THE ART OF VVAR, AND ENGLANDS TRAYNINGS; PLAINELY Demonstrating the dutie of a priuate SOVLDIER; with the Office of each seuerall Of­ficer belonging to a Foot-company: and the Martiall lawes of the field.

As ALSO, The office and charge belonging to the com­mand of a Colonell; the Exercise of trayning or drilling: With diuers other necessary and pro­fitable disciplined NOTES and Obseruations.

BY EDW. DAVIES Gentleman.

LONDON Printed by EDWARD GRIFFIN, dwelling in the Little-Olde-Baily neere the signe of the Kings-head. 1619.

TO THE HIGH AND MIGHTY CHARLES, ONELY SONNE OF HIS MAIESTY, Prince of WALES, Duke of CORNEWALL, YORKE, ALBANIE, and ROTHSAY, Marquise of ORMONT, Earle of CHESTER and ROSS, Lord of ADMANOCH, and Knight of the most noble Order of the GARTER.

THE ample and deserued com­mendation (which Fame hath blazed ouer all this Kingdom, and more and more shall to your eternall memory) of the ardent zeale that your High­nesse hath vnto Military Discipline, and the vertuously disposed, and of your en­couragement of them, hath amongst many hearts truely deuoted to your Highnesse in all [Page] submissiue humilitie, incensed and animated mine (though most vnworthy) to present, offer, and dedicate vnto your Highnesse, this rude, and vnpolished Pamphlet, treating and de­monstrating the path-way to the youths, and the many vnexpert traine-men of this King­dome, to lead them to the marke, which is to become perfit and absolute Souldiers. Who (hauing reaped a large haruest of peace vnder the most peacefull Monarch in Europe, your most renowmed Father) are very raw and al­together ignorant in most points of Militarie Exercise. My long continuance in the warres hath by experience gathered, that it is very ne­cessarie and requisite, in the Summer of Peace, to forecast and prouide against the Winter of Warres. Mars hath long time slumbered, and as Iosua commanded the Sunne to stand firme, so our Royall Iosua, our Soueraigne King IAMES (whom God protect from outward and domesticall inuasions) with his glorious beames appearing and entring the Confines of this Kingdome hath dispersed the clouds, as well of forreine, as home-bred broyles and dissentions, and established our peace like Mount Sion: Yet tho Mars be fettered, I hold [Page] it (vnder your Highnesse correction) both conuenient, and agreable with the policie of other Nations, that this Common-weale be euer in a readinesse to preuent accidentall, and ensuing dangers, least (wallowing too long in the cradle of Securitie, and Mars on a suddaine awaking, and sounding in our eares vnexpected Alarmes) it buy Repentance at too deare a rate. And to register the same in the Tablets of my Country-mens hearts, and for their good, I haue compiled and collected the obseruations and directions in this Booke following; the which I humbly desire may be respected by your Highnesse, not according to the merit of the action, or matter it selfe, but according to the intent and affection of the Agent and De­dicator; and that your Highnesse will imitate herein that great Patron and Patterne of humi­litie, who made more account of the poore wi­dowes mite, than of the superfluitie and abun­dant treasure of the rich. And thus with my vncessant prayers to the Almighty, the Lord of Hostes, that your Highnesse may daily more and more grow in the fauour of God and Men, and in the practise of all vertuous, pious, and valorous actions, to the aduancement of Reli­gion, [Page] the vanquishing of your enemies, and the good of this Common-wealth; crauing pardon for my boldness, I humbly take my leaue, and euer rest with my best endeuors,

At your Highnesse seruice and commandment, Edward Dauies.

To the READER.

THe exercise of training hath beene much neg­lected, and chiefly in the Marches of Wales, till now of late that it hath pleased God, and the Kings grace, to send vs that thrice wor­thy Earle of North-hampton, Lord Presi­dent, established in the principality of his Ma­iesties Councell in the Marches of Wales &c. For it hath pleased his Excellencie in times conuenient to call together the Traine-men; and his Lordship was honourably, and dutiful­ly entertained, and conueied from Shire to Shire by his Lord­ships Lieutenants of the Shire; and also all the Knights and best Gentlemen in the Countrey. The Military men being as­sembled together, it pleased his Lordship to take great paines in ordering, directing, and exercising both Horse and Foote most brauely to behold; and his Lordshippe taking speciall view both of Horse and Foote, where his Lordship apprehen­ding debilitie and error to be committed amongst them, his Lordship giueth the Captaines a streight charge, by no meanes, not to neglect their exercise of training vnder paine, &c.

Likewise, to make it more apparant to the view of the world of his Lo: affection towards the exercise of Marciall disci­pline, his Lo: hath now of late called together, not only his Lo: owne Gentlemen, but also all the Clarkes belonging to the Councell in the Marches of Wales; and his Lordship being well prouided of an able Leader, which is one of his Lo: Gentle­men, who in times conuenient doth exercise the said Company.

Moreouer, I ought not to omit to relate his Honours due commendations, as also his speciall care of the KINGS Maiesties seruice, to maintaine not onely all Mar­tiall discipline, but also to lead his Ho: Successors to the marke of an honourable subiect; and to performe the same his Lordship is alwaies prouided of 18. goodly and braue young Horses, the which are daily trained in all points of warre (at Luddlow Castle-yard) by one of his Gent: of the Horse, who is an expert and sufficient Rider, &c.

Also it is my part to say somewhat herein of the worthy Rulers, and Gouernours of the Low-countries the schoole of Warre; his Excellencie Graue Mauris hath inuented and set out diuers Postures belonging to the orders both of Pike and Musket, very necessary and profitable for the exercise of armes, the which are maintained and practised by the thrice worthy Commanders, Coronell Cissell, and Coronell Veare; and is directly followed by all other valiant Leaders: the which Postures and Orders are practised in the Artillery-yard, and also in the Military-yard, by worthy Captaines, well experienced in the Martiall discipline, and also they are well prouided of sufficient Officers.

There came a little Pamphlet to my hands wherin I found, and made vse of certaine Orders of the exer­cising Muskettieres: The said booke was dedicated vnto that worthy Commander Coronell CISSELL, who did much practise the said Orders: Viz. also that the said vo­lume was set out by that worthy Leader Captaine WAIMOVTH, who is worthy of great commendati­ons, for his good worke.

The Contents of the first Booke.

  • Chap. 1 WHat is required, and necessarie to be obserued in a priuate Souldier. Fol. 1.
  • Chap. 2 The office which appertaines to a Corporall, Cape de Squa­dre, Disnier, or chiefe of Chamber. fol. 32.
  • Chap. 3 Six points appertaining to Souldiers of all sorts. fol. 41.
  • Chap. 4 How a Souldier may maintaine obedience, and keepe him­selfe in the fauour and good grace of his Captaine. fol. 44.
  • Chap. 5 Martiall and military lawes, whereunto Souldiers of all de­grees must be sworne, to keepe and maintaine inuiolated at all times and in all places, whether they serue Emperour, King, or Prince. fol. 60.
  • Chap. 6 Briefe Notes of other meane Offices, as Drummes, Fifes, Surgeons, and the Clarke of the band. fol. 71.
  • Chap. 7 The Prelates charge that takes care of the Souldiers. fol. 73.
  • Chap. 8 How Pikes are to be caried in aray, march or battail. fol. 75.

The Contents of the second Booke.

  • Chap. 1 THe office of the Sergeant of the Band. fol. 78.
  • Chap. 2 The office of an Alfierus, or Ensigne-bearer. fol. 86.
  • Chap. 3 The office of the Lieutenant of a Company. fol. 95.
  • Chap. 4 The office and duty that appertaines to Lanze-spezzate, voluntarie Lieutenants, the Gentlemen of a band, or Caual­liers of Saint Georges squadrons. fol. 101.
  • [Page]Chap. 5 The office of a Captaine which hath the guiding of a band of men. fol. 110.
  • Chap. 6 The office of a Colonell. fol. 124.

The Contents of the third Booke.

  • Chap. 1 THe arming of a Pike-man: fol. 134.
  • And Muskettiere. fol. 135.
  • Chap. 2 The office of the Muster-master, both necessarie and profi­table, when a Prince or his Generall haue diuers regiments of seuerall Nations vnder pay. fol. 136.
  • Chap. 3 A rule to set Souldiers in aray. fol. 137.
  • The distance to be obserued betwixt rancke and rancke, man and man, both in marching, and also in maine battaile. fol. 139.
  • How Pikes are to be raised vp and abased in closing and opening of a battaile. fol. 140.
  • How Pikes are to be carried in aray, march, or battaile, with also their necessary Notes. fol. 141.
  • Certaine words to bee vsed of the Officers that traine. fol. 147.

THE FIRST BOOKE OF MILITARY Directions: Jn the which is set out how a good Souldier DISNIER and CORPORALL, ought to behaue themselues in Warres: Together with the Martiall lawes of the Field; And other necessary Notes and Offices.

CHAP. I. And first what is to be required, and necessarie to be obserued in a priuate SOVLDIER.

THE plat-forme of a Fortresse, by how much more it is planted vpon a sure foundation, by so much more it is participant of a firme and forci­ble perfection: which reason duly considered it ought to lead euery man so to rule himselfe in all his af­faires, as he may be both apt to receiue, and able to per­forme all vertuous and valorous actions. Therefor he [Page 2] that desires to become a Souldier of assured good qua­litie, to the intent he may be able to perseuer in each en­terprise, beare out euery brunt stoutly, and serue suffi­ciently, he ought to haue a strong body, sound, free from sicknesse, and of a good complexion: So shall he be able to resist the continuall toile and trauell, which of necessi­tie he must daily take, as continuall and extreame cold in the winter, immoderate heate in the summer, in march­ing in the day, keeping sentinell in the night, and in his cold cabben, in secret ambushes, and in trenches, where perchance he shall stand a number of houres in the wa­ter and mire vp to the knees: and besides vpon bul­warkes, breaches in espialls, in sentinels, perdues, and such like, when occasion requires and necessitie con­straines: of all which exploites and discommodities hee must perforce be partaker.

Wherefore that man which is not of such sufficiencie in body (to the end he spend not his time in vaine) it is very requisite he resolue himselfe to exercise some other profession, for although some doe hold that few men be strong by nature, but many by exercise and industrie: yet that notwithstanding strength of body is first to be required, in respect that a Souldier must be aswell ac­quainted, and as able to beare continuall trauell, as a bird can endure to flie, yea and to put on a resolute minde, to beare all the miseries and hazardes of warlike affaires. A Souldier is generally to be chosen betwixt 18. and 46. yeares.

Moreouer, I suppose it most necessarie, that euery man according to the nature of his body, and inclined motion of his minde, make election of his armes and weapons, as of pike, halbert, or hargabuse: Neuerthelesse respect [Page 3] ought to be had to the proportion of his person, and to take such armes as doth best agree with the same: to a tall man a pike, to a meane stature a halberd, and to a little nimble person a peece. But if he preferre his proper dis­position before the qualitie of his person, it is very neces­sarie he exercise that weapon he makes choise of, to the intent he may attaine vnto a most perfect practise of the same, for as no man at the first time when he takes any toole or instrument in his hand, growes immediately at that instant to be a perfect artificer: euen so it is with a Souldier, vntill experience hath instructed him: touching which I meane to say somewhat.

He which seekes to attaine and attribute to himselfe the honourable name of a Souldier, must first employ his time in practise of those armes wherewith he meanes to serue, and so apply his time, that when any enterprise shall call him forth to make proofe thereof, he may be a­ble to handle his peece with due dexterity, and his pike with an assured agilitie: since those be the weapons wher­with now Mars doth most commonly arme his warlike troupe, and trie each doubtfull fight of bloudy battaile: for in this our age experience and practise makes appa­rant that Archers amongst forreine Nations be neuer v­sed, and the halberd but either amongst few or few in number. The Archer serues to small purpose, but when he is shadowed with some trench or bulwarke free from hargabuse or musket-shot: Or that lyning a band of Hargabusiers, hee doth second them in any inuading onset, and then a whole flight of arrowes, so that they be light and able to flie aboue tweluescore, will maruellous­ly gaule any maine battell of footemen or Squadron of Horsemen. The Halberd likewise doth onely serue in [Page 4] the sacke of a towne, in a breach, in a sally, or canuisado, to enter a house, or in the throng of a stroken battell to execute slaughter; wherefore touching these two wea­pons, vnlesse necessitie constraine, and that Hargabusiers be wanting, Archers may well be spared: and these great numbers of Halberdiers and Bill-men, which are and haue beene in times past vsed in England, may well be left off, saue a few to guard euery Ensigne, and to attend vpon the Colonell, or Captaine, which in an armie will amount to a sufficient number to depresse the ouercome and flying enemy.

Therefore a Souldier must either accustome himselfe to beare a peece or Pike: if he beare a peece, then must he first learne to hold the same, to accommodate his match betweene his two formost fingers and his thombe, and to plant the great end on his breast with a gallant Souldier-like grace: and being ignorant, to the intent he may bee more encouraged, let him acquaint himselfe first with the firing of touch-pouder in his panne, and so by degrees both to shoote off, to bow and beare vp his body, and so consequently to attaine to the leuell and practise of an assured and seruiceable shot, readily charge, and with a comely couch discharge, making choise at the same in­stant of his marke with a quicke and vigilant eie.

His flaske and touch-box must keepe his pouder, his purse and mouth his bullets: in skirmish his left hand must hold his match and peece, and the right hand vse the office of charging and discharging.

Being against the enemie, whilst with an indented course he doth trauell his plaine ground, or else takes ad­uantage of his place and inuasion, as vnder the safegard of a trench, the backe of a ditch, old-wall, tree or such [Page 5] like: let him euer first load his peece with pouder out of his flaske, then with her bullet, and last with amuring, and touch-pouder, foreseeing euer that the panne bee cleane, the couer close, and the tutch-hole wide, or else well proind: so that still obseruing modest order in his trauerse, neither ouerslow, nor ouer-speedy, to the en­tent he become not each mans marke through his slug­gishnesse, nor runne himselfe out of breath through his owne rashnesse, for the most part keeping his side to­wards his enemie: let him discharge going, but neuer standing: so shall he the better shunne the enemies shot and chuse his assured aduantage.

A souldier ought to be carefull that his furniture bee good, substantiall and staunch from raine, the charge of his flaske iust for his peece, and the spring quicke and sharpe: The pipe of his touch-box somewhat wide, that the pouder may haue free passage, which otherwise would choake vp.

In time of marching, and trauelling by the way let him keepe a paper in the panne and tutch-hole, and in wet weather haue a case for his peece somewhat portable, or else of necessitie he must keepe the same from wet vn­der his arme-hole or cassocke, or by some other inuenti­on free from damage of the weather, and his match in his pocket, onely that except which he burnes: and that like­wise so close in the hollow of his hand, or some artificiall pipe of pewter hanging at his girdle, as the coale by wet or water go not out.

It is moreouer requisite, that a souldier keepe his cocke with oyle free in falling, and his peece bright without rusting, neither must he want his necessarie tooles, as a scowrer, tirebale and worme, hauing euery one a vice to [Page 6] turne into the end of the scouring sticke, so that if through wet weather or any other accident, his peece will not be discharged, the skilfull Souldier may with his tireball pull out his bullet, with the worme, the paper and wet pou­der, and with his scourer make his peece cleane within: His scourer must be trimmed on the end with a linnen-cloth of a sufficient substance, therewith to make cleane the cannon of his peece within. The one end of his scou­ring sticke ought to haue a round end of bone of iust big­nesse with the mouth of his peece, therewithall at his pleasure to ramme in pouder and paper, or in steed of pa­per, such soft haire as they stuffe saddles withall, the dan­ger whereof is not like: but this the Souldier must vse when time permits. During the time of his seruice let him euer haue a diligent care to keepe his peece cleane and bright within, and once a fortnight, or at the least once a month take out the breech and throroughly view and wash the barrell within, to see whether it hath any flawes, brackes, chambers, frettings, or ruptures, which would endanger the breaking thereof, especially if before hand the end of his bare scourer haue giuen him any cause to suspect such faults, to the intent he may change the same for a new for feare of spoiling himselfe.

He that loues the saftie of his owne person, and de­lights in the goodnesse and beauty of a peece, let him al­waies make choise of one that is double breeched, and if it be possible a myllan peece, for they be of a tough and perfect temper, light, square, and bigge of breech, and very strong where the pouder doth lie, and where the vio­lent force of the fire doth consist, and notwithstanding thinne at the end.

Our English peeces approach very neere vnto them [Page 7] in goodnesse and beautie (their heauinesse only excep­ted) so that they be made of purpose, and not one of these common sale peeces with round barrells, whereun­to a beaten souldier will haue great respect, and choose rather to pay double money for a good peece, then to spare his purse and endanger himselfe.

But to returne to my matter, let a souldier haue hang­ing euer at the strings of his tutch-box, or some other rea­die part of his garment, a couple of proyning pinnes at the least, that if by fortune the tutch-hole of his peece be stopped or furred vp, hee may therewith both make his pan cleane, and yeeld a ready passage that the fire may haue her course, by incorporating both the tutch-pouder without, and the corne-pouder within together. But a ready Souldier will alwaies fore-see that the tutch hole be so wide, as the pouder without in the pan may haue free concourse to that within the peece, thereby to hasten more speedy discharge, considering a souldier cannot haue leasure and commoditie to proine his peece at all times, but must of necessitie vse a great dexterity.

But since I am falne into the speech of a quicke charge, and nimble discharge, I will by the way declare the opini­on of certaine nations therein.

Experience of late daies hath taught vs, that those Nations which follow the warres, inuent euery way how they may endomage the enemie in all their enterprises, but especially in skirmish, which for the most part con­sists in shot, and by such as can with the eye of his minde make an assured leuell, and with a nimble discharge, both choose out and kill his enemie.

And therefore those souldiers which in our time haue beene for the most part leuied in the Low-countries, [Page 8] especially, those of Artoyes and Henault, called by the ge­nerall name of Wallownes haue vsed to hang about their neckes, vpon a baudricke or border, or at their girdles certaine pipes which they call charges, of copper and tin made with couers, which they thinke in skirmish to bee the most readie way. But the Spaniard dispising that order, doth altogether vse his flaske.

The French-man, both charge and flaske. But some of our English-nation, their pocket, which in respect of the danger of the sparkes of their match, the vncertaine charge, the expence and spoile of pouder, the discom­moditie of wet, I account more apt for the show of a triumph and wanton skirmish before Ladies and Gentle­women, then fit for the field, in a day of seruice in the face of the enemy: and in like sort the charge which either doth shed and loose his pouder whilst a Souldier doth trauerse his ground, or else is so cloddered and rammed together, that he shall be forced sometimes to faile of halfe his charge. Therefore I conclude with the Spaniard, that a good flaske is that which is most warlike and ready in seruice without the curious helpe of any extraordinary inuention.

One of the greatest helpes consists in pouder and match: for a Souldier must euer buy his pouder sharpe in taste, well incorporate with salt-peter, and not full of coole-dust. Let him accustome to drie his pouder if hee can in the sunne, first sprinkled ouer with Aqua-vitae or strong Claret-wine &c. Let him make his tutch-pouder, being finely sarsed and sifted, with quick-pale, which is to be bought at the Pouder-makers or Apothecaries: and let his match be so boiled in ashes, lye and pouder, that it will both burne well, carrie a long coale, and that will [Page 9] not breake off with the touch of your finger. The prepa­rations will at the first touch giue fire, and procure a vio­lent, speedy, and thundering discharge. Some vse brim­stone finely poudered in their tutch-pouder, but that furs and stops vp your breech and tutch-hole.

The bullet of a souldiers peece must be of a iust big­nesse with the mouth of the same, so that falling in smoothly, it may driue downe, and close vp the mouth of the pouder. Some contrary to the lawes of the field vse chaine-shot, and quarter-shot, which is good in the defence of a breach, to keepe a fortresse, or vpon ship­board: but being daily vsed, it will gaule a peece within, and put it in hazard to breake, specially in a long skirmish when the barrell is hot.

Note that after his peece is very hoate, let the Soul­dier if he can, giue somewhat a lesse charge for feare of bursting his peece, vnlesse he haue good triall thereof. If the stocke of his peece be crooked, he ought to place the end iust before aboue his left pappe: if long and straight, as the Spaniards vse them, then vpon the point of his right shoulder, vsing a stately vpright pace in discharge.

It is not in vaine to aduertise him, that in skirmish hee must hold his peece betwixt his thombe and the ends of his fingers, which I account a sure meane, betwixt gri­ping of the barrell, and laying the same onely vpon his foremost finger and thombe, for the one is ouer dange­rous, and the other altogether vnsteedy.

I iudge it likewise most conuenient for him, to take hold of his peece with his left hand in that part of the wood (wherein the barrell lies) there as the peece is of most equall ballance. Although some accustome them­selues to hold it iust vnder the cocke, by reason whereof [Page 10] he shall be enforced to change his hand if he charge out of a flaske, into the midst of the peece, to bring downe the mouth to his flaske which is great delay and hinde­rance in skirmish. So to conclude, he that meanes to be accompted a forward and perfect good shot, by continu­all exercise must be so ready, that in all particular points touching his peece, pouder, match, bullets, and the vse of them, that he neither be to seeke, nor grow amazed in the furious rage of Bellonas fiery skirmishes, her sud­daine surprises, and bloody slaughter of dangerous as­saults of cruell battailes.

The Musket is to be vsed in all respects like vnto the Hargabuse, saue that in respect he carries a double bul­let, and is much more weightie. He vseth a staffe breast-high, in the one end a pike to pitch in the ground, and in the other an iron forke to rest his peece vpon, and a hoale a little beneath the same in the staffe: whereunto he doth adde a string, which tied and wrapped about his wrest, yeelds him commodity to traine his forke or staffe after him whilst he in skirmish doth charge his Musket afresh with pouder and bullet.

Now to speake somewhat of a Pike-mans charge, a few words shall suffice, because I will not be ouer-tedi­ous. Let him learne to tosse his pike, couch and crosse the same, to receiue the violent charge of Horse-men, to front the furious shocke of foote-men, and be able to furnish out his fight both a farre-off and neere hand: Which Notes with the like will be sufficient, by reason that he is for the most part put to stand in a maine and square-battaile. Both the Hargabusier and Pike-man must weare a short rapier and a small poinado: for if in the middest of Encounters and Skirmishes, they be dri­uen [Page 11] to vse them, their length is an occasion they cannot be drawne, vnlesse he abandon his peece or pike, where­by he shall either loose his pike, or want his rapier, which at the Sera and close is very necessarie both for defence and offence: contrary to the carelesse custome of some, whom I haue seene come into the field without rapier or dagger, which was an assured argument, that their heeles should be their target, and their shamefull flight their safety, when their pouder was spent.

Now as these carelesse persons farre misse the marke with ouer great securitie, so some bring in a custome of too much curiositie in arming Hargabusiers, for besides a peece, flaske, tutch-box, rapier and dagger: they loade them with a heauie shirt of male, and a Burganet: so that by that time they haue marched in the heat of the som­mer or deepe of the winter ten or twelue English-miles, they are more apt to rest, then ready to fight, whereby it comes to passe that either the enterprise they go about, which requires celerity, shall become frustrate by reason of the stay they make in refreshing themselues, or else they are in danger to be repulsed for want of lustinesse, breath, and agilitie.

Wherefore in mine opinion it is not necessarie, that this extraordinarie arming of shot should be vsed, but in surprises of Townes, Escalades, and assaults of breaches, to defend the Souldiers heads from stones, and such stuffe as they besieged haue prepared to driue them from their enterprise: Or else in some speciall set battaile against the cut and thrust of weapons: which exploits, for that they be not so ordinary as is the skirmish, so are these armes nothing so necessarie, but rather a burthen more beauti­full then beneficiall, and of greater charge then commo­ditie; [Page 12] specially a shirt of male, which is very dangerous, for shot, if a number of those small peeces should bee driuen into a mans body by a bullet.

The furniture due to a Pike-man besides his pike, ra­pier and dagger, consisting of a common corselet, hauing a coller, curiat, tases, back-part, poldrowes, wambrasses, and burganets for the head, for that they be sufficiently knowne, because I will not be ouer prolixe vpon euery particular point, I will onely say thus much more touch­ing the Pike-man, that he ought to haue his pike at the point and middest trimmed with handsome tassels, and a handle, not so much for ornament as to defend the Souldiers body from water, which in raine doth runne downe alongst the wood.

Euery Souldier ought to carry his Hargabuse, Pike or Halberd, vpon that shoulder and side, which is outward in ranke, for that side which is discouered inward is more defended by the generall order that is kept, then any of the other. Which order of carrying armes, is not onely ready and commodious to vse at all occasions, but also doth make a gallant shew, and a generall forme of good proportion, and true prospect: a thing most necessarie for a man of valour to vse in all his doings.

He ought likewise euer to haue good regard to weare his weapon of like length the other Souldiers vse, which in marching doth make the rankes to be of one iust line, and in shew of a seemely and streight proportion, causing the whole band to carry a braue and singular grace.

A Souldier ought euer to retaine and keepe his armes in saftie and forth comming, for he is more to be detested then a Coward, that will loose or play away any part thereof, or refuse it for his ease, or to auoide paines: [Page 13] Wherefore such a one is to be dismissed with punish­ment, or made some abiect Pioner. Therefore during his seruice and after his returne home, let him still bee wedded to his weapons and armour, that when he is cal­led vpon againe to serue his Prince, he be not enforced to furnish himselfe againe with new Armes, sometimes old, of little value, and lesse goodnesse: as some souldiers now adaies to their great discommendation doe vse. A custome altogether different from the true exercise of armes, and varying from the rule of other warlike-nati­ons, which make true profession of armes: amongst the which the Spaniards and Zuitzers at this day are to bee commended; the one for obseruing an apt, sumptuous, and warlike choise therein, and the other for that they beare all sorts of armes with great aduantage, both in length and strength, the which vnto them becomes very familiar through the abilitie of body they possesse.

Those Souldiers which cannot endure the toile and trauell to beare armes of defence, namely the Pikeman and Halberdier are made subiect to receiue both blowes and death by the hands of their enemies, or through their disaduantage to take a shamefull flight, or at the first encounter to remaine their prisoners.

Therefore it is very necessarie for a Souldier to take paines in daily practise, & to acquaint himselfe through­ly in the exercise and carriage of armes, whereof hee ought to vse practise, specially of those that be offensiue, and in those which ordinarily we are accustomed to car­rie, as the Rapier, and Dagger, Pike, and Halberd and such like, without making open and apparent profession of the practise thereof, but secret and seuerall from the wide sight of the world, that afterwards he may put the [Page 14] same in practise to his greater aduantage and commen­dation.

Finally the Halberdier, who is armed either with bri­gandine or corslet, ought of duty to attend with his hal­berd when his turne comes about his Ensigne, in march­ing, and set squares, in the Captaines lodging and tent for his guard, and at the entrance of a house &c. to be the foremost person to force the passage.

But in a day of battaile the old Romane shield and a short sharpe-pointed sword, to execute in a throng of men, exceedes the Halberd and browne-bill.

Besides the Pikeman which is armed all ouer with a corslet, and is to performe his duty in a maine square, stand, or battaile, to receiue the shocke of horsemen, or charge of the enemies infantery;

There be yet another sort of light-armed Pikes, which onely haue the fore-part of a corslet, and a head-peece, as is the Almaine riuet, or good light-iacke, or plate-coate: these sometimes may be sent amongst the forlorne-hope of Hargabusiers, to defend them from the inuasions of Horse-men.

But touching shot, I would wish our Nation, being men of strong constitution of body, to beare a Peece be­twixt the boare of a Caliuer and a Musket, the which with small vse they would be able to weeld very well at the armes end; which would cary a great aduantage in skirmish: the which like vnto the Hargabuse, they might (as I said before) exercise, and with a gallant and assured raising-vp the crooked end of the stocke, to his breast, hauing before-hand fitted the coale of his match to giue quicke and iust fire, whereof euer he must take the certaine measure, must then discharge amidst his mo­dest [Page 15] trauerse, to his greatest aduantage, and to endomage his enemies: Which done he must first fold-vp againe the falne match in a ready and conuenient sort betwixt his fingers, hauing both the ends of his match light at once, that whilst the one is spent, and in kindling againe, the o­ther may serue his turne.

Besides these foresaid weapons I would not thinke it inconuenient, to haue in a Band certain targets of proofe to march in the front, which were very necessarie to de­fend a ranke of men in a streight-lane, passage, breach or other place from the enemies shot, they all closely and in a low order marching vnder the fauour and shade of them: as in a skirmish I saw put in practise, when Cassi­mire did march with the STATES armie vnder Lo­uaine, 1578.

