Vera effigies THOMAE WILLSFORD: Aetatis suae 46.
‘Omnia videntur formata ratione Numerorum: Boetius.
Mans shadow oft does first appeare,
And so does his Effigies heere:
Looke in his Bookes, and there you'l finde,
Him in the Mirrour of his Minde
M: Boteler.

NATURES SECRETS. OR, The Admirable and wonderfull HISTORY Of the generation of Meteors.

Particularly describing, The temperatures and qualities of the Four Elements, the Heights, Magnitudes, and Influences of the fixt and wandring Stars: the efficient and finall causes of Comets, Earth­quakes, Deluges, Epidemicall Diseases, and Prodigies of precedent times; Registred by the Students of Nature.

Their Conjecturall presages of the Weather, from the Planets mutuall Aspects, and Sublunary bodies: with the proportions and observations on the Weather-glass, with Philosophicall paraphrases rendred explicitely, usefull at Sea and Land. By the industry and observations of THOMAS WILLSFORD, Gent.

Venite & videte opera Domini, quae posuit prodigia super terram, Psal. 45. v. 8.

LONDON, Printed for Nath. Brook at the Angel in Cornhill. 1658.

A DEDICATION TO The Right Honourable, the Lady Stafford, Sister to the Lord Henry Stafford deceas'd, Li­neally descended from the eminent and ancient Earles thereof, and sole Heir sur­viving the most illustrious Dukes of Buckingham.


THe splendor of your re­nowned Family, and the influence of Celestiall Graces illuminating the moral vertues you inherit, attracts me and my Meteors, as the Sun does Exhalations and Atomes; although many have been observ'd more il­lustrious to vulgar eyes, and more [Page]stupendious to common capacities gaz'd upon by the gaping Multi­tude with terror and admiration; yet some of them now totally e­clipst, others prov'd but Ignes fa­tui, the greatest and highest like enflamed Comets, elevated on the wings of Ambition, consume them­selves with their own glory, disco­ver'd by their Horoscopes through the Perspectives of Reason; De­monstrated by the Parallaxes of their Spheres, and by Experience found that the most exalted are but Falling Stars, whose corusca­tions shew their gross extractions, something sublim'd from the faeces of the Earth; whereas I look upon your Honour like a benevolent Planet Culminant, which may be eclipst for some time, and also set, yet will rise again, recover its for­mer lustre, and dissipate those Me­teors [Page]that mask the face of little Stars: and thus (Serene Lady) a smile from you (by vertue of your Rays) will calme the most rigid brow, clear the frowns and cloudy aspects of malignant readers, con­vert the aspersions of palli'd Envy into Pearls, and scatter the misty Exhalations risen from splenitick bodies, to obtenebrate the weaker inspection of others: but if it be judg'd presumption to require so honourable a Protection in de­fence of so mean a Peece, vouch­safe me leave to prostrate this at your Honours Feet, whereby your shadow may prove as propitious, and tutelary, as the Laurel whose shade is held a Sanctuary against storms of Thunder and Lightning.

I have compendiously render'd here (most auspicious Lady) the prognostication of Meteors, with [Page]sundry observations plaine and conspicuous as in a Mirrour, in favour of your Sexe, to whom (I hope) 'twill be acceptable, refle­cting on the providence of Nature, and in imitation of her dictates, providing best for those who are in most danger to be damnified by the assaults and suddain incursions of angry storms; and this her mo­therly affection not only visible in Sensitive Creatures, but in all Ve­getables, vailing their bonners to salute the Sun, while their blossoms receive his vivificating beams; and if too hot for their natures, their leaves fan the Air, or their Husks make Ʋmbrelloes against the inflam­mation of his Rays, and at other times contract them like traverse curtains, whereby to shelter their infant Buds and tender Blooms from being storm'd, or injur'd by [Page]the excesse or fury of the weather: but the nobler Creatures endow'd with the use of Reason (as your Honour with an ample portion for­tifi'd with knowledge) those are refer'd to search, and argue the cause, or by precursing signs deriv'd from the effects, prefage the e­vents, as the collections of Expe­rience. Upon these animadversi­ons in order to Natures Instincts, I compos'd this treatise, your ten­der and beautiful Sexe transcend­ing her pleasant and odoriferous Flowers; and since the better sort are often now expos'd to rude and boysterous storms, by the abortive production of a more blustering uncivil Age, the precepts of Gra­titude obliged me to dedicate these Observations to your Ho­nour (as the Noblest in my eye) that the World may witnesse my [Page]sincere and grateful intentions for sheltring me; In testimony whereof it is sign'd by

Your affectionate kinsman and most devoted servant, Thomas Willsford.

A GENERAL PREFACE TO The Ingenious and Judicious speculators of Nature, illustra­ting here the Antiquity of this Meteorological subject, in prog­nosticating their effects.

Benevolent Reader,

I Shall present you here with a small com­pendium of a mighty subject, offer'd up to the glory of God, and intended for your be­nefit, in the description of the Heavens, the Heights, Magnitudes, Periods and Aspects of the fixt and wandring Stars; the natural qualities and greatness of the four Elements; the generation of Meteors, and Prognosti­cations of the Weathers variable transmuta­tions; with the alterations of Sensitive and Vegetable Creatures, in their dispositions and inclinations; a subject, into which the Wise and Learned (of precedent Ages) have made serious and diligent inquisitions, omit­ting Catalogues of Philosophers, from Ari­stotle [Page]and his Disciples (on the speculative part) continued by succession to these times; and for the practical observations of many I will record a few.

Thales (one of the Athenian Wise-men) a grand contemplator of Nature, and so judi­cious a proficient in this Art, that he said, he could be rich when he would, by prognosticating Weathers temper in succeeding years, from thence presaging plenty, or scarcity of Fruits; after him, divers made observations of the Stars aspects, and those grave Experience ratified as in relation to particular Countries or regions; after a long tract of time, this knowledge was made more universal by being contracted into general Rules, and those again much illustrated by the industry of Ptolo­maeus the Alexandrian, whose fame survives his Funeral: Since his time very many have writ of this Subject, in a continual succession, unto this present Age, yet never render'd till now in our vulgar tongue.

And that I may please all Sexes and Ages, the Ignorant and Learned, diversity of pre­dictions are here inserted, from the Heavens to the Elements, from the lofty Pine to the humble Shrub, and little Vegetables, from Birds and Beasts and Fishes in the deep, down to the Minerals in the Earths pregnant [Page]womb, besides ocular Demonstrations to pre­serve you from the injury or assaults of the Weather: Yet some (perhaps) will bluster, and make a noyse (like Thunder without Lightning) because dedicated to a Woman; should I name her Vertues they would be calm'd, or charm'd by their own Reasons to silence, but 'twill displease her Modesty; so I will only intimate, her Favours reflecting upon my mind (as the Sun upon a Cloud which he rais'd) represented this Impression, having imprinted in my memory her No­bleness indelible, not convenient to be pub­lish'd at this present time.

As for the subject of this Treatise, it apper­tains to the Astronomer in part, 'tis true; yet who understands the Characters and A­spects of the Signs and Planets by this, will know them in any Ephemeris, or Annual Kalender, whereby you may judge of the fu­ture Weather: For our present purpose Mr. William Lillies is the best extant; As for apparitions in the Airy Regions, you have here the Observations upon them; and for the nature of Vegetables they are more essentially observ'd, and better known in ge­neral, then the influence of the Stars, or the nature of Meteors are discovered to learned Men, especially all tender and redolent [Page] Flowers, that embroyder the Earth, or per­fume the Air; whose natural instincts, each Florist observes as Kalenders of the Weathers mutability: besides these, here's Birds and Beasts, that are domestick Creatures, or fami­liarly seen; which if they satisfie not the beholders, I have presented them with a Glasse, not to see their features in, but to view the state of the Air, whether Dropsical or Feaverish, Hot or Cold, and by a member sequestred from the Element, confin'd within a transparent Glasse, where behold its contra­ction or rarefaction! and from thence you may visibly presage the approaching weather; the fourth and last Part is historical; so there is something in every ones Sphere, or Element.

The Tables of the Stars natural qualities in their tempers seem oppugnant to themselves; as ♄ cold and dry, with ♃ hot and moist, likewise in pag. 82, line 28, and 29; and such like seeming contradictions in general, but not in particular respects: these are the observations of others, faithfully recollected and transfer'd to your judgements as Mode­rators, whereby I will not deceive you, if you be deceiv'd. The Cosmical rising and set­ting of some Stars are mention'd here, when as to many Places, and whole Countries, those Asterismes can neither rise nor set: In all such [Page]cases 'tis to be understood (if visible) when neer the Horizon of that place, or direct North, the Sun ascending or descending that Hemisphere at the same time. As for terms, Latine words and quotations not explain'd, they are known unto the Lady, for whom this is chiefly intended; and if they do eclipse or offuscate the subject (as in relation to o­thers) the next Impression shall delucide them: And as for those who only know how to find fault, I can with more facility remit, then such as they can censure; So all such malignant spirits I leave to themselves, and reconvert my discourse from them, to the In­genious (as the Heliotrope from its shade to court the Sun) and if they are satisfied, I am pleas'd by subscribing

Your friend and coadjutor, THOMAS WILLSFORD.

