THE SVMME Of diverse SERMONS Preached in Dublin, Before the L. Deputie Fleetwood, and the Commissioners of Parliament for the Affairs of IRELAND.

Wherein the doctrine of Infant-baptism is assert­ed, and the main Objections of Mr Tombs, Mr Fisher, Mr Blackwood, and others, Answered.

By SAMUEL WINTER, D. D. Provost of Tri­nitie Colledge near DUBLIN.

Neh. 9 8. Thou foundest his heart faithful before thee, and en­teredst into Covenant with him, to give his seed the land of Canaan.
Psal. 25.14. His secret is with them that fear him, to make them know the Covenant.
Isa. 65. They are the seed of the blessed of the Lord and their off­spring with them.
Ez 16.60. Nevertheless I will remember my Covenant with thee in the days of thy youth, and I will establish unto thee an everlast­ing Covenant.
Act. 1.14.Cum Ʋxoribus & liberis.
Tanto magis pro infantibus loqui debemus, quanio minus ipsi pro se loqui possunt Augustin.
Quod universa tenet Ecclesia, nec concilijs institutum, sed semper reten­tum; id non nisi authoritate apostolicâ traditum rectissimè creditur. Idem.

DƲBLIN, Printed by William Bladen, Anno Dom. 1656.

EX sanctificato alteto [...]exu sanctos procreari ait, ex seminis praerogativa. Tert. in 1 Cor. 7.
Gal. 3.28. Neither male nor Female.) In Judaismo magnum erat privilegium virilis sexus, is solus foederis signum corpore gerens. Grot. At &c.
Major difficultas in componendis dissidiis animorum, quàm in componenda controversia. Zan.
Quoniam non noviliteraturam, introibo in potentias Domi­ni▪ Vulgata ve [...]sio, Psal. 71.14.
[...]. Chrys. in Heb. 6.6.
Act. 16.15. Baptizata est ipsa, & filii domus ejus. She was baptized, and the children of her house.
Vers. 33. Et eâdem horâ baptizatus est ipse, & filii domus ejus omnes. And the same hour he was baptized, and all the chil­dren of his house.

To their Excellencies, CHARLS FLEETWOOD, Lord Deputie of Ireland; AND THE Lord HENRY CROMWEL, Commander in chief of the Forces in Ireland.

My Lords,

IT was a saying of Luther, Let me hear ill as a malefactor, &c. Modo impii silentii non arguar, so that I be not ac­cused of sinful silence.

The doctrine of Antipae­dobaptism was preached in many places in IRELAND, and I again and a­gain challenged to dispute this point; there­fore I resolved to give place to none such, no [Page] not for an hour, (it being urged as a thing so necessary to salvation by many) that the truth of the Gospel might continue with us, as Paul speaks of Circumcision, Gal. 2. but did publickly disown that way and practice, which though watered by the foot of man, as Aegypt: yet was never watered by the dew of heaven, as Canaan) & accordingly I found (blessed be his glorious grace who delighteth to breath in such poor worms as I am) more of Gods presence in the publick dispensing of that Ordinance of infant baptism, (assuring me by his spirit that he would own it and bless it to the babes) than ever I did in all my days, these eight and twenty years since I entered into the Ministry; to which I was called from my childhood, and assured I should win ma­ny souls. This I speak in humility of spirit, (as knowing my self to be the chief of sinners) not to magnifie my self, but to magnifie mine Office, as Paul doth in the first and second Chapters to the Galatians. Paul knew that if those teachers could enervate his authoritie, and make his calling void, his doctrine would be slighted and made of none effect; there­fore he labors to prove by many Arguments [Page] that he was called from heaven to the Mini­stry; especially by the good success the Lord gave, I was (saith he) sent to the Gentiles, as Peter to the Jews: for he that w [...]ought effectually by Peter to the circumcision, was mighty in me to­wards the Gentiles. Gal. 2.7.8.

In these lines I look at Christ as standing by, and overlooking what I am doing, who well knows with how many prayers and tears I have looked upon the several texts mention­ed in this Treatise; (for I often think, what would Christ say to such a text if he were to preach on such a subject? or will Christ own this or that truth another day?) begging of the father of lights, from whom every good giving and perfect gift doth come, that he would lead me into all truth; and not suffer me to build upon his foundation, wood, hay, and stubble, least the day should discover it, and I suffer loss either of my labor or crown (making it less massie and weighty, not ha­ving so many pearls in it) another day. And I am assured that those prayers shall not prove abortive: for the prayers of the saints dyed in the bloud of Christ are of eternal efficacie; there being a necessity and tie lying upon Je­hova [Page] that they should be fulfilled in due time, Acts 1.16. However if Christ take pleasure in me, here I am: if not, let him do with me what seemeth good in his sight.

I have not affected enamel'd phrases, and words of mans wisdom, (which perhaps are expected from one in my capacity) but with as much plainness as I could, I have held forth the truth as it is in Jesus. The riches of Greece did not consist in words, said Demosthenes of old. Therefore I had rather say Ossum than Os, with Austin, least I should not be understood. Cibus simplex est optimus, the plainest meats nourish most. We say of a diamond, Quic­quid absconditur perditur; for truth is like to Adam, never so glorious as when it's naked. Therefore, saith the Apostle, we use plainness of speech. 2 Cor. 3.12.

If any be offended, I say, Praestat ut scanda­lum admittatur quam ut veritas amittatur. And with Seneca, Mallem boni viri famam perdere, quam conscientiam. For we are set for the de­fence of the Gospel, and the appertenances thereof, (Phil. 1.17.) and therefore may not with hold our testimonie from the present truth, (i.) the truth of this age, (though never [Page] so much opposed) what ever the event may be.

I have without gall or bitterness to any, as I hope, managed this controversie, truthing it in love, [...], Eph. 4 (for truth needs not passion) desirous to weep and bleed over such souls who are contrary minded, (o­ver whom Christ hath bled) as Paul speaks Phil. 3.18. If at any time God will give them repentance to the acknowledgment of the truth; that they may recover themselves out of the snare of the devil, who are taken captive alive at his will.

However though many will not own this disgraced truth, I am assured that Christ will own it another day, and then truth will be truth: in the mean time put it in the open field and let it work out it self, which doubt­less it will; for all truth is from the spirit, which onely is able to make way for it in the hearts of the sons of men, and to batter down those strong holds, even those royal forts of the imagination and will, that stand out in op­position to the truths of Iesus.

My dearest Lords! I ow no less than my self to you, for that tender love you have ever ex­pressed [Page] to me; therefore having nothing else to give, worthy of your acceptance, I give my self to you. Many have given more, but none ever left less to himself: and as a token of mine endeared affections to your Honors, I humbly present this plain discourse to your Honors patronage, being the first fruits of my labours; and leave it in the hand of the spirit to bring it h [...]me to the souls of all into whose hands it may come, assuring my self, I have a friend within them, the spirit I mean, (if they be Christs) that will eccho to, and close with the spirit that is without. But if I prevale not with those that are otherwise minded, (as I have little hope, seeing God doth not usually recall such, but suffers them to go on in the error of their way) my earnest prayer to God shall be, Father forgive them for they know not what they say, and they do they know not what.

My Lords,
Your Honors humble Servant, Samuel Winter.

The Table. Act. 2.38.

OBserve, The former duty, viz. Repent, is in the second person, the later in the third person, ad­mitting of a greater latitude. Let every one of you, (that is, you and yours) be baptized.

Doctrine. That the baptizing of infants of belie­vers, is according to the institution of Jesus Christ.

Baptism is a washing; so the word in greek sig­nifies. Thus the word in the hebrew, 2 King. 5. Ittibal erchatz, Nonne lavabo in iis? Targ. Thus the word is used in the Arabic, Ethiopian and Syriac tongue.

First Argument (pag. 18.) Is taken from the com­mand of Christ, Mat. 18. Go disciple all Nations. By nations is meant men, women, and children, according to the manner of the Jews, which was to baptize the children of Jews and Proselytes, as well as others, pag. 19. Sed et nunc qui ex gentibus circumcisis ad Ju­daismum veniunt, ab ipsis baptizantur; et hujus ba­pti [...]mi Judaici meminit Scholiastes ad Juvenalem. Intellectu facilè est ablutionem hanc fuisse inter vete­ra instituta; orta, ut arbitror, post magnum diluvi­um, in memoriam purgati mundi. Grot. in Mat. 3.

That children are called Disciples, see page 20. [Page] Act. 21.21, 25. Mat. 21.15. compared with Luk. 10.37. Where children are called disciples. Mat. 27.57. [...], he was disciple to him.

Second Arg. Children are incovenanted, therefore are to be sealed with the initial seal of the Covenant. pag. 23. Gen. 17.9. Thou shalt keep my Covenant therefore. Which words extend to us in the new Testa­ment, for annexing the seal of baptism, as well as to Abraham his posterity for annexing the seal of Cir­cumcision: for that is mentioned afterward, as in that of the Sabbath, (4 Command.) which though apply­ed to the Jew, yet it is to be extended to us in the new Testament.

I do not say that the promise or Covenant sim­ply considered, is a ground to us to annex the seal; but this I say, That a promise laid for the foundation of a duty, is equivalent with an express command. Thus the Apostle, Act. 2.37. comp. Gen. 17 9. pag. 28.

That children are incovenanted see a cloud of wit­nesses pag. 34. Esay 65.23. They are the seed of the blessed of the Lord and their offspring with them.

The promise made to Abraham (I will be thy God, and the God of thy seed) belongs to believers and their seed, Act. 13.33. Rom. 2.29. Is he not the God of the Gentiles also? See pag. 48. 11 Arguments.

That the Covenant made with Abraham was a Co­venant of Grace, see 18 Arguments pag. 57. 2 Cor. 6. ult. applied to the Corinth [...]ans.

The old and new Covenant how distinguished, pag. 77.

Diverse Objections answered, pag. 62. That chil­dren feel not the fruit of this Covenant, the fault is not in God but in themselves, in that they do not keep the condition of the Covenant, namely to receive Christ by faith. Perk. Non evertitur dei fides perfidiâ homi­num. Cal. in Rom. 3.4.

The Covenant of Grace is conditional, page. 89. whereof baptism is a seal; therefore Divines say, The external Covenant (or rather the external part there­of) may be broken, but the internal cannot. And whereas I admit of conditions in the Covenant of grace, I mean not by conditions such as are (1.) the founda­tion of the Covenant; Or (2.) as by some are con­strued to be, sc. the impulsive cause inducing and in­clining the Lord to enter into this Covenant with us; Or (3.) such as are to be performed by us of our own power; Or (4.) such as are meritorious, and do de­stroy the nature of grace: But such as Christ hath freely undertaken to work in the elect, being generally propounded to all on the terms of the Gospel; which if accepted, render them and theirs visibly under the Co­venant, of which baptism is the seal. Therefore I say, The Arminians may take as much advantage from the invitations of God to faith and repentance, as from the conditions tendered to the sons of men. Fidem poni ut conditionem salutem quidem antecedentem, sed electionem ipsam consequentem, nunquam à nostris negatum fuit, summâ vero cum religione traditum. Ames. Though the condition of the Covenant of grace, as to man in himself, is impossible; yet through the power of Gods grace it's made possible and easie. [Page] Deut. 30. Hujus promissionis evangelicae antecedens sive annexa conditio, poterat multorum animos de­terrere: ac potius omnium si legis [...], in carne nostrâ, (ut necesse est) expendissent cujus [...] inde à principio sermonis hujus conditionem Moses expresserat, dicens, Nondum dedit vobis Jehovah mentem ad cognoscendum. Nè igitur impossibilem conditionem propositam sibi à deo fuisse quererentur, commoditatem istius Moses his verbis explicat, Nam praeceptum quod ego praecipio tibi, &c. q. d. Hacte­nus proposui tibi partem priorem foederis, ut obse­quaris deo; sed quia altera quaeque pars foederis est tibi necessaria, ut deus tuus quasi novo foedere (quod tamen reipsa unum est) suis partibus erga te defunga­tur, cum tu ipse non possis; et circumcidens cor tu­um, inscribat ei legem suam & foedus suum, ad obe­dientiam fidei. Par. lib. 2. p. 16.

No man of Coniah's seed did sit upon the throne of David, as King, for ever, pag. 91.

In the old Testament the Priests were to distinguish and separate between the holy and profane, Ezek. 22. [...]6. So the word (badal) is used, Gen. 1.3. He separated. pag 95.

Our Churches denied by the Anabaptists to be true Churches, and that Christ hath any Church commu­nion with us. pag. 96.

Children of believers are truely and really under the Covenant, so far as it goes, (pag 99.) though it be not fulfilled to them all in the utmost extent of it: how­ever they are really covenanted and engaged to fulfill the Covenant made in their behalf.

Children have many benefits by that Covenant of grace. pag. 100.

There are promises for grace and to grace. pag. 104. & 105.

That Covenant made with Abraham was a Cove­nant of life eternal, for where is it said, Thomas or Mary, or this or that child shall rise to glory? yet by virtue of that Covenant all elect children rise to ever­lasting life, or else th [...]y rise not at all. We have but an inference for it, yet such as Christ himself approveth of. Mat. 22.32. Act. 9.22. [...], Collatis te­stimoniis demonstrans. Beza.

How the promises are made to the spiritual seed, and what it is to be born after the flesh. pag. 111. Act. 13.33 He hath fulfilled to us their children. Fanatici qui­dem omnia ad allegorias trahentes, nullam hic gene­ris sed solius fidei rationem habendam somniant: tali autem commento sacrum dei foedus exinaniunt; uti dicitur, Ero deus tuus & seminis tui: at sola fides (inquiunt) est quae efficit Abrahae filios. Ego autem contra excipio, qui Abrahae filii nascuntur secundum carnem, spirituales quo (que) censeri dei filios, nisi pro­fanescant.—Etsi haereditaria fuit posteris Abrahae vitae promissio, multos tamen privavit sua incredu­litas. Calv. in Act. 13.33.

Children of promise are such as were born to Abra­ham according to promise, therefore all Isaac his seed (even Esau) though children of the flesh, were children of the promise. page 113. Which promises were made conditionally with Ismael & Isaac's carnal seed, but established upon Isaac and his elect seed onely.

Jer. 31.34. From the least,] it cannot be restrain­ed to the elect seed page 115.

Third Argument is taken from Circumcision. See how far we may argue from Analogie page 117.

Circumcision a type of baptism in three respects. page 121.

Why Circumcision on the eighth day administered. page 122. And why restrained to males. p. 123.

Either Circumcision was a seal of the Covenant of grace, or else that Covenant had no seal at all annexed to it, which is not to be imagined.

Fourth Argument, Children are members of the Church, therefore to be baptized, Eph 5.26. That he might sanctify the Church by the washing of water.

That they are members, see it largely proved from Rom. 11. page 127. Where the Apostle speaks of the visible Church of the Jews cut off with their children, and so to be reingrafted, Rom. 11.15. God cast them away, but he never cast away real saints, or such as are part of the invisible Church. Rom. 11.1. Hath he cast away? &c. Neither can they say, that they are broken off for unbelief, seeing that (according to the doctrin of the Anabaptists) they are not capable ei­ther of belief or unbelief; Therefore as children are broken off for the unbelief of their parents: so are they reingrafted by their faith. Vide Calvini triplicem in­sitionem, in Rom. 11.

They cannot be said to be cut off from the Covenant of works page 131.

Of such children is the kingdom of heaven, therefore enchurched. p. 133. Filii regni si non filii regis.

Profession of faith not essential to baptism. pag. 138. as we see in Paul. Act. 9.

Fifth Argument, Some children are believers, therefore to be baptized. Mat. 18.5. p. 139.

Children have faith in heaven. pag. 141.

Sixth Argument, As Abrah [...]ms house was cir­cumcised, so are whole houses under the new Testament baptized, and that upon the account of the faith of the parent. By (house) is meant children throughout; therefore we say children were baptized. Lydia was baptized and all the children of her house. Act. 16.15. page 143.

The jailor was baptized with all the children of his house, as the Syriac renders the word. Act. 16.33. He rejoiced with all his house, he having believed. So the Graek. vers. 34.

Families, as families, are made the precedent for that administration.

Children are included in the parents. pag. 146. Act. 1.14 with their wives and children. Vetustissi­mus meus codex addit [...]. Beza,

Seaventh Argument, Infants are capable of the grace of baptism, therefore of baptism it self. Cant. 7. Thy navel, &c. page 151.

Use. A disuasive from Anabaptism.

First, Because it's not the way of God, for it's not of Gods planting. In 10 Argum. page 159.

Secondly, It's not of Gods watering. It hath been watered by the foot of man as Egypt, but not by the dew of heaven as Canaan. In 12 Arg. page 167.


PAge 5. line 28. read, baptizing and dousing or &c. p. 9. l. 5. r for dipping sake? p. 11. mar. for Ierushalaim r. Jerusha­lajim. p. 15. l. 11. f. president r. precedent. p. 21. l. 15. f. but r. being. p. 30. l. 31. r. it at least, till p. 35. l. 25. dele) and l. 28. r. generations.) p. 38. l. 6. f. elect r. seed p. 42. l. 2 f. were r. was. p. 44. l. 13. f. brethren r. children. p. 45. l. 26 f it r. that. p. 67. l. 1. marg. r. Gen. 15.18. p. [...]0 l. 11. f. into r. in to p 79. l. 22. r. for. p. 83. l. 10 f. those r. these. p. 87. l 24. f. So that [...]. But. p. 102. l. 23. f. athing r. a thing. p. 107 marg. f. nagnor r. [...]agnar. p. 113. l. 25. r. these are determined. p. 116. l. 3. r. saints, Joh. 3.26? p. 117. l. 30. marg. r. whitfla [...]. p. 118. l. 3. f. ceremoni [...]us r. ceremonial. & l. 14. f. a r. an. p. [...]19. l [...]0. f. Mechech r. Meshech. p. 126 l. 10. r. therefore they a [...]e so now. p. 134. l. 20. f. invi [...]ble members r. visible &c. and l▪ 29. dele it. p 140. l. 140. l. 21. dele Arg p. 143. l. 18. r. again and ag [...]n. p. 144. l. 1. marg. f. ut filias r. ut filius. and l. 17. f. lalem r. lahe [...]. p. 148. l. 2. f. of the sacrificing of Abel r. of Abel sacrificing. [...]. 150. marg. f. Judici [...] r. Indicio. p. 151 l. 1. dele some. p. 164 l. 8. f. omns r. omnes. p. 165. l. 23. f. [...] r. [...]. p. 166 l 23. f. discit r. discet. p. 169. l 7. r. inlet of those. p. 175. l. 19. marg. f. dejectus est r. dejectus esse. p 176. l. 10. dele they.

THE MEANING OF THE Word, [Baptize.]

ACTS 2. v. 38.

Then said Peter unto them, Repent and be baptized every one of you, in the name of Jesus Christ, &c.

For the promise is to you and to your Children, and to all that are afar off, even to as many as the Lord our God shall call.

WHen the day of Pentecost was fully come, (vers. the 1.) they were all with one accord in one [...], every word speaks u­nity. place, and sud­denly there ap­peared unto them cloven tongues like as of fire, and it sate [...], Dis­secatae linguae sedit, it sate. An hebraism. This noteth Unity: though their tongues were cloven, as noting the variety of their gifts; yet there was but one and the same Spirit actuating them, for they spake with tongues as the Spi­rit gave them Utterance. [...]. As the Spirit gave them to speak Apothegms, (that is) Sententiously. upon each of them; this was misconstrued by some of the by-standers, who were at this time dwelling at Ierusa­lem, devout Men of every Na­tion under heaven, expecting the coming of the Messias; to whom many Proselytes of the Gentiles, that had embra­ced [Page 2] the Iewish Religion, joy­ned themselves. To these joyntly both Iews and Gen­tils, Peter, as the mouth of the rest, speaks. (You men of Judaea, and all ye that dwell at Jerusalem, v. 5.) These both Iews and Gentiles being pricked in their hearts, Peter exhorts to repent.

In the Text you have an Answer to the Question propounded v. 37. Wherein you have a double ex­hortation, first to repentance, secondly to baptism.

1. Repent ye, saith the Apostle, ye that are adult, who had an hand in crucifying the Lord Jesus. As he that hath a precious treasure, locks it up, and turns the key again and again to make all sure: So the A­postle (though they were pricked in their hearts, yet) he exhorts them to repentance again, that so there might be a thorough work.

2. Let every one of you. In the Greek it is [...]. The former duty enjoyned was in the second person, repent ye: this latter in the third, and let every one of you (that is, you and yours) be baptized; Grammaticae minutiae non si [...]it etiosae. Tarn. as admitting of a greater latitude than the form­er, [...] Non est in lege vel unica littera, à quâ non maximi montes pen­de [...]nt. Inquint Hebraei. scil. that of repentance, which Children were not ca­pable of, as they were not guilty of that hainous act of crucifying the Lord of Life. I wave the former, and shall onely speak to the latter, Let every one of you (that is, you and yours, young and old) be baptized. Which is the meaning of the Apostle, as appears by [Page 3] the Argument by which he enforceth the exhortation, which is taken from the Promise or the Covenant (for those terms are equipollent) which, saith the Apo­stle, is to you and to your Children; to you Iews and Proselytes already called, and to the Gentiles which are afar off, when called, and to their Children; for there is the like reason to them, (as Proselytes and their Children) else to what purpose should he bring this Medium [for the promise is to you and to your Children] to back the exhortation, [and let every one of you be baptized] if Children were not in­cluded in that command? Which would render the Apostles Argument altogether inadaequate to his scope and purpose; but if we include them, the Argumentation is comprehensive of its end, and cor­respondent to its scope. So that the Conclusion from hence, is this,

That to baptize the Infants of Believers, is an Or­dinance of Jesus Christ.

First, let me shew you what this baptizing is, and then give you the grounds of the Point.

First, It is a washing of a believer, or Child of a believer, with water, by a Minister of Christ, in or into the name of the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost.

1. I say it is a washing, because the word properly so signifies; whether it be by dipping into, or pouring on of water; sprinkling or wetting of the body. Dan. 4.30. [...] And his bodie was wet with or from the dew of hea­ven, which fell upon it, not that into which he was douzed over head and ears. Thus the cloud dropped [Page 4] on the Israelites, Psal. 77.17, 18, 19. For what else is the meaning of that phrase [he looked through the cloud upon the Egyptians] but that the cloud was pour­ed upon them? And surely then some drops must needs fall upon the Israelites; therefore they are said to be bap ized into the cloud. And thus the sea was sprink­led on them, beating against the banks, Ma [...]k 7.4. The washing of cups and pots, tables or beds, [...], &c. Tables or beds are washed by affusion of pouring on of Water, rather than immer­si [...]n or dipping: for if the cups and platters had been dipped, then the inside had been clean as well as the outside. In the 3. v, the Pharisees eat not unless they wash, compared with Luke 11.38.Vide de ri [...]u [...], M [...]nesi. Fund [...]nda est aqua tribus vicibus su [...]er manus. In primà affus [...]ne sunt digiti levandi, in posterioribus verò demittendi. Thus Elisha poured wa [...]er on his masters hands, 2 Kin. 3.11. [...] dicitur ob digi­torum in manuum elevation con­tracti mem ac in pugni veluti spe­ciem conformationē, ut putat Sca­lig. vel ob aquae deflu [...]um per to­tam illam brachii partem, quae [...] dicitur, à digitorum radi­ce s [...]u propagine ad cubitum us (que). Cap. Its not pro­bable that the Pharis [...]es as of­ten as they came from market, (whether it seems they went often, for they were such as lo­ved greetings in the market-places) plunged themselves over head and ears, before they did eat any meat. Heb. 9.10. Which stood onely in meats and drinks and diverse washings, [...], com­pared with Lev. 14.18. Num. 19. and 31.23. Now their washings or baptisms were by sprinkling or casting water upon the party washed, as well as otherwise; for Heb. 9.13, that sprinkling the Apostle makes a species of the former washing. Thus saith the Lord, Ezek. 36.25. I will [Page 5] pour clean water upon you. Yea, what was the ba­ptism of the Holy Ghost, Acts 1.2. but the pouring out of the Holy Ghost? which is opposed to John's baptizing with water. And therefore I say, that though we should grant (which they cannot easily prove) that they went into the water in those hot Countries, sometimes as conveniencie served: yet its not necessa­rily concluded from the text that they were dipped, but that the water was cast upon them, rather than they cast into the water, according to the custom in some Countries to this day. Thus the water was poured on the Ark, 1 Pet. 3.21. the like figure or antitype whereunto baptism doth now save us; Had the Ark been dipped in the water, all the world in pro­bability had been drowned. Yea this pouring of wa­ter upon the party baptized doth better resemble the application of the bloud of Christ, which is rather done by applying it to us, through the Spirit, than our ap­plying our selves to it.

There are two words put for dipping, [...] and [...],John 13.26. [...]. the former signifies a dipping more light and over­ly, but never signifies to go to the bottom of the water; the other a plunging or covering the whole body under water. These are di­stinguished each from other, Exod. 15.4, 5. [...]. This difference did the Greek wri­ters make between baptizing [...] dousing, and casting under water; expressing by baptizing to be in the water as a bottle or ship, that is seldom or never o­verwhelmed. This appears plainly to be their mean­ing, [Page 6] by the ancient Oracle of the Athenians,Beza in Matthaeum. [...]. Ba­ptize or wash him as a bottle in water, but do not drown him. The primitive word [...] signifies to touch the water gently, Luk 19 24. where the top of the finger is put upon the water, there is baptism; the finger then may be said to be bapti­zed when the top of it onely is dipped. Therefore it is remarkable, that when ever the New Testament hath occasion to express the act of dipping, it useth the word [...], neverIn Verbis non tam spectandum ex quo quàm ad quid sumantur. Aquinas. For the deriva­tives are often of a larger sense than the primitives. [...]: But when ever it hath occasi­on to express the sacred acti­on of Baptism, it useth the word [...].

Psal. 10.77. They that go down to the Sea in ships, see the wonders of the Lord. Is the ship plunged all over, or are they under the water in the ship? So I say, a man may go into the water, though he do but pe­ditare. Eze. 47.3. Add to these 1 Cor. 15.29. Else wh [...]t shall they do that are baptized ( [...]) for the dead? Which words cannot imply dipping, whether you interpret them, first, of washing the bodies of the dead, Acts 9. secondly, of that vicartum baptis­ma, as Tertullian calls it, when they were baptized over the Sepulcres or graves of those that di [...]d not being baptized; Or, thirdly, as Calvin, [for the dead] that is, pro ijs qui jam mortui censentur, et qui de vita omnino desperaverint; sic Catechumeni, in morbum incidentes si imminebat certum mortis peri­culum baptismum petebant, ne ante migrarent ex hoc [Page 7] mundo quam nomen Christo dedissent. Now what probability is there that such sick persons should be plunged in the Water?

Obj. Christ was baptized into Iordan, when he was thirtie years of age.

Ans. 1. I answer, he was baptized or washed at thirty years of age to answer the type, Exod. 29.4. For at that time the Priests were washed, when instal­led in their Office.

2. We say, that this was in the infancie of baptism, though Christ was no infant, for baptism mas newly instituted.

3.John 9.7. [...]. In this they were not doused over head and ears, as appears by the Word. In or into in Scripture phrase are confounded. As Luk. 11.7. Ioh. 8.26. & 11.9.

4. Though we admit that translation, that Christ came out of the water, yet is it not said that he came from under the water.

Obj. In your pouring on of water or sprinkling, part onelie of the bodie is washed.

Ans. Mar. 7.3. the Pharisees are said to be ba­ptized, though their hands onely were washed; and the Jews are said to be circumcised, though one part onely were circumcised. Naaman was bidden go wash. Therefore by the word [...] so rendered in the LXX, I understand he washed in the river Jor­dan, according to the [...], which signifies not to dip, but to wash. command given him by the Prophet.

Obj. Rev. 19.13. Their garments dipt in bloud, [...].

An. If you compare it with Isa. 63.2. you will find [Page 8] no difference; the text in Rev. 19, being but an exe­gesis of Isa. 63. for Edom is a type of Rome. The Question propounded in Isa. 63, in v. 2. is, Why art thou red in thine apparel? The Answer is in v. 3.See the Hebr. Quo sunt commaculatae vestes, eo sunt aspersae. I have trodden the VVine-press alone, and of the people there was none with me.—And their bloud shall be sprinkled upon my garments: therefore, I say the word in Rev. 19, [...], sig­nifies besprinkled, as the Prophet holds it out. For what probability is there,Obj. John baptized in Beth­abara neat Jordan. Ans. [...], non significat semper ulteriorem ripam, sed simplicitèr [...]. Scil. D [...]mum transitus quod ibi fluvius Jordanis tra [...]ice­retur, at (que) filij Israëlis transirent Glass. Which was a type of Baptism, through which we pass, & are solemnly admitted into the Church of God that those warriors should dip their garments in bloud?

Obj. Iohn 3.23. John was baptizing in Aenon, because there was much water there; therefore it seems they were dipped.

Ans. By the way observe, that they who deny consequences, make use of them themselves; but blessed is he which condemneth not himself in the thing which he alloweth. But to let this pass, I answer, That John having multitudes coming to him, might well seek a place where he and his Disciples might at once be employed; and the mul­titude might better hear his Sermons, and see the Or­dinance administered, than if performed under the sha­ding banks of Jordan. [...] many waters. The reason assigned from the depth of the water, seems very unreasonable; for an adjunct equally common to diverse subjects, cannot be the [Page 9] [...]ormal reason of the wills determining it self to one of those subjects. Is it sense (judg ye) that John [...]hould leave Bethabara, where its certain much water was, to baptize in Aenon, on this sole account and mo­ [...]ive, because there was much water [...] dipping sake. He might have sought for a deep, and needed not seek many waters. Dr Worth.

2. In some places they were much put to it for want of water.

3. Aenon is found by Travelers to be very shallow.

4. Suppose they went into the waters, it cannot [...]e hence concluded that all did; for how unfit was it [...]or Paul with his sores to go [...]nto the water? Acts 16.33.Mat. 3.16. [...] from the water.

5. Suppose they went into the waters, yet it doth [...]ot appear that they were dipped; but rather that the water was cast upon them, according to the custom of some Churches at this day, as I formerly menti­ [...]ned.

6. If they shall say that going into the water was [...]ipping, then it follows that they were dipped before [...]ey were dipped; for Philip baptized the Eunuch [...]fter they went into the water, and so they were twice [...]ipped; yea as often as the Administrator goeth into [...]he water, so oft is he dipped or baptized, and so be­ [...]omes a Sebaptist, if the going into the water be essen­ [...]al to baptism.

7. Christ doth not appoint the measure of water, [...]or manner of washing, more than the measure of [...]ead or wine in the Lords Supper; it matters no [...]or [...] quantum quis (que) abluat, quam quantum quis (que) [Page 10] comedat; though a refreshment of the Soul by the fulness of Christ, is very fit to be resembled by th [...] quantity of the elements.

Obj. Col. 2.12. VVe are said to be buried with Christ in baptism.

Ans. It appears not (as hath been shewed) by th [...] use of the word in Scripture, or the common use a­mong the Graecians, that it signifies to be under the water: Christ had a baptism, but not such as made him sink under it,The Apostle saith Rom. 6. We are implanted into the similitude of his death, which is as much as our burial, but a plant is not put all over into the stock. for his head was still above the water; nei­ther is it said he came from un­der the water, but he came ou [...] of the water.

2. The pouring of water seems to answer the si­militude of burying more apt­ly,A man drunk in the Sa [...]on lan­is said to be under the water. which is done by the cast­ing of the mold upon us, rather than by casting of u [...] into the mold.

3. We are said to beMr Pat. in pag. 8. saith that the word signifies to drown; But did Christ bid them drown all Nations, and pro­mised to be with them to the end of the world in so doing? Hath he not engaged that he will no more drown the world with water, and doth he give his servants charge so to do? Levit. 1.3. buried with Christ in ba­ptism, in regard of the spiri­tual union we have with him in his death and burial; bu [...] if when a comparison is wil­ling to go with us a mile, w [...] compel it to go twain, wh [...] should they not continue un­der the water, as Christ di [...] in the grave, three days together.

4. To conclude, I do not believe that Christ hat [...] tied all Nations universally to that which is, 1. S [...] [Page 11] dangerous to health and life, as we see it in many; and therefore it might admit of a dispensation though [...]t were precisely commanded. 2. So inexpedient o­therwise, for saith the Apostle, 1 Cor. 11. The wo­men must have a vail because of the Angels, least they by any uncivil carriage be offended; and is there not a great respect to be given to modesty and civility in these ca­ses, least Angels and men be scandalized?Thus many words are used in Scri­pture in a double sense, [...] Vox unica Lev. 1.2. ex ovibus sive capris. 2 Chron. 3.6. Gold of Parvajim in the dual number, thence Peru; the word seems to imply that Solomon fetcht his gold from the East and West Indies. Thus Jerushala [...] in the dual number, because the Citie had two parts, Neb. 3.9, 12. Luke 1.22, 6 [...] [...] signifies deaf and dumb, and so in this place; for if Zachariah had not been deaf, what need had they to make signs to him? So that we see, one and the same word may admit of diverse significations in the same place, and so intended by the Holy Ghost, Therefore I rather judge the word signifies [...]overly to dip or wash by way of affusion; and that either way may be used, especial­ly in hot Countries, but neither of them necessarily enjoyned.

We have now shewed you how the word is used in Scripture, and other heathen authors; and may we not at length retort, That he that knoweth not what this word [Baptize] signifieth, and conse­quently what it is to baptize, is no justifiable Mini­ster of Jesus Christ. But this is Argumentum ad ho­minem.

Thus much for the word [...].

Secondly, I say baptism is a washing with water, Acts 8.36. here is water, saith the Eunuch, there­fore they are much too blame that deny this. Those in Acts 10 had as much of the spirit as any have, or [Page 12] ever will in this life, and yet were baptized; yea, Christ himself submitteth to rhis Ordinance, saying, Thus it behoveth us to fulfill all righteousness, and did experience the fruit of it; there being such a glorious presence at the celebration of that Ordinance, as never was vouchsafed to any before or since: Though there was no defect of any grace in him, required of him in his former state; yet a greater measure of the spirit was poured forth upon him, upon his baptism in or­der to his ministery.