The Captaine is to set downe by the Generals appoint­ment, the summe of all their paies, and the difference therein, according to euery mans weapon and qualitie. But to speake of other directions and militarie obserua­tions;

A foot-man that is a Souldier, ought aboue all things to be obedient to his Captaine and officers, and neuer a­bandon his Ensigne, nor be absent from his companie without leaue or speciall let. In his march hee ought to be modest, ready in his ranke, obserue a long distance in his Laumband, and keepe an equall stay in his Alta.

If words of aduertisement doe passe ouer from ranke to ranke alongst the marching band, let him deliuer those words plainely and with diligence, which the Captaine giues ouer to be pronounced from mouth to mouth, as to passe Parole appertaines.

If the enemie cause sodaine Arme, let his bale en bouche [Page 16] and his match in the cocke shew his ready good-will ei­ther to receiue repulse, or giue charge.

If either for pleasure in a muster, or in any other shew in sport or earnest, his Company be commanded to dis­charge certaine volies of shot, or a Salua, he must either hold his peece sidelong the rankes, whilst he doth pre­pare the same, or with the end higher then their heades, and discharge ouer the toppes of the formost rankes, for feare of hurting his Companions: which rule they ought to obserue, and thereunto be constrained, vpon paine of seuere punishment.

If any enterprise be made in the night, let him not on­ly keepe his match close from open shew, or falling sparkes, but be vigilant and keepe silence, to the intent that through his negligence and noise their actions be not discouered.

If he keepe Sentinell, and haue the watch-word, let him giue eare diligently to all rumours, noises, and view warily all suspected places, to the intent if he heare any trampling, neying of horses, or approaching enemie (which he may the more easily heare by making a hole in the ground, and laying his eare to the same) or that he doth see the twinkling light of matches, or perceiue any other presumption of the enemie, hee may either by dis­charging his peece, and crying Saint George, arme, arme, giue warning to the next Corpes of guard, that the ene­mie doth approach, or else if his suddaine inuasion re­quire not present aduertisement, he may deferre the re­port thereof vntill the comming of the next round, vnto whom he must from point to point declare what he hath seene and heard.

During the time of his Sentinell, hee ought to keepe [Page 17] himselfe very close, wakefull, secret, and without noise or rumour, his match close and sure from seeing, and his peece ready charged, loaden with her bullet, and proind with tutch-pouder.

If the Round or any other Officer come to search to watch and Sentinels, when he doth first heare or see them approach, let him so soone as he doth perceiue them, de­maund with a loud voice, Qui va la? Who goes there? to which when answere is made, Friends, and that they draw neerer, then let him call to them and commaund that all the whole troupe, but onely one with the watch­word, to make present stay, vntill the word be giuen. And if at the same instant another Round should come another way, let him cause the one of them to pause and abide still, vntill he haue receiued the word of the other, that thereby he may auoide the inuironing snares of for­raine or priuie enemies, which might by that meanes sur­prise him.

Therefore in this respect let him take great care, espe­cially before a Towne besieged, or about the circuit of a Campe, and that he alwaies remember to receiue him that giues the word at the end of his peece or pike, and out of danger, hauing his match ready in his Cocke, rea­dy to giue fire, thereby to reward him with a bullet as an enemie, if he giue a wrong word, or entertaine him as a friend if he giue the right: for vnder colour of giuing the word, many Sentinels haue lost their liues, and suddaine surprises and canuisados haue beene giuen.

If in the night Arme be giuen in the Campe, he must make repaire immediately with his peece and furniture to his Ensigne, where he shall be employed as occasion doth offer.

That he may be the more ready at any suddaine Arme, lying in a towne in Garrison, and being furried and lodg­ed in a house, he ought to haue all the night burning in his chamber by him a candle or lampe, or at the least his fire so well raked vp as he may light a candle at the coales with a match of brimstone, or otherwise: that thereby hee may the more speedily not onely finde his armes (which of purpose he ought to lay readily in an ordina­rie place) but also be better able to prepare himselfe, and kindle his match with all speede.

Note that a Souldier in Garrison being furried in a house, is allowed the best bed and chamber saue one, faire sheetes, board-clothes, plates, napkins, towels, dressing of his meate, seruice at the table, oile, vineger, salt, mustard, candle-light, fire, &c.

Whilest a Souldier is in the Campe, he ought neuer to lie out-of his clothes, his peece ready charged must lye by his side, his furniture at his girdle, which is his flaske, match and tutch-boxe, his rapier very ready, and his poinado likewise at his girdle, which if they should be so monstrous daggers, or such a Cutlers shoppe as our English Fencers are accustomed to weare, they would be both combrous in cariage, and troublesome to his Com­panions, and to himselfe, especially when they lye in their Cabbins.

A Souldier in Campe must make choise of two or three or more Camerades, such as for experience, fideli­tie, and conditions, doe best agree with his nature, that be tried Souldiers and trustie friends, to the intent that like louing brethren, they may support one another in all aduerse fortune, and supply each others wants. As for example, hauing marched all day, and comming at night [Page 19] to the place where they must encampe, one of them chooseth out the driest and warmest plot of ground he can get in the quarter, which is appointed to his band for lodging place, doth keepe all their Clokes, Armes, and Baggage, whilest another makes prouision with one of their boies, in some adioyning village (if time and safety from the enemie doth permit) for long straw, both to couer their cabbin, and make their bed of: during the time that an other with a little hatchet (which with a le­ther bottle for drinke, a little kettle to seeth meate in, and a bagge of salt, which are to be borne of the boyes a­mongst other Baggage, and are most necessarie things for encamping) doth cut downe forked bowes and long poales to frame and reare vp their cabbin withall, and prouide timber, or firewood, if it be in winter, or when need requires, whilst another doth visite vniandiers and victualers (if any follow the campe) for bread, drinke, and other cates, if otherwise they be not prouided by forrage or picoree, and makes a hole in the earth, where­in hauing made a fire, stroken two forked stakes at either side, and hanged his kettle to seath vpon a cudgell of wood vpon the same, or that for rost-meate hee makes a spit, wodden gauberds, &c. And whilst thus euery one is occupied about their necessarie occasions at one instant, they may in due time make prouision for all their wants, and by meanes of this league of amitie amongst them, enioy a sufficient time to rest their wearied bodies, which otherwise would be hard to be done.

Therefore I iudge it very requisite that the whole num­ber vnder the charge of a Desnier or cheife of a chamber, should linke themselues together in perfect friendshippe, and aswell in skirmish and fight aide one another, as in all [Page 20] other actions, by which inuincible knot they should re­ceiue wonderfull commoditie.

It imports much that a Souldier should be tractable, for a man cannot imagine a thing either more ingenuous or better, then due and conuenient ciuility. Therefore let him accustome himselfe rather to be of a Saturnine and seuere condition then a common Skoffer, and an ordinarie make-sport, that he may continue in friendship with his companions, and continually remaine in their amitie.

Moreouer, he is much to be commended, which aptly with facilitie and great dexterity can be conuersant with euery one: wherein if a man doe not with great iudge­ment very circumspectly gouerne himselfe, hee shall for the most part incurre the euill will of those in whose companie hee remaines. The which dealing is of great importance, aswell for the interest of his life, and proper honour and credite, by which meanes the one and the o­ther doth hang in ballance, as also for that he cannot, be­ing drawne away with debates, apply himselfe diligently to follow the warres and seruice of his Captaine: the which ought to be his chiefest obiect and end. For dis­cord amongst men of this Honourable profession, doth hasten, and occasion very much the destruction of their well doing; and altogether hinder whatsoeuer they take in hand, by reason of the suspicions, discordes, despite, and other respects which of necessitie are commonly ac­customed to grow and ensue.

Besides, he must be so moderate in spending his wages, that he be not constrained before the midst of his pay, ei­ther to follow the spoile, or borrow of others: whereof springeth a naughtie reputation and a great discredit: yet [Page 21] notwithstanding he must not suffer himselfe to be noted for a couetous person, or as some say, the enemie of him­selfe: that is, by sparing nigardly, to finde a great want and extremitie in necessarie things appertaining to his ap­parell and victuals, whose expences ought cheifly to be in galant Armor and furniture.

Note that the pay and wages which he receiues of his Captaine and Treasurer, must not be taken or thought to serue or supply for any other vse, but to sustaine life with victuals, keepe him apparelled, and maintaine his armes. Therefore ought it to be gouerned discreetly and order­ly at all times, in what place soeuer he shall remaine, ei­ther in the campe, ciuill cities, or in his proper house, as well to keepe himselfe in health, as cheifly to make appa­rant to his Captaine the noble motion of his minde: So that pricked forward by this spurre of honour, and not for any other extraordinarie and base occasion, a good souldier is continually constrained to win credite, despi­sing all other dealing which ariseth from hope of com­modity and greedy gaine, the way to make a man esteem­ed to carrie a base minde, and almost not disagreeing from brute breasts without reason. For these priuate Souldiers which seeke by such meanes as be extraordina­rie, to aduance themselues aboue their proper pay, with­out doubt giue an euill presage of themselues, and so euill that it should be better for them to apply their time in some other sort, as about merchandise and other occu­pations, rather then follow the honourable exercise of Armes, which is altogether grounded vpon a noble minde, valiant courage, and extreame trauell of body.

He must dispose himselfe to be very diligent in what exercise or enterprise soeuer he shall be put vnto, as to [Page 22] make Sentinell: wherein it is conuenient, as I haue touched before, that he be very vigilant when it is his lot to be commanded thereunto, that in doing the con­trarie, there succeed not a most rigorous chastisement by leauing his body dead behind him, as it may very well fall out, and to whom it may be said, I left him as I found him, since sleepe is the image of death.

A good Souldier ought continually to accompany the Ensigne, and haue speciall regard, that the same fall not in danger of surprising by the enemie, and that he endea­uour himselfe by all meanes without any respect of dan­ger to preserue and recouer the same: for the losse there­of is a perpetuall shame to the whole band. And there­fore he ought at no time to abandon the same for any oc­casion, but lodge himselfe so neere it as he can, to the in­tent that amongst the rest, if it be possible, he may be one of the first at all rumours of armes, and sodaine alarums, aswell by day as night. And being armed with the wea­pon he caries, hauing conducted his Ensigne to the place appointed, by the head Officers, he may in the sight of his Captaine (shewing a moderate forwardnesse and de­sire) breed an opinion of his courage and valor: so that when occasion doth offer, his Captaine amongst the rest may make speciall choise of him.

He must for no occasion absent himselfe, or go to any far distant place about any enterprise or booty of picoree, without the expresse licence of his Captaine: for he that is once become a Souldier is now no more his own man, but his vnder whose gouernment he is paide: who de­siring to serue his turne when occasions be ministred in time of warres, not hauing his valiant and best Souldiers present and ready about him, shall not onely be made [Page 23] frustrate of that he would performe, but sometimes also suffer and sustaine damage, and onely in respect of those which be absent abroad at their owne pleasure, contrary to the consent and knowledge of the Captaine.

He ought sufficiently to eate, rest and sleepe, whilest time doth permit, to the end he be not called for vnpro­uided, and that he may the more readily performe all en­terprises needfull, without any discommodity or want of abilitie, which commonly doe fall out vnlooked for, and vpon the sodaine, for in ordinary and accustomed en­terprises, it is an easie thing to finde euery souldier proui­ded, but in sodaine surprises not. Besides, I thinke it ap­pertaines and is proper to a good Souldier, to follow the warres so long as he possibly can, for the increase of his experience. But being constrained to returne into his Countrey, or into any Citie, fortresse or other place of defence, by reason of some truce, seconded by peace, or through any other accident, which doth constraine him to abandon the warres: then it is necessary he fall to ex­ercise that Art, wherein he chiefly hath been brought vp, either in merchandise, handicraft, or husbandrie, or else whatsoeuer, thereby to supply his necessities, to exercise his body, and to liue honestly: and by that meanes flie idlenesse, a thing most incident to youth: who being al­together ignorant in treading the steppes of a staied life (through the small experience hee hath of the world, which by tract of time is obtained, and by long practise, specially in the exercise of armes) perswades himselfe he shall winne credit and commodity through the meanes of insolent actions, which altogether ought to be abhor­red: through rash and prodigall brauerie, which often­times torments innocent Families and poore Parents: [Page 24] and through galant garments and sumptuous attire, whereby they grow Bankerout: so that they are brought in time (being intangled in those sweete traps sauest and sharpe showers) to runne headlong into a thousand and most miserable ruines. Therefore good Souldiers ought specially to endeauour themselues by some commenda­ble industrie to gaine the good grace of valorous and va­liant Captaines, and mightie Princes, the true Possessors and fathers of warre, through whose authoritie and com­mendation they may be preferred: for the faith and as­sured credit of all warlike and worthy Souldiers doth de­pend vpon men of valour, and not of weake authoritie, small valor; and great abuse of the ignorant and com­mon-people, called the beast with many heades. There­fore let them euer obserue the honor of the good and ver­tuous: for since that in time of warres euery souldier of good conditions doth sharpen his wit, and willingly ad­uenture his life, not respecting toyles or trauell, expences or danger, but doth imploy his industrie to preferre his Princes profite, by great reason in time of peace he ought to be aduanced and maintained by them: and much the more for himselfe, is to vse all his indeauour to compasse his owne commoditie, and thereby make manifest his proper vertue, the which doth not consist in outward ap­pearance of valour and discretion: but in the true action thereof, agreeable to his honourable profession.

A souldier must apparell himselfe in the warres with cloth of fresh colour, profitable and commodious: a­mongst the rest, red, murry, tauny and scarlet makes a galant shew in the field, which he must weare to honour the militarie profession, and for his most fit and apt wearing, and not to hinder the disposition of his mem­bers, [Page 25] as doth our great bumbasted and bolstered hose, which not many yeeres since hath beene vsed: but in steed of them a straite brabantie and gascaine is to bee worne, together with a close cassocke, which may shield both his flaske, tutch-box, his match and peece from raine if need be, whereby he may be ready to execute a­ny enterprise he is commanded to performe, and that of necessitie he ought to doe: and so arme himselfe in other respects, that he may readily doe any seruice hee is as­signed vnto.

He must be willing to put in proofe all things comman­ded, without making reply, or denying any one thing, or deferring the matter from one time to another, either for feare of spoiling or spotting his apparell in foule-way, or foule-weather, or that he shall not be able to inioy com­modious lodging, store of victuals, and such other re­spects, not to be esteemed of, but worthy great reprehen­sion. Therefore it is requisite he practise himselfe first of all to be a perfect priuate Souldier, before he be drawne to the desire of bearing office, which were to set the cart before the horses, and worke by contraries: for first wee must learne to obey, and then it is lawfull to gouerne. But it is no new thing, nor to be maruelled at, that some men are accustomed to obtaine charges by vnlawfull and indirect meanes, I will not say, that they vse them accor­dingly. Therefore to merite a charge, it is alwaies farre more excellent and more conuenient to winne them by desert, then to enter theteinto by intrusion: for those that doe not begge them doe feele in themselues their proper sufficiencie: where contrariewise they are a heauie bur­then to those that know them not, although with great instance they haue procured and sought for them. Which [Page 26] want and vnwarie dealing in this our age, peraduenture proceedes of the small neede the world seemes to haue of good Souldiers at this day, and of the little experi­ence most men in our time haue of the Art of warre or at leastwise our Superiours are blinded with the sweete baites of couetousnesse, cheife cause of such elections. Yet this notwithstanding we ought to retaine with all re­uerence, the honour and credite due to an expert and good Souldier, who with diligence being sought for and selected, as neere as is possible, ought to haue the most chosen charges, and expeditions giuen to their gouern­ment. To the end those affaires may fall out happily, to the honour of their Nation and profit of their Prince. Whilst he doth follow the warres, or is in Campe: let him carrie as little baggage with him as is possible, that he may be the more nimble and light of body, speedy in his iourney or marching, and the more apt for all enter­prises.

During the warres (or else not) he ought to weare in some conuenient place of his garments, that is most ap­parant to the view of the band, a token, red crosse, or scarfe, whereby in skirmishes and other attempts he is to be knowne of what part he is (the Emperials vse a red scarfe, Englishmen Saint Georges Crosse, the French the White-crosse, &c.) or such a signe as the Generall of the field shall make choise of, which he ought to do willing­ly, thereby to remoue suspition out of the minde of his Captaine and Cheifteines, that they need not to stand in doubt of him: and for diuers other worthy respects, since that by these and like manifest meanes, the Souldier shewes inward faith and loialty to the Officers and Cap­taines which gouerne. But if otherwise they carrie the [Page 27] said token and marke loose at their necke, breast, armes, or any other place, it giues matter and occasion of doubt touching their fidelitie: specially being but newly enter­tained, since that being not made fast, they may easily cast away or hide the same in time of perill or doubtfull fight: Which suspition ought diligently to be remoued by him which carrieth an entire desire and full intent to deale truely and loially.

He ought likewise to beware, vnder paine of great pu­nishment, for running from one campe to another, for what occasion soeuer shall vrge him to it, but is bound to serue that partie with which hee doth first place him­selfe, euen vntill the end of the wars.

I haue seene it likewise not lawfull, that a Captaine should receiue into his seruice a Souldier that is departed from another Captaine of the same faction, and this was obserued, to the end that Souldiers should be kept obe­dient and stedfast vnder their Ensigne, where first they haue placed themselues. Prouided alwaies, that their Captaines intreat them honestly and well, which is to be decided by the Marshall of the field. Neuerthelesse, so often as a Souldier is forced of necessitie to leaue the warres, he ought not to depart out of his seruice, but by the speciall licence of his Captaine, accompanied with an autentike pasport of his good seruice, so shall he shun many confusions which are great occasions of scandals and infinite troubles, by meanes whereof he may freely make relation of the good seruice he hath done, and bold­ly shew himselfe before any mans face.

He ought to take speciall care, that he be not the be­ginner and occasion of any discords and mutinies, nei­ther consent thereunto, what reason soeuer should lead [Page 28] him thereunto, since that such peruerse proceeding doth not agree with the worthy, noble, and famous Art of warre, which is a dangerous discredite to such malefa­ctors, and for the most part without any recouery doth procure the generall ruine of many valiant Captaines and mighty armies. And therefore Ruffians and com­mon Hackers that liue idle in the streetes at home, and follow the wars onely for spoile, are most vnfit to make Souldiers, for experience makes manifest, that they are the onely cause of mutinies, so that one such is able to corrupt and disorder a whole band. Wherefore a good Souldier ought rather to apply himselfe to suffer things impossible, then commit so great an error, for by the one great honour and praise shall redound vnto him, and by the other vile act, he shall gaine manifest blame and assur­ed death: for such notable errors, without any remission, or any pitie (as in part I haue before touched, and here­after in the marshall lawes shall set downe) are seuerely to be chastised.

When the Companie doth disband, and euery souldier is to go to his lodging or cabbin, it is very requisite hee stay vntill such time as he see the Ensigne lapt vp and lodged, to the intent, if he be of the gard about the same, that night he may attend to doe his dutie, otherwise hee may lawfully depart, and thereby shunne the shamefull name of a stubborne, licentious and disobedient person. He must learne to vnderstand the assured sound of the drumme, thereby to know alwaies whereunto he is ap­pointed, and what thing is to be done and obeied, which of duty is accustomed to be done, since that with this in­strument Souldiers are giuen to vnderstand, during the warres, what things be necessarie to be executed: One [Page 29] thing besides is most necessarie for a Souldier, which is, that he learne perfitly to swimme, both for that waters cannot alwaies be passed with wading, neither at all times boates and bridges can be conueied with the campe, by reason of naughtie passages, as also in diuers enterprises a man is both more safe and more bold, knowing what he can doe: whereof young Shelley made a most famous proofe, who at the victualing of Midleborow, when their nauie was assaulted by the Flushingers, hauing all his companie slaine, swam a shore with his armes, being the last man left aliue a shipbord: and as the Spaniards at the passage of the arme of the sea, when they went to besiege Siricke-sea. Besides the notable attempt made at the great riuer of Alba in Saxonie, the yeere 1547. where the Imperialists had so famous a victorie.

Now therefore let no man perswade himselfe, that the seuerall and particular experience which belongs to a per­fect good Souldier, can be perfectly and duely obtained by any other way, but by a continuall delight, exercise, and obseruation. For no man doth bring any worke to perfection, whereof he hath not the Art: euery Art doth spring of experience and knowledge, and knowledge doth arise by meanes of studie and continuall practise. Military profession being then more perfect and aboue all other Arts, consequently it is necessarie wee vse in the same greater studie, and more continuall exercise then is to be vsed in any other Art: for so much as it is a most auncient and prudent sentence: All arts doe consist in exercise: and therefore continually at idle times it is ve­ry fit and necessarie for a souldier, to practise and exercise himselfe amongst his Companions in the campe, in run­ning, leaping, throwing the barre, or such like, to make [Page 30] him actiue, and to auoide such idle pastimes as Soul­diers commonly now adaies vse, contrarie to all good order.

Besides which, as I haue partly touched before, euery priuate Souldier ought not onely to be well able to vse the weapon hee serueth withall, but also suddainely to vnderstand all commandements of his Gouernors, whe­ther it be by voice or sound of drumme or otherwise, and to know how to maintaine himselfe in order without breaking aray, not onely marching, but also turning in a troupe or retiring. For that Souldier which knoweth his dutie how to behaue himselfe in the campe, in watch, scout &c. and likewise in marching, turning, retiring, and fighting or skirmishing to obserue the order pre­scribed by his Captaiue, may be called a trained and old Souldier: Whereof if he be ignorant, although he haue beene twentie yeares in the warres, he is not to be esteem­ed a Souldier. But in these exercises the Sergeants and Officers are daily and duely to instruct generally and priuately each souldier, which Officers ought of necessi­ty to haue knowledge in reading, that both what is writ­ten before, and shall be written after in this booke, speci­ally touching the Marshall lawes of the fielde, they may euer read as a Lecture to their souldiers, being in corps de gard, or at other sit and conuenient times. For these be things so necessarie to be knowne and obserued, that it doth both import very much that each souldier should haue them by heart, and if it were possible, sowed vpon their garments to be a perpetuall glasse to looke into, whereby they might guide all their actions, that thereby they might see what they ought to shunne for feare of punishment, and what to imbrace to increase credit.

To knit vp this our first discourse, he that findes him­selfe sufficient and well inclined to exercise this most ex­cellent profession, ought with all modest humilitie, and good intention, frame himselfe to a perfect obedience, aswell to obserue order, a thing so conuenient and neces­sarie in this exercise, as also to execute that which shall be commanded him by his Captaine.

Before a Souldier binde himselfe to serue in a band, he ought aduisedly to consider, and expresly to perswade himselfe, that vnder an expert, valorous, and worthy Captaine, seldome or neuer our trauaile in well doing is forgotten or lost: when as the contrarie doth chance vn­der those that be vaine, vicious, and of small experience, who through want of perfection and practise, doe not know the merit of the valiant and valorous acts of a good Souldier: so that consequently they neglect all toile and trauell done in any honourable enterprise. Therefore it behoues a Souldier to make a good choise at the first, for after whatsoeuer he be, he must still obey him: and likewise alwaies haue respect, and carrie a reuerence to the iustice of Marshall law, and the Ministers of the same, though they be of base condition, since both by the law of Nature and Nations, they ought to be obeyed and ob­serued, and particularly knowne, and had in memory of euery priuate souldier: for thereby both horsemen and footemen are kept in perfect order.

But aboue all things a souldier ought not to forget his dutie and deuotion towards the goodnesse of our Lord God, and our sacred Christian religion, by which the true gift of vertue, valour and fortitude, and all good things beside, we most certainely receiue, and are assured to at­taine whilst our determinations be lawfull and honest. [Page 32] And for that a souldier being subiect to a thousand daily dangers, it behoues him continually to liue as he dare die, and oftentimes to reconcile himselfe to God by confes­sion of his sinnes, and receiue the benefit of the most blessed Sacrament.

I haue beene somewhat more copious in this first discourse touching a souldier, then perchance I meane to be in any of the rest, by reason this is the first steppe and degree a man ought to set his feete vpon, before he mount the throne of perfect gouernment in Marshall affaires: for if a souldier can obtaine tried experience in this first point, he may with more ease ascend the other, since this is onely the ground worke of all the rest.

CHAP. II. The Office which appertaines to a Corporall, Cape de Squadre, Disnier, or chiefe of Chamber.

IT is not to be doubted, but that all notable errors de­pend onely of idlenesse, and that all worthy and com­mendable acts spring of vigilant warinesse. Therefore a Corporall, Cape de Squadre, Disnier, or chiefe of Cham­ber, or how you list to terme them, ought to be no lesse prudent and carefull ouer the gouernment of his people, then a father in ruling of his family: and as euery parent doth passe in age his children, euen so a Corporall should be such, that he may exceede any souldier, if not by ex­perience and yeeres, at leastwise with diligence and sharp­nesse of wit. Through which endeauour and exercise, ioyned with a feruent desire and delight, to attaine to the [Page 33] perfit tip of this honourable profession, he shall euery day become more capeable, and of greater experience: wherefore I would as neere as is possible, not onely haue him expresly acquainted with the aduertisements and Martiall lawes following, but also indued with the best of those conditions which I haue set out in my former discourse of a priuate Souldier, since that to mount vp to this second degree, it is very necessary and requisite, that he haue made long abode in the practise and expe­rience in the first step of seruice appertaining to a priuate Souldier. The Captaine must select and choose foure of the most skilfull Souldiers, which be honest, loyall, and perfect religious Christians, out of euery Hundreth in his band: whereof two are to haue charge of the shot, the other two of the pikes, euery one guiding 24. a piece, the which ought all of them to be lodged together, and the Corporall himselfe in the middest of his charge, wher­by when any secret seruice is to be done, they may call and assemble by the appointment of the Superiour offi­cers, their whole squadron, or what lesse number else, without the sound of any drumme.

Now then a Corporall with his squadron of 25. or more, according to the discretion of the Captaine, lodg­ing together with his company, must prouide generally for all their reasonable wants of wages, match, pouder, and other munition, and must instruct them how to han­dle their weapons. He must likewise remember perfect­ly how euery one is armed and furnished when he receiu­eth them in charge, and to see that no part thereof be spoiled but preserued neat and trimme: and aboue all things to looke well to the behauiour of his companie, not suffering them to vse vnlawfull and prohibited gam­ing, [Page 34] neither to giue themselues to drinking and surfeting, but to spare of their pay to furnish themselues brauely and surely against the enemie, wherein he ought to vse his chiefe indeauour. And if it happen that any fault is com­mitted, his part is not violently to punish the Souldier himselfe, as hereafter is touched: but to make it knowne to his Captaine, who must not neither, as some rashly do, reuenge himselfe, but communicate the same with the Marshall or his Prouost, who onely haue vnder the Ge­nerall authoritie to punish: and this due course of iustice shall be more terrible to the Souldier, and breed lesse euill-will in them to the Captaine and Officers: general­ly in these respects, the Corporall must touching the fore­said causes or such like, or it any Souldier be sicke, hurt, or absent, by way of imprisonment or death, immediate­ly make report thereof, finding any thing worthy rela­tion, and spare no man, but deliuer ouer the truth to the Sergeant, the Sergeant from him, or together with the Corporall to the Lieutenant, and he or they all iointly to the Captaine, who is to take order in the cause. Thus shall dignitie of Officers be maintained, and Officers and faults redressed, to the great example of the euill, and comfort of the good. But somewhat more amply to set downe the foresaid respects together with certaine other aduertisements. A Corporall must alwaies fore-see and examine, that the souldiers of his Squadron keepe their armes in order, cleane and intire: and the Hargabusiers stored with match, bullets and pouder, and such like ne­cessaries: a thing worthy to be noted and obserued in this profession: the which makes shew that the same is of a good souldier not onely vsed in time of warre, but in all other times and places, being a knowne difference [Page 35] betwixt the legitimate, and leud Professors of armes. He ought of necessity still to instruct and exhort them, that they liue together friendly, without discord: that they be modest and sparing in their victuals, profitable in their apparell, and that generally they doe shun swearing, and blaspeming vpon greeuous punishment, by which act of blaspheming and swearing by the holy name of the sa­cred Trinitie, they commit greater villany and offence before God, then if before the world they did commit most wicked acts, or infinite errors. Likewise let him prohibite all vnlawfull games, for the performance whereof he ought to proceede with as great dexteritie and curtesie as he can, that alway in matters of impor­tance, he may haue that due obedience which is required, and not through crueltie gaine the hate and euill-will of those persons, which in many other things beside are to obey him: for to chastise them, lies neither in his power, neither in the arbitriment of other Officers, although they be of degrees higher then he, but doth iustly apper­taine to the Office of the Master of the Campe, and Mar­shall of the field. The which point is to be noted and obserued, to the discredite of some Captaines, which at this day delight to imbrew their murthering hands in the bloud of souldiers, and men perchance of honest beha­uiour, being moued thereunto through some hatred, toy, or beastly passion.

