDON: Printed for F. NEWBERY, the Corner of St. Paul's Church-Yard. MDCCLXXIV.


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Directions to the Bookbinder for placing the Plates.

In VOL. I.
  • MAP of Mex [...]co and South Am [...]rica to be placed at the beginning.
  • Horn Island ( [...]) to face page xxxviii
  • Head of Sir Francis Drake 1
  • Drake [...] off to Sea on a [...] 41
  • Beheading [...] Capt. Doughty 88
  • Drake [...] the Caraf [...]ego, a [...] S [...]a [...]sh sh [...]p 113
  • Drake [...]veying [...] the Spanish J [...] and [...]riminal savages 118
  • Drake r [...]ce [...]ving the Crown from the [...] of New A [...]son 123
  • Cave [...]h plundering and b [...]ing Paita 191
  • The K [...] of Ja [...]a s Wives destroying [...]mse [...]ves 226
  • Caven [...]sh s Cre [...] in g [...]eat distress, [...] 250
  • Capt. Dav [...]s's men taken of a rock 304
  • Dampier s men s [...]ng oxen, mul [...]s, &c. at a farm-house 340
  • Capt. Swan enterta [...]ned by Rajah Laut 370
  • Dampier and [...] a storm 412
  • Cowley [...] men taking [...] Juan Fernandez 440
I [...] VOL II
  • Alexander Selkirk making his [...] dance 24
  • Mis [...] Pl [...] of fish [...] 48
  • Mr Hatley and crew whipped 89
  • D [...]stressed situation of the Suc [...]ess 120
  • Sea- [...] [...] 181
  • [...] in a deer's skin 229
  • [...] from fishing, and another in his bark-log 280
  • Lawn where Commodore Anson pitched his tent at Juan Fernandez 289
  • The [...], Tamar, Swallow, En­deavour, and M [...] [...] joined, and placed at [...]he beg [...]
  • [...] Patagonia [...] to face page 11
  • [...] 18
  • [...] 22
  • [...] Q [...] of [...] of Capt. Wallis 9 [...]
  • [...] the island of Terra del Fuego 19 [...]
  • M [...] the new [...] 218
  • Mr [...] visit from the King of the D. York s Island 238
  • [...] 25 [...]
  • [...] 2 [...]0
  • A [...] of his [...] 28 [...]
  • [...] [...]
  • [...] [...]
  • [...] [...]
  • [...] N [...] Zea [...]nd [...]
  • [...] [...]
  • N [...] Zea [...] [...] [...]
  • [...] N [...]w Zeala [...]d [...] enemies [...]
I [...] V [...] IV.
  • [...]


PERHAPS there never was brought together, in so small a compass, in any language, a more co­pious collection of rational entertainment, than will be met with in the following sheets. To trace the progress of the discoveries that have successively been made in passing round the globe, must fill the reader's mind with such a variety of new objects, as cannot fail to raise his wonder, and entertain him with infi­nite delight.

He will, in this work, be safely conducted through regions that were once thought inaccessible, and be made acquainted with countries altogether different from that in which he dwells. Every page he reads will furnish him with novelties, and every Voyage will bring him nearer to that unknown count [...]y, in ear [...]h of which so many [...] comman [...]er have been sent in vain.

The discovery of the western continent, by Co [...]um­bu [...], gave geographers reason to believe, that a like con­ [...] existed somewhere in the south. Without such [...] [...]qu [...]poise they could not conceive how the globe could preserve its balance.

Magell [...]a [...]n, a Portuguese mariner, was the first who attempted to immortalize his [...] by the disco­ [...] He pa [...] the S [...], that to this day bear [...], and entered the Pacific Oc [...]an, where no Eu­ [...]pean vessel had ever sailed before. He d [...]scovered the [...] and Phillippine Isles, and returned by the Cape [...] Good Hope, having surrounded the whole earth, and proved, [...] d [...]monstration, the spherical figure of the globe.

He was followed by navigators of different nations, who, emulous of his glory, sought to pursue the track, [...] had pointed out, with better success; but the [...]gers they encountered, and the disasters they met [...], rendered the difficulties that attended the prose­ [...]tion [...]nsurmountable; many perished, and those who [...]ved wer [...] glad to return home after a fruitless search.

The ill success which attended these first attempts [...] a damp upon the enterprize, and [...] remained [...] unnoticed, except in the writings of the learned. [Page iv] [...] [Page v] side the globe? Did not the little Phoenician state reap a more glorious harvest from the discoveries of its mer­chants, than Alexander could boast from all his conquests? Was it not the perseverance of the Princes Henry, John, and Emanuel, in supporting the charges of pro­secuting new discoveries in the fifteenth century, that laid the foundation of the Portuguese greatness, whose territories in Europe are of no considerable extent?

If the glory of aggrandizing a state, and perpetu­ating a name to posterity be the first object of human ambition, where, among all the tyrants who have de­populated the earth, can be produced a conqueror, whose name will be remembered, when that of Chris­topher Columbus is forgotten? Or where shall we look for a monarch, who, after having spread murder and desolation throughout the world, descended to the grave with that heart-felt satisfaction that attended the Flo­rentine merchant Americus Vespucius, when he saw all Europe agreeing, with one consent, to transfer his name to more than a third part of th [...] terr [...]strial globe?

The success which has attended our grac [...]ous Mo­narch's first essays in the Voyages we are [...] about to relate, though [...] has yet produced no [...] advantages to compensate the sums expen [...]d [...] the pros [...]cution of them, yet it has been such as to open the way to new islands, from whose inhabitants new arts may be learnt, and from whose productions new acquisitions may be made, both to the vegetable and fossil kingdom, by which the regions of science may be enlarged, and the gardens of the curious enriched and beautiful.

It is no small satisfaction to an inquisitive mind (were there no other advantage to be gained from these Voyages) to be made acquainted with the genius, the arts, the various pursuits, the customs, the manners, the religious nations, the distin [...]tions of rank, and the subordination that is to be met with among the people of various islands and countries, distinct from each other, and from [...] language, habits, learning, and ways of living. Who is it that can read of the po­verty and misery of the wretched inhabitants of Terra del Fuego, who have nothing but the skins of beasts loosely thrown over them, to defend them from the se­verity [Page vi] [...] [Page vii] meaner sort, with which their benefactors were re­quited?

The variety of incidents that happened in the course of these Voyages, when they come to be historically recited, unencumbered with the jargon of sea-phrases, will afford a fund of entertainment, seldom to be met with in the productions of the press. The many sin­gular adventures, unforeseen dangers, and providential escapes, that every ship experienced in passing round the globe, can only be conceived by those who read, and be­lieved by those who have seen the wonders of the deep.

Nothing can excite or gratify curiosity more than re­lations of marvellous events that happen in succession, and in circumstances equally critical and important. The moment a ship launches into the ocean to proceed on new discoveries, every man on board demands his share of attention as well as the commanding officer. The story of the black, who, with his two compa­nions, perished on the mountains of Terra del Fuego, is no less affecting than that of the murder of the poor Indians, who set the Endeavour at defiance, and bravely opposed the landing of the crew.

There is not an object that presents itself either by sea or land, but affords some degree of use or specula­tion. The fish that swarm about the ship, and the fowls that present themselves in the ocean, are indica­tions by which the skilful ma [...]er avails himself, ei­the [...] to guard against the storm, or to prepare for land; and the reader, as circumstances arise, either shares h [...]s danger, or partakes of hi [...] refreshment.

When the Endeavour is encircled in the wide ocean with rocks of co [...], her sheathing beaten off, and her [...] floating by her side, a [...] her bottom, [...] fainting at the pumps, what heart is so callous, as not to sympathize with the de­ [...]ing crew [...] and, anxious fo [...] their safety, drop a [...] for their deliverance?

And what [...] be the [...] of every [...]ling heart, [...], after [...] hundred leagues, and arriving [...] Batavia, at [...] her planks [...] the keel, and [...] in the ship's bottom, were, for six [...] together, rubbed thinner, by [...]er [Page viii] [...]


PREVIOUS to our entering upon the de­tail of the discoveries and adventures of the English navigators who have surrounded the globe, it may, perhaps, afford some entertain­ment to the curious reader, to be made ac­quainted with the first steps that led to so bold an undertaking, and with the characters of those happy geniuses, who not only conceived the plan, but contributed not a little by their example to facilitate the execution.