To his honoured Uncle Mr. Thomas Willsford upon his Book of Meteors.

HEav'n is by earth epitomiz'd!
The greater world, by th'lesse Comprisd
The sacred Harmony o'th spheres
Made audible to mortal ears!
Nature's Anatomy displayd!
The universal frame survayd!
The Elements complexions shown!
And every Star's Dominion!
The Weathers watr in glasses cast,
Speaks how her fits, may change, or last!
Whence bearded Comets have their births!
And strong Convulsions shake the Earth!
Whence all portentous symptomes rise!
Bad Omens, and sad prodigies!
These are thy tracks! pervious to none,
But to thy better thoughts alone!
Whose mystique Causes do'st explore;
Seeing implum'd effects in store!
Who Can'st the Cabala of Fate,
And energy of Planets state!
While stupid we on Terrene Regions move:
But Looking up see Stars and Thee above!
Edward Boteler.


ACcording to my Talent received from the sole Creator of the Ʋni­verse, whose Fiat alone made this great and stupendious Machine of the World, for whose excel­lency Man cannot find an attri­bute, but Supereminent in all beginnings, Eternal, Immense, Omnipotent, &c. which we cannot com­prehend: Who in the beginning created Heaven and Earth, Gen. 1. cap. 1. And by his omnipotent Word alone, made on the first Day Light, which He divided from darknesse; whose Divine assistance I now implore, to illuminate my understanding, and to dissipate the clouds of Error involving humane Learning, deviated in diversity of Tracts, in which obtenebrated ways, we grope for what we seek in the bewildred cogitations of others, [Page 2]whereof some do think they see so well as Argus, when they are as blind as Moles, Phantasmes undermining their wilful benighted judgements.

Others there be whose sordid minds are buried deep in Earth, or so propense on vanities, that they reflect not upon Natures dayly works, much lesse on the Sacred Deity, from whence she was ordained herself; should but any stupid man (that hath a glimmering light in the use of Reason) behold the Heavens, he must needs read there an immense Creator, if his Reason enters into judgement for to examine the cause, or contem­plate on the effects, observe the illuminated Orbs, how by an orderly course and succession they rise and set; distinguishing Days from Nights, and Seasons of the Year; contracting their Lights, or distributing their Rays impartially to the Pesant as the Prince; they cannot but confesse the Pro­vidence, Goodnesse and Bounty of an Infinite and universal Opificer: Which moved Ovid, though a Heathen, wavering like a weather-cock, turn'd with Air of poetical fictions, yet from them con­verts himself to point at the original Author, Metam. lib. 1. describing of the Chaos.

—Quia corpore in uno
Frigida pugnabant calidis, humentia sice is,
Mollia cum duris, sine pondere habentia pondus;
Hanc Deus & melior litem Natura diremit.

And a little after,

Ille Opifex rerum mundi melior is origo.

Declining here the Poets and Philosophers autho­rity [Page 3]let any rational man but contemplate of the least vegetable or sensitive creature, a time there was it had no being, it increases to maturity and perfection, at a period declines again, returning unto Earth, from whence extracted, according to the course and conception of Nature; which evidently demonstrates that She and the World had an original, as by their Fruits and off-spring, (the subjects of mortality) and consequently must have an end: Eccles-cap. 3. consider then the om­nipotency of an Eternal Creator, by whose sacred Word alone 'twas made, by whose Providence it continues, and by whose Power it shall perish, all things declaring the Almighty Deity, and so ap­parently, that there are not any but must see it, except wilfully blinded in their understandings; and thus writeth the Apostle of the Gentiles, S. Paul, inspired by the holy Ghost, ad Roma. cap. 1. ver. 20. Invisibilia enim Dei, à creatione Mundi, per ea quae facta sunt intellecta conspiciuntur; sempiterna quoque ejus virtus & Divinitas, ita ut sint inexcusabiles.

Now to return from whence I came, and look back to the Creation; on the second Day, God made the Firmament as the bounds unto this great work; for the Empyreal-Heaven or his blessed Seat, is an Orb unlimited, whose Centre is everywhere, and the Circumference nowhere; and since that Genesis doth mention the Heavens as the nobler part of this admired Architecture, I desire here to begin, where I hope for to conclude, having finished my Pilgrimage through this transitory Desart; and in what I shall err, may it be ascrib'd to my weaknesse and not my will; and that we may always remember our imbecillities, and reflect [Page 4]on the Glory and Majesty of the sole eternal God, Behold the Regal Psalmist 75. ver. 1. Confitebimur tibi Deus, confitebimur: & invocabimus nomen tuum, narrabimus Mirabilia tua.

The subject of my intended discourse is Meteors, originally deriv'd from the Creation of the 4 Ele­ments, their conceptions extracted from thence by Nature, with a continual succession from Corru­ptions to Generations, and from hence Reason assisted with Experience, discusses their Qualities, and from their material cause prognosticates their effects; the Stars are generally conceiv'd the effi­cient cause in elevating and digesting the matter which Nature imploys to what 'tis aptest for: thus the wandring Planets and fixed Constellations, over-looks their transmutations, and by their mu­tual aspects do generate the Meteors from whence Man does prognosticate the Weather, either at the present, or by calculation of their places, for any time in future; yet the nature of these Stars being known but by the effects, depending much upon Experience, on Demonstration little; this presci­ential knowledge is often subjected unto errors, besides the course is more uncertain, by reason so few do concur, and not an Age free from extrava­gant opinions of Philosophers and Astronomers, started up in opposition to what hath been main­tain'd and generally receiv'd before: the World's inviron'd in obscurity for the pride of Knowledge, which transgression made humane Sciences con­jectural under the tuition of Experience; yet since we are allowed to argue and dispute upon it, con­clusions may be deduced and made apt for humane use, and Nature beheld through the Meteoroscopes [Page 5]of Reason, although with mists before our eyes (the Scouts to our understandings) yet some are sharper-sighted than others, and many think they discover more than they doe, and multitudes mag­nifie and multiply things greater then they are, or more than is true; so I will record here a few, supposed both Wise and Learned men and so proceed.

Empedocles the Philosopher of Sicilia, a man famous for wit, and endow'd with a profound talent of humane learning, imploying all the faculties of his mind to discover the secrets of Nature, and the substance of the Celestial orbes (in which the Ele­ments are involv'd) he maintain'd to consist of Water; of this opinion he had many disciples, which flourished until buried with the Author's, and in this later Age his paradoxes are reviv'd again, unto which Galilaeus doth much incline: others conceive them to be form'd out of a refi­ned Element of Air, and the Stars of Fire: many urges that the arched vaults of Heaven are com­pos'd out of Natures Quintessence, as it were a sub­lim'd substance refin'd from the 4 Elements, yet differing essentially in their Qualities, as by being neither Hot nor Cold, Drie nor Moist, Ponderous nor Light; to be brief, a body which they fancie, but understand it not: Aristotle conceiveth the Stars to be a thicker part of their Spheres in which they are infixt, not differing in matter nor Species any more, than knots in a piece of timber, and these condensed Orbes apt to receive light, being void of lustre in themselves (like the common people of the Skies) but as they are illuminated by the influence of the Sun, nor have they heat but by [Page 6]reflection, nor colour, but by participation of divers phaenomenons, or appearances of sundrie co­lours; but all this cannot be admitted, since sage Experience (in peculiar motions) by demonstra­tion overthrows their Arguments, and Reason de­nies their conclusions.

In the Firmament are plac'd all the fixed Stars, accounted in number but 1143, and of those there are 14 rarely visible, besides multitudes (without peradventure) that never were or shall be seen to Mortals, since by Perspectives some have been dis­covered in this later age to attend particular Pla­nets, never observ'd before, and by several mediums undoubtedly have influences on sublunary bodies; yet by what means 'tis in dispute: but least my cogitations should wander with those Stars, it shall ascend to the fixed, distinguished by their Magnitudes, whose differences are 6. as by these paradigmas following.

1 The number of Stars of the first Magnitude are accounted 15. viz. as the Scorpions and Lions heart, &c.

2 Those of the second Magnitude are reckoned 45. viz. the north Horne of Taurus and the Foot of Gemini, &c.

3 Of the third Magnitude, there are numbred 208 Stars, as the Breast and Knees of Cassiopeia.

4 The fourth Magnitude doth list 474. as the Northern and Southern Asse, &c.

5 The fifth Magnitude or difference, doth number 217, as the least in the Pleiades and the Ram.

6 Of the sixth and last Magnitude, 49 Stars, as those in the mouth and on the back of Capricornus, &c.

There are accounted besides all these 14 little cloudy, or obscured Stars that seldome do appear, viz. Praesepe in the breast of Cancer, the sum of these is 1022. to which if you add 121 Stars of se­veral magnitudes discovered by the Portugalls, in their voyages to the East-Indies, the totall will be 1143 in several Constellations, according to Astrono­mers observations; but I believe not true, since the Sacred Records puts to man this quaery, Who can number the Stars? but these are more than we know, or shall use in our observations here, al­though there were none created unnecessary, nor can there be less without an error.