Thirdly, It is the washing with water by a law­full Minister.Oportet nos baptismum de manu hominis non aliter suscipere, quam si ipse Christus propriis suis mani­bus nos baptizaret. Luth. Christus non baptizavit Joh. 4.1. Haec fuit intentio Domini, ne quispiam ideo se sanctius bapti­zatū putaret, quod a ministro san­ctiore baptizaretur. Aug. Matt. 28.19. Go Ye and teach all nations, ba­ptizing them, &c. Such as are commissioned to preach, are authorized to baptize; those having a command, have a promise also annexed, of Christs special presence to be with them to the end of the world. But he that hath no such Commission cannot challenge any interest in that promise; there­fore the baptism of private men, and such as are not called to the work of the ministery, is a meer nullity.

Though there was the matter and form of baptism in that of Athanasius, The efficient cause is essential to the constitution of the ef­fect, in some things. Quid si verba Psittaeo proferan­tur? Impurum os: Psittacus non loquitur sed garrit; non est verbum quod ab illa pronuciatur, [...] enim est [...] tantum. namely, a child baptizing other chil­dren; yet there wanting a lawfull instrument authori­zed to the work, the baptism is no baptism; and therefore in that case, such as were baptized by him were to be [Page 13] [...]ebaptized. I say then by a lawfull Minister, For [...]bilities are not sufficient to authorize any for the [...]ublick dispensing of the word ordinarily, unless [...]hey be proved and approved first, and so set apart [...]o the work of the Ministery, 2 Tim. 3.10. Let these also first be proved, and then let them use the Office of [...] Deacon. Mind the word also, (for there is much divinity in conjunctions as well as pronouns) which word implies that Ministers are first to be tried, and so set apart to the work, (as appears by the 1, and 2 verses, where he speaks of a bishop or Minister) Acts 13.3. before they take that calling upon them.

Christ himself (that was better qualified for the Office of a Mediator, than all the Angels in heaven and men on earth, yet) du [...]st not undertake it till he was called as Aaron, Heb. 5.4. As the Father sent me, saith Christ, so I send you; Christ had his Com­mission from his father, as the Apostles had their Com­mission from him.

No doubt but Butchers and others might have as much skill to kill the sacrifice as the Priests had, but that was no warrant for them so to do.

Corah with his hundred and fifty Princes, famous [...]n the congregation, men of renown, and (as it seems) well reputed of among the people; rose up against Moses and Aaron, saying, Ye take too much upon you, seeing all the Congregation is holy; making no distinction between Moses, Aaron, and theNum 26.10. For a sign, they are for a sign to all to this ve­ry day. rest of the Congregation. Therefore they usurped the Priests office: But upon this the [Page 14] Lord appears, and makes such a distinction between them and the Priests, as never was made before; for the earth opened her mouth and swallowed them up. Now least any should pre [...]end th [...] is an Old TestamentJohn 10. All that came before me are Thieves and Robbers. Ob­serve, he doth not say they were, but they are. God looks at such as Thieves and Robbers in hell to this very day, that ran before they were sent. Proof; the Apostle Jude tells you o [...] the like in the New Testa­ment, They perished in the gainsaying of Corah, Iud [...] 11. Whence observe,

First, there were in Jude's time such as denied the office of the Ministery.

Secondly, the hand of God was signally on them.

In some cases private men may; 1. In time of necessity, when there is no other means to be had. Or, 2. In times of Persecution, when the ordina­ry dore of enterance is shut; as appears in that instance of WALDUS Rev. 14. a Merchant of Lyons.As private men may not publickly dispense the word, in an ordinary way: so nei­ther may they administer the Seals. For to whom Christ gave commission to preach, to them gave he commission to baptize, and to them onely, Mat. 28. Go Ye and teach all nations, baptizing them, &c. And lo I am vvith you allvvaies to the end of the vvorld. We have (blessed be God) a command, and a promise of his presence; they have no such command, and therefore I verily believe they find little of the presence of God in their administrations, either for conversion or o­therwise; I am sure they cannot challenge much at the hand of God; For had I sent them (saith the Lord, Jer. 23.) they should have profited this people, had they stood in my councel, and not ran before they [Page 15] [...]vere sent, (running away, as he said, with the emp­ [...] cart) they should have turned them from their [...]vil waies.

As for our Paedobaptism, if it have nothing of Gods [...]ppointment, neither administrator, matter, form, [...]ght subject, nor end, surely God would not own it [...]s he hath from heaven many a time and often.

Obj. Ananias, Acts 9.10. being a Disciple, ba­ [...]tized.

I answer, 1. He had a special command for the bapti­ [...]ing of Paul, let them shew the like pre [...]dent. Iud. 6.20. [...]ffer thou. Thus the command made it lawfull, which without a special command had been unlawfull.

Secondly, It appears by the Ecclesiastical Story, [...]e was a Minister of Jesus Christ,See Corn à Lap in Act 9. First one of 70 Disciples, af­terwards fixed at Damascus. and so indeed this word [Disciple] in hebrew [...]s put for a teacher.

Thus much for the third head.

Fourthly, It is the washing with wa [...]er, in, or [...]nto the name of the name of the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost. Acts 19. v. VVhen they heard this, they vvere baptized in the name of the Lord Jesus.

I will not deny but that there being an error in the Foundation, there may be a rebaptization; it is very probable to some, that those Disciples were baptized of Paul, seeing that they were not baptized into the name of the Holy Ghost.

1. They being asked whether they had received the [Page 16] Holy Ghost,Though others take it in an­other sense, fee Joh 7.30 The Holy Ghost was not yet (given) is added to the text: Ambrosius sentit illos adulteri no baptismate sub nomine baptismi Johannis, non tam iinctos quam sordidatos. See Mac. Musc. Zanch. Deo­dat. Erg. Nihil est in verbis, eu [...] n equè esse Lucae ac Pauli verba existen [...] ­mus, nam quod ad particulas illas graecas attinct [...], saepiùs in Scrip [...] logitur et [...] sine [...] subsequente, et [...] sine [...] prae [...]e Rom 3 2. and 10.1. Col 2.17. Luk 11.3 [...]. Act. 11. [...]. et tamen [...] non praec [...]sserat. Macc. Quere, whether many Administrator in these days, deny not the second and third persons in Trinity. that is, the gifts of the Holy Ghost They answered, they knew no whether there were an Holy Ghost or no; which words imply the existence or subsi­stence of the third Person i [...] Trinitie.

2. Those were Jews, now many of the Jews did not rightly understand the doctrine of the Trinity.

3. It appears by the question Paul propounds ver. 31. Unto what then were ye baptized? Now no man is baptized into the gifts of the Holy Ghost, but into the Holy Ghost himself.

4. If that new interpretation be admitted, there is a tautologie; for who doth not by the words go­ing before (John verilie baptized with the baptism of repentance, v. 4.) understand that they were al­ready baptized by John, v. 3.4. To what purpose then should he say in the 5 v. When they heard this, they were baptized into the name of the Lord Iesus? Calvin seeing the force of this Argument, saith, They were baptized with extraordinary gifts of the Holy ghost. But that is exprest in the words following, when Paul laid his hands on them.

5. That interpretation overthrows the grammati­cal sense of the words, and seems to render them void [Page 17] of common sense; for the words spoken by Paul to them, are in the second person whereas these words [they were baptiz'd in the name of the Lord Jesus] are spoken in the third person; Therefore cannot be the words of Paul to them, but of Luke concerning them; else the Apostle would have said [when ye heard this] and not as we have them [when they heard this.] Besides it's somewhat harsh to make the people whom John baptized, and those twelve Disci­ples of Ephesus the same persons: For the pronouns they and they in the 4 and 5 verses, upon that suppo­sition that both are Paul's words, cannot be under­stood but of the same persons, (as is well alledged by some) Therefore these words [when they heard this] must be taken as the words of Luke, not of Paul; importing the baptism of these Disciples up­on the preaching of Paul, and not of John.

6. The Apostle, Act. 194, doth plainly declare. That John, when he baptized, did say that they should believe in him that should come after him; which Paul interprets to be meant of Christ Jesus. But if John had baptized in the name of the Lord Je­sus explicitly,In this sense some under­stand Cyprian, denying the ba­ptism of such hereticks which erred in Fundamentals. why did not Paul say so, rather than to say that he baptized them, saying unto them, that they should believe in him that should come after him? Whosoever therefore shall destroy the foundation, denying the Trinity and de­praving the form of baptism, their baptism is in­valid.

Thus much of the Definition.

We pass from the definition to the Arguments for Infant-baptism. The first Argument is taken from the command of Christ, Go and disciple all na­tions, baptizing them in the name of the Father &c.

1. By nations is meant Men, Women and Chil­dren, which are a great part of nations, and must needs be included in the command; for when Da­vid exhorteth all people and nations to praise the Lord, he afterwards explains himself, Young men and maidens, old men and children, let them praise the name of the Lord. Psalm 148.11, 12, 13.

2. We know when the nation of the Jews were made Disciples and circumcised their Children also were made Disciples, that is, such as were a [...]mitted into Christ's School; for a child is accounted a scho­lar the first day of his admission; and such did Christ undertake to teach, non quia docti erant sed ut docti essent; discipling being not of persons already taught, but that they might be taught.

3. In the words of the text, all nations are oppo­sed to that restriction of it to the Jews; the com­mission of the Apostles being enlarged as to the gen­tiles; therefore Children are included in it, as they were formerly.

4.Quicquid de vniversali aliquo universalitèr dicitur, id de omnibus sub isto universali con­tentis dicitur. Vel, posito toto generali, pars ejus negari non debet. God speaks of nations universally, and gives no restraint, no determination or limitation unto any sex or age; therefore all are in­cluded.

[Page 19]5. It's a national dispensation, and from a natio­nal, dispensation no intire species ever was exem­pted.

6. TheA stranger that is circumci­sed (saith Maimonides) and not baptized, or that is baptized and not circumcised, is not a Proselyte till he be both cir­cumcised and baptized. manner of the Jews was to baptize the Children of Jews and Prose­lytes. Ex. 19.8. they were all baptized or washed. Thus Gen. 35.2. Jacob caused the wo­men and children to be bapti­zed;And in the Talmud (as Mr. Liglnfoot observes) they ba­ptize little ones by the ap­pointment of the Consistory. The hebrew gloss upon the place saith, If he have not a father, and his mother bring the child to be Proselyted, they baptize him, because there is no Proselyte without circumcision and baptism. Hence it is that a Jewish Proselyte in Arrianus is called [...], a baptiz'd person. for baptism or washing among the Jews was a known Rite, solemnly used among them for the initiating of Jews and Proselytes into the Covenant. Therefore the manner and form of baptism with the subject thereof, be­ing well known to the Jews, they enquire not of John con­cerning those things, Iohn 1.25, but onely question his commission. This Jewish custom Christ turns into an Ordinance, that he might quietly usher it into the world, not expressly mentioning the chil­dren, but including them in the general; the right of children to the Seal being granted, and not at all questioned by them.

Thus then I argue, Nations discipled are to be baptized, But the children of believers are a part of Nations discipled: Therefore they are to be baptized.See Mat. 10.42. Mar. 9.41. Where these terms are con­founded. That they are called disciples it ap­pears [Page 20] by Acts 15 10, Why tempt ye God to put a yoke upon the neck of the disciples? All they upon whose neck they would have layd this yoke are disciples. But they would have put this yoke of circumcision upon children: Therefore children in the sense of the Holy Ghost are here called disciples. Mind v. 1. Except ye be circumcised after the manner of Moses ye cannot be saved; those words, after the manner of Moses, include all Males whether young or old.

Act. 21.21. with v. 25. and 6.14. Those Myri­ads or many-ten-thousands were informed, That Paul taught the Jews among the Gentiles to forsake Moses, See Act. 21.4, 5. Finding dis­ciples—they all brought us on our way, with Wives and children. Where wives and children are included under the notion of Disciples. saying that they ought not to circumcise their chil­dren; but the Elders tell him, as touching the Gentiles that believe, we have written and concluded that they observe no such thing, that is, that their children should be circumcised: for the rela­tive ( [...]) must needs be referred to the 21 verse, where he mentions the circumcision of Children. Observe then he saith, we have written and concluded, which words refer to Acts 15 23, The Apostles, El­ders & Brethren send greetings to the Brethren which are of the Gentiles. It appears that the question was concluded as concerning the Gentiles and their chil­dren, (and not the Jews children) called there Dis­ciples. The Apostles and Elders wave the question as concerning the Jews children, for as yet the Jews were not able to bear it, Acts 6 14; but they deter­mine that the Gentiles should not circumcise their [Page 21] children, or observe any of those ceremonial Rites; save onely that they abstain from things strangled, and fornication, from things offered to idols, and from bloud. So that it is as clear as the Sun, that by Disciples, Acts 15 10, children are meant.

2. Children are such as do belong to Christ, there­fore they are Disciples of Christ; for to belong to Christ, and to be a Disciple of Christ, is all one in scri­pture phrase. Mat. 27 57 with Mat. 10 42,Poculum aquae frigidae, quae nullis expensis eget, sed faci è pa­rabilis: frigidam aquam dixit▪ ut ne calefaciendi impendat lab [...]rem. Chrys in Mat. 10. Nam in usu et deliciis fuissè p [...]tum aquae calidae apud antiquos, non s lun [...] haec Chrysostomi, sed et aliorum testimonia indicam. Pin. in Job. Whosoever shall give a cup of cold water to one of these little ones, &c. These are distinguished from Pro­phets and righteous men, b [...] called Disciples.

3. They are such as Christ undertakes to teach. Isa. 54 13, all thy children shall be taught of the Lord. Ier. 31 34, they shall all know me from the lest to the greatest, that is young and old. This promise is ap­plyed (Iohn 6 45.) unto the people of God in the new Testament, whom the Lord doth engage to teach and incline their hearts to believe in him.

Obj. It is said, Go teach (Mat. 28) and then ba­ptize, that is, say some, such as are made Disciples by the teaching of men.

Ans. 1. We deny that its necessary they should be taught of men before they be baptized; Paul was not taught by man when he was baptized by Ana­nias; it's sufficient to us that the Lord engages to teach us and our children.

2. In scripture we say there is no priority or po­steriority; [Page 22] therefore from the priority simply the argument is not conclusive:In Scripturis non datur prius & posterius. But if they will argue hence, That they must first be taught by men; we retort Mark 1 4, Iohn did baptize in the wilderness, and preach the baptism of repentance; where you see baptism is put before preaching.

3.Matt. 28 19. [...]. The ante­cedent to [...] is [...], per Synthesis. Thus Romans 9 24 v. [...]. Gall. 4.19. [...]. Col 2.19. [...]. Caput ex quo Mat. 15.4. [...] v. 6. [...]. John 16.13. [...] [...]. Which notes the personality of the holy Ghost. If we precisely stick to the words, then women are excluded; for the word [...] is the masculine gender.

4. For the adult, we say teaching ordinarily goes before the administration of the Seal; but not so in infants: It was sufficient that Abraham was effectually taught, though his children were not as ye [...] capable of instruction; notwithstanding as he, so they were all admitted to the seal of circumcision.

5. If the Lord had given a Commission to the A­postles, saying, Go teach all nations, circumcising them in the name of the Father; had this been in­consistent with Infant-Circumcision? I say no, but if the Lord say, Go ye, disciple all nations, bapti­zing them in the name of the Father, Son, and holy Ghost; why should any imagin that Infants are ex­cluded? This word [...] signifies properly to disciple them, q. d. admit them into the school of Christ; thus the word is constantly used in the new Testament, as in Mat. 27 57, [...]. [Page 23] Heb. 7.11. — The people received the Law, that is, were legalized, disciplined after a legal manner, [...]. He was Iesus's disciple, or he was disciple to him. Where we see plainly, That relative discipleship may be admitted of in scripture. Acts 14 21. [...]; having evangelized that city, (that is, turned them into the mold of the Gospel) and discipled a competent num­ber, they ordained Elders in every Church, v. 23.

6. Making disciples being an aorist, hath the force of a future tense, [...]. and baptizing is of the present tense; therefore [...] seems to have the pre­cedencie.

7. Though (make disciples) be first in order of words yet not of things: For he doth not say, Go make disciples and baptize them; but make disciples [...]aptizing them: As if he had said, By dedicating [...]hem to God in that Ordinance, they are made dis­ [...]iples of Christ.

8. If children be left out in this commission, it is because, 1. They are not named, and so women are excluded also, for they are not named, [...] being of the masculine gender. Or, 2. Because they are not capable of being taught, and so of being Disciples of Christ. But the contrary hath been proved, That they are taught by God, and after they are come out of their infancie, are capable of being taught of men.

The Second Argument.

Such children as are incovenanted, are to be sealed [Page 24] with the initial seal of the Covenant: But the chil­dren of believing Parents,Si rem concedant que major est, cur n [...]n signum qu [...]d min [...]s est? In omni enim Sacrament signum i [...] quantum signum incomparabilitèr, minus est quam Res ipsa. Luther. de cap. Bap. are incovenanted: There­fore, They are to be sealed with the initial seal of the Covenant.

The first Proposition is proved Gen. 17 7, 9, and I will establish my Covenant between me and thee, and thy seed after thee in their generations; for an ever­lasting Covenant, to be a God to thee and to thy seed after thee. Thou shal [...] keep my Covenant therefore, thou and thy seed after thee in their generations. You see the Covenant is made by the Lord himself a ground of Circumcision. Now where we have a promise laid for the foundation of a duty, it is equi­valent to any express command; seeing the will of God is as well known by promise or threatning, (Ier. 10 25) or necessary consequence, as by express command or example: Yea those words [thou shalt keep my Covenant therefore] extend to us also in the new Testament; but not as to circumcision, there­fore to baptism. I would fain know whether by virtue of this covenant made with Abraham, the posterity of Abraham shall not be reinstated into that land (Mic. 7 14, 15 Let them feed in Bashan and Gilead as in the days of old, and according to the days of thy coming out of Egypt will I shew unto him marvellous things. Ver. 20, Thou wilt perform thy truth to Iacob and thy mercy to Abraham, which thou hast sworn unto our fathers from the days of old.) If so, (as I shall shew hereafter more fully) then these [Page 25] words [thou shalt keep my Covenant therefore] can not be meant of circumcision, (which was long since abolished) but must needs be meant of baptism, which cometh instead thereof; seeing there is no other initial seal mentioned in the new Testament: Which seal of the Covenant, not onely the natural feed of Abraham, the Jews; but all his spiritual seed, the Gentiles, are bound to apply to their children by virtue of this command.

Had not circumcision been ceremonial, and ano­ther sign instituted instead thereof, no doubt it had been in force to this day. (As that of the Sabbath, what is moral in that command, remains; though that seventh day of rest from the creation be abo­lished, yet there is another seventh day instead there­of appointed, which is the first of the last seven, as the other was the last of the first.) This then is mo­ral in that of circumcision, That our faith is to be held forth and professed to the world, by the dedi­cation of our children to God. Gen. 17 12.

He that is eight days old shall be circumcized. This is no institution of Cir­cumcision,Erg. Exod. 12, When he speaks of the circumcision of the children of Prose­lytes, there is no day limited for the observance thereof. (as is well observed by some) but a subsequent directory for the particular day.

The institution it self we find in vers. 10, with­out any restriction to infancie in that latitude,See Ainsworth. Num. 9 6, 7, 8. [...] as comprising Males of any age, omnis mas, every male whether man or child shall be circumcised. Thus the new Testament, Gal. 3 28, [...], male & female; [Page 26] there is no limitation of it, therefore it may as large­ly be taken as the word before mentioned, Gen. 17 10. We see then that the Covenant is still in force, and the command thereto annexed, sc That Infants should be sealed, onely the Seal of circumcision is turned into baptism.

Those males and females (Gal. 3 28) are equally priviledged according to the teno [...] of Abraham's Covenant; for, saith the Apostle, we are all one in Christ Jesus, and if ye be Christ's then are ye Abra­ham's seed, and heirs according to the promise: But children are Christ's: Erg. Abraham's seed, and therefore consequently alike priviledged with A­braham's children. Add to this the words of the Text, Acts 2 — And let every one of you be ba­ptized, for the promise is to you (Jews and Proselytes) and your children. This was the first open promul­gation of the Covenant.

The Jews were so accustomed to that great perso­nal promise [I will be thy God, and the God of thy seed,] as that there needed not any explanation of it; it being ordinarily put for the Covenant, and contra­riwise the Covenant put for it. Gal. 3.14, 17. That the blessing of Abraham might come upon the Gentiles, that we might receive the promise of the spirit. Thus vers. 17, This I say therefore, that the Covenant which was confirmed of God in Christ before the Law, which was four hundred and thirty years after, cannot disanul, that it should make the promise of none ef­fect.

Sometimes the Apostle useth the plural Number, [Page 27] v. 16. Now to Abraham and his seed were the promi­ses made. Observe, he saith, to Abra­ham and his seed were the pro­mise made. Which relates to Gen. 17. For in Gen. 12. he saith, [in thee.] Yea, Gal. 3 16. The inheritance was given by pro­mi [...]e. Now in Gen. 12 1 he on­ly saith, he will shew him the land, but in the 17. he gives it. Because this propo­sition [I will be thy God] be­ing the mother promise con­taineth all other promises in the womb of it. Thus Rom. 4 13. [...], the promise, that is the Covenant made to A­braham, is to be understood, being mentioned in that chapter no less than four times.

This promise, saith the Apostle Acts 2, is to you and your children, and to the Gentiles (when called) and their children: To you Jews actually; (for they were not as yet cut off) and to the Gentiles in­tentionally, answering the call of the Gospel.

As for thatMr. Tom his rev. interpretation of sending Christ, which is given by some; we say, It's improper to say, the promise i [...], for it was already fulfilled; (though it was included in Abraha­ham's Covenant) but as for remission of sins and pouring out the spirit on them and theirs, they are included in that great promise, [I will be thy God and the God of thy seed.] Thus the Apostle, Gal. 3 14, That we might receive the promise of the spirit through faith. This the Apostle had chiefly in his ey: For the giving of the Messiah was the great promise of the old Testament; as the giving of the spirit is the great promise of the new Testament. See Luk. 24.49. Acts 1.4, 5. and 2.33. Having received of the Father the promise of the holy Ghost. Compare Acts 10.47. and 11.16. and 15.8, 9. Giving them the [Page 26] [...] [Page 27] [...] [Page 28] holy Ghost as he did unto us, and put no difference be­tween us and them, purifying their hearts by faith. Which words shew you, that it's not meant onely of the extraordinary gifts, but of the ordinary gifts of sanctification: By spirit then (Act. 2 37) he meaneth not so much, or solely, the extraordinary gifts of the spirit, as regenerating graces, with the degrees of them.

We have now proved the first Proposition, name­ly, That such as are in Covenant, are to be sealed with the seal of the Covenant. It remains that we prove the second, sc. That Children are incovenanted. For the proof of which, mind well the words of the Text, The promise is to you and to your Children.

Obj. The promise runs to children when they are called.

Ans. Calling in the Jews did not go before the Covenant, but followed after, as appears by Act. 3.25. Ye are the Children of the Covenant which God made with our Fathers, saying unto Abraham, and in thy seed shall all the families ( [...], where children must of necessity be included, as the word imports) of the earth be blessed.

The promise was not made to their seed, because they did believe; but some of their seed did believe because they were under the promise: which pro­mise reaches to spirituals as well as carnals, even to turn them from their iniquities.

To the Jew first and also to the Gentile was this pro­mise made. The Jew before had a jus ad rem, but up­on their repentance a jus in re. Act. 2 39. That be­ing [Page 29] suspended till they came in, and then the pro­mise runs clear without any interruption.

2. The Apostle sheweth not onely that baptism cometh instead, but that it's administered on the same grounds, sc. That God is our God and the God of our seed; we need not fear the seal is put to a blank; (because no visible faith appears) for here is a Covenant to which this seal of baptism is annexed, and the Covenant, I hope, none will say is a blank to which the name JEHOVAH is added, that gives be­ing to all those promises. Which name is so often repeated in Jer. 31, to shew that as he was known by that name when he brought them out of Egypt: So now much more in these later days, in bringing them out of all countries whether they are scat­tered.

3. An exclusion of their children would have ex­ceedingly perplexed them, as is undeniably evident; they being conscious to themselves of that bitter curse which was pronounced by them, [his bloud be upon us and our children.]

4. Act. 2.41. They gladly received that word, namely, the promise is to you and to your Children, and therefore were baptized; by which it appears that they understood that their children were included in that Covenant. If then the Proselytes upon the receiving of the word were circumcised, they and their Children: then doubtless those and their chil­dren were baptized on the same ground.

4. [...] Christ came not to loosen the Law, much less the Pro­phesies [Page 30] and promises of old made to believers. Rom. 15 8. To confirm the promises made to our fathers.

Because this might be questioned, whether the Gentiles might be partakers with the Jews of the promi­ses and their appertenances;For he is not a God of the Jews onely, but also of the Gentiles parents and children, as he was to the Jews. Rō. 2.29 therefore the Apostle doth abundantly labour to prove, by four several places of Scripture, That Christ is a minister of the Circumcision, to confirm the promises made to the fathers; and that the Gen­tiles might glorifie God for his mercie held forth in the same promise. See v. 9, 11, 12. I do not remem­ber any place of Scripture, where the Apostle doth bring so many proofs as he doth in this one place, shewing that the Gentiles have an interest in the promises made unto the Jews; that so he might re­move all scruples, and drive the nale to the head, and clinch it fast. For

First, If children in the new Testament had been left out, they had lost by the coming of Christ.

Secondly, The grace of Christ had been straighter in the new Testament than in the old.

Thirdly, Then what ground of hope had the parent to plead for his child? Or how may the child come in the name of his fathers God (which they were wont to do) pleading the Covenant, if he have no interest to it as from his parents?

6. We have sufficiently proved, That the Cove­nant runs in the natural line of believers, as to the outward administration of it [...] at lest till it be cut off [Page 31] by parents or children, onely it is established with Isaac and all such as are true Isaacs.

7. Except in relation to the Covenant in that place, Act. 2, there could be no occasion of naming Children: For,

The Apostle might have said. The promise is to you, and those that are afar off, even as many as the Lord shall call, without putting in Children, but he lets them understand, That, notwithstanding that bitter curse, [his bloud be upon us and upon our children] they were not as yet discovenanted, though the ax lay ( [...] Mat. 3) at the root of the tree, ready to cut them off from Abraham, if they closed not with Christ.

8. That limitation to children when they are cal­led, holds forth no more priviledge to the children of b [...]lievers than to the children of Pagans; but how uncomfortable this doctrine is let the world judg.

9. Is not this strange doctrine, That t [...]e faith of the parent should set the child farther [...]ff from Go [...]? before they were near by the bloud of the Lord, but now afar [...]ff: In that very moment the parent be­lieves not, the child is under a Covenant; in the next moment the parent believes (for regeneration is in anGeneratio fit in instanti. instant as generation is) the child is discovenanted; how comes this sudden change?

10. The Argument so put as formerly is alledged, is no Argument at all; for whether the parent re­pent or not repent, in case the children be called, the promise belongs to them. If a Landlord should [Page 32] move his Tenant to give up his old Lease, (wherein the lives of his children are included, which also hath certain priviledges to him and his children) and to take a new one in which his childrens lives are left out having no more priviledges than mere stran­gers; could he rationally perswade him to surrender up the old Lease or grant, and to take a new one from the benefit that may accrue to the Tenant by it, the lives of his children being left out in the Lease? And what force is there in this manner of arguing, judge ye. You and your children have been hetherto under a Covenant of grace; now in case you believe your children shall be discovenanted: but if hereaf­ter they or any of the heathens shall believe, they shall be admitted into the Covenant, but their chil­dren shall be left out. Had this been of any force to perswade them to enter into the way of the new Testament? Or to comfort poor souls, that doubtless were much troubled about that bitter curse, his bloud be upon us and our children? Would it not have dis­heartened them for ever, and made them stumble at that stumbling-stone?

Obj. This promise is meant of extraordinary gifts.

Ans. This salve reacheth not the sore; they were pricked and wounded in the very heart, and stood in need of comfort to support their fainting spirits; of a God to pardon, a Christ to save, a Spirit to san­ctifie and comfort; therefore we may not limit the promise to those extraordinary gifts: For what comfort had it been to them to tell them they should [Page 33] receive the gift of Tongues and working miracles? when they hung over the chimnies of hell, (as I may so speak) or the smoak of the damned, ready to be cast into the everlasting flames, for ought they knew, every moment.

2. It's to all that are a far off, to wit, Gentiles: Now all such do not receive any such extraordinary gifts, neither have they any such promise; if so, none in these days (for ought I know) are effectu­ally called.

To put an end to this Text observe these 3 things.

First, The promises that are made to Parents are made to their children also; Children are under the same Covenant with their parents.

Secondly, A right to the promise is a ground of right to the Seal: Or, being in Covenant is the ground of being baptized; for to whom belongs the Covenant, to them belongs the Seal of the Cove­nant. Foederati sunt signandi.

Thirdly,Ad quos causa legis proxima & immediata pertinet, ad illos etiam lex illa pertinet. Tom. Exer. Upon the same ground that parents are baptized, their children may and must be baptized: (for there is the like reason for the one as for the other) But parents are ba­ptized because the promise is to them: Therefore the Children may and must be baptized on the same ground because the promise is to them also. q. d. Ye Jews that now repent and believe, be ye baptized with your children; for the promise is to you and [Page 34] to your children. The duty of being baptized ex­tends as far as the ground or reason of it: But that extends to Children: Therefore so doth the duty also.

VVE come now to other Scriptures: For with this great scripture (Act. 2) the body of the scripture doth concurr.Abraham. Nomina in futurum proposita nihil possunt in futurū pro­mittere, sed quod nomen os Domi­ni nominavit propheticum est futu­rorum. Riv in Gen. 17 Datum fuit nomen pro signo effectus futuri, ut quotiescun (que) occurreret ei nomen suum, revocaret in memoriam dei promissionem. Nomen Abrahae mutatum ante institutionem circumcisionis, ut li­quido constaret pactum promissionis, non tantum ad unam gentem cir­cumcisam, sed ad multas gentes pertinere. Gat. As Gen 17 7, and 28 4. And give thee the blessing of Abra­ham to thee and thy seed after thee. Compared with Gal 3 14, That the blessing of Abra­ham might come upon the Gentiles. This later text is explained by the former.

Lev. 26 42, I will remember my Covenant with Jacob, and my Covenant with Isaac and with Abra­ham. Observe how he ascends: He begins with Ja­cob, (Esau being cut off) from Jacob to Isaac, (Ish­mael being cut off) from Isaac to Abraham. This will he do when they accept of the punishment of their iniquity, that is kiss the rod, and humble themselves under the mighty hand of God; because and because (for so the original renders it) they di­spised his judgements. Then saith the Lord, ver. 45, I will remember the Covenant of their Ancesters; this promise relates to their last captivity, ver. 44. Compared with Rom. 11.1, 26 28.

Deut. 43, If in thy later days thou return, he will [Page 35] not forget the Covenant made with thy fathers. Verse 37, Because he loved thy fathers therefore he chose their seed after them. Cap. 7, 8, 10, ver. 15, Onely the Lord had a delight in thy fathers to love them, and he chose their seed after them. In which Text ob­serve, That God did shew favor to the Children for the Parents sake. Deut. 29 10, Ye stand this day be­fore the Lord, your little ones and the stranger that is in thy camp,—that thou shouldest enter into Co­venant, He speaks to them all as one man. Neither with you onely (that is, you and your Children here present) [...]o I make this Covenant: but with him also that is not here this day, (that is, theObserve v. 13 That he may be to thee a God as he hath sworn to Abraham. Gentiles and their Children unborn intentionally.) Deut. 30 6, I will circumcise thy heart, and the heart of thy seed. Compared with ver. 5, I will multiply thee above thy fathers. Which implies that this promise relates to their return out of their last captivity: For this command which I command thee this day, is not hidden from thee neither is it far off. This is a Gospel-promise as appears by the Apostle Paul, Rom. 10 6, The word of faith is nigh thee; (a word of command and a word of promise being pro­miscuously used in scripture phrase,) Psalm 111 11, compared with the 105 Psalm v. 8. He hath re­membered his Covenant for ever, the word which he commanded to a thousand generations. Psalm 37 25. I have never seen the rightous forsaken, or their feed begging bread. Vers. 21, He is ever merciful and lendeth, and his seed is blessed. Psalm 479, The vo­luntary [Page 36] of the people were gathered to the people of the God of Abraham. Psalm 86 16, Save the son of thy handmaid. Psalm 116 16, Truely I am thy servant and the son of thy handmaid; it appears not what his father was, but it seems his mother was a good wo­man, this Covenant as from his mother he pleads with God. Psalm 103 17, But the mercie of the Lord is from everlasting to everlasting upon them that fear him and his rightousness, (.1. the performance of the promises) to childrens children. Psal. 102 28, The children of thy servants shall continue, and their Isa. 66 22, Their seed shall con­tinue before me. seed shall be established before thee. This is a Gospel-pro­mise for the continuance of their Children in their former state, as appears by the 17 v. Thou art the same, or, thou art he, ( [...]) so interpreted and ap­plyed to Christ, Heb. 1 10.

Psalm 112 2, The generation of the upright shall be blessed.

Esa. 29 23, But when he seeth his children the work of mine hands in the midst of them, they shall san­ctify my name. Esa. 44 3, I will pour my spirit upon thy seed, and my blessing upon thine offspring, that is, their sons and daughters; according to that expres­sion Esaias 22 24, And they shall hang upon Him, namely Christ, the offspring & the issue, that is, their sons and daughters. Esa. [...] Significat signum, vexillum nauticum. Matt. 24. Tunc appa­rebit [ [...]] signum filij hominis. Num. 26 10, in signum. Haec e­nim omnia illis in figurâ contige­runt. Pag. Therefore by the standard we may understand ba­ptism, because he saith, They shall bring thy sons in their arms. 49 22, I will sett up my standard to the people, and they shall bring thy sons in their arms, and thy [Page 37] daughters shall be carryed upon their shoulders. Com­pared with ver. 25, And I will save thy children.

