AN HISTORICAL and GEOGRAPHICAL DESCRIPTION OF FORMOSA, AN Island subject to the Emperor of JAPAN. GIVING An Account of the Religion, Customs, Manners, &c. of the Inhabitants. Together with a Relation of what happen'd to the Au­thor in his Travels; particularly his Confe­rences with the Jesuits, and others, in several Parts of Europe. Also the History and Rea­sons of his Conversion to Christianity, with his Objections against it (in defence of Paganism) and their Answers. To which is prefix'd, A PREFACE in Vindication of himself from the Reflections of a Jesuit lately come from China, with an Account of what passed between them. By GEORGE PSALMANAAZAAR, a Native of the said Island, now in London. Illustrated with several Cuts.

LONDON: Printed for Dan. Brown, at the Black Swan without Temple-Bar; G. Strahan, and W. Davis, in Cornhill; Fran. Cog­gan, in the Inner-Temple-Lane; and Bernard Lintott, at the Middle-Temple Gate in Fleet-Street. 1704.

TO THE RIGHT HONOURABLE AND Right Reverend Father in GOD, HENRY, By Divine Providence, Ld Bishop of LONDON, AND ONE OF Her MAJESTY's most Honourable PRIVY COUNCIL.

I Know not, My Lord, whe­ther what I now most humbly dedicate to Your Lordship, may merit Your Peru­sal, [Page] especially at this time, when Your Lordship is busied about Affairs of the greatest moment: But since Your Noble Soul [be it concern'd about Things never so weighty and intricate] must be allow'd some Minutes to un­bend, I submissively beg You would please to bestow some of them upon this Treatise; well know­ing, if Your Lordship smile upon it, the World cannot dislike it.

The Europeans have such obscure and various Notions of Japan, and especially of our Island Formosa, that they can believe nothing for Truth that has been said of it. But the prevailing Reason for this my Undertaking was, because the [Page] Jesuits I found had impos'd so many Stories, and such gross Fallacies upon the Public, that they might the better excuse themselves from those base Acti­ons, which deservedly brought upon them that fierce Persecu­tion in Japan: I thought there­fore it would not be unaccepta­ble if I publish'd a short Descrip­tion of the Island Formosa, and told the Reasons why this wic­ked Society, and at last all that profess'd Christianity, were, with them, expell'd that Country.


I look upon my self as much obliged to Your Lordship, as ever Man was to his Patron, having [Page] experienc'd Your Goodness ever since I came into England; I have therefore earnestly desired by any honest and humble way, to express my Gratitude; but tho' Your transcendent Generosity, and the meanness of my Fortune and Capacity render it impossible for me to pay Your Lordship all that Respect and Acknowledgment which are due for Your Lord­ship's many and great Favours; yet since my present leisure and enjoy­ments are owing to Your Muni­ficence, I most willingly lay hold on this Occasion, and consecrate the First-fruits of such Blessings to the Hand that bestowed them upon me, not in the least doubt­ing but Your Lordship, according [Page] to your wonted Charity and Good­ness, will vouchsafe to receive this little Book as a thankful Testimony how vastly I am in­debted to You; and as such it is, with all Humility and Vene­ration offered by,

Your Lordship's Most Grateful and Obsequious Servant, GEORGE PSALMANAAZAAR.


WHen I first arriv'd in England, every one was curious to Discourse me about my own Country; and forasmuch as my Account of it was entirely new, they thought it my Duty to publish it; and I readily comply'd with their Advice, both for my own ease and their satisfaction. But when I had met with so many Romantic Stories of all those remote Eastern Countries, especially of my own, which had been impos'd upon you as undoubted Truths, and univer­sally believed, then I was much discourag'd from proceeding in my Description of it; yet since Truth ought to dispel these Clouds of fabulous Reports, and I cou'd not escape un­censur'd even by my self, should I (by my silence) suffer you to remain in Ignorance, or rather deceiv'd by Misrepresentations, I thought my self indispensably oblig'd to give you a more faithful History of the Isle of [Page ii] Formosa, than as yet you have met with. But before I enter upon this Subject, 'tis con­venient I should premise some few things. Since then (as I before observed) there are such various Accounts, and all different from what I shall give you, this is no Reason for me to expect greater Credit; but I leave it to the unbiass'd Judge to prefer which he plea­seth, for 'tis not so much my Concern to be reputed sincere, as 'tis really to be so. But here I must entreat you diligently to observe what followeth, because the Reputation of my Book depends much upon it. In the first place there are several things in their Story which you are oblig'd to suspect, because they contradict one another in those Matters which every Relater assures you he has been an Eye-witness of; since then their Tale is so inconsistent, there is very little in it that you ought to depend upon. But that I may expose some of their Falshoods, I will streng­then what I assert by the Authority of some English Merchants trading to China, whose Relations are much the same with mine, but vastly different from theirs. As for exam­ple: Candidius, and others, in their Ac­count of Formosa, tell us, there is neither Monarchical nor Democratical Government in the Island; that there is no Law nor Pu­nishment against Theft, Adultery, or Mur­ther, [Page iii] and such black Crimes; but every Man judgeth and revengeth in his own Case: For instance, if a Man rob me of a hundred Pound, I may steal from him as much by way of reprizal. If a Man murthers me, any of my Family, or Friends, may, by the Murther of him revenge mine; and so of Adultery, &c. They tell us farther, that there is no Oeconomy or Order amongst the Natives, that they are even Strangers to the distinction of Master and Servant; that nei­ther Mines of Gold or Silver are to be found there, and that they have no Spices. In an­swer to which, let me tell you, that those Merchants I before mention'd, inform us, that there is a Governour to whom they paid large Customs for every thing they exported. If then there be a Governour, certainly there must be Laws, let Candidius, and others, say what they please. That they have Gold, Silver, and Spices also, is likewise prov'd by those Traders, who have exported vast Sums of the one, and large Quantities of the other.

Reason it self is sufficient to confute what they say of Anarchy in our Island: For how is it possible for any Kingdom to stand, if no Law or Degrees of Dignity are observ'd? Or how can a Community be preserv'd, if there are no Penal Statutes to correct Offen­ders? [Page iv] In my Opinion, if every one was left to revenge himself, such a Place must be a continued Scene of Murther and Rapine; especially since the Formosans (as Candi­dius, and others wou'd have you believe) do not look upon these Facts as monstrous Crimes, but only as little Tricks and Picca­dillo's.

There are some likewise that tell you, that the Island of Formosa belongs to the Chann of China; but if so, why do the Chinese pay so great Tribute to our Governour? For the truth of this, I dare appeal even to the Dutch themselves, who are competent Judges in the Case, ever since the Emperor of Japan has given them leave to renew their Trade in Formosa, after they had many Years been banish'd from thence; as you may see in the Book, Chap. 37. Of the Success of the Dutch in Japan.

1. I could here also add much more, which for brevity-sake I omit: For 'tis convincing enough to say, that he who so grosly errs in one particular, may reasonably be thought an un­faithful Relater of every thing else. But whe­ther these ridiculous Story-Tellers above-men­tion'd, vend their Legends out of a Design, or for want of a true Knowledge of Matter of Fact, is not my Business now to enquire.

[Page v]2. The second thing I wou'd have you take notice of, is, That I pretend not to give you a perfect and complete History of my Island, because I was a meer Youth when I left it, but nineteen Years of Age, and therefore un­capable of giving an exact Account of it: Besides I have now been six Years from home, so many things of moment may perhaps slip my Memory which would have adorn'd the Description of my Country. But whatsoever I can recollect, I have freely publish'd; and I assure you, I have not positively asserted any thing which is not as positively true; but if I have said what I did not know, as a certain Truth, as such I have admonish'd you of it. I have discharged my Conscience, receive it as you please; for since I have done my Duty, I shall no more be con­cern'd about it.

3. In my Book I have told you the Rea­sons that mov'd my Country-men to make so great a Slaughter of the Christians; for the Jesuits then made such weak Excuses for themselves, that many, not without Reason, believ'd they had other Designs than what they pretended; I thought it therefore proper to give you from the Records and Tradition of my Country, the best Account of these [Page vi] Matters I could. In vain the Jesuits as­sign the Envy of our Pagan Priests, and the Emulation of the Dutch, as the Causes of this Persecution, such things could never in­duce us to treat so cruelly all that profess'd Christianity: Certainly there was a Snake in the Grass, which they would not, but I have discover'd. I am confident by my revealing this and much more, I shall draw all the Spite and Malice of the Jesuits upon me, of which I have already met with a notorious Instance in Father Fountenay, who is lately return'd from China, having been eighteen Years a Missionary there; this Man is now in London, and some Body had told him I was publishing a Book, in which I speak much against the Roman Church, and especially against the Jesuits: This has so enrag'd him, that he endeavours by all means imaginable to destroy my Credit, as I am daily inform'd by many Gentlemen; to whom I only reply'd, Let him alone, I am little concern'd at what such a suspicious Person says against me: The truth is, and will be, I hope, evident, notwithstanding his Attempts to stifle it, so I shall apply the Words of the Poet to him, ‘Parturiunt montes, nascetur ridiculus mus.’

[Page vii]I have had three Conferences with him, without coming to any conclusion; the first was before the Royal Society, on Wednesday the second of this instant February, when there was a Publick Meeting of the illustrious Members of that celebrated Body: That he might the more easily defend himself, he had Notice of my coming: After we had saluted each other, we began our Discourse. The first Question that was propos'd to him, was, To whom doth the Island of Formosa belong? He presently reply'd, It was tributary to the Emperor of China. Some of the Gentlemen ask'd him how he knew it to be so; he quick­ly answer'd, That a certain English Ship call'd the Harwich, was by stormy Weather forc'd upon the Shore of Formosa; that five Jesuits were Passengers in it, one of them was drown'd, the other four escap'd to the Island, from whence they sent Letters to this Father Fontenay, who then was in a cer­tain City in China. Father Fontenay writes to the Chann, or Emperor; the Chann sends a Letter to the Formosans, demanding them and the Ship; and so the Formosans were compell'd to restore both them and the Ship, I answer'd, That this Story was nothing to the purpose; for since we are not at Wars with the Chinese, if any of their Ships should be driven on our Coast, and the Chann should [Page viii] reclaim them, altho' we live not in his Do­minions, we are in Justice oblig'd to restore them: And thus I then answered his Story. But it appears since by the Testimony of seve­ral Merchants, that the afore-mentioned Ship was cast upon the Coast of China, and not of Formosa: Had I known as much then, I would before the illustrious Society have dete­cted the Falshood of the Jesuit; but mistrust­ing he might be mistaken in the Name of the the Place, and take another Island for For­mosa, I desir'd him to tell me by what Name the Chinese call'd Formosa; he answer'd, That he knew no other Name for it but For­mosa, or Tyowan; but it's very plain, not only from what I (who should know best) assert, but also from a certain Gentleman who has been in Tyowan, that it is an Island somewhat remote and distinct from ours, and is now a Colony belonging to the before­mention'd Dutch. This indeed he confess'd he was ignorant of. I told him farther, That the Chinese call our Island by the Name of Pak-Ando, which agrees with Gad-Avia, as we call it, both which signifie the Island Formosa. Pak, Pak, says he, there is not such a word in the whole Chinese Language, that ended with a Consonant as Pak doth; which is very false, for the Name of almost all their great Cities end with a Consonant, [Page ix] as Nanking, Kanton, Peking, &c. 2. When at my desire he discours'd in the Chinese Language, near half his Words terminated with Consonants: This was so plain a Con­tradiction, that all the Auditory observ'd it. At the same Meeting also he deny'd there was any variety of Languages, or Dialects, thro' the whole Empire of China, but that all the Natives spoke with one and the same Tongue; which when it was demonstrated to be false by many then present, he made no manner of Reply, only unreasonably and ob­stinately persisted in affirming what he before had said. At length, that if possible I might make the matter yet more plain, I told him, Either what all the Jesuits, and others, had written of the Chinese Language, was not true, or what he said must be false; for they assure us, the Chinese in every Province speak various Dialects, * and they have diffe­rent Languages, according to their Degrees or Quality; as for instance, the Noble-men speak the Mandarin Language; the Bonzees, or Priests, use another for the Divine Service, which is unintelligible to the Lay-People; and the Plebeans a third; so that I told him, either they, or he, (pardon the expression) must lye grosly: But he endeavour'd by im­pertinent [Page x] Shifts to excuse himself. He de­ny'd also, that the Chinese had any Tone in their Speech by which they distinguish the sig­nification of a word: This I likewise affirm'd to be false: For I have, in Formosa, heard many Chinese talking together; but they seem'd to me rather to sing than discourse; besides, this contradicts what the Jesuits themselves tell us. At length, after so many Interruptions, we ended our Confe­rence: Let the Reader judge who had the better.

I have since had two Assignations to meet him, once at my Lady Powis's, another time at Sion-College; but he fail'd to answer the Appointments.

Eight Days after, being Wednesday the Ninth of February, I was to Dine with Dr. Sloane, Secretary to the Royal Society; where were present the Right Honourable my Lord Pembroke; his Excellency, Spanhe­mins, the King of Prussia's Envoy; another Noble-man, and this Father Fontenay; when he was ask'd by his Excellency, to whom the Island Formosa belong'd; he re­ply'd, Here is a young Man, (pointing to me) who is a Native of that Country, he can better inform you than I, who have only been [Page xi] in China. I then answer'd him, that it did belong to the Emperor of Japan. We had nothing else remarkable in this Confe­rence; neither had he the Assurance at this time to say any thing more to me: He wondred indeed to see me eat raw Flesh; because, says he, the Chinese dress their Meat after the same manner as the Europe­ans, tho' at the same time he confess'd the Tartars differ'd from them in their Cookery; for they only warm'd their Flesh before they eat it.

A third time I met him in the Temple-Coffee-House in Devereux-Court in the Strand, near Temple-Bar, where several Noble-men were present; and there he ask'd me the Manner, Time, and Reasons of my leaving my Country; and I rightly informed him: Neither had he the Face to raise any Obje­ctions, unless that he never knew Father de Rhode, who brought me out of my Coun­try.

I am well inform'd he takes a great deal of freedom in aspersing me; but I shall re­turn him no other Answer than that of the Mendicant Friar, to some false Accu­sations against him, Mentitur impuden­tissimé. But sure 'tis much more becoming [Page xii] a Man of Probity to speak openly, and Face to Face, than thus clandestinely to backbite and calumniate. I have just touch'd upon this Subject, that you may see how much this Narrative will incense the Jesuits a­gainst me; but I trust that Providence which so often has deliver'd me out of their Hands, will frustrate all their Designs and Contri­vances, that I may say with the Psalmist, He shall reward Evil unto mine Enemies: destroy thou them in thy Truth, Psal. 54. v. 5.

I fear this trifling Performance will not be very acceptable to you, because 'tis not so elegant and polite as you perhaps might wish; I was sensible of my own Weakness and In­capacity for it, and therefore depend upon your Goodness to pardon my Errors, and sup­ply my Defects; elegant Expressions, and pomp of Words, are not to be expected from a raw and unpolish'd Japanese. But since I wrote this Treatise in Latine, that it might be afterwards turn'd into English; and oblig'd the Translator to make no Ad­ditions or Alterations, 'tis mine, and not his Fault, if you meet with any Imperfecti­ons in it.

[Page xiii]It was translated out of Latin by Mr Oswald, except from Page 94. to 144. which part I wrote in English, and was prepar'd for the Press by another Hand.

I thought it might not be amiss to begin with an Account of my Travels and Conver­sion, which will (I hope) afford you some things that are entertaining.

'Tis not my delight, but my grief, that I am obliged to publish my Arguments against those Religions which I could not conform to, because some perhaps will interpret what I have said to reflect upon them; but that was far from my intentions, who only de­sign'd to give you my Reasons why I could not subscribe to them; which if they please not others, yet they do abundantly satisfie me, especially since I as yet was tinctur'd with the Prejudices of the Idolatry I was educated in. Far be it from me to con­demn any Man; but as I said before, I only acquaint you, that these things were of­fensive to me, which perhaps are not so to others.

Now to the Omnipotent and All-wise GOD, I return my most humble Thanks, [Page xiv] who by the assistance of his Holy Spirit, has brought me to the knowledge of that Reli­gion in which only Salvation is to be found, and to that Christian Communion which is most conformable to the Institutions of our Saviour: To whom be all Honour and Praise now and for ever. Amen.

The Reader is desired to mend the following ERRATA.

PAge 1. l. 4. after 1549. add as himself tells us in his Epi­stles. p. 4. l. 3. after de Rode, add but went by the Name of Ammo-Samna. p. 4. l. 19. after Tongue instead of a. put a, p. 7. l. 24. for, said they, r. they said. p. 12. l. 5. for were, r. where. ibid. l. 13. for R [...]kmo r. Rochmoo. ibid. after weigh­ing dele; ibid. l. 26. for Bale [...]ns. r. Balc [...]ns. p. 13. l. 20. for on r. a. p. 19. l. 13. after Sacrament, add 4thly. p. 26. l. 16. for whether r. whither. p. 29. l. 21. for the r. their. ibid. l. 22. for their r. the. p. 34. l. 22. after appear r. to. p. 39. l. 21. after which dele we. p. 40. l. 15. for natual r. natural. p. 43. l. 26. for supposion r. supposition. p. 44. l. 14. for Christion r. Christ on. p. 45. l. 23. for hvae r. have. ibid. l. 29. after same dele, p. 46. l. 23. for indicious r. judicious. p. 51. l. 26. for has a being r. is produc'd. p. 57. l. 7. for ther r. either. p. 64. l. 14. after Works r. of God. p. 83. l. 6. for the r. this. p. 84. l. 7. for but this r. which. p. 100. l. 29. for two Covenants r. two Seals of the Covenant. p. 102. l. 13. after Holiness r. and. p. 117. l. 3. for justly r. godly. p. 147. l. penult. after subdued r. it. p. 153. l. 19. for come r. came. p. 154. l. 26. for evpress't r. express'd. p. 162. l. 15. for mde r. made. p. 168. l. 8. for Prowers r. Powers. p. 172. l. 10. for visisted r. visited. p. 179. l. 20. instead of our Clocks, &c. r. the Clocks us'd in Europe. ibid. l. 22. for our r. an. p. 205. l. 17. for like ours r. like those here in England. p. 222. l. 22. for Mer­chants r. Tradesmen and Shopkeepers. p. 235. l. 22. for twelve r. one. ibid. l. penult. for six r. sixteen. p. 240. l. 26. for at r. to. p. 243. l. 8. for Brass r. Copper. p. 244. l. 3. for Copper r. Brass. ibid. l. 5. for Brass r. Copper. p. 272. for Malsion r. Mal-fien. p. 288. l. 26. for they r. the. p. 292. l. 2. after down r. to. p. 294. l. 2. and 8. for Merchants r. Shop-keepers. p. 295. l. 13. for when he goes r. before they go. Append. p. 129. l. 2. for thereby r. there by. p. 128. l. 5. in the Append. for 1700. r. 1701.

Pref. p. 4. l. 14. after is now, add, or was lately.

AN ACCOUNT OF THE TRAVELS OF Mr. George Psalmanaazaar, a Native of the Isle Formo­sa, thro' several parts of Eu­rope; with the Reasons of his Conversion to the Chri­stian Religion.

WHen Xaverius the great Apostle of the Indies first arrived, with the Jesuits his Companions, at Cango­xima in Japan, in the Year 1549; they were civilly entertain'd by the Inhabitants of [Page] [...] [Page 1] [...] [Page 2] that Place, and after this the Jesuits and other Missionaries, being encourag'd by the kind Reception they met with, flock'd in great Numbers to Japan, and there boldly profess'd and propagated the Christian Faith, with good success, for many years: But since the Emperour of Japan, about the year 1616, (for certain reasons hereafter mention'd) has forbidden any Christian to come into his Dominions under pain of Death, and hath appointed Searchers in e­very City to examine all Forreigners, whe­ther they be Christians or no, by this test, of Trampling upon the Crucifix; the Jesuits and other Missionaries of the Romish-Church, are so far from venturing to appear there bare-fac'd, or making publick Profession of the Christian Religion, and endeavour­ing to make Proselites, to it, that they in­dustriously mask themselves under several disguises, lest they should be known to be Christians or Forreigners. And to this end they first Travel to Goa, where there are Aca­demies in which all the Oriental Languages are Taught; and after they have Perfectly Learn'd the Japanese Language, and can speak it as easily and readily as any Native, Then they Cloth themselves in a Japan Ha­bit, and so they venture to Travel into some Island within the Dominions of the Empire [Page 3] of Japan. When they are come there, they pretend to be Natives of some other Island in the same Empire▪ which is easily be­liev'd to be true by the Inhabitants, who have no suspicion of them, because they speak their Language exactly, and wear their Cloths after the mode of the Country. And thus having secur'd their admission in­to a City with safety, their next business is to prevent any umbrage of suspicion which may arise from their idle way of living, and to this purpose they seem as much con­cern'd for some Trade, or Employment, as if they really wanted means of Subsistance. Thus some set up for Merchants, Artificers, or Toy-sellers, others for School-masters or Pedagogues, to teach the Natives Children some Language they want to learn: And so every one acts his part, and Cloaks him­self with some disguise, lest he should be dis­cover'd to be a Forreigner, and consequent­ly be oblig'd to trample upon the Crucifix. By this means they continue securely and free from danger, in any City of Japan, for the space of four years, which is the time allotted by their Superiors for their stay in those parts; after which time they are oblig'd to return to their own Country, and give place to other Missionaries who are then sent to succeed them.

[Page 4]Among the rest, there was a certain Jesu­it of Avignon, whose true Name was Fa­ther de Rode, descended of an Honourable Family, who after he had learned the Japa­nese Language at the University of Goa, came into the Island of Formosa, about the Year 1694, which was then and had been for some years Subject to the Empire of Japan; and, be­ing better qualified to be a Tutor to young Men than for any other Employment, he gave out, that he was a Native of Japan, de­scended of a rich Father, and that all his estate was divided among four Wives, and 13 Sons, he had left behind him, besides Daughters; that he being the youngest, the Portion which fell to his share was so small, that he was forc'd, at Twenty Years of Age, to leave his Fathers House, and Travel abroad, to get a Lively-hood by teaching the Latin Tongue. Which he had been taught; and that for this end he was come to Formosa after he had been in several other parts of Japan; by chance this Story happen'd to come to my Father's Ears, who sent for him, and after he had seen and discoursed him, he took him for a Learned and well-disposed Person; and therefore resolv'd to take him into his House to teach me the Latin Tongue. My Father acquainted me with the design, and told me that I should give over the Learning of [Page 5] the Greek Tongue, which I was then, Studying because I might Learn it at any time in our own Academies, and that I must make use of the present opportunity of Learning the La­tin Tongue by this Man, because he did not know when he should meet with the like opportunity. I readily submitted to my Fa­ther's Commands, as in Duty bound, and Father de Rode seem'd to be as glad of the opportunity as we were. My Father of­fer'd to allow him yearly 17 Copans for instructing me in the Latin Tongue, besides Diet and Cloths, which he accept­ed of; and so a Bargain was struck be­tween them: Now a Copan is one pound weight in Gold, which in English Money, according to our way of value, is about six Crowns.

After this he came and liv'd at my Fa­thers House in Xternetsa the Capital City of Formosa, for the space of four Years, and be­hav'd himself so well in all respects towards my Father and my self, that we were both very well satisfi'd with him. He accompanied me to all places whither I went, except when I entred into our Temples, for then he always left me at the Gate, because, as he pretended, he being a Japanner was of a different Religion, from that which was establish'd in the Isle of Formosa, and there­fore, [Page 6] he said, he would return home and worship his God after his own way. In the mean time he took care to instruct me in all the Articles of our Religion, as exactly as if he had believ'd it himself, and never spoke so much to me as one word of Christianity; and indeed he employed his whole time and pains in Teaching me the Latin Tongue, and instructing me in the Principles of our Faith, and of Moral Honesty: In fine, he appear'd to me, in all his discourse and acti­ons, to be a Person of so great probity, hon­esty and candor, that I lov'd him almost as well as my Father. But at length, after four Years were expir'd, when I had acquir'd a competent knowledge in the Latin Tongue, he received Letters whereby he was oblig'd to return into his own Country; and there­fore he begg'd the Favour of me, that I would acquaint my Father with his design of going away, and pray him, on his behalf, that he would dismiss him, and pay him the Salary that was due to him, according to the Agreement made between them; I lov'd him so well, that I was mightily troubled to hear of his departure, and therefore, being ignorant of the secret Mistery of his Mis­sion, I did all that I could to divert him from leaving the place; but he declard [Page 7] that he was fully resolv'd to be gone, and Travel over the World, and see all other other Countries, and especially those that were Christian, which he extoll'd above all o­thers, commending them highly upon several accounts, which I afterwards found to be false; In answer to this I told him, smiling, what are you mad to go among the Christians, where you will be kill'd for your Religion, as we kill them here upon the account of theirs: But he very seriously affirmed the contrary, and assured me that the Christians were very good Men, and that they were so far from any Cruelty, that they were al­ways kind and generous to Strangers, and entertain'd them very Civilly and Nobly. Besides, he told me, that he did not believe those Men who were formerly in Japan, to be true Christians, as they pretended them­selves to be, for, said he, I have discours'd with many Japanners who have been in Chri­stian Countries, and they mightily com­mended both the Country and the Inhabi­tants; for the Country said they was the most Pleasant place in the World, and the Christian Natives gave them a very honourable reception, they showed them all the Curiosities of Art and Nature that were in those Parts, and when they came away, the Christians so loaded them with Gifts and [Page 8] Presents, that they returned home to their own Country with great Riches; upon which accounts the same Japanners continue still to Praise the Christians, and their Coun­tries. My Tutor added farther, that in these Countries there is great plenty of those things which are here very scarce and pre­cious, and besides there are many curious and valuable things in the Christian Coun­tries, which were never seen nor known in Japan or Formosa. Lastly, he told me, that he would not stay any long time in Christ­endom, but only for the space of two or three Years at most, that he intended to spend three Years in his Travels, for assoon as he departed hence he would go to China, and from thence to the East-Indies, and after he had continued some time in these parts, he resolved to sail for Africa, and from thence into Europe, and there, continued he, I shall see Spain, France, Germany, Italy, Holland &c. The worst of which is more Beautiful and pleasant than this Island of Formosa. And at length after I have Travelled over all the parts of the known World, which are most Celebrated, either for the Curiosities of Nature, or the im­provements of Arts and Sciences, I shall re­turn home to my own Native Country, full Freighted with the Riches and experience I [Page 9] have gained, and then I shall have nothing else to do, but to spend the remaining part of my Life in Mirth and good Company, for all Persons of Ingenuity will be glad to see me, and delight to hear me discourse of the strange Rarities I have observed in o­ther Countries, of their different and sur­prising Manners and Customs; of their Laws and Politicks in time of Peace and War, of the wonderful improvments of Arts be­yond what is known in our Native Coun­try, of their Methods of Trade and Com­merce; And lastly, of the several Notable Accidents which happened to me in my Travels: And by these so Pleasant and useful Relations, I shall Purchase to myself great Honour and Esteem. These things he represented to me with such enticing Circumstances, that I could not but think with my self he had a mind to perswade me to go along with him, and I being then a young Man, about 19 Years of Age, was the more easily prevailed upon: For by the allurements he mentioned, he did so strike my Fancy, and excite my Curiosity of see­ing the Christian Countries he so much commended, that I could not forbear to tell him, That if there was no Danger, but we might safely return again after five or six Years into our Native Country; [Page 10] I had a great mind to be his Compani­on, and Travel with him thro' all these Countries; But he, dissembling his design upon me, seem'd to be very averse to my Proposal, and told me in a feigned Passion, God forbid, that ever I should entice you a­way from your Father's House, If he should know that I had any such Design, what could I expect, but that he would presently put me to Death, and therefore I pray you, continued he, talk no more to me of any such things: But after he had inflamed my desire of seeing of the foresaid Countries, by the charming prospect he gave of them, this seeming refusal did rather irritate than extinguish my Curiosity, and therefore I was still the more importunate that I might ac­company him in his Travels; and to remove his jealousies and fears, I promised him very seriously, that I would never speak one word of our design to any Soul alive, but carry it on with the greatest Secrecy that his own Heart could wish. But notwithstanding my pro­mises he still seemed to continue backwards and unwilling to consent to my desire, up­on account of the danger that attended him, which provoked me to repeat with greater earnestness my Solemn asseverations and vows of Secrecy and Fidelity; until at last af­ter a long Conference, and reiterated supplica­tions [Page 11] and assurances, he condescended to tell me plainly, that he had always a great opi­nion of my Candor and Sincerity, and he be­lieved I had some respect for him, (as in­deed I had a great Love and honour for him) that now he was resolved to show the great confidence he had in me, by put­ting his Life in my Hands, which he looked upon as the strongest obligation to Fidelity, and therefore continued he, since you are so urgent to be my Fellow-traveller, I am willing to take you along with me; but then you must be sure to be very cautious, and manage all things so secretly, that no­thing may happen which will give the least Suspicion of our design. After the main matter was thus agreed between us, he used great Freedom with me, in concerting the manner of our Escape, and securing some part of a Fund for Subsisting us in our Tra­vels. To this purpose, he told me one day, in our private Conversation, your Father is a rich Man and has great plenty of Gold both in Money and Goods, and since we are to undertake so long and expensive a Voyage, it will be very convenient that we should take a good quantity of this Gold along with us, which will help to defray our Ex­pences; but then to prevent all Danger of Discovery, nothing of this nature must be at­tempted, [Page 12] till such time as we intend to make our escape; and then about midnight we shall seize upon all the Gold and Money we can safely come at, and pack up our Bagage, and march off to the next Port, were we may have a Ship.

Having thus fix'd our matters, when the time appointed came, I made ready to be gone, and carried off with me, (besides o­ther Necessaries for our Journey) 25 pound weight in Gold, partly in Money and partly in Ʋtensils; viz. one piece of coin'd Gold, call'd Rockmo weighing; 8 pounds 3 Copans, whereof each being a piece of coin'd Gold weighs 1 pound; and 14 pound weight of Gold in Utensils, as Pots, Plates, &c. besides what I took in Silver and Steel Money, to the value of 600 Crowns or thereabout. With this Stock of Gold and Money, my Tutor and I set forth, having left all my Father's Family fast asleep, and we arrived about midnight at a Port of the Sea, called by the Formosans Khadzey, which is distant from my Father's House, in Xter­netsa, about Nine English Miles: And there I met with one of my Fathers Baleons or Gallies, and commanded the Steers-Man to carry me to Luconia, pretending I had earnest business to dispatch there for my Father. Luconia is the chief of the Philippine Isles, distant from [Page 13] Khadzey about 100 Leagues, where we stay'd about Eight Days, during which time, I kept the Steers Man and all the Marriners there, lest they should return back and ac­quaint my Father where I was: And after Eight Days we found a Ship going to Goa, in which we embark'd, and arriv'd at Goa, distant from Luconia about a 1000 Leagues. There we continued about six Weeks, du­ring which time we were very Civily and Nobly treated in the Monastery of the Je­suits, which my Tutor told me, was a House built by the Christians for entertain­ing Forreigners, and indeed by the kind reception we met with there, he did in some measure convince me of the truth of what he had formerly told me in Formosa, about the Probity and Generosity of the Christians. After six weeks were expir'd, we went a board on Ship that was going from Goa to Spain, and arriv'd at Gibralter, in the space of Nine or Ten Months, where I was forced to stay for the space of five Weeks, being very much indisposed by the change of Climates, Air and Diet. At length after my Recovery we sailed from Gibralter towards Toulon, which is a Sea-Port-Town in France, where I saw a great many several sorts of Monks in different Habits, which seem'd strange to me, where­upon [Page 14] I ask'd my Tutor who these Men were, who told me they were Men come from different parts of the World for Trade and Commerce; and that every one of them wore the Habit of his own Country. And as we passed through Thoulon, Marseils and Aix, in Provence, I observed a great many Crosses on the Road, which moved me to tell my Tutor; surely there must be a great many Thieves in this Country where there are so many Gallows; but he an­swer'd, that these Gallows were only in­tended to fright Thieves and Robbers, by the Terror of such a violent Death. And we arrived at last at Avignon, before I knew my Tutor to be a Christian: But af­ter we went into the Monastery of the Je­suits there; when I perceived the Porter call him by his Name, show him great respect, and talk to him in their Langage, I began to doubt of my Tutor whether he were not a Christian; and when I saw all the Fathers of the Convent come to him, salute him, and congratulate his safe Return; and after that, all his Kindred, and lastly all the No­ble Men and Gentlemen of the City, came to visit him, and express their great joy for his safe Arrival; I could no longer keep silence, but ask'd him, Whether he had not been here before? How it came to pass [Page 15] that so many People in this City received him very gladly, and pray'd him to tell the me truth how the matter stood. Where­upon he confess'd to me ingeniously, that he was a Native of that Country; and that h [...] d [...]d profess the Christian Religion; and t [...]n he assured me, that I should find all things true, both as to the Country and the Inhabitants, which he had told me in the Isle of Formosa. I have indeed added he, brought you from your Father's House; but you know you were very willing and desirous to come along with me: And now I will make you a very fair offer, If you be willing to Learn, we will Instruct you in all the Principles of our Religion; and if you can be perswaded to embrace it, we will take care to provide so well for you, that you shall live as well here as you did at home: But if you have a mind to return into your own Country, we will assist you and furnish you with Necessaries for your Journey. This last part of his Proposal was only a Copy of his Countenance, which he never intended to make good, as ap­peared by the sequel: For he knew, there was no advantage to be reap'd by my re­turn into my own Country, which he might expect if I continu'd there, by making a Convert of me to their Religi­on. [Page 16] However, this Discourse made me very thoughtful and anxious, and when I reflected seriously upon my condition, and the great danger to which I was reduc'd, I was so astonish'd, that I knew not what to say or do: Yet I concluded with my self, it would be my safest and best way, to give my Tutor and the rest of the Fathers good Words, and carry my self fairly towards them, lest they should treat me after the same way as we do the Christians in our Country; of which I was sometimes very apprehensive. At length to show my self tractable, and gain their good Opinion, I made them this frank offer, That if they could show me greater Evidence for the truth of their Religion, than I could show for the truth of mine, I was ready to re­nounce my own Religion and embrace theirs. Father de Rode presently accepted of this Proposal, hoping I would yield to his Arguments upon the first onset: But to procure himself the greater Glory, he gave out that I was the Son of a King, (how truly God knows), and that I had accompanied him into Europe, out of a desire I had to embrace the Christian Religion.

There were only three ways by which they could hope to make a Convert of me, by Arguments and Demonstrative Proofs, [Page 17] by flattering Insinuations and fair Promises, or by Threats and Violence. By Argu­ments they could not convince me, for I was able to show greater absurdities in their Religion than they could prove in mine; and particularly, in their Doctrine of Tran­substantiation; Against which I argu'd se­veral ways: As, First from the Testimony of our Senses, viz. of seeing, feeling, tast­ing, all which do assure us, that it is Bread, which we receive in the Sacrament and not Flesh: If therefore we believe our Sen­ses, we cannot believe that the Substance of the Bread is chang'd into the natural Flesh of Christ, which is corporally present in this Sacrament: And then I prov'd that we must believe the Testimony of our Sen­ses; because upon them depends the cer­tainty of the Relations we have concern­ing the Miracles wrought by Jesus Christ, for the confirmation of his Doctrine: For if those who were Eye-witnesses, could not be certain by their Senses, that such Mi­racles were wrought, as are related in the Life of Christ, than we have no certainty of the truth of these Relations which de­pends upon the Testimony of those Eye-witnesses, who affirm that they saw such Miracles wrought by Christ, and conse­quently all the Evidence for the truth of [Page 18] Christianity, from the Miracles pretended to be wrought in confirmation of it, is sub­verted and destroyed. Thus the belief of Transubstantiation is inconsistent with the Belief of these Miracles; for if we believe them we must allow the Testimony of Sense to be a sufficient proof of them; But if we believe Transubstantiation we must renounce our Senses, and deny them to be a certain proof of any thing we see or feel.

Secondly, I argu'd, That their Doctrine of Transubstanatition must be false; because the same Body cannot, at the same time, be in two distant places: But according to their Doctrine, the same Body of Christ was cor­porally present in a 1000 distant places at the same time, viz. in all those places where this Sacrament is Celebrated, over the face of the whole Earth, however distant and remote from one another. Their distincti­on which they applied to this Argument, That the same Body could not be in more places than one Circumscriptive, but only Definitive, appear'd to me frivolous and im­pertinent; for still it appeared to me impos­sible, that the same Body should be Cor­porally present (tho' it were only Definitive as they called it) in several distant places at the same time; for then the same Body [Page 19] might be kill'd and dead in one place, while it was alive in another.

Thirdly, I argu'd, That when Christ said at the Institution of this Sacrament, Do this in remembrance of me, he supposed that he would be absent from them when they should Celebrate this Sacrament; for it is neither necessary nor usual to remem­ber a Friend present, but only one that is absent; And therefore, these words of Christ, Do this in remembrance of me, do plainly imply, that he is not Bodily present (in this Sacrament.) I argu'd that their Doctrine of Transubstantiation could not be true, because it supposed, that the ac­cidents of Bread (as they call them) re­mained without the Substance, and the Substance of Christ's Flesh was corporally present without the accidents that are pe­culiar to Flesh, both which appeared to me impossible: For I cannot conceive how the whiteness of Bread can subsist, when there is nothing that is white, and how there can be the Substance of Flesh, which can neither be seen, felt nor tasted.

These were some of the Arguments I urg'd against their Doctrine of Transub­stantiation, to which I could never receive a Satisfactory Answer, and tho' they al­ledg'd several Arguments to turn me from [Page 20] Heathenism; yet because I thought there were greater absurdities in their Religion than they could shew in mine, I still ad­hered to my own Religion. And there­fore finding that by Arguments they could not prevail, they attempted to bribe my Affections, and so win me over to their Party, by many fair Promises, and wheed­ling Insinuations; But I knew so well their Insincerity and cheating Tricks, by their coun­terfeiting themselves to be Heathens in Formosa, and by breaking their Promise of allowing me Liberty of Conscience, that I could put no Confidence in any Promises they made me. And besides, I very well knew, that I could have more Riches and Honour, if I should return into my own Native Country, than I could expect from them. In fine, the earnest desire and probable hope I had of returning to my Father, being join'd with the fear of continuing in this remote Country, far di­stant from my Relations, among Strangers and Hypocrites, made me flight all the offers they made me: Which induced them at last to use Threats and Violence; and these I endur'd with great meekness, and endea­vour'd to mittigate their Anger with soft words, while in the mean time, I was con­triving and preparing, by the most probable [Page 21] means I could think of to make my es­cape out of their Hands.

I continued at Avignon for the space of 15 Months, six in the Monastery of the Jesuits, and nine in other places: See the Appendix. While I continued in the Monastery, I found they were continually teasing and persecuting me with Enticements, and Arguments to embrace their Religion, and therefore to get rid of them, I pretended a great desire to hear their publick Prelections, for which end I went sometimes to their Schools of Philosophy, and sometimes of Theology. But being still liable to their troublesome Solicitations, at last I left the Monastery, and took a private Lodging in the City, where I lived at my own proper Charges: And because they had a great part of my Money in their Hands, which they thought I would not leave behind me, they gave me leave to satisfie my Curiosity, and ram­ble over the Countries round about, which I did, travelling from City to City, for the space of six Months: After I returned to Avignon again, I continued there only for the space of three Months, from the time I first took a private Lodging in that City. And they welcom'd me, and seem'd at first to receive me very kindly, but when they found that I put off from Day to Day, to [Page 22] declare my self a Convert, then they begun to attack me more closely, and told me plainly, We have waited a long time to receive you into the Bosom of the Catholick Church, and used many arguments to con­vince you of the truth of our Religion, but since you still continue obstinate, we must desire you to take notice, that we can no longer bear with your delays; for hitherto we have entreated the Fathers Inquisitors that they would not give you any trouble, which they have forbore to do upon our request: But now since you have rejected all the fair means that we have used for so long a time for your Conversion, they are re­solved not to wait any longer. And to show they were in good earnest, about eight Days after there came Letters from the Grand Inquisitor, expresly requiring that I should be put into the Inquisition, unless I would embrace the Christian Religion. Whether these Letters were real or suppo­sititious I know not, but this is certain, that the Inquisitors show'd me such Letters, and withal told me, That if I did not change my Religion within Ten Days, they were ob­liged to imprison me. The Jesuits were pre­sent, when these things were done, who having consulted with the Inquisitors, they both agreed to allow me Fifteen Days [Page 23] wherein to make a publick profession of their Religion. The reason of granting me this further time, was this, because the Day on which they spoke to me was the first of August, and the 15th of that Month being, according to them, the Day of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin, they had a great mind that I should publickly declare my Conversion, and be baptized on that Solemn Festival. All these Proposals I was forc'd to submit unto, and durst not refuse them in my present Circumstances: Where­upon they, conceiving good hopes of me, began anew to explain to me the Mysteries of their Religion, which they did by simili­tudes; Thus, for Example, they illustrated to me the Mystery of the Trinity, by the similitude of a piece of Cloth which is thrice folded, which, notwithstanding the three folds, is one and the same Cloth. They would never allow me to read the Bible, but they furnish'd me with abundance of Books about the Miracles pretended to be wrought by some of their Saints, in con­firmation of their peculiar Opinions. For the first four or five Days, of the Fifteen which were allotted me, I heard, with great appearance of submission, all the demon­strations they pretended to give for their Doctrines, and when they answered my [Page 24] Arguments with Philosophical distinctions, and used a multitude of hard words, which were to me unintelligible, I granted all that they said, and confessed they had almost made me a Convert. For when I said that I could not understand those Answers, or Philosophical Arguments; This Father De Rode began to say to me, My dear, since you cannot understand what this Reverend Father says, I will explain it to you in your own Japanois Language; and so instead of explaining it to me, he said, My dear Son, You see that the Fa­thers Inquisitors, have a great mind to put you into the Inquisition, because you won't confess your self a Convert; therefore it would be better for you to say that you understand what they say, than to be any longer obstinate; their Arguments are very well grounded and reasonable, but you cannot conceive the strength of them; therefore let me desire you to say publickly, that you are now perswaded of the goodness of their Arguments, and that you don't require any more. So I was obliged to speak in Latin, and say, Now I under­stand very well, Let us come to another Ar­ticle.

But still I trusted, under God, to my heels, hoping by some means or other to get out of their Hands, and to run away in such [Page 25] a Road that they should not be able to find me out again. After Ten Days of the Fifteen were expired, I had sold all that I had, and then I attempted to get out of the City, but I found that the Centinel, who watched at the Gate to which I came, was expresly forbidden to suffer me to go out; such care was taken by the Inquisitors to prevent my Escape. However I did not despair, but being returned to my Lodging, I put off my Japan Clothes, which I had hitherto wore, and clad my self after the Mode of the Country; and then I at­tempted to pass out by another Gate: But I was so much taken notice of by all the People that were in the City, that the Soldier who stood Centinel at that Gate, knew me under the disguise of my Clothes, and stopp'd me. This second disappoint­ment frighted me not a little, but having recollected my Spirits, I considered that Money rules the World, and prevails over the generallity of Men, and therefore I offered the Soldier a Pistol if he would suffer me to go out, which he accepted of, and so let me go, hoping it could never be discovered that he was the Man that did it. Thus God delivered me out of the Hands of the Jesuits and Inquisitors, from whom I could expect no Mercy, if I had not in [Page 26] Hypocrisie professed their Religion, which I could never heartily believe.