The fixed Stars are so called for never changing their positions or latitudes, and their longitudes not one minuit in a year, as all the Planets daily doe: to distinguish the fixed, and avoid confusion, they are contracted into several Constellations or Asterismes, the easier to be remembred, the sooner to be found, and the better for observation: these Celestial Configurations are now numbred 58. representing the formes and names of Men, Beasts, Birds, Fishes, &c. deriving their Pedegrees from Astronomers Poetical fictions, or their natural effects; as when the Sun enters the Sign of Aqua­rius, these northern Countries to expect much rain or snow: Canis major or Sirius at his Heliacal occultation or setting inflames the Air, and makes Dogs apt to run mad, as Pliny testifies, lib. 1. cap. 40. the Egyptians call'd their river Nilus Siris, from the Dog-star, observing their inundations to hap­pen constantly every year, when this Star ascended their Horizon with the Sun, and those floods over-running their valleys, untill his Haliacal [Page 8]rising or apparition, summon'd those extrava­gant, but fertile waves to retreat into their confi­ned channels.

Hypotheses of Astronomers, concerning the heights and magnitudes of the fixed Stars and also the Planets in their mean motions, with the distance of the four Elements from the Earth's centre.

THe Firmament or 8. Sphere (in which the fixed Stars are placed) is affirm'd by Astronomers to be in distance from the Worlds centre, the Earths diameter 9327 times; from the Terrestial Globes superficies 18653 semi-diameters; the distance from us in miles 65285 500; the least Star in this Sphere is conceived greater than the Globe compos'd of Earth and Water, and that all the Stars of the first magnitude are 100. times as great in relation to their Cubes.

Under the starry Firmament there are imagined 7. peculiar Spheres involv'd within one another, on these the ancient Astronomers did fancy little circles (called Epicycles) whose centres were in the superficies of those Orbs, in whose circum­ferences they plac'd the centre of each Planet according to its proper Sphere, thereby to solve the irregular motion of each wandring Star, in their various courses, and excentrick motions; that point which is most remote from the centre of the Earth is called Apogaeon, the lowest Perigaeon, the difference between them is termed the mean motion, the Planet being then on the superficies of his own Sphere.

Saturn the highest of all the Planets, in his mean motion is in distance from the superficies of the Earrh 10358 1/10 Semidiameters in proportion to it as 31 to 11. being greater than the Terrestrial Globe 22 3/10 according to cubical numeration, and is in distance above us in our Hemisphere 36153318 Miles; this later age (by Telescopes) hath discovered 2 Stars that attend him, interpo­sing themselves sometimes betwixt him and us.

Jupiter in his mean motion is in distance from the Earth 3917 4/10 semi-diametrs, and is in pro­portion to it as 12 to 5. and greater than the Ter­restrial Globe, according to the Cubes made of their diameters 13 8/10 and in distance from us 13711090; he hath 4 Stars discovered, that make a progress with him through the 12 Signes, but keep no equal distance, and do often interpose themselves and us.

Mars in his mean motion, is above the Earth 1713 2/10 semi-diameters, and is in distance from the superficies of the terrestrial Globe 5996200 Miles, and according to Tycho Brahe, the Cube made of his Diameter, is less then that of the Earth 13 times and a little more.

Sol in his Apogaeon is from the superficies of the Earth 1169 semi-diameters, in his Perigaeon 1089, and consequently in his mean motion 1129, and according to his Cube 139 times greater then the cube made of the terrestrial Globes diameter, and is in distance from the Earths superficies 3951500 Miles.

Venus is in proportion unto the terrestrial Globe, as 6 to 11. and she is lesser then the globe of Earth 6 [...] 1/1 times, and in her mean motion is [Page 10]in distance from thence, so much as the Sun is or very neer.

Mertury is held less then the terrestrial Globe 19 times very neer, and in his mean motion, hath the same distance allowed him almost as the Sun hath in his mean motion.

Luna in her mean motion, is in distance from the Earth's superficies 58 9/10 semi-diameters, in Miles 206050, and the cube made of the terrestrial Globes diameter, will contain that made of the Moon's 42 8/10 the proportion being as 2 is unto 7 and so much greater is the Globe of Earth then that of the Moon.

Ʋnder the Moon's Sphere is the Element of Fire conceived for to be in thickness 154050 Miles, whose concave or neerest distance from the super­ficies of the Earth and Water is conjectured 52000 Miles, and from the center 55500 Miles.

The upper Region of the Air (being next unto the Element of Fire) is suppos'd to contain in thickness 51994 Miles, and the concave of it in distance from the superficies of the Earth 6 Miles, the Middle Region 4 Miles, and the lowest two Miles, which is the distance from the Earth to the highest watery clouds, and this is the Region of Air in which we mortals draw our vital breath in.

The two lowest Elements do make one Globe consisting of Earth and Water, whose Diameter is 7000 Miles, and the whole circumference 22000 Miles, and according to this proportion 61 1/9 miles upon this Globe will answer unto one degree in the Heavens; but expect no exactness in the dimensions.

Here I could have shown you a great assembly [Page 11]of various opinions, but not assisted with any con­vincing Reasons, or grounded upon undeniable demonstrations; as in the magnitudes and di­stances of the Stars, most supposing them for to be in a further distance from the Earth, and of greater magnitudes, in which proportions I have followed Tycho Brahe, but not altogether in their heights. Some deny these several Spheres, and the motions called Accessus, and Recessus; others will have them moved by Angelical powers; and this opi­nion is assisted by the great Doctor and light of the Catholike Church St. Augustine, lib. 83. p. 74. say­ing, Every visible thing in this World, is under the charge of an Angelical power; And so writeth St. Jerome cap. 28. On Ezech. That there is an Ele­ment of Fire some reject, others do affir it; but deny that either the Fire or the Air have any morion with the Heavens from East to West. Aristoile affirms the Air to be naturally of a hot quality, the Stoiks and Cardanus do think it cold; Turnebius neither, but apt for either heat or cold: The common received opinion is, that the upper Region of the Air is naturally hot and dry; the second cold and moist; the lowest Region tempe­rate, according unto the place and Season of the year; but generally the whole Element of Air is thought to be hot and moist.

Now as for the two lower Elements, Earth and Water, as united together they do make one Globe, and this assertion generally ratified, and unani­mously consented unto, by the ablest men in all Ages; yet something in approbation of this shall be said hereafter: But as for the greatness of this Globe it is doubted of by many, although not with [Page 12]such dissonant, and diversity of opinions, as for the magnitude and height of the Spheres, and the other two Elements: for some do seem to prove by Eclypses of the Sun, and Moon, and voyages at Sea, what part or how many leagues or miles upon this Globe will answer unto one degree of the Heavens; the common opinion is 20 leagues or 60 miles, and by this account the terrestrial Globe is in com­pass 21600 miles. Ptolemaeus accounts 500 Stadi­ums for 1 degree, that is 22500 miles, if the Sta­dium in Egypt did not exceed that in Italy; others will have it 66 miles allowed for one degree, and in compass then 23760 miles: but I have in this allowed for the whole circumference of the Earth 22000 miles: Thus numerous are the opinions of learned Philosophers, Geometritians, Astronomers, Geographers, Cosmographers and Navigators, and their ways so ambiguous, seldome agreeing in any thing, often crossing one another; that if there be a truth in them, it is hard for to discover which it is, and being found difficult to follow,; but whe­ther this admired and stupendious machine of the World, be greater or lesser 'tis not for me to argue, And thus I will conclude, Psal. 135. ver. 6. Omnia quaecunque voluit Dominus fecit in Coelo & in Terra, in mari, & in omnibus abyssis.

The 7 Planets, or wandring Stars, with their Characters, colour, motion, period and courses.

FIrst under the Firmament or Starry Heaven, is plac'd the planet Saturn ♄ who is the highest of them; his colour is pale, his course is finished through the 12 Signes, in 29 years, 5 moneths, 2 weeks, 1 day and 8 hours.

The next Orbe to this is Jupiter ♃ a fair and bright planet he passeth through the 12 Signs of the Zodiack in a 11 years, 11 moneths, 5 days and 17 hours, or very neer.

Mars ♂ appeareth in his proper Sphere, of a red or fiery colour, marching through the 12 Signs in 1 year 11 moneths, 1 week, 6 days and 22 hours or thereabouts.

The Sun ☉ is next being placed in the middle of the planets, the better to distribute his light unto the rest, they being illuminated by him, their bright and glorious Prince, and is called Sol quasi solus: for this Planet is as Monarch of the Skies, all the Stars receiving their lustre from Him: his progress through the Zodiack is finished in a year, consisting of 365 days, 5 hours, 49 minuits, and 16 seconds almost; for the odd hours and minuits, is allowed a day every fourth year.