Therefore he must alwaies be mindfull to obserue this honourable rule of diuers good and discreet Officers, who sometimes doe ouer-see and winke at light faults, and proceed with a certaine modestie and lenitie, al­though in matters of greater insolencie, with seueritie.

Notwithstanding these and such like authorities, the [Page 36] Corporall ought to be no lesse obedient to euery least point of the Marshall lawes: and in ranke and aray, or in other places where those of greater gouernment be, he must performe and obserue the part and dutie of a priuate Souldier, and retaine like order and obedience: for where our betters be, the lesse giue place.

But when alone with his squadron he is conducted to the place where he is to make watch and ward: then must he take vpon him his office, and make prouision of wood or coles, that he may alwaies haue fire burning in his corps of gard, aswell in the day as in the night, and as­well in the summer as in the winter: without which hee ought neuer to keepe watch, because it is a most necessa­rie munition for the Hargabusiers, to light their match withall, and for other needfull respects. Likewise hee must prouide for oyle, for candles for the night time, for lant-hornes and such like at the Sergeant Maiors hands, or of some others, who haue charge to prouide for those things, and are accustomed to distribute the same. If hee keepe his corps de gard in an open and plaine place or o­therwise: he must conforme the company of his squa­dron, according to the order appointed by his betters: and with the most speedy and artificiall manner that he can, must arme and fortifie with ditches, trenches, and sentinels, the place where he must make his abode with this his small band and troupe of souldiers, the better to resist the enemies furie, or any surprise he might assault him withall, considering that sometimes, yea and that ve­ry often, being set vpon, the Sentinels and corps de gard be repulsed and haue their throates cut, to the great distur­bance and vniuersall domage of the whole Campe. He must ordaine his watch in such a place, that in the same at [Page 37] all times he may remaine warie and vigilant, placing himselfe in the most high and eminent seate of all the corps de gard, to the intent that hee may know and discerne in due time euery particular accident that shall happen or succeede: and thereof immediately aduer­tise his Captaine of all, that he may prouide remedy with speed, according as the case requires warily and se­cretly, euen at the closing of the night, vntill the bright spring of the Diana, and faire day-light: he must ordaine and place Sentinels, and often search and visite them, with the aide of two of the Captaines Gentlemen of his company, called of the Italians Lanze Spezzate, or might be tearmed more aptly, extraordinarie Lieutenants, that he may alwaies remaine vigilant and assured, to the intent he be not assailed vnprouided, to his great domage, and before he can giue warning of the enemie to the campe, which doth rest and lie in safetie in that quarter where he is, vnder his charge, care, and diligence. In such cases he ought therefore to imploy the best men he hath, that hee neuer rest deceiued in a matter of so great importance, since that of those which be but meane Souldiers, or as I may well tearme them, negligent persons, nothing else is to be looked for at their hands, but error, losse, and danger.

Moreouer he must at the least cause the third part of his squadron to remaine and stand continually armed at all points, both night and day, consisting of greater or lesse quantity of people, according as the suspition doth argue the neede of them to be small or great: the Har­gabusiers hauing their flaskes and furniture tied to their girdles, and their peeces ready charged, that vpon a sud­daine they may contend by skirmish, according to need­full [Page 38] occasion, and readily resist the enemie without slack­ing or any remission of time, vntill all the squadron be put in order.

He must be very circumspect, that the rest of the soul­diers weapons, and principally his owne, be laid vp and placed in such order, one kinde being diuided from ano­ther, that in one instant they may be speedily and readily armed: the which he must daily put in practise, and inure them withall, by fained alarmes, by speciall commande­ment and of set purpose, which be most necessarie to be practised before hand for diuers honourable and impor­tant respects, worthy to be had in good consideration.

Therefore let him haue and carie a continuall care, that their armes neuer remaine in any confused order, the which if he should suffer, he should find no doubt to be a great want: but the same may be preuented, and made easie, by accommodating the Hargabusiers in rancke one by one, vpon a boord or banke: the Pikes and Corslets, in order reared and hanged vpon some wall or other apt place in the corps de gard, and vpon each particular wea­pon and peece, euery souldier should haue a proper and speciall marke before hand made whereby to know the same. He ought daily to instruct his squadron euery one apart, how to handle the weapon wherewith they serue: the Hargabusier to charge and discharge nimbly, the Pikeman to tosse his pike with great dexteritie.

Sentinels ought with great reason to be placed about the corps of gard, to the intent the same may be defen­ded and kept with more safety and securitie. Hee him­selfe at the closing of the night, must place the first Sen­tinell, and so consequently the rest, instructing them or­derly what manner they haue to obserue, and how they [Page 39] ought to gouerne themselues in such accidents as might insue: who are to remaine in Sentinell in winter and cold weather, but one houre, or two at the most: but in som­mer, two or three houres before they be changed: for which respect, that euery one may be taxed with aequity, let him first make a iust diuision of his number, according to the number of the houres in the night, and following that proportion, let him see the same performed, with­out fauouring or omitting any, the which hee may the more certainely performe, if the names of his Souldiers be written in a roll, and when the houre glasse hath runne their time (which is necessarie for him to haue in his corps de gard) then to pricke their names, and place new in their roomes, so shall each Souldier be partaker of the trauaile, and rest maruellously well satisfied. But for that in wars, canuisados, surprises, sallies, such like casualties and aduertisements be infinite, I will leaue the rest to his owne vigilant discretion, and suppose it needlesse to ad­uertise him of euery particular point; more then that I haue and will touch in this my first booke of Militarie di­rections, as cases most proper for priuate Souldiers. I therefore at this present thinke it sufficient for a Corpo­rall to know, that it is necessarie he should so dispose the matter through his prouident prouision, that all his peo­ple may be reduced into order, and already haue taken their weapons in their hands, before the enemie giue charge vpon them. And therefore in time and place of suspition and danger, he must place lost Sentinels with­out the watch-word, a good distance off, from the corps de gard, in places most suspect. But in other places not needfull so much to be suspected, and that be neerer him, he ought to set Sentinels with the watch-word, so farre [Page 40] one from an other, as it shall seeme vnto him reasonable or requisite, and that they may inuiron the ground one within the sight of an other, or so that the enemy cannot enter, or any espion issue without their knowledge. If great occasion so demaund, let him place together one Hargabusier, and one armed Pike, to the intent that the one may keepe the enemie farre off, and in a certaine sort sustaine his fury at the point of his pike, whilst the Har­gabusier with the discharge of his peece, giues Arme to the corps de gard and campe, which exploit may be the better performed, if a corporall-shippe of Pikemen bee ioyned together with an other of shot. Sometimes with­out making any noyse or rumour, Arme is giuen to the campe, for one of the two Sentinels may retire, and make relation to the Corporall what hath appeared, been since, heard or happened, whereby he may speedily with great silence giue Arme to the gard, without leauing the place of the Sentinell disarmed, which they ought neuer to a­bandon, but at such times as the enemie is manifestly discouered, the occasion of the alarme being certaine, at which time being retired, they must vnite themselues to­gether with the souldiers of the gard, that they may all wholy in one company execute that which shall fall out best for their purpose, which is, to retire fighting or skir­mishing to the campe, according to ordinarie custome, notwithstanding by the order and appointment of those which haue authority to commaund them, as their Cap­taine, Sergeant maior, &c. but neuer otherwise.

He ought moreouer to be circumspect, that in the bo­dy of the watch a solemne secret silence be kept, without singing, brawling, or any rumour or noise, and specially in the night, both in respect of the enemie, to heare when [Page 41] the alarme is giuen, and to the intent that those which rest and sleepe, and are not yet in Sentinell, may be the more apt to resist and apply themselues to these actions and exercises, which are required of them with vigilant watchfulnesse, since a man cannot without great difficul­tie remaine without sleepe or rest, any much longer time then our nature is accustomed by ordinarie course to beare, and therefore at the entrance of the corps de gard, he ought likewise to keepe a proper Sentinell appertain­ing to the gard, that neither friend nor enemie comming out of the campe or elsewhere, shall be able to enter with­out yeelding the watch-word: and in this sort must the Corporall proceed, euen vntill the diaua bee sounded through all the Campe. For other respects, I finally re­ferre him to my following discourse, which together with that written before, it is requisite he haue in perfit memorie as well as the priuate souldier.

CHAP. III. Six speciall Points appertaining to SOVLDIERS of all sorts.

IT is written in the history of Pietro Bizari, touching the incredible and maruellous obedience of the Tur­kish souldiers, that a certaine Gentleman at his returne from Constantinople did declare vnto the Earle of Salma, that he had seene foure miracles in the Turkish domini­ons: Which was, first an infinite armie almost without number, consisting of more then foure hundred thou­sand men. Secondly, that amongst so many men, he saw [Page 42] not one woman. Thirdly, that there was no mention made of wine. And last, at night when they had cried with a hie-voice Alla, which is God: there continued so great a silence through the whole campe, that euen in the pauilions they did not speake but with a low soft voice, a thing worthy to be admired, to the great shame of Chri­stians: therefore if the Infidels obserue such strict disci­pline, why should not wee that be Christians indeauour our selues to surpasse them therein? recommending our selues and affaires to God, with reuerence and silence, which I would wish to be continued vntill the diana, when together with the sound of the drummes, the same might be with a cheerefull crie renued. But together with silence to set downe certaine other vertues, take them here as I finde them written.


In all places of seruice such silence must be vsed, that souldiers may heare friends, and not be heard of ene­mies, as well in watch, ward, ambush, canuisado, or any other exploit: in which point consisteth oftentimes the safety or perdition of the whole campe.


Such obedience must be vsed, that none regard the persons but the office to them appointed, diligently ob­seruing the same: any offending to the contrary, run­ning into the danger of the law, for longer then obedi­ence is vsed and maintained, there is no hope of good successe.


Souldiers must be secret, and haue regard that they disclose nothing, though sometimes they vnderstand the pretence of the higher powers. The Disclosers of such, merite most cruell punishment.


In Sobriety consisteth great praise to the souldiers, who vsing the same are euer in state of preferment, such regard their duties, and reproue the rash Busi-bodies, Drunkards, &c. are euer in danger of punishment.


The Captaines and souldiers that be hardy of courage, be much auaileable in seruice, specially such as will pon­der what may be the end of their enterprise. Some in times past haue hardly giuen the onset, and after repented the same: but the praise of the aduised cannot bee ex­pressed.


The vertue of Loyaltie and Truth is farre exceeding my capacitie to write, the Practisers of the contrary are not worthy of life, but to be soone adiudged. Subtile e­nemies approue to corrupt souldiers with gifts, and the Deuill to entrap them with the sweete intising baites of leud libertie. But since the reward of truth is euerlasting [Page 44] life, and the vntrue and dissembler looseth the same in continuall darknesse, I trust none of our Countrey-men will learne the one for the other, will be false to his Soue­raigne, or flee from the assured piller of the true faith: from which God keepe all good souldiers.

CHAP. IV. How a Souldier may maintaine obedience, and keepe himselfe in the fauour and good grace of his Captaine.

A Good Souldier ought to haue consideration, that since due orders and lawes are the assured founda­tion and stay of euery state: and contrariwise, discord and disobedience the ruine of all Realmes: so that aboue all things a well gouerned Generall, and a carefull Cap­taine, ought prudently to fore-see that their Campe and Souldiers be paid and punished with equall execution of iustice, not respecting person: yeelding to the Offenders punishment, and reward to the vertuous: depressing vice, and exalting vertue: vsing commendation to the good, and correction to the euill, ioyned with admonish­ments of magnanimitie, the which if they preuaile not, to chastise them: and as the good husband doth plucke the weedes out of the good corne, to the intent that they by their wicked and pernicious example, do not in­fect the rest, and consequently doth prouide that no fault passe vnpunished, nor no valorous act vnrewarded: by which meanes he becomes feared, fauoured, obeyed, and beloued of all the armie: euen so on the other side, the good natured souldier must euer haue respect to keepe the [Page 45] bondes of modesty towards his Superiour, and yeelde many thankes to God, that he hath giuen him so iust and vertuous a Captaine and Generall, towards whom hee must alwaies yeeld like obedience, that the sonne doth to the father, being bound so to doe by the diuine law, with­out shewing himselfe opposite to the order of generall iustice, nor vngratefull for his receiued benefits, but con­tinually by his good guiding in the one and the other, giue his Captaine iust cause to loue and like well of him.

Souldiers be euer bound to obey the iustice and com­mandements of their Superiours: and the Superiour likewise to embrace the obedience of his Souldiers, whilst he doth see himselfe honoured and obeyed of them, either in deedes or words, in earnest or dissembling.

Although the Generall or Captaine were a right Sar­danapalus, so that his lawes be obeyed all things fall out well: wherefore a Souldier ought with all his indeauour to be obedient to the law, with his whole heart loue his Captaine, and feare him with all his force.

Cyrus being cruell, couetous, miserable, and an Exacter of taxes, through iustice was beloued and obeyd.

Cambyses, Marcus Cato, and Marcus Antonius, the two first being seuere and cruell, yet amongst the Souldiers were maruellously fauoured: and the third, although hee was drowned in the deepe and gaping gulfe of Lechery, Gluttony, and riotous gaming, yet was he so beloued of his armie, that his Souldiers would haue suffered them­selues to be crucified, to haue done any thing gratefull vnto him, and that cheifly through his iustice: and there­fore it behoues a Souldier to keepe inuiolate the Martiall lawes of the field. But to touch the cheifest meanes whereby a Souldier may be drawne to obey, to feare, and [Page 46] loue the Captaine, and altogether gaine his good liking and fauour, carie in minde what insueth.

First, a Souldier must presume and perswade himselfe, that whatsoeuer he doth in secret, that it shall come to the knowledge of the Captaine, whether it be good or euill: which feare if he be wise, will restraine him from doing any thing pernicious, or against the Marshall law, or the misliking of the Captaine, and so ought to rest in continuall doubt, lest his euill deedes come to light, and to the eares of the superiour Officers, that with the sword of iustice, the rod of reuenge, and the scepter of rule, may and will chastice him. If he remember this, no doubt he will liue modestly, in obseruing those lawes which are commanded by the Captaine and Generall: for it behoues a souldier still to liue in suspect, that spials and intelligencers be euer present at his elbow, which no doubt will accuse him for his euill behauiour: of which sort a Captaine and Generall haue great store to keepe the Campe and Souldiers in continuall suspicion and feare.

A Souldier must euer shew himselfe gratefull to his Captaine in words and deeds, by remaining patient in his actions, and not to vse complaints in his speeches suffer­ing with quiet contentation the penurie of victuals, if the Campe should want, either through fault of the Ge­nerall, barenesse of the Countrey, or otherwise by his negligence, or through the malignitie of fortune, that neither by water nor land corne and victuals can be brought to them in safetie: wherefore we must weare out this want patiently, and not with a melancholike coun­tenance, make appearance of a wrathfull and furious per­son, by charging of the Chiefetaine openly with those [Page 47] wants: for which proceeding, let him assure himselfe that he shall be esteemed of euery man an insolent, seditious, and impatient souldier. Murmure not against thy Cap­taine with thy tongue, but rather lament in thy heart thy euill fortune, resting content with that portion of victuals his Sergeant shall giue thee for that day. Seeme ioyfull whilst thy Captaine is merry, and sorrowfull when he is grieued, yeelding comfort and consolation, together with faithfull counsell, as the cause requireth.

Shew not thy selfe full of wrath and malcontent, for want of thy wonted pay, although thou manifestly per­ceiue the same to proceed of the couetousnesse of thy Captaine: but dissemble and shew him so gratefull a countenance, that he thereby may be moued to pay the band, if not all, at the least part. If these delayes proceed not by his fault, and that therefore hee laments thy lin­gring want: make free offer vnto him to suffer all lacke and discommoditie to pleasure him withall: whereby he shall be maruellously moued, and much more bound to loue a curteous souldier.

Doe not molest him with demaunding more succour and prest-money, then thou hast need of, yea and that when needy force constraines.

Report not any thing but that which is profitable and beneficiall for the publike State: for otherwise thou shalt be accounted a malicious Detractour, insolent, and in­supportable, making rehearsall of euery little trifle, wher­by hatred is gained in exchange of gaining fauour. Faile neuer in the diligent execution of thy duty, and make shew of thy forwardnesse, euen purposely with the first, euen in those things that appertaine not to thy charge.

Disobey not the Captaines or Generals precepts, nor [Page 48] withstand the martiall lawes: neither affirme that any thing is euill wrought which is done, for it appertaines not to a souldier to reprehend: but to a Councellor to admonish. Do not importune thy Captaine to reward thy trauell and seruice, but attend his liberalitie: for if thou become importunate, he will likewise become Mar­cus Crassus, who at the first vsing great liberality, being continually and ouermuch craued, became at the last extreame couetous.

Present him neuer with any thing, specially with any thing of value: for thy captaine which hath no neede of that which is thine, and perceiuing thee to present him that which is not correspondent to the merite of his wor­thinesse will esteeme the same to be done in manner of merchandise, as proceeding of craft: but if thy Captaine demaund any thing vnder shew of praising and com­mending the same, or the beautie thereof, it is then re­quisite that the same be liberally bestowed vpon him, it being a curteous demaund, which hee commonly will magnificently recompence, as did Artaxerxes.

Accept neuer any thing of thy enemy souldier, nei­ther receiue any letter, yea if it should be from thy father, without licence of thy Captaine Generall, as a thing which only appertaines to Councellors and Chieftaines: for thy Captaine would become iealous ouer thy fideli­tie, suspecting that thou wert corrupted. There is ano­ther note, specially to aduertise all souldiers of, that they doe not rashly, neither of purpose disdaine to be gouern­ed and commaunded of a Captaine, which is perchaunce of no auncient house, as an infinite number of fond and presumptuous fellowes doe now adaies: who being rude and rusticall Clownes, disdaine to be guided by Cap­taines, [Page 49] whose valour and vertue, and not whose auncient stocke, hath giuen them that degree, being ascended to so high honour by the steps of vertue: for I haue seene some that but lately haue left their nedles, their hammers, and their spades, hauing scarce seene a small skirmish, but that they presume themselues to be expert Souldiers, and will say, what is my Captaines valour more then mine? Is not he of base degree as well as I? not considering that we be all sprung out of one stocke, but that our valour and vertue hath made vs noble, as hath beene verified in diuers Princes, Kings and Emperours, as Caius Marius, Lucius Quintus Cincinatus, Attilius Collatinus, Valentinia­nus, Maximinianus, Francisco Carmognuolo, Iulian Romero, and Mondragon, besides diuers others moe, which at this day doe liue, being exalted by the degrees and way of vertue, to the tippe of such praise as is most conuenient to worthy Captaines: and therefore no souldier ought to disdaine to be gouerned by such, whose vertue hath made noble their mindes.

And moreouer, if any such a one that is become Cap­taine, either by meanes of fauour or vertue, bee blotted with some vice or defect, yet wee ought not to disobey him: for Caesar was ambitious, great Alexander a Drun­kard; Hanniball vnfaithfull, cruell, and without religion; Fabius Maximus by lingring esteemed a Coward; Marcel­lus rash and vnaduised: And therefore although thy Cap­taine be accounted most vicious yet if he know how to gouerne and guide his charge, a souldier must obey him, and neither calumniously reprehend him, nor corruptly imitate and obserue his vices, but duely and directly ful­fill his precepts: so that no souldier or Gentleman, of what Great-house soeuer, ought to disdaine to be com­manded [Page 50] of such as haue risen by vertue, to the height of honour, neither any man, how great of linage soeuer he be, to disdaine to accept lesse degrees then a Captaine. For those be the steps by the which he must ascend vnto higher dignitie, as many auncient and noble personages haue done, who from inferiour degrees by little and little haue come to superiour, whereof the great Emperour Caius Iulius Caesar may be example: who being borne of a noble-house amongst the Romanes, was first chosen Pretor in Spaine (a base office in respect of his worthy parentage) as being reputed vnworthy of any greater office.

CHAP. V. Martiall and Militarie lawes, whereunto Souldiers of all de­grees must be sworne, to keepe and maintaine inuiolated at all times and in all places, whether they serue Emperour, King or Prince.

1 FIrst, he that contrary to the word of God (whom in all our actions we must first haue respect vnto) doth maintaine, perswade, and fauour any infidelitie, heresie, schisme, strange or new religion whatsoeuer, and doth not cleaue to the true Christian faith, shall incurre the law appertaining.

2 Item that those which without the feare of GOD despise and deride his holy word, be punished accor­dingly.

3 Item that no man speake against the Christian catho­like faith, neither write against the same.

[Page 51]4 Item that no souldier of whatsoeuer degree or of­fice he be doe breake, spoile, abuse or prophane any Church.

5 Item, that no souldier omit or absent himselfe from diuine seruice, if his Princes vrgent affaires will admit him to be present.

6 Item, that all souldiers obserue and keepe the pre­cepts of the Church.

7 Item, that contrariwise, no man be so hardy to out­rage any Church-man, either in word, deed, or any other sinister meanes, but in liew thereof, carrie a reuerent re­spect to all and euery of them.

8 Item, that in like sort no man go about to defloure, commit adultery or fornication, with virgins, wiues, or widowes, neither by force, neither by other accident (vnlesse the party were consenting, and the matter secret, which neuerthelesse is not lawfull before the face of God) vpon paine of death without mercy.

9 Item, that no man shall destroy, ruinate, endomage, or set onfire any sacred place, without licence of the Cap­taine or Generall.

10 Item, together with these foresaid cases, whoso­euer shall blaspheme, reuile or horribly sweare by the Al­mighty name of God, by his diuine Word and Sacra­ments, let such a peruerse, impious and blaspheming person be punished openly, and to the terrour of the rest let it be executed: for no doubt the plague of the highest will not depart from the tents of blasphemers and despi­sers of religion: for how should wee vse iustice indiffe­rently vnto men, when we are content with silence to suf­fer such iniurie to be committed against God? Therefore first the offences done against God must be straightly pu­nished, [Page 52] and he then will giue thee wisedome to decide the rest, and triumphant victorie ouer thine enemies.

11 Item, all souldiers in generall, hauing taken their oath to serue God and aduance his word, they shall then next be sworne to be true, iust, and dutifull to their Lord and Soueraigne, and his graund Generall, or chiefe Cap­taine of the field, to be tractable and obedient vnto eue­ry Officer placed and appointed to rule ouer him, and to be ready both day and night to serue, whether it be by land or by water, as occasion of seruice shall fall out and require: and whosoeuer doth repine or sheweth disobe­dience herein, of what degree or condition soeuer he be, he must be duly punished by the iudgement of the Supe­riours, appointed for that purpose.

12 Item, that whensoeuer any Chieftaine or Captaine of any band, shall vpon vrgent causes appoint in his ab­sence any other whom he shall thinke good, to supply and execute his roome of Captainship; euery man ought to follow and obey the said Deputie with no lesse care and diligence, then they would the Captaine himselfe vpon paine of such punishment as the Generall or his as­signes shall appoint.

13 Item, that all Souldiers must content themselues with their places appointed, being ioyned together in bands, or seuerall without resistance, whether it bee in marching, watching, incamping, or besieging, being also commanded thereunto by the Captaine or other Offi­cers, vpon such paine as shall be thought good by the Captaine.

14 Item, that euery Souldier shall for his honour sake, gladly fauour, and mercifully forbeare vnto the vttermost of his power all women lying in childbed, or being with [Page 53] childe, or lately deliuered from childe, to defend and succour them from the rage of the cruell and rude soul­diers, or others which follow the campe for spoile. Also it behoueth, as I said before, that all souldiers defend all Priests of godly calling, and all spirituall persons: but now adaies they be the first to whom abuse is offered, of what opinion or religion soeuer they be: but God no doubt will iustly plague all such before they be aware, and when they least suspect it.

15 Item, that euery souldier shall serue, and is by the law of armes bound by long custome to serue 30. daies for euery month, and after that rate he shall receiue his monthes wages.

16 Item, if that any souldier haue receiued his monthes wages aforehand, or any part thereof, and departeth without leaue or pasport from his CAP­TAINE, and hath not serued for it, he or they ap­prehended, shall for the said offence be aiudged to die.

17 Item, if there be any Souldier or Souldiers that in marching, breake his or their aray without iust occa­sion enforcing them, then the Prouost Marshall, Lieu­tenant of the band, or Sergeant, shall compell him or them with violence to keepe his or their ranckes in or­der: and if so be that he or they so disordered, doe chance in this case to be slaine, there shall no man bee blamed by his or their deaths, by the law of the field, for by such disordered people the whole armie may be in danger of ruinating by the enemie.

18 Item, if that by the appointment of the cheife RVLERS of the ARMIE, there bee a battaile fought, and that by the MIGHTY POWER OF GOD, the victorie be obtained on your side, the law [Page 54] of armes is such, that if any souldier hath receiued his monthes wages aforehand, he shall be discharged of the same, neither shall he serue any longer for the said wages, after the day of victory, neither shall owe any thing for it, but he shall be set free from the months seruice.

19 Item, if it chance that in time of skirmish, or in any other conflict with the enemie, some one doe aduen­ture to flie and runne away from his Fellowes, if in the flying his Captaine or any other souldier by shooting at him, or by striking at him doe chance to kill him, they shall incurre no danger for so doing: and if such a flier chance to escape at that time, and afterwards be taken, let him according to the law of armes suffer death for the same: for one such a Recreant may be the ouerthrow of a great multitude.

20 Item, it standeth with the law of armes, that each common souldier shall be sworne, that they will not haue amongst themselues any priuate counsels, assem­blies or conuenticles, vpon paine of the losse of their liues.

21 Item, there shall no souldier, neither in time of marching, nor during the time of their incamping, hold or keepe any whispering or talke, or secretly conuey any letters vnto their aduersaries, without licence from the chiefe Captaine, vpon paine of the losse of his life.

22 Item, if there be any one, or more number, that shall go about any treason, or any other conspiracie to be committed against the campe or garrison, such a Trai­tor or conspirator shall be accused vnto the Knight Mar­shall, and he that bewraieth and accuseth such an Offen­dor, shall haue for his reward a monthes wages or more, as the fact is hainous: so the reward is to bee increased [Page 55] vnto the partie that reuileth the same, and the Offendor to receiue the reward of a false Traitor.

23 Item, that no souldier shall be suffered to bee of a Ruffian-like behauiour, either to prouoke or to giue any blow or thrust, or otherwise wilfully strike with his dag­ger, to iniury any his fellow-souldiers with any weapon, whereby mutinies many times ensue, vpon paine of the losse of his life.

24 Item, if any one beareth hatred or malice, or any euill will for any occasion done vnto him, and so striketh him, he looseth his hand, if otherwise he seeketh reuenge, then by the law he looseth his life.

25 Item, if any Souldier bee warned to watch and ward, and he doe not come, he shall be punished at the discretion of the Captaine: but if any souldier be sum­moned to watch, and he appeare, and after the watch-word giuen, and the watch set, he departeth and leaueth the watch, such a one shall without mercy be punished with the losse of his life: neither shall any man set an o­ther to watch in his place without the leaue of the Cap­taine, vpon paine of his life.

26 Item, that no souldier or souldiers draw his or their swords, or vse any other kinde of weapon, with violence to doe hurt with, in or without the campe, du­ring the time of the warres, vpon paine of death. It hath lately beene vsed with more fauour of life, as such an Offendor to loose his hand: but it is the discretion of the Lord chiefe Generall, in whose hands lieth both the life and death of the Offendors after their arraignment and iust condemnation.

27 Item, the like law is against the Officer and Offi­cers of any band in the campe, if he strike any Souldier [Page 56] without such occasion, as is permitted him in the arti­cles to doe, otherwise he may defend himselfe.

28 Item, that no person or persons presume to be mustered, or to take wages before hee be sworne to bee faithfull, and truely to serue his Prince in those warres present, vpon paine of death.

29 Item, that the Harold at armes shall proclaime and publish all that the Generall shall giue him in charge, in the place and places where he is commanded, and not to adde or diminish any part or parcell thereof vpon paine of death.

30 Item, there shall no Souldiers or other men, pro­cure or stirre-vp any quarrell with any stranger, that is of any other nation and such as serue vnder one head and Lord with them, neither in their gaming or otherwise, vpon paine of the losse of his life.

