CHINA AND FRANCE, OR …

CHINA AND FRANCE, OR Two Treatises.

The one, Of the present State of China, As to the Government, Customs, and Manners, of the Inhabitants thereof; never yet known to us before in Europe. From the obser­vation of two Jesuites lately returned from that Countrey.

Written and Published by the French Kings Cosmographer, and now Englished.

The other, Containing the most remarkable Passages of the Reign and Life of the present French King, Lewis the Fourteenth; and of the valour of our English in his Armies.

London, Printed by T. N. for Samuel Lowndes over against Exeter-house in the Strand. 1676.

THE Moſt Remarkable …

THE Most Remarkable PASSAGES OF The Life and Reign OF LEWIS XIV.

The Present KING IN FRANCE.

LONDON: Printed for Samuel Lownds, over against Exeter-House in the Strand. 1675.

The most noted Passages of the Raign of the French King.

THe French and Spanish Monar­chies seldom live long in Peace. Either the Interest of the Kingdoms, or the jealousies of State, or the humors of the People, or the na­tural aversions and animosities which they have received by inhe­ritance from their Forefathers, do frequently kindle the flames of War. Their Neighborhood and continual Conversation furnishes them with many occasions of distastes and dis­putes; [Page 120]for both the Spaniard and the French, have no compliance nor respect for one another. They are naturally proud and high-minded, they pretend both to the Universal Monarchy, and think all the World must bow and creep to their great­ness. I intend not to examine in this short Tract, the causes of their frequent Ruptures and Wars, I shall confine my discourse within the Borders of the French Domini­ons, where we must visit the King and Court, and see what hath hap­ned worthy of our observation up­on that famous Theater of Europe. I design not so much to satisfie the Readers curiosity, as to furnish him with that knowledge which he may improve to his advantage; for in every capacity true and impartial History tends to our right informa­tion and direction, God by his pro­vidence teacheth men as well as by his Word. It concerns us not to [Page 121]neglect the means that he affords for our instruction. And there is no­thing more required in men that pretend to learning and perfection, then to be acquainted with the late and present Affairs, as well as with those that we have received from our Forefathers Relations.

It is very observable, that the French and Spaniards seldom con­clude Peace without a Marriage. The old Fable of Mars's Adultery or Conjunction with Venus, is a practice so ordinary amongst them, that it needs no proof. In the year One thousand six hundred and fif­teen, the Polititians of both King­doms were resolved to conclude their disputes, and reunite their in­terests in a Marriage between Lewis the Thirteenth, sirnamed The Just, and Anne of Austria, Infanta of Spain. Both Kingdoms expected from these two hopeful Princes, a numerous posterity; but to the [Page 122]great disappointment of their Sub­jects, and of all Europe, they lived together three and twenty years without Children. Success follows not always our best endeavors. At last in the Moneth of September, One thousand six hundred thirty and eight, the Queen was brought to Bed of a brave lusty Boy, who was saluted and welcomed into the World by the Parliament of Paris, with the name of Dieu-donnè, Given of God: For they were verily per­swaded, that his Birth and Concep­tion had been miraculous, in regard of the indisposition of his Father. To strengthen this perswasion, the more by Cardinal Mazarines con­trivance, then the Factotum of France, the King, the Queen, and the whole Court had been in Pro­cession, with much devotion, bare­footed, to the Chappel of the Vir­gin Mary, near Paris, to desire from her, a Son and Heir to the Crown o [...] [Page 123] France. Therefore the French look upon this Prince, as the effect and return of their Prayers, then so­lemnly offered up to the Blessed Virgin; for within a year after, the King and Queen were blessed with this hopeful Child, to the greater joy of France, then of some of the Blood Royal, who had promised to themselves the Kingdom, in case Lewis the Thirteenth did die with­out issue. Their discontents remain­ed long concealed in private, and were not suffered to break out into a Publick War, by the good order that the Cardinal gave to the Affairs of the Kingdom, and by their re­spect for the King, then alive. But afterwards, when they saw Lewis in his Grave, the People dissatisfied, and the Grandees discontented, with the Italian Government, they pro­claimed their displeasures at the Head of an Army, with the loud noise of Drums, Trumpets, and [Page 124]Cannon; as we shall see by and by.

As soon as the Dolphin was inau­gurated into his Principality, and initiated into Christian Religion, they gave him his Attendants and Officers, according to his quality and Birth; the two cheif were his Governess — a Lady of a no­ble spirit, and Hardouin de Perefixe, afterwards Bishop of Rhodes, and since removed to the Archbishoprick of Paris, was his Governor and Tutor. He is a great Polititian, Wise, and Learned, very affable and courteous. Whiles he lay in his Cradle, we can find nothing wor­thy of our notice, but as soon as he stept out of it to walk alone, Pro­vidence waited upon him, to put into his hands a Scepter, before he could manage it: For at four years of age, and a few Moneths, his Fa­ther Lewis, sirnamed The Just, de­parted this life, having published [Page 125]before his Declaration, dated April 21. 1643. By which the Queen was appointed Regent, and Go­verness of the whole Kingdom, the Duke of Orleans was her Lieute­nant, and cheif of the Council. The Prince of Condé deceased, the Cardinal Mazarine, Monsieur Se­guier, Chancellor of France, Mon­sieur Bouthillier, and Monsieur Cha­vigny; were to be of this Privy Council; but the conduct of the Army, then on foot, was left to the Duke of Enguien, who is now Prince of Condé.

This Declaration settled the Af­fairs of the Kingdom, and prevent­ed the mischeif which might have hapned, in case the election of these great Officers of State had been left to the choice of such as might have designed to imbroil the King­dom, for their own private ends. About a Moneth after, on the four­teenth day of May, 1643. the King [Page 126]died. At that time the Spaniard was attempting to inlarge his Do­minions in the Low Countreys, by a War with France. Don Francisco de Melo was Viceroy there, at the Head of an Army before Rocroy, a French Garrison, which he besieged in vain: For the Duke of Enguien, a young General, of twenty two years of age, came seasonably to its re­lief, forced the Spaniards to a re­treat, and obtained of them a no­table victory on the nineteenth of May. All their Artillery was taken, with about threescore Colours; all their Bag and Baggage, and six thousand prisoners: The Colours were sent to Paris, to be presented to the new King, six days after his promotion to the Throne. The Viceroy behaved himself like a great Commander, he incouraged his men by his words, promises, and example; where he perceived the greatest danger, there did he hazard [Page 127]his person, and his life; but when he saw the day lost, and the grie­vous slaughter of his Soldiers, he found a way out of his Trenches, to retreat with the sad remains of his broken Army, and left his Enemy to glory in their Success, and to in­rich themselves with his spoils. The Count de Fontaines was then grie­vously incommoded with a disease; nevertheless, for the honor of his Master, he caused himself to be car­ried in a Chair, during the fight, that he might assist his men with his Counsels, and incouragement; see­ing he could not help them by his example. He purchased to himself much renown with the loss of his life; for he resolved to overcome or die. Therefore in the hurry and rout of the Spaniards, whom he labored to keep to their Colours, he was killed by a mean hand.

This victory gave a check to the designs of the Court of Spain, of [Page 128]inlarging their Borders upon France. They had perswaded them­selves, that the French had been dis­couraged, during the sickness of the old King; and that they were not so able to make resistance in the mi­nority of the new; for commonly, Factions and private Interests, raign in all Courts and Armies, when the Prince hath not attained to the age and ability of managing his own affairs. But it hath been ob­served, that when men intend to advantage themselves by their Neighbors weakness, they find themselves disappointed at last, for providence makes use of the feeblest and most contemptible Agents to defeat the proudest purposes.

The French General pursued the Enemy into his own Countrey, and took, from him, several small Forts and Towns, as Maubeuge, Borle­mont, Aimmerikt, Binch, and Thion­ville, &c. So that they that had [Page 129]flattered themselves of enjoying new Conquests, lost a small portion of their own Land. The Castle and Town of Cirke stopped the course of the victorious General; it was so well furnished with Men and Pro­visions, and commanded by such a resolute Governor, that the threats of the French Army, the inconve­niency of an approaching Siege, and the noise of the thundering Cannon, could not prevail upon him to yield to the first Summons, therefore it held out against the French several days; but when they had brought their Trenches to the Town Walls, the Spaniard heark­ned to Conditions of Surrendring it up.

After this, the Duke of Enguien left the Army, about the latter end of August, to receive the Compli­ments of the Court at Paris, for his great success in Flanders; but at his first arrival, the news of the [Page 130]death of the Mareschal de Guebri­ant, General of the French Forces in Germany, hastned him thither. He had been ingaged in a Battle against the Imperialists, on the seventeenth of November, where he was mortal­ly wounded; for he died a few days after. The fight had been des­perate between the Germans, and the French, both lost a great many of their best men; so that the French Army was not able to hold the Field any longer, without the coming in of fresh and victorious Troops out of Flanders, with their young Ge­neral Enguien. His coming restored heart and courage to the shattered Companies of the dead Mareschals Army. The French, who are always wont to boast much in their Suc­cesses and Victories, and seldom or never to grant the loss of the day to their triumphing Enemies, de­clare, That the Mareschal beat the Germans out of the Field. It is [Page 131]certain they seised, a little after, upon Rotueil, a Frontier-Town, where the wounded Mareschal breathed forth his last gasp.