Having thus made my escape out of Avignon, I travelled along the River Rhone with all the speed I could, as far as Lyons, from Lyons I went to Salines, from Salines to Brisac, and at last from Brisac I tra­velled by the side of the Rhone, as far as An­dernach, where the Soldiers of the Elector of Colen seized me by force, according to the Orders they had received from the E­lector, to Press all Passengers that came that way, to fill up the New Regiments he was Raising. There were then three Com­panies in Andernach, three in Lintz, and six in Bonn, whether all the other Companies resorted, being the place appointed for their Rendezvous; And when they were all come together, my Captain, thinking to gratifie the Colonel's Curiosity, acquainted him with what I had told him, that I was a Native of the Isle Formosa, belonging to Emperor of Japan, and by Religion a Pa­gan; that I had travelled from this far distant Country to satisfie my Curiosity of seeing Europe, having heard strange things about it: But the Colonel who was a Savoy­ard, and call'd le Chevalier St. Maurice, be­ing a Bigot of the Romish Church, thought it a damnable thing to retain a Pagan in the [Page 27] Service of the Elector; who being inform­ed about me, commanded me to be car­ried to some Jesuits, that they might en­deavour to Convert me. Whereupon I was obliged to go with the Colonel and some other Officers to the Jesuits, with whom I was to dispute about Religion; tho' I knew very well by my former ex­perience, that they are not able by strength of Argument to convince any Man, and much less, a Jew, a Turk, or a Heathen. And now, being well acquainted with their Opinions before hand, and the several Eva­sions and Distinctions they made use of to defend them, I was the better prepared to enter the Lists with the Jesuits, against whom I endeavoured to demonstrate; that there were greater Absurdities in their Religion, than they could show in mine; which I did with so much readiness and briskness, and such a fair appearance of Reason, that the Colonel cried out, like one astonished, It was not I that spoke, but some Devil that spoke within me. At last one of the Jesuits took me aside to a private place, and told me, that I was in a most miserable condition, if I should continue in the Pagan Religion, but if I would declare my self a Convert to the Romish Faith, he was able to obtain great [Page 28] things for me from the Prince Elector; But I told him he should first convince me of the Truth of his Religion, before he made me any such Promises; which he not being able to do I slighted his offer, and con­tinued still in my own Religion. Where­upon the Colonel was so exasperated against me, that he threatned to throw me into Prison, and feed me with Bread and Wa­ter, until such time as I should declare my self a Convert. But my Captain, who was much the honester Man of the two, ha­ving seized me by force, would not suffer any hurt to be done me; and therefore prayed the Colonel to permit me to go off, and to grant me a Pass, for traveling whe­thersoever I would; which was presently done. After I got out of Bonn, I con­tinued my Journey till I came to Colen, and there the Centinel who kept the Gate seized me again, and carried me before the Captain of the main Guard, to whom I showed my dismission out of Bonn, upon the account of my Religion; but he told me, If others be Fools, I am not, though you are a Pagan, you may serve in the Army as well as the best Christian, and so I was ob­liged to List my self a Soldier in that Re­giment. The Colonel whose Name was Buchwald, and the Major who was my [Page 29] Captain, and whose Name was Warms­dorff, were both Lutherans: The Lieuten­ant Colonel, whose Name was Vanduil, was a Roman Catholick, and many of the Officers in the Regiment were Calvinists, and all of them belonged to the Prince of Mechlenburg, but the Regiment was hir'd by the Dutch for some Years.

The Colonel and my Captain sent for some Lutheran Ministers, whereof one was at Colen, another at a Village about an Hour distant, and two more who served in the Brandenburg Regiments. All these four came and disputed with me about Religi­on for a whole Day; but their Consub­stantiation offended me as much as the Roman Transubstantiation.

For it is liable to many of the same ab­surdities with the Romish Doctrine, about the Eucharist; First, because it denies the certainty of our Senses in the proper ob­jects, and consequently destroys their great Evidence of the Christian Religion, from the Miracles wrought in confirmation of it, which depends upon the Testimony of their Senses, who were Eye-witnesses of them. Secondly, The Lutheran Doctrine, as well as the Romish, supposes, that the Body of Christ which is now Glorious and Immor­tal in Heaven, is Corporally present in the [Page 30] Eucharist, and at the same time in all those places where this Sacrament is celebrated, which appeared to me impossible.

But besides these Absurdities, which are common to them both, the Lutheran Do­ctrine is encumbred with several that are peculiar to it: For first they say, that these Words, This is my Body, are to be understood literally, and that the Substance of the Bread is really present; so that ac­cording to their Interpretation the meaning of the Words is, This Substance of the Bread is really the Flesh of Christ, which is a contradiction in terminis; for it is plain­ly impossible, that the same Substance should, at the same time, be both Bread and Flesh. Secondly, They affirm that the Bread in the Eucharist is the Sacrament and Sign of Christ's Body, and at the same time that it is the real Body; whereas it is im­possible that the same thing should be both the Sign and the Thing signified, or that any thing should be a sign of it self. Thirdly, They maintain that the Body of Christ is alive in the Eucharist (for they deny the Popish Sacrifice of the Mass, wherein the Body is slain and offered up) which being united to the Divinity, is certainly the object of Adoration, and yet they deny that it is to be worshipped.

[Page 31]These and several other Arguments I urged against the Lutherans, whereby they perceived that they were not likely to con­vince me of the Truth of their Doctrine about the Eucharist: Whereupon the Mi­nister who lived at the Village near Colen, took me home with him, and kept me there for Fifteen Days, and thither the Cap­tain came also, and both of them joined together in making me many large Pro­mises to entice me to declare for their Re­ligion; but I continued inflexible, and could not be prevailed upon by any such Motives. After this the Lieutenant Colonel, who was a Roman Catholick, carried me to the Ca­puchins, and from them to the Jesuits; but all the means they could use with me proved ineffectual. At last the Officers that were Calvinists carried me to a Mi­nister of their Church, who dealt so ef­fectually with me, that he almost convinc'd me of the truth of the Christian Religion, because he removed those stumbling blocks which were laid in the way by the Papists and Lutherans: But when he proposed to me the Doctrine of Absolute Pre­destination, and endeavoured to prove it from Scripture, I was so shock'd by the apparent absurdity of it, that I be­gun to doubt of all those things he had [Page 32] convinced me of before: Whereupon I told him, if absolute Predestination was necessary to be believed, then it was a sign of my Reprobation, that I could not be per­swaded to believe it. Besides I added fur­ther, That, supposing absolute Predestina­tion I should never be condemned for my Infidelity, but because I was reprobated by an Absolute and Eternal Decree of God. And Lastly, I insisted upon this Argument, That I could not be perswaded to believe in Christ, unless I were certain that Christ died for me; but, supposing absolute Pre­destination, I could never be certain of this, because Christ died only for those who were to be saved by an absolute Decree, and it was impossible for me to know whether I was one of that number or no. These, and such-like arguments, I proposed to him, but he, to excuse himself for not answering them, pretended that I was obstinate and would not be convinced by Reason: And thus, after all the attempts that had been made to convert me to Christianity, I con­tinued still firm in my old Religion. In the mean time our Regiment marched from Colen to Boisleduc in Holland, where some Calvinist Ministers came to see me, rather out of curiosity, than any design of con­verting me, whom I opposed with the ar­gument [Page 33] against Predestination which I last mentioned, but could never meet with any satisfactory Answer to it. From the Bosch we marched to Sluse in Flanders, where we stay'd for the space of Three Months and a half, during which time, the most generous and candid Brigadier Lauder, who was then Governor of Sluse, invited to his House a Minister of the French Church, called D' Amalvy. This French Minister who had a good Opinion of him­self, for a very learned Man, challenged me to Dispute with him about Religion, and time and place were agreed upon. When the Day came, there appeared a great mul­titude of learned Men, who came to hear us: And in the presence of them all D' Amalvy made me this offer; That if I could show greater Evidence for my Religion than he could show for his, he was ready to re­nounce his own Religion and embrace mine; and in return for this frank offer, I promised him to do the same thing, if he could give me clearer demonstrations for the truth of his Religion, than I could for mine. Ha­ving thus settled the Preliminaries, I was first to give an account of the God we adored, and our manner of worshipping him, which I did as well as I could Ex­tempore; But when I told him, that we [Page 34] are commanded by our God to offer up Infants in Sacrifice to him, he stopp'd me, and ask'd, Does not this savour of Cruelty in your God, that he will have Men Sa­crific'd to him; To which I answer'd, that it was indeed most cruel to require such Human Sacrifices; but from hence I took occasion to retort the argument upon him, by shewing that his God was yet more cruel, according to his Opinion of him, For if it be cruel to deprive Men of this Temporal Life, tho' by this means they are admitted to Eternal Life; certainly it is infinitely more cruel to create Men on purpose to make them Eternally miserable, and to condemn them to this Misery before they are Born, without any respect to the Good or Evil they shall do, and so to Sacrifice them to the Devil. To this Retortion he could not answer, and so I proceeded fur­ther to inform him, that our God did ap­pear to us in the shape of an Elephant, an Oxe, &c. and that under these shapes we worshipp'd him: Against this Apparition of God under such Figures, he objected, That it was impossible that God who was Omnipotent, Infinite, Immense, Incompre­hensible and Eternal, could be included in the Body of such a Beast. To which I answer'd, That if it is impossible for God [Page 35] to be included in the Body of such a Beast, he was bound to maintain the like absur­dity by the Principles of his own Religion; For, said I, you believe that the Holy Ghost, who is God Infinite, Immense, &c. did appear under the shape of a Dove, which is much less than either an Elephant or an Oxe. To this he made no reply, and tho' there were many present who would have answer'd this and other Arguments, yet he commanded them all to be silent, and would suffer no body to speak but him­self. In fine he exhorted me very much to the practice of Christian Humility and Meekness, as if he intended to reserve to himself alone the Priviledge of Pride and Arrogance, which I could plainly discern, by his Words and Actions, to be very predo­minant in his Temper. Thus this Con­ference ended, without producing any good effect upon me, and if by God's Provi­dence I had not met with a better Guide to direct me in the Course I should Steer to arrive at a safe Harbour in this dangerous Sea of Controversies, I must have split up­on the Rocks and Shelves of the absurd O­pinions I met with among some sort of Christians, and adhear'd more obstinately than ever to the Idoltry in which I was educated. For I could never bring my [Page 36] Mind to believe such a Scheme of the Christian Religion, as was proposed, but not demonstrated by him; Such a System of Religion could never find en­tertainment with me, which places Cer­berus in the very Threshold, I mean, which imposes as a necessary Article of Faith, the horrible decree of absolute Reprobation, for this Doctrine gives a very odious and fright­ful Idea of a most Good and Gracious God, by representing him as Cruel and Tyrani­cal to his poor Creatures, as one that de­signs and delights in their Eternal Ruine; it perfectly overturns all Religion, by de­stroying the use of all Laws, and their Re­wards and Punishments, to those that are f etter'd with the Adamantine Chains of this fatal Decree; who according to the Calvinists are the greatest part of Man­kind. But while I was in this uncertain and dangerous Condition, it pleased God, who is infinitely Wise and Good, and will not suffer that Religion which he has planted and maintain'd by his own Al­mighty Power, to be check'd in its progress by the Ignorance or Mistake of his Mini­sters: I say, it pleased this good God to provide for me such a Judicious and Ho­nest Guide, as was very successful in all things relating to my Conversion, who [Page 37] proposed to me the Christian Religion in its Purity, without those Monstrous Do­ctrines of Transubstantiation, Consub­stantiation and absolute Predestination: A Religion that was not embarass'd with any of those absurdities which are main­tain'd by the many various Sects in Christen­dom: Whereof he gave me a Scheme in a Mathematical method by way of Difini­tions, Axioms, Postulata and Propositions; which he divided into 2 Parts, whereof the first contains the grounds of the Christian Religion in general, the second contains the particular grounds of the Church of Eng­land, as it is a Society distinct from all Schis­matical Assemblies. And first, the grounds of the Christian Religion he propos'd in the following Order, whereby I was, thro' God's Mercy, deliver'd from the Errors and Su­perstitions of my Pagan Religion.

The Grounds of the Author's Con­version.

  • Defin. 1. By God, I understand a Being in­finite, uncreated, eternal, &c. Containing in himself all Perfections that either astually exist, or are possible.
  • [Page 38] 2. A thing is said to be Created for the Glory of God, which manifests one, or more of his Attributes, according to its natural State and Power.
  • 3. By Miracles, I understand certain Effects that are clear and evident, which exceed all the Powers of natural Causes, and are design'd for the Confirmation of a good Religion.
  • 4. By Revelation, I understand the extraor­dinary Manifestation of the Divine Will, which Men by their natural faculties could not at­tain to.
  • 5. By Religion, I understand that Worship, or way of Worshipping, which God requires of us, and we owe unto him.
  • 6. By Creatures of the same kind, I under­stand either such as are Vegetative, Sensitive, or Rational, &c.
  • 7. That is said to exist by absolute necessity, without which nothing else can exist.
  • 1. All Creatures are not endow'd with equal Perfections.
  • 2. Two or more Propositions, contradicting two or more Propositions, cannot be both true.
  • 3. If there be two or more things, consisting of two or more Propositions which are repugnant to one another, these things cannot be both true.
  • 4. There are different Religions in the World.
  • [Page 39] 5. All different Religions whatsoever, con­sist of a certain Number of Propositions, which are either all false, or all true, or partly false, partly true.
  • 6. Ʋnless we had a thinking faculty, the Glory of God would not appear to us.
  • 7. The stronger the faculty is in any Man, the more clearly are the properties of a thing conceiv'd by him, viz. Of that thing which is the object of the faculty.
  • 8. Nothing can be made by nothing.
  • 1. That the Glory of God, the Publick Good, and the Advantage of every Private Man, be the great ends which are design'd by all true Re­ligion.
  • 2. That Men must either believe something or nothing.
  • 3. That nothing be believ'd without sufficient Evidence.
  • 4. That those things which have the same or equal degrees of Evidence, should obtain wtih us, the same or an equal degree of Assent.
  • 1. There is a God.
  • 2. All things were Created for his Glory.
  • [Page 40] 3. The more we know of an object, the more, naturally speaking, should the Contemplation of that object excite in us the love or hatred of it.
  • 4. All the different Religions in the World, proceed either from the love or hatred of the ob­ject of our Adoration, or the different degrees of these Affections.
  • 5. No Worship is to be given to God, which is not grateful to him.
  • 6. All the Religions in the World, taken col­lectively, are not acceptable to God.
  • 7. There is one Religion, consider'd distinctly by it self, which alone is grateful to God.
  • 8. Men in their Natural State, cannot dis­cover this one Religion.
  • 9. There are certain means, whereby the true Religion may be discern'd from those that are false.
  • 10. Revelation is absolutely necessary.
  • 11. 'Tis most agreeable to the Wisdom of God, that the Creatures of the same kind, should express the Glory of God in one and the same Harmonious manner; Nay, this is a thing inseparable from the nature of these Crea­tures.
  • 12. God may reveal himself more or less to Mankind, according to his own good pleasure.
  • 13. The more universal the Evidence is for any Revelation, the more perfect and universal the Religion it self is.
  • [Page 41] 14. That Religion was never design'd by God, to be embrac'd by all Mankind, which had not the Degrees of Evidence proportionable to that Ʋniversality.
  • 15. That Revelation is of all others most perfect, whose Evidence is most universal.
  • 16. That Revelation, and consequently Re­ligion, is justly to be esteem'd most universal, whose Evidence is so clear, that none can call it in question if he believes any thing, and which contains such arguments exciting Men to the Practice of it, as are suited to the meanest ca­pacity.

Upon these sure Foundations laid down by my faithful Guide, which he more parti­cularly explain'd and prov'd to me by word of Mouth, the Divine Grace assisting me, I did heartily embrace the Christian Religi­on.

And I will be bold to affirm, that if a­ny one shall carefully examine all the Reli­gions in the World, by the Rules aforemen­tion'd, it will plainly appear, that neither the Jewish, nor Pagan, nor Mahometan Re­ligion, but only the Christian, has a just Title to be the Universal Religion of Man­kind.

But then finding there were several So­cieties of Christians, I was for some time [Page 42] doubtful to which Communion I should joyn my self, for the Ministers of the Dutch Church, endeavour'd to perswade me to their Communion; Alledging that a Church Govern'd by Bishops, was not agreeable to Scripture, and the Primitive Church: And on the contrary, Mr. Innes affirm'd, and en­deavour'd to prove, that Episcopal Govern­ment was the most Ancient and the Primi­tive form of Government, that was us'd in the Christian Church: But while I was thus doubtful, at length certain Principles were agreed upon between them both, which be­ing propos'd in a Mathematical method, and clearly demonstrated, remov'd all doubts out of my mind, and fix'd me to be a most faithful Member of the Church of Eng­land.

These Principles were propos'd to me in the following Order.

  • 1. By a certain order of Men, I understand some select persons in a Society, enjoying a power or priviledge which is not communicable to every particular member of that Society.
  • [Page 43] 2. By Ordination I understand a power re­ceived of another or others, for administring the Holy Sacraments and other Sacred Ordinances, according to our blessed Saviours Institu­tion.
  • 3. By a Church I understand a Society of Men believing and professing the Christian Doctrine, and having a power of administring the Holy Sacraments and other sacred Ordinances ac­cording to our blessed Savour's Institutions.
  • 1. A Society may be said to have a Power, when one or more of the Society are Ʋested with it, tho' every particular member cannot pretend to it.
  • 2. What absolute necessity Obliges a Society to do in time of Confusion, ought not to be made a standard for the same, or another So­ciety, when they come to enjoy their Power or Priviledges without any disturbance; nay in this case Necessity makes not the thing Lawful but pardonable only, and loses its name when any Escape occasion'd by it can be redress'd.
  • 3. In matters of Fact, a supposition of the contrary being possible, is not sufficient to e­nervate the Truth of what is pass'd, i. e. none can say such a thing has not been so, because, [Page 44] Perhaps it could have been otherwise.
  • 1. Nothing is to be believ'd in the Christian Religion but what is built upon certain Evi­dence.
  • 2. Nothing is to be practis'd by Christians (I mean in that Capacity) which is not believ­ed.
  • 3. One Man, or number of Men, cannot give that to another Man, or another Number of Men, which they themselves have not and is not in their power.
  • 1. There hath been a Church of Christians upon Earth since the days of our blessed Savi­our and his Apostles.
  • 2. The Church hath no power, but what she hath deriv'd from our blessed Saviour and his Apostles.
  • 3. The Apostles were Cloath'd with a power which was not communicable to all Christians in General.
  • 4. All Christians in general, in the days of the Apostles or the Primitive Church, had not a power of administring the holy Sacraments and Preaching the Gospel.
  • 5. Those who had not this power themselves [Page 45] could not be in a Capacity of Communicating it to others.
  • 6. This Power then has been continually lodg'd in a certain Order of Men to whom our blessed Saviour or his Apostles did communicate it.
  • 7. This power has been transmitted down to us by this Order of men inviolably and un­interruptedly from the first Ages of the Chri­stian Church.
  • 8. Those are not a Church, who separate them­selves from that, or those Societies of Christians, in whom the power of Administring the holy Sacraments, and other sacred Ordinances is only lodg'd.
  • 9. No Person ought to joyn himself in Communion with that Society which has no Power of Administring the Holy Sacraments, and other Sacred Ordinances.
  • 10. No man ought to assume to himself that Power, unless he receives it from those who are in a Capacity of giving it.
  • 11. Every one that receives it this way, ought to be fully assured, and have sufficient evi­dence, that those from whom he receives it, have a real Power of granting it, and a bare Pro­bability can never vindicate him from Ʋsurp­ing that Power.
  • 12. No man can be assured of this unless at the same, time he hath sufficient evidence, that those who give it him be in the Number of that Order of Men, to whom the Apostles did Com­municate [Page 46] this Power, to be transmitted down inviolably and uninterruptedly from the first Ages of the Christian Church.
  • 13. There is no other way for People to be assured of this, but by going backward from their own times to those of the Apostles or the Primi­tive Church.
  • 14. Those who cannot produce this Evidence, cannot be that Order of Men to whom the A­postles did communicate this Power to be invio­lably and uninteruptedly preserv'd and trans­mitted down to us from the first Ages of the Christian Church.
  • 15. The Church of England is able to pro­duce this Evidence, and consequently is in the number of that Order of Men, to whom the Apostles did communicate this Power, to be trans­mitted down to us inviolably and uninterrup­tedly from the first Ages of the Christian Church.

These were the Propositions concerning Church-Communion that were given to me by my Learned and Judicious Guide Mr. Jnnes, which I shall not now pretend to de­monstrate, but shall only add, That by their native Force and Evidence, all my doubts and Scruples, about the various Societies of Christians, were dissolv'd and vanished a­way, and I did heartily joyn my self to the Church of England, as a true Apostolical [Page 47] Church, and free from all sorts of Error ei­ther as to its Government or Doctrine. I know very well, that no Truths are so clear but they may be liable to some Ob­jections from Men of contrary Principles; but this I told to the Ministers of Sluce, Reverend Sirs, if ye can give me as clear a Scheme of the Principles upon which your Communion is founded, as this which is given me by Mr. Jnnes, I shall readily compare them together, and determine my self according to the best of my Judgment; but until you do this, you must Pardon me that I do not joyn my self to your Com­munion: And since these good Men never attempted to give me any such Scheme, I did Frankly and Publickly profess my self a Member of the Church of England.

Leaving therefore any further dispute a­bout Church-Communion, I shall pursue the grounds and principles given me by my Guide for demonstrating the Truth and Cer­tainty of the Christian Religion. And in doing this I shall observe this order in the following discourse, viz.

1. I shall prove the Existence of a God by whom all things are Created, and dis­tinctly explain the Attributes of God. 2. I shall consider the final causes for which God made the Heaven, and the Earth, and all things that are in them; and from thence [Page 48] conclude, that they were made by a most Intelligent and Wise being. 3. I shall as­sert the necessity of a particular Revelation from God, to discover the manner in which he will be worship'd by Mankind; which worship is properly call'd by the Name of Religion. 4. I shall produce such Charac­teristicks and evidences whereby every one from the light of Nature, may distinguish between a true and false Religion. 5. I shall demonstrate the Christian Religion to be the only true Religion, revealed by God to Mankind, and that all the other Religi­ons in the World are false. And lastly, I shall answer the principal Objections which I made while a Heathen, against the truth and certainty of the Christian Religion.

SECT. I. Of the Existence of God.

'TIs certain that the being of God is the Foundation of all Religion, for all enquiries about the right way of Worship­ing him, would be superfluous and imper­tinent, unless we be first certain that there [Page 49] is a God. The far greatest part of Man­kind, as well Pagans as others, are agreed in the Existence of a God; yet because some do call it in question, I shall endea­vour to prove it by a few Arguments, that I may secure this fundamental Doctrine of all reveal'd Religion, from all the attacks of unreasonable Men.

But before I proceed to these Arguments, it may be necessary to observe the various Opinions of learned Men concerning the means of attaining the Knowledge of God: Some think that the notion of God is im­printed on the Hearts of all Men by na­ture; others deny that there is any such Idea of a God in the Minds of Men by nature: Some think that the Knowledge of God is convey'd to us by Revelation, or deriv'd by Tradition from the first Man, who was immediately created by God. But without entring upon a nice Exami­nation of these several Opinions, I hope this will be granted on all Hands, That by the right use of our rational Faculties, with the help of those Principles that are known by the Light of Nature, we may may arrive at the certain Knowledge of God, whose Existence therefore I shall en­deavour to demonstrate by the following Arguments.


Every thing that is, must either be from it self, or from another. If it be from it self, then it is uncreated, independent and eternal, and consequently God: If from another, seeing all second Causes are produced by some other which give them being, (as we derive our original from our Fathers, and they from their Fathers, and so upwards) then either these second Causes must produce one another in infi­nitum, without any beginning; or the effect must sometimes produce a prior Cause, and so they must produce one ano­ther in a Circle, or we must acknowledge some first Cause, by which all other things are produced, which is God.

Now there cannot be an infinite succes­sion of Causes producing one another from all Eternity: For every Cause that pro­duces a new thing out of nothing, must have some beginning of its operation, which must be perfected in a limited time, and therefore there can be no such pro­duction of any thing from all Eternity, but every thing must be produced in a cer­tain determinate time, which is plainly in­consistent with the nature of Eternity.

[Page 51]And neither can there be any such cir­cular production of Causes, whereby the last effect is the efficient of the first Cause, for then the same thing would be the Cause of its Cause, it would be Prior and Posterior to its Cause, and to it self, which is plainly impossible, and therefore we must conclude, that there is a first Cause which is uncreated, and the Creator of all things else.


I am sure that there is something now in the World, for I am conscious to my self, that I think, I perceive, I doubt; which Actions cannot proceed from nothing, and therefore I am certain, that there is a thinking Being. And from hence these two things will undeniably follow, 1st. That there was something from all Eternity, for either there was always something, and so there was an eternal Being, or there was a time when there was nothing, and then nothing could ever have been; for there is no Principle more certain than this, that nothing can produce nothing; but every thing that has a Being, must be produc'd by something; and therefore if there was a time when there was nothing, nothing could ever have been produced. [Page 52] 2dly, Since 'tis certain that there is now in the World a thinking Being, which knows and understands; from hence it will no less evidently follow, that there was a Knowing, Understanding Being from all Eternity; for it is no less impos­sible for a Being devoid of Knowledge to produce a knowing Being, than for no­thing to produce something; and if there was a time when there was no such know­ing Being, it could never have begun to be, because there was no cause to produce it; and therefore such a knowing Being must be from Eternity. After the same manner we may deduce all the perfecti­ons of God, for we find there is Power, Wisdom and Goodness in the World; all which must be deriv'd from the same eter­nal Source: For if there had been a time when these things were not, they could never have begun to be, there being then no cause to produce them; and there­fore this eternal Being must be also most Knowing, Powerful, Wise and Good, and be the first cause and original of all these Perfections we find in the World; for no­thing can ever give to another any Per­fection that it hath not in it self, and there­fore the first eternal Cause of all things must contain in it all the Perfections that can ever after exist.

[Page 53]Having thus establish'd the Existence of a God, I shall next proceed to prove, that he is the Ruler of the World, who di­rects and governs all things by his wise Pro­vidence: Which will appear by consider­ing, 1. That all things in nature do act for certain ends, which they attain by using proper means fitted to those ends that are design'd; but to design and pursue an end, and make choice of fit means for compassing that end, are such actions as re­quire Reason, Wisdom, and Foresight, which no inanimate Creature is capable of; and therefore all inanimate Creatures must be directed and guided by some wise Superintendent, in pursuing their several ends by proper means, which themselves know nothing of. 2. We see that all things in nature are subordinate to one another, and made subservient to several excellent uses and purposes, which must be the contrivance of a wise Governour that ruleth over all.

Thus the Plants and Herbs serve for food to Animals, and both Plants and Animals are useful for many purposes to Man, as for Food and Physick, and seve­ral other necessary ends in humane Life: Man himself is wonderfully made, all the parts of his Body being wisely adapted to perform their several Functions, and mu­tually [Page 54] subservient to one another, and to the good of the whole, as might be largely prov'd by particular instances, if it were necessary. We cannot open our Eyes but we meet with many Arguments of a wise over-ruling Providence; for the Air serves us to breath in, and is so necessary to our Life, that it cannot subsist many Minutes without it. The Earth supplies us with Corn for food, and Wood for firing; it supports or houses, and furnishes the ma­terials for buildings of them: The Sea serves to transport our Ships and Commo­dities to the most distant parts of the Earth, and to bring home into our Harbours the Products of all other Countries. The Sun does not shine for himself, but appears to be made on purpose to give Light to them that live upon the Earth, and it is placed at such a convenient di­stance, and moves in such a constant uni­form course, as is necessary to refresh all things on Earth with its heat, and to ri­pen all the Fruits of the Ground. By which, and many thousand other Instances wherein the Creatures are admirably fitted for useful and excellent purposes, it plainly appears, that the Works of Nature cannot possibly be the Effects of blind Chance and Necessity, but must be the contrivance of an All-wise Creator and Governour. 3. To [Page 55] these Arguments we might add for a far­ther confirmation of this Truth, 1st. The Universal consent of all Nations, which generally agree, that there is one supreme God, who made and governs the World. 2dly, The Natural Power of Conscience, which reproves and torments a Man for the heinous Crimes he has committed, tho' the Person be above the fear of human Punish­ment, or the Crime be committed so secret­ly, as to escape all natural means of disco­very; in which Cases Conscience by its Sentence does, as it were, bind a Man over to the Judgment of a superiour invisible Judge. But I shall conclude all with this Reflexion: That from what has been said it appears, that tho' Mankind had not any innate Notion of a God, yet they are en­dow'd with such a rational Faculty, by which they can deduce the existence of a God, from such Principles as are univer­sally known and acknowledg'd by the Light of Nature: And this they can do without the help of Revelation, which must al­ways presuppose the being of a God who makes that Revelation.

SECT. II. Of the Attributes of GOD in general.

ALtho' we conceive the Divine Essence in it self to be one and the same, which consists in all possible perfection; yet the Attributes of God may be distin­guish'd and call'd by peculiar Names, with respect to the different Objects upon which they are exercis'd, and the different Ope­rations that are exerted upon them; not that there is any real diversity in God him­self, but only in our Conceptions of him; for such is the weakness of our Under­standing, that we cannot in one Thought comprehend all the Divine Perfections, but are forc'd to represent them to our Minds severally, as exerting themselves up­on different Objects; and so there is no difference in the Attributes themselves, but only in our manner of conceiving, with respect to their different Operations.

But before we proceed to a particular enumeration of the Divine Attributes, we must premise, that these Attributes are not to be confounded with the peculiar Ef­fects proceeding from them, but these two are to be distinctly consider'd and explain'd. [Page 57] Thus Justice is to be distinguish'd from Punishment, and Goodness from Benefi­cence, as Causes are commonly distin­guish'd from their proper Effects.

This being premis'd, we may divide the Divine Attributes into two sorts: For ther God is consider'd simply as a Being, and so Spirituality and Eternity are attri­buted to him; or as a living Being, and so Understanding and Will are ascrib'd to him. The Attributes of God that are in the Will, may be consider'd two ways, ei­ther after the manner of Affections, such as we feel in our selves, and so Love, Ha­tred, Anger, Desire, Joy, and Sorrow, &c. are attributed to God; or after the man­ner of Moral Vertues, as Justice, Good­ness, Long-suffering, Severity, &c. to which we may add, as that which results from all his other Attributes, his Glory and Happiness.

SECT. III. Of the Divine Attributes in particular.

OF the Attributes which belong to to God as he is simply a Being, we shall reckon in the first place Unity; for God is properly and numerically one, as being undivided in himself, and divided from all other things; and because the Divine Nature cannot be multiplied into different Gods, as the Human Nature is into several Men, therefore there is one only true God, and there is no other God besides him.

The second Attribute which belongs to God as he is simply a Being, is Spirituali­ty; for God is a Spirit, i. e. a most pure and immaterial Being, devoid of all bulk, whose most essential Act is Cogitation; and he is not only incorporeal, but the most pure and simple of all Spirits.

The third Attribute of this sort belong­ing to God, is Eternity, which is nothing else but a Duration that has neither be­ginning nor end. But when we say that God is eternal, both a parte ante, and a parte post, we include under this Notion his Immutability, and affirm, that God [Page 59] is free from all variation and change.

The fourth Attribute of God is his Im­mensity, whereby he filleth all places: And therefore when we say that God is immense, we affirm that no place can con­tain him, and that he is every-where pre­sent in all imaginable spaces. And so much may suffice for the Explication of the first sort of Attributes.

The second sort of Attributes are such as belong to him as he is a living Being: And in speaking to them, we are first to consi­der his Life, as being the Foundation of all this kind of Attributes and their Ope­rations, without which he could neither exist, nor act as an intelligent Being, nor be capable of Happiness, which is contrary to the Idea we have already fram'd of God.

The second Attribute of this sort is Un­derstanding, which may be distinguish'd into Knowledge and Wisdom. The Ob­ject of the Divine Knowledge is every thing that is knowable, all things that are, have been, or shall be, all things that are possi­ble and impossible. When therefore we say that God is Omniscient, we affirm that God does, 1. Know himself, and all his own infinite Perfections. 2. That he knows all things that are in himself, or from him­self, or without himself; within himself, [Page 60] as his Decrees; from himself, as his ex­ternal Actions of Creation, Preservation, &c. without himself, as the Sins of Men, &c.

The Wisdom of God is that Perfection in God, whereby he foreknows and di­rects the means which he thinks fit for at­taining a certain End, which is either sub­ordinate, as the Redemption of Mankind, which he accomplish'd by the Incarnation of his only Son, or ultimate, which is the demonstration of his own Glory, to which all other things are made subservient.

The third Attribute is the Divine Will, which may be either consider'd as the Fa­culty, or the Act of willing such and such things to be done, for wise, just, and good Ends: Such are all the Decrees of God whereby he resolves within himself to ac­complish certain Ends, by such means as conduce most to his own Glory. And these Decrees are either absolute, as those of the Creation, and sending his own Son into the World; or conditional, as the Decrees of saving Mankind, upon the Con­ditions of Faith and Repentance.

In the Divine Will we may consider two kinds of Attributes, whereof the first is conceiv'd after the manner of the Affe­ctions we feel in our selves; the second is conceiv'd after the manner of the Moral [Page 61] Vertues, which in us do govern the Affe­ctions.

Love in God is an Affection whereby he delights in that which is good, and in communicating himself unto it, whence arises Goodness. This Love includes in it self, Grace, Mercy, &c.

Hatred is that Affection which is oppo­site to Love, whereby God abhors every thing that is evil.

Anger hath great affinity with Hatred, and in us it is an Affection whereby we keep off any thing that is evil from our selves, but in God it signifies his purpose of punishing Evil-doers.

The Justice of God does perfectly agree with his Holiness, and is that Perfection whereby he always wills and does that which is good, holy, just, and right, and this is call'd Universal Justice; but his particular Justice is that which distributes to every one what is due, or that whereby he rewards the Good, and punishes the E­vil, and so it respects Man as subject to the Law of Nature.

This Justice is temper'd with Mildness and Long-suffering, which are those Per­fections in God that restrain his Anger against Sinners without a great cause.

The Omnipotence of God is that Per­fection whereby he can do all things that [Page 62] do not imply a contradiction, and is such a Power as nothing can resist. The Glory of God is the Excellency of the Divine Nature, whereby he infinitely exceeds all the Creatures. The Happiness of God is the result of all the Divine Perfections, in which he cannot but take great compla­cency, and so they make him infinitely happy by the contemplation of them.

From what has been said, we may infer, That since God is a most simple Being, and his Attributes are not really distinguish'd from one another, his Actions do not pro­ceed from one Attribute alone, but from an harmonious concurrence of all his Attri­butes together.

SECT. IV. Of God's End in Creating the World.

HAving thus establish'd the Existence of a God, and prov'd him to be the Creator and Governor of all things, so far as was necessary in a matter so clear and evident in it self, I proceed now to consider the End which God might pro­pose to himself in creating the World, which must be such as is sutable to his own infinite Perfections: And seeing the Glory of God is the result of his most excellent Nature, we cannot imagine, that he did propose to himself any other End in all his Works, besides his own Glory. And this seems to me as clear as the Sun at Noon-day. But if all the Creatures were made for the Glory of God, then 'tis cer­tain that every one of them is bound to glorifie God in that Station wherein it was created; and so we say, that the Heavens declare the Glory of God, because by them we come to the knowledge of God: But Man being the most perfect of all the visi­ble Creatures, and endow'd with the most excellent Faculties, ought so much the more to shew forth the Glory of God [Page 64] above all the other Creatures, by how much he is more capable and adapted by Nature to that end. And indeed the in­animate Creatures can only silently com­mend their Maker, but it is the Duty of Man to make their Praises vocal, and to declare the infinite Power, Wisdom, and Goodness of God, which plainly appear in the Works of the Creation. And this is the Great End for which his Faculties were given him by God; for therefore has he Eyes to see, and an Understanding to perceive and apprehend the wonderful Works; therefore has he a Tongue given him to publish the Praise that's due to his most excellent and bountiful Creator. Whether therefore we consider the End for which Man was created, or the many and great Benefits he has receiv'd from God, as the creating him of such an excellent Na­ture, his Preservation, &c. he cannot but be sensible that he is strictly oblig'd to worship and serve him in some way or other: For all Men will own, that we ought not only to remember our Benefa­ctors, but to return them hearty Thanks suitable to the greatness of the Benefits we have receiv'd.

SECT. V. Of the Necessity of a Divine Revelation.

AND, 1. Since the Divine Favours are so great and so valuable, 'tis cer­tain that no Man can render him any Wor­ship and Service that is equivalent to them. 2. Since God is a most perfect and simple Being, he will be worshipp'd in a perfect and simple manner; but 'tis impossible that Mankind should now in its present State of Corruption, unanimously agree in the true Way of worshipping God, if it were left to their Invention; for besides that the Reason of Men is infinitely va­rious, according to their different Tempers, Capacities, Prejudices of Education, &c. Human Nature is so much corrupted, and does daily so far degenerate more and more, as we find by sad Experience, that they can neither discern the right manner of worshipping God, nor perform him pure and acceptable Service.

Besides, supposing that Mankind could agree in a certain Form of Divine Service, and preserve it sound and entire, yet still this Doubt would always remain in their Minds, Whether such a Worship were ac­ceptable [Page 66] to God or no? For whether we offer to him Gifts or Sacrifices, they all belong to him as Lord of the whole Crea­tion; nay, if we should sacrifice to him our Soul and Body, we give him nothing but what we have receiv'd of his free Bounty; and therefore we can never be certain that we are acceptable to him by any thing we can do, or offering we can make. And this is what Socrates said of old, a little before his Death: I have la­bour'd all my Life-time, and done what I could to render my self acceptable to God, and yet I still doubt whether I have pleas'd him: As Regis relates in his Discourse of Philosophy. From whence we may con­clude, that Mankind by Nature is so much mistaken in their Notions of God, and has so far err'd from the right way of worship­ping him, being wholly addicted to sensi­ble Things and Pleasures, that a Revela­tion from God was absolutely necessary to teach him the true Knowledge of God and of his Will, particularly as to the man­ner of performing him acceptable Service; and therefore our infinitely-good and mer­ciful God, taking pity of the natural Blind­ness of Mankind, was pleased of his infi­nite Goodness to reveal his Will to them, and the particular manner wherein he will be worshipt. And this Revelation being [Page 67] once made, all Men to whom it is suffi­ciently propos'd, are bound, as they hope for Salvation, and would avoid eternal Torment, to keep the Commands of God, and observe that Form of Divine Worship which he himself has prescrib'd: Which Observation of Divine Worship is that which is commonly call'd Religion.

But before we proceed to treat of Re­ligion, it may be necessary to observe, that because Men are stiff-necked, and slow to believe Divine Truth, therefore lest any should call in question the Revelation that comes from God, and take him for an Im­postor who deliver'd it, 'twas necessary that it should be confirm'd by certain Evidence, the better to persuade Men to believe that it came from God; and so we find that the Christian Religion was confirm'd by Miracles, and supernatural Signs at the time of its first publication: And because cun­ning and ingenious Men may do many things by their extraordinary Art and Skill, which may seem to us miraculous when they really are not, we shall hereafter shew how any Man may discern between a true Miracle, and that which is falsly pretended to be one. This being premis'd, I shall now subjoyn,

SECT. VI. Of Religion in general.

SInce God is a most perfect Being, 'tis certain that he cannot contradict him­self, and establish two contrary Religions, having different and inconsistent Objects of Worship; and therefore when we see so many different Religions in the World, every one of which is contrary to ano­ther, and condemns another, we must conclude that only one of these Religions is true, and of Divine Authority, and that the rest are Human Inventions, Frauds, and Forgeries: It concerns us therefore to en­quire after the Means whereby we may di­stinguish the true Religion from those that are false.

These Means may be consider'd two ways, either with respect to the Evidence, or to the Object. We have already observ'd, that the great Evidence of the true Reli­gion, is the Miracles that are wrought for the confirmation of it; but that we may be able to discern true Miracles from those that are counterfeit, I shall lay down the three chief Conditions which are requisite in a true Miracle. The first is, That he [Page 69] who works a Miracle, should know before­hand that he is to work it, and have a mind to do it. The second is, That it be certainly known that the Miracle, or Sign, was wrought, and that the Effect of it be obvious to our Senses. The third, That the Thing done be such as transcends all the Power of natural Causes; which may be done two ways: The first is, when it so far transcends all the Powers of Nature, that it appears plainly impossible to be wrought by them, as the raising of the Dead to Life again. The second is, when the thing done is such as does not exceed the force of natural Causes, but the man­ner of doing it is plainly supernatural, as the curing of Diseases by a Word-speaking, without applying any Remedy.

As to the Object of true Religion, it ought to respect the Glory of God, the Publick Good, and the Private Good of every particular Man. And these are the Means which I think sufficient for discern­ing a true Religion from that which is false. For, 1. As to Miracles, 'tis certain, that God will not exert his Almighty Power to confirm a Lye, and justifie an Im­postor. 2. As to the Object of Religion, 'tis likewise certain, that every false Reli­gion which is invented by a Deceiver, is attended with some absurdity in its Do­ctrine [Page 70] or Precepts, and contains in it some­thing either contrary to the Divine Na­ture, or the Good and Welfare of Man­kind. If therefore we can discover such a Religion as has the above-mention'd Evi­dence and Object, we may safely conclude that it is revealed by God; but if it be de­fective in either of these two, we must be­lieve that it is false, and ought to be reject­ed by all.

SECT. VII. Of the Christian Religion in general, and particularly of the Miracles wrought in Confirmation of it.

IT would be an endless as well as useless Work, to run over all the several Reli­gions that are in the World, for choosing one from among them which is establish'd upon good Principles and sure Founda­tions; and therefore I shall single out the Christian Religion, as that which seems to me, at the first proposal, to be more excel­lent than the rest, and endeavour to prove, That it is founded upon the clearest and strongest Evidence, that any rational Man [Page 71] can desire in matters of that nature. And this I hope will give full Satisfaction to the Reader of the following Discourse, if he be a Christian; and I desire him to judge for himself in this Case, by comparing his own Religion with all the other Re­ligions profess'd in the World, and he will undoubtedly find it to excel all the rest, for the reasonableness and certainty of its Doctrines, and the holiness and goodness of its Laws. But if the Reader be a Jew, a Turk, or Heathen, I hope he will take the pains to compare his own Religion impartially with the Christian, and I doubt not he will quickly perceive on which side the advantage lies, as to the evidence of Principles, and goodness of Precepts. For 1. The Miracles of Christ were infinitely more numerous and greater than those of Moses; and Mahomet never pretended to work any Miracles for Confirmation of his Religion, but us'd the Sword only for its propagation: And as to the Pagans, the strange Feats which they pretend to, are either ridiculous and incredible, or the Tricks and Forgeries of their Priests, which cannot endure a fair Trial, as will appear more fully hereafter. At present I shall apply my self to the Consideration of Christ's Miracles, and shew that they have all the Characteristicks of true Miracles, [Page 72] and that they were undoubtedly wrought by him for the Confirmation of his Re­ligion, when it was first delivered in Judaea.

And, 1. The Miracles of Christ have all the three Conditions afore-mention'd which are requisite in true Miracles: For, 1. Christ knew before-hand that he was to do his Miracles, and freely chose to work them in some places, and not in others, as appears from the History of his Life, re­corded by the Evangelists. 2. He did not work his Miracles in secret places, or in a corner, but publickly and openly, in the Face of the Sun, before great Multitudes of People▪ of all sorts, not only Friends but Enemies, and the wonderful Effects of them were apparent to the Senses of all that were present: And therefore that such Miracles were wrought by him, is own'd not only by Christians, but even by the Jews in their Talmud, by Mahomet in his Alcoran, and by many Pagan Au­thors, whose Names and Testimonies shall be hereafter mention'd. And Lastly, The Miracles of Christ were such as transcend­ed all the Powers of natural Causes; as to raise the Dead to Life again, to give Sight to the Blind, Hearing to the Deaf, Health to the Sick, without the use of any Medi­cines, or natural Means, that are proper [Page 73] to cure those People; all which Effects therefore must needs proceed from a super­natural Power, and can be ascrib'd to God only.

