Translated out of Latine By D. RALPH WINTERTON.

LONDON, Printed by JOHN REDMAYNE 1659.



IF thou beest meerly English, it is thy great In­terest to welcome and embrace such labours as this is: for know, what [Page]thou art here presen­ted with, are the Ori­ent irradiations of Zan­chie's divine soul through the clear glasse of an in­genuous Interpreter; without whose industry this rich Argosy had ne­ver arrived at our En­glish shoar; And what are the most precious commodities in forreign parts to us without the benefit of Importation? I know not what reason Horace had to stile Trans­latours, [Page] Servum pecus, as if it were a meer jour­ney-work and nothing else. Surely, if all Me­taphrases might be mea­sured by this, the imploi­ment and art of reflect­ing uninfranchis'd learn­ing into our own Dia­lect cannot justly come under the Satyrist's ex­pression, except it will admit the sense of (use­fulnesse and Commodi­ty.) For the Authour Zanchie himself, he did [Page]not only, as many do, fill up the number of Mo­dern Divines, but was, & is still accounted, the very head of the chief Classis, Flos delibatus Cle­ri, the very flower of the prime choice, neither is he one iot disfigured in this representation, he is the same man even here, only in an English garb Nor had this dresse now been put upon him but for their sakes, who not able to have accesse to [Page]the persons of great ones, are content to be­hold them in Effigie. I'le adde no more, knowing, that long and dark En­tries doe rather injure, then officiate to, fair Buildings: the Gates are open, enter and enter­tain thy self.

The First Chapter. Concerning the Holy Scriptures, which are the foundation of all Christian Religion.

The First Doctrine. That concerning God, and matters per­taining to religion, we are to believe God onely simply and absolutely.

AS concerning God, and divine matters pertai­ning to the Kingdome of Christ and our salva­tion, we believe that none can teach us better and more certainly then God himself;Ambros. epist. 32. who can neither deceive nor be deceived.Ioh. 1.18. The onely begotten Sonne, which is in the besome of the Father, he hath declared him.

DOCT. II. That God speakes unto us in the writ­ings of the Prophets and Apostles.

ALthough God,Rom 1.20 21. By the things which are made, hath so made known unto all men in the world his eternall [Page 2]power and Godhead, that as many as have known him, and yet not glorified him as God, are without excuse: Yet we know, that he hath in a more peculiar manner,Heb. 1.1. Heb. 2.3 2 Pet. 1.21 Matth. 10.20. that is by his Pro­phets and Apostles, who spake and wrote as they were moved by the holy Ghost, revealed himself and his will more clearly and fully unto his Church, and therefore, that the writ­ings of the Prophets and Apostles are the very word of God.

DOCT. III. That the writings of the Prophets and Apostles onely are Canonicall Books.

WE do not doubt; but those are the writings of the Prophets and Apostles, which the Church of God is therefore wont to call by the name of Canonicall books, because know­ing assuredly that they were given by inspiration of God, she hath alwayes acknowledged them for the Canon and rule,2 Tim. 3.16. whereby all controversies about religion are to be examined. The other books, although they be contained in the volume of the Bible, yet shee therefore calleth Apocrypha, [Page 3]because shee hath no certain know­ledge that they are from the holy Ghost as the others are.

DOCT. IV. What Books are Canonicall, and what Apocrypha.

WE together with the whole Church before and since the coming of Christ, do without all manner of doubting acknowledge, and embrace these books of the old Testament for the undoubted word of God, viz.

  • Genesis.
  • Exodus.
  • Leviticus.
  • Numbers.
  • Deuteronomie.
  • Joshua.
  • Judges.
  • Ruth.
  • 1. Samuel.
  • 2. Samuel.
  • 1. Kings.
  • 2. Kings.
  • 1. Chronicles.
  • 2. Chronicles.
  • Ezra.
  • Nehemiah.
  • Esther.
  • Job.
  • Psalmes.
  • Proverbs.
  • Ecclesiastes.
  • Solomons Song.
  • Isaiah.
  • Jeremiah.
  • Lamentations.
  • Ezekiel.
  • Daniel.
  • Hosea.
  • [Page 4]Joel.
  • Amos.
  • Obadiah.
  • Jonah.
  • Micah.
  • Nahum.
  • Habakkuk.
  • Zephaniah.
  • Haggai.
  • Zechariah.
  • Malachi.

But these books following we count not Canonicall.

  • 1. Esdras.
  • 2. Esdras.
  • Tobit.
  • Judeth.
  • The rest of Esther.
  • Wisdome.
  • Ecclesiasticus.
  • Baruch with the Epistle of Jere­miah.
  • The Song of the three Children.
  • The Storie of Su­sanna.
  • The idol Bel and the Dragon.
  • The Prayer of Ma­nasseh.
  • 1. Maccabees.
  • 2. Maccabees.

IN the new Testament we except none: For although in former times there hath been some question con­cerning some of them; yet afterwards in processe of time they have been acknowledged for Apostolicall as well as the rest.

Of the first sort are these that follow.

  • The Go­spell ac­cording to St. Matthew. The Acts of the Apostles.
  • The Go­spell ac­cording to St. Mark. The Epistles of St. Paul.
  • The Go­spell ac­cording to St. Luke. The 1. Epistle of St. Peter.
  • The Go­spell ac­cording to St. Iohn. The 1. Epistle of St. Iohn.

Of the second sort are these.

  • The Epistle to the Hebrews.
  • The Epistle of St. Iames.
  • The 2. Epistle of St. Peter.
  • The 2. and 3. Epist. of St. Iohn.
  • The Epistle of St. Iude.
  • The Revelation.

FOr although those of which there hath never been question made, may seem in some sort to be of greater authority then those of which there hath been question made: Yet notwithstanding we believe one as well as the other, as being both the undoubted word of God. As concer­ning the books commonly called [Page 6] Apocrypha, contained in the volume of the Bible, we give them the next place after the Canonicall Scripture.

DOCT. V. That Doctrines of faith can onely be proved by the Canonicall Scripture.

Hieron. in Prae­fat. in Lib Sal Cy­prian in Symb. pag 377. Concii. Load. cap 39.ANd therefore we use onely Cano­nicall Scripture to prove doctrines of faith; and we teach also according to the opinion of the Fathers, that the Canonicall onely is to be used. As concerning the other books, we grant that they have no small authoritie to confirme the same after that they are proved.

DOCT. VI. That the Canonicall Scripture received not authoritie from the Church.

WHerefore, without all contro­versie this we hold, and think most fit to be held; That, although the Church being taught by the pri­mitive fathers, to wit, the Prophets and Apostles, who received the do­ctrine immediately from God, and committed it to writing) and being [Page 7]also persuaded by the holy Ghost by a perpetuall and continued tradition, what books are Canonicall, and what not? hath declared it unto posteritie, from time to time, and hath also given, and doth still give testimonie thereunto of divine, and heavenly truth. We hold I say, that notwith­standing all this, the Canonicall Scri­pture neither received at any time, not now hath any authoritie from the Church, but from God alone, who is the proper authour, and giver thereof, and therefore we say farther; that of it self, in as much, as it is the word of God, it hath power over all, and is worthy to be believed, and obeyed by all simply and absolutely.

DOCT. VII. That the authoritie of the Church is of great use, and hath much power to bring men to believe the holy Scri­pture.

ANd yet we deny not, but the au­thoritie of the Church hath great power to move men to hear, and to read the holy Scripture as being true­ly the word of God: according to [Page 8]that of St. Augustine, Tom. 6. contra Epi Fund. c 5. I had not be­lieved the Gospel had not the au­thoritie of the Church moved me thereunto: And yet the same Augu­stine every where professeth, that where as he did believe, he received it not from the Church; but from the holy Ghost, whose gift is faith.

DOCT. VIII. That the Church hath no authoritie over the holy Scripture.

BUt, to dispute whether the autho­ritie of the Church be not greater, then the holy Scripture; and much more to averre the affirmative part, as if the Church, beside the gift of trying spirits, and discerning Cano­nicall Scripture from that which is not, and testifying concerning it, and interpreting of it, had also power to adde to, take from, and despense with it: This we judge to be more then sacriledge; For it is God's com­mandment, Ye shall not adde unto the Word which I command you, Deut. 4.2. Revel. 2 [...].18.19. Deut 5 32. neither shall you diminish ought from it, and you shall not turn aside to the right hand, or to the left, and further, it is his will [Page 9]and pleasure, that all, and every one in all things simply obey him, speak­ing unto those out of his holy word.

DOCT. IX. That the holy Scripture is so perfect that we can neither adde unto it, nor take from it.

FOr the holy Scripture is so abso­lute and perfect, containing in it abundantly whatsoever is needfull unto salvation, that nothing can be added unto it: and again, it is pen­ned with such divine wisdome, that nothing can be taken from it.

DOCT. X. That we must rely, and rest upon the holy Scripture.

THerefore do we rely, and rest up­on the doctrine of holy Scri­pture, as also all that are godly ought to do, holding fast that of the A­postle, All Scripture is given by inspi­ration of God, 2 Tim 3.16. and is profitable for do­ctrine, for reproof, for correction, for instruction in righteousnesse: That the man of God may be perfect, 17. throughly furnished unto all good works.

DOCT. XI. That nothing is to be determined con­cerning religion, without the word of God, and that all things are to be corrected by it.

WHerefore also this is our judge­ment, that nothing is to be de­termined in the Church concerning religion, which hath not either pre­gnant proof out of the Canonicall Scripture, or else may be evinced from thence by plain and necessarie consequence, and that if ought at any time hath crept into the Church either concerning doctrine or wor­ship, which is not agreeable unto ho­ly Scripture, it ought either by a lawfull course absolutely be taken away, or else be corrected by the word of God: And again, that all controversies concerning religion ought lawfully to be judged, and decided by the said holy Scripture.

DOCT. XII. That the Traditions which are truely Catholike and Apostolike, are to be retained in the Church.

YEt such Traditions as it is cer­tain that they are descended from the Apostles,August. Tom. 7. contr. Donat. lib. 4. cap. 24. Et Tom. 2 ad Ian. Ep. 118. D. 11. cap. 8. and have alwayes been observed by all the Churches, as that concerning sanctifying the Lords day, in stead of the Sabbath, and such like: although we have no com­mandment in Scripture for keeping, and observing them; yet we think it fit that they should be retained in the Churches.

DOCT. XIII. That the Scripture is perspicuous in those things which are necessarie unto sal­vation, and therefore, that it ought to be read of all.

WE understand, and know that the whole doctrine of salvation is not onely sufficiently but also per­spicuously delivered in holy Scri­pture: seeing that God himself speaking unto his people used no other language; but the vulgar, [Page 12]that it might be understood of all; And therefore we count it wonderfull injustice, and very tyranny to inter­dict or debarre any one from reading or translating such books, as God would have all men for their salva­tion to read, and turn over again, and again day and night. Psal. 1.2.

DOCT. XIV. That the faithfull interpretations of the godly and learned are not to be contemned.

ALthough the holy Scripture be perspicuous in those things which are necessarie unto salvation: Yet we do not dislike the interpretations, & expositions of learned, and godly men, as well ancient as moderne, which are fetched out of the same ho­ly Scripture, and as farre forth as the Scripture is expounded by the Scri­pture, and that agreeably to the first principles of faith: the summe where­of is contained in the Apostles Creed, and also in the Creeds of the truely Oecumenicall, or generall Councils, both ancient and holy, assembled to­gether against known heretikes.

DOCT. XV. That the word of God is the onely prop of faith and foundation of Religion.

FOr our faith neither can nor ought to rely upon any thing else; but the word of God, delivered in the holy Scripture:Rom. 10.17. For Faith cometh by hear­ing, and hearing by the word of God. To which whatsoever is repugnant, be it written by what man soever, we reject; and whatsoever is agree­able unto it, we embrace, and what soever is neither, according as it shall seem expedient, or not expedient to the Churches, we admit or reject, and we teach that it is to be admit­ted or rejected.

CHAP. II. Concerning God, the divine Persons, and Properties.

DOCTRINE I. That there is but one God, distinguished into three Persons.

Being then taught of God in the holy Scripture, which is his word,1 Thess. 4.9. we [Page 14]believe that there is but one God, that is, one most simple, indivisible, eter­nall, living, and most perfect Essence, subsisting in three Persons, to wit, the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost, being distinguished each from other, but yet without all manner of divi­sion. The authour and cause of all things.

DOCT. II. That each Person by himself is true God, but yet so that there are not three Gods.

FOr thus we believe, as we are taught out of the holy Scripture, That the Father by himself is true & perfect God, the Sonne is God & the holy Ghost is also God: and yet there are not three Gods, but one God:Rom. 11.36. And of him, and through him, and to him are all things.

DOCT. III. That one Person is distinguished from another by Personall Properties: and that by Essentiall Properties, they are distinguished from all creatures.

BUt, because the holy Scripture so speaketh of God, that it attributes [Page 15]unto him many Properties, both Es­sentiall and Personall: and teacheth, that by the Essentiall he is distin­guished from all things created; and by the Personall, each Person from other: Therefore we also believe that: As to beget the Sonne is so proper to the Father, that it can neither be attributed to the Sonne, nor to the holy Ghost; And again, to be begot­ten, cannot be attributed; but to the Son onely, and so likewise in the rest: So also, to be most simple, eternall, infinite, every where present, simply omniscient, simply omnipotent, simply good, and the rest of like sort, are so proper unto God, that they cannot really or truely be communi­cated to any creature, in such matter that it can be (for instance sake) good by an infinite goodnes, or omnipo­tent by an infinite power, &c. As God is.

DOCT. IV. That the Essentiall Properties in God do not really differ from his Essence.

FOr we acknowledge, that in God, by reason of his simplicitie, his [Page 16]Essentiall Properties do not really differ from his Essence; and there­fore that they cannot without this be communicated to any creature: And therefore, that no creature is, or can be truely said to be simply (for [...] sake) omnipotent, good, just [...] As also our Lord Iesus speaking of one attribute, taught us concerning all,Matth. [...].17. saying, There is none good (that is simply) but one, that is God.

DOCT. V. That nothing is, or can be simply such as God is: unlesse it can be simply God also.

WHerefore, whosoever hold that any created substance could e­ver be made, or can now or hereafter be made partaker of the divine attri­butes or properties, by which it may become such as God is: as for ex­ample, simply omnipotent &c. They must also necessariny confesse that the same is, or may be coessentiall with God: For as much as even the Sonne himself is not simply Almigh­tie; but as he is coessentiall with the [Page 17]Father; and so likewise the holy Ghost.

DOCT. VI. The confirmation of the foregoing doctrine.

FRom whence also we under­stand, how it comes to passe, that, whereas the Sonne is no lesse Almightie then the Father, and so in like manner the holy Ghost; yet we say not that there are three Almigh­ties;Symbol. Athan. but confesse with Athanasius, and the whole Church, that there is onely one Almightie: because they have all one and the same essence. Seeing then that no thing created hath one and the same essence with God; but another and that farre di­verse: How can any created thing be made Almightie? Or, if any thing by the communication of Gods Al­mightie power could be made Al­mightie; it must needs follow that there are more Almighties then one: which we count it blasphemie once to affirme.

DOCT. VII. Heresies and Errours condemned.

THerefore we condemne and detest all heresies, which have rose up against this article of our Faith, and being fetcht back from hell have been condemned by the Holy Fathers in lawfull Councills, viz. The Heresie of Cerinthus, Ebion, Valentius, Mar­cion, Manichaeus, Arius, Eunomius, Sabellius, Prax, Fotinus, and such like, as Servitus, and the Tritheites (which hold that there be three Gods) as likewise the blasphemies of the Iewes and Turks; and also all Heresies which have been broched by the di­vel either against the Unitie of the Godhead, or against the Trinitie of Persons; and further such as either deny the Sonne to be true and eter­nall God, and so the holy Ghost al­so; or else confound the Persons, and say that they are but one and the same, but yet for divers respects called by divers names, viz. Father, Sonne, and holy Ghost: And to conclude, we condemne also the er­rours of those, who separate the es­sentiall [Page 19]Properties of God from his divine essence: which they seem to us to do, whosoever do teach that they may be communicated to any creature, without the communica­tion of essence, or indeed rather which teach that they are communi­cated already.

CHAP. III. Concerning Gods foreknow­ledge and Praedestination.

DOCTRINE I. That God foreknew, and foresaw all things from Eternitie.

WE believe that God,Acts 15.18. from the be­ginning of the world, yea even from Eternitie according to his infi­nite wisdome foreknew all things to come, both the good, which he would do; and the evil, which he would permit to be done; so farre forth that nothing did or could lye hid from him: And we doubt not but all things, Hebr [...].13. whatsoever have been, are, shall or may be, although they [Page 20]never come to passe, are and have been alwayes naked and open in his sight.

DOCT. II. That God in his eternall counsel praede­termined all things, and praeor­dained them to the best ends.

NEither do we believe onely, That God foresaw all things, and hath them ever present in his sight; but also, that in his most wise and eter­nall counsel he hath before determined all things,Acts 4.28. whatsoever did or do con­cerne the creation and goverment of the world, as also the gathering to­gether of his Church out of the sin­full ofspring of Adam, and likewise their redemption and salvation; and further, that of his infinite goodnes he hath before ordained all the evil, which in his wisdome he purposed to suffer and permit, to the best ends: insomuch that there shall not an hair perish, Luk. 21.18. Matt. 10.30. or fall from our head without the will of our heavenly Father.

DOCT. III. That God hath predestinated some men unto life and others unto death.

WHerefore we make no doubt of this, That God out of men (to speak nothing of the Angells) whom at the creation he made all righte­ous in Adam, but foresaw that they would all sin likewise in him,Ephes. [...].3.4. hath in Christ chosen some that they should be holy and without blame before him in love, and hath also predestinated them unto eternall life, of his meere grate, and according to the good pleasure of his will: Rom 9.22. but in his just judgement hath not vouchsafed to give his grace unto others, as being the vessels of wrath fitted for destruction: That in those, his infinite mercie; but in these, his justice might be made known unto the world, to his owne glorie.

DOCT. IV. That the Election of the Saints is of Gods mere Grace.

FOr as our Vocation unto Christ,Tit 3.7. Eph. 2.9. and our Iustification in Christ is merely of Gods grace and not of our [Page 22] works: So also we hold that the pre­destination of the Saints, is merely of grace, because it was made in Christ.

That no flesh should glorie in his pre­sence;Ephes. 1.3. 1 Cor 1.29.31.but, that he that gloryeth, should glorie in the Lord.

DOCT. V. That we are predestinated not onely to the end, but also to the meanes.

WHereupon we believe also,Eph. 1.3.4. that, seeing God in Christ hath chosen us, before the foundation of the world, that we should be holy and without blame before him in love: We are pre­destinated not onely to the end, which is eternall life and glorie; but also to the Meanes tending to that End, and especiall Faith, whereby we are in­grafted into Christ; and Regenera­tion also and true Repentance, by which we are made in Christ a new creature, 2 Cor. 5.17. Gal. 6.15. Matt. 5.16. that we may leade a godly life to the glorifying of him, and the edifying of our neighbour.

DOCT. VI. That they are not elected, and so cannot be saved whosoever are ingrafted into Christ by the holy Ghost, and by a true lively Faith.

THerefore those are shamefully mistaken, and deceived to their own destruction, whosoever think that they are elected, and so conse­quently shall be saved, although they be not ingrafted into Christ by Faith, nor repent them of their sins, nor study to do the will of God, and practise good works which God hath before ordained that we should walk in them. Eph. 2.10. For they disjoyne what God would have conjoyned.

DOCT. VII, That every man ought to believe that he is elected in Christ: And, that we may be certain of it by the sense of our Faith in Christ.

FRom hence it appeareth, That although no man in generall ought to exempt himself out of the number of the elect (seeing that the Scripture it self hath not done it) [Page 24]but rather be confident, that, in as much as he is called unto Christ, he is also called according to God's eternall purpose and election: Yet, if any man would be certain of his election, he must run to his faith, and the testimonie of his Conscience, and Examine himself whether he be in the faith of Christ,2 Cor. xiii.v. or no; and whether he feeleth within himself the sincere love of God, and his neighbour, or no. But, if he feele it not solidly and effectually, yet let him not despair, but pray unto God to help his unbe­liefe;Mar. 9.24. and hope that he may yet be made certain of it.

DOCT. VIII. The causes why the Doctrine of Prede­stination is delivered unto us in the holy Scripture.

FOr the Doctrine of the eternall, free, and immutable predestina­tion of God is not in holy Scripture delivered unto us, that either we should neglect Christ, or despair of our salvation, or through securitie let the reignes loose unto concupi­scence, or to conclude, that we should [Page 25]wax insolent and proud: but con­trarily for these reasons especially. First, That we may know, There is no salvation in any other; Act. 4.4.12. but in Christ: For the foundation of all our salva­tion was laid and setled in Christ,2 Tim 1.11. be­fore the foundation of the world. Se­condly, That in time of tentations we, which believe in Christ,Rom. 1. through­out the whole 2 Tim 2.19. may be underpropped, and supported by the certaintie of our salvation, so that we neither despair nor distrust: for as much as it standeth firme and sure in God's eternall decree. Thirdly, That we may from thence be stirred up to the studie of faith in Christ, to sancti­tie of life, and the practise of good works: for as much as we were e­lected and chosen of God that we should be faithfull and holy and with­out blame before him, Eph. in love; and walk in good works. Fourthly and Lastly, that we should not wax in­solent or proud, but He that glorieth should glorie in the Lord:1 Cor. 1. [...]1. because, if we believe in Christ and live a holy and godly life, we are to attribute it onely unto the mere grace and mercy of God to us in Christ, who from [Page 26]all eternitie ordained that we should be such; and that of his free grace to us in Christ.

CHAP. IV. Concerning Gods Omnipo­tence and will.

DOCT. I. That God is so Omnipotent that he can do more then he will.

WE believe that God is so Omnipotent or Almightie, that he hath not onely done and also still doeth whatsoever it was, or is his will to do: but also that he can both will and do infinitely more then he will do. And our be­liefe one this part is grounded upon the doctrine of St. Iohn, who said, God is able of these stones to raise up children unto Abraham; Mat [...]. 3. [...]. and the do­ctrine of the Apostle, who wrote thus concerning God, speaking unto Mo­ses.Rom. 9. [...]. I will have mercy one whom I will [Page 27]have mercy (whereas he might have said, I will have mercy on all men) and again, he hardneth (not all, as he might, but) whom he will: [...] Tertul [...]. contra Prax. So then it is more then impious, for a man from God's Omnipotence one­ly, without declaring it to be his will, once to presume to conclude that any thing hath been, is, or should be done by God.

DOCT. II. That it is not repugnant to Gods Omni­potence, to say that there are some things which God cannot do.

SEeing that the Apostle writes that God cannot deny himself: 2 Tim. 2.13. we believe that there is no wrong done to Gods Omnipotence, if we say that there are many things which God cannot do: viz. such as are repugnant to his nature, and imploy a contradiction.

DOCT. III. The confirmation of the foregoing.

FOr seeing that God is the chief and soveraigne Good; he can neither become evil, nor do that which is evil. Seeing that he is the [Page 28]chief and Soveraigne Truth; he can­not lie: Seeing that he is the chief and Soveraigne Iustice: He can do nothing unjustly ▪ Seeing that he is Life it self; How can he die? And (to conclude) seeing that he is but one onely true God uncreated, eter­nall, subsisting in three persons one­ly; We believe and confesse that he cannot assume any creature to him­self in such manner as to make it co­essentiall with him, and such alto­gether as he is, or constitute any fourth person: and we are fully per­swaded that by this our confession we derogate or detract nothing from Gods Omnipotence. As surely what hath been, God cannot cause not to have been; what formerly hath been done, he cannot cause now not to have been done: For it is most cer­tain, that he who is Truth it self can­not do any thing which implies a contradiction. For to say, He can, is openly to deny his Omnipotence, by which he hath done, whatsoever hath been done.

DOCT. IV. That we are to search for the Will of God onely in the holy Scripture

FUrthermore seeing that the coun­sels of God are infinite and se­cret, and such as are not made known,Mark 13.32. no not to the Angels themselves; We believe, that, when there is any que­stion concerning the will of God,Iohn 5.39. we are to search for it no where else, but in the holy Scriptures: where God of his great goodness hath made known unto us, Iohn 15 15, 17, 29. by his Spirit, what is his will; and hath abundantly and perspi­cuously declared and afforded unto as whatsoever is necessarie unto sal­vation.

CHAP. V. Concerning the Creation of the world, the Angels, and the first estate of man.

DOCTRINE I. That all things were created of God; and that, they were exceeding good.

WE believe, That God the Father, by the Sonne, together with the [Page 30]holy Ghost,Gen. 1. Coloss. 7.16. Gen. 1.1. in six dayes created all things visible and invisible: which the holy Ghost, in the holy Scripture, expresseth by the name of Heaven & Earth; and they were all exceeding good.Prov. 16.4. And we believe likewise that he ordained them for the use of man, and for his own glorie. And there­fore we acknowledge both the Sonne and the holy Ghost to be Creatour of the world as well as the Father: For as much as the Father, the Son, and the holy Ghost is but one and the same God.

DOCT. II. That the Heaven is distinguished from the Earth: and, that the Heaven of the blessed doth differ from the other Heavens.

NEither do we mingle Heaven and Earth together,2 [...]r. 22.2. Matth. 6.10. nor make a con­fusion of the Heavens one with an­other; but according to the holy Scripture we make a distinction: as we see the elements, and all kinds of creatures animate and inanimate to be distinguished. And further we confesse that the Heaven in which [Page 31]the souls of the blessed live with Christ, and the bodyes of all the god­ly shall; which Christ also calleth hisIohn 14.2. Fathers house, andLuk. 23.43. Paradise; and which the Apostle calleth,Heb. 11.10. A citie which hath foundations, whose builder and maker is God: We confesse, I say, that this Heaven differeth from the other Heavens, but much more from Earth and Hell. Unto this Heaven also the Apostle alluded when he said,2 Cor. 12.2. That he was caught up to the third Heaven, to wit, above the Hea­ven of the aire, and above all the vi­sible and moveable orbs.

DOCT. III. That all the Angels were created good: although they did not all stand fast in the truth.

WE believe also, That the Angels were all created good and righte­ous, being substances spirituall and immortall, and indued with under­standing and free-will: although they did not all stand fast in goodness, and righteousness,Iohn. [...].44. and the Truth (as our Lord Iesus speaketh) but did many of them, from the very beginning, [Page 32]sinne, of their own free-will, and so became the enemies of God and all goodness, the enemies of all man­kind, and especially of the Church of God, liars, and speaking lies of their own, murderers, devils, evil spirits: and,2 Pet. 2.4. that therefore they were cast down to Hell, and delivered into chaines of darkness, to be reserved unto judge­ment.

DOCT. IV. The causes or reasons why many of the heavenly Spirits were permitted to sinne and became evil

ANd this was not without cause permitted by the wisedome of God, as we are taught in holy Scri­pture. For besides that God would have his justice and judgement made known unto them, as likewise his anger and wrath against sin by what creature soever committed: he hath also appointed to use them as his in­struments to1 King. 21.22. tempt us, and exercise our faith and patience inEph. 6.12. spirituall combats, and all to further our sal­vation: and (to conclude) He would have them to be the executors and [Page 33]administrators of his justice & judge­ments against mans wickedness; that as many as2 Thes. 2.12. will not believe the truth, whereby they may be saved, should follow theTim. 4, 1. doctrines of devils giving heed to seducing spirits, and2 Thes. 2, 11. believing lies, and so12. be damned.

DOCT. V. That the good Angels were by the grace of God preserved in goodness, that so they might become God's ministring Spirits for our good.

AGain, we believe, ThatD 10. innu­merable of the celestiall spirits were by the grace of God in Christ preserved that they might not sin with the rest, but persist in truth and obedience: and that so they became Gods messengers andHeb 1.14. ministring spi­rits, for the good of his elect, to de­fend and protect them against the de­vils, and to promote the Kingdome of Christ. And they do so love us and wait upon us, that they do ex­ceedinglyLuk. 15.10. rejoyce for our salvation: But they willRevel. 22.9. not be worshipped of us by any means, but put us in minde, that God onely is to be wor­shipped, [Page 34]and that they are but our fellow-servants: with whom we shall also live a blessed and eternall life, as the Angels of God in heaven. Matth. 22.30.

DOCT. VI. That man was created after the Image of God.

WE believe, That after that all other things were created, at last man also wasGen. 1.26, 27. created after the I­mage and likenesse of God his bo­dy being2 7. formed out of the earth, but his soul which is a spirituall and immortall substance, being made of nothing, andibid. inspired by God into his body: Not long after a wife also was by God given unto him,2.22. made of his bone, as concerning the body, and created after the Image of God.

DOCT. VII. Wherein especialy that Image of God consisted.

BUt we believe, that the Image of God consisted in this especially; That, as God is the absolute Lord of all things; So unto man wereG [...]. 1.28. Psal. 8.6, 7, 8. all things made subject that he [Page 35]should have dominion over the fowles of the aire, the fishes of the sea, and the beasts of the land, insomuch that he was the king of all the lower world: And again more especially in this, That, as God is most holy and righteous; So also man wasEccl. 7.29. created upright at the first, that is,Eph. 4, 24. in righteousness and true holiness, as the Apostle doth interpret it.

DOCT. VIII. That Adam had free-will before his fall.

HEreupon we believe, that man in his first estate had not onely this libertie, that he could will nothing against his will (which libertie hath alwayes remained in man and still remaineth) but also, that he was in­dued with such power from above, that if he would, he might have not sinned, and so not have died; but have persevered in righteousness, and have escaped death: Insomuch that his losse of both is to be justly attri­buted unto himself, and not unto a­ny other.

DOCT. IX. Heresies and Errours condemned.

WE condemne therefore the Valen­tinians, Alarcionites, Manichees, and as many as have taught, or have left any thing in writing behinde them, against this article of our Chri­stian faith: whether they feigned the world to be made by some other God then the Father of Christ; or whe­ther they held that, all things that are good were made by one God that is good, and all things that are evil by another that is evil. For, how can he be God which is not the chief and soveraigne good, and the onely maker of all good things. We con­demne also all those which hold that the soul of man was made of the sub­stance of God; or which deny it to be immortall and alwayes working; or which make the Image of God to consist onely in the dominion over his creatures; or, last of all, which deny that the first man was created by God at the first with free-will true­ly so called.

CHAP. VI. Concerning Gods Provi­dence, and his governing the world.

DOCTRINE I. That the world and all the things which are therein are governed by Gods Providence.

WE believe that God after that he had created all things, so rested from his work, that nevertheless he never ceased neither yet doth cease to guide,Wisd. 14.3. govern, and look after the world and all the things that are therein, as well small as great; but especially mankind in generall, and every man in particular: So thatMatt. 10 29, 30 not any thing happens, or is done in the world, which is not guided and c governed by his Providence.

DOCT. II. That God governeth his Church after a more peculiar manner.

ALthough all, and every thing is subject to Gods Providence; yet we believe that he hath a more espe­ciallWisd. 14.3. [Page 38]care of his Church, and that he guideth & governeth it after a more especiall manner, as likewise the wills and actions of all and every one of his elect: For as much as he after an especiall mannerRom. 8.30. calleth, justifieth, and sanctifieth them, but not all; and furtherPhilp. 2.13. worketh in them both to will and to do, of his good pleasure, and further saith,2 Cor. 2.16. I will dwell in them, butActs 14.16. not in all; and at length bring­eth them unto everlasting life, but suffers others in his just judgement to walke in their own wayes, and run on headlong to destruction. Where­upon we are commanded to1 Pet. 5.7 cast all our care upon God; for he) after a pe­culiar manner) careth for us.

DOCT. III. That God ordinarily governeth the world by second causes.

ANd this we learn also out of holy Scripture, That, although God by himself without any coad­jutor, yea sometimes contrary to or­dinarie meanes, bringeth to passe ma­ny decrees of his divine Providence; yet there are farre more, which he or­dinarely [Page 39]useth to bring to passe by the ministerie of second causes, both in the government of whole world in generall, and the Church in speciall: For,Hos 2.21.22. I will hear, saith the Lord, I will hear the heavens, and they shall hear the earth, and the earth shall hear the corne, and the wine, and the oyle, and they shall hear Iezreel.

DOCT. IV. That the meanes unto the end are not to be neglected: and, that God in his Providence willeth the one as well as the other.

FRom hence we gather, That, al­though we are certain God careth for us: yet the meanes which God hath appointed for the salvation of the soul and body are not to be de­spised, neither must we tempt God; but follow the Apostle, who, al­though he was fully perswaded of the saving of all that were in the ship with him, when the saylers began to think how to shift for themselves, said to the Centurion, and to the soul­diers, except these abide in the ship, Act. 27.31. ye cannot be saved. For God, which hath [Page 40]appointed to every thing it's own end: he also hath appointed the be­ginning and the meanes by which to come unto that end.

DOCT. V. That in respect of God all things come to passe necessarily; and in respect of us many things contingently.

WHereas God in his Providence doth conserve, and also move the second causes, which he is wont to use in the government of the world, every one in it's own nature; and some of these are destinated by their own nature to the producing of cer­tain effects, and again some are not: We understand and confesse, that, although in respect of God:Matt. 10.29.30. Exod. 21.13. with­out whose foreknowledge and will nothing in the world comes to passe, all things are necessarie: yet in re­spect of us and the second causes they are not all necessarie, but most of them are contingent. For what can be more casuall & contingent then this, ThatDeut. 19.5. when a man is hewingwood, the head of his axe should fly out of his hand, and kill the traveller that [Page 41]passeth by? And yet the Lord saith, that it is he which killed him. And a­gain, our Lord Iesus Christ died for us voluntatily: and yet it is, said, It was necessarie, or,Luke 24.46 Thus it behoved Christ to suffer. In like manner He­rod and Pilate condemned Iesus with full and free consent of will: And yet the Apostles say thatAct. 4.28. they did no more then what the hand and counsel of God had determined before to be done.

DOCT. VI. That God is not the authour of sin which is committed in the World.

ANd from hence also we under­stand and confesse, That, al­though many wickednesses are com­mitted in the world, whilst God moveth all things: yet they cannot be imputed to him and his Provi­dence: ForActs 17.28. God moveth indeed all things, and giveth power unto every thing to work; but he instilleth no sinfull qualitie unto any man, where­by he worketh after an evil and sin­full manner. As therefore the earth, [Page 42]which affordeth sap to the bad trees as well as to the good, is not to be blamed, if a bad tree bring forth bad fruit: So much lesse can God justly be said to be the authour and cause of our sins; although heHeb. 1. [...]. by the hand of his providence, sustain, support, move, and govern all things, yea the very ungodly themselves.Acts 17.28. In him, saith the Apostle, we live, and move and have our being: To wit, such as we are, such are we moved by him, unless he of his grace do alter and change us.

DOCT. VII. That the secret counsels of God in the governing of the world, are by us to be adored with reverence, and not with curiositie to be inquired into.

BUt as concerning the secret and wonderfull counsels of God, whereby we see innumerable things to be done, whereof we can neither give nor know any reason: Let us admire and adore them with what reverence we ought, being assured of this, ThatMatth. 10 29, 30 nothing in the world is done, with­out the will of God; And, that the will of God isRom. 9.14. so just, that it is the [Page 43]most certain rule of all justice. And therefore we must alwayes keep in mind that saying of the Apostle ut­tered with great admiration,Rom. 11.33. O the depth of the riches both of the wisedome & knowledge of God! How unsearchable are his judgements, and his wayes past finding out! And again,Rom. 9.14. Is there un­righteousness with God? God forbid. And yet,Rom. 11.36. Of him, and through him, and to him are all things: To whom be glory for ever. Amen.

DOCT. VIII. Errours condemned.

THerefore we condemne all impo­stors and deceivers and all those Philosophers, which either quite take away Gods Providence out of the world, or else deny that he looketh after humane affaires, and small mat­ters. And those also we condemne, which abusing Gods Providence, contemne and neglect the means which God hath ordained for the salvation of soul and body: as like­wise those, which contend that all things come to passe by such an ab­solute necessitie, that they take away all contingency, and leave man no li­bertie [Page 44]at all: and lastly those which will have God so to work all in all, that they stick not to commit blas­phemie, in making God to be the author of sin, and to have a part in it.

CHAP. VII. Concerning the Fall of man, and originall sin and the fruits of it.

DOCTRINE. I. That Adam voluntarily and of his own accord sinned against God by his disobedience.

WE believe, That Adam the first man, considering that he wasGen. 1.27. created after the Image of God, andEccl. 7.29. made just and upright, and endued with free-will in such sort, that if he would he might have not sinned, and so never died: considering this, I say, we believe, that heGen 3.1, &c. at the devils perswasion, God not hindring him, but leaving himEccl. 15.14. to follow his own counsel, of his own accord, with true free­dome [Page 45]of will sinned against God by his disobedience: so that he can nei­ther translate the fault upon God, nor his own nature as he received it from God, nor any other creature, but ought and must attribute it one­ly unto himself, because he would so.

DOCT. II. What the nature and qualitie of Adams sin was.

WE understand, That Adams sin was his voluntarieGen. 3.6. transgres­sing theGen. 2.17. commandment of God, in eating the forbidden fruit (as Moses sets it down) and (as the Apostle speaketh) hisRom. 5.19. disobedience: which consisted not so much in the out­ward act, as in his voluntarie purpose of mind, in that he would not obey God.

DOCT. III. What and how manifold death followed upon Adams sin.

SO we confesse, That man being destitute of the grace of God, by his own fault lost that life by which he did live holily unto God, having [Page 46]his understanding blinded, his will depraved, and the integritie of his whole nature perished, as concerning things belonging unto God, and a life well-pleasing unto God: That he becameIoh 8.34. the servant of sin, and the slave of Satan, and trulyEph. 2.1. dead un­to God: ThatRom. 5.12. he incurred death, both that of the body which is com­mon to all men together with all bo­dily calamities, and also, and that especially, that of the whole man, which is eternall, that is to say, most miserable, most grievous, most un­happy, to live with the devil in ever­lasting torments, a life beyond all comparison worse then any death: from which he could never have been1 Cor. 15.22. delivered but by Christ.

DOCT. IV. That in Adam all men sinned.

NOw, for as much as all mankind, which by naturall generation was to be propagated from Adam, was in the loynes of Adam; whereupon the commandment joyned also with a commination belonged not to A­dams person onely, but to all man­kind: [Page 47]Therefore we believe with the Apostle, and confesse thatRom. 5.19. in Adam sinning all men sinned; so that the disobedience was not so much pro­per to him as common to all man­kind: because his guilt descended upon all his posteritie whether born already, or yet to be born; as the Apostle plainly teacheth, and most firmely proveth by opposingibid. the disobedience of Adam, and the obe­dience of Christ, the one to the other. For if the obedience of Christ be as well ours by imputation, as it was Christ's own by his proper action; because we are born again of his in­corruptible seed, and of his spirit: then likewise it followes, that the dis­obedience of Adam is imputed unto us, and his guilt becomes ours; be­cause according to our carnall gene­ration, we are born of his seed, who is the Father of all men.

DOCT. V. That presently upon Adams disobe­dience, there followed the corruption of his whole nature, in all men.

ANd, as upon Adam's actuall dis­obedience, there followed pre­sently in the just judgement of God, the corruption of his whole nature, which is by the Apostle calledRom. 7.7. August. Tom. 7. contra Iul. Pe­lag. lib. 5. cap. 3. lust or concupiscence, which is both a punishment for sin foregoing, and a sinne it self, and the cause of other sins: So also all men which by natu­rall propagation are descended from him, are infected with the same con­tagion, and corruption of nature. This we believe as we have been taught out of Holy Scripture, and and this we confesse with the whole Church. For in Adam all men sinned, and the guilt of his disobedience came upon all.

DOCT. VI. What we properly call Originall sin.

WHerefore we say, that this here­ditary stain and corruption of nature, is so in all men a sinne, and [Page 49]therefore commonly called Origi­nall sinne; that yet notwithstanding we in no wise separate it from the guilt and imputation of that first disobedience. As on the contrarie we doubt not to affirme that the righteousness of Christians consists, not so much in the regeneration of nature, which is the work of Christs Spirit, and commonly called by the name of Inherent righteousness, as in the imputation of the perfect obe­dience and righteousness of Christ, whose members we are▪

DOCT. VII. That the contagion of our nature is truely a sinne.

ANd although this contagion did overspread Adam and all his po­steritie, and was inflicted as a just pu­nishment for that first transgression of Gods commandment. Yet thus much we know as certainly as can be, out of holy Scripture, that it is not one­ly a punishment for sin, but also the cause of all other sinnes, and like­wise a sinne it self, and such a one as is alone sufficient to condemne us.