We are told that the shadow seen in the moon in the time of her eclipse, first pointed out to the early navigators the true figure of the earth; and that, from this simple observa­tion, Columbus, by revolving it in his mind, deduced the possibility of passing round its sur­face, or, to speak with more precision, of sail­ing from one side of the continent to the other; for as yet one great continent, and one great ocean, with their appendages, were thought to compose the whole material world.

Full of this idea, he was naturally led to con­clude, that, by sailing in a direct course from any given point of land on one side, he must of necessity arrive at another point of land in the same parallel on the opposite side, provided his [Page ii] provisions were proportioned to the voyage, and no accident from tempests or shipwreck inter­vened to interrupt his progress. It was on this obvious principle that Columbus founded the cer­tainty of his discovery; the infallibility of which served to support his hopes, when absolute des­pair had seized the greatest part of his followers.

It is true, that, though the figure of the earth was in effect conceived, yet its dimensions were wholly unknown: but as the road over-land to the eastern coasts of the continent was no secret, Columbus was persuaded that a passage by sea by a western course, if no intermediate lands prevented, would assuredly bring him to the same coasts. From his knowledge, there­fore, of the position of those countries, from whence the rich productions of the East were circulated through all the kingdoms of the West, he was led to steer, first, a south-west, and then a direct west course, which brought him among those broken fragments of the western continent, which he at first mistook for the islands of the Indian Ocean, and to the richest of which he imagined another voyage would certainly open a passage.

The discovery being once made, the principle upon which it was grounded could no longer be concealed. Those belonging to the naval de­partment about the Court of Spain, who had been most violent in opposing the undertaking, as appearing to them in no better light than as [Page iii] the visionary conceit of some crack brained pro­jector, now assumed another tone, and affected to speak of it as a discovery that required no extraordinary talents to accomplish; that it was not the result of science, but a thing that must follow of course to the first adventurer; and that it was fortunate for Columbus that he could prevail upon their Majesties to furnish the means to undertake it, as with such encouragemen [...] there were not wanting officers in the royal navy much better qualified to have conducted the enterprize, tho' by his unparalleled assurance he had obtained the preference. In this slight and contemptuous manner it was the humour at court to speak of the new discovery; and though Columbus, after his return, was for a while caressed by the Royal Family, yet the frequent repetition of these indignities could not fail in time to lessen the idea of the merit of a man who had no advocate to support his credit but the evidence of his own superior abi­lities. At a court-entertainment, however, to which he was invited, an incident happened that contributed not a little to heighten his character, and mortify his enemies. The conversation at table turned, as was usual, upon the importance of the new discoveries; and though all seemed to agree, that the advantages would be immense that must inevitably result to Spain, yet little they thought was due to the first discoverer, because any ordinary seaman, by keeping his ship's head to the westward, must have fallen in [Page iv] with the same countries. Columbus, without seeming to regard their discourse, when dinner was over, and the table uncovered, called for an egg, and twirling it about with his hand, as if by way of amusement, asked if any of the company could make that egg stand upon its little end without additional support. The company, after trying their skill, pronounced the thing im­possible; when Columbus, taking it again in his hand, and bruising the shell a little at bottom with his nail, produced it upon the table stand­ing upright. The company all fell a-laughing, and one cried out, that any fool could do as much as that. I doubt not, replied Columbus, but any of you may do it, now you have seen it done; and so may any miserable pilot in the navy sail to the Indies, now that I have pointed out the track; but till the issue had shewn it practicable, addressing himself to the naval gen­tlemen, that, too, you pronounced an impossible thing. The King and his royal consort, parti­cularly the latter, were highly pleased when they were told this story, admiring the promptness of a mind whi [...]h, ever collected, neither malice nor envy could disconcert.

Other navigators equally enterprizing, tho' less sagacious, were now inflamed with the de­sire of immortalizing their names by new under­takings; so that it is no wonder that the busi­ness of discovery went rapidly on for a succeed­ing century.

It was in 1492 that Columbus made his first [Page v] expedition to the Bahama Islands; and in 1496, John Cabbot, in the service of England, disco­vered the continent of North America.

Columbus, in his first voyage, had not yet conceived the idea of a double continent, but believed, as we have already noted, that he had discovered a passage by sea to those islands in the East that were already known by the name of the East Indies; in conformity to which he gave to the islands that he discovered the appellation of the West Indies, which they retain to this day.

In 1493, having made a second voyage, and carried his discoveries considerably farther to the South, it is said, he received some faint notions of a sea beyond a great land, by which the islands he had first discovered were bounded; but it was not till after his third voyage in 1497, that he attained a sight of that continent which Cabbot had discovered the year before.

It may seem, from what has just been said, that the eastern passage to the Indian Ocean had been discovered by the Portuguese; and that the East Indies were known to that people be­fore this western discovery by Columbus: but, though several journies by land had been made, with a view to the opening an advantageous commerce with the eastern countries, by Portu­guese Ambassadors well instructed in the Ara­bian language, by whose address some progress had been made in that business, yet it was not till 1495 that Bartholomew Diaz doubled the Cape of Good Hope, nor till the year 1497 [Page vi] (the same year that the American continent was discovered by Cabbot), that Don Vasquez de Gama, by steering the nearest course, passed the Cape, which Diaz had discovered, and sailed into the Indian Ocean, where he afterwards made considerable conquests, and by his pru­dent management very suddenly diverted the current of Indian commerce into an entire new channel. The notion, therefore, that Columbus borrowed his idea of a western passage from the discoveries made by the Portuguese towards the East, is ill founded. These last had, indeed, made a considerable progress in their discoveries by land; but the passages to the Eastern and Wes­tern Indies by sea were discovered about the same time, without the least connection or intelligence between the respective discoverers. And here we cannot help entering our protest against the honour ascribed to Columbus by Mr. Campbell, and other judicious naval historians, as being the first circumnavigator, because, as Mr. Camp­bell observes, ‘"it was his [Columbus's] opinion, that there was a passage from the North Sea into the South, and from thence it might be very possible to sail to the East Indies."—’That it was the opinion of Columbus, that there was a western passage to the East Indies is rea­dily granted; it was his original idea: but that there was a passage from the East Indies to Eu­rope, without returning the same way he went, he could have no conception of, till after the passage by the Cape of Good Hope was disco­vered [Page vii] by the Portuguese. Had he dreamt of an eastern passage by sea to the East Indies, he would most certainly have preferred it to a wes­tern passage, because it might have been per­formed without losing sight of land; and there­fore, with much less risque than by launching into an immense unknown ocean, of which no one could tell the extent. But his notion was, that the earth, like a bowl, inclosed the sea, and that it could only be traversed from side to side by water, and then from shore to shore by land. Many irrefragable proofs of his having no con­ception of sailing round the globe might be ad­duced; but that of his returning the same way back a second time, without his knowing for cer­tainty, or believing there was any other sea to sail upon, or having even determined the extent of that sea on which he had already ventured so far, may serve without farther proof to convince the intelligent reader, that Columbus had never thought of but one sea when he undertook his discovery, and that that sea was only to be crossed from West to East, and vice versâ.

But to proceed:—Soon after the eastern pas­sage to the Indies was laid open, the coast of Brazil, opposite to the Cape of Good Hope, was discovered by Cabral, a Portuguese pilot, who was driven out of his course by stress of weather. The same coast was likewise disco­vered the same year by Yannez Pinçon, who commanded a carvel that accompanied Colum­bus in his first expedition to the West Indies. This man contested the honour of the first dis­covery [Page viii] with Columbus, and insisted that it was through his perseverance alone that land was de­scried, the crew of Columbus having absolutely determined to steer back before the discovery took place. Be that as it may, this able mariner afterwards examined the coast from the Bay of Mexico to the Equinoctial Line, and, in the year 1500, discovered the great river of Ama­zons, which it was thought would have opened a passage to the South Sea.

In 1502, Columbus made his fourth and last expedition, when he fully satisfied himself, that the islands he had discovered were totally dis­connected from those he went in quest of, and that another continent existed besides that which was known to Europeans. He was still, how­ever, of opinion, that a western passage to the old continent from the new would be practi­cable, whenever a way was found to the Great Sea by which it was surrounded: and now it is not at all improbable but that he might fortel what afterwards came to pass, that one day or other the whole globe might be circumnavigat­ed, though he did not live to see it executed.

In 1509, the Portuguese first found the way to Sumatra, and from thence extended their disco­veries to the Moluccas.

