Roger L'Estrange,


The Second Edition.

Whereunto is Annexed, Useful Discoveries, and Practical Observations, in some late Remarkable Cures of the SCURVY. Never before Printed.

By E. Maynwaringe, Dr. in Physick.

Cognitio Sequitur Curationes.

LONDON, Printed by Anne Maxwell, and are to be sold by Tho. Basset, at his Shop under St. Dunstans Church, in Fleet-street, 1668.

Tabidorum Narratio.


HAving surveyed and se­riously perused many Vo­lumes of the most learned and eminent Physicians ancient and modern; I find a great progress made in the Art of Physick, being modelled and methodized into such order, as if nothing were wanting to its perfection; and that the burden of this bu­siness hath wholly rested upon the shoulders of our Predeces­sors in this Faculty and Pro­fession; so that it may be thought (by superficial indagators) there is nothing new to be in­quired after; that the work is done to our hand, and we may[Page]sit down and rest satisfied in th [...] enjoyment of their labours; tha [...] tracing their footsteps, we ar [...] sufficiently guided in the righ [...] practice of Physick.

Though others are contented to acquiesce in traditional noti­ons, and jog on in the common road, as being most easie and beaten; and to look upon the inquiries and determinations of our Ancestors, as a ne plus ul­tra to any disquisition or sedu­lous indagation of their own: for my own part I am willing to step aside sometimes into rough untrodden ways, to find out some secrets in Nature, not confining my self within the Rules of Common Practice, nor[Page]thinking my self bounded and restrained by the Canons of the Ancients, but guided by Rea­son and true Experiments, the best and safest conduct that leads to truth.

But I would not be mistaken, as if I contemned the works of other men, endeavouring to build upon their ruines; I have as great a regard to all the Learned in this Faculty as any whatsoever; and am so far from blasting any one, that I would rather smother then wil­lingly blaze their errours: but where necessity compells me (for truths sake) I am blame­less when I name some: nor is it to be look'd upon as a defa­mation, [Page]men are but men, and we know but in part; and if another can convince me of er­rour, I shall thank him for his admonition, and submit to his more prevalent and persuasive reasons: until then, I shall ad­here to, and defend the Asserti­ons delivered in the following Discourse, as most consonant with reason, and verified by my practice and observations.

A Table of the Heads, and chief matter treated on.

  • OF Consumptions in general; several Denominations and their Etymologies. page 1.
  • Of Life. p. 3.
  • Of vital and fundamental Princi­ples, and their operations. p. 8.
  • Of the material, sensitive and mor­tal Soul of man. p. 11.
  • Of the vital Spirit, or balsom of Life. p. 16.
  • Of Fermentation, and fermenting Principles. p. 25
  • A Survey of the vital and funda­mental Principles, conjunctim. p. 36.
  • Of vital heat. p. 39.
  • [Page]Of a Consumption Atrophy. p. 42.
  • Of Scorbutick Consumptions. p. 49.
  • Of a Hectick Fever. p. 54.
  • Of a Phthisick, and Consumption of the Lungs. p. 77.
  • Of a Spermatick Consumption and Gonorrhaea, or running of the reins. p. 98.
  • Of Fluor albus, the whites. p. 104.

[Page 1]Tabidorum Narratio.

Of Consumptions in general; several Denominations and their Etymo­logies.

AT the entrance of our discourse upon this Subject, it will not be unprofitable to examine the word Consumption; for that Diseases most commonly have their de­nominations significant, intimating the nature of the Disease, or somthing emi­nently appertaining thereto.

Consumption in its genuine signification, denotes a wasting or wearing away, from Consumo to spend, wast, or lessen: but the Latine word most commonly us'd by Phy­sicians is Tabes from Tabeo, signifying also to consume or wast; and in the latitude of this signification most diseases may be called Consumptions, because they do prey upon the vital and fundamental principles, spend and wear them; yea after the vigour and strength of our age is past,[Page 2]although we continue without a manifest depravation of the functions belonging to vitality, and in a state of health; yet the [...] is a declension, spending, and decay of the vital and fundamental principles, which do deficere, fall off from their pristine inte­grity and vigour, though we are not sen­sible of it, but by space of time: we cannot perceive daily they do decrescere but we find them decrevisse; that they are wasted and decreased in their vigou [...] and strength, which this word Consumption does comprise.

But this is not the intent of our discourse, although the latitude of the word will admit: yet it will be profitable and useful to consider the variety o [...] Consumptions and Declensions of Nature, although in a state of health, for the bet­ter illustration of those arising from mor­bific causes, which strictly and more pecu­liarly intended are the subject matter of this work; and they are distinguished by these several appellations: Atrophia, Fe­bris Hectica, Phthisis, Seminis excretio, called tabes dorsalis by Hippocrates.

The first signifies barely a defect or want of nutrition; the second a Hectic Feaver; the third a Ptissick, an exulce­ration or rottenness; the fourth an invo­luntary[Page 3]emission of seed, or voluntary but immoderate.

Of Life.

FOR your better understanding the whole frame of this discourse, and to facilitate your apprehension of what shall be delivered, (which other­wise might seem obscure, and incongru­ous with the present design) I shall first lead you to the foundation, that you may see what basis it hath, and then your reason will determine of the superstru­cture, and the conformity of its parts. This work takes its rise from, or is bot­tomed upon the life, the vital and fun­damental principles, to which the whole discourse refers and depends upon: and since our Subject to be handled and treated on, is a Consumption, a decay and wasting of the vital principles; it is requisite in the first place you should know what this life is, the vital and fundamental principles are, being the basis of the di­scourse, which unknown, or not rightly and exactly discovered, clouds all that shall deductively from thence be asserted and delivered.

[Page 4]And first I shall recite some opinions of great Philosophers concerning life what it is. Aristotle lib. de respir. says, that life is, [...] mansio animae nutritivae cum calido: by which we understand only a conjunction of the vegetative soul with the body: and like to this is Scaliger's Definition, Exerc. 102. sect. 5. where he saith the life to be [...], unionem animae cum corpore, to whom Hollerius agrees, quid aliud vita est, quam animae & corporis firma copula­tio: Comm. 2. lib. 5. Coac. Hippocr. what is life (saith he) but the connexion or cou­pling of soul and body.

But this opinion when it comes to be throughly examined will not hold; be­cause there is several gradations or de­grees of life, whereby the Creatures are differenced in their stations, the one more noble than the other, according to the eminency and degree of their vita­lity: as the vegetative life of a Plant, is below the sensitive life of animals; and this sensitive life of animals, inferior and ignoble compared with the rational life of man: Now in respect of conjunction they agree equally, that the vegetative soul of a Plant is as really united to its.[Page 5]body, as the soul and body of man is cou­pled: here is no gradation in connexion to distinguish them; therefore Life is something else that will admit of de­grees: and here many arguments might be used to prove, and some objections to be answered; but it was not my intenti­on to ingage so far in polemical di­scourse and controversie, therefore I pass on.

Cardan and others determine, vitam esse [...] formae, life to be the opera­tion or action of the soul; and by how much the actions or operations in one Creature are more noble than in ano­ther, by so much is the life of that Crea­ture more noble than his fellows: and although Greg. Horstius condemns this opinion, and adheres to the Aristotelian, yet it is much more rational, and less in­tangled with objection.

Helmont speaking of the life of Crea­tures in general, gives this definition; vita est lumen & initium formale, quo res agit quod agere jussa est: Life is a formal light, of a luminous nature; and he ac­counts the life and form of every thing to be synonimous; natura recipit distin­ctiones specificas à lumine formali: there is so many distinct lights in nature (saith[Page 6]he) as there is things: Formae quaedam nitent, ut in lapidibus & mineralibus; quaedam aucta luce splendent, ut in plan­tis; aliae verò sunt etiam luminosae, ut in ani­mantatis: by which we understand their degrees in eminency of being.

And the same author in another place, creating of the life of man, saith, vita humana est lux formalis, life is a formal light: and if we admit of this Defini­tion, all vital operations or actions are emanations and streams issuing from this formal light, so that lumen formale est causa & actus vitalis. Now because forma est indemonstrabilis à priori; the essence of things is not demonstrable in their cau­ses; but are the ne plus ultra, the bounds and limits of our reasoning and disquisi­tion: I shall level the following discourse, that you may take a view of this life à po­steriori; since the Creator hath vailed the face of the Creature that we should not be­hold their essence, as being his prerogative.

For these two latter definitions of life, although they differ, yet we may receive information from both: the last appropri­ates the word life to the soul or specific & individual form of every thing; and so vita, anima & forma, are synonimous; the other to the operations that do emanare, proceed[Page 7]from that form or soul; and in this aceep­tation, vita is actus vitalis, [...] istius formae: what this life is, as it is actus pri­mus, forma & anima rei, I shall discourse in due place following: and as vita is act us secundus, [...] formae, action or ope­ration, I think it necessary to explicate.

And here I might observe and lay open the variety and difference of life in the several species of Creatures; yea those things that seem to be dead and inani­mate, are alive, do edere actiones, per­form operations more or less eminently, to testifie and prove that there is life in them: and therefore Minerals, as Stones and Metals, do live and can exert their power proportionable to that life which is in them; though their life is not so perspicuous and refulgent as those of a higher orb and degree in vitality; yet their life is not so mean and contempti­ble as some may imagine, but their ope­rations are such as may and oftentimes do cause our admiration; vivunt animalia & vegetabilia & mineralia, suo quaelibet vivendi mode.

But I must wave what collaterally falls into this discourse, and prosecute direct­ly the intention of this Treatise; and therefore setting aside the life of other[Page 8]Creatures, I shall strictly examine the life of man, in its initiation or plantation, gradations and exaltation, declension [...] and period: and for the better under­stan [...]ing of this life in its several degrees of vitality; how [...]nd by what means the life of man is so fluxible and mutable, I shall bring into consideration the prin­ciples of life, which is the subject of our discourse, in the following s [...]ction.

Of vital and fundamental Princi­ples, and their operations.

HAving undertaken to declare the life of man what it is, wherein the ra­tio formalis does consist; w [...]ich we have determined to be operation or action: and since vital operation is not simple and univocal, but equivocal and various; humane vitality being compounded of, or admiting different actions comprised within its latitude: I shall therefore ex­amine how it comes to pass, and from whence these different actions do pro­ceed, that the principles and foundation of this life may be discovered.

The vital and fundamental principles,[Page 9]I call such as are principally and funda­mentally concerned in vital operations; and they are three, the sensitive Soul, the Archaeus or vital Spirit, and the fer­ments: and these are the three grand wheels upon which the life of man doth move, by their distinct causations, co­operating subordinately, and consenting in uniformity and conformity with each other.

In natural actions of compound bo­dies, there is both agent and patient, part moving and part moved: in humane vi­tal actions there is, first, anima movens efficienter; the Soul moving as an effici­ent principal cause: secondly, there is al­so spiritus movens instrum [...]nt [...]liter; the vital spirit moving as agent or instru­ment? Thirdly, there is fermenta par­tium, the ferments, which is the peculiar and different Crasis of each part: the two former are active and more general in causation: the latter passive special and distinct: determining the other and spe­cificating their efficiency, to produce va­rious effects; to which organization and different fabrication of parts suiting those purposes, does contr [...]bute.

The proprieties of life result from these principles: hereby the Creatures[Page 10]are distinguished one from the other, pro­ducing such and such distinct operations answerable to the principles of their vi­tality: so that their peculiar distinct be­ings and operations, arise from the peculi­arity of their vital and fundamental prin­ciples: and if these vital principles be the basis on which the several degrees & or­ders of Creatures do stand, by which they are ranked and placed in their proper sta­tions, as their distinguishing characters; then we must conclude that a right no­tion and conception of these, unfolds the Creature, discovers its being by this light of their vitality; which unknown, our knowledge is very dark and uncer­tain: and as life consists in and manifests it self by operation; then by how much those operations are more noble, vigo­rous, free, and operative, by so much is the life more excellent in that Creature, [...]am in essentia specifica quam in esse indi­viduo: and as the life of man is distribu­ted into several faculties by fit organs; we may judge of the integrity of that life, by the performance and execution of each function.

What these vital and f [...]ndamental prin­ciples are I shall distinctly examine them apart, for a clearer discovery of their pecu­ [...]iar nature, as followeth,

The material, sensitive, and mortal Soul of man.

MAN falling from that state of in­tegrity in which he was created, lost his honour and supreme priviledge of being wholy governed by his rational and immortal soul in all vital actions: but being degraded from that perfection, the regiment of the body was delegated to a sensitive and mortal Soul (common to the brutes) and made the immediate Rectrix and Governess of man in vital actions.

By this means death entred into man­kind, the immaterial and immortal prin­ciple of life being supplanted; thereby forfeited Sovereignty and Jurisdicti­on, total and uncontrolled power in man, did resign great part of the govern­ment, and was thereby made subject to the over-rulings and contradictings, al­lurements and seductions of a depraved and sensitive Soul, the substitute of that immortal and first total Sovereign and Rectrix of our vitality.

This material, irrational soul having the Reins and Government of man, in[Page 10] [...] [Page 11] [...] [Page 10] [...] [Page 11] [...] [Page 12]vital and animal actions; as the brutal soul of beasts governs those Creatures: and being a material substance subject to mutability and decay, as other sublunary bodies are; hence the life of man be­came frail and mortal, being the result of corruptible pr [...]nciples; depending on them in mutual concurrence, conspirat [...]on and vigour; but è contra subject to irre­gularity, discord, and defection.

This sensitive or brutal Soul, is a prin­ciple of life, giving sense and motion; distributed [...]nto several faculties by the spirit of life, which is animae instrumentum, conveyed through the body by fit or­gans for the execution of divers fun­ctions.

If you ask what is the Office of the rational soul, and to what purposes doth it serve, since the vital oeconomy and government of the body is transferred and committed to another power?

To give satisfaction herein, and to de­termine distinctly between the rational and irrational soul, that their conjunct and disjunct operations, their subordi­nations and dependances in vitality may more clearly be discerned, I shall in these following Theses give solution to some nice questions than may be started,[Page 13]and reduce the whole to our present de­ [...]ign.

First, That the rational Soul hath de­ [...]ivered up the Power and Government of the body in vital acti [...]ns, (that are meerly animal) to a sensi [...]ive and inferior power, immediately acting tanquam ejus vicario, for governing the vital functions.

Secondly, That the rational Soul (post lapsum) being seated in the bosom of the brutal, and united quasi in connubio to this vital principle, hath influence upon the sensitive by way of promotion, assi­stance, or direction, usque in vitae perio­dum, through the whole term of life.

Thirdly, That the sensitive or brutal Soul, taking it [...] ori [...]ination and introdu­ction into mankind from a defection, lapse, and depravation; remains per­verse, repugnant to reason, and refuseth often to obey the dictates and instructi­ons of the rational Soul in vital actions and government of the body.

Est lex in membris Contradicens legibus mentis immortalis.

Scrip. Sac.

Fourthly, That both rational and sensi­tive Soul do often concur, consent, and co­operate unanimously for preservation of the body and integrity of vital actions: the sensitive Soul obedientially and wil­lingly[Page 14]receiving concurrence, aid, a [...] direction from the rational as suprea [...] Moderatrix.

5ly That the sensitive and mortal So [...] arising seminaliter and of material pro­duction, hath a temporary incremen [...] state, and decrement, does senescere & tabescere, as other perishable bodies subject to corruption.

6ly That the mortality and decay o [...] man does not arise from any deficienc [...] and decay of the rational Soul, whic [...] is in sua natura of perpetual duration▪ but from the fragility and corruptibility of his other principles, both active an [...] passive; forcing the immortal Soul to a [...] egress by ruine and inhabitableness of her mansion.

7ly That the rational Soul though im­mortal, and a principle of perpetual duration; yet being obnoxious to passi­ons and disquietudes, thereby disordereth the oeconomy and regular execution of vital operations, by disturbing the sen­sitive Soul in her several functions: and this, à necessitudine combinationis & vin­culi; being both connexed in the bond of vitality, are both compatible and li­able to each others injuries and discom­posures.

[Page 15]8ly That the sensitive and mortal Soul in esse, and in execution of vital opera­tions, depending on material and orga­nical parts, is wholy lyable and obnoxious to their deficiencies and decays: and therefore hath her duration, exaltations, and declensions, according to the dispo­sition and durability of the material and organical structure.

9ly That the sensitive Soul hath distri­buted her faculties necessary for life, by the several organs of the body; which vital faculties are distinct in duty and of­fice, though not in vitality; being the same stream, issuing ab unitate animae ad organa diversa, and transmitted by the vital Spirit which is animae minister.

10ly That sensitive and brutal Souls as they do excel one another in specie, having peculiar endowments and properties di­stinguishing their kinds: so likewise in individuis ejusdem speciei, they transcend or degenerate from one another in some properties; and therefore the material and mortal Souls of men, à principio are of longer or shorter duration, juxta exi­gentiam seminalium dispositionum, being propagated per successivam sexuum copu­lam, according to Helmont.

11ly That the sensitive Soul is supported [Page 16]and best upheld by the placid and una­nimous concurrence with the rationa [...] Soul; by whose irradiations, pleasan [...] estate, and amicable conspiration, th [...] sensitive Soul is vigorated, cheared, an [...] enlivened: and therefore it is not a littl [...] prejudicial, but much detrimental, an [...] a shortning of mans life, the distractions▪ passionate tumults, and indisposed sadness of the rational; which otherwise▪ as the Sun in the Heavens gives a chearful brightness and reviving lustre throug [...] the world, so the Soul by a bright an [...] chearful aspect through the microcosm o [...] man.

The vital Spirit, or balsome of Life.

IT is rightly affirmed by a learned Phi­losopher, nullum est sensibile quod non ab insensibili intus agatur spiritu: every corporeal thing manifesting it self a sensi­ble object, is acted by an insensible prin­ciple, that evades our senses: the succes­sive generation of all things in this sub­lunary world, è centris tenebricosis sun­gunt, they arise out of darkness: that[Page 17]is, are produced and brought forth by invisible principles and secret agents, the Authors of such mutations; which being invested and clothed with sensible cor­poriety, act their parts in divers figures and operations; and as the sensible world is various, so is the insensible an­swerable thereto: à principiis insensibilibus omnia moventur; every thing hath its in­sensible movent principle.

In the generation of man, the materia ex qua, the material passive and visible principle, is seed; this active and invisi­ble principle contained in this seed, that disposeth this matter and exerts a power of formation, per modum instrumenti, to delineate and erect a fit mansion for the Soul to dwell in; that fabricates and contrives fit organs for execution of her various functions, is the innate spirit or vital spirit in the seed.

This is called vis pl [...]stica, vis forma­trix, the formative power wherewith the seed of man is impregnated, as a propa­gative and prolific principle for successive generation, and this virtute verbi, from the Creators institution, Crescite & multi­plicamini.

The Archaeus seminalis, this vital spi­rit is not only an active principle in gene­ration,[Page 18]to delineate and fabricate th [...] seed into various parts for several offic [...] and purposes, but also doth contin [...] balsamum vitae, being of a saline and ba [...] samic nature, which preserves the bod [...] from corruption.

This vital spirit is called by many v [...] tal heat, because in many animals th [...] spirit manifests its presence by sensib [...] heat; and we may judge of this vit [...] principle in what state and condition [...] is, by this concomitant heat, which is [...] character and signature of life: yet he [...] is not inseparable and necessary to th [...] vital principle in genere; but that it ma [...] act in vital operations as vigorously with out this adjunct property, as we see i [...] Fishes, which are of a cold nature an [...] void of all heat, yet are as vegete, lively, and brisk as any animals of a wa [...] nature: so that heat and cold does emerge from life, not life from these accidents; are but Characteres vitae, distinguishing qualities appertaining to severa [...] species of Creatures, sutable to their several natures and stations, for which the [...] were created and destined.

What this vital Spirit in humane bodies is, and the properties thereto belonging, I shall lay open distinctly i [...] these following Theorems.

[Page 19]First, That this vital spirit, contained [...] the seed, is spiritus architecionicus in [...]eneratione; doth delineate, fabricate, [...]nd form the seed into divers parts and [...]gures, to construct and build a fit man­ [...]on for the soul to dwell in, with neces­ [...]ry organs for the execution of her seve­ [...]l functions.

Secondly, That this spiritus formator, [...]ontained in, and arising ex semine, having [...]s origination materialiter from the seed, [...]ath its aptitude and hability, or inep­ [...]itude to act, juxta seminum dispositionem; [...]nd therefore the infoecundity, miscarri­ [...]ges, and errors in formation, is not to [...]e imputed alwaies to this Sculptor or [...]imner, qui generati imaginem habet; [...]arrying the idea of the foetus, impressed [...] generantibus: but inobedientiae materiae, [...]o the indisposition and intractibility of [...]eminal matter, or external occasional causes intervening and disturbing the workmanship.