Tho' what has been said may be thought sufficient, yet to convince all Men more fully of the supernatural force and energy that was conspicuous in Christ's Miracles, I shall add the following Considerations: 1. That they were in a manner infinite for number, so that they cannot be particu­larly reckon'd up; for he went thro' all the Cities and Villages of Judaea, curing all Diseases, and heal'd all that were pos­sess'd of the Devil: And the Writers of his Life declare, that he wrought many other Miracles besides those which are mention'd in their History. 2. That they extended universally to all sorts of Crea­tures, over which he shew'd an absolute Dominion, by the miraculous Effects he produc'd; as over Devils, by driving them out of Men that were possess'd with them; over the Winds and Seas, by allaying the Storm and Tempest at his Command; over the Fishes and Loaves, by multiplying a few of them to such a prodigious quantity as was sufficient to feed Five thousand; over the Swine, by suffering the Devils to enter into them, and drive them head-long into the Sea; over the Fig-Tree, by blast­ing [Page 74] it with his Word; over the Water, by changing it into Wine; over all sorts of Diseases, by healing of them; and lastly, over Death it self, by raising the Dead to Life again. 3. The Miracles of Christ pro­duc'd such Effects as were not transient but permanent: For the Dead being rais'd to Life, continu'd to live; the Blind having receiv'd their Sight, continu'd to see; the Lepers being cleans'd, continu'd clean: And all these things were done in the pre­sence of many Beholders, who saw and observ'd the wonderful change that was wrought. 4. All the Miracles of Christ but two, were Miracles of great Mercy and Goodness as well as Power; as the healing of Diseases, the raising the Dead to Life again, &c. I say, except two, which were his sending the Devils into the Herd of Swine, and the cursing of the Fig-Tree: And these serv'd to shew his absolute Do­minion over Plants and Animals. 5. All the Miracles of Christ, even those that re­quire the greatest Power and Energy, were wrought by a Word-speaking. After La­zarus had lain three Days in the Grave, he did but say to him, Come forth; and immediately he arose, with all his Grave-Cloaths upon him: He did but take the Ruler's Daughter by the Hand, and say unto her, Maid, arise; and presently her [Page 75] Spirit came again, and she arose straight­way. He had such a divine commanding Power over all natural Causes, that he cur'd the most desperate Diseases, even at a distance, by speaking a few Words: Thus he cur'd the Noble-man's Son, when he was at the point of Death, by saying, Thy Son liveth; and the Centurion's Ser­vant, by saying, As thou hast believ'd, so be it done unto thee: Nay, the diseased Woman that follow'd him in a Croud was cur'd by touching the Hem of his Garment, because she believ'd, when he perceiv'd that Vertue was gone out of him. All these Miracles he wrought without using means; and when he applied some means, they were such as were naturally unfit to produce the Effect intended: As when he cur'd the Man born blind, by spitting on the Ground, and making Clay of his Spit­tle, and anointing his Eyes with it, send­ing him to the Pool of Siloam; and the performing this Cure by such unfit means, was no less an Argument of his Divine Power in working the Miracle, than if he had us'd no means at all. 6. Christ had not only this Power in himself of working Miracles, but he dispos'd of that Power to his Apostles, who wrought many Signs and Wonders in his Name: So St. Peter cur'd the lame Man, by commanding him [Page 76] in the Name of Jesus to rise up and walk; a Miracle that was notoriously known to all that dwelt at Jerusalem, and which the Rulers of the Jews could not deny, tho' they were their malicious Enemies. Nay, the Dead were raised by them, Tabitha by St. Peter, and Eutychus by St. Paul; and Handkerchiefs and Napkins obtain'd the Virtue of doing mighty Cures, by being sent from the Apostles Hands; and St. Pe­ter's Shadow heal'd all that were afflicted with evil Spirits throughout all Jerusalem, and all the Cities round about it, as we read in the Acts of the Apostles. This was a wonderful demonstration of the Divine Power in Christ, that he could communi­cate the Gift of Miracles to his Disciples; as it was of his Divine Prescience, that he foretold a thing so strange, which requir'd an Almighty Power to accomplish, by assu­ring those that believed in him, that they should out-do the many Miracles he him­self had wrought; both which were his peculiar Prerogatives, whereby he excell'd the first Founders of all the other pretend­ed Religions in the World, who never pretended to the Power of bestowing the Gift of Miracles upon their Disciples, or to foretel the working of them. 7. The Apostles, after they receiv'd their Commis­sion from Christ to preach the Gospel to [Page 77] all Nations, wrought Miracles not only in Jerusalem and the Land of Judaea, but in Samaria, Phenice, Cyprus, Antioch, Ephesus, and many other Cities and Countries thro' which the Apostles travell'd for planting the Christian Faith, in all which places God confirm'd the Word of his Grace, by doing Signs and Wonders by the Apostles Hands, as we read in the Acts of the Apo­stles; and St. Paul assures us, that from Jerusalem round about unto Illyricum, the Gospel had been preach'd by him with mighty Signs and Wonders: Nay, so uni­versally spread was the Fame of the Apo­stles Doctrine and Miracles, that their Sound went into all the Earth, and their Words unto the Ends of the World; for not only the Jews but Gentiles, the Romans, Co­rinthians, and some of all the most famous Countries then known, were converted to the Christian Faith, by the Preaching and Miracles of the Apostles, who could all te­stifie, that they saw such mighty Works done by them, as convinc'd them that their Doctrine was from God: So that this Evi­dence was not only publickly but univer­sally known. 8. This Gift of Miracles was not confin'd to the Days of the Apo­stles, but was continued in the Christian Church for the first three Centuries, as ap­pears from the Writings of Irenaeus, Ori­gen, [Page 78] Tertullian, and other Primitive Chri­stians, who relate innumerable Instances of this miraculous Power in the second and third Ages of the Church, and appeal for the Truth of their Relations to the Hea­thens who liv'd in those Times: And of its continuance in the fourth Century, Eu­sebius, Cyril, and Austin, are sufficient Wit­nesses; all which are cited in several late Writers, to whom I refer the Reader. And some of the Miracles wrought in these Ages, are not only testified by Christians, but also by Heathens; for Marcus Aurelius himself testified publickly in his Letters to the Senate, the Miracle that was wrought at his Battle with the Marcomanni, when the Christian Soldiers obtain'd by their Prayers, a refreshing Shower to the Roman Army distress'd for want of Water; while at the same time the Forces of the Barba­rians were overwhelm'd with Hail and Thunder. It appears to be a thing so commonly known, that it is mention'd by the Poet Claudian, in 6. Cons. Hon.

—Chaldaea mago seu carmina ritu
Armavere Deos, seu quod reor omne To­nantis
Obsequium Marci mores potuere mereri.

[Page 79]And the Prodigy by which Theodosius crush'd the Rebellion of Eugenius, and Ar­begastes is also mention'd by the same Poet, in these words:

O nimium dilecte Deo, cui fundit ab antris
Aeolus armatas hyemes, & militat aether,
Et conjurati veniunt in classica venti.

Claud. de 3. Cons. Hon.

Porphyrie confesses, that wonderful Cures were done at the Tombs of Christian Mar­tyrs, Hier. adv. Vigilant. c. 4. And that the Heathen Gods could give no help to Men, after that Jesus began to be worshipp'd, Euseb. lib. 5. praep. Evang. And Apollo de­clar'd from the Oracle, That certain just Men, viz. the Christians, hinder'd him to foretel the Truth, Euseb. de Vit. Con­stant. and the Oracle at Delphos con­fess'd, That he could give no Responses, because Babylas, the Martyr's Bones, were buried near him, as is related by Chrysoft. Orat. 2. in Babylam. In fine, it was a thing so commonly known and ta­ken Notice of in the first Ages of Chri­stianity, that the Heathen Oracles were struck dumb; that Plutarch wrote a Book concerning the Reason why the Oracles had ceas'd. And hence it appears, that this Power of working Miracles was con­tinu'd in the Christian Church for the first [Page 80] four Centuries; which adds great strength and force to the Evidence, as being attested by such a vast Cloud of Witnesses as liv'd in that large compass of time.

To conclude, I must desire the Reader to take Notice, that the force of this Argu­ment consists chiefly in these three things: 1. That if such Works were really per­form'd, as is pretended, they were true and proper Miracles, such as could only be done by the Almighty Power of God. 2. That we have sufficient Assurance that these Miracles were wrought by Christ and his Apostles, and the other Disciples, to whom they are ascrib'd by those that re­late them. 3. That these mighty Works were done in Confirmation of the Christian Religion.

1. That the wonderful Works pretended to be done by Christ and his Apostles were true and real Miracles, such as could only be wrought by an Almighty Power, will appear, by considering, 1. That they could not be perform'd by the most improved Arts and Skill of Men, or by any juggling Tricks and Frauds. To cure all Diseases, and raise the Dead to Life again, by a Word-speaking, are too great and mighty Works for Human Power and Skill in the highest improvement; they cannot cure Diseases without the application of some [Page 81] proper Medicines, they cannot command a dead Carcase to rise out of the Grave, and restore the Life and Soul to it again, after it has been dead three Days. These things appear so plainly impossible to the natural Powers of Mankind, that as it were ridi­culous for any Man to assert the contrary, so it were needless to confute them. But neither can they be done by the Tricks of Jugglers and Conjurers, who cheat and gull the People with the counterfeit ap­pearance of wonderful Feats, which they perform by unheeded Causes, and secret Ways of acting; for there could be no Trick us'd in most of those Miracles which were wrought; as in raising Lazarus from the Dead, after he had lain three Days in the Grave, before many Specta­tors who knew that he was dead, and that the same Lazarus was now rais'd again; and it is altogether incredible, that a Cheat of this nature should be carried on thro' so many instances, for so long a time, and that none of the great Numbers that were concern'd in the Contrivance, nor of the Spectators, many of whom were Jews and Heathens, should discover the Cheat, especially considering that the Contrivers could serve no worldly End by imposing upon the World; but on the contrary they met with Bonds and Death for this [Page 82] pretended Trick; and many of the Specta­tors being learned and ingenious Men, of a contrary Religion, were sufficiently able and strongly inclin'd to have discover'd the Cheat, if there had been any, which yet was never done; and therefore we may certainly conclude, that the pretended Mi­racles were not wrought by juggling Tricks.

2. Seeing these wonderful Works could not be done by the Power or Artifice of Men, they must be wrought either by the Power of created Spirits, or the Almighty Power of God: But that they were not wrought by the Power of any created Spi­rits, will appear by considering, that they must either be done by good Angels, or evil Spirits: As to good Angels, besides that many of the Works afore-mention'd appear to be above the Power of any Crea­ture, as we shall shew presently, I shall only observe, that if they had been done by good Angels, this would be a demonstra­tion of the truth of Christ's Revelation, no less than if they were wrought by a Power inherent in himself; for the good Angels are the Ministers of the heavenly Kingdom, and are suppos'd always to do the Will of God, and design the Welfare of Mankind. And it is utterly inconsistent with all the Notions we have of them, [Page 83] that they should contribute such a mighty assistance to delude the World with a false Doctrine; and to persuade so many Thou­sands of its Preachers and Professors to endure the greatest Miseries, and most painful Deaths in the World, without any hopes of a future Reward in another Life for their present Sufferings: such a wic­ked Imposture is agreeable only to the Falshood and Malice of evil Spirits; and this indeed is the last Refuge and Strong­hold of Infidels, who denying the Truth of Christ's Revelation, ascribe his wonder­ful Works to the Power of wicked Spirits, with whom, they say, he was confederate. So did the Jews in his own time; for when the Pharisees heard of his healing one blind and dumb, who was possess'd with a Devil, they said, This Fellow does not cast out Devils, but by Beelzebub the Prince of Devils, Mat. 12.24. i.e. He does it by a Confederacy with evil Spirits. A­gainst which pretence Christ himself argues very strongly in the following Verses, Eve­ry Kingdom divided against it self is brought to desolation.—And if Satan cast out Sa­tan, he is divided against himself, how shall then his Kingdom stand? The meaning of which Argument is this, That he who op­poses Devils and unclean Spirits, and drives them by force from the quiet possession [Page 84] they have enjoy'd of Mens Bodies, cannot be suppos'd to act by Collusion and Con­federacy with them, but must be an Ene­my to them, and their Designs; for the Devil cannot be thought to joyn with another to disgrace himself, to defeat his own Designs, and ruin his Kingdom: but this appear'd plainly to be the Design of Christ, who went about doing good, and healing all that were oppress'd of the Devil: For he being a malicious Spirit, who de­lights in the Misery and Ruin of Mankind, exercis'd a Dominion over the Bodies he possess'd, inflicting upon them several Di­seases, and depriving them of the use of their Senses, that he might keep them in subjection to him, and maintain his King­dom in the World: But, 1. Christ by dis­possessing the Devils o [...] Mens Bodies, and healing the Diseases they had inflicted, de­stroy'd their Dominion, and ruin'd their De­signs of Mischief against Mankind, which cannot be suppos'd to be done by the De­vil's Concurrence, but must be the Work of one that is an Enemy to him. 2. Our Saviour argues, that it must not only be the Force of an Enemy, but a Force supe­riour to the Power of the Devil, v.29. of the said twelfth Chapter of Matthew How can one enter into a strong Man's House, and spoil his Goods, except he first bind the strong [Page 95] Man, and then he will spoil his House, i.e. the Devil having a quiet possession of Mens Bodies, will hold it until he is forc'd to quit it; and he cannot be forc'd to leave it, but by a Power superiour to his own, which can conquer and overcome him. 3. I may add, that the Miracles of Christ were for the most part Miracles of Mercy and Goodness to Mankind, whereby he fed the hungry, cur'd the sick, and rais'd the dead to life; and so they were directly contrary to the Temper and Designs of the Devil, who seeks by all means the Misery and Destruction of Mankind; as appears plain­ly in those Idolatrous Countries, where he requires the sacrificing of many thousand Children every Year to satiate his Cruelty, and therefore he cannot be suppos'd to contribute to the good and merciful De­sign of Christ's Miracles, which was so contrary to his malicious and cruel Tem­per. 4. The Miracles of Christ were wrought to confirm his Doctrine, which tended directly to the overthrow of the Devil's Kingdom: For the Son of God was manifested to destroy the Works of the Devil: Which he did effectually by turning Men from all their Idolatrous Practices, to wor­ship the only true and living God, and from all those unclean Lusts which reign'd with­out controul among the Gentiles, to a Life [Page 86] of the greatest Purity and Holiness: For the great Design of the Devil was to with­draw Mens Hearts from the true God, and their dependence upon him, to put their trust in Idols, and to draw to himself, and such-like wicked Spirits, all that Worship and Adoration which is the peculiar Glory of God, whereby he gain'd an absolute Dominion over the Souls of Men, making them do that Homage to himself, which was only due to their Natural Lord and Maker, as he did over their Bodies, by alluring them to those vile Lusts, which estrange their Minds from God, and make them sit Receptacles for unclean Spirits. And in these two things the Kingdom of the Devil did chiefly consist: But by the preaching of the Doctrine of Christ, this Kingdom of Darkness was subverted, his Altars were deserted, his Temples demo­lish'd, and all Men were taught every­where to worship the true God, in Spirit and in Truth, and to abhor those obscene Rites which some of the Gentiles made a part of their Religion. Seeing therefore that by the Doctrine of Christ Men were turn'd from Darkness to Light, and from the Power of Satan to God, those won­derful Works could not be wrought by the Power of evil Spirits, which confirm'd such a Doctrine as was directly contrary [Page 87] to the Design, and did effectually over­throw the Kingdom of Darkness. And this I think may be sufficient to shew, that the Miracles of Christ were not wrought by the Power of evil Spirits, as the Pha­risees alledg'd against him. But because the same pretence has been made use of not only by Jews but Heathens, against all the Miracles which were pretended to be done by Christ, or his Apostles, or the Primitive Christians in the first four Centuries, which are ascrib'd to Magical or Aegyptian Arts, to Inchantments, or the strange Power of Words, I say, because the same pretence has been made use of against all other Miracles pretended to be done by any Christians; (for these Magi­cal Arts, whatever they be, must signifie a secret Correspondence with, and Concur­rence of evil Spirits, or else they signifie nothing distinct from the Power and Skill of Men) I shall therefore add two or three Considerations relating to all the Miracles in general, which are pretended to be wrought for Confirmation of the Truth of the Christian Doctrine. And, 1. The Miracles of Christ and his Apostles were so many, so great, done so publickly and universally, through so many several Coun­tries, and the Power of working them was continued so long in the Christian Church, [Page 88] that it is altogether incredible they should be done by Magical Arts, or the Power of evil Spirits; for who can believe that such a vast number of mighty Works, for the space of four Centuries, as are pretended to be done in Confirmation of the Chri­stian Religion, should be done by the Power of evil Spirits, when the like was never pretended to be done to confirm any other Religion that ever appear'd in the World: What Account can be given why evil Spirits should be so mightily con­cern'd to propagate the Christian Religi­on, above all the other Religions in the World? Was it not at least as much, and apparently more for the Interest of their Kingdom of Darkness, to promote the Ido­latrous Practices, the filthy and obscene, the barbarous and cruel Rites of Pagan Religions, than to promote the Worship of one only Supreme God, and the Purity and Gentleness which is prescrib'd by the Christian Institution. 'Tis true indeed, there are some Miracles pretended to be wrought by Pagan Priests in Confirmation of their Religion, the truth of which pre­tence I shall not now enquire into; but they never pretended, so far as I could ever learn, that they wrought so many and so great Miracles, so publickly in so many several Countries, as Christ and his Apo­stles [Page 89] are said to have done, or that they could communicate the Power of working Miracles to their Disciples, and transmit it for several Ages to their Successors, as is pretended to be done for Confirmation of the Christian Religion; and it appears to me altogether unaccountable, why the Christian should so far exceed all other Re­ligions in this point of Evidence, if these pretended Miracles were wrought by the Power of evil Spirits. If Christ learn'd his Magical Art in Egypt, and taught it to his Disciples, whereby they were ena­bled to work Miracles, as many both Jews and Heathens have alledg'd, how comes it to pass, that others who have been there, could never attain to the same Art, or teach it to others? Or why do not the Egyptians themselves, who are the great Masters of that Magical Art, shew their Skill in it, by doing so many and so great Miracles as they taught Christ to do? But since neither they have ever done, nor any other from them could ever learn the Art of doing such mighty Works, so far as has hitherto appear'd to the World, we may safely conclude, that this pretence is a groundless and incredible surmise. Besides, if Christ instructed his Apostles in these Magical Arts, they must believe and know him to be an Impostor: And who then can [Page 90] imagine, that ever any Men in their sound Senses, should be willing to sacrifice their Lives and Fortunes for the sake of a vile Forgery, as the Apostles did, when they might have sav'd them by detecting the Imposture.

2. There are several Miracles attributed to Christ and his Apostles, which seem to be above the Power of evil Spirits: But supposing it were possible for them to do all these Miracles, yet being subject to the Government of God, the great Creator and Governor of all things visible and in­visible, they could not do them without his leave and permission, which we cannot believe that he would grant, because it ap­pears to be inconsistent with his infinite Goodness, to permit evil Spirits to work so many and great Miracles, on purpose to delude the World with a Lye, and thereby expose Mankind to an invincible Tempta­tion to believe it. 'Tis true indeed, other Religions have pretended to Miracles wrought in Confirmation of them; but besides that they were neither so many nor so great, as are pretended by Christians, there was always some means left for dis­covering the Imposture, either by the mul­titude of Gods which they worshipp'd, contrary to the Unity of the Godhead, which may be known, as has been prov'd, [Page 91] by natural Reason, or by the filthy and obscene, the barbarous and cruel Practices they enjoyn'd, which are plainly contrary to the natural Notions we have of God, and of Vertue and Vice: And it was just with God to give them up to strong Delu­sions, that they should believe a Lye, be­cause that when they knew God, or might have known him by the Works of Crea­tion, they did not glorifie him as God, but worshipt the Creature more than the Creator, and allow'd themselves in such unclean and cruel Rites, as are contrary to the na­tural Notions of the Divine Purity and Goodness; and we are certain that such a Religion cannot be from God, tho' it be confirm'd by Signs and Wonders. But when the Christian Religion commands the Worship of one God only, and en­joyns no Practice but what is pure, just, and gentle, [as will appear in the next Chapter;] if God should be pleas'd to per­mit such a Religion to be confirm'd by evil Spirits, doing more and greater Mira­cles than ever were wrought for proof of any other Religion in the World, every one must think himself oblig'd to believe it to be from God; because there is no way left to discover such a Religion, ha­ving such strong Evidence, to be an Im­posture: And therefore, since it is incon­sistent [Page 92] with the Goodness of God to offer such a violent Temptation to Mankind to believe a Lye, we must conclude, that he would never suffer evil Spirits to work so many and great Miracles in Confirmation of it.

But besides the Miracles which Christ himself wrought here on Earth, there were several illustrious Testimonies given to him from Heaven, which I shall but briefly mention, as a farther Confirmation of his being assisted by a Divine Power in the Miracles which he wrought. Of this nature was the Star which conducted the Wise Men from the East to Bethlehem, where he was born; the frequent Appa­ritions of Angels to minister unto him, at his Conception and Birth, at his Tempta­tion in the Wilderness, in his Agony, at his Resurrection and Ascension into Hea­ven; such were the Voices that were heard from Heaven, testifying, that he was the beloved Son of God; at his Baptism, when John the Baptist saw the Heavens open'd, and the Spirit of God descending like a Dove, and lighting upon him; at his Transfiguration, when a bright Cloud overshadow'd him and two of his Disci­ples, Peter and John; and again, in his Agony, when Christ said, Father, glorifie thy Name; and a Voice was heard from [Page 93] Heaven, I have both glorified it, and will glorifie it again: Of the same nature were the Miracles and Prodigies that accompa­nied his Death on the Cross, both in Hea­ven and Earth, when there was Darkness over all the Earth, from the Sixth Hour to the Ninth, when the Veil of the Tem­ple was rent in twain, and the Earth did quake, and the Rocks rent, and the Graves were open'd, and many Bodies of Saints which slept arose, and came out of the Graves after his Resurrection, and went into the Holy City, and appear'd unto many; which Signs so astonish'd the Cen­turion and the Roman Soldiers that watch'd him, that they were forc'd to confess, Truly this was the Son of God, certainly this was a righteous Man. And indeed all these Miracles were so many Divine Attestations of his Mission from God, and that he was the peculiar Favourite of Heaven, whom God was pleased so far to honour; for as 'tis certain that no Human Power and Skill could perform or counterfeit such Signs from Heaven, so neither is it conceivable that evil Spirits either could, or would give so many glorious Testimonies to him. But to conclude, The Miracles wrought by Christ and his Apostles, and those that were done by a superiour invisible Power in Attestation of him, were so many and [Page 94] so great, and extended to so many Crea­tures both in Heaven and Earth, that none but he who had an universal and ab­solute Dominion over all the Works of Nature could perform them, and therefore they were above the Power of evil Spi­rits, and could only be done by the Al­mighty Power of God, the Great Creator and Governor of all things.

II. Having thus demonstrated, that the Miracles which we believe Jesus did, had all the Conditions of true Miracles, and were such that no Power but that of Al­mighty God could effect: Our next Busi­ness is to prove, that Christ did really work such Miracles; and this from the following Considerations will plainly ap­pear.

1. The Miracles of our Saviour were not like Transubstantiation, and others of the Roman Church, which are the Objects of Faith only, but they were plain Objects of our Senses, every Body present could see them; they were not done in a Corner, or in a particular secret Place, but publickly, before the Face of the Sun, so that it can never be said that these Demonstrations of Omnipotency were subtile Deceits and Im­postures.

[Page 95]2. We have a constant Tradition of Christ's Miracles from the Apostles, thro' all Ages of Christianity, even until now; the History of them has been always the same, and never was, or can be contra­dicted.

3. These Miracles are not only acknow­ledged by the Christians, but by their great­est Enemies: For even the Jews, amongst other things which they relate of Christ in their Talmud, make mention of his Miracles also. The Turks in their Alchoran have recorded some of Christ's Miracles, his Re­surrection is commonly believ'd amongst them, they look upon him as a great Pro­phet, and as such profess a profound Ve­neration for him. Lastly, Several of the Jewish, Mahometan, and Heathen Writers, frequently mention Christ's Miracles; this the whole Christian World knows better than I my self, I shall not therefore now trouble you with particular Quotations out of these Authors.

4. But supposing that we had not all these Testimonies of Christ's Enemies to prove his Miracles, yet that of the Apo­stles and Evangelists would be abundantly sufficient, as we shall more clearly shew hereafter: For they had not the least prospect of any temporal advantage by [Page 96] publishing these things; on the contrary they exasperated the Powers of the World by it, and with their Blood seal'd the Doctrines they had taught: this surely is a valid Proof that the Miracles related in the Life of Christ, were really done by him.

III. That our Saviour wrought these Miracles in Confirmation of his Religion, appears, from what he said to the Di­sciples of John when they came and ask­ed him whether he was the [...], or he that is to come; he answered, Go, and tell John what you have seen, &c. And from what he had said to the Jews, If you will not believe me, at least believe the Works I do in the Name of my Father. There are many other places in Holy Scripture, which shew that the principal End of Christ's Miracles was to confirm his Doctrine.

SECT. VIII. Of the Object of Christian Religion.

THE Evidences for the Christian Re­ligion being thus produc'd and exa­min'd, we come next to the Object of it. We have already asserted, that the true Religion must have for its Object, 1. A­bove all things the Honour and Glory of God. 2. The universal Happiness of Man­kind. 3. The Good of every Man in particular. For the clearer understanding of this, we shall divide the Christian Re­ligion, 1. Into the Credenda, or what a Christian ought to believe. 2. The Agen­da, or the Precepts he should practice; and if we find both these Parts of Christian Religion have the aforesaid Object, we may safely conclude it is the true Religion. My Design (as I have intimated elsewhere) is not to run over and repeat the Princi­ples of all Religions, but only to demon­strate the Excellency of the Christian by its Object, well knowing that all other Religions fall infinitely short of it.

1. As to its Credenda. It is true there are but few Nations which do not believe one Supreme Being; but how grosly are [Page 98] they mistaken in their Notions of him? Some rob him of his chiefest Attributes: Some represent him subject to almost all the Passions of Human Nature, and this leads them into such weak and pernicious Principles and Practices, that Men [of com­mon Sence] of contrary Opinions, are a­sham'd to hear of; but the Christian Re­ligion teacheth not only God's Existence, but his Attributes also in the highest per­fection that our Understanding is capable to bear. Whereas other Religions adore a plurality of Gods, this teacheth to wor­ship one God in Unity: Some make him material, this an incomprehensible Spirit. Some again deny his Providence, or so as­sert his Sublimity that he neglects sublu­nary Things, as Matters much beneath his Government: But the Christian Religion teacheth us, that his Providence is Omni­present, and assures us of his great Love and tender Care over all his Creatures. In short, his Goodness, Mercy, Long-suffer­ing, Justice, his infinite Power, Wisdom, Holiness, &c. are plainly preach'd and de­monstrated by Jesus the Author of Chri­stian Religion. What a miserable State then are those in who deny the Provi­dence of God? They are Men without Faith, without Hope; are they groaning under Afflictions, they dare not call upon [Page 99] him for Deliverance! Are they in their last Agonies, where can be their Trust and Confidence? But we are taught that this God is the Creator, Preserver, and Governour of all Things; we know he observeth all our Actions, and this makes us mindful of our Duty; we are sure that he giveth us the Fruits of the Earth, Suc­cess, Honour, Life, Health, Children, and all other Blessings; and this obligeth us to be thankful to that infinite Goodness which bestow'd them upon us: We be­lieve he orders all Events, as Diseases, Death of Friends, Crosses and Afflictions; this shews us the great Mercy of God, who scourgeth and punisheth us, that we may repent, and return to our Obedience. Other Religions indeed oblige Men to con­fess the Frailty of their Nature, to acknow­ledge the Crimes they daily commit, and the Evils to which they are inclin'd; yet it gives them no other Remedies for the appeasing the Justice of an angry God, but the Sacrifices of Beasts and of Men. But blessed be God, it is not so with us, we know we are Sinners, but we are con­fident that the God of infinite Mercy will, upon Repentance, forgive us all our Tres­passes for the sake of Jesus Christ his be­loved Son, who died for our Sins, rose again for our Justification, and ascended [Page 100] into Heaven, to be our Advocate, Me­diator, and Intercessor with the Father: This is the greatest Consolation Man can wish; for whilst others are concern'd to appease their God by an infinite multitude of Sacrifices, and these attended with so great a number of Ceremonies, Christians enjoy a perfect Ttranquility and Freedom, relying entirely upon God's infinite Mercy, praying, extolling, and magnifying it without end. Yet this is not all that God hath done for us; he hath not only sent his Son to be an Expiation for our Sins, but also to be our Prophet and Teacher, to instruct us in the Will of his Father, by preaching publickly in the Synagogues of the Jews, and especially to those whom he had chosen to be Witnesses of his Life and Doctrine; and after the time of his Mis­sion was expired, and he ascended into Heaven, he sent the Holy Ghost the Com­forter to assist them, in planting the Reli­gion he left with them; bestow'd the Gift of Miracles upon them to confirm it; and for the better propagation of it he esta­blish'd a Communion and Congregation of Saints, into which all Men may be intro­duced who repent and have Faith. Lastly, He has left two Covenants, viz. the Sa­craments, in his Church, by which he con­veys his Graces and Blessings to us. These, [Page 101] and more, are the wonderful Works of the infinite Goodness and Mercy of God; which when we reflect upon, we cannot but say with the Psalmist, What is Man, O Lord! that thou art mindful of him, &c. This I think sufficient, to shew how much the Credenda of the Christian Religion are for the Honour and Glory of God, the uni­versal Happiness of Mankind, and the Good of every Man in particular.

2. The Agenda, or Precepts which a Christian ought to practice, are no less for the Honour and Glory of God, &c. That they far excel the Rules of all other Reli­gions there can be no dispute. The Jews indeed have the Decalogue, or Ten Com­mandments, as well as we; But how strict­ly do they interpret them? And how far has Christ extended them? The Jews think if they are not Idolaters, or Blasphemers, if they observe the Sabbath by not doing any manner of Work, if they honour Fa­ther and Mother, if they do not Murther, Steal, commit Adultery, bear False Wit­ness, or are not Covetous; if they observe the Ceremonies and Festivals which the Law prescribeth, and abstain from the se­veral Meats it forbiddeth, then they think they have done their Duty, and that God is obliged to give them the promised Re­ward. But the Precepts of the Christian [Page 102] Religion extend yet farther, as we shall presently shew.

God forbid the Pagan Religion should any ways be compared to the Christian, which is so far from glorifying God, that the Honour which is only due to the Crea­tor it giveth to the Creature, and teacheth Men to worship Idols, the Sun, Moon, and Stars, nay [for fear] the very Devils, and to sacrifice their very Children to them; it obligeth its Devotees to the utmost Cruel­ty to their own Bodies, under the Notion of Holiness, Merit; it allows, even pre­scribes the Impurity of Polygamy, and o­ther Uncleanness: In a word, instead of bringing Men to that degree of Holiness, without which no Man shall see the Lord, it makes them Reprobates, and throws them into the last degree of Imperfection, condemning all Graces and Vertues where­by we over-rule our Passions as foolish and idle Notions, &c. But least, contrary to my purpose, I should make too great a di­gression in comparing the Christian Reli­gion to all others, I shall return, and em­ploy the rest of this Section in shewing, that the Christian Religion is not only a­bove all others, but also that it brings a Man to Regeneration and that perfect Holi­ness, which is the end of his Creation.

[Page 103]If we consider the Precepts of Christia­nity as the Rules of Human Life, we shall find them the most accurately adapted to our Nature, as ever were made known to the World, no ways contradictory to our Reason, but tend to make mortal Man per­fect, even as God is perfect: The greatest Libertines who do not live up to them, yet approve of them. By these Precepts we are taught, First, Our Duty to our Maker, to believe in him, to fear him, to love him above all things; to trust and depend entirely upon him, to do his Will with all submission; to worship him with pure Hearts, not with Sacrifices, for he eats not the Flesh of Bulls, or drinks the Blood of Goats; they instruct us how to call upon him, and with fervent Zeal and Understanding, and unwearied Constancy, to offer up our Petitions to him; to praise and glorifie his Holy Name for all the Be­nefits we and all Mankind have receiv'd from him since the Creation of the World. These Duties are founded upon the highest and most solid Reason; and all that be­lieve there is a God must perform them: For whom shall we fear, but him that is Almighty? Whom shall we love, but in­finite Goodness and Loving-kindness it self? Whom shall we confide in, but him who is able and willing to help us? To [Page 104] whom shall we submit, and upon whom shall we depend, but upon him who is in­finitely wise? Whose Will shall we do, but his who is just and right? Shall we worship him with Sacrifices of Beasts, who is an eternal Spirit? Briefly, since on Earth we petition our Superiours, if we will ob­tain any Favours from them, and we pay our grateful Acknowledgments for them when received; infinitely more are we obliged upon all occasions to pray to that God, upon whom our being and well-being depends; and to offer up our Praise and Thanks­givings to him who hath bestow'd so ma­ny Benefits upon us. Thus our Duty to God has not only his Glory for its Ob­ject, but our own Good and Welfare also.

Our Duty to our Neighbour gives us the most incomparable Rules for Government, Society, and Friendship; for it aims at the good of all Men in general, and of every Man in particular; it requires from us O­bedience to our Governours and Superiors, even when they unjustly use us, and per­secute us; it teacheth us the greatest Mer­cy, Love, and Humanity, one to another, obliging us to forgive our bitterest Ene­mies, and to pray for our Slanderers and Tormenters; it will not permit us to ren­der evil for evil, but on the contrary com­mands [Page 105] us to do good to those who treat us injuriously. There is no Friendship so sa­cred, no Justice so impartial, no Charity so great, no Meekness so exemplary, as that which our blessed Saviour has recom­mended to us; wicked Thoughts, much more wicked Deeds, are abhorr'd by his true and genuine Followers, who live in perfect peace and tranquility one with ano­ther.

Our Duty to our selves has the same Ob­ject as the two former: It commands us the lowest and most profound Humility, the greatest Meekness and Patience under our Sufferings and Reproaches; to be content in whatsoever State of Life it shall please God to call us; to have an unshaken Faith, unspotted Chastity, and to presevere to the last Moment of our Lives; to be tempe­rate in Meats and Drinks, and all Recrea­tions; to follow our Callings with dili­gence; it gives us a singular Modesty, Sim­plicity, Gravity, and Sincerity of Heart; it teacheth us to deny our selves, to de­spise worldly things, and hunger and thirst after Righteousness; to husband well the Talent God hath given us; to follow the things that are pure, honest, of good re­port, and praise-worthy; it commands nothing that is unaccountable, nothing [Page 106] that is base and unbecoming reasonable Creatures; all our Actions are moderated by it, we ought to be as innocent as Doves, but as wise as Serpents; we ought to be modest and humble, but not afraid to appear in the defence of Truth; we ought to do Justice, but not to be unmer­ciful; we ought to bear Injuries, but not to be sensless of them; we must be kind to all Men, but without any Pride or Af­fectation; and thus are all Christian Ver­tues moderated. If what has been said be well consider'd and digested, it will be evident, that the Christian Religion does bring us to the highest degree of Perfection that its possible Human Na­ture can attain to, and that it tends [in­finitely beyond all others] to the Glory and Honour of God, the universal Hap­piness of Mankind, and the Good of eve­ry Man in particular, and consequently is the true Religion.

SECT. IX. Of Promises and Rewards, of Woes and Punishments.

HAving prov'd that the Christian Re­ligion has the true Object of the right Religion, and that the Credenda of it were as perfect as could be, and the Agenda as Human Nature is capable of bear­ing; we come now to consider what Pro­mises are made to them who live accor­dingly, and what Woes and Judgments are denounc'd against the Children of Dis­obedience. Our Corruption is so great, and our vicious Inclinations so strong, that without a certain belief of future Re­wards and Punishments, it would be very difficult for us to walk in the most pleasant Paths of Religion: For how can we con­ceive a Man should extinguish his violent Passion for a darling Pleasure, had he not sure hopes (by thus mortifying himself to the World) of a more substantial Good, and of avoiding an everlasting Misery?

Whether we consider these Rewards in respect to God, or regard to our own Souls, [Page 108] they are far more glorious and adapt than what any other Religion affords. What others have feigned to encourage Men to do good, is indeed not a little enticing, but yet it is directly contrary to the Na­ture of God, and our Souls; for instance: Their Notions of Metempsychosis, or the Transmigration of the Soul into another Body, more noble or ignoble; delightful charming Places; Riches; Plurality of Women, &c. which can never agree with the Eternal Almighty God, neither with our reasonable Souls, they are Spirits which can never be satisfied with temporal things, they came from God, and naturally desire to return to him, no Pleasure can suffi­ciently content them, but the infinite Hap­piness of enjoying their Creator. 2. Our Bodies have their part in these Promises as well as our Souls: For is it not just, that the Body which has accompanied the Soul through many Trials and Afflictions, for the sake of God, should share in its Re­wards also? Is it not reasonable, that the Body which has been depriv'd of so many Lusts and Pleasures, should, with the Soul, be Partaker of eternal Happiness? The Resurrection of the Body must therefore be a great Consolation to us; our Saviour proved it to the Jews, out of the Books of the Law and the Prophets, he laid the [Page 109] Foundation of this Truth, and we are sure our Faith is not vain, since he is risen from the dead. To say, that the scatter'd Particles of our dissolv'd Bodies cannot be collected again, is an Objection so weak, that it deserves not an Answer; for cer­tainly the Almighty Creator of Man out of nothing, cannot only restore him to his former State after his dissolution, but en­due him also with a perfect Understand­ing, and a perpetual Vigour, &c. We see then these Rewards are not such sen­sual Banquets as the Jews vulgarly believe; nor such a Fool's Paradise, a plurality of Women, as the Turks expect; nor the Wandrings of the Soul from one Body to another, as the Heathens dream; but it is an infinite Spiritual Happiness we are promised, the greatest our Heart can wish, or that a created Being is capable of, we shall enjoy the Beatific Vision, God will dwell in us, we shall praise him with joy­ful Hallelujahs for ever and ever; we shall be free from Hunger and Thirst, from all Doubtfulness of Thought, Sorrow, Pain, and Death; in short, we shall be perfectly happy, for we shall live in the Lord, and he in us. When we seriously consider this, we shall be ready to part with everything, even our Lives, for eternal Salvation; such perfection of Bliss will make all the [Page 110] Righteous (with St. Paul) most earnestly desirous to leave this World of Sin and Miseries, and to be dissolv'd to be with Christ; the Apostle experimentally knew what this Happiness was, when he thus explain'd it to the Corinthians, Eye hath not seen, nor Ear heard, neither hath it en­tred into the Heart of Man to conceive, the things which God hath prepared for them that love him. We shall now briefly con­sider the Woes and Punishments.

As God hath promised such great and glorious Rewards to them that love him, and are obedient to his Commands, so he hath pronounced most terrible Woes and Judgments against them that act the con­trary: Is it not reasonable to think, that God who is merciful to the Righteous, should be just to the Wicked and the Im­penitent? And if the Rewards of the Good are inexpressible, must not the Pu­nishments of those who die in their Sins be the utmost Misery? I should be too tedi­ous if I repeated here all the Expressions used in Holy Scripture, to make us sensible of the miserable State of the Damned; I shall therefore make some Reflections on what has been said, and so conclude this Section.

[Page 111]1. The belief of these Woes and Tor­ments deterreth us from committing Sin, and quickens us to Repentance and a holy Life: For no Man can hope for eternal Life, but by doing the Will of God; ever­lasting Flames must be his Portion, who dies without Repentance.

2. It breeds a dread and fear in us of the great and jealous God, a God that will not be mocked; it teacheth us to tremble at his Word, to consider his in­finite Justice, and the fierceness of his Wrath.

3. We are hereby taught to put a true Value upon the Work of our Redemption, for if we believe not an Eternity of Tor­ments, we can never sufficiently esteem the Ransom Christ paid for us; whereas he who reflects upon the Glories he had lost, and the infinite Misery he had deserv'd, cannot but be most thankful for so plente­ous a Redemption.

The belief that God has laid up glori­ous Rewards for those that love him, is useful,

1. To wean our Affections and Desires from the Pleasures of this Life, to create in us a contempt of this World, and to teach us to prefer Heaven before all things.

[Page 112]2. It encourageth us to take up the Cross of Christ, and willingly and cheer­fully to suffer all Afflictions for his Name­sake, assuring us in the Words of the Apo­stle St. Paul, That the Sufferings of this pre­sent time are not to be compared with the Glory that shall be reveal'd.

SECT. X. Several other Proofs for the Christian Religion.

MY Guide having thus proved the Truth of the Christian Religion by its Evidences and its Object, he gave me some other Arguments to confirm me, which are not of a little value. I shall con­tract them as much as I can.

1. As the Jews own that there was a Messias promised, so they cannot deny but that they crucified a Man whose Name was Jesus, in whom we find all that's foretold of the Messias in the Old Testament ful­filled; as, that he should be born of a Virgin, in the City of Bethlehem, of the Tribe [Page 113] of Judah, and of the Posterity of David; that he should begin to preach in Galilee, do many Miracles, be the Saviour not only of the Jews but the Gentiles also, that he should establish the Worship of one true God, and destroy that of Idols and false Gods; that he should be betray'd, and sold for Thirty Pieces of Silver, the Time, Manner, and Circumstances of his Suffer­ings and Death; the very parting his Garment, the Scoffs of the Multitude, his Behaviour, last Words, the exempting his Bones from being broken, his honourable Burial, his Resurrection, &c. All that was predicted and prefigur'd of old, was ac­complish'd in him, so that undoubtedly this Jesus is the Christ, and his Religion came from God.

2. My Guide noted to me the extraor­dinary manner how these Prophecies were fulfilled; of which take two or three Ex­amples: Is it not wonderful, that he who had so many Enemies, should be betrayed by one of his own Disciples; that he should be condemn'd to Death whom the Judge declared innocent; that he who had of­tentimes escaped being stoned, should at last be crucified; and yet had he been guilty of what he was accused, by the Law of the Country, he ought to have been stoned; that he who was crucified (which [Page 114] was a Roman and not a Jewish Punishment) should be so honourably buried; that none of his Bones should be broken, tho' it was the Custom to break the Bones of the Cru­cified, and it was then practis'd upon the two Thieves? &c. These things are so surprising, that we cannot sufficiently ad­mire and adore the infinite Wisdom of God, who in his Son Jesus has fulfilled whatsoever was foretold of the Mes­sias.

3. The fulfilling of Christ's Prophecies against the Jews, their Temple and City: For in the time foretold by our Saviour, the Romans, under their Emperor Titus, did conquer the City, demolish'd the Tem­ple, &c. and ever since that time the Jews have been dispers'd over the whole Earth, and never since have had any Power or Government.

4. The wonderful progress of the Apo­stles and their Successors, in propagating the Christian Religion. This Argument will be no advantage to the Mahometans, for their Opinions were propagated by other Methods. And here, 1. Let us con­sider the Author and Preachers of the Chri­stian Religion. 2. The Religion it self. 3. The Manner of its propagation.

1. The Author of the Christian Reli­gion was Jesus, the Son of a poor Virgin, [Page 115] and the reputed Son of a Carpenter, his Birth in a Stable in Bethlehem, his Educa­tion in Galilaea, his Sufferings, and igno­minious Death on the Cross amongst Ma­lefactors; these are greater Hindrances than Helps to the spreading of Christ's Doctrines; but notwithstanding so mighti­ly grew the Word of Christ, and prevail'd, that it threw down all Superstition and false Religion; which it could never have done, had not the Power of Almighty God went along with it. The Preachers of the Gospel were not Princes of great Wealth and Authority, but poor Trades­men; they were not Men of great Learn­ing, educated in famous Universities, but mean obscure Galileans, Men of Peace and Humility, they were very unlikely to do any notable things, since they wanted world­ly Wisdom and Power to gain them Repu­tation and Authority. This is the true Character of the Primitive Preachers of the Gospel. These Men therefore by their own Cunning and Strength, could never have been able to baffle the Wisdom of the Greeks, the Power of the Romans, the Malice of the Jews, and the Obstinacy of Idolaters; we may as easily believe that a Sheep could worry a hundred ravenous Wolves, as that these Men should have prevail'd against so many Obstacles of Men [Page 116] and Devils, and persuaded the World to forsake their old Way of Worship, and to believe in Christ crucified: We must then conclude, that since they have done all this, the Omnipotent God assisted them; it must necessarily be an infinite Power, that by such weak obscure Men could bring such mighty Things to pass.