About this time a contest arose between the Spaniards and Portuguese, concerning the right of possessing countries, to which neither of them had any other claim than that of being the first Europeans who happened to land upon their coasts: a claim of the same kind his Otaheitean [Page ix] Majesty may pretend to the western part of Eu­rope, his subject Aotourou being the first Tro­pical inhabitant from the S. Sea that ever set foot on that continent. This contest, however, the Pope took upon him to decide; and, to prevent the bloody consequences that might ensue be­tween two such powerful competitors, he pub­lished a bull, which, at that time of blind obe­dience, was held decisive, decreeing, that what­ever discoveries were made to the westward should belong to Spain, and such as were made to the eastward, to Portugal. This seemed for a while to content both parties; but, in 1520, Ferdinand Magellan, or Magellhanes, as Mr. Dalrymple affects to call him, having made his famous discovery to the Molucca Islands by a new passage, the contest was again revived, and the competitors claimed a second time the Pope's interposition to settle the limits of their respec­tive claims by more precise and determinate boundaries. The claims of the Spaniards were now extended to near three parts of the globe; and those of the Portuguese, which by a false representation had been much diminished, were now to be restored, or rather regulated by a more exact standard. The two contending powers were to divide the globe between them, by what was then stiled a line of demarkacion. This line was to cut the globe into two hemi­spheres, and was to be acknowledged a first me­ridian: all the discoveries in the western hemi­sphere were to belong to Spain; and all in the [Page x] eastern to Portugal. But still there arose a dis­pute about the precise spot where this meridian line should be fixed. By the Pope's bull it had been placed 100 leagues to the westward of St. Antonio, one of the islands of Cape Verde; but, by this new regulation, it was removed 270 leagues farther to the west. This altera­tion was intended to deprive Portugal of the possession of the Moluccas; but the Portuguese pilots were not to be thus deceived: they suf­fered the line of demarkacion to be fixed; but, when it was finally determined, they insisted on their right to the Moluccas, as still within their limits, and future observations have since con­firmed their claims. But, notwithstanding the justice of their claims (if justice can at all be admitted to exist in cases of usurpation), the Spaniards held the Moluccas till 1529, when the Portuguese purchased an exclusive right of trading to them by a loan of 350,000 ducats.—But to return from this digression:

We have already observed, that the coast of Brazil, and the river of Amazons, was first disco­vered by Yannez Pinçon, in 1500; but it was not till twelve years afterwards that John de Solis discovered the river Plate.

In 1513, Vasco Nunez de Bilboa got sight of the Great South Sea, from the mountains of Pancas in the province of Panama; and from that time Ferdinand Magellan, a Portuguese officer, conceived the design of surrounding the globe, by finding a passage by which he might [Page xi] enter that sea. He now began to consider the earth as divided into two continents, with their concomitant seas; and, as a promontory was found, by the doubling of which one con­tinent might be visited on both sides, he made no doubt but that another promontory existed, by which the other might be visited in like man­ner. Perhaps the idea of a strait might not at first strike his mind, till the opening at Cape Virgin suggested it. His original thought was to coast along to the southward, as the land trended; and by perseverance, he persuad­ed himself, that a boundary would be found, by which the land of the new continent would be terminated, though he did not, nor could not then ascertain to what height it might reach. He had in view a nearer way to the Moluccas than that by the Cape of Good Hope; and he at first imparted his views to the Ministers of his Court, who, probably suspecting that by such a passage the right to the Moluccas might be brought in question by Spain, treated his project with a contemptuous neglect. To a man full of the importance of such a discovery, nothing could be more mortifying. He deter­mined, since he was so coolly received at home, to try his fortune abroad. For this purpose he repaired to the court of Spain, where, after making himself known to the leading Minister, he undertook to prove the Moluccas, and other rich islands then reputed in the East, to be within the Spanish line of demarkacion to the [Page xii] West, and by a new passage to them he engag­ed to confirm the truth of what he advanced incontestibly.

These propositions, after being properly exa­mined, and approved by the ablest astronomers and geographers at that time in Spain, was ea­gerly embraced by the Emperor Charles the Fifth, an enterprizing Prince, who then held the kingdom, and who gave him audience in the council-chamber at Saragossa, and conferred upon him, and his companion Ruy Falero, the order of St. Jago, both of whom his Imperial Majesty honoured with the title of his Captains.

This encouragement, and these honours, could not fail to alarm the Court of Portugal: but all the interest and opposition which Alvaro de Acasto, the Portuguese Ambassador, could make, had no effect; the preparations for the voyage were prosecuted with more than ordi­nary diligence, and five ships were soon got in readiness to put to sea.

But, previous to their setting sail, a difference [...] concerning the necessary forms of com­mons, which had well nigh ruined the voyage before it was undertaken; the honour of carry­ing the royal st [...]ndard was contested by Ruy Falero, and some other indignities were offered to Magellan on account of his country. These, however, were redressed by the interposition of the imperial authority; Ruy Falero was per­suaded to suspend his departure on account of his health, and Magellan was declared General [Page xiii] of the squadron, which was now committed to his sole direction.

On the 10th of August, 1519, this little fleet, consisting of the Admiral's ship; the St. Anto­nio, Capt. Juan de Cartagena, Vice-Admiral; the Victoria, Capt. Luys de Mendoça, Rear-Admiral; the St. Jago, Capt. Juan Rodriguez Serrano; and the Conception, of which Gasper de Quezada was Master; left Cadiz, and pro­ceeded to Teneriff, from whence they took their departure, on the 2d of September, and on the 13th of December arrived at Rio de Janeiro, on the coast of Brazil, where they staid till the 27th; and, after being plentifully sup­plied with all necessary refreshments at a very moderate price, they weighed anchor, and con­tinued their voyage, in the course of which much discontent arose concerning the track they were to steer; but on Easter evening they entered St. Julian river, and were next day or­dered on shore by the General to hear mass. Three of the Captains refused to obey; namely, Luys de Mendoça, Gasper de Quezada, and Juan de Cartagena, this last being already in arrest for disrespect to his General.

Their disobedience put Magellan on his guard. He perceived that the majority both of officers and men were averse to the under­taking, and that a general murmuring prevailed throughout the whole squadron. Only a few trusty friends were ready to support their Ge­neral, and willing to follow wherever he should [Page xiv] lead. The weather was now set in very severe, and the Spaniards, unused to the rigour of such a climate, were hardly to be restrained. They re­presented the inutility of proceeding, as they were already in a climate too boisterous and inclement to be navigated by Spaniards; that it could never be the Emperor's intention to sa­crifice the lives of his subjects, without the least prospect of advantage to the State; and that now it was manifest, though the discovery were certain, the navigation would be impracticable, and therefore useless. To these representations and others more full of asperity, Magellan coolly made answer, ‘"that he was determined to die rather than return back; that he should pass the winter where he then was; and that neither provisions nor wine should be want­ing to those who would be contented with a moderate allowance; but that if any persisted, in spreading discontents, and encouraging dis­obedience, he knew how to punish as well as to reward."’

Barros says, that the three Captains Carto­gena, Quezada, and Mendoça, conspired together to kill Magellan, and to return and make their report of the usage they had met with, and the hardships they had endured in the voyage; but Magellan, considering the danger, and that in certain circumstances temerity is better than cau­tion, ordered the people of his own ship to arms; and, manning his boat with thirty trusty friends, he clapt the Victoria aboard; and while Men­doça [Page xv] was reading a letter directed to him from the General, the messenger that delivered it stabbed him to the heart.—The moment the order was executed, the thirty men entered to the assistance of the assassin, and quietly took possession of the ship. This done a council of war was called, and a conspiracy was detected, in which more than forty of the principal peo­ple on board the several ships were found to be deeply concerned; but Magellan, that he might not appear too sanguinary or vindictive, sen­tenced Quezada only to be executed, and Car­tagena to be left on shore, accompanied by a French Priest; a punishment that probably was worse than immediate death, as it subjected the criminals to hardships, which instant execution would have prevented. Mendoça and Quezada, he ordered to be quartered as traitors, to strike the disaffected with the greater terror. This put an end to all opposition for the present.

When the winter months drew towards a con­clusion, Magellan was vigilant to hasten the departure of his fleet; and, as soon as the cold abated, he dispatched Serrano to coast along the shore to make observations. Serrano, at about twenty leagues distance, found a river a league broad at the entrance, which he named St. Cruz, because he fell in with it on that Saint's day. In examining this river, and in fishing for seals, he spent six days, at the end of which a furious storm arose, which split his sails, and drove his ship on shore, where she bulged, and was beaten [Page xvi] to pieces. The crew, however, were saved, but reduced to the last extremity for want of food. Two of the company undertook to travel over land, to give the General notice of the miserable situation of their fellow-sufferers; and, after 11 days fatigue, they at length surmounted every difficulty, and accomplished their purpose. Ma­gellan, pitying their distresses, sent a vessel with provisions, which came seasonably to their relief.