This War between France and Spain, had ingaged most Princes of Europe, in the quarrel, the Trum­pets sounded round about the Borders, in Savoy, in Italy, in Na­varre, Catalonia, Flanders, Ger­many, Alsatia, &c. Armies and Armed Men did carry about, Death and Destruction.

In Italy, the French had three watchful Commanders, Prince Tho­mas took from the Spaniard, Trin; the Marquess of Ville seised upon Ast; and the Count of Plessis-Pras­lin invaded Estura, small places that would deserve no mention, if these Generals had but taken any more considerable Towns; but for want of stronger and more noted Garrisons, and braver exploits, the French must needs stuff their Relations [Page 132]with the taking of these poor Ham­lets. And the Spaniard, on their side, were not idle, they gained several places upon the French, but none of any importance.

In Catalonia, the Mareschal de la Mouthe Houdancour commanded as Viceroy, for the French, at the head of a small Army, with which, he drove the Spaniards from the Siege of Miravel and Flix; he made some inroads into the Kingdom of Arragon, and seised upon Almeras.

In the same year, at Sea, as well as at Land, the affairs of War were carried on with much heat: The Duke of Brezè was Admiral for the French, in the Streights. He in­gaged, with his Light Squadrons, against the Spanish Fleet, twice, once before Carthagena, in the Moneth of August; and another time, on the nineth day of September. In both Rencounters, the Armadoes ex­changed a few Bullets, looked one [Page 133]another in the face; but they were so scared with their Enemies fright­ful countenances, and with the ap­prehension of what might happen, if they continued too obstinately in the fight, that they were both willing to part upon equal terms; although the French and Spaniard both claim the Victory as their own.

When the War is once kindled between these two Nations, it is not one or two Campagnes can put a period to their disputes; no less then a River of the Subjects Blood must be spilled, to extinguish the flames. And it is observable, that all their Neighbors must dance at the sound of their Fiddles, and be interested in their quarrels. All the Nations of Europe must attend up­on them, and second their bloody designs. War like a Tempest, com­monly riseth out of Spain or France, then it spreds it self, and involves [Page 134]all the Neighborhood into the same misery. Both Kingdoms are so po­pulous and considerable, that when the Princes of either stir, all the bordering people move; they are forced in their own defence to have their Armies ready; which when they are so, Interest obliges them to employ them.

During this Winter, great prepa­rations were making for the ensuing Spring of the year 1644. As soon as it appeared, the Duke of Orleans was appointed to command in Flan­ders, where he besieged Graveling, which was surrendered to him, after a stout resistance of two moneths: He made his entry the Twenty nineth of July.

This place was strong and well fortified, and the Key of Flanders, on that side; therefore the taking of it, did as much rejoyce the French, as it did grieve the Spaniard. After this success, the Mareschal of [Page 135] Gassion, Lieutenant General, had orders to march with his Army fur­ther into the Enemies Countrey, where he took and pillaged some small Castles, the Abby of Vate, the Forts of Rebus, d'Henuin, and Arq. Some few Spanish Troops that were so unhappy as to come within his reach, were put to flight.

In the mean while, the Duke of Enguien was General in Germany; for that Countrey hath always been the Seat of War, when any is stir­ring in Europe. At this time, the whole House of Austria that have so great a sway in that Climat, thought themselves ingaged to assist the King of Spain, their Brother, against the common Enemy the French. General Merci commanded the Army of the Duke of Bavaria, he was so successful to take Frie­burgh from the French. As he was marching farther, to besiege some other place, the Duke of Enguien [Page 136]met him with his Army, and in­gaged three times on three several days; at last, the French forced them, after a notable slaughter, to a disorderly retreat. After this, many considerable Towns submitted to the conquering valor of the Duke of Enguien, and received, from him, Garrisons only to preserve their Territories from the spoil, which otherwise he would have made. Philipsbourgh, a strong Frontier Town, Vormes, Spire, Mayence, Burghen, Landau, and the Castle of Magdebourgh, were yielded up this Summer.

But before the year was over, the Princes of Europe agreed to send all their Plenipotentiaries to Munster, there to compose their differences, and agree in a General Peace; for Germany, and the Frontier Towns of the Empire had been so much impoverished; by the long and con­tinual Wars, that as many died by [Page 137]Famine, as formerly by the Sword. The only remedy was an Universal Peace, which was endeavored be­tween all the Princes of Christen­dom. The Queen Regent of France, sent thither the Count d' Avaux, and Monsieur Servien, to manage the French interest; afterwards the Duke of Longueville followed. The Treaty began in the Moneth of A­pril, 1644. but could not be con­cluded till the Twenty fourth of October, 1648. All the Monarchs of Europe agreed to lay down Arms, and to suffer their People to injoy the Blessings of Peace, only France and Spain had such differences as could not be composed, their pre­tensions were so high, and so in­tangled, That the greatest Politi­tians that assisted at this composure of Affairs, could not find any ex­pedient to bring them to an agree­ment: Therefore the Ministers of other Princes did their business [Page 138]without them. When they saw them so stiff, in not yielding to one another, they left them to them­selves, and their Masters alone, to end their own quarrels, and fight till they were weary. That which administered new difficulties every day to this Peace, between the two Monarchies, was the prosecution of the War, which was so vigorously managed by the French, in the time of the Treaty, that in the begin­ning of the Spring, 1645. they had five Armies on foot, in Flanders, in Germany, in Lorraine, in Catalonia, and in Italy.

The Army of Flanders was com­manded by the Duke of Orleans, as Generalissimo; his Lieutenants were the Mareschals de Gassion, and Rant­zau: At their passage over the Ri­ver of Colme, there was a very hot dispute between the French and Spaniards; but, in fine, the two Mareschals behaved themselves so [Page 139]bravely, that the Spaniard was put to flight, and the passage opened. Mardike, Bourbourgh, Lillers, Be­thune, Mount-Cassel, S. Venant, Me­nenes, and Armentiers, were forced to yield. The Town of Lens was suddenly taken.

Upon the Borders of Germany, the Duke of Enguien, the French General, marched with his Troops as far as the Nekar, he took Rotem­bourgh, and went next to find out his Enemies, the United Forces of the Empire, that were encamped about Nortlinguen, and Dunkespiel. The French had here a notable victory, Four thousand men were killed, with Merci, the Duke of Bavariaes General; Gleen, the Em­perors General was taken, with all the Provisions, Artillery, Waggons, and above forty Colours. The Duke entertained Gleen very kindly, and set him at liberty; the Neighbor­ing Towns, Nortlinguen and Dunkes­piel, [Page 140]were surrendered to the French, after the Battle. The Army had orders to march towards Hailbron, but the Duke fell dangerously sick; so that he was forced to withdraw, and be carried to Philipsbourgh. At this time, the House of Austria uni­ted all its Forces under two Gene­rals, the Archduke Leopold, and General Galaz. There were in this Army above Thirty thousand Men. Monsieur de Turenne, and the Mares­chal of Grammont, commanded in the French Army, instead of the Duke d'Enguien; they had not a­bove Twelve or thirteen thousand Men, yet they behaved themselves so gallantly, that the Imperialists could never come to fight them. They retreated with their Soldiers through their Enemies Countrey, and returned safe home into the Borders of France. The French Generals were highly commended for their Wisdom, in foreseeing the [Page 141]danger of a General Battle; and for their care and prudence, in ma­naging the Retreat to save their Men.

In Lorraine, the Mareschal de Vil­leroy was sent with an Army to drive the Duke out of his Domi­nions, because he had Confedera­ted himself with the Enemies of France. The Inhabitants are natu­rally inclined to favor the French, therefore they made no great resist­ance, but submitted themselves to the King of Frances General, only La Mothe held out. Monsieur Ma­galoty undertook to defend it; but his death caused it to be surrendred also: So that the poor Duke was driven out of all his Patrimony, by the overruling power of his Neigh­bor.

In Catalonia, the French were no less successful for the General, the Count du Plessis-Praslin took Roses the nineteenth of May, and the [Page 142]Count de Harcourt, Viceroy of Ca­talonia, defeated the Spaniards in the Fields of Liorerys, and forced the Town of Balaguier to open its Gates. Du Plessis-Praslin was ho­nored with the Staff of a Mareschal of France, for his good service to that Crown; and was commanded into Italy to assist Prince Thomas against the Spaniards. In the Duke­dom of Milan, Viguerano was taken from them; but when the Prince was in his Retreat, the Spanish Ge­nerals overpowered him; and had it not been for the seasonable com­ing in of the new Mareschal, his Sol­diers had been cut in pieces, and totally routed.

The next year 1646. the War was managed with the same fury as be­fore, especially in Flanders, under the Dukes of Orleans and d'En­guien, who laid siege, with a nume­rous Army, well appointed, to the City of Courtray, which they took [Page 143]in the presence of all the Forces of the House of Austria, that came with a design to raise the Siege. Mardike was again retaken from the Spaniard, and Dunkirk was besieged by the Duke of Enguien. Caracena and Lambay were the Spanish Gene­rals, but they did not dare to ad­venture a pitcht Battle. The Mar­quess of Leda, a famous and ex­perienced Commander, was then Governor of this Town, that was well fortified by Nature as well as by Art. Nevertheless, the French won it in thirteen days, and forced the besieged to a Capitulation. Af­ter this, Prince Thomas, and the Duke of Brezé besieged, and took Orbiselle; but the Spaniards were so strong in Italy, that the Court or­dered the Mareschal de la Meilleray, and du Plessis-Praslin, with United Forces to march thither; they took two small places, Paombino and Por­tolongone.