31 Item, there shall no souldier or other person, being in campe or march, take away any thing from any man being their friend, by violence or deceipt, as their victuals or other necessaries, vpon paine of the losse of his life.

32 Item, when there are any victuals carried or brought vnto the campe, no man shall runne out to take any part of them before they be brought to the appoin­ted place for the purpose: no though they offer for them more then they be worth, vpon paine of the losse of his life.

33 Item, if that the Prouost Martiall haue at any time taken an Offendor, and according to his office, he carieth him to be punished: and if that one or more Souldiers seeke to rescue the said malefactor, and in this stirre the Offendor escape, he or they that are the occasion of this escape, shall be punished with the like punishment as [Page 57] the Malefactor should haue beene, whether it be by life, or otherwise, according as the waight of the crime re­quireth.

34 Item, if there be any found, that hath entered his name vnder two Captaines, and hath taken wages, ar­mour and weapons before-hand: such a person shall be taken for a periured man, and by the law of armes, shall for the same lose his life.

35 Item, if any man hath a place appointed him by the Harbinger or Officers for his tent or lodging, hee must hold himselfe content withall: neither shall hee mo­lest any man lodging within his tent or cabbin, or other lodging at any time, for any occasion vpon paine of the chiefe captaines displeasure, and such punishment as he shall thinke most fit for the offence.

36 Item, that no man shall sound and make any alarme, except it be neede, or vpon commandment from the higher Officers, vpon paine of the losse of his life.

37 Item, when of necessitie the alarme is made, each man must bestirre him to be ready for battaile, vpon paine of the losse of his life.

38 Item, at the first warning of the drumme or se­cretly, all Souldiers must be in a readinesse, and resort to the place appointed, which commonly is the market place (being first of all vnited with his Ensigne) and from thence in order of aray to the enemies, as they be com­manded, vpon the paine of the losse of his life.

39 Item, all souldiers, being Horsemen or Foote­men, must diligently in order of aray by sound of drum or trumpet, accompany the Ensigne to watch, ward, or releife of the same, being there silently in a readinesse to withstand or discouer the enemies: and as occasion shall [Page 58] serue to brute the alarme, with the vsuall word arme, arme, or bowes, bowes, if numbers or any bandes be in pay, vpon paine of losse of their liues.

40 Item, all souldiers must keepe their armour and weapons faire, cleane and seruiceable in a readinesse at e­uery sodaine, none intermedling but with his owne, eue­rie one to helpe other to arme, and diligently to resort to the place of seruice, at scrie, and larum vpon paine.

41 Item; all souldiers must honestly intreate, and true­ly pay Victuallers and Artificers, allowed for the releefe, being friends or enemies, and with curteous words en­courage such to victuall, and releeue the companies or camps vpon paine.

42 Item, all souldiers, in watch, ward, march, or o­therwise, shall haue speciall regard, that if there be man or woman desirous to speake with the Superiours, or be­ing thy enemies for feare doe forsake his owne power, and resort to thee: let such secretly be conueied to the Lord chiefe Generall, regarding that they view no secrets, least they be double spies vpon paine of the losse of their liues.

43 Item, Captaines and Officers, must oft frequent and resort vnto the Souldiers lodging to see in what state their armour and munitions be, and to giue great charge that their furniture be alwaies in a readinesse, the r corslets with all peices belonging to the same, and their caliuers to be made cleane and oiled, to haue match and pouder drie, bullets fit for their peeces, strings whipped for their bowes, their billes and halberds to be kept sharpe. And often to view euery particular vpon paine.

44 Item, he that shall depart out of the place where he shall be put, by his Head or any Officer whatsoeuer, [Page 59] for a lost Sentinell, Spie, Watchman, Scout, or Warder, aswell by day as by night, as it often happeneth, to disco­uer some dealings of the enemie, without attending and staying for him, that placed him there, to take him away, except he should remoue in hast to aduertise his head of the successe of the enemies assaulting or doing any out­rage, shall be punished with death.

45 Item, whosoeuer should rashly offend or hurt, either in word or deeds, any man belonging to the Depu­ties or head Officers of iustice or Captaine, there being in pay for Sergeants. And they being appointed to carrie no other weapon, with steles or staues, but bills or hal­berds, they may be knowne for men of iustice, and not for Souldiers.

46 Item▪ whosoeuer standeth within or without the campe or barres, to watch or scout, and doth his dutie so euill, that thorow his negligence, the enemie setteth vpon the campe at vnawares, he shall die.

47 Item, he that vnder colour of doing the dutie of a Scout or Spie, perceiuing the enemies haue assaulted the campe, and he with such faining lieth still, shall die for it.

48 Item, he that shall forsake the defence, in generall or particular, of the batterie, of the breach, of the passage of a bridge, or other like to him committed, but lightly, not forced goeth away, shall be for so offending, pu­nished with death.

49 Item, whosoeuer entring into a Citie taken by force, followeth not his Ensigne whither soeuer it shall go, vntill the Generall make Proclamation, that euery man shall take booties: And if the Generall cause no such Proclamation, to be made, and that souldiers make [Page 60] spoile, he shall incurre the paine of death, and if procla­mation be made that they shall cease from taking preies and booties, and after licence giuen, if they giue not o­uer, they shall fall into the same punishment.

50 Item, whosoeuer seeing the Ensigne, vnder the which he warreth in fraies or fight, by chance be falne in the handes of the enemies, if he be there present, and doe not his indeauour to recouer it, and when it is co­wardly lost, to punish the Souldiers which haue suffered it to be cowardly lost, with death.

51 Item, he that shall flee from the battaile, being in the face and front of the enemies, or shall go slowly and slackly to ioyne, and afront with them, in case it be to fight a field battaile, or in any skirmish whatsoeuer, shall be punished with death.

52 Item, he that shall faine himselfe sicke, to auoid the fighting of the enemie, or because he would not go to any other enterprise to vse his hands, but (I meane) there for to rob, for to such affaires they will bee ready enough, shall be cruelly punished.

53 Item, whosoeuer seeing his Generall, or his Cap­taine, or other Coronell, and Officer of the campe, in the hand of the enemies, and succoureth him not with all his power, and may doe it, not respecting any danger, shall suffer death.

54 Item, he that shall rob or spoile the people of the Countrie, or Subiects, or Vassels of the Prince he serueth, shal die.

55 Item, he that by theft should steale or rob the ar­mour, weapons or horses, or other thing from any other, seruing against the enemies, shall die.

56 Item, he that should ransome or taxe, or otherwise [Page 61] mis-vse the people of the Countrie, except they should be enemies or rebels to the Prince, shall bee greatly punished.

57 Item, he that shall play at any game for his armor, weapons or horses, which are written vpon the roll, or through his negligence shall lose them, or lend, giue a­way, or lay them to pawne, let him die.

58 Item, he that goeth further then two hundred steppes or paces from his quarter, without licence of his Captaine, specially when the campe looketh or staieth to be assaulted by the enemies, except he should be sent for by his Heads, shall be punished with death.

59 Item, he that shall go longer then the houre ap­pointed in the night abroad, in the campe wandring, except he should be sent by his Superiours for a matter of weight, from head Captaine to head Captaine, by a counter-token, shall be cruelly punished.

60 Item, he that shall lodge strangers, whether he be of the campe or not, without licence of the Generall or of his Captaine, either in his lodging or vnder a tent, ex­cept he be of his chamber or squadron, or by the Cap­taine appointed for seruice forth of the campe, shall bee punished. But euery one ought to be in the night with their Camerads and chamber-fellowes, and not to be di­uided from their lodgings, that occasion seruing, they may be ready with their weapons in their hands: neither ought they to lodge watch, or scoutes, or of the search: for that the Spies hauing no lodging, any excuse being found out, may the better be apprehended. Also if the Scout-watch be taken from their quarter, faining to be a souldier of the campe when they are to spie in the night: they for so offending shal be cruelly punished with death.

[Page 62]61 Item, whosoeuer shall make any words, deedes, or questions in the ward, or in an ambush, or in other place, where respect and silence is needfull, shall be pu­nished.

62 Item, he that should be reuenged of any iniurie receiued, either newly or before time done, by any in­direct way: that is traiterously and not by way of reason, or by way of combate, body to body, by the licence of his Generall, shall suffer death.

63 Item, he that should dare be so bold as to play with false cardes and dice, or should vse in play any pri­uie falshood, theft or deceit in any wise, shall be punished.

64 Item, he that of presumption should passe out of his place into another, either before the bartell or in marching, should out of order make hast to go before, to be the first that should come to the lodging of the campe, or in marching should go out of his ranke from one battaile to another, or hee that doth not obserue the order of marching, shall die.

65 Item, he that shall taske or ransome vpon his Host or Lodger, or vpon any other that is not his lawfull Prisoner by good order of warre, and that he is lawfully taken, the ransome excell not the articles of agreement, that there bee a iust ransome set, vpon paine of pu­nishment.

66 Item, he that shall enter in, or go forth by any o­ther gate, street or way, then that which shall bee accu­stomed, into the Citie, pales, or list, or fort, where the campe is lodged, that is going ouer the walles, or vnder some breach, and not by the ordinary gate, let him fall into the paine of death.

67 Item, whosoeuer doth not immediately retire, [Page 63] when he shall heare the trumpet or drumme, sound the retreat, either of a set battaile, or of a skirmish or battery, or of any other fight, or should go in or come forth of the City, when the assault is giuen to the walles thereof, shall die.

68 Item, he that speaketh, or calleth, or crieth aloud, amongst the ordinance, or in battaile, or in any place where silence needeth, except he were a Head, or other Officer, or Sergeant, commaunding some new order, shall die.

69 Item, he that shall commit any thing whatsoeuer it be, whereby it may be coniectured, that it is against the Prince, and domageable to the Generall and the campe, shall die.

70 Item, Drummes and Fifes must oft sound and ex­ercise their instruments, warning as the mouth of man, to all points of seruice: so must souldiers diligently learne and obserue the meaning of the same, that none plead ignorance, neglecting their duties to seruice appertaining. Also sometimes they shall receiue from the higher Of­ficers or Captaines, secret commandements by word of mouth, the which must with all diligence be obserued, and truely executed vpon the losse of their liues.

71 Item, no man in their marching through what place soeuer they shall passe, shall set any thing on fire, as not their cabbins and incamped place at their depart­ing, without commandement from the chiefe Generall, vpon the paine of the losse of their liues.

72 Item, if at any time, any man shall in the time of his drunkenesse quarrell and fight with his fellow, and in so doing, chance to kill him, he shall in so doing receiue as great punishment by death, as if he had beene sober.

[Page 64]73 Item, if any souldier doe drinke himselfe drunke, or be found drunke, within the compasse of the day and night of his watch and specially if he be vnable to stand in Sentinell, or doe his dutie, such a one must be most se­uerely punished.

74 Item, note that souldiers shall sweare at their first entring into seruice that they will faithfully and truely serue their Captaine for six monthes together, and when the six monthes are expired, they shall sweare to serue him six monthes more, if he need them: And if the Captaine needeth them not so long, but mindes to dis­charge his band, the Captaine shall allow each of them halfe a monthes wages at his departing, and so discharge them.

75 Item, there shall no man make any shout, or other stirring noise in any corner or open place of citie, towne, castle, fort or campe, whereby any danger or inconue­nience may grow vnto the company any manner of waies, on paine of the losse of his life.

76 Item, he that shall disclose the watch-word to ene­mie or friends, except it be to such a one as he shall bee appointed by his Gouernour: or shall be found a sleepe in the watch, scout, or ward, shall be punished with death.

77 Item, if any Captaine for corruption sake, shall giue licence to his owne souldier, or to any other soul­dier without the licence of the Generall to depart the campe, shall receiue the same punishment that the soul­dier should receiue.

78 Item, that no souldier should go out of the campe in the night time without the watch-word, in danger of his life, for if he be slaine so by the watch, there is no blame to be laid vpon them that kill him.

[Page 65]79 Item, there shall no souldier go out of the campe without his armour and other weapons vpon the paine of the losse of his life.

80 Item, euery captaine shall be sworne, that he shall charge euery Corporall vpon his oath, that hee shall de­nounce euery Souldier that is vnder his charge, and that is not able and meete to serue.

81 Item, in like case if the said Corporall shall receiue any new or strange souldier into his band, his part and dutie is, that he giue vnto the higher Captaine know­ledge thereof.

82 Item, no man of what condition soeuer he be, shall be so bold as to conuey away any Offendor vpon the paine of the losse of his life.

83 Item, that euery souldier shall haue vpon his vt­termost garment some speciall signe or token, whereby he may be knowne, such a one as the higher Captaines shall agree vpon. As for example, he shall haue vpon his garment a red-crosse, and vpon his armour a red-lace or such like, whereby he may the better be knowne of his fellowes: and if there be any shall be found without the said signes and tokens, he shall be vsed as an Aduersary, or enemy.

84 Item, that all souldiers, entring into battaile, as­sault, skirmish, or other faction of armes, shall haue for their common crie and word S. George, S. George, for­ward or vpon them, S. George, whereby the souldier is much comforted, and the enemie dismaide, by calling to minde the auncient valour of England, which with that name hath beene so often victorious, and therefore he that shall maliciously omit it shall be seuerely punish­ed for his obstinacie.

[Page 66]85 Item, if any Captaine or other Officers shall pro­cure skirmish, or fight the battaile without command­ment from the higher Officers, for so offending, they shall receiue death.

86 Item, if that any number of souldiers be comman­ded, and placed by the head Captaines; to defend or keep any citie, tower, castle or fort, or any other place, and they being sharpely assaulted by the enemie, once, twice, or thrice, or oftner, in this case the law of Armes is, that the Lord Generall shall allow, and pay vnto such a num­ber of Souldiers but ordinarie wages: neither is there by law of armes any thing more due vnto them: And if the said castles, towers, or fortresse, shall be sold or be be­traied by the said Captaine, Officers, or souldiers, or o­therwise yeelded, without the commandment of the Prince, or at the appointment of the Generall: shall be as false Traitors vsed.

87 Item, if any Captaine, Lieutenant, Sergeant, Corporall, or other Officer, or souldiers, giue into the hands of the enemie, any citie, fortresse, tower, or place of defence, doth incurre, as I haue said, the danger of death, if he by chance be not more then constrained to deliuer vp the same, or that it is like a man of valour would haue done so: and therefore they ought neuer to abandon the place, for words or letters of the enemie, neither at the sight of the invironing campe: for it is not lawfull for the Castellane to leaue his Castle, if he haue victuals, men, and munition, or doth hope for succours. Therefore respect is to be had, which must be holden as a Maxime, that where the place may be defended by as­sault without batterie, that at least one assault is to be a­bidden, and mo to be aspected if it be possible: and if it [Page 67] can suffer batterie, they must abide at the least a volee of Canons: and if the place be so weake that it cannot su­staine, neither the one nor the other, and that it be farre distant from succours: to yeeld doth merit neither pu­nishment of the Prince, nor of the enemie: but otherwise being of force, able to sustaine the enemies furie, and cowardly or traiterously to deliuer the same, merites death of the one and the other.

88 Item, if there be any citie, castle or other sort, yeelded vp by the enemie, without expugnation: there shall no man be so bold to enter into the said place, to spoile or otherwise to kill or doe any outrage, without leaue of the Generall, vpon paine of the losse of his life.

89 Item, there shall no man depart out from the pre­cinct of the campe, with any bootie or spoile, without leaue of the chiefest Officers or head Captaine, vpon the paine of the losse of his life.

90 Item, if any man for feare forsaketh the place ap­pointed him to fight in, and for feare throweth downe his weapon, the Officers or Souldiers may kill him with­out any danger.

91 Item, if any man saying that he hath done some wrothy thing in fight, and it be proued contrary, hee shall be punished.

92 Item, if a Regiment, or Band, shall by mutinies or otherwise incurre the lawes of the field, it is requisite and necessary, for that all shall not be put to death, that euery mans name be taken and put into a bagge, and that the tenth Lot should be executed: The which although euery man doe not feele, yet neuerthelesse he shall feare the euent.

93 Item, at such times as the Generall or Captaine [Page 68] doth muster, traine, or faine any battaile, skirmish, as­sault, or other warlike encounter, if any souldier doth either negligently or wittingly, hurt, maime, or kill his companion with pouder, bullet, or by what meanes so­euer, such a one shall seuerely, and exemplarly be punish­ed accordingly.

94 Item, that each Corporall, and other Officer, shall haue either in written hand or print, these Martiall lawes, and this booke, wherein a priuate Souldier is in­structed, bought and prouided at the charges of the whole squadron out of their pay, to the end that it being continually repeated to the Souldiers, no man may plead ignorance, but receiue condigne punishment according to his offence.

95 Item, that euery Captaine, Lieutenant, Ensigne­bearer, Sergeant or Corporall, so often as their bands, squadrons, and souldiers enter into ward, shall appoint the Clarke of the band or some one that can read, once in the day or in the night, to read vnto the company (that must attentiuely giue eare) not onely these Martiall lawes here set downe, but also all the course of these directions belonging to a priuate souldier, Corporall, &c. contained in this booke, for their instructions, vnder paine of open punishment by the Generall, or Marshall.

96 Item, that the foresaid Officers after one twelue monthes seruice, wherein the souldier hath had sufficient experience, and is inured in these precepts and directions, they shall euen as the Schoole-master doth the children, call euery one particularly to account, and examine them seuerely herein, and to esteeme those for old and perfect souldiers, that know these lawes and their dutie by heart, and at their fingers ends, and the rest Bisonians [Page 69] and fresh water-souldiers, that are ignorant, although they haue serued seuen yeares, yea and to place them in the most seruile seruices. And if there be any that mali­ciously or disdainfully persist in their blunt ignorance, either to disarme them, and discharge them, or else to pu­nish them with open shame and infamie.

97 Item, if there be any man that shall infring, and not maintaine, confirme, and to his power diligently and dutifully keepe and obserue these articles aforesaid, such shall as periured persons with all seueritie be punish­ed: And if any souldier or souldiers shall offend in any manner of thing that doth belong and appertaine to the dutie of a souldier, whereof there is no mention made in these articles, such an Offender shall be punished at the discretion of the Marshall of the field and Generall.

These articles must be openly read in the presence of the chiefe Captaines, by the Notary or Scribe of the Court, and after that they be read, the Oath shall be mi­nistred vnto euery man by the Pretor in this wise, or the like words, to the same end and purpose: speaking vnto the whole company, and saying; my brethren and friends, that are heere present, you haue heard the articles of our Soueraigne, containing the chiefe and principall points of our rights and lawes of the fielde, and of the Oath, and the manner thereof, which euery Souldier ought to take. All you that doe meane faithfully and valiantly to obserue, maintaine, fulfill, confirme, and keepe the foresaid Articles, let him heere now either o­penly refuse to be a Souldier, or with mee hold vp his finger, and say after me.

All these Articles which haue beene openly red vnto vs, we hold and allow as sacred and good, and those will [Page 70] wee truely and stoutly confirme, fulfill, maintaine, and keepe so helpe vs GOD, and his diuine word, Amen.

These Articles with others, which for tediousnesse I omit, would be published, some vpon paine of death, some with greater, and some with lesse punishment, to euery one that doth offend, without any remission or for­giuenesse, or regard of bloud, degree, kindred, or friend­ship: specially at the beginning to lie in campe, whereby the armie may the better be set in good order, and to make it fearefull of God, of iustice, and of the Generall, with loue and feare.

The execution hereof only appertaineth to the master of the Campe, for the hearing, ordering, and determi­ning of the causes of iustice vnder the Generall, as the Lieutenant of a city or towne, Deputie for the Prince. For the master of the campe is the chiefe of the orders, who hath place in the fielde in many things as principall next to the Generall who hath the chiefe gouernment in pitching the campe, and dislodging.

Briefly from the Generall downward, it is the greatest charge and burden that is in the armie, and therefore it is requisite that hee haue good knowledge and remem­brance of all the Orders whereby the warres is to be go­uerned, and that he be of good practise and experience, and duely obeyed.

But such cases as are capitall and of great importance, should be heard and determined by the Generall and his Iudges: It sufficeth that God is the knower and deter­miner, of all things, and next vnto him his Deputies vpon earth: who failing to doe iustice, either for loue, or hatred, shall yeelde account thereof before the di­uine [Page 71] Iudge, and this law cannot be auoided by vs, but we shall be cited and called without appeale.

CHAP. VI. Briefe Notes of other meane offices, as Drummes, Fifes, Surgeons, and the Clarke of the Band.

DRummes and Fifes must be chosen of able qualities and personage, secret and ingenious, skilfull in the sound and vsing of their instruments, which must warne as the mouth of a man to all intents of seruice, diligent in times conuenient to instruct Souldiers in the same, that none by ignorance neglect their duties. These be often­times sent on messages, importing charge, which of ne­cessitie require languages, somtimes to summon or com­mand the enemies to render, sometimes carie ransomes, or redeeme, or conduct Prisoners. Many other things to them doe appertaine, as before is rehearsed &c.

A Chyrurgion is necessarie to be had in euery band, who ought to be an honest man, sober, and of good counsell, skill in his science, able to heale and cure all kind of sores, wounds, and griefes: to take a bullet out of the flesh and bone, and to slake the fire of the same, and that he haue all his tooles and instruments with other neces­sary stuffe, as oyles, balmes, salues, stepres, roulers, bol­sters, splenters, and all other things to the science belong­ing, which also ought to haue courage for his patient, and allowed stuffe, he shall readily imploy his industrie vpon the sore and wounded, and not intermedling with others, to his owne charge noisome. Such be placed with the [Page 70] Ensigne, and lodged neere to the Captaine, and neere their baldrickes in time of fight, which by law of the field is their charter.

The Clarke of a band would be a man chosen of a dis­creete behauiour, such a one as hath the vse of his penne and skilfull in Arithmetike, who must haue a booke in the which he must write all the names of the Souldiers apper­taining to the band, diuiding euery weapon by them­selues, that they may be the readier to be mustred, and otherwise to be placed in order of march, at watch and ward the clarke must be attentiue with his booke, to call uery mans name, to see who is absent, and that certi­ficate thereof be made vnto the Captaine, who must as before is rehearsed, without sicknesse or some licence of the head Officers see him or them punished to the exam­ple of all others. He must sometimes in the watch and ward read vnto the souldiers, the Military lawes and di­rections, causing first a solemne silence to be made, and then proceed in reading, examining, and conferring with euery particular and common souldier, touching his me­morie of these things, for his full instruction. Also the Clarke is to take charge of the Captaines munition, who seeing it deliuered vnto the souldiers, must take note how much is deliuered, vnto whom, and what day of the moneth it is deliuered, with the prise. Likewise he must repaire to the Clarke of the victuals, and by the Captaines warrant receiue such bread, beere and other victuals, as is to be had, and to deliuer it to those that shall be thought by the Captaine to be of credit, to victuall the band by the Princes price, and to take tickets of them as well for that it is deliuered vnto them, as what they doe deliuer vnto souldiers. Also he must in the Captaines name and [Page 73] by his warrant repaire vnto the Merchants and other Artificers, and take such wares as the Officers and souldiers haue need of, who must at the pay day by the Captaine be answered. Also prouided that the Victualler alloweth but the Souldier six-pence a day, the ouerplus goeth to their paiment of furniture and apparell.

The Clarke must oft peruse the tickets to see that no more be deliuered then their wages come to, that the Captaines thereby receiue no losse. The Clarke ought to inquire when any be departed this world, also when any be slaine, and discharged the band, and to make a iust note thereof, whereby certificate may be made to the Muster-master, that the Prince in no waies may be hin­dered, neither the Captaines by the Victuallers receiue any detriment or losse. Finally, he must vpon the report of the Corporals or other Officers, finde and procure of the Captaines, reliefe for the sicke, and wounded Soul­diers and Prisoners, which ought to be redeemed out of the enemies hand.

CHAP. VII. The Prelates charge that takes care of SOVLDIERS of the BAND.

TO knit vp this first discourse of Militarie Directi­ons, and Martiall lawes, speciall care must be had to prouide one man amongst the many scores of Souldiers, that may gouerne and direct in spirituall causes, who ought to be wise, learned, honest, sober, patient, and of exemplar life: who must offer vp daily praiers for his [Page 74] whole companie, must instruct them to be penitent and to restore to euery man his right: to communicate in Catholike and Christian manner, so often as they can, chiefly at speciall times appointed by the Church, and be­fore any dangerous attempt, to feede them with hole­some foode of learned instructions, wherein they may learne how to liue, and so consequently to teach their companies their duties towards God and their Prince, and to giue ghostly counsell and spirituall reliefe vnto the sicke wounded, weake in body or in conscience, and that such be well armed with spirituall armour, that is, with good knowledge and good liuing, ready to perswade them manfully to withstand their enemies, the flesh, the deuill, the world and desperation, putting them in sure hope through the equitie of their cause, their conformi­tie to the Church, and their firme faith in our Sauiour Ie­sus Christ, to enter into the campe of euerlasting life, where they shall ride amongst the Souldiers on white Horses, clothed in white and pure silke, crowned with bright triumphant garlands, as the Scriptures doe witnes. This and such like belongs vnto such personages as take care of the souldiers in a warlike band.

Now then to conclude, and to make an end of my first discourse, I would wish all valiant minded souldiers, carefully to carrie in minde those precepts which are pro­per and due vnto a priuate Souldier, which I partly haue collected and set downe in this short pamphlet, that when he shall be called vnto an hier office, he may deser­uedly ascend the third step of Martiall office, and so by degrees rise to the height of supreame gouernment.

CHAP. VIII. How Pikes are to be carried in aray, march or battaile.

THose that are appointed to carie Pikes in aray of rankes or battell, must know that Pikes amongst all other weapons that belongs to Souldiers, is of greatest honour and credite: and truely, whosoeuer doth carie and manage the same weapon well and with good grace, doth make a very beautifull and pleasant shew to the Be­holders, and chiefly when it is caried vpon the shoulder, sustained and supported with a good grace, and the hand that doth sustaine it be on that side the shoulder where it is placed, and with il Gombedo alto.

They must likewise be aduertised which march in the formost rankes, if they be vpon the right side, to hold their Pikes continually in marching in the right hand, and vpon the right shoulder without euer changing it: and so likewise being vpon the left side of the ranke, to hold it alwaies vpon the left shoulder: those that be in the midst of the rankes haue libertie to vse that side that is best for their commoditie, either vpon the right or left hand, and to moue their Pikes from shoulder to shoulder at their choise and pleasure: It is true that the iust carying of the Pike of those that march in the midst of the rankes, is to hold it vpon the left shoulder, and to carie their right hand behind vpon their dagger, or vpon their side, and so generally all, as well they that be in the midst, as those that be in the head of the rankes are to obserue this or­der, [Page 76] to carie that hand which is at libertie behinde them, or vpon their sides. Let him march then with a good grace, holding vp his head gallantly, his pace full of grauitie and state, and such as is fit for his per­son, and let his body bee straight and as much vp­right as is possible, and that which most imports, is that they haue alwaies their eies vpon their companions which are in ranke with them, and before them going iust one with the other, and keeping perfit distance with­out committing error in the least pace or step, and euery pace and motion with one accord and consent, they ought to make at one instant time. And in this sort all the rankes entirely are to go, sometimes softly, somtimes fast, according to the stroke of the drumme. The heele and tippe of their pikes would bee equally holden, both of length and height, as neere as is possible, to auoide that they fall not out to be by bearing them otherwise, like vnto organ-pipes, some long, some short. The measure and proportion thereof, to hold the heel of the Pike is this: It is necessarie for him to haue an eye to the ranke that doth march before him, and so carie the Butt-end or heele of his pike, that it may bee iust ouer against the ioynt of the hamme of the souldier, that in march shall be straight before him: and so euery one from hand to hand must ob­serue the proportion of that height, that is right be­hind vpon the ioynt of the knee, for by doing so they cannot commit error, carying in their march that legge that is vnder that arme that sustaines and caries the Pike of iust and euen proportion, by mou­ing their pace right vnder the staffe of the Pike, go­ing in their march, as I haue said before, iust and [Page 77] euen, with a gallant and stately, and sumptuous pace: for by doing so, they shall be esteemed, honoured, and commended of the Lookers on, who shall take wonderfull delight to be­hold them march in that order.

THE SECOND BOOKE OF MILITARY Directions: Wherein is set downe the office of a Ser­geant, Ensigne-bearer, Lieutenant, the Gentlemen of a band, and how to skir­mish, and discouer.

CHAP. I. And first, the Office of the Sergeant of a Band.