The time for sailing being now come, and the ships in readiness, they left the bay of St. Julian on the 24th of August, 1520, after setting Juan de Cartagena, and Pedro Sanchez de Re­vora, the Priest, who was also found deep in the plot, ashore on that desolate coast. They sup­plied them plentifully with bread and wine; but as they were never afterwards heard of, there can be no doubt of their perishing miserably.

The squadron, consisting now of four ships, kept coasting along to the southward, with immi­nent danger of shipwreck, till towards the latter end of October, when they fell in with a pro­montory, which the General named Cape Vir­gin, because it was discovered on St. Ursula's-day. This Cape opened an inlet, which Ma­gellan judged favourable to his design. He cast anchor at the entrance of the inlet, and or­dered two ships to examine its course. In five days these ships returned, and one of them affirmed it was a strait, because the flood was greater than the ebb; the other reported that [Page xvii] they saw nothing but inlets and breakers. The General, on these different relations, determined to sail into the opening, in order to be more precisely informed. He accordingly weighed, and came to an anchor in a commodious bay, where he first sent his skiff with 10 men to re­connoitre the shore, and then the St. Antonio to trace out the inlet to a certain distance. When the men returned from the shore, they said, they had found a burying-place with more than 200 graves, and had seen the skeleton of a whale in a cove upon the beach, but had seen neither house nor inhabitant. The Captain of the St. Antonio on his return gave a more flat­tering account. He said, he had followed the inlet for more than 50 leagues; that its course was due east and west; and that he made not the least doubt but that it was the passage so much desired. This news was received with repeated acclamations. A council was called of the chief officers and pilots, in which a very warm debate arose, whether, in the circumstances the ships were then in, it were better to return to Spain, having obtained the main object of the voyage, or to proceed to complete what the General had undertaken to perform, name­ly, to trace out a western passage to the Molucca Islands. Estevan Gomez, the pilot of the St. Antonio, a man of excellent parts and sound judgment, insisted on returning back, and bringing another squadron to complete the dis­covery, alledging, that they had still a great [Page xviii] and unknown sea to pass, and that, if either tempests or calms intervened to retard their passage over it, the whole fleet must inevitably perish. His opinion was supported by the whole council, Magellan only excepted, who declared, that, if he were sure to be reduced to the necessity of eating the hides that covered the yards, he would persevere in the discovery. He accordingly gave orders for weighing an­chor immediately; and, proceeding down the strait, sent the Antonio to examine some inlets that promised a nearer passage to the main ocean than that they were pursuing; but the pilot Gomez, and the purser Guerra, seized and stabbed Alvara de Mesquita, the Commander, and carried home the ship. In the mean time, Magellan supposing some disaster had befallen her, went himself in pursuit of her; but after six days fruitless search, he determined to con­tinue his voyage; ‘"and it pleased God, says my author, that, at the end of twenty days, he entered into the Great South Sea, and was the first who had found the passage so much sought after, whereby the memory of this ex­cellent Captain shall be eternally celebrated."’

Finding that the land trended northwards, Magellan directed his course accordingly, that he might as soon as possible clear those cold and dreary coasts that had caused so much mur­muring among the mariners, and so much ca­balling among the officers; but before he reached the Tropic he met with most tempes­tuous


[Page xix] weather, by which the three remaining ships were very much shattered in their sails and rigging. In this passage they discovered two uninhabited islands, St. Pedro and Tiburon, about the situation of which mariners are still divided; and it has been questioned, whether either of them have since been seen.

As they approached the Line, they found the wind to stand fair. Magellan then ordered the ships to change their course, and steer N. W. and W. N. W. till he reached the Line.

Harris takes notice that it was on the 28th of December when Magellan entered the Great South Sea, and that in this wide ocean the ships that accompanied him sailed three months and twenty days without seeing any other land than the two islands just mentioned, which af­forded them no refreshment. At length, when they had undergone all the miseries that human nature is capable of sustaining, from hunger, thirst, and sickness, they fell in with the Ladrone islands, where they landed; but where the in­habitants were such thieves that they were in fear left their ships should be pulled to pieces and carried away before their faces, the crews not having strength enough left to defend either their lives or their properties. They therefore shortened their stay among these plunderers; and were more fortunate in their next attempt.

On the 10th of March, landing on the island of Zamal, they found springs of delicate water, which to them were more precious than foun­tains [Page xx] of the choicest wines; fruit in abundance, that surpassed any they had till then tasted; and inhabitants humane and civil, who pitying their distresses, brought their richest productions to relieve them. From this island they continued to steer between the west and south-west, till they arrived at Buthuan, or, as it has since been called, Buton, the King of which gave them honourable entertainment. They visited several other isles, and in all of them were well received; till at length coming to the Isle of Mathan, they were attacked by an army of Indians, against whom the General himself being engaged was shot with a poisoned arrow, and afterwards pierced in the head with a lance; and thus ended the life and actions of this gallant Com­mander, whose name will be perpetuated with honour to latest posterity. After his death, a company of his followers being invited to an entertainment on shore, were treacherously mur­dered by a pretended friendly King, and only Don Juan Serrano, of all who landed, was re­served alive, in order to procure a large supply of fire-arms and ammunition by way of ransom; but those who remained on board, fearful of being trepanned, would have no farther inter­course with the perfidious infidels; so that poor Serrano was left to their mercy. Those on board the ships, 80 in number, directed their course towards the Moluccas, and arrived at Teridore, one of the principal of those islands, on the 8th of November, 1521. Here they [Page xxi] were hospitably received, and here they staid till the middle of January, 1522; and, being now come into well-known seas, we shall ac­company them no farther; only remarking, that, of the whole squadron only one ship, namely the Victoria, had the good fortune to return to Spain; and of 234 officers and sea­men, the complement at first setting out, if we except those who returned in the St. Antonio, of whom we have no account, only 13 Spa­niards survived to return to Seville. Their Commander John Sebastian Cano was received with extraordinary marks of favour by the Em­peror, who gave him for arms the Terrestrial Globe, with this motto, Primus me circumdedis­tis, and otherwise liberally rewarded him. The voyage he lived to make took up three years and thirty-seven days, and is, perhaps, the most remarkable that ever was performed.

This voyage opened a new field for disco­very: the Spaniards, who were already settled on the western coasts of America, were very curious to examine what countries might be situated along that vast space which divided the new continent from the old; and accordingly Cortez, the celebrated conqueror of Peru, fitted out two ships for the purpose, the command of one of which he gave to Ferdinand Grijalva, the other to Don Alvarado.

Grijalva departed from Pageta, in 6 deg. N. lat. about the beginning of April, 1537, and steered W. and S. W. into 29 deg. S. lat. where [Page xxii] his ship springing her mast, he stood again to the Line, in which tract a mutiny happening among the crew, Grijalva and his nephew were both as­sassinated; and the ship, after a passage of four months, was carried to Papua, where falling to pieces, the crew, reduced by famine and fatigue to seven men, took to their boat and coasted along the shore, till being boarded by a num­ber of Indians, it was sunk. The Spaniards, however, were saved by the humanity of the captors, and sold for slaves. This ship, it is affirmed, sailed 1000 leagues on both sides the Line without seeing land. Among the islands, however, which they afterwards fell in with be­fore they came to Papua, was that called Isla de los Pescadores, called in the late voyages BYRON's ISLAND, and supposed to be a new discovery.

Alvarado was instructed to pursue his disco­veries along the Line, without deviating either to the right or left, farther than the most ad­vantageous method of navigating his ship re­quired; and in that direction he discovered the islands of Papua. He also discovered other islands, named the Guelles, in 1 deg. N. lat. east and west from Teronate, and 125 leagues from that of Moro, with Hamei, 170 leagues from Tidore, and many others that have since been thought new discoveries. After his return, he was again employed upon services of the like kind, and was instrumental in establishing the trade of Manilla.