Venus ♀ is a very bright and clear shining Planet, she finisheth her course in a year: some­times [Page 14]rising before the ☉ she is called the morning Star, and at other times will follow the ☉, and then is called th [...] [...] Stars she seldome goeth 4, degrees from the ☉ and can never exceed two whole Signs or 60 degrees.

Mercuny ☿ posting to and fro in the sixth Sphere; but cannot exceed 30 degrees, or one whole Sign in distance at any time from the ☉ and so is seldome visible, being obscured by the Sun beams, and when seen, he is not bright, and finisheth his course in something lesse then the space of a year.

The Moon ☽ is the lowest of all the Planets, and consequently swiftest in her motion; She passeth through the 12 Signs of the Zodiack in 27 days, 7 hours, 43 minuits, and 5 seconds, but from one new Moon unto another it is 29 days and odd hours, by reason of the ☉ proper motion from the West Eastward, in those 27 days.

The mutual Aspects, or positions of the 7 Planets.

THe Planets are called wandring Stars, both for their various courses, and not keeping any certain distance one from another, each of them moving in a proper & peculiar Sphere; the Sun only keeping under the Ecliptick line; but all the other 6 (according to their motions) changing continu­ally their latitudes; being sometimes Southward of the Ecliptick as was said before, which mutability of their courses, you may plainly behold by the Moon, who passes by all other Planets in less then 30 days; and so do all the other 5 Planets [Page 15](according to their proper motions) mutually aspect one another, and are conceived by Astro­nomers to have the more force (in their influences upon all sublunary things) according to their positions; and the powerful effects of their na­tures, are supposed to be hindred or further'd by the interposition of another, which in things of this nature ought to be judiciously and circum­spectly considered, weighing with reason the posi­tion of the Planets, their natures, the Seasons of the year, with the temperature of the Signs they are in, and the intervening Aspects of the other Stars; of which Aspects there be many observed by Astronomers; but those which may concern this Treatise are these following.

Conjunction of any two Planets, is when they have one Longitude, both of them being under one Sign and degree of the Zodiack.

Sextile aspect, is when any two Planets are in distance one from another (in respect of their Longitudes) ⅙ part of the 12 Signs, that is two whole Signs or 60 degrees.

Quartile aspect, is when the difference of two Planets Longitudes shall be ¼ part of the Zodi­ack; that is 3 Signes, being a quadrant or 90 degrees.

Trine, is the aspect of any two Planets, that differ in Longitude one from another ⅓ part of the Zodiack, that is 4 whole Signs or 120 degrees.

Opposition, is the aspect of two Planets directly opposite, differing in Longitude 6 of the 12 Signs that is 180 degrees, and for brevity are charactered thus, according to their Aspects.

A Table of the 7 Planets aspects.
The CharactersConjunctionDegrees of the Zodiack.00
 Sextile 60
 Quartile 90
 Trine 120
 Opposition 180

The natures and qualities of the four Elements.

AN Element, is a beginning; out of which all bodies are compos'd, mixed with some part, of all the four which are these, viz. (1) Fire (2) Air (3) Water and (4) Earth; these four do fill up the whole Orbe, from the center of the Heavens to the Moons Sphere, whereby a vacuum or an empti­ness is avoided, which Nature doth abhor, and so hath curiously made them, as to be the bounds of the connex superficies of one another, and conse­quently to the concaves of their Spheres, and are described in order thus.


Under the Moon's Sphere is plac'd the Element of Fire, void of all weight and most remote from the center of gravity, this Element is of nature ex­tremely hot and dry.


Next unto the Fire is placed the Element of Air: which is also light, and is by nature hot and moist.

Earth and Water.

The other two (that is the Water and the Earth) as joyned and commixt together do make one Globe; for the Water is heavy, and by nature cold and moist; the Earth extremely cold and dry but heavier then the Water; yet both these Elements pressing to the center of the Spheres.

To prove the Earth's roundnesse.

NAture, in all her admirable works, does aim at that which is most convenient, and attains unto the greatest perfection, which is a spherical figure, being most capacious, and uniform of all others, one part counterposing the other: thus Nature hath made the center of the Heavens, the seat of Gravity, to which all heavy things must naturally tend unto; and so consequently if it were of any form but round, the fluxible waters would be divorced from the Earth, dissenting it, to run unto the center. But some will object, that it is not round, by reason of some high exalted hills, spacious plains, and deep depressed vallies, and do conceive these a sufficient demonstration; but this Argument will be of no force, if you con­sider the greatness of the terrestrial Globe; For [Page 18]Mount Pelion, was observed by Dicaearchus, whose perpendicular height was sound to be but 12 Sta­diums, that is, but an Italian mile and a half, and this the highest hill that was then known; and so writeth Pliny, lib. 1. cap. 65. but in the same Chap­ter he falls into a great absurdity, conceiving the Alpes to be 50 miles high: Eratosthenes (a famous Geometrician) found the perpendicular of mount Atlas not to exceed 10 Stadiums, a small propor­tion, in respect of the Globes rotundity.

And that the superficies of the Water is also round it doth evidently appear by every little bubble, or drop of water falling from any place, or lying upon some dust, it will immediately con­tract into a spherical or round form whereby to preserve it self from drought; this naturally and voluntarily doing so, argues the roundness and form of the whole Element, whose parts they are; the ☽ eclipst demonstrates the Earth's rotundity; and let this suffice, as not requisite in this Treatise, conducing to our purpose.

The concord and disagreement of the four Elements.

THis Globe composed of Earth and Water, is suspended in the center of the Heavens equi­distant on every side, counterpoised with its own weight, circumvolved with the Element of Air, and that within the Fire; these 4 Elements have naturally a peculiar quality in themselves; parti­cipating with some, and contrary to others, as the Fire in hot, the Air most, the Water cold, and the Earth dry: in this, the Fire and Water be natu­rally [Page 19]opposite, as heat and cold; the Air and Earth be in opposition, as wet and drought; these 4 Ele­ments do also participate of one anothers quali­ties; as thus, the Fire is of nature hot and dry: the Air hot and moist: the Water cold and moist: the Earth cold and dry: So the Air agrees with the Fire, in respect of heat, and with the Water in respect of moisture. The other medium is, the Water in combination with the Air in moisture, and in coldness with the Earth: the two extreams, as Earth with Water in respect of coldness, and agreeing with the Fire in dryness.

By the commixtion of these 4 Elements, all bodies are ingendred, and by their mutual affini­nities do subsist: and if any one predominates, or be defective, it turns the other 3 into discord; and if not in time united, it subverts the frame, and destroys for want of concord, what it should pre­serve in peace; for if the Fire prevails, it burns and turns to Feavers; and if defective, the heat of the Air being equally opposed with the cold of the Water, moisture in them both predominates, equalled with the drought of the Earth; So that the cold then onely rules with which nothing can live.

The nature and temperature of the 4 Seasons.

THe 4 Seasons of the year are compared to the four Ages in every Man; and his complexion or constitution unto the four Elements: and first the Spring is compared to Infancy, being Airy, hot and moist. 2. Summer to youth; as being Fiery, [Page 20]hot and dry, grown to full perfection of strength and vigour of body, every part and member ripe. 3. Autumne is likened to elder Age, the body and strength in Man declining, being Watery, cold and moist, his beauty withering. 4. Winter, re­sembling old and decrepit Age, being cold and dry.

But some do suppose the 4 Seasons of the year to be in opposition one unto another; for what one Season does produce, the contrary will destroy. And so they conceive, as the Spring is hot and moist, that Autumne is cold and dry: and as the Summer is naturally hot and dry; so Winter is opposite unto it, being cold and moist; But these Seasons vary as the Climates doe.

The Complexions in Man are these.

  • 1 Choler: like Fire, hot and dry.
  • 2 Sanguine: Air, hot and moist.
  • 3 Phlegme: Water, cold and moist.
  • 4 Melancholy: Earth, cold and dry.

THus one does qualifie and allay the violence of the other; but yet you must conceive they are not equally commixt in every Man, Beast, or vegetable Creature, but all differing, and every member or part participating much more of one then of another, as the vital Spirit of Fare, the Flesh of the Air, the Humidity of the Water, and the Bones in more affinity with the Earth: yet these compositions not alike infused, as you may see in the diversity of Spirits and conditions of Men: by the agility of some Beasts, and the slow­nesse [Page 21]of some others; the mildnesse of one crea­ture, and the fury of another; as the servile Asse, dull and slow, Horses valiant and nimble, Lions indomitable, always raging as with a perpetual feaver, inflamed with choler; And so it is in all other Creatures, differing in their temperatures, both in their several kinds and species; and the like we see in Vegetables and Minerals in their compositions, yet participating in all four of the Elements, but in some of them more then in others.