SInce euery Officer through his con­tinuall exercise and daily diligence in executing his charge, doth at­taine vnto perfit experience by dai­ly practise, which is as it were con­uerted into nature: therefore hee which determines with himselfe to be accounted sufficient and of abi­litie, to discharge the place of a good Sergeant of a band, with a forward intent to learne and be thorowly instruct­ed, ought first to be a Souldier that hath seene much, [Page 79] and a Corporall of good experience, according to the directions of my first booke: In which two roomes it is very conuenient, that he haue tasted and beene present at great diuersitie of seruice, and warlike enterprises, and to carie a resolute minde to delight in the exercise of this of­fice, to the end he be not found therein irresolute and ignorant: and that likewise he faile not in the ready per­forming of any enterprise, when Martiall affaires do call him forth to put the same in execution.

First of all it is very requisite that he haue most perfitly in memorie, the number of all the souldiers of the band, and distinctly with what weapons they are armed, what quantity of Corslets and Pikes, how many armed and disarmed carie short weapons, what number of Harga­busiers with murrians and without, how many musket-eares, how many light armed pikes and targets of proofe, that the better and more readily vpon a sodaine, hee may put the company in order.

He must euer plant the best armed in places most neces­sarie, as at the front and backe, the right and left side of a square. The first ranke in ordinarie long marching, the targets of proofe must go in as a ready couer and bul­warke against the enemies shot: next to them the musket-eares, then the Hargabusiers, and after them the armed and light pikes: amidst whose rankes he must at all times place the Ensigne, garded with Halberds or bils, and then againe the light armed and armed pikes, hargabuse and musket-eares, and last of all targets of proofe: by this equality of diuision, the whole band at one instant shall be ready to receiue any suddaine surprise of the ene­mie. The Sergeant carrying these things in his minde, hauing laid a distinct plat, he may very easily vary their [Page 80] forme and order as he shall be appointed, and as the situation of the place doth require, or the accidents of warre doe constraine.

He must neuer worke vnwarily, or at all aduentures, and tending to no determined purpose, as those that doe not remember the perfit rules and reckonings of their office, whereof there be now adaies ouer many, for when it is necessary for them to alter their order, and that perforce they must quite change the forme and fashion that then they obserue, they know not which way to be­ginne. Therefore to the end his order and rankes may be to the purpose duely and directly changed, and with facilitie disposed: let him euer disseuer and diuide one part of his weapons from an other, causing euery one to turne and enter into their rankes and order by them­selues, so shall hee proceed in taking away, setting for­ward, and intermixing one sort of rankes within ano­ther very orderly. And thereby the full proportion of his band shall be framed, as he hath determined, or as it is deuised by him that commands, either in marching for­ward and backward, or in turning without disorder, by 3. 5. 7. or 9. in a ranke, as the Lieutenant, Captaine, or Sergeant maior appoints.

He ought euer to beware that in ordering the rankes, and appointing the soldiers their places, that they begin not to make debate, or stomacke one another for dignitie of place; the which doth oftentimes fall out to their great annoy and damage, and the Officers tedious toile: For in enterprises of great importance, euen in the pre­sence of the invading enemy, some vaine-glorious fel­lowes are accustomed to striue for the chiefest places: the which roomes by all reason, and of dutie appertaine [Page 81] to the best armed, and not to any others, whose vnruly rashnes may be the ruine of the whole band. Therefore fit and conuenient places are to be obserued with humi­litie, the naked in their places, and the armed in theirs: But to touch one point, which we haue already spoken of, I iudge it most conuenient that the armed (those for skirmish excepted) must remaine in maine stands and battailes, as some say, to abide by the stake, who ought to be so well armed, as they may beare and support the blowes of their enemies, and resist any furious charge, ei­ther of horsemen or footmen: whereas beside their well ordered ranks, by reason they be armed, they make a more gallant show; giuing courage to thy owne people, and discourage to the enemie, and in proofe are more profitable than the disarmed, who remaining in their roomes, the contrary succeeds.

The Sargeant of the Company must haue speciall re­gard when victuals cannot be had for money, by forrage or otherwise, to make repaire togither with the Clarke of the Band, to the principall munitions, that his company taste not of famine; and from thence procure to haue so much as he well can, or as is conuenient, and according to his receiued order, so must he depart and distribute all manner of munitions amongst the Corporals, that euery one of them may giue to their soldiers their portions.

The like ought he to vse, touching powder for the Harquebusiers and musketiers, lead for bullets, match for them to burne, and ech thing else whereof they haue neede, to the end they may alwaies remaine in order, and be very well prouided and stored, as neere as is possi­ble, and as is most conuenient; and to perswade the sol­dier that to gaine a place of more account, he will spare [Page 82] his pay to arme himselfe the more brauely. He must likewise haue diligent eye, that the said munition of match and powder be conserued warily from wetting, and kept with a speciall spare from vntimely spending: for this prouident precept doth import very much in all enterprises, by reason that the negligence of the Sargeant, touching this necessarie fore-sight and care, hath bin the cause that the shot haue not bin able readily to performe their duties according to the appointed determinations, or as necessitie did require, by reason of their vnwary kee­ping their munition in wet weather, or their generall want through vaine mispence, by which meanes many and most notable errors haue succeeded of great losse & moment, and to the hinderance, shame, and totall ruine of a whole company or campe.

Therefore it is most expedient that the Sargeant, togi­ther with the seuerall Corporals, do diligently and nar­rowly examine, visit, search, and view the proper flaskes, tuch-boxes, pockets, and other places where the soldiers are accustomed to carry and keepe their powder and match, and peruse diligently all those things without negligence, fayning, or fauouring: diuers haue receiued great ignominie and shame in their office, for want of the performance thereof: whereas by carrying a contrary care, they haue bin vniuersally well thought of, and com­mended of all good soldiers and valiant Captaines. Therefore as occasion doth serue and offer, he may ad­monish, put in minde, and reprehend with dexteritie the soldiers vnder his charge and guiding. To him it apper­taines to lay his helping hands about all things necessarie for his company, as well in prouiding for them, as dispen­cing, or deferring necessary charges, except for the pro­uision [Page 83] and diuiding of lodgings, which is the office of the Furrier or Harbinger, who ought to be very tracta­ble, diligent, and altogether officious, not being partiall to any one for peculiar profit or pleasure, and therefore it is necessary a Sargeant should know how to write, for it is hard by memory to discharge his charge.

The Sargeant must be carefull to accompanie, at the houre appointed, the guard to the place of the watch, in going vp and downe alongst their flanks when he hath placed them in order, to see them keepe due distance, make the Laumband, march in straight line with their ranks, carry their armes in conformable proportion; and if vpon pleasure they giue a volee of shot in passing, to aduertise them to doe it orderly with due forme, one ranke after another, as they passe ouer against the Gene­rall, or other great officer or personage and not in a con­fused sort altogither, or by peeces. When he is arriued at the Corps of guard, and hath placed euery one in or­der, and prouided for all things necessarie for the watch of that night, he must then giue his aduise and counsell to the Corporalls, that they keepe good order in their Sentinels; yea sometimes and very often, it is good that he himselfe aide them to chose out the most fit places for them to stand in, to the end that the circuit of ground, which for all their safeties is to be kept, may be conueni­ently guarded.

At the ioyning of the day and the night, or somwhat later, he shall secretly giue the Corporalls the watch­word, with the which they are to gouerne the guard as well by night as day: the which word by the command­ment of his Captaine, hee must procure the Sargeant maior to giue him, or of some other that shall haue the [Page 84] charge to giue the same for want of his presence, or in place of this great officer.

He must arme himselfe in such sort, that he be no lesse apt than any other soldier to be able at time of neede, both to defend himselfe, and offend the enemie: touch­ing which effect, Duke Octauio Farnese in the expedition of 12000 footmen, and 600 horsemen, which Paul the third, Pope of Rome, sent into Germanie against the Re­ligion, did dispose that all the Sargeants of his bands should arme themselues with Harquebuses and murri­ans; saying, that so great a number of valiant men being Sargeants, as was in so great an assembly and expedition of such importance, it was neither good nor commen­dable, that they should onely be armed with their Hal­berds, and therefore he ought to haue his page or Mu­chacho second him with those furnitures: neither seems it inconuenient, but hauing placed in order all things pertaining to his office, that he place himselfe in ranke with the rest of the soldiers, yet in such a place as he may easily depart from thence when necessitie cals him away, to reforme or vse remedie to any disorder he vnder­stands of.

He must with dexteritie proceed in reprehending and exhorting the soldiers to keep their due order, and not to disband and stray abroad, but vpon needfull and law­full occasions, and to take order in all other particular points, which are requisite to be obserued for the honor and profit of the Company, which things are chiefly to be procured and obserued by other officers.

Let him beware and abstaine from beating of soldiers at any time, that thereby he grow not odious: for it is not conuenient nor comely for an officer to strike a sol­dier, [Page 85] for thereby he so offends, that he doth incurre the paine to receiue punishment for so doing, of his Captaine or the Master of the Campe.

He must be diligent, carefull, and vigilant in all his af­faires; for in this office, diligence and dexteritie is both to the purpose and most necessarie.

It is necessarie he be alwaies conformable vnto the Sargeant maior, by imitation and obedience in action, and like his shadow, to second him in all his doings; of whom he may alwaies receiue information and order of all such things as be necessarie for seruice of his band: and of him he may learne to proceed by conformitie, in that which is conuenient for his office. For he that is in company with men of vertue and valour, that be of more excellent qualitie than he himselfe, shall euer reape some profit; and the rather for that he is bound to be in the sight, and neere about the Sargeant maior, at all such times as any thing is to be done, where he ought with a good eare, and diligent eye, giue ready attendance, to execute such commission as shall be giuen him; especi­ally those which appertaines to the ordering of the rankes, and euery thing else whatsoeuer, without doing any thing vpon his owne iudgment, but conferre with that great officer, towards whom he must alwaies be courteous and conformable; and with an obedient and beneuolent minde diligently imitate him.

I suppose it moreouer necessarie, as I said before, that he be able to write and read, considering the infinite number of things which are to passe through his hands, and which he ought to execute for the benefit of his company, which cannot be alwaies ordered, disposed, and guided only by memory: So consequently the Sar­geant [Page 86] is to take diligent heed and care of all the foresaid things to execute the points of his office speedily, and to rebuke and teach such as do amisse with lenitie; and al­though he cannot violently strike and hurt any man, yet neuerthelesse no man can resist his authoritie, but ob­serue the same as to the Captaines owne person, if he were present.

He is not to heare any mutinous or rebellious words amongst the company, but immediatly to reueale the same, that speedy reformation may be had, and faults amended. And thus must he be still occupied to reform mens manners, mispence of munition, broken araies, and to be ready day and night to seruice, by the Captaine or Lieutenants commandment, and to instruct the Com­pany, to march, traine, and trauaile, as well by signes from him framed, as otherwise by words spoken, and to haue speciall regard to the company, to see that their ar­mour and weapons be in a readinesse alwaies for seruice: for the diligent and skilfull vsage of this office, is of no small moment to any good order throughout the whole band; no lesse than the Centurion amongst the Ro­manes, who was Captaine ouer a hundreth; and so like­wise euery hundreth in each band ought to haue a seueral Sargeant to direct and gouerne.

CHAP. II. The Office of an Alfierus or Ensigne-bearer.

IF it be a thing most requisite that a priuate soldier should haue a speciall zeale ouer his proper honor and credit; how much more is the same necessarie for a va­liant [Page 87] Alfierus or Ensigne-bearer. Therefore he must with all carefull diligence, due discretion, ascend the 4th degree of this honorable discipline, being already trained vp in the three first degrees, which is, of a priuate soldier, a Corporall, and a Sargeant, whereby to his great commen­dation he may sufficiently merit the sway of this office.

Hauing solemnly receiued the Ensigne of his Cap­taine, like a noble and expert soldier, he ought carefully to keepe the same, and beare a certaine reuerent respect to it, as to a holy thing, yea & to be iealous ouer the safe­tie thereof, no lesse than an amorous person ouer his lo­uing mistresse: since that onely with the sacred shade of the Ensigne, being well guided, the generall reputation of all the band and company is conserued.

Therefore the Alfierus ought to be endowed with such custome, and vse himselfe with such curtesie and ci­uilitie, that he may not only procure the loue of his con­federates, and friends, but of all the entire company.

Besides, it is necessarie to haue neere vnto him a couple of assistants at the least, that be practised and good sol­diers, which may be of the number of the Halberdiers that go next his Ensigne, to the end that when he is con­strained to absent himselfe from the same, through some vrgent and necessarie occasion (for otherwise it is not to be permitted) he may cause one of them take care and charge of his Ensigne, in what accident soeuer might fall out during that time: for that thing ought neuer to be left alone or abandoned to a slender and loose guard, which is of such a great importance, whereupon euery mans honor and estimation dependeth; wherefore it ought of all to be carefully kept, and well accompanied.

Note that the Alfierus, to defend his Ensigne and him­selfe [Page 88] at one instant, must haue in his one hand his drawne sword, and in the other the Ensigne: which thing is conuenient of him particularly to be performed, when it is time to assault the enemies vpon a wall, Trench, Sca­lade, Bulwarke, Breach, or in any strait passage or enter­prise, since that with the point of yron of the Ensigne staffe small defence can be made, as well for the weaknes of the staffe, as through the trouble and continuall waue­ring of the silke which is about it, so that in bearing the same displayed he ought rather to haue regard where he shall set his foote, than to the top of the staffe, or any other place lesse necessarie, as well thereby to flie affecta­tion, which in carying thereof is made manifest, as also to conduct the same with more assured courage.

Moreouer, note that the most honorable place of the threde or ranke is the right hand, and the second the left hand; which degrees likewise be obserued in all the rankes of other soldiers, aswell as when diuers Ensignes do march togither in one ranke: for amongst the bands and squares of soldiers, the flanks do alwaies resist the assaults and furie of the enemie; as the sides which be neerest to them, be alwaies guarded of those that be most practised, and the middle part not, only except the first and last ranke of the ordinance or battaile, where the middest is the place of greatest estimation; for the head or backe of the square being assaulted, they then with­stand the greatest furie. And by good reason, for this place of the midst is euer much more broken and endo­maged of the enemies armes and force, than any other part: wherefore amongst expert and valiant soldiers, this roome is of greatest honor, and of most estimation, as the place that hath greatest neede of defence, which [Page 89] being subiect to more open and manifest perill than the rest be, is of greatest dignitie. For Captaines are accusto­med to shew notable and singular fauor to that soldier, which they prefer to an enterprise of perill and danger, so that it be capable of issue and altogither desperate.

Neither is this to be accounted for a maruell; for as this profession is altogither different from others, so like­wise the orders, and ceremonies are diuersly managed, if a man may terme those things ceremonies, which of ne­cessitie ought with diligence to be gouerned with great care, arte, and industry: It behoues the Alfierus, whilest he doth march in ordinance amidst the band, to go with a graue and stately pace, aduisedly and couragiously ioy­ned with modestie, and without affectation or vaine bra­uery: neither ought he to bow or decline his body at any time to any person, that thereby he may represent and maintaine the reputation and excellencie of armes, and the Ensigne before his Prince, chiefe Ruler, Lord Gene­rall, Coronell, Captaine, Gouernor &c. As he passeth be­fore them, he ought to abase the points and tip of the En­signe, or rather with his arme bow downe neere-hand all the staffe of the Ensigne, and so much more, by how much he is of greater dignitie and authoritie. In this sort shall he make signe of reuerence, and not pull off his cap or hat, neither bend his knee, nor moue any one part of his person, thereby to retaine that dignitie due to the Ensigne and his office.

The Alfierus being in square, ranke, or ordinance, with the Ensigne displaid, doth change (almost neuer) the place where he is planted to march, which is in the midst of the footmen, as a place most safe and best defended. Therefore those that otherwise would vse it, do ground [Page 90] their opinion vpon some ancient order of the Romanes or Grecians, wherein they are deceiued, because at this day we are constrained to varie our order, considering our armes be varied, which do now fetch and wound much more and further of, and are more piercing than those of ancient time.

Neither is it expedient to put this officer, which is of such great respect, alwaies in hazard, as well for the good qualitie of his person, the which we must alwaies presup­pose him to be of, as also for the office of great impor­tance he supplies, since he doth sustaine the displaid En­signe, wherein the reputation and honor of all the com­pany consists. But at such time as he shall march to a Scalade, breach and battery, the valiant Alfierus with his Ensigne in one hand, and his sword in another, as is be­fore said, ought to enforce himselfe to be the first, and by all meanes to mount vp, to enter amongst the enemies, and to aduance and inuite the rest forward, both his infe­riors, companions, and betters: for in effect at such times the particular guiding of the band appertaines to him. Now to the intent that the soldiers at the instant time of a dangerous enterprise, and in a combersome and peril­lous time and place, may be invited, and feruently stirred vp to follow the Ensigne: He must therefore vse such curtesie to all men, that in all hazards and great exploits, he being beloued of the soldiers, may be very much aided and defended by them; whereas otherwise they do either suffer open ignominie, or danger of death, when as they be either abandoned at the point of extremitie, or traite­rously slaine or wounded by their owne companions and followers, as at the assault of Dalahaui, and a skirmish of brauery at Louaine, chanced vnto two seuerall Ensigne-bearers [Page 91] of the Baron of Sheueran, Coronell ouer ten En­signes of shot: therefore since he is the shadow of the valour and good condition of his Captaine and compa­nie, let him be carefull of his dutie.

The Ensigne-bearer may of his discretion and autho­ritie, espying the company trauaile, or follow enemies to their discommoditie and perill, loosing the winde, hill, or ground of aduantage, disordering the aray, may stand still, and cause the drums and fifes to stand and sound the re­treat, that the company may resort and come to the En­signe, and order the aray by the aduantage of the ground, rather than abide the comming of the enemie.

He ought alwaies to haue about him, and to lodge where he doth himselfe, so many good drums, as there be hundreths in his band; that at all times he may make Raccolte, and gather his soldiers togither, and for such like necessarie respects.

He ought neuer craue licence to go to any enterprise whatsoeuer, for any desire he hath to make himselfe knowne, or to win fame, but ought to remaine stedfast and firme, when his turne of seruice comes, in respect of the great charge he doth carry in the manage of the Ensigne.

It is necessarie to haue a horse for his owne vse, the which whilest he marcheth ought to go neere the En­signe, whether he be in square battaile or long march: for by taking his ease on horsebacke, he may keep himselfe continually lustie and fresh, and therewithall may accom­modate his cariage, or baggage; as some soldiers may likewise do among the ordinarie cariage, prouided for by the Captaine.

Note that the Ensigne which he receiued of his Cap­taine, [Page 92] must by him be restored againe at such times as he is discharged out of the company; if during the time of his seruice, there hath not chanced a battaile, assault, or other enterprise, wherein the Alfierus being present, hath made manifest apparance, that he hath merited and deserued the same. For in such cases it is to be vn­derstood, that he hath wonne and gained the same, and not otherwise, vnlesse the Captaine of his free will doth giue it him, which is a very ancient custome, especi­ally amongst the Italians.

It is very requisite the Alfierus haue besides his two Assistants, a valiant and couragious seruant, who is a pra­ctised soldier, and not a nouice, or yoongling, as some very fondly and vnaduisedly do entertaine now a-dayes, that continually being neere him, as well in the maine square battaile, or elsewhere, to second him with a peece, pike, or target of proofe; and may haue in such a one that entire faith and assured credit, that he should haue of a faithfull companion, whom he must not keepe, as an abiect seruant, but he ought to maintaine him, apparell him, and arme him with conuenient armes of defence; for sometimes it shall fall out in the day of a fought bat­taile of a whole armie, that those deputed seruants may haue the custodie of all the Ensignes in the maine square battaile, and the Alfierus of ech company, as men well ar­med be placed in the head of the battaile, or in some o­ther principall or necessarie places, which are to be gouer­ned and defended by practised and valiant soldiers; as particularly fell out at such time as the Marquess of Vasto, fought at Cresola in Lombardie against the Frenchmen, which iourney was lost by the Emperialists, although that day they fought valiantly; and besides in other enter­prises, [Page 93] such men haue executed gallant seruice.

He must alwaies prouide a sufficient corps de guard about his Ensigne, as well by day as night, in what place soeuer he shall be, although no suspicion were to be had of the enemie, that thereby he may remaine safe from all sudden surprises, or vnprouided casualties, and the rather to maintaine the honor and reputation due to the En­signe, whereby all sinister inconuenience may be auoy­ded, and the maiestie and office of the same generally well respected; especially when time and place of suspect ministers occasion. The Alfierus must march to the guard, either armed with a Curase of proofe, or some other conuenient garment of defence, being still secon­ded with his seruant, who is to carry either target, halberd, peece, or pike, or such weapon as he doth delight in, which at the seat of the guard, taking his Ensigne in his hand, he must let rest in the keeping of his seruant. Nei­ther is it requisite in going or marching, that he vnlose and display the Ensigne, without some speciall occasion, but ought to reserue the aduancing, and displaying of the same at full, vntill he come in the sight of the Cheiftaine or Prince, or in the sight of the enemie, or other places of seruice.

It is necessarie his Ensigne haue certaine speciall coun­tersignes and markes, that it may easily be knowne of his souldiers, both neere hand and farre off, to the intent that in all exploits, and at vnknowne suddaines, his soul­diers may perfitly perceiue the same amongst the other Ensignes, different from the rest, wherein the Alfierus must vse an exquisite manage, that by his wise and valo­rous actions without any other mans relation, may be discerned his vertuous actions and forward proceedings, [Page 94] which he ought to make apparant by some notable en­terprise.

The Alfierus must be a man of good account, of a good race, honest and vertuous, braue in apparell, there­by to honour his office, and continually armed as well when no perill is feared, as in time of danger, to giue ex­ample to the rest of the souldiers not to thinke their ar­mour burthenous, but by vse to make it as familiar to him as his skinne. Finally, he must be a man skilfull, hardy, and couragious, of able courage to aduance and beare vp the Ensigne in all extremities, secret, silent, and zea­lous, able often to comfort, animate and encourage the company to take in hand, & maintaine such extremi­ties, & enterprises, as they are appointed vnto, and neuer to retire, but when of noble policie, the higher Officers commaund the same. Vnto this Officer there should be certaine ceremonies vsed in deliuery of the Ensigne, re­ceiuing it by oath in the presence of his band, at which time he must make vow and professe the same rather to be his winding sheete, and therein to lose his life, then through his default to lose the same: whereunto euery priuate souldier should likewise be sworne, as among the Romanes it was vsed, when he was not accounted a soul­dier, but a theefe, or robber, till hee had taken his oath. And therefore their warre was called Militia Sacrata.

CHAP. III. The office of the Lieutenant of a Companie.

THat person vpon whom any charge doth depend, and doth deseruedly manage any affaire, must frame himselfe to vse due diligence, and with dexteritie suffer such tedious toile, as in these serious affaires suc­ceed, since that charge (as I haue already said) signifieth nothing else but a burthen of affaires.

Therefore that a souldier may deseruedly mount vp to this degree of worthy honour and martiall dignitie, he must vse all circumspect care to performe his office like an expert Lieutenant, that the company be well gouern­ed, which he must accomplish with a forward and wil­ling minde (though of dutie hee is bound to performe the same) aswell to content the minde of his Captaine, as to augment his owne honour and reputation. He must neuer appropriate vnto himselfe any one point of autho­ritie, but diligently discipher and vnderstand all things, and make relation thereof to his Captaine, of whom it is necessarie he take all his commissions and directions. His part is to giue willingly and readily counsell and aduise to his Captaine, as often as he is demanded, and other­wise neuer, vnlesse he see that the same may doe manifest good, or in case of present perill.

The Lieutenant ought to carie with him a diligent care of concord, for that particularly the pacification of dis­cords and difference amongst the souldiers of his com­pany, appertaines vnto him, which must be done without choler or passion, and must still handle them very indiffe­rently [Page 96] and curteously. For his indifferencie, besides the gaining of him trustie credite, doth make easie the desci­ding of any difference or disagreement, and is one point which of necessity is most conuenient to an honourable Peace-maker, although it be a very difficile thing to pro­cure peace in points of honour, specially amongst soul­diers that stand much vpon their punctos, and for that respect is it very hard to vse a iust balance. Therefore in such cases it is most requisite that euery one of the in­teressed, shew at the full his entire cause, the which is a thing not vulgar, neither of small importance. And al­though the Pacifier ought neuer to hang more vpon the one side then the other, yet it is conuenient he haue some small respect to him that is wronged against reason, ra­ther then to him that is the vnlawfull worker of the iniu­rie. But if he finde any difficultie in resoluing these dif­ferences, let him conferre with the Captaine, to the end that he, who is knowne to be the occasion, and will not agree to an honest end, may be immediately discharged: but if it be thought good that he remaine to serue a time, for the execution of some speciall enterprise, then the word both of the one and the other ought to be taken, vntill the same be performed or the pay past, and then may discharge him, as is said, to shun a greater scandale: for to enter into vnquiet quarrelling and discord, one e­quall with an other, and with one that receiues the like stipend, is not the part and qualitie of a subiect Souldier, but of a free carelesse Cutter, and band-Buckler, and of an insolent and importunate person, whose nature doth argue in him that his doings tend to an other end, then to become excellent in the honourable exercise of armes. Put the case that one of them should valiantly ouercome [Page 97] the other, yet vnto the Captaine doth arise no other then want, losse, and euill satisfaction: for when first hee did receiue them into his seruice, hee did presume that they were both of them equally to be esteemed, men of good credite and behauiour, and that for such they were con­ducted and receiued stipend. So that quarrelling and kil­ling one the other, as often it falls out in resolute persons, or putting him to a dishonour or open foile: such a one doth not onely depriue the Captaine of a Souldier, but also of himselfe likewise: for the law of reason doth binde the Captaine not to maintaine an importunate per­son, a malefactour, and an homicide, in one band no lesse then a well ordered citie: Considering it is requisite and conuenient his Souldiers, rather then to imploy them­selues in such quarrels, should indeauour and aduenture their bodies to ouerthrow and kill the enemie, thereby to procure his owne proper praise and peculiar profite. Al­waies prouided, that the occasion of the warres be con­cluded and published to be lawfull and honest, which easily in this respect doth remoue all difficulties, whilst a man doth place himselfe in the seruice of a Prince that is religious, prudent, and iust, and that haue expresse and lawfull power to leuie armes, and not with those which are of small authoritie, or tiranous Vsurpers of other mens states, and wicked bloud suckers.

Therefore when the Lieutenant cannot by his owne dealings supply these wants, or pacifie and accord them, in such causes he may remit the care thereof vnto his Su­periour and Captaine. And thus let him haue speciall care that by his meanes no quarrels do grow, neither that he suffer any faction or discention, to take deepe roote, for feare of banding and mutinies.

He ought to haue speciall respect that the Corporals and Sergeants be able duly to execute their office with due diligence for the better performance of seruice, and personally aide them in setting the watch.

Likewise, to the intent that the Sergeant persist not ignorantly, or faile in any one point of his office: it be­houes the Lieutenant in many particular points to aide him, both in respect of his owne credite, and for the generall benefit of the whole band: as in vsing diuers di­rections, disciplines, inuentions, putting the band in or­der, ranke, square, in accompanying them to the watch, and in executing such like enterprises which commonly are to be performed.

So ought he likewise to delight himselfe extraordinari­ly (besides the other necessary parts of his office) in taking view of the Corps de gard, and the Sentinels of his proper company, to the intent they may remaine con­tinually vigilant and ready, and each mans duty duely executed, the martiall lawes read and examined, and a solemne silence generally maintained.

He must obserue great affabilitie and fraternitie with the Alfierus, and friendly consult with him (specially if the Lieutenant doth not manage both the one and the o­ther office, as the Spaniards and other nations doe vse, and might very well be vsed of vs, if the Generall or Co­ronell thinke good, both for auoiding of emulation and charge of pay) but if they be two particular Officers, and beare distinct sway in the band, then let the Lieutenant be very carefull (as he that is the chiefe) to auoide all stomaking and strife that might arise betwixt him and the Alfierus, for thereby oftentimes great scandales haue falne out, and the diuision of the company, a thing aboue [Page 99] all other to be carefully foreseene and shunned. Hee ought to vse a gratious gesture, and a curteous entertain­ment to all his souldiers, countenance euery one ioyful­ly, and solicite their causes carefully towards the Cap­taine and the other Officers, as the Treasurers, Pay­masters, Commissaries and such like, yet euer by the Captaines consent, yea and to the Captaine himselfe, by whose friendly fauour inferiour Officers may be relieued for their pay or other wants. Besides he ought to giue or­der and direction to all the company, diuiding and distri­buting the squadres indifferently and discretly, to the intent the Corporals and other Officers may be obeyed, and that each enterprise may be performed without re­ply or contradiction.