[Page xxiii]But of all the Spanish discoveries that have been made, or pretended to have been made, in the South Seas, that of Juan Fernandez, who first pointed out the way from Lima to Chili by sailing to the westward, if real, is by far the most important. This pilot, (the same who discovered the island which still bears his name) in the latitude of 40 deg. S. was brought, as it is said, in courses between west and south-west, upon the coast of a continent, from what he could judge, very fertile and delightful, inha­bited by white people, hospitable, and well-disposed, of a middle stature, dressed in very fine cloaths, and so peaceable and civil, that, in every way they could express, they endeavoured to gratify the strangers, and to accommodate them with the best things their country afforded, the fruits whereof were excellent and abound­ing in the greatest profusion. It is added, that, being over-joyed with having discovered the coast of that great continent so much talked of, and so ardently sought after, he returned to Chili, intending to make a second voyage properly fit­ted out to improve this fortunate discovery to his own and his country's enrichment; but be­fore he could persuade his friends to give entire credit to his report, he died, and the secret of the precise situation of his new continent perish­ed with him, for it has never since been found; though Mr. Alexander Dalrymple, author of an Historical Collection of Voyages to the South Pacific Ocean, whose opinion is of no small [Page xxiv] weight, is persuaded that Fernandez did disco­ver the SOUTHERN CONTINENT, and that, when­ever it is again visited, it will be no new disco­very, but a confirmation of the existence of that land which has already been found.

But, besides this dubious discovery, there is still another, which has not yet been clearly as­certained, and about which geographers are much divided. This discovery is attributed to Alvaro Mendana, who, in 1567, is said to have fallen in with a cluster of islands abounding with gold and pearl, which were named by him the Isles of Salomon; and for the settling of which an unsuccessful attempt was made by Mendana himself; and a second strongly solicited by Pedro Fernandez de Quiros, the chief pilot who accompanied that General, and who afterwards made a voyage thither on his own account, in which he made many discoveries.

It was in April, 1595, that Mendana left Callao, in Peru, to settle the Salomon Isles. He had with him two large ships, a galleasta, and a frigate, on board of which were embarked from Lima 400 followers, including women and children. Of this embarkation Lope de la Vega, his brother-in-law, was Admiral; Pedro Fernandez de Quiros, chief pilot; and Pedro Merino Manriquez, Maitre de Campo. Ac­cording to Figueroa, who wrote an account of this voyage, the Admiral's ship was named the St. Isabella; Mendana's ship, the St. Jerome; the galleasta, St. Philippe; and the frigate, St. [Page xxv] Catalina: of the two last the Commanders were Capt. Philip Corço, and Lieut. Alonzo de Leyla. In this expedition Mendana was ac­companied by his Lady Donna Isabella Barre­tos, with her three brothers; and, after parting company with the Admiral's ship the very night they came in sight of the island on which they settled, Mendana cast anchor in a bay which he called la Graciosa, and the island he named Santa Cruz. Here, on the 8th of October, the Maitre de Campo, and Thomas de Ampuero, were hanged, and Ensign Jean de Buy beheaded, for mutinous behaviour; and here Mendana him­self died the 18th of the same month. Don Lorenzo, brother to Donna Isabella, who, by the loss of the Admiral, had succeeded as Captain-General, died also on the 2d of November; and, in less than seven days after, Father Antonio de Serra, Chief Priest, and Juan de Espinosa, his Vicar. In short, from change of climate, food, and customs; from labour, going in the sun, being wet without having wherewithal to shift themselves, sleeping on the ground, and from other disorders and sufferings, dangerous dis­eases attacked the whole company; they began to die a-pace, it being lamentable to see them in their distress creeping into huts, some delirious, and others at the last gasp; some going to the ships to seek health; others shifting from the ships to the shore; but no remedy, nor any physician to apply to for relief. In this calamitous state things were, when Donna Isabella, on the 18th [Page xxvi] of October, broke up the settlement; and em­barking the few people that remained alive, on board the St. Jerome, the frigate, and the gal­leasta, they set sail, intending to pursue their course to Manilla: but the frigate soon lost com­pany, and, it is said, was afterwards found on a defart coast with all her sails set, and the people on board dead and rotten; and the galleasta put into an island near the coast of Mindanao. The St. Jerome, however, after suffering unspeakable hardships, got to Manilla, where Donna Isa­bella married Don Ferdinando de Castro, and returned in his ship to New Spain the very next year. The Admiral's ship was never heard of.—Thus ended this unfortunate expedition.

The island of Santa Cruz, in which this settlement was attempted, is said to be 100 leagues in circumference, and to lie E. S. E. and W. N. W. in lat. 10 deg. 20 min. S. dis­tant from Lima 1800 leagues. They cast an­chor on the north side of it, in a harbour, to the north of which is a volcano, or burning moun­tain, that from its top frequently casts forth fire, and from the inside of which proceeds a noise sometimes louder than thunder. To the west of the harbour is a small island about four leagues in compass, separated from the great island by sunken rocks and banks of sand. The port is formed at the bottom of the bay by a great ri­ver, and the country round it is fine and plenti­ful. A more exact description than this, one would think, could not have been given.

[Page xxvii]Quiros, who navigated Donna Isabella, first to Manilla, and afterwards accompanied her to New Spain, was so charmed with the beautiful appearance of these enchanting islands, that he continued for the space of ten years incessantly to weary the Court of Spain with memorial af­ter memorial to renew the settlement of them; and at length he prevailed.—Previous to his voyage, he spent several months in building two ships and a zebra, the stourest and best equipped with men, provisions, and warlike stores, of any that had ever been fitted out in New Spain. He was accompanied by six Fran­ciscan Fathers, with whom he took his depar­ture on the 21st of December, 1605; and sail­ing without any material incident till the 26th of January 1606, he on that day fell in with an island to the south-west, just 1000 leagues from the coast of Peru, in lat. 25 deg. S. which island he unluckily found uninhabited. From this island he sailed on different courses, passing seve­ral inaccessible islands, till the 10th of February, on which day a sailor joyfully cried out, Land a-head! Here, on their landing, they surprized a woman, but so old in appearance, that it was matter of astonishment that she could stand up­right. In her youthful days it was easy to per­ceive that she had been of a graceful mien, and she still retained a dignity about her that shew­ed she was of quality. Being asked by signs to go on board, she complied without hesitation; and when there, she eat of whatever was given [Page xxviii] her, and received presents with a becoming ease. After cloathing this lady very fine, they set her on shore; and, on her landing, the people flock­ed about her, and among them a tall, stout, well-made man, who had on his head a plume of feathers, and by his deportment appeared to be a Chief. Him they endeavoured to entice on board; but, when he came to the ship's side, fearing treachery, he refused to enter. Quiros directed that no force might be used, made him some presents, and dismissed him. This island by observation was in 17 deg. 40 min. S. and was named by Quiros Sagitaria. They left it on the 12th, after some skirmishes with the in­habitants, and, passing by several other islands, in which they could procure no refreshment, on the 2d of March they fell in with an island which promised fair to supply their wants. Here on their attempting to land they were ac­costed by about 100 Indians, the tallest, gen­teelest, whitest, and strongest-made people they had ever yet seen; but, though they shewed fair in countenance, they were in fact the cru­ellest enemies they had to encounter in the whole voyage. One of them in a swift canoe ap­proached the ship singly, and, brandishing his lance, made those kind of contortions with his face, arms, and legs, by which Parkinson has re­marked the South-Sea Indians provoke their ene­mies to battle; he even mounted the balcony of the Admiral's ship, and with his lance made a thrust at one of the officers on the quarter­deck, [Page xxix] with an intent to kill him, and instantly leaping into his canoe rowed off at a great rate. He repeated his visits and his insolence; but it was not long before they shot him dead. While this was passing on board the Admiral, the ze­bra, that had cast anchor near the shore, was still in a worse situation, surrounded by a multitude of fierce barbarians, who, having fastened a rope to her head, were endeavouring to drag her on shore; but perceiving that the people on board were preparing to cut the rope, they pushed a little off, and were fastening it to the cable, when a volley of small arms was discharged among them, by which some were killed, some wounded, and all terribly frightened: this, however, failed of the desired effect; for nei­ther kindness nor chastisement could prevail upon them to furnish the ships with water or provisions; so that they were obliged to set sail without a supply of either. This island lies north and south, and was called by Quiros the Island of Handsome People.