DOCT. VIII. That concupiscence even in the regene­rate is of it's own nature a sinne.

ANd we have learned, that concu­piscence of it's own nature is so farre forth a sinne, and so repugnant to the Law of God, making all men subject to eternall damnation, unless they be redeemed by Christ: that yet we make no manner of doubt but in the very regenerate themselves, al­though it be not imputed unto them any more, for as much as the guilt thereof is taken away by faith in Christ, it is truely and of it self a sinne, and such a one as deserves eter­nall death, seeing that it is, as the Apostle also teacheth,1 Iohn. 3.4. the transgres­sion of the Law, and is condemned by the Law of God.

DOCT. IX. That from our naturall and imbred con­cupiscence as from a fountain there flow forth continually streams of actuall sins and transgressions.

WE believe further, that this our naturall pravitie is such a foun­tain [Page 51]of all evil, and so inexhaustible, that from thence there spring forth continually the most filthy waters of evil passions, wicked cogitations, and ungodly desires, which unlesse they be restrained and kept in by the Spi­rit of Christ, will breake forth out­wardly into wicked and ungodly actions, some more grievous then other: so farre forth that there is not any one godly man living, which carries not about with him this sink of sinne, and feels not from thence filthy vapours and exhalations al­wayes ascending, and is not contami­nated and defiled with the pollutions thereof.Iam. 1.14. Every man (saith St. Iames) is tempted, when he is drawn away of his own lust, and enticed. 15. Then when lust hath conceived it bringeth forth sin: and sin when it is finished bringeth forth death.

DOCT. X. That God is not the Authour of sinne.

BY all which we are confirmed in this faith, that we believe, that God is in no wise the Authour of sin, see­ing that he neither created Adam e­vil, [Page 52]nor with an inclination to evil, but just and upright; so that he sinned of his own free-will and accord, not moved, much lesse forced by God.1 Iohn 2.16 Neither was this pravitie any cor­ruption of his nature as he was crea­ted by God, but by Gods just per­mission followed as a punishment upon his disobedience having will­fully lost his Originall righteousness.

DOCT. XI. Errours condemned.

THerefore with Ireneus, and all the Church we condemne all those which make God the Authour of sinne: and likewise all Pelagians both old and new, which either deny that all men sinned in Adam, and so are guilty of Originall sin; or else dispute that this imbred lust or con­cupiscence is onely the punishment of sin, but not truely sin indeed; or else in the regenerate at least will not have it to be called by the name of sinne. We condemne also those, which have taught or do teach, that Ori­ginall sinne is a substance: because this opinion either makes God to be [Page 53]the Authour of sin, or else denyes him to be the maker of every sub­stance; and because it serves also to confirm the Doctrine of the Ma­nichees concerning two causes or Originalls of all things, to wit, one chief and prime good, and another chief and prime evil, so that all things which are good have proceeded from the beginning unto this present, and still do proceed from the good, and all evil from the evil one. We con­demne also all stoicks, and those that are like unto them, which teach that all sinnes are equall, and not one greater then another. And last of all those, which contend that there may be some one found in this world, which is altogether void of sinne.

CHAP. VIII. What free-will was left unto Man after his Fall.

DOCTRINE I. What we understand by the name of free-will.

SEeing that all men since the Fall and by reason of the Fall of Adam [Page 54]arePsalm. [...]1.5. conceived insinne, and areEph. 2. [...]. by nature the children of wrath, having no inclination at all to that which is good, butGen. 6. [...]. [...].21. altogether prone to that which is evil: This is our belief and confession concerning the free-will of a man not regenerate. By the name of free-will, we understand the will of man so to be free; that from it we do not separate the facultie of un­derstanding, by which we judge, what is good, and what bad; what to be chosen, and what to be re­fused.

DOCT. II. That the question concerning free-will is two-fold; either concerning the na­ture, or else concerning the power thereof.

IN the question concerning free-will we distinguish between the power and strength of free-will, and the na­ture of mans will. The nature we call, the naturall and essentiall pro­pertie thereof created in it by God, that whatsoever it willeth, whether it be good or bad, it willeth freely, vo­luntarily, willingly, and free-from all [Page 55]manner of coaction. By the name of power we understand a power or fa­cultie either innate, that is by na­ture; or else conferred, that is of grace, by which we are enabled by our un­derstanding to know, what is good, and what evil; and by our will to choose the good and refuse the evil.

DOCT. III. That free-will is alwayes free from coaction.

AS therefore the substance of free-will perished not by reason of sinne (for the understanding, and will, and the whole substance of the soul remained) so neither do we be­lieve that the nature thereof perished, that whatsoever it willeth, as well evil as good, it willeth it freely, and without all manner of coaction. That it is true which Augustine saith, That free-will is alwayes free (that is from coaction) but yet that it is not al­wayes good.

DOCT. IV. That there are three ranks or sorts of things and actions about which the power of free-will is exercised.

COncerning our power in choos­ing of good, and refusing evil, we are of this opinion. We distin­guish good and evil into three kinds those which pertain to the Animall or naturall life, the rationall or hu­mane life, the divine or Christian life. Of the first kind are those which are common to us almost with beasts, and belong to the soul by which we live and increase, and have sense and motion: Of the second kind are those, which are proper to man, and belong to mans understanding; as Arts as well Mechanicall as liberall, virtues morall and politicall, and last of all sciences of all sorts, and all Philosophie: The third kind con­tains onely those things which are good, and good actions, which are ordained for the kingdome of God, and a Christian life; As the true knowledge of God, faith, and the ef­fects thereof, regeneration, obe­dience, [Page 57]charitie, and others of the like kind.

DOCT. V. That the power and strength of a man unregenerate is very weak, even in things belonging to this life.

TO say nothing then of the power & strength of man since the Fall, in knowing and desiring such things as make for the preservation of this present life, and living here happily, as also in making choise of them and pursuing after them, if they be offered unto him; and in eschewing and a­voiding the contrary: To say no­thing, I say, of this; because it no­thing belongs to religion and man­ners (although as concerning even this, dayly experience teacheth us, how great a depravation of judge­ment and appetite is in man, follow­ing as a punishment upon the Fall) We believe, that, although by the mercy of God there is yet left some light in mans understanding, partly in discerning between right & wrong, good and bad in humane affaires; and partly in acquiring the know­ledge [Page 58]of many things, arts, sciences, and divers other virtues: Yet the light, that is in the understanding, is so little, and the will so depraved, that unlesse the one be enlightened from above, and the other be in­clined by Gods speciall grace to choose the good propounded and to refuse the bad, he cannot acquire the knowledge of Arts and sciences, and other virtues, which may be in men even unregenerate. And not without cause saith St. Augustine, August. Tom. 7. cont. Iul. Pel. lib. 4. cap. 3. That all the Arts sciences and other virtues, or rather shadowes and resemblances of virtues, which were in the Ro­manes, and others not converted un­to the faith, were in them the singu­lar gifts of God.

DOCT. VI. The Confirmation of the fore-going opinion.

FOr all infidels or unbelievers are not indued with the same or alike equall virtues & sciences: That even from thence it may manifestly appear that they are not the gifts of nature, but the gifts of God added unto na­ture.

DOCT. VII. That in things belonging unto God and true pietie the unregenerate man can do nothing.

BUt as concerning things belonging unto God; true pietie and reli­gion and a Christian life, we believe that the mind of an unregenerate man is so blinded, and his heart so depraved, and all his powers and fa­culties so weak or none at all, that he can neither truely know God, nor the things of God; neither love him, nor desire things pleasing unto him, much lesse obey his will as he ought. For according to the Apostle,1 Cor. 2.14. The naturall man perceiveth not the things of God; neither can he per­ceive or understand them: How can he then of himself either will or do any thing?Iohn 15.5. Without me, saith our Saviour, ye can do nothing.

DOCT. VIII. The confirmation of the fore-going opinion.

FOr, even as a man dead to men and nature can perform no ac­tion [Page 60]belonging unto men and nature: So neither can he, which isP [...]. 2. [...]. dead to God in trespasses and sinnes, truely know those things which belong un­to God and true pietie, much lesse can he do them; but he lies rotting and stinking in his sinnes, unless he be delivered from them by the grace of God through Christ, and so be re­stored again unto life. But all men that are without Christ, and not re­generated by the Spirit of Christ, are truely dead: and therefore they are truely said to beIohn [...].21. quickned, to be rai­sed from the dead, and to be regene­rated, or born again, whosoever are by faith in Christ delivered from their sinnes, and ingrafted into Christ.

DOCT. IX. Errours condemned.

THerefore we condemne all Pela­gians, which teach the contrarie, lifting up the power and strength of free-will against the grace of Christ: And we detest and abhorre the opi­nion of the Manichees and all others, which will have a man to be like a [Page 61]stock, as if he had no judgement or libertie of will at all in civil mat­ters.

CHAP. IX. Concerning the Promise of Redemption and Salvation through Christ.

DOCTRINE I. That Christ the heavenly man was of grace promised to save us.

WHen1 Cor. 15.47. the first man, which was of the earth earthy, wasGen. 3.17. fallen into such a miserable estate and condition by his own fault through disobedience; and not he onely, but together with him all his posteritie, which sinned in him, and were to bePsalm. 5 [...].5. conceived in sin, & to be bornEph. 2.3. the children of wrath: We believe, that God of his mere grace and mercie to Adam and Eve, and in them to all mankind,Gen 3.15. Matt. 1.21. promised an­other man1 Cor. 15.47. from heaven, of the true substance of man indeed, but to [Page 62]beLuk. 1.34. conceived without the seed of man, and therefore to beIsa. 7.14. Matt. 1.23. Luk. 1.34. born of a VirginHeb. 4.15. without sinne: in whom as in another head of mankind, con­sisting of a divine and humane na­ture, being the true &Heb. 1.3. expresse image of God the Father, and filled with the holy Ghost that might be ful­filled, which in the first head suc­ceeded not through his own fault, that is, That he the second man in our name and for us, which were to beRom. grafted into him by his Spirit, and by spirituall generation to beEph. 5.29. flesh of his flesh, and bone of his bones, might most perfectlyRom. 5.19. obey God the Father, and by hisPhil. 2.8. obe­dience and death take away sinne, appease the wrath of God, redeem us, justifie us, sanctifie us, rule us by his Spirit, set us at libertie, give us grace and strength to that which is good, and finally save us unto everlasting life and glorifie us.

DOCT. II. That the Promise, Concerning the Re­demption by Christ, was necessarie.

FOr Adam, not as a private per­son, but as the parent and root [Page 63]of all mankind, as he was indued at the first with righteousness, that he might propagate it unto all his poste­ritie as in an inheritance; for which cause it is commonly called Origi­nall righteousness: So by his dis­obedience, he hath transmitted unto all men great unrighteousnesse in stead of righteousnesse, and eternall death in stead of life eternall. Neces­sarie therefore was it, that there should be another head, that is, Christ from whom by reason of his obedience there might be derived on all his members true and heavenly righteousnesse, holinesse, and life.

DOCT. III. To what end the Promise was made pre­sently after that the sinne was committed.

WE believe, That therefore the promise was presently after the sinne committed, made from the be­gining of the world, and afterwards by the holy fathers was often repea­ted, expounded, and confirmed, by divers wayes signes and seales. That not only we, which have been since [Page 64]the coming of the Messias; but also all others from the foundations of the world, as many as should believe this promise, and by true faith em­brace Christ to come: might also be made partakers of redemption, justi­fication, and salvation.

DOCT. IV. That, from the beginning of the world, as many as believed on Christ to come, were saved.

WE believe, That from the be­ginning of the world as many as believed on Christ promised and to come, they were grafted into him by faith; they were made partakers of his future obedience, passion, death, and redemption; they did eate his body which was afterwards to be delivered, and drink his bloud which was afterwards to be powred out; and last of all, they were all Christians indued with the Spirit of Christ, and saved unto everlasting life, no lesse then we are.

DOCT. V. Errours condemned.

ANd further we condemne and de­test their opinon which hold that no man was saved before the coming of Christ; and that the Fathers which were before, received no promise of eternall salvation, but onely of things temporall.

CHAP. X. Concerning the Law.

DOCTRINE. I. That the Law of Moses came be­tween the promise of salvation by Christ, and the fulfilling thereof; and to what end.

BUt between the Promise of Re­demption by Christ, which was first made unto Adam, and afterwards more manifestly declared unto o­thers, but especially unto Abraham, sealed by the Sacrament of Circum­cision, and as it were confirmed by the death of Isaac the first born of­fered [Page 66]for a sacrifice, and established by an everlasting covenant: Between this promise, I say, and the fulfilling thereof, the Law which was delivered by Moses came between: the people which descended from the seed of Abraham (of which Christ was to come) being gathered together, and wonderfully increased, and being af­ter a miraculous manner delivered out of the bondage of Egypt, that God might have a certain and vi­sible Church, separated from all gen­tiles, and gathered together in one place, in which the promise, made unto the Fathers concerning Christ might be kept, and God might be worshipped after such a manner as was best pleasing unto him, even un­to the coming of the true Redeemer promised: Between these two, I say, the promise and the fulfilling there­of, the Law which was delivered by Moses came between, and contained in it three kinds of precepts: Morall, for the right ordering of a private life in the course of pietie; Cermoniall, according to the prescript rule where­of the Church was to be governed; [Page 67]and Iudiciall concerning the govern­ment of the whole commonwealth in civil matters, and concerning the ordering of private families in house­hold government: That by this meanes the people of God, of whom Christ was to come, might be kept from idolatrie, and from following the profane customes and manners of the wicked gentiles; That they might be kept within the compasse of their duty and service to God, and obe­dience to Gods will; and, to con­clude, That they might be supported and upheld through saith and hope in the promise, concerning true Re­demption to be wrought by Christ, which was to be fulfilled; and that so they might be prepared every day more and more for the receiving and entertaining of Christ: and all to this end, That God might be glorified in his people.

DOCT. II. That whatsoever is necessarie unto sal­vation is contained in the Law of God.

BUt, as for the two latter parts of the whole Law, which belong [Page 68]nothing unto us, to say nothing of them; but onely of the former: We believe that in this Law, as it is deli­vered unto us in the books of Moses, he Prophets, and Apostels,2 Tim. 3.16. all things necessarie unto our salvation, are so perfectly and completely set down unto us, and the will of God which he would have us to do here in this world is so farre forth revealed: thatDeut. 4.2. b 12.32. nothing can be added thereto, or diminished from it.

DOCT. III. That the Law of the Decalogue, or ten Commandments, is the exposition of the Law of Nature, and the Map of Gods image.

FOr we believe, That this Law is is the exposition of the Law of Nature, which was perfectly wrote in the hearts of our first patents, but in others imperfectly, and but in part: and, therefore by this is condemned whatsoever is repugnant to that image of God after which man was at the first created; and contrarily, That is commanded, whatsoever is agreeable unto it. For it was Gods [Page 69]will by this Law to declare, both what man was in his first estate; and what he was made in his second, and what he ought to be; and further, What he should be in the third, in part; and in the fourth, perfectly, by Christ. That the Law of God is no­thing else, but the true, lively, ex­presse draught or Map of Gods i­mage: by which we are put in mind what we were; what we are; what we should be; and what we shall be, if we believe on Christ.

DOCT. IV. That the summe of the Law is reduced to these two heads; the love of God, and our neighbour.

WE believe and confesse, accord­ing to the Doctrine of Christ, That the summe or substance of the whole Law is contained in these two Commandments,Matt. 22.37. Thou shalt love the Lord thy God with all thy heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy mind, and39. Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thy self: The first of which is the summe of the former table; and the other is the summe of the latter.

DOCT. V. That, if God alone is to be loved with all the heart, He alone also is to be worshipped.

NOw, if the summe of the first table, which containeth in it the whole worship which is due unto God, consisteth in the perfect love of God alone: from hence, beside the expresse Commandments of God in other places, expounding this Com­mandment, we gather thus much; and believe, That God alone is to be adored, invocated, and worship­ped with religious worship, and that we are to swear onely by his name; because these things are contained in the Commandment concerning the loving of God with all the heart: To omit this, that the image of God, whereof the Law it self is a draught or map, taught Adam the very same.

DOCT. VI. That concupiscence it self, and the cor­ruption of nature is a sinne.

ANd, if by the Law of God, that is condemned for a sinne, what­soever [Page 71]is not agreeable unto the first image of God, that is, in righteous­nesse, holinesse, and uprightnesse, wherein man was created: we gather from hence, that not onely the a­ctions done with consent of will con­trary to the will of God, but also the very inward motions of concupi­scence, and therefore concupiscence it self, and every corruption of nature is a sinne, and so condemned by the Law of God: because it is repugnant to the rectitude, or uprightnesse, and righteousnesse in which man was created, and in which he might have continned and stood, if he would.

DOCT. VII. That the Law, although it cannot be perfectly kept and fulfilled, was not yet given in vain, or to no end.

BUt, although the Law of God is so perfect, thatRom. 7.15. no mortall man hath been able, or is able to keep it wholly, alwayes, and in such a man­ner as it ought to be kept: Yet we believe that it was not given in vain, or to no end or purpose; for as much God doth nothing in vain, but all in [Page 72]infinite wisedome, for his own glo­rie, and for our profit and salvation.

DOCT. VIII. That there is a threefold use and profit arising from the Law of God.

FOr, First of all by the perfect Re­velation of Gods will by this Law, men might in former times, and may now come the better unto the know­ledge of God, and what is pleasing unto him; what is good, and what bad; what to be done, and what to be avoided: better, I say, then by the mere reliques of the Law of Nature which was left in mans mind: and so, all pretense of ignorance being quite taken away, the Iews were made more unexcusable then other nations, for not keeping the Law of God: because from thence men are given to understand, that the judge­ments of God against us are most just. Secondly by the curses which are added against the transgressours of the Law, men are better bridled as it were, and kept in, that they run not into sin; and again, by the blessings promised unto the observers of the [Page 73]Law, men are incited and spurred on, as it were to run in the way of Gods Commandments, and keep his Law, though not wholly and perfectly, yet at least in part as concerning outward works: and so they were the better kept within the compasse of their dutie: which how profitable it is for the commowealth in generall, and for every man in particular, who knows not? Thirdly, and lastly, whereas men found by dayly expe­perience that they did alwayes sinne against this perfect Law, and did feel that they could not keep it as they ought, and so became more & more, every day, subject to the wrath of God; and guilty of eternall death: From hence it came to passe, that de­spairing in themselves, and of their own strength, they did the more ar­dently desire, and long for the com­ing of their Redeemer and Deliverer. and therefore the more they came to the knowledge of their sins, and their own weakensse, and the more sensi­bly they felt the wrath of God by the Law: the more they did hunger and thirst after righteousnesse, and fitted [Page 74]and prepared themselves for the recei­ving of Christ by faith: So it is most true which the Apostle saith in both places,Rom. 3.20. By the Law is the know­ledge of sin, and,Gal. 3.24. The Law is our School-master, to bring us unto Christ.

DOCT. IX. That the Law at this time hath the same uses even in those which are regenerate.

ANd we believe, that the foresaid uses of the Law abide and con­tinue as long as we live in this world: not onely in the unregenerate, as was said before, but even in the rege­nerate also. For, whereas our minds are overclouded with darknesse, and our memories are slippery, that we cannot, either perfectly understand the things of God, or understanding them, keep them in remembrance: Need we have of the Law of God to be our glasse, wherein we may every day behold and see, and certainly un­derstand what is the will of God that we should do. And again, Whereas our hearts are not perfectly purged from all corruption, So that they [Page 75]are not fully bent to doe the will of God, but stillGal. 5.17. The flesh lusteth against the Spirit: Necessary it is for us to have the Law of God, by the tenours and comminations thereof to keep us from falling into sin, and by the promises thereof to incite us unto o­bedience, and to follow after righte­ousness. And thirdly and lastly, For as much as there is1 Io [...] [...]8. no man so far forth sanctified, but that he sinneth, and hath sin dwelling in him, which makes us weak and feeble to every good work, and alwayes prone to that which is evil: Therefore the Law is usefull, and profitable for us, that thereby coming to the know­ledge of our sins and manifold weak­nesses we may more and more every day acknowledge, how impossible it is that we should ever by our own works be justified and saved; and fur­ther so much the more ardently-hun­ger and thirst after Christs righteous­ness, & embrace him by faith. And so the Law, although it can never justify us, yet it may bring us every day nearer & nearer unto justification, by bringing us unto Christ that justifi­eth.

DOCT. X. That the Morall Law, as concerning the substance thereof, was not abro­gated by Christ.

FOr we know and believe, that the Law as concerning the substance of Doctrine, and those wholesome and saving uses whereof hath been spo­ken, was not be abrogated by Christ, and therefore was not abrogated; but onely as concerning the curse and condemnation: For,Rom. 8.1. There is no condemnation to them which are in Christ Iesus, who walk not after the flesh, but after the Spirit. Yet further, in respect of the curse and condemna­tion it self the Law alwayes was, and still is, usefull and profitable unto them, which yet are not in Christ, for as much as it drives them unto him, that they be not condemned.

DOCT. XI. Errours condemned.

WE therefore condemne those, which cast out of the Church this Law as unprofitable and not use­full, nor belonging unto Christians: [Page 77]And again those which teach that a man may either totally or partially, in whole or in part be justified by the Law: whereas the Law rather was given,Gal. 3.22. to conclude all under sinne, and to bring them unto Christ, who aloneIohn 1.29. taketh away the sinnes of the world. And this is our brief confession con­cerning the Law, which was delivered by Moses, and expounded by the Prophets, which fitteth, prepareth, disposeth, and bringeth men unto Christ, who isRom. 10.4. the end of the Law, as the Apostle witnesseth.

CHAP. XI. Concerning Christ our Re­deemer.

DOCTRINE I. The summe of our faith concern­ing the Person and Office of Christ our Redeemer.

THereforeGal. 4.4. When the fulnesse of the time was come, in which the promise of Redemption which was made unto the first man, was to [Page 78]be fulfilled by the second: God sent forth, The eternall Father, his Sonne, onely begotten and eternall, and therefore true God of the same na­ture with the Father, made of a woman, alone without the seed of man, and therefore true man; but without sinne, and therefore true Christ, made under the Law, and therefore also cir­cumcised, that he might with most perfect obedience fulfill the Law for us all, becoming obedient unto his Father even unto death, to wit for us: (for being without sinne himself,5. he deserved not to die) To redeem them that were under the Law, them that were, &c. Therefore all the e­lect: To redeeme them, to wit by his obedience, death, andAct. 10.28. bloud shed, that is, a sacrifice of infinite virtue, and a price of redemption of the greatest efficacie (for it was the bloud of God) To redeeme them, I say, from their sinnes unto the former image of God, and so unto the former image of God, and so unto perfect righteous­nesse; and from death likewise unto eternall life; and from the kingdome of Satan unto the Kingdome of God: That we might receive the adoption [Page 79]of sonnes, and so at length be received unto the full and perfect possession of an heavenly inheritance, as sonnes and lawfull heires; and to conclude,Eph. 1.10. That he might gather together in one head all things both which are in hea­ven, and which are on earth, and that he might make them cleave fast unto him,Eph. 1.12. to the praise of his glorie.

DOCT. II. That Christ our Redeemer is both true God and true Man.

WE believe therefore that Iesus Christ isIohn 1.14. the onely begotten Son of God, and therefore his Son by na­ture, coessentiall with the Father, andMic. 5.2. coeternall, true God and Lord Jehova: and we believe that the same Iesus Christ is also true man of the seed ofMatt. 1.1. Abraham and David, con­ceived of the holy Ghost without the help of man, in the wombe of the VirginHebr. 4.15. without sinne: born of her, having a true humane soul and mind, being made like unto us in all things, sinne onely excepted. So that he is trueAtha­nas. in Symb. God of the substance of his Fa­ther begotten before all worlds, and [Page 80]man of the substance of his mother born in the world.

DOCT. III. That the Son onely is both God and Man together.

BUt, so do we believe that the Son of God is both true God and Man together, and therefore true Christ, that we confesse him onely to be so, & none besides: For we read not that the Father or the holy Ghost, butIohn 1.14. the Word onely was made flesh: And the Apostle saith that theGal. 4.4. Son was made of a woman, and so he onely suffered: although to the creation of the nature assumed by the Son, not onely the Son, but the Father also and the holy Ghost concurred.

DOCT. IV. That the Son was made Man without any change in himself by assuming onely the humane nature unto him­self.

BUt we believe that the Son of God was made Man, not by any con­version of himself into flesh, not by any mutation in the flesh, not by any [Page 81]confusion of the divine and humane nature, but by the assuming onely of the humane nature into the unitie of his Person. And, as Athanasius speaketh,Athan. in Symb. Not by conversion of the Godhead into flesh, but by taking of the Manhood into God: So that he in no wise lost what he was, but assumed what he was not, according to what the Apostle saith,Hebr. 2.16. He took on him the seed of Abraham: whereby he teacheth us, That, as the Son assuming was not changed into the thing assumed (for God is altogether unchangeable) but remained what he was, being truely distinguished from the thing assumed: So the seed assumed was in no wise converted into the thing as­suming, but was united onely with the divine nature into the unitie of the same Person, according to what the Evangelist saithIohn. 1.14. The Word was made flesh. Therefore the flesh re­mained flesh, and was not changed into the Word.

DOCT. V. That neither one nature assumed ano­ther, nor one Person another, but the Person of the Son of God the humane nature.

FRom whence we understand that the divine nature which is com­mon to all the three Persons, yea one and the same in them all, as­sumed not unto it self the humane nature, nor one Person another, but nature onely. For the Son of God took not upon him any son of Abraham: but the seed of Abra­ham, that is, the humane nature propagated from Abraham: and therefore we acknowledge not two Persons in Christ, but that one one­ly, by which all things were made, and which was so perfect before the assuming of the seed of Abraham, that by the assuming thereof it be­came not another from what it was, neither yet a more perfect Person, nor any way else imperfect.

DOCT. VI. That the humane nature was not by Christ assumed to constitute any new Person, nor to make the Person that was before, more perfect then before it was: But, that it was assumed onely into the societie and unitie of that eternall and most perfect Person.

FOr, although in Christ we ac­knowledge two natures, the di­vine and the humane: Yet we do in no wise grant that the humane nature was therefore assumed, that either of this and that as of the parts there should be constituted any new Per­son unto Christ, or that the eternall Person which was before should be made more perfect then before, by the accesse of a new nature; but this onely, That the humane nature be­ing assumed into the unitie of that Person, which was existent from all eternitie, and also most perfect, the Son of God remaining what he was, might become what he was not, and might have what to offer to his Fa­ther for us. And therefore we do not absolutely and simply like it, if any [Page 84]man do say, That, as of the soul and body there is constituted the person of every man, so also of the divine and humane nature was constituted the Person of Christ. But we like the phrase which is used in the Church, That Christ clothed himself or was clothed with our flesh. Whereupon saith St. Augustine, Au­gust. That Christ de­scended from heaven, like a naked man from the mount; and that he ascended up again, clothed with our flesh as with a garment. For this phrase, Although it do not perfectly expresse the Hy­postaticall union, yet it maketh a manifest difference between the Per­son of the Son of God assuming, and our nature assumed. For the same reason also we like the manner of speaking which is used by the Fa­thers, That the humane nature is born by the Son of God, and again, That it doth subsist in the Person of the Son of God, and such like, discerning the Person of the Son of God assuming from the nature assumed, & teaching moreover that the Person of the Son of God was not made another from what it was, nor more perfect then [Page 85]before it was, by the accesse of the humane nature.

DOCT. VII. The confirmation of the foregoing opi­nion together with the exposition of that place of Athanasius.

WE confesse indeed, That, As the reasonable soul and flesh is one man, so God and man is one Christ: that is, That there is but one Person, al­though there be two natures in him. But not thus, as if of the two na­tures, as of the parts thereof, (to speake properly) were constituted the Person of Christ; as to the consti­tuting of the person of man, the bo­dy as well as the soul doth concurre necessarily, as an essentiall part: For as much as the Person of Christ was existent, and most complete and per­fect before the manifestation thereof in the flesh; but the person of man, suppose Adam, was not, before the conjunction of the soul and body: and again, for as much as neither the soul of man assumed the body, nor the body, the soul; as the Son of God assumed unto himself the seed [Page 86]of Abraham into the unitie of the fame person: and further, for as much as the body and soul are two sub­stances, as it appeareth in the creation of Adam; but the humane nature of Christ never subsisted by it self alone, but onely in the Person of the Son of God. From whence it ap­peareth, how unjustly some abuse the godly saying of Athanasius, to prove their own dreams and phansies. For it is altogether necessarie that he which manifested himself (that is, the Person of the Son of God) should be different from the flesh in which he manifested himself; and that not onely before, but also after the resur­rection, and his session at the right hand of the Father: which (as St. Au­gustine saith) brought glorie indeed into the flesh, but took not away the nature thereof.

DOCT. VIII. How Christ can be one onely Person, and that eternall and immutable, and yet in it two natures: and how he can be said to consist of them.

WE therefore acknowledge and confesse, against Nestorius, That [Page 87]in Christ there is one onely Person, and that eternall, most simple and most perfect, and remaining the same for ever, to wit, the Person of the eternall Son of God: and, that unto this eternall Person there was added in time, not another person, but an­other nature, that is, the humane; but yet not as a part of that Person, by which it was assumed, but a thing farre different from it, and yet as­sumed into the unitie thereof. And further in the third place, we confesse that in one and the same Person of Christ there are now two natures: the divine and humane, in which we doubt not but it subsisteth, liveth, and worketh. Wherefore we are not afraid to say, that Christ now consi­steth of the divine & humane nature being assumed into the unitie of per­son; and that he is after some sort compounded of them, as we may so speake.

DOCT. IX. How the two natures are united into one Person, without either conversion or confusion: the properties and actions of each remaining still safe, and di­stinguished.

ANd we believe and confesse, That the two natures of Christ are so truely and inseparably con­joyned and united into one Person: that yet notwithstanding we doubt not to say, that each still remaineth entire and perfect, and truely distinct one from the other, and each still re­taineth it's own distinct essentiall properties and operations, without all manner of confusion: so that, as the divine retaining it's own proper­ties, remained uncreate, infinite, in­mense, simply omnipotent, simply wise: So also the humane retaining it's properties, remaineth created, finite, and terminated by certain bounds. And again, as the divine hath it's own proper will and power, by which Christ as God willeth and worketh the things which are of God: So likewise the humane hath [Page 89]it's own, by which the same Christ as man willeth and worketh the things which are of man: So farre forth, that, as Christ, as he is God; neither willeth nor worketh by his humane will and power: So neither as man willeth or worketh he by his di­vine will and power: As it is well determined by the Fathers against Eutyches, and against Macarius. Therefore we like well that saying of Leo the first, who writing unto Fla­vianus concerning this matter saith thus,Leo Epist 10. cap. 4. He which is true God, is also true man; neither is there any lye in this unitie, whilst there is in Christ both the humilitie of the humanitie, and the sub­limitie of the Deitie. For, as God is not changed by shewing mercy and com­passion: so neither is man (that is, the humane nature in Christ) consumed by being dignified. For each form with the communion of the other worketh that which is proper unto it self: the word still working that which is of the word; and the flesh that which is of the flesh. So farre goes Leo: and what he sayes, he afterwards illustrates by some exam­ples, by which he demonstrates, that, [Page 90]as the natures in Christ are indeed united, but yet remain still distinct, and not confused: So likewise the actions, both were and are: because the flesh, and not the Word, did the things belonging to the flesh; and, the Word, and not the flesh, did the things belonging to the Word. To raise up Lazarus, was a work proper onely to the Word; but to cry,Iohn 11.43. La­zarus come forth, belonged onely to the flesh: yet to the raising up of La­zarus, both actions were united; be­cause they were from one and in one Christ, and tended to one work; and yet they were distinguished. So a­gain, to forgive sinnes, was an action proper onely to the divine nature; but to say,Matt. 9.2. Thy sinnes be forgiven thee, this was proper onely to the hu­mane. To restore sight unto him that was blind from his birth, was an action proper onely to the divine na­ture: but to put clay upon the eyes of him that was blind, and to say,Iohn 9.7. Goe and wash, this was proper one­ly to the humane. Therefore the Hy­postaticall union, as it confounded not the natures, so neither did it confound [Page 91]the actions, but retained them di­stinct: and therefore neither are the properties of the natures confound­ed, but remaine distinct. For there are three things in one and the same person of Christ, The Natures, the Properties and Faculties of the Na­tures, and the Actions of the Proper­ties and Faculties: and as the Na­tures and Actions are in Christ, in such manner also are the Properties of the Natures. As therefore it is ma­nifest that one Nature is not trans­fused into another, nor the actions confounded one with another: So also is it manifest concerning the properties.

DOCT. X. That, from the union of the Natures, the true and reall transfusion of the di­vine properties into the humane na­ture of Christ, can in no wise be pro­ved.

FOr we like and approve of that most true saying of the Fathers a­gainst the Eu [...]ychians, and Monothe­lites (to witt) That they which have the same essentiall Properties, have also the [Page 92]same Natures and essences: and they which have their Naturall Properties confounded, have also their Natures con­founded. Which as it is true in all, so in God especially, in whom his Es­sentiall Properties are nothing else really, but his very Essence: From whence it followes upon necessitie, that, if they can truely and properly be communicated unto any created substance, so that it can become as God is, as for example, Simply Omnipotent; then also Gods very Es­sence may be communicated unto it: so that, if it can become equall unto God for Power or any other Propertie, then may it also become equall unto God for Essence, and so Co-essentiall with God. Which to say, were to commit two grand errours: One, in making the creature equall to God, by attributing and communi­cating unto it those things which truely and properly belong onely un­to God. Neither doth the exception help, in saying, That God hath them from himself, but the humane nature in Christ hath them from the Godhead: For even the Son himsef, is not from [Page 93]himself, neither hath he his divine essence from himself, but from the Father; and yet he is equall to the Father and hath the same nature with the Father. The other errour is committed, in attributing divine, and so infinite properties, as infinite power, unto the humane nature; and so taking from it the finite properties thereof: Even as the great light of the Sun taketh away the light of a candle; or as the glory which shall be communicated unto our bodyes at the resurrection, shall take from them all their dishonour and cor­ruption. For where an infinite power is an Agent, and worketh; there a finite power is idle and none at all. But this Heresie hath been so fully and perspicuously refuted by many learned men in our age, that for our parts being here to set forth a brief and simple confession of our faith un­to the Church of God, and all poste­ritie; we will not adde any thing more to that which hath been said.

DOCT. XI. How great the force of the Hyposta­ticall union is.

YEt we believe and confesse, that the force of the union of natures in Christ is so great, that first indeed, What Christ is, or doth according to his divine nature, that is all-Christ the Son of Man said to be, or to do; and again, What Christ is, or doth, or hath suffered according to his hu­mane nature, That is all-Christ, God, Son of God, said in holy Scripture to be, to have done, and to have suf­fered: As in that place, where it said,Acts 20.2 [...]. God (that is, Christ Man and God) hath purchased the Church with his own bloud: whereas the force of the purchase pertaineth unto the Deitie, or Godhead; and the pouring out of bloud onely unto the humanitie or Manhood: Yet both these Actions are joyned together in one, and both are attributed unto the whole Person of Christ; although they were and are distinguished: For although the natures be distinguished, yet are they coupled together in the Person of [Page 95]Christ, which is but one. Yet further, Christ as Mediatour, never did or doth any thing according to his hu­manitie, whereunto his divinitie did not and doth not cooperate, or work together: and again, he did nothing according to his divinitie, whereunto his humanitie did not consent and willingly agree. And therefore well did the Fathers in cal­ling the operations or actions of Christ as Mediatour, operatious Theandricall, that is of God and Man. In the second place, As the force of the union which is between the Fa­ther and the Son is so great, that he doth nothing, neither communi­cateth unto the world any good but by the Son: In like manner, so great is the force of the Hypostaticall union of the two natures in Christ, that there flowes unto us no grace, no salvation, no life, from the Deitie, but by the humanitie apprehended of us by faith: so that it is altogether necessarie that he be coupled unto the flesh of Christ, whosoever will be made partaker of eternall life: ac­cording to that of our Saviour,Iohn 6.13. Ex­cept [Page 96]eate the flesh of the Son of Man, the have no life in you. And in the last place, by the force of the said union it is effected, that we cannot wor­ship and adore the Deitie in Christ, without worshipping and adoring al­so the humanitie in him: and again, That both the humane and divine nature are to be worshipped and ado­red of us altogether with one and the same manner of worship, and adora­tion: according to that,Hebe 1.6. And when he bringeth in the first begotten into the world, he saith, And let all the angels of God worship him; him, that is, the whole Person, God and Mau to­gether: whereas yet the humane na­ture by it self, and in it self merely considered, neither can, nor ought to be worshipped: For God onely is to be worshipped. But it is not any union, but the Hypostaticall union of the divine and humane nature which effects this, that we have said. Wherefore, although God dwelleth in his Saints; yet are not they to be worshipped or pray'd unto, as is the Man Christ. Great therefore surely, we confesse, is the union whereof we [Page 97]speak: but yet such is the union, that it excludes all confusion, and trans­fusion. For, if the union between the Father, the Son, and the holy Ghost, in one essence, then which union there neither is, nor can be imagined a greater, take not away the distin­ction of Persons: neither can this union of natures, and so of proper­ties, and actions, in one Person, take away the distinction, or bring in a confusion thereof.

DOCT. XII. That unto Christ as Man, was given in­deed the greatest power that could be; but yet finite: as also other gifts.

WE believe further, that, as Christ, as he is God, is simply omnipo­tent, and simply wise, and so also in his other Atrributes: So as he is man, there was given unto him power and knowledge, fárre surpassing, yea al­most by infinite degrees, the power, and knowledge of all creatures both in heaven and on earth; but yet fi­nite: and so likewise all other gifts and virtues, as charitie, prudence, [Page 98]fortitude, justice, grace, truth, and the rest, whereof the Prophet Isaiah speaketh,Isa. 11.2. And the Spirit of the Lord shall rest upon him, &c. and Iohn the Evangelist, who testifieth that he wasIohn 1.14. full of grace and truth, (and Luke)Luk. 2.25. And Iesus increased in wisedome and stature, and in favour with God and Man. For which cause he is by the Apostle said to beEph. 1.20. set at Gods right hand in the heavenly places, 21. Farre above all principalities and powers; and again, Iohn saith,Iohn 3.34. God giveth not the Spirit unto him by measure; and again, the Apostle,Coloss. 2.3. In him are hid all the treasures of wisedome and know­ledge. Whence it cometh to passe that, as he is Man, he knoweth all things, and can do all things which belong unto his office: but as for those things which no created substance can do, but God alone; those he doth by the power of the Deitie, yet not without the consent, and as it were the sup­plication of the humane nature: inso­much that to all the actions of Christ, as he is God, concerning our salva­tion, his soul in some manner is al­wayes added, by the love, desire, and [Page 99]will thereof. As likewise in all which he did as Man the Deitie al­wayes concurred, even in his death and passion; not that the Deitie suf­fered, but that it willed the death & passion of Christ, and gave unto his death and passion infinite power and efficacie to expiate and purge away our sins. To conclude in a word, concerning the natures of Christ, to­gether with their union, and pro­perties, we believe whatsoever was set down, and concluded by the Ni­cene Councill, and that of Constanti­nople, and that of Ephesus, and that of Calcedon, agaist Arius, Apollinaris, Nestorius, Eutyches: as also what was defined and determined in the sixt Synod against the Monothelites.

DOCT XIII. That the actions of Christ are of two kinds: and that what we read that Christ did or suffered; was all done and suffered by him according unto truth, and not according to outward appearance onely.

NOw, to passe from the Person of Christ, and his natures, and the [Page 100]union of the natures, unto his actions and office peculiarly: We believe first, as there are two true natures in Chrst, whereof each had, and hath it's own true and essentiall proper­ties, conjoyned indeed, as the na­tures also are united, but not con­founded: So likewise that there are two kinds of actions, which we read that our Lord Iesus Christ, partly hath already performed, and partly doth not yet cease to performe; and that some of these actions flow from the Deitie, and others from the humanitie; and that they were partly, and partly are so conjoyned, and yet so distinct, that each form (as Leo speaketh) doth alwayes work with the communion of the other, The Word still doing that which is proper to the Word, and the flesh exequuting that which belongeth unto the flesh. And again, as the works which Christ either did or doth by the virtue and power of the divine nature, are true and not feigned; for he reconciled us truely unto his Father, he pardoneth and forgiveth sinnes truely, he truely sanctifieth and regenerateth: So also [Page 101]whatsoever we reade that he either did or suffered for us according to his humane nature, all that we be­lieve that he both did and suffered in deed and in truth, and not in shew, and (as they speak) appearance onely.