About this time, Henry de Bour­bon, Prince of Condé died, the Six and twentieth of December, and his eldest Son, the Duke of Enguien succeeded him in his Principality, and to the honor of being the first Prince of the Blood Royal of France.

In the year 1647. the Mareschal de Gassion forced many places to submit; he was wounded at the siege of Lens, and carried to Arras, where he died. Monsieur Villequier commanded in his absence, and took the Town.

About this time the Duke of Brezé was killed over against Na­ples, with a Cannon Bullet, and his Fleet was put to flight by the Spa­nish Armado.

But the misfortunes and ill suc­cesses of the Duke of Guise, brought all his family to ruine. He had been sollicited by the Rebellious Neapo­litans, to command their Army [Page 145]against their lawful Prince. He too credulously trusted an unconstant Rabble, and went to Naples to manage a War against Spain, in that part of the World, and dispossess the House of Austria, of one of its best Kingdoms.

His first arrival was attended by some Successes, and the favor of the Inhabitants; but when the Court of France, out of a jealousie of his greatness, began to frown upon him, and deny the assistance which they had promised, and might have sent him; the Neapoli­tans betrayed him to their old Masters for their own safety and pardon. He was carried into the Prisons of Spain, from whence he could scarce obtain his freedom in three years. This great disappoint­ment brought the House of Guise to a low estate, together with some other miscarriages, that they have been guilty of.

In this Campagne, Lerida, the strongest Bulwark upon the Borders of Spain, was streightly besieged by the Army of the Prince of Condé. The Count de Harcourt, had at­tempted it the year before; but this place stood it out, till the last, so that the siege was raised to suc­cor some other more considerable Town, which the Spaniard was ready to carry.

In the beginning of the Spring 1648. that dismal year for England, the Prince of Condé appeared again at the head of an Army in Flanders. where he took Ypres in twelve days; but before this siege was over, where the French Army suffered many wants, the Spaniard had re­covered Funes, Courtray, and Lens. These advantages had made them contemn their Enemies, command­ed by the Prince: So that General Beck, assistant to the Arch duke Leo­pold in his Army, assured him of a [Page 147]full victory over the French. With this perswasion, they ventured to ingage, but the Troops of Lorraine were disordered in the Battle, and the Archdukes Cavalry were so miserably treated, that if the Prince de Ligny had not come in, with his reserve, the Archduke had been made prisoner. General Beck died with the displeasure of his ill suc­cess, as well as by his wounds. This Battle was fought the twentieth of August; it caused several petty Towns to open their Gates, as Lens and Furnes, &c. At this time, Ma­reschal de Schomberg, the Kings Ge­neral in Catalonia, took the Town of Tortoise, in the Kingdom of Va­lencia, and defeated the Army of Don Francisco de Melo, the Spanish General, that came to relieve it.

All these Sieges, Battles, and Ren­counters, hapned during the Treaty at Munster, which excluded the French and the Spaniard. Their [Page 148]quarrels alone could not be ended, for the Spaniard had intelligence of a secret Conspiracy in France, where the greatest Princes were concerned. He did therefore expect to recover what he had lost by the favor of the Domestick Wars, and troubles of his Neighbors. The Prince of Condé, and many more of the Blood Royal were united together, they publish­ed their Manifesto to justifie their taking up Arms to reform the Go­vernment, as was pretended, and to remove the Cardinal from that great trust reposed in him by the Queen. Paris held for the Rebels, and many other Towns were in dan­ger of following the same example. The Inhabitants were more then usually scurrilous and scandalous against the King, the Queen, and the Cardinal. These troubles had almost deprived the young King of his Crown and Scepter, had it not been for the seasonable assistance [Page 149]and kind Mediation of our great Monarch, and the vigorous endea­vors of the Mareschal de Turenne, more faithful to his King then to his Religion.

At last after much Bloodshed in an intestine War, the Prince re­treated into Flanders, with those of his party, whom neither Love, Loyalty, nor Interest, could per­swade to guard their young King. The Spaniard put him at the Head of their Troops, with which he re­covered almost all the Towns that he had formerly lost. If the Mares­chal de Turenne had not stopped the progress of the Princes victories, he had invaded the Crown it self as well as the Frontier Towns. But after an absence of several years, the King invited him home, received him into his favor, bestowed upon him his Government, and Employs, and treated the Dukes of Conti, and Longueville, in the same generous [Page 150]manner, publishing a General Par­don to all other offenders in the Civil Wars.

On the Seventh of September, 1651. the King being thirteen years old, was declared of Age, sufficient to take upon him the Government, and to begin to act in person, in that sphere where providence had put him. The Declaration was approved of in the Parliament of Paris, and proclaimed all over the Land.

The War continued still between France and Spain. In the years 49, 50, 51, and 52, the Spaniard had the greatest Successes against the French; for they were assisted by the Sedition and Treachery of the Inhabitants, as much as by their own valor and numbers of Men, to recover more then they had former­ly lost. But after the Kings majo­rity, he appeared himself at the head of his Troops, and, with his presence, gave them so much cou­rage [Page 151]and resolution, that they turn­ed the fortune of War. The City of Bar, and the Castle of Ligny, was surrendred to the Mareschal de la Ferté, in 1653. The Duke of Esper­non besieged Bellegard, but could not take it, till the news was come, that the King was in the Camp; then the Governor was loath to stand it out against his own Prince. Rethel and Mouzon were retaken by Monsieur Turenne, St. Menehou by la Ferté, the twenty seventh of November. Du Plessis Praslin be­haved himself so gallantly in taking this place, that the King gave it him to command. Grancey surprised Castillon, and withstood the valo­rous efforts of General Caracena.

The year 1654. was honored with the greatest solemnity, and most sacred Ceremony of France, the Coronation of their King at Rheims, with that holy Oyl which they affirm to be faln from Heaven, [Page 152]and sent from God for that purpose, to anoint their Kings therewith. When they have been thus inaugu­rated, the people have a particular respect for their persons.

After this, Stenay was besieged by the French, commanded by Mares­chal d' Hocquincourt; when the Spa­niard saw they could not hinder the taking of this place, they labored to make a Diversion, and to recom­pence themselves for their loss, by the invasion of Arras. Turenne, la Ferté, and Hocquincourt, had orders to hazard all, rather then to suffer this great City to fall into their hands. When they had called a Council of War, they resolved to attack the Lines and Trenches, which they did with much resolu­tion, in the night, the 24 and 25 days of August. Hocquincourt en­tered first into the Enemies Camp, through the Troops of the Duke of Lorraine, but he was beaten back [Page 153]with a great slaughter of his Men; the other Commanders relieved, and seconded him: So that at last the Spaniard was forced to leave his Trenches with some loss of Men, of Ammunition, and Baggage: For the Governor of the Town sallied out at the same time, and recei­ved so much assistance, that the Enemy despaired of being able to gain the Walls. The Spanish Gene­ral preserved his Army by a season­able retreat, which was managed with that prudence and courage, that he hath worthily deserved the admiration of his Enemies. The King went to visit his Camp and Army immediately after this Siege was raised, to encourage and reward his brave Soldiers.

In Catalonia also, the Prince of Conti had some success in taking Conflans and Cerdagne from the Spa­niard. About the beginning of the Spring 1655. Landrecy, Maubeuge, [Page 154]Condé, and St. Guilham, submitted themselves again to the French Mo­narchy. Thus these small places were often taken and retaken by the Armies of Spain and France. At every advantage, in the Field, these weaker Towns, of no resistance, were forced, for their preservation, to prefer their Safety to their Loyal­ty, and to side with the strongest party.

In this year there was a League Offensive and Defensive, made be­tween Cromwel and Mazarin, a­gainst Spain, upon conditions dis­graceful to the King and Court of France. Monsieur Bourdeaux solli­cited his Masters Affairs so notably, that he got that Arch-Rebel to send over, in the beginning of the Spring 1656. an Army of stout Soldiers, commanded by Reynolds. For al­though France abounds in Men, it is wont to make use of the valor of its Neighbors, in all Wars, against [Page 155]strangers: For it hath been found, by experience, that the French are good for the first Onset, but cannot abide nor weather so many discourage­ments, as the English, Scotch, and Switzers can in War; besides their Foot are not to be compared to ours. Therefore they may ascribe their most difficult Conquests to their Money, and to the English, Scotch, Irish, and Switzers valor; as we shall see in several late Encount­ers with the Hollanders and Imperia­lists.

The year 1656. was noted for the remarkable Siege of Valancien­nes, where the French received an overthrow, and were forced to quit the place; but afterwards they took Cappelle and Valencia in Italy.