2. As to the Religion it self, altho' as we have already prov'd, it is the most ex­cellent and perfect of all, yet it had several Articles of Faith, and Rules of Practice, that were as so many Stumbling-blocks to the Heathen; among the former, is the Creation of the World, which surely was strange Doctrine to them who believ'd, Ex nihilo nihil fit, i. e. Out of nothing can be made nothing; they that had hi­therto believed there were many Gods, could not easily be persuaded there is but one. The Doctrines of the Trinity in Unity, and the Unity in Trinity, and of the Resurrection of Bodies, seem'd very absurd at Rome and Athens; and yet all these Doctrines as strange and disagreeable as they appear'd, were received in these places, which could never have been, had not God's miraculous Providence given such wonderful Success: And had not the same Power attended the Preaching the Rules of Practice, the corrupt World had [Page 117] never receiv'd them; for the Gospel com­mands us to deny all Ungodliness, and to live righteously, justly, and soberly; it forbids not only evil Actions, but evil Thoughts also; it is so far from permit­ting us to do Injuries, that it will not al­low us Vengeance for those offer'd to us; not only Adultery, but even impure Ima­ginations are forbidden by it, &c. But it will seem yet more strange, if we con­sider,

3. The Manner of the first propagation of the Gospel: It owes not its Success to the Eloquence or Rhetorick of the Apo­stles, they were illiterate ignorant Men, and understood no more of School-Learn­ing, than one born blind does of Colours; their Birth and Fortune were mean and obscure, they never assisted in Senates, or in the Councils of Princes; they were not great Lawyers, able to defend any Cause; in short, they had no bright Qualifications to recommend them to the Princes of the World; under these heavy Disadvantages they propagated the Christian Religion to a wicked, perverse, and powerful Genera­tion. St. Paul indeed was a Learned Man, and had all the Benefits of a Generous Education, nevertheless he tells us, that he determin'd to know nothing but Jesus Christ and him crucified; and that neither his [Page 118] speech, nor his preaching, was with the en­ticing words of man's wisdom. So that the Success of the Christian Religion is still owing to the Power of God alone.

War, and the Arm of Flesh, by which Mahomet propagated his Opinions, had no share in the advancement of the Gospel; the Jew nor the Gentile need not be afraid of the Sword of the Apostles, for they were forbidden all Violence and Cruelty, their Master did not send them out as Beasts of Prey, but like Sheep in the midst of Wolves, he was the Master of Peace, and they his Servants, and therefore they came not to denounce War, but to bring Peace and Glad-Tidings, and to persuade the Soldier to sheath his Sword: Princes and States, instead of protecting them, use them cruelly, and persecuted them from City to City, and yet they had no other Armour but Faith in Jesus Christ, nor any Sword but that of the Word of God, and with these they overcame the Nations, and brought them under the Obedience of the Gospel. The continual Sufferings, Tri­bulations, Afflictions, and Persecutions, which the Apostles and their Proselytes were exposed to, one would think should very much hinder the spreading of the Doctrine they preach'd; Prayers and Tears were the only Weapons they used, and yet [Page 119] the Blood of the Martyrs was that fruitful Seed of the Church, so that Thousands daily embrac'd Christianity. This won­derful Progress of it my Guide laid before me, as one Argument, that it is the only true Religion: He urged many more than what I have mention'd, as the Resurre­ction and Ascension of Christ, his sending the Holy Ghost to his Apostles, the won­derful Gifts they receiv'd by it, of speak­ing all Languages; working Miracles, &c. But I need not mention any more, being convinc'd that every reasonable Man (if he considereth what has been said) must confess, that the Christian Religion excels all others in its Evidences, Object, Matters of Faith, Precepts, Rewards and Punish­ments, and that it comes from God, and is the only true Religion.

I shall, in the last place, proceed to tell you the Objections I brought against the Christian Religion, and the Answers my good Guide made to them.

SECT. XI. The Objections I made against the Christian Religion, with their So­lutions.

THE Arguments I brought against the Existence of a God, his Attributes, and the Necessity of a reveal'd Religion were so weak, that they are not worth mentioning; they were only the common Opinions of my Country-men, and my Guide answer'd them so clearly that I could make no manner of Reply: So that the first Objection that seem'd to have any force was this:

Object. 1. How can I now be certain, that what the Evangelists and Apostles as­sert is Truth; for they might impose upon us, and write things which never were perform'd.

Answer. To this my Guide answerd: 1. That he suppos'd the Divine Writers were able to tell us the Truth, and to give us a true and perfect History of the Life and Death of the Blessed JESUS. 2. That they were very willing to do so. No [Page 121] Man can doubt that they were able to speak the truth; for they did not write the History of Things which happen'd in Ages past, and long before they were born, or of what was done in remote Parts of the World: But the things they deliver down to us they saw with their own Eyes, heard with their own Ears, and felt with their own Hands, &c. as the Apostle St. John observes. Most of these Writers were con­stant Attendants on our Saviour, from his first preaching to the end of his Life; so that if they publish'd any Untruths, we must attribute them rather to their Designs and Intentions to impose upon us, than their Ignorance: But by the following Considerations it will appear, they were willing as well as able to tell us the naked Truth.

1. It cannot be imagin'd they could forge the History of the Life of Christ; How could poor Fisher-men, ignorant Me­chanicks, Men without Learning, contrive such a Fiction as should in all respects so exactly agree?

2. Supposing they had been cunning Sophisters, and subtle enough to invent such a History, could they have the Face to undertake such a Design, and impose such a Forgery on the World, when there were multitudes of living Witnesses (and [Page 122] those their implacable Enemies) to contra­dict them? If these Writers had been found Liars, they would soon have been detected and carried before the Magistrate, and pu­nish'd according to their Deserts; besides, it was the Interest and Resolution of those Magistrates to hinder the propagation of that Doctrine, whose Author they had with the utmost Malice and Aversion perse­cuted even unto Death.

3. These Writers were godly, righteous, and sober Men; they have confess'd their own Faults publickly which before were unknown to us, as their slowness in belie­ving, their Disputes about preheminence, their leaving and forsaking their Lord and Master, &c. and consequently they can­not be thought guilty of this wicked de­sign.

4. And lastly, For what end should they thus delude us? What advantage could they expect by so doing? Not Honour and Glory, for they were continually re­vil'd and derided as Fools and Mad-men; not Riches, or any other Temporal Bene­fit, for the Gospel they preach'd, taught them to renounce all and follow Christ, and accordingly their Reputation, Goods, and Lives, were daily in danger, they were hurried from one place to another, as Re­bels and Blasphemers, they were persecu­ted [Page 123] and tormented, and at last suffer'd the cruellest Deaths that Malice could invent. Impostors would never have submitted to such Trials. Is it possible for Men joy­fully, and with alacrity to undergo all man­ner of Racks and Tortures for the sake of a Religion they knew to be false, especial­ly when they might have been crown'd with Honours and Preferments had they deny'd it? These things well consider'd, we cannot but believe the Divine Writers were true and faithful Historians.

Object. 2. How can I be sure that the Books we now have of the New Testa­ment, are the same the Evangelists and the Apostles penn'd, and that in Succession of Time they have not been changed and al­tered?

Answ. 1. He answer'd me, That the vast Numbers of these Books which have been dispers'd thro' the whole World, and trans­lated almost into all Languages, their still bearing the Names of the same Authors, and the agreement of the different Ver­sions, plainly prove, they have been al­ways the same; neither can it be con­ceiv'd that distant Nations that scarce ever had any Commerce or Correspondence with each other, should all conspire in the same Cheat, and alter the Holy Wri­tings.

[Page 124]2. Since there are such Divisions, and so many Sects amongst the Christians, had either of them added or diminish'd any thing in favour of their own Opinions, the rest would have done the like; but it appears thro' all Ages the Bible has been appeal'd to by all Parties. This satisfied me, that the Holy Scripture is now the same as was generally given to us.

Object. 3. I objected against the Miracles of the Christian Religion, as not sufficient to denominate it the true Religion; for the Jewish, and some of the Pagan Reli­gions, have been establish'd by Miracles; so that were Miracles sufficient, all these Religions would be true; which is con­trary to what has elsewhere been asserted.

Answ. 1. Miracles are not alone a suffi­cient Proof of the true Religion, but only a Confirmation of it (as we have before observ'd); if therefore they are not agree­able to the Doctrines and Precepts of the true Religion they will be of very little value.

2. The Wonders done by the Pagans have not the three Conditions of a true Miracle; viz. 1. He that does the Miracle must know it, and be willing to do it. 2. It must exceed all Art and Natural Power. 3. It must be certainly perform'd and come to pass. But the Wonders these [Page 125] Pagan Prophets are reported to have done, was only the foretelling the Calamities that should befal their Country; their Predictions did not exceed the Knowledge of Natural Philosophers, they only told you of the probability of Thunders, Light­nings, Earthquakes, and other Effects of Natural Causes. Lastly, There is no cer­tainty that these things happened accord­ing to the Times they mention'd; for the Jarhabadiond, or the Pagans Book of their Law, in which these Wonders are record­ed, is so carefully kept by their Priests, that no Man else is suffer'd to read it, if he were able. These Wonders therefore of the Pagans wanting the three necessary Conditions, cannot properly be called Mi­racles; but those done by our Saviour I have abundantly proved to have these three Conditions, and consequently were true Miracles.

Object. 4. If you will not believe the Wonders or Miracles that were done by the Pagans, at least you will give Credit to what I my self have seen, viz. That our God appears in a bodily visible Shape in our Temple; for instance, if he be an­gry with us, he appears in the form of a Lion; but if well pleased, in the shape of a Bull or a Ram; in a few Hours some­times he changes his Shape, and in the [Page 126] same Day he is seen angry and pleas'd by all that are in the Temple.

Answ. 1. It is beneath the Majesty of the Supreme Being to appear, and that fre­quently, in the shape of such wild and ra­venous Creatures, as a Lion, &c.

2. This seems rather to be a Cheat of the Priests, for they change the Scene and shut up the place, whilst one Beast is led back, and another brought from his Den to be shewn to the People. 2. They will not suffer any of the Congregation to come near it, but if it were the Almighty God that thus changes himself, he would not do it privately, but publickly before all the People. So that before a Man can be­lieve this, he must see a Cloud of Miracles to confirm it.

Object. 5. I replied: For the same Rea­son I may deny the Resurrection of Christ; for if he really rose from the Dead, why did he not appear to his Enemies? But since he only was seen by his Disciples, I may, with the Jews say, that they came by Night and stole him away, and then gave out that he was risen from the dead. So that this Miracle wants other Miracles to confirm it.

Answ. 1. The Apostles did many Mira­cles in Confirmation of it; for when they raised the Dead, or cured the Sick, &c. it [Page 127] was always in the Name of Jesus Christ, whom God hath raised from the Dead.

Answ. 2. We may as well ask why God did not translate the Enemies of Christ into Heaven, and shew him sitting at his Right­hand; for I am confident, had the Jews seen him after his Resurrection, they would have said, as upon another occasion, it is a Spirit, an Apparition, or something like it: For if they believ'd not the innumera­ble Miracles that Christ did before his Cru­cifixion, they would never have been con­vinc'd that he was the Messias, tho' they had seen him after his Resurrection.

Answ. 3. That Assertion of the stupid Jews, That his Disciples took away his Body, will appear most absurd, if we con­sider the following Circumstances of his Death and Resurrection; the Jews them­selves deny not Christ's Death and Burial, and that his Sepulchre was strongly guard­ed by Soldiers; but they say, whilst these Soldiers slept, his Disciples came and stole him away: But we must think it impossi­ble for them to attempt so bold an Action, for when our Saviour was betray'd, his Disciples were struck with such fear, that they all ran away, and left their Lord in the hands of his Murtherers; even St. Peter, who was the most forward Zealot of them all, and said, Tho' all should be offended yet [Page 128] will not I, tho' I should die with thee, yet I will not deny thee in any wise: Neverthe­less fear made St. Peter fly, and thrice de­ny his Master. But supposing the Disci­ples recovered from their fear and surprize, and that they couragiously attempted to take away his Body, how can we imagine the whole Company of Soldiers slept at the same time, without setting one vigilant Centinel? But yet granting they did all sleep together, how was it possible the Di­sciples should know at what Hour the Sol­diers were all asleep? Let us suppose they knew this also, how could they roll away the great Stone, enter into the Sepulchre, and take away the Body, &c. without ma­king noise enough to awake one Soldier? But again, supposing hitherto they did all softly and secretly, yet they must do every thing hastily for fear of being apprehend­ed; but on the contrary, there was no Dis­order, no Confusion, the Grave-Cloaths in which the precious Body was wrapp'd, were decently folded up, and laid in one place, and the Napkin that was about his Head in another; which shews it was done with a Presence of Mind, and deli­berately. Granting still, that the Disci­ples did carry away the Body, why did not the Jews accuse them before the Ma­gistrates, who certainly would have con­demn'd [Page 129] them to Death, could it have been prov'd against them? And supposing the Soldiers had slept whilst the Body was stollen, why did not these Soldiers suffer Death, according to the Laws of both Jews and Romans? Lastly, The Assertion of the Jews plainly contradicts it self; for if the Soldiers were awake, why did they not hinder the Disciples from taking away the Body? But if they were asleep, how can they tell which way it was taken, or who did it? Thus you may see the Stupi­dity, Partiality, and Unbelief of the Jews, who give Credit to the Miracles of Moses, and the Prophets, for which they had on­ly History and Tradition; and yet would not believe the Miracles of Jesus Christ of which they every Day were Eye-witnesses.

Object. 6. 'Tis probable that the Devil can do such Miracles as Christ did, how then shall I certainly know, whether Christ did them by the Power of God, or of the Devil?

Answ. 'Tis true indeed, that we do not well know how far the Power of Satan extends; but this we are certain of, if he could work all the Miracles that Christ did, he could not do them for the same end, viz. for confirming the true Religion, which wholly destroys the Empire of the Devil, and commands nothing but what [Page 130] is for the Glory of God, and the Good of Mankind; the Devil is too great an Enemy of both, to do the least thing for the ho­nour or good of either: If then we sup­pose the Devil can work any great Mira­cles, those of the Pagan Religion must be attributed to him; for that Religion is far more agreeable to the Nature of the De­vil, than to the Attributes of our Almigh­ty Creator, as may appear by its Precepts, commanding the Sacrifice of Infants, the Worship of the Sun, Moon, and Stars, and even of the Devil himself, and many other Absurdities, contrary to the very Es­sence of a God.

Object. 7. Christ did acknowledge the Miracles of Moses, as wrought by the Power of God, why then did he abolish his Religion and Law?

Answ. We grant that Christ did ac­knowledge the Miracles of Moses, and therefore he did not pretend to condemn the Law; for he assures us, he came not to destroy the Law, but to fulfil it: So that he only abrogated those Rites and Cere­monies which were not needful for the fu­ture: The very Covenant God made with the Jews proves, that the time would come that they should be abolish'd; and he did not condemn them as false and con­trary to the Nature of God, but only as [Page 131] imperfect, and wanting that full accom­plishment which came by Jesus Christ, who has taught us not to worship God with Sacrifices, Incense, Burnt-offerings, &c. but in Spirit and in Truth.

Object. 8. Why has not Christ left to his Church a continual Power of working Miracles?

Answ. We are not to be too busie in en­quiring into the Secrets of the Almighty; 'tis sufficient for us that it is his Will; we ought to be satisfy'd and thankful that he shew'd his Omnipotency in confirming that Holy Religion he was pleas'd to reveal; but since the time of its Infancy is past, and the Church is so propagated and establish'd, God needs not do any more Miracles, for the Gates of Hell shall not prevail a­gainst it.

These were the chief Arguments which I brought against the Miracles of the Chri­stian Religion, to which having receiv'd satisfactory Answers; in the next place I opposed the Great Work of Redemption, and asked first,

Object. 9. Since God had determin'd to redeem Mankind from their Sins by the Sufferings of his only Son, why did he not send him sooner into the World, or rather immediately after the Fall of Adam that those who lived between Adam and Christ [Page 132] might have been Partakers of this Delive­rance and Salvation?

Answ. 1. Supposing you should ask why God did not create the World sooner? And neither I nor any else can give you a Rea­son; this does not destroy the Evidence of the Creation: So if I am not able to assign the Cause why God did not send his Son earlier into the World, this does not invalidate the Efficacy of our Redemption; all that can be said to it is, that the infinite Wisdom of God made choice of this ful­ness of time, and thought it more conve­nient than any other.

Answ. 2. Tho' Jesus Christ came into the World some Thousands of Years after the Sin of Adam, yet those that died be­fore his Nativity, were Partakers of the Benefits of his Redemption as well as we, provided they lived according to the Know­ledge God had given them.

Object. 10. Could not God have deli­ver'd us from our Sins by any other way, than by the Death of his only Son?

Answ. 1. Nothing less it seems could sa­tisfie his Justice; for we had offended an infinite God, and consequently our Sins were of infinite magnitude, so that nothing could make an infinite Attonement, but a Sacrifice of infinite Value, even his only Son Jesus.

[Page 133] Answ. 2. Had there been other means to satisfie our angry God, and he had accept­ed one way, you would have said why is God pleas'd this way rather than another; so that if this Method of arguing be al­low'd, God would be oblig'd to act ac­cording to every Man's Humour and foo­lish Capricio's.

Answ. 3. You may as well ask, why God did not create Men as perfect as the blessed Angels, and free from Sin; for this he could do, if his infinite Wisdom had thought fit, and then we should not have stood in need of a Redeemer.

Answ. 4. The All-knowing God has ta­ken such Methods as he thought proper to manifest his Justice, Goodness, Mercy, &c. but his Ways are incomprehensible; so that we are obliged submissively to admire his infallible Government, who desires not the Death of sinful Man, but rather that he should turn from his Wickedness and live. Must we not pay as great Duty and Defe­rence to the King of Kings, as to our earth­ly Sovereign? Shall a poor ignorant Sub­ject condemn his Prince, who has always approv'd himself a tender Father of his Country? Shall he, I say, censure the A­ctions of his Governour, because he can­not conceive the Political Reasons for them? As for instance, How many Subjects [Page 134] of France condemn'd the French King for concluding the Peace at Reswyck; they knew indeed he was an ambitious Prince, and thought he would never make a Peace, if he had not a prospect of some great ad­vantage by it, yet they condemn'd him, because they could not imagine the Reason for his so doing, which he has now told the World, was to acquire the Crown of Spain for his Grandson. If then a Subject ought to be obedient to, and not to criti­cize upon his Governours, tho' he under­stands not the secret Springs of State; much more ought we humbly to submit to God, tho' his ways are past finding out.

Object. 11. Christ could not pay that in­finite Satisfaction which you say the Sin of Adam requir'd; because as God he could not suffer, much less could he die; and as Man he was mortal, and therefore his Suf­ferings and Death were not a sufficient Ransom alone to satisfie the infinite Justice of God, and attone for the Sins of all Mankind.

Answ. 1. The meritorius Death and Pas­sion of Christ might be doubly satisfactory, 1. In regard to God's Holy Will, which requir'd nothing more for the deliverance of us all, but has been fully appeas'd by that Victim only; God sure might declare which way he would be satisfied; and if [Page 135] in the Old Testament the Sacrifices of Beasts were sufficient to expiate the Crimes of particular Of­fenders, much more can the Sacrifices of the Son of God attone for the Sins of the whole World. 2. In regard to the Dignity of Christ's Person, who is God above all, blessed for ever; for tho' he suffer'd only in his Manhood, yet because that Human Nature was hypostatically joyned to the Godhead, we may affirm, that the ever­lasting Son of God suffer'd all that the Humani­ty of Christ endured for us.

Answ. 2. Considering Christ as a Man, his Person so infinitely excell'd all others, that the Sacrifice of it was an infinite Attonement for our Sins. He was conceiv'd by the Holy Ghost, made Man in the highest perfection, call'd the Son of God, and predestinated by the Father to be our Redeemer. To this let us joyn the Power he had to work Miracles, and the Miracles like­wise the Father did to shew he was his beloved Son in whom he was well pleased, and then we shall confess his Person was most excellent, even beyond expression, and must give the greatest va­lue to his Sufferings; for if the Captivity of a Prince be sufficient to ransom all his Subjects, much more may the Death of Christ attone for the Sins of all Mankind.

Object. 12. God could never satisfie his own Ju­stice by giving his Son for our Redemption, for he then would satisfie himself by himself, which is as absurd as for a Creditor to pay himself out of his own Money.

Answ. 1. If this be granted, not only the Effi­cacy of all the Sacrifices that ever were offer'd must be destroy'd, but even the Worship of God would cease; for we cannot offer any thing but what entirely depends upon him.

[Page 136] Answ. 2. We must consider, that in the great Works of our Creation and Redemption, God acted not only by one of his Attributes, but by the Harmony of them all. As for example: Suppo­sing there had been a Man so excellently perfect, and so little depending upon God, that he could have paid the infinite Ransom for all Mankind, 'tis true God by accepting him would have acted agreeable to his Justice, but not to his Mercy, Goodness, &c. for God would not have shewn his Mercy by accepting a Sacrifice proportionable to the Transgression; but now he has shewn his Love, Goodness, and Mercy to us by giving his own Son to be a Propitiation for us, as he has satisfied his Justice by Christ's Sufferings and violent Death.

Object. 13. To whom then was the Price of our Redemption paid?

Answ. To God the Father, whose eternal Wrath we had deserved, by sinning against his infinite Majesty.

Object. 14. But God the Father gave us the Re­deemer.

Answ. Yes: But tho' God sent him into the World, yet it was necessary he should suffer and die for our Redemption; and as this great Work was God's gracious and willing acceptance of his Sufferings, so there was something particu­larly for the Man Christ Jesus to do for us, viz. That he who could have commanded more than twelve Legions of Angels, should meekly sub­mit and offer himself a Sacrifice for the Sins of the whole World; this inestimable Offering God was well pleas'd to accept, and to blot out all our Offences for the sake of it. And thus the great Work of Redemption was finished.

Object. 15. If the sacrificing of Children by the Pagans, seems so very unnatural, surely the Death [Page 137] and Passion of Christ shew much more Cruelty; it is harder therefore for me to believe, that God should require the Sacrifice of his only Son, than of some thousands of Infants.

Answ. We will not positively affirm, that the sacrificing of Children is always unjust and cruel, for if there be any Cruelty in so doing, it is a­gainst the very Being of a God; an Example of which we have seen in Abraham, who would ne­ver so cheerfully have attempted to sacrifice his Son Isaac, had he thought it contrary to the At­tributes of God: And as to the Sacrifice of the Son of God, the Father did not act against his Justice by accepting it: For the better understand­ing of which let us consider, 1. That Injustice is a voluntary depriving another of what we are neither willing nor able to make restitution; so then God was neither unjust nor cruel, by giving his Son once to die for us, since he the third Day after rais'd him from the Dead, and gave him a Life far more glorious than that he had before; God has amply rewarded the Sufferings of his Son's Human Nature, by taking him into Hea­ven, and placing him at his own Right-hand for evermore. 2. Christ offer'd his Life as a Ran­som for us, and to be a Mediator between God and Man, so there could be no Injustice or Cruelty in the Father's accepting what the Son volunta­rily offer'd; on the contrary, had not God accept­ed the full Satisfaction which his Son offer'd, we should have more pretence to charge him with Cruelty and Injustice; for we must condemn that Creditor as cruel and unjust, who will not accept the Money his Debtor is not able to pay when it is offer'd to him by some other charitable and generous Man.

Object. 16. Why did God require the Scacrifice [Page 138] of his only Son, when he had forbidded the Jews to offer Human Sacrifices?

Answ. 1. When God commanded the Jews not to sacrifice their Children, he did not eternally ob­lige himself never to require (upon the most ex­traordinary occasion especially) any such Sacri­fice; as we noted before in the Example of Isaac.

Answ. 2. God did not command the Jews to crucifie Jesus Christ, he only permitted him to fall into the hands of malicious and sinful Men, and Christ, like a Lamb dumb before his Shearers, open'd not his Mouth against his Murtherers; but tho' the Jews thro' Malice and Envy condemn'd our Saviour, nevertheless we may readily believe, that God the Father accepted his Death as an ex­piatory Sacrifice for the Sins of the whole World.

Object. 17. But the Sin of Adam and his depra­ved Posterity, is only a Disobedience to God's Commands, so that Christ by his perfect Obedi­ence might attone for these Transgressions, and therefore it was not absolutely necessary he should suffer and die for our Redemption.

Answ. 1. Supposing God could have taken an easier way for our Deliverance, must we con­demn him because he took this? Christ with a Word could cure all Diseases, shall he then that is born blind murmur against him for putting Clay and Spittle upon his Eyes, and sending him to wash in the Pool of Siloam?

Answ. 2. He that thinks the Sin of Adam was Disobedience only, is mistaken; for his Sin was threefold: 1. He was guilty of Infidelity, because he believ'd the Serpent rather than God. 2. Of Ambition, when he thought to be like God. 3. Of Disobedience, in eating the forbidden Fruit.

Answ. 3. Lastly, He is mistaken also, who thinks the sinless Life of Christ was the complete [Page 139] and necessary Satisfaction for the complicated Sin of Adam; the Satisfaction chiefly answereth the Penalty God Almighty threaten'd Adam with; which Punishment was Death, and Christ has ob­tain'd our Pardon by laying down his Life for us.

Object. 18. Adam was threatned with Death, by which I understand eternal Death: But has Christ suffered eternal Death?

Answ. Christ did not suffer the eternal Punish­ment we deserved, but his Agony and Bloody Passion were most severe and painful, his Death cursed, and he perfectly innocent; so that altho' we have deserv'd everlasting Death, yet God was pleas'd to accept the Sufferings which our Saviour for our sakes willingly submitted to; this Sacrifice has made an Atonement for our Sins, and we are again receiv'd into God's Favour, so that Christ may properly be said to have died, [...], that is for us.

Object. 19. It is strange to me that Christ, who as a Man was adorn'd with all Vertues in perfection, and who voluntarily offer'd himself to die for us, should not bear his Sufferings with as much Joy and Courage as many of the Mar­tyrs are reported to do; but he said his Soul was troubled even unto Death, his Anguish was so great that he sweat Drops of Blood, and prayed three times to his Father, that this Cup might pass away; and lastly, upon the Cross he cry'd out, saying, My God, my God, why hast thou for­saken me?

Answ. 1. We need not take for granted all that is contain'd in the Books of Martyrs, some things therein perhaps were written purposely to encourage the Christians in Times of Persecu­tion, and to exhort them to imitate the Vertue and Constancy of these Martyrs.

[Page 140] Answ. 2. These Martyrs exerted their Cou­rage, and subdued their Passions in public, that they might the better remove the Fears of the remaining Confessors, but its probable in their Confinement and private Retirements they felt themselves to be but Men.

Answ. 3. If all be true that the Writers of these Books have said, it must be attributed to the Operation of God's Holy Spirit, who gave them such an undaunted Courage, and an assured hope that they should receive everlasting Glory. But God permitted his Son to be more troubled under his intense Sufferings; 1. Because if one of us should be expos'd to such Trials for Christ's sake, and this Man should shrink and tremble at the approach of Torments and Death, instead of shewing that Cheerfulness and Presence of Mind which the Primitive Martyrs did, he should not therefore think his Death unaccepta­ble to God, for it certainly would be grateful to God, if he (according to the Example of Christ) meekly submitted to his Holy Will. 2. That Christ's Sufferings and Death might be of greater value. Lastly, That Christ might be our Helper and Defender, that he who was tempted, suf­fered, and died, may be the more ready to as­sist and comfort us in all our Trials and Affli­ctions.

These and the like Objections I made against the Work of Redemption, which being answer'd by my Guide, I began in the last place to attack the Mysteries of the Christian Religion with the following Arguments,

Object. 20. We have hitherto spoke of Christ and the Holy Ghost as two distinct Persons in the Godhead, and the Christian Religion obligeth us to believe the Mystery of the Trinity in Unity, [Page 141] and Unity in Trinity, and that the Second Per­son in the Trinity came into the World, and took our Nature upon him, &c. all which are Mysteries indeed to me, and seem contrary to my Reason, and the Nature of God.

Answ. We must not confound what is above Reason with that which is contrary to Reason: We now by Experience know many things which at first seem'd above our Reason. One or two fami­liar Instances will make this Matter clear: Sup­pose a Man born in a very cold Climate, should go into a hot Country, where the Natives never saw Snow nor Ice, and should tell them, That where he was born, the Water, at a certain Sea­son of the Year, was so hard that a Horse can run over it; these People would say, It is a­gainst Reason, and contrary to the Nature of Water to grow hard; and therefore because nei­ther Reason nor Experience taught them other­wise, they would conclude the Traveller had a mind to impose upon them: But if these Inha­bitants were persuaded he was a faithful honest Man, and said he saw it with his own Eyes, and would not tell a Lye for the greatest advan­tage, then certainly they would believe it upon his Testimony, tho' they could not conceive how such a thing should be. Another Instance is the use of the Loadstone; the first that found it out was surely contradicted, some perhaps believ'd him upon his Word, some doubted, and others utterly deny'd the possibility of it; but Expe­rience having convinc'd us, now no Body in these Parts disputeth it, tho' we cannot conceive the Reason for it; the wisest Philosophers have en­quir'd into the Nature of it, but after all their Suppositions and pretended Demonstrations, they are forc'd to place it amongst Aristotle's occult [Page 142] Qualities, and to say with me it is above Reason. So we may say of the Christian My­steries: A Jew or a Gentile, who was never in­structed in this Doctrine, takes it to be absurd, against Reason, and the very Being of a God; but when they are convinc'd that Christ was the Author of it, and that he was greater than all the Prophets, the Son of God that could not impose upon us, or be impos'd upon, that he had confirm'd this Doctrine by almost an infinite number of Miracles, that God from Heaven had declar'd him to be his beloved Son, and com­manded us to hear him; I say, after we are con­vinc'd of all this, we must then conclude it is above, but not against Reason; then we must condemn our too great presumption, and con­fess the weakness of our Reason, which would comprehend the Mysteries of God, and yet can­not understand a multitude of Natural Things: By these means it was, that this Holy Doctrine was propagated and prevail'd: Afterwards some Writers began to argue upon it, and some en­deavour'd to render it intelligible; but their Ex­planations are rather a disservice than advantage to it. 'Tis too true this Holy Doctrine has been condemn'd by some Sects of Christians, but that never will destroy it; I am very much mistaken if there be any Truth, let it be never so clear and evident, but has been contradicted by some sort of Men or another.

The Author's Application.

I don't wonder then that so many Christians deny this; for my own part I must to my shame confess, that for some time after my Conversion, I had my share of Doubts and Scruples about it; but having farther examin'd it, I have been ob­lig'd to acknowledge my weakness and ignorance, [Page 143] my too great presumption and too little humi­lity, in believing rather what my Reason than what my blessed Saviour taught me; but bles­sed be our merciful God, my Conviction is the stronger. I shall not detain the Reader by ci­ting all the Texts of Holy Scripture which teach this Truth, every one has his Bible at home, and I wish they frequently may read, mark, learn, and inwardly digest what's contain'd therein. I shall conclude this Point by saying, if we be­lieve nothing but what we can comprehend, we must list our selves amongst the Sceptics, and doubt of every thing we tast, see, or feel.

Object. 21. Did Christ when he was an Infant know he was God?

Answ. Did you know when you were but six Months old that you were a rational Creature? You cannot say you did. But let this satisfie you, the Godhead is not obliged to manifest it self in its Glory wheresoever it is; for the Ubi­quity of God fills all places imaginable, how­ever it doth rarely manifest it self as it did on Mount Sinai, &c.

Object. 22. Lastly, I objected, Since the Chri­stian Religion has such plain Evidences, and its Precepts far excel what the Prophets and Philo­sophers taught, why is it the least observed? Why don't the Christians live according to these most excellent Rules? Methinks, if they be­liev'd what they profess, they should with the greatest awe and diligence observe it.

Answ. You must ask those unreasonable Men who do not practise what they profess; they have as much Evidence as you, and more too, for they are not full of the Prejudices of other Religions, and I am persuaded that the Evi­dences [Page 144] I have brought to you are able to con­vince any thinking Man. I must with great con­cern acknowledge, that the true Religion is the least observ'd, tho' it is ever the same; but the evil Practices of these Professors ought not to be a scandal to you; for since they have been edu­cated in the true Religion, and so carelesly de­viate from it, their Condemnation will be the greater: Let them remember our Saviour's words, The Servant that knoweth his Master's Will, and doth it not, shall be beaten with many stripes. Therefore in another place he says, They shall come from the East and from the West, from the North and from the South, and shall sit down in the Kingdom of God; but you your selves shall be thrust out: That is, many Jews and Gentiles, who have liv'd according to the Light of their Reason that God bestowed upon them, shall be receiv'd into the Mercy of the Father, and be saved by Christ's Blood, whilst many Christians, who despise the Grace of God, and persist in their sinful Courses, shall be rejected and receive eternal Damnation. God of his infinite Mercy grant we may not be of this number.

These were the principal Objections I brought against the Christian Religion; and blessed, for ever blessed, be GOD, that directed me to such a Man who could give me such satisfactory An­swers, that by the Divine Grace assisting, I pro­fess'd my self heartily willing to leave my old Pagan Idolatry, and to embrace the true Chri­stian Religion. To this Almighty God be all Honour and Glory ascribed now and for ever­more. Amen.


CHAP. I. Of the Situation, Magnitude, and Di­vision of the ISLE.

THE Island Formosa, which by the Natives is called in their Language, Gad Avia, from Gad, Beautiful, and Avia an Isle, and by the Chinese is called Pa­cando, is one of the most Pleasant and Ex­cellent of all the Asiatick Isles, whether we consider the convenient Situation, the health­ful Air, the fruitful Soil, or the curious [Page 146] Springs and useful Rivers, and rich Mines of Gold and Silver wherewith it abounds; for it enjoys many advantages which other Islands want, and wants none of those which they have.

Formosa and Japan, are the remotest parts towards the East, which are hitherto known or discover'd, and so they are the first Countries that are visited with the Rays of the Morning Sun. Formosa has on the North side Japan, distant about 200 Leagues; on the North and West, China, from which it is distant about 60 Lea­gues; and on the South side Luconia, from which it is distant about 100 Leagues.

This Isle Formosa extends it self in length from North to South above 70 Leagues, and in breadth from East to West 15 Leagues, being about 130 Leagues in Circumference. It is divided into five Isles, whereof two are called Avias dos Lardonos, or the Isles of Thieves, the third is called Great Peorko, the fourth Little Peorko, and the fifth, which lies in the middle, and is called Kaboski, or the Principal Island, is greatest of all the five, being 17 Leagues in length and 15 in breadth, is most strictly called Gad Avia, or the Island Formosa; tho' all the rest, which for distinction sake, are called by se­veral Names, are comprehended under the [Page 147] General Name of Formosa; and in this Sense we shall use the Word in the follow­ing Account of this Isle.

CHAP. II. Of the great Revolutions which have happen'd in the Island Formosa.

WE find in our Chronicles, that a­bove 200 Years ago, the Island Formosa had been Govern'd for some Ages by one King, who in his Administration depended upon the Representatives of the People, who are two or three Men chosen in every City and Village, to take care of their publick Concerns. This King whom the Natives in their Language called Ba­galo, had one Governor in each of the afore­mentioned Isles, subject to his Power, and accountable to him for their Administration; and this Governour was called by the Na­tives Tano. But about 200 Years ago the Emperor of Tartary invaded this Island and subdued; which continued under the Do­minion of the Tartars until the third Ge­neration: [Page 148] But the third Emperor who suc­ceeded after this Conquest, being an Au­stere Tyranical Prince, who was very cruel to the Natives, and had formed a design to extirpate their Religion, did so provoke their natural Rage, that at last they did all with one consent take up Arms, and rose against his Deputy and the Forces by which he ruled them, and drove them all out of the Country, after a bloody Battle, And thus they shook off the Yoke of Tar­tarian Bondage, under which they had groan'd above 70 Years; and restored their Natural Prince to the rightful Throne of of his Ancestors, who now became inde­pendent not only of a Foreign Prince, but of all the little Commonwealths within his own Dominions; in which state they con­tinued above 70 Years. During which time the Eueopeans came thither, viz. the Dutch and English, who maintained a great Trade with the Natives, especially in Great Peorko, where the Dutch built a Castle called Tyowan. At the same time while the Dutch were there the Chinese came and attempted to land in the Island, with a design to Conquer it, but were stoutly repulsed by the Natives, who took up Arms in defence of their Country, and [Page 149] maintained a War with the Chinese for some Years; until at last they drove them back into their own Country. And the Formosans finding that the Dutch under a false pretence of joining with them to force back the Chinese, had treacherously under­hand assisted them to Conquer Formosa, hoping at last to wrest it out of their hands and make it their own; the Hollanders were thereupon banished, and prohibited to come any more into that Island, and their Castle Tyowan was Demolished: Yet upon some fair Promises they were afterwards permitted again to Land there, provided they should stay but a little while, and a sufficient Guard should attend them and ob­serve their Motions. Thither therefore they come, and when they can find what they have a mind to in Formosa, they go no farther; but when they miss of their aim there, then they travel further into Japan, viz. to the Isle of Nangasaque, for they are not permitted to go to any other place. However under these Commotions Formosa still preserved its form of Government in­dependent of a Foreign Prince, until Me­ryaandanoo first ravished Japan by Villany, and then conquer'd Formosa by a trick, of both which Revolutions I shall now give the Reader a short and true Account, [Page 150] as it is to be found in our Histories, and is firmly believed by all the People of Formosa, upon a constant Tradition from Father to Son, for the space of Fifty Years and up­wards.

Meryaandanoo was by Nation a Chinese, but coming to Japan while he was Young, he was by the favour of some Great Man admitted to some mean Office, in the Court of the Emperor Chazadijn, where he con­tinued some time, and had his Education. But the Emperor perceiving that he was a a very Ingenious Young-Man, and well qualified for a better Office, gave him at first some inferiour Place in the Army, in which he behaved himself so well, that he was quickly preferr'd to a higher Post, and by his winning behaviour and admirable Conduct, he so far insinnuated himself into the favour of the Emperor, that he was gradually advanced from one Post of Ho­nour in the Army to another; until at last he arrived at the highest, and was made Carilhan, or Chief General of all the Im­perial Forces, which is the highest Office in the Empire, not only for Honour, but for Power and Trust. And in the admini­stration of thi [...] Office, he behaved himself with so much Prudence and Courage, that the Emperor loved him exceedingly; but [Page 151] much more did he win the Heart of the Emperess, who was so taken with his gal­lant Mien, that she could not live with­out him: So great was her kindness to him, and she put such an entire confidence in his fair Speeches, that she would often meet him in private places; which was a favour very rare and unusual in that Coun­try, especially from so great a Person as the Emperess. Having thus gained the Love of the Emperor and Emperess, to so great a degree, this ungrateful Villain made use of that familiarity to which the Em­press admitted him, and of that confidence they both put in him, first to raise a Jea­lousie in the Mind of the Emperor against the Emperess; and then by this means to contrive an opportunity for murdering them both: which Barbarous design this Bloody Villain accomplished after this manner. First, he perswaded the Emperor that his Emperess was in Love with a certain Noble­man, whom he supposed, and she often met him, and had private conversation with him in the Garden: Whereupon the Em­peror being highly enrag'd both against this Nobleman, whom he falsly accused, and a­gainst the Emperess, who was suppos'd to have kept company with him, desired Meryaan­danoo to enquire diligently at what Hour, [Page 152] and in what place they were to meet toge­ther in the Garden, if it were possible for him to find it out; and then says he, come and acquaint me with it, and I will take care that neither of them shall escape out of my hands, until they have both suffer'd Death, according to the demerit of their Crime. This Meryaandanoo promised to do, as the Emperor had desired him; and sometime after he came out of the Empe­ror's presence, he went to the Apartment of the Emperess, and having good assu­rance of her ready compliance, by his former private conversations with her, he pray'd her to meet him, at a cer­tain Hour of that Day, in a certain place of the Garden, which she, mistrusting no­thing, readily promised to do, and appoint­ed the time and place for their meeting. Having gained this point, which was a great step towards finishing his design, he went and acquainted the Emperor, that at such an Hour the Nobleman was to come, and to meet his Emperess in such a place of the Garden. Whereupon the Emperor presently commanded his Guards to be got ready, with which he intended to seize them both together, and bring them to deserved punishment. In the mean time Meryaandanoo having changed his Clothes, [Page 153] and mask'd his Face, that he might not be known to the Emperor, under this dis­guise meets the Emperess at the time and place appointed, whom he most Barbar­ously stabb'd, with a poison'd Dagger, to conceal the Murder, by stopping the Effu­sion of Blood: The Emperor comes at first all alone into that place of the Garden to satisfie his Curiosity of seeing them toge­ther, fearing lest the appearance of the Guards would make them run away; and he perceiv'd a certain Nobleman, as he supposed, lying upon the Emperess in an unseemly posture, he called for his Guards, who were at some distance from the place: But while he advanced towards the Noble­man, not knowing him to be Meryaan­danoo, Meryaandanoo was too nimble for him, who come fully prepared to execute the wicked design he had plotted, for he had no sooner called for his Guards, but he closed in with him, and gave him his Deaths wound with the same poison'd Dagger; and immediately after he had struck the blow, he fled away with all possible speed, through unbeaten Paths a­mong Trees and Bushes, and so made his Escape without being discover'd: When the Guards came and found the Emperor and Emperess both kill'd, they stood for [Page 154] some time astonish'd, at this strange and surprizing Event; but they wonder'd most of all at the Murder of the Emperor, who so lately parted from them, and whom they heard but a little before call upon them to come to him; some condoled the sudden Death of two such great Persons, while others search'd every where about the Garden, among the Trees and Bushes, to find out the Murderer; But when they saw that no discovery could be made, the Sol­diers began to Mutiny, had not the Captain of the Guards diverted their Fury, by telling them, That they must do nothing until they had first acquainted the Carilhan with what had happened; whereupon a Party was immediately dispatch'd to his House, (whither he had made his Escape after he had committed the Murder) and when they came there, and told him, he seem'd to be mightily surpris'd and troubl'd, as if he knew nothing of the matter: But to lose no time in a case of so great conse­quence, he went in all haste to the place, where having viewed the dead Bodies, he evpress'd his great Sorrow, with many Sighs and Tears, for the loss of two Per­sons so great and so good, to whom he had been infinitely obliged, and declared that this execrable Murder had been committed [Page 155] by a certain Nobleman, naming him, who had frequently kept Company with the Emperess in private, and had appointed a meeting with her this very Day, as he was well assur'd. This discovery gave great satisfaction to the Guards, who being glad of the opportunity to revenge the Death of their Master, went presently and struck off the Innocent Nobleman's Head, by his Order, who was the Murderer himself. Meryaandanoo having thus far succeeded in his design, wanted now only to be de­clared Emperor, which met with some op­position from those in the Army, who fa­voured the Family of Chazadijn, though he had no Children by his Emperess, but only by his Concubines; and for some time there were many Cabals and Facti­ons about the next Successor to the Emp [...]e; But at last Meryaandanoo, having pre-en­gaged a great Party for him, and being generally beloved by the Soldiers, by his prevailing Interest in the Army, was cho­sen and declar'd Emperor of Japan; which was the finnishing of the great design he intended to accomplish, by all the afore­mentioned Villainies and Cruelties.

About two Years after he was promo­ted to the Imperial Crown of Japan he counterfeited himself to be sick, and [...]d [Page 156] innumerable Sacrifices to be offered to the Gods of Japan, for the Recovery of his Health; but all these Sacrifices, proving, as he pretended, ineffectual, so that these Gods seem'd either unable or unwilling to relieve him, he declar'd, tho' in deep dis­simulation, that it was necessary for him to seek for Relief from the Gods of other Countries. And to this end he sent an Ambassadour with a Letter to the King of Formosa, who was to entreat the King of Formosa in his Name, that he might have leave to send and offer Sacrifices to the God of his Country, by whom he hoped to find that cure of his Disease, which in vain he had expected from his own Gods, tho' he had offer'd 10000 Sacrifices to appease them.

His Letter to the King, was to this purpose.

Meryaandanoo, Emperor of Japan, to the King of Formosa, my Friend, &c.