Esa. 59 21, My word and my spirit shall not depart out of the mouth of thy seed and of thy seeds seed for e­ver. This promise shall be fulfilled in the later times, as appears by Rom. 11 27, This is my Covenant with them when I shall take away their sins. Compared with the former verse, The redeemer shall come to Sy­on, and to them that turn from transgression in Jacob. And then he tells them, This is my Covenant with them, saith the Lord; which he explains in ver. 21, My word and spirit shall not depart out of the mouth of thy seed nor seeds seed for ever. From whence ob­serve, That the vein of election shall run along in the loins of the seed of the elect, and their seeds seed for ever; for that Church shall never be dischurched.

Esa. 61 9, And their seed shall be known among the Gentiles, and their offspring among the people. Esa. 65 23, For they are the seed of the blessed of the Lord, and their offspring with them. This is a Gospel-promise relating to the Jews. Non laborabunt inanitèr, ne (que) gignent liberos ad conturbationem, nam semen benè­dictorum à Jehova erunt, & prognati eorum. Piscat. They shall not bring forth children unto trouble, (q.d.) their issue shall enjoy the like quiet and prosperous condition together with their parents, whereas for­merly they were brought forth to the pestilence and the sword, Hos. 9 12, 13. The reason of this hap­piness of their children is given in the 23 verse, For they are the seed of the blessed of the Lord, and their off­spring with them: So that by offspring he must needs [Page 38] intend their natural issue, which is brought in as a medium to prove the former proposition, namely, That they shall not bring forth children unto trouble, or, [...], LXX. i. e. to a curse. To say this is meant of the [...] is improper, for it's all one as if the Prophet had said, They are the elect of the bles­sed of the Lord, and the elect with them; which is not sense.

Jer. 30 20, Their children also shall he as aforetime, and their Church shall be established before me: see the Hebr. This is a new Testament promise grounded on Christ, (who engaged his heart to draw near to God, ver. 21.) which shall be fullfilled in the later days. Then shall such as have scrupled this truth (ver 24.) consider it; for God will then be the God of all the fa­milies of Israel, Ier 31 1, that is, parents and chil­dren.

If their children shall be as of old, doubtless as they were Church-members visibly owned by God in the old, so shall they be still in the new Testament: But to limit this text to their civil state onely, seems to be clear against the scope and purpose of the holy Ghost in these words, which is to shew the glorious and blessed condition of that Church. Ier. 32 39, That they may fear me for ever, for the good of them and their children after them. This prophesy is applicable to the Jews converted, ver 37, and is an implicit promise suitable to that of the V. Commandment, [that thou mayest prolong thy days.] Compared with Eph. 6 1. And so interpreted by the Apostle.

Ez. 16 21, Thou hast slain my children whom thou [Page 39] hast born to me, (for we are neither born nor reborn to our selves) God owns them for his own though their parents were Idolaters.

Ez. 36 11, I will settle you after your old estates, and will do better for you than at your beginnings, Or as some read it, I will bestow benefits upon you more than at the first. Then doubtless their children were not left out.

Ez 47 14, Ye shall inherit it one as well as another, yea, saith the Lord, the strangers with their children shall have inheritance with the children of Israel in that land of Canaan, vers. 22. This is a Gospel-promise as appears by many arguments which I could pro­duce; the land being but a type of the Church or heaven, in which children share with their parents.

Hos. 14 8, They that dwell under thy shadow shall return. This must needs include the children, which shall be made good, especially to the Jews, upon their last return.

Obj. These promises are made to the Jews, and can not properly be applied to the Gentiles with their Children.

Ans. They were made in Christ, in whom all the promises are yea, that is, affirmed; and amen, that is, confirmed to us Gentiles.

2.See Glas. Amos 9 12, Ʋt possideant resi­duum Edomi. Junius [...] per cum vertit; ut haeredes sint cum reliquijs Edomi, & omnibus gentibus quae vocantur de nomine meo. 1. Ʋt non tantum Judaei, verùm etiam gentes reli­quae communi cum illis haereditate persruan­tur. LXX pro [...] possidebunt, legerunt [...] requirent; unde illud [...], pro [...] legerunt [...] homo; unde illud [...], & addiderunt vocem [...]. They are so in­terpreted, Act. 15.16, 17. Hos. 2 23, com­pared with Rom. 9.24, [Page 40] 25. Hos. 12 4, He found him in Bethel and there he spake with us: So that the promises made unto Jacob are applicable unto us also. Hence it is that all the peo­ple of God (Gal. 6 16) are called the Israel of God.

If any shall say, That children in the old Testament were ceremonially holy: The Apostle answers 1 Pet. 2 9, writing to the twelve tribes scattered (Iam. 1.1) they and their children were an holy nation

Add to all these scriptures Exod. 20 5, Shewing mercie unto thousands of them that love me and keep my com­mandments. Matt. 1. Abraham is brought in as the first explicit Covenanter, to whom the promise was made; which runs along in the natural line to Christ, taking effect in some of his seed in every gene­ration. But least this should be thought to be a typical Cove­nant abolished in Christ, where­as Matthew descends from Ab­raham to Christ, Luke ascends from Christ to Adam; to shew us that the Covenant extends to all believing Gentiles as well as Jews, even to all the Sons of Adam. I hope none will say that the moral law or the promises thereunto belong­ing are abolished. Here is a promise made to those that worship God in the beauties of holiness, I mean in the pu­rity of his ordinances; to such and their seed doth the Lord extend mercie. (which is a fruit of the Cove­nant of grace not of works) The like phrase we have in Timothy, Keep this command to the coming of Christ, that is, if thou shouldest live so long: So if the world should continue to a thousand generations, (which I suppose not, for Mat. 1 those three 14 ge­nerations took up a great part of the time from A­braham to Christ) God will make good his word to them, if they cut not off the entail of the promises.

Obj. When Princes offend their favo­rites are heaten: So when Parents transgress their children are punished. This is meant to those children that [Page 41] love the Lord, and the contrary threatning to those Children which imitate their fathers vices.

Ans. 1.Exod. 34.7. Ʋtrum (que) absolutè ponitur, Qui custodia misericordiam in millia, & qui reddis iniquita­tem patrum filijs ac nepotibus. Riv. Shewing mercie unto thou­sands, but visiting the sins of the parents upon the children to the third and fourth gene­ration: The words are put absolutely, without restraining them to those that love or hate him, because they relate to the parents; so that doubt­less the child may suffer temporal punishment for the fathers sins, as be­ing a part of the father; but not eternal. Ezek 18. If the command be so understood, then is there no pretence for children to complain, The fathers have eaten sour grapes and the childrens teeth are set on edge; if God did punish children onely for imitating their parents vices.

2. If he spake of children hating God as their fa­thers, why might he not have said, Visiting the in­iquitie of the fathers upon the children unto a thou­sand generatons, as well as to the third or fourth?

3. If the words be so understood, then is the force of the comparison lost; for he extolls his mercie a­bove his justice, saying, Visiting the iniquities of the fathers upon the children unto the third and fourth generation, but, Shewing mercie to thousands: For the attributes of God are equal, [...] non [...].

4. What force were there in this dehortation; You parents take heed of idolatry, for if your children to the third or fourth generation committ idolatry, I will punish them? It is not to be imagined, that the wisdom of the father should argue thus irrational­ly: For so he should punish not so much the sin of the father as the sins of the children.

Let none say these are old Testament proofs, (in­trenching [Page 42] upon the prophetical office of Christ) as if that which was written w [...] not written for our learning; or as if Christ were not sent to confirm the promises made to the Fathers. Rom. 15.

We thought much that the Papists should make void and unlord the second Commandment, and the Bishops the fourth; but what shall we say to those that wave the old Testament, unless it be in such places which seemingly make for their own o­pinion; these have the leprosy in their heads, and therefore are altogether unclean: For doth not Mo­ses expound Christ, and doth not Christ send the Jews to Moses for instruction? Ioh. 5 46, Luk 16 31.

Let us come to the new Testament, (though we say there is no more inconveniency upon supposing of children in the new Testament to be in the Cove­nant than formerly; therefore to reject Infants now, is to condemn the wisdom of God in admitting them in the old) and hear what the Spirit saith unto the Churches; Matt. 22 32, compared with Ex. 3 6, I am the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob. The Lord makes mention of this Co­venant made with our fathers; for then he was a­bout to bring them out of the land of Egypt; where­in he failed not, but made good his word to a day, though the promise was made four hundred and thirty years before, Ex. 12 42. It is a night much to be observed, wherein the Lord brought them out of the land of Egypt; if he had deferred to make good his promise but till the next day, he had (that I may so say) forfeited his bond. Luk. 1 54, He hath [Page 43] holpen his servant Israel in remembrance of his mer­cie, as he spake to our fathers, to Abraham and his seed for ever. q. d. God in giving Christ remember­ed his Covenant with Abraham. V. 72, To perform the mercie promised to our forefathers [...]. i e. To shew mercie to our fathers; the fathers are the objects of this favour. But what is this mercie and favour? The words following tell you, To remember his holy Covenant. and to re­member his holy Cove­nant. Vers. 2, compared with the 76, And thou Child shalt be called the Prophet of the Highest. He brings in the child here, q. d. Behold the Covenant is made good to Abraham in this Child. Zacharias (who was both deaf and dumb, as the word signifies and as it appears by the context, for they made signs unto him how they would have him called) I say, Zacharias triumphs in this, and magnifies Gods glo­rious grace, saying,Act. 3 21, [...], By the mouth of all the Prophets. As he spake by the mouth of all the Prophets; as if all the Prophets had but one mouth, being unanimous in their interpretation of the Covenant, v. 70, which Covenant was made not onely with Abra­ham, but with the fathers and their children; and shall we have a mouth to speak or a heart to think contrary to the sense and meaning of all the holy Prophets, which have been ever since the world be­gan? Far be it from us, yea for ever far be it from us, that pretend we have the mind of Christ.

Luke 19 9, Salvation to thy house, saith Christ to Zachaeus, or here is a covenant of grace for thee and thy children; but mind how he alters the person, [Page 44] For as much as he also is a son of Abraham; as if he would have standers-by, yea all to take notice, That though Zachaeus was an eminent sinner and a Gen­tile: yet upon his conversion he and his children were included in the Covenant. Gal 4 28, Now we brethren, as Isaac was, are the children of promise; I­saac when an Infant was a child of promise, and so considered when that promise was made; which promise was confirmed to him and to his posterity:Gal. 2 15, Naturâ Judaei.] Non intelligit naturalitèr essè immunes à corruptolâ humani generis, sed quia promissio haereditariam benedictio­nem faciebat, ideò naturale vocatur hoc bonum. Calv. in Gal. We then, saith the Apostle, (I and you Galatians with your brethren) are children of the promise as Isaac. This is the sense of the holy Ghost; But as then he that was born after the flesh, did persecute him that was after the spirit: so it is now. There were then such as were born after the flesh, that is, the natural seed, who in course of na­ture came from Abraham: So is there now a fleshly seed ofRom. 11.28. Dilecti propter Patres.] Non quod dilectioni cau­sam dederint, sed quoniam ab illis propagata fuerat dei gratia ad po­steros, secundùm pacti formam [E­vo deus tuus & seminis tui.] Cal. believers.

If then there remains in the bosom of the Church children born after the flesh, then is there the privi­ledge of Birth-holiness still remaining, seeing as it was then, so it is now.

Rom. 11. Children with parents were broken off from the Covenant; therefore they were under it. Yea, They with their parents at length shall be en­grafted in again, as we shall shew hereafter.

Eph. 3.8. That the Gentiles (that is, parents and [Page 45] children) should be partakers of his promise, namely that grand promise, I will be thy God and the God of thy seed; of which promise they are not parta­kers if so great a part of the Gentiles be excluded.

Add to all these Scriptures that of the 1 Cor. 7 14, Else were your children unclean but now are they holy; the question was not whether the marriage were lawful, but whether they might lawfully live toge­ther, the one being a believer the other not. (there­fore to plead the unbelieving fornicator is sanctified by the believing whore, is improper; for the question was concerning man and wife, whereof the one was a believer, whether those might lawfully live toge­ther.) This question was propounded to Paul be­ing grounded on that Text in Ezra 10, or 1 Cor. 5, as is supposed by some.

Paul answers, Let not the believing husband put away the unbelieving wife, nor the believing wife her unbelieving husband; for the unbelieving husband is sanctified in the believing wife, & è contrà, else were your children unclean, but now are they holy. Sancti­fied, that is say some, they may lawfully converse together as man and wife, else your children were illegitimate. I have put the Argument as far as any of that opinion have put it, but the words will not bear [...] sense; for Sanctification is never in all the Book of God used in that sense, and why should we admit of it here? We mustNeh. 8. Dabant sensum Scri­pturarum per Scripturas. interpret Scripture by Scri­pture, which is the safest way of interpretation; for there is nothing hard in one place, but usually is [Page 46] explained in another. Every creature (saith the A­postle, 1 Tim. 4 5,) is The difference between san­ctified and holy is this, the one signifies a relative Act, the o­ther an holiness in State. Nihil hic erit difficuliatis si san­ctitatem intelligas nihil aliud esse quam spiritualem generis nobilitatem, & eam quidem non propriam naturae, sed quae ex foedere manabat. Cal. in Rom 11.16. san­ctified by the word of God and prayer. Here it signifies not onely lawful but an holy use: and so it is taken in this 1 Cor. 7. But in the sense of some, the Pagans lawful relati­ons & enjoyments are sanctified to them, which to assert is very absurd; for he onely which useth all for God hath all things sanctified to him; therefore by the holiness of children the Apostle means foede­ral holiness, according to Scripture phrase, Ezra 9, The holy seed have mingled themselves with the peo­ple of the Lands. To say the holy seed, that is, the legitimate seed, would imply that all those children of the heathens were bastards.

Dan. 11 28, He shall have indignation against the holy Covenant, that is, against parents with their children incovenanted.

2. The Apostle speaks to the priviledge of a belie­ver which he had not before, [now are they holy;] a priviledge, we know, is a peculiar benefit, appropri­ate to some, not common to all: but this is common to all the heathens, well known to them, much more to the Corinthians, that their children were legiti­mate.

But according to their sense they may live together, for their children are as holy as the children of heathens.3. If we say by Sanctifica­tion is meant a lawful use, the Argument is a mere tri­fling, (idem per idem) for the question was, whether [Page 47] they might lawfully live together? Yea, saith the Apostle, they may; for the unbelieving husband is sanctifyed in the believing wife, q d. They may live together, for they may live together.

Obj. The unbelieving wife is said to be sanctified as well as her Children.

Ans. She is said to be sanctified by him or in him, but not so as to be made foederally holy, but onely sanctified to his use as all the creatures are; for san­ctification is a word of relation used with reference to persons, but the word, holy, in the 1 Cor. 7, sig­nifies an holiness of state, but, saith the Apostle, they are holy.

Thus we have abundantly proved the minor pro­position, namely, That the Children of believers are incovenanted, therefore we conclude, That the Seal of the Covenant belongs to them.

O then! You that are spiritual, that have the testi­mony of Jesus, which is the spirit of Prophesy, so as to understand the Prophesies; consider what I have said, and the Lord give you understanding in all things. We are compassed (as you see) round about with a cloud of witnesses,It was one and the same cloud (Exod. 14 23) which was light to the Israelites and darkness to the Egyptians: Even so one and the same scripture to some is dark, and to others full of light; because they have not the light within to see the light without. John 11. Now the Lord grant we be not like the Egyptians, look­ing at the darksom part of the cloud, (as many do) and not the lightsom part; but that this cloud may be as a cloud by day, and as a pillar of fire by night (even in that night that is coming fast upon us, the shadows [Page 48] of the evening growing very long) to guid us in the Truth as it is in Jesus.

Obj. Circumcision was no seal of Rightousness to Abraham's posterity.

Ans. Look to the rock (Esa. 51) whence ye are hewen. q d. Consider what mercies I shewed to A­braham, the same mercy may you expect to your selves.

Promises made to believers as believers, belong to all believers; for it's a sure rule à quatenus ad omne valet consequentia, from a thing as such, the con­sequence availeth to all. Thus the Apostle, Heb. 13 5, applies that of Deut. 31 8, He will not fail thee nor forsake thee. That promise was made not to Joshua but to the body of the Children of Israel, as appears by the LXX transla­tion;Promises made to the Jews as Saints, are made to all; there­fore the Gospel-Church is cal­led Sion, and Jerusalem hath the Jews names put upon it, be­cause those promises belong to it. See LXX. [...]. Heb. 13.5. [...]. for as it's applyed to Joshua it hath but one nega­tive, but when applyed to the body of Israel, verse 8, it hath four negatives, to which the Apostle adds a fift, No I will not leave thee, no I will not in no wise forsake thee. The Lord being willing more abundantly to confirm our faith adds five de­nials, because he saw what doubting hearts we had.

So much for the first Proposition, sc. That promi­ses made to believers as believers, belong to all be­lievers; but this [I will be thy God and the God of thy seed] was made to Abraham as a believer; therefore to all believers: Whereof Circumcision was a seal [Page 49] in the old Testament, as Baptism in the new. Rom. 4 11, Circumcision is called a seal of the rightousness of faith, which he had being uncircumcised, that so he might become the father of all those that believe, though not circumcised; for Abraham was called the father of them that believe, because he was the first father that received this blessing, which was a blessing upon parents and children; for he received it not onely for himself, but for them also, that is, he received it as a father, and so it is conveyed to us at this day. Mr Cart.

2. The promise was made to Abraham and to his natural seed, walking in the steps of his faith; How else reasons the Apostle from the example of Abra­ham? The promise was given to Abraham through faith, therefore 't is yours through faith, v. 13, 16, 17.

3. How makes he Abraham the father of belie­vers in both people, if the Covenant was not esta­blished on him as a father for his children of both people? v. 17, who is the father of us all, before him [...], Ad instar dei, or, Ex adverso dei, after the ex­ample of God. Exemplar enim ex adverso opponimus. whom he believed. God hath honored Abraham's faith, that in respect thereof he hath made him like himself, sc. a father, not of this or that nation, but universally of all, amongst all nations that believe.

4. This promise [I will be thy God and the God of thy seed] was not peculiar to Abraham, as appears by the scope of the Apostle, Rom. 4. which is to shew how we are justified, and not Abraham onely; for fathers and children are justified in the same man­ner; [Page 50] but Abraham was justified by faith and not by Circumcision, though therein was sealed the remis­sion of sins.

The Apostle brings in Abraham as an eminent believer, and the father of the faithful (for he was the first explicit covenanter) as a rule to all believers;Primum in unoquo (que) genere est regula reliquorum. Apostolus probaturus Gentiles u­nà cum Judaeis esse Abrahae filios, in hanc formam loquitur, Abra­ham fide justificatus fuit in prae­putio. Calv. for the first in every kind is the rule of all the rest; and con­cludes ver. 23, It is written not for his sake alone that it was imputed to him; but us also to whom it shall be imputed, if we believe: So that Circumcision was either a seal of rightousness obtained, or rightousness offered, therefore a seal to parents and children if they believe; the like may I say of baptism which comes instead of circumcision, and is the seal of Abraham's Covenant. Gal. 3 29 Ye are Abraham's seed, and heirs according to the tenor of the promise, which runs to him and his.

5. The Covenant is the same, therefore the par­ties included in the Covenant specifically, must be the same, else it's not the same Covenant; and there­fore as before, so now children are included.

That it's the same for substance, it appears by the Apostle,Gal. 3, That Covenant was confirmed in Christ, therefore a Gospel-Covenant, [...], towards Christ, q d. It had re­spect to Christ. Gal. 3.8, 28, The Scripture foreseeing that God would justifie the heathen, preached the Gospel before un­to Abraham. I hope none will say we have another Gospel, or a Gospel besides this Gospel: The Apo­stle doubles the phrase to shew them he speaks deli­berately, [Page 51] as pondering what he said, If any man bring another Gospel, &c Gal. 1.

Brethren do we look for new Scriptures, or a new Gospel to save us? Is not the faith (that is, the Do­ctrine of faith) delivered once and for ever, as a per­petual rule? Is not God one and the same though we be changeable and at odds with him, Gal. 3 20? Is not Christ yesterday, and to day, and for ever the same, Heb. 13 8? Was this once an evangelical pro­mise [I will be thy God,] and is it not so still? And if that be evangelical, (as is confessed) shall we de­ny the later [I will be the God of thy seed] to be e­vangelical also?

6. If the command of teaching our children which God gave to Abraham, belong unto us, then the promise made to him and his belongs to us also; for the promise is the ground of the duty, and the duty is the means of the performance of the promise. Gen. 18 19, For I know him, that he will command his Children, and his household after him, and they shall keep the way of the Lord to do justice and judg­ment, that the Lord may bring upon Abraham that which he hath spoken of him.

7. Christ came not [...] to loosen or slacken the Law, much less the prophesies or pro­mises, but rather to confirm them made unto the fa­thers, Rom. 15 8; that is not onely to the Jews but also the Gentiles; and because the incorporating of the Gentiles was a great my­stery, (i. e) a divine hidden se­cret to the Jews, the Apostle quotesHence Ministers may learn in doubtful things to be more co­pious in proofs. four places of [Page 52] Scripture to evince that great controverted Truth, sc. That the Gentiles should be incorporated into one and the same body with the Jews.

8. Why should it be conceived that the Covenant of Grace should run in a different course from all o­ther of Gods Covenants? God made a Covenant with Mr. Patient saith, That Cove­nant with the Priests was a Co­venant of works. Observe there is a vein of error runs through his whole Discourse. Phineas, did it not reach his posterity, Num. 5? So with David, Psalm 89 28. And did not that extend to his posterity also? Did God ever make a Covenant with any, wherein the children were not comprehended? In the first place where this Covenant is mentioned it runs thus, To thee and thy seed, Gen. 15 18, 8, which was ratified by the dividing of an heifer of three years old.

9. Gentiles are ingrafted into the same olive tree, and made partakers of the fatness thereof, that is, the ordinances, promises and their appertenances; the root was Abraham and the holy ancestors; the bo­die of the tree the Church; the branches particular members, whereof Infants were a great part. Ob­serve three things, 1. That Children were in the Covenant, this cannot be denied. 2. They with their parents were broken off, and therefore may plead with their Mother as an harlot, Hos. 2. 3. They with their parents are to be ingrafted in again into the olive tree of the visible Church of Christ.

10. Where is that great Statute repealed, or that Magna Charta vacated and made void, [I will be thy God and the God of thy seed?] Was not this [Page 53] one of the greatest promises of the old Testament, [...], Ex­ceeding great, nay the greatest promises. 2 Pet. 1.4. greater than which could not be? The promise in the 17 of Genesis is greater than that in the 22.

For the Father was greater than Christ as Me­diator, and therefore doubtless that was chief­ly in the Apostles ey. This promise was confirmed by many and sundry ways, [...], by piece-meals or parcels, Heb. 1.1. yet one and the same Co­venant gradually revealed to Abraham, as he walk­ed more exactly with God; The glorious discove­ry of the Covenant was reserved to Christs time; for the farther the times were from Christs coming the less light they had, but the nearer they came to Christ the more fully was that Covenant discovered, as appears from Dan. 9. to whom the Angel reveals the time of Christ's suffering; and so doubtless when Christ shall more gloriously appear in his Kingdom upon the calling of the Jews, then shall the Ark of the Covenant be seen in the Temple, Rev. 11.19, But the Covenant was confirmed [ [...]] to Abraham 1. By Sacrifices, Gen. 15.18. (being not mentioned before.) 2. By the Sacra­ment of Circumcision, Cap. 17. 3. By an oath, Cap. 22. Yea it was confirmed by God in Christ: (therefore must needs be of grace.) Gal. 31.7. 1. By the death of Christ. 2. By the merits of Christ.

3. By the preaching of Christ and his Apostles, Dan. 9. He shall confirm the Covenant for one week, (which was spent in the confirmation thereof) for [Page 54] Christ preachedUsually the work of a Mini­ster for conversion is done as to the old standers in 7 years. three years and a half, and the Apostles three years and a half or thereabouts before the Jews were discovenanted; the ceremonies de jure did cease at his death, with all the sacrifices, (when the vail was rent asunder) but the Covenant was not made null, till they volunta­tarily and obstinately rejected the Lord Christ.

This Covenant [I will be thy God] was before the Law, and therefore was not made void by the Law, and the ceremonies annexed thereunto, Gal. 3.14, 15. That the blessing of Abraham might come upon the Gentiles, which blessing extends to fathers and chil­dren.

Brethren, saith the Apostle, I speak after the man­ner of men, Though it were but a mans Covenant, if it be confirmed (as this was) no man disanulleth or addeth thereunto; who then shall dare to disanull Gods Covenant made to Abraham and Christ mysti­cal, that is, the whole visible Church, as we see clearly in the body of the Jews to whom the exter­nal administration of the Covenant did appertain; if there be any force in the Arguments of the Antipe­dobaptists pleading for the spiritual seed onely, the like might have been pleaded against all the carnal seed of Abraham, as the Lord pleads Psal. 50, What hast thou to do to take my Covenant into thy mouth?

And yet even the Children of such had a right unto Circumcision, though their parents were suspended from the Passover, as being Children un­der Abraham's Covenant.

The 11 Argument is taken from the absurdities that will follow from the contrary tenent.

1. If Children be excluded then the Covenant is not the same, seeing the persons engaging are not the same.

2. Then are the Children of believers no more priviledged than the Children of heathens; for even the Children of heathens (when called) have an in­terest in the Covenant and Seal, as well as the Chil­dren of believers.

3. Then are no Children in a visible way of sal­vation, Eph. 2.12, and without hope; and there­fore Rachel may weep for her Children because they are not. There was a great Lamentation in Israel when one tribe was cut off, but have not all the Churches in the world cause bitterly to lament, That two parts of three are cut off from the Covenant of Grace?

4. Then are Children losers by Christs coming in the flesh (as hath been alrea­dy proved) for before they were in theA baptized Jew having one Infant born before the abroga­tion of Circumcision, and ano­ther after; might look at the former as a member, but the later without hope as a hea­then; or else on that elder as a heathen to day, who was a member yesterday. Covenant, but now discovenanted, so should they be in a worse condition in the new Testa­ment than they were in the old: yea then was the first Adam more prevalent to damn, than the second to save; for had he stood, we with our Children had stood; but though parents in the second Adam stand, yet their Children are ca­shiered before they have done any thing to discove­nant themselves.

[Page 56]5. Then should the grace of God be more large in the times of the old Testament than in the new; but the Apostle tells us Christ is a surety of a better Testament, Heb. 7.22. established upon better promi­ses, Heb. 8.6. Ex. 26.9. compared with Ex. 36.9. The five curtains on the one side of the Tabernacle, and five on the other side were of one size, and made up one Tabernacle, Ex. 26.6. these were coupled together by loops that the Tabernacle might be one, ver. 11. And what are those two curtains but the Church of the Jews and Gentiles making up one Tabernacle,Ez. 47.14. And ye shall inherit it one as well as another.] They are all to share alike in the division of that land, which did signify, That Aequale est omnium fidelium Jus in possessione haereditatis coelestis, partes enim aequales dantur omnibus expressà voluntate dei, non inaequa­les ut à Mose & Josua qui distri­buorant terram juxta multitudinem hominum. Polan. that is, one Church of God? These are of an equal size, that is equal­ly priviledged, and all of them by bonds and sinews (that is the bond of the Covenant and the grace of the Spirit) coupled and united together. Col. 2, 19. Ex. 20.37. If then that Covenant did extend to the Jews Children as a part of the Taber­nacle, then also must it of necessity extend to the Children of the Gentiles which make up the other part of the Tabernacle, and so both make one. Eph. 2.14.

6 If Children have no interest in that Covenant [I will be thy God and the Gods of thy seed] then have they no interest in the Mediator of that Covenant, nor any part in Christs mediation, which is limited to them that are under the Covenant, Heb. 9.15, 12, 24. If so, then not saved; for, tell me I beseech you, [Page 57] are any saved or brought out of the pit wherein is no water of comfort, but by the bloud of the ever­lasting Covenant? Zach. 9. Are not we and ours bound up in that as in a bundle of life? 2 Sam. 23.

Obj. The Covenant of Circumcision was not a Covenant of grace and life, but a Covenant of works by virtue of which the land of Canaan was given to Abraham and his seed.

Ans. Here is a palpable mistake, as appears clear­ly by Neh. 9.8. Thou foundest his heart faithful before thee, and madest a Covenant with him, to give the land of Canaan to his seed, and hast performed thy words, for thou art rightous. What can be more plain than this, that the land of Canaan was not gi­ven him considered as a working but as a believing Abraham? But because the main stress of the Argu­ments of the Antipaedobaptists lies here, (for they do confess and publickly have affirmed, That if that Covenant made with Abraham were a Covenant of grace, there is no question but that the seal of ba­ptism must be annexed) therefore I shall be the more copious in shewing you that the land of Canaan was not given by a Covenant of works, but by a Cove­nant of grace. For,

1. God doth engage to be his God, and the God of his seed; which implies more than a temporal blessing, for it's as much as if he had said.


I will visibly own thy seed in the world, above all the people under heaven, whereupon he sets up his Tabernacle and erects his Church amongst [Page 58] them: he gives them his word and ordinances, he hath not dealt so with any nation, saith the Psalmist, yea he vouchsafeth his own presence and that in a glorious manner.

Secondly, When he saith, I will give thee the land of Canaan, and, I will be thy God, his meaning is, I will give them a visible subsistance in the world; thus he made good his word to Abraham, who had the use of that land though not by way of inheri­tance; the promise lay so warm and so near his heart and did so glow upon his spirit, as that by faith he en­joyed it as his own. (as it is with many a gracious spirit in these days, that expects the fulfilling of ma­ny glorious promises.) For faith is the substance of things hoped for, and giveth being to such things as have no being themselves.

Thirdly, If they take me for their God, I will be their God, and give unto them the ( [...]) the holy things of David, Esa. 55.5. Matt. 22. He is not the God of the dead but of the living, that is applied to the resurrection.

2. Canaan it self was not given as a mere tempo­ral blessing, but as a type and pledge of spiritual and eternal blessings. Therefore,

First, It was called the land of Emmanuel, Es. 8.

Secondly, Hence it's made a great part of the glo­ry of that land, that it flowed with milk and honey, even the ordinances of God swee­ter than the honey and the honey-comb,Mell [...] stillante, the life-honey. Psal. 19. or dropping honey; this phrase Ezekiel goes over and over again, flowing with milk & honey [Page 59] which is the glory of all lands. Ezek. 20.6.

3. Canaan was a type of the Church, and of the state of glory. Heb. 4 1,If spirituals and eternals were not promised to the Fathers, then were they not by faith ap­prehended; for that which is not promised, by faith cannot be apprehended. he speaks of another Rest after they were entered into that Rest. Heb. 11. If they had re­sted in that land, God would have been ashamed to own them as Children; but now they desire a better Country (saith the Apostle) therefore God is not ashamed to be called their God. Hence it was that the Lord loved that land above all other lands in the world; and in that, Jerusalem; and in Jerusalem, Sion; (he loved the gates of Sion more than all the dwellings of Jacob, Psal. 87.) in Sion, the Temple; and in the Temple, the Holy-of-holies. "The nearer any thing comes to God, the more he loves it.

4. Gal. 3. last. Then are ye Abraham's seed and heirs according to promise, not of an earthly Canaan, but an heavenly. For the Galatians had nothing to do with that of Canaan.

5. Hence it was that Moses was so desirous to see that good land, that goodly Mountain, and Lebanon; his mouth runs over (he was so taken with it) re­peating it again and again; which prayer the Lord heard as in reference to the end, sc. to see the land, but not in the way and means as he desired. Go up to Mount Pisgah and view the land, saith the Lord to many a saint, yea and to many a reprobate that shall never set foot upon that blessed land.

6. Hence it was that they were so ambitious to [Page 60] have their bones carried out of other lands into that land. Thus Jacob and Joseph.

7. Upon this account it was, that Esau was bran­ded with a black coal of infamy to all eternity, That he rejected this land; that so as oft as he heard his name, he might remember upon what terms he sold his birth-right. Esau who is Edom, Gen. 36.1, 8. Edom, v. 19. who is Edom, and why so? because that for a little (red-red, that is) red pottage, he sold his birth-right; his interest in the promises, ordi­nances, heaven, Christ, whose land that was; and when he had sold it he went away from the presence of the Lord to Mount Seir, being not at all troubled for what he had done, sc. that he had discovenanted himself and his.

8. Gal. 4. Mount Sinai in Arabia.] Why should Paul make mention of the situation of that Moun­tain (when as there was none of the Galatians as might be supposed ignorant of it) but that there did lie a mystery in the situation of Sinai; to wit, that it was without theFoedus de quo nunc agitur, & modum le­gis complectitur & finem illius, nimirum E­vangelium Christi; locus hujus foederis notabi­lis est, in terra Moab, vel in parte haereditatis vel in aditu haereditariae terrae Canaan; igitur in ingressu terrae de fine hujus habitationis ter­renae admonentur duci ipsos ad praestolationem redemptionis; ne vel limitem ipsum sine fide [...]alvantes inquinarent. Cocceius. borders of the promised land, which did shadow out that heavenly Coun­try to which we are brought, not by the old covenant of works but by the new Cove­nant of grace; of that Covenant of works as it was taken by the carnal Is­raelites, doth the Apostle speak of, in Gal. 4. But in Deut. 29.1. you have another Covenant made with [Page 61] Israel in the land of Moab, besides the Covenant which he made with them in Horeb. See Deut. 32.8.

9. The giving of this land is made a sign of Gods love to Jacob, Mal. 1.2. I have loved thee, saith the Lord, yet ye say, Wherein hast thou loved us? Was not Esau Jacob's brother? yet I loved Jacob and hated Esau.Mali [...]dumaei è sedibus suis ejecti nunquam redituri. Glass. Mal. 1.1, 2. If the giving of the land had not been a sign of his love, the Apostle had not alledged those two examples to purpose, Rom. 9. Which was to shew who were the Children of God, and who not, for, Canaanaeae privatio etiam rejectio­nis a salute symbolum.