It is necessarie that he put in euery Squadre an equall number of euery sort of armes, and that each weapon be sorted in a readinesse, to the intent that in what place and time soeuer occasion doth require, euery one of them may to his great aduantage, proceed and front the inua­ding enemie with a forceable strength.

Likewise it is good sometimes not to suffer a squadre or rather a whole Corps de gard to consist of souldiers all of one Countrey and nation, but ought rather to bee artificially mixed, and to separate them, thereby to auoid quarrell and generalitie of factions, which by reason of their being together may the rather arise amongst con­sorts of one natiue Countrie, and that more commo­diously then if they were separated.

The Captaine being absent, the Lieutenant possesseth the principall and chiefe place, and ought to be obeyed as Captaine Neuerthelesse in his presence, it is requisite he vse a certaine brotherly friendship and familiaritie to­wards [Page 100] all, yet that notwithstanding, he must proceede in all things with such modestie and grauity, as he may re­taine such authoritie and reputation, as the office he doth hold, doth most worthily inuest him withall.

There ought to be in him a reasonable good knowledge and facilitie in expressing his conceit and meaning sensi­bly, that the souldiers may vnderstand what they haue to doe, to the intent he may the more easily imprint in the hearts and mindes of his Souldiers all such things as hee determines, and that be necessarie for the better seruice of his Prince, and the benefit of his Countrey and com­pany, whereunto hee ought to apply himselfe with all possible diligence, since that of the Prince he is liberally paid, hath his being of his Countrey, and is diligently obeyed of his Band, where he swaies his present office and charge, which is truely of great credit and no lesse commoditie.

Let him prouide himselfe of a horse to beare him, to the intent he may be lusty and fresh in all enterprises, and that he may continually take the view and diligently sur­uey the order which they are to keepe in marching, or in making Alta, and at all other times besides in what en­terprise soeuer.

He must take order that his baggage or carriage, which ought to be as little as may be (which rule the common Souldiers ought likewise obserue) be borne and conuaide amongst the common cariage, which the Captaine hath ordained and prouided for the vse of the whole band.

He must take diligent care to the redeeming of prest or lent money, which the Captaine shall make according to occasion or neede amongst the company, and to distri­bute the same conueniently amongst the Souldiers, and [Page 101] thereof to render and yeeld good account to the Cap­taine, by doing whereof he shall pleasure the Souldiers much, in which time of pay, he hath very good oportu­nitie to put the Souldiers in minde, and to teach them to proceed in well doing, and to desist from euill.

It appertaines generally to euery Lieutenant of a band to be of great experience and ripenesse of seruice, whose authoritie in the absence of the Captaine (as partly I touched before) extendeth to examine, trie, reforme, cor­rect, and amend any offence committed within the band, and also day and night to bring the company with the Ensigne to the place of assembly, there in order traine and exercise the same, as to the necessity of seruice doth appertaine, and being commanded by the higher powers to march towards the enemie, must encounter and fight with them, as if the Captaine were in presence, who vpon impediment, must sometimes be absent.

Finally, it appertaines to the Lieutenant to watch, ward, approach, conduct, aduance against the enemies, and to encounter, animate, comfort, and also to encou­rage the company by word and deed as need serueth: to retire continually maintaining skirmish, vntill he haue re­couered some place of safegard.

CHAP. IV. The office and dutie that appertaines to Lanze-spezzate, vo­luntarie Lieutenants, the Gentlemen of a Band, or Ca­ualliers of S. Georges squadrons.

THe sundry degrees whereunto valiant Souldiers with aspiring mindes seeke to ascend, for that they [Page 102] be many, and for that those which haue attained and ser­ued in those roomes and other great offices, by diuers si­nister meanes and accidents, be now and then disseuered and made frustrate from their charge, as experience hath made many times apparant, who yet neuerthelesse being naturally desirous to continue in seruice, and perchance through forraine necessitie are driuen to remaine in pay, in attending further preferment: Therefore this place was first inuented for such persons, as a speciall seat wherein the flower of warlike soldiers do sit, like a greene Lawrell garland that doth environ the martiall head of a mighty Armie, whose order for warlike force or fame, giues not place to the Graecian Phalanges, the chiefest of the Romane Legions, or to the knightly constitution or couragious enterprises of those of Arthurs round table. For there neither hath bin, nor can be found any place of honor or reputation, as to be a Gentleman of a Band, whether we serue for pleasure or for profit, or haue attai­ned thereunto by merit: or whether we haue bin Corpo­rall, Sargeant, Alfierus, or Lieutenant, wherein Captaines sometimes do plant themselues, specially in the Colonels Squadre, and temporise the time, vntill preferment doe fall: for thereby their former reputation is nothing dis­graced, nor their charge had, in or of any other company, nothing derogated: Considering that those in these Squadrons, either are or ought to be soldiers of such po­licie and perfit experience, that they be capable of any office vnder the degree of a Colonell, and may supply any of those foresaid offices, or performe any other en­terprise of great importance commanded by the Cap­taine, Colonell, or Generall.

And for that many youths of noble parentage, and [Page 103] Gentlemen of ancient houses doe likewise follow the warres, I would that vpon due tryall of their merit, they should enter into these Squadrons, which the Prince or Generall is to confirme, and make a distinct order of va­liant aduentrous soldiers, and call them Caualliers of S. Georges Squadrons, or some such other title; at whose entrance thereinto, they shall take a solemne oath apper­tayning to their order, and their Corporall shall invest them with some Bandroll, Medall or Scarfe, whereupon is pourtrayed S. George his armes, which they must be bound to weare openly at all times, and in all places, en­terprises, skirmishes, battailes, and assaults. I do not put this title for a generall rule, but only as an example for instance, the title may be as authoritie shall thinke fit.

It is requisite that a singular good soldier, being the Gentleman of a band, and Cauallier of S. George his squa­dron, if he meane to gaine the grace and fauour of his Captaine and Colonell, that not onely he be sufficiently valiant and wise, as of necessitie is required at his hands: but it is also conuenient for him to be reasonable well horsed, and to haue in store all sorts of armes, as a Hal­berd, Harquebuse for the match or fire-locke, Armour and Target of proofe, his Lance and case of Pistolets, his Pike, his Pertisan or Epien to go the Round withall, that he may both day and night varie and change his armes at the offer of all enterprises, and as change of ser­uice doth call him forth.

He must alwaies of necessitie haue more than one ser­uant, and ought to apparell him in gallant order: these are to be neere his elbow to follow him with his armes. He ought alwaies to lodge himselfe as neere as is possible, to the lodging of his Colonell or Captaine, to the intent [Page 104] that either armed, or without armes, he may alwayes, ac­cording as the cause doth require, be about his person, either on horseback or on foot; for that the principall guard of this singular personage, that is to say, the Colo­nell or Captaine, doth consist in the diligence and custody of the Caualliers of S. George his squadrons: for so I will be bold to call them, though the title be to be varied. These things notwithstanding, day and night when it fals to his lot, or that he shall be commanded by his Corpo­rall to watch, he must dispose himselfe to be able to make particular guard, and that after a most exquisite order: wherein he must haue speciall care (without making refu­sall at any time) to performe that which shall be appoin­ted him by his Corporall, or by any other that shall com­mand in the name of his Colonell or Captaine. His office in time of watch, for the most part, consists in going the Round, searching the watch, keeping good order in the Corps of Guard, in being a Coadiutor to the officer that guides the company, or rules the watch, and is for the most part exempted from standing Sentinell, and such like duties of a common soldier, vnlesse great necessitie or speciall seruice constraine. It appertaines to him to haue good experience in going the Round, that in per­forming the same, he may discreetly gouerne in the ouer­sight of the watch, called the Sopraguardia: for in this point doth very much consist the prouident good order and forme that is to be obserued, in auoyding the strata­gems, surprises, sallies, and deceits of the enemie. Ap­proching neere to the Sentinell, he must giue eye and di­ligent regard in what order and sort he doth finde him vigilant, how ready he is in demanding and taking the word, and after comming neerer him, he must examine [Page 105] all that hath passed or fallen out whilest he hath bin in Sentinell, and the order he doth obserue, and what hath bin appointed him to doe: the which if it be good he must confirme, and when he doth finde it to be other­wise, he must reherse and refer the same to the Corpo­rall of the Sentinell, that he may vse diligent redresse.

Arriuing in any Corps de guard, he must aboue all things aduertise them, that they alwaies keepe fire light for the necessarie commoditie of the Harquebusiers, and for light in the night, taking order with the soldiers that they and their armes may remaine in a forcible readines: through which his good instruction, there may grow to be no want, and so consequently he must in like cases proceed with like prouident diligence.

After this he must with great consideration and mo­destie, examine euery particular thing, carrying a minde with himselfe to continue and increase the same from better to better, and both in himselfe and to them vse ne­cessarie aduertisements, and in such sort shall he passe through all the Corps de guards, and Sentinels.

If it chance him to incounter another Sopraguardia or Round, to shun the occasion of dangerous difference, which sometimes is accustomed to follow: or for po­licie, in fearing to giue the watch-word to him that pur­posely comes to rob the same, that comming from the enemy secretly, counterfeits the Sentinell, or by some other practise, as it sometimes hath caused damage to the grieuous losse and totall preiudice of the Armie: to preuent such inconuenience, let that Sopraguardia which shall be neerest to the next adioyning Sentinell, turne backe, giuing the word after a due accustomed sort vnto the said Sentinell, to the intent the foresaid Sopraguardia [Page 106] may do the like, and when they are of accord, euery one may follow his owne path; but if otherwise they doe disagree, the deceit remaines discouered, not only in that counterfeit Round, but also in the fained Sentinell, whom the Sopraguardia must examine, and demand at his hand some speciall countersigne or double word, that thereby he may know him for an assured friend, or finde him an enemy or negligent person, the which of all men is very well knowne to merit sharpe and extreame cha­stisement, which at no time, so neere as is possible, is to be omitted.

This former rule is to be obserued of those soldiers that be of one selfe nation: but when the Rounds or Sopraguards be many and of sundry Nations, and the Corps of guards likewise; then the Sopraguard com­ming into a quarter that is stranger vnto him, is bound to giue the word to the Sopraguard of that nation, and of that quarter; so that by such meanes as well the suspition of deceit, as the occasion of discord shall be auoyded.

And if in case the said ordinarie Round or Sopra­guard, do incounter in their owne quarter, with the extra­ordinary, those that be ordinary shall indeuour them­selues to take the word of those that be extraordinarie: for so it is conuenient, and most conformable to that or­der before-said, wherein I haue set downe what is neces­sarie for a Sopraguard or Round to do in a strange quar­ter. And for that it is requisite, as I haue already touch­ed, that the Caualliers be alwaies about the person of his chiefe Captaine, without either being bound to Stan­derd, Guidon, or other Ensigne whatsoeuer, he must in­deuour himselfe, when any enterprise or warlike affaires is committed to his charge, to be apt and ready to vse [Page 107] practised experience in directing and guiding a skirmish, in taking the view of a battery, in discouering of the enemy, in marching or making Alta, in Passa parde in the valiant repulse of a sodaine inuading enemie by Bawl en bouche, in taking view of the situation of a place, in gui­ding a Roade, or troupe of horsemen, in giuing alarme to the enemie, in plucking aduertisements from the enemy, in placing Imbascades, in giuing Canvasadoes, and to know very well how to execute with sound iudgement these and such like important affaires, the which for the most part appertaine to the Caualliers of this Squadron to performe. As likewise it hath bin the custome to giue them the charge for to plant Gabiones for the defence of the Artillery, to batter and endomage the walles, the trenches, the lodgings, and the enemies Squadrons.

Let him remember when he hath bin at any exploit, to bring backe againe into his quarter, those soldiers he hath led forth to any enterprise, vnited and in ranke, marching togither behind him, and neuer suffer them to returne disbanded one by one out of order, which is an occasion of great confusion, and brings but small reputation to the Captaine and conductor of them.

Moreouer, it is very necessarie he know how to make a roade and destroy the enemies country; the which like­wise doth oftentimes appertaine to him to performe: in which exploit he must beware aboue all things, that no soldier in those enterprises disperse or disband them­selues, but with an assured good order, for the most part conformable to my following discourse, wherein I set downe directions, how to conduct soldiers to the skir­mish: and particularly where I declare that he ought to keepe and maintaine for his people the strongest place [Page 108] of situation, wherein he must skirmish; for that com­monly soldiers being in disorder, wearied and laden with spoile, may be easily put to flight, broken and oppressed of the enemies, vnlesse they be seconded or shaded by some forceable succour.

I suppose it likewise most necessarie, that he indeuour himselfe to be apt and sufficient at all times, and in all pla­ces to sollicite and negotiate for his Prince or Chieftaine, any cause of what weight or moment soeuer, considering that most men are not fit to attempt the performance of such doubtfull and difficile causes: for although many make great estimation of themselues, and presume much by their daily reading and Theoricke of those weighty affaires, yet do they want and come far short of that bold and ready practise, which plainely appeares, that the worthy professors of Armes possesse; and specially in the presence of great Princes, whose maiestie and reue­rence for the most part, doth make cold and bring out of countenance the hottest & most resolute determination: as Demosthenes before Philip of Macedone made apparent, when he was not able to pronounce three words of a long premeditated Oration, in behalfe of the Athenians.

This worthy Gentleman of a band, this Cauallier of S. Georges squadre, and likewise all other professors of warlike armes, ought to carry in minde, that of him and his equals the exercise of Armes is to be applied, and di­ligently to practise the same, to the intent he be not for want of knowledge despised of others; and not igno­rantly to despise them that deserue due commendations, but rather to carry and vse the countenance of authoritie to those persons that merit not to beare sway and go­uernment, than towards forward soldiers: Yet for all [Page 109] that towards the rest in some other respects, he ought to gratifie them and helpe them to his power, and so cour­teously winne the goodwils and freindly fauour of all souldiers his equals, to instruct and courteously to admo­nish euery Souldier priuately and apart, what appertaines to his dutie. This Caualliere must be able also to traine souldiers, to make them march in orderly proportions, to cast them in ringes, esses, snailes, hearses, squadres, to re­ceiue and giue charge, to faine skirmishes, onsets, re­traites, and how to order any number of souldiers, from a hundreth to fiue hundreth, for so many may be in a Band, and vnder one Ensigne, as the Swizers and Ger­maines yet vse at this day, and as in former ages our Countrimen haue vsed, which in some respects may passe without reprehension. If a Captaine be disposed to haue so many vnder his Ensigne, when he is not able to bring the number vnto a whole Colloniship, together with the knowledge of the order how to traine, he must indeauour himselfe to be perfit in drawing platformes, in the Ma­thematikes, in the martiall Lawes, in besieging of townes, batteries, mines, and each thing else belonging to mar­tiall discipline.

Let this worthy Cauallier of Saint Georges squadre haue then before his eyes such like precepts, and manage of martiall affaires, that he may encrease his owne credit, winne his countrey fame, fauour of his Prince, and ho­nour of his house and friends, rather then for the regard of riches, stately houses, liuings, and such like, but rather preferre prudent policie, courage, valour and approued experience before such base benefits, whereby hee may attaine to the Lawrell crowne, wherewith diuers mighty Conquerors haue their heads adorned: that hee may be [Page 110] an example to the reproach of such as lewdly spend their daies in idlenesse, prodigalitie, lust and obloquie.

CHAP. V. The office of a Captaine which hath the guiding of a Band of men.

THat person which hath the charge to gouerne other men, specially in matters of weight and of great importance, the liues of men being committed to his hands, vnder whose conduct if any quaile through rash­nesse or want of knowledge, he is bound to render ac­count before God: and therefore he ought to be of no­table capacitie, experience, and exemplar in all his acti­ons and enterprises, since it is a generall note that the eyes of all those that be subiects, be turned towards their principall head and chiefe, in whom as it were in a glasse, they retaine an assured hope to behold most ready rules and perfit examples, whereby they may guide and go­uerne themselues.

In this particular charge of a Captaine, the qualitie of his Officers, make almost a manifest shew of his valour and experience: Therefore like an old and expert Soul­dier, as one that hath past through all those degrees and offices set downe in my two former bookes, he must vse a circumspect care in leuying and making choise of his company, that is, to make election of a politike and pra­ctised Lieutenant, of a couragious Alfierus, of a carefull Sergeant, of gallant and valiant Caualliers of his squadre, of valiant Corporals, of a diligent Chancellour, Secreta­rie, [Page 111] or Clarke of the Band, of a faithfull Furrier or Har­binger, being of good iudgement and consideration, and of a Surgion prouided of all things necessarie to minister according to his arte. But aboue all things let him pro­uide to retaine in his Band a Preacher, or such a person which may take care to minister the Communion to the Souldiers, and specially to roote obedience in their hearts: who likewise euery day may celebrate diuine ser­uice, which euen from the beginning hath beene vsed of the Church. And finally must haue for euery hundreth a practised Drummer of good vnderstanding.

When he hath gathered and vnited his companie, the whole Band being present, his Minister must deuoutly read certaine praiers, and afterward the Ensigne shall be publikely placed in the hands, and recommended to the custodie of the Alfierus, and as in my former discourse of this point, command him to haue as much care there­of, as of his proper life, honour and credite, which hee ought couragiously to aduance and display, to prefer his party in a rightfull quarrell, according to my speech where I set downe his duty. This done he must priuate­ly make election amongst his chiefest Souldiers of so ma­ny Caualliers or Lancia Spezzata, that is to say, Gentle­men of his Band, as may amount to the number of two out of euery squadre. Some nations vse 50. to a squa­dre, as the Suitzers and Germaines, some others lesse, ac­cording to their discretion: but in my opinion 25. is a more conuenient number, both for that the Corporall may the more often and with greater diligent care in­struct and see to his charge, then if they were 50. Besides 25. souldiers diuided into 5. rankes makes a iust square, so that by the same account 300. may containe 12. squa­dres, [Page 112] and euery one haue a Corporall of the same num­ber: whereof 10. Corporalls haue the leading of mixt weapons, the 11. charge ouer the Halberdiers, and the 12. to consist of Gentlemen, old and expert Souldiers, amongst whom the targets of proofe ought to be in num­ber. The Captaine at the same time, when he appoints his Ensigne, must likewise solemnly constitute and con­firme a Corporall ouer the Caualliers of his squadre, which he may entitle of Saint George, and enroll their names by this title, the Corporall and Caualliers of of S. George his squadre. He may inuest and bestow vp­on the Corporall a scarfe of red and white sarsnet, and a Medall or iewell of gold or siluer double gilt, wherein the portrature of S. George is liuely wrought, to hang a­bout his necke, at his scarfe or otherwise: and moreouer to him and all the rest of the squadre he may giue a little Phane or Penon of silke vpon a wire, whereof the Crosse must be of red, and the rest of the square white, the other part of the sarsenet of the Captaines coulors, or with what words, or deuise therein shall please him best: They must weare this behind, either vpon their burganets, or vpon their hats if they will in a plume of red and white feathers, specially in all enterprises and warlike attempts: Besides this vpon their cassockes or mandillions towards their right brest a red crosse of veluet, satten or scarlet, imbrothered or comely stitched, that they may appeare manifestly and be knowne from the rest of the Souldiers, like worthy Guides and Leaders, whose courage and va­lour may incite others to ascend to their dignitie and degree.

They must solemnly promise, vow and sweare to their possibilitie, not onely to be the first to force the breach of [Page 113] a battered towne, trench, or fortresse, to giue the first cou­ragious onset vpon the maine battaile, or the enemies squadrons, to peirce a passage, and gallantly guide the Souldiers to the skirmish, to suddaine sallies, surprises, escalados, canuasados, and such like, but also to obserue, maintaine, and instruct the ignorant in all militarie dire­ctions, obseruations, and martiall lawes of the field.

In respect hereof those that be Caualliers and Gentle­men of this squadre, must be intertained with a stipend and greater pay then the common Souldier, and with o­ther notable signes of manifest difference, by reason they either are or ought to be the best and most practised Souldiers in his whole band: for this word Lancia spez­zata amongst the Italians, is of no other signification, then a tried experience in the warres. To which Caual­liers he may freely and faithfully with great confidence and trust, commit the charge of any office in his compa­nie that is vacant, or the performance of any other enter­prise or accident, and may if he will tearme them extra­ordinary Lieutenants, which he must alwaies haue about him vpon any sodaine to execute his commandement, and supply other offices when time shall serue.

A Captaine ought to haue speciall and particular knowledge of all those things that appertaine to the of­fice of a Lieutenant, and the office of an Alfierus, which if he thinke good he may linke both in one, for amongst diuers nations now a daies, one man commonly supplies both their offices.

The office and dutie of the Sergeants of the Caual­liers of S. Georges squadre, whom he must esteeme as ex­traordinarie Lieutenants of the Corporals, Clarke of the Band, Harbinger, Drummes and Fifes: and finally, the [Page 114] dutie of euery particular and common Souldier, that he may presently redresse any thing amisse, and vpon any new accident to instruct them either in marching, encamping, or fighting, so that he may be able to com­mand them, according as time, place, and reason doth require, without contradiction or appointing that to be done of one Officer, which ought to be done of an o­ther: or that he doth command them to doe things not conuenient, and much lesse that which is not lawfull or not honourable. Which order of proceeding doth ve­ry much displease and bring men of warre in mislike of such vndirect dealings. Since the principall point and practise whereunto their exercise in armes doth tend, is to attaine reputation, honour, and credite, he must con­tinually court his Collonell and Cheiftaine, forcing him­selfe to be one of the first that doth salute him in the mor­ning, and of the last to depart from him in the euening, that thereby hee may be sufficiently instructed and in­formed in euery particular act and practise, which is to be put in execution, touching the performance of any enterprise or warlike act, since that in those cases a wary man may best take hold of occasion, whereof he ought to make triall in time of warre, the which he is likewise to accomplish, aswell for the seruice of his cheife and Prince, as also for his owne satisfaction, and the honour, benefit, and reputation of his Souldiers.

Let him in some sort prouide with as much aduantage and commodity as he can, that his souldiers baggage be alwaies conducted from place to place, alwaies prohibi­ting superfluitie, and in long voiages their corslets and armes of heauie burthen: prouided that he march not in suspected places, and in the enemies countrie, but not otherwise.

Let him take order that his Souldiers be light in ap­parell, so that it be warme, and haue as little baggage and otherwise loaden as may be, to the intent they may vse all their diligence about their weapons, and not to hale backe for feare of loosing the same, but rather haue re­spect to the warie keeping of their armes, and that they may rather be more bent and determined to fight, in hope of gaine and honour, then suspected thorough the doubt of loosing that which they already possesse.

He must not be couetous, neither retaine one penie of pay from his Souldiers, but rather distribute amongst them, all the aduantages, dead paies, and capisoldi: to the intent they may be well paied and rewarded which merite the same, so shall he gaine honour and make them assured in perillous seruice.

Let him restraine souldiers from hauing horses, thereby to auoide confusion, for that commonly euery one must march about the Ensigne, to the intent the rankes be not broken and disturbed by horses: And that Souldiers be not occupied in going abroad for forrage for their hor­ses, as of necessitie they must, which is proper to Horse­men and not to footmen, but onely those which are to be permitted with the Lieutenant, the Alfierus, and some of the Caualliers of Saint Georges squadre, that are Gentle­men of greatest experience, for that they may serue in steed and place of light horsemen, to view, discouer, con­duct and carie a message or commandement with great speed, when and where need doth require.

It is necessary for him to haue some knowledge and sight in making bulwarkes, trenches, platformes, skon­ces, fortresses, and such like, and to know the nature and qualitie of them, aswell that with aduantage he may bee [Page 116] able to know how to assault, as also to make them with facilitie, in times and places most necessarie: which vn­derstanding and Art, is particularly conuenient for him, considering the defence of men of warre in the field, for the most part consists aswell in trenches, bulwarkes, and perfect platformes, as in good and well gouerned squa­dre and in maine battaile.

He must haue with him a paire of lanthornes for the campe, some cressets, linkes, or torches that blow not out with the winde, and such like to vse in the night, and in stormes and tempests for seruice of the company, as in roundes, alarmes &c. And for his proper commoditie and ornament a pauillion or tent of sufficient capacitie, vessels to accommodate his victuals, and furniment for the fire and kitchin, of small weight and disturbance in cariage, and certaine houshold stuffe necessarie for him­selfe and his traine, to the intent he may so neere as is pos­sible commodiously make supplie to the continuation of things requisite for victuals. He ought alwaies to lodge with his Band, and remaine with the same both in good and euill, and continually shew himselfe louing and cour­teous, and take such part as the Souldiers doe: for con­trariwise, taking his ease, and suffering them to be lodged or fedde miserably, breedeth him hatred or contempt.

Neither ought hee to shunne toile and trauaile, but carefully take delight and liking to be alwaies the first, that with prouident prudence doth lay his hand to any worke, or performe any enterprise which is conuenient to be done: for that for the most part the rude stubborne multitude of Souldiers is not constrained and forced so much, to doe his dutie by compulsion, as they be volun­tarie moued thereunto through shame, and a reuerent [Page 117] respect they haue to the example of their Superiour. Neither let the practise of the same be painefull vnto him, for that to liue at ease and to be curious of his owne com­modious being, and suffer his Souldiers tast the toiles of trauaile, is rather the order of a delicate Prince, then of a carefull and couragious Captaine.

Let him not faile euery night that he is of the watch, to send his Sergeant to take the word secretly of the Ser­geant maior, (wherewith the watch of that night ought to be gouerned) or of some other that shall be appointed to giue it, which hee must vse wisely and warily, since that negligence in like cases may be the ruine of him and his company, and consequently of a whole armie. Hee must haue tried experience, and full practise in all the points noted of me in my first booke, and be perfit in the conduct of martiall affaires, that with great facilitie hee may be able to know, and with great aduise to deale in all the particulars belonging to all the degrees of souldiers vnder his estate, and of lesse estimation then a Cap­taine.

It behoues him to carie a valiant and couragious heart, that vpon all suddaines he may be able to execute all en­terprises, and that hauing ouer-viewed, ordered and dis­posed those things that be necessary, he may be able to execute the same with such prompt and ready dexteritie, as appertaines to the terrible and bloudy accidents of armes. And although there be very few who haue such happy successe, as they may be accounted fortunate and politike both together: Neuerthelesse it is requisite he be prudent, and discipher and looke before hand into such things as are like to fall out, that he may with discreete modesty vse either good or euill fortune, whether soeuer [Page 118] shall arise: for the life of man is to be compared to the play at Tables, in the which the player may desire and deuise which is the best cast, but yet which way soeuer the dice turne, either good or euill, he ought with as great discretion and arte as he can, accommodate himselfe and serue his turne withall. He should possesse and be in­dued with a noble minde, that he may alwaies haue the same inclined to discreet liberalitie, and not to nigardly couetousnes, by which vice we see many incurre and fall into most opprobrious chances, into treasons and perni­cious rebellions, which are men worthy of most shame­full corrections.

I iudge it likewise very necessarie for him to be elo­quent, since that qualitie hath great efficacie in perswa­ding of mens mindes, which oftentimes haue much need to be wakened and pricked forward with a spurre, speci­ally in those terrible accidents that fall out in the exercise of armes, which in painfull perilous actions would other­wise languish, faint, and become fearefull. Therefore let the loue towards God, the care of their Country, their present perill, the example of magnanimitie in their fore­fathers, the quarrell, cause, and benefits to soule & body, be meanes to make them valiantly accomplish their acts. He ought neuer to make conference, concerning that which he is to put in execution, neither of any one thoght imagination, or inuention appertaining to the state of those warlike attempts and affaires, but with those per­sons, of whom he may assuredly reserue faithfull and friendly counsell; for that the importance of such and so great dealings, ought euer to be had in suspition of dis­couerie. Therefore a wise and carefull man will euer haue a warie and iealous eye ouer such weighty affaires.

Now the order for him to punish his soldiers in cases wherein they are not guilty of death, I thinke the most important punishment which appertaines to the Cap­taine to giue them, is openly amidst the whole company and band, shamefully to disarme them, to take away their money and chiefest garments, and so to banish them and send them packing: for to put them to death, or furiou­sly to beat them, belongs to the office of the Master of the Campe and Marshall of the field, and not to the Cap­taine; for if he should beat his soldiers, he should make himselfe hated and embase himselfe, and bring his soldi­ers either to become mutinous or abiects. Note, that it is not sufficient onely for a Captaine to haue ordained his Company discreetly, and therein to haue great numbers of good men, which is to say, in warlike affaires valiant men: but aboue all things it is very necessarie when he shall come to blowes and fight, he should aduenture and performe the same to his manifest aduantage, or else con­strained thereunto by pure necessitie, although he ought to flie the last so much as he is able, obseruing this for a generall rule, not to fight either by chance, either for pleasure, or for ambition, as many times we see done by rash and ambitious Chiefes and Captaines.