BEing afflicted with a very grievous Dis­ease, and having endeavoured by my Ob­lations to pacifie the Gods of my Country, that I might recover my Health, I have found [Page 157] all my endeavours hitherto ineffectual, whether through the Anger or Impotence of the Gods I know not: And therefore having a great Veneration for your God, of whose great Power and Goodness I am fully perswaded, I must entreat you to give leave that some of my Subjects may be sent into your Island, who shall bring along with them the Beasts they are to offer in Sacrifice to your God, for the Recovery of my Health. And if your God shall be so far appeased by these Sacrifices as to restore me to Health, I do hereby promise you, that through all the Empire of Japan, and in all the other Isles subject to my Dominion, I will plant and establish your Religion. And so your God shall be our God, and we shall live in perpetual Friendship with one another.

I expect your Answer to this Request by my Ambassador.

After the King of Formosa had read the Letter, he sent for his Priests and acquaint­ed them with the Contents of it, and com­manded them to consult their God, whe­ther he would grant what the Emperor of Japan had desired: The Priests hoping that they should reap great Profit and Ad­vantage from the Emperor, by the Japan­ness's coming into their Country, to offer [Page 158] Sacrifice, told the King, that they had consulted their God, and he had consented, that they should come here to offer Sacri­fices, but he had not declar'd what success their Oblations should have as to restoring the Health of their Emperor. The King having received this Answer from his Priests, sent for the Ambassadors of the Emperor of Japan, and told them, Go and salute your Emperor in my Name, and tell him, that he has leave from my God, and from me, to send some of his Subjects to offer Sa­crifices to our God; and if our God shall re­store his Health, I hope he will perform what he has promised of establishing the Worship of our God in all his Dominions.

The Ambassadors having taken their leave of our King returned home, into their own Country, and acquainted the Em­peror of Japan with the Answer of the King of Formosa to his Letter, who was very glad at the good success of their Negoti­ation, having further designs in it than they were aware of: And therefore he presently commanded a great Army to be made ready, and order'd the Soldiers to be put in great Litters, carried by two Ele­phants, which will hold Thirty, or Forty Men; and to prevent any suspicion of the the Formosans, they placed Ox­en or Rams to be seen at the Windows [Page 159] of the Litters. Thus he covertly convey'd a numerous Army into the Isle Formosa, with many of the Nobility of his Court, under the Religious pretence of Offering Sacrifice for the Recovery of his Health, but really with a design to Conquer the Country. The numerous Chariots were divided into three parts, the greatest of which was sent into the Capital City Xter­netsa, and the two other parts into two o­ther Cities, called Bigno and Khadzey; And at a certain Hour appointed the Chariots were opened in all the three Cities, the Soldiers came out, and with Sword in Hand, threatning present Death to the King, and all the Inhabitants of the City Xternetsa (which was likewise done in the other Cities at the same time) unless they would submit themselves to be governed by the Emperor of Japan. The King con­sidering that he had no other prospect but that of imminent and unavoidable Death before him, and that there was no hopes by his Death to preserve the Ancient Liberties of his Country, chose rather to submit to the fatal necessity he was under, than throw away his Life to no purpose; and the rest of the Inhabitants every where fol­low'd his example in this surprising danger of Death, so that the whole Kingdom was quickly reduc'd under the Yoke of the Em­peror [Page 160] of Japan, without the Effusion of much Blood. And from that time the Em­peror of Japan sends a King into the Isle Formosa, who is called Tano Angon, or the superintendent King: But he who was King before, in that Isle, is only as a Baga­landro or Viceroy, or one that is next to the King in Dignity without any Power. And this is a short History of the manner how the Isle Formosa was subdued by the Villany of the Emperor Meryaandanoo, who instead of Sacrificing Beasts to the God of the Country, as he pretended, would have Sacrificed the Inhabitants to his own Am­bition, if they had not prevented him by a voluntary submission to his Rule and Go­vernment. I shall therefore in the next place give an account of the Form of Go­vernment in this Isle, which is now almost the same with that which is in the other Isles of Japan.

CHAP. III. Of the Form of Government in the Island Formosa, and of the New Laws made by the Emperor Meryaan­danoo.

MEryaandanoo being thus settled Em­peror of Japan and Formosa, made new Laws relating to the Deputy King, and enforced the old Laws relating to the Sub­jects, with grievous Penalties, as will ap­pear hereafter.

The First Law is, Concerning the Kings that are subject to him, who are Twenty Five in number (besides the Eight who are not properly called Angons or Bagalos but Viceroys or Bagelanders) And these Kings are oblieged, by this Law, twice in a Year to wait upon the Emperor, and then every one of them is to give an account of his Administration of the Government, and of all the Notable Occurrences which have happened in his Kingdom for the space of half a Year, and to receive the new Com­mands of the Emperor, if he shall think fit to give any.

[Page 162]The Second Law is, That none of them shall transgress the Commands of the Em­peror, unless he first acquaints him with the necessity that forces him to do it; yet in a case of urgent necessity, this Law is moderated by Equity.

The Third Law is, That they shall do nothing to the detriment of the People, sub­ject to their Government; That they shall not be unjust, or cruel to them, or any ways prejudice them in their Life, Fortune, or Re­putation, without a just cause: which Law he mde to gain the Love of the People.

The Fourth is, That none of the Kings shall suffer a Christian to live in his Coun­try, but every one of them shall keep Sear­chers, or Centinels in the several Sea Ports, who shall Try all Foreigners, as soon as they arrive in the Harbour whether they be Christians or no, by this Test, of trampling upon the Crucifix; which Test was chiefly design'd against the Papists, who worship the Crucifix, and therefore dare not trample upon it: But as to other Foreigners who do trample upon the Crucifix, the Governour is to grant them a Pass to Travel through all the Cities un­der his Dominion, provided they are not above Twenty in number.

The last is, That no King can prohibit or enjoin any Religion, in his Country, but every subject shall enjoy the Liberty of [Page 163] his Conscience to worship his God after his own way, except there shall be any found that are Christians; for the discovery of whom there shall be Searchers appoint­ed in all Cities and Villages, who shall try them by the Test aforementioned. And to all these Laws this Sanction is added, That if any Person shall violate any one of these Laws they shall presently be put to Death, which is the true Reason, why the Com­mands of the Emperor are every where so exactly obey'd.

He made no new Laws relating to the Subjects, but only revived the Natural and Ancient Laws, which he enforced with new Penalties proportionable to the Crimes.

The First is against the Christians, That if any Foreigner shall be found who is a Christian, and who hath seduc'd or endea­voured to seduce the Inhabitants to Chri­stianity, he shall be imprison'd, together with all those whom he hath seduced. And if he will Renounce the Christian Faith, and worship Idols, he shall not only be pardon'd, but have a certain Pension al­lowed him for his Subsistence; but if he refuse to do this, he shall be burnt alive; And as to those who have been seduc'd, if they will return to their former Idolatry, they shall be set at liberty; but if they will not, they shall be hang'd.

[Page 164]The Second is against Murderers, Thieves and Robbers, viz. Whosoever shall kill another Man unjustly, shall be hang'd up by the Feet with his head downward, and after this manner shall hang alive a longer or shorter time, according to the aggravation of his Crime, until he be Shot to Death with Arrows: But if he be both a Robber and a Murderer he shall be Crucified. A Thief shall be punished according to the heinousness of his Crime, either with Hang­ing, or continual Imprisonment, or with Whipping, or a Fine.

The Third Law is against Adulterers, viz. They shall for the first Offence pay a Fine of 100 Copans (each Copan being a piece of Gold weighing a Pound) and those who have not Money to pay such a Fine, they shall be publickly Whipt by the Hand of the Hangman: But if any Person be guilty of the same Crime a second time, he or she shall be beheaded. For though, as will appear in the following Chapter a­bout Religion, every Man may have as many Wives, as his Estate is able to main­tain; yet if any Man shall carnally know another Woman besides his own Wives, to whom he has promised Fidelity, he is guilty of Adultery. The same Law ob­liges all those who are unmarried provi­ded they be Natives of the Country: But [Page 165] this Law does not extend to Foreigners, to whom the Natives are wont to offer Virgins or Whores, to be made use of at their Plea­sure, with Impunity.

But here I must desire the Reader to ob­serve, that the Husband has such full power over his Wife, that if he apprehend her in the act of Adultery; he may punish her after what manner, and to what degree he pleases, even unto Death: But if the thing be not commonly known, he may spare her, if he thinks fit, upon her promise of amendment for the future.

The Fourth Law is, Whosoever shall Suborn false Witness against any Man, both he and the false Witnesses shall have their Tongue cut out, and be further punish'd according to the heinousness of the Crime, and the damage done to the Party, against whom they testified.

The Fifth Law is, Whosoever shall bals­pheme the God of the Country he shall be burnt alive.

The Sixth is, If a Son or a Daughter shall strike their Father or Mother, or one of their Kindred that is Ancient, or one that is superiour to them in Power, their Arms and Legs shall be cut off, and a Stone be­ing tied about their Neck, they shall be thrown into the Sea, or a River. But if any one shall strike a Priest, their Arms shall [Page 166] be burnt off, and then their Body shall be buried alive.

Whosoever shall strike his King, Inten­dant or Governour, shall be hang'd up by the Feet till he die, having four Dogs fasten'd to his Body to tear it in pieces.

The Seventh is, Whosoever shall Re­proach or Slander any Man, shall have his Tongue bored through with a hot Iron: But whosoever refuses to obey his Superiour in things Lawful, shall be beheaded.

The Eighth is, Whosoever shall Plot any Treason against the Emperor, or any of the Kings, or shall endeavour the Subver­sion of the Religion establish'd, he shall be tortur'd with all imaginable Torments.

All these Laws Meryaandanoo made, or revived in the fourth Year of his Empire, at a meeting of all the Kings of his Empire, and of all the chief Priests of every City: And by verture of them, all the Inhabi­tants enjoy a profound Peace; for as the Subjects do readily obey the Laws relating to themselves, so the Governours and Of­ficers are careful to put them in Execution whenever there is occasion.

This is what I chiefly intended in this Chapter, to give an account of the Laws and their Sanctions, by which Meryaandanoo governs his Deputy-Kings and their Sub­jects; and though there are other things [Page 167] which might be placed here under this head of Government, yet because they are here­after to be inserted in their proper places, they are here omitted.

CHAP. IV. Of the Religion of the Formosans.

SInce my design is only to give an ac­count of the Isle Formosa, I shall briefly mention but three kinds of Religion that are observed in Japan, because of the Af­finity some of them have with that which is established in Formosa.

The First kind of Religion is Idolatry, or the Worship of Idols: And this kind of Worship most generally prevails above all others in Japan, so that in one Temple call'd Amida, in the Capital City of Meaco, there are no fewer than 3500 Idols; whereof 1000 are of Gold, 1000 of Silver, and 1000 of Brass, and 500 of Wood and Stone, and to these Idols they Sacrifice Oxen, Rams, Goats, and such like Beasts, and sometimes they Sacrifice Infants to them, when their God is not ap­peased by other Sacrifices.

[Page 168]The second kind of Religion is that of those who acknowledge one God, whom they believe to be so Sublime and Great, that they dare not Sacrifice to him; and therefore they have establish'd the Sun as the great Power of God which Rules and Governs the World, and the Moon and Stars as powers inferior to the Sun, which more exactly inspect and take care of Terrestrial affairs: Wherefore they Sa­crifice Infants to the Sun, and Beasts to the Moon and Stars.

The Third sort is rather a Sect of Atheism than Religion, for they deny the being of God, and affirm that the World was from Eternity and shall continue to Eternity. Hence some of them think rhat the Soul is Mortal and dies with the Body, like that of Beasts; but others of them say that the Soul is not Mortal, but informs another Body after Death, and so it passes out of one Body into another to Eternity. When­soever the Soul has done well, they think it passes into the Body of a Rich man who lives in great ease and pleasure, but if it has done evil it passes into the Body of some poor Wretch to suffer Pain and Misery; and so the Soul is liable to endless Vicissi­tudes of Vertue and Vice, of pleasure and Pain. These Atheists use no Religious Worship, saving that they all offer Sacrifice [Page 169] to evil Spirits or Devils, that they may not hurt them. But the Transmigration of Souls, is believ'd not only by them but by all the Jappannese, except those who think that the Soul is Mortal.

But my business is not to give a particular account of their several opinions, and dif­ferent ways of Worship, and therefore I have noted these things only en passant to show wherein they agree, and wherein they differ from the Religion establish'd in Formosa.

The Religion of the Formasans was re­veal'd by their God, if we may believe their Jarhabadiond (i. e. the Election of the Land) which makes mention of the Re­velation upon which they found the Reli­gious Worship now us'd among them, and gives the following account of it: That about 900 Years ago, the Inhabitants of For­mosa knew no other Gods but the Sun and the Moon, whom they believed to be Supreme, and the Stars, which they looked upon to be as it were Semidei, or Subordi­nate Gods; and then their whole Worship consisted in adoring them Morning and Evening, and offering them the Sacrifices of Beasts, But after some time there a­rose two Philosophers, who had led a Pious and Austere kind of Life in the De­serts, and pretended that God had appear'd to them, and spoke to them, to this purpose; I am much Troubled for the Blindness of [Page 170] this People because they Worship the Sun, Moon and Stars so devoutly, as the Supreme Deity; go and tell them, I am the Lord of the Sun, Moon and Stars, of the Heaven, the Earth, the Sea and all things that are in them, I Govern the Creatures by the Sun and Moon and the 10 Stars, and without me they cannot exist: Go and tell them, that God has ap­pear'd to you, and said, if they will worship and adore him, he will be their Protector, and will appear to them in the Churches, which they Build to his honour, and promise them in my Name, that if they Worship and obay me, they shall receive great rewards after this Life. The Names of these two Philosophers, were Zeroaboabel, which is a Name unknown to to the Japannese, and Chorhe Mathcin, which in the Japan Language signifies Creator Annunciat, for Chorhe signifies the Creator, and Mathcin declares. Now these two preten­ding that God had spoke to them, came to a certain Mountain call'd Tanalio near the Capital City, where the People were met together to offer Sacrifice to the Sun, and told them to this Effect. O ye Blind Mor­tals, who Worship the Stars so devoutly, and are ignorant of the God who is above them; that God who Created the Sun and Moon, and all things in Heaven and Earth, has this day taken pity on you, and appeared to us, and com­manded us to declare him unto you: And [Page 171] after they had said this, they Demonstrated by many Arguments, that there is one Su­preme God, who is above all the visible things in this World. This discourse so much affected the People, that they desired to know of them, how that God would be Worshiped, whether they should Worship him after the same manner, as they now Worshiped the Sun. To which they an­swered, no. But if they would Worship him according to his mind, in an acceptable manner, they should first Build him a Temple, and in that they should make a Tabernacle, and an Altar, and upon the Altar they should Burn 20000 Hearts of young Children, under 9 Years of Age. And when ye have done these things, said they, then God will appear to you in this Tabernacle, and tell you what you are to do further for his Service. When the Peo­ple heard these things, they could no longer refrain themselves, but exclaimed against these two Prophets as Hypocrites and Im­postors; and asked them in great rage, how can your God be so Cruel as to require us to kill so many of our Sons, and offer them up in Sacrifice to him: Whereupon the two Prophets fled away into the Desert again, having left these Threatning words behind them, We have told you what our God Commanded us to say unto you; but if ye will not believe our words, and obey [Page 172] his will, ye shall quickly find, that the Divine Vengeance will pursue you.

A little while after it was observ'd, that the Sky was Darkned, there fell much Rain with Hail, which destroyed the Fruits of the Ground, innumerable claps of Thunder were heard in the Air, there were great Earth quakes in several places, and the Air became so Pestilential, that the greatest part of the Inhabitants were visisted with the Plague, the wild Beasts came into their Cities, and even into their Houses, and de­voured their young Children: And these Calamities lasted for a day and a half, which were so Terrible, that the whole Island seemed to be in danger of utter Ruin and Destruction, Which sad Prospect moved all the Inhabitants to return Unanimously to the Mountain aforesaid, and there they confessed their great fault in refusing to be­lieve the two Prophets, and cry'd earnestly with all their Hearts to that God, who had spoken to them by those Prophets, de­precating his Wrath for their past Offences, and Promising they would do whatsoever he should command them if he would now spare them. And at length, after long and humble Supplication, that God sent them a Prophet, which should declare a new Peace and Reconcilation between him and them, upon which account they called him Psal­manaazar, [Page]

A Temple

fig: 1. Pag: 173

[Page 173] i. e. the Author of Peace. Af­ter he had Published this joyfull Message unto them, he commanded them to build a Temple, and in it an Alter, above that Al­ter to make a Tabernacle, and then to Sa­crifice upon the Alter, 100 Oxen, 100 Rams and 100 Goats, and to Burn upon it 20000 Hearts of young Children under 9 Years of Age, and then God would appear to them: They built therefore a Temple, after the form described in the First Figure.

The first Figure explained.

A. The Tower in which God appears in the Tabernacle.

B. The Tower in which are the Singers and Players upon Instruments.

C. The Window-Tower, which lets in the Sky-light.

D. The Head of an Oxe, or a Symbol of God.

E. An Image of the Sun.

F. An Image of the Moon.

G. The Gate of the Temple.

H. The Windows.

I. The parts cover'd with Gold.

K. The place for the Men.

L. The place for the Women.

[Page 174]The whole Temple is built of Four­square Stones after an exact Model, and is a most Finish'd piece of Architecture, being of great Bigness and Height. In the Tower which looks towards the East is the Taber­nacle, wherein God appears, and the Altar; all which they built by the Command of the Prophet Psalmanaazaar.

The Second Figure explained.

1. A Crown hanging from the Roof over the top of the Tabernacle.

2. The Head of an Oxe, or the Symbol of their God. 3. The top of the Tabernacle with 5 burning Lamps. 4. A little Py­ramid upon which is the Figure of the Sun. 5. Another upon which is the Figure of the Moon. 6. A Lamp to the honour of the Moon. 7. A Lamp to the honour of the Sun. 8.8.2 Courtins which cover the Con­cavity of the Tabernacle on the Ordinary days. 9. The Concavity of the Taberna­cle adorned with a Sky-colour and Stars of Gold, representing the Firmament, in which God appears. 10. Their God showing himself to the People, in the shape of an Oxe. 11.11. Two Lamps burning to the honour of their God. 12.12. Two Pyramids upon which are the 10 Stars, which are Wor­shiped. And all these things are to be [Page]

The Tabernacle and Altar

fig: 2. Pag: 174

[Page 175] made of Gold or Silver. 13. The Gridiron upon which the hearts of the young Chil­dren are burnt. 14.14. The Furnace of Fire for burning them. 15.15. The Chimmeys by which the Smoke goes out. 16. The Caldron in which the Flesh of the Sacrifice is boyled. 17.17. The Furnace of Fire for boyling them. 18. The Sanctuary, or the place in which the young Children are Slain. 19. The pit in which their Blood and Bodies are placed. 20. The holy place wherein the Beasts are Slain for Sa­crifice. 21. A Marble-structure in which is a Gridiron. 22. A Stone-structure that encompasseth the Caldron in the form of an Altar. 23. The smoke of a Furnace. 24. The round part of the Roof; 25. the Wall.

This is the Figure of the Tabernacle, (as the first was of the Temple) which Psalma­naazaar, Commanded to be built.

The first Temple was built in the Capi­tal City Xternetsa, and the Tabernacle was plac'd in it. And after these were Finished, every Magistrate in the seve­ral Cities and Villages, took an ac­count how many Sons there were in each Family, that they might be obliged to Fur­nish their Proportion for the Sacrifices, that were to be offered to this new God, accord­ing to the Number of Sons that was in eve­ry Family. All things being thus prepared a great Festival of 10 days was Celebrated [Page 178] and every day of the 10,2000 Infants were Sacrificed: And then after the Festival was ended, and the last Sacrifice was offer'd, their new God begun to appear in the shape of an Oxe, and spoke to the People, and to Psalmanaazaar, and dictated to him what­ever he would have done to his honour.

He said therefore ye shall divide the Year into 10 Months, which ye shall call by the Names of the 10 Stars, viz. Dig, Damen, Anal­men, Anioul, Dattibes, Dabes, Anaber, Nechem, Koriam, Turbam. Every Month shall have four weeks, and five of these Months shall have 37 days, viz. the first, 3d. 5th. 7th. and 9th. the other 5 shall have only 36 days, Every week shall have 9 days, but in the Months which have 37 days, the last week shall have 10 days, and the 10th. day shall be a day of Fasting.

Ye shall begin the Year from this day, which is the first day of the Month Dig, and the first of the Festival of 10 days, and at this Festival ye shall Sacrifice to me every Year the hearts of 18000 young Boys, under the Age of 9 Years, on the first day of the Year Every Month ye shall Sacrifice in all your Temples 1000 Beasts, viz. 300 Bulls, 400 Sheep or Rams, and the rest in Calves or Lambs: And every Parish shall Furnish their proportion for these Sacrifices, according to their ability. Every week ye shall offer [Page 177] of Fowls as you are able, and all these Things you shall carefully observe every Year.

Of the Festivals.

Ye shall celebrate Two great Festivals to my Honour, the First at the beginning of the new Year, which shall last for a whole Week, and the Second in the last Week of the 5th Month, which shall also last for Nine Days. The first and last of these Days shall be observ'd by rising early in the Morn­ing and Adoring, and after ye have wor­shipp'd, ye shall come into the Temple, and Pray and Sing Hymns from One a Clock until Two: At Two a Clock ye shall go to a Fountain or River without the City, and there ye shall throw Water upon your Head twelve Times, and then ye shall re­turn into the Temple, ye shall go and re­turn all together, and while ye are on the way which shall take up the space of an Hour in going and returning, ye shall be all the while Praying. And after ye are re­turn'd, then the Beasts shall be slain, and divided into parts, and purified, and boil'd in their Blood; and every one shall come before the Altar, and take a Piece of the Flesh from the Hand of the Priest, and shall eat it, bending his left Knee and bowing [Page 178] his Head down to the Ground; and during all that time the Instruments of Musick shall Play, and the Singing Men and all the People present shall sing Hymns together. The time of slaying and offering the Sacri­fices shall last for three Hours, viz. from three a Clock till Six, and at Six there shall be a Sermon, or an Explication of the first Principles of Religion, and then a Thanks­giving, which being ended, ye shall return Home, and continue there Eating and Drinking until the second Hour: After which ye shall return to the Temple again, and continue there until the sixth Hour, Praying and Singing, with the Instruments of Musick playing; and then there shall be again a Lecture upon the Catechetical Do­ctrins, which being ended, ye shall return Home and recreate your selves with any lawful Diversions.

On other Days, between the first and last of the Month, ye shall rise in the Morning and Worship, ye shall throw Water upon your Head three times, and then go to the Temple and stay there from the first Hour to the sixth. After the sixth ye shall return Home, and then ye may follow any law­ful Employment.

But here the Reader is desir'd to take no­tice, That the Day with them is divided into four Parts, and each Part into fix Hours; [Page 179] when therefore it is said, They shall stay in the Temple from the first Hour to the sixth, it is to be understood they shall stay from 6 a Clock to 12, according to the way of reckoning Time us'd in Europe.

Ye shall call the first and last Day of the Festival a double Feast, and the other Days simple Feasts. On the first Day of the Month ye shall celebrate a double Feast, and on the second a simple Feast, and ye shall Sacrifice Oxen and Sheep, &c. and ye shall Eat of them. The first Day of the Week shall be a double Feast, and ye shall Sacrifice Fowls and eat of them.

Note, That a Festival is therefore call'd double, because the People go twice to the Temple on that Day, and it is call'd simple because they go but once.

And further it is to be noted, that instead of our Clocks and Watches, they measure Time by an Instrument made of Wood, in the form of our Hour Glass, which being fill'd with Sand, runs all out in the space of an Hour: And this being observ'd by cer­tain Watchmen appointed on purpose for that end, as soon as the Sand is run out, they beat a Drum, and give notice what Hour it is, which is the Custom us'd in all Cities, but the Country People judge as ex­actly as they can what Hour it is by the Sun Moon or Stars.

CHAP. V. Of Fasting-Days.

THeir God said moreover to Psalmanaa­zaar; Besides those 5 Days aforesaid, ye shall observe 2 Fasts: The first shall be in the last Week of the Year, which shall last for 8 Days, and it shall be a Prepa­ration for the New Year: The second shall be in the third Week of the fifth Month, and it shall also last for eight Days. On these Fasting-Days, ye shall neither Eat nor Drink any thing until the Sun sets, but af­ter it is set, every one may Eat and Drink to the full until he satiate himself. On these Fasting-Days ye may Pray to me, but on your common Days ye shall not dare to adore me. These Fasts shall be observ'd after this manner, When ye rise in the Morning ye shall Worship, and then wash your Head and Hands and Feet, and after that every one shall employ himself in some lawful Business; but neither you nor your Cattel shall Eat or Drink any thing all that Day until the Sun set. These Fasts shall be every Year observ'd as they are prescrib'd: And indeed they are so rigorously observ'd, [Page 181] that a Man would sooner Die for Thirst then taste a drop of Water on these Days, and all the Cattle are shut up in such Places, where they have nothing to eat all Day; and all Eatables are laid up where they cannot be seen, lest any one should be tempted to break the Fast: In fine, these are true Fasts and strictly kept, as far as hu­man frailty will permit, and not like the Fasts of the Papists, wherein they can Feast upon Fish and Wine.

CHAP. VI. Of the Ceremonies to be observ'd on Fe­stival-Days.

ON the double Festivals the People wash their Head, Hands and Feet, and then they go to the Temple, where the Jarhabadiond is publickly read before them all by one of the Priests; and after that is Read, they all of them fall prostrate on the Ground, and the Priests return Thanks to their God with a loud Voice, who of his infinite Mercy has call'd them to the true Knowledg of himself, the Peo­ple [Page 182] in the mean time joyning in their Hearts with the Words of the Priest. After the Thanksgiving the People rise up, and some Hymns made by the Chief Priests are sung, the Flute and Tymbrel and other Instruments of Musick playing all the while: Then the Priests begin to pray for the Sanctification of the Victims, and after that they slay them and receive the Blood into a Copper; they divide the Flesh into Pieces, and then Boil it with the Blood in a Chaldron which is upon the Altar; while the Flesh is a Boil­ing, the Chief Priest Prays to God, that he would be pleas'd to accept of these Sacrifices for the Remission of the Sins of the People: And after the Flesh is Boil'd, the People draw near before the Altar, and every one of them receives a piece of it from the Hand of the Priest, bowing down his Head when he takes it, and all this time the rest are Sing­ing, and the Instruments of Musick play­ing. After these Ceremonies are ended, a Priest goes up to a Place higher than the Seats of the People, and there he Preaches and instructs the People, who ask him Questions, and he answers them. At last Thanks are return'd, and Prayers are made for all Things necessary, and then all the People go Home to Dinner, where they are to continue only for the space of two Hours, which is all the time allow'd them between [Page 183] Morning and Evening Service, during which time they must not indulge them­selves to excess, or do any thing that's un­lawful, but behave themselves very modest­ly; and then they return to the Temple, where the same Ceremonies are us'd as were in the Morning, except the Sacrifices; and the Service being ended they go to their own Houses, and after Supper they may Walk, Play, or use any other lawful Re­creation; but they must not do any servile Work on that Day.

Simple Festivals are celebrated after the same manner as the Vespers of the double Festivals.

It is further to be remark'd, That on Fe­stival Days, after the Sacrifice is ended, and the Tabernacle in which their God dwells is open'd, when God appears in the form of a Lyon, or a Bear, or some other fierce Beast, that then God is thought to be Angry with the People: And therefore in such a Case the Tabernacle is to be shut up again, and new Sacrifices of Beasts are to be offer'd, until God shall appear in ano­ther Shape, viz. of an Ox, a Calf, a Lamb, or such like Beasts: And if these Sacrifices of Beasts are not sufficient to change the angry God into another shape, then Infants are to be offer'd in Sacrifice unto him, un­til such time as, their God appearing in ano­ther [Page 184] form, shows himself to be pacified and reconcil'd unto the People: And if at any time he appears in the form of an Elephant, then we hope that he will do great Things for us.

The Priests are to prepare themselves by Fasting and Prayer, before they presume to speak to God in secret, and after they have been with him, they declare to the People what he says.

'Tis yet further to be noted, That their God always assumes the shape of a mascu­line Creature, and never of a Female, from whence they have been induc'd to believe, that a Woman is so impure, that she can never attain to Happiness, until she be Transform'd into the Body either of a Man, or some Male Beast.

CHAP. VII. Of the Election of Priests.

AFter this, their God spoke to Psalma­naazaar, and said, you shall choose one Priest, who shall preside over all the rest in the whole Isle, and he shall give Power to others to exercise the Priestly [Page 185] Office. This High-Priest shall never Mar­ry a Wife while he continues in his Office, but if his Constitution obliges him to Mar­ry, then the other Priests shall choose ano­ther in his room, and he shall resign his Office, and Marry when he pleases: The other inferior Priests may marry and keep one Wife, except they be Regulars; and then they are oblig'd to continue unmarried, and to live in Convents with their Brethren un­der one Superior, who shall admit them to the Priestly Office. But if these Regulars also should have a violent Inclination to marry, then they must first leave the Con­vent, and resign their Office, and after that they may marry. The Office of these Regulars, is to instruct the Youth in the Principles of their Religion, to teach them to Read and Write, and whatsoever else may conduce to their Edification. Besides, these Regulars are oblig'd to lead Religi­ous Lives, and to Cloath themselves in distinguishing Habits; they are to shave their Head, but not to cut their Beard▪ They are to wear a Gown that does not open before or behind, and a Hood upo their Heads: And lastly, they may retire from the World, and live in desert Places, if they think fit to choose such an austere kind of Life.

[Page 186]As their God had Commanded, so did Psalmanaazaar. He created one ancient Philosopher of the Royal Progeny High-priest, to whom he gave the power of or­daining all the other inferior Priests: This High-priest therefore chose three out of the Citizens of every City, whom he ordain'd Priests, and one in every Village, until such time as Temples were every where built: And then the number of Priests was more encreas'd, insomuch that in the City Xter­netsa the number grew at last to 160, and was proportionably augmented in other places, whether Cities or Villages. Psal­manaazaar establish'd also a Monastery in Xternetsa, and in many other Cities, in which the Regulars were to live according to the Rules abovemention'd, which were prescrib'd by their God. Lastly he gave order, That this High-priest should ordain in every City one Priest, who might ordain others; and he was call'd the Chief Sacri­ficator, and has the power to ordain other subordinate Priests and Sacrificators. These are the Rites and Ceremonies deliver'd to the Formosans from their God, by his Pro­phet Psalmanaazaar, which have been ever since observed in their Country.

Now the Names of all the several kinds of Priests in our Language are these: The High priest is call'd Gnotoy Bonzo, the [Page 187] Chief Sacrificator is call'd Gnotoy Tarhadia­zar; the inferior Sacrificators, are call'd Os Tarhadiazors; the Priests who read the Book of the Law and the Prayers, are call'd Ches Bonzos. The secular Priests are call'd Bonzos Leydos, and the Regular Bonzos Roches, and the Superior who is set over the Regulars is call'd Bonzo Soulleto; the Ma­sters who teach the young Children, are call'd Gnosophes Bonzos, and lastly the Preachers are call'd Bonzos Jatupinos.

The Office of the High-priest is to ordain others, to speak to God in private, and de­clare his Will to all the other Priests, and to chastise those who do not faithfully dis­charge their Office.

The Office of the Chief-Sacrificator is to ordain other Priests within his own Precinct, which is as it were his Diocese, to rule over them, and to take care of the Sacrifices, but chiefly of the Infants that are to be Sacri­fic'd; for which end he is to take an ac­compt how many Boys each Family can furnish, and to admonish them in time to send in their number.

Moreover he alone is to cut the Throats of the Infants, and pluck out their Hearts; others are to lay them upon the Gridiron, but he is to Pray publickly all the time they are a Burning.

[Page 188]The Office of the Subordinate Sacrfica­tors, is to slay the Beasts, to wash and Boil them, and distribute pieces of their Flesh to the People; and some of them are oblig'd to pray with the High-priest all the time that these things are a doing.

The Office of the secular Priests is vari­ous, for some of them are Readers, others Preachers, or Instructors of Youth, and others of them look after the Temple and Tabernacle, to see that all the Utensils be­longing to them be kept in good Order.

The regular Priests, as I have already told you, use to instruct Youth, and to Preach; but moreover they should live re­tir'd from the World, preserve Chastity, and continue in Celibacy; they should sub­mit themselves to their superiors, fast once a Week, and by all means improve in Ver­tue. But if once they be debauch'd, they do no longer observe the Rule deliver'd as they believe, by their God, and their Ance­stors.

And here it is to be noted, That these Regulars do not make such Vows as the Popish Monks do; for they only take the Vow of Celibacy, neither do they Vow That so absolutely, but that they are still left at liberty, if they find that they cannot re­frain from Women, to leave the Monaste­ry, and then to marry a Wife: But they [Page 189] make no Vows of a blind obedience to their Superiors, of an affected poverty, and Humility, and of renouncing the Riches of this World. The only general Law of these Societies is this, whosoever finds himself fit and disposed to embrace a retir'd kind of Life, provided he be Pious, Learned and sincere, whether he be Rich or Poor, is to be admitted into a Convent, and when he enters, he is to bring with him that part of his Fathers Estate that belongs to him, and add it to the Revenues of the Convent. But if he be oblig'd, out of a desire of Marrying, to leave it, then all the Goods he brought with him into the Convent are restor'd to him, and necessary Food and Raiment are gratis given him, while he continued in it. But if he require any thing extraordinary, over and above the common allowance of the Convent, as some do, then this is to be Furnished at his own proper Charge, yet he is never permit­ted to go out of the bounds of the Convent, until he leave it for good and all. If any one die in the Convent, he is to leave all his Goods to it, and while he lives in it, he is to obey his Superior in all things which concern their Rules, but no further: For if any Su­perior should command one of the Regulars to Eat only Roots, while others fare Deli­ciously, [Page 190] he may refuse to obey him: But this is a Case that has never happen'd.

Thus all Religious Rites and Ceremonies, are Administred by one High-priest, by some Sacrificators, and some that are Subordi­nate to them, and by Regular and Secular Priests. But because all that has been hi­therto said, relates only to the Worship of their God, we shall now add something con­cerning the way of Worshipping the Sun, Moon and Stars, which are their Ancient Visible Deities.

CHAP. VIII. Concerning the Worship of the Sun, Moon and Stars.

MOreover the God of Formosa said un­to Psalmazaaraar, it shall not be Lawful for you on common days to invoke or worship me, but only the Sun, Moon and 10 Stars, which I have appointed Governors to Rule the World, and to provide all things necessary for you, and ye shall Sacrifice the same Beasts to them as ye do to me, but none of your Infants shall be offered up in Sacrifice to them, for this is my peculiar [Page 691] Worship, which belongs to me only: And after this manner ye shall Worship and a­dore them.

In the Morning, at the first hour, at least on the common days, ye shall rise up, and throw Water thrice upon your Head, and then ye shall ascend to the Roof of your House, and there ye shall adore the Sun and 5 Stars, and pray to them, not for any thing in particular, but only in general, that they would grant you such things as they know to be necessary for you, and return them thanks for the Favours ye have formerly Receiv'd from them. And in the night time, at the first hour ye shall Worship the Moon and the other five Stars, after the same manner. For ye must know that the Sun is the first and most ex­cellent Creature, which I have Created to govern you, and to him I have given power of conferring Benefits upon you, according as you deserve well of me and him. The Moon I have plac'd in the next degree be­low him, and the 10 Stars likewise in their proper Places, as being Inferior to the o­ther two. But if ye neglect to Worship them, I have given them power not only to keep back the good things they can be­stow, but also to do you mischief, by afflic­ting your Bodies with Grievous diseases, by destroying the Fruits of your Ground, [Page 192] and Poysoning the Air you Breath with Pestilential Vapors: And therefore ye shall account it your daily Duty, on the common days to Worship and Adore them, after the manner afore prescribed: Moreover ye shall observe three Festivals in the Year, one to the honour of the Sun, another to the honour of the Moon, and a Third to the honour of the 10 Stars. The First shall be in the First week of the Second Month called Damen, and shall last from the Third until the Ninth day of the week. The Second shall be in the First week of the 5th. Month called Dattibes, and shall last from the Third unto the 9th. day of the week. The 2d, shall be in the Third week of the 8th. Month called Koriam, and shall last from the 5th. to the 9th. day of the week.

Ye shall make choice of a Mountain on which ye shall build three Alters, one to the honour of the Sun, another to the honour of the Moon, and the 3d. to the honour of the 10 Stars. Every City shall choose such a Mountain to it self, in some place near adjoyning, in which all the Citizens and Country-men shall meet together on the First and last day of their Festival, and there ye shall Sacrifice the same Number of Beasts as ye do to me. Ye shall not Eat of the Flesh of them, but consume it wholly in the [Page 193] Fire, and every one shall carry home with him part of the Ashes. During all these Festival days ye shall not Work at your ordinary Trades; but after the Sacrifice is ended, ye may use any lawful Recreation. The Sacrifice shall begin at the 2d. hour in the Morning, and shall last until the 6th: But at night, every Family, shall Worship on the Top of their House, as they use to do on the common days, the Sun, Moon and Stars, at least all of them together. On the days between the first and last of the Festi­val ye shall go to the Mountain, not to of­fer Sacrifice there, but for Adoration, and then ye shall Sing and Play upon Instru­ments of Musick. The High Priest shall take care to appoint other Priests to do Sa­crifice to them, they are employ'd to offer Sacrifice to me; And these Priests shall have leave to keep 2 Wives and no more.

These Rules of worship Psalmanaazaar delivered as from our God to the People, whereupon the Citizens of every City built 3 Altars upon a Mountain, after the fa­shion represented in the following Figure.

The third Figure explained.

1. The Image of the Sun, 2.2. Two Pots of Incense, wherein Incense is burnt before the Sun on its Feast Days. 3. The top of the [Page 194] Altar. 4. The Altar. 5. The Holy Place in which the Beasts are slain. 6. The Place in which they are burnt. 7. and 8.8, 8. The Stone-wall wherewith it is encompass'd.

The Fourth Figure explain'd

a. The Image of the Moon. b. two In­cense-pots smoking on the Festival Days. c. the top of the Altar. D. the Altar. e. the Holy Place wherein the Beasts are slain. F. the Place where they are burnt. g. g. the Wall that encompasses the Altar.

The Fifth Figure explain'd

A. Dig. B. Damen. C. Analmen. D. Ani­oul. E. Dattibes. F. Dabes. G. Anaber. H. Nechem. I. Koriam. K. Turbam. which are the Names of the Stars that are ado'rd. L. the top of the Altar. m. m. two Incense-pots. N. the Altar. O. the Holy Place in which the Beasts are slain. p. the Place in which they are burnt. q. q. the Wall.

Let us suppose then that the Paper is the Mountain, on the top of it is built an Altar to the Sun, and in a Place a little below that, is built one to the Moon, and in a Place yet lower, there is one to the 10 Stars.

Thus the People did punctually obey the Commands of our God, and his Orders as to Religious Worship, are strictly observ'd to this very Day.


fig: 3 Pag: 194

The Altar of the Sun
The Altar of the Moon
The Altar of the 10 Stars

CHAP. IX. Of the Postures of the Body in Adoring.

THE Formosans in Adoring God, use various Postures of Body according to the several Parts of Religious Worship they are performing: For 1st, When the Jarha­badiond is publickly read in their Temples, every one of them, at least if he be capa­ble of doing it, bends a little the right Knee, and lifts up the right Hand towards Heaven. 2. When Thanks are given to God, then all of them fall prostrate on the Ground. 3. After the Thanksgiving, when they Sing Songs or Hymns, they are to stand up with their Hands joyn'd together. 4. When Prayers are made for the Sanctification of the Sacrifices, then every one bends the left Knee, and stretches out his Arms wide open. But when the Victims are a slaying, every one may sit upon the ground (for they have no Seats or Pews, such as you use here in England) only the Richer sort have a Cu­shion to sit on; while the Flesh is a boyling, every one stands with his Hands joyn'd to­gether, looking towards the upper Part of the Tabernacle. After the Flesh is boyl'd, [Page 196] every one of the People takes a piece of the Flesh from the Priest and eats it, and what remains, the Priests keep for themselves.

When all these Ceremonies are ended, the Tabernacle is opened, and then every one for sometime lies prostrate on the ground to adore; and after they rise up, they may look upon their God, and if he appears in the shape of an Ox, or such-like tame Beast, then they leap for Joy, because they believe that God is well-pleas'd with them: But if he appears in the shape of a Lyon, then they think some Great Crime has been commit­ted, whereby God is much offended, and therefore they endeavour by New Sacrifices to appease him. After the Tabernacle is open'd and every one has ador'd, then there is a Sermon, and while that lasts, the People stand; and after Sermon, there is a short Prayer, and then a Thansgiving; after which the people bow down their Body, and touch the ground with the fore-finger of their right Hand, and then depart.

When the Sun, Moon and Stars, are ador'd upon the Mountain, then they bend the right Knee, and hold up the right Hand toward Heaven; when that Chapter of Jar­habadiond is read, wherein our God com­mands them to Worship, the same posture of Body is observ'd in their Songs and Hymns, they stand with their Hands joyn'd [Page 197] together. In their Prayers they bend the left Knee and stretch out their Arms. At their Thansgiving the People stand, looking to­wards Heaven with their Arms extended and wide open; and the same posture they use on their common Days, when they wor­ship the Sun and the 5 Stars; but at Night when they worship the Moon and the 5 Stars, they stand with their Hands joyn'd together. And this is all that is remarkable, as to the several postures of Body they use in their Religious Worship.

CHAP. X. Of the Ceremonies that are observ'd at the Birth of Children.

BY the Command of our God, the fol­lowing Ceremonies are observ'd at the Birth of Children. 1st, When the Mother feels the time of Birth approaching, she ought to offer Sacrifices to the 10 Stars, more or less precious according to her Ability. After she is brought to Bed of a Child, she is to keep the Infant until the 1st Day of the Week, and on that Day she is to wash her [Page 198] self and the Infant, and go unto the Tem­ple with her Husband, and to carry the In­fant with her, and there to offer a Sacrifice to our God. Then Prayers are made for the Infant, and thanks are return'd for her safe delivery: Then the Mother and Father do solemnly promise, that they shall be rea­dy to deliver up the Child, (if it be a Son and not the first-born) to be Sacrific'd to the Honour of God, whensoever it shall be call'd for. Then a small fire being kindled of straw, the chief Sacrificator takes the Child, and makes it pass through the flame 12 times; after which there comes another Priest, and anoints the Child's skin with Oyl, least it should suffer any prejudice by the flame. All these things being ended, the Mother takes the Child, and the Priest hav­ing read the Thanksgiving, she returns Home with it; where it is usual upon such occasions, for the Father and Mother to make an Entertainment for their Kindred, Friends, and some of the Priests.

When the Child arrives at 9 Years of Age, then the Child is to go on a Festival Day unto the Temple with its Father and Mother, and there to make a Vow unto God, that since he was pleas'd not to desire him for a Sacrifice, he will faithfully observe whatsoever is commanded him in Jarhaba­diond: And the Father and Mother do pro­mise [Page 199] on their part, that they will do what­ever lies in their Power for the Honour of our God. And then the Priest reads a Prayer and Thansgiving, and they all return Home. The 1st Ceremony is call'd Abda­lain, or the Purification; the 2d is call'd Blado, or the Vow.

But here it is to be Noted, that tho we use this Ceremony of Purification, yet we do it not upon the account of any Original Sin in the Infant, which we are altogether Ignorant of: And yet because our God has commanded this Purification to be us'd, some of them believe that it is for the Corruption of our Nature; and others that it is for the Sins of our Ancestors, and chiefly of our Father and Mother: For we think that God Created this World in time, and re­plenish'd it with Men; but we believe that God did not Create Mankind in the same Corrupt State in which it now is, but that Men by degrees Corrupted themselves, and that they do daily more and more degene­rate from their Primitive State, as we find too plainly by experience. This is no Arti­cle of our Faith, but only the Opinion of some concerning the Creation of the World, and the State of the 1st Men Created by God: But our Scripture makes no menti­on of these things.

CHAP. XI. Of our Marriage, or Groutacho.