Arg. 3. Circumcision was a seal of the rightous­ness of faith either had or offered, Rom. 4. It was a seal of the rightousness of faith with Infants that believe not; that look what rightousness the faith of a believer layd hold on, Circumcision was a seal of that rightousness, Rom. 4.11. Therefore a seal of life tendered to the seed of Abraham: For what it was to Abraham, the same was it to all his seed that did lay hold on this Covenant. If any failed and fell short thereof, their destruction was of themselves, because they sought rightousness by the works of the Law, and not by faith in this Covenant of grace. We must not pry into the decrees of God, to find out the reasons of eternal election and reprobation; Secret things belong to God, things revealed to us and to our Children. Deut 29 last. But if we look into the execution of that decree of reprobation, we [Page 62] shall find the ground of it from our selves, who wil­fully reject the offers and tenders of grace. Rom. 9.32.

Fourthly, It is one and the same Covenant, Gen. 17.7. and throughout, this is mentioned 13 times in that chapter, So Psal. 105.8. The Covenant he made with Abraham and Isaac, and confirmed the same to Jacob for a law, v. 10. Gen. 17.2, to the 7. There are promises more particularly applied to Abraham, in which all his seed did share: For what ever pro­mises are made to any, are made directly or indirect­ly to the whole body, being all yea and amen in Christ; and therefore collaterally may be applied to us; as, That God would multiply his seed both na­tural and spiritual, and make him a father of many nations, (as the Apostle interprets that Text, Rom. 4) and do not we share in that promise? Gen. 7.7, 19. I will be thy God and the God of thy seed, I will esta­blish my Covenant between me thee, and thy seed after thee. He speaks of it as one and the same Covenant throughout, and not as two Covenants, as some fond­ly do imagin.

Fifthly, That women are enabled to conceive, bear and bring forth, and that their children are pro­vided for, 't is of grace.

1. Women, if believers, are saved by grace in child-bearing, [...], i. (in it,) as a way though dangerous; (by it,) as a means to fur­ther their salvation.

2. Children are given by grace to the rightous, Gen. 33.5. These are the Children which God of his [Page 63] grace hath given me: So the multiplying of Chil­dren is an act of grace, 1 Chron. 28.23. Deut. 33.24. Let Asher be blessed with Children; Act. 7.8. He gave him the Covenant of Circumcision, and so Abraham begat Isaac; yea so great a mercie is it, that it enga­ged the heart of Enoch to walk with God 300 years after he begat Methusalah, Gen. 5.22. Thus Abra­ham walked with God after he received the promise for the multiplying of his seed, Gen. 13. which is to be understood literally, (Deut. 10. last) as well as spiritually.

3. The provision the Lord maketh for such Chil­dren,Iisdem nutrimur ex quibus con­stamus. is a fruit of the Cove­nant of grace; for God is the God of the whole man, as our Savior reasoneth, therefore not onely of the soul but of the body also; who by Covenant binds himself to provide for both. How sweet is it to a gracious soul to see all things dispensed to him, not onely by a providence but also by promise; and to see the Throne of God com­passed about with the rainbow of his Covenant, for so I understand it, Rev. 4.3: So that all his dis­pensations did pass through this rainbow; whether they be afflictions, (which to the rightous are an ap­pendix to the Covenant 2 Sam. 7.) or temporal, spi­ritual and eternal mercies; all these come swimming to us in the bloud of Christ.

Sixtly, It had been little comfort to Abraham and his seed to have had onely a temporal portion sealed to them. Others of his Children were before the Children of promise for outwards, These (saith [Page 64] the Text) are the Kings that reigned in the land of Edom, before there reigned any King over the children of Israel, Gen. 36.31. 1 Chron. 1.43. But what is all this? yea what is that vast Turkish empire, but as a crum given to a dog, as Luther speaks? Doubtless if Abraham had so understood the Lord, he would have said, (as once Luther did to the Duke of Saxo­ny, who offered him a great gratuity) Non sic satia­bor Domine, I will not be so put off, this, Lord, shall not suffice me.

Sevently, The bondmen born in Abraham's house had no inheritance in the land of Canaan, yet were circumcised; yea Abraham's seed for the space of 430 years enjoyed it not; therefore Circumcisi­on was not solely a seal of the land of Canaan; for as those had no right unto it: so Abraham in his po­sterity enjoyed it not for that space.

Eighthly, The Apostle determines (Quum Deus sacramenta gratiis suis adjungere soleat, ex eo quod sa­cramento privati erant, colligit; ne (que) gratiae ipsos fuisse participes, non est quidem perpetuum argumen­tum, valet tamen quantum ad ordi­nariam dei dispensationem. Calv. in Eph. Eph. 2.12.) upon their uncircumcision, that they were without God in the world, v 11, Remem­ber that at that time ye were Gentiles, who were called un­circumcision; that at that time ye were strangers to the Covenant of promise. Hence that phrase, They dy the deaths of the uncircum­cised, he saith not [death] but [deaths] as signifying not onely their corporal, but their spiritual and eter­nal deaths. Ezek. 32.25, 26. and 28.10.

Ninthly, When the Lord renews the Covenant for that land of Canaan, (mark well) the Lord did [Page 65] not reinstate them into that land after their return from Babylon,Gen. 17.2. [ [...]] And I will freely give my Covenant: So Galat 3. nor will he bring them back out of their last captivity into that land, but by that gracious Covenant. Jer. 3.19. How shall I put thee among my Children, and give thee the plea­sant land? Thou shalt call me father and shalt not de­part from me. Some say the Covenant of Circumci­sion is to be understood as everlasting as Canaan and the possession thereof; which untill Christ's coming who was the substance thereof, it being a typical Covenant; but it's as clear as the sun, That that land is promised to them in the later times upon their general Call; for into that land must they re­turn and fight with (the sons of Greece Zac. 9.13. i. e) the Turk and his adherents.

Ezek. 20.37. I will bring them into the bond of the Covenant. v. 12, There shall the house of Israel even all of them in the land serve me. This relates to their last return, Rom. 11.26. So all Israel shall be saved, that is, the body of the 12 Tribes. Thus Ezek. 36.24. I will gather you out of all Countries, and bring you into your own land, then will I sprinkle clean water upon you, and ye shall dwell in the land that I gave to your fathers. v. 28. And ye shall be my people and I will be your God: Yea (saith the Text) not for your sakes do I this, (v. 22 & 32) saith the Lord God, be it known unto you. q.d. You must not expect that land by a Covenant of works, as Moses again and again minds the Israelites, Deut. 9.4. Say not for my rightousness hath the Lord brought me to [Page 66] possess this land v. 5, 6, 7. And adds this memento, for fear Israel should forget it, Remember and forget not how thou provokedst the Lord in the wilderness.

Will any then for ever say for the future, That the land of Canaan was given to Abrahams' seed by a Covenant of works? I wonder at the confidence of some, who strongly affirm ( [...], 1 Tim. 1.7.) that which they are wholely ignorant of. Surely they were hard bestead when forced to fly to this distinction to avoid the force of that Argument ta­ken from Abraham's Covenant; But alas! There are many that are enemies to the Cross of Christ, (as Paul saith, Phil. 3.18) of whom I tell you weeping. I desire to bemoan the sad condition of such; for a spirit of delusion is gone forth into the world to de­ceive the nations; God having given Satan a com­mission (or rather a permission) judicially to harden, not onely carnal Gospellers, but some of his own dear people; and this is the sorest judgment that I know, that lies upon this nation this day.

Tenthly, That Covenant was Gospel, therefore not a fleshly carnal Cove­nant,Gal. 3.18. God gave the inhe­ritance by promise, [...] See Gen. 17 [...] Gal. 3.8. The Scripture foreseeing that God would ju­stify the heathen through faith, preached before the Gospel unto Abraham. Gen. 12. Saying, in thee shall all Nations be blessed. cap. 22. He saith (in thy seed) but from that time (namely, Gen. 22.) to the coming out of Aegypt, (viz. Exod. 12.41.) was notNay scarse 390, neither can the words Gal. 3. be referred to the first promise Gen. 12 For there was no [...] or confir­mation mentioned before Gen. 17.18. Where it was confirmed by sacrifice, after by the sacra­ment of Circumcision; lastly, by an oath. cap. 22. four hundred [Page 67] and thirty years: Therefore it must be referred to this 15 chapter or to the 17. But it's not much material to which place of the two you re­ferr it, seeing that it's one and the same Covenant; But more fully explained accordingly as Abraham walked with God, cap. 12,Lecleca. It 's Dativus commodi. when God calls them out of his country, he bids him go for himself, and tells him, v. 3, he will bless him, and that in him all nati­ons shall be blessed; upon this Abraham departed and comes into this land, where the Lord appears to him (cap. 12.7.) and saith, Unto thy seed will I give this land, (he had not told him that before) after this there was a great famin in that land, which was no small tryal to Abraham's faith, that coming out of such a fertil soil as Chaldea was, he should be put to such straits, and forced to travel to Aegypt for food, where he sojourns awhile, and thence returns to the land whence he came; there God appears to him a­gain, upon that self-denying act; (ca. 13.7.) Abraham takes notice that the Canaanite dwelt in the land, and therefore yields to his brother Lot; who made choice of the fattest soil, as intending rather to feed his flocks than to feed souls; but the Lord again ap­pears to Abraham, (cap. 13.4.) saying, All this land will I give, he enlargeth his charter, and lets him know he shall be no loser by him; upon another act of self-denyal (least the King of Sodom should say, He had made Abraham rich) the Lord again appears to him (cap. 15.1.) saying, I am thy exceeding great re­ward, [Page 68] the Lord leaves himself in pawn (that I may so say) till he had made good his promise to him; But in cap. 17.22. he more fully explains the Cove­nant.

Eleventhly, The V. Commandment is not carnal, though it have a temporal promise annexed to it; Eph. Deut. 5.16. Ut prolongent dies] Potest verbum accipi impersonaliter, prolongent, pro eo quod est prolongen­tur. Junius. 6.3. Children obey your parents, that it may be well with you, and that ye may live long on the earth: Surely none will say but that children are bound to obey their parents under the Gospel, as well as the Jews were under the Law, notwithstanding that motive; Is there not the like reason for the Covenant? May it not be spiritual though the Lord engage to Abra­ham and his seed to give them that temporal land of Canaan? and shall we say this Covenant is a temporal and a carnal Covenant? hath not godliness the pro­mise of this life and that which is to come? They might as well have said the ten Commandments be­long not to us, because (Deut. 5.) they are enforced with this consideration [which brought thee out of the land of Aegypt;] though in a spiritual sense that may be applyed to us, as literally to the Jews.

Twelfthly, Abraham was heir of the world by virtue of the Covenant of grace, and surely Canaan was included in that promise, as being a little world in the great world. Rom. 4.13. The promise that he should be heir of the world was not through the Law, but through the rightousness of faith: Where you see it's plainly opposed to the Covenant of works.

Thirteenthly, From the absurdities that will fol­low hereupon; for then so many particular promi­ses, so many Covenants; whereas a Covenant is but a bundle of promises solemnly sealed and confirmed.

The Papists having excluded the second Com­mandment,Such as will deficere in necessa­riis, will abundare in superfluis; they are defective in the second Command, therefore they su­perabound in the X; whereas the text mentions but one Com­mandment, as Moses one Cove­nant throughout ch. 17. divide the tenth into two; whereas they might as well make eight of it, as first, Thou shalt not covet thy neighbors house. 2. Thou shalt not covet thy neighbors wife. 3. Thou shalt not covet thy neighbors field. 4. Nor his man servant. 5. Nor his maid servant. 6. Nor his ox. 7. Nor his ass. 8. Nor any thing that is his.

As they divide the Commandments: so others di­vide the Covenant; [I will be thy God,] This they make a new Covenant or a Covenant of grace. Gen. 17 to 6. and from 7. to 14. And to thy seed will I give this land, a Covenant of works: they grant the former to be the new Covenant or Covenant of grace and why not the later? [I will be the God of thy seed, &c.] but they might as well according to all the particular articles in the Covenant multiply the Co­venant into several species, making every promise a Covenant and so many, promises so many Cove­nants.

Fourteenthly, If Circumcision was a seal of the Covenant of works, then the seed of Abraham had no seal to the Covenant of grace at all, for they say that relates to the land of Canaan which they hold to [Page 70] be given to the posterity of Abraham by a Co­venant of works whereof Circumcision was a seal. If this be granted, then was the Lord wanting to his people; for did they not stand in need of a seal of the rightousness of faith as well as Abraham, & much more? Abraham though strong in faith was sore put to it, as appears by the story, being willing to sit down well contented with Ismael, not having obtained the promised seed: Yea (cap, 16.3.) the holy Ghost seems to imply that he doubted ten years; therefore he used unlawful means to obtain issue, going in [...] Hagar. Did Abraham stand in need of strengthening and did not his seed much more? Had he a seal an­nexed to the promise, and had not his seed the like? or did God ever make a Covenant with his people, and not seal it? Hath any a just title to an inheri­tance, and not a right to the seals and conveyances? or had any ever a right to the Covenant of grace that had not an external right at least to the seal?

Fifteenthly, Here is not onely an Husteronprote­ron, (for thus Abraham is first under the Covenant of grace and then of works long after) but at the same time under both Covenants, contrary to Rom. 6.14.

Sixtenthly, The Covenant of works admits of no repentance or mercy, therefore cannot be renew­ed, but this doth. Deut. 4.7, 12, 13.

Seventeenthly, That Covenant was sealed with bloud, (for the letting out of the bloud did signifie the shedding of the bloud of Christ) therefore it was not a Covenant of works: Again it 's to thee and [Page 71] thy seed after thee, in their generations for ever; Gen. 17.10, 11. Psal. 105.8.Mr P. p. 43. The ever of the Law is to be understood of the time of the Gospel-state, if these words [to you and your seed in their generations] be put in. At negatur. He gave that land for an e­verlasting Covenant, even to a thousand generations. Now from Abraham to Christ there was but 42 generations, and therefore that Co­venant ceased not when Christ came in the flesh, as some say. Jer. 25.5. Esa. 24.5. Num. 25.13. Ex. 3.15. I am the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, the God of Jacob, this is my name for ever, this is my me­morial to all generations.

Eighteenthly, If Circumcision were onely a seal signifying, That God would give the seed of Abra­ham the land of Canaan, what need was there of this seal after they were possessed of the land?

Obj. The subject matter of the Covenant is, That they should be circumcised; but in that, all the works of the Law are included.

Ans. Rom. 2.25. Act. 15. Circumcision profiteth if thou keep the Law, saith the Apostle, on Gods part it was a seal of all the gracious promises, if on their part they did perform the condition, which was, to walk in obedience to his Commandments; but it did not profit them if they kept not the Law: as baptism now availeth not if men lead an evil life. The Apostle speaks not by way of supposition, as of a thing impossible to be done, but as supposing it a thing possible evangelically to be done.

If he had spoken of the perfect keeping of the law legally, (which is impossible) then all profitable use [Page 72] is denyed to Circumcision; but he would not so much detract from that holy institution of God, as to denie all profitable use thereof. Circumcision in­deed did bind them to keep the whole law perfectly, but it did profit them if there were an endeavor and a care in them to keep it, though imperfectly.

Cap. 3.1. What priviledg then hath the Jew? what benefit then is there of Circumcision, if the Jews were not justified by Circumcision? Here are two queries, the Apostle answers to the first Much every way, but chiefly that to them were committed the oracles of God; that is, all the prophetical writings, prophesies and promises, &c, These were committed to them, non ut alienae rei depositum; but as their own proper treasure, if they had hearts to make use thereof: For the Covenant was made with all the seed of Abra­ham: many indeed lost the benefit of it, not because they were not comprehended in it; but because of their unbelief, which deprived them of the benefit thereof: yet this unbelief could not make the faith of God, that is, the promise, of none effect; for though some did not believe, yet others did; not all but some, did not believe; for God hath ordain­ed, That as he keepeth truth in his promises: So there should be always some in the Church which should believe them. Thus (Rom. 9.7.) the Apostle sheweth that all the seed of Abraham are not the elect seed; but doth not shew, That they were not under the outward administration of the Covenant, as appears from the 4 verse, for of that Covenant Paul speaks not. But if onely the elect and faithful [Page 73] be admitted to the Covenant, as to the outward ad­ministration thereof: then is there no subject left for the ordinance of baptism; for how shall we know who is elect and who not? It's therefore far better to give the seal to the 99 which are not the e­lect, than to pass by one to whom it justly belongs.

Thus much in answer to the first querie, Rom. 3.3: To the second querie the A­postle answers,Paul purposely deferred the answer to the 2 querie, to this place; because in this place it received the fittest answer. That Abra­ham was not justified by Cir­cumcision, which the carnal Jew together with the works of the law rested in, as appears by most of Paul's Epistles, Rom. 2. Gal. 5.2. They not well un­derstanding the tenor of the Covenant of grace, did look at it with a carnal ey, as a Covenant of works; therefore Circumcision was urged as necessary to salvation, Acts 15.1. And in this sense the yoke put upon the disciples, was such a yoke as that neither they nor their fathers were ever able to bear. It's not to be imagined that the Lord would impose any such intollerable yoke of circumcision as some conceive the meaning of the place to be, (for his yoke is easy, Mat. 11.28. and his commandments are not grievous, 1 John 5.) misconstruing the Lords meaning, and cleaving to the works of the Law; for which cause the Jews were cut off, Rom. 9.32. comp. Hos. 4.5. (I will cut off thy mother) — because they sought rightousness by the works of the Law, and not by faith in Abraham's Covenant, which included Christ in the womb thereof. For Circumcision was a seal of the remission of sins; or, as the Apostle calls it, a seal [Page 74] of the rightousness of the faith; which they had, or which was tendered unto them.

Obj. Jer. 11.3. Cursed be the man that obeyeth not the words of this Covenant, (Gal. 3.) which Covenant I commanded your fathers when I brought them out of the land of Aegypt. This Covenant was a Covenant of works.

Ans. Mind the words following, [which Cove­nant I commanded your fathers when I brought them out of the land of Aegypt] was this Abraham's Co­venant? was not this Covenant delivered on Mount Sinai 430 years after? for the breach of which they are here threatned. That the Law was taken by the Jews for a Covenant of works, is not denied, Gal. 4. Rom. 4. But that is distinct from Abraham's Cove­nant.

2. Let me tell you, As some pictures, if you look on them on this side, they resemble the king or queen; on the other side another party: So that Covenant considered largely, as that whole doctrine delivered on Mount Sinai, with the prefaces and promises, and all things that may be reduced to it; so it's a Co­venant of grace, as appears from Hag. 2.6. Accor­cording to the word that I co­venanted with you when I brought you out of the land of Aegypt,Sum vobiscum, dicit Jehovah, [...] Cum verbo quo pepigeram vobiscum exeuntibus vobis ex Aegy­pto, et cum spiritu meo in vobis. Jun. Verba (quo pepigeram) explicant in quo & propter quem vos acceptos ha­buerant, & receperam in foedus. Cal. lib. 3. cap. 9. Fac hoc et vives, vive et fac hoc. so my spirit remain­eth among you; now they re­ceived not the spirit, saith the Apostle, by the works of the Law, but by the hearing of faith, Gal. 3.2. that [Page 75] is, not by a Covenant of works, but by a Covenant of grace: But considered as an abstracted rule of rightousness; so it's a Covenant of works. Thus the Gospel taken largely, hath precepts and threatnings annexed, yea a bitter curse, (the Lord keep us from Gospel-curses!) Mar. 16.16. He that believeth not shall be damned; but strictly taken 't is put for the glad tidings of a Savior.

3. That the Law was delivered with evange­lical purposes, cannot be denyed; for Christ is the end of the Law, Rom. 10.4. When Moses saw that they had broken the Covenant, (though they had engaged, all this will we do, relying on their own strength) he breaks the tables, to let them see that God would break Covenant with them; there­fore he is not blamed by the holy Ghost for so doing, Act. 7. At that time the Lord said unto him, Take thou the tables which thou brakest, and put them in the Ark; signifying that Christ must keep Covenant with us and for us, else we shall never keep touch with God.

4. Those words [obey my voice, and do according to all that I command you, so shall you be my people and I will be your God] if compared with the like Scriptures, appear to be the condition of the Cove­nant of grace, Exod. 19.5. Now therefore if you will obey my voice indeed, and keep my Covenant, then ye shall be a peculiar treasure un­to me above all people, Segullah signifieth the peculiar treasure of Kings. and ye shall be to me a Kingdom of Priests and an holy nation. Which is applied to them in the times of the Go­spel, [Page 74] [...] [Page 75] [...] [Page 76] 1 Pet. 2.9. when all those types and ceremo­nies were abolished, and they not under a Covenant of works but a Covenant of grace, Rom. 6.14. Thus Lev. 26.3. If ye will keep my statutes, v. 9. then will I establish my Covenant with you, v. 12. and I will walk among you and be your God. Compared with 2 Cor. 6.16. I will dwell in them and walk in them, and will be their God. To those scriptures add Jer. 7. Psal. 81.13. Ah that my people had hearkened unto me, and Israel had walked in my ways! Will any say, That these pathetical expressions, and mournful ex­postulations relate to a Covenant of works, and not rather to a Covenant of grace tendered to them a­gain and again.

5. Consider the Text Jer. 4.4. The end of Gods requiring obedience on their part, was not for his own but for their benefit, that he might do them good, and give them a land flowing with milk and honey; which land, as hath been shewed, was gi­ven by a Covenant of grace; for which Covenant the Covenant of works did make way, as the needle makes way for the thred.

6. The Prophet setts to his seal, saying, Amen; having respect to those gra­cious words in the close of his speach,Which word is seldom used in any heathen author, unless in XENOPHON. q. d. So let it be, that this people being careful to keep Covenant with thee, may enjoy still that blessed land, which thou didst by oath bind thy self to settle them in.

Obj. But what say you to those noted places Jer. 31.32. Heb. 8.8? But finding fault with the first [Page 77] Covenant, he saith, I will make a new Covenant with the house of Israel. do not these places hold forth a Covenant of works?

Ans. I say that Covenant the Prophet speaks of is not the Covenant made with Abraham, but the Covenant made with them when he brought them out of the land of Aegypt, which (as I told you be­fore) was 430 years after Abraham's Covenant; Gal. 3.I will be thy God, is confessed to be a Gospel promise. M. Tombs. and therefore doth not disanul the former Cove­nant, and yet usually they confound this and Abraham's Covenant, which they confess to be the new Covenant or Covenant of grace.

2. I answer, That old Covenant largely not strictly taken, with its promises and appertenances, was for substance the same with the new Covenant, Heb. 13.8. Christ ever the same, as appears,

First, The old as well as the new was ratified by the bloud of the Messias, that bloud of his being as well typified by the bloud of the sacrifices,Heb 9.1. The first Covenant had Ordinances of divine ser­vice, [...], justifications; for by the bloud of Christ in the use of those Ordinances, they were justified See Grot. as in these days it is represented and sealed to us in the Lords supper: There­fore 't is called a Testament; now a Testament must needs be a Covenant of grace, for where a Testament is (v. 16.) there must be the death of the Testator; whereupon neither the first Testament was dedicated without bloud.

3. It was a marriage Covenant, Jer. 31 32. Though I was an husband to them (saith the Lord) [Page 78] or, Should I continue an husband to them, seeing they brake my Covenant. LXX. or, They continued not in my Covenant, and I regarded them not, (saith the Lord.) Paul takes the sense of the Pro­phet, not tying himself to words.

4. [In the day he took them by the hand, Hos. 11.] denotes his tender affection to them,Eph. 3.12. [...], Manu­duction.] Christ hands us to the Father. and fatherly care of them, Hos. 11.3. Which phrase implies it was a Covenant of grace.

5. This distinction of the Covenant into the Old and New, is not a division into his species, but his adjuncts; for the Lord (as others well observe) made but one Will or Testament,Heb. 8. Faulty not absolutely but comparatively. but caused it to be writ in di­verse characters, and some more legible and per­spicuous; one and the same Covenant may be either in paper or in parchment, and be sealed with wax or bloud;The Apostle saith [Covenants] Eph. 2.12. Rom. 9.4. Because so often renewed and enlarged. therefore, I say, it's called a new Covenant, not simplely in regard of the sub­stance, (for the main matter and substance is the same with the former) as a new moon and an old is one and the same moon: so the old and new Covenant one and the same Covenant, but it's said to be new because it's ratified by the death of our Savior exhi­bited, which was but in expectation before; as the command of love is called a new command, because confirmed by arguments drawn from Christ's own bowels.

I say, it is established on better promises; for that [Page 79] Covenant made nothing perfect, but was the bring­ing in,A bringing in of one thing upon another, [...]. In the ceremonial Law they had a ty­pical pardon successively, if any sinned then he must offer his sacrifice so often as he sinned. or superindu­ction of a better hope, Heb. 7.19 In regard of the end, Christ, it was perfect, Rom. 10. but in regard of the means to attain that end, imper­fect; but in this later Christ is brought in, who hath perfected for ever them that are sanctified.

2. [Better promises] in regard of the clearness of them; for here the Gospel is more clearly and di­stinctly revealed, 1 Pet. 1.10. They had a sea of brass, we a sea of Ordinances, clear as crystal, though min­gled with the fire of contentions, till this Covenant in its full extent be revealed to us. Rev. 4.6. & 15.2.

3. The former Covenant was much upon tempo­ral promises in that infant age of the Church; for the Jews (like little Children, won with a nut and lost with the shell) were much taken with the gilded outside of the book, rather than the inside, to take out a spiritual lesson, Gal. 4; but now in the new Testament the promises are more for spirituals, and less for carnals; the Church having attained to a greater stature and measure of grace in Christ.

4. [Better promises] because more large and full.

1. For the ceremonial part; for their sacrifices were for the most part for sins of ignorance, called by the Apostle (Heb. 9. [...] v. 7.) the errors of the people; (there is in the sins of the people of God an overclouding of the judgement, Lev. 6.3, 4, 5. Hence that expression of the Apostle, Rom. 7.5. [Page 80] The passions of sin which were by the Law.) In the ge­neral there was a sacrifice for a sin of presumption, [...], Rom. 7.5. Lev. 16.21. but in one place onely is any such allowed in par­ticular; there is one, (as was said of the thief on the Cross) that we might not despair; and but one, least we should presume Lev. 6.3, 4, 5. But here the bloud of Christ cleanseth from all sin, 1 Joh. 1.6. Ac­cording to his promise, Mic. 7.18, 19. Who is a God like unto thee, forgiving iniquity, (or that obliquitie of nature) and passing by the transgressions (that is, the voluntary and deliberate sins) of his people. See the Hebrew.

2. More large as to the subject, it being in those days for the most part confined to the Jews and Pro­selytes of the Gentiles; but now propounded and exhibited to all nations that shall embrace the faith of Christ, Mat. 16.16.

5. The promises of the new Covenant are better promises, in regard of their efficacy; the Spirit be­ing more abundantly poured out now, than in the days of old. Acts 2.17. In the last days I will pour out my spirit upon all flesh, your old men shall dream dreams, (in which God hath often revealed himself, but somwhat darkly, but) the young men shall see vi­sions. q.d. They have a clearer sight (oftentimes) than old men in those days; for they have the help of those that went before them: now if you set a child upon a Giants shoulders, he will see farther than the Giant sees. Stella.

6. This new Covenant is established upon better [Page 81] promises, in regard of the continuance of it; That is, as to the ceremonial part thereof, which was to be done away, Heb. 10.9.Porro lex ceremonijs quodammodo vestiobatur; nunc post corporis inte­ritum qui vestium usus erit? Tritum est illud vulgi proverbium, accesso­rium sequi naturam sui principa­lis. Non mirum igitur si ceremoniae, quae nihil sunt quam appendices ve­teris Testamenti, simul cum tot [...] Mosis ministerio finem habeant. Cal. in Lev. cap. 8. v. 8. He taketh away the first that he may establish the second. Which appears to be meant of the typical part thereof, ver. 8. But this Covenant of Abraham is a Covenant that lasts for ever even to a thousand Generations.

7. In regard of the stability of it, Jer. 31.33. Not according to the Covenant made with your father A­braham when I brought you out of the land of Aegypt, which my Covenant they brake, (or continued not in) But this is my Covenant I will make with you, (saith the Lord) I will put my law in their inward parts, and write it in their hearts; if these ordinances of Moon and stars depart from me, (v. 36.) then shall the seed of Israel cease from being a nation before me for ever; if heaven above can be measured, then will I cast off the seed of Israel for all that they have done, saith the Lord. Jer. 33.20 If you can break the Covenant of the day, and my Covenant of the night, then also may my Cove­nant be broke with David, That he should not have a Son to sit upon his throne; (namely, Christ to reign) and with the Levits. (that is, the evangelical Mini­sters, so interpreted Esa. 66.21.) and the spiritual seed of Christ. Add to these that great scripture Esa. 54.9, 10, 11. This is to me as the waters of Noah; for as I have sworn the waters shall no more overflow [Page 82] the earth: so will I be angry with thee no more. This scripture relates to the Jew's last call, (as appears plainly by the verses following, describing their glorious state) who though sinful shall never be dis­churched more after this. Esa. 33.20. For this Co­venant is an absolute Cove­nant,Ad hanc foederis naturam respi­ciens, Paullus ait, [...]. Grot. extending to their seeds seed for ever. Esa. 59. Iast. That is, there is no conditi­on required which God doth not undertake to per­form; and therefore as that Covenant of nature shall never be broken, nor these ordinances of heaven fail: so neither shall this Covenant with the Jew ever be made voyd. Hence it is Rev. 10. that Christ is described (ver. 1.) as cloathed with a cloud and a rain-bow upon his head; in that place the Apostle speaks of the mystery of God to be finished (ver. 7.) That is, the calling of the Jews, upon the sounding of the seaventh trumpet. Christ is described with a rain-bow about his head; signifying, That though their state then be dubious, (as it will be till the 45 years are expired, Dan. 12.12.) yet it's clear at bot­tom; and, That that Church shall never totally so be overwhelmed as it hath formerly been.

Obj. That was a national Covenant, but the Co­venant of grace was never tyed to any Nation.

Ans. The Covenant given to Abraham was not National at first, but domestical; (as is well observ­ed) bur Jacob's blessing and so his Covenant did ex­ceed the Covenant of his progenitors. Gen. 49.26. Now it's not said, That the blessing of Iacob, for so it [Page 83] should be national) but, That the blessing of Abraham should come upon the Gentiles. Gal. 3.14. Gen. 28.4. And give thee the blessing of Abraham, to thee & thy seed.

2. What say you to those places of the Psalmist? Psal. 2.8. & 72.10. & 102.22. & 47. last. The vo­luntary of the people shall be gathered to the God of A­braham. Or, what say you to those passages of the Prophet? Esa. 49.1. & 42.4, 10. & 51.5. & 66.9. In which places the holy Ghost seems to have a spe­cial ey to th [...]se Islands. Esa. 55.7. Nations shall run unto▪ thee Ezek. 20.40. In my holy mountain there shall all the house of Israel, all of them in the land serve me. Eze. 39.25. I will have mercy on the whole house of Israel. Thus Rom. 11.26. All Israel shall be saved. That is, the body of the 12 tribes. Eze. 42.15. The portion of the Levites allotted to them, as the verge of the Temple, amounteth to a space bigger than all the land of Canaan, and the Temple it self bigger than the Citie. As Ezekiel measureth the Ci­tie: so Iohn, Rev. 21. Which prophesie pointeth out the new Jerusalem coming down from heaven; I mean, the Jews again called after their rejection, and holdeth forth Jerusalem, that is, that Church of the Jews as far larger than that of Ezekiel.

3. Was it not an act of grace, that God separated that people to himself above all the people under heaven? Deut 4.6, 7, 8. And will it not be an act of the same grace, to restore them to a far more glo­rious state and condition?

4. This Covenant is never to be reversed, as you have heard from Esa. 54.9. This is unto me as the [Page 84] waters of Noah. I would fain know of any Neope­lagian, Whether, that if the world be never so sinful, it shall once more be destroyed with water? they will say no, (but, I must tell you, that as in the law a par­don of felonie binds the malefactor: (for so the par­don runs) so a pardon of sin binds the sinner to his good behaviour:) Even so, saith the Lord, This is unto me as the waters of Noah, surely though the Jews should much degenerate (which I trust they never will) yet they shall never be brought so low, as they have been in this their last Captivity. To this agrees that of the prophet, Esa. 33.20. Sion shall be a tabernacle that shall not be taken down. Amos 9.15. They shall no more be plucked out of their land, For the gifts and calling of God to that Church are without repentance. Rom. 11.29. As therefore this Covenant was National: so it shall be. It will be, saith reverend Mr Burroughs, a sufficient ground for any to plead an interest in Church priviledges, that he is a member of that Nation. Esa. 4.3. He that is left in Jerusalem shall be called holy, the rebels being cast out. Ezek. 20.38.

Obj. Notwithstanding that Covenant, the Jews were equally in a damnable condition with the poor heathenish infidels; all equally guilty before God, Ezek. 20.38.

Ans. They were so by nature, but that they mis­carried, it was because they wilfully rejected the Co­venant of Grace.

2. So are many of the rebaptized ones, though under the outward administration, many of them in [Page 85] a sad and deplorable condition, and damnable state though taken for saints by others, therefore doubt­less there is no force in that Argument.

Obj. Circumcision was a seal onely to Abraham, a sign to his posterity.

An. Are there not signs exhibitive as well as sig­nificative? and wherein did such signs differ from seals?

2. May not seals be to confirm a future as well as a present benefit? Or,

3. Is that seal (Rom. 4.11.) applyed to Abra­ham alone, and not written for those hereafter that shall beleive? Rom. 4.23. It was not written for his sake alone (saith the Apostle) that it was imputed to him for rightousnes, but for us also to whom it shall be imputed if we believe.

4. Was not the promise to Abraham to be heir of the world? that is, of Canaan included in that pro­mise; Was it not (I say) through the everlasting Co­venant, and not through the works of the law which the carnal Jew rested in? Rom. 4.13.