Moreouer, he must worke in such sort, that his soldiers haue very good occasion and apt means to win the victo­ry, and that they be fresh and lustie, to the intent that in fighting they may ouercome: for without these and like aduertisements by tempting fortune, men for the most part both loose, and are ouerthrowne.

It is very conuenient he procure the hauing of an am­ple and autentike Patent of his Colonell, with as large words of fauour as may be, wherein must be declared at [Page 120] the instance and appointment of what Prince the expedi­tion is made, and so with modestie and prudence he shall vse the authoritie that is giuen him, but neuerthelesse there, as it behoues him so to doe.

It is not requisite that in all places he suffer his Ensigne to be displayed; the manner and doing whereof shewes force and authoritie, the which many times is not to be vsed, neither in each place: when a man is inferior to o­thers, he ought to vse great dexteritie and modestie, which euer fals out both to be commodious and commendable.

And moreouer according to the order of Passa parole, of aduertisements from mouth to mouth, he ought euer to obserue a silent and assured plaine information to his whole band, whereby they may vpon the sodaine alter aray, make alta, march slow or fast, close or in wide ranks, or prepare their peece, match and bullet for a sud­daine Alarme, inuasion, skirmish, or defence.

A Captaine that must leuie a band is to make his ele­ction and choise of his officers and soldiers, not only ap­proued and sufficiently experienced, but also vse such speedy march in his expedition and iourney, that he may ioyne his company to the rest of the Armie, at or before the appointed day and place.

When he may march by land with his company, let him neuer desire to goe by sea, hoping to spare cost and shorten time; for by becomming subiect to the indiscre­tion of the winde, either through long abode, or some accident by shipwrack or tempests, there hath risen many times great disturbance and ruine without remedie, since by this defect many good occasions, and of great impor­tance haue bin lost and made frustrate.

He ought neuer to take iourney in hand without a [Page 121] guide, the which he must procure to be giuen him by the Chiefe that doth command him, to the intent he may al­waies remaine excused and faultlesse from those errors, that by such defects may or do commonly arise; which diligence is not onely particularly to be vsed, when any iourney of small length is to be guided, but if any long iourney is to be made (not being able to do better) he must circumspectly haue him alwaies by his side, neither ought to haue him slip away from him or absent, since that euery small error or going out of the way in a iour­ney and marching, doth displease soldiers and warlike persons, and yeelds lesse reputation to the Captaine, who ought alwaies to march with them, and to prouide and procure through his authoritie all things necessarie, with the greatest fauour and aduantage possible.

He ought alwaies to keepe his soldiers exercised, by often view and muster of them, marching sometimes along in rankes by 3.5.7. and 9. &c. in a ranke: sometime in trayning them in Rings, Esses, Dees, Battailes, Squa­drons, turning one rank through an other, in leading them to skirmish, & in such sort practise them daily. And also he must cause his soldiers to shoot vollees of shot, some­times all at once, sometimes by rankes, and sometimes mixed: the which vollees vpon the signe or sound of drum, or word of mouth by the Captaine must be ac­complished with celeritie, and closely togither and cun­ningly, and not out of disorder or by peeces, a great while one after another, but vpon their discharge, ioyntly togither; without rumor, noise or tumult they must all charge againe, and vpon a signe giuen by the Captaine, giue a fresh vollee &c.

He must likewise delight to see them well armed with all sorts of armes, euery one according to the weapon he beares: and sometimes likewise exercise them in run­ning, leaping, wrastling, throwing the barre, and ordina­rily cause them to be wakened in the morning betimes, charging the drums to strike the Diana throughout the whole quarter.

A Captaine may at all times accompanie his band with the sound of drum and fife, which must giue order to their continuall march, and directs all their other enter­prises, vnlesse to accompany prisoners, to entrench, make plaine the way, to make and carry fagots, baskets, or ga­bions from the wood, and such like seruile and pesantly seruice, hardly digested of honorable soldiers.

He to the intent he may be both loued and obeyed of his soldiers, must apply himself to be prouident and po­litike in pacifying discords, and all such difference as shall arise amongst them, wherein if he finde any obstinate, so soone as he hath performed his indeuour, and that there­by they will not agree and become friands, so soone as their pay is ended, he ought to discharge them. In times past it hath bin vsed of notable Colonels to permit the combat, and cause them to fight it out, thereby to extin­guish their obstination, to bridle their furie, and giue no­table example to the rest: the which order although it hath bin tryed to auaile very much for their good go­uernment, yet it is not to be vsed amongst Christians, Councells of Diuines hauing forbidden the same; vn­lesse to feare the parties he faigne that the same shall be performed of them to the vttermost, and at the ioyning in fight to cause them stay, and take other order of pu­nishment, except they accord, and to discharge them.

A Captaine ought to vse all art and industry to invade, endomage, and ouerthrow the enemie, specially infidels: and aboue all things to be franke of minde, and to feare nothing but dishonest fame: likewise that he purchase authoritie amongst his soldiers by meanes of vertue and valour; let him procure by practise and effectuall expe­rience to be accounted a wise and a worthy valiant Cap­taine, rather than to beare the name of a simple, weake, and vndiscreet Colonell: for the name of a Captaine is a type and title of speciall honor.

He must likewise in respect of a certaine inward desire of emulation, not carie a base and abiect minde, but still aspiring with great subtiltie, by good inuention and in­dustry, of a firme and faithfull disposition, and neuer subiect to forgetfulnes, to the intent he may retaine in memory those things that be well done, and all commen­dable enterprises, the which do marueilously and incre­dibly delight and feede mens mindes and dispositions.

A Captaine must euer take care that his whole charge be still furnished with men, armour, weapons and muniti­ons, with all things needfull, and distributed at conueni­ent times.

He must suffer none through idlenesse to neglect his armour, weapons and other furniture, whereby he shall grow vnready to seruice at neede, but giue his officers commandment circumspectly to looke to the same.

Soldiers should be prohibited from ouer-much liberty, neither to vse whore-hunting, drunkennesse, common swearing, quarrelling, fighting, cousening, or such like, but speedy correction to be vsed.

Prouision of victuals, armour & munition being made, it must discreetly be vsed in due time by victuallers ap­pointed, [Page 124] and to be distributed vnto the soldiers, and to see that the victuallers and other artificers, lending vnto sol­diers vpon their credit at neede, vntill their pay day, may be truely satisfied.

If any soldiers be taken prisoners, to be ransomed home in due time, that his bands remaine not vnfur­nished.

Diuers points of seruice are committed to the Cap­taine, wherein great discretion and seruice is to be vsed, as in a Conuoy, Canuisado, Ambush, Skirmish, Approch, Assault, retreit, surprise, passage of riuers, streights, sodaine fortifications, discoueries, &c. As in these and such like occurrences, it is necessarie to vse the aduise of expert soldiers, whose opinions are worthy to be obserued, gra­tifying and rewarding them according to the value of their counsels. So likewise a Captaine must sometimes proue, and circumspectly try by fained pretences, affir­ming that he meanes to performe certaine exploits, and will march to some place, nothing intending the same, to the intent to discipher those that be busie-bodies, rash and vnsecret in counsell, and such as presume without knowledge or experience; afterward reuealing the same, may try the truth and punish the offenders, as to his dutie and office is conuenient.

CHAP. VI. The Office of a Colonell.

A Valiant and worthy Colonell, after he hath a lawfull dispatch of his Prince, and hath obtained his patent and prest money, to conduct that number of soldiers his [Page 125] charge and expedition shall containe, with all conuenient diligence, and according as he is appointed, he must make election of as many Captaines as be needfull, distributing to euery one 300 for a band, which number is of most conuenient quantitie: for by reducing companies to a lesse number, as in our time is vsed, specially amongst the Spaniards and Italians, and followed by the French and English, they may rather carry the name of Lieutenants and Centurions, than beare the title of Captaines. Besides a band being made of a small number, the Treasurers consume much more money amongst the great store of officers, the which ought to be by all meanes possible auoyded of a politike Generall, and of a prudent Prince, to auoide extraordinarie expence and confusion, which doth easily arise amongst the multitude of officers.

He must be prouident to entertaine those that be old Captaines, practised, and bearing a good port, and that be loued and desired of the soldiers, whom he ought to ac­companie and prefer with the greatest authoritie he can giue, with ample, sealed, and autentike Patents, thereby more speedily and more easily he may accomplish his affaires.

It is requisite he equally impart to euery one, the quan­titie of that prest money he hath receiued, to the intent the Captaine and the officers arise not to be burdened, taxed, and consumed by ordinarie and extraordinarie meanes, and other manifest wayes about those affaires; and to the intent the soldiers may taste of beneuolence of their Colonell: for by that meanes credit is sustained, and his traine augmented, a thing most necessarie to personages that supply so great a place. For it is requisite that men in the beginning be not discouraged for want of necessary [Page 126] prouision, yea rather to lend of his owne (considering he is to be paid againe) then his souldiers should bee brought to any extremity.

The distribution of the prest-money ought to be pre­ferred with great prudence, for afterwards at the banke, the same otherwise may be retained, and substraction made of all the whole money, either in the first pay or those that follow, more or lesse as it seemes expedient, principally for the vse and commoditie of the souldiers, considering (that according to the Prouerb) a man can hardly at any time serue two masters, and therefore hee must stand vpon this speciall point, to be more carefull not to doe any thing preiudiciall to the honourable exer­cise of armes, then to please the couetous and insatiable humour of some Captaines, whom in effect it pleasures but little, in respect their greedy desire is neuer satisfied: Neuerthelesse it falls out to bee a maruellous losse and hinderance to the enterprise, specially to men of valour and souldiers, without whose aide a Collonell is but of small force and value: And to conclude, money must al­waies be procured, dispersed and spent with great discre­tion, order, and consideration, since the same is so ne­cessarie to man, as it is called the sinewes of warres.

It is a thing most requisite that he carrie with him at the least, one Minister, a man of good life, who may ex­emplarly attend about the care of Ecclesiasticall matters, wherein aboue all other things we ought thorowly to be staid and instructed.

He must likewise haue in his regiment besides the or­dinary Surgeons, an excellent and tried Phisition, well prouided of all drugs and spiceries, and of other things necessarie to be ministred to those that be sicke.

His Lieutenant for his regiment must be of a singular qualitie and excellent experience, who not onely must particularly gouerne his owne band and company, but also with great prudence and policie take care and charge ouer all the people which are in the bands vnder his Co­lonell, wherein the Lieutenant must proceed according to my rules for the Lieutenant of a priuate band, and the notes in my second and third booke. His owne Alfierus as Generall and Superiour to the rest of the Ensigne-bearers vnder his Collonnelship, must bee guided and gouerned by a singular and substantiall souldier, a Gen­tleman of an auncient house, courteous, wise and en­dowed with good conditions.

The same order he ought likewise to obserue, in the e­lection of his Caualliers of the squadre, of his Sergeants, of his Corporalls, of his Drummers, and euery other Officer. It is a thing most necessary and conuenient, as in my second booke, and the office of a Captaine I haue touched, that a Collonell should retaine in his regiment, and specially in his owne band about him, a number of wise and worthy souldiers, to be the Gentlemen of his company, Lance Spezzate, or serue for extraordinarie Lieutenants, whom the Collonell must not onely vse and entreat well with an aduantage in their pay, but also feast them, cherish them, and set them oftentimes by course at his owne table, and alwaies shew them a courteous coun­tenance, with which shew of friendly courtesie, souldiers be incredibly fedde, and contrariwise maruellously dis­pleased with the hautie lookes of proud disdaine. For all those that make profession of this worthy Art, are of great curiositie and courage, and therefore men of warre ought neuer (against right) be villanously handled, ei­ther [Page 128] in word, deed or countenance.

He must create a Sergeant Maior, that is a souldier of great experience, and that particularly is a professour of that office, to the end he know precisely what is to bee preferred in euery practise: such a one as can yeeld there­of a perfect account and discourse, and that consequent­ly can much better by deed then by word execute any enterprise. And for that in his office it is necessarie for him to vary and change purpose, with infinite aduertise­ments and considerations, as the shortnesse of time now and then requires, the discommoditie of the place and seat thereof doth inforce, the order of the enemies doth constraine, or according to his owne proper pollicie, or the prouident prudence of his Collonell: but for that this place doth not permit to speake particularly of eue­ry point, I will passe ouer the same, and onely referre all to the prouidence of his long and approued experience, which of necessitie is required vnto him, which I further referre to my following discourse of the Sergeant Maior generall.

He ought to make a Marshall of his lodgings, who must be his principall Furrier and Harbinger, that must attend with great diligence, to procure lodging for all, without pleasing any one particular person for any pri­uate commoditie whatsoeuer, but must equally distri­bute, and depart the quarters and lodgings according as neede requires: neither is it to be borne withall, that hee doe make free any houses or lodgings, neither go about any such like gaine, a most dishonest and vnlawfull rob­berie, which oftentimes doth cause great losse & discom­moditie to men of warre, small reputation to their Con­ductour, and great vexation and disturbance to the poore [Page 129] people, who for the most part are innocent. The Collo­nels Harbinger hauing allotted out lodgings to euery band he must prefer the particular distribution to the vn­der Harbingers.

A generall Drummer ought likewise to be created and appointed, who may take charge and care ouer all the rest of the Drummers, whose office and custome amongst them is to conserue and keepe orders, to the intent they may be obeyed, and that euery one performe his dutie appertaining to his office, as to strike the batterie in mar­ching in battaile, or disseuered, to make generall bands and cries, in the morning, in the euening at the closing of the night, and in sounding the march, the call, the charge, the battell, the retrait, with such other like obser­uations and necessarie things to be done.

He must procure to haue part of euery munition for his regiment, out of the principall and generall munition, as corslets, pikes, halberds, hargabuses with their furni­ture, match, lead, pouder, of all sort of victuall, and each thing else as occasion and necessitie requires, which hee must cause his Sergeant maior to distribute amongst his bands, that his souldiers be not exacted on the prise. The like diuision he must cause him to make by money it selfe, but neuer more then that which rests as due to them, as many very maliciously haue accustomed to doe, making merchandise thereof to the losse and ruine of their soul­diers: towards whom they are bound continually to procure manifest commoditie and profit. The like is to be obserued in all other things necessarie and comform­able to this before said, without selling of furniture to them of excessiue prise, for nothing is more dishonoura­ble or more miserable, then to extort vpon souldiers.

It is very requisite that hee examine the election▪ and choise, that euery Captaine hath made of his Officers in euery band, and whether they doe thorowly possesse or approach very neere to the perfit experience they ought to doe, of whom and not otherwise he shall like and al­low. Note that these aduertisements, make manifest ap­parence, and sets forth to the view of the world, the in­ward valour of the Conductour and Collonell: for if he neglect these obseruations, the contrarie doth easily en­sue. I iudge it a thing not out of square, but rather most expedient that the one halfe of the Caualliers of the choise squadre should be Hargabusiers on horse-backe, specially when warres be made in large and open coun­tries, or else howsoeuer it be situate: for being men of va­lour, they may both on horsbacke and foote doe great seruice, as often hath beene tried by manifest experience in our time, specially in the late warres of Flaunders, vn­der my Collonell the Baron of Sheueran, in seruice of Don Iohn of Austria, and the Prince of Parma, where I being of the number of the Gentlemen of his owne band, haue seene daily excellent good seruice done by them, as well by discouering the enemies ambuscades, as to draw them into the danger of our footemen. And likewise in the speedy taking and keeping a passage of im­portance, in winning aduertisements and the watch­word from the enemy, in taking Prisoners, in breaking the way for free passage, in clearing and beating the high­waies, and scouring them free from the enemie and Free­booters, in making roades, courses and incursions, in dis­couering the Countrey and taking view thereof like to light horsemen, specially in the absence of the Cauallery of the campe. And therefore I conclude that they shall [Page 131] be found to be a knot and kinde of necessary souldiers, prouided that they be practised, and aboue all full of va­lour and aspiring mindes, and not to be common soul­diers, taken at vnawares out of ordinary bands of foot­men, neither such as carry a dull, base and abiect minde or disposition.

If the Colonell had the authority to be able to keepe together a band with a Standerd or Guidon, & a trumpet to them, they would doe singular good seruice, which neuerthelesse when seruice on foote did call them forth, might deliuer vp their horses, lances, and hargabushes with fire-lockes vnto their seruants, kept and maintained for that purpose, and enter into ranke or battaile amongst the rest of the Caualliers squadre, and so should the or­dinarie and common custome of hauing horses amongst priuate souldiers be auoided, saue such as are permitted and granted to some Officers, as in my former discourses I haue already declared. The which obseruation shall bring to passe that the souldiers in marching and in other enterprises shall go together, and be vnited about the Ensigne, which is a thing most conuenient and necessarie, and ought greatly to be shunned, for that horses by ouer­thwart trauersing are accustomed to deface the squares, and breake the rankes of the footmens battailes, which truely is very odious and of great disturbance and dis­commodity: but that which I speake of this extraordina­rie band is to be vnderstood and taken, when there is no ordinarie bands of horsemen ioyned to a Collonells re­giment. He ought to take vigilant care that the Gentle­men of his band and Caualliers of his squadre, being continually about his person doe diligently performe, that which they are appointed of him to doe by commis­sion [Page 132] or otherwise, and that they make faithfull and true relation to him of euery particular thing, that he may be euer fully informed of all things, and chiefly of that which doth passe in the watch worthy and necessary to be noted, as well by day as by night, since that by going the round, which doth appertaine principally to these Caualliers, many things of moment and importance may very well be obserued, being able to execute any of the inferiour offices, and both quickly conceiue and sensi­bly vtter any new accident.

The Collonell must most carefully with humble cour­tesie court his Captaine generall, vse great respect to­wards him, obey him, and giue him faithfull counsell: and to the end he may performe this thorow well, hee must neuer refuse toile or trauell, since that to take paine about matters of like importance, is agreeable and con­uenient to honourable personages his equals, whereas easie delicacie and curiositie appertaines to women, or o­ther effeminate persons, who esteeme more of belly-cheere, gallant attire and riches, then of the peerelesse prise of valour and vertue, and that prefer a fraile body before an immortall soule.

Some hold opinion that a Collonell hauing to allot out what number of pikes, short weapons, and shot is to be in euery band, that it is farre better to haue but one sort of weapons, so shall the Captaine euer accompany his own souldiers, whereas otherwise they being disseuered in a stand-battaile, he must either lose the company of his shot or pikes, the one of them being committed to a Se­cond, and the short weapons to a Third, which doth no­thing so much encourage the Souldier, as to see his Cap­taine companion of his perils, and the contrarie no lesse [Page 133] dismaieth him: but for that foughten fields chance sel­dome in our time, I cease to wade further therein, onely aduertising that amongst the rest of his souldiers, the armed pikes must be gently vsed, shewing them a cheere­full and good countenance, who must bee chosen men, very hardy and valiant.

He must procure that his Officers diligently performe his commissions, and that faithfully they make relation of euery particular thing, that he may be enformed of all, and especially that which happens inwards, as well in the day as in the night, for they going in circuit, as ap­pertaines vnto them, may well perceiue what chanceth of any great importance. So that by obseruing these ad­uertisements, the industrie of the Leader doth appeare, whereas not being well looked vnto great ruine doth arise.

To conclude, when his regiment is discharged, ei­ther at the end of the warres or otherwise, hee ought to take care that he in any wise procure, that they may bee conducted wholy together, and afterwards disband them in such a place, as from thence euery souldier may easily and without feare transport himselfe into his owne coun­trie, and if it be possible, hauing his health, his armes, and his apparell entire: for otherwise if souldiers be dis­seuered in far countries, they suffer great inconuenience, in hard and difficile passages, in victuals and lodgings, the which doth cause their destruction, the discredite and dishonour of their Conductour, and is a great blot in the fame of our nation, as those that haue seene Holland and the Low-countries can witnes: wherfore it is a thing to be reformed for the increase of our credite and old naturall valour.

THE THIRD BOOKE OF MILITARY Directions: Contayning the exercise of Trayning or Drilling: and also the manner of arming both Pike and Musket, according to the custome allowed in these dayes within this Realme of England, with certaine other Obseruations.

CHAP. I. First for the arming of a Pike-man.

IT is necessarie that his corslet and gor­get be fit for his body, as also that his Tasses and powdrels or arme-pipes be large and sutable, all these to be strong­ly buckled and riueted, well oyled and bright, then a murren or head-peece well lined, and fringed, agreable to the same: then a straight pike of a middle size, of 15 foot of length, with a sharpe iron pike or point at the end, of the right Spanish fashion, well oyled and bright.

Then that he haue a good back-sword with an Irish basket hilt, and hanged in a strong belt.

Note that all Pikes of the same company ought to be of one length, otherwise if they disagree, they will be vn­comely, and seeme to the beholders like vnto Organ-pipes, which be of different lengths. Moreouer, they are very vnprofitable for seruice, for they will greatly trouble each other, and especially the huge and long pikes, and therefore are to be refused. Likewise a short pike is not good in a maine square, neither in campe or battell, ex­cept it be in strait and narrow places.

Secondly, for the ordering and arming of a Musketeere.

IT is conuenient that the barrell or canon of his peece be in length foure foote at the least, cleane and sound, with a straight and right bore, hauing a close stocke and well ioyned thereunto, of a right Spanish making: Then that the cocke of his peece be swift and well oyled, bea­ring a true deliuerance to the middest of the pan, the touch-hole neither too great or too narrow, the pan close, the eye-sight true, and then hauing a strong breech-peece, looke that all these instruments be well scrued, and especially the breech-peece: A charging rod or sticke of a meete length to the barrell of the peece, the same to haue a worme or a scowrer at the one end, the other end thereof tipped with a horne.

Then fore-see that he haue a Bandeleere with 16 or 18 chargers or mates at the least, hanged thereunto, with strong laces, with a priming charger or mate, and also a bullet bag and priming wyre: then a Rest of a fit size [Page 136] and length breast or chin high, with a trayle lace fastned thereat, togither with a head-peece or murren, and sword in all points prouided as is aforesaid.

CHAP. II. The Office of the Muster-Master, both necessarie and pro­fitable, when a Prince or his Generall haue diuers Regiments of seuerall Nati­ons vnder pay.

THe Muster-Master also may be accounted an Officer as it were dependant on the Treasurer, for that his dutie is nothing else, but by often reviewing of the bands, to see how euery Captaines band is furnished (ac­cording to my former directions for the arming both pike and musket) noting the defaults from time to time, and the supplies; and thereof to make a perfect booke, exhibiting the same at the pay day to the Treasurer, that allowance may be made to the Colonels and Captaines accordingly. When he first takes the view and muster of any band, he must not onely write downe the name of the soldier and his weapon, but also of what Country he is, the townes name where he was borne, and his fathers name, and what yeeres he is of: and finally shall take spe­ciall care to set downe, some speciall marke or cicatrice vpon his face, togither with the colour of his haire and beard: to the intent, his Prince be not charged with pay­ing of dead payes, to such as be hyred but for that day, as many Captaines vse to fill their purses with vnlawfull gaines.

CHAP. III. A Rule to set Souldiers in aray.

THe Footmen being assembled at the place where they are to be set in aray: First, you must foresee, that the ground be fit and capable for the purpose, that the aray may commodiously turne to the right or left hand, as much as may be neuerthelesse, according to the number of soldiers you haue, you are to proceed in this sort as followeth.

First, to wit that all the soldiers of a band of foot­men are bound by the law of Armes, forthwith and as soone as they shall heare the Drum beat a Call to repaire to the Colours, vnder paine &c. except that sicknes be the cause thereof; or that hauing a licence or forelofe they may thereby excuse themselues. But to returne: you are to begin in this order following: First, you are to draw the pikes by themselues on the one side, togither with the Ensigne: and vpon the other side all the muske­tiers, somewhat aloofe distant from the pikes, beginning to make the musketiers march so many in a ranke as you list, parting them neuerthelesse according to their num­ber: you may put them from 3 to 12 in a ranke; for it is not often seene that more than 11 is put in a ranke, how great soeuer the number of the footmen be: neither in troth ought they to be any more than 11 in a ranke: for when they passe 11 or 12 they are not to be accoun­ted an array, but rather a battaile: I haue omitted to write herein of the placing of my officers belonging to a com­pany of footmen, you shall finde it plainely set downe in the march, and at the beginning of the exercise of [Page 138] training: so to returne, hauing then placed the number of musketiers you shall thinke good of to be in a ranke, you shall cause them to march in good proportion, sen­ding forth one ranke after an other; the Sargeant stand­ing still on the one side, causing them to passe before him, iudging by the eye-sight from Ranke to Ranke of all the soldiers, one by one, whether they be right in line, obseruing true distance: and also that they carry their Armes in warlike order; for this is the beauty of an aray. Moreouer the Sargeant hauing speciall respect to accom­modate and place at the head of the array, the Gentlemen of the company, and also the Corporals which carry muskets; placing next vnto them the best men, and the best furnished soldiers; and placing also at the Reare of the battell your best men, and the rest of your best ar­med; to the intent the aray may shew the better: foras­much as when they are diuided into aray, the musketiers from the pikemen, and that they turne their faces; then the backe part or Reare is made the front: therefore the Reare ought to be as well furnished as the front, as I haue said before in the dutie of a Sargeant: the which if you desire to doe, it is necessarie you put in the midst of the Rankes the weakest and worst furnished; aduertising the Sargeant that the soldiers are best furnished, when they haue all sorts of Armes and furniture that be necessarie for them: and there appertaines to a musketier good match, fire-cole, powder and bullet, and moreouer l'assine. And this is to be obserued with all speed and diligence that the time or occasion doth carry, and the suspition of the enemy doth import.

Here next is demonstrated the distance obserued betwixt Ranke and Ranke, man and man, both in marching, and also in maine battaile.

FIrst both pikes and muskets are to be ordered into files of 10 deepe, the musketiers in marching are sometimes placed in the front, sometimes in the front and sometimes in the Reare of the pikes, but most com­monly being in single aray they are to march both in the Front and Reare: In maine battell the soldiers are pla­ced sometimes in the right flanke, sometimes in both the flankes; and sometimes it will be commanded that they be brought in the Front of the battaile, and also in the Reare.

In exercising the motions there are two distances to be kept.

The first is when euery one is distant from his fellow 6 foote square; that is, in File and Ranke 6 foote.

The second is when euery soldier is 3 foote distant one from another, as well in File as in Ranke: And in respect the measure of such distances cannot alwaies be taken euenly by the racke of the eye; the distance of 6 foote betweene the files is measured, when the soldiers stretching out their armes, doe touch one anothers hands: and betwixt the Rankes, when that the ends of their pikes come very neere to the hams of them that march before them: And the distance of 3 foot betwixt the Files is when their elbowes touch one another: and betwixt their Rankes when they come to touch the ends of one anothers Rapiers or swords. In marching in the [Page 140] field the distance of 3 foote from File to File is kept, and of 6 foote from Ranke to Ranke, when the soldiers order themselues in battell; and also when they march towards the enemie, the distance of 3 foote both in File and Ranke is to be obserued. And likewise in conuer­sion or wheeling. The musketiers making ready to shoote by rankes keepe the same distance of 3 foote, but going to skirmish they goe a la disabande, that is, out of order.

There is also vsed another order of distance; which is seldome obserued but for to receiue the enemie with a firme stand, and serueth for the pikes onely: for the musketiers cannot stand so close in files, because they must haue their armes at liberty, and that is, when euery distance from file to file is a foote and a halfe, and 3 foote from Ranke to Ranke: and this last distance is thus com­manded: Close your selues throughly. But it is not to be taught the soldiers: for that when necessitie shall require it, they will close themselues too much of their owne accord without command.

How Pikes are to be raised vp and abased in closing and opening of a battaile.

I Will not omit to put in memorie vnto them that know not of the particulars of those things and order that are required in making a battell of footmen. There­fore those which would make a battell of footmen, must be aduertised that in shutting vp the said battell, the ranks of pikes as well armed as vnarmed, must not raise vp confusedly, but with order; that is, when the Sargeant maior, Captaine, or Lieutenant shall say: [Page 141]Raise or right vp your Pikes,’ then it is requisite that the first and formost Ranke must begin to raise vp it selfe: and that the second doe not moue to raise vp it selfe till the first be raised vp: and so the third and fourth: the same order is to be obserued in all the other Rankes, from one Ranke to an other.