In the beginning of the Cam­pagne 1657. Montmedy was be­sieged by la Ferté, the King him­self went thither, after that the Suc­cors which were intended for a re­lief, [Page 156]were happily routed. After­wards the City yielded to his Ma­jesty, and opened its Gates to re­ceive him on the seventh of August. St. Venant, Bourbourg, and the Fort of Mardike, also were taken by Turenne. Our English served him in good stead in the recovering of these places, especially in storming of Mardike. The attempt was not e­steemed feasable by the French Ge­neral, who had a design rather to besiege it, then to win it by an As­sault. But our English Commanders undertook this perillous attempt, Sir Tho. Morgan, now Governor of Jersey, lead his Party with so much courage and resolution, that they recovered the top of the Walls in an instant, passing through showers of shot and fire, to the great asto­nishment of the rest of the Army. This Gentleman hath purchased to himself the name and honor of one of the bravest Soldiers of Europe. [Page 157]And when the Spaniard ventured in the night to surprise this Fort again, the English saved it, beat back the Spaniard, and obliged them to a speedy retreat to Dunkirk. After this Turenne was employed with a Flying Party to raise the Siege of Ardres, which he did with so much bravery, that the Spaniard received there a considerable loss.

But all these Conquests were in­considerable to those of the next year 1658. Turenne and La Ferté were the two Generals of the French, and after the death of Rey­nolds, drowned near Goodwin Sands, in a small Boat in which he ventured to pass from Mardike into England, my Lord Lockart, then Ambassador at Paris, took the charge of the English Forces. The Army was com­manded to besiege Dunkirk, for it had been agreed between England and France, that this place should be put into the English hands. It [Page 158]was surrounded the Twenty fifth of May; which when the Marquess of Leda had notice of, he shut himself in, with a strong Garrison, resolving to defend it, or die there. The Siege was carried on very resolutely, the English and French Armies made their approaches on a sudden; so that the fear of loosing this strong place, caused the Archduke to en­deavor to raise the Siege by assault­ing them in their Trenches. Turenne confided in his own strength, there­fore when he heard of the Enemies approach, he marched bravely out of his Camp to meet the Archduke, the victory declared for the French. In this encounter, it was the unhap­piness of the English to fight with their own Countrey-men. In the Spanish Army, the Noble and Cou­ragious Duke of York, a Prince of an invincible resolution, was enter­tained by the Spaniard as one of the best Commanders of that Army. [Page 159]That wise Nation, as well know­ing in Men as in Affairs, would not suffer so great a Courage idle, in time of War. If I might have the liberty in this succinct Narration, I could give an account of the most heroick actions of his Royal High­ness; insomuch, that Turenne, and the other Generals, have often con­fessed him to be the ablest and most skilful Commander of the World. His Courage and Wisdom had not that success that could have been expected at this time; for the Eng­lish Regiments under my Lord Lockart, especially that of Colonel Alsop, beat back the Spaniards, and pursued them over the Sandy Hills, with a great slaughter. This victory was due cheifly to the courage of the English, the fifteenth of June, 1658. After the Retreat of the Spa­niards, the French Army returned to the Siege, where the Marquess of Leda was killed with a Bullet. After [Page 160]his death the Town began to listen to terms of Surrendring, which were agreed on the Two and twen­tieth of June.

The King entered into the City, to take possession of it, afterwards he delivered it up to my Lord Lockart, for the use of the English, whose Blood and Valor had got it from the Enemy. Bergues, Furnes, and Dixmuyde, yielded also to the Kings Summons, so did Oudenard. Ypres staid for a Siege, and when the Prince of Ligny had gathered the Relicks of the Dispersed Army, beaten before Dunkirk, he labored to raise it; but was beaten off with loss by Turenne, who took after­wards Menein, and many other small Castles.

At that time La Ferté assaulted Gravelin, but could not recover it in a Moneth, for the Garrison was strong and resolute. Many brave Actions hapned in this attempt, the [Page 161]besiegers and besieged, behaved themselves very gallantly; at last they capitulated upon honorable terms, the Eight and twentieth of August.

In the interim, the Dukes of Mo­dena and Navailes, took Mortera for the French. This first hath always been devoted to the Crown of France.

The Spaniard endeavored to take from the French, some little places which they recovered; but it is certain, that the Spaniard was the greater looser. Therefore the Princes of the Empire assembled, together to consult about the chu­sing of another Emperor at Franck­fort, sent to desire his Majesty of France, to hearken to an Accommo­dation. The King of Spain, Philip the Fourth, had caused some Overtures of Peace to be made by the Popes Mediation. The French Court entertained them wil­lingly [Page 162]upon condition of a match, between the young King, and the Infanta of Spain. When the King was at Lions, an Envoy came to him from Madrid, about this Negotia­tion. The Cardinal had orders to have a private Conference with him, to make way for the Ambassa­dors de Lionne and Pimentel. The first was dispatched away to Ma­drid, the second went to Paris. They dealt so effectually, that all Differ­ences were composed, Articles were concluded, and the great breach was made up, to the satisfacti­on of both Princes and Kingdoms. The Queen-Mother was not a little useful in this business; for when the Cardinal did seem to put in some Demurs, she declared, That the Peace should be made without him, for that she was resolved, that her Son should match with one of her own Kinred.

The Kings indisposition had al­most ruined this Affair, for he fell dangerously sick; but he recovered after a few days distemper. After­wards he made a progress into the farthest confines of his Kingdom; for there had been some discontents and disorders about Lions, Burgun­dy, and Provence, which could not be terminated without his coming. When he was at Lions, the Duke of Savoy came to wait upon him. This Prince is so near a Neighbor to France, that he is forced to keep his friendship, for fear of loosing his Principality; which hath been seve­ral times in great danger to be swal­lowed up, by this great Monarch, at the least distaste.

In the mean time, the Spanish gra­vity was very slow in concluding the Peace; that Court trifled away the time in Consultations and Meet­ings, whilest the Spring of the next year 1659. was coming on apace. [Page 164]Which caused the King to give or­der for new levies of Soldiers, to appoint Generals and Commanders, as if he had intended to prosecute the War as vigorously as before. This made the Spaniard desire a Truce of four Moneths; from the eighth of March, to the third of July, which was granted the King, That it should continue till his Declaration to the contrary or­dered.

In order to a Peace, Mazarin went to Bayonne, and Don Louïs d' Aro de Gusman came to S. Sebasti­ans, to treat more commodiously. These two Plenipotentiaries at last concluded and signed the Articles the seventh of November next ensu­ing. The Inhabitants of S. Sebastian, of S. John de Luz, and of the Neighboring Cities declared their satisfaction and joy, by Bonefires, and other publick signs.

Whilst the business was in debate, the French Court was at Bourdeaux and Tholouse, that it might be sooner consulted in all difficult Matters. After the conclusion of the Treaty, the French King sent a Procuration to Don Louïs d' Aro, to espouse the Infanta of Spain in his name. The Marriage was performed in Fonta­rabia in the presence of the Court of Spain, the third day of June. The two Kings met in the Isle of Conference, scituate between both Kingdoms, where the young Queen was delivered to her Husband, and both Kings swore to keep, and con­firmed to one another the Treaty of Peace.

After this interview, they separa­ted; the French King and Queen was received at S. John de Luz, with much pomp and Joy; and in their journey to Paris, every good City in their way expressed their extra­ordinary satisfaction, for the Marri­age [Page 166]and Peace between the two Kingdoms. But their Reception at Paris, was one of the most glorious Ceremonies, the most splendid Tri­umph of our Age. The young Queen was carried in an open Char­riot, shining with all the riches of the East and West Indies; she was attended upon by the whole Court, in their greatest splendor and glory. The People, the Clergy, and the Nobility, did welcome her with such expressions of joy, that they are not credible.

In the beginning of the next year 1661. on the nineth of March, the great Minister of State, Cardinal Mazarin, paid his last debt to Na­ture, having, by his policy, raised himself and family from a low be­ginning, to the greatest honors in France.

The Court was pleased to Mourn for him, but they quickly cast off their sad attire, when Monsieur of [Page 167] France resolved to marry with the Princess of England: A Lady, very well accomplished in Beauty and Vertue. The publick ceremony was performed on the One and thirtieth of March.

There hapned nothing remark­able this year, till the latter end. The first day of November, the Dau­phin of France was born, to the great joy of all that Kingdom, Mon­sieur de Montausier was appointed to be his Governor.

One thousand six hundred sixty and two, the King made Seventy two Knights of the Order of the S. Esprit; all Persons of the greatest Nobility, and approved valor. In the same year there hapned a differ­ence between the Ambassadors of Spain and France, about preceden­cy, in the City of London. The Spa­niards were prepared to receive the French; so that the tumult was great, and some Bloodshed on both sides.

The French sent their Complaints to Madrid, the King gave them sa­tisfaction, and forbad all his Ambas­sadors for the future, to appear in any publick solemnity with the Ambassadors of France; for they claim a precedency in all Courts of Europe, unless it be in Vienna, where the House of Austria are Lords. The King of Spain preferred in this occa­sion, the Peace and Quiet of his Kingdoms to this odd Punctilio of Honor.

This year was spent in Sports and publick Divertisements of the Gen­try and Nobility at court, till the Moneth of November. Then the French Ambassador in England, had Orders to demand the restitution of Dunkirk to the French, for a sum of Money, according to their pretend­ed Agreement with Cromwel. It was generally supposed by the wisest in France, that the English would never part with a place so well fortified, [Page 169]by their late industry, purchased with the Blood of many of their bravest Men that took it, and so handy and commodious to them, both in Peace and War; and that therefore there would be a dispute between the two Nations, for the recovery of it. But it hapned other­wise, to the Universal Sorrow of all our people, Dunkirke was surren­dered, and the French King made his entry into it the second day of December.