5. Did not Abraham's posterity stand in as much need of a seal to strengthen their faith as Abraham did? Abraham was troubled with doubtings, and the Lord again and again strengthened his faith. If he that was so eminent for believing was so put to it, what shall we say to the poor shrubs. Psal. 105. Will the Lord be wanting to them in any thing that may strengthen their faith?

Obj. If this opinion be maintained, That the Cove­nant of circumcision was a covenant of grace, it shakes [Page 86] the foundation of the Gospel, and overthrows many fundamental points of religion.

Ans. Here are great swelling words, but such do but verba dare, there is no proof for what is asserted; Dare any say in the presence of Christ when taking leave of the world, That this doctrine destroys the foundation of Christian Religion? Will they justifie this at the last day before the Lord Christ the Judge of quick and dead?Expectemus judicium tuum, Do­mine. Augustin. We ex­pect the judgment and de­termination of God himself in this controversie, as Austin sayd in another case. But let's see their Arguments. They say,

First, The first fundamental point must needs be denyed,Gal. 2.15. Jews by nature] Quia promissio haereditariam b [...]ne­dictio [...]m faciebat, ideo naturâ [...]ocatur. Cal. in Gal. That all mankind by nature are the children of wrath, Eph. 2.2. If all men by nature be the Children of wrath, then are they not under this Covenant of Grace; for to be under the Covenant of works and the Covenant of grace are contradictories, which cannot be true at the same time.

Ans. Contradictories may be true ( [...]) in a diverse respect, 2 Kings 17.34, 41. They feared the Lord, and, they feared not the Lord; that is, they feared the Lord in their way, and the Gods of the nations also; and therefore it's sayd they feared not the Lord. Thus Elisha to Hazael concerning Ben­hadad, 2 Kin. 8.10. He may recover, howbeit the Lord hath shewed me that he shall certainly dy, that is, he may recover of this disease, but he died notwith­standing [Page 87] by the hand of Hazael. Sons in some sense are no sons, Deut. 32.5. Their spot is not the spot of my children,There are promises for grace, 2. to grace, children are under both in some sense. yet (saith the text) they are children in whom is no faith. 1 Kin. 2.26. Abiathar is a man of death, and yet by the Kings favor he lives. The Israelites at the same time were enemies for our sakes, and yet beloved for the fathers sake, Rom. 11.28. Paul was under the Covenant as being descended of Abraham, and yet was by na­ture (as he tells us Eph. 2.2.) a child of wrath as well as others: So children considered in their natural state, as the sons of Adam, are under wrath; but con­sidered as children of such gracious parents in Cove­nant with God, so are they under grace, and there­fore under those divine Dispensations which they are capable of.

Gal. 2.15. We who are Jews by nature (that is, by descent from such parents) cannot with all our birth-priviledg attain to rightousness. Thus we say, Such are naturally English, that is, by descent. In this sense the Apostle useth the word Rom. 11.24. If the natural branches are broken off, &c. The Gen­tiles wanted this, being by offspring sinners. [...] nature in Eph. 2.2. is taken for that corrupt qualifi­cation of nature which they draw out of their pa­rents loyns. Grace at first was connatural to us, and had been propagated from parents to children ex traduce, if Adam had stood; as now corruption is. As therefore the children of Israel were called the holy seed, and yet some of them are stiled the [Page 88] children of the Sorcerer and the whore, Ethiopians, &c. Esa. 57.3. Amos 9.7. So may one and the same person be holy by way of Covenant, and yet unholy in respect of those internal qualifications: For there is a relative and a positive holiness, though they want the later, yet may they be under the for­mer.

2. Their children are under grace; for are not many of them under the everlasting Covenant made between the Father and the Son. [...], before these secular times, therefore all time, even from eternity. Are not elect children given to Christ before all time? Doth he not know them by name? And having loved them with an everlasting love, doth he not in time draw them with the cords of his love, even with the cords of a man, suitable to a rational creature, out of the hands of sin, Satan, and this present world? Doth he not swaddle them and bring them into the bond of the Covenant, even in­to that Covenant called the sure mercies of David? Doth he not gloriously irradiate with the beams of his countenance on their souls in heaven, for their heaven is the face of God? Will not Christ at the last day embrace such, (as he did on earth) saying, Here am I, and the Children which thou hast given me? And were they not under grace? Is not all this a part of electing grace? Surely this is the spring of all, the first wheel that moves all the rest, (Rom. 11.7.) and though there be a wheel in a wheel, yet all shall tend to their good, as all the wheels in a clock tend to make the clockstrike.

Obj. The second fundamental point that this er­ror opposeth, is the stability in the Covenant of grace; they say, The Covenant made Abraham's seed was conditional and broken by them, but the Covenant of grace is absolute.

Ans. The Covenant of grace is conditional, as appears by the whole current of the scriptures, Deut. 7.12, 13. Wherefore it shall come to pass if ye hearken to these judgments and keep and do them, that the Lord thy God shall keep unto thee the Covenant and the mer­cie which he sware unto thy Fathers. Lev. 26.41. If then their uncircumcised hearts be humbled, then will I remember my Covenant with Jacob, and my Cove­nant with Isaac, and my Covenant with Abraham will I remember. Joh. 3.16. That whosoever believeth should not perish. Where we see plainly, That the Covenant of grace is conditional.

2. This Covenant hath been broken, therefore it's conditional. [...] foedus Foedus enim fa [...]ien­tes primo jurabant, postea transibant inter partes pecudis, quasi dicerent, discindantur, dividantur ejus mem­bra, fiat sicut pecus istud, qui jura­memtum violaverit, sicut habetur Jer. 34 18. Sic foederis faciendi mo­rem describit Livius Sacer­dos feriebat porcum silice, sic a Jove feriatur is qui sacrum hoc fregeri [...] foedus, ut ego hunc poroum feris. Psal. 89.28 to the 37, the Psalmist pleads the breach of it, Thou hast made void the Covenant of thy servant. 2 Kin. 17.15. They rejected his Covenant that he made with their Fa­thers, therefore (v. 20.) the Lord rejected all the seed of Israel.

Esa. 24.5. They have broken the everlasting Co­ [...]enant. Num. 14.34. Ye shall know my breach of promise: For they failed in point of faith, therefore [...]hey did not enter into his rest. Dan. 9. He shall con­firm [Page 90] the Covenant with many for one week, in the midst of the week he shall cause the sacrifices and the oblations to cease. Christ preached 3 years and an half, and did confirm or was ready to confirm that Cove­nant made with Abraham and his posterity; which Covenant was tendered by the Apostles to the Jews, for another 3 years and an half, but they not closing with Christ, as the sacrifice ceased with his death: so the Covenant not long after was made void; for the ax was all that while layd to the root of the tree, and at last for their unfruitfulness they were discove­nanted and cut off from the root Abraham, Joh. 8.35. Then was the staff of beauty broken, (Zac. 11.10.) even that which was the beauty and glory of that nation, (which the Covenant of works never was) and this upon their wilfull and obstinate rejecting of Christ; which shews plainly, it could not be the Covenant of works.

3. There were two sorts of Israelites, the spiritu­al and the carnal Israelite, with both these the Cove­nant was made conditionally; the Lord promised them the land of Canaan, but they believed not either that ever God intended it,There are many that are visibly in a Covenant of grace under the Gospel that may be cast out from Gods people, & yet it fol­lows not but that it is a Cove­nant of grace though broken by them. or that the land was so good as was reported to them, or that ever they should be able to enter in, because the Ana­kims were there; therefore (saith the Apostle) they could not enter in; for though the promise was ab­solute to some of the seed of Abraham to enter in, yet for particulars it was conditional. The Lord promi­sed [Page 91] they should enjoy the land for ever, 2 Chron. 33.8. Neither will I remove them any more out of the land, so that they will take heed to do what I command­ed them. Thus Ethan pleads as was mentioned Ps. 89.34. My Covenant will I not break, nor alter the thing that is gone of my lips; but (saith he) thou hast made void the Covenant of thy servant, thou hast pro­faned his Crown by casting it to the ground.

Solomon broke Covenant with God in tolerating idolatry, setting up two Gods, therefore God set up two Kings, and cut off the line of Solomon in Coni­ah, so called ob contemptum, Jer. 22.30. Write ye this man childless, for (though he had seed; yet were they cut off in the captivity, so that) no man of his seed did sit upon the throne of David for ever. And were not the Children of Israel cast out? Did not God depart from Sion and the Temple, (though he had promised that in Sion he would dwell for ever, and that his ey and heart should be upon the Temple,) because they had been unsteady and falsified with God in the Covenant? Psal. 89. Thus he dealt with the carnal Israelites, and with the body of that nation, and could the spiritual Israelite plead not guilty? But yet because their hearts were right before him for the main, the Lord did not look at their miscarriages as a breach of Covenant, so as to make it null and of none effect.

There may be articles in a Lease broken by the Te­nant, but whilst the main Covenant is not broken (as non-payment of Rent) the Lease is not forfeited: So in the Covenant of grace there are many particular [Page 92] articles which are often broken; but the main condi­tion is,This Pepper-corn of obedi­ [...]nce is the Condition. That thou shalt take me for thy God, (as I am willing to take thee for one of my peculiar people.) now if this Condition be not broken, the Covenant is not broken; neither have we dealt falsly in thy Co­venant, (saith the Psalmist Psal. 44.17.) This con­dition was not broken by the spiritual Israelite; for (say they v. 18, 20.) Our heart is not turned back, neither have we forgotten the name of our God. There may be fallings out betwixt the wife and the hus­band, but unless she chuse another husband the mar­riage is not null: So there may be many fallings out between God and the soul, but till the soul makes choice of another God there is no breach of the Co­venant as to the main.

But here is the happiness of a true Israelite, That God keeps Covenant with him and for him, there is no condition in that Covenant of grace, which Christ hath not undertaken to perform for us; there­fore Hezekiah when he sees the Father angry, turns to the Son, the second person in Trinity, saying, Lord undertake thou for me, Esa. 38.14. There are two things by which we live, by what God saith, and what he doth; by a promise and a providence; thou hast said it and thou hast done it, (v. 15.) In these two is the life of my spirit. Temporals were but as nuts and apples given to that infant Church in the time of their infancy, to engage their hearts to God. Hence that phrase, I will give the land to thy seed, (Jer. 17.7.) to be a God to them; but though God deni­ed [Page 93] the husk and outside of the promise, yet he gave the kernel and inside of it to the spiritual Israelite; he promised them silver and payd them with gold. Esa. 60. To those gave he rest in a better land; with them (as his Church) he did rest and abide for ever; his ey and his heart was towards them and their prayers, though poor shrubs praying in the Temple or towards it, (i. e.) in Christ or towards Christ; though they could not evidence their union with Christ, a wistly look after Christ was accepted.

4. Therefore, I say, from adherent federal grace such as are onely visible members of the Church may fall, Gal. 5.1, 2. Dan. 11.30. And shall have intel­ligence with them that forsake the holy Covenant. Heb. 4.1. Let us therefore fear least a promise being left us of entering into his rest, any of you should seem to come short of it, that is, should really fall short of it, as the word is usually taken in scripture phrase; but as for the elect, Christ hath undertaken for them, that they shall never perish, Joh. 10.28. Esa. 55.3. I will give you the sure mercies of David, that is, Christ.

Obj. This Tenent overthrows the necessity of Conversion.

Ans. This Covenant includes regeneration and conversion in it, Deut. 30.7. I will circumcise the heart of thy seed, which sheweth, That the outward Circumcision did signifie the circumcising of the heart; which the Lord promiseth to make good to our seed now in the days of the Gospel, as appears from v. 1, 5, 11. Compared with Rom. 10.6. Hos. 14.7. Those under thy shadow shall return.

[Page 94]2. Hath not the Lord made faith and repentance the condition of the Covenant on our part, (Joh. 3.16.) which Christ hath undertaken with the Father to work effectually in the elect? For want of which qualifications many thousands are damned for ever, though the Children of Abraham visibly. What hast thou to do (saith the Lord, Psal. 50.16.) to take my Covenant in thy mouth, seeing thou hatest to be refor­med? Yet were their children under the outward ad­ministration of it; therefore we say, They might as well have debarred all the children of Israel from that outward priviledg, as now debarr the children of believers; upon the same account it 's said, Mat. 8.12. Many shall come from the East and from the West, and shall sit down with Abraham, Isaac and Ja­cob, in the Kingdom of heaven, but the children of the Kingdom shall be cast out, that is, such as were so born, and visibly so continued for a while; such, I say, shall be cast out of the Kingdom of heaven, or the Church here below, not the Church above; out of which none are properly said to be cast, be­cause they were never in it.

Obj. This opinion overthrows the foundation of all Gospel-Churches, As,

First, It destroys the matter of a Church, which ought to be Saints by calling, 1 Cor. 1.2. But this tenent doth unavoidably admit into the Church all the unconverted and unregenerate children, born of the bodies of such persons that either were or have been accounted believers.

Secondly, It admits into the Church good and [Page 95] bad promiscuously, and all those unbaptized; and what light in the Gospel have you to justifie such an Assembly to be the true Church of Christ?

Ans. To the first, we say, It destroys not the mat­ter of a Church visible consi­sting of visible Saints,Therefore they are incomple [...] Members of the Church. for such are children, and so owned by the Apostle as holy, (i. e.) relatively holy if not positively, 1 Cor. 7. Ezra 9.2. —the holy seed, (i. e.) such as are set apart for God and dedicated to him in a peculiar manner, and many of them sanctified from the womb. Thus Jeremiah, Esaias, John Baptist, the last of the old, and the first of the new Testamen [...] ▪ Now whether should we take the testimony of God or the testimo­ny of men? If we receive the witness of men, (saith the Apostle) the witness of God is greater, 1 Joh. 5.9. Man makes confession or profession of Christ, this is an human testimonie, and we accept it; and shall we reject a divine testimony? God forbid. Let God be true and every man a lyer, Rom. 3.

2. They are acknowledged as members of the Church by the Apostle Paul; for (writing to the Churches of Coloss and Ephesus, Col. 1.2, 3, and 20. Eph. 2.1.) he directs his Epistle to ch [...]ldren as well as parents.

3. We answer, That children upon their discove­ry of themselves not to be visible Saints, are to be sus­pended from the Ordinances; as in the old Testa­ment the Priests were to distinguish between the holy and the profane. Jer. 7. The Lord complains that they made his house a den of thieves; such then [Page 96] were not to be admitted to the Passover. In order to which the Porters were charged to keep back from the Temple such as were unclean (in any matter) though they were circumcised. 2 Chron 22.19. If this rule were observed in the old Testament, then surely it is not to be neglected in the new.

Ans. To the second Objection. Mr Pat. pag. 69.

Whereas they say, Such Assemblies are no Chur­ches, because they are not baptized, which is essen­tial to a particular visible Church: therefore we may have no communion with them; for God never had any Church-union or communion with any soul which was not baptized, that is, rebaptized.

Here are great swelling words, as the Apostle Jude saith, such spirits it seems there were in his time. But we answer,

First, If such were no Churches, then for many hundreds of years Christ's promise fell to the ground. Mat. 16.18, 19. I will give unto thee the Keys of the Kingdom of heaven. The Keys, as they grant, were given to particular visible Churches, against which, making up the body of Christ, the gates of hell (saith Christ) shall not prevail; but by this Doctrin they did prevail for above 1500 years, seeing that till that time we read not of any such Churches as they challenge to themselves; these therefore are but san­dy foundations, and certainly when the winds of temptation shall blow, and the rain of affliction shall fall, and the flouds of persecution come, their houses will fall.

2. What say you to Rev. 11.4? Are not the two [Page 97] Candlesticks the Churches, according to scripture phrase?We had Churches in England before there was any Church at Rome; as Matthew Paris tells us. Therefore we received not our doctrine or ordination originally from Rome; which farther appears by this, That the Brittish Churches in the celebration of Easter, observed the custom of the Eastern Churches and not of the Church of Rome; which doubtless they would have done, had they received the Go­spel from thence, as Flaccius Illyricus well observeth. which are to be slain as well as the olive trees, a little before the last downfall of Anti-Christ; and doth not the scripture own these Churches as true under the reign of Antichrist, for one thousand two hundred and threescore years: and will or dare any disown them, because not rebaptized?

3. Had they minded well the command of the holy Ghost, they had not been so grossly mistaken: Son of man, (saith the Lord,There is but one going in, and that in the singular number; but many goings out of the Church of God, which last word is in the plural. Ezek 44.5. Pones cor tuum [ [...]] in ingressu domu [...], & omnes [ [...]] exitus Sanctuarij. Ez. 44 5.) mark well the entering in of the house, and every going forth of the San­ctuary. They say we must enter in by baptism, which is essential to a Church; but thus they unchurch all the Churches in the world but their own, whereas we are visible members of the body of Christ before, being under the Covenant of grace, which is the in-let to the Church of Christ, but solemnly admit­ted by baptism: [...]. Mat. 2. For Christ himself was head of the Church before he was baptized, being King of the Jews.

4. Whereas they say, Christ hath no such union [Page 98] or communion with our Churches, because not ba­ptized:This is one of the greatest errors that ever was broached in the world; but we say, The communication of Faith is made effectual by the acknowledging of every good thing which Christ hath wrought. Phil. 6. Non habet dei charitatem qui Ecclesiae non diligit unitatem. Augustin. I answer, I am sorry to see such a spi­rit of error and pride gone forth into the world, that men should maintain such palpa­ble errors with so much confidence and arrogancie; for have we not proved that our Churches are true Churches?Where Christ vouchsafes his presence, there we may and must vouchsafe ours; unless there be some apparent ground to the contrary: But in our Churches Christ vouchsafes his presence: Why then should any withdraw, seeing they can render no reason for so doing? And hath not Christ walked in the midst of our can­dle-sticks hetherto? Rev. 2. The experience of thousands yea millions of souls may bear witness to this truth, and rise up and call us blessed; yea up­on our late repairing of the Tabernacle or Taberna­cles, hath not the Lord vouchsafed his presence and filled our Tabernacles with his glory? Exod. 40.34. Num. 9.15. On that day the Tabernacle was reared, the cloud covered the Tabernacle. Thus upon the casting out of the poor blind man, Ioh. 9.35. Jesus appeared unto him and made such a discovery of himself to his soul, as you shall scarse read in all the book of God; but they have not onely excom­municated some few, (that dissent in judgment from them in this point) though godly, but all the Chur­ches of God in the world, crying (as they in Esa. 65.5.) Stand by thy self, come not near me, I am holyer than thou, that is, I have devised a holyer way of worship than thou, These are a smoke in the nostrils [Page 99] of the Lord, and a fire that burneth all the day, and doubtless God will appear to the joy of such as are cast out, clave errante, with an erring key, and to the shame of those that thus have cast them forth as abominable branches. Esa. 66.5.

Obj. The Jews were truly under the Covenant of Circumcision, (Gen. 17.10.) but never all of them so much as visibly in the Covenant of grace.

An. We grant they were all circumcised, (which still they call the Covenant) but that they were all under a Covenant of grace savingly we deny, though so far as it extended there was a reality in it. 2 Pet. 2.18. [...], Ha­ving truly escaped the pollutions of the world, through the knowledg of Christ; these common gifts, purchased by Christ and given by the spirit to the sons of men, are true and real though not sa­ving grace. Thus the carnal Jews and carnal Gospel­lers children may be said to be under a Covenant of grace truly and really, so far as it goes, though they never attain to the enjoyment of the spiritual part thereof; the Jew had much benefit by that Cove­nant as we shall shew hereafter: But it was not ful­filled to them all in the utmost extent of it. Secret things belong to God, but things revealed to us and to our children: That God will be our God and the God of our seed, is a thing revealed, therefore it be­longs to us: but how many of our children he hath chosen, or how far he hath taken them into Cove­nant with himself, or how far the promise belongs to them, is a secret thing which must be left to God. [Page 100] It is true Abraham and his posterity were circumci­sed, Gen. 17.10. but it doth not follow, that all his posterity were in reality and truth under a Cove­nant of grace as to the spiritual part thereof, though visibly they were under it as to the outward admi­nistration, and enjoyed many common mercies by virtue of that Covenant. For what hast thou (saith the Lord) to do to take my Covenant in thy mouth seeing thou hatest to be reformed? But God did not cut off that entail till he gave them a bill of divorce.

Obj. No children fare the bette [...] for the faith of their parents in respect of this Covenant.

Ans. This query the Apostle answers, Rom. 3.1. What advantage h [...]th the Jew more than others? [...]; Quid amplius Judaeo? He answers, Much every way.

First, That unto them were committed the O­racles of God, Word and promises, non ut alienae rei depositum, but as their own proper treasure. Psal. 147.19. Deut. 4.6, 7.8. What Nation is there so great? &c. Three things make a nation great.

1. That they have God nigh to them, and that they are nigh to God again.

2. That they have statutes and judgments so rightous as theirs were.

3. In that they are a wise and understanding peo­ple These three you have in the Text: But how came they to be so wise if not by the enjoyment of these Ordinances, which are the glorie of all lands?

Secondly, By virtue of this Covenant they had the Tabernacle of God amongst them, a Church e­rected, [Page 101] and they with their children members of that Church. Psal. 147.13. He hath blessed thy chil­dren within thee. How highly doth the Apostle ex­tol this christian priviledg? Heb. 12.22. Ye are not come to Mount Sinai, but to Mount Sion, viz. To fellowship with the Church below and the Church above. (for these two differ but as the porch and the house, the suburbs and the city.) Great is the privi­ledg that members have in this respect. Consider how near and dear such are to God. Psal. 87.2. He loves the very gates of Sion (in which gates they had their Assemblies) even the outside of Sion, more than all the dwellings of Jacob What sweet enjoyments have they that walk in such ways? If it be so sweet on earth, where a few imperfect members mixed with many corrupt members meet together; ah! how much more sweet will it be in heaven, when that great Assembly shall meet, and have no mixtures at all! Is it therefore no advantage to children that they may sit down with Abraham, Isaac, and Iacob in the Kingdom of heaven? But ah! how sad will it be with them, if they be hereafter cast out into utter darkness!

Thirdly, The presence of God is in his Tabernacle, Exo. 40.34. The glory of the Lord filled the Taber­nacle, when they punctually observed the command of the Lord by the hand of Moses.

Fourthly, By virtue of this Covenant the Angel of his presence saved them, and stood betwixt Pha­raoh and them. Exod. 14.19. q. d. Thou must strike through my loins if thou wound Israel my first-born. [Page 102] Yea the Archangel Christ hath his Angels under him, which always behold the face of their heavenly Fa­ther, and are ready at a beck (as knowing his mind by his looks) to revenge the wrong of these little ones, Mat. 18.10. Yea this Angel of the Covenant (Esa. 9.3, 9.) stands betwixt them and hell, suspen­ding the execution of that sentence of wrath, [In the day thou sinnest thou shalt dy the death,] which is an axiom true at all times; but the seed of the wo­man comes in & reprieves such for a while. Heb. 1.3.

Fifthly, By the bloud of this Covenant were they brought out of Aegypt yong and old: Hence it is that he makes mention of this name, I am the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob, this is my memorial to all generations. Exo. 3.15. By the same bloud of Christ sealing that Covenant were they and their little ones brought out of Babylon, and shall be brought out of this their last captivity. Zac. 9.11.

Sixthly, They have many temporal blessings, Psal. 37. I never saw the rightous forsaken, (es­pecially if liberal for so is the word often used) nor his seed begging bread. It was so rare athing for the seed of the rightous to beg their bread, as that Da­vid professeth for his part he never saw it He is ever merciful and lendeth, saith the Text, v. 26. And what then, are his children beggers? No, they shall enjoy a blessing. Gen. 21. Ismael will I make a great nation, (v. 13.) because he is thy seed; so that wicked chil­dren fare the better for their parents, as to outwards at least. Deut. 8.18. It is he that giveth thee power to [Page 103] get riches, that he may establish his Covenant with thee, Luke 13.16. And ought not this woman (being a daughter of Abraham) be loosed from this bond? Filiam Abrahami sic ap­pellat propter ejus gentis praestantiam, quam deus singulari gratiâ amplectebatur propter fadus cum Abraham [...] pactum. Dominus arguit à re notâ & consessa. Piscat. his Covenant which he made to thy Fathers: So that we may safely say, the Co­venant is made with believers and all their seed, in respect of the external part; but with be­lievers and their elect seed onely, as to the internal part thereof.

Seventhly, They have common gifts, constrain­ing and restraining grace by virtue of this Covenant, though their nature be not changed, as the prophet speaks Esa. 11. Yet at least they are restrained, but a lion is a lion still though a tame lion. He hath re­ceived (saith the Psalmist) gifts for the rebellious, that is, saving grace for some, Ministers and people; re­straining grace for others, that the Lord God may dwell among them, else there were no abiding for the people of God in this world.

Eightly, They had by this Covenant offers and tenders of grace, in that sense they were called the children of the Covenant, Act. 3. partly because it was tendered to them, (but not solely for this cause, for so all nations to whom the Gospel is preached should be in Covenant, which we utterly deny) and partly because accepted by them; herein many are mistaken that make the offers and tenders of the Go­spel simply as sufficient to render a people in Co­venant with God, without their acceptation; but we say, There must be the accepting of those offers [Page 104] and tenders, and closing with Christ (externally at least,) else it's no Covenant properly so called.

Ninthly, Many children have saving grace wrought in them by virtue of this Covenant, Deut. 30.7. I will circumcise the heart of thy seed. Jer. 31. That great intruder, sin, that usurps authority over all, (even over such as have not sinned after the simi­litude of Adam's transgression) comes in by the fall of our first parents: and why may not children there­fore be restored by the next parent instrumentally?

If the Lord did admit such onely as believe, then the faith whereby we believe were not given by any Covenant; but what saith the Prophet Jeremiah? ch. 31. v. 34. They shall all know me from the least to the greatest, that is, yong and old; which knowledg is interpreted to be faith, John 6.45. I will write my Law in their hearts, what law, onely the moral law? Yea the evangelical law, if so, then the law of faith. Have then elect children no saving benefit by the Covenant till they believe? Yes, they have this bene­fit, That they shall believe; for there are promises for grace, 2 to grace. When the Lord saith, I will be the God of thy seed, there is a promise for grace, q.d. The vein of election shall break out in some of them, not all; for such promises as these are indefinite pro­mises,Rom. 3.—Excid [...]rit sermo ille, viz. promissio illa gratiae, Ero deus [...]us & seminis tui. and therefore true, though not verifyed in all, Rom. 3.3. What if some did not believe, to whom the promises were made, shall their unbelief make the faith of God of none effect? I say then, that the vein of election shall break forth [Page 105] in some, (though for the present it runs under ground, as some rivers do) for it cannot be but that some of Gods peoples children should prove religi­ous, seeing that the church shall have a seed and seeds seed for ever; the word and the spirit in those shall continue till the coming of Christ, saith the Lord, Esa. 59.21. To which place the Covenant mention­ed (Rom. 11.27.) is to be referred, q.d. That Church of the Jews shall not fail in her spiritual offspring for ever: This is a promise for grace in the seed, to grace in that Church, out of which Covenant the Lord hath not excluded any children of believers; therefore parents have a ground to hope he hath in­cluded all, he having not excepted any. Here then is an object for the faith of parents to work upon, but know assuredly that according to your faith so things go with you. Psal. 33. last. Let thy mercy, Lord, be up­on us according as we put our trust in thee. 1 Ioh. 5.16. comp. Iam. 5.15. If any man see a brother sin a sin which is not unto death, let him pray for him, and it shall be forgiven him. It's not to be expected that all should be heard in this particular, as it is not in that of Iam. 5.15. Such promises are not universal but indefinite, because ofttimes not always the Lord grants such their desires; the meaning is, prayer is an ordinance to which God hath made such a graci­ous promise, and he often doth restore the sick, pray­ers being put up by believers for them; therefore in such cases we are to rely on God by an act of recum­ [...]encie, though we cannot relie on him by an act of full assurance; but such as have much communion [Page 106] with God, may know much of his mind, and have a particular faith for a particular marcie, whether spiritual or temporal: children have general and indefinite promises, and conditional upon faith and obedience, such as determin not the kind of good promised, nor the particular person, and are there­fore true if performed to any person in any fort. Heb. 11.27. Many spiritual and so temporal promises are indefinitely propounded and so to be understood, not that the Lord intends an absolute and universal obli­gation of himself, neither is the act of faith in the application of it required to be an absolute and infal­lible persuasion that God will bestow these particu­lar things upon us: but the Lord expects we should rely on him to do what is most for his glory and our good. But let me tell you faith may do much, (Mat. 9.) When he saw their faith, he said to the sick of the palsie, Be bold, thy sins are forgiven thee. When he saw their faith, that is, the faith of them that brought him: So when he sees the faith of parents bringing their children to Christ in the visible way of this Or­dinance, (for I know no other visible way to bring children to Christ) he saith to them, Your sins are forgiven you. Thus children are saved by the faith of the parents, begetting faith in them. Hence that passage of David concerning his child, I shall go to it, it shall not return to me, he means not of that state of death in the grave, (for what comfort could that be to David that he should go to the the grave with it?) but the state of glory, to which he was assured it was gone, and to which he should follow after.

Tenthly, I am apt to be very charitable to the Infants of all believers that dy before they commit actu­al transgression,Cedo quo nomine filij vestri salvan­tur nisi ex illo verbo, Ego sum deus seminis tui, ac nisi illud verbum ad illos pertin [...]ret, ne ad baptismum qui­dem admittendi essent. Cal. Inst. Quicun (que) in dei foedere gratiose semel est, ne (que) unquam ab illo foeder [...] se avertit, ille [...]ona promissa conse­quitur; nunquam enim descrit de [...] nisi deserent [...]m. See Forb. heaven sure­ly is fuller of such Infants, than of others; and there­fore as he said, so say I, If I had 20 Children I would not bate God one. But how are these Children saved if not by that Covenant? I will be thy God and the God of thy seed? from which gracious Covenant, if afterwards they turn not a­way, they obtain the things promised, and their souls are bound up in a bundle of life for ever. See p. 69.

Obj. There was no promise of eternal life menti­oned in that Covenant.

Ans. In that Covenant God promised them tem­porals more largely, spirituals more sparingly, ac­cording to his secret dispensations of these and those times; they were children,Hence the motto of the Prince of Wales, [I SERVE] Gal. 5.4. a child differs not from a ser­vant; and thus the Hebrew na­guo [...], the Greek [...], the La­tine word puer signifie either a child or a servant. and a child differs not from a servant in his nonage, now children are more taken with childish things; there­fore they had more of tem­porals and less of spirituals, more of the spirit of bondage than the spirit of adoption, that is, that spirit that makes us sons, [...], and te­stifies we are sons; but yet we say in that Covenant life is propounded implicitly, in that he saith, I will be thy God, which is interpreted by our Savior to in­clude [Page 108] not onely spirituel life here, but eternal life hereafter. Christ by virtue of his spiritual dwelling in us, will raise us up at the last day, for as the union betwixt Christ's humane and divine nature ceased not even in the grave: so neither doth the union be­twixt Christ and the soul and the body cease. Rom. 8. Seeing that we are not raised by the graces of the spirit, but by the spirit it self dwelling in us; it is true, Christ as Mediator shall cease having yielded up that vicarium Regnum to his father, but he conti­nues head of the Church for ever.

2. When the Lord explains that Covenant, Ier. 31.33. Doth he not say, I will be their God, their sins and iniquities will I remember no more? and are not our souls bound up in this as in a bundle of life? is not here justification of life for children to lay hold up­on? Nay when the Lord saith, I will write my Law in their hearts, and they shall all know me from the lest to the greatest, that is, yong and old, is not this the Law of the spirit of life? and will not he write the Law of faith too, by which we live the life of the sons of God? Gal. 2.20.

3. That blessedness (spoken of Gen. 12.3.) is ex­plained by Paul to be justification by faith, Gal. 3.8.14. called there the blessing of Abraham which comes upon the Gentiles, that is, parents and children. Act. 3. blessedness is expressed by turning every one from his evil way. Esa. 44.3. I will pour my spirit upon thy seed, and my blessing upon thy offspring. Is not here a spirit of life? are not the essentials of rege­neration promised here to babes? and is not that [Page 109] mother promise, I will be thy God, the ground of all these? Gal. 3.14.

4. What is the meaning of that phrase, Do this and live? may it not evangelically be taken as well as legally? Ezek. 20. Neh. 9 Which if a man keep he shall live therein. What force is there in these words (with reverence be it spoken) if understood in their sense? for might not the spiritual Israelites say, To what purpose is it? What hopes have we of attaining to that perfection, and so consequently to life? It 's granted the carnal Israelites being not sensible of their own weakness and imperfections, looked at that Covenant as a Covenant of works, and so seem­ingly it was propounded; but the spiritual Israelites look'd at it with another ey, as it was propounded with evangelical purposes, that is, Do this in Christ and live: Hence it was that the Lord bid Moses put the Tables into the Ark, as signifying, That Christ was to keep Covenant with them and for them, as hath been formerly shewed.

Obj. None ever had any interest in that Cove­nant but such as were in Christ.

Ans. Never any had any saving interest in that absolute Covenant, but such as are in Christ in truth and reality; but there are others that are in Christ, as the unprofitable branch in the Vine,Some render the words as the Syr. renders it, viz. Every branch that beare not fruit in me. Joh 15. [...]. that bringeth forth fruit to it self: these having entered into Covenant with God, may be said to be under the Covenant condi­tionally, (of which conditional promises the Sacra­ments [Page 110] are seals) and by virtue of it be made parta­kers not onely of temporals, but also of those com­mon graces by which they are sanctified for this or that particular service. Heb. 10.29. (And hath coun­ted the bloud of the Covenant an unholy thing, where­with he was sanctified.) Which grace is sometimes called life, (though it fall short of regeneration.) Jude 12. But the Covenant is established with the spriritual seed of Isaac onely, and such as walk in the steps of the faith of our father Abraham. Gen. 17.19. I will establish my Covenant with him for an everla­sting Covenant. Ismael was under the Covenant, but mocking at the promised seed, (that is, Isaac, a child of the promise) he was discovenanted and cast out; therefore he was in before, (Gal 4.30.) else how was he cast out? Esau was under that Cove­nant of Isaac, but he, profane wretch! sells his birth-right, and goes to Mount Seir, therefore he is ca­shiered also, and not so much as mentioned in the Genealogie of our Savior upon this account.