They now pursued their course for the island of Santa Cruz without interruption till the 7th of April, when they discovered land bearing W. N. W. high, and black like a volcano; but night coming on, they stood off till next morn­ing, and then sent the zebra to look out for a safe harbour for the ships to cast anchor. On the 9th she returned, having succeeded; and about noon the same day the ships were moor­ed in 25 fathom water, to the great joy of the [Page xxx] desponding crew. The boats were instantly dispatched to make peace with the natives; and before night, they returned with water, plan­tains, cocoa-nuts, potatoes, palmetos, and sugar-canes, than which the riches of Potosi could not have been more welcome. They next day dis­covered a fort, constructed by art, the materials of coral stone, in which were about 70 houses surrounded by the sea, and designed as a refuge from enemies, whenever an invasion was threat­ened by the warlike inhabitants of the adjoining country. To this fort they made their next ap­proach, and, lest they should meet with opposi­tion, they took care to be properly armed; but the inhabitants were desirous of nothing so much as peace, and received them hospitably: so dif­ferent are the dispositions of people inhabiting the same climate, and separated only by a por­tion of the sea. Here they were supplied at an easy rate with wood and water, in the shipping of which they were assisted by the friendly na­tives; and here they had plenty of the fruits and provisions which the country produced; in re­turn for which, the grateful Spaniards seized four of the natives, with a view to carry them off; but in spite of their vigilance three made their escape, and only one c [...]ntinued with them, who, being a slave where he [...], cared but little what master he served in that capacity.

At the end of seven days, the people being pretty well refreshed, Quiros again set sail, and on the 21st of April passed an island in lat. 12 [Page xxxi] degrees S. which the Indians called Tuoopia. They now approached the islands of which they were in quest; and on the 25th a consultation was held on board the Admiral, to consider which of the lands in sight they would chuse to settle, when it was concluded not to return to Santa Cruz, but to stand to the southward in search of that great land, of which they had heard so much. This they did, passing many islands, some of considerable extent, some small but very populous, and all of them exhibiting a most delightful prospect of woods, lawns, in­closures, and water-falls, till at length in lat. 14 deg. 50 min. S. they came to a land stretch­ing from east to west, to the extent of which they could see no end. On the zebra's ap­proaching this land, the people on board were not a little surprized to see an Indian come down from the mountains, and without invita­tion throw himself into the sea, and make to­wards the ship. A boat was immediately hoist­ed out, in order to take him up; but as he ap­peared spirited and strong, and made the usual contortions by way of defiance, it was judged proper to confine him, by clapping a chain upon his legs to prevent mischief. In this man­ner they purposed to have carried him on board the Admiral, who wanted to get some native in his power to use with kindness, in order to facilitate a peace; but, perceiving their intent, and concluding that his imprisonment was a prelude to his death, he seized in his passage a [Page xxxii] favourable opportunity, and snapping his chains with his hands, leapt suddenly into the sea. Night coming on, it was in vain to pursue him, and accordingly they continued their course to acquaint the Admiral with what had happened. They had scarce been an hour on board, when the watch on the forecastle called out, A voice! and knowing it to be that of a native, they in­stantly handed him up, when, to the great sur­prize of the boat's crew, who had just come on board, they perceived, by the remains of the chain about his leg, that it was the man who had made his escape. He was quite exhausted with swimming, and chose rather to surrender to the strangers than perish in the sea. He was kindly received, had wine and sweet-meats given him, put to bed, and in the morning was richly cloathed in taffety, and sent on shore: in return for which civilities, he caused a number of hogs to be sent on board, with plantains and other fruits; but at the same time he gave his bene­factors to understand, that he was not to be di­verted from the defence of his country, by the dis­sembled kindness of pretended friends. When, therefore, the Spaniards attempted to land, a few Indians, headed by this gallant Chief, appeared upon the shore, and, feigning to conduct them to an open beach, led them along the skirts of a wood, where a numerous body of natives lay con­cealed, who watching their opportunity, let fly a volley of poisoned arrows, by which, however, one Spaniard only was wounded in the face. [Page xxxiii] The Spaniards returned the compliment, by a discharge of musquetry; but the opposition they expected from these uncivilized barbarians (for so they are called for defending their country) deterred them from prosecuting their design. They returned to their ships without setting foot on shore; and, on their return, finding themselves mistaken, it was thought proper again to put to sea, in search of that great country and that friendly people, of whose hap­py situation they had heard so much.

On the 30th of April, about three in the afternoon, steering south-west, they discovered land right a-head, and before night came up with it. In the morning the zebra was sent along shore to examine the soundings, and after twelve hours absence returned, and made report, that they had found a spacious bay, and had ex­changed some trifles with a people of an enor­mous size, who, nevertheless, appeared to be good natured, and desirous of peace. This news gave universal satisfaction. The ships fol­lowed their pilot; and it being the day of St. Philip and St. James when they arrived, they called the bay by that name. Here they found a most delightful port, situated between two noble rivers (the one they named the Jordan, and the other Salvador); the people numerous and friendly; the climate mild and serene; and the air so wholesome, that in a few days all the sick recovered. The soil they afterwards found fruitful to a degree of luxuriance; the woods [Page xxxiv] and plains abounding with herds and beasts of various kinds, and the seas well stored with fish. In short, nothing was wanting to com­plete their wishes, but a more numerous com­pany to secure possession. On their first land­ing the Spaniards were hospitably received; but when it was perceived, by their overtures for peace, that they intended to prolong their stay, a jealousy arose that they came with no good design; and they were treated afterwards as enemies and invaders. All friendly inter­course very soon ceased; the market for provi­sions was stopt; and nothing was to be obtained to subsist upon but by force or stratagem. While they were on these terms, an incident happened that it was thought would at once have put an end to their fears and their hopes. Among the vegetables which grew wild, and on which they were obliged chiefly to live, they had gathered some poisonous plants, of which the people in general had eaten, and all who had eaten soon began to feel the direful effects. The symptoms were the more alarming, as all parts of the flesh seemed to partake of the nox­ious quality of the plants. The ships were like the hospitals of a city infected with the plague, where the numbers of the healthy were not suffi­cient to administer to the infirmities of the sick. Nothing, in short, was to be heard but lamen­tations and supplications; all expected to die without remedy. But their fears, as it fell out, were greater than their danger; for, after a cer­tain [Page xxxv] time, the violence of the poison abated, and the sick were restored to a more vigorous state of health than they enjoyed before. But they were scarce relieved from this misfortune, when another succeeded. Despairing of ever being able to reconcile themselves to the natives at this port, they set sail, after having founded a city between the Jordan and the Salvador, to which they had given the name of New Jerusa­lem. Coasting towards the south with a view to find a more fortunate settlement, they were overtaken by a most dreadful storm, in which the ships were separated. The Admiral was driven off the coast, and never again returned; but the other ship, and the zebra, with difficulty returned to port. What afterwards became of them we are not told. Quiros, after attempting in vain to rejoin them, made the best of his way to New Spain; and on his arrival undertook a voyage to Old Spain, where he continued to solicit the Court for a new embarkation; but he died before he could obtain it.

From this time the Spaniards seem to have given over all thoughts of a settlement in those islands, to the true situation of which they appear at this day to be strangers. Neither have other nations been more successful in their attempts to discover them; for unless (as Mr. Alexan­der Dalrymple has endeavoured to prove in his Historical Collection of Voyages to the South Pacific Ocean) they are the same with those which Dampier has dignified with the name of [Page xxxvi] New Britain, no others have yet been found that answer to their description. To Mr. Dal­rymple's data there can be only one objection, and that is this: Quiros, in his memorial to the Court of Spain, reporting the voyage of Men­dana, says, that, in prosecuting his discoveries, he fell in with four islands [the Marquessas], inhabited by so good a people, that there is no account of any other having ever been found equal to them; and that these islands were 1000 leagues from Lima, 650 from the nearest coast of New Spain, and 1000 leagues from New Guinea. Here the distance from Lima to New Guinea is precisely fixed by Quiros; but at the same time it is to be noted, that the distance from Lima to the isles in question are as pre­cisely fixed; and in the same memorial they are said to be between the 7th and 12th degrees of south latitude, 1500 leagues from the city of Lima. Thus they are placed by Quiros, pre­cisely in the midway between the Marquessas and New Guinea; whereas the isles called New Britain are divided by Dampier from New Guinea to the eastward only by a strait.

But this by the bye.—We shall now proceed to relate what other material discoveries have been made by other nations in the southern hemisphere, particularly by the Dutch:—Le Maire and Schouten left the Texel on June the 14th, 1615; and passing Strait Le Maire Janu­ary 25, 1616, on the 10th of April the same year fell in with an island in latitude 15 deg. [Page xxxvii] 12 min. S. 3700 miles from the coast of Peru, to which they gave the name of DOG ISLAND. Pursuing their coast to the isles of Salomon, on the 16th they came to another island, in lat. 14 deg. 46 min. S. to which they gave the name of WATERLAND, because in this island, tho' un­inhabited, they found a supply of fresh water, and some herbs, of which they gathered sackfuls to make pottage to refresh the men, who were now much afflicted with the scurvy.