DOCT. XIV. The explication of the fore-going opinion.

THerefore we believe that Christ, as he was truely conceived of the seed of David, as he was truely born, and true Man, as he did truely eate and drink, and performe other out­ward actions of a man: So also that he truely fulfilled the Law for us, that he truely1 Pet. 4.1. suffered in the flesh, that heMatt. 27.50. truelyRom. 5.3. died, that he2 Cor. 5.15. truely rose again from the dead,Luk. 24.39.51. in the same flesh, that heAct. 1.9. ascended with his vi­sible, palpable, true humane body being terminated by certain dimen­sions, into the true and created hea­ven,Eph. 4.10. farre above all the visible hea­vens, that he there remaineth working according to his own free will, untill he shall come again from heaven in [Page 102]the same visible body, to judge both the quick and the dead, that in hea­ven he truly willeth our salvation, that he hath a care of us,Eph. 1.22, 4, 16. that he sends down the influences of Spiri­tuall and vitall sense and motion in­to us as unto his own members, and that he governeth his whole Church.

CHAP. XV. The fruits of Christs obedience, passion, death, and resurrection.

ANd we believe, that Christ by his perfect obedience merited not onely for himself, but for us also, eternall life; That he by his death and passion hath expiated and purged away all our sinnes in his own flesh; That he hath redeemed us out of the hands of Satan, from the tyrannie of death, and from the slaverie of sinne; that he hath reconciled us unto God in himself, and made us beloved of him, that we might be accounted righteous in him before God the Fa­ther; that by his resurrection, and ascension into heaven he hath ob­tained for us a twofold resurrection, [Page 103] Revel. 20.5. the first and6. the second, as Iohn speaketh; that he hath taken posses­sion of an heavenly inheritance for us; that he sitteth at the right hand of the Father, that is, ThatMatt. 28.18. All power is given unto him in heaven, and in earth: So that as he is Mediatour and Man he hath the second place from the Father; being constituted the head of the whole Church, both that in heaven, and that on earth: that from him, and from his flesh there may be derived unto us by the holy Ghost, unto us, I say, who as mem­bers are joyned unto him as unto our head, there may be derived whatso­ever pertaineth to our vivification, and Spirituall life. And therefore we acknowledge, believe, and confesse that in Christ alone, all our Salva­tion, redemption, righteousnesse, the grace of God, and eternall life con­sisteth, according to that of the A­postle,1. Cor. 1.30. Of him are ye in Christ Iesus, who of God is made unto us wisedome and righteousnesse, and sanctification, and redemption: and in another place,Eph. 2.14. He is our peace: and according to the Prophet,Ierem. 23.6. The Lord our righteousnesse: [Page 104]and again according to the Apostle,Eph. 1.7. In him we have redemption through his bloud, the forgivenesse of sinnes: and again,Coloss. 1.19. It pleased the Father, that in him all fullnesse should dwell: and ac­cording to St. Iohn the Apostle,1. Iohn 5.11. This life, (that is, life eternall) is in his Son. And hereby we understand that the promise, concerning redemption, which was made unto the first man, received it's complement and per­fection in the second, the Man Christ Iesus: so that he which will be made partaker of redemption must needs be made a member of Christ, and be joyned unto him as unto his head: For we have redemption and salva­tion not onely by sins as our Media­tour, but also in him as in our head. This is our faith and belief concer­ning Christ our Redeemer, concer­ning his Person, Natures, Office, and concerning the salvation of mankind in him complete and finished.

DOCT. XVI. Heresies and errours condemned.

THerefore we condemne all Here­tikes as well ancient as moderne, old and new, which ever taught or now teach the contrarie; by name, Arius, Phornius, Servetus & all others of the same stampe, which deny the true Deitie of Christ: as also the Cer­donians, Marcionites, Valentinians, Manichees, Priscillianites, Apollina­rists, and others, which oppugned the humanitie of Christ: Whereof some denyed that Christ was come in the flesh, or that he had true flesh, saying that he brought a body onely in appearance from heaven, or that he had a body conceived of the ele­ments and not of the seed of Abra­ham, and that he was not born of a woman; And others indeed granted that he had humane flesh, but de­nyed him to have a reasonable soul, putting the Deitie in the place of it. We condemne likewise the Nestorians, which denyed the true union of the humane nature with the Person of Son, and held two Persons in Christ, [Page 106]and two Sons; the Son of God, and the Son of Man. We condemne like­wise the Eutychians, which contrari­ly as the Person of Christ is onely one, so also hold that there was in him but one nature onely, to wit, the divine: teaching that the hu­mane nature which he assumed, was either converted altogether into the divine; or else that it was so mixed and confounded with the divine, that they made no difference at all between the properties and actions of the divine and humane nature. We condemne likewise those that came from them, Macarius with his fol­lowers: which held that there was but one onely will in Christ, to wit, the divine; and so acknowledged no proper action of the humane Will in him. We condemne also the Cerdo­nians, in this that they said, that Christ neither suffered truely nor died truely; but seemingly onely, & in outward shew and appearance: & together with them we condemne also all those, who heretofore have taught, or at this time do teach the like; saying, That Christ either rose [Page 107]not again in the same flesh wherein he died, but in another and that of a diverse nature; Or if he did rise in the same, yet that he ascended not truely into heaven, and carried it in thither with him. We do also follow­ing the judgement of Ierom, Cyrill, and the rest of the Fathers, condemne the Origenists, and such like as they were, which held that Christ rose with a body like a Spirit, most sub­till, and of it's own nature invisible, and not coming under the judge­ment of humane sense. And last of all those, as Iews and Turks which deny that the world is redeemed by the benefit of Christs death: together with all them which place their salva­tion in whole or in part in any other thing, but Christ onely; or blasphem­ouslly say that sins are expiated and taken away by any other sacrifices be­side that of Christs. For we acknow­ledge one onely Redeemer Iesus Christ, without whom, as there is no God, so there is no salvation: and we acknowledge but one onely sacrifice, by the oblation whereof [Page 108]the elect were once expiated in the Person of Christ, but also are daily pardoned unto all believers even to the end of the world.

CHAP. XII. Concerning the true dispen­sation of redemption, salvation, and life: and therefore the neces­sitie of our union and communion with Christ.

DOCTRINE. I. That salvation and eternall life is placed onely in Christ that from him it may be communicated unto us.

WE believe, that as the sinne of Adam, and death which followed thereupon, re­mained not onely in Adam; but also from him, as from the head of all mankind,Rom. 5.12. passed upon all men, whosoever are by common genera­tion already come from him, or are yet to come: So also that the righte­ousnesse of Christ and eternall life [Page 109]which is onely due unto him, re­mained not in him alone, but was derived upon all men, whosoever are by regeneration of the holy Ghost made one with him, and doe as true members cleave fast unto him as being the head of all the Church; and that Christ also came in the flesh to this end, and that all salvation and life is placed in him, to be really and truely dispensed, and communicated unto all the elect, which are united unto him.

DOCT. II. That indeed the grace of redemption, and salvation is seriously offered unto all: but really communicated to none but the elect, which are made one with Christ.

FOr we believe, that, althoughMark. 15.10. redemption, salvation, and life eternall, which are the gifts of God, be seriously propounded, and offered unto all by the preaching of the Gospell (for, that many are not made partakers of it, it is their own fault) Yet they are really communi­cated unto none but those, which [Page 110]being from all eternitie elected and predestinated in Christ as the head of all the elect, to be made his mem­bers, and so partakers of salvation, and being afterwards in due time called by the preaching of the Go­spell, and indued with faith by the holy Ghost, are grafted into Christ, and so made one with him.

DOCT. III. To the true participation of salvation, how necessarie our union or com­munion with Christ is.

AS neitherIohn 15.1, 2, &c. the vine branch from the vine, nor the bough from the tree, can suck sappe and life, unlesse both the one and the other be united as a part unto the one and the other: And again, as the members of the bo­dy can neither draw motion, nor sense, nor life from their head, unlesse they be united to the head: So nei­ther can men receive life and salva­tion from Christ, in whom they are alone, unless they be truely ingrafted into Christ, and be united unto him by a true and reall union, and being united do also remain and abide in him.

DOCT. IV. That we cannot be united unto Christ, unlesse he do first unite himself unto us.

SEeing then the participation of true righteousnesse, salvation, and life, depends wholly upon the most necessarie communion of us with Christ: and hereunto both the preach­ing of the Gospell, & the administra­tion of the Sacraments, and all the Ecclesiasticall ministerie is referred: For this cause, what our faith and belief is concerning this matter, briefely and plainly, as near as we can, we thought good to declare and testifie unto all the Church of Christ, in certain Theses, or Positions here following. And first we believe, that, as1 Iohn 4.10. we love Christ, as Iohn speaketh, because he first loved us; and there­fore we come unto him with our Spi­rit, because he first came unto us by his; and therefore we embrace him by faith, because he first embraced us by the virtue of his Spirit and be­gate faith in us: So neither can we be joyned & united unto him, unless [Page 112]he first joyne and unite himself unto us. For one is the cause of the other: the former, of the latter. Wherefore we are to pray, that he would be pleased toIohn 14.23. come unto us, and make his abode with us,

DOCT. V. That Christ's union with us, and ours with Christ is threefold: and what their order is.

FUrther we acknowledge a three­fold union of Christ with us, and us with Christ; The first, in our na­ture once made; the second, which is every day made in the Persons of every one of the elect, but as yet absent from the presence of the Lord; and the last, which shall be with the Lord in our own Persons, when we shall be personally present with him, when God shall beColoss. 3.11. 1 Cor. 15.2 [...]. all in all. And the first of these is referred unto the second; and the second, unto the third: As nature was ordained unto grace; and grace, unto glorie. For the first was made by the assumption of our nature, into the unitie of the Person of the Word. The second is [Page 113]made by the assumption of our Per­sons into grace, and into one Mysti­call body with him, and so unto the2 Pet. 1.4. participation of the divine nature, as Peter speaketh. The third and last shall be made by the assumption of us all into glorie everlasting with Christ. And we doubt not but Christs will was, to shew unto us before the second by the first, and the third by the second: that by what is done al­ready we might be confirmed in hope of that which shall be hereafter.

DOCT. VI. That, as the first union was made, to expiate and take away sins; so like­wise the second, to make us partakers of that benefit.

WE believe therefore (to omit things that are impertinent to our present purpose, and to come nearer to the matter) we believe, I say, that the Son of God, according to the eternall will of the Father, of himself, and of the holy Ghost, as to expiate and take away our sins, he assumed into the unitie of his Person [Page 114]which was conceived in the wombe of the Virgin by the power of the ho­ly Ghost, and in it fulfilled the Law of God perfectly for us, and became obedient unto his Father even unto death, and by the same flesh offered up for a sacrifice for our sinnes, purchased in himself eternall salva­tion for us: So also to make us real­ly partakers of the salvation purcha­sed for us by the sacrifice of his own flesh, after another manner of union he takes and kuits us unto himself in such sort, that we are united unto him, though not into one Person, yet into one true mysticall body, where­of he is head, and all we are members, whereby we become partakers of the divine nature.

DOCT. VII. As the first union, so likewise the second is made by the power of the holy Ghost.

NEither doubt we but that the Son of God, our Lord Iesus Christ, as in the first union, by the power of his Spirit, he assumed and took upon [Page 115]him our flesh and bloud (for he was conceived man by the holy Ghost, and that without sinne: for which cause also he is called the1 Cor. 15 4 [...]. Heavenly Man) so also in the second he gives us his flesh and his bloud, and communicates himself wholly unto us, and by this communion so knits, conjoynes, and incorporates us unto himself by the efficacie of his Spirit, that still the bond that knits Christ unto us and us unto him, is the same Spirit, which Spirit as it ef­fected in the wombe of the Virgin, that the Son of God became flesh of our flesh and bone of our bones: So also by working in our hearts, and incorporating us into Christ, it ef­fecteth likewise that we by the parti­cipation of the body and bloud of Christ, become flesh of his flesh and bone of his bones, especially when it stirreth up faith in us whereby we em­brace, and lay hold on Christ, and acknowledge him to be true God and Man, and so a perfect Redeemer and Saviour.

DOCT. VIII. That our union with Christ is in such sort Spirituall, that it is notwith­standing true and reall.

SO believe we this other union also, no lesse almost then the former (if I may so speak) to be Spirituall, that yet it is true and reall: For by the Spirit of Christ we, though here on earth, are really and truly joyned with the body bloud and soul of Christ now raigning in heaven, and with his divine nature abiding in us: insomuch that this mysticall body which consisteth of1 Cor. 12.12. Christ as the head, and the faithfull as the mem­bers thereof, is sometimes simply called Christ. So great is the con­junction of Christ with the faithfull, and the faithfull with Christ, that it is not amisse in some sort to say, that, as the first union was of two natures in one Person, so also this of many Persons as it were into one nature, according to these texts of Scripture:2 Pet. 1.4. That you might be partakers of the di­vine nature; and, We are members of his body, of his flesh, and of his bones.

DOCT. IX. The Confirmation of the opinion fore-going: How close and near this union is.

FOr as in man, the soul which is one and the same and all in every part, as well in the head, and every particular member, as in the whole body together, causeth all the mem­bers to be united, and grow together into one body under one head. So also by the power of Christ's Spirit which is one and the same in Christ, and in all the faithfull, it cometh to passe, that all of us being both in body and minde knit together into one Spiri­tually, become one and the same body with Christ our head, one bo­dy, I say, mysticall, and Spirituall; because it is connected, and com­pacted together by the most secret bond of the same Spirit.

CHAP. X. That this union, forasmuch as it is made by the holy Ghost, cannot be hindred by any distance of place.

FRom whence it followes, that this true and reall union (though Spi­rituall) [Page 118]of our bodyes and souls with the body and soul of Christ, cannot be hindred by any, no not the grea­test distance of place; because it is made by the efficacie of that Spirit, which reacheth from earth even up to heaven, and higher then so; and knitteth together the members of Christ here on earth, with the head in heaven sitting at the right hand of the Father, conjoyning them to­gether in one so closely and nearely, as the soul of man doth the armes & legs, hands and feet, and the other members with the head into one bo­dy, though the man should be so great and tall for stature, that having his feet set in the Centre of the earth, his head should reach to heaven even to the ninth spheere. So great is the virtue and power of the soul. How great then is the virtue, and power of the holy Ghost, who is true God, and omnipotent!

DOCT. XI. That the holy Ghost, by whom this union is made, is given by Christ, at the preaching of the Gospell, and the ad­ministration of the Sacraments.

WE believe further, that this Spi­rit, by which Christ knitteth himself unto us, and us unto himself; his flesh with ours, and ours with his, is communicated by Christ at his own pleasure, and according to his grace, when, and where, and after what manner it pleaseth him, but or­dinarily at the preaching of the Go­spell, and the administration of the Sacraments. A visible testimonie whereof there was, in the infancie of the Church, when, as we read, those which received the Gospell, and were baptised, or on whom hands were laid, beside the invisible grace of re­generation, received also sundrie and sensible gifts of the Spirit.

DOCT. XII. That this union is the principall end of the Gospell and Sacraments.

FRom whence we easily gather, what is the principall end of the [Page 120]preaching of the Gospell, and the ad­ministration of the Sacraments: to wit, this: Our communion with Christ the Son of God, who for us was made flesh, who suffered & died for us, but now raigneth in heaven, and communicateth salvation and life to his elect and chosen: Our Communion with Christ, I say, here inchoate, and begunne, but here­after to be perfected and finish'd in heaven: that further by this our true and reall connexion & conjunction, with his flesh and bloud, and his whole Person, we may at length be made partakers of eternall life, which was purchased by him, and resideth or abideth in him.

DOCT. XIII. That this union is not imaginarie, nor made by participation of gifts onely, but also by communication of sub­stance.

BUt, for this cause do we call this our present incorporation with Christ, true, reall, and substantiall: to meet with the errour of those which think that the union which [Page 121]we hold is but onely imaginarie; and therefore false: or if true; that then it is onely by the participation of Spirituall gifts, and the grace of Christ, without the communication of the substance of his flesh & bloud.

DOCT. XIV. That this union is made by no other means, but onely by the holy Ghost and by faith.

BUt again, lest any should falsely imagine, that we hold this union to be made with the flesh of Christ, either, as if it were here really present upon earth, by any Physicall or na­turall contact, whether grosse or sub­till, as all siensible things are united with the sense; some after a more grosse, and others after a more sub­till manner: Or else with the same flesh, as it is abiding in heaven, by Species in the minde, which the Phi­losophers call Intelligible, as all things Intelligible are united with the Intellect, which receiveth them by certain images, and mentall represen­tations: Therefore we adde further the manner how this union and In­corporating [Page 122]is made, to wit, by the Spirit of Christ really communicated unto us, and abiding in us, and knit­ing us unto Christ, and stirring up faith in us to embrace and lay hold on Christ.

DOCT. XV. The confirmation of both: To wit, that this union is essentiall; and that it is made by the holy Ghost onely and by our faith.

BOth these, to wit, that this our union is essentiall, and that it is made by the holy Ghost onely, and by our faith; the holy Scripture doth fully and clearly shew unto us. The Apostle writing to theEph. [...].14, 15, 16. Ephe­sians, forasmuch as, Christ, having abolished enmitie, and broken down the wall of partition, hath reconciled both unto God, & one with another, two most divers people, both Iewes and Gentiles; and forasmuch as all are ingrafted into Christ, and regene­rated by the holy Ghost: Therefore doubted not to say, that both were made, not One people (as one would have thought) but, to show how near [Page 123]this union is, One new man, even in Christ. Therefore, seeing that we are all regenerated by one and the same Spirit and live as it were by one and the same soul, and are united unto one head, which is Christ: Not with­out just cause are we all called, One new man. And again in the sameEphes. 4.15.16. Epistle describing our most near & essentiall incorperating into Christ, he compateth him unto the head and us unto the members compacted and joyned together unto the head by joynts, nerves, and ligaments: which draw their life and motion from the head. This similitude is verie ordina­rie and frequent in the Scripture: so that from hence we may easily and cloarly understand, what and how great this our union is with Christ, by reason of his Spirit which dwelleth in all the regenerate. For the same cause also, the sameEphes. 2.20. &c. Apostle com­pareth Christ unto a soundation; and all the faithfull unto stones (but living stones, as it likewise the soun­dation, that they may grow up, and receive increase from him) built up­on the foundation: [...]. In whom all the [Page 124]building fitly framed together groweth unto an holy Temple in the Lord 22. through the Spirit. Which also, before the A­postle,Matt. 16.18. Christ himself did more then once, making himself the founda­tion; and his Church, the building: which resteth really upon the foun­dation, and is unseparably joyned unto it. Hither also pertaineth that place, where Christ calleth himselfIohn. 15.1, &c. the vine, and us the branches: which drawing life and sappe from the vine do both live and bring forth good fruit. The same thing also is declared by the similitude of anRom. 11.17. Olive-tree, into which the faithfull, being as boughes cut off from the wild-olive-tree, are grafted; that they may bring forth good Olives. And this ingrafting is by the holy Ghost and by faith: whereupon in the Epistle to the Philippians it is called thePhil. 2.1. fel­lowship of the Spirit; and in the Epistle to the EphesiansEph. 3.17. Christ is said to dwell in our hearts by faith. Neither is it obscure that the Apostle calls the incorporating of the Church with Christ, and Christ with the Church, and every faithfull member thereof, [Page 125]a Spirituall marriage, speaking after the manner of the Prophets, in which two are made one flesh.Gen. 2.24 They two shall be one flesh, said God: But the Apostle saith,Eph. 5.32. This is a great My­sterie: but I speak concerning Christ and the Church. And this we often meet with all which Iohn writeth concer­ning this union, and the Spirit where­by it is made, and known.1 Iohn 4.17. Hereby (saith he) know we that we dwell in him and he in us: because he hath given us of his Spirit. Therefore he dwel­leth in us, and we in him by the same holy Spirit, which is in him, and in us. Hither may we adde also That to the Romanes,Rom. 2.9. If any man hath not the Spirit of Christ, he is none of his. Now the Apostle understood those to be Christ's, which are his true and lively members.

DOCT. XVI. A conclusion, that this union is essen­tiall; and, that it is made onely by the holy Ghost, and our faith.

BY these and the like places of ho­ly Scripture we are perswaded, and doubt not but Christ & his Apostles [Page 126]would signifie unto us, That the com­munion which all the faithfull, both great and small, have with Christ, and with his flesh and bloud, is true and reall: and yet not made any o­ther way but by the power and bond of the Spirit. And therefore, although it be secret, full of mysteries, and Spirituall; because it is made by the Spirit and by faith: Yet we are not to doubt but by reason of the same Spirit it is as true and essentiall, as that is between the man and the wise which are made [...] flesh; and that, between the foundation [...] the stones which are built thereupon; and that, between the tree and the boughes; between the vine and the branches; and last of all that, between the head and the members which are knit to­gether with ligaments and sinewes▪ and live & work by one and the same soul: Insomuch that we can have no greater union with Christ, whilst we are in this mortall flesh.

DOCT. XVII. The confirmation of the same by another similitude, and even out of Phi­losophie it self.

CErtainly, If one and the same soul were in all men: it would cause innumerable Persons to be but one man: As from one and the same essence in three divine Persons, di­vines conclude that there is but one God. And this would appear much more to be true, if those many men should have but one head, whereun­to to be annexed, and from whence alone to derive sense and motion. What wonder then if the holy Spirit, which is but one in Christ and in all the godly, knit us so really together, that we become one with him, and with our selves; Yea, that we all be­come one new man in Christ our head? For in two respects saith the Apostles that all the faithfull are One new man, to wit,Epes. 2.15. in respect of one Spirit by which, and one head unto which we are annexed and knit.

DOCT. XVIII. That from our union with Christ the participation of the benefits of his death and resurrection are derived unto us.

FRom this our communion with Christ followeth, and thereon dependeth the participation of his benefits, and salvation which he hath purchased for us, and hath residing and abiding in his flesh and bloud: For, as vine branches cannot suck their nourishment from the vine; nor boughes from the tree; nor members of the body, from the head; nor living stones from the foundation, unlesse they have a true and reall de­pendance and connexion with their foundation, head, tree, and vine, and abide in them: So neither can we, from Christ our head, foundation, tree, and vine; unlesse we be truely ingrafted into him by the holy Spi­rit, and be made flesh of his flesh, and bone of his bones. And they do us great injurie, that therefore say we deny the true participation of [Page 129]Christ's flesh and bloud, and hold onely the participation of his gifts and benefits: because we do not ad­mit, that which ought not to be ad­mitted, that Christ true body doth really passe through our mouthes in­to our bodyes. As if the communion which is made by the holy Spirit and by faith, were not true and essentiall; whereas nothing can more nearely joyne divers substances and natures together into one, then the holy Spi­rit: As we see it in the incarnation of the Son of God; and the creation of man compounded of soul and body. Certainly, if the communion with the body and bloud of Christ, which is made by the Spirit onely and by faith, be not true and saving, un­lesse the body & bloud passe through our mouthes into our bodyes: Christ hath not provided well for his Church. And further he would have the same to be made at the receiving of the Gospell, as also in Baptisme; As1 Iohn 1.3. Iohn witnesseth of the first; and the1 Cor. 12.13. Apostle, of the second. This is our confession concerning commu­nion with Christ in generall, and [Page 130]concerning the dispensation of salva­tion and life, which is in Christ Iesus.

DOCT. XIX. Errours condemned.

WE therefore disallow and mislike the errour of those, which teach that by the (opus operatum, or) per­formance of the outward work, with­out faith, and true union with Christ, remission of sins may be obtained, and salvation communicated unto men. But we condemne for blas­phemie the doctrine of those, which teach that remission of sinnes, and sal­vation may be obtained by works not commanded by God, but inven­ted by men; and those such as are full of superstition, and idolatrie. We condemne likewise those, which making no account of the ministerie of the Word, teach that salvation may be had, as well without, as by the hearing of the Word and the re­ceiving of the Sacraments: and like­wise those which contend that the children of infidells as well as the faithfull in their mothers wombes, are made partakers of Christ's benefits.

CHAP. XIII. Concerning the Gospell, and the abrogation of the Law by the Gospell.

FOrasmuch as the Gospell in the first place, and then also the Sa­craments, to wit, Baptisme and the Lords supper, are the outward in­struments and meanes, by the law­full use and administration whereof, our Redeemer and Lord Iesus Christ is wont to offer and dispense unto the would the benefit of redemption, and remission of sinnes, and communi­cate himself unto us his chosen by the power of his Spirit; and likewise incorporate us into himself and so make us really partakers of salvation and life which he hath in himself: Therefore we have studied and en­deavoured briefely and plainly to de­clare unto the Church of God, what is our faith, and belief concerning them.

DOCTRINE I. What the Gospell is.

AS concerning the Gospall then, according to the signification re­ceived [Page 132]and used in the Church, we believe that it is none other but the heavenly Doctrine concerning Christ, preached by Christ himself and his Apostles, and contained in the books of the New Testament, declaring un­to the world most wellcome and joy­full tidings: to wit, that mankind, by the death of Iesus Christ, the one­ly begotten Son of God, is redeemed: so that for as many as repent and be­lieve in Iesus Christ, free pardon and forgivenesse of sinnes, salvation, and eternall life is prepared. For which cause it is worthily called by the A­postle, the Gospel of our salvation. Eph. 1.13.

DOCT. II. That the Gospel was indeed promised by the Prophets, but published by the Apostles.

FOr though this mysterie was re­vealed unto the Fathers, even from the beginning of the world, and the Prophet also spoke concerning it: yet they preached promises Evange­licall, that is, of the Gospell, which the Iews retained amongst them­selves, rather then the Gospel it self, [Page 133]which was to be published to all na­tions. For they prophesied and fore­told that which was to come, but did not declare any thing present or past: As the Apostle teacheth in the Epistle to theRom. 1.2. Romanes; and Peter in his first1 Pet. 1.10. Epistle.

DOCT. III. That the Fathers, by faith in the pro­mises concerning Christ the Redeemer to come, were saved: as well as we, which now believe the Gospell.

YEt we doubt not, but that the Fa­thers which believed the promised of the Gospel concerning the coming of Christ, and his breaking the Ser­pents head, were saved: as well as we which now are saved by faith in the Gospel declaring unto us that Christ is come, and that he hath redeemed the world. As the Apostles abun­dantly teacheth both in other places, and especially in the Epistle to theRom. 4.3. Romanes, concerning Abraham; and in theHebr. 11.1. Epistle to the Hebrews, concerning all others. That it is high blasphemie to say that the Fathers had onely promises of earthly things, [Page 134]and that they received them; but not heavenly, as remission of sins and eternall life. For what the Gospel is to us, properly taken: the same were the promises of the Gospel to them; that is,Rom. 1.26. The power of God unto sal­vation to every one that believeth.

DOCT. IV. That the Doctrine of the Gospel for the substance thereof, is most ancient; yea eternall.

FRom whence we understand, that the Doctrine of the Gospel as concerning the substance thereof, is not new, but most ancient, being preached to the Fathers, even from the foundation of the world: That the Gospel not without good reason is called by Iohn theRevel. 14.6. Everlasting Gospel.

DOCT. V. What the parts of the Gospel be, and how many.

THe Gospel may be reduced to three heads concerning our duty: The first is,Act. 20.21. Repentance, towards God: The second, faith toward our Lord Ie­sus [Page 135]Christ: The third, careMatt. 28.20. to observe all things whatsoever Christ hath com­manded us.

DOCT. VI. The explication of the opinion fore-going.

FOr the Gospel propounding and setting before us Christ with the full grace and mercie of God, with full expiation and remission of sins, with perfect salvation and eternall life, requireth onely three things of us. The first is, that grieving hearti­ly and truely for the sins committed in the whole course of our life past, we desire of God even from our hearts and souls to change and renew our minds, wills, and affections, to the obedience of his divine will, ear­nestly studying for it and begging it of him by our prayers. The second is, that by faith laying hold on Christ with all the treasure of his merits, we believe certainly & without all man­ner of doubting, that all our sins, of the grace and mercie of God for Christ's sake onely, are pardoned [Page 136]and forgiven for ever; that we are received into grace, and made the Sons of God, and heires of eternall life. The third and last is, that being perswaded of the free pardon and forgivenesse of our sins and eternall salvation, for Christ's sake and me­rits, we afterwards labour to keep and observe all things whatsoever Christ hath commanded us, for the glorie of God, and the salvation of our neighbour: keeping faith al­wayes even unto the end, and sted­fastly believing that whatsoever sins we commit in our new obedience are not imputed to us, and that for Christ's sake onely: as also, that, by the imputation of Christ's most per­fect obedience, righteousnesse, and holinesse, unto us; our imperfect obedience is made perfect, and so reputed, and accepted for most per­fect, in the sight of God. The com­mandments of Christ may be all re­duced unto three: That denying un­godlinesse, and worldly lusts, we should live SOBERLY (in respect of our selves) RIGHTEOUSLY (in re­spect of our neighbour) and GOD­LYTit 2.12. [Page 137](in respect of God) in this pre­sent world: 13. Looking for that blessed hope and the glorious appearing of the great God, and our saviour Iesus Christ. This we believe to be the sum of all. that Christ requireth of us in the word of his Gospel: and therefore, that they are true Gospellers▪ and Christians indeed, whosoever with studious care and diligence give themselves wholly to the observation hereof.

DOCT. VIII. In what things most especially the Go­spel differs from the Law.

ANd it appears sufficiently by what hath been said, That we confound not the Law with the Go­spell: For, although we confesse that God is the Authour of the Law, as well as the Gospel; and again, thatRom. 7.12. the Law of it self is holy and just, and good, as well as the Gospell: yet we believe that there is a great deal of difference between them; and that not onely, because that was delivered to the Iews onely; whereas the Go­spell belongeth unto all nations: nor [Page 138]yet onely, because that was tempo­ratie, and to last onely untill Christ; whereas the Gospel is everlasting: not yet onely, because, that was de­livered by Moser, and expounded by the Prophets, whereas the Gospel was brought unto us by Christ, and published unto the whole world by the Apostles: Not for these reasons onely, I say, but more especially for these which follow: First, because the matters of the Law consists in commandments, with curses irre­vocable added thereunto, if they be broken in the least part. It hath in­deed the promises not onely of earth­ly and temporall blessings; but also of heavenly and eternall: but yet they are all with a condition of most perfect righteousnesse and obedience, and not of free grace. But the Gospel is properly the message of glad ti­dings, freely setting before us Christ our Redeemer, freely pardoning and forgiving sins, and saving us: not requiring any thing at our hands for the attainment of salvation, but one­ly true faith in Christ, which we can­not have without repentance to­gether [Page 139]with a care to do Gods will, as we declared before. Secondly, be­cause the Law did not enable us for the doing of that which it required; for it gave us no power whereby we might be saved▪ and so was insuffi­cient, and1 Cor. [...].6. a killing letter, and7. the ministration of wrath and death, ra­ther stirring up sin, then taking it a­way. But the Gospel requireth no more of us, then it enableth us to performe, and so communicateth really unto us what is offered: for­asmuch as the holy Ghost worketh thereby in the elect, at the preaching thereof, stirring up in them true faith, whereby to lay hold on Christ when he is offered unto them, and together with him everlasting salvation. ForRom. 10.17. faith cometh by hearing of the Go­spel: but obedience cometh not by hearing the Law: For the holy Ghost at the hearing of the Law did not en­able them to keep it, whosoever heard the same: whereas it doth stirre up faith in the elect at the hea­ring of the Gospel. For which cause, as the Law is called the killing letter, so the Gospel is called the quickning [Page 140]Spirit, or the2 Cor. 3.6. Spirit giving life: And therefore it is a true and effectuall in­strument and meanes unto salvation to every one that believeth. From whence followes a third difference, which is this, that the Law was not wrote in the hearts of men: but in tables of stone, so that there was not any change in men wrought thereby: But the Gospel is wrote in the hearts of the elect by the holy Ghost, and worketh in them2 Cor. 3.18. a change, and true renovation, being used by the holy Ghost as an instrument of our sancti­fication and salvation.

DOCT. VIII. That by the Gospel, the Law of Moses is partly taken away, and partly not.

IT appears manifestly by what hath been said, what our faith is concer­ning the abrogation of the Law, by the Gospell. We believe first, that by the Gospel, forasmuch as it de­clareth unto us the fulfilling of all things, which were fore-told by types and figures in the old Testament, concerning Christ (as we shewed be­fore in the 11. Chap.) The Law con­cerning [Page 141]Ceremonies and sacrifices, and all the externall Mosaicall worship is absolutely abrogated, ac­cording to that of the Apostle teach­ing, that they wereHebr. 9.10. imposed on them untill the time of reformation: and that of the Evangelist, thatIohn 1.17. the Law was given by Moses, but grace and truth by Iesus Christ. Secondly, Forasmuch the Gospel is one instrument of the holy Ghost, whereby we are ingrafted and united unto Christ, and made par­takers of redemption and salvation (as we shewed in the 12. Chap:) In that regard we confesse that even the Morall Law also, as concerning the curse denounced against the trans­gressours thereof, is by the Gospel of Christ abrogated: according to that of the Apostle,Rom. 8.1. There is no con­demnation to them which are in Christ Iesus. A signe whereof, this is, that theyibid. walk not after the flesh, but af­ter the Spirit. But forasmuch as the Doctrine of the Gospel requireth re­pentance of us, and sanctitie of our whole life, and that we live sober­ly, righteously, and godly: In this regard, I say, it taketh not away the [Page 142]Morall Law: For it agreeth alto­gether with the Doctrine of the Go­spel concerning eschewing vices, and following after virtues. Thirdly, and lastly, forasmuch as Christ by his Gospel hath not taken away the Po­liticall or civill Laws, by which com­monwealths are governed, which are agreeable to the Law of nature: Therefore we leave it free to Magi­strates to use the Laws which were delivered to the commonwealth of the Iews, and to govern their people thereby, considering that there are none more equall and just then they, Wherefore, if there be any one that dare presume to say that by the Go­spel of Christ the government of commonwealths is overturned or troubled, he offers great injurie to the Gospel of Christ. Concerning the Gospel of Christ, this is our faith.

DOCT. VIII. Errours.

WE therefore hold, that the Anti­nomi, or the professed enemies of the Law are to be condemned, and [Page 143]whosoever do dislike the Morall Law, and banish it out of their Churches, as if it were either contrarie to the Gospel, or nothing pertaining unto Christians: and further those, which mislike and finde fault with Magi­strates forgoing about to bring in Politicall Laws of Moses into their commonwealths.

CHAP. XIV. Concerning the Sacraments of the New Testament.

BEcause God, for the perfecting of our communion with Christ, wherein the participation of salvation wholly consisteth, hath been pleased to use not onely the word of the Gospel alone by it self, but also enternall signes fit for that purpose, and joyned together with the word, which two are required to the constituting of a Sacrament: Therefore in the next place, after our confession concerning the Gospel, we think good to adde a brief, and per­spicuous [Page 144]Sacraments, and that agreeable unto the holy Scripture, and the first prin­ciples of our Christian faith.

DOCTRINE I. What we understand by the name of Sacrament.

WE know that a Sacrament is pro­perly an holy oath, or promise on both parts, that is, made between God and his people: not simply; but also established by certain holy rites and ceremonies: As it appeared ma­nifestly in the Sacrament of circum­cision, between God and Abraham; and in Baptisme, which succeeded in the place of circumcision, between Christ and us. So a Sacrament is by the Fathers taken often for the whole Sacramentall action, whether of Ba­ptisme, or of the Lords Supper: in which there goes before a promise on both parts, confirmed after an holy manner by externall rites, signes, and seals, and also by the bloud of Christ. But in after time by the name of Sa­crament, they understood by a figure called Synecdoche the rites onely, or [Page 145]the visible signes added unto the word. And this is another significa­tion which prevailed and had place in the Church. Now we, according to the signification and use of the word in the Church, call a Sacra­ment, not the word onely, nor the outward element onely, but the ele­ment, or the visible signes, joyned with the word of the Gospel, ac­cording to Christ's institution. Whereunto agreeth that of St. Augu­stine,Augu­stine. The word is added unto the ele­ment, and so it becomes a Sacrament.

DOCT. II. Whereof the Sacraments are Sa­craments.

NOw, because every Sacrament is the Sacrament of some thing: we say that this thing is that, which the word of the Gospel doth signifie; to wit, the grace of God in Christ, or rather Christ himself together with grace and salvation placed in him. For Christ is the summe of the Go­spel: and, that we may have commu­nion with him: as was the word, so likewise were the Sacraments insti­tuted [Page 146]and ordained, to put us in mind of him, and to raise up our thoughts unto him. And so, what is outward­ly exhibited unto us, we say, it is a signe of that which is inwardly pro­posed and set before us to be recei­ved: and, that which is done without, is a signe of that which the holy Ghost inwardly worketh in our hearts.

DOCT. III. What the parts are whereof a Sa­crament consisteth.

FRom hence also we come to un­derstand what the parts are, where­of a Sacrament is properly said to consist, to wit, the word and the signe, or outward visible element: but yet with a relation unto the thing by them signified, and repre­sented, and whereof they are a Sa­crament. For the thing, whereof any thing is a Sacrament, is not it self neither can it be a Sacrament, or a­ny part of a Sacrament: Forasmuch as every Sacrament is a Sacrament of another thing which is different, and diverse from it. But yet we do not [Page 147]simply and absolutely separate the thing it self from the Sacrament: neither do we deny, but that the Fa­thers, and many other learned and godly men do in the name of Sacra­ment comprehend the thing it self, whereof any thing is a Sacrament: As by the name of Baptisme is not onely the outward ablution or wash­ing of water understood; but also therein is contained the inward purg­ing of the conscience from sin, and likewise regeneration: Therefore we embrace that saying of Ireneus con­cerning the Eucharist, or the Sacra­ment of the Lords Supper, that it doth consist both of an earthly and heavenly matter: neither do we, when we speak of the Sacraments, abstain from such manner of speaking: yet in this sense, not that the thing signi­fied is properly a part of the Sacra­ment; for it is rather that, unto the participation whereof the Sacra­ments do lead us: But, because the Sacrament hath a mysticall relation unto it; so that by the tye of this re­lation the earthly matter is knit to­gether with the heavenly. And thus [Page 148]we reconcile the sayings of divers Fa­thers, and many other learned men, which may seem to jarre one with another: whereas they were all of one and the same mind every where: some calling the Sacraments simply by these and the like names, Signes, Figures, Resemblances, or Representa­tions, Types, Antitypes, Signets, Seals, Ceremonies, and the Visible Word; others saying: that they consist of an earthly and heavenly matter: which how it is to be understood we have declared already, all of them often­times after the manner of holy writ, calling them by the names of those things, whereof they are Sacraments: whereas yet notwithstanding they un­derstood & professed that there were three things to be considered in the Sacraments, that is to say, the Word, the signes added unto the Word, and the things whereof they are signes.

DOCT. IV. The reasons why the Lord would have signes also added to the Word of the Gospel; and why they are called the Visible Word.

WE believe also, and confesse in­genuously, that the visible signes by Gods institution were added unto the word, and that they were to be added, for the better and surer con­firmation of the word in our mindes: it being the manner and custome al­most in every nation, to affix and set to their seals to their last wills and Testaments, as also to divers other writings. Which also is the reason, why the outward signes, which fall under our sense, are called by St. Au­gustine the Visible Word: to wit, because they were instituted and or­dained, and likewise added unto the word to this end, that they should do the same thing which the Word doeth, that is to say, that, what the Word signifieth unto our eares, the same also should they represent unto [Page 150]confirme unto us the Word and pro­mises of God: And that, as by the Word faith is stirred up in our minds, so also by them as outward signes, and seals, it might be confirmed, sealed, and every day more and more increased: And last of all, that as the Word, so also the holy signes might become as instruments for the holy Ghost to use for the bringing us to have communion with Christ, or for the making us to grow together in it. And we make no doubt or question at all, but all this was insti­tuted and appointed by God for our weaknesse and ignorance, and for the imbecillitie of our faith: that it might be supported not onely by the Word, but also by the outward signes: Forasmuch as faith it is, by which properly it comes to passe that we embrace and lay hold on Christ, and grow up together in him.

DOCT. V. That where the Words of institution are not recited; there is no Sacrament: And, that without the use thereof, the outward signes are no more then what they are of their own nature.