Thirdly, That this seminal Agent which is Rector generationis, the Framer, Director, and Delineator in the genera­tion and fabrication of man, does also perform and carry on all vital actions or functions in the body, during the whole course and progress of mans life, and is vitae regiminis moderator.

[Page 20]4ly That the Archaeus this seminal S [...] rit for its own preservation and additio [...] al supply in carrying on the work of [...] tality (which by time increaseth as t [...] microcosme framing comes to perfect [...] and growth) does therefore associ [...] with, and assimilate to its self an influ [...] ed spirit, congenerous with its own [...] ture, extracted from our aliment da [...] brought in by natures appointment [...] preserve the innate spirits in vigor a [...] strength, preventing their exhaustio [...] ▪ which order is observed during the cou [...] of life, at least during the regular m [...] thod of nature, until she fall off and d [...] cline.

5ly That this vital spirit is planted [...] sentialiter, in the whole body, Tanqu [...] subjecto adequato, that no part can [...] without it, and live; but dispensed [...] nature geometricè, not equally distrib [...] ted to all alike by arithmetical propo [...] tion, but each part is furnished and e [...] dowed, pro dignitate ex officio, suitab [...] to its office and duty.

6ly That the vivacity, or livelines [...] ▪ strength, and durability of our bodi [...] is more or less, according to the plent [...] or want of this vital spirit, which [...] principium movens in all the faculties, an [...] [Page 21] [...]ndimentum corporis, the balsomick pre­ [...]erver of our bodies from putrefaction.

7ly That semen humanum, the sperma­ [...]ick extract, containing in it this soecund [...]ital spirit, elaborated for generation, is [...]ot excrementum (according to the erro­ [...]eous opinion of the Ancients) but com­ [...]lementum, the perfection and choicest [...]xtract, impregnated, and richly endow­ [...]d with vital spirits, for propagation of [...]he species.

8ly That prodigality in emission of seed, [...]vishly expending that elaborated ex­ [...]act, containing the seminal balsamick [...]irit, which is robur naturae & custos cor­ [...]oris à corruptione, the strength of na­ [...]ure, and preserver from putrefaction, [...]ust needs enervate and weaken the fa­ [...]ulties by draining the whole body, and [...]mpoverishing the treasury of vital bal­ [...]mick spirits; upon which our alimen­ [...]ary liquors of the body do degenerare in [...]ejus, degenerate and alter from their [...]rimitive goodness, producing various [...]hanges in the body, as their several na­ [...]ures and properties are various in their [...]ntegrities: Hence several morbifick pro­ductions, bearing several denominations from the deficiency of one vital prin­ciple.

[Page 22]9ly That this Vital Spirit, which [...] Robur & balsamum naturae, the stren [...] of our bodies, and balsom of our [...] mentary liquors; yet being a mate [...] corruptible substance subject to mut [...] on, hath its increment, state, and de [...] ment, as other natural bodies in the co [...] mon course of Nature; from whe [...] Consumptions and many chronick l [...] guishing Diseases take their rise, from [...] declension or infirm radication of [...] our innate robur, not to be restored [...] retarded by the common Medicines ad [...] ted, à posteriori, to effects, the produc [...] degenerate matter, but by such as [...] applicable and accommodated to [...] vital principle, being auxiliary and [...] staurative, congenerous with its [...] nature.

10ly That the vital spirit contained [...] semine parentum, being an extract fr [...] the whole body, elaborated to that p [...] fection gradually by several digesti [...] and contributions of divers parts, a [...] impressed with the Idea or image of [...] for propagation, does also carry the [...] ces and imperfections of those parts [...] the proles, the following generation b [...] ing a draught from that copy, m [...] bear a proportion in the imperfectio [...] [Page 23] plus minus, more or less manifested, ac­cording to the concurrence of interven­ing, accidental and external causes, ag­gravating or correcting; as Astral Influx, Education, and Diaetetick Customs.

11ly That the Morbific Imperfections of Parents are not all transferred to the Children, but such as are sigillated upon the innate Spirit of the Parents.

12ly That Morbi à parentibus traducti, hereditary Diseases, being transplanted or inserted into the off-spring, per ideam morbificam in parentum semine sculptam, and connatural with us by our seminal principles, are latent until the time of their maturity do appear successively, at certain times according to other seminal proprieties; and therefore hereditary Consumptions, Gouts, Scurvy, &c. do not appear in the infancy, though really existing, but approach to the time of their manifestation and production soon­er or later, according to regular or irre­gular education, and external occasional causes, promoting or retarding their ger­mination and maturity.

13ly That calidum innatum (a sub­stance) this Vital Spirit manifesting its presence in some species of Creatures, per calorem (a quality) by sensible heat, [Page 24]as in man, yet being a body of the fin [...] rarified substance, and spiritalized ma [...] ter, does evade the senses, and is impe [...] ceptible immediatè, by the touch [...] sight.

14ly That calor naturalis, our natu [...] heat being a consequent or concomita [...] property arising, or resulting, from [...] vital principle, and varying per grad [...] by intension and remission; does sh [...] the condition of this vital princi [...] whether in statu naturali, vel praeterna [...] rali; whether aestuating, irritated, a [...] disturbed, or placid and quiet in its o [...] dinary course.

15ly That this seminal spirit which [...] aura vitalis, being of a [...]minous ae [...] rial nature, having some analogy w [...] coelestial Bodies, does much consent a [...] correspond, is fortified and depressed [...] Astral Influences according to their va [...] ous Aspects, benevolent, or malevole [...] and therefore it is that at sometimes a [...] seasons we are variously disposed and [...] fected, well and ill, pro diverso sider [...] influxu, clementia & inclementia coeli.

Concerning Fermentation and fermenting Principles.

THE Doctrine of Ferments being but of [...]untor standing in the world, hath brought much light into the practice of Phisick: the clear knowledge whereof discovers new truths to those who hap­pily labour to find the depth of this my­sterious operation in nature. And since there is such great fundamental truths discovered, which were latent to the an­cients, it is not strange, nor a dishonour to them, if we deviate from their steps, and neglect their precepts, being calcu­lated for that height they lived in, not the meridian of this brighter age, and clearer light of knowledge.

And here I cannot but admire the folly of many, though ingenious men, to dote upon Antiquities so much, and bind up themselves so strictly to the Canons of our Predecessors; as if nature were clear­ly and throughly unvailed to them, that nothing remains for us to do, but to ac­quiesce in their labours, and to learn the lesson they had prickt down to our hand. How unreasonable is it to alledge autho­rity [Page 26]of the Ancients, and urge it as [...] convincing argument, when the princ [...] ples of Phisick to them were but in pa [...] known, and principles then assert [...] which now are exploded? necessarily t [...] superstructure upon them must fall; [...] for what is deductive from a false supposition, must also be false: but I wou [...] not have any think hereby that I desp [...] the labours of ancient Philo ophers a [...] famous Physitians of their times; I ha [...] as great a veneration for their works [...] any; but they were men and knew b [...] in part: we see their failings, and t [...] generation to come will see ours; the [...] is yet much work to do in the unrav [...] ling of nature; great secrets yet to [...] discovered, that none may take it [...] dignly to be admonished of error, or i [...] sufficiency.

But to return to our purpose in han [...] from whence we digressed: Now th [...] you may know the reason of handli [...] Fermentation in this place; confider [...] have laid the foundation of this Tre [...] tise upon the vital and fundamental pri [...] ciples, on which our discourse depend [...] and to which is refers: in the prosecu [...] [...] therefore of this work, we are necesa [...]y led to co [...]m [...]ate Fermentatio [...] [Page 27]being of great concernment, and so great, that it is the parent of vital operations, from whence the rest do issue, and are continually supplyed for conservation.

By Fermentation are all the digestions performed; and from thence are the se­veral faculties of the body supported and maintained: by due fermentation are the alimentary liquors of the body generated and preserved; and by defect thereof are they impoverished, dispirited and a [...]iena­ted from their genuine proprieties.

And althou [...]h our food received a­bound with much fixed salt, (which if so remaining produce various diseases) yet by due fermentation, in the digestive offices it is so elaborated, changed, and volatised; and being so prepared is then fit for the extraction of spirits, to support and maintain our bodies in vitality and a vigorous condition; as we see in our operation upon vegetables, that the spi­rits are not drawn out but by the help of Fermentation, which does unfetter them and free them from their bodies, in which they were incarcerated and locked up; for by the help of fermenta­tion mixt bodies are unravelled, resolved, and a disunion of parts, made, that di­stinct [...]y they may be separated, artifici­ally,[Page 28]or by natural Chymistry, as it is performed daily in the body of man, operating upon food received. The great mutations and changes in the body, both perfective and corruptive, are fermenta­tive and arise from hence: by Fermen­tation diseases are generated, and by Fermentation are many cured: this is the great wheel by which sublunary bo­dies are moved and change their stations, graduated and degraded again: mine­rals into vegetables, vegetables into ani­mals; animals of one species into animals of another species: and that this wheel may go round with a perpetual motion, animals return into vegetables, and ve­getables into minerals; so that nature is never at a stand or idle, but always mo­ving; sometimes upward tending to per­fection, and producing a more noble form; sometimes downward by cor­ruptive alteration, unravelling her own work she had curiously wrought and composed, and transposing it into ano­ther, though meaner and baser form.

We may either consider Fermentation as it is actio vitalis, a vital operation pro­ducing such effects, and cast an eye upon the products thereof, and see the varie [...]y of production; or else we may look to­ward[Page 29]the principia fermentativa, from whence this Fermentation does arise, and so have inspection chiefly into the cau­ses.

Famous Helment, who hath merited much in the opinion of most ingenious men, I mean those that are the truly knowing men in the study and right pra­ctice of Physick; yet in his discourse of Ferments is very obscure and ambiguous, that little satisfaction can be had from his writing on this subject; particularly a Tract entituled, Imago Fermenti, &c. and elsewhere frequently mentioned in other Tracts of his, discordantly; as those that trace him, I believe, will consent with me in this: but I shall not spend time to point out the places, and prosecute him, having deserved so well in some of his other works.

But to illustrate the Doctrine of Fer­mentation, Dr. Willis hath learnedly discoursed, and with him, I conceive, most of our modern Physitians agree.

For Fermentation and Ferments in their latitude is not necessary to discuss, here we shall only consider the fermenta­tive principles in Corpore humano, for the purpose in hand to lay open, our design: Dr Willis, De Fermentatione, saith, the [Page 30]life of animals does arise from a ferment­ing principle in the [...]ear [...] [...] vite initia à spi [...] in [...], v [...]. lut p [...]n [...] [...] [...]men. tescent [...] du un [...]. Diatrib. de Ferment. p. 24.

And in the page followin [...]: Praet [...] h [...] f [...]rment [...] in [...]rdis [...] e [...]titution, à quo sanguinis r [...] is & eff [...]r [...] esc [...]ntis plurimum dependent, sunt & alia diversa indolis passion in vi [...]ceribus recondita, quo­rum [...] & Chylu [...] (qui est sanguinis rudi­mentum) & s [...]iritus animalis, ejus quint: essentia, vi [...] elaborantur; sunt etiam alia: quae sanguini perficiend [...], in alios liquore [...] transmutando, ipsu [...]noue à materia exere­mentitia liberando inserziunt.

Whereby you may understand there are divers ferments in the body, for va­rious transmutations, elaborations, and depuration of alimentary matter.

What this worthy Author means by divers Ferments, I shall not take upon me to deliver his s [...]nse; but by way of enquiry let us examine the reason of the diversity of Ferments, and what they are If every fermentative transmutation in the body does arise from peculiar and di­stinct Ferments, then every part hath a pe­culiar Ferment implanted in it the part [...] being different one from the other [...], of­fice[Page 31]and use; from thence a very nume­rous company of Ferments must be allow­ed, which are so many vital principles, which to me implies some difficulty in the admissi [...]n.

En [...] non surt multiplicanda sine neces­sitate: to avoid this inconvenience, and to clear this Doctrine in order to the pre­sent design, I shall deliver my opinion, and determine the matter in these fol­lowing Theses.

First, That the various Fermentations in several parts of the body, producing distinct alterations in the alimentary matter fermented, are promoved and differenced by the peculiar Crasis and different composition of the parts, desti­nated for the offices of digestion.

Secondly, That the alimentary mat­ter consisting of fermenting principles, and having all the praevious dispositions necessary to fermentation; as cau [...]es oc­casional, adjuvant [...] and s [...]re qua n [...]n con­tributing, does co-operate in the work of fermentation, and that [...] principi [...]s [...]ntimis, of which it doth consul.

Thirdly, That the different Crasis and peculiar mixture of the parts of mans body ( [...]hus necessary for fermentation and vital operation upon the aliment re­ceived)[Page 32]by time and the continual transi­tion of various matter, does alter, chang [...] and obliterate.

4ly That the peculiar Crasis and tem­perature of the parts in juvenile person of a sound and due composition, do vi­gorously shew their different natures, by causing several and various fermentati­ons, answering their several compositi­ons, according to the institution of Na­ture, for elaboration of the alimentary matter received, until it attains the due perfection.

5ly That the distributive justice of Na­ture (fabricating the parts and structure of humane bodies) in her Geometrical proportions is various in diversis, and disproportionate in eodem individuo▪ hence the different propensions to disea­ses in several persons, and the constant inclination to this or that, in the same; propter inequale robur partium.

6ly That the alienation and degenera­tion of the Crasis of parts by time, be­getting a new fermentation and transmu­tation of alimentary matter received, does produce new and strange morbifick effects in the body: hence it is, (and eve­ry person may observe) the alteration of their bodies apparently different in seven[Page 33]years, or sooner pro vitae genere: and in the progress of mans life, some diseases appear at one age, other infirmities at a­nother, pro varia fermentationum differen­t [...]a; and so the whole course of a decli­ning life produceth, either new diseases or aggravations of the old; or commutati­ons for others; or new complications; and this to be expected à naturae fragilita­te, after the manner and for the reasons aforesaid.

7ly That by reason of the continual action and re-action between the parts recipient and the food recepted, the Cra­sis of the parts suffer an alteration, and degeneration from their primigeneous temperature and harmony of principles. So that by time, it is no wonder if our desires to this or that kind of food be va­ried and changed; or that our digesti­ons be much different in vigour and what else attend, or are the products of the several digestions.

8ly That the residue of the chyliferous or alimentary matter remaining after e­very digestion, is by such remansion so strongly altered and ali [...]ilated by the ferment of that offic [...], that it acts per modum assiste [...] i [...] with the natural innate ferment of the part in the subsequent di­gestion[Page 34]of the same office.

9ly That certain meats carrying in them a stronger fermenting nature, are more gratefully received by the stomach, and better digested then others of a light­er nature, and seemingly of more easie digestion: and therefore it is that some tender stomachs can better digest, and do covet salt Beef before Chicken, [...]mb, &c.

10ly That as the vigorous inaltered Crasis of the parts ( [...]eris paribus) pro­duce a good fermentation, and conse­quently good nutrition; [...] contra, the debility, disproportion and variation of the ferments beget a corruptive and mor­bifick fermentation, diverse pro varia eo­rum laes [...]ome & disproportione.

11ly That this declension and decay of the ferments (which is the natural and due constitution of parts disordered) is hastened and procured sooner by irregu­lar injurious living, offering violence to Nature; does pervert the principles of fabrication and government in the Micro­cosme, causing a ruinous disorder, before a spontaneous falling off, and inevitable inability to subsist, secundum leges Na­turae.

12ly That the fo [...]d received having an aptitude for alterat [...]on and change, [...] ­sisting[Page 35]of fermenting principles, is pro­moted and inclined to this or that trans­mutation, pro varia partium compositione, according to the nature of the part re­cipient, where this fermentation is wrought.

13ly That some peculiar food injuri­ously long accustomed to, depressing some and exalting others of the ferment­ing principles, disposeth to this or that disease and infirmity: and therefore the diaetetick part of Physick is not to be slighted and neglected, but carefully to be observed by all persons, especially such as incline and have a manifest propension to some disease above others.

14ly That the debility or digression of a fermenting principle (within the possi­bility of restauration) is raised and ad­vanced by medicament or aliment, ha­ving that congenerous principle, eminenter in sua natura.

15ly That the concomitant and subse­quent effects, attending the digestion, are declarative to an acute Spagyrist or Chymical Physician, and do shew the intension and remission of the ferment­ing principles, whereby correctives me­dicamental or alimental, or both, may duly and seasonal [...]y be appointed and ex­hibited.

[Page 36] Obiter. 16ly That our diaetetick part of Physick, differencing the proprieties and nature of food from the temperature of their qualities, is insufficient and un­profitable; shewing only the husk or shell, not their internal constituent na­tures and principles, chiefly to be known, and that by a Chymical analysis.

17ly That the error of nature in the particular composition and frame of some parts, ab initio, does necessarily dispose some persons to this or that disease, ne­ver to be totally amended, but will ad­mit of some correction and palliation [...] and therefore Patients sometimes wrong­fully complain of their Physitians, for that they have a continual propension to such or such diseases, which is not in the power of man to eradicate, being so planted by nature in the fabrication and first constitution of parts.

A Survey of the vital and funda­mental Principles Conjunctim.

HAving traced through the vital prin­ciples apart, and viewed their di­stinct beings and proprieties, we will[Page 37]make some result thereof, by applying it to our present design, as the front of this work does import and promise; and having surveyed them disjunctively in their offices and peculiar proprieties, we will consider them in their co-ordi­nate and subordinate acts, in their mu­tual compliance and assistance one to the other, in vital and animal actions, and what relation they have to health and sickness.

These vital principles are [...]he basis up­on which the whole discourse of Phy­sick ought to move, and to which it does refer; for health is the integrity and per­fect state of the vital principles, perform­ing the operations and functions of the body duly: and sickness on the contrary is their deficiency, depravation, and de­cay; so that health and sickness have their dependence here as the approximate causes.

These principles are not equal in de­gree and power, but one is principal and more noble than the other, which is in­strumental and subordinate: man consi­dered as a mere animal, hath his vitality, or performeth his vital actions from these three principles; the sensitive or brutal soul, the vital spirit, and the ferments of[Page 38]the parts; these are joint agents in vita­lity, and co-operate consentaneously have their defections, and roboration sympath [...]tically: the one is not depressor but the other is languid: and when on is exalted and elevated, the other i [...] strengthened and fortified: if the Sou [...] be sad, the spirits are dull, the ferment languid, and digestions weakly perform­ed: if the spirits be exhausted by immo­derate fluxes, bleeding, Venus, &c. the soul is sad, heavy, and drooping, the ferments not so acute and active in their several offices of transmutation: if the ferments be alienated from their genuine proprieties, by improper, irregular, and disproportionate food, or otherwise; or spontaneously languishing through their innate disability to a longer duration in their integrities; soon follows a defecti­on, depauperation, and drooping of spi­rits; since their generation and supply, depends upon a vigorous and due fer­mentation in the grand elaboratories of transmutation.

Thus the vital principles in a due har­mony concur and consent in all vital operations; each being assistant and co­adjuvant one to the other, and partici­pating in the ill or welfare of one another: [Page 39]but any one disordered or depressed, di­sturbs the regular oeconomy of the vital functions, tending to ruine and decay of the whole frame of man body: this is the golden chain of health, one link whereof being broken, en [...]rvates the strength of the whole man: these are the springs that move in the performance of all the functions and vital operations, whose vigour and harmonious consent, preserve the body in a prosperous and flourishing state; but being weak and languid, man declines and degenerates from his pristine vigour of vitality, when this trine conjunction of co-operation and subserviency begins to be dissolved.

What is Health, but a due performance of all the Functions? What is Sickness, but their disorder, irregularity, and defici­ency? and both health and sickness depend upon these fundamental principles, since all the functions are performed approxi­mately and immediately, duly or unduly, from their regularity or depravation.

If so, as it is most true, here is the centre of all our discourse concerning health and sickness: here is the basis upon which health and sickness depend; and here are we to aim and direct our en­deavours for the preservation and conti­nuance[Page 40]of the one, and also for the re­move of the other.

I have read voluminous, large Discour­ses, and tedious Tracts in Physick, b [...] with much dissatisfaction, acquiring there­by a superficial and distracted knowledg [...] only: particularly a large Scheme [...] Schedule of diseases is drawn out, me­thodized in that order, as some, nay th [...] most, take for a compleat platform (am I was of that opinion) wherein every part of mans body hath its diseases assigned; and from hence an innumerable com­pany of medicines are mustered up, sin­gly to oppose them: but upon due exa­mination and scrutiny into the whol [...] matter, I was better informed, and taugh [...] how to contract both Diseases and Me­dicines into fewer Heads and Classes not relating to temperaments and hu­mours, nor the variety of parts of man [...] body; but respecting the vital Principle▪ from whence result both health and sick­ness; that so applying to these, whic [...] are but few in number; their assistanc [...] required, for reduction and restauration▪ is not so perplexedly various as the gran [...] Authorities our Predecessors would have it, and their disciples, the maintaine [...] of it in this our age, who relish nothing [Page 41]but what savours of Antiquity; who stoop and yield to an ipse dixit, being more prevalent with them than the strength of reason. But to proceed, they that look only, or mainly at tempera­ments, and the various sorts of degene­rate humours, are such whose know­ledge gives them not admittance to view nature stript naked, ript up, and her in­trinsick parts, but externally to behold her invested in such a garb.