The like Rule is to be obserued by them in laying downe of their pikes vpon their shoulders: for so much as Ranke by Ranke, in order and without confusion they ought to let fall their pikes; appointing the first Ranke to fall after the second, the third after the fourth: and so is all the rest of the Rankes to follow the same order, till the hindermost Ranke of all: And by obseruing that order, they cannot commit disorder, but rather make a gallant shew, and preuent many confusions.

How Pikes are to be carried in aray, march, or battell, with also other necessarie notes.

THose that are appointed to carry pikes in array of Rankes or battell, must know that pikes amongst all other weapons that belong to soldiers is of greatest honor and credit: And truely whosoeuer doth carry and manage the same weapon well, and with good grace, doth make a very beautifull and pleasant shew to the beholders; and chiefly when it is caried with a good grace, as I haue said before, and with il combedo alto. And as touching the obseruation of shouldring of pikes, to wit, that there is a new order obserued in the Low Countries now of late; the Commanders there will haue the pikes to be carried vpon the right shoulder, and not to remoue or change to the left shoulder at all.

Note also that the Pike-man doe march then with a good grace holding vp his head gallantly: his pace full of grauitie and estate, and such as is fit for his person: And let his body be straight and as much vpright as is possible: And that which most imports is that they haue alwaies their eyes vpon their companions which are in ranke with them; and before them: going iust one with the other: and keeping perfit distance without commit­ting error in the least pace or step: and euery pace and motion with one accord and consent; they ought to make at one instant time: And in this sort all the rankes intirely are to march sometimes softly sometimes fast according to the strokes of the drumme: the heele and the tippe of their pikes would be equally holden: both of length and height as neere as is possible: to auoid that they fall not out to be seeme by bearing them otherwise like vnto Organ-pipes some long some short. The mea­sure and propertie thereof: to hold the heele of the pike is this; it is necessarie for him to haue an eie to the ranke that doth march before him: and so carrie the Butt-end or heele of his pike that it may be iust ouer against the ioynt of the hamme of the souldier that in march shall be straight before him: And so euery one from hand to hand must obserue the proportion of that height: And that is, right behind vpon the ioynt of the knee: for by doing so they cannot commit errour; carying in their march that legge that is vnder that arme that sustaines and caries the Pike of iust and euen proportion: by mou­ing their pace right-vnder the staffe of the pike: going in their march as I haue said before: iust and euen with a stately and sumptuous pace, for by doing so they shall be esteemed, honoured and commended of all the Lookers [Page 143] on, and they will take wonderfull delight to behold them march in that order: And whereas I haue said before that the Souldiers should march forward with one consent: I meane not onely that the Pike men ought to obserue that order: but also that the musketeares are to follow the same rule of order: because that the whole company must be ready to march forward at one instant time ob­seruing the true strokes or battery of the drumme, which actiue obseruation may well be compared to a Dancer; for the one by hearing his musicke is prepared to tread the measure answerable to the time: And the other by hearing the warlike and comfortable stroke of the drum: is ready to aduance his pace and march forward.

The Officer is to pace towards his people, so to giue the word, and so to lead march, and also obseruing the strokes of the drum, the first ranke being the file leaders it to follow their Leader: The second ranke euery one to follow his pile-leader also: The third, fourth and fift rankes; and so the rest with one consent.

I hold it therefore both conuenient and needfull for all men that follow the warres, to learne all the warlike sounds that the Drummer beates, as the call, the march, to draw vp maine-battell, the charge, the retire, to troupe, to wheele about which is also a charge, then and lastly the diana. And whereas euery nation doe differ the one from the other in the batterie of their drummes, and chiefly in the sound of their march euery nation or Pro­uince doe also differ in the marke of their colours, for that they beare in their colours the proper Armes or Scutchi­on of the Nation vnder which they doe serue. But to returne, let a souldier be diligent to learne, as I said be­fore, the strokes of the drumme: And chiefly to vnder­stand [Page 144] the vsuall strokes of march which the drumme beat in the regiment wherein he beareth armes: he must also take notice of the markes that are vpon the colours; especially of the Ensigne which hee serueth vnder, the knowledge whereof may serue his turne so well that it may saue his life, for by night being in fight with the ene­mie, and being also ignorant of the sound of drumme, he may aswell fall into the hands of his enemies as other­wise, which may cost him his life: Then as touching his Ensigne the souldier being scattered from his company in marching, or otherwise in fight, and if it be by day­light he may perceiue his owne colours farre off. To wit, that both drummes and fifes were first inuented by the Switzers, wherewith they will euen liue and die in all manner of fight. The Almaines also inuented a pipe which is called by them Schalmeyen. Some nations when they doe fight a pitched field by reason of the tumult, and rumour that will grow amongst the souldiers, they haue trumpets to giue the charge, which yeeldeth great comfort to the souldiers in regard that they heare the eccho and sound of the trumpets so plaine, that in all distresse they doe not onely keep together, but also know their charge. Therefore in forraine Countries the foot­men are as well acquainted in all points of warre which the said trumpets doe vse to sound that they know their charge euen as well as horsemen doe. But to returne to the matter aforesaid: the Turke when he doth either ex­pect the charge giuen him by his enemies, or when he will giue a charge &c. it will bee commanded that a Drummer shall ride from ranke to ranke to giue the soul­diers notice by a soft sound: And as touching marching, it is to be vnderstood that some kinde of march is a right [Page 145] induction; other some a deduction on the right or left hand; and that in single, double, treble, or quadruple sided battell: in a single when one enemie is feared; in a double when two; in a treble when three; and in a qua­druble when the enemie purposeth to inuade on all sides: Therefore the march is vndertaken sometimes in a single challenge, and sometimes in a twofold challenge, or else in a threefold challenge, or in a fourefold challenge. The souldiers, both Pikemen and Musketeares are to be diuided into companies, and euery company is to consist halfe of pikes, and halfe of musketeares.

The companies happen and fall out sometimes to be more in number, and sometimes lesse; some extend to 100. men, some 200. some 300. some 400. and so forth till 800 men or more. Euery company ought to haue these Officers following: a Captaine, a Lieutenant, an Ensigne, two Sergeants, three Corporalls, two Drums; but by the opinion of many worthy souldiers, euery hundreth men ought to haue a Drumme; the reason whereof I omit to speake thereof in this place, and re­turne to the matter: it will be needfull for a Captaine to haue in his company for necessarie vses a Clarke, a Sur­geon, and a Prouost. Companies are drawne into Regi­ments, and the Regiments are euer to be commanded by Coronells: Regiments doe sometimes likewise differ in the number of companies, some consist of 6. some of 7. some of 8. or 10. some 15. &c. In the ordering, and managing of euery regiment is to be required a Co­ronell &c.

Certaine words to be vsed of the Officers that traine.

WHen any Officer determines to exercise his com­panie to traine, or drill them, hee must cast them into a ring, the double or single bissa, the Romane S or such like necessarie forme, and vse these or the like words as heare followeth: My louing friends, fellowes, and companions in armes, we be gathered together for the seruice of God, his holy Church, our Prince and Coun­trey; and for that none through ignorance shall perish or runne in danger of the Lawes of the Field, you shall from time to time, by me or other Officers of the Band be instructed by words or deedes in such sort, and points, as to your calling and the necessitie of seruice shall re­quire, the which you must diligently obserue, and fol­low, though the same shall seeme vnto you many times, both dangerous and painefull: also if any of you, my fel­lowes shall finde an occasion conuenient to declare to me, or any other Officer, his minde and opinion in any thing beneficiall touching seruice, wee shall diligently heare, and gratifie the party the double value thereof; and God willing Equitie and Iustice shall bee ministred; also regard that all Souldiers know, and obey their Offi­cers in their place, according to their calling.

The first thing of moment in the motion of a Company is how they should orderly march, and how their Offi­cers should be rightly placed, the which I haue demon­strated in the figure on the other side, according as it is practised in the Low-countries, the schoole of warre: First the Captaine, marcheth in the Front, and leades the com­pany, whose place is marked with C: which is six foote distant before the first diuision of muketeares. The Lieu­tenant is to march in the Reare of the second diuision of Musketeares, marked with L: six foot distant behind the same. The Ensigne is to march with the colours six foot behind the first diuision of Musketeares, and six foot be­fore the first diuision of pikes, marked with the letter E. The eldest Sergeant is to march six foot behind the first diuision of pikes, and six foot before the second diuision of pikes, marked with S. 1. The second Sergeant is to march six foote behind the second diuision of pikes, and six foot before the second diuision of musketeares, mar­ked with S. 2. the drummes beate betweene the third and fourth rankes, marked with D: The chiefest beates in the first diuision of pikes; The second in the first diuision of musketeares; And the third drumme beates in the se­cond diuision of musketeares: The pikes and muskets march six foot in file, and three in ranke, euery diuision consists of ten rankes and fiue files, all which is made plaine in the next figure following.

The order how a Companie should march.


First diuision of Musketieres.

Bringers vp.


First diuision of Pikes.

Bringers vp.


Second diuision of Pikes.

Bringers vp.


Second diuision of Muskets.

Bringers vp.

AFter that the company hath marched in such order as aforesaid in the former figure, then the first diuisiō of shot (when they are come to the place where they should exercise, traine, or drill) makes a stand; and the first di­uision of the pikes marcheth vp to the front with them, on the left hand: Then the second diuision of the pikes marcheth vp to the front with the first diuision of pikes, on the left hand of them also: lastly, the second diuisi­on of musketiers marcheth vp on the left hand of the second diuision of pikes: which done they are comman­ded to stand right in their files, and right in their rankes, at 6 foote distance, and commanded, silence, that euery one may heare the words of command, and be ready to execute the same. The figure on the other side pag. 149 sheweth the forme and station of the company, all things performed as aforesaid: note the distance is reckoned from the middle part of a man.


left flanke



To the right hand.

The Company standing right in their files and rankes, at six foote distance (as in the figure before) vnto which the Captaine hath an eye in the front, and the Lieutenant in the Reare, and the Sargeants in the flanks; the Sarge­ants hauing an eare to the Captaine are ready to informe the company what he commands: then the Captaine commands them to turne to the right hand; and then they moue all togither, keeping their left foote fixed, and mouing with the right foote onely; and hauing per­formed it; the front is where the right hand flanke was; as in the figure pag. 151 is plainely demonstrated.

Note that in or at their facing to any quarter, the pikes are (to auoide wearinesse) ordered; and the muskets shouldred for ease and fitnesse. The reason of this mo­tion is to make the company perfect to be sodainely pre­pared for a charge in the right hand, flanke or wing.


As you were.

HAuing stood a while according to the forme in the former figure, the Captaine commands, As you were, and then they moue all towards the left hand, till their faces are turned to the first Front, according to the demonstration, pag. 153.


To the left hand.

BEcause the enemie may sometimes charge on the left hand flanke, therfore that you may sodainely be ready to defend your selues, and for diuers other reasons this motion is vsed, to turne to the left hand, which is done by mouing the right foot, the left foot standing still till your faces front towards the left hand flanke, according to the demonstration, pag. 155.


As you were.

THen hauing performed the aforesaid motion, the Captaine Commands; As you were: and then they moue all towards the right hand, till they are turned to the first Front, according to the demonstration pag. 157.


To the right hand about.

BEcause there may be a charge giuen in the Reare, therefore is this Motion to be practised, to turne to­wards the right hand (the left foote remaining fixed) till your faces front to that Quarter which was before the Reare; and then will they be ready to receiue the Ene­mie and defend themselues: this forme is demonstrated in the next side, marked with the number of 159.


To the left hand as you were.

HAuing performed the former Motion, the Cap­taine commands them, To the left hand as you were; and then they moue all towards the left hand, the left foot remaining fixed, vntill their faces are turned to the former front: according to that of pag. 161.


To the left hand about.

BEcause it is sometimes more conuenient to turne to the left hand, then to the right, therefore this Motion is also vsed; which is to turne towards the left hand, till their faces front to the Reare: according to the figure in the pag. 163.


To the right hand as you were.

HAuing performed the former Motion, the Cap­taine cōmands them, To the right hand as you were; and then they turne all towards the right hand, vntill their faces are towards the first Front, as in the figure pag. 165.


To the right hand double your Ranckes.

BEcause there will be an occasion sometimes to stren­gthen the Front; it may one way be done thus: when all in the second Rancke march vp into the first Rancke, to the right or left hand, according to the command (as here to the right hand) and all in the fourth Rancke march vp into the third, and so of the rest, as in the Ex­ample or Figure, pag. 167. Where you may perceiue by the letters marked with a Starre, that the motion is to the right hand: and the Starres in the second, fourth, sixt, eighth, and tenth Ranckes shew the places from whence they moued: and the figures in the lest flank demonstra­ting the number of your Ranckes which did moue, being ten Ranckes, as you may perceiue thereby.


Ranckes as you were.

HAuing performed the former motion, the Captaine commands, Ranckes as you were; and then euery one marcheth into his owne place, all at one instant, and so are againe like the forme in the figure, pag. 169.


To the left hand double your Ranckes.

THis Motion differeth nothing in effect from that pag. 167. but that there those that doubled, did it to the right hand of their Leaders, and here they do it to the left hand: which is plaine by the Starres in the Figure, pag. 171.


Ranckes as you were.

THe former motion performed, the Captaine com­mands, Ranckes as you were; and then euery one that doubled, marcheth into his owne place or Rancke, and so are in forme againe, according to the figure, pag. 173.


BEcause that there was an odde file of musketeares, in either flanke and wing of my former figures, and be­ing desirous to make the double files perfit without in­termixing the pikes with the shot, I was forced there­fore to change the forme of the Company, and to place all the Musketeares in the Right hand flanke of the Pikes, according to the demonstration in the other side marked with the number of 175.

Note then to alter the forme of the former station, and to bring the Company into the forme, set downe in the other side, (as I said before) you are to doe as followeth. First you are to lead forth the Right wing of shot, then the first diuision of Pikes, which be in the right hand flanke of the second diuision of pikes, and march with them to stand iust against the first diuision of musketeares, on the left hand of them, leauing a space to place the se­cond diuision of shot betweene them both; then you are to march vp with the second diuision of Pikes to stand on the left hand of the first diuision of Pikes: Lastly, the second diuision of Musketeares, marcheth vp to stand on the left hand of the first diuision of Musketeares, which will be on the right hand of the first diuision of Pikes: which done, they are commanded to stand right in their Files, and right in their Rankes, at six foot distance, and commanded silence, that so euery one may heare the words of Command, and to be ready to execute the same. &c.



To the right hand double your files.

BEcause there may be occasion of strengthning the Flankes, as also for other purposes, these words of Command are vsed, To the right hand double your Files; which is thus performed: All the second file, from the right hand, march euery one behinde his side-man, into the first (or right hand) File, and so the fourth File into the third, and the sixt into the fift, &c. which is done of all at one instant after the command is giuen. The order whereof is plainely demonstrated in the Figure marked with 177. In which you may perceiue by the Starres, from, and to what place each man marcheth. The Stars are onely set downe in the first and second Files, but you are to vnderstand the same order in the third and fourth Files, and so of all the rest. &c.


Files as you were.

HAuing performed the former Motion, the Cap­taine commands them, Files as you were; and then all those which doubled, returne vnto their owne proper places: the which is plainely demonstrated in the Figure marked with 179. by the Starres in the first and second Files, the which order you must conceiue in the third and fourth, fift and sixt, &c.


To the left hand double your files.

THis Motion differeth little from that marked with 177. but that here the Motion is to the left hand, as there it was to the right hand: so that those Files which moued then, stand still now; and those which stood still then, moue now: all which is so plainly demonstrated by the Starres in the figure marked with 181. that it needs no further explanation.


Files as you were.

THe former Motion orderly performed, the Captaine commands, Files as you were; and then those which doubled, returne into their proper places: according as you may plainely vnderstand by the figure pag 183. in which the Starres demonstrate both from what place they come, and whither they march.


HAuing performed the doubling of Files in all points and orders demonstrated in my figures before this, which was done with the shot in the right hand flanke of the pikes: hereafter followeth the exercise in the very same forme and station of the Company where with I began the exercise of training: the which Mus­ketiers are diuided and placed in both the flankes of the pikes, according to the figure in the next side, pag. 185.


Halfe Files to the right hand double your Ranckes.

IN the figure, pag. 166. was shewed one way how that vpon occasion the Front might be strengthned: here is another forme of strengthning the same; which requi­reth two demonstrations or Figures for explanation. In the first marked with D. is shewed the manner of acting this Motion; and in the second marked with E. is de­monstrated the action performed: wherein you may per­ceiue how the sixt Rancke, or as some improperly call them, middle men, doubleth the first Rancke, the seuenth the second Rancke, the eight the third Rancke, the ninth the fourth Rancke, and the tenth the fift Rancke. Note that in performing this motion, the halfe files of Pikes that doubled, aduance their Pikes till they haue doubled, and then order them.



Halfe Files as you were.

WHen they haue performed the former Motion, according to the direction, the Captaine com­mands, Halfe Files as you were; and then the halfe Files aduance their Pikes, and fall backe with their right legge, and so march into their proper places: and then they are againe ten deepe at six foote distance; according to the demonstration pag. 189. Note that in turning into their places, euery one ought to turne to the right hand, which is both easier, and more pleasing to the eye, then turning to the left hand.


Halfe Files to the left hand double your Ranckes.

THis Motion differeth nothing in effect from that before demonstrated in the 187. Figure: the difference onely is, that here the halfe Files which moue, march vp to the left hand of the halfe Files that stand, whereas according to those Figures they marched vp to the right hand of them. The Figures marked pag. 191. make this very plaine.


Halfe Files as you were.

HAuing performed the former Motion, the Cap­taine commands, Halfe Files as you were; and then the Halfe Files which doubled, aduance their Pikes, and fall backe with their right leg, to be cleare, of their Side­men, and so march into their proper places, turning into the same towards the left hand: which done, they will be in the forme marked with 193.


Files to the Right hand Counter­march.

WHen a charge is expected in the Reare, and it be­ing thought conuenient, to haue the Leaders of files to be in the places of the bringers vp, because they are men best able to receiue the enemie, it may be per­formed in this manner: The Captaine commands, Files to the right hand Counter-march, and then the Leaders of Files aduancing with their right legge, turne to the right hand, and march downe towards the Reare, all the body of the company mouing together; and so the second rancke, turning as the Front or Leaders of the files did, when they haue marched vp to the place where the front was; and so doth the third, fourth, and fift rankes, &c. The manner whereof is plainely demonstrated in the fi­gure marked with B. and the figure marked with C. sheweth the motion performed.



Files to the left hand Counter-march.

THis Motion differeth nothing in vse from the for­mer; the difference of acting it is onely, that there they aduance with the right legge, and turne to the right hand: and here they aduance with the left legge and turne to the left hand: The manner of doing this is de­monstrated in the next page marked with G. And the thing done in that marked with H. And therefore needs no further explanation.


The Postures of the Pike.
  • HAndle your Pike.
  • Aduance your Pike.
  • Shoulder your Pike.
  • To the right hand charge.
  • As you were.
  • To the left hand charge.
  • As you were.
  • To the Front charge.
  • As you were.
  • To the Reare charge.
  • As you were.
  • Aduance your Pike.
  • Porte your Pike.
  • Comport your Pike.
  • Traile your Pike.
  • Cheeke your Pike.
  • Aduance your Pike.
  • To your funerall posture traile your Pike.
  • Recouer your Pike.
  • Order your Pike.
  • Your open order at foote.
  • Your close order at foote.
  • To the Front charge.
  • To the right hand charge.
  • To the right hand charge.
  • To the right hand charge.
  • To the right hand charge.
  • Order your Pike.
  • Aduance your Pike.
  • Lay downe your Pike.
  • Take vp your Pike.
  • Shoulder your Pike.
  • Slope your Pike.
  • Leuell your Pike.
  • Traile your Pike.
  • Recouer your Pike.
  • Charge your Pike, and aduance your ground.
  • Retreat charging.
  • Aduance your Pike.
  • Lay downe your Pike.
The Postures of the Musket.
  • HAndle your Musket.
  • Lay downe your Musket.
  • Lay downe your bandeleers.
  • Hold your Rest in your left hand.
  • Take vp your bandeleers with your right hand.
  • Put on your bandeleers.
  • Take vp your Musket.
  • Bring your Rest to your Musket.
  • Open your pann.
  • Prime your pann.
  • Shut your pann.
  • Cast off your loose powder.
  • Beare ouer your Musket into your left hand.
  • Traile your Rest.
  • Charge your Musket.
  • Draw forth your skowring stick.
  • Short your scowring flick against your right side.
  • Ram downe your powder.
  • Draw forth your skowring stick.
  • Short your skowring sticke.
  • Returne your skowring sticke.
  • Bring forward your Musket into your right hand.
  • Recouer your Rest.
  • Poyse your Musket.
  • Bring your Rest to the right side of your Musket.
  • Beare your Rest and Musket in your left hand.
  • Draw your match.
  • Blow your match.
  • Cock your match.
  • Try your match.
  • Guard your pann.
  • Blow your match.
  • Present to the Front.
  • Giue fire.
  • Take downe your Musket.
  • Vncock your match.
  • Returne your match.
  • Blow your pann.
  • Prime your pann.
  • Shut your pann.
  • Shoulder your Musket carrying your Rest in your left hand.
  • Slope your Musket.
  • Vnshoulder your Musket.
  • Rest your Musket.
  • Stand to your saluting Posture.
  • Lay downe your Musket.

The first order of exercising Musketiers.

FIrst vnderstand that they are three foote in File and three foote in Rancke, hauing a diuision in the mid­dest of six foote; then the Captaine bids the two first Ranckes, Make ready, and marcheth with them some fiue or six paces before the rest of the Company, and bids the first Rancke Giue fire; which it doth, and then marcheth away, turning to the right hand, the one halfe marching by the right hand Flancke, and the other halfe through the middest of the body, and so fall euery one into his owne File in the Reare: and then the Captaine com­mands the second Rancke to giue fire, which performes all as aforesaid; and then two Ranckes more aduance in the former order, and so they may continue discharging with ten Ranckes a long time. The Demonstration pag. 201. makes this very plaine, to which I refer you for spe­culation. This order is of great vse to winne ground vp­on an enemie.


The second Order of Exercising Musketiers.

IN the former Demonstration was shewed an Order of winning ground vpon an enemy; in this the con­trary of loosing ground, or retraiting is shewed, and yet to offend the enemy. The distances and diuision being obserued as in the former Figure, the Captaine in the Reare commands, To the right hand about and giue fire; and then the Rancke in the Reare performes the same, and presently after they march into the Front, euery man into his owne File; the one halfe march on the left hand File, and the other halfe through the middest of the bo­dy. Then the Captaine commands againe, To the right hand about, and giue fire; which the Rancke then in the Reare performes, as aforesaid, and so forth infinitely: all which in the Demonstration pag. 203. is made plaine and easie.


The thrid Order of exercising Musketiers.

THe whole Company being three foote distant in Files and Ranckes (without any diuision as afore­said) the Captaine marching in the Front, commands, Right Flanck to the right hand & giue fire; & then the right hand File turneth towards the right hand, and performes the same, and the rest of the body continues marching till they be cleare of that File which gaue fire: and then the Captaine commands againe as before; which the then right File performes, the rest of the body marching: and so in like manner, till all the Files haue discharged. The order hereof is demonstrated pag. 205. If there be oc­casion to discharge on the left hand Flancke, the same or­der is to be obserued as on the right hand Flancke. Note that when the second File hath discharged, that then the first File marcheth vp to Front with it: and both those with the third File when it hath discharged, and so forth till all front with the last File: and then they are ready to discharge againe, if occasion require.


The fourth Order of Exercising Muskettieres.

THis fourth way in vse, is all one with the third order; the difference is onely in the manner of performing the same; for according to this order the depth of the Company is diuided by making the fift and sixt Ranckes sixe foote distance each from other. The Captaine mar­ching in the Front, commands, Right Flancke to the right hand and giue fire, which the right File doth; and then halfe thereof march through the Diuision, and the other halfe in the Reare, and so march on the left hand of the left hand Flancke, euery man into his owne Rancke: the order whereof is plainly demonstrated in the Figure marked pag. 207.


The fift Order of Exercising Muskettieres.

THis Order is another kinde of loosing ground; the Captaine in the Front commands, Make ready alto­gether, and then saith to the first Rancke, giue fire: which done, the one halfe of that Rancke marcheth downe into the Reare, on the right hand of the right hand Flancke, and the other halfe through the midst of the body (which for that end is diuided) euery man falling into his owne File. Then the Captaine saith likewise to the second Rancke, Giue fire, which it doth, and fals into the Reare, as the first did, and so the third, fourth, fift, &c. The manner whereof is demonstrated in the Figure marked with 209. Note that here the whole body stands still, and are onely in motion by particular Ranckes, when they haue discharged, till they come againe into their proper Files in the Reare, and then stand still againe, till they haue redischarged.


Close your Files both waies at a foote and halfe.

IF a charge of Horse be expected, then the foote are to be in the closest order; which is one foote and a halfe in Rancke, and three foote in File. The words of com­mand for closing Files are diuers; as Close your Files to the right hand: or, Close your Files to the left hand: or, Close your Files both waies: the last whereof is most com­monly vsed, and therefore I haue demonstrated that or­der, as you may perceiue in the Figure marked pag. 211.

Note also, that because I desired to obserue the di­stances precisely in all the Figures, that therefore the Printer was forced to change the Letters in this and some other Figures, and in steed of M. for Muskettiere, hath placed S. for Shot: which I thought good to giue notice of for thy better vnderstanding.


Close your Ranckes at three foote.

THe Files being closed, at a foote and halfe demon­strated in the Figure marked in pag. 211 the Captaine then commands, Close your Ranckes at three foote, or, at Swords point; which is the closest order for Ranckes: the which is plainly demonstrated in the Figure marked in pag. 213.


To the right hand, wheele.

VPon occasion of the Enemies charge on the right hand Flancke, to receiue him with the most able men, which are vsually in the Front; it may be perfor­med by commanding them, To the right hand wheele; and then the Leader of the right hand File standeth fixed, onely turning his body, and all the rest moue vpon him as the centre: according to the Demonstration pag. 215. Note that the Officers must be very carefull to command and see them to keepe their distances in Rancke and File, without which, this Motion will not bee gracefully acted.


To the left hand, wheele.

THis Motion differeth from the former pag. 215 only in this; that here the Leader of the left hand File standeth fixed, as there the Leader of the right hand File did: which by the forme of the Demonstration marked with A. you may easily vnderstand.

THere is another way which I haue seene Graue Mau­rice his guard to wheele, viz. to moue vpon the middle of the Front, and then if they wheele to the right hand, All to the right hand of the middle of the Front go backwards, and the rest forward: and if they wheele to the left hand, then all to the left hand of the middle of the Front goe backwards, and the rest forwards. All which is most plainely vnderstood by obseruing the De­monstration marked with B. In which and the two for­mer Figures is a Starre placed neere the centre, on which the Company moues.



Open your Ranckes backwards.

TO open the Ranckes, vnderstand that the Front or first Rancke standeth still, and the other nine Rancks fall backwards altogither, till the second Rancke be six foote distant from the Front, and then it stands still, and the rest of the body moues till the third Rancke be six foote distant from the second Rancke, and so till the fourth Rancke be distant six foote from the third, and all the rest of the Ranckes in order. The manner whereof I haue demonstrated in the Figure marked M. and the thing done in the Figure marked N.



Open your Files both wayes.

IN opening the Files, halfe the body moues towards the right hand, and the other halfe towards the left hand, in grosse; and then the two middle-most Files when they are 6 foote distant, stand still, & the rest of the body continues mouing both wayes, till the next two Files are distant six foote from the former which stood still: and so the Motion continues in this order till all the Files haue taken their distance of six foote each from other. The manner whereof is demonstrated in the Fi­gure marked with E. and the thing done in the Figure marked with F.

Thus much for the manner of exercising footemen, fully performed, after the right order and moderne vse of Theoricke Rules, accustomed in these dayes.

Now lastly you are to lead forth your souldiers by fiue and fiue in Rancke, in like order as is set downe in the Figure of the order how a Company should march. Note that the Captaine marching out of the field, most commonly doth march in the Reare of his Company, and his Lieutenant in the Front, the rest of the Officers are to march in like order as is demonstrated in the order of march, except you do troope out of the Field; for then you are to alter &c. howsoeuer you are to conduct the Colours to the place where they are to be laid vp, where hauing made a guard, the Captaine and his Officers re­pairing to the Colours, being within the said guard, and towards the Front, he saith to the Drum or Drums, Beat vp a discharge, which being done, (with sometimes a vol­ley of shot giuen) and the Colours wrapped and folded vp, euery man departs to his home. &c.



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