ANd, as we believe, that the signes are added unto the Word, not for superstition, but for the greater con­firmation of our faith: so also we confesse, that the Word is necessarie in the administration of the Sacra­ments, not for incantation, but for to stirre up faith in our hearts. And thereupon, when the Words of In­stitution are not so recited or rehear­sed as that they may be heard and understood, for the stirring up of faith: There, we deny any true Sa­crament to be; and conclude, that without the due & lawfull use there­of, the outward signes are no Sacra­ments, but merely that, which they are of their own nature, and no more. For by the Word onely are the out­ward elements or signes set a part for an holy use, which setting apart is by many called the Consecrating, or San­ctifying [Page 152]thereof: And so they be­come Sacraments; according to that of St Augustine,August. The Word is added unto the element, and so it becomes a Sa­crament: But yet so must it be added that it may be understood and be­lieved.

DOCT. VI. That the Sacraments are not bare and naked signes.

THerefore we believe that the Sa­cramentall signes are not onely bare notes or marks to distinguish us from all other people, which are aliens and strangers from the true Church; nor yet onely badges or cognizances of Christian societie, by which we may make profession of our faith, and give thanks unto God for the great benefit of our redem­ption: But also that they are instru­ments by which, whilst the actions and benefits of Christ are represented unto us, and recalled unto our me­morie, the promises of God are sea­led unto us, and faith also stirred vp in our hearts: the holy Ghost also ingrafting us into Christ, and pre­serving [Page 153]us being once ingrafted, and making us every day more and more to grow up into one with him: that so being indued with greater faith towards God, more ardent charitie towards our neighbour, and the gift of true mortification of our selves, we may leade a life, as near as it is possible, according to the most per­fect pattern of Christ's life, in all Spirituall joy and gladnesse: till at length we received up to live with him in heaven a most holy, happy, and blessed life, for ever and ever.

DOCT. VII. What the Sacraments of the New Testa­ment are.

WE confesse also with St. Augu­stine, August. De Do­ctrin. Christ. lib. 3. cap. 9. that the Sacraments by Christ delivered unto us are for num­ber, few; for performance, most easie; for understanding, most full of ma­jesty: First, For number, few; be­cause they are but two onely, Ba­ptisme, and The Lords Supper. Se­condly, For performance, most easie; because there is nothing in Baptisme, or in the Lords Supper, which may [Page 154]not easily be performed and recei­ved, nothing troublesome, nothing unpleasant, nothing strange, or ab­horring from the manners of men. Last of all, For understanding, most full of majestie; because, although the things which are seen with our eyes, are vile; yet the things signified and represented unto our minds, to be un­derstood thereby, and to be conside­red, are most full of majestie, divine, and heavenly, pertaining unto ever­lasting salvation.

DOCT. VIII. That for the worthy receiving of the Sacraments there is need of faith and understanding.

FRom whence also we come to un­derstand, that for the worthy recei­ving of the Sacraments, the action of the mind also is required, attention, and faith: whereby we may under­stand and apprehend what is thereby signified, and exhibited unto us; as also Christ himself teacheth, where concerning his Supper he saith,Luke 22.19. This do in remembrance of mee. And the1 Cor, 1.42. Apostle duely waighing and consi­dering [Page 155]with himself the Words of Christ, expounds them at large. Whereunto belongeth that also, Lift up your hearts: For there are set be­fore us things majesticall, heavenly, and divine, to be understood by the mind, and to be received by faith.

DOCT. IX. That the thing it self of the Sacrament is seriously and truely set before all: although all do not truely partake thereof; but the elect and faithfull onely.

BUt, although all men come not to the receiving of the Sacraments with true faith and understanding: Yet, as the visible signes are exhibi­ted unto all that do professe the name of Christ, so also we believe that the things themselves which by the Sacraments are signified, are also seriously and truely by Christ offered unto all; and therefore, that by rea­son of the infidelitie, and unbelief of those which receive onely the vi­sible signes nothing at all is detra­cted from the integritie & perfection [Page 156]of the Sacraments: Forasmuch as that dependeth onely on Christ's In­stitution, and the truth of his Words.

DOCT. X. That, whilst the Sacraments are admi­nistred, the holy Ghost worketh effe­ctually in the faithfull: and there­fore, that they do not onely receive the bare visible signes; but also par­take of the thing thereby signified.

BUt again, although, whilst the Sacraments are administred, the Spirit of Christ worketh not effe­ctually in all men, as neither doth he whilst the Word is preached; but all through their own fault, because they bring not with them faith and understanding: Yet we believe ne­verthelesse that he worketh effectual­ly in all the elect and believers; for­asmuch as he conferreth and bestow­eth faith upon them by the preach­ing of the Word, and every day more and more confirmeth them in it by the receiving of the Sacraments, and bringeth them to have communion with Christ, and causeth them to [Page 157]grow up together in it: And there­fore we confesse that they are in Bap­tisme truely washed from their sins, and purged by the virtue of Christ's bloud; and, that in the Supper they are nourished and fed with the body and bloud of Christ.

DOCT. XI. That Christ is the Authour and true dispenser of the Sacraments.

ANd, as we acknowledge onely one Authour of the Sacraments: So also we acknowledge one onely true dispenser of the same, to wit, our Lord Iesus Christ: who dispenseth indeed the outward elements and vi­sible signes by the ministerie of man, Instrumentally; but himself doth true­ly and properly communicate the matter it self of the Sacraments, or the thing signified, by himself and his holy Spirit efficiently. According to what Iohn the Baptist said, that he indeed did BaptizeMatt. 3.11. with water; but Christ with the holy Ghost. And there­fore as it is lawfull for no man to in­stitute and ordaine new Sacraments, so neither can any man boast that he [Page 158]doth truely and properly either purge the Consciences of men from sin, or feed them with the true body and bloud of Christ; but onely (as they use to say) Ministerially.

DOCT. XII. That the Sacraments received by the faithfull are not vitiated and pollu­ted by the ill lives and conditions of the Ministers thereof.

BUt, if Christ alone be not onely the true Authour, but dispenser also of the Sacraments: From hence it is easily gathered, that the Sacra­ments received by the faithfull are not vitiated and polluted by the cor­ruptions, and ill lives of those whose Ministerie God useth; but, that they receive them worthily, and are made partakers of the thing signified and offered by the Sacraments. For,T [...]it. 1.15. Vnto the pure all things are pure and,Eph. 3.17. By faith Christ with all his treasures dwel­leth in the hearts of the believers.

DOCT XIII. That grace is not tyed and bound to the Sacraments.

UPon the same grounds and foun­dations we are confirmed in the [Page 159]opinion which is received and main­tained by all the godly, That grace is not tyed and bound unto the Sacra­ments, to wit, so that he which re­ceiveth them, doth necessarily, yea though he want faith, receive also the thing it self thereby signified and offered: as if (ex opere operato as they speak) upon the outward act of receiving the Sacraments barely con­sidered a man might attain unto the signified. For Christ doth not abso­lutely say,Mark 16.16. He that is Baptised shall be saved, but he saith in the first place, He that believeth and is, &c. AndAct. [...].13. Si­mon Magus also was Baptised; but yet he attained not unto the thing it self signified by Baptisme: For, as Peter witnesseth, he was still23. in the gall of bitternesse and in the bond of iniqui­tie, being held entangled in diabo­licall malice, and so having no part in the Kingdome of Christ. AndAu­gust. Many there are which eate the bread of the Lord, but not the bread the Lord. For as they which hear the Gospell preached unto them are not made partakers of remission of sins, unlesse they repent them of their sins past, [Page 160]and believe in Christ: so neither are they which receive the Sacrament made partakers of those things which are thereby represented and offered unto them unlesse unto to outward receiving there be also added repen­tance and faith.

DOCT. XIV. That by the unworthinesse of the recei­vers, the power and virtue of the Sa­craments is neither taken away nor diminished.

NEither yet do we therefore take away or diminish the power and efficacie of the Sacraments given thereunto by God: Forasmuch as we confesse that it depends upon faith, and the power of Christ who instituted, and ordained the Sacra­ments; and, that it is neither ta­ken away nor diminished by the un­worthinesse of the administers there­of, or the receivers. For, as the Go­spel by it self retaineth alwayes it's own power, efficacie, and significa­tion, although all men do not un­derstand it; and again, as it hath [Page 161]power to exhibite what it offereth to be received, although all men be not made partakers thereof: So also is it with the Sacraments, which are the visible Word. For, as the Word by it self alwaies is the power of God unto salvation, but not so to every one that heareth, unlesse he also doth believe: So also the Sacraments are instruments which the holy Ghost useth alwayes efficacious unto salva­tion, although none partake of the efficacie thereof, but onely those which do truely believe. For which cause the Apostle is not afraid to say that all those which were Baptised, were1 Cor. 6.11. washed, sanctified, & justified, al­though he knew that there were ma­ny hypocrites amongst them. For by such manner of speaking is signified, the efficacie by God given unto the Sacraments, and what we are to be­lieve concerning the efficacie thereof, unlesse perhaps our own hypocrisie be an hindrance and impediment thereunto. In which sense if any one shall say that, whosoever eate the bread of the Lord, they are made also partakers of the Lords body, that [Page 162]is, as concerning the power and effi­cacie of the Sacraments, and the Au­thour and distributour thereof, there is no impediment or hindrance, but that the receivers of the Sacraments are made parkers of the thing there­by signified and offered unto them: We cannot dislike such manner of speaking, if so be that there be added thereunto such explications and ex­positions as these, for the instructing of the ruder sort of people, and for the rooting up out of their mindes the false opinion, which hath been along time conceived concerning the Opus operatum, or the outward work performed at the receiving of the Sa­craments.

DOCT. XV. That between the signes and the things signified there is a Sacramentall union: And, what that is.

ANd, although we say, that the thing it self of the Sacraments is not tyed and bound unto the Sacra­ments, nor included in them either Naturally, or Locally, or Corporal­ly, or by tye of obligation, as if God [Page 163]simply and absolutely had promised to give even the things themselves to all the receivers of the Sacraments, though wanting faith; and further as if he were bound to give them e­ven unto the impenitent and unbe­lievers: Yet we do not hereby take away all manner of conjunction and tye between the things signified and the signes: For we acknowledge and confesse a Sacramentall, that is, such a union as may stand with the Sa­craments and the things of the Sacra­ments. Now this Sacramentall union consisteth in a kind of mysticall and holy relation: inasmuch as the signes do both signifie the things and also offer them to be received; and again the things are signified by the signes, and exhibited also to be received: As likewise there is a union between the word signifying and exhibiting, and the things by the word signifyed and exhibited. But this conjunction or union as well of the Sacraments, as of the word with the things them­selves, dependeth on the will and counsell of God, who did institute them. For when he instituted the [Page 164]preaching of the Gospel, and the ad­ministration of the Sacraments, he did it to this end and purpose which we have declared: and that we hear­ing the word, and beholding and receiving the signes should presently lift up the eyes of our minds unto the things thereby signified; and that by the hand of faith we should re­ceive them being offered: and that we might truely and really be united unto Christ, who by the word is preached unto us, and by the signifi­cation of the Sacraments is as it were pointed at with the finger. As there­fore our conjunction or joyning to­gether with Christ is altogether my­sticall, as theEph. 5.32. Apostle teacheth: So also we hold that the union as well of the word as of the Sacraments with the things whereof they are signes and Sacraments, is mysticall and Spirituall.

DOCT. XVI. The Definition of the Sacraments.

TO comprehend therefore much in few words, our judgement is that The Sacraments are outward [Page 165]signes, and such as fall under our senses; whith are added unto the word of the Gospel, according to Christ's institution, by reason of our ignorance & weakness, and for the better stirring up and con­firming of our faith: whereby all men are seriously called; but the elect one­ly and believers by the holy Ghost in­wardly working in their minds, and drawing them, are brought unto Christ to have true and reall communion with him, and with his flesh and bloud, and so are made partakers of all Christs be­nefits, which by the word and outward visible signes are signified and offered: that being incorporated into Christ they may at length make up the body of the whole Church according as the Father hath preordained unto the praise and glorie of his grace and their eternall salvation.

DOCT. XVII. In summe, what communitie the Sacra­ments of the Old Testament have with the Sacraments of the New.

COncerning the Sacraments of the Old Testament we need not [Page 166]say much; forasmuch as they are abrogated: But this one thing must not be omitted, to wit, that the Fa­thers of old, forasmuch as they had the same God that we have, the same promises, the same Mediatour, the same Spirit regenerating, the same faith, and the same hope: They had likewise the same Sacraments that we have, if we have respect unto the substance thereof which is Christ; al­though for ceremonies different from ours: And this we the rather hold; because theirs were delivered to them to the same end that ours are delivered unto us, to wit, that they might be confirmed in the faith of Christ, and grow up together in com­munion with him. To prove what we have said these places of Scripture are very pertinent, he was,Revel. 13.8. the Lamb slain from the foundation of the world. 1 Cor. 10.4. They did all drink the same Spirituall drink: (for they drank of that Spiri­tuall Rock that followed them: and that Rock was Christ) And again,Heb. 1 [...].8. Iesus Christ the same yesterday and to day, and for ever.

DOCT. XVIII. That there are onely two Sacraments of the Christian Church.

WE acknowledge onely two Sa­craments properly so called, which were alwayes common to all the Christian Church, by name, Ba­ptisme and the Lords Supper: whereof the one belongeth to the beginning of our communion with Christ; and the other unto the increase thereof. Whereupon the one is called the Laver or washing of regeneration; and the other, the holy Feast, or the Lords Supper.

DOCT. XIX. Errours condemned.

WE cannot therefore but dislike those, which will have a Sacra­ment to be even where no word is heard, but onely some visible signe seen. And those likewise, which make no distinction between the thing of the Sacrament, and the Sacrament; but will have it to be received into the mouth, as well as the Sacramen­tall [Page 168]signe: Whereas the thing of the Sacrament is that, which the signe coming under the judgement of our sense bringeth unto our minde, but letteth not fall into our hand or mouth. Neither yet do we like those, which in the Sacraments consider nothing else but what they see with their eyes: Nor yet those, which will have them to be onely badges & co­gnizances to distinguish us from other people; or else but bare signes, and no instruments of the holy Ghost by which he worketh in us effectually, and confirmes us in the communion of Christ. But we condemne those, which institute new Sacraments, be­side those which Christ himself hath instituted: And those also, which tye the grace of God and the things signified by the Sacraments, unto the Sacraments; in such manner, as if every one that receiveth the signes, might truely be said alwayes to par­take also of the thing it self.

CHAP. XV. Concerning Baptisme.

BEsides what hath been said of the Sacraments in generall: we further believe and confesse, as followeth, concerning the Sacra­ment of Baptisme in speciall.

DOCTRINE I. What Baptisme is: and what the effects thereof.

Matt. 21.19.BAptisme is the first Sacrament of the New Covenant: by which both all they, which either having made confession of their sins, and profession of their faith in Christ, and so likewise in God the Father, the Son, and the holy Ghost, or such as at least we believe for the pietie of their1 Cor. 7.14. parents do belong unto the Cove­nant; and they more especially, which truely belong unto the Covenant, areEph. 1.1 [...]. sealed in Christ, being as it were1 Cor. 6.15. incorporated into him by the holy Ghost, in such manner that they are1 [...]. no longer their own, but his, by whom they are said to be received un­to [Page 170]the fellowship of the Covenant, and so become one body with him and all the Saints, and are made par­takers of all Spirituall and celestiall benefits: being by this Baptisme as the laver of regenerationEphes. 5.26. cleansed from their sins by the bloud of Christ, andRom. 6.4. buried with him into death, that like as Christ was raised up from the dead by the glorie of the Father, even so we also should walk in newnesse of life: For which cause it is usually called, the Sacrament, orMark 1.4. The Baptisme of re­pentance for the remission of sins, The seal of faith, the seal of the Cove­nant, the laver of regeneration, the washing away of sins, and the Sacra­ment or seal of newnesse of life.

DOCT. II. That the power and vertue of Baptisme hath onely place in the elect: and that they alone are Baptised not onely with water, but also with the holy Ghost.

BUt yet, notwithstanding such ex­cellent things are said of Baptisme, and are truely attributed unto it as an instrument used by the holy [Page 171]Ghost, and so Sacramentally, all they which are Baptised, are truely said to be made, and to be such: We believe that it is fulfilled really onely in the elect, which are endued with the holy Ghost, forasmuch as they onely do truely believe, and truely belong unto Christ and his mysticall body. And therefore, that all indeed are Baptised with water, but the elect onely with the holy Ghost; and, that all receive the signe, not all the thing signified and offered by Baptisme, but that the elect onely are made partakers thereof.

DOCT. III. What be the integrall parts of the Sa­crament of Baptisme.

WE believe that, for the making of the Sacrament of Baptisme to be entire, those two things are suffi­cient which Christ hath instituted, to wit, the simple element of water, with which men are Baptised whether by way of immersion, or dipping in the water, or aspersion, & sprinkling on the water; and that form of words which Christ taught his Apostles to [Page 172]use when they Baptized,Matth. 28.9. to wit, In the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the holy Ghost. And we are ful­ly perswaded, that they neither used any other forme of words, nor added any thing else unto the water.

DOCT. IV. That infants being the children of be­lieving parents are to be Baptized.

WE believe also with all the an­cient Church, that to the Sacra­ment of Baptisme are to be admitted, not onely those which are of ripe years, which repent and confesse their sins, and make profession of their faith in Christ: but also infants being the children of such parents, forasmuch as we are to judge that they also belong unto the Covenant, according to the Apostles saying to this purpose,1 Cor. 7.14. That the children of believing parents are holy: especial­ly, considering that Christ in no place hath changed Gods command­ment made unto Abraham, concer­ning the sealing of the children also of the faithfull and believers with the seal of the Covenant; yea more, [Page 173]considering that Christ hath said ex­presly,Matt. 19.14. Suffer little children, and for­bid them not to come unto me: for of such is the Kingdome of heaven.

DOCT. V. How far forth Baptisme is necessarie in the Church, and how far forth ne­cessarie for every one unto salvation.

WE believe that Baptisme is alto­gether necessarie in the Church, as a Sacrament instituted by Christ; and so farre forth necessarie, that where it is not when it may, there we cannot acknowledge the Church of Christ to be. But in such manner do we think it necessary for every one unto salvation, that yet, if it so happen that any one for defect of a Minister, and not out of contempt, do depart out of this life without Baptisme, we do not therefore believe that he is damned, and swallowed up of eter­nall destruction. For the children of the faithfull, and believers are there­fore saved, because they are within the Covenant of God, and so holy. But they which are of ripe years are saved by true faith in Christ, which [Page 174]certainly cannot stand together with the contempt of Christs command­ments.

DOCT. VI. That Baptisme once rightly admini­stred ought not again to be repeated.

WE believe farther that, as circum­cision was made in the flesh but once onely, so Baptisme also, which succeeded in the place of Circum­cision, once duely and rightly admi­nistred ought not again to be repea­ted. Now we understand that it is duely and rightly administred, when as according to Christs institution, first the Doctrine of the Gospel is premised, concerning the true God, Christ, and his office: and then men are Baptised with water, and that by a lawfull Minister,Matt. 28.19. In the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the holy Ghost. For Christ also died but once, and was buried: and we areRom. 6.3, 4. Baptised into his death, andCol. 2.12. buried with him by Baptisme. Neither do we reade that the Apostles ever re­baptised [Page 175]any, but onely Paul: and these were such as before hadAct. 19.5. not rightly been Baptised.

DOCT. VII. That the power and vertue of Baptisme lasteth for ever.

ALthough we come unto the Sa­crament of Baptisme but once: Yet we believe that the thing it self of the Sacrament, and the power and vertue thereof lasteth for ever, that is, our ingrafting into Christ, and so the participation of his benefits the wash­ing away of sins, and regeneration, which every day is more and more perfected in us by the holy Ghost. For the Apostle saith, thatEphes. 5.26. Christ hath cleansed the Church with the wash­ing of water by the word, 27. that he might present it to himself a glorious Church, not having spot or wrinkle. 1 Ioh 1.7. And the bloud of Iesus Christ cleanseth us [eyery day] from all sin. And there­fore we think that the faithfull and believers being content with the Sa­crament of Baptisme once received, ought dayly, to be put in mind there­of, and recall it to their memorie: as [Page 176]also, into whom they are Baptized, and what God hath conferred upon them by Baptisme; and again, what they likewise have promised unto God: That we may be all every day more and more confirmed in our faith, and grow up together in our communion with Christ, and be made more studious and diligent in the performing of our dutyes. Neither is Baptisme ordained for the remissi­on either of Originall sinne onely, or the sinnes of our life past; but also for all the sinnes of our whole life: As our plucking out of the water is a signe of new life, not for one day onely, but for all the dayes of our life, according to the saying of the Apostle,Rom. c. 4. We are buried with him by Baptisme [for ever] into death, that, like as Christ was raised up from the dead by the glory of the Father, even so we also should walk [for ever] in newnesse of life. We were but once washed outwardly with water; but the bloud of Christ is an everliving spring which dayly washeth and cleanseth us from all sinne.

DOCT. VIII. By whom Baptisme ought to be ad­ministred.

WE believe, that by whom the Gospel is preached, by the same also ought holy Baptisme to be ad­ministred: For to whom Christ said,Mark. 16.15. Go ye into all the world, and preach the Gospel: to the same also he said,Matt. 28.19. Go and teach all nations, Baptizing them in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the holy Ghost 20. Teaching them to observe all things whatsoever I have commanded you.

DOCT. IX. Errours condemned.

WE therefore condemne all here­sies as well old as new, which are or have been spread abroad concer­ning Baptisme, contrarie to sound Doctrine; either by Seleucus and Her­mias, which Baptized with fire; or the Cerdonians and Marcionites, which used another form of words then that which was prescribed by Christ, and that in the name of another God then in the name of the Father, and [Page 178]of the Son, and of the holy Ghost: Those which Baptised in the name of Iohn or any other: The Cataphryges which Baptised even the dead; toge­ther with the Donatists, and Ana­baptists, which rebaptised all that come unto them: Those likewise which deny that infants are to be Baptised; and those also which de­ny that Baptisme to be true, where­unto there is not added Exorcismes, Spittle, Salt, and other ceremonies which are the meer inventions of men.

CHAP. XVI. Concerning the Lords Supper.

BY what hath been delivered by us, concerning our communion with Christ, the word of the Gospel, the Sacraments in generall, and Baptisme in speciall, it may be easily known what our faith and belief is concer­ning the Lords Supper.

DOCTRINE I. That the Sacrament of the Lord's Supper is an instrument used by the holy Ghost for the furthering of our communion with Christ and his Church.

WE believe, that the Sacrament of the Supper is not onely a testi­monie of our communion with Christ, and so with his flesh and bloud, and also with the whole Church: but also an instrument used by the holy Ghost to confirme and further the same. The Apostle saith as much,1 Co [...]. 10.16. The bread which we break, is it not the communion of the body of Christ? The breaking and the recei­ving the blessed bread, he calls the communion of the Lord's body: be­cause, they which eat thereof with actuall faith in the Lord himself, grow up together in communion with the Lord himself, and with his flesh and bloud: Even as they also, which with faith embrace the word preached by the Apostles,1 Iohn. 1.3. have also fellowship with the Apostles; and that fellowship is with the Father, and his Son Iesus Christ.

DOCT. II. A confirmation of the former.

FOr as Baptisme is an instrument to inchoate and begin this com­munion; because thereby we are born again in Christ: So the Supper was instituted to perfect the same; because therein we are fed with the flesh and bloud of Christ, that we may grow up in him.1 Cor. 12.13. For, as the Apostle saith, by one Spirit are we all Baptized into one body, and have been all made to drink into one Spirit.

DOCT. III. That the furthering and increasing of our communion with Christ, is the chief end of the Lords Supper.

THe Lords Supper was, indeed in­stituted for many other ends: to wit, that being admonished both by words and signes representing the Lords death and the effusion of his most precious bloud, we might call to mind and thankfully acknowledge the great benefit of our Redemption. For what saith the Apostle?1 Cor. 11.26. As often as ye eat this bread, and drink this cup, [Page 181]ye do shew the Lords death till he come. To these ends therefore serveth it, that we may be confirmed in our faith about the remission of our sins, that we may be nourished unto the hope of a blessed resurrection, that we may be stirred up to give thanks unto God for so great a benefit, and to repent us of our sins, and last of all to renew our covenant made with God, openly and in the presence of the whole Church. But because all these tend to no other end but this, that we may be more and more uni­ted unto Christ: and become one with him, and thatGal. 2.20 he may live more effectually in us, and we in him,Eph. 5. [...]0. being made flesh of his flesh and bone of his bones: Therefore we doubt not, but the Supper was chiefly and prin­cipally instituted, for the increasing and furthering this our union and communion with Christ, in which is perfected and consummated our sal­vation. Whereunto also serveth the bread and wine, being bodily nou­rishments: That we may know it for certain, that, what the bread and wine is for the nourishing of our bo­dyes, [Page 182]and the preserving of this na­turall life, such also is the flesh and bloud of Christ for the feeding of our souls, and the maintenance of our Spirituall life.

DOCT. IV. Why the bread is called the body of Christ.

FRom whence also we may learn, why Christ calleth this bread his body: Not so as if it were either pro­perly his true body; or as if his body were included in it: or so, as if it were but a bare and naked signe of his body which was broken and cru­cified for us: But because it is a Sa­crament thereof (and Sacraments, as St. Augustine saith, are often called by the names of those things, where­of they are Sacraments) and so is made an instrument of the holy Ghost, for the communicating unto us the true body of Christ, and for the confirming us in the commu­nion thereof. As also the Apostle for the same reason, speaking of Ba­ptisme, called it not a signe of rege­neration, but the very laver of rege­neration: [Page 183]without doubt, becauseEph. 5.26. with the washing of water by the word, as by a fit and convenient in­strument, Christ by the effectuall working of his Spirit, doth inwardly wash, cleanse, and regenerate us.

DOCT. V. That the bread is but improperly and figuratively called the true and sub­stantiall body of Christ.

WHerefore we doubt not but in the words of the Supper the true and naturall body of Christ is predi­cated of the bread: especially, seeing that for explication sake there is ad­ded,Luk. 22.19, Which is given for you: So that this is a most true saying, the bread is Christs body, to wit, that true bo­by which was given for us: but this is improperly and figuratively: seeing that in very deed the bread was given for us, but the true body of Christ, whereof the bread is a Sacrament.

DOCT. VI. That the body of Christ is not in the bread really and properly.

FRom hence also we are confirmed in our opinion, that as the bread [Page 184]is not properly the very body of Christ, but a Sacrament thereof, so likewise the body of Christ is not really and properly in the bread. For in Sacraments the things themselves whereof they are Sacraments, are not really included, although they some­times receive the names thereof: As it appeareth plainly in Baptisme without all controversie: in which no man saith that either the bloud of Christ, by which we are washed from our sins, or regeneration it self is included: For neither in the word of the Gospel are included really those things, which thereby are de­clared. Now the Sacraments are the visible word. But neither did Christ say, My body is in this, that is, in the bread; but he used another farre dif­ferent manner of speaking, to wit This, that is, This bread is my body. Now if any one list to be conten­tious, and say that the sense is all one: It will follow, that if the body of Christ be really in the bread, the bread likewise is really, properly, and substantially the body of Christ: which if it be impious once to af­firme; [Page 185]then cannot the other be af­firmed without great impietie. And yet we deny not but that Sacramen­tally it may be so, according to the sense in which we say, that in the word of the Gospel is remission of sins, life, and salvation, which there­by are declared and offered unto us. But, forasmuch as by such manner of speaking the vulgar sort are com­monly drawn to superstition, we judge it fitting to abstain altogether from them, and we hold it most mete to use such formes of words as we find recorded in the sacred Scri­pture.

DOCT. VII. That in the Supper not onely the signes? but also the things themselves signi­fied, are distributed.

NOw without all manner of con­troversie this we hold for a sure position, and a certain truth, that, although the very body and bloud of the Lord are not, that is, exist not in their own substance, and real­ly and properly in the bread & wine, but in heaven: Yet together with the [Page 186]distribution of the bread and wine, the very flesh and bloud also are true­ly offered unto all to be eaten, and to be drunk. But how? Not simply, but as the one was delivered unto death for us, and the other poured forth for the remission of our sins. For the words of Christ inIohn 6.51. Iohn are manifest concerning the eating of his flesh and the drinking of his bloud, if any man will have life in him: and consonant and agreeable unto the words of Christ are the words of the Apostle also saying,1 Cor. 11.27. Whosoever shall eat this bread and drink this cup of the Lord unworthily, shall be guilty of the [true] body and bloud of the Lord. Neither do we doubt but, as Christ openly commanded the bread to be eaten, so also not long after where he said, this is my body, he secretly commanded that also to be eaten no lesse then the bread; but yet each af­ter it's own manner.

DOCT. VIII. That none but the faithfull do truely eat the true flesh of Christ.

BUt yet, notwithstanding the flesh of Christ is in the Supper offered unto all to eat, we believe that they are the true faithfull onely which do truely eat thereof. And that for these reasons: First, because they onely have communion with Christ, and so also with his flesh and bloud; but others have not; neither are they made partakers thereof, when they receive the bread. Secondly, because they onely have the Spirit of Christ, by the power of whom alone the flesh of Christ is truely communica­ted. Thirdly, because they onely bring faith with them, without which there can be no true receiving and eating thereof. For neither doth Christ himself truely and really ex­hibit his true body, but to them who as truely believe that his body was delivered unto death for them, and his bloud poured forth for their sins, as they believe that those words are true, THIS IS MY BODY.

DOCT. IX. That Hypocrites eat the body of Christ Sacramentally.

MEan while we deny not but that even Hypocrites themselves void of true and justifying faith, when they receive and eat the bread as the Sa­crament of the Lords body, may be said in some sort to eat the true bo­dy of Christ, to wit, Sacramentally, but not truely and really. As the Apostle in like manner saith, that all the Corinthians, which were Baptized with water, were also sancti­fied, and justified, to wit, Sacramen­tally, as we declared before: although they were not all truely made such.

DOCT. X. That, of those that eat there are three sorts, and so divers manners of eating.

FRom whence we are taught that there are three sorts of men, of whom there may a question be made, whether they eat the flesh of Christ, [Page 189]or no. The first is of thē, which receive the bread as common bread, and not as a Sacrament: And these eat not the body of Christ in any sort; but are true Capernaites: and their eating is merely carnall. The second is of them, which contrarily eat not the bread at all (but yet not out of con­tempt) but believe the Gospel onely, and their eating is merely Spirituall. The third and last sort is of them, which not content onely with belie­ving the Gospel, receive the bread al­so: not simply, as the first, as if it were bare and common bread; but as the Sacrament of the Lords body: where­upon they may be said also to receive and eat Sacramentally. But, foras­much as this may be done by the true Godly as well as by those which are hypocrites and ungodly, but yet after a different manner: the one sort eating also by faith, and the other without true faith: Therefore also we say, that the ungodly and hypo­crites eat onely Sacramentally, but the true Godly both Sacramentally, and truely, and Spiritually, and so unto salvation.

DOCT. XI. That by faith onely the true body of Christ is eaten.

BUt, whereas we say that the faith­full onely receive the true body of Christ, not Sacramentally onely, but also truely: we understand it of eat­ing, not with the mouth of the body, but the mind and Spirit endued with faith, and that by the operation of the holy Spirit effectually working in us, and applying Christ wholly un­to us. For it is the food of the mind, (asCy­prian. Serm. de Coena. Cyprian speaketh) and not of the belly. And (as Christ speaketh, and St. Augustine expounds it)Ioh. 6.36. It is the Spirit that quickeneth: the flesh pro­fiteth nothing. And the Apostle teach­eth, That1 Cor. 12.13. by one Spirit we are all Baptised into one body, and have been all made to drink into one Spirit. And if all our true union with Christ is by the holy Spirit, although he with his body be in heaven, and we on earth: It is necessarie also that the eating be after the same manner. For what is it to eat, but to receive and unite the food unto thee for the nourishment [Page 191]of that part, for which it is appoin­ted? Now the flesh of Christ (as we said before) is the food of the mind, and not of the belly. Neither truely do we eat the body of Christ any o­therwise, but as it was delivered to death for us, & made without bloud, as the words do sound, and the breaking of the bread doth represent unto us, and also as the passeover and other sacrifices were wont to be eaten. But now the body liveth, and cannot be without bloud: As at the first Supper it was neither dead, nor without bloud. To say then, that properly that body doth passe into our bodyes, and that by the mouth, it is no lesse then sacriledge. To what end also is this, that as the bread is distributed without the wine, and the wine without the bread; so also the body without the bloud and the bloud apart without the body is gi­ven in the Sacrament of the Lords Supper. But that we may understand, that the body and bloud in their ve­ry substance, and as they are in hea­ven, do not passe through our mouthes, but are received onely by a [Page 192]faithfull remembrance stirred up in us effectually by the holy Spirit? For this is the thing which the Lord re­quired, saying,Luk. 22.20. This do in remem­brance of me. And again,19. This is my body which is given for you. For in so speaking he required faith of them by which they should believe this, and by believing eat: that is, apply it to themselves for the food and life of their souls. Wherefore we are verily perswaded, that they do true­ly, and not imaginarily, eat the flesh of Christ, whosoever believe that it was delivered unto death for an ex­piatorie sacrifice to cleanse them from their sins, and so believing, em­brace with a faithfull mind, and ap­ply it unto themselves. And whoso­ever thus eat the body of Christ, as dead, we doubt not but they are more and more joyned and knit un­to it now being living and quick­ning, according to the promise of Christ, who having first said,Ioh. 6.56. He that eateth my flesh, afterwards added; dwelleth in me and I in him.

DOCT. XII. That the opinion concerning the eating of Christs body corporally, is not to be admitted, as being vain and im­profitable.

Furthermore, forasmuch as this man­ner of eating the flesh of Christ, to wit, by faith, is certain and saving; and that other feigned manner of eating, by the mouth of the body, cannot be demonstrated unto us out of the holy Scripture: and again, Though we should grant that there may be some probabilitie for it, yet it is neither necessarie nor behoofull for the soul; but contrarily doth bring with it many mischiefs into the Church, as monstrous heresies, idolatrie, worshipping of idolls, stirrs, contentions, schismes, dissipation of Churches, & so exposes our Christian Religion to be derided by infidells. We believe that true pietie requires, that we rest contented with that man­ner of eating, which is by the Spirit and faith, not troubling our selves about the other, but taking our leave of that, embrace after a godly man­ner, [Page 194]and entertain brotherly charitie & peace one with another; for which end also the holy Supper was institu­ted: For last of all that manner of speech cannot be granted in any o­ther sense, but as we are wont to say that we have received with our ears, what we understand by hearing the word with our ears. But we are al­together against bringing in into Christian Religion such phrases, or manner of speaking as is strange and not used in holy Scripture, especially if it be not onely unprofitable, but also pernicious.

DOCT XIII. That in the Lord's Supper the flesh of Christ is truly present, but yet after a Spirituall manner.

FRom what hath been said both concerning the true union, and also the true eating, is easy to be gathered what our belief is concer­ning the true presence. We believe then, that if we be truly and really united with Christ, and so with his flesh and bloud; and if we eat his flesh and drink his bloud indeed, the [Page 195]same Christ is present with us, not onely by his Deitie, but also by his flesh and bloud, to as many as are united with him, and eat his flesh and drink his bloud. For what can be more present to thee then that which thou doest truly eat and drink, and whereunto thou art conjoyned by thy substance, and which again is coupled unto thee by it's substance; and from whence as from the head, life, sense, and motion is derived unto thee as unto a member?

DOCT. XIV. That as the union and eating is, such is the presence, to wit, Spirituall.

ANd, as the union as well as the eating is wrought by the Spirit and faith: so also we are taught and believe that the presence is onely Spi­rituall and in such men as are endued with the Spirit of God and faith; And therefore that it cannot be hin­dred by any distance of place though never so great.

DOCT. XV. That a thing is so farre said to be pre­sent or absent as it is either recei­ved or not received.

FOr it is not the nearnesse or di­stance of place that makes a thing to be present or absent, but the par­taking thereof or the not partaking. The Sunne, we know, although it be farre remote and distant from us, is notwithstanding said, and truly said to be present to our eyes, forasmuch as we are made partakers of the light thereof: and again, it is said to be absent, when as it is either by the interposition of clouds concealed from us, or else is gone down to the other Hemisphere that it cannot be seen of us.August. ad vol. Epist. 3. Col. 10. With the blind man the Sun is never present, although it shine upon his eyes never so much: As the case is likwise with the deaf man as concerning Musicall Harmo­nie; and with the unskilfull and un­learned man, as concerning the un­derstanding of an unknown tongue or scholarlike oration. God also is said to be farre from the ungodly; [Page 197]because he is not received of them by faith: although by his essence he is not farre from any one of us. For in him we live move & have our being. As farre forth therefore as a thing is received or not received by us, whe­ther it be by way of nutrition, or by the senses, or the understanding or any other way: so farre forth it is said either to be present or absent.

DOCT. XVI. What manner of presence it is that we deny, and what it is that we admit.

WHerefore, although we deny that either the substance of the bread is changed, or annihilated and re­duced into nothing, and that the true flesh of Christ succeedeth in the place thereof, and so is made present, that the true substance of the body of Christ lies hid under the accidents of bread: and again, Although we de­ny that the flesh of Christ is really and substantially present in the bread, which hath no union with it but onely Sacramentall, which is sounded in the mysticall relation: [Page 198]and again, Although we deny that it is present to the wicked and un­godly which have not that Spirituall communion with Christ, neither can be said truely to eat his flesh. And further, Although, we do not admit of such a presence of the body of Christ by which, as at the first Supper it was present to the Apostles after a visible manner, Yet now it is present to the faithfull upon earth at the time of the Supper, though after an invisible manner, and not comming within the compasse of sense; because this is not onely contrary to the na­ture of Christs body, but also mani­festly repugnant to the holy Scri­pture. And to conclude, Although we detest and abhorre that manner of presence, after which some feigne that the flesh of Christ is really and substantially every where present: Yet we believe and confesse such a presence, as by reason of the things which are truely present to us (be­cause we are truely made partakers thereof) is no lesse essentiall, then it is Spirituall, and that both for the things which are truely present to us, [Page 199](because we are truely made par­takers thereof) and also for the man­ner after which they are present, and and truely communicated unto us. Moreover, we do in no wise deny that the flesh of Christ is present in the bread, and his bloud in the wine: but yet we would have it to be un­derstood in such manner, as we are wont to say, that whatsoever is preached and offered unto us in the word of the Gospel, the same is also present and contained in it. For the Sacraments are the visible word: and every thing signified is after some manner in it's signe, and is wont to be exhibited together with it.

DOCT. XVII. That the presence of Christs body in the Supper depends not on ubiquitie, but on the words of Christ.

FRom whence it is manifest that the presence of Christs body in the Supper, depends not on ubiqui­tie (as some have dreamed) but on the words of Christ working in us to whom it is made present, by the ho­ly Spirit. For had the Apostles eaten [Page 200]the bread which they received from the hands of Christ, before they had heard and received by faith these words of his THIS IS MY BO­DY: they had certainly received and eaten nothing else but bread: So that for the establishing of the reall pre­sence in the bread, that monstrous and prodigious opinion concerning ubiquitie, a thing odious to God and his Church, fetcht out of the di­stinction of the School-men but con­trarie even to the opinion of the School-men, had then nothing at all helped them.

And this is our belief and confes­sion concerning the communion, the true eating, and the true presence of Christ's body.

DOCT. XVIII. What rites and ceremonies are to be used at the celebration of the Lord's Supper.

COncerning the rites and ceremo­nies to be used at the celebration of the Lords Supper, this onely we say, That those are most to be ap­proved, which come nearest to the practice of the Apostles.

CHAP. XVII. Concerning faith, hope, and charitie.

DOCTRINE I. That faith is very necessarie unto our communion with Christ, and so that we may be made partakers of salvation.

FOr the ingrafting us into Christ, and the furthering our commu­nion with him, the holy Spirit indeed useth externall meanes and instruments, to wit, the word of the Gospel, and the Sacraments: But yet, unlesse by the same Spirit there be stirred up in us faith, whereby we may embrace Christ offered unto us with all his treasures, we must con­fesse that those outward meanes and instruments are not at all profitable unto us to salvation. And therefore we doubt not to say that faith is ne­cessarie to unite us unto Christ, and to make us partakers of his benefits.

DOCT. II. What is understood by the name of faith.

BY the name of faith we under­stand, not any humane opinion, or perswasion concerning God, and concerning Christ,Eph. 1. [...]. but the gift of di­vine wisdome and prudence stirred up in our hearts by the holy Spirit upon the hearing of the word: whereby, giving assent unto all the word of God revealed in the holy Scripture, and the Gospel most especially which brings us joyfull tidings of our redemption wrought by Christ, we do therein truely understand God and his will, Christ our Medi­atour and his benefits; we do cer­tainly know, and most lovingly em­brace them; we do upon a firme con­fidence which we conceive of the mercy of God, and his infinite love towards us, call upon him; whereby we are as it were set on fire, and in­flamed to love him again; and are forced as it were to performe faith­full service unto him, and constantly throughout the whole course of our [Page 203]life glorifie him by our good works, and deeds of charitie towards our neighbour.