What are temperaments and humors, but a result and the effects of the vital principles, changing into this or that state and condition; from whose vari­ous gradations, mutations, compliance, and mutual assistance, variety of humors and degenerate matter is producted; which for distinction sake you may call humors and temperaments? but you must not content your self with the nomi­nal knowledge of these visible appearan­ces, but make disquisitions into the in­visible procurers; why do you so much e [...]e and aim at effects, neglecting their causes, applying Remedies only à posterio­ri, when you may and ought to do it radically, and à priori, at the springs from whence they arise?

The result of this discourse I shall sum up in this corollary.

[Page 42]That the fragility and morbific [...] state of mans life depends or ariseth a [...] well from the active, principles of vitality, declining, spending, and hastenin [...] to a period, ex nat [...]ae imbecillitate; [...] detrimento ab extra: as also from th [...] passive principles of mans composition constituting the Fabrick and organic [...] parts, being subject to dissolution, di [...] junction, and decay. If so, as it is mo [...] true, then Physicians need not so muc [...] insist upon, and mire themselves to find out Diseases in the superfluous humo [...] and excrements of mans body, which [...] the producted matter, and requires only evacuation; but chiefly to eye the principles of our vitality, which are t [...]e spri [...] from whence Diseases take their rise; r [...] quiring restauration, reduction to the integrities, roboration and confirm [...] tion.

Of a Consumption Atrophy, Tabes Anglica.

THe word Atrophia is a Compound of a privative or rather diminutive and [...] nutrit [...] signifying non-nutrition[Page 43]or little nutrition▪ This is very fre­quent with us in England, the s [...]re have given it a peculiar title, and call [...] Ta­bes Anglica.

By an Atrophy you are to understand a leanness, diminution or decay of the body from a f [...]ustrated nutrition.

Not a few there are, who enjoying their health, at least not complaining of any manifest infi [...]mity, and eat their meat indifferent well: yet do not thrive in their bodies, but pine away and grow lean, thin and weak: What secret causes there ar [...] to deprive the body of nutrition, we shall endeavour to detect and disco­ver, that a right course for Cure may be instituted.

A Consumption Atrophy is either uni­versal, when the whole body languisheth, by reason of some principal part that is ill affected; or particular, when some part only decays, diminishes and becomes weak, from a particular defect of that part.

To know the causes of an Atrophy, is first to know exactly the causes and after what manner nutrition is performed, with the requisite Circumstances. The Philosopher saith, [...], Tria sunt requisit [...] [Page 44]nutritionis, There are 3 things requi [...] to nutrition, Quod alit, quo alitur, [...] quod alitur; Quod alit is the Soul; Q [...] alitur is the food or alimentary matte [...] Quod alitur i [...] the body.

That which nourisheth as the pri [...] efficient cause, is the material and mo [...] Soul, under which the subordinate c [...] ses, adjuvant and instrumental are inc [...] ded, and do act.

This principal efficient cause being [...]seminal production and corruptible, [...] subject to the deficiencies, inabilities a [...] decays as other perishable bodies; fro [...] whence I shall draw this Conclusio [...] That Consumptive Atrophies someti [...] take their rise from the labefaction, a [...] infirm radication of this vital principl [...] that does senescere & tabescere, decline a [...] waste, sooner or later, pro seminalium [...] positionum conditione: and therefore w [...] need not wonder, that some persons [...] their juvenile years and prime of th [...] age, whose bodies are equally fabricat [...] and organized with others, and laudabl [...] preserved; yet decline and termina [...] their course sooner then the accustome [...] time of Nature: which if so, as it is tru [...] and rational to affirm, then I must super­adde these two Assertions:

[Page 45]First, That the debility, infirmity and declension of the mortal soul, is upheld and preserved, [...] [...]xtra, by the fortitude and magnanimity of the rational; and therefore it is, that a cheerful, placid and vigorous soul, does bear up against many bodily infirmities, that a pusillanimous, dejected, drooping mind does sink un­der, and unable to bear; and gives ad­vantage to their infirmities.

Secondly, That the mortal Soul this vital principle, being extended per partes corporis, receiving its increment and de­crement, and hability for operation, ac­cording to organical disposition and Cra­sis, is maintained and preserved, à sini­stra, in power and well-being to act, by their integrity and aptitude for their sub­servient duties.

The instrumental efficient cause is the Archaeus or vital Spirit, the Souls grand Agent in all the faculties serving to nu­trition; which being deficient, weak and insufficiently supplyed by an auxiliary in­fluxed spirit, these faculties are languid­ly or depravedly performed.

The next considerable about nutrition, is quo alitur: the nature of our food wherewith this nutrition is maintained: our bodies being in a continual tranpsi­ration,[Page 46]efflux, and emission, require [...] constant reparation, to preserve the b [...] dy rom decay and Consumption; a [...] this is supplied by aliment or food [...] ceived, to be assimilated and conver [...] into the substance of the body: but [...] this food be improper or unfit in its o [...] nature, or the circumstances attendi [...] discordant and irregular, that this fo [...] obtains not its due end for which it is [...] ceived, then instead of a good nutriti [...] there follows an Atrophy, or Ca [...]roph [...] although the digestive faculties be stro [...] yet if the food be aliene and di [...]cord [...] to that body, carrying in its nature fo [...] noxious altering property, perhaps no [...] man in specia, but to this or that ind [...] duum, does act per modum medicam [...] is as medicine to change the body, [...] aliment to nourish.

Food may be unfit for the body th [...] ways or in three respects; either in [...] substance, the quantity, or quality: [...] substance I understand consistence, w [...] it is gross, hard, or tough; so that the [...] paration of parts by fermentation is i [...] perfect, and also a slower distributio [...] in quantity food is injurious, when [...] either too little, that the body decays i [...] want; or too great, which causeth [...] structions, [Page 47]crudities and depraved nutri­ment; the digestive faculties not being able to elaborate it, but are oppressed and over-loaded; non enim ingestis nutrimur, sed iis quae ingesta concequuntur, saith Men­jotius; we are not to account of nutri­tion by the quantity and proportion of food received in, but according to the digestions, whether good or bad: in quality food offends, or is less nourish­ing, by exceeding not only in the first qualities, but in the second also: as too salt, too sowr, sweet, &c. therefore ac­cording to the nature of our food and circumstances that attend it (caeteris pa­ribus) is our nutrition good or bad, more or less.

Some kind of Creatures there are that can live a long time without food, of which the Poet speaks:

Tota mihi dormitur hyems, & pinguior illo
Tempore sum, quo me nil nisi somnus alit.

But to man seven days fasting, according to Hippocrates, is accounted mortal; so that nutrition and life are Consorts, and have a mutual dependence upon each o­ther: that Atrophia is not meerly priva­tive, but imminutive; not an absolute[Page 48]cessation from nutrition, but a diminu [...] on; and therefore the Philosopher said▪ Nos tamdiu nutriri, quamdiu vivimus.

Quod alitur, is the body; and here [...] must take notice, that a body fit for n [...] trition must have a due crasis and orga [...] zation, especially the principal parts: t [...] body as to the figuration and fabricati [...] of parts, must be rightly framed and [...] ganized, each part being right in statio [...] figure and magnitude; ductures of Communication, for reception and emissi [...] free and open; which if otherwise, d [...] poseth the body to various diseases: an [...] therefore those which are gibbous, eithe [...] back or breast, are most of them consumptive. The Spleen sometimes increases beyond its due magnitude, and robs th [...] rest of its fellows: and therefore Hip [...] crates saith, [...], Ʋbi lien floret, [...] pus tabescit; L. de loc. in hom. When th [...] spleen increaseth, the body diminishe [...] Contumacious obstructions of the Mes [...] tery, are sometimes the cause of an Atrophy: Worms do often defraud th [...] body of its nutriment and corrupt [...] and therefore such persons do not thri [...] in their bodies, but pine away and become leane: other diseases there a [...] [Page 49]which may procure a Consumption Atro­phy, whose causes are apparent: but there is an Atrophy frequent in this our Region, and therefore called by some Tabes Anglica, whose causes are more la­tent, and creeps on more slily; and few there are that know how to check and oppose it, (witness their medicines and method of Cure) because the rise of it is obscure and undiscovered.

This Consumption is a wearing and pining away, without manifest cause; notwithstanding the body receives good food, but is not nourished, strengthened and improved by it. Several conjectures there are concerning the causes of this disease, but I shall not insist upon their opinions, being much beside the mark.

This Consumption ownes its origina­tion and being from the Scurvy, and may well be called Atrophia Scorbutica, the Scorbutick Consumption; and he that is well acquainted with the subtlety of the Scurvy, will find it often palliated under the appearance of a Consumption: Eu­galenus who hath observed the various phaenomena and disguises of the Scurvy, takes special notice of this Atrophy cau­sed thereby. We will examine now how it com [...] to pass that the Scurvy ap­pears [Page 50]in the shape of a Consumption, and how it is procured: And here I must in­quire into the state and condition of the blood, which is the objectum circa quod, the matter of nutrition. Those of a h [...] constitution, and whose blood is sharp and thin, do not feed and grow fat, b [...] are spare, slender and lean, according to Hippocrates, [...] such are [...], prone to anger, and fierce in their passion: the alimentary li­quors of the body being thus attenuated and made thin, are not so capable and fit for nutrition; because they have not [...] balsamick consistence, and are circulated with a swifter motion, are carried away before there can be an adhesion and assi­milation to the several parts.

When the blood degenerates from is true balsamick state and requisite propri­eties, the body is not nourished as it ought, but instead thereof an Atrophy, little or no nutrition; or a Cacotrophy, a depraved and bad nutrition is the con­sequent: when the nutritive faculty does reject or is weak and unable to assimilate, it argues the alimentary matter to be ve­ry bad, or the faculty to be much decayed and spent▪ and therefore a consumptive Atrophy, i [...] worse th [...]n a Cacotrophy or [Page 51]ill habit of body, where nutrition goes on and proceeds, though depravedly and of bad matter.

In Scorbutick Consumptive Persons, I find a serosa colluvies, the blood to abound with a filthy serous or watery liquor, which is altogether unfit to nourish or be assimilated; for the blood in its due state hath a homogeneous balsamick consist­ence, by the fibrae wherewith it abounds and hath its concretion; but being de­prived of these, there follows [...], a separation of parts does ensue, and then the blood runs not entirely as before, but a degenerate colliquated se­rum abounds, unfit for nourishing: and for this cause many Scorbutick persons are consumptive; which Brunerus also observes: Scorbutus frequentissi­mè in atrophiam & tabem, quan­do (que) in cachexiam melanch [...]licam, interdum in dysenteriam des [...]nit: pag 15. The Scurvy, saith he, most frequently terminates in a Con­sumption; sometimes in a melancholick Cachexy or Dropsie; sometime in a Dy­sentery or Bloody Flux. Horstius and Martinius also do not let pass this Atro­phy without d [...]e observation from whence it p [...]d [...] S [...]us also takes notice of a Scorbutick Consumption;[Page 52]where he saith, Quibusdam cru­ra Atrophia laborant, & ita gra­cilia redduntur, ut vix ossibus hae­rere videantur: interdum & totum corpus emaciatur, &c. Tract. de Scorb. But Eugalenus relates par­ticular cases of these Atrophies, which he frequently met with in his practice.Lib. de Scorb.

I shall not here launch out in discourse of the Scurvy, having run through that disease, and made some new discoveries in a particular Treatise of that Protean sallacious disease, whither I refer you for further satisfaction: here only I must inform you, that the Consumption Atro­phy, which is so frequent with us in Eng­land, is the off-spring of the Scurvy, which not being discovered or rightly observed in the process for Cure, hath caused many to fail in their expected suc­cess.

For the Cure of this Tabes Anglica, which is a Scorbutick Consumption, An­tiscorbutick choice Medicines are to be u­sed, or you will find your endeavour frustrate and insuccessful, as thousands in this Nation by sad experience have found; who have languished and pined away, under a long and tedious use of restaura­tive B [...]oths, Kitchin-distillations, Jellies,[Page 53]and such kind of Cookery, when the ra­dix of the disease hath not been touch'd by medicine, nor rightly understood: but aiming only at nutrition by great nou­rishers, not considering the spring from whence the Atrophy does arise, you feed the disease rather then eradicate it. Cor­pora impura quò plus nutrias, eò magis lae­das. Aph. If the Scorbutick feculency be not removed, and the vital principles established and confirmed in the rectitude of their functions, by proper efficacious medicine; then your high and daintiest feeding instead of nourishing, turns to the worst and most degenerate matter.

Corruptio optimi est pessima.

For diaetetick customs and rules, or the most legitimate use of the six non-natu­rals (so termed by Physitians) most re­quisite for your condition, you may learn in my Treatise of the Scurvy, which are general and applicable to the most Scor­butick cases; but if your condition be extraordinary from great weakness, or complication of divers symptomes, you must declare it, for a particular satisfacti­on answering the peculiarity and speci­alty of your case.

For medicine I have not prescribed any here, for the reasons delivered [...]e [...]e­after.

Of a Hectick Fever.

IN the number of Consumptions a He­ctick Fever justly deserves to be rank­ed: it is called a Hectick [...] because it possesseth the habit of the bo­dy. This kind of Consumption some­times acts its part alone; but always ac­companies a Phthisis or Consumption Phthisical: Much talk there is of this Consumption, but few there are that rightly understand the nature of it.

A Hectick or habitual Fever, is an ef­fervescency and inquietude of the Archae­us membrorum or innate vital spirit in the solid parts, procured by some offensive cause; whereby the rorid substance of the body is wasted, and nutrition frustra­ted.

It is called a Fever Hectick or habitual, because it is more fixed and radicated in the solid parts then other Fevers, that are seated in the humours; and may well be called a Consumption, because it wastes the body and vital spirit.

Sometimes it is the remains of a burn­ing Fever, or other, a long Fever ill cured:[Page 55]sometime it is procured by long passions of a troubled mind, continually keeping the spirits in inquietude and disturbance. But of the causes hereafter.

There are 3 degrees or gradual pro­gressions of a Hectick Fever distinguish­able, and to be known by certain signs or symptomes that discover them.

The first degree or beginning of it is, quando humiditas aliment [...]ria tantum effer­vescit; when the body is not emaciated and grown lean, nor strength sensibly de­cayed; but there is a slow febrile heat manifested commonly in the palms of the hands, and feet; chiefly after meat: this is easily cured, but not so easily discerned, except by a skilful Physitian.

The second degree is an augmentation and increase of the first; quando [...]midi­tas alimentaria consumpta est, s [...] [...] reparabilis; the body is lean, thin and poor; the intemperature of heat greater and constant, apparently at all times; with a quick sharp pulse; not so lively as before, but sluggish, dull, and indisposed to action either of body or mind: this degree is easily known, but not so easily cured; because a putrid Fever is joyned with it.

The third degree is, when the body is[Page 56]consumed and wasted that no flesh ap­pears, but a dry wrinkled skin; the countenance changed, of a dead pale co­lour, and hollow eyes: this degree is cal­led a Marasmus, or Hectica Marasmodes, accounted incurable; but I have seen some recover out of this deplorable con­dition, that have been my Patients.

Physitians have divided the causes of a Hectick Fever into external and inter­nal: External are all such as procure o­ther Fevers, as vehement exercise, infla­ming drinks and hot meats, immoderate excretions, as Diarrhaeas and Dysenteries, vehement passions of the mind, &c. In­ternal causes nominated are burning Fe­vers, or long Fevers; inflammation or ulcer of a part; or a putrid humour con­tained therein.

When a Hectick Fever or habitual fe­brile heat is induced or procured, with­out any manifest cause, such as are before mentioned, you may conclude a latent Scurvy; that the blood, that vital stream is defiled, alienated and changed from its nutritious balsamick state; abound­ing with a saline, acid or acrid serosity, does provoke the Archaeus membrorum to disturbance and anger; and that calidum innatum which before was placid and[Page 57]amicable, does now effervescere, kindle and consume the substance of the body, and destroy its own work: as a Candle burns clear, quietly, and undisturbedly, so long as it is maintained with a sulphu­reous unctuous fit matter; but if it hap­pen that Water, Vinegar, or such liquor comes to it, presently spatters, wastes, and is unquiet until it be overcome.

In the enumeration of causes that ge­nerate a Hectick Fever, the Scurvy might well stand in the front, and lead up, as its proper place, being more emi­nent than the rest of its fellow [...]: Eugale­nus, Horstius, and others allow the Scur­vy to procure Fevers, continual and intermitting, Quotidian, Tertian, Quar­tane, Quintane, not excluding malig­nant and pestilential; and we may well put in Hecticks, which it often procures, and will not be cured but by antiscorbu­tick Medicines: and therefore it is, that many linger under this Fever so long, because the spring from whence it ariseth and is maintained, is not found out: But you may farther satisfie your self in my Treatise of the Scurvy, therefore I for­bear to enlarge my self here.

A Hectick Fever is constant, without accessions or paroxisms as other Fevers;[Page 58]save only that an hour or two after meat the heat is greater, and the pulse quicker, which is common to all that have this Hectick Fever.

The question may be asked, what is the reason that this preternatural heat should continue so long and constantly, and how it is maintained, when other Feavers last but for a time, and yet pro­cured by the same causes? to which I an­swer, A Hectick in the first degree is not of long continuance, nor difficult to re­move, except the procuring cause remains in force and power: a Hectick in the se­cond degree is of duration, and with difficulty removed, though the proca­tarctick or procuring cause cease and be suspended; because it cannot make this progress and arrive at this height before the constitution be much altered; that is, the natural balsamick state of the ali­mentary liquors of the body be much changed, and the Crasis of the parts alie­nated: the reduction of which is a mat­ter of time, and that by the prudence of an expert Physitian: but few there are that will have the patience to continue in such a due course as this requires; or will be so observant of the Physitians precepts in the diaetetick part, as also in the pharma­ceutick,[Page 59]without which no good will be done; and therefore it is that many lin­ger under this disease a long time, and some until their death: but a Hectick in the third degree is seldom or rarely cu­red, (which most Physitians account in­curable: the reason I judge to be this;) because the fermenting distinguishing Crasis of the principal parts is obliterated and rased out; so that there is no fer­menting and vital transmutations or pre­vious digestions, to bring the aliment so neer the nature of the body, that it might be assimilated into the substance thereof; but only receives a corruptive and depra­ved alteration, not a perfective progres­sion for nutrition; so that the body does daily pine and wast away, and str [...]ng [...]h decay, until the little remainde [...] o [...] spi­rits be suffocated in a putrid carcase.

Before you enter upon the cure of a Hectick Fever, you must consider the rise of it, what was the first procuring cause, and whether such procuring cause yet hath influence upon the disease; which if so, must first be removed: for if a He­ctick Fever be introduced by immode­rate exercise, watching, or vehement pas­sions; these must first be suppressed and changed, or you labour in vain to cure the Hectick caused thereby.

[Page 60]Consider and be sufficiently satisfied whether this Hectick Consumption be pri­mary, or hath its dependance upon ano­ther disease seated in some part of the body: for, if a Hectick takes its rise from another disease, as an inflammation, or Ulcer in the Lungs or Kidneys, your endeavours will be frustrate in curing the Hectick, which is symptomatical, until you have first cured the other disease up­on which it is founded, and from whence it is supplyed and fomented; so likewise if it arise from the Scurvey, you must set about the cure of that disease.

Know certainly whether this Hectick Consumption you are about to cure, be simple and solitary, or complicated with a putrid Fever: if simple, the indica­tions of cure are fewer, coindicating and concurring; but if complicated, the in­dications are various, contraindicating and discordant; requiring great judg­ment and circumspection in the intenti [...] of cure, lest while you abate the one, yo [...] do not augment the other: this is not th [...] work of every pretender to Physick, bu [...] one that is well graduated in knowledge▪ that is Doctor in Physick nomine & [...] being expert in the diagnosticks of di [...] [...]ases, whereby their simple state, an [...] [Page 61]complications with others, are easily discerned and judged.