Obj. All the promises of the new Covenant were made to the spiritual seeed.

Ans. But did not those promises run along being entailed upon Abraham his posterity?Quamprimum quis natus est ex [...]deli parente, statim fit filius Abra­ha; nam priusquam Judaeus aliquis circumcisius fuit, habebatur in nu­mero filiorum; baptismus enim non facit filios Abrahae, sed foedus. Whit. de Sacr. and are not the promises made to the visible Church whereof Christ is the visible head? were children ever cast out of that mystical bodie of Christ? Gal. 3. Doubtless the Apostle speaks of a Church which was the visible bodie of Christ, to which the seals were [Page 111] applied, for there was no distinction of a fleshly and spiritual seed in the old Testament, but all were in­cluded in one and the same Covenant, till they dege­nerated from it.

When there is mention made of Abraham's car­nal seed in opposition to his spiritual seed, Rom. 9. Gal. 4. As Ismael is said to be born after the flesh.

1. It 's not because such were reprobates, for ma­ny of Abraham's seed were reprobates, and yet not reckoned to be born after the flesh.

2. Nor because such were begotten by carnal ge­neration, for so Esau and Jacob were.

3. Nor merely because born of Hagar, See Grot de jure belli. p 12. Lege Mosis Israelitae soli teneban­tur, Circum [...]isionis autem lege tota Abrahami posteritas, quare qui po­pali extra Israelitas circumcisi sunt, eos credibile est aut ab Esavo aut ex Cethurae posteris venisse. for God commanded Circumcision to pass upon the concubines children. Gen. 17.12.

4. Nor merely because unregenerate, for many elect persons are not con­verted in infancie.

5. But Ismael is said to be born after the flesh be­cause Hagar was a bond-woman, (and in that time a type of the Covenant of works) too likely an in­strument in the course of nature for a child of the pro­mise to be begotten of. Gal. 4.23. It's probable A­braham might not so much make use of his faith, as nature in using Hagar; and in this Ismael was a type of all hypocrites that have no more than what may [...]e attained to by humane industry; but Abraham [...]ad Isaac so by faith in the promise as if there were [...]o use of nature. Abraham circumcised Ismael, [Page 112] which sheweth, that as none but the visible faithful are to be baptized: So all the seed of such are to be looked upon as elect (as Abraham did) untill God or they discover the contrary; for God hath not dis­anulled Abraham's Covenant which runs in the na­tural line, nor added to it, the whole Gospel being but an explication of Abraham's Covenant. Heb. 4.2. Therefore it remains in its latitude, including children as well as parents.

The Covenant having an external administration, many might be in it according to Gods revealed will, but not according to his secret purpose; now we are to proceed according to his will revealed in his word, for what ever Arguments are produced a­gainst the children of believers now, might have been pleaded against Abra­ham's seed of old;Believers were the seed of A­braham among the Jews. Rom. 9.6, 7, 8. Therefore our Savior argueth, those Pharifees not to be the children of Abraham. therefore Rom. 9. Paul speaks not a word of a different dispensa­tion of the Covenant of Abraham in the old and new Testament: I say, there is not the lest word hinted, that infants, because children of the flesh, therefore are no children of the promise but rather the contrary: For Isaac though of Abraham's flesh, yet was a child of the promise when but eight days old, and let me tell you, The Covenant in some re­spects makes the father a spiritual father, and the child a spiritual seed as well as natural. To conclude, the Apostle doth not shew in the forenamed chapter, who were the seed as to Ordinances, but who were the seed as to election and salvation.

For though there was a Covenant for Ismael, yet was it not established with him but with Isaac. Gen. 17.19. He shewed indeed that all the children of the flesh are not the elect seed, but doth not shew they were not the children of Abraham's Cove­nant. v. 7.

The children of the promise are those that are born to Abraham according to promise,See Piscat. in Gen. 13.15. To thee will I give this land, and thy seed for ever.] Posteria tuis non tamen omnibus, sed tantum orituris ex filio uno, cujus respectu [...]runt semen unum (i) populus unus. Sic cap. 21.12 Ʋbi jubet ablegare Ismaelem, additâ hac ratione, Nam is Isaac vocabitur tibi semen. therefore all I­saac's seed according to the flesh were children of the promise; for the promises were made to them, not­withstanding some of them were thrown out, and some entered not in. Thus the Gospel Church hath the promise of salvation made to them, but so as many visible Saints may fall short thereof. Heb. The word [...] signifies not a seeming but a real falling short, according to scripture phrase, and the scope and purport of this place. 4.1. Which shews you that Abraham's Covenant contained all his seed indefinitely, for that some should enter in: The promise is absolute, but as for the individuals it was upon condition of faith: so there is a company of believers elected that shall certainly enter into glory, and these determi­ned by God. But as for particular persons considered as visible members of the Church; these enter in, or not, accordingly as they believe, or believe not. When a man covenants with another, That such a piece of land shall descend to his heirs, who shall be his heirs is unknown, onely it's known in general [Page 114] that the child is the next of kin: Thus in this case who shall have the benefit of this Covenant may be unknown, but in general it's known that believers shall. The Lord appoints his Church to look upon such persons as saints or no saints, according to their visible holiness, and to look on their seed to be such as their parents are; for Ismael is reckoned first as Abraham's, afterwards Ismael's seed are reckoned as enemies and strangers like himself. Exod. 12.48. 1 Chron. 2.17 It appears Jethro was an Ismaelite, yet chap. 17.25. he 's said to be an Israelite. Ismael was under the Covenant, and God did much for him as the son of such a father, Gen. 21 13. And also of the son of the bondwoman will I make a nation, because he is thy seed: But the Covenant was established in Isaac: All visible professors and their seed are incovenanted, (for the promises of the Gospel are tendered to them, and they accept of them) but the Covenant is esta­blished on true believers onely; not as though (saith the Apostle) the word of promise hath taken none effect.Gen. 26.28. & 34.3, 4. The promise runs thus, Ʋnto thy seed v. 3. And unto thy seed, v. 4. when he speaks of the Church-seed, that is, such children as were inchurched: But when he speaks of Christ, then he alters the phrase, saying, In thy seed shall all nations be blessed Gal. 3. Rom. 9.6. No god­ly Jew (though others did) ever thought the word of God false, because those that trusted to the works of the Law, were rejected: For in those indefinite promises it's enough to render them true, if they take effect in some though not in all, according to the intent and scope of the holy Ghost. Let God then be true and every man a lier, according as it is written, That [Page 115] thou mightest overcome when thou art judged. [...], either when thou judgest or art judg­ed, it's mediae vocis; thus the Heb. (be mishpat) in judicio, which is taken actively or passively.

2. We answer as formerly, there are promises for grace as well as to grace. Deut. 30.6. Joh. 6. All the father hath given me shall come unto me, and who­soever shall come unto me I will in no wise cast out. Thus Jer. 31.34. From the least to the greatest, yong and old, they shall all know me, that is, believe in me. Joh 6.45, 64, 65. That place of the prophet implies a multitude of such in the Church, far above what had been in former times: to say it's meant of the elect, as usually they interpret such places, reacheth not the scope of the place which imports a greater number than ordinary in former times, whereas of the elect it would be true were they never so few, or in those times no more of them, than had in any o­ther age formerly been; therefore it is well obser­ved that the Covenant is the ground of faith, and not faith the ground of the Covenant: For who can believe without a promise? what ground hath the faith of the parent to work upon, if you take a­way the promise? Archimedes said if he had but footing to stand upon, he would toss the earth like a ball: and what cannot faith do (which in some sense is said to be omnipotent) if it have a promise to work upon? but if faith have no ground to work upon, it can do nothing.

3. Do they not proceed according to the judg­ment of charity in their administrations, as the A­postles [Page 116] did? Act. 8. they were all baptized from the least to the greatest, that is, yong and old, and were all these really saints▪ Joh. 3.26. These were ac­counted the spiritual seed, till they manifested the contrary: If such, why not children? For if the Co­venant (as they say) be onely with real saints, and the seal administred onely to such; then none at all are to be baptized, seeing with Peter we may easiely be mistaken. But were it not better to administer the seal to 99 that are not really sanctified, than deny it to any one to whom it doth belong.

The third Argument is taken from Circumcision. Infants were circumcised under the law, therefore now to be baptized under the Gospel.

First, Because the Covenant of grace made with the Jews and Gentiles is the same Covenant for substance, as hath been sufficiently proved; though there be diversitie of administrations thereof. Gal. 3 8. A man in this or that habit is the same man, though diverse in his apparel: even so the old Covenant for­merly adorned with that dress of ceremonies, but now stript of them and made plain, is one and the same Covenant with the new Covenant.

Secondly, Circumcision and baptism are both seals of the same Covenant, and they are the same sa­craments or seals for substance, and for the spiritual part and use thereof. Circumcision sealed the Co­venant of grace to Abraham and his seed. Rom. 4.11. And baptism doth the like.

Thirdly, We may argue from the Analogie be­twixt Circumcision and baptism: for they both a­gree [Page 117] in the substantials, though they differ in some circumstantials.

Now they themselves do confess we may argue from parity of reason or Analogie.

1. When Analogie doth not institute a piece of worship, but onely helps to the understanding of it; now as for the ordinance of baptism it's clear, but as for the application of it to this or that subject, we need the help of Circumcision.

2. When we do not rest solely in the comparison, but have a farther reason for it; now it's not the bare Analogie between Circumcision and baptism, by which we enforce the baptism of infants, but the grounds of both from scripture.

3. When it holds full proportion in scripture to that for which it's brought, which we say, Circum­cision doth to baptism, unless in some particulars wherein a peculiar reason may be given. We say then,

1. They agree in their signification, for they hold forth to us mans corruption by nature.The substance of all divinity lay in Circumcision, (as Luther well observes) the like may we say of baptism; there­fore if we would be good Divines, let us studie our baptism: For the Lord hath put a great stress upon such truths as seem little in the eys of many. Gnorlab signifieth a superfluity, and is not sin a superfluous thing? Jam. 1.21. [...], a whitflaw. Josh. 5.3. The hill of fore-skins. This was clearly shadowed out in the cutting off the fore-skin: and what doth the washing of the body signify but that natural uncleanness which we contracted from our first parents. Heb 10.22.

2. They agree in this, that they represent the my­stery of our redemption: In the former there was [Page 118] the shedding of bloud, in the later the same bloud is represented by water poured on us. How the cere­monio [...] part of Circumcision is abolisht, but the sa­cramental part still remains, which a believer may plead with God; for baptism is ( [...]) the earnest demand of a good conscience: (that what is signified in that Ordinance may be made good unto us) so the word rather signifies than the answer of a good conscience. I say it's the earnest demand, for omnis praepositio est additio, every preposition, as we say, is an addition, Phil. 4.17. Not because I desire a gift, [...], but I earnestly desire ( [...]) a fruit, or whatsoever was a effect of his Ministery.

3. They agree in that they represent the mysterie of regeneration.

First, The cutting off the fore-skin signifies, the taking away that filth of nature: and is not baptism the laver of regeneration, and the washing of the new-birth? Tit. 3.5.

Secondly, They agree in their subjects [...]o which they are applyed, each of them being administred to such as are incovenanted, which are the [...], the first subject of the seals, (and not believers, quatenus believers, as some would have it) whether yong or old: So that being applied to Infants (though for the present wanting faith) they are not seals of a blank, unless we should say that the Cove­nant was a mere blank. Rom. 4.11, 12.

Fourthly, they agree in their ends and uses,

1. In that they are initial seals of the Covenant of grace, assuring parents, That as God is their God: [Page 119] so he will be the God of their seed; they are both to strengthen the faith of parents in laying hold on the Covenant for their children. So that when the Lord seeth the faith of the parents, I am persuaded he oftentimes saith to the child, (as to that man, Mat. 9.) Thy sins are forgiven thee.

2. In them we are dedica­ted and consecrated to God,Quod morale est durat, viz fid [...]m pr [...]f [...]endam ex dedicatione parvulo­rum [...] Sponsus dicitur puer, quando circumciditur, seucircumcisionis die, quia tum primum populo dei conjun­gitur, & deo quasi desponsatur. Exod. 4 Et ipsa dicebat, Spon­sus sanguinum tu mihi es, Targum. [...] Per sanguinem circumcisionis istum datus est sponsus nobis, tu [...]c dicebat sponsus sa [...]umum propter circumcisione [...]. Schindl See LXX. [...]. that is, given up to him and to his service forever. 1 Sam. 1. [...]8. Therefore as Circum­cision, so baptism binds us to the keeping of the Law e­vangelically.

3. They serve to distin­guish us from the world of heathens and pagans: they and theirs lie all of them uncircumcised, I mean, un­baptized, with their ini [...]uities upon their bones, as the Prophet saith of Meshech, Elam, Tubal, and the rest of the Nations, (Ezek. 32.24, 26, 27.) brand­ing them with this black cole of infamy, viz. That they were uncircumcised.

4. They agree in this, That as Circumcision was not,Gen. 17. In ipso articulo temporis, in that juncture of time. Mat. 28. [...], ( [...].) in the present tense as implying haste: so baptism is not to be deferred. Abraham and all his household were circum­cised in that very day: even so baptism is not to be delayed, but with all conve­nient speed the seal is to be applyed, (Act. 22.16. and now why tarriest thou? arise and be baptized.) For [Page 120] the neglect of this Ordinance is dangerous, as the contempt is damnable.

Thus far they agree, therefore (say some) Circum­cision was a type of baptism. Col. 2.11, 12. Paul contends with those who labored to maintain jew­ish ceremonies and types, (v. 10, 11.) shewing that Circumcision, which was the profession of the whole law, was fulfilled as a type or figure to chri­stians by Christ in baptism, and therefore that was to vanish away as the types did, when they were fulfilled, v. 12. He shews how we are circumcised in Christ, which is sealed and effected by baptism, in which we are assimulated to Christ, so that ba­ptism is a christians Circumcision; and then are we said to be circumcised with the circumcision of Christ when we are baptized.

That Circumcision is a type of baptism it will ap­pear if we examin the properties of a type.

1. Types are inferior to their antitypes, of which they are but shadows and figures: so is Circumcision to baptism in many respects.

2. Types were not true in themselves compara­tively, being a shadow of things to come; but in the body or truth which they type out, so in circumcision there is a type of a type, [...] Signum ad vivum ex­pressum. Luther. that is, a shadow of a more lively image: but as for the holiness of children, which some say was ceremonious, we answer, That pa­rents and children were federally and therefore mo­rally holy, as the Apostle tells the Jews long after the abolishing of the ceremonies, viz. That they were an [Page 121] holy nation, a peculiar people. 1 Pet. 2. For what could the holiness of children in the old typifie in the new?

3. When the antitype of truth is fulfilled, then the type ceaseth:Maluerum J [...]daei hoc velum cere­moniarum dissuere quam laceraere. Molin. and thus Circumcision ceaseth upon the ushering in of baptism, though it was continued for a while, that so with the rest of the ceremonies it might have an honoura­ble burial, as being of a noble birth, even of Divine institution. What hath been said to Circumcision as to the typicalness thereof, may with much more e­vidence of truth be applied to the ark,Aqua diluvij in Arcâ constituti [...] salutaris, extra Arcam ver [...] morti­fera fuit. Aug. (wherein all the household of Noah, that is, his children were saved) the like figure whereunto baptism now saveth. The like we have 1 Cor. 10.2, 6. And were all baptized unto Moses, — and in the sea. Now these things are our types, [...], we may argue with much clearness from the shadow to the truth even in this place,In nube & mari, quae baptismum i [...] ­num essicium nostro congruentem, obscuriora potius elegit sacramenta, quod ad antithesin inter nos & illos magis valebant. Calv. if all were baptized, then their chil­dren; if so then, why not now? For was it not the Apostles scope to let them know that the Jews had the same priviledges for substance with the Corin­thians, who notwithstanding those priviledges were not spared,From the type to the verity the argument is of force, unless there be some special reason to the contrary. because so highly exalted with many Gospel priviledges. O ye Corinthi­ans (saith the Apostle) do not think to escape, for [Page 122] all these befell the Jews as types; therefore as the Lord dealt with them, so will he deal with you.

However though it be denied that there is a type of a type,Significat Ap [...]stelus mutuam simi­litudinem [...] vel ut vulgo loquntur, correspondentiam Cal. in Pet. 1, 3. yet I hope that none will denie, that there is an antitype or a correspon­dent type that comes in the room & place of a former type. Though Circumcision properly was not a type of baptism,Beza renders 1 Pet. [...], typus correspondens, or a type an­swering to a type. yet Circumcision and baptism are both types of one and the same thing represented, as was shewed before. The ark and ba­ptism are two several types, yet both shadowing out our deliverance by Christ: So Circumcision and ba­ptism are two distinct seals, but both holding forth to us our corruption by nature, and redemption by Christ.

Secondly, They differ in circumstantials, as

1. In the time, for the circumstances of time and day were not built upon the Covenant, ergò, not perpetual. Circumcision was on the eighth day, for which there was a special reason, not onely in re­gard of the weakness of the child the seventh day, being the critical day: but also because that day was a type of the resurrection of Christ, which was in the eighth day; and so the sabbath is call'd the eighth day, John 20. The same number of days was observed in many other things, (therefore it cannot merely relate to the weakness o [...] the child) as for the con­secration of the Priests, Lev. 8.35. & 9.1. The cleansing of the lepers, Lev. 14.8, 9, 10. The clean­sing [Page 123] of the polluted Nazarites, Num. 6.9, 10. and for the purifying of the altar. Ezek 43.26, 27. and the offering of the sacrifice, by which Christs resurrecti­on on the eighth day seems to be typified, who rose again for our justification.

2. They differ in their subject, Circumcision was administered onely to the males, baptism to the male and female. For,

1. The females were not capable of the former Ordinance.

2. Sin entered into the world by man, being an active instrument of generation; whereas the wo­man is a passive instrument, Rom. 5. By one man sin entered into the world: For if Adam had stood, we had not fallen though Eve fell.

3. They differ in durance, Circumcision was in force till Christ came, because typical; but baptism continues to the end of the world: So that we see they agree in all the substantials, and almost in all things else, unless in such things for which a special reason may be given.

I conclude therefore this Argument, as Circumci­sion in the old Testament was applied to children: so also is baptism to be applied in the new; for of equals there is the same reason. Thus much for the 3 Argument, taken from the analogie between Cir­cumcision and baptism.

4 If children were circumcised in the old, they are now to be baptized in the new, because baptism succeedeth Circumcision, (now what is succession but the substitution of later things for former things [Page 124] in the same subject, as is well observed) for when the Jews were converted, (Act. 2.38.) Peter enjoyns them not to be circumcised but baptized; which shews, that baptism comes instead thereof. Thus Col. 2.11, 12. The scope of the Apostle was to take them off from the rudiments of the world, especially Circumcision, which troubled most of the Church­es. Therefore he saith, You are compleat in him, being circumcised with the Circumcision made without hands. But they might object, We want the out­ward Circumcision to us and our children, which was of singular use to the Jews to strengthen their faith: The Apostle answereth, You are buried with him in baptism, You are circumcised because bapti­zed; For baptism supplies the place and room of Circumcision, and is every way as advantageous to you: So that we plainly see they were compleat in Christ, as to this Ordinance sealing outwardly. Sup­pose (saith Mr Sydenham) the Ordinance should a­gain be changed, and the inversion thus, That ba­ptism should be abolished and Circumcision set up again, and the Apostle should express himself after this manner, Ye are compleat in Christ, in whom al­so ye are baptized with the baptism of Christ, being circumcised with him; Would not this deduction be clear, That Circumcision was ordained instead of baptism? Therefore we say, Either baptism succeeds the sacrament of Circumcision, as to children; or else some other Ordinance doth succeed; or else no­thing at all remains in lieu thereof: But nothing else succeeds Circumcision; therefore either baptism [Page 125] succeeds it, or else there is no seal of the Covenant left as to children, but they without any visible to­ken of Gods favour depart out of the world.

5. Because an Ordinance once enjoyned and ne­ver repealed,All Gods commandments and institutions about the Sacra­ments of the Jews, bind us at this day in all things which be­long to the substance of the Co­venant, and were not acciden­tal to them. stands still in force; but the sealing of the Covenant to the infants of believing parents is enjoy­ned in the old Testament, Gen. 17. and never repealed in the new, if it be, let any man shew where.

6. Because the priviledges of the Gospel are as large to believers for them­selves and their seed,Quacun (que) de circumcisione dicun­tur, [...] spectant ad naturam ejus sacramentalem, quam habet ut com­muni cum reliquis sacramentis, illa recte applicantur ad omnia sacra­menta; sed ratio signandi in cir­cumcisione est talis. Ames as un­der the law. Take away ba­ptism from infants, and pa­rents now shall want one means & that no small one, sc. Sigillum dei, the seal of God to strengthen their faith in the Covenant of grace for their children, which parents had then: and children now shall want one means to confirm and effectually promote their sal­vation, even while they are infants or children, who may dy before they be men. Thus much for the third Argument taken from Circumcision.

The fourth Argument.

Children are inchurched,If children of believers be accounted to belong to the Church, the Argument will follow for baptism. Mr Tom. p. 139. See the Review. that is, members of the visible Church; therefore to be baptized. Eph. 5.26. That he might sanctify and cleanse the Church, by the washing [Page 126] of water by the word, 'that is, of institution and pro­mise. Where we see plainly, that members of the Church are to be baptized. This I suppose no ratio­nal man will deny: for upon this ground women are admitted to the Lords Supper,Calvin challengeth all the world to show where women received the Lords Supper. because they with us are one body, one bread, 1 Cor. 10. I shall therefore shew you that children are members of the body of Christ.

First, They were members, therefore they are Psal. 147.13. He hath bles­sed thy children within thee. Eph. [...].12. [...], Politie or Church priviledg: That was a spiritual Common-wealth whereof the Jews with their children were members; and so are the believing Gentiles with their children; for they onely are strangers from the Com­mon-wealth of Israel, which are strangers from the Cove­nant. See Cal. in Jos. cap. 5.6. Those that were born in the wilderness were not circumci­sed, for they walked fourty years in the wilderness, [because they obeyed not the voice of the Lord.] This is rendered as a reason of their non Circumci­sion, and not their journeying from place to place, as some think for sometimes they stay­ed long in a place; if there­fore it had been the Lords plea­sure that they should circum­cise their children, the Lord would have minded them of it: but for their rebellions the Lord suspends the seals, q. d. I will disown and discovenant you and yours, if you persist in your sins. Act. 7.38. This is he that was in the Church in the Wil­derness. The body of a peo­ple (wherein children are included) is called a Church, though many were not cir­cumcised for their rebellions and provocations in the wil­derness: As many now a days in the wilderness of the Church are not baptized, through the neglect of their parents, which is a sad omen that the Church may yet wander long in this wilder­ness state. If then children were members of the visible Church, they are so still; for we read not of their dis­churching [Page 127] in the new Testament. Yea the Prophet saith, Jer. 30. That the children of the Jews shall be be as of old time. Hence that of the Apostle, Gal. 4. As it was then, so it's now. Then they were mem­bers, being the children of the promise: so now we with our children are children of the promise, as I­saac was, though a child, erg. consequently we with our children are Church members.

Again, Such as obstinately reject Christ are cast out, Gal 4. Therefore they were included before, else how could they be excluded? but as it was then, so it's now, saith the Apostle. There were then those that did forsake the holy Covenant, Dan. 11 30. so it's now; but for this they are to be cast out o [...] the Church of God. Though the Church of the Jews had cast off the leaves of its figurative holiness, yet the substance thereof still remains

Secondly, That children are members, it appears from Rom. 11. where the Apostle speaks of a visible Church which I shall easily demonstrate.

1. There was a partaking in common of the fatness and sweetness of the Olive tree, that is, [...], vers 17. This word intimates such a partaking as they had, not such as they might have had, as Mr Tomb [...] would make the world believe. the visible Church, to wit, o [...] the ordinances, promises, seals of the Church; now these are in a visible Church, therefore those branches that were broken off, were members of a visible Church. Joh. 15.6. [...], for a branch in appearance is a visible branch.

2. The breaking off is from a visible Church, Be­hold the severity of God, [...], vers. 22. The [Page 128] breaking off was visible and sharp. The ax of the word lay long at the root of the tree as ready to cut them off but suddenly the Lord takes it up, hews them and cuts them down from the root Abraham, and gives them a bill of divorce, seeing they had vo­luntarily and obstinately rejected his son, Act. 13.26. After he had discovenanted them, then he comes with that Roman ax (as Luther calls it) and cuts them down root and branch in one day.

3. Their reingrafting shall be visible, and in a visible way, [...], stimulus, [...], pungendo inserere. v. 25, 26. All Israel shall be saved, that is, the body of the 12 tribes. So the Prophet interprets it, Ezek. 37 22. I will make them one nation in the land. This clearly argues that he speaks of that visible Church of the Jews, though not as a body politick, meeting in one place, having publick officers in common, and ordinances in common: but as a Church in his general notion considered.

4. He speaks (Rom. 11.20) to the visible Church at Rome, (for will any say, they are exhorted to take heed they be not cut off from Gods eternal election? this is not to be imagined.) boasting of her external priviledges, whom he warns by this visible example of the Jewish Church rejecting Christ, and therefore rejected by Christ, because they did cleave to a Co­venant of works and not of grace; but these also taking no warning were dischurched, when they ex­alted works above Christ, or at least made them com­petitors with Christ; looking for justification by [Page 129] them, and not by Christ alone, as Kemnitius well observes, for which that Church was dischurched.

5. If they were broken off from the invisible Church, then were they of it before, whether we speak of reprobates or real members; if of repro­bates, then, according to their sense, reprobates were broken off from the invisible Church, which is not to be imagined; if of real members, then such chri­stians may fall from saving grace finally and totally: for those individual persons shall never be restored, though the branches specifically considered, shall be reinstated into the visible bodie of the Church.

6. Rom. 11.15. They are said to be cast away, which cannot be verified of the invisible Church, seeing Christ hath chosen them, (Esa. 41.9. I have chosen thee, and not cast thee away.) and engaged (Joh. 10.) that they should never perish.

7. The invisible members did believe, how then could they be broken off for unbelief? therefore I say that the ingrafting of the Jews, Rom. 11, shall not onely be by faith into the invisible, but also by calling and profession of faith into the visible Church: the working of which in the nation of the Jews, when called, will appear to be a mighty work of God, even as the resurrection from the dead.

These things being premised, I thus argue,

1. If onely some branches be broken off, then the rest remaining in Church-membership, both parents and children are made partakers of the root and fat­ness of the Olive tree.

2. A pari, Children are broken off by the unbe­lief [Page 130] of parents, wilfully rejecting Christ; therefore they are grafted in by their parents, embracing that Covenant of grace for themselves and their children: For the ingrafting of the Gentiles must be suitable to the breaking off the Jews.

3. The Olive tree, that is, the visible Church, still remains, saith the Apostle, some of the branches onely being broken off;Olcaster, v. 17. i. e Oleastri sur­culus] Nam integrae arbores non in­seruntur. Beza. and we as a wild Olive grafted in, [...], instead of them, as the Syriac translation also renders it Hence it is, the Vineyard, i. that Church for the substantials of it is given to the Gentiles Mat. 20.16.

4. The unbelief for which the Iews were broken off, was not merely the rejecting of the Covenant of grace, as made to themselves personally; but as it was held out to them and their seed jointly: therefore children are included in the sense of the Apostle.

5. Rom. 11.28. As touching election, they are be­loved for their fathers sake] Election must be un­derstood in that place of the external grace of the Covenant, whereby God chose this nation to him­self. Deut. 4 27. By which expression we may plain­ly see, That the Covenant the Lord leaves to pa­rents, extends to their children also.

The Patriarchs are called the root, not in respect of their per­sons, but of the promise which is made to them and their seed; for the internal personal qualities are not conveyed by generation, but (as is observed by others) the external privi­ledges which are given to a stock or kinred do discend by generation, from believers not considered as the sons of Adam, but as such as are in Cove­nant with God.6. Why are they called na­tural branches more than o­thers? [Page 131] Surely not in respect of their goodness o [...] nature or natural propension to grace; for they are naturally as stiffnecked as any people: but in respect of the nature of the Covenant of grace, given to their ancestors and their seed, according to which God is more readily inclined to pour out of the spirit of his grace upon the seed and offspring of his covenanting people, than upon strangers and aliens. Now though the Gentiles in their first ingrafting may be said to be the wild Olive, (as the Iews at first were) yet afterwards they were naturalized, and their children become natural branches of the Olive tree, (i. e.) the Church of God. Psal. 128. Thy children as Olive plants, green and legitimate, for the Olive tree ad­mitteth no other graff. Ains. in Psal. 128. The a­blest of that opinion do grant, That now in the days of the Gospel, children are under the promise; and that the promise (Gen. 17.7.) is a Gospel promise, notwithstanding they denie the seal, though the pro­mise be made the ground of annexing the seal, what­ever is said by any to the contrarie. See Mr Tombs, Review. p. 3.

Others being convinced that the Apostle speaks of a visible Church, (which indeed is undeniablie true) flie to their old distinction, to wit, the Covenant of Circumcision, or the Covenant of works; from which Covenant they say the Iews are cut off to this day; to make this good, they distinguish betwixt Abraham begetting, and a working Abraham, and a believing and faithful Abraham. Thus they say, The whole nation of the Iews were legally holy till that [Page 132] Covenant was abolisht. I answer, They make a di­stinction betwixt Abraham believing and Abraham working, where none is to be made; for did not his works [ [...]] work together with his faith, de­claratively, not onely before men but God? were not these works brought in,Jam. 2.18. [Shew me thy faith (saith the translation) without thy works] but it should rather be rendered [by thy works] [...] ▪ that is, [make thy faith appear out of thy works.] (Iam. 2.18.) as fruits of his faith, which is the conditi­on of the Covenant of grace? for faith without works is dead, how then can it justifie?

2. Observe, They say that Covenant mentioned Rom. 11. Heb. 8. is abolished, as being a typical Co­venant: but we answer, We have alreadie proved it to be an everlasting Covenant.

3. What priviledge, that is, peculiar benefit was it to that nation to be under the Covenant of works? Rom. 3.1. which is common to all nations consider­ed as the sons of Adam: but in Rom. 9. the Apostle speaks of that Covenant and the fulness thereof, as a peculiar prerogative to that nation, and not com­mon to others.

4. What prejudice could it be to them to be cut off from that Covenant? nay it had been well for them if they had been cut off from the Covenant of works, which neither we nor our fathers were ever able to bear. The Apostle tells us they are hardened, and the Lord hath sent a spirit of slumber, v. 8. that he hath cast them away, v. 15. and broken them off, v. 17. and why? because they did not cleave to the Covenant of grace, (which they were under, Act. [Page 133] 3.25. and 4.4.) but wilfully and obstinately reje­cted Christ, being unskilful in the word of rightous­ness, (Heb. 5.13.) that is, not descerning aright that justification was held forth in the old Covenant, but cleaving to the works of the law. Rom. 9.31, 32. comp. Rom. 11.7.

5. If that Covenant be abolished, how can they be reingrafted into it? for the Apostle here speaks of a reingrafting into the same Covenant, which plainly argues it was no typical or carnal Covenant, but a Covenant of grace still in force.

6. Through unbelief they were broken off, that is, (say they) from the Covenant of works; therefore (according to their doctrine) if they had believed, they had continued in the Covenant of works to this day, wch is a contradiction: and yet they affirm that Covenant ended with Christ, it being a typical & car­nal Covenant as Canaan was. But have not such cause to mourn, that such a gross spirit of error should thus seiz on them, and lead them into those false and bywaies; certainly for building upon the foundation this trash, wood, hay, and stubble, they shall suffer loss 1. of their labor, and 2. of their reward: For the day shall reveal it, and it shall be consumed as by fire. 1 Cor. 3.13. Ah then retract with Austin and undeceive those poor souls you have deceived, least the Lord be angry with you!

3. Arg. Of such children is the Kingdom of hea­ven, ergo, they are inchurched. Mar. 10. And they brought little children to him, that he should touch them: and the Disciples rebuked those that brought [Page 132] [...] [Page 133] [...] [Page 134] them: but when Jesus saw it, he was much displeased, and said, Suffer little children to come unto me, and forbid them not, for of such is the Kingdom of God. Mark 10.12.

1. Observe, they brought ( [...])Lev. 26.43. [...] even because. Mar. 10 6. [...]. Hence the word Proselyte, thus the children of the Gentiles were Proselytes. even babes to Christ; this is recorded for our imitation, Mat. 19.13. [...], little children were brought.

2. Christ saith, Suffer little children to come to me,See the like phrase Mar. 4.21. [...]; Num lu­cerna venit? (i.) importatur? Is a candle brought to be put under a bushel. that is, to be brought to me. Is not this maxim in force in all ages from Christ to the end of the world? Doth not Christ now say to our dissenting brethren, Suffer little children to come to me? And how should we now visibly bring them to Christ but in that ordi­nance of baptism?Media applicandi Christum non sunt alia quam verbum et sacran enia, e [...]. vel nullum datur ordinarium medi­um, vel baptismus est medium. I know no other way: For the invisible coming of [...]nvisible members falls not under the cognizance of the sons of men: therefore such a prohibition had been in­congruous.

3. We are not onely commanded, but charged, For­bid them not.

4. Christ was very angry with his own Disciples, that offered to put them by; for even Christs own dear people may be injurious to children, as we see [...] in our days; but with these doubtless he is as much, displeased, as ever he was with them, seeing that he hath the same tender bowels in heaven as he had on earth.

[Page 135]5. Of such (he saith) is the Kingdom of heaven, that is, of children, and such as are like to children: (according to the phrase of Nehemiah, Shall such an one as I fly? that is, I or any in my condition.) For children are capable of be­ing subjects of any Kingdom on earth;Mar. 10.15. Whosoever receiveth not the kingdom of heaven as a little child, (that is, as a little child re­ceives it, [...]) he shall not enter into the kingdom of heaven. and why not of the Kingdom of grace? Luk. ch. 48. Saith, Whosoever receiveth this child, Now least we should think he intended that child onely, as having some singular thing in him, he saith, Luke 18.16. Of such is the kingdom of heaven, that is, they are children of the Covenant, as the children of that nation were till they were discovenanted.