There had been a Treaty be­tween the old Duke of Lorraine, and this young King, by which the Duke made over to him, all his Right, Title, and Interest, in the Dutchy of Lorraine, for some Lands in lieu of it; and for the priviledge of being declared Heir to the Crown of France, in case the Fa­mily of Bourbon did fail. This A­greement had been made the sixth of February, 1662. and confirmed [Page 170]in the Parliament of Paris, in the Moneth of March. So that the French seised upon all the Cities and Countrey of Lorraine, only the strong Town of Marsal remained in the Dukes hands, who seemed un­willing to deliver it. Besides the young Prince Charles of Lorraine, was supposed to have won the Sol­diers there in Garrison, therefore they would not surrender it upon Summons.

This affair caused the King to tra­vel into that Countrey, with a suffi­cient Army, to reduce it to his obe­dience, commanding that Marsal should be besieged without delay. His sudden motion surprised the Duke, and found him unprovided; therefore he went to meet his Ma­jesty at Metz in Lorraine, to submit himself unto him. The King re­ceived him very generously, and made him welcome; Marsal, accord­ing to Agreement, was put into [Page 171]the French hands, on the third of September, 1663.

A little before, the French Am­bassador Monsieur de Crequi, had been affronted, and in danger of his person, in the City of Rome. Some of the Popes Guards shot into his Coach, and wounded his servants. When the Court of France heard of it, the King commanded the Popes Nuncio, then at Paris, to depart out of the Kingdom, and sent for his Generals, ordering them to pre­pare for a War. Alexander the Se­venth did then sit in S. Peters sup­posed Chair. He sent immediately, upon the news of the coming of the French Army, an Express, to assure his Majesty, that he was much dis­satisfied with the deed, and that he would give him all the satisfaction that he should desire. The City of Pisa was pitched upon to examine and discourse of this affair, where the Popes, and the French Deputies, [Page 172]concluded it the Twelfth of March, 1664. to the great joy of the Ro­man Catholicks. The Pope yielded to his own dishonor, that his Ne­phew Flavio Chigi should wait up­on the King, and beg his pardon, that a Monument should be erected in the very place, for posterity to gaze upon, with an Inscription, de­claring the cause of its standing there. This was performed accord­ingly; but the zeal of the French, for their King, and their concern­ment for his honor, is very remark­able in this occasion. The Parliament of Aix hearing of the affront given to the French Ambassador, and the Kings resolution to revenge it, made some levies of Men of their own accord, and marched to Avignon, where they drive out the Garrison, they surprised Carpentras, and all the Popes Territories near them. This action gave the King and Court great satisfaction, and facilitated an [Page 173]Agreement between him and the Pope; for the French are not so wedded to their Superstitions, as to be so much afraid of the Popes thunderbolts as in former ages. It would become the wisdom of the Politicians of this Nation, to shake off the Popes burdensome Fetters, and establish a Patriarch of their own. There wants nothing else to make their King an absolute Mo­narch. Some of the Jansenists have attempted to perswade their Clergy to it, I hope God will one day open their eyes, to perceive their slavery to S. Peters counterfeit Keys, and to oblige them to use that liberty unto which Providence invites them.

At the same time, that the Car­dinal was in France, the Emperor desired the Kings Succors, to help him against the Turks, who had in­vaded his Dominions. This motion pleased the French humor, for they [Page 174]would be thought to be the Cham­pions of Christianity against the Infidels. The King ordered, as some say, about Ten thousand Men to march under the command of Mon­sieur de Coligny, and Monsieur de la Fueillade, who is now Duke of Roannez. This Army joyned with the Imperialists about the Moneth of June, 1665. they found out the Turks Army, and encountered with them twice. It is certain, the French behaved themselves very gallantly in this expedition; so that the Enemies were worsted, and in their retreat, over the River of Raab, they lost about Five thou­sand Men that were slain, Sixteen pieces of Cannon, and about One hundred and fifty Colours were taken, with much of their Baggage. The rest of their Army fled, not be­ing able to withstand the Christians valor.

The Queen-Mother of France fell dangerously sick, and died the Twentieth of January, in that omni­ous year One thousand six hundred sixty six. She was much lamented in France and Spain, for she was an excellent Princess.

At this time there was War be­tween the Crown of England, and the States of Holland. Their Fleets had had a brush at Sea, where the brave Duke of York adventured, in person, against their Squadrons, more in number then ours. Opdam their Admiral was blown up, and after a sharp fight they fled to their own Coast, to carry thither the sad news of their defeat, and of the loss of many Ships taken by the English: When the French saw that the Hollander was likely to be worsted, he pretended an obligati­on to defend them; therefore he declared War against us, not so much with an intention to assist the [Page 176] Hollander by Sea, as to stand by with his Fleet, and judge of the blows. However, the countenance of such a Prince, dreadful to all the World, because it was not known yet what mischeif he could do, helped them very much.

The French made no attempts upon us at home, unless it be upon our industrious Merchants, who lost some Goods and Ships at Sea. But in the West Indies their treache­ry and cruelty were remarkable in the Iland of S. Christophers, where the English and French Plantations had lived in Peace and Amity seve­ral years, they supposed our Eng­lish would endeavor to drive them away, after this breach between the two Nations. To prevent there­fore that which the others had no design to execute, they fell upon them unawares, and massacred their Neighbors, to their eternal shame, plundering all their Goods, and [Page 177]rifling their habitations. They sei­sed next, the Islands of Antego, Ta­bago, and S. Eustache. Our Men re­solved to revenge these outrages up­on those of Guadeloupe; but the Fleet that set forth for that intent, was dispersed by a terrible Hurri­cane, and some of our Ships were broken and shipwracked, amongst the American Islands, to the great disappointment of the English. This War between England and France, continued till the year 1668. the Peace was concluded at Breda; for the French had no quarrel with the English, but only as was pretended in defence of Holland.

The truth is, the King did not care to have two Enemies upon his back, at once; he was resolved to take into his possession some Towns in Flanders, belonging to the Crown of Spain; he was glad that His Majesty of England, would let him alone, and not intermeddle in this [Page 178]Affair. The pretence to colour the invasion was, that some Articles of the Treaty of Marriage were not performed by the Court of Spain. The King, by his Ambassador at Madrid, acquainted them with his demands, but they neglected to give him satisfaction; this caused him to publish his Manifesto, to justi­fie the seisure of those Lands and Towns which, he said, belonged to the Queen, by agreement at her Marriage.

At the end of May, 1667. he en­tered into Flanders with about Thirty thousand Men, well furnish­ed. The first Garrisons were for­saken, as Armantiers, La Bassée, Condé, and S. Guilhain. Bergnes and Furnes, were yielded up to the Mareschal d' Aumont. The King com­manded Charleroy to be rebuilt and fortified, that it might serve as a Bulwark against Flanders. Tournay was besieged and assaulted, but [Page 179]could not stop the impetuous tor­rent of the French, that carried, at this time, all before them. Douay waited for their coming, its Gover­nor had the meen to stop the French progress: But upon his Majesties Summons, he obeyed, and sent him the Keys. Courtray was taken in four days; Oudenard and Alost were quickly frighted into a compliance with the French. Lille was the next Garrison that had the unhappiness to be in the French Kings way. The Governor of this place had the re­putation of a brave Commander, he had under him 800 Horse and 4000 Foot in Garrison, and was resolved to defend it. Therefore the King came before it with his whole Army, laid siege to it, and, after a very stout resistance, obliged the renown­ed▪ Governor to save the rest of his men by yielding up the Town, upon honorable terms. The King made his entry on the Eight and [Page 180]twentieth day of August, One thou­sand six hundred sixty and seven.

During the siege, the Spanish Commanders had raised a small Ar­my, with an intent to Assault the French before Lille. Marcin was at the Head of these Troops in his march, when Crequy, Rouvray, Lille­bonne, and Bellefonds, met with his Cavalry, in two several Rencoun­ters, and broke his design. For these Captains had so disordered his Men, and scared them, that they could not be perswaded to attempt upon the French again without more assistance.

After this Campagne, the King went to Paris, and in the first ap­pearance of the Spring, One thou­sand six hundred sixty and eight, he gave order to his Armies to march towards the Franche Comte. The Prince had the command of this ex­pedition; but when the Inhabitants understood it, they sent to his Ma­jesties [Page 181]Deputies, to treat of yielding to him, to prevent the spoils of an Army. Whilest the Deputies de­layed, the Prince, with his Army, being ready, went streight to Besan­zon, where he encamped. On the sixth of February, it was surrendered into his hands; some other Towns were taken without resistance, and Salines was seised upon suddenly. At that time his Majesty was come to his Army, which he caused to draw near to Dole, a place well for­tified and furnished with Men and Cannon, which caused the Inhabi­tants to stand upon their Guards, and think of a resistance; but when they saw that the French had pos­sessed all the Outworks in one night, and lodged themselves under their Counterscarpe, they accepted of his Majesties offers, and sent him the Keys of their City.

All these places were taken in twelve days, to the great astonish­ment [Page 182]of all Neighboring People.