For the cure of Hectick Fevers, as also other Fevers, most Practisers have recourse to Julips, Emulsions, and cool­ing drinks to allay and extinguish the pre­ternatural heat, as the chief intention and greatest assistance in cure; and this because they are deluded in judgment concerning this febrile heat, taking it to be some exotick strange heat introduced in the body; or arising elementally from the predominancy of some fiery or sul­phureous matter that must be quenched, as fire with water: Hence preposterously the most go about to reduce a preterna­tural heat, applying remedies à posterio­ri, to the producted heat, labouring to quench that, not discerning à priori, whence it does arise, and the occasional procuring causes; which being not un­derstood and found out, at least neglect­ed in curation, they labour in vain, op­posing qualities with qualities, by a long and tedious contest, knowing not that natura est morborum factrix & medicatrix, as Helmont speaks: and therefore he that will cure, must cure radically and substan­tially, applying to the fundamental prin­ciples, which are disorderd and irregular,[Page 62]and removing morbifick causes; not quali­tatively, superficially, and à posteriori, to the products: in satisfaction therefore to this point, I shall lay down this con­clusion.

That febrile distempered heat in mans body, ex Archaeo irato surgens, being the aestuation of the Archaeus or vital spirit, manifesting its disturbance and insurre­ction at some peccant matter, does re­quire sedation and allay; not by oppo­sing the consequential heat with coolers chiefly, but by removing the morbific cause, which is hostile and injurious to this vital principle, provoking it (nisu expulsivo) to be in fury (ut ign [...]scere vide­atur), from whence preternatural febrile heat does arise: which if so, as 'tis true and rational, then the common course of curing Fevers by Juleps, Emulsions, and other cooling Medicines aiming at an allay and suppression of this heat, is erro­neous; for if heat whether natural or preternatural does emanare, proceed from this vital principle, as a distinguishing character of its state and condition (as certainly it doth,) then the application of a medicine to check this, is a levelling at the vital principle, not at all aiming at the morbific cause; and in so doing[Page 63]is violence offered to Nature, damping and suppressing its fortitude and courage in resistance, instead of exterminating the hostile and injurious matter, mir [...] a or f [...]mes morbi, which is the cause of this reluctance, perturbation and strugling of the Archaeus: and therefore this intenti­on only or chiefly by refrigeration is a retention of the Fever (which is not nu­da caloris tempestas, sed materia occasiona­lis) fixing the febrile matter, that it is not so fit nor easily proscribed by trans­piration or otherwise, and protracts the disease. Yet I would not be mistaken herein, but do allow such refreshing cool­ers as the Patients inclination does crave, and finds benefit by; yet not to lay the stress of the Cure upon the contest of heat and cold.

Having laid open briefly what a He­ctick Fever is, the causes, and declarative signs, both proper, gradual, and distin­guishing from other Fevers; it will be expected I should say something more of curation and preservation, for the benefit of those that are hectically inclined, as al­so such as are macerated and wasted thereby; so far as a general discourse will admit, allowing peculiar cases, and pro­prieties of individual constitutions, some variation.

[Page 64]In chronick diseases the diaetetick part rightly observed, is of great advantage; but in a Hectick Fever is specially to be regarded. A sweet, cleer air is of great advantage; it refresheth the vital spirits, promotes transpiration of putrid vapours, and is very helpful in the Cure: there­fore it much concerns the Consumptive person, what place he lives in; and that he be advised by a Physitian in this par­ticular. At hot seasons of the year, be not abroad in the heat of the day, but then keep in cool places; parching heat is very injurious, by drying the body and lassating the spirits, both which your di­sease procures.

Use little, or no exercise; except at the beginning of your disease, or when it is in the first degree, your strength will then allow it: but after the spirits are fretted, tyred and enfeebled by their con­stant agitation and in­quietude, motion or exercise provokes and aggravates:Motus omnis calefacit corpora; quies vero refrigerat. but re­fresh them with rest and ease, which will cool and abate their aestuation and di­stempered motion.

Cherish sleep, although in the day time; that will humect and moisten the[Page 65]body, and restore the lassated spirits: but lye not long in the morning, which re­tains excrements beyond their due time for evacuation, and heats the body.

Watching and setting up late dries, and heats the body, by keeping the spi­rits so long upon their duty; and is very injurious to Consumptive persons.

Avoid passions of the mind, which di­sturb and waste the spirits, exsiccate and dry the body; but endeavour a placid quiet mind, which refresheth and paci­fies the spirits, and mitigates their febrile heat and aestuation: but cherish mirth, and recreate your self abroad with plea­sant company; and it will be of great advantage to you in regaining your health and lost strength.

Bathing is good to cool and refresh the spirits that are grown hot and fiery; to concenter them and give them rest, that are tired by their continual aestuation; to restrain their efflux and emission, where transpiration is too great: but this is to be understood of a cold Bath only, which does repell and drive in.

Concerning drink take this Caution, That you load not your self with sma [...]l Beer, Barley-water, and such slops, think­ing thereby to quench your thirst and [Page 66]cool your body; for thereby you overthrow your stomach which must careful­ly be preserved, and abate nothing [...] your heat: but be moderate in drinking, yet drink to satisfaction and refreshment [...] let it be indifferent strong, and sometimes a glass of Wine, which will not injure you in respect of heat, but revive and cheer the drooping spirits, and give strength to the languishing faculties: but it is the common opinion and practice of Physitians, severely in Hecticks and most Fevers to forbid all strong drink and wine, as a great aggravater of their di­sease, and not to be permitted. But this ariseth from some of their false principles in Physick, and a wrong notion of Fe­vers, which would take up too much room in this place to discuss: I shall therefore refer that to another opportu­nity. I remember a story related by a learned Physician in his own works, of a Nobleman that was long sick of a Fe­ver, and strictly forbidden wine by hi [...] Physicians, though much desired by him; yet did forbear in obedience to them, and observed all their rules; notwith­standing continued lingring in his di­sease: It hapned that a servant of this Lords being in drink, [...]ame into the cham­ber; [Page 67]his Lord asked him what he had been drinking that made him so drunk; he answered Claret-wine, such as he had in his Cellar; and withal desired his Lord that he would drink but one draught, and it would recover him he was sure, or let him be hang'd if his Lordship was the worse for it. This Lord being something cheered at the merry talk of his servant, commanded him to give him a glass of wine; when he had drank that, was so well pleased and re­freshed with it, that he called for a se­cond and drank it, and then a third; after which his spirits were drowsie, and he lay down to sleep; that night he slept very quietly, and the next day was very well, and his Fever gone: so he dismissed his Physicians, and well rewarded his servant for his advice: And concludes the story; Ecce quam noxia saepe est Medi­cis pertinax scholasticae methodi custodia & probrosa; aegris autem damnosa!

For eating observe the inclination of your stomach; let no body impose upon your natural appetite, artificial broths that are not accepta­ble nor desirable:Quanto juc [...]ndius fue it quod quis co­m [...]dit, i [...] tanto uti­que fit illi magis nutriens. but if your stomach de­light in fine restaura­tive[Page 68]broths, it is good food and proper for your condition, if prudently appointed: but some there are though weak sto­machs will better agree with a piece of mutton or beef, then the lightest dis [...] you can invent; and many being tyed up from the meats they love, by the prohibi­tion of their Physitian, have lost that lit­tle stomach they had, and received much prejudice thereby; not remembring the Aphorism, Paulo pejor sed suavior cibus & potus, meliori at ingrato praeferendus.

Here are many questions yet in this di­aetetick part to be answered, but are more proper to be resolved in peculiar cases of this or that person; and that which may be allowed to one, may not to another: therefore I must forbear un­til I receive a particular account of their condition.

Having done with the diaetetick part accommodated generally to this disease, Pharmacy in the last place comes to be handled.

And here I must take notice of a great errour and folly of our Physitians, that prescribe nourishing Clysters to Consum­ptive and weak people; and for that pur­pose do appoint the best restaurative [Page 69]broths they can invent to be given by Clyster; thinking that way to nourish their Patients, when their weak stomachs are not able to digest, nor longer able to endure the loathsome notions and dyet-drinks: but how ridiculous this is, may common reason judge▪ It is determined, and 'tis very true, that the first digestion of our food in the stomach [...] the ground­work of the subsequent digestions; and an errour in the first is not corrected by the second: if then a deficiency or fault in the first, be so great as not to be a­mended afterwards, what then do you think of no digestion at all? that must be much greater and produce worse ef­fects: such is your nourishing Clyster, that never had any digestive transmutati­on in the stomach. What do you judge of a Lientery? you say that is a flux or looseness, caused from indigested meat; when the stomach by default transmits to the second digestive office, crude indi­gested meat; the parts that receive it af­terwards do not close with it, nor em­brace it as their nutrimental object, and therefore do not set about to elaborate, digest and perfect it, but with indigna­tion reject it and throw it out: What can you expect then from this Clyster-broth, [Page 70]that never had any digestion in the stomach, but a rejection by all the parts; no fermenting praevious transmu­tation for nutrition, but a corruptive al­teration, from a forceable not a natural retention? Natura nihil fecit frustra; Nature did not appoint the stomach so indifferently, as that we might live with­out it, or receive any nourishment by our food, until it had first passed that necessary, praeparatory and digestive of­fice. Natura non agit per saltum.

Besides, what do you think of a mes [...] of dainty broth, mixed with mans excre­ment? could you expect that Nature would be pleased with it, or satisfied or nourished? Such is your restaurative Clyster, that so soon as it is injected, mixeth and is defiled with your excre­ments; nay more, the stercoraceous fer­ment of the lower guts, gives it a cada­verous transmutation, and the smell of it is worse then common excrement, if it stay long in the body.

Nature will not be supplyed with nou­rishment, but by the good old way of her own institution and appointment; and therefore it were much better, you would set about the improvement of me­dicines, advancing them to the greatest[Page 71]energy, in the capacity of Nature, by se­dulous repeated preparations and tryals, with your own inspection and labour; without which there is no true knowledg of medicines, but deceitful traditional notions, that fail you, and delude your Patients in the performance of Cures. Your pains herein (and it is you [...] duty) would largely be recompe [...]ced, with real satisfaction and judgment in Pharmacy, much confidence and reliance on you from your Patients; greater and more frequent success; fewer miscarriages and disasters: but one great obstacle to this laudable work is, that intermedling with medicines, farther then a prescription, is accounted (by fools only) below the title of a Doctor, and that it looks something like a Quack or Mountebank to deal in medicines; this is for Physitians only of the lower rank, but the grand Doctors scorn this pedling way of practice: But let me tell you, if there be any such that think it a derogation and lessening of them to inspect and undertake the care and charge of preparing medicines, that Hippocrates, Libavius, Paracelsus, Que [...]e­tan, Helmont, &c. the most renowned Physitians we read of, and to whom we are all obliged for their Labours we [Page 72]now profit by, did not think the prepara­tion of medicines a work below them, but a duty incumbent on them, in which they were sedulous: and he that through simple pride or laziness, hath not bestow­ed some time and pains to be well in­formed and acquainted with this employ­ment, I dare pronounce him a Physitian of no value; for it is not notion and talk­ing, but good medicines that perform the Cure; without which your Learning is deceit: and I must say, an expert skill in medicines (not by book-reading, but) by ocular and manual preparation, is the most necessary part of Physick to com­pleat and dignifie a Physitian; and that a Physitian had better be defective in any thing belonging to his Profession, then in this; for he that is expert in medicines, though his other parts and reading be but mean, shall out-do in Cures, the best dis­putant and best read man in this faculty that practiseth but with ordinary medi­cines. A good medicine helps very much a bad Physitian, and finds out the disease (by its universality) when he cannot: but a poor common medicine is not mended by the grave and learned dis­course of the Doctor; non verbis sed her­bis. But let us inquire who is like a [Page 73]Quack; the Physician that prepares his own Medicines, or he that prescribes only to the Apothecary: A Quack is such a one that pretends a great knowledge in Physick, but hath little or none; such a knowledge have you (prescriber) in Me­dicines, that never made any: And I am ashamed to speak it, many of the Drugs you prescribe, you know not when you see them; but hope well, that the Medi­cine will be made up secundum Artem.

He cannot truly be called a Doctor of Physick, that is scarce a Scholar in Phy­sick, for Medicines are not learn'd by read­ing, but by practice in making. The ancient Latine Phrase may inform you something, Medicinam fecit, hoc vel illo loco; he practised Physick in such a place; he made Medicines, he did not prescribe: nor is he fit to prescribe that cannot make; for I am very sure, his knowledge is very small in Medicines: therefore the prescriber that hath only a traditional knowledge from Authors in his Library, must subscribe to the Maker, for he is able to teach him, and correct him in his erroneous prescriptions: Now whether deserves the preheminence, and who is more worthy to be esteemed in our Pro­fession, let common reason judge.

[Page 74]But this discourse falls in as a Parergy, therefore I wave it, and return to my pur­pose.

For Medicines proper to be used against this Disease treated on, I have not pre­scribed any here, and that for good rea­sons: First, that I might not be injuriou [...] to the professors of Physick, to whom on­ly such secrets are to be committed, and not to prostitute this noble Art to base il­literate practisers, who are in no wise able to advance, but contrariwise to dis­grace this Profession, and abuse the sick.

2ly Good Medicines by unskilful, neg­ligent, or covetous persons, not giving Medicines their due preparation, in be­stowing that cost, labour and time as ought, defames a good Medicine, and brings a disrepute to the Author or In­ventor.

3ly The Diseased, though ingenious and industrious for hi [...] health, is not accomo­dated to prepare such a Medicine, requi­ring Furnaces. Glasses, and m [...]y Uten­sils, whi [...] wou [...] [...] exce [...]d the cost of the M [...]e tha [...] he m [...]y [...]y it for, without further hazzard or trouble.

4ly It was not any intentio [...] and pur­pose to teach [...] the [...]actice of Physick, how to make Medicines to cure your [Page 75]selves or others, to undermine the pro­fessors of this faculty; no, go to your Physicians for Medicines; as they are an Order of men most necessary and useful, designed and educated for this purpose; so let their practice be entire to themselves, as you would have your own Trade [...] and Arts to your selves: nor shall I encou­rage or inform any pragmattick per­son, that would be prying into the arca­na's of this Art, that is not qualified and legally inducted: Procul hinc, procul este prophani, sacra enim medicina res est.

Thus far I shall go, and be helpful to you in this, which is no small satisfaction and advantage; to inform you of your Disease, what causes, and how procured, what signes that discover it in being and gradual progress; in what part chiefly seated; what danger you are in; how to order your self in your daily and neces­sary custom, that you may not aggravate and heighten your infirmities, by your im­prudent government & inadvertency; but on the contrary, by good rules and warn­ings, you may check your Disease, and keep it under: this is sufficient and e­nough for you to know that is not a Phy­sician; nor is it against charity to con­ceal the rest [...] as for M [...]dicines (for the[Page 76]reasons aforesaid) apply your self to such an able Physician that is industrious and expert in preparing choice Medicines, that makes it his great design and daily labour to acquire noble efficacious Medi­cines; but if you be unacquainted with such, or know not whom to apply to, upon a due information of your Disease, I will supply you with such Medicines of my own preparation, as your condition requires.

Of Consumptions Phthisical.

BY Consumptions Phthisical, I mean all such as have any internal part ul­cerated, or putrid and rotten: The word Phthisis as it is commonly used, denotes an exulceration of the Lungs only; but may properly signifie another part so af­fected; as the Liver, Kidneys, Mesente­ry, &c. The Lungs being a soft tender part is more easily invaded, and a breach made sooner then upon other parts that are more solid and firm; and in this part we find Consumptions more frequently radicated, and primarily [...]t [...]d.

These Phthisical Con [...]p [...] are ge­nerated, ei [...] by some ac [...] humour corroding the part, having f [...]quent transition that way does by time fret and excoriate; or by the apertion or [...]pture of a vein; from whence extravasated blood does putrifie and corrupt the [...]dja­cent parts: according to Hippocrates, A sanguinis sputo puris sputum, à puris s [...]u­to tabes: or thirdly, by a deficiency of transmutation when the vital principles of the parts are debile, weak or alienated, [Page 78]does not assimilate the nutriment brought thither for its supply and maintenance; but è contra, does suffer it to degenerate, infest the part and putrifie; from thence a Phthisical Consumption of that part soon follows, and by degrees is commu­nicated to the whole body. The reason of it appears thus; after all the praevious digestions and alterations of aliment re­ceived, in the publick offices which ad­minister to the whole, there is also an ultimate and proper digestion in every part, whereby it converts and assimilates into its own nature and substance such a portion as is fit to nourish and maintain it: but if this digestive innate faculty of transmutation and assimilation be defici­ent, alienated or extinct, then that which is brought to the part to nourish it is cor­rupted and vitiated; which if the robur and strength of the part be not able to expulse and carry off, does then invade and corrupt that part, with a tabifick and consumptive impression.

Though all the visecra be liable to this Tabes, yet I find Consumptions of the Lungs most frequent, as being most ob­noxious to external and internal inju­ries: First, quia ce [...]rri [...]è ass [...]citar ab ex­trinseco irrite [...]t [...], because the Lungs are[Page 79]more subject to assaults ab extra; and chiefly from a bad air and tetrid vapours that sometimes set such impressions, whereby the Crasis of the Lungs are de­praved and altered, so that the succus nutritius which should nourish them, is perverted into an excrementitious foul matter, clogging and loading the parts for respiration. Secondly, the Lungs are more apt to decay because of their soft spongious nature, are more apt to imbibe and receive an exotick ferment, more ea­sily penetrated and eroded then other more solid resisting parts; as also less able to retain their native goodness.

For this cause the Lungs are more fre­quently the foundation and part primari­ly affected in Consumptive persons; yet all persons are not equally subject to this Consumption, but some more inclined then others, ex viti [...] [...] by an innate bad Crasis and Cons [...]ion, à primo ortu centracta, radicated in the se­minal matter; which secret in [...]scernable deficiency cum tempere ma [...]s [...]it, does by time appear and explicate it self as o­ther seminal p [...]rietie: now this natu­ral pro [...]ensity is [...]tarded or promoved, according to external occasions and pro­vocations, and shall manifest it self soon­er [Page 80]or later according to your regular di­aetetick customs and accidents.

Having spoken something of the sub­ject part, we will now consider the ante­cedent and continent cause: and here we must take notice of the alimentary liquors of the body, their degeneration, deviati­on and extravasation; from whence ma­ny Consumptions do arise and are gene­rated. Bodies of a sound and good con­stitution, living laudably according to di­aetetick rules prescribed, in the right use of meat and drink, sleeping and watch­ing, exercise and rest, passions of mind, &c. do preserve the integrity of their na­tures, and ability of their faculties much longer then those who by accident, or a careless irrational course of living receive much detriment and decay in their bo­dies: the stomach abused by meat and drink, alienating the digestive ferment of that part, leaves its wonted integrity and performance of office; from thence a vi­tiated digestion follows, which continu­ing is manifested by an ill savour in the mouth, or unwonted taste, bitter, sowre, foetid, &c. flatulency, eructation or nau­seousness: but the ill effects and their fi [...]m are not confined here, but are trans­mitted i [...]to the mass of blood, producing[Page 81]a degeneration and change there also; from whence Consumptions, and various infirmities arise in several parts: some­times it makes impression upon the Lungs, discharging its acrimony and eroding saltness upon that part: sometimes upon another; not long confined within its own ductures and cha [...]nels, but by aper­tion or erosion is extravasated, and in­vades the parenchyma of the viscera, with a tabifick impression.

The acid impurities that flow with the Blood, so long as they keep within their rivulets, do not so much molest, nor are so easily detected; but being separated and extravasated, whether per anastemo­sin, diapedesin, or per anabrosin, the parts whitherto such matter takes its course, and by which it passeth, is made very sensible of a strange unwelcome guest; witness the dolorous pains of the Gout, of the Teeth, venereous and scorbute pains in the Head, Limbs, and habit of the Bo­dy; griping of the Guts, when Nature per diacrisin, hath separated that hostile matter, and brought it thither for exter­mination; vellicating pains of the Back, counterfeiting the Stone, but caused by an acrid serosity; violent coughing, and painful irritations of the Lungs; pun­ctures[Page 82]and pains in the Breast, the fore­runners and warners of a breach and Consumption there. These and many more such like pains in divers parts are caused from a degenerate acrid humor, extravasated and expulsed from place to place, does chiefly invade and infest those parts, whose innate robur and strength is too weak and unable to resist the assault, or by organical disposition and aptitude is liable for the reception. In this deviation and inconstant residence of morbifick humors, the Lungs is fre­quently infested; sometimes with extra­vasated blood, which if not timely ex­pectorated, does putrifie, and layes the foundation of a tabes; or a saline corro­ding serous humor, which by excoriati­on invades the tender Lungs, and an Ul­cer is planted there.