To say it's meant of humble souls, is not sense, and therefore not beseeming the eldest Son of wisdom so to speak: for judge you, yea why do you not of your selves discern, and shew your selves men, Isa. 46.8. Is it sense to say, Suffer little children to come unto me, for of humble souls is the kingdom of heaven? were not Christ's speaches full of reason and weight? how did the Pharisees won­der at his answer, [...]. Observe how he multiplies the article when he speaks of the things of God, or that which was dedicated to his worship. Give to Caesar the things that are Cae­sars, and to that God the things of that God. And shall we make Christ here (with reverence be it spoken) to speak nonsense?

6. He laid his hands upon them and blessed them. Those that brought the babes to Christ, found more love and tenderness than they could expect; for he [Page 136] laid both his hands on them,Christus infantes oblatos amplecti­tur, ut mundus intelligat, amplifi­candae potius quam limitandae patris enisericordiae advenisso. Cal. embraced them, and blessed them, as Jacob on the sons of Joseph [...] owning them as his children. Gen. 48.5.

7. Observe he saith, Whosoever receiveth this child receiveth me. Observe the three Evange­lists mention one and the same story concerning children, which was occasioned by the ambition of the Disciples. Luk. saith, Whosoever receiveth this child, [...], Luk. 18.16. Mark, Whosoever receiveth, [...],) one of such children in my name. Mar. 9.37. Mat. 18.5. [...]. These Texts do imply that Christ speaks of a particular little child; and yet least it should be thought that other children of the Covenant were excluded, he saith, Whosoever receiveth one such little child sin my name, receiveth me [...] de primo vitae septen­nio dicitur, [...] de secundo. Beza Mar. 9.37. one of such little children. He farther addeth ( [...],) of such like, specifically con­sidered. These words, viz. [Whosoever receiveth such as these] are of eternal veritie; and therefore, as Augustine once said, Cave nè deus sit, nè Christus sit, Take heed it be not God, that it be not Christ that beggs an alms of thee, and thou deniest him: So I say in this case, Take heed that we reject not Christ in rejecting infants, tendered to us in the Ordinance of baptism; for may not Christ at the last day say to such as plead they never rejected Christ, Verily in that you rejected one of these little ones, you rejected me.

Obj. These children were sick.

Ans. He is sick that says so, for there is not the least word in the text that way tending; nor was there any reason or pretense that the Disciples should forbid sick children to be brought to Christ.

8. A majori, If the kingdom of heaven belong to [Page 137] others because such, then it belongs to children much more; for they are made the pattern of conversion and humiliation to all such as expect salvation by Jesus Christ. Mat. 18.3. Ʋnless ye be converted and become as little children, ye shall not enter into the kingdom of heaven. q. d. They are so far from not be­ing members of the kingdom of heaven, as that none shall enter into it that are not fashioned or molded according to the mold of little children.

Obj. There is no mention made of baptism in this of our saviour.

Ans. Though it's not expressed yet it is implied,

For, 1. Christ saith, Suffer little children to come unto me, that is, to be brought to me in a visible way.

2. He saith, Of such is the kingdom of heaven; therefore to such the broad seals of that kingdom ap­pertain.

3. Whosoever receiveth one of these little ones in my name, receiveth me: which is a proposition of eternal veritie in all ages.

4. He laid his hands upon them, owning them as his own children, as Jacob did the sons of Joseph. Now the laying on of hands was used for confirma­tion after baptism. Heb. 6.1, 2. To this purpose may we apply this act of Christ to those infants, which was to confirm the promises solemnly made to their parents in baptism.

4ly. What is it that makes a visible member of the Church?

1. Is it the promise or Covenant? and have we [Page 138] not proved that children are incovenanted? Ex pro­missione dei non tantum ex professione hominum, asti­mamus dei populum. Bull. de bapt.

Quo jure illi infantes baptizant, hoc nos infantes baptizamus, imo longe meliore, si enim in baptismo spectanda est animi imegritas sive sinceritas, jam certiores sumus de in­fantium sanctimonia, quam illi de adultorum confessione. Bul. in Act. The [...] were visible members before they were ba­ptized.2. Is it the profession of Christ? and is not baptism a real though an implicit pro­fession of Christ? did not the children of Israel virtually make a Covenant with God, though by sacrifices? Psal. 50. And do we not in all du­ties tendered to God, as it were say, I take this God for my God, and give up my self to him to be one of his people?

3. Is not the confession of God, (who saith, that children are holy) more than all the professions of men? is not the witness of God greater than the wit­ness of men? (1 Joh. 5.9.) the one being an human the other a divine Testimony.

5. Christ an infant was born head of the Church, Mat. 2. Where is he (say they) that is born King of the Jews? If Christ an infant was a member, then why not the children of believers? there can be no reason given to the contrary.

Per baptismum patet ingressus in­fantibus in ecclesiam, non quòd ad eos ecclesia non pertineret prius, nam ad ecclesiam pertinet quisquis Chri­sti est; sed est signum visibile nostrae insertionis in corpus Christi. Bul.6. Their children are of the bodie of Christ, else not saved; for half of the elect die in infancie, which must needs perish if they be not of the bodie of Christ. Eph. 5.23. He is the saviour of the body.

[Page 139]5. Arg. Believers may be baptized; but some chil­dren are believers: therefore some children may be baptized. The first propositi­on is granted by all,Lutherani volunt eos etiam fide actuali credere, etsi evidentia rei eos cogat fateri, fidem illam non esse ta­lem, qualem adultorum, sed esse actum inexplicabilem. Wal. loci com. de Bap. Hunc spiritum fidei sine omni a­ctu esse non arbitramur, quia spiritus otiosus non est, quemadmodum ratio, etsi se non nisi paulatim exerat. Idem Wal. the mi­nor proposition is proved,

1. From scripture, Mat. 18.3, 4, 5. (compared with Mar. 9.36.) Whosoever shall receive one such little child in my name, receiveth me: but whosoever shall offend one of these little ones, that believe in me, it were better that a milstone were hanged about his neck, and he cast into the midst of the sea.

The opposition shews he speaks of children, For it's an undoubted maxim, Where terms stand as op­posits, the one is to be taken in the sense opposit to the other. Now it's clear from ver. 3, 4, 5. that he speaks of children whom we are visibly to receive in Christ's name, to such Ordinances as they are capable of; therefore the words are so to be taken, ver. 5. (little ones that believe in me.)

There is the like phrase Rev. 9.4. It was comman­ded them that they should not hurt the grass of the earth, neither any green thing, neither any tree, but onely those men which have not the seal of God in their foreheads: Which exception shews you, That by grass, green things, and trees, he means men: For the exception (as we say) must be of the same kinde. (Exceptio est ejus dem generis.) See Rev. 7.3.

2. We may see this exemplified in many. Psal. 22. [Page 140] 9. Thou madest me hope when I hung upon my mothers brests. This is true in the antitype, Christ, who had faith from the very womb; it's true also in David, Psal. 71.5. Thou art my trust from my childhood, by thee I have been holden from the womb. (v. 17.) Thou hast taught me from my childhood, now also when I am grey headed forsake me not. We see original sin lies dormant in the child for a while, but quickly puts forth, it being peccatum actuosum. Psal 58. They go astray from the belly: and why may may not faith put forth betimes in some? as in Esaias, (ch. 49.) Jeremiah, (ch. 1.5) and John Baptist, the first in the new Testament. Now the first in every kinde is the rule of all the rest. I see no reason but when a child puts forth acts of reason, he may put forth an act of faith; and when he begins to know his natu­ral, he may also know his heavenly father, though it wants that reflect act, whereby it knows that it knows; the former we have seen verified in many children in New-England and elsewhere.

3. [...] If some be sanctified from the womb, then they have faith, (quicun (que) renascitur fidem habet, Lu­ther.) For all the graces are concatenated; but some are sanctified from the womb; for Christ as he san­ctifies our natures, so he sanctifies every age, as Hos. 12:4. Jacob being actuated by the spirit, began to act betime, and to wrestle with his brother Esau, in his mothers womb for the blessing.

(See Zanchy.)

4. Children have faith in heaven, therefore in earth. For,

[Page 141]1. If the Lord irradiate upon the souls of children in heaven,Quos pleno lucis suae fulgore illu­straturus est Dominus, cur non iis quo (que) in presens, si ita libuerit exiguà scintillâ irradiaret. Cal. Inst. l. 4. c. 16. and they do be­hold the face of God, (which is an act of faith Heb. 11.27.) then have they faith in hea­ven; if so, why not on earth?

2. They rest in hope of the resurrection, else they were miserable, Psal. 16.9. that is, the soul doth rest in hope; for the bodie properly is not the subject of hope, now hope is the daughter of faith.

3. There will be this use of faith in heaven, to be­lieve that which we cannot comprehend, (for faith is the evidence of things not seen) even the infinite being of God, who dwells in that light that none can approach unto; therefore we conclude infants in heaven have faith, and why may they not have the seed of it here? seeing there is no grace in heaven which was not wrought on earth. Hence it is that regeneration is called an earthly thing, Ioh. 3. because as for other reasons, so this, it must be wrought on earth.

4. The first Adam had power to convey grace as faith to his posterity; and hath not the second A­dam much more power? Was not the faith of Adam of the like nature with the faith of believers? though it do not put forth that act whereby we are justifi­ed.

5. Can any live without faith, or be saved for ever without it and shall we denie it to infants, who stand in need of justification by faith as well as we?

Obj. How can they be justified by faith which cannot act?

Ans. Faith may be said to be passive in our justi­fication, because the habit of faith is passive before it put forth any act; now we are justified so soon as by the habit of faith we are alive in Christ in the first moment of our conversion, before faith put forth any act. Thus children are justified by the habit of faith, for as we were guilty of Adams sin, (which is imputed to us) before we were active in giving con­sent unto it: so is the rightousness of Christ imputed to children before they put forth any elicit act of faith. Therefore I say they are capable of that pas­sive Ordinance of baptism.

Obj. Children have no knowledge, therefore no faith, therefore no interest in the Covenant or seal thereof.

Ans. Are they not reasonable souls, because for the present they make no use of reason? and may they not have habitual knowledge lying dormant in them, though no actual? is it not Christ that enlight­eneth every one (not that is going out, but [...]) coming into the world? doth not the reasona­ble soul lie dormant in the body till organized? doth it not live though it move not for the present? when a man is asleep he acts not grace, doth it therefore follow he hath none? may not a child be included in a lease and conditions made which render him ca­pable of the benefit of it, if he perform the conditi­ons therein specified, though at the making of the lease he give no consent at all? and were not the [Page 143] children in the Evangelist blessed by Christ, because they understood it not? or was Peter washed in vain because he knew not what Christ did as yet? Mr Tombs saith, If he knew an infant such an one as John was, such a one he would baptize, and farther he saith, that such as Christ blessed might be baptized; if therefore baptism belong to one infant, it's enough to confute them who denie it to all; but according to this account, if onely the elect and faithful are to be admitted to the Ordinance of baptism, there is no subject left to whom we may dispense that Ordi­nance.

6. Arg. Taken from examples in scripture, whole families were baptized,Observe, the families are made the precedent. If any one say here is a Sy­necdoche, the whole being put for part: We answer with Ur­sin. Non est decurrendum ad figu­ram, ubi nulla est ratio cur non reti­neatur sententia propria. none excluded; for house in scri­pture phrase signifieth chil­dren throughout the Book of God. I have read it again as to this point of baptism, and could never find in all the Book of God where the word ( [...]) house or household is used,Mat. 24 25. [...]] He made him Steward over his houshold] The word is altered, for here he speak of servants. and chil­dren excluded, but rather al­ways included, servants be­ing but the appendix of the house. Gen 16.2. It may be I may be built by her, saith Sarah of Hagar, that is, have children by her. For [...]an, inquit, aedificabor ex ed. LXX, [...], [...] (hence [...] a Son) usurpatur pro procreatione, susceptione, & e­ducatione liberorum, qui ex parenti­tibus quasi extruuntur, & quibuo familiae tanquam domus aedifica [...] ou fili [...]difidifioij, pator fundamenti instar se habeat; ita quidem ut qui non habeat liberos, quasi destructus sit. Schindl Sic Plaut in Most. Act. 1. Novarum esse aedium arbi­tror similom ego hominem, quando hic natus est Et paulò post, Pa­rentos fabri liberum & fundamen­rum substruunt liberorum. Ʋt ex eâ liberos consequar. Gen. 18.19. He will command his household [Page 144] after him, that is, childrens children; for Esau and Ia­cob were 15 years old before Abraham's death. Gen. 45.17 18. Pharaoh enjoyns Ioseph to bid his brethren bring their households with them, which being explained in the next verse, is extend­ed to their little ones. [...]. According to their bodies] that is, the number of their persons. Gen. 47.12. Ioseph nourished all his fathers household, even to the little ones, [...] lepi hattaph, us (que) ad os par­vuli, genuinus videtur esse sensus, quòd omnes a maxi­mo ad minimum paverit. Vatablus. Exod. 1.21. God built the midwives an house, Heb. [...]em, them, in the mascu­line gender, for those midwives were couragious midwives. that is, he gave them children, because they spared the children of the Israelites. Deut. 25.9. So let it be done to the man that will not build up his brothers house, [...], qui noluerit suscitare semen fra­tri suo, raise up seed to his brother. In this sense Ra­chel and Leah built the house of Israel, Ruth 4.11. Psal. 115.12, 13. By the house of Aaron he means both small and great. Psal. 113.9. He makes the bar­ren dwell in houses, that is, fruitful mothers of chil­dren. See Gen. 30.30. & 35.2. & 50.8. Exod. 12.3. Josh. 7.14. 2 Sam. 17.23. & 23.5. 1 Kin. 14.13. 2 Kin. 9.7. & 20.16. 1 Chron. 17.16. Psal. 68.6. Add to all these the several texts in the new Testa­ment, where in this word house or household children are always included. Thus Act. 10.2, 47, 48. & 11.14. [Page 145] the whole household of Cornelius is baptized. The whole household of Lydia, Act. 16.15. they of her household are baptized upon her account without a­ny declaration of their faith and repentance, onely because they were of her family. Act. 16.31. The Jailor and his house. Observe, he first makes mention of his being baptized, then of his faith. Act. 16.33.34. Crispus and his household. & 18.8. Stephanus and his household. 1 Cor. 1.16. The household of Aristobulus, and the household of Narcissus. Rom. 16.10. [...]. Which must be meant of their children, which came out of their loins, as the word imports. Thus 1 Tim. 3.4. One that ruleth well his own house, having his children in subjection with all gravity. 1 Tim. 5.8. If any provide not for those of his own house, (that is, children, not servants) he is worse than an infidel. Gal. 6.10. Do good to all, especially the household of faith, and must there be no respect had to the orphans and fatherless children of such? those doubtless we ought in a special manner to provide for, as being in­cluded in the household of faith. Thus Act. 4. the be­lievers had all things common, and did not their chil­dren share with them? doubtless they were not exclu­ded. Gen. 50.8. All the house of Joseph and his fathers house, went up to bury his father, onely their little ones they left in Goshen. It's observable that the little ones are included (for the exception is of the same kind) in the word house here excepted, because of their un­fitness for travel; but in all the places before mentio­ned there is not the least word hinted why little ones [Page 146] should be excluded. From all which places observe,

1. The language of the scriptures holds forth chil­dren to be the houshold, & by consequence the subjects of baptism: Let them shew any one place where chil­dren are excluded if they can, for Exod. 12. includes children, though infants were excluded, because un­capable. V. 15. Lydia baptizata est & filii domus ejus.

2. Observe the Syriac so renders that word house or household, which was the known language of those times, and of great repute throughout the Churches of God.

3. Of the Jailor it's said, he and all of him, (1.) that were of him. Act. 16.33. Baptizatus est ipse & filii domus ejus omnes, comp. v. 32. & cum omnibus filiis domus suae, as in the Syriac. Of Samaria it's said (Act. 8.8, 12.) all of them from the least to the grea­test, that is, yong and old were baptized, both men and women; for children are included in the men in scripture phrase, as Jacob saith, Gen. 34.36. I be­ing but few in number, they shall gather themselves to­gether against me, and destroy me. Ezek. 9.6. Slay both maids and little children, but come not near any man on whom is the mark in his forehead. Grace written in the heart by the man Christ Jesus, (who hath his inkhorn by his side) shines in the forehead of babes and others. Eccl. 8.1. When Moses demanded of Pharaoh to let Israel go, he meant children as well as the elder people, as he afterwards explaineth him­self, and shall we be more cruel than Pharaoh, to grant libertie to such as are adult, but keep poor in­fants in bondage? Thus Joh. 6.10. Mar. 6.44. com­pared [Page 147] with Mat. 14.15. 1 Cor. 10.1. All our fathers were baptized into Moses, in fathers children are in­cluded; and thus I understand Act. 15.1. Ʋnless ye brethren be circumcised, (that is, you and your chil­dren) you cannot be saved, as Paul explains it Act. 21.21, 25. Thus Heb. 9. It's appointed for all men once to dy, and are not children here also intended? So that we see plainly that by a Synecdoche children are included in their parents.

4. The promise or Covenant is made to the pa­rent in the behalf of the chil­dren. Act. 16. Believe thou, In omni numero divinitus infli­tuto, liberi sub patri [...] nomine cen­sentur. Accommodat illis (viz. infan­tibus) mater Ecclesia, aliorum pe­des, ut veniant; aliorum cor, [...] credant; aliorum linguam, ut fate­antur: credit in altero, qui pecca­vit in altero. Austin. and thou shalt be saved and thy houshold. So when Christ raised the Rulers daughter, he required no more but this of the Ruler himself, Be not afraid, onely believe and she shall be saved; now if the promise were the ground of baptism to the pa­rent, it must be so to the children also; therefore the parent was bound in conscience to see his children baptized. We have no mention made expressly of the Patriarchs keeping the sabbath, but were they not bound to keep it? or shall we be so uncharitable to think that for so many hundred years they altogether neglected it? though doubtless the devil did endea­vor to blot out the memory of the sabbath, and of the creation, that so he might ussher in the eternitie of the world. Sometimes we have a precept or a word of allowance, but no example, as in that of the sabbath, and in that of the eating of the several trees [Page] of the garden. Sometimes an example and no precept mentioned, as in that of the sacrificing of Abel, for which doubtless there was a command, (though not mentioned) else God would not have sent fire down from heaven to consume the sacrifice, testifying his ac­ceptance, if there had not been a divine institution for those sacrifices: Therefore we say, it's sufficient to us that the will of the Lord is revealed either by com­mand, promise, Covenant, consequence, or other­wise, though there be no example for it in scripture.

5. We have the example of whole families bapti­zed in the Apostles times, (and some in after ages, which gives light to the places of scripture mentio­ned) families as families, the parents thus embracing the Gospel, are made the precedent for that admini­stration, therefore children must be included; for he that excludes nothing, includes all. There was no word for women to eat the Passover, yea it's said expressly, No uncircumcised person should eat thereof, and yet they grant that the women were to eat the Passover, being part of the household. Exod. 12.3, 4. and shall children (contrary to the whole current of scripture) be ex­cluded from this Ordinance of baptism?Infantes christianae domus pars: verùm esto non fuerin [...] infantes in domibus istis, nihilominus ad do­mum peri [...]nent, & in eâ censentur, ut si fuissent in domibus bapt. zassent eos uti (que) Bull.

6. Children are included in the parents, as in that of Jacob, I am but few this day. But of this before.

Obj. Children are not mentioned.

Ans. 1. We have shewed that they are mention­ed in the sense of the holy Ghost.

[Page 149]2. Suppose they were not mentioned, it's not ex­pressly said that the Virgin Mary or the Apostles were baptized, or the seven Churches of Asia, the Church of Theslalonica, &c. but dare any say that they were not baptized? Where is it said that women received the Lords Supper? for in the 1 Cor. 11.28. the Apostle restrains the word to the males,( [...]) is of the masculine gender, Let a man examin him­self, &c. and yet we believe that they did re­ceive, upon this account, that they were members of the Church. We say then, the institution of Or­dinances (as of this) is clear, but the application of them to the subject not so, but gathered by conse­quence.

Obj. They are said to be believers, the Jailor be­lieved with his whole household, but children can­not be said to be believers.

Ans. 1. We have proved many children are be­lievers.

2. They err, not knowing the scriptures; For though faith be required in the constituting of a Church in such as are adult: yet in a Church consti­tuted, as to infants it 's not required; no more than it was in Circumcision, which did as much require faith as baptism doth; for it was the seal of the right­ousness of faith: Act. 16. There is mention made onely of the faith of Lydia, yet the text faith her household was baptized: so that the faith of the parent gives the child an interest in the Covenant and seal thereof. As for the brethren mentioned Act. 16.40. which they say were of the household of Lydia, baptized by Paul. I answer,

[Page 150]1. The Apostle saith, We spake to the women that resorted thither, v. 13. It seems there were no men there, or else the brethren mentioned, v. 40. were not then converted.

2. It appears not that they were members of her family,Whereas there is mention made (v. 40.) of the brethren, Judicio est, cum aucta esset ecclesia illa, et­jam in magno numero, s [...]minam il­lam primas tenuisse quod ad seduli­tatem in officijs pactatis attinet, is (que) [...]nde clarius liquēt, quod in ejus aed [...]s convenerant omnes pij. Calv. (as the words imply, They went into the house of Lydia, and when they had seen the brethren) but rather some of the citie or other parts that met at the house.

3. Suppose that, yet it makes not against us, for the children were baptized as well as the brethren.

Thirdly, The words, he rejoiced with all his house, or,Mat. 23.15. [...]. They cryed out all at once. [...], Et exultavit cum om­ni domo suâ, credens deo. Thus the Spanish Bible renders it. Sic [...], dicuntur, qui funditus pereunt. Bul. there was joy in, (or, throughout) the house, he having believed. It's not said, that all his house belie­ved; for the promise was made to the faith of the Jai­lor, not at all mentioning the faith of any of his household, Act. 16.13. Believe,— and thou shalt be saved and thy house.

4. Deut. 14.26. Thou shalt eat there before the Lord, and thou shalt rejoice thou and thy household. Little children could not rejoice in what they put their hands to, but might they not eat? doubtless they might, for they were of the household.

Obj. Paul preached to all in the house, therefore not to children.

Ans. 1. May not the Gospel be preached to little [Page 151] children as well as others? yea may it not in [...] some sense be preached to babes? Luk. 1.76. And thou child shalt be called the prophet of the highest. Doubt­less there being such an effect wrought upon the Iai­lor and his house, they would bring the little ones in their arms, rather than any should be hindered from hearing when Paul preached.

2. This speech is synecdochical, the whole being put for a part, (to all the house) that is, such as were capable,1 Sam. 1.21. The man Elcanah and all his house went up to of­fer to the Lord] Yet it appears from v. 22. that Samuel being little, did not go up. which is ac­cording to scripture phrase, Psal. 102. He raiseth all that are fallen, that is, all such as are raised, are raised by the Lord. As we say, such a scoolmaster teacheth all the children in the town, that is, all that are taught, are taught by him: So, the Apostle preached to all in the house, that is, to all such in the house as were capable of instruction.

Thus much for the sixth Argument, wherein we see plainly that house always includes children, erg. We say, it's very evident, That the Apostles did ba­ptize the children of the said households formerly mentioned.

The seventh Argument.

Children are capable of the grace of baptism, there­fore of baptism it self.

1. They are capable of inherent grace, for a sub­ject capable of sin, is capable of grace: but infants are capable of sin, being shapen in iniquitie, and con­ceived in sin. Psal. 51. Therefore they are capable of the grace of baptism, both which it seals, and which [Page 152] it conveys; for the Lord being a free agent, hath not limited himself to any time; but as before baptism, so sometimes in, sometimes after baptism he doth convey that spirit of grace to infants. The more or­dinary way for such as are adult in the constitution of a Church, is by the word; but the Lord hath not tied himself to this way, especially in a Church ga­thered, but doth doubtless breath in this Ordinance also: for look what the navel is to the child in the womb, the same is baptism to infants in the womb of the Church. Cant. 7.2. The child in the womb is not nourished in an ordinary way, as by the mouth, but by the navel: even so infants are not sanctified by the ordinary way of hearing, but by this of ba­ptism. I know other senses are given of that scri­pture, but as Bernard said of the Pope, Either this is he or shew me such another: So I say, Either this is the sense of the holy Ghost, or else let any man shew me a better. I would not willingly bring a sense to the scripture,Non afferre sed auferre sensum. Basil. [...], i. e. Ac­cording to the measure of know­ledge, faith, and grace which God hath given. This is to pro­phesie according to the analogie of faith, when we exceed not the measure of the gift bestow­ed upon us. but fetch it from the scripture, (for we must prophesie according to the measure of faith) which may easily be found out by comparing scripture with scripture. Now the like phrase you shall find in Prov. 3. Trust in the Lord and it shall be health to thy navel, and marrow to thy bones, that is, in a secret way thou shalt be fed, though the ordinary way fail. We see this truth daily fulfilled, That though a poor mans [Page 153] layings-out are greater than his in-comes, yet by a secret providence he and his are maintained: even so by the same good hand of God are infants in the womb of the Church nourished by baptism; for the spirit of God doth move upon these waters, as some have allegorized that of Gen. 1.2.

2. Infants are capable of remission of sins, else how can they be saved? the promise of remission of sins in the same sentence and the same sense is propound­ed to parents and children, Act. 2.37. and shall we say that remission of sins is promised to parents, and outward priviledges onely to children?

3. They are capable of the holy Ghost, else how can they be united to Christ? doubtless that spirit that doth guide the bee to its end, did actuate Jacob in his mothers womb, and made him so wrestle with his brother, that he prevailed against him; which was very ominous for the future. Thus Zanchy on Hosea.

That supplanting of Esau,Illa supplantatio symbolum fuit divini sed occulti desiderij, quo Ja­cob, cum adhuc tamen uti judicio non poss [...]t, meffabiliter tenebatur pri­ori loco nascendi. 2. Symbolum fuit sancti desiderij quo offici [...]batur divi­nam benedictionem consequendi; actus enim à spiritu sancto, mirabi­li quodam & ineffabili modo, por­cupivit divinam erga se gratiam, & pro illà assequendâ nihil non egit. or taking him by the heel, was a sign of Iacobs desire of being born before his bro­ [...]her, and consequently of [...]he birth-right: also 2. of obtaining that divine bles­ [...]ing which was promised be­ [...]ore;Non per sacramenta traducitur aut transferu [...] gratia, sed cum sacra­mentis. Fatemur sacramenta esse media, & tamen deus in sacramen­tis immediatè agit; non quod non utatur medio, sed quia vis non transit per sacramentum. Whit. [...]. Bas. Mihi animus non est baptismi [...]im extenuare, quin signo acc [...]dat res [...] veritas, quatenus per exter [...] media deus op [...]ratur. Gal Inst. p. 46 [...]. Deum tamen quibusdam, dum baptizantur habitum gratiae infun­dere non negamus. A mes. Dispositio illa sancta sit (quantum ego assequor) non habi [...]us nescio quos virtutum instillando, sed menti vo­luntati (que) vitam restituendo; quae quatenus sanamur, sive vivisicantur, vel ad fidei vel charitatis actus elici­endos exercendos (que), jam habilis at (que) idoneae redduntur Gat. p. 223. Quod baptismo nos ablui, docet Paulus, Eph. 6. Ideo est, quod i [...] ­li [...] nobis ablutionem nostram testatur deus, & simul efficit quod figurat, nisi enim conjuncta esset rei veritas aut exhibitio, impropria esset l [...]ntio, Baptismus est lavacrum animae. Calv. in Eph 5. for being acted by the [...]oly Ghost after a wonder­ [...]ul and unspeakable manner, [...]e ernestly desired and en­deavored [Page 154] after the grace of God, even in his mothers womb. As some are thus san­ctified in the womb, so ma­ny have a saving work from the dawning and springing of rea [...]on. Witness that fa­mous instance of some little Indian children in New-England, (related by Mr E­liot in his book intituled, The tears of repentance) with which he shuts up his dis­course, viz. The profession, (if I may so call it) or rather the expression and manife­station of faith by two little infants, of two years old and upward, under three years of age when they died and departed out of this world. The storie is this,

This Spring, in the beginning of the year 1652, the Lord was plea [...]ed to afflict sundry of our praying Indians with that grievous disease of Bloudy flux; whereof some with great torments in their bowels died; amongst which two little children of the age abovesaid, and at that time both in one house, being taken with that disease: The first of these children in the extremitie of its torments, lay crying to God in these words, God and Jesus Christ, God and Jesus Christ, help me! and when they gave it any thing to [Page 155] eat, it would greedily take it, (as it is usual at the ap­proach of death) but first it would crie to God, Oh God and Jesus Christ, bless it! and then it would [...]ake it; and in this manner it lay calling upon God and Jesus Christ until it died The father of the child [...]old me the storie, with great wonderment at the grace of God, in teaching his child so to call upon God. The name of the father is Nishohkou, whose confession you have before.

Three or four days after another child in the same house, sick of the same disease, was (by a divine hand doubtless) sensible of the approach of death, (an un­usual thing at that age) and called to its father, and said, I am going to God, several times repeating it, I am going to God. The mother (as other mothers use to do) had made for the child a little basket, a little spoon, and a little tray; these things the child was wont to be greatly delighted withall, (as all children will) therefore in the extremitie of the torments, they set those things before it, a little to divert the mind and chear the spirit; but now the child takes the basket and puts it away, and said, I will leave my bas­ket behind me, for I am going to God, I will leave my spoon and trey behind me, (putting them away) for I am going to God, and with these kind of expressions the same night finished its course, and died. The fa­ther of this child is named Robin Speen, in whose confessions he maketh mention of this child that di­ed in faith. When he related this storie to me, he said he could not tell whether the sorrow for the death of his child, or his joy for its faith were the greater.

[Page 156]4. They are capable of union with Christ, fo [...] first Christ lays hold on us before we lay hold on him Phil. 3 That I m [...]y apprehend that, for which also [...] am apprehended of Christ Jesus.

5. Of eternal life. All which things are signifie [...] and sealed in the holy sacrament, What hinder therefore why children may not be baptized? Act 10.

6. Baptism is of eternal use, (for what God doth remains for ever, Eccl. 3.) not onely for the present but for the future; therefore children are capable o [...] it. For,

1. As parents may plead a Covenant for their chil­dren, which is no small prop of their faith, strength­ened and confirmed by this visible word, Exod. 4.5 [...] so children may afterwards plead a Covenant as from their ancestors, (for a seal of an estate made to infants in their cradle, is firm) and come in their fathers or mothers name to God, as David and others have done, Psal 86.16. Save the son of thy handmaid; for that Covenant extends not onely to temporals but spiri­tuals.Luke 71. The Covenant with the forefathers is made the rise of that deliverance, v 75 which deliverance from our spiritual enemies is collected from the general promise [I will be thy God & the God of thy seed.] Rom. 11. Beloved, (so as to be called) for their fa­thers sakes. Deut. 30. I will circumcise the heart of thy seed. Which promise be­ing spoken indefinitely, who dare limit it to such as are of years of discretion, seeing that babes are the seed of the faithful as well as such as are adult; and we know it's as great a sin to limit God in his grace as in his power, who hath so wisely ordered that Co­venant [Page 157] of grace, 2 Sam. 24. that as in every moment some die: (and surely half of the elect, if half of man­kind, die in infancie) so in every moment some are regenerate. Which grace of regeneration from the dawning and springing of reason, doth appear in many who suck in something of Christ, whilst they suck in the milk from the mothers breasts.

2. It lays a tie and obligation upon the child to fu­ture repentance, faith and obedience.

1. To repentance, therefore it's called th [...] baptism of repentance, because it obligeth and engageth them to repentance. Mat. 3.11.Baptismus est lavacrum regenera­tionis, sed n n ita vt rege [...]e ati debe­ant tantum illo obsignari sed regene­randi Musc. in Matt. 22. I indeed saith John) baptize you (Pharisees, a generation of vipers) with water ( [...]) unto repentance, therefore (seeing you have now been baptized) bring forth fruits worthy of repentance. v. 8.

2. It obligeth to future faith, for circumcision was a seal of the rightousness of faith, (which is the condition of the Covenant of grace, Mar. 16.16.) To Adonijah and Absalom as well as Solomon, if they believe, for so the tenor of the Covenant runs. It's well observed by some that God dealt in a way of preventing grace with Israel, in instituting the Passover before their deliverance: and so in appoint­ing the Lords Supper before the work of redemption was wrought. And thus hath he ordered the bapti­zing of children, as that which is precedaneous to faith, as well as sub [...]equent to it.

3. It obligeth to obedience, for as in all duties we do virtually say, I take this God for my God, and [Page 158] give up my self to him as one of his people: Psal. 50. That make a Covenant with me by sacrifice So in this Ordinance of baptism, the child doth implicitly co­venant with God, and doth bind it self to obedience for the future. He that is circumcised (saith Paul, Gal. 5.) is bound to keep the whole law, if not legally as a Covenant of works, yet evangelically as the con­dition of the Covenant of grace. If he dare not stand to the former Covenant, (as who dares?) let him cleave to the later, and in so doing he shall live.

Nonnulli habent a [...]tificium, quo prius persuadent quam docent, veri­tas autem docendo suadet, non sua­dendo doect. Tert. I would not first move, and then teach, but having taught, move. Cujuslibet artis datur praxis. erg. Paul will rather seem to speak false greek, not understanding his greek grammar, as Jerom saith, (though it be an Articism) than that they should not apply to themselves in particular what, he spoke in general. Gal. 6.1. [...], Restore ye such an one, or put him in joint again, consider­ing thy self.Having spoken sufficient­ly to the jus divinum of Pae­dobaptism, and shewed plain­ly that it hath a divine stamp of truth upon it. Let us come to the [...] or practical part of this point, which shall be a dissuasive from A­nabaptism; and what I shall say herein, I would say in a Church full of Kings. Now the Lord grant me good suc­cess this day!