Since our God requires the Hearts of so many young Boys to be offered up in Sa­crifice, therefore lest the whole Race of Man­kind, should by degrees be extirpated, he has permitted the Men, at least those of the Lai­ty, to keep more Wives than one: And so some of them have 3, 4, 5, 6, or more Wives, every one according to his Estate, whereby he is able to maintain a greater or lesser number; but if any one takes more Wives then his means will maintain, he is to be beheaded: And therefore to prevent this, before any one Marries a Wife, he is to be examin'd whether he has sufficient means to maintain her: Thus they may have many Wives, that they may beget many Chil­dren every Year; of whom some of the Sons are Sacrific'd, but the Daughters are all preserv'd for Matrimony, as will appear more fully hereafter.

In the mean time this is well worthy to be observ'd, that neither the Brother can Marry his Sister, nor the Brother's Son his own Brother's Daughter; all Marriage [Page 201] within these 2 degrees of Consanguinity (but not within the other degrees) being so absolutely forbidden, that the High Priest himself cannot dispense with it.

Whenever therefore a Man has a mind to take a Wife, whether he has one or more Wives before or no, he is first to agree with the Father and Mother for their good will, and then to get the consent of the Daughter. After this, before he is Married, he is to make known his design to the Sacrificator, who is to enquire whether he has sufficient means to maintain this Wife he intends to Marry: And if he has, then all the Friends and Relations are call'd together, and the Bridegroom and Bride come along with them to the Gate of the Temple, where they are met by a Priest, or the chief Sacrificator, who asks them, what they desire to have done; to which the Bridegroom and Bride answer, they desire to be joyn'd together in Matrimony, after which answer they are permitted [...] [...]nter into the Temple. The reason why they are thus interrogated be­fore their Admission is this, because no Man may enter into the Temple with any Wo­man but his Wife, except at the time when he is to be Married. Being thus introduc'd into the Temple in order to their M [...]r [...]e, which is always to be Celebrated on a [...] ple Festival-Day, viz. On the 2d Day [...] [...]e [Page 202] Month, they are first to say their Prayers, and then to offer Sacrifice; after which the Husband promises to be faithful to his Wife, i. e. That he will know no other Woman besides those to whom he is joyn'd in Ma­trimony, that he will exercise no Tyranny over this Woman, nor do any thing to her contrary to the Law of Nature, of God, or of Man, &c. Likewise the Wife pro­mises to be faithful to her Husband, that she will know no other Man besides him, that she will be obedient to him in all things, &c. Then they are both to swear be­fore their God, the Sun, Moon and Stars, that they will faithfully keep this Promise, and to imprecate the Divine Vengeance if they shall break this solemn Vow. Then Prayers are said for them, after which they return Home with all their Company; at which time it is Customary to make a great Feast for them, according to the Estate of the Bridegroom. These things concern the Ceremony of Marrying, but as to other things relating to a Married State, they shall be mention'd in their proper Places.

CHAP. XII. Of the Ceremonies towards the Dead.

THE same Ceremonies are observ'd towards every one that is Dead, whe­ther it be a Man or a Woman.

In the first place, many Prayers are put up and Sacrifices offer'd for the sick Person: But after Death, the Dead Body is to be kept 32 Hours, and to be anointed with Oyl, whether it be to be burnt by Day or by Night. After this, a little while before the Hour wherein it is to be burnt, all the Friends and Relations of the Decas'd are sent for, and in their presence the Dead Bo­dy is plac'd in a Coffin, which Coffin is plac'd upon a Table: And then all the Com­pany that had been invited, sit down at this Table which is furnish'd with all sorts of Meat, of which they eat freely. At last, when the Hour is come that the Body must be carried away to the place of Burial, then come the Priests both Regular and Secular, and the Players upon Musical Instruments, and the Mourners, i. e. those who Act the Part of Mourners for Money; And all these being come, the Coffin is laid upon a Litter [Page 204] carried by 2 Elephants: All which may be better understood by the Figure here an­nex'd. But it is to be remark'd, that in the Description we have given of the Funeral Rites, we suppose the Person Deceas'd to die Rich; for as to others, the Poorer they are, the fewer Ceremonies are observ'd at their Funeral. Supposing therefore that the Person Deceas'd was Rich, after all the aforesaid Ceremonies are ended, which are to be observ'd at Home, then all the Com­pany which ought to be present at the Fu­nerals, meet together in the House of the Deceas'd, and having plac'd the Dead Body in a Litter, they walk from the House to the place where the Body is burnt in this order: First, one of the Officers of the City leads the Van, carrying the banner of the Deceas'd, then follow several Players upon Instruments making a doleful noise: After them (if the Person Deceas'd be a Noble­man, but not else) follow the Souldiers who are to guard the Body, whereof some are Arm'd with Lances, some with Bows and Arrows, and others walk with naked Swords in their Hands: After them follow the Re­gulars, before whom goes the Officer of the Convent, carrying the Arms of God and of the Abby; after him follows the Monks, and last of all comes the Abbot. After them come the Secular Priests, and before them [Page 205] the Officer of the Parish Walks, carrying the Ensigns of God and of the Temple, then come all the common Priests, and after them the Sacrificator of the Sun, and then of the Moon and of the 10 Stars; after them come the Sacrificators of our God, and last of all the Chief Sacrificator with his Servants attending him: As to the High-Priest, he never uses to be present at any Funeral, but when a King or a Vice-Roy are Dead; but after the Chief Sacrificator follow the Priests, and then come the Chari­ots full of Beasts for Sacrifice, which are car­ried by Elephants or Camels: After them come the Mourners who walk before the Dead Body, which is carried in a black Lit­ter like yours, (saving that the middle is rais'd up to a point like the top of a Turret,) by 2 Elephants, the first whereof, that which goes before the Corps, is cover'd all over with black Cloth, so that nothing of it is to be seen but the Head; and on the Cloth, are fasten'd the Coats of Arms of all the Ance­stors of the Deceased, as his Grand-Fathers, Great Grand-Fathers, and his Parents, all which are distinctly plac'd; And lastly, af­ter the Litter, follow first the Parents and Kindred, and then the Friends of the De­ceased. Now when all this Company is come to the place where the Dead Body is to be burnt, then the Priests Regular and [Page 206] Secular are to pray for the purification of the Sacrifices: After this the Beasts are slain and burnt, upon an Altar which is built there upon this occasion, and the ashes of the burnt Sacrifices, are thrown upon the Pile of Wood, in which the Dead Body is to be burnt; and after the Coffin containing the Dead Body is plac'd upon the Pile, the fire is put to it, which burns till all is consum'd to ashes; and then the ashes are buried in a place under ground, near the place where the Pile of wood stood. And thus the whole Ceremony is ended, and all the Company having Saluted one another return Home.

CHAP. XIII. Of our Opinion concerning the State of Souls after Death.

SInce our Scripture or the Book, which they call Jarhabadiond, promises great happiness after this Life, to those who have liv'd according to the Natural, Divine and Human Laws, but says nothing expresly of the State of Souls after Death, hence we are divided into various Opinions about it. [Page]


[Page 207] The Transmigration of Souls is generally believ'd by all of them, which appears to have been the common and ancient Opinion of almost all Pagans; but as to the manner of this Transmigration we differ: For some believe that the Soul after Death, passes into the Body of some Beast, either wild or tame, some that it passes into the Body of another Man, either Poor or Rich, Happy or Miserable, according to its behaviour in the former body good or bad, and so it conti­nues to pass out of the body of one Beast into another, or of one Man into another, in endless circuits of happiness and misery. Others have more sublime Notions of a de­parted Soul, for they believe that the Soul which is to be rewarded with Happiness af­ter this Life, shall at last be transform'd into a Star, and then being plac'd in Heaven, it shall enjoy all imaginable Happiness, which will consist in the vision and fruition of our God: But because the Sins of such a Soul design'd for this Happiness, which have been committed in this Life, are not always fully and perfectly blotted out before Death, but only cover'd, by the Sacrifices that have been offer'd for them; therefore they appoint a certain place, in which the Soul, before it arrives at this Happiness, may do penance for its Sins, which place they think to be the bodies of some Beasts: And for this reason, [Page 208] they believe that God forbids the use of these Beasts for Food, and will not suffer them to be kill'd, but only for Sacrifices, viz. Oxen, Rams, Elephants, Harts, Goats, Doves, Dogs, Horses, Camels, &c. All which Beasts are forbidden to be slain by any one, but only for Sacrifices; and if any of them die of themselves, then they are Buried after their Death, least they should be devour'd by wild Beasts. They believe therefore, that these Souls design'd for Happiness, shall remain in the bodies of Beasts, until they have done penance for the Sins committed in their former bodies; But after such a Beast dies of it self, or is offer'd in Sacrifice to our God, then they believe that the Soul which was in it, shall be transform'd into a Star in Heaven, where it shall enjoy eternal Happiness.

But all this seems to me to be a fiction in­vented by our Priests, because they reap great profit and advantage by it; for when any one dies, the Relations of the Deceased, are to pay them a great Summ of Money, more or less, according to their Ability, which they promise to convey to the Soul under penance: For they perswade the Peo­ple, that the Souls under penance stand in need of Money, which none know how to transmit to them but themselves: And be­sides, they receive as much Money for the [Page 209] Prayers and Sacrifices, that are offer'd for these Souls while they continue in a State of penance.

As for the damn'd Souls, they determine nothing for a certain truth, but are divided into various Opinions. For some think that these Souls shall inform the Bodies of evil Beasts, as they call the Lyons, Wolfs, Ti­gers, Apes, Cats, Swine, Serpents, and other such like Beasts. Others believe that they are in a manner annihilated, after they de­part out of the Body of a Man: But the more common Opinion is that of those, who believe that they wander eternally in the Air, and that God Creates in them such a pain for the loss of their Happiness, and such a shame for the Sins they have committed, as fills them with a grief too great for Human Nature to bear. And these damn'd Souls they believe to be, what here in Europe you call Devils, and there they call os Pagostos: And therefore they offer Sacrifices to these evil Spirits, because they believe that these Sacrifices give them some ease of their pain, and so hinder them from doing themselves a mischief.

CHAP. XIV. Of the Priestly Garments.

THE Priests were formerly left at their liberty to wear any kind of Garments they pleas'd, provided they were such as would distinguish them from the Laity: But now they have different kinds of Garments, every one according to their several Offices; which Custom is never any more to be al­ter'd. What these Garments are may appear by the following description of them.

The High Priest has a Sky-colour'd Mitre, the lower part of which is shap'd like a Crown, and is placd upon a Bonnet; the Hair of his Head is short, and of his Beard long; he wears a little Cloak of a Sky-colour, which is round before, tapering be­hind, and reaches down only to the Elbow. He wears also a long Cloak like a Gown, which hath sleeves open in the middle thro' which he puts his Arms, and that also is of a Sky-colour. Under this Cloak there is a Cloth of a Violet-colour, which hangs down before and behind, and also a white Tunick. His stockins are such as are commonly worn, but he has no breeches. He wears shoes [Page 211] like Sandals, such as are commonly us'd by the Capuchines in the Romish Church. He carries an Iron-Rod in his Hand, being a Cubit long, having a round Head on which his Coat of Arms is Engraven.

The chief Sacrificator has also a Mitre upon his Bonnet, but no shape of a Crown, and from the round part of the Bonnet there hangs a Cloth which reaches down to the ground: He has also a long Gown which is tied about with a Girdle. The Mitre is of a Sky-colour, signifying his dignity, and the Bonnet of a Red-colour, signifying his Of­fice of Sacrificator. The Cloth which hangs down from his Bonnet is of a Sky-colour, and his Gown is Red: He always carries a Sword in his Hand, in token of his bloody Office; his shoes and stockens are like those of the High-Priest, and his Girdle is usually of a White-colour.

The common Sacrificator of our God, has a sharp-pointed Bonnet of a Red-colour, bending a little downward behind: He wears a Cloak like that of the High-Priest, but of a Red-colour, and it is so short be­fore, that it covers only the Knee; but be­hind, it hangs down to the ground: He has also a Red Gown under his Cloak.

[Page 212]The Sacrificators of the Sun, Moon and 10 Stars, have the same Garments, but of a different colour. The Sacrificator of the Sun, has a white Bonnet with the figure of the Sun on the top of it: He wears also a red Cloak and a white Tunick. The Sa­crificator of the Moon has a white Bonnet, and the figure of the Moon for distinction upon the top of it, a white Cloak and a red Gown. The Sacrificator of the 10 Stars, has the figure of them upon a white Bonnet, and behind, there is a short piece of Cloth hanging down from the Bonnet, he wears a red Cloak with a white Sleeve, and a white Tunick. All Sacrificators carry a Sword in their Hand.

The common Priests have a kind of a Bonnet, upon which there is a short Mitre, shorter behind then before: They wear a long Gown of a white colour, whose Sleeves are long and broad; they do not tye their Gown with a Girdle, but they have a short Tunick under it made of Cotton.

The Officers or Servants belonging to the Temples, have also a habit distinct from the Laity, for they wear a Bonnet different from the common People, a black Gown, and a black Rod about a Cubit long; and at all the common Meetings they carry the Arms of the Parish, and of Religion like a Ban­ner.

[Page 213]The Regular Priests wear the like Gar­ments with the Secular, but they are of a different colour, according to their several Abbies. They have a sharp-pointed Cowle upon their Head; they shave the hair of their Head often, but never their Beard: They have a long Tunick, and over it a short one, but both of them are close: The sleeve of their upper Gown, which is short, but large, usually hangs down low. Their stockens and shoes are like those of other Priests. Their Superior at publick Meetings has a Mitre upon his Head, and his Cowle hangs down behind: Besides, he has a little short Cloak like that of the High-Priests, but it is of a Violet-colour; and a Violet-colour'd Cloth hanging down before and behind, and a long Tunick of a white-colour, and lastly a long Cloak between the Tunick and the little Cloak, which usually is of Divers Colours: He ought to have a long Beard and short Hair on his Head, he carries an iron-rod in his Hand like the High-Priest; his shoes and breeches are like the rest of the Regulars: But when he is in the Abby, he wears the same kind of Cloaths as the other Monks.

The Servants of the Abby are Cloth'd af­ter the same manner, as the Servants of the Temple, except as to the Bonnet, which is such a Bonnet as the Boys wear here in Lon­don; [Page 214] their other Garments are distinguish'd only by their Colours. And this is all that occurs to me at present, as to their Habits and Religion.

All which habits may be seen in the Figure of their Funerals, where all these habits of the Priests are exactly represented.

CHAP. XV. Concerning their Manners and Customs.

'TIS certain that the Manners of the Formosans, are not so Corrupt as the People are in other Places; and the reason is, because they are strictly oblig'd to ob­serve the Laws of their Policy and Religion under severe Penalties, with which the Laws are enforc'd against the Commission of any Villany or Impiety; so that none dare to violate them, being restrain'd by the dread of their Penalties, which are certainly and impartially Executed.

They have divers Customs which will please some, and displease others: For first, 'tis customary with them to adore the Em­peror as a God: He never sets his Foot upon [Page 215] the ground, nor suffers the Sun to shine upon his Face. None but Noblemen are permit­ted to Visit him, nor are the Inferior People admitted to see him, except at the Great Fe­stivals, which are but 3 in a Year; and then he shows himself to all the People: But first, they are to bend their Knees and fall prostrate on the ground, and adore him: After they have done this, they may rise up and look upon him.

They Salute the Kings by bending their Knee, joyning their Hands and bowing their Head. They Salute the Vice-Roys also by bending one Knee, (viz. The Left, if he be the Vice-Roy of a Foreign King, and the Right if he be Vice-Roy of one of his own Kings) and also by carrying his Right Hand from his Head down to the ground.

They Salute an High-Priest as they do a King, and the chief Sacrificators as they do Vice-Roys. The Noblemen and Priests are Saluted by carrying the Hand from the Head down to the shoe, and by bowing the Head. One Friend Salutes another by kissing both his Hands, and joyning them with his Friends. Superiors do not Salute an Infe­rior, but by a nod of their Head they sig­nify, that they have seen him Saluting them. Servants Salute their Masters, by carrying their Hand from their Mouth down to the ground, and falling prostrate on their Face. [Page 216] Wives do Salute, and are Saluted after the same manner as their Husbands. In speak­ing to Noblemen, they use not any particu­lar distinct Language as the Chinese do, nor any Circum-locutions, or different way of Construction from what is us'd to Inferior Persons, but calling them by their Title; and in speaking to them, and even to the Empe­ror himself, they make use of the second Person of the singular Number: And this is the Customary way of speaking to Great Men, which is observ'd in all Japan.

No Conversation is allow'd between any Man and another Man's Wife, nor between a Batchelor and a Maid, but in the greatest Feasts and Diversions every one keeps among those of their own Family, the Wives with their own Husband, the Sons and Daughters with their Father and Mother; for if any Man should see one Man with another's Wife, or a Maid with a Batchelor that is a stranger, he would certainly account them Adulterers.

Supposing that a Man has 6 Wives, each Wife has a private Chamber for her self, in which she lives with her own Sons and Daughters, and takes pains in some kind of work, and when the hour of Dinner or Sup­per comes, a Servant goes and knocks at their Doors; and then they come out of their Chambers into the Parlour where they [Page 217] are to eat. After Dinner, they may walk for sometime with their Husband in the Gar­den, and then every one of them returns to her own Chamber again, and continues there until the time of Supper; only sometimes they are allow'd to meet, and drink toge­ther, such Liquors as Thee, Chila, &c. Assoon as the hour of Supper is come, then a Ser­vant goes and calls them all, and they come to Supper. After Supper they walk, and divert themselves with Dancing, Singing, or telling old Stories, or any such like Recrea­tion. At last, at the third hour of the Night (which is the 9th hour here in England) every one of them goes to her own Cham­ber, and the Husband sends for one of them whom he has a mind to lye with that Night; and in the Day-time he sometimes Visits one of them, sometimes another, according to his fancy. This kind of Life is sweet and pleasant enough, as long as every one of them is of an agreeable humor; but if the Husband begins to love one Wife more then another, then arises Envy and Emulation against that Woman whom he loves most, and hence strife and discord is spread thro' the whole Family: But when the Hus­band is civil and discreet, and imparts to each of them an equal share of his good will and friendship, then all the Wives en­deavour to please him in all things, and the [Page 218] House is like a Paradise, by their good agree­ment, and dutiful care of their Husband. The Women employ themselves in some kind of work proper for them, in teaching and taking care of their Children: And sometimes they Visit one another, or spend their time in Innocent Recreations. And while they continue dutiful and peaceable, they may have any thing of their Husbands that they desire: Who always Marry them when they are very young, viz. Between 10 and 15 Years of Age, that they may the more easily bend them to comply with their humor. Every Wife takes care of her own Children; but if one die and leave Children behind her, then the Husband Marries ano­ther and commits the care of them to her.

This Prerogative is granted to the first Wife above all the rest: That she is to take care of the Family, and is not so much sub­ject to the Husband as the others are; for the other Wives cannot go out of the House, unless the Husband be with them, but the first Wife may. Besides, her first Son is ne­ver to be Sacrific'd, but is the Heir of the Fa­mily, as we shall show hereafter; and when the Husband dies, the first Wife governs the Family, and the rest are subject to her. And this Custom prevails also among the Japan­ners, but with this difference: That the Ja­pan Women after the Death of their Hus­band [Page 219] may Marry again, but the Formosan cannot; the former receives some Portion of their Father's Estate, but the latter do not.

When any Man has a mind to Marry a Maid, with whom he is in love, he must first acquaint the Father and Mother with his design, and discover to them what Estate he has, &c. And if the Father and Mother consent to give him their Daughter in Mar­riage, then he is permitted to speak to the Daughter, but never before: Neither then is he allow'd to converse with her in private, but only in the presence of the Father or Mo­ther, or one of the Maids Kindred: And if the Daughter consent, then the Father and Mother present him with some Gift of small Value, as a Ring, some Clothes, or the like, but they give him no Portion out of the Fa­ther's Estate with her.

The first Born Son of the first Wife, as has been already noted, is not to be Sacri­fic'd, and is the Heir of the Family: Now the Right of Inheritance consists in this, that he receives one half of the Estate after the Father's Death: But the Brethren di­vide the other half among them; and if any one of them will Marry a Wife before the Death of the Father, then the Wife whom he Marries, continues in the Hus­band's Family until the Father be Dead, and then the Estate is divided, and each Brother [Page 220] takes his share of it, and lives by himself.

'Tis Customary on Solemn Days, between the first and last Day of a Festival, for all sorts of People, to Feast their Relations and Friends, as they use to do at Births, Mar­riages and Burials, which has been already observ'd.

The Poor are not suffer'd to beg in the Isle Formosa, but every Precinct has some Publick House, wherein they keep all their Poor, who are Fed and Cloth'd at the Charge of the whole Precinct; and those of them who are able, are put to Work and Labour, but others who are disabled by Age or Sickness, are maintain'd Gratis. This Publick House is call'd the House of God for the Poor, or in the Language of the Na­tives, Caa tuen pagot ack chabis-collinos. If any stranger, who comes from some other Island of the Japan Empire, happens to want subsistence while he is Travelling thro' the Country, he is furnish'd with necessaries in every City and Village that he passes thro' at the expence of the publick.

They have also Taverns and Victualling-Houses, which Men frequent for Eating and Drinking, Smoking and Playing, &c. But no Woman must come into any of these Publick Houses.

[Page 221]All Japanners were wont to be very curi­ous to see strangers, and to entertain them very civilly; but ever since the great slaugh­ter was made of the Christians that were there, they hate all strangers that come into their Country, unless they come from some other Island of Japan, as will appear more fully hereafter.

CHAP. XVI. A Description of the Men in Formosa.

ALtho' the Country be very hot, yet the Men in all Formosa are very fair, at least those who can live upon their Means; but the Country People, Servants, and others, who are expos'd to the heat of the Sun, and are forc'd to work in the open Air all Day, are very much tawn'd by the burning heat. The Men of Estates, but especially the Wo­men, are very fair; for they during the hot season, live under ground in places that are very cold: They have also Gardens and Groves in them so thick set with Trees, that the Sun cannot penetrate thro' them; and they have Tents which they use to sprinkle with water, so that the heat can do them no [Page 222] hurt: And hence it comes to pass, that altho the Formosans live in a hotter Country than the English, yet they cannot so well endure heat.

They use Distill'd Waters, not only to wash themselves, but also to remove any speck upon the skin, which is not rooted in the flesh: And this is one means which makes them so fair.

And here I must not omit to give some account of a Controversie, between the Chi­nese and Japannese on the one side, and the Natives of Formosa on the other, relating to the Customs of these Countries. Ye must know then that the Chinese and Japannese make their Teeth artificially black, but the Formosans preserve theirs white. The Jap­panese plead for their Custom, that all Beau­ty consists in Variety of Colours, and there­fore as an Ethiopian is counted most Beauti­ful, who has a black Face and white Teeth; So the Beauty of the Natives in our Coun­try who have a fair Face, must consist in having black Teeth. But the Formosans granting this argument, answer for them­selves, that Beauty may consist in some things, which cannot be had: Thus it would be Beautiful to have black Eyes, which yet cannot be made so, and therefore, say they, nothing artificial ought to be made use of, to make us appear otherwise than Nature has fram'd us.

[Page 223]Hence the Reader may observe, that the Formosans are also white and very fair, but chiefly the Women; and if we may believe the Proverb, Turkey and Japan breeds the fairest Women in the World. The Formo­sans, generally speaking, are of a short stature, but they make up in thickness what they want in tallness. They are commonly strong-bodied Men and indefatigable in La­bour; they are very good Souldiers, and love War better then Peace. They are very kind and good-natur'd towards their Coun­trymen: Whom they love, they love so well, that they would lose their Lives for them in a case of necessity; but whom they hate, they hate mortally, and usually con­trive their Death in any way that's possible to them. They are very Industrious and Cunning, and quickly learn any thing they see done before them. They abhor all false­hood and lying, and therefore they have no value for Merchants, because they use many lies to commend their Wares, and put them off at a better Price.

CHAP. XVII. Of the Cloaths worn in Formosa, by all Ranks of People.

THE Formosans are certainly very curi­ous in their Cloaths, but they affect no new fashions as the Europians do; wherefore they seem to be still Cloathed according to their Ancient Custom. In this they excel the Europeans, that the Qualities and Condi­tions of Men may be discern'd there by the distinction of their Habits, whereas here a Nobleman cannot be known from a Trades­man by his Cloaths. The Habits of the Fomosans are not much different from those of the Jappannese, especially as to the com­mon sort of People; but the Kings and Vice-Roys, and Noblemen have different sorts of Garbs. The great difference be­tween the Jappannese and Formasans, consists in this, that the Jappannese wear 2 or 3 Coats, which they tye about with a Girdle; but the Formosans have only one Coat, and use no Girdle. They walk with their Breast open, and cover their Privy parts with a Plate tied about them made of Brass, Gold, or Silver. The Jappannese also wear little [Page]

The King


The Queen

[Page 225] light Bonnets, but the Formosans use larger Bonnets, with a train hanging down to the ground, made of some light stuff, as Silk, Cotton, &c. And when they walk, they wrap it about their Arm.

We shall add no more about the Jappan­nese, since our design is only to give an ac­count of the Isle Formosa: And seeing, as I have said, the dignity and condition of every one may be discern'd by their different Ha­bits, I shall now briefly describe them.

The King wears a short Coat of Silk, which he ties with a most precious Girdle, and above that a long open Gown made of very costly Silk, wrought with Gold and Silver: He has a Scarf that hangs over the Right Shoulder, and reaches down to the left side, of Cloth of Gold or Silver curiously wrought with the Needle, which is the Badge of his Dignity. He wears also a Bonnet, from whose top the stuff hangs down to the ground, which Bonnet is en­compass'd with a kind of a Crown, that gli­sters with precious Stones and Carbuncles. He has no Breeches, but his Knees are nak­ed; he wears stockens made of Silk, adorn'd with many Ribbons. His shoes, like those of the Priests afore-mention'd, are a sort of Sandals, but most curiously wrought. When he or any Nobleman Rides, then he wears Stockens and Breeches together in one piece, [Page 226] and a little Bonnet. His Collar is made of Silk, but set with precious Stones; the Hair of his Head is short, as is usual thro' all Ja­pan, and his Beard is about a Thumb's length.

The Queen wears most Beautiful Gar­ments, that glister with precious Stones; she has no such Headgeer as the Women wear here in England, but something made of Gold or Silver wrought with Silk, and so adorn'd with Diamonds, that it seems to be a Crown. Her Neck-cloth is made of some precious matter: Her Garments are very precious, curiously wrought with the Nee­dle, and long enough to reach down to her Heel; and the upper part of her sleeve is so broad that it touches the ground, as does also her Manto which hangs down so low be­hind. Her shoes and stockens are like her Husband's, but of a less size, and have a higher Heel. She wears her Hair hanging down behind, over her Gown which is not wide, nor hath many plaits. She wears a Girdle tied about her body very precious.

The Sons are clad after the same manner as the Father; only instead of the short Gown, they go with their Breasts wide open, and have a half-girdle about their Loyns. They wear not a Bonnet until they be 9 Years old. The Daughters also are Cloath'd after the same manner as the Mother, except [Page]

The Viceroy


The Viceroy's Lady

[Page 227] as to their Head-gear, for they wear nothing upon their Head, but a little Crown made of flowers, or the feathers of some Bird; and they have no Manto.

The Vice-Roy who had formerly been a King, is still very splendid in his Cloaths. His Bonnet is very great and precious, both for the matter of it, and the Curiosity of the Workmanship, and it is adorn'd with preci­ous Stones; the Hair of his Head, and his Beard is short; his Collar is of black Silk finely wrought with Silver. He wears a short Coat of white Silk, which is tied about with a precious Girdle, and over that a long Gown open and wide; he has also a Scarf like the King, which hangs on the right-shoulder down to the left-side; and lastly, over his shoulders he has a little Cloak made of red and black Silk; his Vest is lin'd with the skin of some Tyger or Leo­pard; he has no breeches, but only stockens, and his shoes are like those afore-menti­on'd.

The Vice-Roys Queen is Dress'd much after the same manner as the Queen, saving that the Queen has a Coyff, such as above-describ'd; but the Vice-Roy's Queen, wears only her own Hair adorn'd with Silk and Ribbons: Her Gown is made after the same fashion as the Queen's; but her Manto is different in this, that the Queen's Manto [Page 228] hangs down behind only from her shoul­ders; but that of the Vice-Roy's Queen is like a large Morning-Gown, which is worn here in England: Only it wants sleeves, and is lin'd with some Beautiful skin. The Vice-Roy's Son has 2 Coats, a short one and ano­ther long; but the shorter one is uppermost, and comes down only to the Knee: His Daughters are clad after the same manner as the Mother, saving that they have no Man­to.

The Noblemen wear the same Coats as the Vice-Roy, but with this difference, that the Vice-Roy has no Girdle about his long Coat, which the Noblemen have: They wear a Scarf of Silk from the right-shoulder to the left-side, but their Bonnet is like that of the Citizens.

The Carillan, or Chief-General, has a Bon­net like the Vice-Roys, but not so Great: In the fore-part it is adorn'd with a Diamond and Precious Stones: His Collar is of Silk, which encompasses his Neck, but does not hang down. Instead of a Scarf, he has a short Cloak of Silk, which covers only his shoulders; and a short Tunick of Silk; his breeches and stockens are tied together; his shoes are like other Men's: And lastly, he has a long and wide open Gown, like the Morning Gowns that are worn here, but much larger, whose sleeves being open in [Page]

The Carillan or General

The General's Lady

A Gentle-man

A Gentle-woman


A Burger

A Country Bumpkin

A Virgin

A Bride

[Page 229] the middle, he puts his Arms through, and the rest of the sleeves hang low down to­wards the Ground. His Wife is clad like the Vice-Roy's Queen, saving that she does not wear a Manto: His Sons and Daughters, are Cloath'd after the same manner as the Vice-Roy's.

The Wives of Noblemen, wear a little Bonnet made of artificial flowers: They have 2 Tunicks, one that's long, and a short one over that which comes down only to the Knee, which they tie about with a Girdle. There is an Handkerchief fasten'd to their Bonnet, which hangs down to their shoul­ders. Their Sons and Daughters are Cloath'd after the same manner as those of the Carillan.

The Citizens wear one Gown only, ought to keep the Hair of their Head short, have a Bonnet like the Noblemen, whose top made of Silk or Cotton, reaches down to the ground: They wear a Collar, but no shirt, except in the Night-time when they go to Bed, which is the Custom of them all. They walk in a long Gown with Naked Breast and Thighs, but their Privy-parts are cover'd with a Plate tied about them made of Brass or Silver, or Gold: Their stockens and shoes are such as are commonly us'd by others.

[Page 230]Their Sons have a little Bonnet, a short Gown tied about with a Girdle, which reaches down to the middle of their Thigh: They have shoes like their Father, but nei­ther breeches nor stockens.

The Country People who dwell in Vil­lages and Desert-places, wear nothing but a Bears skin upon their shoulders, and a Plate to cover their Privy-parts made of Brass or the shells of Fish, or the bark of Trees. Their Sons have nothing but a Scarf hang­ing on their right shoulder down to their left side, but otherwise they are stark Naked. When the Countrymen are Rich, they and their Sons wear a Girdle about their Loyns, which half covers their Thighs instead of a Plate tied with a Girdle to cover their Privy-parts.

The Female Sex is distinguish'd also among the common sort of People by 5 kinds of Habits, Infants, Virgins, Brides, Married Women and Widows, all which are clad in different Apparel. Infants wear a short Gown that reaches down to the mid­dle of their Thigh; they have stockens and shoes like others, but they do not cover their Head until they be 9 Years old. Virgins after they are 9 Years old, adorn their Head with Birds feathers, or artificial flowers done up with Ribbons: They wear a short Gown above another, that is long and [Page]

A Married Woman

A Gentlemans Nurse

A Widow

A Country Woman

[Page 231] reaches to the ground, both which they tie about them with a green Girdle. The long Gown is divided into two in the lower part, so that their Legs appear as high as their Knee. They have stockens and shoes like other Women.

The Brides at the time of their Marriage do wonderfully adorn themselves; their Head is encompass'd round with Flowers, Laurels and Feathers, which make a great show: They have two Coats equally long, whereof the under Coat is white and the upper black, and both of them are tied with a black Girdle. They wear a Scarf of red Silk hanging on the left shoulder down to the right side. The black Gown which is uppermost is open, so that the white Petti­coat underneath may be seen. And after this manner they are clad during all the time of Courtship, but 9 Days after the Celebra­tion of Marriage, they put on the Habit of Married Women.

The Married Women wear a long open Gown, and below it a short Coat which reaches down to their Knee. They have a kind of a Cap upon their Head like a Plat­ter, and let their Hair hang down in wreaths before their Breast; and when they go out, they so cover their Face, that it can hardly be seen.

[Page 232]Widdows have another kind of a Cap which is twofold: The first which they put on their Head, is almost round like an English Woman's Coyff, the other is a little sharp­pointed. They dress their Hair in wreaths; they wear 2 Gowns, one long and another short one over it; the short one ought always to be of a black colour, but the other, which may be of any other colour, has long and broad sleeves, which reach down to the Knee; and both the Gowns are tied about with a Girdle.

The Country Women have nothing but a Bear's skin upon their shoulders, and a Cloth about their middle which reaches down to their Knee: They tye a piece of Linnen about their Head and Hair; they have no stockens, but shoes, such as are worn by others. Their Daughters wear nothing but a Cloth about their middle, and a Scarf on the right shoulder hanging down to the left side, and they have shoes like their Mo­ther.

And here 'tis to be observ'd, that all of them generally wear a Bracelet about their Arm; but the Women wear it both about their Arm and their Neck. And this is all that I know to be remarkable as to their Apparel; I shall now only add something as to the Military Habit.


The Vice-Roy's Castel

A Citty house

A Countrey-man's house

[Page 233]The King of the Isle Formosa has his own Guards, and so has the Vice-Roy, and there­fore for distinction-sake they are differently clad. All the Officers in the King's Guards are clad like the Carillan, saving that the Ca­rillan wears a Carbuncle upon his Bonnet which they have not, and they wear a Scarf which he has not.

The King's Guards have a round Bonnet, whose forepart is like a Mitre, and has the King's Arms upon it: The Hair of their Head is short, and of their Beard long; and they have also a Breast-plate or Stomacher made of Silver on which are the King's Arms; a Belt made of Silk, a short Gown, and stockens and breeches in a piece: They wear a Sword hanging by their left side, and the Weapons they use when they Guard the King, are the Halberd or Lance.

The Officers of the Vice-Roys Guards are Cloathed like the Tano's or Noblemen, saving that they have not a Scarf, and use a short Bonnet like the King's Guards. All the several Degrees of Officers are distin­guish'd by Colours, at the pleasure of the King or Vice-Roy.

The Guards of the Vice-Roy wear a large long Bonnet having 2 Wings, a long Gown which they take up behind when they walk, breeches and stockens in a piece, the common sort of shoes: The Hair of their [Page 234] Head and Beard is short, and their Arms are short Lances, Arrows, and a Sword by their side.

All the Souldiers which serve to Guard the Cities are Cloath'd after the same manner, viz. They have a short Bonnet with a Crest of 2 or 3 feathers, a short Gown, stockens and breeches in a piece. All of them wear black Cloaths: Some are Archers and carry a Bow under their Arm, and have a Quiver full of Arrows; others are Spearmen, and carry a long Spear upon their shoulders; but others have short Spears.

The Drummers have a Bonnet sharp­pointed at top, with a piece of Brass in the Frontispiece of it, whereon are Engraven the Arms of the Isle. They wear a short Gown and a long one underneath it, which they throw behind them: Their Cloaths are of a light red colour.

The Ensigns have a Bonnet like the No­blemen, and they are all such who are in this Post. They wear a long Gown and a short one over it.

This is all that I thought worthy to be re­mark'd as to their Apparel, which altho it may appear ridiculous to the Europeans, yet is there accounted very Beautiful and Splen­did, both for the Colours and the materials of which it is made, such as Hair, Silk, Cot­ton, which are curiously wrought with the [Page 235] Needle; for tho they do not affect new fa­shions of Cloaths, yet they are very nice in choosing the finest Stuff, or Cloth whereof to make them

CHAP. XVIII. Of their Cities, Houses, Palaces, Castles.

THere are only six Towns in the Isle Formosa, which deserve the Name of a City: Two of them are in the Principal Island, and they are call'd Xternetsa and Big­no; there is one in great Peorko, which is call'd Chabat; and the 4th is in one of the Isles of Robbers, and is call'd Arriow: The 5th and 6th are in the other Isle of Robbers, and they are call'd Pineto and Jarabut: But in the little Isle Peorko there are none, as will appear afterwards.

Xternetsa, as it is the Capital City, so it is the most Beautiful of all the rest; being si­tuated in a very pleasant Plain: It's Walls are 20 Cubits high and 8 broad; It's length is about 12 Day's Journey for an Ele­phant, i. e. about six English Miles. There are in it Desert-places, Fields and Moun­tains, [Page 236] Orchards, Meadows, and the like Places which are not Inhabited; but about the middle of it, the Houses are very mag­nificent and stately: Not far from it, there is a Mountain which abounds with many wholesom Springs. It is built by the side of a River, which was made there on pur­pose for its convenience; It abounds with Fish and runs over the whole Isle. That which contributes much to make it Beauti­ful, are the many Palaces that are in it, viz. Of the King, the Vice-Roy, and the No­bles; of the High-Priest and Chief Sacrifi­cator; all which are built after a wonderful manner, as may appear by the Figure here annex'd, which is a Representation of the Vice-Roy's Palace.

This Palace is built of four-square stones, curiously cut, as all the rest are, whereof the greatest part is cover'd with Gold: This House alone is three English Miles in Circum­ference, having a great Ditch round about it. Besides there belong to it, Greens, Gar­dens, Walks, Groves, all which are enclos'd with a Wall.

The High-Priest and Vice-Roy have Pa­laces there almost as good; but the King and Carillan, whose Offices do not descend by Succession to their Posterity, do not care to have such stately Houses. But the No­bles have there very Beautiful and Magnifi­cent [Page 237] Houses. There are also in the City Xter­netsa 3 great Abbies, and 5 Temples, and ma­ny Beautiful Houses of the Citizens. 'Tis ob­servable, that in the whole Isle Formosa there are no Houses very high, but in most Great Houses there are 2 stories, one above ground for the Cold season, and the other under ground for the Hot season; which in all re­spects are very Magnificent, whether you look upon them within or without.

The Rich Men and Nobles, build their Houses of four-square Stones; but others build the outer-part of plain Timber, while the inner-part is adorn'd with Painted Wood, or fine Earthen Ware Gilded and Painted, which the Natives there call Porchellano, but the English China-Ware. The Citizens Houses are long, and the Country People's round, in such manner as they appear in the Figures here annex'd.

A. The Place above the Roof of the House, where they adore the Sun, Moon and Stars twice a Day. B. The Roof of the House. C. The Place above ground. D. The Place of the House which is under ground.

Nevertheless, such long Houses are some­times to be found in the Villages, and those that are round in the Cities, at least in the remote Places of them.

[Page 238] Bigno is a fine City, but has nothing pe­culiar that is remarkable. In the same Prin­cipal Island, is the Sea-Port Town call'd Kadzey, which is very large and contains many Villages, and yet because it is not Wall'd about, it is accounted only a Vil­lage.

Chabat, Arriow and Pineto are Cities, which have nothing peculiar that is remark­able, but in Jarabut 'tis worth observation, that the City is build round about a Moun­tain, which is a Mile high; And upon the top of it, is built the Palace of the Go­vernour, who from his House can see the whole City, and so can every Citizen from the Roof of his House behold the Gover­nour's Palace. Besides in the same City, there is a Fountain representing an Elephant Dan­cing upon 2 Feet, which is 20 Cubits high, and throws forth water out of all the Parts of the Body.

This Fountain is believ'd by the Jappan­nese to have been built above 11500 Years ago, by a certain God or Hero, who had been Banish'd thither when the Isle was yet uninhabited. This God was call'd Arbalo, or Wanderer: And the story says, that when he had built this Fountain there, it furnish'd him with Fruit, flesh and sweet Wine; but that after such time as he left the Island, it became barren, and produc'd [Page 239] none of these things. After this Island came to be Inhabited, some Men coming there and finding the curious fabrick of this Foun­tain, convey'd water into it by Aquaeducts, from a Mountain which is in the midst of the City: From whence the Jappannese have still in their Temple Amida, the God Arbalo with a Painted Fountain. But the Natives of the Isle Formosa give no credit to this sto­ry: Tho they know not by whom, nor when this Fountain was built, yet they call the Place of the Fountain by the Name Arbalo.

The History I do not deliver for a certain Truth, but neither do I account it altogether fabulous; for it seems to me very probable, that there is something of truth in it, and therefore for the explication of it, I shall add the following remarks.

And first, the Reader is to take notice, that all the Gods which are call'd by any particular Name, such as Amida, Xakha, Na­kon, Arbalo, &c. Are only Saints, or Heroes and Illustrious Men, who in former times were deified, either for their reputed Sancti­ty or some Noble Exploits, or wonderful Feats which they had perform'd. Such an one was Arbalo, who is the God of Harvest among the Japonese, and whose Image is commonly set in the husk of a Grain of Bar­ley. He is called Arbalo, i. e. a Wanderer, [Page 240] because he continually went about the Fields and Woods, blessing the Fruits of the Ground.

Now 'tis possible, that this Man while he was alive did something that displeas'd the Emperor, or the Dairo, for which reason he was Banish'd from his Native Country, and there is no difficulty in conceiving this: But how he should Travel from Japan to For­mosa, which is 200 Leagues distant from it, and was then unknown to the Japonese, and uninhabited, is something difficult to appre­hend. Let us therefore suppose, that this God Arbalo was descended of some Noble Race, for such are all the Heroes in Japan, who were either come of some Illustrious Family, or had been promoted to some Emi­nent Post of Honour: And this is the more probable, because if he had been some infe­rior and mean Family, he would rather have been punish'd with Death, than sent in­to Banishment for his offence. This being granted, we may suppose further, that this Honourable Person carried along with him as his Retinue a great Multitude of Servants, and was sent at first, at an Isle next adjoyning to Japan, and from thence passing on in a direct Line through many little Isles, (which are so near, that you may see from one to the other in a clear Day) he came at last in sight of Formosa, where out of Curiosity he [Page 241] landed with his Servants; and finding it a pleasant and fruitful Country, he settled there for some time, and built the Fountain above-mention'd. And then we may sup­pose, that he return'd again to Japan, and sent from thence some Colonies to Inhabit Formosa. But I must confess, that we have no History in Formosa, so Ancient as this, which is only to be found in Japan, and therefore we can give no account of any thing that happen'd between us and the Ja­ponese, after this first Settlement; for we have lost all the Memoirs of our first Original, and the transactions which happen'd after the first Plantation of our Country, until the Japonese ravish'd our Kingdom from us, and restor'd it to the Empire of Japan. How­ever it may appear from what has been said, that the story of Arbalo is not fabulous, nor so improbable as at first blush it may seem to be.

Besides these Cities already Nam'd, there are 3 Sea-Port Towns which exceed some Cities for bigness; but because they are not Wall'd about, they are held only Villages or Towns. These 3 are call'd Aok, Louctau, and Voo, and besides them, there are many other Villages of the like bigness. But this is to be noted of Villages, Sea-Port Towns and others, that they all depend on their [Page 242] own Cities, and that the other Cities depend upon the Capital City Xternetsa.

In the little Peorko, there is neither City nor Village to be found: But concerning this Island it is to be observ'd, that at first it belong'd to the King who is now Vice-Roy, but afterwards the Priests purchas'd it, to feed in it the four-footed Beasts which are design'd for Sacrifice: And now every one is oblig'd to give not the first Fruits of their flocks, but one out of every three Beasts that fall, which is to be kept there until it be fit to be Sacrific'd: And therefore in little Peorko, there are only some Shepherd's who look after the Beasts that are fed in that Island, which is very fruitful in Grass and Hay, and might perhaps produce many other things if they were Planted there: But this is not done because it is design'd only for the Beasts aforesaid.

These are all the notable things that oc­cur to me concerning their Cities, Villages and Houses; yet it must be acknowledg'd that there is a great deal of difference be­tween the Cities of Formosa, and those of Japan, both for their Bigness and the Rich­ness of their Materials, tho the Jappannese when they come to Formosa, cannot suffici­ently admire its Cities, for their Beauty, Si­tuation and Conveniences.