If we make inquiry into the causes of Phthisical Consumptions, we shall finde a phthisis of the Lungs may be procured several wayes, or from these causes: First, Domestica indispositio, a bad Crasis of the part; that is, a tender infirm constituti­on of the part apt to decay and corrupte and this is either native, or hereditary, from the first constitution and fabrication of parts by seminal matter; or adventi­tious,[Page 83]acquired by time, through a bad air, noxious fumes, accidents, and evil living, disposing the Lungs to a vitious depraved constitution. Secondly, by the accrimonious saltness of humors, fretting and exulcerating them. Thirdly, by the apertion, rupture, or erosion of a Vein; which extravasated blood lodg­ing there, does putrifie and corrupt the Lungs. Fourthly, by an Imposthume in the adjacent parts breaking in upon the Lungs; as by a Plurisie, Squinance, In­flammation of the Mediastinum or Dia­phragma; and therefore Hippocrates said, Empyema si 40 dierum spatio per sputum non repurgetur, in tabem degenerat, quae mortem accersit. Aph. 15. Sect. 5.

Causes also external do promote and concur much to the generating of a Phthi­sis in the Lungs; and here you must take notice of the air, by whose intempe­rateness and impurity the Lungs contract an evil disposition and alteration of its Crasis: and this we observe in some pla­ces, that the air does procure and pro­mote a Phthisical Consumption of the Lungs more frequently; and that the air of another place is more preservative and curative: therefore the Phthisical person is to consult the Physician what place is[Page 84]best for his abode, whether it be for pre­vention or recovery: For this cause, great Cities being much annoyed with un­wholesome fumes and vapours, from Sinks, Privies, and Chimnies, offensive nasty Trades, &c. made London abound with Phthisical Consumptive persons more then half the Nation besides; and from Consumptive Parents a numerous progeny of the same kind is propagated. Society also is to be regarded; and you must not frequently converse with a Phthisical person, whose unwholesome breath may infect the sound, by draw­ing in the putrid vapour that the other breaths forth: but above all, a Phthisical Bed-fellow is most dangerous to infect a sound person, and chiefly to be avoided.

Certain seasons of the year, and constitution of the air, though in the same place, are worse then other; as the Autumnal Quarter is the worst, and Phthisical persons do most decline at this season, and are worse in moist foggy weather, then in a dry clear open sky.

That you may not be surprized, but have some warning of this Disease, and characters to know it by, I shall set down some signal tokens whereby you[Page 85]may discover it afar off; and certain marks to know it by, when fixed and seated in its proper place.

Consumptions in their first approaches tread very softly, that you are not so sen­sible of their invasion; but having gained some footing, are more bold to awake you, and appear in the breach and decay of your wonted health and strength: a long time perhaps you carry this secret enemy in your bosom not discernable but by the sagacious judgment of a very able Physician; but when you find some un­wonted alterations in your body, of which you cannot determine, what or whether they tend, look out betimes, apply your self to the most skilful of our Profession, that by his timely advice and prevalent Medicines, you may obviate and stop the proceedings of a secret destroyer.

Obsta principiis, serò medicina paratur,
Cùm mala per longas, invaluere moras.

The forerunners and warners of Con­sumptions are many, declaring a dege­neration and change of the constitution; as, bleeding at the nose often; signifying the blood to have lost some of its balsa­mick consistence, being grown thin,[Page 86]sharp, or hot, will not be confined with­in its rivulets, but opening its own du­ctures gives vent and issue.

2ly Spitting of Blood imports the like, and is procured by the same causes.

3ly The Spittle which before was sweet or insipid, is become salt or sharp, de­notes the vital stream to be degenerate, from whence it proceeds; for as the Blood answers the Chyle, so the Spittle answers the Blood, the one depending upon the other.

4ly Frequent and often spitting, not provoked by any manifest cause.

5ly A constant Cough, provoked by a sharp rheumatick matter.

6ly The Spittle viscous, tough, or brought up in gobs.

7ly Short and weak breathing.

8ly The habit of the body not so plump, firm, and hard, fleshy; but un­wonted softness, flaccidity, and looseness of the flesh, upon the Arms, Thighs, or Legs.

9ly The complexion not so good: that person which before was fresh and clear, is become more pale, brown, or ill co­loured; may conclude the limpid vital streams are defiled, impure, and mud­died.

[Page 87]10ly The [...]lse weak and slow; or weak, labouring and quick.

11ly Weariness, w [...]ness, and indis­position to as [...]n; the spirits not so lively & brisk a [...] before, but sluggish and dull, gi­ven to much sleep, the vigor and strength of the body begins to abate, when the Blood, the treasury of vital spirits begins to be alienated and changed from its wonted purity; such as the Blood is, such are the spirits from thence extract­ed; the purer the blood is, the more ve­gete and lively is that person: but when the blood is changed, dispirited, flat, and sowre, the man that before was a­ctive, merry and lightsome, is now cloud­ed, dull and indisposed to mirth or action.

12ly If the transpirations and breath­ing sweats of your body, which before were not unsavory, are now of a stronger scent and unpleasant odour, argues the humors of the body to be degenerate, soul, and putrid.

Some of these signs are sufficient to give notice of a Consumption approach­ing, and the degenerate inclination of your body thereto; which being timely lookt after, and consulted, may more ea­sily be prevented; Aegrius ejicitur quàm[Page 88]non admittitur hostis; but being neglected, proceeds and gains strength, grows more incorrigible and dangerous; not to be re­duced commonly, but by an extraordina­ry prudent course of an expert Physici­an, and the best of Medicines: the signs are these.

  • 1. Pain in the Breast.
  • 2. A sharp vehement Cough.
  • 3. Spitting of purulent matter.
  • 4. A faetid cadaverous scent of the Breath, with difficult and short breathing.
  • 5. Fainty Sweats.
  • 6. A continued Looseness.
  • 7. A putrid Fever.
  • 8. Debility and weakness of all the faculties.

Some of which do properly belong to Consumptions of the Lungs, the rest are common to Consumptions that arise from other parts.

Be careful in the observance of diaetetick Rules, as the judgment of your Physi­cian shall appoint you; concerning the air, meat and drink, sleeping, exercise, evacuations, and passions of mind; and herein diaetetick observation is of great concernment, for alteration and reducti­on of the Constitution to a good state, which for the most part hath degenera­ted[Page 89]by irregularities and enormities in the same.

Now every Consumptive person is to be regulated in the fix non-naturals re­hearsed, peculiarly and properly, pro re nata, upon the relation and account gi­ven of the Sick, which as the case re­quires will be different; and therefore I shall be brief in my prescripts herein.

Generally a clear, sweet, dry air, in high and gravelly grounds is best; espe­cially when the Lungs decay by an over-moist, spongious, flaccid, and soft dispo­sition; but if of a hot dry withering condition; a moister air, and the Valley is more agreeable: but if you be forced to live in a place injurious for the air, that promotes your Disease, and consum­ptive inclination, you must correct that by Art, and help your self with proper fumes and evaporations in the house, as the case requires: but concerning the air, in relation to health and sickness, read in my Tutela Sanitatis, where you may receive farther satisfaction.

In the choice of meats, eat such as are of light digestion, good nutriment, and grateful to your Stomach, not over salt­ed, spiced, or dryed; no sayed or broil­ed meats, no Pie-crust, or bread crust. [Page 90]But for general rules in the choice of meats and drinks, my Tutela Sanitatis is large, whither I refer you, that I need not repeat here: from thence you may col­lect what is most agreeing to your case, being here informed of the nature of your Disease, and how procured.Tutela Sa­nitat. page 22, 23, &c.

Also in my hygyastick precautions to a cholerick constitution, that precept for the most part will agree with phthisical Consum­ptions:page 45. Milk, when the body is cleansed, is proper food to nourish, and for at tem­perating the heat and acrimony of the Blood; but the body being foul, and when abstersion is more required, the whey of it is better; the coagulating and unctuous parts being separated.

Jellies and restau [...]tive Broths-before the use of good Medicines, do but clog the body, and increase the foulness; but after a due course of Medicines, are profit­able for such whose stomachs do agree with, and desire them: therefore the practice of such are to be condemned, who presently upon the name of a Con­sumption, f [...]ll to [...]reat nourishers, high and plentiful feeding.

[Page 91]Be moderate in sleeping, and go to bed seasonably; the spirits are thereby re­freshed, and the acrimony of the blood allayed; but watching tires the spirits, heats the body, and exasperates sharp humors.

In the beginning of your Disease, use gentle exercise; but when it is confirm­ed, and strength much abated, take your ease, and forbear all violent motion, which fires the spirits, and is very inju­rious.

Avoid all passions and disturbance of minde, the greatest enemy to a consum­ptive person; but endeavour chearful­ness, tranquillity, and a sedate spirit, a great preservative from a consumptive in­clination, and a necessary remedy in the cure: but concerning passions of the minde, and their several effects upon the body, the fore-mentioned Tutela Sanita­tis will inform you; that I forbear to en­large here.

Concerning the smoking of Tobacco I must caution you, as a promoter of Con­sumptions Tobacco of late years is be­come as common as eating and drinking; and some there are who had rather re­frain a meals-meat men th [...] Pipe: but since the use of it, Consumptions abound [Page 92]and are much more frequent then former­ly. I shall wave many circumstances concerning the custom of taking it, and only tell you the nature and effects of it. Tobacco is of a virulent nature, as those that first use it do find by the symptomes and effects, to be very like those that have taken some venomous thing; as Giddiness, Vomiting, Fainting; but the frequent use of it reconciles the great dis­gust that nature hath against it: as it is recorded by Historians, that Mithrida­tes King of Pontus accustoming himself to eat poison, could not be poisoned when he desired it: so Tobacco though abhor­red by Nature, yet Custom makes it so familiar, that the ill effects of it do not appear presently; that nature is not so provoked, and sensibly moved by it; which puts the cheat upon all, thinking it then friendly and amicable, but by time does much alter the hate and condition of our Bodies. The fume of it is Narcotick, seising the spirits, and alienating their purity: It is acrid and biting, ingrateful to the tender Lungs, drawing away the dulcid moisture, and leaving the remain­der more fretting and acrimonious. Many take it to prevent Rheumes, but you may observe none so rheumatick and phleg­matick[Page 93]as Tobacconists; and as it leaves a filthy taste in the mouth, so it sets a bad impression upon all the parts it reach­eth; the Lungs and vital parts especially receiving the prejudice.

Having made a progress thus far into Phthisical Consumptions, it remains I should give you something remarkable in the therapeutick or curative part.

If the Disease be but approaching, and a propension thereto, correction and al­tering the mass of Blood secures you from the danger; but if it be already seat­ed, and the Lungs ulcerated, more in­tentions of cure must be prosecuted, as abstersion and consolidation.

To know whether your Disease increase or abate, during the cure and use of means, observe your Spittle, which will vary as you grow better or worse; if that which was soul become more pure, or consisting of several parts be equally con­cocted; that was saltish, is dulcid or in­sipid; that was faetid and ill savoured, is void of scent; that was with difficulty expectorated, is now easily brought up: these are good signes, and promise recovery; but the contrary are bad, and threaten death.

Those that are consumptive by an he­reditary [Page 94]right, derived from their Pa­rents; are much worse, and with more difficulty preserved or cured, them those to whom it is adventitious; because it the former it is implanted in their nature, and seminally radicated, does grow [...] to its height, and increase with the bodies; the other being promoted by some procatartick cause, may more ea­sily receive a check and stop by good ad­vice.

Those that spit blood at some certain times only, if it flows plentifully, is less dangerous then those who more constant­ly: void strings of blood; because the for­mer ariseth from an apertion of the Veins, the latter from an erosion and exulcera­tion; besides, the former may proceed only from plenitude; the latter from great alienation and acrimony of the blood.

Gentle purgation, per epicrasin, by proper Purgers are necessary and advan­tageous; but strong purgation, and viru­lent purgers (as Scammony, Coloquinti­da, Senna, Agarick, &c.) are noxious, and do exasperate; therefore great heed is to be taken in the choice and use of purging Medicines, else you do more harm then good.

Sudorificks properly adapted and ra­tionally [Page 95]used, are of excellent use a­gainst Phthisical Consumptions, whether imminent or present; for precaution, by depurating the blood from acrid serosi­ties; for cure, by exsiccation also and healing, and transpiration of putrid hu­mors.

Dry Fumes, and moist evaporations rightly instituted pro re nata, as the case requires humectation or exsiccation, and to supply the defects of an incongruous and unwholesome air, are laudable ar­tificial means, conducing to preservation or cure.

In the performance of cure, if there be any urgent symptome, that first is to be regarded, whether it be spitting and voiding of Blood, a defection of Spi­rits, or vehemency of Cough; which being mitigated and relieved, you may then proceed radically, beginning at the foundation, and r [...]moving fomenting Canse [...] [...] the part affected.

In comp [...] [...], when contrain­dications [...] cure do meet, as often it falls out in P [...]h [...] [...], the ability and judgment o [...] the Physician is then most eminentl [...] [...]quired in the use and choice of Medicines by moderating successively, or qualifying by commixture and allay,[Page 96]the thwarting intentions of Cure.

The Galenick Medicines commended by several Authors are many.

Trallianus boasts of many phthisical persons he cured with the Blood-stone, some extol syrup of Ground-Ivy, others syrup of Comfrey, and Conserve of Ro­ses; some again commend the decoction of Guaiacum, Syrup of St. Johns Wort­flowers, and syrup of Tobacco: also the powder of Haly is practised by some, which is this; white Poppy-seed 10 drams, Starch, Gum Arabick, and Dragon, each 3 drams, seeds of Purslane, Mallows, Marshmallows, Cucumbers, Gourds, Ci­truls, and Quince, of each 7 drams, Ivo­ry, Liquorice, each 3 drams; Penidies the weight of all; and made into a Powder, of which is given 2 drams every morn­ing, in syrup of Jujubes, or pectoral de­coction. But how insufficient these Medi­cines and such like are, to cure a Con­sumption, those only can judge that rightly understand what a Consumption is; and what a radical Medicine is, that's adapted, and does apply to the vital and fundamental principles; that is prevalent to resto [...] their declensions, and reduce their irregularities to rectitude and inte­grity of operation.

[Page 97]I have not set down here, the process of my own medicines, that I use in the Cure of Phthisical Consumptive people, being above the reach of those that are not Chymical Artists; and for the rea­sons given before, in the 74. and 75. pages.

Of a Spermatick Consumption.

THis kind of Consumption may seem strange in regard of the denomina­tion being new; but it is very proper, and deserves this distinguishing title.

By a Spermarick Consumption you are to understand, a decay and wasting of the body, from the expence and loss of sperm or seed; and this is either volun­tary by immoderate coition and copula­tion, man with woman; or by self pro­vocation to such an expence and emissi­on: or else involuntary, a weeping and issuing without consent, or external pro­vocation and allurement.

First we will consider what this sperm or balsom of Nature is in both Sexes; that knowing the worth of it, how gra­dually it is elaborated and brought to its perfection, you may the better value it, be more sensible of the loss, and rightly understand how the detriment and decay does consecute and follow upon too large, and continued emission.

I shall not here spend time in leading you through all the digestions of mans[Page 99]body that are praevious and preparatory to this ultimate elixerated matter, having done that in another place: but it is suf­ficient you understand that this sperma­tick succus being the last concocted and elaborated matter, is the cream and quin­tessence of the rest; having been defaeca­ted and depurated in several offices of di­gestion; each of which does separate the faeculent and inutile parts, transmitting the purer to receive the operation and perfection of the subsequent digestion: and therefore this spermatick succus is de­fined pars purissima, electissima & elabe­tatissima omnium partium animantium quae conferunt ad nutritionem; the purest and most select matter, graduated and refi­ned by so many praevious digestions, which are as so many rectifications to subtiliate, purifie and spiritallize it. This spermatick digested matter, though the last in order, yet it is prime in dignity; being the quintessence and purest part extracted from the rest, and may fitly be called elixir hominis or essential balsom. Now this elixerate choice matter which is elaborated and treasured up in the spermatick vessels, not only for use of the individuum, but also for propagation of the species, is not prodigally to be wast­ed,[Page 100]but necessarily employed for the pur­poses appointed by Nature: but if it happen from what cause soever to be ex­pended more then nature does allow, and can well dispence with, damage does a­rise to the whole body, enervation and consumption upon the continuance, if not timely prevented and remedied.

The danger and prejudice from such immoderate evacuations appears thus: For the [...], that it causeth great weak­ness and debility of all the faculties, e­very prodigal that hath foolishly expend­ed Natures Treasure, can seal to this truth. The [...], why and how it comes to pass, that such decay is the consequent of it, appears upon these following consi­derations.

First, From the commerce and con­sent between the Testicles, the Brain and spinal Marrow: the emptying of the for­mer causeth an exhaustion, and a weak­ness in the latter; by drawing away the animal Spirits, which is their strength and vigour; and from this debility of the back, venereous wasting was called tabes dorsalis, a Consumption of the Back.

Secondly, If you consider what this seed or spermatick substance is, the quin­tissence[Page 101]and purest part of our alimenta­ry liquors of the body; the most refined and best rectified spirits, are extracted from the whole body, and drawn in by the spermatick vessels to impregnate and endow this sperm or seed: Now if it be so (as it is most true) that the seed or sperm is an extract of the finest matter, and spirit of mans body; and that the emptying of the spermatick Vessels puts them upon a new draining, and sucking of the body to fill again, and re [...]lenish their emptiness (as the Stomach when it is empty, desires to be filled again, and not lie idle): then of necessity it will fol­low, that too large and frequent emissions of this seed doe exhaust and inervate the body, debilitate all the faculties, and bring a consumption upon the whole.

Thirdly, The spirits are balsamick, and preserve the body from putrefacti­on; their exhaustion therefore makes the body liable to corruption and decay: and this is observable, that those who suffer such immoderate expence and loss, it at changeth their complexion from a fresh lively aspect, into a pale, brown, and sad countenance.

Fourthly, From immederate expence of seed, and too frequent emissions, ari­seth[Page 102]infaecundity and sterility; and that by reason the seed stayeth not, nor abideth in the spermatick elaboratory its due time for digestion, elixiration, and maturati­on; as also that the vis spermatopoietica, the spermatick ferment or crasis of those parts are changed, altered, and become barren, their native power being spent by too frequent emissions, and immoderate Flux; as Land is become poor and bar­ren by being over-tilled.

These truths being rightly considered, as it is rationally apparent, none will­fully (I suppose being thus warned) will be guilty in this kind: but it happens sometimes by inadvertency, natural de­bility or hazardous adventures with stran­gers in copulation, that a detrimental and consumptive issuing and dropping of Seed is procured upon man or woman, by straining beyond their strength; an un­wholesome Bed-fellow, or a fluid indi­gested wateriness of the seed from weakness and debility of the genital parts.

That which doth proceed from im­pure copulation, and is virulent, manife­sted by the colour, greenish, yellowish, &c. must have a peculiar cure, opposing that malignity and virulency wherewith[Page 103]the crasis of the spermatick vessels are tainted and stained; afterwards robora­tion and strengthening of the parts, to confirm their native crasis and spermatick power restored again: but if unadvisedly (as some ignorant practitioners common­ly do) you stop the current and issuing of the seed, before there be a through puri­fication, then the malignity is retained, and being stopt in the usual vent, regur­gitates back, and is scattered all over the body, producing dolorous and very bad effects: and thus the common pretenders that boast of these Cures with speed and infallibility, leave their Patients in a worse condition then when they under­took them: and not only their method and intentions of Cure are irregular and injurious, but also their Medicines dange­rous, or ineffectual for want of skill in pharmacy and Chymical Preparations, or a careless referring that charge and ma­nagement to others. For my own part I dare not give a Medicine, but what I am an eye-witness to in the preparation, it being the great work and charge of a Physician so to do.

But to return to my purpose; by too frequent copulation, immoderate strain­ing, or the like, weakening the parts for [Page 104]generation, a profluvium seminis or Go­norrhoea, an issuing of seed may follow, which although your partner be whole­some, may produce bad effects and be­come virulent; for although the flux at first be mild and white, yet by continu­ance and neglect, does degenerate, be­comes sharp and ill coloured, shewing the pravity of its alienated nature: from whence a Cachexy or ill habit of body, weakness, consumptive leanness, and a much altered Countenance.

This stillicidium seminis, involuntary dropping and wasting of seed in men is easily known; but in women often mista­ken (and that by Physicians,) thinking it to be fluor albus, the whites; thereupon fall to bleeding, and purging soundly, with base virulent Catharticks, which exasperates and renders the disease more deplorable, and far worse to be cured af­ter such rude dealing.

But he that rightly understands the di­sease; that is filius artis in Chymical Pharmacy (as Dr. George Thomson, a true Spagyrist that labours propriis manibus for efficacious medicines) such I say, goes another way to work, by restoring Na­ture with roborating extracts and balsa­mick elixerated spirits: with which Na­ture[Page 105]closeth and receives amicably; by whose assistance the debilitated parts gain strength, concoct and retain what before passed away crude, watery and thin.