There had been some overtures of Peace made the year before: To pre­vent the conclusion of them, the King appeared with his Army this year so early in the Field; for the Dutch had threatned him, by their Ambassador, to joyn with the Spa­niard, if he would not hearken to an accommodation. This Speech, together with the Resolution of his Neighbors, of rising up in Arms against him, brought forth the Treaty of Aix la Chappelle: Unto which place, Colbert was sent as an Extraordinary Ambassador, to meet with the Ministers of the Media­ting Princes. It was signed the sixth of May, and sent to be published at Paris and Brussels; but the French King was mightily offended at the Dutch, who had forced him, against his will, to this conclusion of Peace; therefore in due time he was resolved to find an occasion [Page 183]to punish them for their sauci­ness.

In the mean while, the Nobility and Gallants of France that had prepared their equipages, for the next Campagne, when they saw themselves disappointed by a hasty Peace, resolved to venture a­broad in Foreign service. Fame had told them of the long Siege of Candy, by the Turks, and that these Infidels did daily win upon the besieged by their numbers; there­fore the greatest Zealots of them re­solved to hazard their persons for the releif of that noble City be­longing to the Venetians. The Duke de Roannez, the Count of St. Paul, the Duke de Chateau-Thierry, the Chevalier de Harcour, with many other brave Adventurers, voluntari­ly ingaged themselves in this expe­dition. It is certain, that they be­haved themselves with all the gal­lantry that could be expected. At [Page 184]their return, they acquainted the King with the condition of the place, and the strength of the Turks.

This perswaded his Majesty, to­gether with the Sollicitations of the Venetians, to send over thither the Dukes of Beaufort and Navailles, with about 10000 Men, to see whe­ther they could raise the siege. All the World expected a Success an­swerable to the French courage: At their first sallying out upon the Turks, they beat all down before them; but when the Turks saw their vigor abate, they charged furiously upon them, and routed them, for­cing them back into the City Walls. Beaufort himself was lost, and kill­ed, as it is supposed, in the rout, but his body could not be found afterwards.

He was much to be blamed for venturing his person, and the honor of his Prince, amongst the meanest [Page 185]Soldiers; for Commanders of his rank and quality, are to be mind­ful, that the safety of the whole Army depends upon the preserva­tion of their lives: They are never to hazard themselves in the Front of a Battle, but when their presence is necessary, to give courage to their fainting Soldiers, or to add more vigor to them, when the victory is almost in their hands. After the de­feat of the French, the besieged City was yielded up to the Turks General, upon very favorable con­dition.

The King had intelligence about the end of the year 1669. that the Duke of Lorraine did endeavor to stir up the Emperor and King of Spain, against him. This caused him to send the Mareschal de Crequy with an Army of 18000 Men into Lorraine, to take in that Countrey. The Duke seised upon Pont a Mous­son, and pulled down the Walls. [Page 186] Epinal and Chaté held out a litteè, but they were, at last, Surrendered up into his hands, and the old Duke was driven out of all his Principality.

This year 1670. the King visited his new conquered Towns in the Low Countreys, repairèd their breaches, restored their Fortifica­tions, and put them all into a good posture of defence. But that which was remarkable in this progress, the King had no extraordinary Militia; he trusted so much these new Sub­jects, that he entered into all their populous Towns, attended only by his houshold Servants, and usual Guards.

This got him the love and respect of the Walloons, and secured him the hearts of his people, as well as the Walls of their Towns.

About this time, a King of Guinny, who lives at a City called Arda, sent an Ambassador to Paris to treat [Page 187]about an establishment of a Trade, between that place, and the Islands of America, under the French Scep­ter. The King entertained him, and his motion, very kindly, and sent him back with Tokens of his liberality.

There had been an Order of the Kings Council published, by which certain Wares of the Hollanders were prohibited in France. They labored, by their Ambassador, to perswade the King to revoke this Order; but in vain, for the King was now resolved to revenge him­self upon them, for their insolent carriage towards him, and his peo­ple, in the West and East Indies, and in many Foreign Countreys; where they had ingrossed all the Trade to themselves.

It is certain, that both the Eng­lish and the French had great cause to complain of the Hollanders, who had, on several occasions, discovered [Page 188]an unsufferable Pride, and a haughty carriage, not to be endured by Crowned Heads. They had exer­cised their cruelty upon the Sub­jects of both Kingdoms beyond the Seas, and had seised upon their Goods, affronting thereby their Princes who are ingaged to protect them.

These, and other unjust practises, as was pretended, obliged the French to prepare for War: There­fore in his Progress in Flanders, he visited, himself, the Fortifications of all his Frontier Towns, and caused the weakest places to be fortified with new Works; from Dunkirke, he went to Amantiers, from thence to Lille, to Courtray, to Aeth. He found that Monsieur de Montal had strongly repaired the Walls of Charle le Roy; for which, he highly commended him.

Before the War was proclaimed, Madam de Orleans, the only Sister a [Page 189]live, of our Gracious Monarch, came over here unto England, to visit the King, and the Duke of York. She was received with all the ex­pressions of kindness, that Nature did require, and her Vertues de­serve. But as all our satisfactions are momentary, she had no sooner seen these dear Relations, but was forced to leave them again, and re­turn over to France, where she died so suddenly, that most men en­tertained the bad reports that were raised about her death. However, the Court of France honored her Birth and Vertues, with an out­ward Mourning, and the Duke of Orleans's countenance seemed to be very sad and pensive, until the King had cheared him up with the thoughts of another Wife. The Daughter of the Prince Palatine of the Rhine was pitched upon; the Mareschal du Plessis was sent to es­pouse her in the Dukes name, in the [Page 190]City of Mets, the sixteenth day of November. The Duke himself wen [...] as far as Chalons, to receive and welcome her: The King, the Queen, and all the Court expressed their joy and satisfaction for her safe arrival; and about a year after, she was brought to Bed of a Son.

All this while, the War was pre­paring against Holland. England and France were to unite their For­ces, by Sea and Land. On the se­venth day of April, 1672. the King published his Declaration, to forbid all Commerce and Trade with the States of the Ʋnited Provinces; and immediately after, appeared at the Head of an Army of One hundred and fifty thousand Men, with whom he carried all before him in the Low Countreys, as a violent torrent: No­thing was of a sufficient resistance for so great a power; every one did judge, that he would win all the other Towns, the following Spring, [Page 191]if there were not a stop put to his undertakings. But the motion of the French is always violent at the first, and then at the least discourage­ment, it begins to abate. The Dutchy of Cleves, the Electorate of Cullen, the Dutchy of Limburgh, the County of Zutphen, Ʋtrecht, and its Territories. Holland, Bra­bant, Overissell, the Oriental Frieze, Groningen, and the Dutchy of Gel­dres, were full of French Troops, on a sudden. Orsoy, Vesel, Burick, and Rhineburgh, that had been so strongly Garrisoned, that the Dutch thought them to be the Bulwarks of their Land, were surrendered at the first appearance of the Kings Standard. Reez, Emmerick, and Groll, were delivered to the Bishop of Munster, who had taken up Arms to vindicate the French quar­rel.

The next attempt was, the Pass­age over the Rhine, which was first [Page 192]undertaken by the Count de Guiche, at the Head of Two thousand Horse, he swom over it, although three Squadrons of Horse, and some few Foot, were ready to re­ceive him on the other side. When the French had recovered the Bank, they charged so desperately, that the Enemy was disordered, and fled to their Foot for succor. They had Barricadoed themselves in, but when the Prince, and the Dukes of Orleans and Longueville, were got on the other side with their Infan­try, they resolved to assault them in their Trenches. The Prince de­sired to march in order against them, but some of his Men were so furious, that nothing could keep them in. The Duke of Longueville, in a rage, went so near them, with the Prince, that the Duke was kill­ed, and the Prince wounded in the left arm, with many more laid up­on the ground.

When they saw the whole Army surround them, they desired quar­ter, which was granted by the Prince, by that means they yielded, and were all taken prisoners. It is not good to render an Enemy de­sperate, a small company in a dan­ger have won the victory; there­fore the Prince freely offered them their lives.

This Action amazed the Hol­lander, and astonished the Prince of Orange, who expected the Kings Army another way. Harnen was taken by Monsieur de Turenne, Ni­meguen and Schenk also. Does­bourgh and Zutphen, were surren­de [...]ed into his Majesties hands, and the City of Ʋtrecht sent Deputies to yield it up. Monsieur de Lux­emburgh was sent thither to take in all the places about Ʋtrecht. After this, Turenne recovered Crevecoeur, Coërden, Grave, and Bomel; so that almost all the Inland Countrey [Page 194]thereabouts, submitted to the French. The Hollanders were then so much troubled, that they offered Conditions of Peace to the King; but he hoped to gain all the rest of their Countrey: Therefore they were rejected as unreasonable.

The King after all these Successes, left the Army the Six and twentieth of July, and arrived at Paris the first of August, where he was con­gratulated and welcomed by all the Societies of his Kingdom. The Queen was so much overjoyed, that she commanded a Chappel to be built at Roan, and dedicated it to Our Lady of Victories; for as a­mongst the Heathens they did give to Pallas, the Goddess of War, se­veral attributes, and names be­tokening the many good Office that they fancied, proceeded fron [...] her favoring of them: So the Papists assign divers, and differing ti­tles to the Virgin Mary, who is [Page 195]now become the Goddess of War amongst them, and the Giver of Victory to her devout Proselites.