DOCT. III. The confirmation of what hath been said concerning faith.

FOr true faith is not from the wit of man, or naturall ingenie, but it is thePhil. 1.29. gift of God: neither is it gi­ven unto all, but toTit. 1.1. Act. 13.28. the elect onely: neither is it onely an opinion uncer­tain and doubtfull butHeb. 11.1. the substance of things hoped for firme and sure; and a most certain evidence of things not seen: neither cometh it by the hearing of humane reason, butRom. 10.17. by hearing the word of God, and relyes onely on the authoritie of Gods word and pro­mise: neither is it an hypocriticall and feigned assent, but sincere and [...] Tim. 1.15. out of a pure heart: neither is it a temporarie perswasionMatt. 13.21. during for a while, but constant and perpetuall, although it be often weakened by our sins: neither is it blind and rash, but the onelyEph. 1.8. wisdome whereby we know God and Christ and heavenly things; and Christian prudence, [Page 204]whereby we are taught not to abuse that knowlege of God, but to use it to a right end: neither is itIam. 2.20. dead but living andGal. 5.6. working by love.

DOCT. IV. That faith cometh not all at once, but hath it's increase from time to time.

BUt although the faith of the elect never faileth totally and alto­gether, but ever liveth: yet we never knew it so perfect and complete in any, but that every day it stands in need of increase: for which theLuk. 17.5. Apostles themselves prayed, and we also at all times ought to pray.

DOCT. V. That confession of the truth cannot be separated from true faith.

WE believe also that true faith cannot consist without a wil­lingnesse and readinesse to confesse the truth ingenuously, as occasion is offered.Rom. [...]0.10. For as the Apostle saith, With the heart man believeth unto righteousnesse, and with the mouth con­fession is made unto salvation. Where­fore [Page 205]we condemne libertines and others of the same mold and stamp, who think that it is free for them in every place, and in all companie to dissemble the truth, and to fit them­selves for all religions.

DOCT. VI. That hope ariseth from faith.

WE believe also that hope ariseth from faith, and that faith is the foundation thereof, according to the Apostle,Heb. 11.1. Faith is the substance of things hoped for. For therefore do we hope for things to come, and through pa­tience assuredly expect them: because we have the promise of God which we believe, and whereon we rely.

DOCT. VII. What hope is.

NOw hope is the gift of God, whereby what good things God hath promised though yet neither hadRom. 8.24. nor seen, we do through pa­tience waiting on the mercy of God, for the onely merits of Iesus Christ so assuredly expect as we do certain­ly believe.

DOCT. VIII. From whence ariseth the certainty of hope.

FOr the hope of us Christian men ariseth not from humane promises, neither is it nourished by humane merits, nor relyeth it thereupon: but being supported and upheld by the onely truth of divine promises confirmed unto us many wayes, and sealed in our hearts; as likewise by the almightie power of God which promiseth, declared in generall to­wards all believers, but most espe­cially manifested in Christ, at what time he raised him up from the dead, and exalted him above all heavens to sit at his right hand; and again by the obedience of Christ alone, on whom we believe, and in whom we trust, it doth certainly and constant­ly expect the complement or ac­complishment of our salvation, to wit, the resurrection from the dead, the glorious coming of the great God, and our Lord and Saviour Ie­sus Christ, and a full and plenarie possession of an heavenly inheritance.

DOCT. IX. That from faith ariseth also love and charitie.

WE believe also that true charitie ariseth from true faith: for faith worketh by love, and thereby is de­clared the efficacie of faith. St. Paul teacheth that theGal. 5.6. faith in Christ, which is most available is that which worketh by love: and to this purpose saith St. Iohn,1 Iohn 4.2. He that loveth not, knoweth not God. Therefore we do not acknowledge them for brethren whosoever boast of theirIam 2.15, 16 faith, and yet have not charitie: For26. faith without works is dead.

DOCT. X. That charitie is the gift of God.

WE believe also that even charitie it self is the gift of God, where­by we are so affected that with all our heart we both love again and also glorifie God the Father, and Christ our Redeemer; that we are inclined and moved to good will and bounty towards all men in generall, yea even towards our enemies, but espe­cially [Page 208]towards the Saints, and those which are of the houshold of faith. Therefore we condemne all those, which say that a man by his own na­turall powers may love God above all things.1 Iohn 4.7. For Love is of God, as saith St. Iohn.

DOCT. XI. The signes and tokens of charitie.

BUt we do not believe that to be true Christian charitie, which a­greeth not with that description set down by St. Paul in his first Epistle to the Corinthians, which is after this manner,1 Cor. 13.4. Charitie suffereth long, and is kind: Charitie envyeth not: Charitie vaunteth not it self, is not puffed up, 5.6. Doth not behave it self un­seemly, seeketh not her own, is not easi­ly provoked, 7. thinketh no evill; Rejoy­ceth not in iniquitie, but rejoyceth in the truth, Bearethall things, believeth all things, hopeth all things, endureth all things, &c.

DOCT. XII. That our communion with Christ and his Church is cherished and main­tained by love and Charitie.

WE believe that by true love and charitie our communion with Christ and his Church is very much cherished, increased, and maintained: Forasmuch as love joyneth together in one the persons loving and the persons loved. For St. Iohn saith,1 Io [...]. 4 16. He that dwelleth in love, dwelleth in God, and God in him.

CHAP. XVIII. Concerning Repentance.

ALthough all these, faith, hope, and charitie, repen­tance, justification, the stu­dy of good works, and a holy life cannot really be separated one from another: Yet forasmuch as they de­pend one upon another, we know that in this regard they are to be di­stinguished, and we are to take them [Page 210]into consideration each apart, and enquire what they are, and what their efficacie is. We think good therefore briefly to set down our opinion and deliver our judgement concerning each of them, beginning with Repen­tance which is the perpetuall indivi­duall, and inseparable companion of faith: For, although after Iustifica­tion it is perfected every day more and more: yet because no man is ju­stified without Repentance, and the beginning thereof goeth before Iusti­fication it self; Therefore in the first place we are resolved to declare what our faith and belief is concerning this.

DOCTRINE I. That Repentance is necessarie to our Iustification and so also to our Communion with Christ.

WE believe that, to our true par­taking of Christs righteousnesse, and our communion with him, Re­pentance is necessarie, whereby, turning from sin and from the world by change of mind and will, we may [Page 211]turn unto Christ, cleave unto him, and obtain in him and from him re­mission of sins, and be endued with his righteousnesse and holinesse. For the first thing thatMatt. 1.4, 15. Iohn the Baptist and our Saviour preached was the Doctrine of Repentance, for the re­mission of sins. And Except ye Repent (saith our Saviour) ye shall all likewise perish.

DOCT. II. What we understand by the name of Repentance.

BY the name of Repentance we understand two things more espe­cially. The first is true and serious grief and sorrow for sins committed against God; and that not so much for fear of punishment due unto sin, as that we have offended God him­self the chiefest good, who is our Fa­ther and Maker. The second is a true change of heart and mind, will and purpose, and of our whole life: This part of Repentance, which properly is by Christ called Resipiscence, and by the Prophets, Conversion unto God, and Circumcision of heart, according [Page 212]to the Doctrine of the Apostle pro­ceedeth from the former: for he joy­neth both together, saying,2 Cor. 7.10. Godly sorrow worketh Repentance to salvation not to be repented of.

DOCT. III. That Repentance is the gift of God.

WE believe that Repentance is the gift of God, proceeding from his mere grace, not due to any meries or preparations of ours: according to what the Apostle saith,2 Tim. 2.25. If God peradventure will give them Repen­tance to the acknowledgement of the truth, 26. And that they may recover themselves out of this snare of the devil: and according to the Prophet,Ier. 31.18. Turn thou me; and I shall be turned: For thou art the Lord my God.

DOCT. IV. That, for the stirring up of Repentance in us, God ordinarily useth the word of the Law and Gospel: and, That the hearing of them both in the Church is therefore necessarie.

GOd, to stirre up Repentance in us, doth ordinarily use the ex­pounding [Page 213]of the Law, which disco­vereth our sins unto us, and Gods wrath against sin; as likewise the preaching of the Gospel, which de­clareth unto us remission of sins, and the grace of God in Christ: As it is manifest to every godly man which looketh into the holy Scripture: And therefore we judge that in the Church both are necessarie, both the ex­pounding of the Law and the preach­ing of the Gospel.

DOCT. V. The summe of the Doctrine concerning Repentance, and in all every where, and alwayes necessarie unto salvation to as many as are of years.

THe summe then of our belief con­cerning Repentance every where and alwayes necessarie unto salvation to as many as are of yeares, is this; That Repentance is the change of heart and mind wrought in us by the holy Spirit, by the word of the Law and of the Gospel: whereby, Foras­much as our sins and corruption of nature are (as the Law teacheth) things repugnant to the will of God, [Page 214]and so stand in need to be purged a­way (as the Gospel preacheth) by the death of the Son of God; We from our souls lament and bewail them, detest and abhorre them, humbly confessing them before God, and begging pardon for the same, resol­ving upon amendment of life, and a constant studie of innocency, and all Christian vertues, and therein ex­ercising our selves diligently all the dayes of our life, to the glorie of God, and the edifying of the Church.

DOCT. VI. That simply and absolutely we condemne not those parts of Repentance common­ly so called, viz. Contrition, confes­sion of sins and satisfaction.

COncerning the parts of Repen­tance before spoken of, we list not much further to dispure, being thoroughly perswaded out of the holy Scriptures that in brief it con­sists in a serious and earnest morty­fying of the old man and quickning of the new: the former whereof hath force and efficacie from the death of [Page 215]Christ, and the latter from his resur­rection; the holy Spirit communi­cating both unto us. Yet simply and absolutely we condemne not that long agoe received and yet retained distinction in the Schooles, of the parts of Repentance, into contrition, confession of sins, and satisfaction: with this proviso that they be exami­ned at the rule of the holy Scriptures, and not found to decline from the godly customes of the ancient Church. As concerning contrition, and confession of sins likewise both before God, and our brother whom we have offended; and before all the Church also, when it is expedient; they are not without testimonie in the holy writ. Moreover if any man oppressed with the waight of his sins, and perplexed with tentations, is de­sirous to receive counsell, instruction, and consolation privately, either from a Minister of the Church, or any other Christian brother that is exercised in the Law of God: we dislike it not. Neither condemne we those Ecclesiasticall satisfactions, of which Tertullian, Cyprian, and other [Page 216]Fathers speak, which consisted one­ly in this, that the persons delinquent and offending should give unto the Church publikely some certain out­ward testimonie of their true Repen­tance, which they called doing of pe­nance. But we condemne those super­stitions which having since been su­peradded, butchering of consciences, and wicked and ungodly opinions: whereby the benefit of the death and satisfaction of Iesus Christ, who alone hath purged away our sinnes, and perfectly redeemed us from guilt and punishment, is much impaired.

CHAP. XIX. Concerning Justification.

DOCTRINE I. That whosoever are indued with the gift of Repentance, are indued also with the gift of faith, are in­grafted into Christ, and in him justi­fied.

WHosoeverIsai. 56.2. is poor and of a con­trite Spirit, and detesteth his [Page 217]sins from the bottom of his heart, and repenteth him truely of the evil course of his life past, andPsal. 32.6. prayeth unto God with sighes and grones for remission of his sins, &Matt. 5.6. hungreth and thirsteth after the true righteous­nesse of Christ: we believe that, as he is indued by the holy Spirit with the gift of true Repentance towards God, so also that he indued with the gift of a lively faith, and knit unto Christ his head as a member there­unto ordained from eternitie: and that therefore in him he obtaineth remission of sin, and is indued with the perfect righteousnesse of Christ, and so reputed just, and absolved from all guilt, for the merits of Christ into whom he is ingrafted; For thus saith the Apostle,Rom. 8.1. There is no con­demnation to them which are in Christ Iesus, and again,1 Cor. 1.30. Who of God is made unto us wisdome, and righteous­nesse, and sanctification, and redem­ption.

DOCT. II. That whosoever for Christ, into whom he is ingrafted, is reputed just, is also indued with the gift of inherent righteousnesse.

FUrthermore we believe that, who­soever is for Christ, into whom he is by the holy Spirit ingrafted, re­puted righteous, and is also righteous indeed, having already obtained in Christ remission of sins and the im­putation of his righteousnesse, he is presently indued with the gift of in­herent righteousnesse in such manner that he is not onely most perfectly and fully righteous in Christ his head, but hath also in himself true righteousnesse; whereby he is made truly conformable unto Christ: Al­though, whilst we are in the flesh our righteousnesse can never be so perfect, but still by reason of our cor­ruption it will be blemished with ma­ny stains of sin. Concerning which kind of righteousnesse thus saith St. Iohn.1 Ioh. 3.7. He that doth righteousnesse, that is righteous works, is righteous. And both these kinds of righteous­nesse [Page 219]the Apostle St. Paul alwayes joyneth together both in the Epistle to the Romans, and also in other Epistles, and further teacheth that by Christ they are both bestowed on the faithfull: which also he confirms in his Epistle to the Philippians.Phil. 1.1 [...] Concerning he latter kind of righte­ousnesse, whose fruits are made ma­nifest unto men, we say that it is so evident a testimonie of the former, that where it is wanting, we professe with the holy Apostles there can be no place for the former: So farre are we from loosing the raines to all impietie, by teaching the Doctrine of justification by faith alone appre­hending remission of sins, and the righteousnesse of Christ.

DOCT. III. That, forasmuch as our inherent righte­ousnesse is alwayes very imperfect through our fault, therefore before God we are justified by the righteous­nesse of Christ onely.

BUt notwithstanding what hath been said, we confesse that this inherent righteousnesse is through [Page 220]our pravitie so imperfect, that by the righteousnesse of Christ alone, where­by our sins are not imputed to us, not onely at the beginning of our conversion, when as of ungodly men we are made godly, but afterwards also even to the end of our life, we are justified before God, and accoun­ted for righteous. The Prophet Da­vid saith as much, and the Apostle subscribes unto it,Psal. 32.1. Rom. 4.7. Blessed is he whose transgression is forgiven, and again,Psal. 32.2. Blessed is the man unto whom the Lord imputeth not iniquitie; and again,Psal. 143.2. In thy sight shall no man living be ju­stified. Therefore we conclude, that our true justification before God consists onely in the remission of our sins, and the imputation of Christs righteousnesse unto us.

DOCT. IV. That by faith it is felt and found whe­ther a man be justified in Christ, and that therefore he is said to be justi­fied by faith.

BUt because justification is not without the knowledge, sense, and assent of him that is justified (which [Page 221]is spoken and to be understood of those which are come to ripenesse of years) and that sense is the sense of faith: Therefore we say that then at length a man is justified by faith, when he is ingrafted into Christ, and upon a sense and feeling thereof is perswaded, that of the mere mercie of God, for the onely obedience, satisfaction, and sacrifice of Christ, into whom he is ingrafted, his sins are so remitted, that he is absolutely freed from all guilt and punishment due unto the same; and so perswaded that the perfect righteousnesse of Christ is in such manner imputed un­to him, that thereupon he finds and feels that eternall life is as due unto him as it was to Christ; and so comes to understand that justification is merely and truely of grace and not due unto his good works.

DOCT. V. The confirmation of what was last said; and what it is to be justified.

FOr first, in holy Scripture, as well in the Old Testament as in the New, but especially according to [Page 222]St. Paul, where he speaks professed­ly concerning this matter, to justifie signifies to remit sins, and so to ab­solve from all guilt and punishment, to receive into grace and favour, to pronounce one righteous, and to ac­count him for righteous; not such a one that is simply and absolutely un­righteous, but one that is no longer unrighteous, by reason of remission of sins obtained. And further, al­though whomsoever God in Christ hath from eternitie elected to be his Sons, he doth acknowledge the same to be his in Christ, and of his mere grace makes them acceptable unto himself in the beloved: Yet, because we are never truely in Christ, untill such time as we are by the holy Ghost ingrafted and incorporated in­to him, and that cannot be wrought in us as many as are of years, untill we be first endued with faith, and acknowledge Christ to be our righte­ousnesse, and so embrace him: there­fore then at length and not before are we justified (as the holy Scripture witnesseth) and that by faith with­out our works, when we believe all [Page 223]this with true faith, that is, when we are throughly perswaded that our sins, as once expiated and purged away by Christ, are no more imputed unto us, but are pardoned of Gods mercy for the onely merits of Christ; and likewise, that Christ's righteous­nesse is imputed unto us for our own, wherewith being arrayed we appear righteous in the sight of God: An effect and manifest testimonie where­of is (as I said before) our in­choate and inherent righteousnesse; which consists in the hatred of sin, and the love of righteousnesse, and the studie of good works.

DOCT. VI. A confirmation of what it is to be ju­stified by faith.

FUrthermore, when we say A man is justified by faith we understand not that the vertue of faith is either that, whereby we are justified formal­ly (as the Schools speake) and by a true and proper righteousnesse; or that, for which we merit remission of sins and justification; or that, which as the first originall and foun­tain of other vertues and all good [Page 224]works, drawes along with it other vertues as charitie, cleanness of heart, internall righteousnesse, and good works whereby we are justified: But, because it is as it were a light, where­by looking into the glasse of the Go­spel, we see what we are in Christ by the free-will and mere goodnesse of God, for the merits of Christ him­self; and again, Because it is as it were an hand whereby we apprehend and embrace the free grace of God, and the benefit of Christ, declared unto us in the Gospel, and in the Person of Christ exhibited unto us: or, to speak all in few words, we are said to be justified by faith, that is, when re­mission of sins, and the imputation of Christs righteousnesse is appre­hended by faith; so that faith is taken for the thing it self which is appre­hended by faith: As it isGen. 1 [...].6. said concerning Abraham,Rom. 4.3. Gal. 3 6. Iam. 2.23. Abraham be­lieved God; and it was counted unto him for righteousnesse: to wit, that which he believed concerning the seed which was promised unto him, that is, Christ. For he is the righte­ousnesse of all the elect, and true be­lievers, [Page 225]and Sons of the promise, as the Scripture speaketh.

DOCT. VII. That by faith alone a man is justified.

HEnce also it is easy to be under­stood, what it is that we with the sacred Scriptures, and holy Fathers have alwayes confessed and do con­stantly confesse, when we say that by faith alone we are justified. For inasmuch as to be justified by faith before God is nothing else, but to be reputed and accounted righteous up­on the forgivenesse of sins, and the righteousnesse of Christ apprehended by faith; which is our onely true righteousnesse: (For whatsoever in­herent righteousnesse is in us, and what good works soever are done by us, such they are as will not abide triall before Gods judgement, ac­cording to that of the Psalmist,Psal. 143.2. En­ter not into judgement with thy ser­vant: (ô Lord:) for in thy sight shall no man living be justified: and again,Psal. 130.3. if thou Lord, shouldest mark iniquities: O Lord, who shall stand?) It mani­festly appeareth that our belief con­cerning [Page 226]justification by faith alone, is most certain, and most true.

DOCT. VIII. That not onely at the beginning of our conversion, but also throughout the whole course of our life even to the hour of death we are justified by faith alone.

HEreupon we cannot but believe and constantly confesse, that not onely at the beginning, when of un­righteous we are made righteous, but also in the whole course of our life afterwards even to the end thereof, we are justified by faith alone and that on Christ: so that our righteous­ness is alwayes from faith to faith. For there is no man that sinneth not eve­ry day: insomuch that we have all need to say,Matt. 6.12. Forgive us our debts, as we forgive our debters: and holy Da­vid saith,Psal. 32.6. For this, that is for for­givenesse of sins, shall every one that is godly pray unto thee: and Christ not once but alwayes [...] Cor. [...].30. is made unto us righteousnesse, sanctification, re­demption; 1 Ioh. 1.2. And he is the propitiation for our sins.

DOCT. IX. That iustification by faith alone is not fictitious and imaginarie.

BUt let no man think that we feign a kind of imaginarie righteous­nesse, having in us no foundation and efficacie. We repeate what we profes­sed before. First, that the faith where­by we say that we are justified, is a true faith, and a faith that worketh by love. Again, that God doth not justify us onely by remitting of our sins and imputing the righteousnesse of Christ unto us, but also by making us partakers of his divine nature, by regenerating, reforming, and sancti­fying us, by endueing us with inhe­rent righteousnesse, and making us conformable unto the image of his Son. And, that this inchoate righte­ousnesse is a manifest testimonie of the other true and perfect righteous­nesse which we have in Christ alone, and that they are both knit together by the bond of the holy Spirit, ac­cording to the Apostle saying, that not onelyRom. [...].15. the grace of God, and the gift by grace, which is by one man Ie­sus [Page 228]Christ, bath abounded unto many. For, as not onely the disobedience of Adam was imputed unto us, but also the corruption of his nature was de­rived upon us: So likewise not onely the obedience and righteousnesse of Christ is imputed unto us as many as are ingrafted into him, but also his holy nature is truely communicated unto us, so that we become2 Cor. 5.17. new creatures, righteous and holy in our selves, followers of good works.

DOCT. X. That inherent righteousnesse is in­creased by good works.

AS concerning the former righeous­nesse, we say that it is neither due unto our works, nor begun or increa­sed thereby: But as concerning the latter, we confesse that, although it be not due to our foregoing works, not begun thereby (for all those are sins, forasmuch as good works do not go before justification, but fol­low after) yet by the works follow­ing, and exercises of pietie, it is con­served, promoted, and increased. For it is the Doctrine of the Apostle that [Page 229]the gift of God bestowed upon us is by such like exercises, as fire, stirred up, cherished, & increased.2 Tim. 1.6. Concer­ning which increase of righteousnesse St. Iohn saith.Rev. 22.12. He that is righteous, let him be righteous still. And there­fore if we speak of this inherent righteousnesse onely: we deny not but even by good works, and not by faith onely, a man is justified, that is, made more and more just and righteous.

DOCT. XI. That, to speak properly, a man is justi­fied by that righteousnesse which con­sists in remission of sins and the im­putation of Christ's righteousnesse, and not by works: although by them is declared that a man is justified, and righteous.

BUt if the question be moved con­cerning the former, our answer is, that a man is never justified by his own works, but alwayes by faith alone properly: yet this we say, that by works it is declared whether or no a man he righteous as well by the [Page 230]one as by the other; forasmuch as no man is justified by the former, but he is also endued with the latter; & both are declared by good works: In which sense we do not doubt but St. Iames did speak.

DOCT. XII. Errours condemned.

WE therefore condemne all Pela­gians, whose opinion it is that infants are conceived without sin, and therefore have no need of remis­sion of sins, and the benefits of Christ, to their salvation: we con­demne likewise those which teach that, although they have need of re­mission of sins, yet it may be obtai­ned without faith on Christ: and likewise those which although they grant that there is need of faith on Christ, yet hold that not sufficient, but require also our works as merits, and those necessarie for the obtaining of remission of sins; but especially we condemne those which have taught that this is done by their im­pious adorations, worshippings, and superstitions. Neither like we those [Page 231]which have delivered, either by word or writing, that we are not justified by any other righteousnesse but that which is inherent and within us: But yet again neither like we those whosoever have thought that remis­sion of sins can consist without in­ward renovation and righteousnesse. We further condemne those, which think, that they may be justified by that faith concerning Christ which is commonly called historicall, but by St. Iames no better the a dead faith, which is none at all. Last of all we condemne the opinion of those which have taught that a man is justi­fied not by remission of sins, and the imputation of Christ's righteousness, but by the very essentiall righteous­nesse of Christ, as they call it, really communicated unto us.

CHAP. XX. Concerning the Free-will of a man regenerate, and his power unto that which is good.

DOCTRINE I. That those which are justified in Christ, are in him also regenerated, and from him receive power unto all that which is good.

WE believe that as many as are ingrafted into Christ, as they are in him justified, so also they are in him regenerated, and become new creatures, by the participation of his divine nature: and therefore, that they are made free, and receive from Christ himself, as members from the head, and vine branches from the vine, both power to eschew evil, and to follow that which is good: For the Lord him­self saith it,Ioh. 8. [...]6. If the Son shall make you free, ye shall be free indeed. And then are we made free, when we are ingrafs;ted into Christ, and regenerated by his Spirit: For the Apostle saith [Page 233]it,2 Cor. 3.17. Where the Spirit of the Lord is, there is libertie.

DOCT. II. That Christ liveth and worketh in those which are regenerate.

FOr we believe thatGal. 2.10. Christ liveth in us, as many as are regenerated by his Spirit; and that he liveth not idle, butPila. 13. worketh in us both to will and to do of his good pleasure; and by hisRom. 8.36. Spirit also helpeth our infirmities.

DOCT. III. That the man regenerate even in actions pertaining to the naturall and hu­mane life, carries himself more worthily then the unregenerate, and therefore is more free.

SO the regenerate man, besides that he retaineth his will, alwayes free from coaction (as even the unrege­nerate man himself doth) he doth in all actions pertaining to the naturall and humane life, wherein the man unregenerate hath any power, carry himself farre better, and more worthi­ly then the unregenerate doth: for­asmuch as even in these actions he is [Page 234]moved by the holy Spirit illumina­ting his understanding, guiding his will and cogitations, and drawing forth actions out of a good fountain, that is, a good heart, and directing them to a good end, that is, to the glorie of God. The holy Apostle teacheth us thus much where he saith,1 Cor. 10.31. Whether ye eat or drink, or what­soever ye do, do all to the glorie of God. And therefore even in this kind of actions he is more free then the un­regenerate; because he is not by his own lusts and concupiscences carried away unto these actions, as the un­regenerate is: but being moved by the holy Spirit, whatsoever he think­eth, willeth, worketh, he doth all more circumspectly, more prudently, and more religiously, being alwayes wholly intent upon this, that all may be done to the glorie of God, his own salvation, and the good of his neighbour. For he alwayes keepeth in minde that of the Apostle,Rom. 14.7. None of us liveth himself, and no man dieth to himself. [...]. For whether we live, we live unto the Lord; and whether we die, we die unto the Lord: whether we live [Page 235]therefore, or die, we are the Lord's. And therefore he commendeth all his actions to the divine providence, and saith with St. Iames, or at least thinketh thus with himself,Iam. 4.15. [...] If the Lord will, I will do this or that, I will go to such a place or such a place; but alwayes, If the Lord will.

DOCT. IV. That for the attaining unto morall vir­tues also, the regenerate man is more free, and hath more power then the unregenerate.

MOreover, although we confesse that a man unregenerate by Gods especiall aid and assistance may at­tain unto morall vertues: Yet we be­lieve that this especiall aid and assi­stance is farre more excellent in the regenerate, and that for the presence of the holy Spirit, whereby he is illuminated, guided and governed. So that the b Fathers have justly de­monstrated against the vain boasting of the Gentiles, that even those vir­tues which they call Morall, are in Christians farre different from those which have been or can be in Infi­dellsTer­tull. A­polog. cap. 45. August. contra Iul. Pel. lib. 4. cap. 3. At de Civit. Dei lib. 19. cap. 25. O­rig contr. Cels. [Page 236]and unbelievers: because in them they are no more but the mere shadowes of virtues, but in true Christians virtues in deed truely so called.

DOCT. V. That for the understanding, choosing and performing the things of God, and which pertain unto his King­dome, the regenerate man onely is truly illuminated, guided, and go­verned by the holy Ghost.

BUt we believe that for the under­standing, choosing and perform­ing of such things as belong to the true Kingdome of God, the regene­rate onely are so guided and governed by the Holy Ghost, that they onely understand them, will them, and perform them. For the Apostle saith it,1 Cor. 2.14. The naturall man receiveth not the things of the Spirit of God, neither can he know them. But concerning the regenerate man he addeth, c But he that is Spirituall, judgeth, or di­scerneth, all things, and another place,15. It is God which worketh in us both to will, and to do, of his good pleasure. Phil. 2.13.

DOCT. VI. That the regenerate man is not onely moved by the holy Ghost to work, but is himself also an Agent.

OUt of the writings of the A­postles, and by other testimonies of the holy Scripture, we are taught, and confesse that the regenerate are so moved by the holy Ghost, that yet themselves also are Agents; and that in them God so worketh both to will and to do, that yet they themselves are those which both will and do. For they are not stocks, or beasts, but men endued with a minde whereby they understand; and a will whereby they will; and whereby they com­mand other faculties and power both of soul and body, to put in execution those things which are good.

DOCT. VII. That the power of Free-will in the regene­rate is still infirme and weak; in such sort, that we continually stand in need of Gods fresh supply and assistance, and cannot do all that we would.

BUt, because our regeneration is but onely inchoate or begun, and [Page 238]not as yet perfect, so that whereas we before were flesh altogether, but now consist partly of Spirit, and partly of flesh, which still fight within us one against the other, in such manner that the good which we would that we cannot do, but do serve with our mind the Law of God, and with the flesh the Law of sin: Therefore we believe, what also we find by expe­rience, that there is still much sla­verie in the regenerate; much blind­nesse in the minde and understand­ing, much pravitie in the heart and affections, and many weaknesses and infirmities in all the powers of soul and body: So that we dayly stand in need of a new supply of Gods grace, whereby our mindes may be more and more illuminated, our wills cor­rected and reformed, and our powers to that which is good increased and perfected. And therefore as long as we are here in the flesh, our Free-will is never truely and perfectly free, that is, having by it's self sufficient power to eschew that which is evill, and do that which is good: especially when as the events also of all things are not [Page 239]in our power, but in the hand of God; and it is further necessarie that all those things come to passe or be done, not what we have thought upon, but whatsoeverAct. 4.2 [...]. his hand and his counsell have determined before to be done.

DOCT. VIII. That God doth so rule and govern the mindes and wills of the godly, that even in the conflict of temptations and the flesh he suffereth them not al­together to fall away from him.

YEt still this we hold, that as many as are truely ingrafted into Christ, they have their mindes and wills en­dued already with the holy Spirit, and that for Christ his sake they are by God so ruled, governed, and sustained, that although he suffers them to be weakened sundry wayes, and by divers tentations, yet he never suffers themIer. 32.40. Luk. 22.32. Rom. 8.35. totally and finally to fall away sinking under their tenta­tions, and so at length perish ever­lastingly.

DOCT. IX. Errours Condemned.

WE therefore condemne all those, whosoever either deny or exte­nuate Regeneration, holding that a man regenerate is as impotent, and unable to that which is good; and as mere a slave to sin, as he was before his Regeneration, contrarie to divers and those also most cleare testimonies of Scripture, concerning the freedome of the regenerate from the slaverie of sin, and their freedome also to that which is good, to say nothing of the injurie which is done unto the holy Spirit, which both dwelleth and also worketh in us. And again we con­demne those which will have a rege­nerate man so to be freed from all the slaverie of sinne, but he cannot sinne any more at all: We condemne them I say, because they hold that which is contradictorie unto the word of God throughout the whole Scripture, and contrarie also to day­ly experience: For, although we are not suffered to sin unto death, yet it is most certain that we commit many [Page 241]sins which of their own nature are worthy of death. Neither do we like their opinion, which in the regene­rate man do so farre forth extenuate the power of the Spirit, and again do amplifie the reliques of the flesh: that they say, the operation of the Spirit is oftentimes by the strength of the old man quite extinguished; and further teach that even the regenerate man himself may altogether fall a­way from the grace of God, and so perish everlastingly: Whereas God by his Prophet contradicts them, say­ing,Ier. 32.40. I will put my feare in their hearts, that they shall not depart from mee: and the Apostle affirmeth that2 Tim. 2.19. the foun­dation of God standeth sure, &c. And again,Philip. 1.6. He which hath begun a good work in you will perform (or finish) it untill the day of Iesus Christ.

CHAP. XXI. Concerning good works.

DOCTRINE I. That those which are ingrafted into Christ, have also from thence both to live themselves, and also to shew forth the works of life unto others: and that this is the chief end of being ingrafted into Christ.

AS the vine-branch from the vine draweth not onely for it self sap and nourishment, whereby it self liveth; but also that, whereby it bringeth forth fruit unto us: So also we believe that the Saints and godly upon earth have also from Christ, into whom they are ingraf­ted, not onely life whereby they live themselves, but also wherewith all to shew forth the fruits of good works, to the glorie of God, and the edifying of the Church: For the Lord himself saith,Ioh. 15.5. I am the vine, ye are the branches: He that abideth in me, and I in him, the same bringeth forth mach fruit. Whereunto also is [Page 243]very pertinent that of the Apostle,Eph. 2.10. We are his workmanship, created in Christ Iesus unto good works, which God hath before ordained (or prepared) that we should walk in them.

DOCT. II. What we understand by the name of good works.

NOw by the name of good works we understand all those actions and works, which according to the prescript of the will of God revealed in his word, out of a1 Pet. [...].5. lively faith in Christ, and so1 Tim. 1.5. out of a pure heart, are performed of the regenerate by the holy Spirit: For, asRom. 14.25. Whatsoever is not of faith, is sinne; so whatsoever works are done out of a1 Tim, 1.5. lively faith, and a pure heart, and a good con­science, good works they are necessa­rily. Wherefore we hold that the works which are done by the ungod­ly, without faith and the word of God, and the leading and guidance of the holy Spirit, howsoever they may have a gloriousColoss, 2.18.23. shew of much pietie, and divine worship: yet, they areMatt. 15.8, 9. not to be reckoned in any wise [Page 244]amongst good works, and such as are pleasing and acceptable unto God.

DOCT. III. That good works are not done of us as of our selves, but by the virtue and power of Christ's spirit.

AS vine-branches, or olive­branches bring not forth fruits of themselves, but by virtue of the vine, or olive-tree whereinto they are ingrafted: So we likewise do not of our selves do good works, but by virtue of Christs Spirit, into whom we are incorporated, and from whom we draw even that life, by which we live; Christ himself working in us by his SpiritPhil. 2.13. both to will and to do of his good pleasure. Ioh. 15.5. For without me, saith he, ye can do nothing.

DOCT. IV. That good works are not the cause, but the effects of our union with Christ, and our justification, and our life.

ANd further, as vine-branches or olive-branches do not therefore bring forth good fruit, that so they [Page 245]may be ingrafted into the vine or olive-tree, or themselves receive life; but therefore fructifie, because they are already ingrafted into the vine, or olive-tree, and live therein: from whence it followes, that their good fruits are not the cause of their in­grafting, or life; but the effects and manifest signes thereof. Iust after the same manner, do we believe that the case stands between Christ and us; as St. Augustine sufficiently teacheth,August. where he saith, That good works do not precede, or go before, a man that is yet to be justified, but follow after a man is justified. And therefore we con­stantly believe and confesse, that by works (to speak properly, and con­cerning justification of life) a man is not justified, but declared to be ju­stified.

DOCT. V. That, although we by our good works are not justified, yet others there­by oftentimes are edified unto sal­vation.

BUt yet this we adde, that as trees themselves are not nourished, nor [Page 246]receive life from their own fruits, and yet others are nourished and live thereby, as men and other living creatures: So, notwithstanding we by our works are not our selves justi­fied, yet others thereby are very much edified, and by our example excited andMatt. 5.16. stirred up to glorifie God, and to seek the true righteousnesse and life in Christ, and are thereby saved: For the Apostle himselfRom. 11.13. saith that he did therefore magnifie (or illu­strate) his office among the gentiles (viz. by his diligence and sanctitie of life) that he might provoke to e­mulation those which were his flesh, and so save some of them: and in another place he1 Cor, 7.16. saith that it may so come to passe that the unbelie­ving husband or wife may be saved by the wife or husband which belie­veth, that is, which performeth a Christians duty in leading a godly and holy life: and again writing to Timothie he saith that if he look di­ligently unto his office, that is the of­fice of a Bishop, he shall both save himself and others.

DOCT. VI. That we do not condemne good works, although we deny that a man is justified thereby.

WHerefore, although we deny that good works are to be done of us to this end, that we may be ju­stified thereby; forasmuch as this would overthrow the righteousnesse which is the free gift of God, and the whole benefit of Christ: we do not therefore condemne the study of ho­ly life, and good works; yea we com­mend the same, and exhort thereun­to with all vehemencie, upon all oc­casions.

DOCT. VII. That there are many, and those very weighty reasons why we ought to be exercised in the study and practise of good works.

FOr there are declared unto us in holy Scripture many, and those very weighty reasons, why we ought diligently to exercise our selves in the study and practise of good works, [Page 248]although we are not justified there­by: Of which reasons some have re­serence immediately to the glorie of God; others belong to the salvation of our neighbour, and the good of the Church; and others tend to our thankfullnesse towards God, as like­wise to our own salvation. 1.Matt. 15.16. They are commanded by God: And him we must absolutely obey. 2. a God is thereby glorified: And we must by all means promote this glorie. 3. God hath therefore elected, crea­ted, and redeemed us,Tit. 2.12. that denying ungodlinesse and worldly lusts, we should live soberly, righteously, and godly in this present world: And we must not disappoint him of his end. 4. They please God;Act. 10.35. Col. 1.10. for he c loveth righte­ousnesse and hateth iniquitie: And whatsoever pleaseth God we ought to do, although there should come no profit thereby either to our neigh­bour or our selves. But unto our neighbour, and the Church espe­cially, cometh much profit thereby, not onely as concerning the body & externall things, but the soul also and eternall salvation; whilst by our [Page 249]example (to let passe other things) the elect areHeb. 10.24. provoked to the like studie of pietie, and practise of good works. And, as concerning our selves, they are profitable unto us many wayes. I.2 Pet. 1.10. Because by our good works, as the effects of our election and vocation, we make them both sure, both to our selves and others. 2.Tim. 1.6. Because faith doth not onely de­monstrate and shew forth it self by good works as the fruits thereof, but also is exercised, stirred up, strengthe­ned, and increased thereby; as also all Morall virtues receive strength and increase by dayly exercise. 3. Be­cause, as weEph. 4.30. grieve the holy Spirit by our sins; So by our good works we make him glad, and are our selves filled with spirituall joy and glad­nesse in our hearts and consciences, and resist the devills temptations. 4.Deut. 28.1. &c. Because, as by eschewing sin we escape many punishments; So also following the study and practise of good works we obtain of God mani­fold blessings, both in this life, and in that especially which is to come. 5. and lastly,Eph. 2.10. because they are the [Page 250]way by which God ordinarily lea­deth this elect unto eternall life: andIoh. 15.6. unlesse the vine-branch bring forth fruit, it shall be cut off and cast into the fire.

DOCT. VIII. That unto our good works a reward is promised and given, but yet of grace, and for the merits of Christ.

FRom whence we understand that although by our good works weLuke 17.10. cannot (to speak properly) merit unto our selves the possession of a celestiall inheritance (forRom. 6.23. The gift of God is eternall life:) Yet we mayMatth. 5.7. obtain it as reward; but yet of the mere mercy of God, and for the me­rits of Christ.

DOCT. IX. Errours condemned.

WE therefore condemn all those, who standing upon the condi­gnitie of their works, do teach either that remission of sinnes, or eternall life, or any other good whatsoever is due unto them. ForLuke. [...].10. though we should perfectly keep all Gods com­mandments, [Page 251]yet even then should we be but unprofitable servants: But there is no man, no though he be in­grafted into Christ, and justified, that doth keep the commandments of God, as he ought. And yet we find no fault with the Fathers for using the name of Merit, so farre forth as they use the word in this sense as si­gnifying a good work done in faith, which is recompensed with a reward, and that of grace, and for the merits of Christ. But again we like not those, who dispute of good works as if they were things indifferent; and further say that they are so farre from being necessarie, that they make nothing at all unto our salvation. For [...]eb. 11.6. how can a man be saved without faith? and,Iam. 2.20. How can faith be lively with­out the studie and practise of good works? and,1 Tim. 1.19. How can a man hold faith unlesse also he keep a good con­science? and, How can a man keep a good conscience, unlesse he hold a constant resolution to eschew sin, to practise good works, and to compose and frame his whole life to the will of God? But we absolutely condemne [Page 252]all libertines, to whom it is all one without difference, either to keep God's commandments, or not to keep them; to do well, or to do ill. We condemne likewise those, who teach that our good works are pro­fitable for the souls of the dead, in I know not what fire, which they call Purgatorie: forasmuch as the Scri­pture saith that every man shall be judged according to the works which he hath done in his body; and that, as concerning the dead, their own works, and not other mens, do follow them.

CHAP. XXII. Concerning Invocation and Swearing.

BEcause amongst good works commanded by God Invoca­tion is none of the last, but is often taken in holy Scripture for the whole worship of God, whereunto also is added an Oath as being a part of divine worship: Therefore we thought good here in brief to ex­plicate [Page 253]and declare what is our belief concerning both; and that the rather, because even amongst those that pro­fesse the name of Christ there is some controversie concerning them both.