On the 3d of May they saw many dolphins, the first they had seen in the South-Seas.

On the 11th, after passing several uninhabited islots, they discovered an island in lat. 16 deg. 10 min. S. where they had an engagement with the natives, whom they found to be great thieves; they were, however, very handsome; their limbs well-proportioned, of large stature, quite naked, excellent swimmers, and very active. This island they called Cocos Island, because they were here plentifully supplied with that fruit. A league from it lay another, which they named Traitors Island, because the inhabitants had formed a de­sign to cut them off.

On the 18th, having sailed near 5000 miles from the coast of Peru, without discovering the least appearance of a southern land, or falling in with the so much celebrated Isles of Salomon, and being in lat. 16 deg. 5 min. S. it was there con­sidered in full council what course to steer next; when it was determined to return home by the well known track to the northward of New Guinea. [Page xxxviii] In pursuit of this resolution they changed their course to the N. N. W. and on the 22d, being in lat 14 deg. 56 min S. they fell in with an island which, by its beautiful appearance, pro­mised fair to afford refreshment. Sending the shallop to sound, they found 50 fathom, sand and shells, in a kind of bason over-against a small river issuing from a valley edged with trees. This gave unspeakable pleasure to the whole company.

On the 23d they moored the ship; and, while they were yet busy, they were visited by whole troops of the natives, who expressed their admi­ration a thousand different ways. At length, a venerable old man approached the ship, and with great gravity made an oration, at the con­clusion of which, the people who surrounded him expressed their approbation by general ac­clamations. A traffic for provisions now com­menced; and, after a pretty sharp skirmish, in which half a dozen natives were killed by the musquetry, the same was continued till their departure with great civility and honesty. The Chiefs of the island, after an exchange of hos­tages, came on board, and were magnificently entertained. They were given to understand, that the ships were in want of water, and they made their people assist in supplying their wants. They caused hogs, dogs, fowls, and fruits, to be sent in plenty, which were exchanged for nails, beads, dolls, and looking-glasses. As a present, when the Chiefs returned to shore, they sent to


[Page xxxix] the Commander two hogs ready drest; they had taken out the entrails, and put in the place of them burning stones, to roast them in the inside, and sweet herbs to make them savoury. In short, their manners, their desires, their behaviour, their customs, their habitations, and their arts, so exactly correspond with what has lately been reported of the inhabitants of the supposed new­ly discovered islands in the South Seas, that there does not remain a doubt, but that this island which the Dutch named Hoorne Island, toge­ther with the adjoining island which they called the Island of Good Hope, are two of those that lie between the 10th and 17th degrees of south latitude, of which our late voyagers have given so flattering an account. One particular re­ported by the Dutch is strikingly characteristic: The men, say they, were valiant, and large in stature, the tallest among them surpassing very much in height the tallest of ours; their wo­men were not handsome, but so totally destitute of shame, that what modesty requires to be done in pri­vacy, they performed with their men in public, by way of entertainment, before their Kings. In the new map accompanying Hawkesworth's Voyages, King George's Island is placed in the latitude of 14 deg. 29 min. S. long. 148 deg. 50 min. W. In the Dutch maps Hoorne Island is placed in lat. 14 deg. 56 min. S. long. 83 deg. 30 min. W. from Arica, on the coast of Peru, which answers to long. 153 deg. 30 min. W. from London, be­ing only 2 deg. 40 min. more to the west, and [Page xl] 27 min. more to the south than King George's Island; a difference very inconsiderable indeed! allowing for the difference of time from 1616 to 1765, and for the improvement that has been made in the instruments of navigation during that period, particularly in those for ascertain­ing longitude.

On the 1st of June, as has been already observed, they took their departure from Hoorne Island, highly pleased with their kind reception, and on the 25th came in sight of the coast of New Guinea.

We should have mentioned, that Schouten was of opinion, that Hoorne Island was one of the Salomon Isles, mentioned by Quiros, none other they had met with having answered so well to the Spanish description of them.

The next remarkable voyage, undertaken professedly with a view to discovery in the southern hemisphere, is that of Abel Jansan Tasman, who, in 1642, sailed from Batavia in the East Indies, and touched at the Isles of Mauritius, in latitude 20 deg. 20 min. South; long. 78 deg. 47 min. East. On the 8th of October, the same year, he left the Mauritius, and, keeping a southerly course, on the 24th of September fell in with the land, to which he gave the name of Anthony Van Diemen's land, in 42 deg. 25 min. S. long. 163 deg. 50 min. E. Here they met with much bad weather, which obliged them to steer eastward; and on the 1st of December they anchored in lat. 43 deg. [Page xli] 10 min. S. long. 167 deg. 55 min. E. in a bay to which they gave the name of Frederic Hen­ry's bay. Their whole force consisted only of a small ship about 300 tons, named the Hems­kirk, and the Zee Haan pink for examining the coast. Here they landed, but could discover no human being, though they had reason to believe the country was inhabited. They ga­thered plenty of good pot-herbs that grew wild, and saw trees full two fathom and an half in the girt, and from 60 to 75 feet high, in which steps had been cut for the purpose of climbing them, five feet distant from each o­ther; and from this circumstance they con­cluded that the inhabitants must be men of gi­gantic stature.

On the 5th of December, Tasman pursued his course in search of the Salomon Isles, and on the 13th had sight of a very high and mountainous country, now well known by the name of New Zealand. By its lofty appear­ance, he judged it to be the southern continent, and coasted it along to the north eastward, till on the 18th of December, he came to a spa­cious bay, three or four miles in breadth, in lat. 40 deg. 49 min. S. long. 191 deg. 41 min. from whence he could discern on the shore men of a strong robust make, partly clothed, and partly naked, to whom he made signals, inviting them on board, but none of them would ven­ture to approach within the reach of a pete­raro. It was therefore resolved to go to them; [Page xlii] but before that resolution could be carried into execution, the barbarians made an attack upon the Zee Haan's boat, and murdered most of the crew, in the manner related in the course of the work.

Not caring to sacrifice any more of his peo­ple against a barbarous race of manslayers, he weighed anchor, and pursued his voyage along the coast till he came to an island in latitude 34 deg. 25 min. S. which he named THREE KING'S ISLAND, where some of his people landed, and where they saw at a distance about 40 men of an uncommon stature, who called to them in a very gruff tone of voice, and ap­proached them hastily with prodigious strides. The Dutchmen, being few in number thought fit to retreat. Their business being that of dis­covery, not of war, the Captain thought fit to quit that inhospitable coast, and direct his course to the islands of Cocos or Hoorne, where he was sure of refreshing his men, and supplying their wants without danger of blood­shed, happy that he could find a passage into an open sea. On this coast, however, he ob­served many fair plantations, handsomely laid out, and to all appearance well cultivated.

On the 19th of January, 1643, he discover­ed three islands, to which he gave names. The southernmost he called Pylstaart's Island, the middlemost Amsterdam, and the most northerly Middleburgh. This last lay in lat. 21 deg. 20 min. S. long. 205 deg. 20 minutes. [Page xliii] At these islands, which seemed remote from any other land, they trafficked for provisions; and the inhabitants, who were of a tawney com­plexion, and somewhat above the common size, behaved very civilly, and shewed no signs of a hostile disposition. Among the natives of these islands came a lusty man with a St. Thomas's arm, and a woman with a natural beard. A venerable old man came also among the rest, and made an oration; after which a croud of men and women, young and old, came on board with all kinds of provisions. It is re­markable, that, among all the islands in the South Seas, the only tame four-footed animals are hogs and dogs, and of these the inhabitants here had plenty. They found another island at no great distance, equally abounding in the usual productions, besides being plentifully supplied with water. It appears strange to us, that the people in those hot climates can sub­sist without fresh water; yet nature seems in part to have supplied that defect by furnishing a fruit that both allays thirst and assuages hunger, and that too without either art or la­bour. By vegetables suited to their subsis­tence, it should seem that the animals, indigenous to the climate, are nourished and made fat. Indeed, where springs, brooks, and lakes are wanting, the forests have few, if any, inhabi­tants; but if we may credit the relations of voyagers, the people have hogs and dogs, where they have neither river, well, or lake; [Page xliv] for though in Amsterdam Island, the strangers might have purchased 100 hogs a day for a few baubles, yet a can of fresh water was not to be procured at any rate. In an island, called by the natives Annamokka, but by the Dutch Rotterdam, water was found in plenty, yet it was no better inhabited than the islands before mentioned, which seemed to be wholly without. Rotterdam Island is placed in lat. 20 deg. 15 min. S. long 206 deg. 19 min. To this island they repaired to take in water, and there they com­pleated their stock, of fresh provisions, finding the people courteous and civil, though some­what inclined to be thievish, Being now fully refreshed and provided, without making any further discoveries worth relating, they re­turned to Java, by the way of New Guinea.