And that I may the more effectually prevail with you, consider,

1. The way of Anabaptism is not the way of God; for first it's not of Gods planting, therefore secondly not of his watering. For whatsoever the Lord hath not planted, whether persons or things, that cer­tainly he will not water; therefore it cannot stand, but must of necessity be rooted up. Mat. 15.13.

For the first, That it's none of Gods planting, or, That that way is not the way of God which they walk in, it appeareth,

1. In that they stand not in the ways, and ask not for the old paths▪ where is the good old way, that they may walk therein, Jer. 6.16. (Thus Mal. 2. Seek the law at the Priests mouth.) They advise not, nay they are not usually willing to be advised by the faithful messengers of Christ, enquiring after the footsteps of the flock by the Shepherds tents, but seem to be vailed [ [...]] and turn aside by the flocks of his companions. Cant. 1.7.

Yea I fear some of them if they look into their hearts, will find them too-too-desirous to make truth on their side, (having been plunged before they were dipped) and that that way might appear to them to be a way of God, which they most affected; having the persons of some, and their doctrines in admira­tion for advantage sake; if so, God may justly har­den them as he did Balaam, and (contrary to his own express command) bid them, Go, answering them according to the idol which they set up in their hearts.

2. We find no instance in scripture of any that were dipped or rebaptized, after that in their infan­cie they were dedicated to the service of God by baptism; nor of any child of a believer suspended till he came to years of discretion, and was able to give an account of his faith. We challenge them in the name of Christ to produce any one throughout all the book of God, either rebaptized or suspended from that Ordinance till then.

[Page 160]3. Such reject the counsel of God against them­selves, Luk. 7.30. Yea in rejecting this Ordinance they resist God, (Act. 11.17.) as the Pharisees did to their own destruction.

But tell me, is it not a grievous sin to refuse that God to be thy God, and the God of thy seed? Is not that promise [I will be the God of thy seed,] as much evangelical as the former, [I will be thy God?] and in so doing, dost thou not discovenant thy seed as much as in thee lieth? and may not the Lord there­fore take the advantage, and cut off the entail for e­ver? For, (saith the Lord, Gen. 17.) The uncircum­cised man-child, whose flesh of his foreskin is not cir­cumcised, that soul shall be cut off from his people. He hath broken my Covenant. The seal being part there­of, & ofttimes put for it in scripture phrase: Act. 7.8.

Quisquis neglecto baptismo se nudâ promissione contentum esse simulat, conculoat, quantum in se est, Christi sanguinem. Cal.4. Is not this to trample under feet the bloud of Christ, and crucifie him again? for whereas Christ died but once, but liveth to God for ever, Rom. 6.14. this doctrine and practise of reba­ptization holds forth to the world that Christ died the second time, and rose again.Quotquot rebaptizantur, Christum denuo crucifigunt. Cal. Yea it evidently impli­eth a possibilitie of falling from grace totally, else what need of rebaptization? for as many as are bu­ried with Christ in baptism, are planted into the si­militude of his death, and shall be also planted into the similitude of his resurrection. Rom. 6.3, 4, 9, 10. In that he died he died but once, in that he liveth he liveth unto God.

[Page 161]5. Such unchurch all the Churches of God, say­ing, There is no true visible Church in the world but their own, for the Church ever since her members were full,We had Ministers and Chur­ches before Rome. Petrus Abbas Cluniacensis q [...]â­dam prolixâ epistolâ ad Beraestatur, Scotos & alios vetustissimos christi­anos, Pascha non Romano sed Ori­entali more solitos celebrare, unde ap­paret eos non Româ sed ex Oriente Doctores primum accepisse. Cat. testium veritatis p. 546. hath for many ages consisted almost wholly of Assemblies of them who have been baptized in their infancie; if so, then was there no visible Church on earth for many hundred years together; contrary to Mat. 16. where our Savior engageth that the gates of hell shall never prevail against it. And shall we thus despise and slight the womb that bare us? those arms that embraced us? and the paps that gave us suck? God forbid; for doubt­less that rigid way of separation God never watered, I mean of such who unchurch all the Churches of the world save their own.

6. In so doing they are very injurious to them­selves, as rendring themselves in the sight of God,

1. Covenant breakers. Gen. 17.14. And the un­circumcised man-child whose flesh of his foreskin is not cir­cum ised, Gen. 17.14. Qui non circumci­det, i. e. circumcidi curaverit, sed circumcisionem neglexerit vel con­tempserit: etenimverbum [ [...]] est futurum kal â radi [...]e [...] Piscat. that soul shall be cut off from my people: he hath broken my Covenant.

2 The Lord looketh at such as unbaptized per­sons, Exod. 12.45. When a stranger shall sojourn with thee, and keep the Passover to the Lord, let all his males be circumcised, and then let him come near and keep it, for no uncircumcised person shall eat thereof. [Page 162] Where we see plainly that if the child of the stranger was not circumcised,Such are uncircumcis [...]d in the sense of the holy Ghost, for cir­cumcision of Abraham alone was not the Covenant or sign of it; seeing that he and his children are joyned together. the stranger himself was not ad­mitted to the Passover; see­ing that in Gods account he was an uncircumcised per­son: the like may be said of baptism, for parium ea­dem est ratio.

3. I suppose with submission to better judgments, the meaning of those words, (Ezek. 44.9. No un­circumcised person, uncircumcised in heart, or uncir­cumcised in flesh, shall enter into the Sanctuary.) to be this, scil. That such as are not visible saints (for the heart is manifested by the life) and have not received the seal of the Covenant, namely baptism, which is uncircumcision in the flesh here spoken of, shall not be admitted into the Church of God, that new Je­rusalem, the name whereof is Jehova Shammah. Eze. 48.5. Which makes much for the proving of the thing in hand, as we see in Exod. 12.48. When a stranger will sojourn with thee, let all his males be cir­cumcised, for no uncircumcised person shall eat thereof. He whose child was uncircumcised, was uncircum­cised himself in Gods account: Even so he whose child is unbaptized, is said to be unbaptized himself; and herefore not to be admitted to the Lords Sup­per For baptism is called Circumcision, (Col. 2.12.) and put instead thereof.

7. They are not onely injurious to themselves, but they have saith the Lord, taken away my glorie from their chil [...]ren. Mic. 2.9. For what is the glory of [Page 163] his people? is it not the Covenant of grace and Christ held forth therein with the seals thereof?

8. Consider the absurdities that follow upon it.

1. By this doctrine he that is unbaptized himself, may lawfully administer baptism unto others (which we denie unless he had a special commission so to do, as John Baptist had) for the first Anabaptist was ba­ptized by one that was baptized in his infancy, there­fore his baptism was null▪ and so consequently all their baptizings are mere nullities.

2. It leaveth the children of believers in as sad a condition as the chil [...]ren of heathens, being in no vi­sible way of salvation, for they depart out of this world without any visible sign of Gods favour.

9. In renouncing their baptism they act Satans part, who will not make a league or Covenant with any soul, till he have renounced his Covenant with Christ first.

10. The Churches of Christ have no such custom, 1 Cor. 11.It cannot be proved that ever the whole Church of God erred, though Councils have; it's true we grant that as Nullum tempus accurrit Regi: So no prescription will ly in force against God and his truth, [...]. Ignatius Rev. 2.24. Hold fast, i. such doctrines, rules, ordinances, as those primitive and Apostolical Churches then had and did en­joy; this injunction was in op­position to those who had be­gun to decline and degenerate to corrupt principles and practi­ces. which will appear by the testimonies of the an­tient, and the practice of the churches til these later times. Justin Martyr (who lived in all likelihood in John's days, as Mr Baxter well observeth, for he was converted to chri­stianitie in the year of our Lord 128. and wrote his first Apologie in the year 150. as Helvicus from his own testi­monie [Page 164] gathereth.) saith, Post quam veró per Christum aditum ad deum nacti sumus, non carnalem suscepimus circumcisionem, sed spiritualem, quam Enoch & simi­les custodierunt, eam verò nos per baptismum, quando­quidem peccatores fuerimus, propter misericordiam ip­sius dei accepimus, omnibus (que) adeo illam accipere inte­grum est. Thus Irenaeus who lived within some 43 years of Iohn, Omnes venit per semetipsum salvare, omnes inquam qui per eum renascuntur (id est, bapti­zantur) in deum, infantes, parvulos & pueros, juvenes & seniores, ideo per omnem venit aetatem, infantibus infans factus, sanctificans infantes et in parvulis parvu­lus, &c. Observe by the way that renasci is an ordi­nary term among the fathers signifying as much as baptizari. Tertullian is clear in this point, so is Ori­gen, who saith, Quid causae est cum baptisma ecclesia in remissionem peccatorum detur, secundum ecclesiae ob­servantiam, etiam parvulis baptismus non detur. lib. 5 cap. 6 ad Rom. Cyprian (who lived within near an hundred years of Iohn) with 66 Bishops in Council, determine that children may be baptized before the eighth day. Higinus Bishop of Rome did first or­dain Godfathers and Godmothers at the baptizing of infants. This Higinus was near the Apostle Iohn's time. Austin tells us it is such a Church custom, and withall it's an Apostolical tradition. Accordingly the Magdeburgenses in their Centuries observe that in the first hundred years after Christ infants were baptized. Lucius King of Brittain, and the first chri­stian King in the world, (who was converted by the prayers of the Saints, as Matthew Paris relates) was [Page 165] baptized with his house and whole people, (there­fore Brittish children also.) Which Balaeus more ful­ly cleareth, Cent. 1. cap. 27. Lucius (saith he) sent to Rome the more speedily, because he heard that many of the nobilitie (especially at Rome) together with their wives and children were baptized. Learn­ed Doctor Ussher in his book of he Religion of the antient Irish, ch. 5. saith, That t [...]t Irish did baptize their infants without crism. I could never find, saith the Lord Brooks, the beginning and rise of this practice, namely, baptizing of children, whereas it is very easie to track heresies to their first rising up. The Waldenses (saith Flac. Illyr.) Semper baptizarunt infantes. Catal testium verit. p. 434. Therefore we may conclude with Calvin, Nullus est scriptor tam vetustus, qui non ejus originem ad Apostolorum saecula referat. Cal. in Rom. 4.11.

Whereas some insist much upon the testimonie of Grotius against infant baptism, who pleads the Ca­non of the Neocaesarean Synod, Art. 315. The words of the Council are these, [...]. Concerning her that is with child, That she may be en­lightened or baptized when she will, for she that bring­eth forth doth not communicate in this with the birth that is brought forth, because every one manifests his own free choice in confession. Whence Grotius obser­veth, Proles baptizari non solebat, nisi propriâ volun­tate & professione. That the child useth not to be ba­ptized, [Page 166] but of its own proper will and profession. I answer that Grotius contradicts himself in his An­notations on Mat. 19.14. For first he quotes that saying of Irenaeus to confirm the custom of baptizing infants, Ideo per omnem venit aetatem, & infantibus infans factus, sanctificans infantes, in parvulis par­vulus, sanctificans hanc ipsam habentes aetatem. &c. Huic Christi dicto inter caetera innititur mos etiam in­fantes baptismo tingendi, quem Augustini temporibus per omnes ecclesias fuisse receptum, hoc ipso satis con­stat, quod Pelagiani cum eo argumento ab Augustino & aliis premerentur nega [...]e id ipsum nunquam ausi fuerint; sic in epistolâ Cypriani ad Fidum, an rectè baptizentur infantes né dubitatum quidem, sed an pos­sint baptizari etiam ante octavum diem quosdam haesi­tasse. But afterwards this reconciler of Protestants and Papists, unsays what formerly he had said, al­ledging the sixt Canon of the aforesaid Council, that so he might unbottom this institution of God, and put it upon the authoritie of the Church which he so much admired, as appears by his Examen ad Rivet. ad Art. 9. p. 47. De baptismo infantium quid respon­deri possit disc [...]t qui volet ex Cardinali Peronio, re­sponsione ad epistolam Casauboni cap. 8. Ego in ecclesia authoritate, cui deus sacramenta & aliquod in ea jus dedit, acquiesco.

2. I answer, Theodore Balsamon in his Scholia upon that Canon, saith, Some in the Council said, That women with child which came from the infi­dels (as Mr C. well observeth) to joyn with the Church, ought not to be baptized, but to stay till the [Page 167] babe they went with was brought forth, least that when she was baptized, it might seem that the child in her womb was baptized with her, as being altoge­ther united to her▪ whence it will come to pass, that after the babe is born, either it may be left unenlightened, (or unbaptized) or if it be ba­ptized, it may be thought that it is rebaptized. This he maketh the occasion of that antient Canon, and it's very observable what was the occasion of it. 1. That they might avoid that mischief of leaving babes unbaptized. 2. That they might avoid the other ex­tream of rebaptization. But let us see what Balsamon addeth farther▪ speaking of such infants, that they could not make promises, &c. F [...]r how it is with the babe in the womb none can enquire, nor be sure­tie for, saith he, but infants (sc. that are born) do af­firm by those that are their susceptors, and are accoun­ted to be actually enlightened (or baptized) with di­vine illumination or divine baptism. They then ac­counted baptism of infants no antichristian baptism, but divine baptism. Therefore I conclude the testi­monie of Grotius is altogether invalid.

Secondly, This was never watered by God (nor e­ver will) therefore not of Gods planting. For,

1. Their ministerie (as they call it) who disclaim the office,I would not for all the gold of the East and West Indies, I had no better fruit of my labors to shew than some of them have. Barn. [...] Perdix congregat & non pa­rit, congregat ova alterius a [...]s, illis (que) incubat ac si sua essent sed ubi fue­rint exclusi pulli deserunt enim, quas [...] cognoscentes quod ea illos non peper­erit, & suae matri s [...]se adjun [...]unt. Alij cuculus, qui non diu in regione aliqua commoratur, ideo non nidi­ficat, sed occupat ova alterius avis, ijs incubat, & quando excluduntur pulli, non sen [...]tur eum, sed dese­runt. Schindl. Non fortunat deus labores eorum qui non sunt ordinati, & quanquam salutaria quaedam afferunt, tamen non aedificant, Luth. tom. 4. Omnium Provincia [...]um prima Brittania pub [...]citus nomen Christi recepit. Bellar. cap. 2 is not usually bles­sed by God for the conversi­on of poor sinners; many in­deed are perverted by them, few or none converted that ever I heard of. But as many [Page 168] call their neighbors bees to their own hives▪ which (as they say) thrive not with them, or as the partridge or cuckow gathereth yong ones which she hath not hatch­ed: even so do they gather members out of other Chur­ches▪ in whose conversion they were not at all instru­mental. Therefore I do not believe they were com­missionated by Christ to preach the Gospel, seeing u­sually his presence doth not accompany them in their undertakings. How doth Paul prove that he was sent to the Gentiles, as likewise Peter to the Jews, Gal. 2.8. but by the efficacie of his ministerie? for faith the Apostle, he that wrought effectually by Peter to the circumcision, the same was mighty in me towards the Gentiles. This was excellently typified by Aarons wither'd rod, the budding whereof was an emblem of the success of his ministerie, by which the Lord did clearly manifest that Aaron was a saint of the Lord, set apart to that office to serve in the tabernacle, though Moses was an holier man than he.

2. Their spirits run out after this way, putting a greater stress upon it than up­on any other Ordinance;Many are zealous onely in this, indifferent in other matters of greater concernment, but Phisi­tians say, Ʋniversalia sunt bona, universals are good, whereas to be hot in one part and cold in another is a bad symptom of a distempered bodie. now where man layeth a greater weight upon any in­stitution of Christ, than him­self hath laid, it's just, with [Page 169] God so to leave them, as that they should find little or nothing in it, much more when it is but an hu­mane invention which per­isheth in the using,Col. 2.20. [...] [Eat not, tast not, touch not, (the words should be so rendered) all which perish in the using.] and lea­veth no impression behind it, as all mens imaginations do.

3. This is the inlet those grand errors in the world,They seldom stick at the de­nyal of infants baptism. Nulla est veterum haeresium quae n [...]n videantur his authoribus repuliu­lare. Melan. Anabaptista indoctus Soeinia­nus, Socinianus doctus Anabapti­sta Hornb. not which acciden­tally follow, but which pro­perly and naturally flow from those principles, as a just hand of God upon that way. For do we not dayly see that such denie the trinitie, the personalitie of the Son and the holy Ghost, saying, (as they of old) There are several manifestations of God, one in Mo­ses, another in Christ, and another in himself. And do they not cry down the Sabbath because not so clearly held forth in the new Testament?Num. 26.10. And they viz. Da­than and Abiram became a sign to give warning to all for the future, that they usurp not the Priests office. The like you have in Jude, v. 11. [they perished in the gainsaying of Core.] It seems there were such in the A­postles time that cryed, (Are not all the people of God holy) as the former did. do they not cry down the ministerie, or at cast the office of the ministe­ [...]ie, (saying, Whoever will, [...]hough the lowest of the people may consecrate him­ [...]elf, and administer the seals) [...]hough God hath signally appeared in all ages (espe­ [...]ially of late in England) against all those that rose [...]p against Levi. Deut. 33.11. Strike through the [...]oyns of them that rise against him, and of them that [...]ate him, that they rise not again. This prophesie or [Page 170] prayer will be of force till the worlds end, for the prayers of the saints dyed in the bloud of Christ, are of eternal efficacie, there being a necessitie incum­bent on God, that the prayers of the s [...]ints be made good, (Act. 1.16. comp. with Psal. 109.8.) though put up many hundred years before.

Yea do they not unchurch all the Churches in the world, making rebaptization essential to a Church, yea necessary to salvation? [...]arther adding, That God hath no Church union or communion with any Church in the world that is not rebaptized.

I might mention many more gross errors which flow from the principles of Antipaedobaptists; one­ly let me tell you some have confessed, That when they have been inclining to that way, they have found their hearts sitting loose from all former owned prin­ciples of truth, and as the first matter fit to receive any form, impression or error whatsoever, though formerly loathed and detested.

4. That way seldom thrives but when it is counte­nanced and made much of, especially by the higher powers: whereas truth on the other hand hath flou­rished most under persecution. I. G.

5. Do they not aba [...]e in their graces, having lost that heat and zeal that formerly they had? if they examin themselves I fear they will experience this truth, that their bow is not bent as formerly, their spirits more feeble, and the things which remain in some readie to die, Rev. 2.2. For when they depart­ed from God, then God departed from them. Mat. 2.9. It's observed that one executed for murther in th [...] [Page 171] citie of London, confessed,Mark 9.30. [No man that worketh a miracle in my name, can (lightly) speak evil of me.] [ [...]] suddenly, Nemo reponse fit turpissimus. That from the time of his go­ing under water, he sensibly found God departing from him. I. G

6. Yea do they not ofttimes, having cast off this Or­dinance of baptism cast off all, and losing one lose all? I wish we had not cause to lament for our superordi­nanc'd men, that are a [...]ove ordinances but below pie­tie, who first suckt in this error from them, and then were as rasa tabula, as white paper on which you may write what you please. Austin writing upon John tells us a story of a certain man, that was of an opinion that God did not make the flie, but the devil; saith one, If the devil made the flies, then the devil made the worms, and God did not make the worms neither, for the worms are living creatures as well as the flies, true, said he, I grant it the devil did make the worms; but then said the other, If the devils made the worms they made the birds also, for the birds are living crea­tures as well as the worms, true, said he, the devils made the birds; then said the other, If he made the birds he made the beasts, for the beasts are living crea­tures as well as the birds, true, I grant it, said the o­ther, the devil made the beasts too; then said the o­ther, If the devil made the beasts he made man, &c. Thus, saith Austin, by denying God in the flie, he came to denie God in man, and to denie the whole creation: So I say, in denying one Ordinance to be an Ordinance of Christ, many come to denie all Ordinances; yea the God of those Ordinances, and turn mere atheists.

But though some have not cast off Ordinances, yet it is to be feared (and I can assure you some have sad­ly complained that) they never saw God so power­ful in their way as in others. (Blessed be that glori­ous name of his free grace, who freely breatheth where and when he listeth, and useth as much liber­tie in using as in chusing instruments in his hands.) And no marvel, for they being not commissionated from Christ to do what they do, cannot expect Gods presence with them. Mat. 28. ult.

I beseech you therefore brethren in the bowels of Christ, consider seriously what I say, and the Lord give you understanding in all things.

7. Are not many of them loose in their lives? (I know some of them are pre­cious saints,Can you shew me one man of them, who is not blemished with some of the aforesaid wick­ednesses, I mean, lying, trea­chery, perjury, disobedience, se­dition, idleness, de [...]enion of their wives, uncleanness, &c. Baxt. p. 142. which in the simplicitie of their hearts follow their leaders, as they that followed Absalom) but by their fruits (saith Christ) ye shall know them, that is, by that which they na­turally and usually bring forth, in time ye shall dis­cern them. Mat. 7. Which phrase is twice repeated to shew us the certaintie of rhe thing.

8. This practice of them hath never helped on, but hindered the work of God wherever it comes. It's well observed when the light of the Gospel from the lamp of Luther did begin to shine in all the cor­ners of Germanie, high and low, those unhappy men Stork and Muncer, did begin also to breath out a pe­stiferous vapor to overcloud those golden Candle­sticks. [Page 173] Satan and Antichrist his eldest son, got not so powerful assistance against the spirit of God in Lu­ther, from the Emperor Charls, (although the grea­test prince of all those that for five hundred years did sway the imperial scepter) nor from all the Bishops of Germanie, (though the most potent Clergie that is or ever hath been in christendom) as from these two obscure and ignorant creatures; who together with their practice went out in a snuff.

9. God hath usually appeared against them in all their disputes for that way, witness the dispute at Coventry betwixt Doctor Brian and Mr Kiffith and others; witness the dispute betwixt Mr Baxter and Mr. Tombs, who in his review doth ingenuously ac­knowledg again and again that he was worsted by Mr Baxter; witness the dispute betwixt Mr. Cragge and Mr Tombs aforesaid, in which Mr. Tombs was egregiously nonplus't, though he had all advantages against his adversary, he having not studied the point, and being taken at unawaies, whereas Mr. Tombs was well versed in that controversie. It's very ob­servable how Isaiah expresses himself, ch. 42.3. He shall not quench the smoaking flax, untill he bring forth judgment unto truth: but Matthew renders it untill he bring forth judgment unto victorie. Whence we may gather the truth of that old maxim, [Great is the truth and doth prevail.) And therefore I dare boldly say, There is such a light kindled in the three nations, (as the Martyr once said of the Gospel in England) which all the adversaries in the world will never be able to extinguish.

[Page 174]10. How many thousands are there in the world, of papists and others, that are confirmed in their re­ligion, & hardened in their sinful courses, by reason of the miscarriages of many of that way? It's not with­out cause that caveat is given (Mat. 18.) concerning offences, Wo to the world because of offences, (where he speaks of little children from the 2 and 3 verse to the 5.) Seeing that this way hath given as great a blow to religion, as any one thing I know acted for these many years. But Anabaptism is at the height, and therefore nearer it's fall, for their folly is made known to all men.

11. Consider their actings from first to last, and how blasted by divine providence. The time would fail me to tell you of Mun­cer,Quid [...]m illorum sunt commisera­tione dignatores quam supplicio. Beza. Etiam Erasmus Anabaptistas commiseratione dignos [...]iebat, ut qui magnam partem errore potiùs quam malitiâ peccarent. (who at the point of death did acknowledge his error, his mind being excee­dingly cast down, so that he was not able to give an account of his faith) the first of that sect in Germanie, and his consort Stork, of Balthasar, John Bocold that botcher of Leiden, & o­thers, who said, That the grace of the Gospel had been long enough offered, that from henceforth all who had rejected it were to be killed with the material sword. Although there were some good people a­mongst them, yet these their leaders with many others were corrupt, and did miserably deceive the people, (as in other things, so in this) persuading them, That now was the time come the saints should possess the kingdom; but they were mistaken, as the sons of E­phraim [Page 175] in taking the cattel from the men of Gath. It's supposed to be about the time when the Israelites dwelt in Egypt, Exod. 13.17. who upon the pro­mise to Abraham concerning Canaan, before their time did make an inrode upon the Philistins and were destroyed by them. 1 Chron. 7.21. And what the issue was of that party in Germanie, I refer the Rea­der to Sleidan, Hornbeck, and others.

12. Auxentius an Arrian with his adherents (saith Mr. Philpot) was the first that denied infant bap [...]ism,Anabaptismi institutio non nupera & nova est, sed anie annos quoquè mille trecentos turbas in Ecclesiâ de­dit gravissimas; & tantum virium acquisivit ut hujus saeculi nostri co­natus, tantum lu [...]u [...] adhuc si eum illo con eratur, videri possit interim tamen d [...]vinae veritatis te [...]s tu [...]c quo (que) exrugnatus & planè dejectus esse Zuingl de Paedobapt. Origo [...]anaticae Anabaptistarum sectae buic anno debetur. sc. 1521. Sculpt. An [...]al. he died Ao 380. Fox ad 1555. After him others opposed it, who were the great distur­bers of the Church in [...]hose days. It's observable that in the several ages in which in­fant baptism was opposed, it was by such as were gross­ly erroneous in o [...]her things. Now what probability is there that the Lord should conceal his truth from his faithful servants in all ages being eminent for pi­etie in their generation, and reveal it to such as were for the most part his enemies, and opposers of the crown and dignities of his son Jesus? Seeing then the Church hath been possessed of this divine institu­tion for these fifteen hundred years and upwards, and their possession not questioned till of late, let us contend earnestly for it, and not suffer our little ones to be cast out of their Church-membership, till our dissenting brethren come with their ejectione firmâ, [Page 176] according to the Law of Christ, which they neve [...] will.

Obj. If this be not the way of God, how comes i [...] to pass that so many go that way?

Ans. Universalitie is no sign of the truth, for all the trees said to the bramble, Come thou and rule o­ver us, but they said not so to the rest of the trees. The ground of the mistake is,

1. Because this truth is not so clear, truth lies (as we say) at bottom, and is not easily found out, but by diligent search and enquirie made. The essentials to salvation are clear and evident, but other truths not so.

2. Many have not found that benefit by their ba­ptism they might have had, because they have not endeavored to improve it for their spiritual advan­tage, therefore it's no marvel though with profane Esau they say, What profit shall this birth-priviledge do to me. Gen. 25.32.

I shall never forget thy word, saith David, for hereby thou hast quickened me, that word that hum­bles the soul, and that word that raises and quickens the soul, will not easily be forgotten: even so those Ordinances which christians have reaped good by, they will not suddenly cast off and renounce. But if they reap no fruit by them, it's no wonder if they forsake the ( [...]) assembling themselves together; which the Apostle holds forth as the high rode to the great transgression. Heb. 10. Not forsa­saking the assembling of our selves together into the Synagog, for if we sin wilfully after we have received [Page 178] the knowledg of the truth, there remains no more sacri­fice for sin.

3. Many have not been so rooted and grounded in the principles of religion, in the doctrine of the beginning of Christ, (Heb. 6.1.) in the present truth of this age, (i) the truth that is so much op­posed. Hence it is that they being but children are tossed to and fro, and carried about with every wind of doctrin by the slight ( [...] the cogging of the die) of men, and cunning craftiness whereby [...] they lie in weight to deceive. Eph. 4.14. It was the complaint of Gildas, that the Arrian heresie, and o­ther poisonous errors infected the antient Britains, because they were a people always desirous of novel­ties.

4. The politie and industrie of the adversarie, they will compass sea and land to make one proselyte to themselves and their way, rather than win one soul to Christ.

5. The not receiving the truth in the love thereof, therefore God hath given them up to strong delusi­ons to believe a lie. When the wrath of God is kind­led against a people, there is no error so absurd but Satan can persuade it; as we may see in the doctrine of Mahomet, that great Quaker, and the first of that sect since Christ, who was raised to scourge the Church for her apostasies, (Rev. 9. ult.) especially the Church of Rome.

6. Their affections bribe their judgment,Esa. 7. Nisi credideritis, non in­telligetis.] As the old translation renders it. (wch is done several ways) the hearts of [Page 177] many, I fear, being engaged to that way for carnal and by respects,Rom. 1.24. [...]: In thei [...] lust [...] he delivered them up to a reprobate mind] that is, a mind not approving of the things of God; therefore not to be approved of. that they may rise in the world; ther­fore it's no wonder that their judgments are capti­vated, and they brought un­der the power of error Rom. 1.24, 28.

So much for the first Argument, namely, Anaba­ptism is not the way of God. I shall be brief in the rest.

Secondly, Consider the neglect of this Ordinance of Christ doth argue the Church is still in the Wil­derness, and for this and other Wilderness sins, may continue long in that state; for their rebellions of old the Lord was angry with Israel, and seemingly did discovenant them, and cast them off as none of his people, making them like the residue of the hea­then, who all then died uncircumcised, as the pro­phet Ezekiel speaks; and is not the Lord angry with many of this generation, on whose seed he hath set no visible sign of his favor, but suffers every man to do whatsoever is right in his own eys? which Mo­ses makes a sign of the Wilderness state of the Church of God. Deut. 12.8. Ye shall not do after all the things that ye do here this day, every man whatsoever is right in his own eys.

3. Consider how angry the Lord was with Mo­ses for deferring the circumcision of his child: Mo­ses was now going to be a reformer of others, and had not reformed his own familie, therefore the Lord would have slain him; and is not the Lord [Page 178] angry with not onely private christians but some publick persons, for their neglecting of this great Ordinance of infant baptism? I fear he is, which sooner or later they will experience; for in the san­ction of the second commandment, God threatens to visit the neglect of this Ordinance of God upon the fathers to the children, to the third and fourth generation.

4. The contempt of this Ordinance argues pro­faneness of spirit, that many do so undervalue, nay despise this birth priviledge. Esau for a little red pot­tage sells his birth-right, (i. e.) promises, the land of Canaan, the Ordinances, with the seals of the Co­venant, and after he had so done, he left the Church of Israel, (as those do that renounce their baptism) and went to Mount Seir, being not troubled for what he had done; therefore he was branded with that black cole of infamie as a profane person, [Esau that is Edom] which words compared with chap. 12.14. do argue that the birth-right was not merely a civil thing, but typically did represent those sure mercies or holy things of David (Isa. 55.3.) held forth to us in the Covenant of grace. This example of Esau the Apostle applies to the Church of the Jews in the new Testament, Let there be no profane person among you as was Esau, as if he should say, Do not part with your birth-right priviledges upon such easie terms, as many now adays do, (for it seems they were apostatizing and falling back from the Ordi­nances of the new Testament, unto their former beg­gerly rudiments) least there be hereafter no place [Page 179] left for repentance, though you should seek it care­fully with tears.

5. Can any forbid water that children should not be baptized, which have received the holy Ghost as well as we? Is there any impediment on Gods part prohibiting? no; for he bids us bring them to him: On childrens part prohibited? no; for of such is the kingdom of heaven: Or in respect of the thing it self? no; for it's a passive Ordinance: What should then hinder why children should not be ba­ptized?

6. Such as lay hold on the Covenant, and keep the Sabbath, (for these two usually go together) such will God make joyfull in the house of prayer, even in the Church of God. Let not the Eunuch say, (saith the Lord) I am a drie tree and have no chil­dren; nor the stranger say, I and my children are utterly separated from the Lords people, for these will he bring to his holy mountain. Isa. 56. (which is a Gospel-promise as appears by the context.) Oh then lay hold on the Covenant for you and yours, if you desire to share in the soul-ravishing joys of the people of God!

7. Consider the vision of Philpot, who tells us, That as Peter had a vision a little before those Mes­sengers of Cornelius came to him, by which he was much satisfied concerning his conversing with the Gentiles, Act. 10.17, 28. Even so this holy man of God Mr Philpot, a little before some came to him to be informed in that great question of infant baptism, had the like vision; namely, a description of a glo­rious [Page 180] citie four-square, into which we are solemnly to enter by baptism. For, saith he, the militant (i. e. the present) Church ought to consent to the primi­tive Church. By which appearance he was much confirmed in the present truth.

This testimonie of that worthy and eminent ser­vant of the Lord, being an humane testimonie, may challenge an humane credulitie, though not a divine, if we consider,

1. That he was a judicious sober man, not lead by fancie as many are.

2. That he was a Martyr of Jesus, to whom, as o­thers, Christ did eminently appear, and reveal those things to them which he would not to the men of the world.

3.. That when he had this apparition, he was near his death; now the soul doth prominere in mor­te, shine forth in death, and sees things more clearly being carried to the top of Mount Pisgah, the Mount of God.

4 That this vision was never questioned by any Pa­pists or others that ever I heard or read of,We may be induced to believe by the Church as an instrument, but not as the formal reason in­to which our faith is ultimately resolved. Ecclesia est per quam, non propter quam credimus. therefore I am the more apt to believe the truth thereof.Alanus Copus Anglus, p 966. Alanus Copus, though he endeavor (but in vain) the confutation of Mr. Fox, labouring to prove the falsitie of the relation of sundry miracles and visions, yet never gave the least hint concern­ing this.

But I have held you too long in this Discourse therefore I will briefly conclude: Onely let me as [...] you this question, (as our Saviour in another case) The baptism of children is it from heaven or from men? if of men, reject it; (for it will perish in the using) if from heaven, (as I am assured it is) see you slight it not, least you seem to withstand God, and be found fighters against the Lord of hosts. Act. 11.17.

I have now discharged my duty, and shall lay down my head in peace, expecting the judgmen [...] and final determination of God in this standing con­troversie of the times; to whom in heaven I appea [...] for the vindication of this great truth,Nihil enim à sacro Christi, sive [...]re, sive spiritu prodiens minutum censetur. (for no truth is little that issues from the sa­cred mouth of Christ) though managed by a poor worm; humbly beseeching the Lord to grant, That what is sown in weakness may rise in power.


This keyboarded and encoded edition of the work described above is co-owned by the institutions providing financial support to the Text Creation Partnership. Searching, reading, printing, or downloading EEBO-TCP texts is reserved for the authorized users of these project partner institutions. Permission must be granted for subsequent distribution, in print or electronically, of this EEBO-TCP Phase II text, in whole or in part.