The Princes wound had cast him into an indisposition, which made him follow his Majesty, and accom­pany the Duke of Orleans, the Kings Brother, to Paris, leaving the Conduct of Affairs to Monsieur de Luxembourgh and Turenne. The Prince of Orange was then before Voërden with Twelve thousand Men; Luxembourgh prepares a strong brigade of Two thousand five hun­dred Men, and by a secret way over the Marshes, he gets into the Town undiscovered, with his Party, with which he made such stout Sallies, that the Prince was forced to rise from thence with his Army, to leave some of his Baggage and Cannon be­hind him.

All this while the Dutch had scarce time to look about, the French had been so nimble and [Page 196]furious, that they had gained all this Countrey, without any consi­derable loss. But before the next Campagne, the face of affairs was changed, the Dutch had many Armies come to their assistance, the Spaniard, the German, and the Im­perialists, sent their powerful Suc­cors to aid them: So that they have since recovered a great part of what they first lost, and will, accord­ing to all probability, recover the rest.

The Prince of Orange was now restored by Order of the States, after the inhumane massacre of de Wit, to his Patrimonial Offices of Statholder, Admiral, and General of the Ʋnited-Provinces. This generous Prince began to appear at the Head of an Army of 24000 Men; with these he resolved not to be idle; some places he took, but did not yet dare to adventure against his inso­lent Enemy, triumphing for so many [Page 197]great Successes. Monterey, Viceroy of the Netherlands, for the King of Spain, desired him to attempt some­thing in his Countrey, because the French had drained their Garrisons; for the Spaniard had not declared yet against them. According to this advice, he laid siege to Charle­roy, a Fortress that was likely to annoy the Spaniard, their next Neighbors. Montal, the Governor, had notice of the design, he Posts: thither in haste; and taking his: time in the night, he passed through the Dutch and Spanish Troops, and got safe into the Garrison, to the great joy of the besieged. The next day he adventured to sally out with a strong party, which was re­ceived and welcomed by the Prince of Orange, with loss on both sides. When the King heard of this siege, he drew near to the Borders of Pi­cardy, and gave order to several thousands of his Soldiers to meet [Page 198]him, with a design to beat the Dutch off. Therefore this intelligence caused the Prince to rise with his Army, the Two and twentieth day of December, and depart: Which was signified to the King by a Post, sent from the Governor.

At this time, Luxembourgh at­tempted to lead his Men over the Ice, to Assault Bodengrave, Swam­merdam, and Niverburgh; which three places he took without much resistance. After this, the French went no further till the next Spring, 1673. They were all sent into seve­ral Garrisons, where we shall leave them to take notice of their behavi­or at Sea.

On the Water, as well as on the Land, the War was carried on. The Dutch had a gallant Fleet, with which they did defie the Fleets of England and France: But though De Ruyter, their Admiral, labored by Policy to fight us, and to sur­prise [Page 199]us at an advantage; he was much mistaken to find our English courage, in the greatest discourage­ment, not to resist and brave Death it self.

His Majesty of England had been engaged to joyn his strong Fleet with the French Squadron, which was commanded by the Count de Estrées. Therefore the Twenty eighth of May, 1672. in prosecu­tion of the War that had been de­clared against the States of Holland, our Fleet, under the command of the brave Duke of York, had a very sharp Engagement with the Dutch, upon the English Coast; in which, the Victory declared for the English, with the loss of the Royal James, which was unfortunately burned; and of the Earl of Sand­wich, who was drowned, and his body found about the tenth of the next Moneth floating on the English shore. He was an excellent Captain, [Page 200]more fortunate in the Mediterrane­an, and in the Sound, then in our Channel. England lamented the loss of so excellent a person. It seems his courage destroyed him; for when his Ship was Boarded and Fired by a Dutchman, when it was surrounded by many of the Ene­mies best Ships; His resolution to brave Death, and the Enemy, in the midst of the greatest disadvantages and dangers, made him abide and continue the sight in his Flaming Ship.

Of our English, Twenty four Persons of Note were killed, with three of the French. Amongst the rest, a Gentleman, so Courageous, Learned, Civil, and so well accom­plished, that I cannot but mention him in this place: It was Mr. Cle­ment Cotterel, Sir Charles Cotterels Son. About fifteen Gentlemen were desperately wounded, seven hun­dred Common Soldiers and Seamen [Page 201]killed, and as many maimed. Mon­sieur de Rabiniere tres le Bois, Rear Admiral of the French, was killed, and buried at Rochel.

The Duke of York, in this En­gagement, behaved himself as a discreet and wise Commander, with an undaunted Courage.

It is supposed, that if our whole Fleet could have had the conveni­ency of fighting, the Dutch had been for ever undone; but the Wind hindered most part of our Ships from coming up to them; so that the Blew Squadron was forced to ingage with the Enemy alone. The Dutch had great loss of Men and Ships; it is thought about five or six of theirs, besides the Fire­ships were sunk: It is certain, that our Fleet pursued them to their own Coast.

About this time, the Twentieth of August, 1672. hapned a most barbarous execution of the two [Page 202] De Wits torn in pieces by the rude rabble of the Hague, their Privities cut off, their Bodies dragged through the Streets, and hanged at the Gallows, in such a barbarous manner, that the Cannibals would have been ashamed to have done the like.

Groningen had been besieged by the Mercenary Weather-cock of Munster; but in the Moneth of August he left the Town, after a con­siderable loss of his Men. The good Bishop was moved with compassion to see his Soldiers slaughtered by the stout-hearted Dutch; so that he preferred their safety, or it may be his own, to the filling of his Purse with Gilders; which was the thing this noble Captain aimed at in this attempt upon the Dutch.

The States of Holland had pre­vailed with many of their Neigh­bors, especially with the Emperor, King of Spain, and Duke of Bran­denburgh, [Page 203]to send their Succors to assist them by Land. The Prince Palatine was perswaded, notwith­standing his Alliance with France, to enter into the party. They were all resolved to send into the Field their Armies, in the next Spring; for they were afraid that the French would not be content with the Conquest of Holland, but would incroach upon them also after­wards.

During this Winter, nothing hap­ned worthy of notice, but the loss of private persons, robberies, and small Encounters of Parties, that sought for Plunder and Booties.

In the beginning of the Spring, 1673. three Armies appeared for the Hollanders; the King of Spains commanded by the Count de Mon­terey, the Emperors by Montecuculi, the Duke of Brandenburghs by him­self; besides the Army of the Prince of Orange, who was declared Ge­neral [Page 204]at Land, Admiral at Sea, and Statholder by the States. The French Army commanded by Turenne, marched against the Duke of Bran­denburgh, who was forced to quit to him all the County of Marck, and to leave his Bag and Baggage behind him, for fear of a total de­feat of his Forces. The French took Ʋrnia, Ham, Camen, Altenau, Soest, and Hoexter, Bilefeld, and Ravensperg, small places of no strength.

At this time, the Swede and the Dane, with other Neuter Princes, had desired an accommodation of the differences between the Kings of England and France. Cologne was the place of meeting; all the Ple­ [...]ipotentiaries were sent with In­structions: But although the Dutch had so many losses by Land, and by Sea, they would not yield to any reasonable Propositions at first. Their stout hearts were resolved to [Page 205]try the Fortune of War, before they would listen to any peaceable conclusion. At last after several De­bates, and Consultations, the Peace was concluded between the King of England and the States, but the French pretentions were extraordi­nary high, and their Successes great; so that there was no possibility that did appear, to end their differences at this time. But before the Peace was published between England and Holland, all this Summer of the year 1673. the War was vigorously carried on by Sea and Land.

By Sea, Prince Rupert command­ed a Fleet of English and French, One hundred and twenty Sail. With these Ships he attacked the Dutch Frigats, under the command of De Ruyter and Van Trump. The fight was mannaged with much re­solution on both sides: The French in the former Engagements had been taught to face their Enemy [Page 206]upon the Water; for they behaved themselves now very bravely, be­cause they could not well excuse themselves. It is certain, the Princes conduct and courage in this, and all other Engagements, have justly de­served the praise of all Men, and the thanks of our Nation. This noble Spirit hath since his infancy, spent his Wit and Blood in the de­fence, and for the honor of our Countrey.

The Dutch proclaimed Victory at Land, whilest their Ships and Shipwracks complained of their ill usage at Sea by the English. They lost eight considerable Vessels, that of Van Haen was the chief, it was blown up by an unfortunate shot. Many were so disabled, that they could not reach into their Harbors. His Majesties Fleet had received some damage in the Rigging, and loss of Men; but not so as to hinder them the next morning, the nineth [Page 207]of May, from pursuing their Ene­mies to their own Coast. The Dutch lost many Men, some of note, and a Ship taken by the English.

At Land there were frequent en­counters between the Dutch and French. The City of Mastreicht was the cheif place of action this Summer: The Count de Lorge, and Monsieur Montall, were ordered to invest it, the sixth of June: The rest of the Army marched thither to post themselves about this strong place. Fario was then Governor, with a very stout Garrison of six thousand Men; the Count de Mon­terey had sent thither two thousand Italian Horse and Foot, to reinforce the place. The King himself was in the Army with the bravest and choicest Regiments; and the Noble Duke of Monmouth, with several thousand English under his com­mand.