Jacob Roggewein was the next Dutchman who sailed professedly on the business of disco­very. He was furnished by their East-India Company with three ships, namely, the Eagle, the Tienh [...]n, and the African Galley: with these he set sail from Amsterdam, July the 16th, 1721, and towards the latter end of November came in sight of the coast of Brazil. After a few days stay in the neighbourhood of Rio de Janeiro, he weighed, and went in quest of Hawkins's Maiden Land, which is said to lie in 30 deg. S. but not being able to find it, he pursued his course towards the straits, till on the 21st of December, in lat. 40 deg. S. the ships met with a violent storm, in which the [Page xlv] Tienhoven lost company. About the begin­ning of January, Roggewein discovered a large island 200 leagues in circuit, in lat. 52 deg. S. long. 95. deg. W. about 80 leagues from the coast of America. He named this island BEL­CIA AUSTRALIS, and it is the same now known by the name of Falkland's Island. Leaving this island to windward, he passed the strait of Le Maire, and on the 24th of February came in sight of Juan Fernandez, where he fortu­nately found the Tienhoven, that island having been he place appointed to rendezvous in case of separation.

There the ships continued three weeks, and sailed from thence about the middle of March, steering W. N. W. in search of Davis's Land, which, however, they could not find. Neither has that or Hawkins's Maiden Land ever been seen by any other navigator except the first disco­verers. Being in lat. 28 deg. S. long. 268 deg. they saw many birds and other tokens of high land, but to the astonishment of the Admiral came in sight of none till they had sailed 12 leagues farther west. They then discovered an island, which they called EASTER-ISLAND, be­cause they came in sight of it on Easter-day. They found this island well inhabited. The [...]an that came on board was painted with various kinds of figures, was of a brown com­plexion, with large ears, so long that they hung down to his shoulders. He was tall, ro­bust, active, of an agreeable countenance, and [Page xlvi] lively diposition. They offered him wine, but he threw it in his eyes. They gave him meat, cloathed him, and sent him on shore, but afterwards killed him in a skirmish with his countrymen. On this island they observed many idols, and saw one man quite white, whom they took to be a priest. He had pen­dents in his ears a pound weight each. On landing 150 in number, the natives crouded so close upon them, that they were forced to fire upon them to keep them off. By this dis­charge several were killed, and many wounded. These poor people, seeing their friends bleed, and fall dead, filled the air with doleful cries and lamentations; and brought offerings of fruits, roots, and fowls, to appease the wrath of the invaders. To implore the bodies of their murdered friends, they cast themselves on the earth, and made other signs of supplication. They were indulged in their timidity, and it was held a crime to approach a Dutchman without reverence; when they brought them presents, they laid them at their feet.

This country was full of inclosures, and seem­ed neatly cultivated. The people had coverings of a manufacture that felt soft like silk. The women in general were painted with a rouge far surpassing in brightness any thing of that colour known in Europe; they were very obliging, and enticed the strangers to every kind of familiarity both by their looks and gestures. Their idols were chiefly of stone, [Page xlvii] well-proportioned, and wrought with exquisite workmanship. While they lay at anchor at this delightful island, a storm arose, which pre­vented the Admiral's design of extending his re­searches to the remoter parts of it, as it appear­ed diversified with woods, forests, lawns, gar­dens, and cultivated fields; and in every re­spect well supplied with necessaries for the re­freshment of ships bound to the southern lands; but the fury of the storm increased so fast, that those on shore were glad to recover their ships. They were scarce embarked when the billows rose to such a height, as to make it dangerous to hazard their security to the anchors with which they were moored; they, therefore, instantly weighed and put to sea, and, as the wind blew fair, they proceeded at a great rate towards the bad sea of Schouten, to which they were bound. After a run of 800 leagues from Easter-Island, they got sight of an island in latitude 15 deg. 45 min. S. which they took to be Dog-Island, discovered by Schouten, and therefore did not stay to examine it.

The trade-wind began now to shift, and to veer about to the south-west, by which the ships in the night were driven among a cluster of islands, and the African galley being a head was jammed between the rocks, of which a more particular account will be found in the course of the Work.

These islands were situated between the 15th and 16th degrees of south latitude; and Rog­gewein's [Page xlviii] Pernicious Island is no doubt the same with that where Commodore Byron found the carved head of a rudder that had belonged to a Dutch long-boat, and where he also found a piece of hammered iron, a piece of brass, and some small iron tools, which the ancestors of the present race of inhabitants had obtained from this ship after her shipwreck.

Here the crews of the remaining ships grew troublesome and unruly. They had already been out ten months, and had experienced no­thing but hardships, without the least prospect of advantage, either to themselves or country. A council was therefore called, and it was de­termined to return home by way of the East-Indies. On quitting Pernicious Island they fell in with a small island, which they called Aurora, because it was discovered at break of day; and soon after with another small island, which they called Vesper, because they came in sight of it in the evening. About twenty-five leagues to the westward of Pernicious Island, they found themselves entangled among a cluster of islands, which they called the Labyrinth, because it was some time before they could disengage the ships from the rocks and shoals with which they were surrounded. Having providentially escaped this imminent danger, they continued their course to the westward; and, after some days sail, fell in with an island, which by its beautiful appear­ance promised some refreshment. They saw many natives with lances and long pikes pas­sing [Page xlix] and repassing along the shore, and they sent two boats well manned to speak with them, and to encourage them to trade. Their endeavours, however, were ineffectual, till, by killing some, and dispersing the rest, they made good their landing. When they had gained the shore, the savages seemed more tractable; they even assist­ed them in gathering herbs, and bringing them water; the women, in particular, appeared ena­moured with them, and by many alluring ways endeavoured to gain their confidence; but they were to the last degree deceitful. Being de­coyed into an ambuscade, the savages surround­ed them on all sides, and, notwithstanding a brisk fire was kept up, which killed many, and wounded more, not a Dutchman that fell into the snare escaped unwounded. After this mis­fortune it was with reluctance that any one ventured ashore to look for refreshments. This island they called Recreation, on account of its salutary herbs, and it is placed in lat. 16 deg. S. and in long. 285 deg. The natives were of the middle size, but strong and well made, lively, and of a bold undaunted spirit. Their bodies were painted, and covered with a kind of net, which they wrapt about them decently enough. The women were covered from head to foot with a very pretty stuff that felt soft like silk; their complexion was dark, with shining black hair, very white teeth, and brilliant eyes; and to sailors who had long been at sea they were not a little inviting. The third day after they left this island, they fell in with several islands at [Page l] once, to which they gave the name of Bauman's Islands, where the inhabitants were altogether as courteous and civil as those they had left had been treacherous and cruel. They came and trafficked with great good nature and honesty, and were to appearance as fair and beautiful as those in the most celebrated parts of Europe. They now thought themselves near the islands which Dampier has named New Britain; but it was many days sail before they came in sight of them, in which interval the scurvy made dreadful havock. The sailors were very desir­ous of staying in these islands to refresh, and to recover their strength; but the Commander, who had other views, pursued his course to the East Indies with all imaginable dispatch.

Thus, all this grand expedition, by which the expectations of the Commander in Chief and his employers had been raised to a very high pitch, came to nothing. The men were dissa­tisfied with their officers for going so far, and the officers with their Commander for not go­ing farther. The existence of a southern con­tinent still remained as doubtful as ever; and so it continues at this period, June 22, 1774.

Since the above was written, the Adventure, who accompanied Capt. Cook in the Resolu­tion on a new voyage, is arrived, and reports, that they had sailed between the 55th and 67th degrees of south latitude, but had found no land; so that if any land lies farther to the southward, it must be uninhabitable.

[...]ough the following relations may see [...] [...] to our design of g [...]ng [...] of the dis [...]overi [...] of our Engl [...]sh navi­ [...] y [...] we have judged them too curious [...] omitted.


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