CHAP. XIX. Of the Commodities which they have, and some that they want.

THE great quantity of Gold and Silver that is in Formosa, is that which brings them the greatest Profit; for in the Princi­pal Island, they have two Mines of Gold and two of Brass, tho none of Silver; In Great Peorko there are 2 Mines, one of Gold and another of Silver. In one of the Isles of Robbers there is a Mine call'd a Gold-Mine, which is not valued in others Coun­ties because it is not truly and properly Gold; but it is highly esteem'd in the Isle where it is found, because it is fitter for ma­ny necessary uses among them than Gold it self is. In the other Isle of Robbers there are 2 little Silver-Mines; So that in all, there are 3 Mines of Gold and 3 of Silver. All these Mines formerly pertain'd to the Vice-Roy, but now the King has one third Part, and the Emperor another.

Silver in Formosa is almost esteem'd as much as Gold, because it is fitter for use, being a sof­ter Mettal which is more easily wrought in­to any shape. They have no Iron or Steel, [Page 244] but what the Jappannese bring thither, who have one Mine of Iron: And therefore Iron, and also Copper, which is brought from other Parts, is more esteem'd there than Gold and Silver: But Brass is very common among them.

Utensils and Dishes, are usually made of Gold or China Earth: Their Temples and Houses are often cover'd with Gold, both in Cities and Villages: But since the Hol­landers came there and exchanged their Iron for our Gold, the Natives have more rarely made any Gold.

Lead and Tinn are not the product of the Isle, but they are abundantly supplied with it from the Neighbouring Countries.

Silks, and Cotton, of two sorts, they have in great quantities, which are very Artificially Inter-woven with Gold and Silver: One sort of Cotten grows upon Trees in bags and is the finer sort, another grows up­on a Shrub like a Thistle and is a coarser sort. And this is the great Employment of the Women, who of these Materials make Clothes, Carpets, Tapestry, and such kind of things; wonderfully fine. Of Silk and Hair are made Velvet and Plush: But this kind of Work belongs to the Men and not to the Women. They have not Woollen-cloth because they know not how to make it but they receive great quantities of this [Page 245] Cloth from the Hollanders. They make Stuffs of Hair and Cotton, but no Cloth of Flax, which does not grow there; but Flax­en Cloth they receive from the Dutch. They Work, paint, and Gild China-Earth very Wonderfully, nay even much finer then they do in China. They have learn'd from the Hollanders to make a kind of Paper, which they knew not how to do before; for they wrote either upon plates of Copper or upon Parchment. But now they Write on Paper made of Silk after the same man­ner as it is made here.

Instead of Leather to make Shoes of, they use the bark of Trees for the Soles, and some skins of Beasts to serve for the Upper­leather.

CHAP. XX. Of Weights and Measures.

BEfore the Dutch arriv'd on our Coasts, we had a certain way of reckoning things, whereby we could know when their Numbers were equal or unequal; but we had no kind of weight, such as a Pound or an Ounce, and therefore we bought and sold [Page 246] things by View, and not by Weight. But after the Hollanders came among us, and show'd us how Profitable the use of Pounds and Ounces would be in Commerce, we be­gun to weigh things that are rare by Ounces, and Pounds; but things that are common and less valuable, by 50, or 100l. weight at a time, as the Buyer and Seller had a mind: Our Pound agrees with the Dutch Pound, which consists of 16 Ounces, and is more then that Pound which is us'd in France: Which I found by a Copan of our Money that I brought with me to France, which weigh'd more then one of the French Pounds, tho it was but a Dutch Pound.

Things are measur'd in Formosa, accord­ing to the People's various humors, for some use a greater, some a less measure; but the price is always fix'd according to the Great­ness of the measure.

The Instrument wherewith they weigh things, is such as is us'd by the Butchers here in England when they weigh their Meat, but some are Bigger, some less as their oc­casions require.

They had no Names for Numbers be­fore the Dutch came here, but they suffici­ently declar'd to one another what Num­ber they meant by their Signs and Fingers; but because the Dutch did not understand this way of Reckoning, they perswaded us [Page 247] to invent names to Signify Numbers, which now we use after the same Manner as they do, proceeding from One to Ten, from Ten to Twenty, and so to a Hundred, a Thou­sand, &c. As appears in this example.

Taufb 1 Bogio 2 Charhe 3 Kiorh 4 Nokin 5 Dekie 6 Meni 7 Thenio 8 Sonio 9 Kon 10 Amkon 11 or Tauf­kon 11 Bogiokon 12 Charhekon 13 Kiorhkon 14 Nokie­kon 15 Dekiekon 16 Menikon 17 Thenikon 18 Soniokon 19 Borhny 20 after this Borhny2-tauf1 or am Borhny 2 Bogio2, and so on to Chorhny 30 Kiorhny 41 Nokiorh­ny 50 Dekiorhny 60 Meniorhny 17 Theniorhny 80 Soniorh­ny 90 Ptommftomm 100 and Ianate 1000 so 1000, 2000. &c. And this may suffice for this Article.

CHAP. XXI. Of the Superstitious Customs of the common People.

THe common People are so much ad­dicted to the Superstitious ways of foretelling things Future, that nothing happens to them either Ordinary or Extra­ordinary, [Page 248] of which they do not make a good or bad Omen, and Particularly they lay a great stress on Dreams; of all which I shall give some Instances, so far as I can Remember. If any one Dreams that he is at a great Feast among Women, this Sig­nifies that he has many Enemies, who are Contriving to kill him or do him some Mischief. If any one Dreams that he is bit or hurt by a Lyon, a Serpent, or some such Beast, he ought to have a care of a certain E­nemy who will attempt to do him an Injury; but if he Dreams that he has kill'd a Wild Beast, then he thinks himself Secure from all Danger until a contrary Dream happens: If any one Dreams that one of his Relations or himself is Dead, they believe that God is angry with him, and therefore they usually consult the Priests what they are to do in this case, who always advise them to give something wherewithal to Atone their angry God. If any one Dreams that he has Lice, Gnats, or Ants, upon his Body, then they think that the Soul of some of their deceas'd Relations is detain'd in the Body of some Beast, (as was before-men­tioned) and wants Money and other things; which they therefore take care to give to the Priests, that they may convey them to the Soul in distress. If any one dreams that he has lain with another man's Wife, then he is afraid lest some man lie with one [Page 249] of his Wives, and therefore he more narrowly observes them then at other times. And so much may suffice concerning Dreams.

They observe also other Omens, as the first thought that comes into their mind in a Morning after sleep, and the first Beast they see in a Morning: But then they say, if such a thing which comes into their mind do not strike their Fancy, the Omen concerns some other Body, but if it strikes the Imagination, then they apply it to them­selves. There were a certain sort of men who pretended to explain very clearly all kinds of Omens for a very small Matter; but being for the most part mistaken in their Conjectures, the People complain'd of them to the Priests, who accused them to the Viceroy as Guilty of a Capital Crime, for which the Viceroy Condemn'd them to Dye: And ever since the Priests alone Challenge to themselves the Priviledge, who so explain all sorts of Omens, that they can never be convicted of Lying in what they Say: For either they pretend that their God is well-pleas'd, or that he is angry with such a Man, or that the Souls of some of his Deceas'd Relations want Money, or that in the same Instant when they saw such an Omen the Soul of some of his Relations was Transform'd into a Star; all which the People do easily believe, who are therefore perswaded by [Page 250] the Priests to acquaint them with all the Omens they meet with.

And here I shall briefly relate a Not­able Story concerning this Matter. A cer­tain Rich Countryman being much Ad­dicted to this kind of Superstition, had us'd for a long time to consult the Priests, who were wont very often to expound his Omens of the need some of his Rela­tions Souls stood in of Money, because he was Rich. The Countryman at last grew weary of such expensive Enquiries, and thought he had given Money enough to Re­deem all the Souls that belonged to the Isle, and therefore contriv'd a way to cheat the Priest: For which end he went and told him, that in the Morning he had seen in his Garden more then a 100 Birds Sing­ing, which after a short stay Flew away: But the Priest told him, If these Birds had continued a Longer time in the Garden, then for certain the Souls of your Deceas'd Relations had been Transform'd into Stars, but their sudden departure Signified that they still wanted something, which being Furnish'd, then, says he you may see them, this night ascending into Heaven; For which end you must give me so much Gold, so much Rice, and so much of other Commodities, and then you may remain two hours upon the Roof of the House, and [Page 251] you shall see the Stars, as it were, moving themselves, which are the Souls signified by the Birds you saw in the Garden. The Country-man, tho' much against his Will, gave the Priest what he demanded, and perhaps did still believe that there was something of Truth in what he said; and therefore he went up to the top of his House, and as the Priest had said, he saw the Stars moving themselves; but having continu'd there all night, he observed a great Multi­tude of Stars thus moving: And this ob­servation he renew'd every night for a whole week, untill at last he recckoned more Stars thus moving, then the Number of Men who were known to be Dead in the whole Island for the space of three Years amounted to: Whereupon he went to the Priest and told him of it, and the Priest, perceiving that he had detected the Im­posture, carried him before the chief Sacri­ficator, who carried them both before the High Priest, or their Pope, who upon hear­ing the whole matter condemned the Priest to perpetual Imprisonment, because he had exposs'd to the Country-man the Mistery of Transforming Souls into Stars, but con­demned the Country-man to death for not yeilding due Deference and Submission to the Priest; from whence every one may clear­ly perceive, what Tyranny the Priests exer­cise [Page 252] over the common People, who are not permitted to declare Publickly any doubt they have even of those things they know to be false. I could add several other things to the same purpose, but that I think they will be Tedious to the Reader; as the Noise which is made by the Dogs when they Bark aloud or Houle, the Crowing of a Hen like a Cock, the time when the Serpents hiss in the Fields, when the Bears do not go out of the Wood, when the Eagles sit upon some Turrets, Houses or Trees, all which are in­terpreted to be good or bad Omens. But I have said enough of these Fopperies.

CHAP. XXII. Of the Diseases in Formosa and their Cures.

THe greatest Disease to which the Na­tives are Subject is the Plague, which they believe does not proceed from Natural Causes, but from the common consent of the Sun Moon and Stars, who agree in sending it for a Punishment to Men, and therefore they rather make use of Sacrifices than Medicins for the cure of it. This does not happen frequently, for [Page 253] 'tis now 170 years, since there was a Pla­gue in Formosa, if we may believe their written Books and Tradition. One Custom they have during the time of the Plague which is very remarkable; They ascend to the Tops of the Highest Mountains, that at other times are not Inhabited for the thinness of the Air, which is then accounted very wholesom; and there they seek out a Fountain of Water, of which they drink to excess, Eating nothing but herbs and certain Fruits: And this they continue to do till they think that the Plague is ceas'd, and then every one returns to his own House.

As to other Diseases which are very com­mon here, as the Gout, the Tertian and Quartan Ague, they are not at all known there, yet they are sometimes, but very seldom, troubled with burning Fevers; at other times they have a pain in the Head or Stomach, but it lasts not long. If at any time they find themselves indis­pos'd, or any Disease coming upon them, they commonly use this Method for a Cure. They run 2 or 3 Miles as swiftly as they can, and in the mean time one prepares a Potion for him that runs, made of some Herbs and Roots, which he drinks off, after he has run his Race, while he is very hot, and Immediately goes to Bed, [Page 254] where he sweats till he has cured the Dis­ease. And besides, their temperate way of Living conduces very much either to pre­vent or cure their Diseases, especially when they take Tobacco, which purges the Head and Body of ill humours. Here in England the generality of People fre­quent Taverns or Alehouses, and the con­stant custom of Drinking such Liquors as are sold there, proves prejudicial to the Health; but in Formosa they commonly spend their Idle hours, in Walking or Chat­ting together, and Smoking a Pipe of To­bacco; and if they drink any thing, it is only a dish or two of Tea or Chila, which if it does not any good, at least is no ways hurtful to the Health: And hence it comes to pass, that Men generally Live longer there than they do here, and are free from many diseases to which Englishmen are lia­ble. 'Tis a mistake to think that the Air alone will preserve our Health, unless we be also Temperate in Eating and Drinking; And this I have found true by experience, that no distinction of Climates has ever deprav'd my Temper and Constitution of Body, but by the help of Temperance I have still preserved my Health, thanks be to God, not only in my own Country, but in all the other Countries thro' which I have Travelled. But to return to the [...]iseases [Page 255] of Formosa, the small Pox is very rife there, and scarce one escapes them; but they have them commonly whilst they are very young as in the 1st. or 6th. Month, or the 1st. or 2d. Year after they are Born, but they very seldom have them after they are three Years old, neither do I remember that I have ever heard of one that died of that disease.

After the Small-pox, there commonly Succeeds a certain Disease which we call Schimpyo which is only a Redness of the Flesh, together with a great Internal heat: And the Infants which are troubled with this Disease run the hazard of Death, unless they be kept at a distance from a Serene Air, and must live in places that are very warm until they be cur'd. But these 2 Diseases Incident to Children last no longer then 3, or at most 4 Weeks.

Colicks are also very frequent in Formosa, in which the pain is sometimes so Into­lerable, that some kill themselves, others Com­mand another to kill them.

Women in Child-bed are in great danger of Death. Which I think proceeds from want of Exercise, because when they are with Child they never Stir out of the Chamber, but sit and Work there all the day long: Many of them die before they bring forth, or if they escape Death yet at least they are Cruelly Tormented with [Page 256] pains, which some of them endure for a whole Month before they are brought to Bed.

Maids, for the most part, when they come to be 18 or 20 years Old, are trou­bled with a certain Disease, which we call Chatarsko, and here in England is called the Green-sickness, which makes them Me­lancholy, and destroys all their appetite to any thing except Matrimony, corrupts the Blood, and makes them pale-colour'd. This Disease is peculiar to the Female Sex, for which there is no other Remedy but Marriage.

These are all the Diseases which I can Remember; but there may be others un­known to me. I will conclude with this General Observation, that both Men and Women, for the most part, die rather of a great Old Age, than of any other pains, except in Child-bearing and fits of the Colick; and you may frequently see Men a 100 years Old, without Labouring un­der any grievous Disease. If any ask me whether there be any such thing as the French-pox there, I answer I never heard of any such Disease, and probably there is no such thing in Formosa; because they allow Polygamy and prohibit Adultery.

CHAP. XXIII. Of the Revenues of the King, the Vice-Roy, the General of the Army, and of all others in high Places of Power and Trust.

THE King, besides the third part of the Gold and Silver dug out of the Mines, which is paid him by the Vice-Roy, as has been observ'd in the Chapter of Metals, receives also from the Empe­ror of Japan 400000 Copans; out of which Revenue he is to pay 15000 Japan Soldi­ers above mention'd, his own Guards, and to maintain the Port of his Court. The Caril­lan or General has every Year about 70000 Copans. The Vice-Roy has 168760 Copans; out of which he pays to the Gnotoy Bon­zo, or the High Priest, 50000 for himself: To the seven Gnotoi, Tarhadiazos, or chief Sacrificators 7700: To the four Governours of the four Isles 3600, viz. to each of them 900: To the six Governours of the six Cities 3000, viz. to each of them 500: To the six­teen Governours of the Villages and Towns 4000, viz. to some of them 300, to others 250, and to others 200. But the [Page 258] Secular Priests are maintain'd by the People. After all which Disbursements, there re­mains in the hands of the Vice-Roy 100460; out of which he is to pay his Sol­diers, and all Officers employ'd by the Government, as Searchers, Guards, and such-like: But this Revenue of the Vice-Roy is not always a certain stated sum, for sometimes he receives more, sometimes less; but the others above-mention'd re­ceive always the same Salaries.

This Revenue of the Vice-Roy arises partly from the Mines, partly from a Tax of a fifth part of all Goods, which is paid by Merchants, Countrymen, and all others who have no Office under the Government, and is call'd Tuen Koon Bogio, i. e. two parts out of ten; and from another Tax which is rais'd upon all Goods exported and imported, which is call'd Tuen Dekie Bogio, because they pay a third part to the Vice-Roy.

CHAP. XXIV. Of all the Fruits of the Ground.

NO Corn, such as Wheat and Barley does grow in the Isle Formosa; and the reason of it is this, because the Sun being very hot, the Soil is sandy and dry, and so the Grain is dry'd up, not having sufficient moisture, before it is fully ripen'd: But instead of Corn they make use of Roots to make Bread withal. There are two Roots of which they make Bread, where­of one is call'd Chitok, and the other Mag­nok: Both these Roots are sown like Rape-Seed, and when they are grown ripe they are as big as a Man's Thigh. These Roots grow twice, and sometimes thrice in a year, when it is a good season; and as soon as they are fully ripe, they are cut off and laid in the Sun to be dried, and when they are dried they are cut in pieces and ground into a kind of Flower: And then this Flower being mix'd with Milk, Water, Sugar and Spices, is bak'd; and so it makes a very good sort of Bread, which is as white as Snow, and is call'd by the Natives Kahatzadao. They have Bread [Page 260] also made of Wheat, whichis brought thither from Foreign Parts; but that is too dear for the common sort of People. They have a kind of Bread also made of Rice boil'd with Saffron, which Bread is like an English Pudding, and is call'd by the Natives Kdekh; but this Bread will not keep like the former.

They have Vines also, and make Wine of the Grapes in some few places; but this Wine is not so sweet as the Spanish Wine in Europe; from whence they have that and other Wines, and also Ale, brought thither by the Dutch; but they are very dear, and are not so much lov'd by the Natives as they are by the Europeans. They have many other kinds of Drink, as Ar-mag­nok, Puntet, Charpok, Chilak, Caffe and Tea. Ar-magnok, i. e. the fellow of Mag­nok, because these two are an agree­able mixture for health, which Liquor is made after this manner. They boil a great quantity of Rice in spring-Water till it grows very thick, and then they make Balls of it as big as a Man's Fist, which they dry in the Sun, and then boil them in fresh spring-Water; and when it is boil'd enough, they put it into great earthen Vessels, and let it ferment, and after that, it is as strong or rather stronger than English Beer; and the longer [Page 261] it is kept the stronger it grows. Puntet is a Liquor that runs from some Trees, which they tap at a certain season of the Year: And the Liquor that comes from them they receive into Vessels, and mix it with Sugar, and then having kept it for some time, it has the same taste as soft Ale made of Oat-Malt. Charpok is the name of the Fruit of a Tree, and of the Liquor that comes out of it: The Trees is like a Wall­nut Tree, but in this differs from all other Trees, that whereas their Fruit hangs downward, the Fruit of this stands up­right. The Fruit in shape and bigness re­sembles a Gourd, and when it is ripe, it is cut off and pierc'd through, that the Liquor may run out of it, which is very strong; for if it be not press'd, the Li­quor is more intoxicating than distilled Waters, or Brandy-Wine. Chilak is a kind of a Powder made like Coffee, and is boil'd after the same manner, either with Milk or Water; but in this it differs from Coffee, that it may be drunk cold, where­as Coffee is always drunk hot. Tea and Coffee are of the same sort, and the Li­quors are made after the same manner there as every-where else. Besides these Liquors they have many others sorts: Such are the Bullan, which is made of Apples and Pears, or of Oranges and Lemmons, [Page 262] and another Liquor, which is made like the Orgeat of the same Materials: And lastly, they who can get no other Liquor drink Milk and Water.

Besides all sorts of Fruits which are to be found here in England, as Apples, Pears, Cherries, Nuts, Plums, &c. they have many other things, such as Oranges, Lem­mons, Sugar in great quantities, and Spices, as Pepper, Cinamon, Cloves, Nutmegs, Tea, Coco's, Coffee, and the like, which are either wholly wanting here, or at least grow very rarely in England. Their Trees bear twice in a Year, and the Fig-tree three or four times: And these Fruits ye have here of the same kind with theirs, are not half so good or so great, or so well-tasted; so that the Ground there seems to have a peculiar virtue for ripening and improving the Fruit, which here it has not. As for instance, ye have here the same sort of Trees, which are there call'd Puniet; but pierce these Trees here when you will, and ye will find they will not run the 20th part of the Liquor which they yield there, neither is it so well-tasted. And this is confirmed by the experience of many.

CHAP. XXV. Of the Things which they commonly eat.

BEsides Bread and Fruit, of which we have spoken already, they eat also Flesh, but not of all sorts of Beasts, for the Flesh of several Beasts, as has been formerly observ'd, is forbidden: But they are permitted to eat of Swine's Flesh, of all sorts of Fowl, except Pigeons and Tur­tles; of all sorts of Venison, except the Hart and the Doe, of all the Fish that swims in the Sea or the Rivers without any exception. They some times roast or boil their Flesh, but they know not what it is to stew any Meat, and therefore do not use it, though it is not forbidden. They commonly eat the Flesh of Venison and of Fowls raw: And, which may seem strange here in England, they eat Serpents also, which they look upon as very good Meat and very savoury, being broil'd up­on the Coals: But before they eat them, they take care to extract all the Poison out of them, which they do after this man­ner: They take them when they are alive [Page 264] and beat them with Rods until they be very angry; and when they are in this furious passion, all the Venom that was in the Body ascends to the Head, which be­ing then cut off, there remains no more Poison in the Body, which may therefore be safely eaten. They feed also upon Hen-eggs, Goose-eggs and the like, and all sorts of wholesome Herbs and Roots.

CHAP. XXVI. Of the Animals in Formosa, which do not breed here in England.

GEnerally speaking all the Animals which breed here, are to be found in Formosa; but there are many others there which do not breed here, as Ele­phants, Rhinocerots, Camels, Sea-Horses, all which are tame, and very useful for the service of Man. But they have other wild Beasts there which are not bred here, as Lyons, Boars, Wolves, Leopards, Apes, Tygers, Crocodiles; and there are also wild Bulls, which are more fierce than any Lyon or Boar, which the Na­tives believe to be the Souls of some Sinners [Page 265] undergoing a great Penance: But they know nothing of Dragons or Land-Uni­corns, only they have a Fish that has one Horn: And they never saw any Griphons, which they believe to be rather fictions of the Brain than real Creatures.

Besides the Animals abovementioned, they have also familiar Serpents, which they carry about their Body; and Toads which they keep in their Houses to at­tract all the Venom that may happen to be there; and Weasels for eating of Mice, and Tortoises for their Gardens. There is also a kind of Animal much like a Liz­zard, but not so big, which the Natives call Varchiero, i. e. the Persecutor of Flies; its Skin is smooth and clear like Glass, and appears in various colours according to the situation of its Body: 'Tis wonder­ful to see how eagerly and industriously it pursues the Flies wheresoever it sees them, upon a Table, or on Flesh, or in Drink, and it seldom fails of catching them. This kind of Animal is to be found only in Japan and America, besides the Isle For­mosa.

Though the foresaid Animals do not breed here in England, yet they are too well known here to need any parti­cular description.

CHAP. XXVII. Of the Language of the Formosans.

THE Language of Formosa is the same with that of Japan, but with this difference that the Japannese do not pro­nounce some Letters gutturally as the For­mosans do: And they pronounce the Auxi­liary Verbs without that elevation and de­pression of the Voice which is used in For­mosa. Thus for instance, the Formosans pronounce the present Tense without any elevation or falling of the Voice, as Jerh Chato, ego amo; and the preterperfect they pronounce by raising the Voice, and the future Tense by falling it; but the preterimperfect, the plusquam perfectum, and paulo post futurum, they pronounce by ad­ding the auxiliary Verb: Thus the Verb Jerh Chato, ego amo, in the preterimperfect Tense is Jervieye chato, Ego eram amans, or according to the Letter, Ego eram amo; in the preterperfect Tense it is Jerh Chato, and the Voice is raised in the pronunci­ation of the first Syllable, but falls in pro­nouncing the other two; and in the plus­quam perfectum the auxiliary Verb viey is [Page 267] added, and the same elevation and falling of the Voice is observ'd as in the preterit. The future Tense of Jerh Chato is pronoun­ced by falling the Voice in the first Syl­lable, and raising it in the rest; and the paulo post futurum is pronounced after the same manner, only adding the Verb Viar, as Jerh viar Chato, ego ero amo. But the Ja­pannese say, Jerh Chato, Jerh Chataye, Jerh Chatar, pronouncing the auxiliary Verb always after the same manner.

The Japan Language has three Genders; all sorts of Animals are either of the Mas­culine or Feminine Gender, and all inani­mate Creatures are of the Neuter: But the Gender is only known by the Articles, e. g. oi hic, ey haec, and ay hoc; but in the Plural number all the three Articles are alike.

They have no Cases, and they use only the singular and plural Number, but not the Dual: As for example, oi banajo, hic ho­mo, os banajos, hi homines. But since I do not intend to write a Grammar of the Language, but only to give some Idea of it, it may be sufficient to add this general Ob­servation. That it is very easy, sounds mu­sically, and is very copious. If any one shall ask from what Language it is deriv'd? I answer, That I know of no other Lan­guage, except that of Japan, that has any great affinity with it; but I find many [Page 268] Words in it which seem to be deriv'd from several other Languages, only chang­ing either the signification or termina­tion.

The Japannese wrote formerly in a sort of Characters most like those of the Chine­ses; but since they have held correspon­dence with the Formosans, they have ge­nerally made use of their way of writing, as more easy and more beautiful; insomuch that there are few now in Japan who un­derstand the Chinese Characters.

But here it is to be noted, that the same Prophet Psalmanaazar, who delivered the Law to the Formosans, did also teach them this way of writing, as is commonly be­liev'd.

They use only twenty Letters in their Language, which are to be read from the right Hand to the left; whose Names and Figures are as follows.



[Page 269]They have many particular Rules, as to the use of these Letters, which it would be endless as well as useless here to set down, and therefore I shall only add the names of some things that are most common, and subjoin to them the Lord's Prayer, the Creed, and ten Command­ments in that Language, to give the Reader some Idea of it.

The Emperor is call'd in that Language, Baghathaan Cheveraal, i. e. the most high Monarch; the King, Bagalo, or Angon; the Vice-Roy, Bagalendro, or Bagalender; the Nobles, Tanos; the Governours of Ci­ties or Isles, os Tanos Soulletos; the Citi­zens, Poulinos; the Countrymen, Barhaw; the Soldiers, Plessios; a Man, Banajo; a Woman, Bajane; a Son, Bot; a Daughter, Boti; a Father, Pornio; a Mother, Por­niin; a Brother, Geovreo; a Sister, Javraijn; Kinsmen, Arvauros; an Isle, Avia; a City, Tillo; a Village, Casseo; the Heaven, Orh­nio; the Earth, Badi; the Sea, Anso; Water, Onillo.

The reason why the Japan Language differs from that of the Chinese and For­mosans, is this, because the Japannese be­ing banish'd from China, setled in the Isles of Japan; upon which account they so much hate the Chinese, that they have chang'd all things they had in common [Page 270] with them, as to their Language, Religi­on, &c. So that there is no affinity be­tween the Japan and Chinese Language. But the Japannese being the first Inhabi­tants of Formosa, brought their Language along with them into that Island, which is now much more perfect than it was at their first coming. Yet the Formosans pre­serve still the purity of their Language without any considerable alteration, where­as the Japannese are continually changing and improving it every Day.

But that the Reader may have some Idea of the Formosan Language, I have here subjoin'd the Lord's Prayer, the Apo­stles Creed, and the ten Commandments in that Language, printed in Roman Cha­racters.

The Lord's Prayer. Koriakia Vomera.

Amy OƲR Pornio Father dan who chin in Ornio Heaven viey, art, Gnay­jorhe Hal­lowed sai be thy Lory, Name, Eyfodere Come sai thy Ba­galin, King­dom, Jorhe Be done sai thy domion Will apo as chin in Ornio, Heaven, kay also chin in Badi Earth eyen, so, Amy Our khatsada bread nadak­chion dai­ly toye give ant us nadayi, to day, kay and Radonaye forgive ant us amy our Sochin, trespasses, apo as ant we radonem forgive amy our Sochia­khin, trespas­sers, bagne do lead ant us kau not chin into malaboski, temptation, ali but abinaye deliver ant us tuen from Broskaey, Evil, kens for sai thine vie is the Bagalin, Kingdom, kay and Fary, Glory, kay and Barhaniaan Omnipotence chi­nania sendabey. to all ages. Amien. Amen.

The Apostles Creed.

Jerh I noskion Believe chin in Pagot God Barhanian the almighty Pornio Father, Chorhe Creator tuen of Ornio Heaven kay and tuen of Badi: Earth: Kay And chin in J. Jesus Christo Christ ande his ebdoulamin beloved bot Son amy our Koriam, Lord, dan who vienen conceived jorh was tuen of gnay the Holy Piches, Ghost, ziesken born tuen of Maria Mary boty, the Virgin, lakchen suffered bard under Pontio Pontius Pilato, Pilate, jorh was carokhen, crucified, bosken, dead kay and badakhen, buried, mal-fion descended chinn to the xana infernal Khie, places, charby on the third nade day jandafien rose tuen from the bosken, dead, Kan-fien ascended chinn into Or­nio, Hea­ven, xaken sitteth chin at the testar-olab right hand tuen of Pagot God ande his Pornio Father barhaniaa, almighty, dan who will foder come to banaar judge tonien quick kay and bosken. dead.

Jerh I noskion believe chin in Gnay the Holy Piches, Ghost,
[Page 273]Gnay the Holy Ardanay Catholick Chslae, Church,
Ardaan the Communion tuen of Gnayji, Saints,
Radonayun the Remission tuen of Sochin. Sins.
Jandafiond the Resurrection tuen of Krikin the Flesh,
Ledum the Life Chalminajey. Eternal. Amien. Amen.

The Ten Commandments.

Gistaye HEar O O Israel, Israel, Jerh I vie am oi the Korian Lord sai thy Pagot God dan who bayneye brought sen thee tuen out of badi the Land tuen of Egypto, Egypt, kay and tuen out of Kaa the house tuen of slapat. bondage.

I. Kau Not zexe have apin another Pagot God oyto before Jenrh▪ me.

II. Kau Not Gnadey make sen to thee Tandatou a graven Image, kau not adiato an Image bsekoy like to oios those things day which chin in Ornio Heaven vien, are, ey or chin in Badi, Earth, ey or mal under Badi, the Earth, kau not eyvomere worship, kau not conraye serve oion, it, kens for Jerhvie I am say thy Korian Lord Pagot God spadou, jealous, kay and Jerh I [Page 274] lournou visit os the sochin sins tuen of the Pornio Father janda upon los the botos Sons, pei until chin the charby third kai and kiorbi fourth Grebia­chim genera­tion dos of oios those dos who genr me videgan, hate, kai and teltul­da mer­cy Jerh I gnadou do chin to janate thousand Grebiachim generations dos of oios them dos who genr me chataan love, kai and mio my s belostos­nautuo pre­cepts laan. keep.

III. Kau Not chexner take ai the lory name tuen of Pagot God sai thy Korian Lord bejray, in vain, kens for oi the Korian Lord kau will not avitere hold azaton innocent oion him dan who ande his Lory name chexneer shall take bejray. in vain.

IV. Velmen Remember ido that sen thou mandaar sanctify ai the Che­naber, Sab­bath; dekie six nados days farbey labour kai and ynade do ania all sai thy Farbout, work, ai but ai the meniobi seventh vie is ai the nade day tuen of Chenaber Sabbath tuen of sai thy Korian Lord, kau not farbey labour chin in ai that nade day, sen thou kau not sai thy bot, son, kau not sai thy boti, daughter, [Page 275] kau not sai thy sger-bot, man-servant, kau not sai thy sger-boti, maid-servant, kau not oi the janfiero stranger dan who splan before sai thy brachos gates viey, is, kens for oi the Korian Lord chorheye created Ornio, Heaven, Badi, Eearth, Anso, Sea kai and ania all things dai which chin in oios them vien are chin in dekie six nados, days, kai and ai on meniobe the seventh stedello, rested, kenzoy therefore oi he skneaye blessed al the meniobe seventh nado day kay and gnay­frataye hallow­ed oion. it.

V. Eyvomere Honour Pornio Father kai and Porniin Mother soios, thine ido that areo may be jorhen os prolong'd soios thy nados days chin in badi land, [...]nay which oi the Korian Lord sai thy Pagot God toye shall give sen. thee.

VI. Kau Not anakhounie. Murder.

VII. Kau Not verfierie. Fornicate.

VIII. Kau Not lokieyr. steal.

IX. Kau Not demech say stel a false modiou testimony nadaan against sai thy Geovreo. Brother.

[Page 276]X. Kau Not voliamene covet ai the kaa house tuen of sai thy Geo­vreo, Bro­ther, kau not voliamene covet ey the bajane wife tuen of sai thy Geo­vreo, Bro­ther, kau not voliamene covet ande his sger-bot, man-servant ey or ande his sger-boti, maid-servant, ey or ande his macho, oxe, ey or ande his signou, ass, ey or ichnay whatsoever oyon to him tavede. belongs.

CHAP. XXVIII. Of the Shipping of the Formosans.

BEsides the Ships they have for making long Voyages into remote Parts, they have other Vessels which they call Balco­nos and Floating Villages, or Arcacasseos, which belong only to Noblemen, and are made use of by them to travel, or take their pleasure upon the River. The Em­peror, the King, Vice-Roy, and the Noble­men, have every one a Balcon for himself, and a Floating Village for their Guards: Which Vessels will be best explain'd by the following Figures.


The Kings Balcon

A Floating Village


A Gentlemans Balcon

A Litter

[Page 277]You must note, That there is no diffe­rence between the Balcon of the Emperor, a King, and a Vice-Roy, but that one is a little more magnificent than the other: The Arcacasseos or Floating Villages, in which are the Guards of him to whom the Balcon belongs, are all alike; only the o­thers are not so long, nor so broad and splendid as that of the King.

They have no Coaches to travel in by Land, but they have another kind of Car­riage which is much more convenient, for they are carried by two Elephants or Camels, or Horses, in a thing like a Lit­ter, call'd by the Natives Norimonnos, in­to which thirty or forty Men may enter; the Figure whereof is to be seen in the fol­lowing Cut.

All these Litters, whether they belong to Noblemen, or inferiour People, are made after the same manner, saving that some of them are more stately than others.

CHAP. XXIX. Of the Money of the Formosans.

THE Japannese have three sorts of Money, whereof some is made of Gold, and the other two sorts are of Sil­ver and Brass. All these kinds of Money are current in the Isle Formosa; and besides them they have some of Iron and Steel.

The highest piece of Gold that's Coin'd at Japan is call'd Rochmoo, and is in value nine Copans and a half. A Copan is a piece of coin'd Gold worth seven Talos, and a Talo is a piece of Silver coin worth 58 Stivers, according to the Dutch way of reckoning, and very near worth an English Crown: But the Brass Money is of little value, as the Caxae, which are only worth about two Pence of English Money; and yet there are half Caxae and quarter Caxae; but this last kind of Money is only us'd in Japan and not in Formosa.

But in the Isle Formosa a Rochmoo is va­lu'd only at eight Copans, and each Copan at six Talos, and a Talo at forty eight Sti­vers; not that these several pieces of Mo­ney weigh less in Formosa, for they are of the same weight, but because Gold and

The several figures of Money
  • Rochmo
  • Copan
  • Taillo
  • Taillo
  • Colan
  • Riaon

[Page 279] Silver is more plentiful there than in Ja­pan: And besides them the Formosans have a piece of Steel Money, which they call Colan, and is of the same value with a Talo, though it is not so big. They have also Money made of Iron, which they call Riaon, a half Riaon and a quarter Riaon. Now a Riaon is worth fifteen Dutch Sti­vers. They have a little piece of Brass Money which they call Capchau, worth a­bout seven Farthings. The Figures of all which may seen in the following Table.

A Rochmoo which weighs eight pound and half of Gold, is of this shape. A is the upper part of it, whereon is the Head of the Emperor; on the lower part of it are his Arms. But on the other side are the Arms of the King, who reigns in that Province where the Money is coin'd. There are also half Rochmoos of the same shape, and of half the weight.

A Copan is a piece of Gold which weighs one pound. In the upper part on one side it has the Head of the Emperor, and in the lower part the Head of the King: But on the other side it has their Arms. There are also half Copans; and both these sorts of Money have a hole in the middle.

A Talo is a piece of Silver Coin which weighs four Ounces, and on one side it has a Sword; and on the other are the an­cient [Page 280] Characters of the Japannese, denoting its value.

Of the Caxae, some are round, others four squar'd and triangular; but these are coin'd only in Japan.

The Steel Money which is peculiar to the Isle Formosa, weighs one ounce and three quarters of an ounce. It is four squar'd, and is call'd Colan: On the one side it has the Arms of Religion, with this Inscription in Formosan Letters, Honour to God: And on the other side are the Arms of the King.

A Riaon is a piece of Iron Money, al­most of the same bigness as a Kolan, and is worth fifteen Dutch Stivers. It has the same Inscription with a Kolan, but its Fi­gure is almost round.

The Kapchau is a piece of Brass Money almost of the same value with a Japan Ca­siens or Cax [...]; its Figure is almost round, but it has no Inscription. There are also half Kapchaus and quarter Kapchaus.

CHAP. XXX. Of the Arms of the Japanners and Formosans.

EVery one I think knows that the Ja­pannese use no such Arms as are com­monly us'd here in Europe: But after the Jesuits and Dutch came there, they gave them some Guns and Muskets, which are not so many as to be serviceable to them in making War against their Enemies, but are laid up and kept as Curiosities to be shewn. The warlike Instruments which they make use of, are as follows.

First, the Battering-Ram, which is an Engine they make use of for destroying the Walls of a City. Fachos which are made of a certain tough Wood, to which are fastned many sharp plates of Steel, and are cover'd all over with Pitch, Rosin, and such-like combustible ingredients: And when it is kindled, it is thrown out of an Engin with so much force, that the sharp plates of Steel will cut three Men through the middle, standing directly behind one ano­ther. Next, they use in fighting long and short Spears, Bows and Arrows, and Cy­miters.

[Page 282]This must be confessed by all that know them, that they are wonderfully skilful in all the ways of exercising their Arms, espe­cially in shooting an Arrow, which they will direct as exactly to the Mark intended, as any European can a Bullet-shot out of a Musket.

They make Swords and Daggers so won­derfully fine, that they are highly esteem­ed in all the Eastern Countries. Metals are there so plentiful, and they are so skil­ful in melting and mixing, purging and tempering them, that in these arts of pre­paring Metal, they far excel the Europeans. Iron is the Metal of which the Japannese make their Swords and Daggers, of which they have one Mine; and their Swords are so curiously and exactly temper'd, that one of them is more precious than a Sword made of the purest Gold; for some of them are found to have so good an edge, that they will cut the biggest Tree in two with one blow, or divide a piece of Iron in two without blunting their edge. Their Daggers are made of such a mixture of Metals, that if any one be but slightly wounded with them, unless he cut off the wounded Flesh in the same instant, the wound becomes incurable. Of the same Materials they make the heads of their Lances, Arrows and Spears, so that their [Page 283] wounds are always mortal, unless the spreading of the Poyson be presently stop­ped; which practice seems to be unjustly condemn'd by the Europeans, since they themselves make use of more deadly Wea­pons than are usual there: Neither is it any great matter when we intend to de­stroy an Enemy, after what manner we kill him: Nay, in this respect the most deadly Weapons seem the best, because the more they kill, the sooner War is ended, which is the best for all parties.

However, all over the East the Soldiers formerly made use of these Japan Weapons: But now the Emperor has prohibited to ex­port them under the pain of Death, so that none dare bring them into Formosa; yet the King who is sent thither has a Magazine full of these Arms, which are laid up for a time of War; and so they are far from being very rare and precious there: Nay, notwithstanding the prohi­bition, there are some who venture to ex­port them clandestinely; for I remember I saw many of them in Goa, which are there publickly expos'd to Sale. They use also Slings, wherewith they throw Stones; yet this they do but very seldom.

CHAP. XXXI. Of the Musical Instruments of the Ja­pannese and Formosans.

IT must be acknowledg'd that the Art of Musick was not known for many Years in any of the Eastern Countries, neither had they any certain method of singing and playing upon Instruments of Musick, though they had then such as resembled the Drum and the Tabor, the Trumpet and Flagellet, the Lute and Harp: But since the time that the Europeans came thither, they have learn'd the way of making and using these Instruments, which are now made almost after the same fashion as they are here in England: For when they heard the Jesuits play upon the Organs in their Churches, and sing Musically after the manner of the Romish Church, they were mightily taken with it, and inflam'd with a desire of learning the Art of Musick, which now by their industry and ingenui­ty they have attained, tho' not in perfecti­on, yet to such a degree as wonderfully pleases themselves; and therefore they commonly use both vocal and instrumen­tal Musick at their Marriages, Funerals, [Page 285] Sports and Recreations; and at their of­fering Sacrifices, chiefly when they Sacri­fice Infants.

Thus it is in Japan; but in the Island Formosa, the Natives still observe their ancient method of singing and playing up­on Musical Instruments, if their way of sing­ing may be call'd a method; for except some few particular Prayers, which are sung by the Priests only, the People sing all other things, every one after a different man­ner, according to his fancy; which they do not look upon as ridiculous, because they know no better; but on the contrary the different voices and tones, which every one uses at pleasure, seems to them to make a pleasant harmony. After the same irregu­lar manner they play upon the Instru­ments of Musick, which are us'd in Temples, such as the Drum, the Ta­bor, &c.

In which A is the Hand that strikes; B the Finger which makes the sound; E E the Skin or Parchment which is struck; D D the Plates of Gold or Silver, or some other Metal, which make a tinkling like a Cymbal. They use also the Harpsichord and Lute, Trumpets and Flagellets; but the Harp they do not use in their Temples. They have also Kettle-Drums, which make a harsh and warlike sound when they [Page 286] go to Battle; but they are so big that they must be carried by an Elephant. Other Instruments of Musick they have not.

CHAP. XXXII. Of the way of Educating their Children.

I Have already said, that every Wife takes care of her own Children, but if she be the Wife of a Nobleman, she has Ser­vant-Maids to look after them. They be­gin to teach a Child to read at three Years of age, and some of them will both read and write very well when they come to be five Years old; and from five to eight they instruct them in the Principles of Religion and Morality, and teach them how to behave themselves in company: After eight they send them to the Schools or Academies, which they do not before that time, because they think their Un­derstanding is not ripe enough to appre­hend such things as are taught there, tho' many of them go to Schools before they are seven Years of age. The Mothers take a great deal of care in their Education, and their Fathers often examine them what [Page 287] progress they have made in their Learning: But their Parents never beat them, which they think improper, even when it may seem necessary to reform their manners, and deter them from the Vices to which they are addicted, (much less do they use such imprecations upon them as some Europeans do upon their Children,) but they instruct them the more carefully in their Duty, admonish them of their Faults, and by the most winning Persuasives exhort them to amend; for they hope that as their Rea­son encreases with their Years, they will of themselves abandon their Vices. And indeed this gentle method of Admonition and Exhortation does commonly prove so effectual, that young Men of six or nine Years of age will behave themselves with as much civility and modesty in their Discourses and Gestures as an old Man can do, which deserves no small admira­tion.

They have a very sharp natural Wit, which readily learns the Languages and li­beral Arts: And if any one think that I boast too much of my Countrymen, they may read the Account that is given of them in the Relations of several Au­thors.

When they are arriv'd at the fifth or sixth Year of age, then their Parents send [Page 288] them to the School, and after that tho' they be negligent in their Studies, they never force them by threats to do any thing to mind their Book, but encourage them by good Words and fair Promises, and by proposing to them the Examples of others, either real or feign'd, who by im­provement in their Studies have arriv'd at great Honours and Dignities; and by these and such-like means they prevail more over the Youth, than they could by blows and menaces; for to speak the Truth, it must be confess'd, that the Natives of Ja­pan and Formosa, are naturally so stubborn and surly, that they cannot endure blows; and hence it often happens, that Servants when they are undeservedly and unmer­cifully beaten, will in revenge kill their Masters.

The Infants of Noblemen are carefully tended, and very carefully brought up by their Mothers and Nurses, who constantly attend them to see that they want for no­thing, and cover them with Silk or Cotton to keep them warm; but never wrap them in swadling Cloths as they Euro­peans do: But their Country People are careless in cloathing their Children, and keeping them warm while they are In­fants; and when they come to be two Years old, they suffer them to run na­ked [Page 289] over the Mountains, Meadows and Woods.