This weakness is very frequent among the feminine sex; being more prone and apt to this wasting infirmity then men, from the difference of organization and fabrication of parts rendring them more liable; being the colder and moister na­ture, and the retentive faculty weaker: Some conceal this infirmity out of mode­sty; others neglect it as a trivial disease, that time will cure, not considering the ill consequents that this produceth; as great weakness of the brain and marrow of the back; debility of all the mem­bers, and trembling of the nerves, decay of the senses, and [...]ains of [...] joynts when they come into year [...] [...]ri [...]y and barrenness in some; or if they bear chil­dren, they are feeble, rickety, convulsive and diseased from their seminal princi­ples; an ill habit of body, and change of the Countenance, bringing them into age before their time; a languishing and consumptive leanness, or a hydropick and unwholsome corpulency.

These sad effects I have often observed [Page 106]to be procured by this secret wasting di­sease in many persons; the particular ca­ses and circumstances I shall not recite for modesty sake, but caution all such as are threatned with it, to seek for the best ad­vice and efficacious means in time; and not cheat themselves (as too frequently) with the usual notion of the whites, and the frivolous common medicines that wo­men tell to each other. The medicines I use in the Cure of this infirmity both of men and women, as a restaurative essence, and roborating extract, are not here di­vulged for the reasons aforesaid; which I think will satisfie all that are reasonable, and for others 'tis no matter.

I have now discoursed the several sorts of Consumptions proposed to be treated on in the front of this Book; and had not the late dreadful fire consumed my house and interrupted these labours, I had enlarged this work in several parts of it, and given you a fuller prospect into the matter: yet as it is, you may see a dis­covery of some necessary truths, that have been latent; and the foundation of these diseases that were undiscovered, are now laid bare and obvious to common rea­son. Our Predecessors in the disquisiti­on and search after the causes of diseases,[Page 107]sought no farther then bad humours and dyscrasy of temperaments; which in­deed are but the effects and products of morbifick causes: but you have here seen there is a farther progress to be made, and that the foundations of diseases are seated in the vital and fundamental prin­ciples; upon which foundation the stru­cture of this work is laid, and to which all the discourse refers: this is to demon­strate and lay open diseases radically and fundamentally; and here is a Physicians scope and aim, that will rightly assist na­ture, and effectually restore and help her, in the declensions, wastings and alie­nations of her vital and fundamental principles: this is the way to core radi­cally and soundly; the other is but super­ficial and palliative.


A Catalogue of Books sold by Tho. Basset under S. Dunstans Church in Fleet-street.

  • A Treatise of the Scurvy: The se­cond Impression Revised and En­larged: By Dr. Maynwaring. Octavo. 1666.
  • Tutela Sanitatis, sive vita protracta: Being wholsome Precautions in Dyet and daily practical rules, for preservation of health and prolongation of life: With a Discourse of Fontinels or Issues. By the same Author.
  • Solamen Aegrorum, sive Ternarius Me­dicamentorum Chymicorum, ad omnes ferè morbos curandum (Galenica Remedia [...] eludentes) foelicissimè inventa Re­media. Authore Everardo Maynwaringo, Philosoph. & Med. Spagyr. Doctore.
  • Nova medendi ratio: A short and easie Method of Curing; exemplified by a Ternary of radical Medicines, universal in their respective Classes: viz. Purgati­on, Transpiration, and Roboration. 1666.
  • Loimotomia, or the Pest Anatomized: By Dr. Thoeason. Sold by Nath. Crouch in Bishopsgate-street, neer Cornhill.


By E. Maynwaringe, Dr. in Physick.

Cognitio Sequitur Curationes.

LONDON Printed by A. M for T. Basset un­der St. Dunstans Church in Fleet-Street. 1668.

To the Diseased.

IN vain it is to Discourse, and have the Nation of Diseases; unless also efficaci­ous Medicines be found out to answer their Indications for Cure: Which to do is the most difficult and laborious part of Physick. And this we may conclude from the often frustration and disappointment of Medicines in their effects, after Learned Consultations and deliberate Determination of the Disease, Causes, Part affected, &c. rightly sta­ted.

Here is the great Check given to the Phy­sicians Learning; and, until this tryal of the Medicine, he receives no repulse, but goes on smoothly with Applause and boldly: but, finding his Medicine take little or no effect for the purpose intended, is then at a stand a while: But, being loth to receive a baffle from the Disease does prescribe another, and pe [...]haps another after that, a fourth and a fifth, and sometimes many more if the Dis­ease be contumacious and stubborn: and this some will call a Methodical course of[Page]Physick. But I shall not harp upon that string.

This Disappointment is too often observed in the practice of Physick, and this arising only from ineffectual, languid erroneous Me­dicines, and how does this come to pass? but that the care and burthen of this work rests upon those that are unable and unfit to ma­nage it: or by trusting too much the credit of Authors and their traditional Medicines, ei­ther Galenical or Chymical; relying upon their authority, and the truth of their Wri­tings, which have deluded and frustrated the expectation of many. And this I have ob­served in practical Authors and Pharmaco­paeas of both Sects, Medicines collected and borrowed from one another, and delivered thus f [...]m hand to hand, none knows who first in­vented them; or whether any of them ever made or tryed them, that highly extolls and gives large encomiums of their vertues.

That many of these are Delusions either in the process, or the efficacy of the Medicine, to my own cost and Labour, I have experi­mented, and must say with Helmont that great Philosopher, Vexatio parit intellectum and therefore do Caution othe [...]s, lest they suffer upon this R [...]ck: but he that wi [...]l pur­chase to himself excelling Medicines (being accomplished with l [...]teratu [...]e, with the ground-work [Page]and Canons of the Art,) let him not tye him self up, or credit too much this or that Author, but follow the dictates of his own reason, confirmed and guided by collate­ral experiments; and herein a Physician daily exe cised shall in time attain to great know­ledge and sat sfaction in Medicine; and pur­chase to himself If Medicaments of great worth and value: and this must be every Physiti­ans proper Labour and daily endeavours, that [...]ationally intends and rightly goes a­bout to improve and advance the efficacy and power of Medicines, that they may have their praise and fame in the World, and the Phy­sician much satisfaction and content in their wonderful Operation. It is not, Sitting in his Study alone and poring upon Books, but his own manual Operation and Inspection over his Servants, that gives the great stroak to the business; the other does very litl [...] with­out this, but both, must needs do well: and I must say and that justly; he that practi­seth Physick, with a bea [...] speculative, tra­ditional, and book- [...]eading knowledg of Me­dicines, is very unsk lful in the true funda­mental knowledg of Medicines; and is as unfit to prescribe or appoint Medicines in hazardous or difficult cases, as he that by only reading of Navigation, is unable to ma­nage and conduct a Ship to East- [...]ndia.

[Page]And this is reason to averr: for he knows not what a Medicine is, nor can he give a good and certain account upon his own know­ledg, of the Nature of any Ingredient, but has all upon trust: This o [...] that man says it; the conclusion will not handsomly follow, Ergo, It is so. No wise man that can gain a certain knowledg of his own, will bo row at hazard of another; considering the un­truths and Erorrs that are scatte [...]ed abroad in most Writings; that he which lives only by borrowing thus, shall run himself out of credit and Reputation in his Profession, if blind Fortune be not very much his friend.

'Tis most certain and true, that the Ingre­dients of any Medicine are not known by rea­ding of them, but by their single and com­pound preparation, and separation of their constituent parts: and thus by handling, and Chymically dissecting their bodies, each part lies bare, and presents it self to your under­standing.

And farther; An Ingredient whether of the Animal, Vegetable, or the Mineral Family, changeth its Nature and Effect, according to the variation of its Consorts, with whom it is joyned: that it is not the same compounded with this, as it is with that but works a different effect; because many times they act upon each other, subdu­ing[Page]and moderating each others peculiar Na­ture, that a median nature does result: And therefore [...] and knowledg in the Phy­sician is required, about the choice and con­junction of Ingredients: that he be able to look through their several Natures, to find out their similitude and [...]epugnancy; their concord and disco [...]d: for hereby is known what properties will be advanced, and what depressed: and this an able Chymical Phy­sician can discern, as having a perspective thorow knowledg, the other is but Exterior and Partial: and as the composition of Ingre­dients may alter and change their Natures; so likewise their various manner of Prepa­ration singly, do change an Ingredient, that it is made this or that, as a perite Artist pleaseth, exalting, or prostrating and killing this or that quality, as his purpose requi­reth.

And here by the way, I must take notice of the traditional and unprofitable account of Vegetables that our Herbals give; of which the Chymical Physician takes little notice, and is a small assistance and guide to him in the Election of Plants for his several Intentions. Being satisfied long since that Medicament was the most weighty and con­siderable part of Physick, and that a defici­ency or error there, is a greater disadvan­tage[Page]and detriment to the Patient, then in the determination of the Des [...]se; I di [...]eage [...]ly apply my self to Medicin [...] according to the ancient custom and general practice of the most learned and famous Physicians in all places; who we [...]e industrious Artists, dili­gent in [...]reparing their own Medicines, un­til this later age) with as much curiosity as my knowledg could possibly direct. At first I was de [...]rous to make Experiments, and be fully informed in Galenic Medicines, being grounded upon those Principles by my Ac [...]de­mic Education, and was tenacious enough of that Doctrine, un [...]il a clearer prospect of truth did appear, gained by Observations in practi­cal Philosophy, a serious ratiocination and strict examination of Principles and received Opinions: but being removed off that Basis, and confirmed by Chymical Tryals relating to Medicine; I deserted the Galenic Medi­cines as inferiour to what I discovered and was presented to my view, and ever since have labored in Chemical Pharmacy, as being the most excellent way of preparing Medicines.

S [...]me Objections are made by the Learned, and by the Ignorant, again [...] Chymical Me­dicines; but to vindicate them from common slanders, and clearly to determine the diffe­rence between these and other Medicines, will take up more room than can be afforded in this[Page]place, and therefore must of necessity wave it, expecting an Opportunity hereafter, to venti­late that Subject: Only, by the way I must note that Chymistry suffers much, and is eclipsed in its reputation by some illiterate pretenders and bold fellows, not qualified Philosophical­ly, but rudely intruding upon [...]he Art, with­out a due preparation and legitimate inducti­on brings scandal upon the learned, deserving Professors, and def [...]mation to the Art, by Ʋsurping the Title of Doctors and Chimical Phisicians, that many are deceived by them, which are not able to discern the difference between a Doctor of Physick, and a crafty Empyric. But the ingenious Phylosophical Artist, ought to be cherished and incouraged in his Operations and rational Tryals.

But t [...] my purpose intended: in my Treatise of the Scurvy, having traced that Disease from its I [...]fancy, and Gene [...]ation, to its full growth and strength, its chief places of Resi­dence, variety of appeara [...]ce and monstrous deformity; it remai [...]s, I should now propose some eff [...]ctual means to check and sub [...]e the prevailin power of this spreading Disease, that d [...]ily grows, and encreaseth to the ruine and decay of Na [...]ure; being poss [...]ss [...]d and sea [...]ed in the Vital Principles, [...]educing and Constraining them to enormity and defection from the regularity in which they were plant­ed [Page]by Nature. And having strictly survei­ed the condition and nature of this Disease, with i [...]s variety of at [...]endants a d additional strength, being ready to joyn with any Mor­bific cause, and be transformed; I was unwil­ling to sit down here and rest with a contem­plative knowledg of this Disease, and leave the greatest pa [...]t of the work undone; the sub­duing and vanquishing of it by powerful Me­dicines: nor being willing [...]o commit the re­maining part to the industry and care of o­thers (for good reas on) I have therefore la­boured to form Medicinal Instruments to op­pose this Contumacious Herculean Disease: and as fit means for this encounter, I prepared three Medicines of a different Classis and Operation, to meet with the variety of Symp­toms, and Scorbutic Complications.

In the Cu [...]e of the Scurvy, at least in most Scorbutic cases, there are three intentions of cure to be aimed at: the first is, Purgation or Cleansing to carry off that Scorbutic [...]mpuri­ty or Degenerate Matter lodged in the Sto­mack and B [...]wels, deravin [...] and alienating good food da [...]ly received: Secondly, robora­ting and st en [...]thning the digestive Facul [...]ies which are debilitated and alienated from the integrity of their Offices; not only the Di­gestive Office of the Stomach, but the subse­quent Digestions also: Thirdly, Depuration[Page]of the Blood, and cleansing the habit of the Body: Nature dischargeth her self from with­in, and send [...]ng daily to the exterior parts, those also must be tainted more or le [...]s, as the Symptoms will manifest; and therefore do require to be freed from feculency, and the Blood purified.

To answer these three Purposes, I prepared three Principal Medicines, viz. Scorbute-Pills, Catholick-Elixir, and a Sudorific-Extract; These Medicines I have been re­forming and improving alwost seven years, to advance their Efficacions, but most gentle and benigne Opera­tions.Dies diem docet. And for, the better effecting this en­deavour and aim, the co [...]stant and daily use of them in divers Scorbutic persons, attended with different Symptoms of the Disease, and complicated with divers other Diseases, gives great information and satisfaction to me, in the several [...]ccounts I rec [...]ive of their Opera­tions, b [...]th at home, and abroad, by Letters from remote parts of this Kingdom: whereby I am taught, which way and wherein 'tis possible to improve them and to give them as great a Latitude of Universality and extent of Operation, in their peculiar Classes,Nihil est simul & inventum ac perfec­tum. as long experience and daily use, can dictate to their several repeated processes and try­als [Page]of making, and this is my Study and daily experience in Chymical tryals to improve these and all other Medicines I use in my Practice, that they may attain t [...] such per­fection and energy, as Cito, tu [...]o jucunde, to relieve the Diseased, in the most contuma­cious Ma adies, and deplorable C [...]se [...], remedi­ble: hereby Medicines will gain greater esteem and the Art its deserved repute and Fame, if Physicians by their own care and pains (as they ought) would manage this Work, and be as Industrious and skillful in this, as in the other parts of their Profession.

But occasi ns call me off from this Dis­course: I must [...]sten to finish the remainder, which is a more part cular account of the Operation of Medicines in the Cure of [...]his Disease; w [...]th some remarkable Observations in difficult Ca [...]es and dubious Complications, I have met with l [...]tely in Pr [...]ctice, of neces­sary Consideration to others in like manner Diseased.

E. M. Med. D.

Of such Purgation and proper Purga­tives, as is requisite in Curing the Scurvy.

PUrgation or Clensing is praemitted as a regular and due course in the cure of most Diseases; and it is instituted, chiefly to cleanse the first region of the body, and to carry off what superfluous or degene­rate matter is to be voided by the gutts: And this operation is necessary in the cure of most Diseases, though seated in other parts; for, although the infir­mity lye not in the first region of the body, neither in the Stomack, Gall, Gutts, Mesentery, Liver, nor Splene; yet 'tis aggravated, if those parts be foul: and probably may be the original and foundation of those remote infir­mities, by consent or transmission; nor shall medicine carry its vertue without impediment and abatement, or [...]ood clearly conveyed to nourish the body; if[Page 2]those parts be foul, clogged and ob­structed.

Now to make choice of a fit and good Medicine, that will cleanse the Stomack, Gutts, Mesentery, Liver, and Spleen, without offering injury to their peculiar Crasis or Ferments; that is, not to alienate them from their proper distinct natures, not to impress and stamp new qualities upon them; this is a Medicine you may freely use, and expect great relief from, in keeping the forenamed parts pure and clean; and such a Medicine is to be used in the cure of scorbutic persons: but if you use Purgers of a deleterious and virulent quality, that act per modum veneni; they will characterise their virulencies, and exotick adverse properties upon the parts, alienate and debilitate the fer­ments in their Functions and Offices; and the often use of them impairs Na­ture very much, though for the present sometimes alleviation does acrue from the evacuation procured, though by bad means; and of this nature, are most of the Purgers in use, as Senna, Coloquin­tida, R [...]uh [...]; Hell [...]bore, &c, ha­ving a laxative venom that stimulates Nature to expulsion.

[Page 3]Since Purgation is thus necessary, and purgatives so choisely to be elected and chosen, not every medicine that causeth stools, but such as is also endowed with balsamic and amicable properties, no way injurious to nature; I have there­fore been a diligent Searcher and Im­prover of such a Medicine, that may an­swer the intentions proposed: and by degrees of improvement in some years time, by various alterations and tryals, have perfected a purgative vegetable Extract, that fully satisfies and pleaseth me, in its manner of operation and effects: and this Medicine is my Scor­bute Pills, so called, because primely intended and contrived for the most effi­cacious purgative medicine in all Scorbu­tic Cases. Now the Scurvy (as ap­pears in the former part of that Book) is complicated and joins with all man­ner of diseases, Scorbutic Dropsies, Scorbutic Feavers, Asthmaes, Palsies, Gouts, Scorbutic Consumptions, &c. that a particular medicine for this or that humor, being too narrow, and not adaequate to the latitude of the disease, will take no effect in many Scorbutic persons: but such as are radical and graduated in universality, are the pow­erful[Page 4]and laudable medicines; I have therefore framed and improved this Me­dicine to answer the intents of Purgation, in all Scorbutick persons and cases, and is the best purgative medicine, both in the manner of operation, and the effects, that ever I used, or read of.

For farther satisfaction, and proof of this, I shall give you some brief Ac­count of these Pills from my own ex­perience and observation, in divers ca­ses upon several of my Patients.

They are effectually used against the defects and errors of digestion in the first second and third office: in the first, namely in all diseases of the stomack re­quiring purgation and cleansing down­wards, and the bad symptoms arising from thence; as Oppression, Fulness, [...]aus [...]ing, Wind, Pain or Griping, Wo [...]m [...] [...]s [...] of Appetite; in all these cases this medicine is very proper to cleanse and discharge the s [...]omack, make it clean and [...] for the reception of wholesom food, & not t [...]ll then can you expect good no [...]ment: if the stomack be soul, the nutriment conveyed from thence to support and maintain the body, must al­so be vitiated and impure. And here I must relate to you what hapned to a[Page 5]Gentlewoman that had been l [...]g in a Scorbutic Atrophy (a Consumption arising from the Scurvy) for some years, but not discovered; she was observed to droop and decline, and her Complexi­on change, and yet she complained not of pain in any part; she slept indiffe­rently, but had little or no appetite to meat. Several conjectures there were concerning the cause of her languish­ing by Physicians, and others he [...] Friends, some said one thing, others a­nother; try'd this medicine, the [...] tha [...]; but all this while received no [...] last, she applyed to me, and upon ex­amination of the whole matter, I found her to be Scorbutical: I gave my judg­ment of her present state and conditi­on, how and from what causes pro [...]u­red, and a Prognostick what whould follow if not prevented: whereupon she willingly resigned her self to my care, and to do what I thought sit, to re­store her.

At first I appointed her to lay aside her Dyet-drinks, Restaurative Electua­ries and Potions (with which she had been loaded again and again) and to rest Ten dayes before I would give her any thing of Physick; in the interim to[Page 6]eat such meat as her stomack did like and best agree with, which pleased her well, she having been strictly tyed up to a Dy­er: at Ten dayes end I gave her a Dose of these Scorbute Pills, one over night, and two next morning, which workt six times very gently with her that day; the night following she slept well, and the next morning I appointed her to take a Do [...]e of my Catholic Elixir sixteen d [...]ops in a spoonful of Sack, and likewise three mornings following, but increasing two drops every morning: her stomack now was something better, and she more l [...]vely: The fifth day I ordered her a Dose of the same Pills, which operated much as the former: and brought away two worms; fourdays following she took the Elixir, and the fi [...]th, a dose of the Scorbute Pills; & thus intermittingly she used these two medicines for the space of six weeks. At a fortnights end, her sto­mack was much better both for appetite and digestion; at the months end she was stronger and well able to go, very chearful, and eat her meat with delight; her Complexion altered much for the better, and about the sixth week she improved in flesh, and began to be something plump and full; then I bad[Page 7]her desist from her Pills, but continue the Elixir, which so strengthened the digestive faculties, that she daily im­proved, grew strong, and in a short time obtained perfect health.

To reflect upon this Story: Here was a latent Scorbutic Impurity that deaded the appetite, and what was forced down the stomack, did not digest, but degene­rate; so that the body could not thrive, nor had the benefit of that little food re­ceived: but this vitious matter being car­ried off by a proper medicine, and the loaded tyred parts refreshed and relieved b a generous spirituous Medicine; na­ture then revives and retu [...]s to her wonted duties, with that strength and re­gularity as formerly. I might instance in many cases parallel to this that I have met with in Scorbutic Patients; but I must be brief and proceed.