As in Plants, the roots are most Earthly, their leaves in affinity with the Water, their Blossoms do participate of the Air, and their seeds of the Fire; for without heat, nothing can be produc'd; all Stones do generally partake most of the Earth: yet there be exceptions, as Flint-stones and Thun­derbolts, are of a fiery quality: Crystal and Pearls of a Watry: and in others the Air and Water most predominates, as the Pumice-stone, made of the froth of the Sea, and flotes upon it, being ex­ceedingly light; which argues it participates but little of Earth, and lesse of Fire: from whence the old Adagie is derived, To strike fire out of a Pumice-stone, is to expect an impossibility in Na­ture. But this discourse here is not in season, and so let us return.

The 4 Seasons.

EVery one of the four Seasons is conceived to be qualified with the Signs as they are commixt with their several temperatures, called the tripli­city, three Signs being in every Season, as we have [Page 22]said already; but for your more ease, I will place it here again, but not intending to induce or per­swade any for to believe that, which I do not con­fidently credit my self, as that their natural temp [...] ­ratures are known: yet I doubt nor, but that the Stars, by their aspects and influences, are causes of distemperatures, and alters the Air and all sublu­nary bodies; Yet by what means, it is not cer­tainly demonstrated unto Reason, being but ex­tracted from bare effects where doubtful Experi­ence is only Mistris. For if it were a truth, that the nature and temperature of them were dis­covered to man, we could not egregiously err so often as we doe; besides the aspects being general, the effects would be so too, the Climate conside­red; but this is quite otherwise, when the wea­ther will alter in a little space, or few miles, and there may be at one time (in four neer adjacent places) Rain, Snow, Hail, and fair weather: yet to satisfie some (Experience having thus delivered it) I will neither approve, nor quite reject it: but leave it indifferent to every ones judgement, as they please to peruse, or omit it; And here I will subject to your view, the Signs, Temperatures, Complexions, and Natures of the four Seasons observed by many,

The sympathy of the twelve Signs with the four Elements.
FieryHot and dryCholerick
EarthlyCold and dryMelancholy
AierialHot and moistSanguine.
WateryCold and moistPhlegmatick
FieryHot and dryCholerick
EarthlyCold and dryMelancholy
AeriallHot and moistSanguine
WatryCold and moistPhlegmatick
FieryHot and dryCholerick
EarthlyCold and dryMelancholy
AeriallHot and moistSanguine
WatryCold and moistPhlegmatick.

The nature and qualities of the seven Planets in union with the four Elements.
EarthlyCold and dryMelancholy
AiryHot and moistSanguine
♂ & ☉FieryHot and dryCholerick
♀ & ☽WatryCold and moistPhlegmatick

As for the temperature of the Planet ☿ he is of himself inclinable to the condition of the Sign he [Page 24]is in, or the nature of any other Planet that is in ☌, ⚹, □, △, or ☍ with him; yet in conjunction he is generally observed (as ♂ is) to cause tempests and a turbulent air; but more or less according to the disposition of the others, and the Signs he moveth under, suitable to their temperatures, and not moderating the evil aspects of the bad, as men do in this World, according to the old saying or Adagie;

Who lives with good, are good we see;
And with the bad, perverted be.

Definitions of some few terms that are used by Astronomers.

A Parallel Sphere is also called vertical, having the World's Poles in the Zenith and Nadir, the Aequator in the Horizon; the Meridians and Azimoths are all one; and likewise the Parallel circles and Almicanters; in a verticle Sphere there is half a year day, and half a year night; one half of the Heavens never riseth, and so conse­quently the other half must never set.

A right Sphere hath the World's Poles in the Horizon, the Aequinoctial circle passeth by the Zenith and Nadir, and by that means it divides the Horizon at right angles; in this Sphere every degree and part of the Aequator, that ascendeth or descendeth the Horizon with the Sun, or any fixed Star, will come to the Meridian with the ☉ or the same ⚹ for these causes it is called a right Sphere; and here the days will be always equal [Page 25]to the nights, either of them being 12. hours in any time of the year; and all the Stars likewise will be 12. hours above the Horizon, and as long depressed in every natural day.

An Oblique Sphere hath one Pole elevated above the Horizon, and the other as much depressed; in any oblique Sphere, the Aequator will pass by the Horizon obliquely, making an acute, and consequently an obtuse angle with it; and that degree or part of the Aequator, which shall ascend the Horizon with the Sun or any Star, will not come unto the Meridian of the place with the ☉ or the same ✴ for these reasons this Sphere is thus nominated. In all oblique Spheres some part of the Heavens will never rise, some will never set; and some Stars will both rise and set, as by the Sphere is evident in any latitude.

The Altitude, or Poles elevation, is an arch of the Meridian circle, intercepted between the Hori­zon, and the end of the World's Axis; and the complements are the degrees and parts that it wants of 90, that is, an arch of the Meridian con­tained between the Pole elevated, and the places Zenith, which in all oblique Spheres is ever equal to an arch of the Meridian, intercepted betwixt the Horizon and the Aequator.

The Declination of the Sun, or any Star, or part of the Heavens, is an arch of the Meridian, passing through the centre of the ☉ or ✴, and intercepted between the Aequator and the centre of the ☉, ✴ or point of the Heavens, given either North or South.

The Oblique Ascension is the degree or part of the Aequator that ascendeth the Horizon with the [Page 26] Sun or any Star in an oblique Sphere, and those degrees reckoned from ♈ and continued to the end of ♓, that is to 360. degrees.

The right Ascension of the Sun or any Star, or part of the Ecliptick, are the degrees of the Aequi­noctial circle, that ascends the Horizon with them, in a right Sphere, or the degrees of the Aequator, that do come unto the Meridian of any place with the ☉, ✴, or any other part of the Heavens, and those reckoned from Aries to 360. degrees, in the Aequinectial circle, as were the former oblique Ascensions; and this is general in all oblique Spheres whatsoever, and the true degree in the Aequator, that ascended the Horizon, the ☉, or ✴ in a right Sphere.

The Magnitude of a Star is to be understood only of the fixed, which for distinction, and the readier finding them in the Sphere, they are divided into six sorts, the first being the greatest, and so in order; but as for those of the sixt Mag­nitude, or cloudy ones, they are but little observed in the predictions of the weather; yet are here in­serted with a Table of the Sun's right Ascension in hours and minutes; for every 15. degrees of the Aequator, is equal to an hour, and so each degree is equall to four minutes in time, as was said before.

I have here inscribed a Table for the Sun's right Ascension every fift day of the year, and two other of the Stars which are observed in prognostication of the weather, with the right Ascensions, Decli­nations, and Magnitudes of them, whereby they may be readily found on the Globe, or without it, when they will be visible, and when obscured [Page 27]with the Sun, and what time of day or night they will come upon the Meridian; from whence the hour of the night, and many other useful propo­sitions, and necessary conclusions will be deduced, by well observing these in pronostication of the weather.

A Table of the Suns right Ascention in hours and minutes, for every fifth day in any moneth in the yeer.
302133 11239510718


[Page 28]

The right Ascentions, DEclinations, Natures, and Magnitudes of some one noted Starre in each Constellation of the Firmament from the North Pole to the Ecliptick.
The first Table of ✴ in North Latitude.Right Ascentions ho.mi.The Decliations de. mi.The Stars. mixt natures.Magnitude
The Starres names.
The Polar Sear003087N19&3
Andromedas girdle004933N42  2
The Northern Fish010017N21  5
Cassiopeias knees011258N17&3
Delta the north Triangle013227N51  4
The Ramms head014621N42&3
Algol, Medusas head024439N293
Perseus right side025848N28  2
Pleiades or 7 Stars032422N57&3
The Goat and Kids045045N33&1
Erichthonius his heel050030N00&2
Castor, or the head of ♊071132N38  2
The head of Pollux072328N52  2
The Manger in ♋ breast081520N56&don
The northern Asse082222N44&4
The Lions head091124N38&3
Regulus the ♌ heart094913N45&1
Calisto the great Bear104063N432
Berenices hair120031N31&3
Vindemiatrix in ♍124413N9&3
Arcturus in Bootes135820N30&1
The bright ✴ in ♎14577N57&2
The northern Crown151828N72
The Snakes neck15267N45&2
Hercules, his forehead165814N56&3
Serpentarius, his head171812N56&3
The Dragons head174952N00&3
The Vulture and Harp182538N29&1
Antinious his right knee19177S44&3
The Eagles heart19337N58&2
Capricornus, his head195814S34&3
The Swans breast201939N9&3
The Dolphins head202213N15&3
The Waterman, ♒21127S4&3
Cepheus lest knee225575N0  3
Pegasus right wing235011N10&2

The right Ascentions, Declinations, Natures and Magnitudes of some noted Starres in every Con­stellation of the Firmament from the Ecliptick to the South pole.
The second Table of * in North Latitude.Right Ascentions ho.mi.The Declinations de. mi.The Stars. mixt natures.Magnitude
The Stares names.
The Phaenix neck001045S50&3
The Whales belly013012S7&3
Alcarnar in Eridanus13540S43&1
The water Snake20064S30  3
The Hyades or 5 ✴35014N30&3
Aldebaran the ♉ eye41515N42  1
The Hares belly51321S30  3
Orions girdle5181S282
The Dove54037S00  2
Dorado61566S10  4
Syrius the great Dog62916S12&1
Procyon the little Dog7206N9&2
The Southern Asse82419N26&4
The flying Fish83068S30&5
The Hydras heart997S4&1
The Chamelion103077S10 5
The Goblet104016S9 4
The Centaures flank115049S30 2
The Christians Armes120061S10 3
The Crows wing121512S23 3
The Indian fly122067S30 5
Arista ♍ ear of corn1369S101
The Indian Bee141082S15 5
The Wolfes flank143046S30 3
Antares, the ♏ heart16725S30 1
The South Triangle161569S15 2
The Altar163056S30&3
The Southern Crown183043S20 3
The foot of Sagittarius184040S30 2
The Peacooks eye195060S00 1
The Indian with darts203059S00 5
The Cranes wing214550S50  
Fomahaud in Pisces223634S10&2
Toucan an Indian bird235068S30 1

The use of these Tables.