CHAP. XXXIII. Of the Liberal and Mechanical Art in Japan.

Though the Japannese are inferiour to the Europeans in the Knowledge of the liberal Arts, yet this must be said for them, that as to all Arts whether Liberal or Mechanical, they excel all the other Ea­stern People. And though the Jesuits do mightily extol the Chinese above all the other Orientalists for their Ingenuity, yet I think they are much inferiour to the Japannese in sagacity and sharpness of Wit: for many of them, chiefly the Bonzii, spend their whole Life in studying; but their Wit for the most part consists in Riddles, Paradoxes and dark-sayings. They write many Books of Theology, which are chiefly design'd for the explication of their Articles of Re­ligion, and the defence of their Idolatrous Worship: And in all their Meditations they chiefly apply themselves to the study of Philosophy, which with them is no­thing [Page 290] else, but a collection of the Opinions of all the ancient Philosophers they know, which favour their own Superstition.

Altho' the Bonzii are bound to minister in holy Things, and by their office are pe­culiarly set apart for that service, yet they do not only study Philosophy and Theo­logy, but Mathematicks, Medicine and Law; so that their Academies seem to resemble Universities here in teaching all the liberal Sciences. They teach also the Greek Tongue in the Isle Formosa, and every one may learn it in their Academies, who has Money enough to pay the Priests; but the Japan Bonzii teach it only among themselves, but not to the Laity.

These Colleges in which the Youth are taught, are endow'd with great Revenues; for all Princes, Noblemen and Gentlemen, send their Sons thither, and give great Gifts to them.

As to the Law, they have no Rules, but such as are discover'd by natural Light, or the dictates of Reason, or are founded up­on the Authority of their Superiours, whose Will is a Law to their Subjects: Thus the Answer of the Prince decides any Controversie, and puts an end to the Suit of the contending Parties. But, as we have before observ'd, Meriandanoo made new Laws to restrain the Kings and [Page 291] Princes from enslaving their Subjects so much as they were wont to do.

The Physicians and Chyrurgeons in For­mosa are very ignorant and unskilful, tho' they are very much honoured by all sorts of People. They know nothing of the art of Musick, as has been before observ'd: But as to the other liberal Arts, all the Sons of Citizens and Gentlemen study them in their Academies, provided their Fa­thers have sufficient means to maintain them there. They are excellent at making Verses, but chiefly the Bonzii in the Isle Formosa, who do not only compose Prayers, but also Sermons in Verse. They mighti­ly affect Brevity in all their Writings, and labour only to express in a few Words the substance of any matter of fact, without taking notice of many Circumstances which set off the History: And therefore when they write Libels to any Prince, they con­trive them wonderful short, yet so that nothing which is pertinent to the matter or substance of the Libel is omitted. Some of them are great lovers of Eloquence, but chiefly the Bonzii, and practise it very much in their Sermons, the better to move the Affections of their Hearers, and per­suade them to do what they have a mind to.

[Page 292]The Japannese did formerly write from the top down the bottom: Which way of writing they learn'd from the shape of a Man, whose Head is the highest part, and the Feet the lowest. But after that Meri­andanoo had once obtain'd the Isle For­mosa, and annex'd it to the Empire of Ja­pan, the Japannese seeing the way of wri­ting that was us'd by the Formosans to be much better and more easy, have ever since continued to write after that man­ner: And this they do so generally, that none but the Bonzii understand the an­cient way of writing; for the rest are al­together ignorant of it.

Hitherto I have treated of their liberal Arts, I shall only add a few Words of their mechanical Arts. The Formosans have Painters who draw fine Pictures with great Art and Skill; and their Engravers are very famous for working both in Wood and Stone. They have also Potters, who are very curious in making Dishes, which they call Porcellane, and the English China-Ware; and 'tis very well known, that in this Art they excel the Chinese and all the oriental People. But they have no Shoe-makers, Brewers or Bakers there; neither do they know the way of making Candles as you do here; but instead of them they use Lamps, with Oil, Links and Torches, [Page 293] made of the Pine-tree; and the Country People kindle Straw, or any kind of Wood which will flame and give light. The art of making Glass is not known over all the East, and when it was first brought to Japan, it appear'd to the Natives so ad­mirable for its clearness and transparency, that the Mariners would sell a piece of Glass worth no more than a penny here for half a Copan; but now since Ships have frequently arriv'd in these parts, the value of them is very much fallen; and yet they cost twenty times more there than here. Some Noblemen have Glass-Win­dows in their Houses, but these cost so much that they are very rare, for the ge­nerality of the Natives use a thin waxen Silk-stuff, or Paper made of Silk, for their Windows, which they receive from the Chineses. Their chief Arts are the Pot­ters art, and the art of working with the Needle, in which they are ingenious to admiration: But above all they excel in the art of purging and preparing Metals, as has been observ'd in the Chapter of their Arms. And lastly, their Husbandmen are skilful enough in ordering and improving the Ground, according to the nature of the Soil.

And here it is to be noted, that all Ar­tificers, and such as get their livelihood by [Page 294] their labour, are very little esteemed: And the Merchants the richer they are, are so much the less valued, because they believe they must use many Lyes in commending and putting off their Merchandize, to en­crease their Gain and Riches: And be­cause the Japannese abhor a Lye, there­fore they despise the Merchants, whom they look upon as great Lyars; as the English despise the Mountebanks, who tell many Lyes of the Operations of their Medicines, which they sell upon a Stage. I shall only add, that as to other Me­chanical Arts which are us'd here in Europe, the Natives are always learning some­thing new from the Hollanders, having a very sharp Wit, which easily apprehends any Arts they once see.

CHAP. XXXIV. Of the Splendid Retinue that attends the Vice-Roy of Formosa when he goes to wait upon the Emperor.

SInce all Kings have not the same Dig­nity and Revenues, but some are more, some less rich and honourable, therefore every one of the King's Subject to the Em­peror of Japan, hath a Retinue propor­tionable to his Dignity. But the King of the Isle Formosa being sent from the Em­peror, is therefore always attended by the Vice-Roy and Carillan when he goes to wait upon the Emperor. 'Tis the office of the Carillan to give the Emperor that account of the Isle which is made by the King; and the Vice-Roy relates as from himself the same things which the King relates by the Carillan, viz. all things which concern the Government, the Sub­jects or the Commonwealth.

The Vice-Roy of Formosa does usually travel twice a-Year to wait upon the Em­peror of Japan; and then he has his own Balcon, which has been before describ'd, and thirty six Balcons of the Noblemen, [Page 296] who attend him: But the Carillan travels in the same Balcon with the King, as be­ing his Companion. Besides these Bal­cons there are eighty floating Villages, in which are the Guards of the Vice-Roy and Carillan, and the Litters or Palan­quins, in which they travel when they pass through the Island. All things are set in order when they come to the Isle Xyphon; forty floating Villages go before, and eighteen Balcons of Noblemen, then comes the Balcons of the Vice-Roy, and after it eighteen Balcons of Noblemen, and last of all forty floating Villages, whereof one or two belongs to each Nobleman.

In this order they make their Progress till they come to the Sea-Port Town, where they are to Land, and then they all go out, and Noblemen go into the Lit­ters which are carried ashore for them, and the Balcons remain there till the Vice-Roy returns. There are thirty-six Litters which belong to the Noblemen, who ac­company the Vice-Roy, and there is one for the Vice-Roy, with whom the Caril­lan travels to bear him Company. All the Litters of the Nobility are an Ell and a half in height and length, and are made of Wood, curiously adorn'd within and [Page 297] without with Silks and Tapestry, finely wrought with the Needle, with plates of Brass or Copper, and many Pictures, and are usually carried by two Elephants.

The Vice-Roy and Carillan travel in one Litter, which is two Ells and a half high, and three Ells long, and is carried by two Elephants: Inwardly it is adorn'd with Silks and Cloth of Gold, finely wrought with the Needle; and outwardly it is co­vered with most pure Gold. In this Lit­ter, besides the Vice-Roy and Carillan, are one Nobleman and ten Ladies of Ho­nour, which are branches of the King's Fa­mily: It goes in the middle of all the other Litters, and is guarded with Soldiers be­fore and behind, and on both sides.

All things being thus dispos'd, they enter into the Emperor's Palace, where they con­tinue for a Month, and then return into their own Country. The Emperor does them this Honour, as to send twenty of his Courtiers to receive them when they land at the Sea-Port Town, and as many to accompany them, in Litters guarded with Soldiers, when they return to the Sea-Port. And during all the time they stay at the Emperor's Court, he puts all kinds of Ho­nour upon them; for he diverts them with Hunting, Sports and Comedies, and ad­mits them to a hearing every Day for an [Page 298] Hour in a publick Assembly: And lastly, when they are to go away, he loads them with Gifts, and very honourably takes a farewel of them.

'Tis a part of the Office of the King of Formosa to accompany the Vice-Roy to the Sea-Port Town call'd Khadsey, where he takes Shipping, and to receive him at the same place when he returns, and attend him as far as the Castle. And lastly, it is to be noted, that altho' the Emperor gives him only the Title of Vice-Roy, who was for­merly King of Formosa, yet he does him greater Honour than any other King of the Empire.

CHAP. XXXV. Of the Success of the Jesuits in pro­pagating the Christian Faith in Ja­pan, from 1549 to 1615. More especially of the Reasons of the ter­rible Slaughter that was made of them about the Year 1616. And of the Law prohibiting Christians un­der pain of Death to come into Japan.

SInce my design is only to give an Ac­count of the Isle Formosa, and to touch upon the Affairs of Japan so far as they have Relation to it; I shall not pretend to give a particular History of the various success the Jesuits met with in propagating the Christian Religion through the seve­ral Kingdoms of Japan, of which I have receiv'd no certain information. But in general I am very well assur'd, by the con­stant uncontroll'd Tradition of my Coun­trymen; that notwithstanding all the dif­ficulties they met with, they made a won­derful progress in the conversion of that Empire between the Year 1549. in which Xaverius says he, first arriv'd at Cangoxima, and the Year 1616 or thereabout; for 'tis commonly believ'd in Formosa that in this [Page 300] space of time more than a third part of Japan was converted to the Christian Reli­gion; and Tampousamma himself, who was Emperor of Japan in the said Year 1616.

Though many other causes might con­cur to promote the spreading of the Christi­an Religion in Japan by the Jesuits, of which I can give no particular account, yet I am very certainly inform'd that one thing which contributed very much to the propagation of it, was their proposing the Christian Religion, after such a man­ner as was most agreeable to natural Rea­son, and the Doctrines and Practices com­monly receiv'd among the Japannese.

Thus the Jesuits taught them in their first Lectures, That there was but one God, the Creator and Governour of all things in Heaven and Earth, and demonstrated his Eternity and other Attributes by natu­ral Reason; but said nothing of a Trinity of Persons in the Unity of the God-head, lest it should shock their Belief of the one true God. And as to Christ, they affirm'd that he was a Divine Vertue residing in a human Body, or a mighty Hero sent from God to reveal his Mind and Will to Mankind; and they enlarged upon the Holiness of his Life, the Reasonable­ness and Excellency of his Doctrine, the many Miracles he wrought for confirma­tion [Page 301] of it, and the bitter and painful Death he endur'd on the Cross for the ex­piation of the Sins of Mankind: All which were agreeable enough to the opi­nions the Japannese had conceiv'd of their pretended Heroes, That they had done many wonderful Feats, and endur'd great and lasting Pains to deliver their Follow­ers from future Torments. But all this while the Jesuits said nothing of his be­ing God and Man in one Person, but con­ceal'd that Mystery, as being too difficult for the apprehension of the Japannese, un­til a more convenient opportunity.

They taught the Japannese to worship the only true God, and his Son Jesus Christ, who was rais'd from the Dead by the Almighty Power of God, and ascend­ed into Heaven, and was exalted in the humane Nature to all Power in Heaven and Earth, to assist and relieve his faith­ful Servants; which was agreeable enough to the notions they had of their Deified Men, such as Xaca and Amida, to whom they pray'd for Relief in all their Straits and Necessities. And as to the Worship of Images and Saints departed, there was such a perfect Harmony between the Je­suits and the Japannese, That they desir'd them only to change their Idols for the Images of Jesus Christ, the Virgin Mary, [Page 302] and other Saints of the only true God, and to continue the same way of worship­ping and trusting to the Saints, as Inter­cessors with God for them, but not to offer Sacrifices to them.

They administred Baptism in the name of the Father, the Son and the Holy Ghost, as the Rite of admitting Men into the Christian Church, and never declared the Holy Ghost to be a Divine Person in the ever-blessed Trinity, but represented him as the Power of God.

They administred the Lord's Supper in commemoration of the Death of Christ, but never offer'd to explain the Mystery of Transubstantiation, or the Sacrifice of the Mess.

And by this way of representing the Christian Religion, and concealing those Mysteries which are more difficult to be ap­prehended and believ'd, and the peculiar Absurdities of the Popish Doctrines, it ap­pear'd to contain nothing but what was agreeable to natural Reason, and the Noti­ons and Practices commonly receiv'd among the Japannese, and so it easily gain'd credit and spread mightily among the ingenious Japannese; especially being recommended by some peculiar advantages it has above all other Religions, as particularly by the full assurance it gives of a future state of eternal Life and Happiness.

[Page 303]But as this Artifice gain'd the Jesuits ma­ny Followers, while they conceal'd the aforesaid Doctrines, which they did for many Years, until they found their Party very strong and powerful: So when they declar'd them to the People, and impos'd them as necessary Articles of Faith, the Christian Converts murmur'd against them for changing the Religion they had for­merly taught; and the Pagans, but especi­ally the Bonzies exclaim'd against them as Impostors, for deceiving the People with new Devices, which occasion'd many to make defection from them, and rais'd in all a strong suspicion of their Insincerity: So that this Declaration of these new Doctrines prov'd very much to their dis­advantage, and may be reckon'd one cause of their utter Ruin and Extirpation.

A second Cause was the great Envy and Indignation which all the Pagans, but chiefly the Bonzies, conceiv'd against the Jesuits, because they insinuated themselves so far into the favour of Kings and Prin­ces, and all the rich Men who were Con­verts to their Religion, that they setled great Revenues upon the Christian Mona­steries, which us'd formerly to be given to the Bonzies; nay, the Fathers disinhe­rited their Sons to enrich their Monaste­ries, which so exasperated the Minds of [Page 304] the Pagans against them, that they endea­voured by all means to extirpate them.

A third Cause was the discovery of a Conspiracy, carried on by the Jesuits, to betray the Empire of Japan into the Hands of the King of Spain; for which end they had sent him Letters, which were found out, giving him an account of the situa­tion of their Harbours, and of their se­veral Cities, Castles and Forts, and the manner how they might be besieg'd and taken. The Jesuits confess, that the great Dominions which the King of Spain possess'd in the East and West Indies, gave the Japannese a great Umbrage; and this they say mov'd them to set on foot a de­sign of abolishing their Religion, and dri­ving them out of their Country: But they deny that they ever wrote such Letters to that King, giving him an account of the Strength of the Japan Empire, and the ways of attacking it; and pretend that these Letters were forged by the Hollan­ders, on purpose to render the Portuguese odious, and get their Trade in Japan out of their Hands. But this Forgery was ne­ver prov'd against the Dutch; and there­fore 'tis commonly believ'd in Formosa, that the Jesuits were the Authors and Con­trivers of the aforesaid Letters, which must certainly render them very odious to all the Pigans.

[Page 305]But all these three Causes were only preparatory to that which follows, which was the last and immediate Cause of the great slaughter of the Christians in Japan. For the better understanding of which we must consider, that in the great progress which the Christian Religion had made in Japan, by the preaching of the Jesuits and other Missionaries of the Romish Church, there were not only several Kings and Princes and many great Lords, but also an Emperor who had em­braced Christianity, whose name was Tampousama; and he gave them not only a Toleration, but all manner of Encouragement to propagate and settle their Religion in all parts of the Empire. The Jesuits being puffed up with this suc­cess, and supported by so great an Autho­rity, ventur'd boldly to expose their pe­culiar Dogmata of Transubstantiation, and the Sacrifice of the Mess, &c. which they required all the Christians to believe, un­der pain of Damnation; and to use all the pious Frauds they could invent, for drain­ing the Riches of Japan into their own Coffers. And having by this means given great offence to the Christians, and in­curr'd the great hatred of the Pagans, and raised a vehement suspicion in all sorts of People of their being Impostors; they [Page 306] began to be afraid, lest the Pagans should conspire together to work their Ruin, and therefore were resolv'd to be beforehand with them, and to take the shortest way for converting the whole Em­pire to their Religion.

To this purpose they forg'd a Lye, which they went and told the Emperor, That the Pagans were contriving to raise a Rebel­lion against him, and to cut the Throats of all the Christians. That they had al­ready had several Consultations about car­rying on this wicked Conspiracy, which they would certainly put in execution, un­less they were timely prevented. The Em­peror who look'd upon them as very wise Men, and put an entire confidence in them, asked them, what they would have him to do? To which they readily answered, That to secure himself and the Christians from this Conspiracy, he could do nothing better, than to send his Letters to all the Christian Churches, requiring the Christi­ans every-where throughout the Empire, to rise up in Arms on such a Day, about a certain Hour of the Night, and kill all the Pagans: For by this means, continued they, the wicked Design against your Ma­jesty and the Christians will be prevented, and the Christian Faith alone will flourish through all your Empire, and there will [Page 307] be none left alive to trouble you, or disturb the Peace of your Government. Besides, the better to excite the Emperor to this undertaking, they assur'd him that he was oblig'd to do it, not only in point of Po­licy, but of Religion, because this would be such a commendable and meritorious Work, to extirpate Heathenism and settle Christianity in all his Dominions, that he might certainly expect the Blessing of God, and of Christ upon himself, and all his Christian Subjects, for finishing such a glorious Design. But, added they, if you delay much longer to put it in execution, you will certainly find by woful experi­ence, that your Majesty and all the Chri­stians will be murther'd in one Night; the consequence of which must be the utter Extirpation of Christianity in Japan.

These Things they represented with so much seeming Zeal and affectionate Con­cern for the Christian Religion, that the Emperor was prevail'd upon, as is com­monly reported, to grant them his Letters to be sent to all the Christians, requiring them to destroy all the Pagans in his Do­minions; though others say that the Je­suits presum'd so far upon the Emperor's good Affection to their Cause, that they wrote these Letters in the Emperor's Name without his Knowledge, and dispatch'd [Page 308] them to all the Christian Churches. How­ever this is certain, that all the Churches receiv'd Orders written in the Emperor's Name, to rise up in Arms on such a Day, at such an Hour of the Night, and destroy all the Pagans. And though this Design was managed with all the Artifice of the Jesuits▪ to conceal it until the time of execution, yet they could not carry it on so secretly but the Pagans came by some means or other to hear of it, time enough to prevent the fatal Blow: For either the Christians, who had Fathers or Mothers, or other near Relations that were Pagans, out of natural Affection to them, disco­ver'd the Plot, that they might have an opportunity to save their Lives; or others being touch'd with an Horror of the Bloody Conspiracy against their Countrymen and Friends, found their good Nature too hard for their Religion; and therefore gave timely notice to the Pagan Kings and Princes to fortify themselves against the intended Massacre: Which they did so effectually, that having got all things ready, they rose up in Arms with their Pagan Sub­jects on the very Day before that in which the Christians were to put their Design in execution, and fell upon them, and de­stroy'd them with a very great slaughter wheresoever any Christians could be found. [Page 309] The Emperor being a Christian, and ha­ving too much countenanced the Jesuits in their intended Massacre, was forc'd by the Pagans to leave his own Dominions, and went into the City of Goa, where he died, and his Body is still preserved in the Church of the Jesuits, where a stately Monument is erected to his Memory, with an Inscription to this purpose, Here lies Tampousama Emperor of Japan, who was banished out of his Dominions, and died a Martyr for the Christian Religion. At the same time there were five Kings and two Vice-Roys apprehended, who had pro­moted the Christian Religion in their se­veral Kingdoms; and they were thrown into Prison, and there remain'd until they died.

The slaughter was so general, that not only the Jesuits and other Missionaries of the Romish Church, but all the Japannese that had been converted by them, were put to Death whensoever they were seiz'd: Some were hang'd, some thrown into the Rivers, or old Ditches, others were be­headed, and great numbers suffered the most cruel Deaths the Pagans could in­vent. But though the slaughter was very general, yet it cannot be imagin'd, that all the Christians were apprehended at the same time, but many of them lay conceal'd, [Page 310] and skulk'd up and down in Corners for several Years before they were discover'd; and after the first Heats of the Persecution were over, many of those Jesuits and Monks who were seiz'd, were for some time respited, and being cast into Prison, continued there until a new Emperor was Created, and then were put to cruel Deaths, with most exquisite Torments.

After this time the name of a Christian grew so odious through all the Empire of Japan, that no Christian was suffered to live in it, but the Pagans slew them all whensoever they discovered them. And this wicked and bloody Conspiracy, which was so contrary to the mild and charita­ble Spirit of Christianity, was such a Scan­dal to the Pagans, and reproach to the Christians, that henceforward they were all esteem'd Villains, Rebels, Impostors, and the worst of Men; and therefore when any of them were found out, all the People cry'd out, Away with them, Crucifie them: And Searchers were appointed to enquire diligently in all places, if any of them could be discovered; as has been al­ready observ'd in the Chapter of Laws.

And this Relation of the Conspiracy of the Jesuits and other Popish Priests, a­gainst the Pagans, and the great Slaughter of the Christians, which follow'd upon [Page 311] the Discovery of it, is as firmly believ'd in Formosa, by Tradition from Father to Son, as the Gunpowder-Plot is believ'd here in England, to have been contriv'd by the Jesuits and other Papists: But I must con­fess, that I cannot positively determine the time when it happen'd; only I think it most probable, that it was about the Year 1616.

CHAP. XXXVI. Of the coming of the Dutch into Ja­pan, with their Success, and the Tricks they play'd.

THE Dutch hearing of the great Slaughter of the Papists in Japan, and that they were for ever banished from that Empire, laid hold of this Opportuni­ty to settle a great Trade with the Japan­nese; and for that end having laded seve­ral Ships with great Stores of such Com­modities as they thought most vendible in that Country; they sail'd to Japan, where being arriv'd, they were presently [Page 312] call'd to an account, what they were? and from whence they came? They an­swer'd, They were Hollanders; and when the Japan Inquisitors urg'd them farther to declare, whether they were Christians or no? They pretended at first they did not understand what they meant by that Name, and therefore they could only tell them they profess'd the Holland's Religion. But at last some of them told the Japannese, That they had heard of some call'd Chri­stians, who were Impostors, and worship­ped a Crucified Man: By which Character the Japannese understood that these were the Christians who had formerly been in Japan. And then the Dutch added far­ther, That there were none such in their Country, but in other parts of Europe; and that the Hollanders were so far from being of the same Religion with them, that they had always been hated and per­secuted by these Christians upon the account of Religion.

These things being related to the Em­peror, he commanded that they should have leave to land, and to bring them before him: When they were come into the Em­peror's presence, they presented him with two great Guns, and a striking Clock with an Alarm, and a musical Bell; both which wonderfully pleased the Emperor, but [Page 313] chiefly he admired the two Guns when he saw them charg'd and discharg'd be­fore him: Whereupon he gave them free leave to come and import their Commodi­ties into his Country, as thinking that their Commerce would be not only safe, but very advantageous to Japan. But af­ter they had traded there for some Years, they begg'd leave of the Emperor to build a great Store-house, in which they might lay up all their Merchandize; pretending it was a great loss to them to carry their Goods up and down the Country before they could sell them; and that it would be more convenient, not only for them­selves, but also for the Japannese to have a certain place appointed whither all Per­sons might resort, either to buy their Com­modities, or take them in exchange for the Product of their Country. The Em­peror granted them leave to build such a House for containing their Goods: But they instead of a Ware-house, built a ve­ry strong Castle, with very good Fortifi­cations; yet none of the Natives ever sus­pected them of any ill design, (but thought that the House was built after the Dutch way,) until some time after it was finish'd. But their design was discover'd when a new Fleet of Ships arriv'd from Holland in Japan; for these Ships were laden with [Page 314] Guns, Muskets, Pistols, and all sorts of Warlike Instruments, and great Stores of Gunpowder and Bullets; as plainly ap­pear'd by this Accident: The Dutch ha­ving conceal'd their Arms and Ammuni­tion in Wooden Frames, that they might not be seen by the Japannese, convey'd them out of their Ships, and laid them upon Carts to be carried to their Castle: But it happen'd, unluckily for them, that some of the Carts were broken by the way, and the Wooden Frames burst in pieces by the fall, which discover'd their hidden Treasure of Arms and Ammuni­tion, and alarm'd the Japannese, who saw them, with the apprehension of some wick­ed Design, which was to be executed by such great quantities of Warlike Prepara­tions: Whereupon some of them run pre­sently and acquainted the Emperor with what they had seen, and the danger that threatned his Country by the Tricks of these deceitful Hollanders; and he sent away in all haste 10 or 12 Companies of Soldiers, who kill'd as many as they could find of them, but the greatest part of them had escap'd from the Castle, and were got into their Ships which had put to Sea, be­fore the Soldiers arriv'd: which happen'd by the over-sight of the Natives, who might easily have encompass'd the Castle [Page 315] at some distance, so that none could enter in or go out of it, whereby all that were in it would have been forced either to sur­render themselves or die for Hunger. Af­ter this their Castle and all the Guns they could find were seized by the Japannese for the use of the Emperor; and the Dutch were for some time prohibited any Com­merce with Japan. But upon their hum­ble Petition and fair Promises, the Empe­ror gave them leave to come into Formosa, which was then under his Dominion, and thither they resorted for some time: But the Hollanders not finding in Formosa all the Commodities they wanted, did a­gain beg leave of the Emperor to trade in­to Japan; which the Emperor would not allow, until at last the King of Nangasak, interpos'd on their behalf, and pray'd that he might be permitted to receive them in­to his Isle, which is not far distant from the rest of Japan. And this the Emperor granted upon the following Conditions, 1st, That they should trample upon the Crucifix. 2dly, That the Inquisitors should take out of their Ships all their Guns and Ammunition, all their Sails, Masts, Ropes, and other Furniture, to be kept in a Store-house as long as the Dutch stay'd in the Country. 3dly, That he should appoint Soldiers to go along with them through the [Page 316] Country, and observe them. 4thly, That they should not stay any longer than the Emperor pleas'd; but as soon as he should send his Orders for their going away, they should make all things ready for sailing, and depart presently.

These Conditions have been hitherto very exactly observ'd; whenever therefore they have sold off, or barter'd all their Com­modities, and are ready to put to Sea a­gain, then all their Warlike Instruments and Ship-Tackle, that were taken away at their first coming, are restor'd to them again, and they have free liberty to return into their own Country.

After the Dutch had got footing in Japan, and the Christians were prohibited to come there under pain of Death, the Dutch advised the Emperor to distinguish Chri­stians from all other Foreigners by this Test, viz. by making an Image of Christ Crucified, which these Christians adore, and keeping it in all their Sea-Port Towns, and requiring all Foreigners to trample up­on this Image: For, said they, If these Foreigners be Christians they will not trample upon it; and all others who do trample upon it, are certainly no Christians.

This Test was afterwards try'd upon some Jesuits, or other Monks of the Romish [Page 317] Church, who ventur'd to come into Ja­pan, hoping perhaps to conceal themselves under the disguise of being Hollanders: But when they came into the Harbour, an Image of Christ Crucified was brought to them, and they were required to trample upon it, which they refus'd to do; where­upon they were all apprehended, being about 46 in number, and within a few Days crucified according to the Laws of Japan; and the Festival in Commemoration of their Martyrdom is celebrated by the Jesuits to this Day: But the Hollan­ders make no scruple to trample upon the Crucifix when-ever they are requi­red to do it; and therefore they are not accounted Christians by the Japannese; ac­cording to the common opinion of all Ja­pan, That those Foreigners only are Chri­stians who refuse to trample upon the Crucifix.

CHAP. XXXVII. Of the new Devices of the Jesuits for getting into Japan.

THus the Hollanders, by denying Chri­stianity, secur'd their freedom of Trade in Japan, but the Papists were for ever shut out of that Country by this Test of Christianity, until the Jesuits by their subtilty invented a new way for procuring their admission into it, which was this: They learn in the first place the Japan Lan­guage in the City of Goa, where it is taught in the Academy; and when they can speak it very well, they put on the Ja­pan Habit, and thus accoutred, they go to some Port in Japan, and being examined by the Searchers what Country they be­long to, and from whence they come? They readily answer, That they are Ja­pannese, and come from such an Island, and such a City in Japan, naming them, which is easily believ'd by the Searchers, because of their Language and Habit.

And having thus securely pass'd the Test, when they come ashore they disguise themselves under various shapes; for some set up for Merchants and Toy-sellers, [Page 319] others for Tutors or Mechanicks, and they live in a private House, and follow their several Employments, with as much care and industry, as if they depended upon them for a livelihood, though 'tis certain they are otherwise provided with sufficient means to maintain them, by those who send them thither. For the Pope of Rome sends every Year a certain number into Japan, and takes care to furnish them with all things necessary, and they are allow'd two Years for learning the Japan Lan­guage, four Years for their stay in Ja­pan, and about three Years for their Jour­ney backward and forward. They have a certain Japan Word, which they pro­nounce after a manner peculiar to them­selves, whereby they know one another; the Word is Abo, which in Japan signifies quickly, by which the new-comers, as they walk through the Cities and Villages, know their Brethren that have been there before them; and after they know one another, they meet together in private places to discourse about their own Affairs.

Thus there is a continual Succession of a new Missionary after four Years are ex­pir'd, to supply the place of him who then returns home, as I am very well assur'd by my own experience, though 'tis not easy to guess for what end they are sent, or [Page 320] what good they do when they come there. For it is in vain for them to pretend that they convert many of the Natives, du­ring their four Years stay, to the Christian Religion, as I know that some of them boast after their return, since it is impos­sible they should escape the diligence of so many Searchers, as are every-where appointed to detect them, if they should publickly own themselves to be Christians, and endeavour to convert the Pagans: And indeed, if it were true what they relate, that one had converted twenty, another thir­ty, and a third fifty, during their stay in Japan, ever since the time of their Banishment, there would be very few Pa­gans left in that Country, according to their account of Conversions. 'Tis true, that some Years ago there were Jesuits, or Po­pish Priests, who made some Converts to Christianity; but in a little time they were discover'd by the Searchers, and both they and their Converts were burnt alive, ex­cept a few who renounced Christianity and embraced their ancient Idolatry, for fear of the Torments of such a cruel Death: But at Rome they talk nothing of any such disasters, but every one boasts of the nu­merous Converts he has made in the Em­pire of Japan, and pleases himself with the Relation of his Travels, and the many [Page 321] wonderful things he has seen, being greatly puffed up with an Opinion of the great Glory and Fame he has merited by such a difficult and noble Undertaking. Upon the whole matter it seems to me most pro­bable, that the great Design of the Mis­sionaries, who are sent to Japan, since the time of their Banishment from it, is to spy out the Country, and to inform them­selves exactly of the Situation of their Har­bours, the Number of their Forts and Ca­stles, and all the Strength of the Empire, and to take Aim by what Methods they may be attack'd with best success, hoping that at length some magnanimous Chri­stian Prince will undertake a glorious Ex­pedition, with sufficient Forces to conquer that Empire by their direction, and to plant the Christian Religion among the Natives, in spite of all the Prejudices wherewith they are possess'd at present against it: For indeed I cannot perceive what other Benefit and Advantage they can propose to themselves by all the Trou­ble and Expences they are at, in sending so many Missionaries into Japan.

Within a few Years after the Persecu­tion of the Christians in Japan, the Empe­ror having obtain'd the Isle Formosa, as has been above related, began to persecute also [Page 322] the Christians that were in that Country; but tho' he treated the Jesuits and Popish Priests there with the same severity he had us'd in Japan, burning some alive, cruci­fying others, or hanging them up by the Legs till they were dead; yet to the Na­tives who were Christians he shew'd more Mercy, leaving it to their own free Choice, either to renounce Christianity, or to de­part for ever out of their own Country; whereupon many of them chose rather to fly into other Countries than deny Christ; but others being unwilling to leave their Estates and their Country, renounc'd Chri­stianity, and embrac'd their former Super­stition. And after that time the same Law was in force against the Christians in Formosa, as was made against them in Japan.


FRom what has been said of the Causes of the great Persecution of the Chri­stians in Japan, we may clearly understand how great a prejudice the Jesuits have done to Christianity, and what a Re­proach [Page 323] and Disgrace they have brought upon the Christian Name, by imposing their Popish Errors upon the People as ne­cessary Articles of Faith, and by contri­ving that barbarous and bloody Massacre which they intended against all the poor Pagans: Whereas if they had propos'd the Christian Religion in its purity and simplicity, and behav'd themselves towards their Proselytes with that Meekness, Cha­rity, and Sincerity, which became their Apostolical Office, I dare be confident to affirm, that in all probability the whole Empire of Japan had now been Christian: But now by their Misrepresentations, and wicked Practices, the Japonese have such a false Notion of Christianity, and such strong Prejudices against it, that it would be much more difficult now to convert them; nay, the Door is shut against any Christians who might have such a charita­ble Design, or would attempt to remove their Prejudices, and possess their Minds with a just Idea of Christianity. How de­testable then was the Wickedness of the Jesuits, which occasion'd all this Mischief! And how deplorable is the Case of these poor Pagans, who are now so fetter'd in Chains of Darkness, and bound up to their Idolatrous Practices, that they can never hope to see the glorious Light of the Go­spel, [Page 324] or feel the Power of it in their Hearts and Lives, as might have been reasonably expected from them: For if they do so exactly observe the Precepts of their own Religion, altho' it be uncertain and con­trary to the Divine Nature, altho' it en­joyn them such a horrible and cruel Pra­ctice as to sacrifice their own Sons; with what Cheerfulness, Humility, and Venera­tion, would they have perform'd the rea­sonable Service and Obedience of Chri­stianity, had they been enlightned with that heavenly Doctrine in its purity, and tasted the Power of it, in purging their Hearts, and reforming their Lives.

Some perhaps may think that I have done too much Honour to the Pagan Re­ligion as it is profess'd in Formosa, by gi­ving such a long and particular Explica­tion of it, as if I were still persuaded of the truth of it; which God forbid: And therefore I must desire such Persons to con­sider, that I was oblig'd to give an Account of all things relating to that Religion, as they are to be found in Jarhabadiond, which is our Scripture, tho' I am very far from believing them to be true; nay, I am fully persuaded that they are false, by the following Reasons which I shall briefly mention: 'Tis a certain and infallible Ar­gument of the Falshood of any Religion, [Page 325] that it commandeth such things as are contrary to the Divine Nature, and to those Notions which every one hath of God's infinite Goodness: Such is the Com­mand in our Jarhabadiond, which requires us to sacrifice so many thousand innocent Babes every Year; which is a thing so cruel, and so contrary to the Tenderness of Hu­man Nature, that we cannot believe it to be the Command of a good and gracious God, but of some evil Spirit who delights in Human Blood, and in the Misery and Destruction of Mankind. And when once I was convinc'd of the Falshood of our Religion, by requiring such a cruel and bloody Sacrifice, I presently concluded, that all the Miracles pretended to be wrought in confirmation of it, were meer trick and forgery; because I am certain that God would not exert his Omnipotent Power to confirm a Lye, and maintain an Imposture. Besides that, any one may quick­ly be satisfied how little Reason there is to believe, that the pretended Miracles were really wrought, since they are only men­tion'd in our Jarhabadiond, which the Priests keep in their own hands, and will not suf­fer any of the common People to have a Copy of it; which gives a shrewd suspi­cion, that there is some Trick and Impo­sture, since they do so studiously avoid any [Page 326] means of discovering the Truth; which suspicion is very much increas'd by the Ty­ranny which the Priests exercise over the common People, in exacting an implicit Faith to their Dictates, without giving them any rational Grounds for believing, and obliging them under pain of Death never to accuse the Priests of any Falshood, tho' they be very certain that he is guilty of it. The Priests indeed pretend, that their God does sometimes appear to the People in the form of a Lion, when he is angry with them; and at other times, in the form of a Camel, when he is pacified: But every one may plainly perceive, that this pretended Miracle is nothing but a Trick of the Priests, who have the oppor­tunity of shewing such or such a Beast to the People, without being discover'd, since the whole management of the matter is left to themselves, having the Beasts ready to set up at their pleasure with all secrecy. If any one should ask me, How can the Priests put such Tricks upon the common People, and carry on such Impostures? I answer, There are many Instances of the same na­ture in other Nations, who having no Re­velation, believe and do such things as are more absurd than what is here pretended: Such were the Egyptians who were famous for all parts of Learning, and yet were [Page 327] persuaded to worship Crocodiles and Oni­ons. Nay, even in the Roman Church we see, that many Absurdities [...] [...]mpos'd up­on the common People to be b [...]v'd con­trary to Sense and Reason: And why then may not such a rude and ignorant People as the Formosans, be impos'd upon by the Tricks of cunning Men? But how this Im­posture is manag'd, 'tis not my business at present to enquire, 'tis sufficient for me, that I am fully persuaded by undeniable Arguments of the Falshood of the Religion of Formosa. Now to this Omnipotent and Merciful GOD who hath by the Grace of his Holy Spirit call'd me from Error and Superstition, to the true Knowledge of his Will, and of his Son Jesus Christ, my Re­deemer and Mediator, be ascrib'd eternal Praise, Honour, Magnificence, and Glory, by all the Creatures for ever and ever. Amen.

APPENDIX, CONCERNING The AUTHOR's Journey from Avignon to Rome.

IN the Year 1700, being the Year of Jubilee, I was invited by the Jesuits to accompany seventeen young Gentlemen to Rome; who undertook that Journey rather out of Curiosity than Devotion, to see the Pomp and Magnificence of the Ceremonies that are then observ'd in that City: And the Jesuits persuaded me to go, hoping that by the sight of these Ceremonies I should be induc'd to embrace their Reli­gion. I was easily prevail'd upon to com­ply with their Desires, and so we travell'd together to Rome, the other Gentlemen in Pilgrims Habit, and I in Japan Cloaths, and arriv'd there a little before the Death of the Pope, who being then sick, would not admit of any to come and see him; but we saw all the valuable Curiosities that are kept in that famous City. And the Jesuits at Avignon having given me Let­ters [Page 129] of Recommendation, I was nobly entertain'd thereby the Jesuits of that City, who were very civil and obliging: But when they exhorted me to embrace the Christian Faith, I excus'd my self for not complying with their desire, and told them, That I intended to return again to Avignon, and to be baptiz'd there by the same Father who had brought me out of my own Country. After we had stay'd a­bove a Month in Rome, we return'd a­gain to Avignon, where I was civilly re­ceiv'd by the Jesuits; who, as I have reason to believe, had charg'd the young Gentlemen my Fellow-Travellers to take care of me, that I should not make an escape; for they watch'd me as narrowly during the whole Journey, as Serjeants use to do a Prisoner. Presently after my Re­turn, the Jesuits ask'd me, how I lik'd all these Ceremonies I had seen at Rome? To whom I answer'd, That I was very well pleas'd with them, and did greatly admire them: But then withal I added, Since you condemn our Pagan Religion, because our Religious Worship consists only in Externals, how can you alledge your external Ceremonies in Confirmation of your Religion: To which they an­swered well enough, That they did not [Page 130] condemn our Ceremonies merely as exter­nal, but because they were destitute of any internal Virtue: Whereas the Chri­stian Religion consists much more in its internal Power, than any external Shew: And therefore, said they, all our Cere­monies are unprofitable, unless the Heart be joyn'd with them; and we only make use of them to excite Men to Devotion, and to inspire them with greater Reve­rence and Fervor in the Worship of God. With this Answer I seem'd to be so far sa­tisfy'd, that I made no Reply; tho' I might have told them, that we us'd the external Ceremonies of our Pagan Reli­gion for the same ends and purposes as they do theirs. This indeed was a great scandal to me, to see the corrupt Lives of all sorts of People, both great and small, at Rome, where they appear'd so publickly to be guilty of Adultery and Sodomy, that all Travellers might perceive them; which made me say to my self, Certainly if these Men did heartily believe their Religion, they would better observe its Preceps, and live according to it; but by their wicked Practices it appears, that they impose such things upon the common People, which they themselves do not believe to be true: Besides, I had heard so many Stories of [Page 131] the Miracles wrought by the Relicks of St. Peter, and other Saints, and chiefly of those which are pretended to be done in the Chapel of Loretto, which I believe to be false, that from thence I concluded their Relations of the Miracles wrought by Christ, to be no less false: So that my Journey to Rome was so far from inducing me to embrace the Christian Religion, that it rather prejudic'd me strongly against it.



  • Chap. I. OF the Situation, Magnitude, and Division of the Isle. p. 145
  • Chap. II. Of the great Revolutions which have happen'd in the Isle. p. 147
  • Chap. III. Of the Form of Government, and of the new Laws made by th Empe­ror Meriaandanoo. p. 161
  • [Page] Chap. IV. Of the Religion of Formosa. p. 167
  • Of the Festivals. p. 177
  • Chap. V. Of the Fasting-Days. p. 180
  • Chap. VI. Of the Ceremonies to be observed on the Festival Days. p. 181
  • Chap. VII. Of the Election of the Priests. p. 184
  • Chap. VIII. Of the Worship of the Sun, of the Moon, and of the Ten Stars. p. 190
  • Chap. IX. Of the Postures of the Body in adoring. p. 195
  • Chap. X. Of the Ceremonies that are obser­ved at the Birth of Children. p. 197
  • Chap. XI. Of the Marriage or Groutacho. p. 200
  • Chap. XII. Of the Ceremonies towards the Dead. p. 203
  • Chap. XIII. Of the Opinion concerning the State of the Souls after Death. p. 206
  • Chap. XIV. Of the Priestly Garments. p. 210
  • Chap. XV. Of the Manners and Customs of the Formosans. p. 214
  • [Page] Chap. XVI. A Description of the Men in Formosa. p. 221
  • Chap. XVII. Of the Cloaths worn in For­mosa by all Ranks of People. p. 224
  • Chap. XVIII. Of their Cities, Villages, Houses, Palaces, Castles. p. 235
  • Chap. XIX. Of the Commodities which they have, and some that they want. p. 243
  • Chap. XX. Of Weights and Measures. p. 245
  • Chap. XXI. Of the superstitious Customs of the common People. p. 247
  • Chap. XXII. Of the Diseases in Formosa, and their Cure. p. 252
  • Chap. XXIII. Of the Revenues of the King, Vice-Roy, of the General of the Army, of the Priests, and of all others in high Places of Power and Trust. p. 257
  • Chap. XXIV. Of all the Fruits of the Ground. p. 259
  • Chap. XXV. Of the Things they commonly eat. p. 263
  • Chap. XXVI. Of the Animals which do not breed here in England. p. 264
  • [Page] Chap. XXVII. Of the Language. p. 266
  • The Lord's Prayer, Apostle's Creed, and the Ten Commandments, translated by the Au­thor into Formosan. p. 271
  • Chap. XXVIII. Of the Shipping of the For­mosans. p. 276
  • Chap. XXIX. Of the Money. p. 278
  • Chap. XXX. Of the Arms. p. 281
  • Chap. XXXI. Of the Musical Instruments. p. 284
  • Chap. XXXII. Of their way of educating their Children. p. 286
  • Chap. XXXIII. Of the Liberal and Mecha­nical Arts in Japan and Formosa. p. 289
  • Chap. XXXIV. Of the splendid Retinue that attends the Vice-Roy of Formosa, when he goes to wait upon the Emperor. p. 295
  • Chap. XXXV. Of the Success of the Jesuits in propagating the Christian Faith in Ja­pan, from the Year 1549, to 1616. More especially of the Reasons of the terrible Slaughter that was made of them in the Year 1616; and of the Law prohibiting [Page] Christians. under pain of Death, to come into Japan. p. 299
  • Chap. XXXVI. Of the coming of the Dutch into Japan, with their Success, and the Tricks they play'd. p. 311
  • Chap. XXXVII. Of the new Devices of the Jesuits for getting into Japan and For­mosa. p. 318
  • The Appendix, concerning the Author's Jour­ney from Avignon to Rome. p. 328

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