DOCTRINE I. That Invocation is due to God onely, and therefore also to Iesus Christ.

AS concerning religious Invoca­tion, we believe that it isDeut., 20. due onely to the true God (that is the Father; the Son, and the holy Ghost) and therefore to Iesus Christ our Ad­vocate, and to none besides.Matt. 4.10. That Invocation is due to God onely, it is made manifest by many places of Scripture: Because God alone is to be worshipped and adored. And that it is due unto Christ as our Media­tour and Advocate, we have suffi­cient testimonies in the Acts of the Apostles, in the Epistles, and in the Revelation. And as we are expresse­lyColoss. 2.18. forbidden to worship and a­dore, any creature whatsoever it be, whether in heaven, or on earth: So likewise are we forbidden to invo­cate and call upon them. And if [Page 254]whatsoever is not of faith, is sin; much more that which is committed against the expresse word of God: For the very gentiles themselves did not judge it fit to call upon any with a religious worship, whom they did not acknowledge for a God. And (as the Apostle saith)Rom. 10.14. How shall they call on him in whom they have not be­lieved? But we must believe onely in God and in Iesus Christ, as we are taught in holy Scripture, and all the true Catholike Church confesseth in the Apostles Creed which is dayly re­cited.

DOCT. II. That a Christian man may swear lawfully.

WE believe likewise that a Chri­stian man may swear lawfully, to wit, in truth,Ier. 4. [...] in judgement, and in righteousnesse (as the Prophet teacheth) so that his oath be neither false, nor rash, nor unjust. For the taking of the name of the Lord in our mouthes, is not simply con­demned; but the taking of it in vain, [Page 255]and falsly. And it is a received cu­stome amongst all nations from the foundation of the world to take an oath, when it makes for the glorie of God, and the benefit of a neighbour. And (to say nothing of the perpe­tuall consent of the Church in all ages) it is likewise confirmed by Gods own example, as also by the example of Christ, and his Apostles. Wherefore the Doctrine of Christ inMatt. 5.24. St. Matthews Gospell, &Iam. 5.12. St. Iames in his Epistle is not repugnant to ours. For their purpose was to shew the true meaning of the command­ment concerning swearing, and they spake onely against the abuse thereof.

DOCT. III. That, when we swear, we are to swear by God onely, and by no other.

WE believe that, when we are to swear, no other is by us to be called upon as the witnesse of our consciences but God alone; and therefore that we are to swear by none but God: For God alone is the beholder and searcher of our hearts, and he alone hath power [Page 256]over our souls. And therefore to him onely is this honour and worship due, to be appealed unto by us as unto a witnesse, and avenger on our souls, if we observe not what by oath we have promised.

DOCT. IV. That such oaths as are just, and law­fullyOr ta­ken. made, are to be kept and ob­served by us.

HE reupon we confesse that such oaths as are lawfullyOr taken. made are by us to be kept and observed also, and that for the glory of God, whose name we do as it were lay to pledge as often as we swear by it: As it is also commanded in the law; for we are not to take the name of God in vain, or falsly.

DOCT. V. That oaths concerningVnjust, Or un­lawfull. wicked and un­godly matters, that is, such as are re­pugnant to the Law of God, are not to be taken; or if taken, yet not to be kept.

AGain, forasmuch as we are to pro­mise nothing which isUn­just, or unlaw­full. wicked [Page 257]and ungodly, that is to say, repugnant to the Law of God: Therefore much lesse ought we to confirme any such thing by an oath, interposing the name of God. But if any such oath of it self unlawfull be taken, we af­firme that it ought not to be kept: for in keeping it the sin is doubled; as we read in theMatt. 14.7, 8, 9, &c. Gospel concer­ning Herod.

DOCT. VI. That such oaths as cannot be kept with­out trangressing Gods Law, are not to be kept; although some of them of themselves be not unjust or unlawfull.

ANd this also we adde, that such oaths as cannot be kept without transgressing Gods Law, are not to be kept, although the things them­selves be not of themselves unjust, or unlawfull. And therefore (to instance in a particular) If any man hath bound himself by an oath, never to marry; which oath he cannot keep without manifest transgressing of the divine Law: we determine that he is in no wise to keep that oath.

DOCT. VII. Errours condemned.

WE therefore condemne all those, whosoever invocate or adore, call upon or worship either idols, or dead men, or any thing whatsoever without life: As likewise all Ana­baptists, who simply and absolutely condemne all manner of oaths, con­tending for this, that it is not lawfull for a Christian man to swear in any kind: And again, those who call up­on any other besides God, to be witnesse to their souls and con­sciences: And to conclude, all those whosoever contend for this, that vowes and oaths, though of them­selves impious, and such as cannot be kept without wickednesse, are yet notwithstanding to be kept.

CHAP. XXIII. Concerning the Church of Christ in generall.

BEcause the Church of Christ, which is his body, is known to [Page 259]consist of such as by the bond of the holy Spirit are knit unto him, as members unto their head; And a­gain, the word and the Sacraments are the means by which men are knit unto Christ, and these means no where to be had but in the Church; And further, whosoever are endued with the gifts and graces of Hope, Charitie, Repentance, Studie and care to exercise good works, do be­long unto the Church: Therefore we judge it worth the pains, to de­clare what is our belief concerning the Church, especially seeing that there be very great controversies about this article above all the rest. And first we will speak of the Church of Christ in generall: and so we make confession of our faith with all the Church. Afterwards we will speak in speciall of the Church Militant, and what pertaineth thereunto.

DOCTRINE I. An Article of faith concerning the Church out of the Apostles Creed.

WE believe the holy Catholike Church, the communion of Saints.

DOCT. II. What we understand by the name of the Church, and the description thereof.

BY the name of Christs Church we understand a certain number and companie known unto God, both of Angells, and Men which are not one­ly predestinated and elected to have perpetuall communion with Christ, and mutually one with another, as also to worship the true God perpe­tually according to his will and com­mandment, and to love one another with sincere and perpetuall love and charitie; but are also in time effe­ctually called by the holy Spirit out of the number of others, and neerely united unto Christ, and so true Saints indeed: begun from the foun­dation of the world, and by a con­tinuall succession even unto these times gathered together and conti­nued by the bond of the holy Spirit; and to be continued even unto the end of the world, yea to all eternitie: in part already triumphing with Christ in the heavens, and in part as yet militant on earth for Christ, with [Page 261]sundry enemies, preaching and hear­ing the word of the Gospell, admi­nistring and receiving the holy Sacra­ments, and in publike and private looking to the observing & keeping of Christs commandments.

DOCT. III. That the Church is a companie consisting of many.

THat the Church is a companie consisting of many, and as it were a body compounded of divers mem­bers, we are taught in holy Scripture; where it is calledEph. 1.23. the body of Christ which is distinguished by di­uers members; as alsoIohn 10.3, &c. a flock of sheep, and the Kingdome of God, andHeb. 11.10. a Citie, which consisteth of divers Citizens; and by other such like names.

DOCT▪ IV. That the Church consists onely of the elect which are already incorpo­rated into Christ.

ANd that these many, whereof the Church consisteth, are none other but the elect, which are alrea­dy [Page 262]ingrafted into Christ, and endued with sanctitie from him, we are like­wise taught abundantly out of the said holy Scripture, both in other places, and especially in the Epistle to the Ephesians, where the Apostle speaking of the Church and the members thereof, saith that we areEphes. 1.4. chosen in Christ,7. to have redem­ption in him;13. being sealed with that holy Spirit of promise:22. that Christ was given to be the head over all things to the Church, and e that the Church is his body. Such a body therefore it is, whose members are every one, by one and the same Spi­rit both knit unto Christ their head; and likewise one together with ano­ther: from their head they receive life, and from him they are endued with sanctitie, so that the whole bo­dy of the Church is truely holy, and therefore is called the holy Church.

DOCT. V. That the holy Angells are not excluded from the body of the Church.

ANd yet from this body of Christ, which is the holy Church, we do23. [Page 263]not exclude the Angells; and that for these reasons following.Heb. 12.22. 1. Be­cause the Apostle speaking expresse­ly and plainly of the Church, in­cludeth therein even the Angells al­so. 2.Eph. 1.10. Coloss. 2.10. Because they together with us under one and the same head, which is Christ, are gathered to­gether into one body; and Christ is manifestly by the Apostle called the head of the Angells. 3.Rev. 22.9. Because they call themselves our fellow servants, and have with us the same Father, and worship the same God; and we are all to be together for ever in the same CitieHeb. 12.22. the heavenly Ierusa­lem. 4. And lastly, Because they are holy. And the Church is the com­munion of all Saints.

DOCT. VI. That reprobates and hypocrites, al­though they be in the Church, yet they are not of the Church.

WE therefore upon good grounds do believe and professe that re­probates and hypocrites, although they have their dwelling in the [Page 264]Church, and converse with the Saints, yet they are not of the Church, nor any members thereof; forasmuch as they are not truely uni­ted unto Christ the Head, nor en­dued with his Spirit, and therefore not truely holy: For the Apostle St. Iohn speaking of certain hypo­crites saith thus,1 Ioh. 2.19. They went out from us, but they were not of us; for if they had been of us, they would no doubt have continued with us. They are not therefore of the Church, whosoever do at length revolt from Christ, and not retain perpetuall communion with Christ and with all the Saints: howsoever they may for a time seeme great & worthy men in the Church, either bearing rule and authoritie in a Christian Commonwealth, or being set over the whole Church. For they are the members of Satan and not of Christ, whosoever have not the Spirit of Christ, but of Antichrist.

DOCT. VII. That the Church of Christ alwayes was and is but one onely.

ANd we confesse that the Church of Christ alwayes was and is [Page 265]one onely: because the body where­unto Christ was given by his Father to be the Head thereof, alwayes was and is but [...]ph. 4.4. one; one onely Spirit, whereby all the members of the body have their connexion together with the Head;6. One onely God, to worship whom and to glorifie him for ever, we are all elected and called;5. one faith of all believers, one salvation, and one celestiall inheritance: in regard whereof Christ alwayes called his Church one, and his flock one. We do not therefore make the Church which was from the begin­ning of the world, and before the coming of Christ, to be another from that which now is, and ever shall be even to the end of the world; but we hold it to be one at all times and in all places and of all persons truely joyned unto Christ. And therefore we say that the communion of all Saints is one; and we are perswaded out of holy Scripture that whosoever do make a finall revolt or departure therefrom, they do not belong unto this one body.

DOCT. VIII. That there is but one Head of the Church, to wit, Iesus Christ.

FRom hence are we confirmed in the faith, that, seeing the Church of Christ, which is his body, is but one, therefore the Head thereof is and alwayes was but one. Now by the name of Head we understand him, who from the beginning of the world was by God given unto the Church to this end, that he should be at length made partaker of the same nature with it, and redeem it, and closely unite it unto himself, and quicken it, and illuminate it with the splendour of his wisdome, and inflame it with the ardent heat of divine love, and effectually move it unto all good desires and good works, and perpetually guide, governe, and preserve it. For be­sides dayly experience in nature, we are caught it out of the holy Scri­pture, that these are the proper ope­rations of the Head in respect of the body. But we acknowledge none that doth or can perform these for [Page 267]the Church besides Iesus Christ: not denying in the mean time, but there may be one head of all the hypo­crites which are in the Church, and consequently of a hypocriticall Church it self; forasmuch as the Prophets did foretell thus much, and the Apostles also have confirmed it. But we believe and confesse with the holy Apostles that theEph. Col 1.18. Head of the true Church is but one onely, to wit, Iesus Christ.

DOCT. IX. That this Church is truely holy.

FRom whence also it followes, that this Church is truely holy, and that for these reasons. 1. Because it hath a most holy and sanctifying Head. 2. Because no sins are impu­ted to it. 3. Because from the Head it drawes the Spirit of Sanctification. 4. Because, whatsoever sanctitie is in the Head, all the same is impu­ted to every particular member.

DOCT. X. That the Church is also truely Catholike.

WE confesse also, that it is truely Catholike, that is, Universall: Because the Head thereof is Catho­like and eternall; at all times from the foundations of the world even unto the end thereof, out of all sorts of men, and nations, and places, gathering and knitting unto himself the members of the body, and go­verning', guiding, and preserving them unto himself unto eternall hap­pinesse.

DOCT. XI. That this one onely Church is partly Triumphant in the heavens, and partly Militant on the earth.

BUt yet we acknowledge, that this Church, although it be and for ever hath been but one onely, yet it is so distinguished, that one part thereof is Triumphant in heaven to­gether with Christ who was raised from the dead, and now sitteth at the [Page 269]right hand of the Father; and the other part on earth, fighting still with flesh and bloud, with the world, and with the devil. From whence is received amongst all the godly that distinction of the Church into Triumphant and Militant.

CHAP. XXIIII. Concerning the Church Militant.

ALthough from what we have confessed concerning the Church in generall, there is none but may easily gather and per­ceive what our belief is concerning the Church Militant in particular: Yet that it may the easier and better be understood, we purpose to de­clare and explane our opinion apart concerning it, partly by a brief re­petition referring hither what hath been said concerning the whole, and partly adding what is proper here­unto.

DOCTRINE I. A Description of the Church Militant.

WE believe then, that the Mili­tant Church is a companie of menEph. 1.4. chosen unto eternall life in Christ, before the foundation of the world, out of every nation and kin­dred: who in time by theMatt. 28.19 Mark 16.15. Rom. 10.14. preaching of the Gospel, and the holy Spirit, be­ing called out of the world unto Christ, and out of the kingdome of the Devil unto the kingdome of God; gathered into one body under oneEph. 1 22. Head which is Christ, and so truely justified and sanctified, where­soever they be, and how many or how few soever they be; do heartily and with one consent professe the same faith in God and in Christ, the same hope of a celestiall inheritance, and that for the onely merits of Christ, the observing and keeping the same commandments given by Christ, and therefore brotherly love one towards another, and charitie to­wards all: who preach and hear the [Page 271]word of the Gospel, administer and receive the holy Sacraments accord­ing to Christ's institution, and use all care and diligence that all men may live soberly, justly, and godly in this present world; as long as they are in the flesh everEph. 6, 12, &c. fighting for the kingdome of Christ, against sin dwelling in the flesh, against the world whether alluring them unto sin, or persecuting them for Christ's sake, and against the devil; waiting through patience for the coming of Christ, and for eternall happinesse: Amongst whom there are also many reprobates, and ungodlyMatt. 13.5, &c. and 21. 1 Ioh 2.19. hypocrites professing the same Christ: But as they are themselves nothing lesse then of the Church, so neither doth their hypocrisie and ungodlinesse take away the Church, or extinguish & blot out the name of the Church. For we deny not but under the name of the Church hypocrites also, which are in it, are comprehended: because the Lord himself saith that it is like unto a flour in which there is wheat and chaffe; untoMatt. 13.24. a field wherein is wheat & tares, into a net in which are [Page 272]fishes good and bad; unto tenMatt. 25.1, 2. vir­gins, whereof five of them were wise and five foolish: But yet we deny them to be of the Church. For the Lord again taught as much in that place where he said that he wouldMatt. 16.18. build his Church in such a manner that the gates of hell should not pre­vail against it; and St. Iohn confirmed it in his Epistle, where he said thus,1 Ioh. 2.19. They went out from us, but they were not of us. This we believe to be a true description of the Church Militant: for it hath manifest testimonies out of the holy Scripture.

DOCT. II. The differences between the Church Triumphant and the Church Militant.

ALthough the Church Triumphant and Militant are but one and the same Church; yet it is easy to be un­derstood what a great deal of diffe­rence there is between them. For (besides that this Militant Church doth consist onely of men, whereas the Triumphant hath the blessed Angels also annexed and present) [Page 273]here we have need of the preaching of the word, the administration of the Sacraments, and discipline con­cerning life and manners; which things have no place in heaven. A­gain, from that are excluded all the ungodly, and hypocrites: but in this there are good & bad mixt together. And again, those our brethren which are in heaven being now at liberty, do triumph over their enemies, and re­joyce with exceeding great joy, be­ing present with the Lord, and be­holding him face to face: But we must still wrestle with flesh and bloud, with the world, with sin, and with Satan the Prince of this world; and we see here but darkly as in a glasse, being absent from the Lord. And last of all, it is so alwayes one & the same, that it is neither divided into parts, nor subject to any change; neither of which can be said truely of the Church Militant.

DOCT. III. That the Church Militant is in such sort one and the same, and that Catho­like: that yet notwithstanding it is not with it alwayes after one and the same manner; and besides, it is di­stinguished into divers particular Churches.

WE therefore acknowldge that, although the Militant Church alwayes was and is one and the same, and that Catholike; because it al­wayes had from the foundation of the world and in all places one and the same Head, which is Christ, who knitteth and uniteth unto himself in­to one body all the elect gathered out of every nation: Yet it neither was nor is with it alwayes after one and the same manner; and besides, it is distinguished into many parti­cular Churches, being as many and divers members thereof, according to the varietie of times, places and people. For in the earthly Paradise before sin, it was with it after one manner; after sin, and before the floud, and in the time of the Pa­triarchs, [Page 275]after another; under the Law, after another; & under Grace, after another; and in the time of Christ amongst the Iews onely, after another; and after Christ's glorifi­cation after another, being by the Apostles gathered out of Iews and Gentiles, and that not in one place, but in many; nor out of one people, but many; nor retaining at all times and in all places the same ceremo­nies. In which respects we are wont to say, that it was one before Christ, and another after; and that the Church of the Old Testament, but this of the New; and that again we reade was wont to be called the old people, and this the New. And as concerning particular Churches, we read of one at Rome, another at Corinth, another at Ephesus, and others in other places.

DOCT. IV. That the Catholike Church being but one consists of many particular Churches.

AGain, although for many and divers respects already signified [Page 276]there alwayes have been and yet are many, and divers, and particular Churches: Yet we acknowledge, that, as concerning the substance, there alwayes hath been but one and the same, consisting of them all; and that Catholike, and Apostolike, and Holy. One; Because it alwayes was and is gathered intoEph. 1.23, & one body un­der4.4 Eph. 1.22. one Head Iesus Christ, byEph. 4. [...]. one and the same Spirit; And, because there is5. one faith of all, and one confession of the faith. Catholike; Be­cause it is extended to all times and places, and consists of all kinds of persons and people. Apostolike; Be­cause it wasEph. 2.20. founded upon the foun­dation which the Apostles laid, that is Iesus Christ; and built upon the doctrine of the Apostles, which was also the doctrine of the Prophets, from the foundation of the world: and Holy; Not as if it had no sin; but because, inasmuch as it is in­grafted into Christ, and endued with the gifts of repentance and faith, therefore no sins are imputed unto it, but it hath obtained free pardon of them all: and again, because it [Page 277]is made partaker of Christ's Spirit sanctifying, and regenerating: and further, because the righteousnesse and holinesse of Christ is imputed unto it; in which regard it is said to beEph. 5.27. without spot or wrinkle, that is, in Christ her23. Head and husband.

DOCT. V. How it may be known concerning parti­cular Churches whether they be true Churches or no.

AS concerning particular Church­es, we believe that it may be known whether they be true Church­es gathered together in the Lord; by this, if they have their building ac­cording to the will of the Lord Ie­sus, that is, on theMatt [...]. 28.19. preaching of the Gospel, the administration of the Sacraments instituted and ordained by Christ, and the20. keeping and ob­serving of his commandments. We therefore acknowledge those for the true Churches of Christ, in which first of all the pure doctrine of the Gospel is preached, heard, and re­ceived; and so received and that one­ly, that there is neither place nor [Page 278]care given unto any other which is contrarie thereto. For both these are the properties of the flock or sheep of Christ: both toIoh. 10.4. hear the voyce of their own sheepherd, and5. not to follow a stranger. And again, in which the Sacraments instituted by Christ, are as farre as it is possible to be done, rightly and duely admi­nistred and received, that is, ac­cording to Christs institution; and where also such Sacraments as are but the inventions of men are not re­ceived: And last of all, in which the Discipline of Christ hath place, that is, where both publikely and private­ly byMatt. 1 8, 15, &c. Tit. 1.9. admonitions, corrections, and where need shall require, by excommunications also, but yet out of charitie, care is taken for the keeping and observing of Christs commandments: that so all men may live a sober, righteous, and godly life, to the glorie of God, and the mutuall edification of one an­other. For where wickednesse and all manner of uncleannesse in life goes openly unpunished, and notorious offences, contrarie to the doctrine [Page 279]of Christ, scape without censure, there we believe that some good and godly men may be found; but that a godly and Christian congregation is there, we believe not. For this the Lord himself saith,Iohn 13.35. By this shall all men know that ye are my disciples, if ye love one another. But what love can be there, where no care is had that according to the doctrine of Christ, when brethren sin they may be corrected, and repent, & be gained unto the Lord, and saved.

DOCT. VI. From what succession of Bishops it may be demonstrated, that some Church is Apostolike.

SO also we acknowledge, that from the perpetuall succession of Bishops in a Church, yet not any succession be it what it will, but such as hath also the continuation of the Apostles doctrine; We acknowledge, I say, that it may be truely demon­strated from such a succession, that such a Church is Apostolike: As of old the Church of Rome, and [Page 280]the succession of the Bishops thereof even unto the times of Irenaeus, Ter­tullian, Cyprian, and some other: insomuch that those Fathers did not without cause appeal thereunto, and to other such like, in their accusto­med citations of the Heretikes of their time. But as on the one side, as concerning those Churches in which the Apostles doctrine together with Christian discipline, and the right administration of the Sacra­ments is retained pure, although they were not planted by the A­postles, neither can show the perpe­tuall succession of their Bishops with­out interruption even from the A­postles time, yet we do acknewledge them for Churches truely Aposto­like, and say with Tertullian and others of the Fathers that they are so to be acknowledged: So on the other side, what Churches were planted and watered by the Apostles themselves, although they can demonstrate unto us the continuall succession of their Bishops without any the least inter­ruption, yet if they cannot demon­strate unto us as well the continua­tion [Page 281]of the Christian and Apostolike doctrine, as the succession of their Bishops, we may acknowledge and confesse that they have been indeed Christian and Apostolike Churches, but that they are such now we can­not acknowledge. For as it is not the cap or the hood that makes a Monke (as it is in the proverb) but pietie and sanctitie of life: So neither is it the succession of Bishops, but the doctrine of Christ, and Christian Religion, that makes a Church true­ly Christian.

DOCT. VII. That, not any consent whatsoever, but onely that which is in the doctrine of Christ, sufficeth to evidence that some are true and Christian Churches.

SO also we conceive, that it cannot be evinced from any kind of agree­ment of Churches amongst them­selves that they are the true Church­es of God; seeing there ha's been the greatest unity and concord even in the Synagogues of the Iews, and the assemblies of the Turks, as also here­tofore [Page 282]in the conventicles of the Ar­rians and Donatists: but we judge them onely to be demonstrated as such, from their consent in the pu­rity of Christian Doctrine and true piety. For when the Apostle saith, I beseech you, 1 Cor. 1.10. brethren, by the Name of our Lord Iesus Christ, that ye all speak the same thing, and that there be no divisions among you; but that ye be perfectly joined together in the same mind and in the same judgements: he meanes in that Lord Iesus Christ, by whose Name he did request them to that unanimitie.

DOCT VIII. That the being of Churches is not destroyed by every kind of dis­sension that may arise in them.

NEverthelesse we are not so unjust­ly rigid against those, wherein there is not a perfect harmonie, and the same judgement concerning all particulars, as therefore to deny them to be Christian Churches. Because, as any kind of concord do's not con­stitute a Church so neither does eve­ry [Page 283]dissension whatsoever destroy it; provided this fundamentall principle, that there is such a person as Christ, true God and true Man, the true and perfect Saviour, be firmely acknow­ledg'd, and so the whole summe of Apostolicall Doctrine, which is de­livered in the Creed, be received with universall assent.

DOCT. IX. The same further asserted.

FOr as reprobates and hypocrites do not hinder Churches from be­ing truely such, by their being mem­bers of them; so likewise those dis­sentions in the Churches, which are raised either by wicked men, or a­monst the godly themselves through the weaknesse of the flesh or igno­rance, are not sufficient to abolish them: which is attested by the A­postle, when speaking concerning the ministers of true Churches, he saith, that upon the same foundation some do build gold, silver, pretious stones; but others, wood, stubble, hay. And in the Epistle to the Philippians,Chap. 3. vers. 15.16. having first explained the summe of Chri­stian [Page 284]Doctrine, and exhorted them all to prosist in the same, he sub­joines, But if any thing ye be otherwise minded, God shall reveal even this unto you: Neverthelesse whereto we have already attained, let us walke by the same rule, let us mind the same thing. For otherwise, if where ever discords happen to arise touching Religion, there are not to be acknowledged a­ny true Churches, then were not the Corinthians, in the time of St. Paul, the Church of Christ, since not onely many schismes distracted them, while one professed, I am of Paul; another, I am of Cephas; and a third, I am of Apollo: but also strange con­tests and controversies about Reli­gion had fill'd them with feuds and animosities. So also will it follow in Galatia: for in those Churches, soon after they had been excellently plan­ted and constituted by St. Paul, there crept in many seducers, by whom di­vers heresies were sowed among them. In a word, it must be concluded from thence, that there never were any, either in the East or West, that could be truely said to have been [Page 285]Churches; because they were never free from contentions, not onely rai­sed between the Catholicks & Here­ticks (which had degenerated from Catholicks) but even among the holy Fathers themselves, as Histo­ries abundantly witnesse: insomuch, that the Christians, by reason of those dissensions and sects, us'd to be derided and mocked by the unbe­lieving gentiles upon their Theaters; as we have experience of the like usage at this day from the Turks and Iews upon the same cause. But as in the primitive Church, it did not fol­low from those disagreements of the Christians, that they were not there­fore the people of God; so neither can it with equity be otherwise repu­ted of us, but that we have reason to affirme the contrary to be thence de­ducible; it being the property of the good wheat, viz. of the Gospel, by which the Churches are gathered to Christ, that where that is sowne, the enemie (Satan) should soon af­ter scatter his tares in the same field. Neither indeed were the champions of darknesse, as Simon, Menander, [Page 286]Ebio, Cerinthus, Valentinian, and o­ther the like plagues, heard of any where more, or sooner, then in the Church, & that upon the first preach­ing of the Gospel of Christ. Besides, that the Church at present in the world, could not truely be termed the Church Militant, had it not ene­mies both within and without, wherewith perpetually to encounter.

DOCT. X. That the peace of the Church is not to be disturbed, or schismes raised upon every difference in doctrine or cere­monies.

MOreover, we do not approve, that any man should make a se­paration from his own Church, or disturb the peace of the Churches, and infringe brotherly love; much lesse that one Church should con­demne another, for every difference in doctrine or ceremonies, where the foundation is retained: as heretofore Victor, Bishop of Rome, when he went about to excommunicate the Churches of Asia, because they dis­sented [Page 287]from him in some rites, was deservedly reprooved by Irenaeus Bishop of Lyons. For the Apostle would not have schismes caused in the Church, or the Churches con­demned, because of building stubble or hay upon the foundation, seeing the Church does not cease to be a Church, and that holy, and the beau­tifull spouse of Christ, although she be black, or have a few wrinkles and moles. In brief,Ca [...]t. 1.5. and 2.10. Eph. 5.27. although er­rours and defects are not to be con­niv'd at; yet wheresoever the foun­dation and principles of the Aposto­licall Doctrine are firmely held, and so no manifest idolatry admitted, we conceive that peace and commu­nion is to be imbraced with those as­semblies, as with the true Churches of Christ: so great is the regard we ought to have of the unitie of the Churches.

DOCT. XI. That we ought to endeavour the unity of the Catholick Church.

THerefore forasmuch as that one whole, and Catholick Church [Page 288]now Militant on earth is composed of severall particular Churches as of it's parts; if we ought to seek uni­tie in the Lord with every particu­lar, then we cannot but acknowledge it much more our duty to endeavour the unity of the whole Catholick Church.

DOCT. XII. What is to be understood by the unitie of the Catholick Church.

BY the unitie of the Catholick Church we understand the con­junction of all the elect and regene­rate, in what parts of the world soever with Christ their head, and amongst themselves in one body, wrought by the holy Ghost; which in the Creed we call the communion of Saints.

DOCT. XIII. What is meant by the unity of the Ca­tholick Church.

BY the unitie of the Catholick Church we understand that con­junction made by the Holy Ghost of all the elect and regenerate, in what parts of the world soever, with [Page 289]Christ the Head, and amongst them­selves into one body; which in the Creed we call the communion of Saints. For the Apostle also describ­ing this unity, teacheth that the Church is a body,Eph. 1.12. 1 Cor. 12 12. Col. [...].18. Eph. 4.12. Eph. 2.15. Rom. 8.11. consisting of divers members, whose head is Christ, building up all believers into one man by his Spirit, quickning, acting and preserving them. There­fore the unity of the body and all the members with the head, and a­mongst themselves, is the unitie of the Church, as St. Augustin hath also defin'd it against the Donatists, T. 7. de unitat. Ecclesiae c. 2.

DOCT. XIII. That the unitie of the Church doth sum­marily consist in the same faith in Christ, and in love to­ward the brethren.

BUt insomuch as God useth both our faith in Christ, which is im­planted in our souls by the word of the Gospel and by the Sacraments, and also our charity with the duties thereof towards our neighbour, as the means to preserve and cherish [Page 290]this conjunction; yea further, since these are the manifest testimonies of the communion of the Saints and their conjunction with Christ, there­fore we confesse in summe, that the unity of the Catholick Church con­sists in the unity of faith, and in the bond of brotherly love: that is, that we do all embrace with true faith the same doctrine which the Pro­phets and Apostles have deliver'd us in their writings, and professe it in the purity thereof; that we retain the same Sacraments, which Christ hath instituted, intirely, and no other; that we do not neglect the discipline appointed and commanded by Christ; in which mutuall affection is exercised, and the salvation of an offending brother is aimed at; and lastly that we love one another, and practise all the duties of charity.

DOCT. XIV. A confirmation of the former doctrine.

FOr we conceive, that by what meanes divers people are gathered [Page 291]into one body, by the same also they are preserved in union, and become more and more establish'd therein. Wherefore since the gathering of the Church is neither effected nor pre­served properly by ceremonies; but by the holy Ghost, by the word, by faith, charity, and the observance of Gods commandments; it can not be doubted but that the unity there­of is retained and cherished by the same. Which is also attested by the Apostle to the Ephesians,Eph. 4.2, &c. where treating of the Churches unitie, he teacheth it to consist in these things, without making mention at all of ce­remonies.

DOCT. XV. That, although unitie in ceremonies be not requisite in all places and times, yet whereever it is embraced it ought not to be disturbed.

NEverthelesse we deny not, but that unity also in the ceremonies and rites of every Church ought to be retain'd and endeavourd as farre as possibly may be with safety of [Page 292]conscience. For there are two kinds of things wherein the unity of the Church may be; namely, in some which are deliver'd in the word of God, and in others which are not so; of which last sort are many Eccle­siasticall ribes and ceremonies. In which respect as we believe unitie in the former to be every where and alwayes necessary; we con­ceive that although it be not abso­lutely necessary as to these latter, but profitable to have severall distinct rites according to the diversity of places, and various conjuncture of times, yet where any of these parti­cular matters is certainely ordain'd and admitted, there unity ought to be retain'd in these kind of rites, and Ecclesiasticall orders not to be di­sturbed; according to the rule of the Apostle,1 Cor. 14.40. That all things be done in the Church decently, in order, and to edification. Concerning which matters we likewise very much ap­prove and commend two Epistles of St. Austin to Ianuarius, Epist. 118, and 119.

DOCT. XVI. The conclusion concerning the unitie of the Church.

THerefore, seeing Ecclesiasticall unity is of two sorts; one essen­tiall, and so of it self alwayes and every where necessary, and conse­quently proper to the Catholick Church; the other accidentall, and mutable according to the divers oc­casions of times and places, and thence proper to particular Church­es: we believe it is not lawfull for any person to separate from the for­mer at any time or for any cause, it being no lesse then to depart from Christ and God, to renounce the holy Ghost, and divide himself from the whole body of Christ; which is altogether a perfect and execrable Apostasie. But we are of opinion that to desert that which is acciden­tall, in consideration of returning to and maintaining that which is essen­tiall, is not onely lawfull but ne­cessary for every man; and the rather, if those rites and ceremonies, where­in [Page 294]the unity was, be corrupted with severall superstitions: but especially, if even the Sacraments instituted by Christ be perverted or wholly abo­lisht, so that a good conscience can­not partake of them. And how much more, if the heavenly truth be ba­nisht from them, and the doctrines of devils preached and desended in stead of them? and further, when you shall not be allowed so much as to be silent, but compell'd either to renounce God's truth, and subscribe to diabolicall lies, or pay your life for your refusall?

DOCT. XVII. That, whoso hath departed from the Romane Church, hath not thereby broken the unity of the Church, and forsaken the body of Christ.

FOrasmuch therefore as we are ac­cused of Apostacy from the Catho­lick & Apostolick Church of Christ, and censur'd to have broken the uni­ty thereof, in regard we refuse to communicate any longer with the assemblies of the Romane Church in [Page 295]their wicked superstitions and Ido­latrous worship; but choose rather to follow the old doctrine, worship and discipline, revived through di­vine mercy by the servants of Christ; we protest before God and his An­gels and the whole Church to the end of the world, that they do a high injury not to us alone, but even to the holy Ghost and all the pri­mitive Church; since we have neither done not do any thing in this parti­cular, whereunto we have not been commanded by the holy Ghost, and taught by the Fathers, and likewise inform'd of by the Popish Doctors themselves.

DOCT XVIII. The same confirmed.

FOr our Lord giveth particular ad­vertisement,1 Cor. 5.11. 2 Cor. 6.14, &c. Tit. 3.10. Rom. 16.17. that weeschew com­munion with idolaters and obstinate apostates and hereticks in their ido­latries and heresies.C. 24. q. 1. c. 24, and 26. and q. 3. c. 9. Nor have the Fathers taught otherwise (as they are produced for witnesses hereof even in the Decree it self, then that [Page 296]if, not onely any man, but any Church do reject the faith, and re­tain not the principles of Aposto­licall Religion preached by the A­postles, nor persist in the doctrine of Christ, it is to be deserted. And it is certain,C. 24. q. 1. c. 9. the Roman Church, which flourished in the dayes of the ancient Fathers, was then extolled so much by them, and stiled the holy Church, and the Mother of the Churches; for no other cause then for that it held stedfastly the doctrine received from the Apostles, when most part of the rest had departed from it. But in these dayes what doctrine and wor­ship they professe, and how much they have in many particulars de­generated, is sufficiently known: Wherefore we again protest that we have separated from the present Ro­man Church onely upon induce­ment from the word of God, and in obedience to the command of God therein; and in that respect deemed it necessary to depart from the ido­latries of this most corrupted Ro­man Church, that we might no longer continue in apostacy from [Page 297]the Catholick and Apostolick Church, but at length return into her bosome.

DOCT. XIX. That we have not absolutely departed from the Roman Church, but one­ly in some particulars.

FOr we have not forsaken the Ro­man Church generally and in all regards; but onely in those things, wherein she is fallen from the Apo­stolick Church and from her self, the ancient and pure Church. Nor have we departed from her with any other mind, then of returning to her, and renewing communion in her as­semblies, in case she would reforme and resume her former purity. Which that it may at length come to passe, we pray unto the Lord Iesus with our whole souls. For what can be more desireable by every pious man, then that where we were born again by Baptisme, there also to live unto the last; so it be in the Lord?

I Hierome Zanchie with my whole family do declare this to the whole Church of Christ, to all eternitie.

DOCT. XX. That the whole Catholick Church is not suffer'd to fall into errour, but that all particular Churches may erre.

BUt we believe and acknowledge, that this Catholick Church, which we have described above, is so gover­ned by the Spirit of Christ, that he will never suffer all of it to erre at the same time: because he alwayes pre­serves the light of truth in some pious persons, and by their ministry keepes it pure to the end of the world and propagates it to succeeding ages. Whereunto we do not doubt to ap­ply that of St. Paul,1 Tim. 3.15. that the Church is the pillar and ground of the truth; be­cause there is no truth out of the Church, but it is constantly preser­ved in it; seeing there is alwayes some assembly found great or small, in which the word of truth is preach­ed. But we conceive the matter is farre otherwise in the case of parti­cular Churches, which are alwayes mixt of good and bad. For first, in these assemblies, either the pure word of God is preached, or errours [Page 299]are taught with it. But where there is no ministery of the word at all, there we acknowledge no Church. If there­fore false tenets be preached together with the truth, how can it be affirm­ed that such assemblie cannot erre, when it erres manifestly? But if the pure word of God be taught, yet the hypocriticall reprobates who believe not, doe alwaies erre, seeing they re­ject the light of truth, and walk in darknesse; and of such there is almost ever the greatest number in all places. Neverthelesse the godly, although they are never suffered by Christ so to erre as to persevere in errour and perish;Mat, 24.14. since Christ saith the Elect cannot be seduced even by the miracles and wonders of Antichrist, namely to the end unto destruction: yet they may erre, both severally, and many together, and that not only in point of manners but also in the doctrine of faith; as is apparently evidenced by the holy and Ecclesi­asticall histories, and what hath hap­ned even to the godly and religious Bishops, and to their Churches in the East and West.

DOCT. XXI. The confirmation of the precedent assertion.

St. Peter indeed erred at Antioch, and sundry persons in the Church of Corinth; and very many in those of Galatia, being seduced by false Apostles fell into hainous errours; although they were not long after reclaimed from their errours by the Apostle.Gal. 2.11, &c. 1 Cor. 11, &c. Gal. 1.6, &c. Psal. 119.176. David also teacheth that even the sheep of Christ may erre, when he saith, I have gone astray like a lost sheep, And why is the mi­nistry of the word in the Church ne­cessary for all the faithfull, if they are not lyable to errour? Therefore since all, even godly men, have often erred severally, and do frequently erre, in some particular Church, and that true and pure too, and that hypo­crites never have the gift of true faith, by which to understand that which is right; with what reason can it be said of any particular Church, that it is impossible for it to erre? And with much lesse can it be affirmed of those which are estranged from the [Page 301]truth, and in which lies and the Spi­rit of iniquitie and grosse darknesse do prevaile. Certainly they that are so qualifi'd cannot be the true Churches of Christ, if the Church be the pillar and ground of truth. Wherefore we conclude,1. Tim. 3.15. that every particular flock and all the severall sheep thereof, are so farre incapable of erring, as being lead by the holy Spirit, they give eare onely to the voice of Christ their sheepheard; but as soon as they cease to attend to him, and listen to the voice of strangers, from thence forth they can do nothing else but erre.Iohn 10.5, 27. But forasmuch as even in the greatest dis­sipation of all Churches the divine goodnesse reserves some to himself whom he retains in the truth, and by whose ministry he will again pro­pagate it to the end of the world; therefore we confesse, That the whole Catholick Church is not per­mitted erre, &c.

DOCT. XXII. That there is no salvation out of the Catholick Church.

FRom hence also by consequence we understand and believe this Catholick Church so to be the onely holy one, and to be saved, that out of it there is no holinesse, no salva­tion: and since the truth so shines in her alone, without which salvation belongs to no man, that there is none out of her; and lastly since none be­sides the body of Christ can be saved, For no man hath ascended up to heaven, Iohn 3.13. but he that came down from heaven, even the son of man which is in heaven, viz. the whole son of man, with his whole body, which is the Church; so that St. Peter hath not unfitly compared the Church to the Ark of Noah,2 Pet. 2.5. in which alone mankind was saved, and as many as were found out of it perished in the waters,Gen. 7.23. But what we confesse to be most true of the whole Church, we cannot grant the same of every particular Church, namely to affirme that one­ly in this or that Church, in the Ro­man [Page 303]or Constantinopolitan, truth and salvation are to be had, so as there is none without it, and conse­quently that it cannot be departed from, but truth, and salvation and Christ must be forsaken too. For some Church may be so qualifi'd, that unlesse you renounce commu­nion with it, you cannot have part or communion with the Catholick, and the head thereof.

DOCT. XXIII. That the Catholick Church is not ty'd to certain persons or places.

FUrthermore we confesse that this Catholick Church, in regard it is Catholick, is therefore ty'd to no certain places or persons and nations; so as, if any person would be of this Church, it should be necessary for him to betake himself either to Rome or Wittenberg, or to depend on the authority of those Churches, their Bishop, and Ministers: seeing Christ is in all places, and every where the word may be heard, the Sacrament of Baptisme administred, [Page 304]the precepts of Christ observed, and communion had with all the Saints. But wheresoever these are exercised, there is the Church; in which con­sideration the Donatists were worthi­ly condemned, who circumscrib'd the Church of Christ in Africa alone; and that not in all, but a part of it, namely where themselves dwelt, and would not admit it to be any where else. Nor with less reason are they to be condemn'd, who will not al­low any Churches of forreigners to be true Churches, but onely those which consist of men of their own nation.