THe first of these, contains the Sun's right A­scension, in hours and minutes the fifth day in every moneth, excepting February, which is defective, having but 20 days, undess it be Bisseatile or leap year; and some moneths have 31 days, which excess or defect is not to be regarded, nor such exactnesse required, as to a minute, and yet you may allow, in proportion some minutes, for any day between these, if so it be desired; the head of this table contains the 12 Solar monethe of the year, each in a peculiar column: the first hath the days for the fifth day in every moneth, against which in each column, stands the hours and mi­nutes for the Sun's right Ascension those days.

The next Table hath 5 columns, the first con­tains the names of those Stars which are used in [Page 31]prognosticating the weather; the second column shews the right Ascension of those fixed Stars, that is, the hours and minutes, or degrees of the Equi­noctial circle (reckoned from ♈) that comes unto the Meridian with those Stars: the third column doth contain the declinations of those Stars, in degrees and minutes, and those distinguished with an S, or an N, to signifie whether their Declina­tions be Northward or Southward from the Equi­noctial circle; the fourth, their natures, accor­ding to the Planets; the fifth and last column sheweth the bignesse, or magnitudes of those Stars: as whether they be of 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, or 6. magnitude; as their titles in the head of the Table do appear, the use of them is as followeth.

To find the Sun's right Ascension.

ADmit it were required to know the Sun's right Ascension on the 5. day of March; a­gainst 5 in the Title of days, and in the column under March, I do find 23 hours, 42 minutes for the day required, that is, 42 minutes after 11 at Noon, was ♈ the 6 day upon the Meridian; for from that time 355 degrees, 30 minutes of the Equator had past the Meridian, and Astronomers do account from one mid-day unto another; and if the ☉ right Ascension were required upon the 5 day of July, it will be found in the Table 7 hours and 38 minutes, and in the same manner may the others be known.

To find the right Ascensions, Declinations and Magnitudes of these Stars.

LOok for the Star desired in the first Column of either Table; on the head of the Table you will find whether the Star sought for, hath North or South Latitude: in the second column stands the right ascension, in hours and minutes: the third will show the Declination in degrees and minutes; and whether it be Northward or Southward from the Equator; the fourth the temperature according to the Planets: and the last will shew the magni­tude of that Star.

Example, the Ram's head is desired, having north Latitude, whose right Ascension is 1 hour, 46 minutes; the Declination 21 degrees, 42 mi­nutes Northward from the Equinoctial; The nature participates of both these Planets, ♄ & ♂, and is a Star of the third magnitude, and so of the rest; thus are the fixed Constellations of a mixt and doubtful nature, according to Durer, whom I follow much in this.

To know at any time of the year, in what hour either of day or night, any of these Stars will be South.

Substract the Sun's right Ascension, from the Stars right ascension, the remainder will shew the hour and minute of the Stars comming to the Meridian, and whether it be day or night, by be­ing reckoned from noon. But if it be required [Page 33]to know when a Star will be South, whose right ascension is less then that of the Sun's, in all such cases, add 24 h. unto the Stars right ascension, and from that sum, substract the ☉ right ascension, and then the remainder will be the hour and mi­nute, that day from 12 at noon, that the Star will come unto the Meridian; this done, for to know whether it will happen in the day time, or visible at night, or whether it will be neer about the time of Sun rising or setting, or how long before or after, I will now show, and explain it (God wil­ling) with two Examples following.

Ʋpon the 10. day of June, it is required at what hour the Star called the little Dog will be upon the Meridian: the Sun's right ascension for that day, I do find to be 5 H. 55 minutes; and the little Dog (a Star of the 2 magnitude) to have for his right ascension 7 h. 20. m from whence substract the ☉ right Ascension (for the day given) and the re­mainder will be 1 H. 25. so the little Dog will be upon the Miridian the 10 day of June, 35 minutes before 2 in the afternoon.

The 25 day of December celebrated for the Nativity of our Blessed Saviour, it is required to know when the middle Star in Orions girdle will come unto the Meridian, this is a Star of South Latioude, and of the second magnitude, whose Declination, you may see is 1 g. 28. min. and the right ascension of this ✴ is 5 H. 18 minu. and the ☉ right ascension the 25 day of December, is 19 hours, o minutes, which being greater then the given Star; adde 24 hours to it, the sum will be 29 H. 18 minu. from whence sub­stract the Suns right ascension 19 H. o minutes, [Page 34]and the remainder will be 10 H. 18 minu. at night.

By Trigonometry you may find the true time of ☉ rising or setting in any Latitude, and for any day in the year; which hour known, and substra­cted from the hour of the Stars being South, giveth the time after Sun setting; as in the Latitude of 52. g. o.m. where the Artick pole is elevated above the Horizon; the ☉ upon the 25. day of December will descend the Horizon, at 3. h. 50 m. which sub­stracted from 10. h. 18. m. the remainder will be 6. h. 28. the true time after Sun setting, before Orions Girdle comes unto the Meridian.

Bootes (who is also called Arcturus) will be full South on the same day, at 18. h. 58. m. from whence substract 12 hours, (for you must reckon from noon-day) and there will remain 6. h. 58. m. in the morning, and before ☉ rising 1. h. 12. m. if it were required when these or any other fixed Star will be upon the Axis of the Aequator, substract 6. h. from their right ascentions, and the remainder is the thing required; as Orions Girdle was upon the Worlds Axis, at 4. h. 18. m. after mid-day, and Ar­cturus 58. minutes after midnight, by the right ascentions of the Stars and the ☉, you may find their apparitions, and occultations to any time of the year, with the hour of the night, &c. The Pleiades, and these two last constellations are men­tioned in the sacred Scriptures: As Job 38.31, & [...]2. & cap. 9.9.

The severall Aseentions and Descentions of the fixed Stars and Planets.

THis is to be understood in respect of the hemis­phere, and the Horizon of your place, and that in several senses too; as a Star is said (some­times) to be ascending, not being come unto the Meridian of any place required; and when any Star is upon the Meridian, it is said to be culmi­nant; and here you are to note, that the influence of any Star is then of most force to that place; and observe also in the aspects of any Planet in ⚹ □ or △; whether both these Planets thus aspected are visible in that hemisphere at the same time? or which of them? and in what sign? and whether ascending towards the Meridian? or having past it, descending towards the Western Horizon? but the ascention and descention of the Stars, is usually understood for the rising and setting of any Star, according to the violent motion of the Primum Mobile; and in respect of the Horizontal circle, to that hemisphere which they must passe, both ascending and descending.

But know, that in all oblique Spheres (where either pole is elevated above the Horizon) that those Stars can never set to that hemisphere, whose declinations towards the pole elevated are greater then the complement of the poles elevation; and those Stars whose declinations are as many de­grees towards the pole depressed, can never rise: But if the declination; of any Star (towards either pole) be lesse then the Aequators height above that Horizon, then all those Stars (in every natural day) [Page 36]will both rise and set; of which ascentions and descentions of the Stars, there are three several kinds observed, both by the Poets and Prognosti­cators of the weather, in the alteration of the Air: And are these,

1. Cosmicall. 2. Acronycall. And 3. Heliacall.

Those Stars are properly said to rise Cosmical, which do ascend the Horizon with the ☉; as the Dog▪star doth in Summer, from whence they are called the Dog-dayes, beginning about the 20. day of July, and ending in the latter end of August: But in the largest sense any Star is said to rise Cos­mical, that ascends the Horizon in the day time. The Cosmical setting of any Star, is when they do descend the Horizon at the same time when the ☉ rises, or at any time of day, but not taken in the strictest sense.

The Acronycal ascention is the rising of any Star when the ☉ sets; as when the ☉ doth enter into the sign ♒, and descending the Horison, the sign ♌ will rise at the same time, which is pro­perly called Acronycal, although it be often taken for a Star that ascends the Horizon at any time of night; the Acronycal descension is said of any Star that sets with the ☉, as the little Dog-star the 5. day of June; but this is also said of any Star that sets in the night time.