Not only in Diseases of the stomack, but also in the subsequent Digestions; I have found these Pills most effectually Abstersive and Aperitive, opening Ob­structions of the Liver and Spleen, Me­sentery and Gutts; exonerating and dis­charging those parts of crude, coagu­lated, depraved f [...]rmenting matter, from whence arise pains and flatulent hu­mors[Page 8]of those parts, Cachexies, or ill habits of body, Fluxes, Colicks, Hypo­chondriac Melancholy, &c. and here I must relate the case of a Patient, perti­nent to this place, worth your observa­tion, which was thus. A Gentleman, a­ged between Thirty and Forty, some­thing studious and melancholy, com­plaining of pain sometimes in his left side under the short R [...]bs, sometimes in the other side opposite to it; sometimes he was Costive, a stool once in two or three dayes; sometimes Laxative, two or three stools in a day with some gripes and wind, his Belly often puffed up and distended, at which times he complained of a shortness of breath, streightness o­ver his Breast, and difficulty of breath­ing like one that is Asthmatick: in the night often afflicted with frightful dreams and Palpitations of the heart; af­ter this manner (with other Circum­stances which I omitt) he continued for the space of four years or there abouts; all which time he was not negligent in procuring help, nor sparing of his Purse (having wherewith to do it) but apply­ed himself here and there for advice; some was of one opinion, another of a different judgment; and having tryed [Page 9]variety of medicines with little success, was tyred, and resolved to sit down contented with his infirmities, and gave over Physick nere six months: But meeting with one, formerly a Patient of mine that I had cured, (though a diffe­rent case) encouraged him to come to me, or acquaint me by Letter first with his condition: whereupon he wrote to me (living at a great distance) and gave me a full Relation of his case, desiring my advice and assi [...]tance the [...]ein, submitting to what course I should ap­point him: I considering the whole sto­ry, I was sufficiently satisfied of the Disease, that he was deeply seised with the Scurvy, as the Syndrome and Con­currence of symptoms did certai [...]ly dis­cover. Whereupon I sent him my Trea­tise of the Scurvy, to contemplate his Disease at large, and to be useful to him as a Guide, with a Box of Scorbute Pills and an Elixir; and bad him proceed in the use of them according to Directi­ons; which he did for three weeks, then gave me an account, that the vio­lence of his D [...]sease was much abated the Symptoms more m [...]d [...]nd ease, and not so frequent: th [...]se [...] its he [...]k a Pill, he slept more qu [...]etly then at other [...]; [Page 10]in his stools came away little lumps of a slimy jelly of a dark colour, or blackish, after which he was much at ease; his Belly and Hypochonders were more flat and soft; that since his Physick, some dark spots appeared in several parts of his body, with a moisture upon his skin as enclining to sweat some nights, but chiefly towards morning: This I liked well; and farther, appointed him the Sudorisick Medicine hereafter mention­ed, to help forward and procure breath­ing Sweats twice in the week, which I judged to be of great advantage to him: this he diligently performed seven or eight times, until the spots vanished; and then his spirits were more brisk and chearful, and more fit for business, ha­ving thrown off that impure matter, and dispersed the Cloud of Scorbutic vapours that clogged and darkned his spirits; his sleep now was quiet, and (to be short) the s [...]mptoms that for­merly molested him did not appear, but was reduced beyond expectation. I gave him some cautions and advice, lest he might relapse, which he punctually ob­served, and stood firm for seven or eight months after: Since, I hear nothing of him, but suppose him to be well, [Page 11]for which he was not ungrateful.

I might Comment largely upon this case, and illustrate the Scurvy in the several Symptoms, though disguised by various names usually given, not re­specting the causes: but I pass on.

I have yet a farther Account of these Pills, how, and in what principal Cases I have used them successfully; for d [...]s­eases and infirmities of the Head, so ac­counted though arising from inferior parts most often; as Apoplexy, Epilepsies, Convulsion, Palsies, Vertigoes, Sopo­riferous and drowsy Infirmities, Rheums, Head-aches, &c. This Medicine is pro­fitably used, by Eradicating their causes, that require Abstersion and Evacuation in the lower Regions of the Body. Dis­eases ascribed to the Head, though ap­pearing there, yet for the most part do arise from inferiour parts, occasioned by their Impurities, Obstructions, and Dis­order; for one that is Idiopathically Afflicted, ten are Sympathically affect­ed by consent of parts, and transmission of some Morbifick matter thither: the Disease appears in one part, but the foundation and cause is Radicated in a­nother, and to that pa [...]t m [...]st the cure be directed.

[Page 12]And therefore, if well observed, we frequently meet with Scorbutic Palsies, Scorbutick Convulsions Apoplexies, Slee­py Diseases, pains of the head Giddiness, trembling of the Nervs, Deafness, dull Sight and Blindness; and all these aris­ing from the Scurvy or Scorbutick im­purity of the body oftentimes, and these are not cured but by Anti-scorbutic Me­dicines; and those that endeavour other­wise with their Specificks and appropri­ate Medicines, to the parts where such Symptoms and Diseases do appear, la­bour in vain, and are frustrated in their intended Cures.

I might instance in many more cases wherein this Medicine hath done me good service, but that would be too te­dious to relate: therefore in general I must say, for Sorbutic persons, and the various Symptoms that attend that Dis­ease, whether in this part, or that part; these Pills are the best Abstersive and Purgative Medicine I ever made use of, being so amicable and friendly to nature, in their Operation, performing with so much ease and gentleness, that I have gi­ven them to the weakest bodies with good success, proportioning the dose according to the ability of the body.

[Page 13]I shall here set down the Dose and Circumstances that belong to the taking of these Pills.

The ordinary Dose for man, or wo­man is three Pills; some Bodies (though very seldom) require four: and some­times two Pills is sufficient, for weak bo­dies, and such as work freely with a small matter.

So much difference there is in bodies for purging, that two of these Pills are sufficient for some; but most common­ly three Pills are required, seldom four: therefore try your body first, with a lesser Dose then, if it require more, you may add to the next; and in so doing you will not err: For example, If you have a stubborn body, difficult and hard to purge, and the first Dose works but little, the next Dose you may take one Pill more:Tutius est peccare in defectu, quā in excessu. but if you have a lax gentle body freer in Operation than you expected, then abate a Pill, if the first work too nimbly with you. The diffe­rence of bodies is such in Operation, (especially purging) that they require a different Dose, or quantity for their proportion, which cannot so exactly be determined and appointed by the prae­science[Page 14]of the most skilful Physician, but by a rational Conjecture; untill the first experiment and tryal of their bodies, (which uncertainty, is not in the Medi­cine, but in the diversity of bodies); and after the first Dose taken, your own rea­son then, considering the condition of your body with the former, will prompt you in the next, whether to keep to the same, to augment, or abate.Solutiva enim fortia cum succis exuperan­tibus mag­nam spiri­tuum laci­unt soluti­onem. And remem­ber this as a necessary cauti­on, that you covet not strong Purges and large Evacuations, to have many stools in a day (a common error) which offers vio­lence to Nature, and force­ably sweeping down both good and bad together;Eradica­tiva eva­cuatio op­timè per­plures per sicitur evacuationes minorati­vas. but rather choose to draw away the offending matter gently by degrees, giving Nature time for separation, the pure from the impure and noxious: four or five Stools in a day is sufficient, but not to ex­ceed six; and that number I intend you to aim at and no more; and thus doing, you will find Physick much more beneficial, nature[Page 15]more kindly assisting, and not at all weakned.

Some there are, who, unless their Phy­sick work half a score or a d [...]zen times, think they have kept House for nothing, and their Money cast away, accounting the goodness of their Physick by the number of Stools; but they deceive themselves very much in desiring strong Purgations, which weaken and impair Nature, and thereby you protract your Cure and not hasten it.

Concerning preparation before Purg­ing, much talked of; take this Advice: that soluble bodies, readily yeilding obedience to gentle Purging Medicines, need no other preparation than what na­ture hath provided in the disposition of their own bodies; but for those bodies that are more hot, dry, costive and very stubborn in Operation, it will be advan­tagious to facilitate their Purgation, by eating stewed prunes, water grewel, or barley broth with raisins and currants, or by drinking whey, or sider, two or three daies before, which will prepare, moisten, cool, and open your body, and make it more soluble and easy in purging.

The times for taking these Pills ge­nerally [Page 16]is thus, (except good reason, in some bodies, perswade the contrary:) Take one Pill over night going to bed, having eaten but a light Supper at six of the clock before; the next morning early in bed, take the remaining part of the Dose; and you may sleep an hour after if you be disposed, but not longer; nor lie long in bed after, lest you check the Operation of the Medicine, and thereby cause you to be sickish at Stomack in your rising: when you are up, drink a little warm posset-drink, made of small bear, or small Ale, or thin broth for this purpose, and forbear eating until noon: but although these Pills are appointed to be taken, one over night, the other in the morning; yet if you find any incon­venience thereby, you may take the whole Dose in the morning very early, and lie two hours after: But if you have not a just cause for alteration observe the Prescription.

These Pills take thus every fourth or fifth day, and you will find it best to give such intermission: Chronick or old Diseases must have time to be Eradicated, and you must reduce nature from an ill[Page 17]habit by degrees,Semper expedit paulatim ducere qu [...]m su­bit [...]. better than hastily; As diseases come on, gradually prevailing upon and seducing nature from her Integrity; so nature by de­grees, must be brought off and restored again to her power and regula­rity. Cum natura malè sustinet repen­tinas mutationes.

For going abroad after your Pills that day, if you desire it, or occasions require, take this advice; if your body be indifferent strong, not apt upon small occasions to take cold, the season tem­perate and fair weather, having moderat­ed the Dose of your Pills, so as to work but three, or four times at most; you may then go abroad without prejudice: but if it fall out to be otherwise, then it is better to keep in, that day.

If any ask, At what times of the year these Pills are to be taken; I answer, you may safely and with benefit, at any time of the year, provided you order your self suitable to the season; that is, in Winter-weather, a warm Chamber and good fire; in Summer-hot weather a cool Room free from the Sun; be mo­derate in Cloathing, and gentle in Mo­tion not to heat your self.

[Page 18]For the Mornings in the midst of Sum­mer, they are temperate and fit for Phy­sick, and the Operation will be done be­fore the heat of the day; so that in this temperate Climate, you may take Phy­sick (with discretion) at any season of the year, the Dog-daies not exce [...]ted, although it is an opinion among the vul­gar, that that time is dangerous; but that is a vulgar error, easy to be refuted.

Of Restoring and Rectifying the Digesti­ons, necessary in Curing the SCURVY.

IN the preceding Discourse of that Treatise where the Scurvy is mani­fested and laid open in the causes and manner of Generation; you find it plant­ed and Radicated in the Digestions, or Digestive Offices; by whose Aberrations from Integrity, and frustrations of per­forming their Duties as they ought, this Disease is begotten: in the Cure there­fore, we must have an eye to their De­ficiency in Vigour, and Deviation from the Rectitude and manner of their per­formance being Alienated and Deprav­ed.

[Page 19]The former Medicine viz. the Scorbute-Pills was designed, to cleanse and carry off the Producted Scorbutick matter; another Medicine also must necessarily be invented to Roborate and strengthen the Faculties, to restore and confirm them in the performance of their Functi­ons; or else the like Scorbutick matter will be generated again, and nature will soon relapse into the Former state; In vain it is to pump, except you stop the Leak; Purging carries off the Degene­rate matter, and does a necessary work; but that does not Vigorate, re-inforce and give new strength to the Digestive Faculties, that were tyred and alienated in their Principles: that must be done by another Medicine, whose property is to excite, unite and joyn with the Prin­cipal agent in each faculty.

To make this more plain and easie to be apprehended by indifferent Capaci­ties; first I shall shew you how na [...]ure does perform her daily work; Then I shall shew, how she declines and falls off; and Thirddly, I shall manifest how she is to be assisted and restored.

So soon as food is received into the body, nature presently falls about her busi­ness, to digest, to dissolve, & separate the[Page 20]parts of it, to volatise, to distribute and transmit from one digestive office to a­nother, to sequester and throw aside the unprofitable and excrementitious part, to attract and suck in the alimentary, to refine and alter it by several elaborati­ons, to extract and draw out the pure spirituous part for supply of spirits, the rest assimilated into the humoral and so­lid parts; from hence the body is pre­served, and maintained in strength and vigour: and this is Natural Chymistry, performed every day in mans body in the regular course of nature; but when nature declines and fails in the ordinary and daily work of her own preservati­on, whether by intemperance, improper food, irregular and injurious customes or accidents, or Spontaneosly from an Imbecile Radication of principles, and bad Crasis of parts; the body then de­cayes apace, when the principle functi­ons are weakly and depravedly exerci­sed; necessarily then an Auxiliary means and Assi [...]tant must be applyed to restore nature to her strength and regular course again; something that must accu­ate and vigorate nature, that must excite and cooperate in Conjunction with the movent principle, that as a new Spring,[Page 21]will give power and force to the facul­ties. Considering this so necessary and useful in the cure of most Infirmities, as also to establish and confirm a Cure wrought from Recidivation and Re­lapse; I thought it a principal wo [...]k to find out and form such a medicine as may answer the intentions proposed, and therefore have by several tryals and improvements effected and wrought such a medicine to that degree and com­petent power, as is very efficacious in the deficienties and enervation of the dige­stive faculties, to Restore and Roborate them in their funct ons; which medicine is called, and known by the name of Ca­tholic Elixir (now altered and impro­ved)

And this was the custom and manner of the ancient and most famous Physici­ans, to acquire by their proper labour and sedulous industry, some great Ar­cana [...]s, secret and choise medicines of excelling vertue, which they esteemed as a treasure, and gave them peculiar names to be distinguished and known by: and that such medicines might be known to the world, for the good and benefit of the Diseased; they di [...] publish their ver­tues, as Angelus Sala in the Preface to his [Page 22]Precious Antidote, does apologize for himself in doing the like: Etiam magni nominis medicis solenne olim fuit, medica­menti alicujus particularis virtutes, quas quis (que) accurata observatione annot averat peculiari quodum tractatu literis consig­nare. Oper: Med: Chym. pag. 420. sayes he, It has been the ancient custom of Physicians, & those men of great fame, to write a Treatise of the vertues of some particular medicine, which they had no­ted by strict observation; then he extols the efficacy and worth of his medicine, and excuses the concealment of the pre­paration.

Helment also, that great Philosopher and Physician, had his private medicines which he highly valued; so also in the Writings of the most Eminent Physici­ans, we find they had their Arcana's, secret medicines which they would not discover, save only their vertues and manner of use; therefore I may say as Angelus Sala, Quod si illis hoc vitio non fu­it datum, neque mihi, qui eo [...] um ad exem­plum.

But since the late fashion of Prescri­bing came up in use, some ignorant buzzards which I could name, that have objected this against me, (per­haps[Page 23]of our own Faculty) think this an empirical way; but therein they d [...]sco­ver their ignorance, not knowing the ancient and most legitimate way of Pra­ctice, and what is the whole duty of a Physician: See what Famous Que [...]cetan sayes upon the Question, An medicum de­ceat [...]? Que [...]: Rediviv: pag. 218. Whether a Physic an ought to make medicines; He will tell you, you are Pseudomedicus, a Counterfeit Physician, if you do not make medicines. Pray look there, and then you will say, 'tis a shame for a Physician not to be expert in ma­king medicines.

As a duty, and following the Ex­ample of the most Eminent Physicians. I have been and am a constant labou­rer in Pharmacy, thereby to acquire and purchase the choisest Medicines that Art and pains can procure; and by continu­al making, and altering upon tryals, I have purchased as noble Medicines I think, as any man can procure; not but that other Physicians that have been thus diligent in Preparation of Medicines, as I have been, may have as good; but without this Labour and Industry, no man can be master of such. In particular, the forenamed Elixir, as it is now im­proved[Page 24]and advanced, I have a great esteem for, and is a great assistant to the Stomack in the office of Digestion, for it mainly fort [...]ies and roborates that Facul­ty, so that the bad effects of a weak or depraved Digestion, are notably Cor­rected and amended; as crudity and indigestion, flatulency or winde, Nau­siousness or Vomiting, Fulness or Opression, Loss of Appetite, Eructati­on or Belching; and this it performs by asisting the Stomack's Digestive Fer­ment, being deficient and decayed by Age, Intemperance, Incongruous Dyet, Disorder, or Natural Infirmities.

One Case amongst the rest, relating hither, I well remember, which I think good to relate: A woman that had been troubled with the Scurvy for some years though scarce taken notice of, but sup­posed to be from other causes, what symptoms did appear; amongst the rest, for some time she was molested, especi­ally in a morning with a driness in her mouth, and an ill taste; afterwards her stomack would nauseate sometimes, and soon after did begin to vomit: where­upon she took several medicines to stay vomiting, and to strengthen the stomack, but all in vain, and rather aggravated[Page 25]her Griefs, straining to Vomit with more violence, and little or nothing came a­way: when I was made acquainted with it, and understanding the Symptoms to arise from the Scurvy; upon examination of the whole matter, I sent her this Elixir with directions; and at the third or fourth Dose, her Vomiting and nauseating was gone, and much at ease: then I appoint­ed her the Scorbute-Pills, to be used inter­mittingly with this Elixir for some time; and soon after, the other Scorbutic Symp­toms which molested her, vanished, and she regained her former health: Whereby you may observe that the Scurvy will not be tamed but by Anti-scorbatic Medicines: and although some Symptoms of the Scur­vy be common and like with those from other diseases, whereby many are deceived in their causes: yet, if they arise from a Scorbutic Root, they will not be cure but by Anti-scorbutic Medicines; and there­fore what Symptoms of Sickness do appear in any person, ough [...] strictly and nicely to be examined by a discerning judgment, to know the right spring and foundation of their Rise.

But to proceed, Not only the Stomack and first Digestion is benefited and assist­ed by this Elixir, but the subsequent Di­gestions[Page 26]are promoted, and their defects corrected hereby; and this Medicine I use successfully against many Infirmities seat­ed in the Mesentery, Guts, Liver, or Spleen; as when they are languid and weak, de­generating and falling off from their du­ties, are obstructed with crude depraved Matter; wanting Spirit and Vigour, and acuteness of Ferment fit for their proper works; from whence Hypocondriack Me­lancholy, Stitches, Pains, Tumors, and flatu­lent Dissensions of the Hypoconders and Belly: In such cases, this Medicine pene­trates atteneates opens, and discusseth, ro­borates and gives great relief; and like­wise for Melancholy drooping Spirits, and Palpitations of the Heart, Angustness and Compression about that Region, arising from a Scorbutic Feculency and Impurity; an ill-affected Spleen, or Matrix, from whence Vapours do assurge to afflict the heart and vital Spirit; this Elixir is a pro­per help, and also effectual in Scorbutic Asthmaes, difficult and short Breathing, Coughs and Scorbutic Consumptions. But of these you may read at large, in my Treatise of Consumptions, and I have there appropriated two excellent and highly graduated Medicines for Consumptive persons; a Restaurative Essence, and Bal­samic[Page 27]Extract, with which I have recovered some, bey [...]nd expectation.

That you may be the more cautious in examining the Symptoms of Diseases, what foundation they have, and wh [...]ce they do proce [...] that you may not la [...]ur in vain for a cur; I h [...]en [...]ed a rom [...]k­able Care in a Patient of mine, w [...] your Observation, which was thus: A young man about thirty years of Age, a [...]u [...]ent and tenderly bred, was subject to short and difficult breathing, but without a Cough, or very little; he was advised to man [...] Pectoral Medicine; to open and ren hen the Lungs, which he used, but [...]ith lit [...]le effect: his Disease by time increased upon him and he was troubled with palpitati­on of the Heart, and stoppage of Breath, in his Sleep, that he was a [...]fraid of Suffo­cation; he then unhappily fell into the hands of an Emperick, who purged him with violent Medicines so, that he began to be Hydropical, did puff up, and limbs Swell, nor did the other Symptoms abate. After this and other passages (too long to relate) I was sent for, and examined the Patient; found his complaint was chiefly under the Diaphra [...]rama toward the Ori [...]ice of the Stomack, that his Lung [...] were good, and the Cause of his short and difficult [Page 28]breathing was not in the Breast, but by Compression of the Diaphragma, from a turgid aestuation of Scorbutic matter, which threatned Suffocation somtimes: (And upon this very cause, I knew a very Learn­ed Doctor of Physick, that died suddainly in his bed): I perused and made inspection into the Urine, and examined his Pulse, as now and formerly; both which consented to, and confirmed the Scurvy: Then I ex­amined, what Medicines had been given him; and those were most Pectoral, except some churlish Purges, after which he was much w [...]rse, and began to swell; and now he was about to take a Dyet-drink for the Dropsy, which was like to prove as the rest: but the Patient committing himself into my hands, I had him desist from all Medicines but what I appointed; and first I gave him this Elixir (he being very weak) which as a Cordial did revive him, and after a few daies was much altered for the better, and slept more quietly, with a greater freedom in breathing: he continued this alone, for ten dayes; in which time he gained strength and had a stomack to his meat: then I di­rected him the use of the Scorbute-Pills, which abated the swelling of his Limbs at twice taking, and preceeded in the use of these two Medicines. Lastly, I appointed[Page 29]him the Sudorific Medicine hereafter men­tioned; and in a short time, he was reduced by this course to good health and free from his former Complaints. By the whole Story you may observe, First, that the Scurvy is disguised, and appears in the shape of other Diseases. Secondly, that those Diseases so counterfeited, are not cured but by Ra­dical Medicines which are Anti-scorbutic: and therefore it much concerns the Sick, that their Diseases be rightly stated and de­termined by one that can make a true in­ternal Discovery; and not according to external Appearance, and common Symp­toms, which is very Fallacious.