DOCT. XXIV. That the Catholick Church is partly visible and partly invisible.

LAstly we believe that this Church is indeed partly visible and partly also invisible, but in divers respects: to wit visible; in as much as it con­sists of men, who visibly handle and hear the word of God, admini­ster and partake the Sacraments, call upon God both privately and pub­lickly, [Page 305]exercise the offices of chari­ty towards their neighbour, and glorify God in their whole conversa­tion; which indeed cannot be per­formed without falling under the perception of the senses: And if it were wholly invisible, how could it be discerned from the Synagogues of the wicked? Again, we say it is in­visible; first, because, being it con­taines a great number of hypocrites, acting all the same outward things with the elect, we cannot know how are the elect (of which alone the Church consists) but it is known onely to God, according to that, The Lord (alone) knoweth them that are his. To which also belongs that of the Apostle,Rom. 2.28, 29. He is not a Iew which is one outwardly; but he is a Iew which is one inwardly. Moreover, because that to the externall appearance the Church is alwayes oppressed with calamities in the world, the number of those that professe the faith of Christ is sometimes so diminish'd, and all the Christian Churches dri­ven into those streights, that there may seem to be no longer any re­maining, [Page 306]namely when there appear no more publick assemblies in which the name of God is called upon, as both the holy and Ecclesiasticall hi­stories do manifestly and at large testifie to have often hapned; not­withstanding it is certain, God al­wayes preserves a Church to himself upon the earth, as the Lord saith,Matth. 16.18. Matth. 28.20. And the gates of Hell shall not prevail against it; also, Behold, I am with you even to the end of the world: which is the same with what we confesse with the whole Church in the Creed, saying, I believe the holy Catholick Church, to wit, to have been from the beginning, to exist now, and to endure to the end of the world, upon the earth. For pro­perly we alwayes believe those things which we do not alwayes see.Heb. 11.1. This is our confession concerning the Church Militant: 1. What it is. 2. How it differs from the Trium­phant. 3. How it is often divers from it self. 4. How one Catholick con­sists of many particular. 5. By what marks the true may be distinguished from the false. 6. What succession [Page 307]of Bishops, and what kind of consent is sufficient to demonstrate a true Church. 7. That the unity of the Church is not to be violated upon every difference, although it be in doctrine it self. 8. What is to be understood by the unitie of the Church, and wherein it consists; al­so how great account is to be made of it. 9. How farre it may erre, and how farre it may not; and how out of the Church there is no salvation. 10. And lastly how farre it is visible, and how farre invisible. It remaines that we speake of the government of it.

CHAP. XXV. Of the Government of the Church Militant, and of the Ecclesiasticall Ministry.

DOCTRINE I. That the Church is governed by Christ.

WE believe, that as all things were made by Christ, are pre­served [Page 308]& govern'd by him,Colos. 1.17. so likewise the Church, which is his kingdome & body, is governed by him as the au­thour,Eph. 1.13. king and head of the same, af­ter a more peculiar manner then all other things are: which is confirmed by that saying of the Angel concer­ning Christ,Luk. 1.31. And he shall raign over the house of Iacob for ever; and that of the Apostle, [...]eb. 3.6. He, as a son, is over his own house, which house are we, that is, the Church; and in another place,Eph. 5.13. He is the head of the Church, and giveth life unto the body.

DOCT. II. That Christ doth govern the Church partly by himself, partly by the ministry of others.

BUt we understand a double sort of government, whereby Christ rules his Church; one, by which he by himself, and by his Spirit, without any cooperation of men raignes in­ternally in the minds of believers, and worketh in them both to will and to do, Phil. 2.13. and consequently all in all, Eph. 1.23. and leads them to what is good, and de­fends [Page 309]them from evil against Satan, the world and all their enemies; An­other, by which he so governes the Church, as not to disdain to make use of the ministry and care of others, as Angels, and men especially, to the well fare of the Church; according to the Apostles saying concerning An­gels, That they are ministring spirits, Heb. 1.14. sent forth to minister for them that shall be heires of salvation, and likewise concerning men,1 Cor. 3.5. We are the Ministers of God, by whom ye believed. For even as in man the head of it self, by the power of the mind, which principal­ly resides and acts in it, doth rule the whole body in such manner as yet to make use of every member for the benefit of the whole; so also Christ performeth the office of head of the Church in the government thereof, and that not for his own sake, or that he hath need of our mi­nistry, but he doth it in regard of our necessitie, together with the ma­nifold advantages and honour it re­ceives thereby.

DOCT. III. The difference between the ministry of Angels and men.

BUt we admit a difference between the ministry of Angels and that of men; in that they are not sent either to teach in the Church, or to administer the Sacraments, but to perform other offices, and those for the most part invisible, and not al­wayes or ordinarily, nor to all, but when and to whom it seems best to God: but the ministry of men is both manifest and perpetuall, and belongs to all.

DOCT. IV. That it is not without great reason that Angels are not appointed to teach in the Church, but men.

MOreover we conceive, that it is not without great reason and wisdome ordained by God, that Christ should teach in the Church not by Angels, but by men; aswell because we are more ready to suffer our selves to be familiarly instructed [Page 311]by such as our selves, then by spirits of a strange nature, and unwonted majesty; as for that, we might other­wise be with more ease deceived by Satan pretending a mission from God, and transforming himself into an Angel of light: which two reasons are not the least in our judgement, why the Son of God, when he assu­med the office of a Teacher in the Church, would be made man, our brother and familiar,Heb. 4.15. and like unto us in all things, sin onely excepted; where­unto that may be referred also;Heb. 2.12. I will declare thy name unto my brethren, in the midst of the Church will I sing praise unto thee; and that,Heb. 1.1. In these last dayes he hath spoken unto us by his son, to wit, when he was made man, and con­versed familiarly in the Church.

DOCT. V. That there are two sorts of men chiefly, whose ministry Christ useth to the government and protection of his Church.

ALthough in all this great body of the Church there is no member, which Christ doth not imploy to [Page 312]some benefit of the other members, and consequently of the whole body according as St. Paul teacheth;1 Cor. 1 [...].7. yet in the mean while we confesse there are two principall sorts of men, whose ministry and help he useth to the government and preservation of the Church; as in the first place, the Teachers and other ministers of the word and Sacraments and charges Ecclesiasticall; and next pious Princes and Magistrates: Neverthelesse we do not confound their functions one with another, but acknowledge them to be not onely distinct but of a much divers nature; amongst whose differences this is not the least, that the ministry of Teachers is alwayes necessary for the Church, but that of the civil Magistrate is not so, since the Church never was destitute of the former, but hath oftentimes wanted and may want the latter.

DOCT. VI. In what things the Ecclesiasticall mini­stry is principally imployed.

BUt as the summe of Christian Religion confists in three things; [Page 313]namely, in faith in Christ; in conti­nuall repentance, that is, in the mor­tification of our flesh and lusts, and in the quickning of the spirit; and lastly in love towards our neighbour: so also we conceive there are three principall parts of the Ecclesiasticall ministry; first, to teach and preach the word of the Gospel, and like­wise to administer the Sacraments, and offer the publick sacrifices of praise to God; next, to watch over the flock, to observe the conversation of every one, to be diligent in the cor­rection of wickednesse, and to take care that every one, as a true Priest, present himself a living sacrifice, Rom. 12.2.1 holy and acceptable to God; and lastly, to undertake the care of the poor, and sedulously to endeavour that no­thing be wanting to any one.

DOCT. VII. That according to the three parts of Ec­clesiasticall ministry, there are ap­pointed three orders of Ecclesiasticall ministers,

SO likewise according to these three parts of Ecclesiasticall ministry [Page 314]above-mentioned, we see in holy writ three especiall orders of Eccle­siasticall ministers appointed by the Lord: the first whereof is chiefly im­ploy'd in those things which apper­tain to the exciting and cherishing of faith in Christ; such are the Teachers and Pastors which administer the word and Sacraments in the con­gregations of the faithfull: the se­cond in those things which are pe­culiarly ordained for the exciting of repentance in the brethren; such are the Elders, and Overseers of man­ners, who undertake the care of di­scipline, and use all their endeavours that every one live Christianly and piously, to the glory of God and edification of the Church; of which the Apostle treateth in severall places, but chiefly in the Epistle to Timo­thy,1 Tim. 5.17, 19. according as that place is ex­pounded by St. Ambrose and all the best interpreters: but the third espe­cially manageth those things, which appear to belong to charity, as the taking care of the poor and sick;Rom. 16.1. 1 Tim. 3.2, 12. Phil. 1.1. such are the Deacons spoken of in the Acts, and otherwhere frequently by St. Paul.

DOCT. VIII. That some ministers are ordinary and perpetuall; others extraordinary, and called onely for a time.

MOreover of Ecclesiasticall mini­sters, especially of those which are to preach the word, and under­take the care of the whole Church, we understand there are two princi­pall kinds: One of those which the Lord Iesus doth ordinarily adjoine fellow-labourers with himself, in the gathering, teaching, and ruling of his Church; and consequently as his will is, should be perpetuall in that charge, who are wont to be called ordinary ministers; such were the High Priests and Levites in the Church under the Old Testament, and in the new the Teachers and Pa­stors: The other, those whom the Lord raiseth up extraordinarily, calling and sending them into the Church; that when the ordinary ne­glect their duty, and destroy the Church, they may both reduce them to good order, and reforme the Church to it's pristine estate and pre­serve [Page 316]it; such were the Prophets in the Old Testament, raised out of other tribes besides that of Levi; and in the new, the Apostles, Prophets and Evangelists, which the Lord pe­culiarly chose to himself, that, when all was destroy'd in every place, aswell amongst the Israelites as Gentiles, he might gather, teach, and preserve Churches to himself in all places by their ministry. In the number of these extraordinarily called, we cannot but place many and heroicall and couragious men, and true servants of God in our times; who, when all was destroy'd, were excited by the Spirit of Christ to oppose themselves against the Catholike Apostacie, and to restore anew the ancient doctrine, worship, & discipline in the Church; and that notwithstanding the vain resistance and rage of the ordinary Bishops, Kings, and most powerfull Princes, and all the world.

DOCT. XI. That onely five orders of ministers of the word were constituted by Christ.

BUt we do not acknowledge that more orders of ministers of the word were instituted by Christ in the Church, then those which the A­postle hath express'd in the Epistle to the Ephesians, Apostles, Prophets, Evangelists, Pastours and Teachers:Eph. 4.11. of which the first three he would not have confirm'd to any certain places, to but to be now here, now there, either to gather Churches to them­selves, as the Apostles did, or to wa­ter, cherish, and confirme those which were already planted by the Apostles, as the Prophets and Evan­gelists did, who for that reason ought not to have been perpetuall.Act. 20.28. Phil. 1.1 1 Tim. 3.2. Tit. 1.7. 1 Pet. 2.25. 1 Pet. 5.1. Act. 14.23. Tit. 1.15. Iam. 5 14. Heb 6.1. 1 Pet. 5.1. But the two latter, he would should be con­secrated for the governing and pre­serving of some certain Churches, namely Pastors and Teachers, and that to the end of the world; whom therefore we use to call the ordinary and perpetuall ministers. For where­as [Page 318]as the Apostles often make mention of Bishops, Elders, and Catechists, that does not evince them to have been distinct orders of ministers of the word; because they that were Pa­stors, were alwayes the same with those which were signifi'd by the name of Bishops, and very often with that of elders: besides, the Apostle Peter styles himself an Elder. The office of the Catechists was perfor­med not onely by the Pastors and Teachers, but likewise by the A­postles themselves and the Evan­gelists.

DOCT. X. That wee doe not blame the Fathers, for adding other orders of ministers.

BUt to omit such whose ministery was to endure but for a time, and who we said were called extraordi­narily, let us speake onely of those which are ordinary and perpetuall. Although we read in the Apostle but of two of these orders given to the Church by Christ,Eph. 4. [...]. namely, Pastors, and Teachers; of which [Page 319]these did onely teach, and those administer the Sacraments also and were encharged with the discipline and government of the Church: Yet we do not blame the Fathers, for that according to the various occa­sions both of dispensing the word and governing the Church, they did also multiply divers orders of mini­sters; since it was free for them so to do, as likewise for us; and since it is manifest, that it was done by them for Religious intents, touching or­der and decency, and at that time to the edification of the Church.

DOCT. XI. The same opinion confirmed, with an ex­plication of some of the Ecclesiasticall orders in the primitive Church.

FOr we know that our God is the God of order, not of confusion; and that the Church is preserved by order: but ruin'd without it: for which reason he appointed many di­stinct orders of ministers, not onely heretofore in Israel, but also after­wards in the Church gathered of [Page 320]Iews and Gentiles, and upon the same reason likewise left it free to the Churches, to adde or not adde o­thers, so it were unto edification. Therefore, whereas at first all mini­sters of the word were called both Pa­stors, Bishops, and Presbyters, and were of equall authority, till after­wards one began to preside over his collegues, although not as a Lord, but onely as a Ruler in a Uni­versity over the other collegues, and the care of the whole Church be­came especially comitted to him, and so by way of eminency he alone was called by the name of Bishop and Pastor, the rest of the ministery being contented with the title of Pres­byters (or elders,) so that in every City there was one Bishop and many Presbyters; this we disapprove not in our judgement. Concerning which the relation and opinion of St. Hie­rome, (aswell in other places, as in his Epistle to Euagmis, and in his commentaries on the Epistle to Ti­tus,Tit. c. 10. is received by us, where he saith, all this hath proceeded rather from custome then from the direct ap­pointment [Page 321]of our Lord, that the oc­casions and nurseries of dissensions and schismes might be taken away. And in this respect we conceive,Dist. 93. c.23. that what hath been constituted also as to Archbishops, yea and the four Patriarchs created before the Council of Nice, may be excused and defended; although afterwards in processe of time all ha's been changed into the greatest tyrannie and ambition. Which is the cause that by how much the more the simplicitie of the Apostolick times, in those orders of ministers, is fol­low'd and approched unto, by so much the more it hath our approba­tion; and we do judge it convenient that care be taken in all places to conforme the government thereunto.

DOCT. XII. That one person, as head, can by no meanes be set over the whole Church.

BUt that one person should be set over all the Churches in the whole world, as head of them, and have [Page 322]authoritie and full power over them all, is a thing we can in no wise ad­mit of; but contrarily, do no lesse then abominate it, and much rather if that person arrogate so much to himself by divine right.Lib. 4. Regist. Ep. 21. and lib. 6. Ep. 30. And we em­brace the saying of Gregorie the first to Mauritius the Emperour, Who­soever calleth himself Universal Priest, or desireth to be called so, he usurps that name to himself contrary to the precepts of the Gospel, and the decrees of the Canons, and is the fore-runner of Antichrist.

DOCT. XIII. That not every one, but he onely that is sent by Christ, is to be admitted into the ministry.

WE believe also that it is necessa­ry to the true and safe governing of the Church, that not every one, either obtruding himself, or sent by others, ought to be admitted into the ministry; but that he who un­dertakes the ministry must be first known, whether or no he be called and sent by God, or Christ the head [Page 323]of the Church, to the Ecclesiasticall function; and next that he be in a lawfull manner chosen and ordained by the Church it self; according to the saying of the Apostle,Heb. 5 4. No man taketh this honour unto himself, but he that is called of God, as was Aaron, &c.

DOCT. XIV. Who are called to the ministry by Christ.

BUt we believe them to be called by Christ to the ministry, whom he hath enabled and made fit to under­take it; and those fit, to whom, be­sides the desire of propagating the Kingdome of God, and glorifying God by a holy life, he hath given the knowledge of sound doctrine, and abilitie to propound it to the people for their salvation, as the Apostle teacheth, both otherwhere and1 Tim. 3.2. Tit. 2.6. in the Epistles to Timothy and Titus. For whom God chooseth and calleth to any function, he endues them with gifts necessary to the per­formance of the same; since he cal­leth us rather in deed, then by words. [Page 324]And therefore they who hold not the sound doctrine of the Gospel, nor teach the same to the people, but rather that which is contrary unto it; whether they runne of their own accord, or are sent by men, entrusted with the ordinary authority of send­ing; yet we acknowledge them not for ministers called by Christ, and consequently do not account them fitting to be heard: as St. Iohn saith,2 Iohn 10. If there come any unto you: and bring not this doctrine, receive him not into your house, neither bid him God speed, and God also by the Prophet Iere­mie describeth those Prophets which were sent by him, and those which were not, in these words,Ier. 23.21. I have not sent these Prophets, yet they ran; I have not spoken to them, yet they pro­phesied: where explaining the former clauses by the latter, he teacheth that those are not sent by him, who speake not out of the mouth of God; and on the contrarie, that they who bring the word of God, are sent by him. And we are not to seek for the reason hereof: For seeingEph. 4.12. ministers are sent of God for the edification of the [Page 325]Church, which is rather destroyed by the doctrines of men, but built up by the word of God; certainly they are not sent by God, who bring not his word with them.

DOCT. XV. That Christ calleth men to the mi­nistry two wayes.

FUrthermore, seeing all truly mi­nisters are called by Christ, we be­lieve that he calleth men to the mini­stry after a double manner; namely eitherGal. 1.1. immediately by himself a­lone, or mediately by men, that is, by the Church; and therefore they are both equally to be heard, and accounted the true ministers of God.

DOCT. XVI. How Christ declares to the Church those that are sent by him, to be sent by himself alone.

WHereas those whom Christ him­self calleth, he declareth to be sent by himself by rendring them all fit for that charge, he doth it more especially in them whom he calls and sends immediately by himself and by [Page 326]his Spirit extraordinarilie. For he is wont to endue them largely with pe­culiar and excellent gifts, and chiefly with the holy Ghost in abundant measure, with ardent zeal of the glo­ry of God, singular knowledge of the word of God which they bring, a profitable and perspicuous manner of teaching, and consequently with happy successe of their labours: whereby they are inabled with more speed and efficacie to reduce the Churches to the ancient, that is, the Apostolike frame; and their lawfull and divine calling is more easily and certainly made known to the Churches.Eph. 4.12. Because all that Christ gives to the Churches as ministers, he gives them to the edification thereof: from whence the conclusion is easily consequent, that by whose meanes we observe the Churches to be edified, they are such as are cal­led by Christ, and their ministry is divine and lawfull.

DOCT. XVII. That the calling of those ministers whom Christ sends extraordinarily and by himself is not alwayes confirmed by miracles; nor is it needfull it should be so.

FOr we do not believe that miracles are alwayes necessary to the con­firmation of the ministry of this kind of ministers; since we do not read that the mission of all the Prophets was confirm'd by miracles, but one­ly by the Spirit of God, and the zeal of his glory wherewith they were enflamed, and especially by the truth of the divine word which they preached not without advantage to the Saints, that is, the elect in the Church: whereas on the other side some even false Prophets did per­forme signes and wonders;2 Thes. 2.9. which also the Apostle hath foretold should be done by Antichrist; &Matt. 24.24. Christ be­fore him. Which, notwithstanding, because they brought not the word of God; but lies, and exhorted the people to go after strange Gods, the Lord forbad them to be heard; yea, [Page 328] Deut 3.2, 10. he commanded they should be stoned to death.

DOCT. XVIII. That the Churches which Christ restoreth by ministers extraordinarily sent, are true Churches, and consequently there is a lawfull ministry in them, and they have lawfull authority of calling and ordaining ministers.

COnsidering the truth of what we have already deliver'd concer­ning ministers extraordinarily called by Christ, we believe likewise that the Churches which Christ by their meanes and ministry restores and happily reformes, in setting up the preaching of true doctrine with the lawfull administration of the Sacra­ments, and purging the worship of God from idolatries and supersti­tions, and recalling the true forms of discipline, as much as is possible to be done, and consequently com­munion with the Apostles; that they are true Churches. And from thence it followes that they have authority of calling and ordaining ministers in [Page 329]a lawfull manner, and by that meanes to continue the succession of mini­sters amongst themselves: So that there remaines no doubt, but that ministers do there lawfully succeed, and are the true ordinary ministers of the Church: namely, so long as, together with the personall succes­sion, as it is called, they likewise suc­ceed and persist in the preaching of sound doctrine.

DOCT. XIX. That, as where true doctrine is, there is a true Church; so where it is not, there is neither a true Church nor a lawfull ministry.

FOr we are well assured that as where the true doctrine onely, even without a continued succession of Bishops from the beginning, can be shown, there is a true Church, and likewise a true and lawfull ministry; so, on the contrary where onely a personall succession is boasted of, but the purity of doctrine truely Chri­stian is defaced, there is no lawfull ministry: since as the Church, so [Page 330]the Ecclesiasticall ministry, is not ty'd to persons but tot he word of God.

DOCT. XX. That the authority of ministers extends onely to those things, whereunto themselves are called by Christ.

WE believe also that great autho­rity is given by Christ to lawfull ministers, namely, as to the per­formance of those things whereunto they are called;Matt. 28.19. to preach the Go­spel,1 Cor. 12.10. to expound the holy writ ac­cording to the analogy of faith,Heb. 6.1. to catechise,Gal. 6.6. to teach the people what is the will of God,2 Tim. 4.1. to reprove and admonish both great and small,Iohn 20.21. to remit and retain sins (ministerially)Matt. 18.18. to bind (the impenitent) and to loose (those that repent;) also to ad­minister the Sacraments which Christ ordained, and according to the mannerMatt. 28.19. 1 Cor. 11.23, &c. deliver'd by him, and exercise discipline; as it is comman­ded by Christ and likewise1 Cor. 5.4. ex­plained by the Apostle; lastly, to all those things which, though not ex­pressed [Page 331]in the holy word, do not­withstanding appertain to order and decency, and tend to edification, not to destruction, according to the generall rule deliver'd by the A­postle, That1 Cor. 14.40. all things should be done in the Church in order, decently, and to edification. For we do not be­lieve that any authority is given to ministers to any other end then for the edification of the Church, or that is of greater extent then the word of God. And therefore we deny that any Bishop, or even altogether, have authority to constitute any thing against the Scriptures, to adde to them or detract from them, or make any alteration in them, to dispense with the commands of God, to make new articles of faith, to institute new Sacraments, to in­duce new kinds of worship into the Church, to make laws which may binde the conscience or be of equall authority with the divine Law, to domineer in the Church and over the consciences of the faithfull, to forbid what God hath licensed and left free, or lastly to command any [Page 332]thing as necessary to salvation not contained in the word of God; seeing not even the whole Church can with truth be said to have this authority.

DOCT. XXI. That we do not deny the civill authority of such Bishops as are also Princes.

NEverthelesse we do not gain-say, but that Bishops who are also Princes beside their Ecclesiasticall authority, have their politicall rights and secular powers, (aswell as other Princes have authority in ruling over temporalls) the power of the sword, some a right of electing and con­firming Kings and Emperours, and of constituting and administring o­ther civil affaires, to compell the people that are their subjects to per­forme their obedience to them: And therefore we confesse that their poli­ticall commands which can be ob­served without transgressing the di­vine law are to be obeyed by their subjects not onely out of fear, but for conscience sake. For we knowRom. 15.1, 2. that all power is from God, and who­soever [Page 333]resisteth the power, resisteth the ordinance of God; also that1 Pet. 2 17, 18. Kings are to be honoured, and that we ought to be subject to Princes and Lords with all fear, not onely to the good and gentle, but also to the froward and perverse.

DOCT. XXII. That matrimony ought to be as free for ministers of the Church, for for as for others.

BUt we believe that this is necessa­ry to the good deportment and salvation of ministers, and to the ho­nour of the ministry, and so to the right governing of the Church, to wit, that marriage be as freely per­mitted to them as it is to all Lay­persons; seeing Christ hath not for­bidden it to any sort of men: yea, speaking of single life, he saithMat. 19.11. All men cannot receive this saying, name­ly, that commends singlenesse of life, intimating that which the Apostle hath in plaine termes expounded, namely1 Cor. 7.9. If a man cannot contain, he ought to marry.Heb. 13.4. For we confesse with the Apostle that marriage is ho­nourable [Page 334]in all, and the bed unde­filed.

DOCT. XXIII. That it is good and commendable for any one that is indued with the gift of continencie to abstain from Marriage.

NOtwithstanding we deny not, but such as have received the gift of continencie from God, have greater advantage to exercise the holy fun­ction, and to serve the Church, then such as are joyn'd in matrimony; by reason of the many weighty cares and troubles which marriage is attended with, whereby they are oftentimes e­ven unwillingly drawn away from their divine contemplations to dome­stick affaires and the incombrances of the present life: according to the say­ing of the Apostle,1 Cor. 7.32, 33. He that is unmar­ried, careth for the things that belong to the Lord, how he may please the Lord; But he that is married careth for the things that are of the World, how he may please his Wife, and is divided. Where­fore, as they are not unworthy of praise, who therefore take a Wife, [Page 335]that they may live unto God with a clean and pure conscience; so they are highly to be commended, who the better to imploy their endeavours in the Church, choose a chast single life, and continue therein so long as is pos­sible for them.

DOCT. XXIV. That marriages are to be contracted in the Lord, and religiously observed.

MOreover we know and confesse that all marriages are to be con­tracted1 Cor. 7.39. in the Lord, according to the divine law and that of nature; and that they are also holily to be obser­ved according to the honest and good customes of places; and that it is un­lawfull for any man to put away his Wife:Matth. 19.9. saving for the cause of fornica­tion: but if an unbelieving woman refuse to cohabit with her believing Husband out of hatred to religion, she is not to be retained by force;1 Cor. 7.15. for the faithfull Husband is not under bondage in such cases; but God hath called him to peace.

DOCT. XXV. That it is no lesse lawfull for him that hath divorced an adultresse, or is for­saken by an unbelieving Wife, to contract new matrimonie, then for him whose Wife is deceased.

WE believe also that it is not lesse lawfull for him who hath either lawfully repudiated an adulteresse, or is deserted by an unbelieving Wife, to enter into marriage anew, then for a person whose former Wife is dead. For that saying of the Apostle con­cerning all unmarried persons and Widowes is perpetually true and wholesome,1 Cor. 7.8, 9. It is good for them if they abide even as I. But if they cannot contain, let them marry; for it is bet­ter to marry then, &c.

DOCT. XXVI. That some ought to be appointed in the Church to judge of controversies touching Marriage.

BUt we do not approve that any of these things be done in the Church [Page 337]without the lawfull cognisance, judgement & opinion of the Church and the Christian Magistrate, where there is any; and therefore we con­ceive that there ought to be consti­tuted some pious, knowing and pru­dent persons for the cognisance and judgement of masters touching ma­trimony, so that nothing be done rashly and imprudently therein, or e­very man make his own pleasure his law; but that all things be done in a due manner,1 Cor. 14.26. to edification & with­out injury to any, whilestRom. 2.24. the name of God be blasphemed through us among the unbelievers.

DOCT. XXVII. That they who are set over the Churches ought to take care that the children of believers be brought up in Christian Religion, and instructed either in good literature or an honest profession.

TO what we have already said is conjoyned the care of children. Therefore we believe it necessary for the perpetuall preservation of the Church, that, not only every private [Page 338]person do indeavour the education of their children in true piety, and Chri­stian manners, & either to good learn­ing or some honest profession, but al­so that the Church do undertake the cure of this a Faire, to the end they may be in time rendred profitable both to Church & Commonwealth; to which effect do conduce as well publick Schools of literature, and the exercising honest professions, as Ec­clesiasticall Catechising and instituti­ons.

DOCT. XXVIII. That Ministers with their families are to be supported with competent and befitting stipends.

WE also believe that the Church cannot be rightly govern'd, un­lesse the Ministers be liberally suppli'd with all things necessary to a seemly sort of living both for themselves and their families; seeing no man is able to discharge his duty unless he be provi­ded wherewith to live; and our Lord saith,Math. 10.10. The labourour is worthy of his re­ward, as the1 Cor. 9.7, &c. 2 Tim. 2.17. &c. Apostle writeth largely of this matter in sundry places, de­monstrating [Page 339]to the full, that Ministers who serve the Church ought to re­ceive from the Church it self whatsoe­ver they have need of for this present life, and that they have right to de­mand the same; so far it is from a sin in them to receive them, as some do unreasonably pronounce it. Never­thelesse1 Tim. 3.8. with the Apostle we highly condemne coveteousnesse in all per­sons, and especially in Ministers; as likewise on the contrary we disap­prove prodigality, teaching that nei­ther of these vices is to be cherished or endured.

DOCT. XXIX. That the goods of the Churches are not to be imbezell'd, but distributed to the support of Ministers and o­ther godly uses.

MOreover whereas many gifts have by the liberality of Princes and other good men been heretofore, and are still in some places conferred on the Churches, we judge it meet, that where Churches are possest of such gifts, diligent care be taken that [Page 338] [...] [Page 339] [...] [Page 340]they be not wasted nor converted to profane, much lesse to sacrilegious uses; nor, when so converted, be per­mitted and conniv'd at: but that they be distributed only to the ends they were intended to, namely to pious uses.

Yet we approve thatDeut. 14. ancient par­tition of Ecclesiasticall goods, so as one part thereof goe to the godly Bishops, that is, the Teachers and Ministers of the word and their fami­lies; another part to students depu­ted to the Ministry of the Church, and to all that serve therein; a third part to poor people and strangers; and a fourth to the reparation of Churches and Schools; to which part belong not only the houses of Ministers, Teachers and Students, with their Libraries, and all instruments and necessary to Churches and Schools; but also Hospitalls and houses of charity for stranger, and other like places where those persons dwell, of whom the Church ought to take a peculiar care.

DOCT. XXX. Of the manner of Christian Temples; what tongue, habit, and ornaments are to be used in them; what Festivals ought to be observed; to whom Prayers are to be made: and that rites & cere­monies ought to be arbitrary & free, saving those which have been ap­pointed by Christ or his Apostles.

BUt for that this reason is not the least, why believers doe and ought to live together in the same Cities, Towns and Villages, as far as possi­ble they may, namely to the end they might not only cherish their com­mou faith by holy communication daily amongst themselves in private, and exercise mutuall charity in Chri­stian offices, but also that they might in certain places and times assemble together to praise and call upon God publickly, to hear his word, partake the Sacraments, and perform the pub­lick works of charity toward the poor; which things cannot be done without speech, and rites, and ceremonies: therefore we declare our opinion of them also in brief after this manner. Seeing it is out of all doubt [Page 342]that all things ought to be done in the Church to edification, all appea­rance of superstition removed from it; we conceive that true piety and the edification of the Churches do require, First, as concerning Places, that if old and profained Temples be allow'd of, they should be purg'd from all Idols, and from the reliques and footsteps of all idolatrie and su­perstition. For2 Cor. 6.16. what agreement hath the Temple of God with Idols? Second­ly, that no Language be used, but such as is understood by the whole Church. For what edification can ar­rive to the Church from an unknown tongue? The Apostle also expresse­ly commands1 Cor. 14.21. them to keep silence in the Church who speake in an unknowne tongue, unlesse the interpretation be added thereto. Thirdly, that all loosnesse in apparell, all vanity, and every such ornament which is more beseem­ing the profane Theaters of the Gen­tiles then the sacred Temples of Chri­stians, and condure more to the de­lighting of the flesh then edifying of the Spirit, be abolish'd: But that all things be performed in the Churches [Page 343]with the highest reverence and mo­destie, as in the sight of God and Angels. And although we conceive not that the form of apparell which Ministers ought to wear either in or out of the Ministry, is to be so much Contended about as thereby to di­sturb the peace of the Churches: yet where the simplicity of the Aposto­like times is nearest approached un­to and immitated, those Churches are judg'd most worthy to be com­mended. Fourthly, that every Lords­day the Church be assembled into one holy Congregation; since we see that even from the times of the Apo­stles to these present, that day hath bene consecrated and sanctified to a sacred rest. Next to the Sabbath­day we cannot but approve the sanctifying of those daies wherein the remembrance of the Nativity of our Lord Jesus Christ, of his Cir­cumcision, Passion, Resurrection, Ascension into Heaven, and sending of the holy Ghost upon the Apostles, was celebrated by the old Church. Upon other daies, as every Church shall judge it expedient they may [Page 344]congregate the people to an assem­blie to hear the word, and receive the Sacraments, &c. Col 2.16. But this with care, that all superstitious observation of d [...]es be avoided. Fiftly, that prayers be poured forth to God alone and to Jesus Christ, without invocation ei­ther of Angels or Saints departed, as the Prophets and Apostles and all the old Church did, as is evident in their ancient Collects; to say nothing of the command of God, who will haveHeb. 13.15. the Sacrifice of praise & the fruit of the lips offered to himself alone. Sixtly, concerning rites and ceremonies to be observed in the Church, the same true piety and edification of the Churches requires that debates and disputes concerning them be not too sharp and passionate, as if life and salvation depended thereon; but that they be left free to the sense of every particular Church, as we read in Socrates and other Ecclesiastical writers it was wont to be in the an­cient Church. In reference to which matters in generall we approve theTow. 2. Ep. 118, and 119. two Epistles of St. Austin to Ianua­rius For these things conduce to the edification of the Church.

DOCT. XXXI. That publick Fasts are sometimes to be appointed, being most profitable and commendable; but no man ought to be compelled thereunto.

TO the same effect, namely to the well governing of the Church, it is requisite, that as private Fasts are free, so also that all be invited to join in publick, but no man constrained. The benefit of Fasts is beyond all commendation; and it doe's not sel­dome happen, that there is a necessi­ty for them: so that the pious Magi­strates and Ministers of the Church, are induc'd to injoin publick Fasts to the whole Church for diverting the heavy anger of God; as we find it to have been usual both in the Old Testament and in the Primitive Church. Not as if we merited remissi­on of sinnes thereby, and a mitigation of the divine wrath; but for that the flesh being subdued, the spirit is ex­cited to call upon God more ardent­ly, and to appease him by our faith full supplications. Neverthelesse it is of [Page 346]importance to the edification of the Church; that no mans conscience be forc'd and compell'd to these kind of Fasts; being they ought to pro­ceed from a free, voluntary and tru­ly humbled Spirit; according to what the Apostle writes of distribu­ting almes to the poor, that it is not to be done with relenting or out of necessity, but as every one is dispo­sed in his own breast.

DOCT. XXXII. That at no time, not even that of publick Fasts, any sort of food is to be pro­hibited the Faithfull.

HEnce likewise it follows, at no time, either of Fasts or not, any fort of food is to be forbidden to any person soever; sinceMatt. 15.11. nothing of that kind defiles a man, but all things are pure to the pure; and the A­postleTit. 1.15. 1 Tim. 4.1. calls their doctrine of Devils which commands to abstain from meats upon the account of Religion; how then can it conduce to the edi­fication of the Church.

DOCT. XXXIII. That the Sick ought to be visited, comfort­ed, and confirmed in the Faith; and that dying persons be accompanied with our prayers and commended to the Lord; and that the bodies of the depar­ted are to be buried with decencie.

NOr ought the Church to have lesse care of the Sick then of those that are in heath, or of the de­ceased then the living, seeing they are all members of Christ, and their bodies temples of the Holy Ghost. Wherefore we look upon it as per­taining to the right governing of the Church; that there be godly and prudent men appointed for the visi­tation of the Sick, to comfort them out of the word of God and confirm them in the Faith, and if it be so, that the Sick be called out of the world by the Lord, to encourage them in their departure: shewing them that the souls of the faithfull, as soon as they forsake the body, do instantly goe to Christ in heaven, being carry­ed thither by the Spirit of Christ, and [Page 348]accompanied with his Angels; and that they are blessed which die in the Lord. Moreover they may joyn in Prayer, and so goe along with the ex­piring persons even to the haven, & commend them to Christ. And for their bodies we judge it meet that they be carryed to the Sepulchre with decencie as our Churches teach both in words and practise, plainly testifying that they were the temples of the Holy Ghost, now indeed cast down, but to be raised again in due time and restored to eternal life. In the mean while their Sepulchres and Dormitories are to be decently and reverently preserv'd; as is used a­mongst us. Furthermore the children or parents, kindred and relations are to be comforted; and we do both teach and indeavour to perform all Offices of humanity toward them after the utmost of our power. And if a portion of the Psalmes concern­ing the resurrection of the dead be any where sung in the solemnity of the Funeral, or some kind of Sermon or exhortation, made to the people, after the body is committed to the [Page 349]earth, wherein an honourable men­tion may be made of other also who have piously slept in the Lord; this we in no wise disallow: seeing it is not intended for the benefit of the dead, but for the comfort and good of the living, and the edification of the whole Church. For we believe that the souls of the faithfull, being separated from their bodies, do im­mediately depart unto Christ in Heaven, and so have no need of our suffrages; but that the edification of the Church is to be alwaies pro­moted upon every occasion.

DOCT. XXXIV. That the Church cannot be rightly govern­ed without lawfull, free, & Christian Assemblies and Synods of Ministers.

MOreover we are of a full perswa­sion, being taught both by Scri­pture and daily experience, that the Church cannot be rightly governed unlesse at certain times there be As­sembles of Ministers as well private in every particular Church, which are termed Consistories and Convo­cations, [Page 350]as publick in every Province and kingdome, which for this rea­son use to be called Provincial Sy­nods; and Universal (as far as may be) of all Nations in the whole Chri­stian world, which were call'd Oecu­menicall Councils: in which it may be deliberated concerning all things that belong to the safety, preservati­on and edification of the Churches, every ones judgement freely heard, and determinations made by general consent out of the word of God, and other the most approved Councils; as we read to have been done by the Apostles and the whole ancient Church.

DOCT. XXXV. The same further comfirmed; and also of Ecclesiasticall discipline.

FOr the Church is governed by discipline and cannot be rightly governed without it. Discipline is the Method and institution, where­by we, as disciples of Christ, learn in his School to live unto God, and to do all things according to the do­ctrine of the Gospel both privately [Page 351]and publickly, to the edification of the Church and our own salvation. So that it comprehends the whole summe of Religion, the beginning, progresse, and end thereof.

DOCT. XXXVI. That Discipline is twofold.

MOreover this discipline in the Church is of two kinds; one general and common to all Chri­stians, called by many the discipline of the people; the other is proper to Ministers and persons design'd to Ecclesiastical offices, which is there­fore wont to be call'd the discipline of the Clergie.

DOCT. XXXVII. The particulars of general Discipline.

THe common and popular disci­pline consists chiefly in these par­ticulars; First as to the ground-work, that when any one is received into the Church, that he learn to know God & Christ, call upon him, & un­derstand what his commands are; This is performed by Catechising, [Page 352]whereby the summe of Christ an Reli­gionis taught: being thus instructed, he is to professe his faith before the whole Church, and to promise obe­dience to Christ and his Church ac­cording to the doctrine of the Go­spel.Rom. 10.10. Mat. 28.20. Secondly, because not to pro­ceed in the way of God is to relapse, therefore to the end the godly may make good progresse in piety, they ought to meet together in holy As­semblies at appointed times and pla­ces, and apply themselves to the hearing of the word of God, to joyn in Prayer with others, and exercise charity towards the poor by contri­buting their offerings liberally. Thirdly, in regard that in this pro­gresse we oftentimes fall, some more grievously and with greater scandall to the Church others lesse hainously, therefore there is another particular consisting in the Censure of man­ners;Matt. 18 15. &c. 1 Tim. 5.20. to wit, that every one do sub­mit himself to their Censure, even to the end of his life, and admit of bro­therly correction. And if any one happen to fall into some notorious offence manifest to the Church, and [Page 353]being reproved, do not repent there­of, for which reason he deserves to be suspended from the Sacrament for the time, untill he give publick testimony to the Church of his true repentance; such a brother is to be excommunicated from holy things and bound; neverthelesse upon his repentance he is to be loosed, recei­ved again into favour, & be admitted to communion. This is the first kind of discipline; the end whererof is, that every one might live unto God, and at last die in the Lord Jesus.

DOCT. XXXVIII. The particulars of Clerical Discipline.

ALlthough all persons, as well Ministers as Lay-men (as they call them) be subject to this kind of Christian discipline; yet amongst the Fathers there was added to it a certain peculiar disci­pline of the Clergy; who are con­cern'd not onely to guide for others with the word, but with the example of their lives and diligent discharge­ing of their duty. The particulars [Page 354]thereof are chiefly these: First, that they abstain from many things, which otherwise may in some manner be tolerated in the laity: Such are di­vers delights of the flesh, splendid equipage, costly banquets, rich houshold stuffe, wicked servants, and the like. Secondly, that they withdraw themselves from all those businesses of this life, which hinder them from performing their charge, which principally consists in the due officiating in holy duties, preaching the Word, and exercising the disci­pline of manners; such businesses are Warfare, Merchandise, Law-im­ployments, bartering, keeping of publick Victualling-houses, and all sordid professions & courses. Third­ly, that they give themselves more di­ligently then the laity to the reading and study the holy Word, and endea­vour to attain such arts and langua­ges as are advantageous to the un­derstanding of Scripture, and more­over bestow their time in prayer and holy contemplations. Fourthly, that they promise obedience in all honest matters to the Bishop, and [Page 355]his Metropolitan. Fifthly, that they use more vigilancy and care not on­ly to the discharge of every their particular places, but in all those things that appear to import the e­dification of the Church.