The Heliacal rising of any Star, is to be under­stood of those that have been obscured with the Sun-beams; and the Sun moving according to the succession of the signs, the Star begins again to appear at his rising, a little before the Sun, as you may see in the Latitude of 52. g 0. And on the seventh of August, the Lions heart quite obscured, [Page 37]and a few days after will be seen to rise before the Sun; and the Heliacal setting, is any Star that is seen presently after the Sun setting, and a few days after will be quite obscured with the glory of his beams; as the 28. of August, you may be­hold Spica Virginis in the West, and in a few days after offuscated with the resplendent radius of the Sun, his proper motion being East-ward. This I do desire may satisfie (most courteous Reader) as an abstract of the world; and if further satisfa­ction be desired, vouchsafe to look over my books of Astronomy; and for the better recording (in your memory) the apparition and occultation of the Stars, accept of these verses, though from a rude Minerva.

Ascention Cosmicall (as Poets say)
Are Stars that rise with Sol, or in the day.
Those asterismes Acronycall they call,
That in the night do either rise or fall.
And those Heliacall (Astraea says)
Whom Phoebus does offuscate with his rays.

AN INTRODUCTION TO THE Second Part of Meteors.

AS for the word Meteors, it signifies an appa­rition in the Air (as taken in the common or usual sense) or high and lifted up: but in general there are two sorts, one risen from Va­pours and Exhalations, termed by the Philosophers imperfect mixt bodies, by reason they are easily reduced into their first nature, or proper Element, as Hail or Snow, quickly resolving into Water, and all those which are accounted perfectly mixt, are thunder bolts, &c. and the reason they do give, is because that such as these will not so soon be converted into their first Elements, from whence they were extracted or derived, the material cause of all, are hot and moist vapours, or hot and dry exhalations, from Water and Earth, the efficient cause (under God) is from the fixed and wande­ring Stars, by vertue of whose beams a light rarifi'd substance is extracted from gross and heavy bo­dies, as vapours from water, and exhalations from Earth: their qualities, are heat and moisture, which causeth diversity of effects, especially in those lesse perfectly mixt, which are the subjects now intended.

Vapours do consist of the four Elements, but the substance water, as the steam of a boyling Pot, which hangs like a dew upon the lid, or cover over it: And Exhalations are commonly like smoak, of nature hot and dry, as you may behold in a Summers day to offuscate the Air, or make it seem dusky with the ascending of thin sumes, and after this comes usually thunder, which shews from whence these exhalations were extracted; for out of Fire and Air only no Meteor can consist, as wanting matter, the Fire of it self (as being an Element) is so subtile, that it cannot be purified; whereas all exhalations and vapours, must be refi­ned, and consequently extracted from some grosser body; for the Air (if much rarified) would turn to Fire; as you may see in violent and circular motions, of wheels or such like things, that are set on fire by rarification of the Air, where the matter is dry and combustible: and when the Air becomes grosse it turns to Water, as you may see by your breath, in the winter time, or the Air in­closed in vaults, or other hollow places, will quickly be condensed, by opposition of the out­ward Air, or coldnesse of the place, especially against rainy weather; but lot us now ascend to unmask some other doubtful quaeries.

The places where Meteors are generated, is ge­nerally held for to be in all, or any Region of the Air, which are three, viz. the upper from the Ele­ment of Fire to the clouds, the middle Region containing the clouds, the lowest from the clouds unto the Earth; but Tycho Brahe, with some others, do conceive the Element of Air, for to be delated up into the Firmament or fixed Stars; but that [Page 40]above the Element of Fire, to be of a Celestial nature, differing from the inferiour Air; and their reasons are derived from the height of Co­mets, observed not only above the Element of Fire, but with the Planets and some higher then the Sphere of Saturn, even with the fixed Stars, as the new Star in Cassiopaeia which was seen, and the height taken by Ticho himself (in the year of the World's Redeemer, 1572) without parallax.

The proof of the altitude of Comets, is deduced from their Parallaxes, that is the difference be­tween the true and apparant height of any bla­zing Star (being observed from the superficies of the terrestrial Globe) and not from the center of the Heavens; and this difference is discovered several ways. First, as by observing some noted and fixed Stars, ascending the Horizon with it, or presently before or after; and if they do keep the same distance, or neer unto it, that Comet must needs be very high; or by several observations made in other Countries; for if neer the Firma­ment, those fixed Stars will appear with it in all Hemispheres alike: But if the distance between them varies, and in a small distance of place or time, it argues those blazing Stars are very low. And thus the Parallaxis of any thing visible un­der the Firmament, will be found greater or lesser, according to the height of it; As the Star in Cas­siopaeia appearing in the year of Grace, 1972. diffe­ring but little or nothing in the Parallax, or the observations made by divers Astronomers in seve­ral Countries, in the year of the Virgin's being a 1585, there was a Comes appeared in the Sphere betwixt Saturn and Jupiter, and an other in the [Page 41]year of the Incarnation of the Son of God, 1618. between Jupiter and Mars.

Aristotle, with Regiomontanus, and many others of his followers, do affirm all Comets to be sublunary: and this their Schollars do alledge, that if the Astronomical hypotheses be true, the Star in Cossiopaeia, was greater then the fixed Stars of the first magnitude, and consequently (by their own demonstrations) bigger then the whole Globe of Earth and Water above 100. times; and a greater body cannot be extracted from a lesse; from whence then (say they) could the matter be drawn or exhaled to feed so great a light for the space of a year and four months? but to this Galilaeus answers, that the highest Sky under the Firmament hath matter in it for the generation of these blazing Stars. Licetus to defend the height of Comets, doth argue that the Sky hath hard condensed knots in it, made and enlightned by the rays both of the fixed and wandring Stars. Gemma Phrysius did diligently observe in 3. or 4. Comets, that their tails did stream or extend out directly contrary to the Sun, as if it were by him inlightned. But others do rather conceive from hence, that these are Meteors, whose matter is drawn together, and set on fire by some Star or Planet which it follows, and turns unto it by some attractive power, and their bodies not round, but dilated according to the matter.

Some do think that these Stars were not new, but from the creation, although unvisible to the world before; as that observed by Hipparchus, or that in the brest of the Swan, in the year 1600. or that which appeared in the year 1604. in Sa­gittarius; [Page 42]and these observed without parallaxes, in the year of Christianity, 1625. towards the latter end of August, a bright Star did appear at noon­day, to the admiration of the people in the City of Antworpe; which Star many Astronomers did behold, and affirmed that it was the Planet Venus. From the Nativity of our Lord and Saviour, Anno 1630. May the 29. being the birth-day of Prince Charls, there was a bright Star appeared at mid­day; the decrees of just Heaven, I dare not presume for to enter into. So here I will end this discourse of blazing Stars, the cause and their effects not being certainly known unto mortal man: And thus writes St. Damascene, lib. 2. cap. 7. Fidei Ortho. Cometae Dei imperio certis temporibus conflantur, rursusque dilabuntur.

The middle Region of Air contains watry Meteors, as Hail, Snow, and Rain; but some con­ceives that those clouds which causeth rain, to be the bounds unto the middle and lowest Region of the Air; the midlemost is thought not to exceed four miles in depth; and that the lowest is but so high as the Sun can reflect from the superficies of the terrestrial Globe; so one of these regions must decrease by the increasing of the other; and yet the lowest region when highest, not to exceed two miles; and when least, or the lowest clouds, not above an Italian mile; for there be hills whose heads are perpetually covered with Snow, and yet their perpendiculars are found by the ob­servations of able Geometricians, not to exceed a mile and a half, that is, 12. Stadiums, or 1500. Geometrical Pases, as was said before.

But some do urge that Tenariffe is higher then [Page 43] Pliny fains the Aspes to be; others do affirm that 'tis visible at Sea 4. degrees, or 240. miles; from whence Snellius would seem to demonstrate the perpendicular height for to be miles 9½, and others 4. miles. There is a mountain in Pera called Pe­riacqca by the Indians, which hill Josephus Acostae (in his History of the Indies) doth advance so high in the description of it, as he makes the Aspes in Italy for to seem but like mole-hills unto it; and that the Air was so subtile on the tops of them, that it was unapt to breath in, and that he had almost vomited up his life. And some erroneously do conceive the heads or tops of these mountains for to be exalted above the middle region of Air.

Cradanus in his 17. Book, De Subtilitatibus, affirmeth the highest clouds not to exceed two miles, and the lowest not above half a mile from the superficies of the terrestrial Globe, being by common experience found to be under the tops of ordinary mountains: Some would seem to prove it by thunder and lightning in this manner; ob­serve when a cloud breaks over your head, the space of time between the flash of lightning, and the clap of thunder, for to be equal unto the firing of a Cannon, and the report it gives at a miles distance; neither is it heard much further then great Ordnances are, as it hath been often observed in great tempests both of thunder and lightning, that in 30. or 40. miles distance, nothing hath been heard or seen, but a fair day, and tranquil Sky.