But I proceed to let you know farther, How and wherein this Elixir is useful to me in Practice; and that in suddain emergent cases of fainting: as also in Languishing Diseases, and Cases of Extremity when the Patient is spent and brought so low that no Physick can be Administred; this, as a re­lief and support to the Languishing decay­ed Faculties, may daily be exhibited; and this I have frequently proved: particular­ly, a Person of Honour, given over by his Physicians, being spent and decayed and highly swoln in a Scorbutic Asthma and Dropsy, was gasping for breath, when I came to him; but exhibiting this Elixir, [Page 30]he did wonderfully revive, and his difficult & short breathing was much enlarged and eased for a few daies, for which he did Ex­tol the Medicine: but, being past the possi­bility of Recovery, and incapable of other Medicines, requisite or Cure, he dyed.

But some may object: This possibly may be a good Medicine in desperate Cases, and approaches of Death; but how can it be proper and fit for a man that can eat his meat well, and walk abroad, only inclining to the Scurvy, and some small Impediments from thence? I answer: That Medicine which is endowed with so much Vertue, to bring relief to a decayed or dying man; must needs be of great power and efficacy, to give Vigour and strength to all the Fa­culties: Now Scorbutic Infirmities, or imped mens of what fort soever, do arise from the Imbecillity, Aberration, or Declin­ing of some Faculty in the Body, injured or decayed which requires a generous and noble Medicine to Rectifie and Vigorate, (at least, it will better be performed by such) not a languid dull Medicine; and therefore this Objection is vain; for the greater power a Medicine hath, the more likely and better to do the business be it little or much: and therefore if your Case require help, do it by an acute Vigorous[Page 31]Medicine, and you may expect your Infir­mities to be removed, Ci [...]ùs tu [...]iùs jucu [...] ­diùs, in a shorter time, with more safety and certainty, with less disgust in taking or trouble in Operation.

Now the main Scope and Intention of this Medicine, is, to relieve the Spirits Op­pressed or Exhausted, to Discuss Flatulent Vapours, to open Obstructions, and to Rectifie and Roborate the Digestive Fa­culties, from whence Scorbutic Symptoms do arise; and such a Medicine is necessari­ly required in the cure of the Scurvy, and its Complicated effects.

I have briefly shewed you the power and properties belonging to an Anti-scor­butic Medicine, requisite to be used in cur­ing the Scurvy: such a Medicine I say is required; tis not Purging alone will do it, but other Operations must joyn to effect the purpose. For advice and rules to those that use this Catholick Elixir (living farr distant from me) that they may not Erre in the taking of it, let them observe as fol­loweth.

That in the use of this Elixir with the Scorbute-Pills, it is best to begin with the Pills; except the person be very weak, or spent, and first require some strengthing [Page 32]and reviving Medicine, then you may first begin with the Elixir.

Also that this Elixir is not to be taken those daies you Purge, but every Intermit­ting day between Purging.

That this Elixir is not to be taken or tasted alone but mixt with some good Liquor, and that ought to be the best Canary; for bad Wine alters and abates the Virtue of the Medicine. It may be taken in French-wine, if the Patient cannot agreee with Sack.

The Dose for man or woman, is thirty drops: for ten years old, twenty drops; for five years, ten drops.

And observe this; that at the first taking you begin but with half the Dose that is ap­pointed for your age; as thus: thirty drops is appointed for a man, let him begin with fifteen or sixteen drops, and then augment two or three drops every day after, until he ascend to thirty, and then there conti­nue that Dose afterwards.

Take it (in Bed if you be weak) in a spoonful of Sack, every morning, fasting an hour and half after; and at five of the Clock After-noon; but you are not so strictly to observe the after-noons, but, if that your occasions do not well permit (as when you must be abroad or the like,) you may omit.

[Page 33]In keeping this Elixir, let it be well stopt; for dropping of it exactly, a Cruet is best. Some may ask, What time of the year this Medicine may, or may not be used; I answer, No time of the year for­bids the use of it; but it is profitably taken at any season of the year: nor may wo­men forbear the use of it at such times of the month, when all other Physick is for­bidden; but is helpful to Nature at such a time, in procuring them with more ease and freedom.

Of Curing the Scurvy by Transpiration, and the necessary use of a good Sudorific Medicine.

THe Scurvy is not a pa [...]icular Disease limited to this or that part of the Bo­dy, but extends it self th [...] [...]ughou [...] the whole as appears by the variety of Symptoms, in several parts of the Body; and being of this extent, Medicine also must have the same Latitude of Operation to prosecute and reach into its utmost a [...]d farthest quar­ters: Pur [...]ation that cle [...]seth the Cen­tral and more inw [...]d parts, as the Stomack, Guts, Mesentery, Liver and Spleen: [...]ans­piration that respects chiefly the habit of[Page 34]the Body and external parts, purifying the Mass of Blood, and vital streams.

These two Operations are necessary for Cure in most Scorbutic cases, as the follow­ing discourses and observations in Practice recited, does manifest.

Some there are that deceive themselves, and lay the whole stress of the Cure upon Purging, and that they prosecute very often (and it were well if the purgatives be pro­per) but the effects may inform and tell them, that there is something else requi­site; and they find it so. The Scurvy is not so easily dislodged and thrown out by a single Operation of Medicine; but requires rectifying and strengthning of the Di­gestive Faculties also, and depuration of the Blood.

The Body of man is perspirable, and in his due state of health continually more or less doth transpire and breath out humid vapours and a superfluous moisture by the Pores of the Body; hereby the Mass of Blood and habit of the Body is cleansed and discharged of that which is superfluous or impure and unfit to be retained; and this insensible Evacuation is so requisite, that without transpiration the Mass of Blood cannot be depurated, but remains muddy and defiled, which forceth Nature to a dis­tempered[Page 35]fermentation and morbific Erup­tion: Proper and amicable Purgation doth well, acts a good part, and ought to be prae­mitted in most cases, which alone do check a Disease and lessen it, by carrying off a [...]l morbific matter in the lower Region of the Body; but if the Mass of Blood, and ha­bit of the Body be tainted and corrupted, the vital stream and those parts irrigated and fed from thence, are not purified as they ought, but by Exsudation and Tran­spiration; and the Spirits that are clogg'd and infested by impure matter, which dar­kens their light, causing Melancholy and indisposed heaviness, are hereby relieved and unfettered, become brisk, aery, and live­ly as before.

And in promoting this Operation we imitate and assist Nature which continually does Emittere & Transpirare per Poros, at least ought so to breathe forth superfluous vapours and humidity, and when this is co­hibited and restrained, by occlusion and shutting up the pores by cold or otherwise; or Nature unable thus to relieve and dis­charge her self by reason of debility and insufficiency in separating and protruding; it is not long but some Disease, or many, ariseth from the course of Nature thus im­pedited; either a sudden febril aestuation; [Page 36]or erratic pains in this or that part; or a slow eruption of grosser matter sticking in the skin discolouring and spotting of it; or bringing forth Scurf, Pustules, or other Extretions.

By this you may understand the bene­fit that doth arise by the regular course of Nature in her daily Operations and Excre­tions, and the profitable assistance of Art in promoting them when impeded, as also the prejudice and damage by the contra­ry.

And here I shall relate to you the Case of a Scorbutick Patient, pertinent to the proceeding Discourse.

A Gentlewoman, aged between Forty and Fifty, formetly fa [...]t and fleshy, but re­duced to a lean state; being troubled for some years with a lassitude or weariness in her Limbs, and Indisposition to Action, and with pains at some times: afterwards in Autumn, a weakness and numbness possessed her Limbs, that disabled her in going: All this while she was not negli­gent to seek for help, had such Advice as the Country did afford, and used many Medicines; but her Disease prevailed still, each Spring and Autumn being worse than the former: it hapned that a Relation of her case was sent to me, (she living a great[Page 37]distance from London) what was want­ing in the first Relation, I interrogated in my Answer, and the next Account I recei­ved, did fally satisfie me: I found the Scurvy disguised to act in several Scenes, after a different manner: the Medicines she had used were proper for the Symp­toms that did appear, barely considered; but not as they had a Relation and were grounded upon the Scurvy, which being undiscerned did frustrate all the Endea­vours for Cure: Letting of her blood was injurious, and she grew worse upon it; soon after, a Stupor or Paralytic numbness seised her: To be short, she was com­mitted to my care and management; I sent her three Anti-scorbutick Medicines, namely, my Scorbute-Pills, Elixir, and Sudorisic Extract to be used in that order and method as the Medicines and her Condition required: at the months end she gained the use of her Limbs, but were something weak; yet no pains as formerly: and upon the use of the Sudorific Extract, some spots were driven forth, and the La­tent Scurvy did appear and satisfied them more fully, what I had determined of her disease: The Winter being very sharp, did sometimes interrupt her Course, and retarded the compleating of a Cure, which [Page 38]else might have been finished in a shorter time. At the beginning of March I set her into the same Course again, which was diligently observed; and in April follow­ing she was perfectly restored: In the Course of these Medicines (according to the Account received) I observed her pains to lessen and cease upon the use of the Sudorific Extract, and not before; which Medicine chiefly restored her the use of her Limb [...]; and it was reason to expect, the greatest benefit, as to that particular in the Case, should acrue from a Diaphore­tic Medicine; that searching and penetra­ [...]ing the h [...]bite of the Body, by transpi­ [...]ation and breathing Sweats should d [...]slodg and discusse the Scotbutic Matter which infested the Nerves and Muscles, impe­ding and disabling the parts in their Moti­on and Action.

By such Examples as this, and other different Cases as to the Symptoms, yet parallel with it as to the parts affected and Morbisic Cause; I was fully satisfi [...]d that a Sudorifi [...] Medicine was of necessary use in many Scorbutic Cases, and without which, a Cure could not be performed; I therefore prepared a Medicine that might effectually answer the scope of that inten­tion, which might operate by Transpirati­on [Page 39]and gentle sweating, and, by a kindly assisting of Nature in that operation, might depurate the whole Masse of blood, and free the habite of the body from any Scor­butic Impurity and Degenerate Matter, which at certain seasons of the year, and by acc [...]dental promoting Causes, fer­ments, and produceth various internal Di­stempers and Diseases, Scorbutic Feavers, continual and intermitting Quotidian, Tertian and Quartan, Head-aches, and Pains in several parts, Plentisies, Asthma's, &c. or external and Cutany-Disedations; as Spots, Scurff, Scabs, Pustul's, Tettars, Ringworms, Tumors, &c. And because our blood, especially in these Northern Climates, doth abound with a serosa Colluvies, a Serosity or Superfluous wa­tery humor; a good Sudorisic Medicine is of great use; for when this serous matter abounds and increase the ther by the insuffi­cient Attraction & Separation of the Reins, that should expend and drain it; or the Pores shut up, and Trauspiration de­nied, that should insensibly exhaust it, doth then by Preternatural Retention de­generate and change its Nature and Pro­perties; that which was mild turns acid, sharp and molesting; and variously dege­nerating doth cause several Diseases and [Page 40]Pains in divers parts of the Body as it Circulates in the V ssels; or extravasa­ted and wandring about being expulsed from part to part as hostile and injurious) by the strength and fortitude of the Ar­cheus or innate spirit that inhabits as the Life-guard in each part of the body.

This Sudorific Medicine prepared for the purposes aforesaid. I appoint in all Scor­butic Cases, requiring Transpiration or Sweating; and I find great success in the use of it (especially being now much alter­ed and improved) Many Diseases are ex­pulsed by Sudorificks, that purgatives can­not prevail against; the reason is this; First, because some Diseases do arise, and depend upon a statulent Spirit or Meteor that is generated in the body; and these Diseases are more accute and dangerous, than others, because their matter is more active, subtile, and of suddain motions, be­ing of the Nature of a Spirit, is more pe­netrative and irresistible in its motion; as Apoplexy, Epilepsy, histerical Passions, Pest lential Seminaries, suddain Swoon­ings, &c. Which do not yield Obedience to Purgatives, being of a more subtile spi­rituous nature, is not ejected by Vomit, or Stool as grosser Morbific Humours are; but requires a Medicine equiv [...]lent and [Page 41]proportionate to their Nature; that is, pene­trative, subtile and acute in Operation, proper to discuss, evaporate, and transpire. S [...]condly, many Diseases though arising from grosser and humoral causes, that would obey the Power and Virtue of Purgatives; yet by reason they are lodged in the habit of the body and more exterior parts, are out of distance and beyond the reach and sphere of their activity: but a good Sudorific penetrates and searcheth all parts, raiseth the Seminaries, and enters the secret Dormitories of lurking Diseases, and gives them expulsion by its subtil Operation and acute Power: and here I remember the condition of a Patient which I will relate to you, pertinent to the present discourse. A young gentlewoman of a fair Complexion and very clear skin, by Melancholy (and other causes) was much altered and become brown, muddy, and discoloured in particular places; af­terwards a Scurf did arise and some Pim­ples here and there, which was troublesome by itching: th [...]s Gentlewoman was let blood and purge [...] of [...]en, but still be trouble re­mained: then she was advised to a Wash to clear the [...]kin, and to t [...]ke away the heat and pimples; which di [...] take effect in a few daies, but upon retiring of this hu­mour[Page 42]inwards, she fell desperately sick, with violent pains in her head, and ready to faint away often. Hereupon I was sent for, and examined the whole matter; and finding the acuteness of her sickness to arise from an imprudent repelling of a hu­mour, and forcing it back upon Nature, which she had brought forth to the skin; I immediately appointed her a Dose of my sudorific Extract to be given her, which put her into a breathing Sweat; and when the Medicine had done its Operation, her pains and sickness were almost gone: the next day I appointed another Dose to be given her, to sweat gently for two or three hours, and before the Operation of the Medicine was spent, her pain [...]nd sickness quite left her; and then appeared some of the former Symptoms again upon the skin, but without itching. The present dan­ger of her sickness being over, I caused her to rest two or three daies, and gave her an Elixir to take every day, to che­rish Nature and recover her strength: then she fell to the Sudorific Extract a­gain, to cleanse the Blood, and to breathe out that impurity which was lodged un­der the skin; with convenient intermssion she repeated this Sudorific Medicine three or four times more, and then the former[Page 43]Symptoms quite lest her, and she regained her former beauty and clearness of skin. By th [...]s you may understand, that a Sudo­rific Medicin s me times is effectual, when Purgatives cannot prevail; yet 'tis injuri­ous to Nature, to draw back again what she hath protruded and brought forth to the Circumference of the Body: and ther­fore they that rely and insist too much upon Purging, thinking to cleanse the whole Body by that Operation only, are much deceived: Purging is good but not alwaies; other Medicines must come in and take their place, according as the case requires: Purging cleanseth the Center, but Sudorificks purifie the exterior parts.

That you may know when a Sudorific Medicine is required as necessary, and ad­vantagious to the Cure, I'le tell you in what cases I appoint this Sudorific Medi­cine to be taken: In curing the Scurvy, I find good success thereby, to cleanse and purifie the Blood that is degenerate and vitiated with a Scorbutic taint and impuri­ty: or when the Pores are occluded and imperspirable, the Body tumified and puft up for want of transpiration and ventila­tion, when p [...]i [...]xing pains or itching in the flesh molest and trouble, by a saline or a­crid Se [...]osity extravasated, and erratick; [Page 44]when spots, tumors, pustul's, scurse, pim­ples, or such like appear upon any part of the Body: This Sudorific Medicine dis­cusseth and discipates the confluence of Humours tesorting to any part, opens the Pores, transpires and drives out the extre­mentious matter, congested and lodged under the skin: also when a Lassitude or weariness possess the Limbs; when the spirits are torpid, dull heavy (as it is the case of many Scorbutic persons) being alienated from their purity and wonted vigour, by a degenerate and depraved ali­mentary succus, cloging and settering them, that should support and maintain them with an addisional supply of a congenerous extraction; in this case a good Sudorific is the best relief, to depurate the Vital stream, and alimen­tary liquors of the Body from whence the Spirits receive strength and vigour again.

The Dose, and Circumstances that at­tend the taking of this Sudoific Extract is thus: to a man or woman of a weak ten­der body; at first I give a dram and half, the next time two drams, but stronger bo­dies [...] give two drams at the first dose, then two drams and half, almayes begin­ning with a lesser dose; and encrease the[Page 45]quantity, as from the quantity of a Nut­meg to a Chestnut, according to the con­dition and strength of the body after try­al: First, because there is great difference in bodyes, some require more; as hard, dry bodyes and thicker skirns, being more difficult to transpire; and some less, as tender, moist bodyes, of a rare Texture, and open Pores, more apt to breath out. Secondly, Nature is better pleased to re­ceive some Medicines gradually, then im­posing a full dose at first; if Nature takes a disgust to a Medicine, she seldom agrees with it after, though it be ne­ver so good: therefore at the first begin with a little dose (for tryal) though the Medi­cine be very amicable, and the next time you may encrease, and take a little more.à leviori­bus inci­pere, & procede­re ad for­tiora, est ordo Sa­pientum.

The manner of taking is thus, Roll it in a little Sugar, and swallow it down.

Take it at Night (having eaten but a little Spoon-meat for your Supper) in Bed covered warm; and a quar­ter of an hour after, drink a draught of Rosemary-Posset, or Mace-Ale, then you may sleep as you find your self disposed. Or you may take this Me­dicine[Page 31]in a Morning very earl [...], after the same manner, and lye in Bed ha [...]f that day, sleep if you will, that does not check the Medicine, you will have the benefit of Transpiration in your sleep: Somnus Cohibet omnem evacuationem preter Sudorem aph. nor are you to expect great Swea [...]s, but only mo [...]st Breathings, not at all troublesome.

Some perhaps being too hasty and de­sirous to effect their Cure, may think one or two great Sweats may do as much good as half a dozen gentle breathings, and so shor­ten the time of their Cure; but I cannot approve that Course, to impair Nature by violent and large Exhaustions; you thereby frustrate the benefit of the Medicine, which rightly used, will prove very succes­full for the purposes appointed.Saepius mediocri­ter Sudo­movere, melius est quam Se­mel mo­dum ex­cedando virespros­ternere. This Su­dorific Extract may be taken twice in a week, on the intermiting dayes when you do not purge having first taken three doses of the Scorbute Pills to cleanse the stomack and bowels, before you begin to Sweat, that the grosser matter and impu­rity of those parts be not driven into the habit of the body. For going abroad, ob­serve [Page 47]this, if you take the Sudorific in the Morning, you must not go out that day, the Pores being open: but if you take it over night, the weather not cold and searching, but temperate or hot; you may go forth next day, if your disease, strength, and cond [...]tion of body admit.

Those persons that use the three Anti-scorbutic Medicines before mentioned, do observe this order, except in some speci­al Cases, and complicated Diseases, by particular advice: First, they begin with the Scorbute-Pills to cleanse the Center of the Body, as the Stomack, Guts, Mesente­ry, Liver, and Spleen: The next day and all the intermitting days be [...]ween Purg­ing, they use the Elixir, to strengthen the declining Faculties and rectifie the Digestions: and after three doses of Pur­ging Pills taken, they begin with the Su­dorifick Medicine, to purifie the Blood, and cleanse the habit of the Body; and these are to be used twice in a week, pro­ceeding also with the other Medicines in their turns as before. But now you are come to use the Sudorifick Extract, you may take the Scorbutic Pills but once in the week, whereas before you took them once in four or five days; this is my course and practice in curing the Scurvy and[Page 55]complicated Diseases attending: which as it is a rational and exact Method accord­ing to the Canons of Art, is also verified by much experience to be most effectual.

The chief reason why I am so large here­in the general use of these Medicines, is to avoid the daily trouble of directions in writing to each particular Patient, except there be good cause.

I have now finished what I proposed in my self to make Publick: The Nature of this spreading Disease the Scurvy; its va­riety of Symptoms and appearance, that it may be known though in a various dress and disguise; the usual complicated affects that associate and attend it; its internal es­sential Causes, manner of Generation, and seat of Radication in the Body; the exter­nal procuring and promoting Causes; the chief indicat [...]ons for Cure; three Anti-scor­butic Medicines laid down as exemplars, answering the scope of those curative in­tentions; and some remarkable Observa­tions in Practice; And this is the summ of the whole Work.


This keyboarded and encoded edition of the work described above is co-owned by the institutions providing financial support to the Text Creation Partnership. Searching, reading, printing, or downloading EEBO-TCP texts is reserved for the authorized users of these project partner institutions. Permission must be granted for subsequent distribution, in print or electronically, of this EEBO-TCP Phase II text, in whole or in part.