DOCT. XXXIX. That from the necessity of discipline is confirmed the necessity of Synods.

THese are the principal parts of discipline, without which there is no appearance how any Church can be duly governed and upheld. But how is it possible this discipline can be in such places, where the Mini­sters never convene together, to know what is wanting, or what irre­gularities are committed in the Church, to denounce against evill-manners, to judge of doctrines, if a­ny new happen to spring up, & lastly to deliberate of all things which concerne the welfare of the Church? Wherefore we affirm that Assem­blies of Ministers, and Ecclesiasti­cal Synods are very necessary to the right and safe government of the [Page 356]Church; seeing no Politie, no Com­monwealth nor Kingdome, can con­sist without their Senates, Councils, Parlaments and other conventions. And it would be very acceptable to us if the ancient custome of the Churches, which was ratified by a new constitution of the Emperour Justinian, were recalled into practice, namely, that Synods should be as­sembled in every Province at least twice a yeare, and at fit times a Council gathered of the most lear­ned, modest, and prudent Ministers, and Embassadours of Princes in all the Provinces that professe the Go­spel; wch if ever, is certainly extreamly necessary in these calamitous times, wherein so many and such abomi­nable heresies are brought back a­gain from hell. Wherefore with all our Soule we pray unto God the Fa­ther through our Lord Jesus Christ, that he would raise up pious and va­liant Princes, such as Constantine, Va­lentinian and Theodosius, who by their authority may assemble such a Synod wherein themselves being present and ordering the same, there may be [Page 357]brotherly and friendly consultation touching the happy agreement, peace, and safety of all the Churches out of the sacred Word and by the Spirit of God, to the glory of God and the name of Christ, and the safety and welfare of all the Elect.

DOCT. XL. Errours.

THerefore we disapprove all such things as are repugnant to the a­foresaid doctrine confirmed by holy Scripture; and chiefly these follow­ing particulars. 1. That the Church consists of men onely, & that Angels do not at all belong unto it. 2. That the true Church, which is the body of Christ, consists not onely of the elect, but also of reprobates and hy­pocrites, and that these are true members of the Church. 3. That the Church does so consist of the elect and truly holy, that no hypo­crites are conteined therein, and that they are never in the holy writ included in the appellation of the Church. 4. That the Church, [Page 358]which was before the comming of our Saviour, was not the true Church of Christ, but onely the type of that which was to be gathered by Christ and his Apostles. 5. That the Church of Christ hath two heads; one invi­sible and residing in heaven, name­ly Christ; and another visible, and ruling upon earth, the Bishop of Rome; with whom whosoever a­greeth not in all things pertaining to Religion, nor obeys him in all things, he has no place nor name in the Church, and cannot be saved. 6. To affirm of any particular Church that it cannot erre in matter of faith. 7. To confine the Church so to certaine places and persons, as to say, There onely is the Church. 8. Not acknowledge them for Churches of Christ, which although they had the fundamentals of faith, yet doe not wholy accord in cere­monies or some point of doctrine with us. 9. To make a separation from the Churches for every kinde of errour, or by reason of the bad life of some persons. 10. To main­tain that where the true doctrine, [Page 359]right manner of worship, and pure administration of the Sacraments, is excluded, there is notwithstanding a true and Apostolical and pure Church, because a continued succes­sion of Bishops from the times of the Apostles can be demonstrated therein; and contrarily, to deny those to be true Churches, which al­though they retain the pure doctrine, the Sacraments intire, and the right discipline, yet cannot shew a perso­nal and uninterrupted succession and continuation of Bishops. 11. That the authority of any Bishop, as such, does extend beyond those things whereunto he is called by Christ. 12. That the Church ha's authority to alter something in the holy Scri­pture, or to dispense with the com­mands of God, or frame new lawes binding the conscience. 13. That it is not lawfull for Ministers of the Word to contract matrimony, or at least to marry twice. 14. That it is not lawfull for Ministers to receive a certain stipend. 15. That it is law­full to use an unknown tongue in the Church though no interpreta­tion [Page 360]be added. 16. That besides God and Jesus Christ the Media­tour, it is lawfull for men to call upon Saints departed, and to direct prayers and the sacrifice of thanks­giving to them. 17. That it is not lawfull for Christians, during the Fast of Lent, and certain other daies, to eate some kinds of food. 18. That the Church does well in pray­ing for the Soules of persons decea­sed that they may be delivered from fire of Purgatory.


Having spoken of the first sort of men, whose Ministry God u­seth in the government of the Church, namely, of Ecclesiastical Ministers, their functions, and o­ther matters appendant there un­to; it remaineth that we deliver in brief, what our belief is concern­ing the other, viz, the civil Ma­gistrate. For the Lord is wont to make use of his Ministry also, e­specially if he be a Christian, for the protection and preservation of his Church.

DOCTRINE I. That every Magistrate, whither godly or wicked, is from God; and that therefore no Magistrate is (simply) to be resisted.

WE believe that every Magi­strate as well wicked as godly, is from the Lord God, and that he is the Minister of God1 Pet. 2.14. sent for the punishment of evil [Page 362]doers and the praise of them that doe well; and that in that respect he is to beRom. 13. [...].5, 7. feared and honoured, and obedi­ence given to his commands as farre as may be with a good conscience, and without transgressing the divine law; and that not onely out of fear, but also for conscience sake, because God commands it; so that as he is the Minister of God, he is not to be resisted, becauseRom. 13.2, 5. Whosoever resisteth the power, resisteth the Ordinance of God, and God himself.

DOCT. II. That the Magistrate is not to be obeyed when he commands any thing contrary to the will of God.

NEverthelesse if the Magistrate in­joyns us any thing contrary to his will by whom he is sent, and whose Minister he professeth himself to be, we do not doubt (with the A­postles) but that we ought to deny obedience unto him, and say,Acts. 5.29. We ought to obey God rather then men; since such a Magistrate is not the Mi­nister of God in that particular. [Page 363]Wherefore,Rom. 13.5. if it behooveth us to be subject to & obey the Magistrate for conscience sake and not onely out of fear, then we conclude that in whole we cannot obey for conscience sake, therein we ought not to obey for fear. In other matters, we know thatRom. 13.2. he that resisteth the power, resisteth God, and receiveth damnation to himself.

DOCT. III. That we ought to pray for all Magistrates that they may faithfully discharge their duties: and what the duty of every Magistrate is.

MOreover, because it is the duty of every free Magistrate both in making of laws, pronouncing of judgements and likewise in punish­ing offences, to use all care and di­ligence that their subjects live accor­ding to virtue and nature, and the laws of God, (the summe whereof is, thatTit. 2.12. we live soberly, and so chastly and decently, righteous, and so qui­etly with our neighbour, and godly in this present world;) and that they can­not perform this duty of themselves, [Page 364]unlesse they be indued by God with the knowledge thereof, andPhil. 2.13. stirred up both to will and to doe: therefore what we our selves do by the precept of the Apostle, the same we teach others to do also; namely, that they pray for the Magistrates, whatever they be, that they may become both willing and able to acquit them­selves of their charge, that thereby wee may lead a quiet and peaceable life in all honesty and godlinesse, that is, that we may live commodiously and in peace together, that the honour of the publick be regarded, and true piety and religion maintained and promoted.

DOCT. IV. That it is the chief duty of a Christian Prince to undertake the care of Christian Religion.

BUt if the Magistrate be a Christian and godly person, we believe that it does especially belong to him to take a peculiar care of the Christian Religion, besides their indeavours for the publick and civil benefit and [Page 365]maintaining the peace & honour of the society over which he is placed; seeing the Lord hath made him keep­er of both Tables, and commandeth him, that as a Prince,Ios. 18. he alwaies have the Law in his hands, that he may as wellDeut. 13.5. punish idolaters, blas­phemers, false prophets & seducers, &c. As murderers and adulterers: and this according to the examples of the godly Kings in Israel, and the Christian Princes, Constantine, Valen­tinian, Theodosius, Iustinian, and others, abundantly confirming the same; who according to the command of God, did serve the Lord not only as private persons, but as Kings; as St. Austin hath most prudently observed concerning their duty out of the se­cond Psalm, and expounded the fame. Epist. 50. Ad Bonifacium Co­mi [...]em, Tom. 2.

DOCT. V. That the duty of a godly Prince is two­fold; and wherein the first part thereof consists.

MOreover, seeing the duty of a pious Prince, (that is, of such a [Page 366]Magistrate as hath a free power over any people, and authority to institute or reform religion in his jurisdicti­on) which he owes to Christ and the Church is twofold; whereof one consists in things pertaining to reli­gion, and the other ha's regard to to the persons under his jurisdiction and subject unto him. We believe as to the first, that it is his duty in the first place to take diligent care that religion be established, or be­ing established be preserved pure, in his principalities or kingdome; or if corrupted that it be restored and reformed, and this according to the pure Word of God expounded by the Word of God it selfe, and un­derstood agreeably to the first prin­ciples of faith, (or as they say, ac­cording to the analogy of faith) to the glory of God, and salvation of his people. For so we find it commanded by God and Moses, and to have been observed by all godly Princes.

DOCT. VI. The explication of this opinion in particulars.

FIrst, therefore we believe it the duty of a godly Magistrate to know out of the Word of God in general and the summe of the prin­ciples of faith, what the true and Christian religion is, and what the Apostolical doctrine whereunto the Churches are to be reformed; to the end he do not any thing or pre­sume to do any thing by the judge­ment of others onely, but of his own certain knowledge in a matter of so great importance. Secondly, when this is known to take care that Ministers fit for that office be cho­sen, called and ordained, not guided therein by his own fancy and plea­sure but by the rule of God's Word and examples Apostolical. Thirdly, to cause that by them the doctrine of Salvation deliver'd in holy writ be preached expounded and incul­cated, that the Sacraments be ad­ministred according to Christs insti­tution, [Page 368]and also that the discipline ordained by Christ be exercised. Fourthly, to see that schooles be e­rected, in which laudable arts & lan­guages may be diligently taught, and the students instructed in the summe of Christianity. Fifthly, to the end that Ministers and teachers may perform their charges, and so true religion be preserved by them in the Church, to take order, that besides ordinary and private conven­tions, there may be provincial Sy­nods assembled at least twice a yeare. Sixthly, to have carefull oversight of the goods of the Church, that they be layd out faithfully to their pro­per, that is, to truly pious uses? and that all things necessary be supplyed to the Church and the Ministers of the same.

DOCT. VII. That a pious Prince ought not to use all sorts of men of a different religion after the same manner.

TO proceed to the remaining duty of a pious Prince; since there are divers sorts of men which a Prince [Page 369]may have under his dominion, namely either absolutely unbelie­vers, or such as do indeed professe the faith of Christ, but are neverthe­lesse manifest Idolaters and apo­states in many things from the Apo­stolical Church, or obstinate Here­ticks in some article of faith, or only seduced into errour, or lastly of sound opinions throughout,; We conceive a Prince ought not to proceed in the same manner towards all these di­stinct orders of men: for some are to be accounted deare, cherished and honoured, some tolerated, o­thers not; and some also even to be punished with death; but none are to be suffered to blaspheme Christ, or worship Idols and retaine impious ceremonies.

DOCT. VIII. That all men ought to be subject to the higher powers; and all powers, even the highest, to Christ and his word.

LAstly we believe thatRom. 13.1. every soul, that is, every man, none excepted, and so every inferiour [Page 370]power ought to be subject to the superiour, and higher; but that the higher power, no lesse then the inferiour, and all other men, to Christ theApoc. 17 14. 1 Tim. 6.15. King of Kings and Lord of all Lords. For if it is the will of God that all shouldPsal. 2.12. kiss the Son, and submit their neck themselves to his yoke & discipline. Wherefore we be­lieve that it belongs to the true go­vernment and edification of the Church, that Princes render them­selves especially to be instructed, admonished and corrected by the Word of God; by which others may be incouraged to do the same; and in case they refuse, the Prince may with more freedome punish them, and retain all in their duties.

DOCT. IX. Errours.

1 WE therefore condemn all de­spisers of Magistrates, rebells, seditious, and enemies to the State they live in, and whosoever either openly refuse or craftily detract to perform all duties they owe unto the [Page 371]Magistrate. 2. Particularly we con­demn the errour of the Anabaptists, who affirm it unlawfull for a Chri­stian man to be a Magistrate, much lesse to use his authority over his Subjects in point of religion; and that it is free for every one to follow what religion hee pleases, and con­sequently that no man is to be com­pelled to the faith. 3. We disapprove their judgement who attribute only the shadow of authority in religion to Magistrates, and deny them the power to convocate Synods, to deli­berate touching religion, to reform Churches, and to ordaine according to the word of God such things as belong to the welfare of the people; making them only impoured to exe­cute the decres and determinations of the Bishops. 4 But neither do we approve of such magistrates, who, without sufficient understanding of matter, change religion at their plea­sure, condemning, spoyling and pre­scribing the dissenters though un­heard, and who introduce Canons concerning religion, not out of the Word of God, but rather against it, [Page 370] [...] [Page 371] [...] [Page 372]behaving themselves in the Church of Christ as Lords of the Churches, not as the servants of God, and refu­sing to submit their necks, to the yoke of the Son of God; whom we beseech God the Father & the Lord Jesus Christ to indue with more knowledge of God and a better re­ctified understanding.

CHAP. XXVII. Of the perpetuall remission of sins in the Church of Christ.

DOCTRINE I. That there is in the Church a perpetuall dispensation of remission of sins, and that a perpetuall Ministry of the Word is ordained to that end.

WE have confessed above, that as soon as any person is ingrafted into Christ by the holy spirit, he does immediately obtain forgivenesse of all sins com­mitted, and partakes a new life from [Page 373]Christ the head, and so becomes a living member of the Church. But because even such as are the most holy in this militant Church, do ne­verthelesse sin daily to the end of their lives, and consequently have alwaies need of new pardon for their offences, as likewise of new repen­tance and new faith apprehending remission of sins through Christ; & because faith & repentance use to be stirred up by the ministry of the Word and Sacraments; therefore we believe that remission of sins is perpetually dispensed in the Church, and that the whole Ecclesiasticall ministry which is perpetually in the same, is ordained in reference thereunto.

DOCT. II. What we understand by the remission of sins.

WHereas there are three things to be considered in sin; the transi­ent action, the irregularity or defor­mity of that action, and the fault re­maining upon the sinner with the guilt of punishment coherent there­unto; [Page 374]we understand that sin is then forgiven us, when not onely the fault and irregularity is not im­puted unto us, but also the punish­ment and condemnation due unto us for the same is pardoned, and we are acquitted from such guilt and li­ablenesse to justice; seeing we are not said to forgive the offences of our brethren, but when we free them from the satisfaction and perfor­mance due from them; and that most certainly we are not commanded to ask any thing of God, but what God is willing to grant; and Christ hath cancell'd the obligation of our whole debt, having made perfect payment and satisfaction thereof in our be­halfe.

DOCT. III. That the afflictions, wherewith the Saints are exercised after the pardon of their sins, are not punishments or satisfa­ctions for sins past, but fatherly cha­stisements to restrain from future.

BUt for that God useth to afflict and scourge his children in sun­dry manners after forgivenesse of [Page 375]their sins; we believe that he does it not to that end satisfaction, either in whole or in part, might be made thereby to his justice for sins com­mitted, since one full satisfacti­on of Christ imputed unto us is more then enough thereunto; but that by them (as by the strokes of a father) which conduce much to the morifi­cation of sin dwelling in us, we may be rendred more cautious hereafter, and suffer not our selves so easily to fall into sin any more:T. 7. de pecc. mer. & rem. l z. c. 33. & 34. wherefore with St. Austin, we style them the combats of faith, and exercises of the Saints, but not the punishments of sin, and accordingly teach them to be really so.

DOCT. IV. That properly sins are forgiven by God, alone freely and through Christ the Mediatour.

Isai. 43.25.WE believe also that sins are pro­perly for given by God alone, by by grace & through Christ the Me­diatour: since it is he alone against whom properly sins are committed [Page 376]either mediately or immediately, when we transgresse his Law; and it lies in the power of the Creditors only to shew kindnesse to his deb­tors, and remit their debts. Whence also Christ, as manLuke 23.34. prayed the Fa­ther in behalf of those that crucified him, that he would forgive them and pardon their sins; and more­over, for that the Iews said,Luke 5.21. Who can forgive sins, but God alone? he confirmed the same partly by being silent, and partly by doing a mira­cle. Wherefore inasmuch as Christ did forgive sins by his own authori­ty, we believe with the Fathers, that it is evidently inferr'd that he is the true God; seeing this cannot be done by any mere creature, unlesse ministerially (as they say) and in the name and by the authority of God: which we know to be given not to one only,Mat. 18. Iohn 20.23. but to all the Apostles e­qually and consequently to all law­full ministers of the Gospel.

DOCT. V. That Christ, being both God and man, doth indeed forgive sins; but after a different manner, as he is God, and as he is man.

FRom whence flows this conse­quence, which we confesse, that Christ, both God and man, together with the Father and the holy Ghost doth forgive sins; but this he doth after a different manner, as God, and as man. For, as God, he doth it properly, by his own authority, truly and effectually; but as man, he doth, and did it in the flesh, as a co­operatour with the Deity, by his hu­mane will consenting with the di­vine, and pronouncing the words, Thy sins are forgiven thee. And the same is attested by the exposition of Leo the first in anEph. 10. cap. 4. Epistle to Flavia­nus in these words, Either form (viz. of God and man) acts in commu­nion with the other, what is proper to it; namely, the word working that which is proper to the word, and the flesh doing that which belongs to the flesh. To remit sins [Page 378]was an action proper to the divine na­ture; but to say, Thy sins are forgiven thee, was humane.

DOCT. VI. That remission of sins is offered in Christ alone, and obtained by the e­lect alone indued with faith.

BUt as in Christ only, the Media­tour and Redeemer, as head of the whole Church,Eph. 1.7. we have redem­ption through his bloud, the forgivenesse of sins, so that there is none without him; so also we believe that the e­lect only, being indued with true re­pentance and true faith, and ingraft­ed into Christ by the holy Spirit, as members into their head, are made partakers of the same: wherefore, although forgivenesse of sins be pro­nounced to all men by the Gospel, yet they are never forgiven to re­probates, such as are impenitent and unbelievers; but do alwayes remain upon them through their own fault and defect.

DOCT. VII. That to the believing elect all their sinnes together are forgiven.

WE believe also, that as Christ by once offering himself satisfy'd, not for some, but all our sins; so al­so, when we truly repent, forgive­nesse, not of some only, but of all out sins together is offered unto us by Christ, and through Christ in the Gospel, communicated by the holy Spirit, and received by faith: seeing God hath declared by a parable that he doth forgive the whole debt and not a part thereof.

DOCT. VIII. That remission of sins is dispersed on­ly in the Church, received by faith alone, and that onely in this life.

LAstly, to conclude we believe, that as in Christ onely remission of sins is to be found, so also is the same dispersed in his Church alone; and that as it was purchas'd for usMat. 18.23, &c. [Page 380]by the merits and bloud of Christ a­lone, so also it is received without our merits by a true faith only in Christ; and that as in this life only the Gospel is preached, and pardon of sins declared to those that repent and believe, so also that we can only be made partakers of the same in this life: seeing after it there is no place for faith and repentance, and conse­quently the Church cannot longer by any ministry advantage those that are deceased towards the obtaining pardon for them; according to that of St. Cyprian to Demetrius, After de­parture from hence, there remains no place for repentance, no effect of satisfaction. Here life is either lost or gained, here provision is made for eternall salvation by the worshipping of God, and believing in his mercy.

DOCT. IX. The confirmation of the same doctrine from the order observed in the Creed.

WE expound the article of for­givenesse of sins in the Creed according to these three heads; [Page 381]namely, first, that this article is pla­ced next those of the Church & the Communion of Saints, to the end we might understand that remission of sins is not dispensed and hath no place out of the Church Secondly, that it is placed after the confession of our faith in God the Father, in the Son and in the holy Ghost, and after that faith whereby we believe the Church of Christ to be holy and to consist of the society and Commu­nion of Saints, to the end we might declare that we do obtain remission of our sins continually, not by reason of our own merits, but through faith in God the Father, the Son, and the holy Ghost, and because we are in the Church and have Communion with all Saints. And lastly from this order of the articles of faith we believe & confesse that after pardon of sins obtained in the Church Mili­tant here, there remains nothing else to be expected by the dead, but the resurrection of the body and life eternal.

DOCT. X. Errours.

WHerefore we condemn 1. that errour, by which some teach that the offence being forgiven, there yet remains the debt of punishment to he paid; and that this punish­ment, being no other then eter­nal death, is by repentance chang­ed into temporal punishments, which are to be undergone either in this life or after death in Purgatory, unlesse we be discharged from them by the help of Masses, Indulgences, and other suffrages. 2. We con­demn also their blasphemy, who seek remission of sins, and teach it to be sought otherwhere then in Christ: Also such as maintain it possible to be really apply'd and partaken by them, any other way then by a true faith, and by the holy Ghost. 3. We likewise condemn their sacrilegious doctrine, who teach, that all sins are not always for­given to believers by God, but that some are oftentimes retained, which are further to be expiated by fa­stings, [Page 383]almes, prayers and other works of ours, or by the oblations of others and sacrifices of Priests.

CHAP. XXVIII. Of the state of souls after death, and of the resurrection of the dead.

DOCTRINE I. That souls die not with the bo­dies, nor do they sleep being separa­ted from them, or rest any where be­side in Heaven or hell, neither are they tormented in Purgatory.

WE believe that our souls do nei­ther die with the body, nor sleep when parted from them, or remain waking in certain hidden places, be­sides Heaven and hell, nor that they are tortoured in that purgatory fire; but that the souls of all men live even out of their bodies, understand, and will; & that the souls of the godly do reign in heaven wth Christ, & those of [Page 384]the wicked are tormented in hell with the Divels; as the Lord teach­eth of the first,Luke 16.5. When godly and mercifull men fail, that is, depart­ed out of this life, they, that is, their souls, are received into everlasting habitations, and in another place, that they areLuke 23.43. with him in Paradise; but of these last, by theLuke 15 [...]5 example of the rich Glutton, that they goe into hell, that is, a place destinated to e­verlasting burnings (as also weActs 1.25. read of Judas) and are there tormented.

DOCT. II. That the places are different where the souls of the faithfull, and where those of unbelievers live after the death of their bodies.

BUt seeing the state of faithfull and unbelieving souls is so different, we believe that the places are diffe­rent also into which they goe; name­ly, the eternall tabernacles in hea­ven, and paradise appointed for the godly, and2 Pet. 2.4. hell or the bottomlesse pit prepared for the wicked; since the holy Scripture attributes uncon­ceivable [Page 385]light to the one, and the greatest darknesse to the other, which ChristMat. 8.12. calleth utter darknesse; and since the Lord saith, that his will is, that where himself is, there those that believe in him be also, apparently si­gnifying, that in that place where he is now with his body and soul, there also shall be the faithfull, first with their souls, and in due time with o­ther bodies also, but unbelievers ne­ver with either: so that we judge it the highest impiety to say that hea­ven is every where, whereas it is in no place of Scripture assigned to the wicked, but frequently to the godly alone as their proper and eternall habitation; and for that it is neces­sary that bodies be circumscribed in some space after the resurrection, and that souls be contained some­where definitively, as the schooles speak.

DOCT. III. That the end of this world will certainly come, and all things shall be chan­ged, although the time it self be unknown.

MOreover, although the time when the end of this world shall be, is so unknown to us,Mat. 24.36. Act 1.7. Isa. 24.23. and 65.17. and [...].22. Ps. 102.27. Dan. 12.2. Mal. 4.1. 2 Pet. 3.13. Apoc. 21.1. Iude 14,15. Mat. 24. Luke 21.5, &c. that it is not possible to know it, yet we be­lieve that it will most certainly be, and then not only the earth but like­wise the heavens shall be changed, and there shall be a new heaven and a new earth, and all the dead, even the wicked shall rise, when Christ shall call to judgement the voice and trumpet of an Arch-angel: and to the certainty of these things belongs that method of our Lord Iesus, in having first foretold the desolation of Ierusalem, and thereunto sub­joyning a discourse concerning these matters, to the end that by those things which we have seen be­fall Ierusalem, we might believe that those which he then foretold of the end of the world will come [Page 387]to passe with the same certain­ty, &c.

DOCT. VI. That all dead men shall at last be quickned, and rise from their sepulchres.

WE believe therefore that1 Cor 15.2. as all men die in Adam, so in Christ all, even the wicked as to the body, shall be made alive, every ones soul resu­ming its proper body; although we confesse some shall arise to eternall happinesse and others to eternall damnation;Ioh. 5.29. according to the say­ing of Christ, and they shall come forth that have done good, unto the resurrecti­on of life; and they that have done evil, unto the resurrection of damnation; whence also the order of the resur­rection is confirmed, which the A­postle delivers in these words,Thes. 4.16. And the dead in Christ shall rise first and then the rest.

DOCT. V. That there shall not be new bodies made for our souls, but the very same shall rise which died.

FUrthermore we believe that there shall not be a new body framed to every soul, but the same of every particular person, that died, as to the substance shall rise again, but different in some qualities; accor­ding to the Apostle's doctrine con­cerning the bodies of the godly,1 Cor. 15 36.42. shewing by the example of the same grain, that they are sowed one thing and arise another, that they are sow­ed obnoxious to corruption, but raised incorruptible, &c. and Iob te­stifyeth concerning his hope in this manner;Iob 19.25, 26, 27. I know that my Redeemer liveth, and that I shall rise again in the latter day upon the earth, and that in my flesh I shall see God; Whom I shall see for my self, and not another, and wine eyes shall behold him. For we shall see Christ with our corporeall eyes in the clouds returning to us with his body, and also reigning in heaven.

DOCT. VI. That from the example of our bodies af­ter the resurrection, it appears that the body of Christ is not every where.

WHereas the Apostle saithPhil. [...].2 [...]. Christ shall change our vile bodies, that they may be fashioned like unto his glo­rious body, we believe that if the bo­dy of Christ by vertue of the glory it received after his resurrection, re­ceived the power of being every where; then ours also will by reason of the same glory be every where; which seeing it shall not be, neither do we believe that the body of Christ, however full of glory and majesty is now every where with its substance, since it is finite, and the glory thereof also finite; especially for that he hath said, that Io [...]. 17.24. he will that where he is, there we should be also; but we shall not be every where with our bodies.

DOCT. VII. Errours.

FIrst we condemn the wicked do­tage both of those Philosophers who taught the humane soul is mor­tall, and 2. of those hereticks who imagin'd that the souls of men sepa­rated from their bodies did either sleep in certain secret places, that is, are deprived of all sense and opera­tions of the mind, or that they are a­wake indeed, but rest untill they re­sume their bodies, and then are ei­ther to be admitted into heaven, or thrust into hell. 3. Moreover, we condemn those who dream that the souls of many of the godly are pur­ged in a certain purgatory fire from the reliques of their sins, and under­goe temporall pains. 4. We disap­prove their opinion who do not di­stinguish heaven, where the godly shall be, from hell where we read the wicked shall be; but make the dif­ference to consist only in this, that some are made happy and others miserable, although all be in the [Page 391]same place. 5. But neither can we assent to them, who say that the cer­tain time month or year, if not the the certain day and hour, may be determin'd and known,Act. 1.7. in which the Lord will come and put an end to to this world; seeing Christ hath said, It is not for you to know the times. 2 Pet. 3 3. 6. We detest those Scoffers whom St. Peter mentions who think the world shall endure thus for ever, and deny & deride all life to come, 7. We also condemn all those who reject the resurrection of the dead: and also those who fancied we shall not have the same, but other new bodies. 8. We likewise condemn them who taught that bodies after the resurrection shall be so spiritual that like a spirit or ayre, they can neither be seen nor felt; such as some have attributed to Christ after his resurrection, and others also impu­dently feign to have been changed into the divine nature, so that it can­not be any longer termed a Crea­ture.

CHAP. XXIX. Of the glorious coming of the Lord Jesus to judge the living and the dead.

DOCTRINE. I. That the dead being rais'd and the living chang'd at the coming of the Lord Iesus from Heaven, Christ will immediately shew himself in the Clouds to be seen by all, and all the faithfull shall goe meet him in the aire.

WE believe that at the com­ing of the Lord Jesus, the resurrection of the dead being performed by the ministry of Angels, they that are then alive shall not die, but shall be instantly chan­ged into the same condition with them that are raised; and then Christ, being returned from heaven to the Clouds to judge and passe sentence upon all, will exhibit him­self to be seen by all men; and being attended with his Angels and ap­pearing [Page 393]in his majestie and glory; all the godly shall be translated from earth even to the heaven of the Clouds to meet him,Mat 24.3. & 25.31. 1 Thes. 5.1. &c. according as Christ himself and the Apostles have taught and left a recorded.

DOCT. II. That Christ will visibly move from place to place, and so with a visible, lo­call and finite body.

THerefore we believe that Christ will so return visibly, as before he ascended from earth to heaven in the sight of his Apostles, and that he will return from that heaven where­in he now is, and which is conse­quently distant from the Clouds to which he shall descend, and from the earth: and so we believe he will de­scend with his natural body, that it is necessary the same should be lo­cal and finite and therefore not ubi­quitary; seeing such a descending is by the holy Ghost described to the simple people, as is not possi­ble to be made without mutation of place.

DOCT. III. That the reprobate unbelievers shall not go unto Christ sitting in the clouds, but remaining upon the earth shall heare the sentence of the Iudge.

BUt whereas the Scripture pronun­ces only of the godly, that they shall be snatched up into the Clouds and goe meet Christ in the aire, we believe that the wicked shall not go unto Christ but remaining under his feet, heare the sentence of the Judge,1 Cor. 6.2, 3. Goe ye Cursed into eternall fire; all the Saints which shall be in the aire with Christ approving the sen­tence according to the opinion of the Apostle a that the Saints shall judge the world & the Angels.

DOCT. IV. For what Causes that universall judgement is appointed.

WE believe that that judgement, wherein Christ shall judge all, being made visible to all, is appoint­ed chiefly, for two reasons; first, to [Page] [Page 395]the end that those things which are now hid unto men, aswell innocence faith and good conscience of the godly as the hypocrisie and crimes of the wicked may be layd open to the whole world, and thereby it may most evidently appeare at the last how just the judgements of God have alwaies been: whence that day is called by the ApostleRom. 2.5. the day of revelation. Secondly, that the re­compense of good works promised to the good, and of bad to the bad may be rendred fully to every one, according to that of the Apostle, We must all appeare before the judgement seat of Christ, 2 Cor. 5.10. that every one may receive the things done in his body, according to that he hath done, whether it be good or bad: whence it is called by the same Apostle Rom. 2.5. The day of the righteous judge­ment of God.

DOCT. V. That eternall life, which is given to the elect, is called, and is a reward, but al together fully bestowed, & in no man­ner due to us, saving through Christ.

FOr although what the elect shall then receive is the meer gift of [Page 396]God obtained by the merits of Christ alone, yet we are not ignorant that it is, and is truly called a reward seeing; the Lord Iesus hath daigned to give it that term, namely a free reward, & seeing even the good works of the godly, & all the causes from whence they proceed, are the free gifts of God, free election, free redemption, free calling, faith, justification, rege­neration, forgivness of sins, & lastly the pardoning of the defects and weaknesses wherewith our good works themselves are attended, & on the other side the free imputation of the perfect obedience of Christ, by which our imperfect is cloathed and rendred most acceptable to God; so that it followes, that if we will speak properly, the reward is not due to us, for our own works sake consider'd in themselves, but only for the im­puted merits of Christ.

DOCT. VI. That judgement being ended, the godly shall immediately be in heaven with Christ, and the wicked in hell with the Devil and his Angels.

MOreover, we believe that imme­diately after that judgement the godly shall follow Christ into hea­ven, and the wicked with the Devils shall be thrust into hell: Christ say­ing unto those, Come ye blessed of my Father; but to these, Goe ye cursed into fire everlasting.

DOCT. VII. That that day shall be most joyfull to the godly, and therefore to be desir'd; but to the wicked most sad, and so intolerable to them even to hear of it.

SO we believe that last day will be to them who are grafted into Christ most happy and joyfull, and that therefore it is beloved & wish­ed for by them, and so ought to be [Page 398]desired and loved by us, but the most unhappy and sad of all to the wicked; whence it is no wonder that they hate that day,2 Tim. 4.8. and cannot endure the mention of it.

DOCT. VIII. Errours.

1. WE condemn those who deny that Christ is truly and real­ly in his humane body to descend from heaven to the clouds, and from thence to return into heaven with the elect, but maintain that all this shall be without any mutation of place, only by a sort of appearance, as they call it, and disappearance; who are contradicted by sayings of Angels to the Apostles,Acts 1.11. As ye have seen him ascending into heaven, so shall he come. 2. We dissent from those who teach that works of godlinesse consider'd in themselves are the true cause for which eternall life is gi­ven, and are the true deserts of the same; the Apostle being of the con­trary opinion, and saying,Rom. 6, 2 [...]. The gift of God is life eternall. Neither do we [Page 399]approve the opinion of the C [...]iliasts concerning a thousand years, where­in after judgement Christ shall con­verse with his elect in this world, who shall live in the delights of the flesh, but such as are seemly, and shall beget issue, but holy, and at length be translated into heaven. 4. We condemn and abominate their errour, who hold that the fire into which the wicked are sent, shall be in time extinct; so that even all the devils that live happily in the king­dome of God, contrary to the ex­presse words of Christ,Matt. 25.41. Go into eter­nall fire.

CHAP XXX. Of life Eternall.

DOCTRINE I. That all shall receive eternall life who by their good works shall have testified that they were truly ingrafted into Christ, and believed in Christ.

THerefore we believe that at last, eternall life, that is, a full and perfect possession of life eternall, shall be given in that last day to all who by the evident works of true faith and piety shall be openly declared before all An­gels and men, most clearly demon­strated and by the sentence of Christ the Iudge, be pronounced to have been truly ingrafted into Christ by the holy spirit, and so to have belie­ved in God the Father, in his Son Iesus Christ and in the holy Ghost, to have been living members of the holy Church, and to have had com­munion with all the Saints, and to [Page 401]have obained remission of their sins; the Lord himself teaching this, who saith,Mat. 25, 34, &c. that he will say un­to those that are on his right hand, Come ye blessed of my Father enter into the kingdome prepared for you from the foundation of the world: For I was an hungred and; ye gave me to eat. &c.

DOCT. II. The foregoing doctrine confirmed, and that life eternall is given not in consideration of our works, but through Christ, in whom we are freely elected, blessed, and made the sons of God.

FOr in these words the Lord seem­eth to have declared unto us that our good works are the eviden­ces of our election, blessing, adopti­on, and so of right an inheritance; but that the cause for which we shall obtain life eternall and the possession of the kingdome of heaven, is, part­ly for that even before the founda­tion of the world, that is, before we had done any good, that kingdome [Page 402]was freely prepared for us through Christ,Eph. 1.3. partly for that we a have been blessed by the Father, with all spirituall blessing in Christ, and so called by grace, justified, obtained forgive­nesse of our sins, sanctified, and ad­opted to be the sons of God through the same Christ, and regenerated by his spirit, whereby we are made co­heirs of that kingdome.

Therefore forasmuch as the Lord will remember works of piety, we do not question but he doth the same that it may be manifest to the whole world, that we have truly been blessed, elected, just children of God, to whom the inheritance was due, according to that of the Apostle, If children, then heirs: but that we are the children of God is declared by regeneration, and rege­neration by the effects of regenera­tion, which are the works of faith and piety.

DOCT. III. That as the life of the godly shall be eter­nall, so also the pains and fire of the wicked shall be eternall.

BUt as we believe that the children of God shall obtain life eternall, so also we confesse that hypocrites and all the wicked shall goe into e­ternall fire, never to be extinguish'd,Mat. 25.48. and there be tormented for ever, when Christ shall openly say, Go ye into eternall fire.

DOCT. IV. That it can neither be express'd nor conceiv'd how happy that eter­nall life shall be.

BUt what that life is, and after what manner and how great the felicity which is signify'd by the name of the kingdome of heaven, we confesse ingenuously with the A­postle, that neither eye hath seen it, 1 Co [...]. 2.9. nor ear heard it, nor hath it entred into the heart of man, being a thing greater and of more excellency then that it [Page 404]can be comprehended by human understanding, and of such happi­nesse that greater cannot fall within our desires. Therefore we simply believe, we who are of Christ, we are ruled by his Spirit, who depend on his word, and who place all our confidence of salvation in him, that all shall be most happy, and all shine like the Sun in the sight of God,Mat. 13.43. 1 Cor 11 12. Phil. 1.23. that we shall see God as he is, and all live a heavenly and divine life with Christ and his Angels, freed from all sin, all misery, all evil, without a­ny more sorrow, without fear, with out want or desire of any thing, be­cause God will be all in all, 1 Cor. 15.28. Apoc. 22.3, 4, &c. and we shall see his face, and in that city there shall be no night, nor shall there be need of any candle or light of the Sun, be­cause the Lord God shall give us light, and we shall reign for ever and ever with Christ Iesus our head Spouse, Saviour. Lord, to whom praise, honour and glory for evermore. Amen.



  • CHAPTER. I. Concerning the Holy Scriptures which are the foundation of all Christian Religion. Pag. 1.
  • Chap. II. Concerning God, the divine Persons, and Properties. Pag. 13
  • Chap. III. Concerning Gods fore­knowledge and Pradestination. Pag. 19
  • Chap. IV. Concerning Gods Omnipo­tency and will. Pag. 26
  • Chap. V. Concerning the Creation of the world, the Angels, and the first estate of man. Pag. 29
  • Chap. VI. Concerning Gods Provi­dence, and his governing the world. Pag. 37
  • [Page]Chap. VII. Concerning the Fall of man, and originall sin and the fruits of it. Pag. 44
  • Chap. VIII. What free-will was left unto Man after his Fall. Pag. 53
  • Chap. IX. Concerning the Promise of Redemption and Salvation through Christ. Pag. 61
  • Chap. X. Concerning the Law. Pag. 65
  • Chap. XI. Concerning Christ our Re­deemer. Pag. 77
  • Chap. XII Concerning the true dis­pensation of redemption, salvation, and life? and therefore the necessitie of our union and communion with Christ. Pag. 108
  • Chap. XIII. Concerning the Gospel, and the abrogation of the Law by the Gospel. Pag. 131
  • Chap. XIV. Concerning the Sacra­ments of the New Testament. Pag. 143
  • Chap. XV. Concerning Baptisme. Pag. 169
  • Chap. XVI. Concerning the Lords Supper. Pag. 178
  • Chap. XVII. Concerning Faith, Hope, and Charitie. Pag. 201
  • Chap. XVIII. Concerning Repen­tance. Pag. 209
  • [Page]Chap. XIX. Concerning Iustification. Pag. [...]16
  • Chap. XX. Concerning the Free-will of a man regenerate, and his power unto that which is good. Pag. 232
  • Chap. XXI. Concerning good works. Pag. 242
  • Chap. XXII. Concerning Invocation and swearing. Pag. 252
  • Chap. XXIII. Concerning the Church of Christ in general. Pag. 258
  • Chap. XXIV. Concerning the Church Militant. Pag. 259
  • Chap. XXV. Of the Government of the Church Militant, and of the Ec­clesiasticall Ministry. Pag. 307
  • Chap. XXVI. Concerning Magi­strates. Pag. 361
  • Chap. XXVII. Of the perpetuall remission of sins in the Church of Christ. Pag. 372
  • Chap. XXVIII. Of the state of souls after death, and of the resurre­ction of the dead. Pag. 383
  • Chap. XXIX. Of the glorious coming of the Lord Iesus to judge the living and the dead. Pag. 392
  • Chap. XXX. Of life Eternall. Pag. 400

This keyboarded and encoded edition of the work described above is co-owned by the institutions providing financial support to the Text Creation Partnership. Searching, reading, printing, or downloading EEBO-TCP texts is reserved for the authorized users of these project partner institutions. Permission must be granted for subsequent distribution, in print or electronically, of this EEBO-TCP Phase II text, in whole or in part.