It is certain, the French King visit­ed the Trenches, and incouraged his Troops, with a great contempt of the danger. Fario had sent him this civil message, That if he knew whereabouts his Majesties Quarters were, he would command his Men to forbear shooting to that place: The King sent him word again, That his Quarters were every where in his Camp. The besieged made a stout resistance, many Men were kil­led on both sides. It is thought that this Town might have put a stop to the French Conquests, if the Burgers had been more faithful to their old Masters, and less careless of their lives and riches. It is cer­tain, that it had never been taken by the French alone, had not our English spent their blood, and in contempt of all danger, passed with their Regiments through showers of small and great shot, to the Assault.

We cannot sufficiently admire the courage of the Duke of Monmouth, a young General of an admirable conduct and skill in Martial Affairs. He commanded in the Trenches, with an intention to assault the Counterscarpe, and the Half-Moon, before Brussels-Gate. He led on his Men with such resolution, that though two or three Mines were sprung up, and the shot fell thick amongst them, they carried the Half-Moon, to the great wonder of all men, in half an hour.

As soon as it was taken, the Duke, with his Party, was immediately re­lieved by the French, upon whom, the besieged played so briskly, with their great and small shot, that they beat them out with the assistance of a Mine, and a stout Sally. When the Duke saw that the French had lost what his Men had got, he pre­pared himself to regain it; which he did with the greatest resolution [Page 210]and happiness imaginable. This in­vincible spirit at the Head of his Party, leaped over the Trenches first, with his Weapon in his hand, only twelve stout Voluntiers accom­panied him, the rest followed so furiously, that the Dutch were beat­en off again, and his Grace became Master of the Half-Moon the se­cond time, delivering it into the hands of Monsieur de la Feuillade. So that without flattery, the French ow the taking of Mastreicht to the courage, conduct, and brave resolu­tion of the Duke of Monmouth, to the Blood and undauntedness of our English. Sir Henry Jones was killed in one of these assaults, which hapned the twenty fourth of June. After some other attempts, where our Men were again imployed, the Town desired a Parley the twenty nineth, and in two hours the Arti­cles were granted, That the Go­vernor and Garrison should march [Page 211]out as stout Soldiers, their Colours flying, Drums beating, Match light­ed, Bullet in Mouth, with Bag and Baggage, and two Pieces of Can­non, and a Mortar Piece. That they should be safely convoyed to Boisle­due and Breda. The French lost 4000 Men, and about 1000 of the besieged were killed. The King took possession of it the thirtieth of June, and commanded the Cardinal de Boüillon to resanctifie the Church­es profaned by the Dutches Devo­tions.

About this time there hapned an­other Sea-sight, between the English and the Dutch Fleets, with loss on both sides; but our English beat the boasting Dutch again into their Harbors, where they left them to complain of their wounds and dead, and to glory in their pretended Suc­cesses and Victories.

The many Armies that were now on foot, to attend upon and stop [Page 212]the further proceedings of the French, caused them to call away their Garrisons from many Conquer­ed Towns: Besides the Sickness and the War, had consumed a great number; so that they were forced, for their own safety, to gather a little more close together. Several strong places were abandoned, and several were dismantled; the So­diers were sent to reinforce the Armies.

During this Winter, many En­counters hapned between the Ene­mies, and some few unconsiderable places taken. But now to the great joy of England, it pleased His Ma­jesty to grant a Peace to the Hol­lander, on most honorable Condi­tions to the English.

The French King nevertheless continues his designs by Land; but by Sea he commands his Ships to be drawn up, or to sail out of the Dutchmens sight. In the beginning [Page 213]of the Spring he besieged Besanzon, in the Franche Comté; Pesme, Mar­nay, were taken before by the Duke of Navailles, the fourteenth of February. The strong Town of Gray was yielded up after two or three days siege: On the twenty eighth, Vesoal was also taken. The King himself, with a strong Party, arrived at his Camp before Besanzon, in the beginning of May, 1674. It was surrendered into his Majesties hands before the end of the Moneth, after many brave exploits and much blood shed.

Whiles the Treaty was on foot at Cologne, the Emperor caused the Prince of Furstemberg, Plenipoten­tiary for the Archbishop of Cologne, to be arrested by the Officers of his Regiment of Grana, in his Coach, and carried to Bon, because he had not maintained the interest of the Empire, as he should have done, he being a Subject.

This violent proceeding did mightily scandalise all the Ambas­sadors, especially the Archbishop, and the French King, were offended at this violence: For they pretend, that the person of an Ambassador is sacred, and not to be violated by any means. Nature hath taught the most barbarous people to suffer them to go and come in safety, who are imployed in quenching the Flames of War.

Navaigne was afterwards be­sieged and yielded to the Prince of Condé; but the Prince of Orange, had an intent to succor it, had not the besieged made so much haste to secure their lives by a Surrender. Dole was also besieged by the King, and taken after a stout resistance.

The fifteenth of June, there hap­ned a fight between Monsieur de Turenne, and the Imperialists com­manded by the Duke of Lorraine, and the Count of Caprara. The [Page 215]Duke of Bournonville was march­ing up to them, Turenne resolved to hinder a conjunction; for that pur­pose, he passed the Rhine at Philips­burgh. The Duke and Count had but Seven thousand Horse, and a Regiment of Foot, but Turenne was Twelve thousand strong. The Confederates behaved themselves so bravely, that had they not been inferior in number, they had forced the French to a retreat. After a hot ingagement, which lasted all the Afternoon, the Germans sought their fafety in a retreat over the Neckar; many brave Men were kill­ed on both sides, some say the loss was equal. It is certain, four thou­sand Men lay dead on the Ground; the old Duke of Lorraine headed his Troops with so much resolution, as if he had intended to win a Duke­dom in another World, by his not­able courage.

The Dutch Fleet, about one hun­dred Sail, passed out of the Chan­nel to scoure the Seas, of all French Frigats, and to attempt something upon the Coast; they Landed on Belle Isle, but were repulsed after the loss of a few Men.

The Duke of Schomberg com­manded the French Forces in Cata­lonia; in the County of Rousillon, he ingaged with them, and forced them to a retreat, with the loss of his Son, and another Gentleman of quality taken prisoners.

The next action was between the Prince of Condé, and the Prince of Orange, assisted by the Count de Souches, the eleventh of August, near Haynault. The two Armies were resolved to have a brush, which was performed with much gallantry: The Prince of Oranges Army lost many Men, and Commanders; and the French disputed the case very stoutly; at last they retreated into [Page 217]their Camp, carrying with them many noble prisoners, and most part of the Princes Baggage; leav­ing the Dutch to boast of their empty and sorrowful Victory, in the open Field.

At this time Grave was besieged by the Dutch: The French could not be perswaded to surrender it, till after a long and bloody siege.

The Messinenses had revolted from the Spaniard, and put them­selves under the French protection. The Duke de Vivonne arrived there, with some Succors, and relief of Men, and Provision. The Inhabi­tants put them in possession of the strongest places about the City; the Spaniards, by Sea and Land, endeavored to plague them. A short conflict hapned upon the Coast, between the French and Spanish Fleets, where the noise of their great Guns, and their mutual Rodomontadoes, soon terrified [Page 218]them, and made them both willing to part upon equal terms. By this means the Messinenses had some Pro­vision brought to them in their ur­gent necessity.

In October, the Confederates, in­camped upon the skirts of Turennes Army, were forced to fight near Strasburgh; they lost three thousand Men, ten Pieces of Cannon, thirty Standards, and many Prisoners; the French also had many of their best Menkilled. The Confederates re­treated to Spire, and Turenne to the sides of the Rhine.

The taking of the Cittadel of Leige this Winter, by the French, was an accident, that surprised and startled all the World. It was be­trayed by a treacherous Governor, and delivered into the Kings hands, who sent thither three thousand Men to remain in Garrison.

This year 1675 the War con­tinues still call Europe is ingaged in [Page 219]this Bloody dispute, between the French and Dutch. The Swedes have been perswaded, for the French sake to enter into the Borders of the Duke of Brandenburgh, and in defence of the Protestant Interest, as they pretend, to help the French, who carries on the Popes. There­fore they have quartered their Army all this Winter, upon the Sub­jects of Brandenburgh, who hath been forced to draw his Army from the Confederates to stop the Swedes violences.

In May the French King caused Limburgh to be besieged, after the taking of Huy and Dinant. The Confederates were resolved to raise the siege, but the surrender pre­vented them. Nevertheless the Dutch and Spaniards have behaved them­selves very stoutly in the defence of this Town.

At present the Prince of Orange, with his Army, attends upon the [Page 220] French King near Ruremond; Tu­renne is incamped near the Rhine, about Strasburgh, in sight of the German, commanded by Montecu­culi. All the World expects to hear of a bloody dispute between them. What end this great quarrel will have, God alone knows; however we ought to lament at the miseries of our Neighbors, at the Christian Blood that is shed to satisfie the Am­bition of a Prince that wants no­thing on Earth, but Content. We ought to pray God to preserve our England, in Peace and Unity; and our gracious King, the best of all Monarchs, in health and prosperity.

Amen.

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