Some men do think the matter which causes this thunder and lightning to have an affinity with Gun-powder, one being compounded by [Page 44] Nature, and the other imitated by Art, which opinions are various both in Philosophers and Chymists; for Paracelsus and most of his disciples do affirm, that it is caused by Sulphur and Salt­peter, commixed with a great contrariety of Mer­cury unto either, and these three they alledge to be the chief causes of Meteors. Others do say that they are sulphurious exhalations confused in the clouds, and by opposition of the vapours and coldnesse of the place, it gets into a body, where taking fire by antiparistasis, it violently forces a passage through the condensed clouds, with a roaring noise, to the astonishment of mortalls: Others do think that tempests are caused by the wicked condemned spirits, and for this cause bells are hallowed and rung; probable it is that it may be often times so permitted by the Creator; as Psal. 77. ver. 49. and in the 7. of the Revelation; yet all is in the power of God, as Jer. 10.13. & Psal. 134.7. Qui producit ventos de thesauris suis.

Nothing in this world is certain or permanent; opinions of men have their births, periods, coursees, and revolutions, as you may read in all ages, where the opinions of Philosophers have been buried, and again revived from their funerals, armed with new demonstrations, and fortified with arguments, yet besieged and overthrown at last by the offspring of others; which shews these are but disputations, nothing being certain but the greatnesse of the Creator: yet useful conclu­sions are derived from hence, and necessary obser­vations may be selected from humane conceptions, although the essential part cannot be comprehen­ded by us: And here I will end this Introduction. [Page 45]Ecclesiastes cap. 3. ver. 11. Cuncta fecit bona in tem­pore suo, & mundum tradidit disputationi eorum, ut non inveniat homo opus, quod operatus est Deus, ab initio us (que) ad finem.

The second Part. A brief discourse of Meteors: im­perfect mixt bodies, and their causes.

FIrst you ought to observe, that the Fire, Air, Water, and Earth (which here we have for our use) cannot be called pure Elements, but rather Elementarie bodies; for Fire and Water, Air and Earth, are oppugnant and irreconcileable one to another, as they are contrary in their own natures, and can neither generate, nor corrupt sim­ply of themselves, but as mixt they doe; for if these were pure Elements which here we have the Fire would be immoderate for our use; the Air to subtile, and not fit for living Creatures to breath in; the Water would be without taste and not good to drink; the Earth would be sterile, and could neither bring forth, nor cherish; and we being all mixt bodies (compounded of the four Elements) could not be nourished or sustained with Simples.

Of the severall divisions and dispositions of the Air.

THe Element of Air, is divided into three seve­ral regions; or distinguished in three several parts variously qualified, in which are gene­rated many imperfect and mixt bodies, and these divisions are thus nominated, the Ʋpper, Middle and Lower Region of the Air; the first and uppermost, is close adjoyning to the Element of Fire, and hath a circular motion with it, from East to West, car­ried about by the Primum Mobile,; this Region of Air, is perpetually hot and dry, by the reason of its violent motion, and proximity to the Fire. In this Region there are no clouds, because of the heat, and remotenesse of the Earth, from whence they are extracted, their matters being grosse and moist; but to this place are lifted up, exhalations, being by nature hot and dry, which do easily ascend to that heighth, by reason of their heat and levity: these imperfect bodies, by the heat of the Sun and influence of the Stars, are conceived to be exhaled from the Earth, or out of lakes, rivers, seas, and other watery places; and this Meteor as it does ascend, it leaves the grosser part, in the lowest and the middle region; and as it rarifies, it elevates it self, unto the upper region, like a sub­tile and thin fume.

These exhalations having penetrated the middle region, and attained unto the height of the Ele­ments, and circumvolved with a slimy matter, oylie, and apt to be inflamed; thus having assumed a body, is violently carried about with the Air, until with the motion and vicinity of the Fire it is [Page 47]inflamed, and then nourished with more exhalati­ons (continually drawn unto it) that it burns and converts it self into divers forms, according to the disposition of the matter, as resembling Dragons, Lances, Torches, Comets or Blazing Stars, &c.

And some again that seems to fall and slide through the Air, the lightest part being consumed, extracted, or drawn away by some other means, or the levity of it, unable to support the grosser part, lets it descend, which gliding through the Air, and enlightned, appears like a falling Star: some conceives, that these ascend not so high, being of a grosse body (yet hot) and striving to ascend is repulsed by the coldnesse of the middle Re­gion, or the moistnesse of the clouds, and so by the reason of its own weight, and opposition of the Element, it is thrown down again; the sub­stance of them is like a gelly, transparent, and apt to be illuminated.

Comets, and all fiery Meteors are usually moved with the Region they are in, and from East to West, according to the raptile motion of the Spheres: but Seneca affirms, that he did see one which moved parallel to the Horizon, from the North, by the West into the South, and so by the East into the North again; and the contrary like­wise may be so, the exhalations moving as the Air and according to the matter which does nourish it, as you may see fire in a stubble: and others have been seen to remove suddenly from one place to another, casting forth sparkles like fire; these by some are called Goats: and some have seemed as fixt, both in respect of their Latitudes and Lon­gitudes.

They may be also generated in any part of the Heavens, and at all times of the year: but in cold Countries, rarely but in Autumn; for then the heat is sufficient to raise up the matter, and the temperature of the Air, is apt to suffer the exhala­tion to draw to it a slimy substance: which cannot be in the Spring time, the heat being not sufficient to elevate them, and in the Sommer season the ex­halations are not so grosse, by reason of the Sun's heat, dissipating those vapours, and rarifying the Air, and if it could be got together, the middle Region is so cold that it cannot ascend to the uppers; and the Winter quarter is cold and moist, oppugnant to all such exhalations; and so consequently quite unapt for those generations, or any other of that kind as Philosophers affirm, though experience proves the contrary many times.

The middle Region of Air and what is there generated.

THis Region, or middle part of the Air is ge­nerally conceived to be vehemently cold and moist by Antiperistasis, and the effects do also prove the same: and this we see in all things that are oppugnant, inclosed and compre­hended by their contraries, being of greater force, doth cause the contrary inclosed (not being able to break forth) and withall repulsed by its oppo­site, to contract and fortifie it self: as by experi­ence you may see in all living and sensitive Crea­tures, that their inward parts are much hotter in [Page 49]Winter then in Sommer, and their stomachs apter and abler to digest; and the cause is, for that the heat is then repulsive to the inward parts, by the opposition and coldnesse of the outward air; and besides, you may see that the fire and all combustible things will burn more violently in Winter then in Sommer; and the colder the weather is, the more it scorches; the reason is the same in these; for the fire grows more violent, by how much the more it is opposed with the contrary quality of the subdued cold.

The case is the same in the middle Region of the Air; for the upper part is made hot by the violent motion of it, and the neernesse unto the Element of fire; and the lower Region is made hot by reflection of the Sun-beams; and so the cold included between them is the more violent, by how much the lower Region is inflamed with the Suns reflection, and so by that means is colder in the heat of Sommer then in Winter: But these divisions or portions of the Air, have no deter­mined bounds, nor hath the Water in respect of quantity; for by the motion of the celestial bodies, cold and moisture getting together, the Element of Water will increase, and the Air of necessity must then diminish; and with the coniunction of heat and moisture, the Sphere of the Water will be diminished, and the Air as much increased; so by this means the Air does more abound in Sommer then in Winter, and the Water more in Winter then in Sommer; and thus the middle Region is greater at one time then at another.

By the heat of the Sun-beams, and influence of the Stars, Meteors are elevated to the middle [Page 50]Region of the Air; those which by nature are temperately hot and moist, are extracted from wet and waterish places; yet have so much heat as is sufficient to elevate them unto the height of the middle Region, where by reason of the coldnesse of that place, they are condensed, and do generate there several kinds of mixt imperfect bodies; the clouds thus incorporated, are with the cold turned into Snow, congealed many times before it does ingender Water: And to prove this assertion, you may observe that Snow (if compacted or beaten together) is not so soon dissolved into water, as Ice will be by the Sun or any other means; which argues, had it been water first, it would have been the sooner reduced: These vapours or thick exha­lations, drawn up into the middle Region, are often digested and turned into water, from thence distilling down like mists, or in very small drops; for the greatest rain is thought not to fall far through the Air, and out of the inferior part of the lower Region.

For it is generally conceived, the rain that falls from the middle Region, descends in little orbs, whereby to preserve it self, and resist the violence of the Air through which it passeth, and becomes small by reason of the distance and time in falling; for the Hall does demonstrate both the bignesse and rotundity of the drops, which from humide exhalations drawn up unto the middle Region, and there converted into water, and immediately as the drops do distill down, they are contracted into Ice by the Airs coldnesse in that part, which is called Hail; derived from the high Dutch Hagell, opparadventure from the Hebrew Egell, which sig­nifies congealed drops.

In the Winter season it is seldome observed to Hail, by reason the cold in the middle Region is more remisse then in warm weather; and in Sommer-time it is also rare, upon any very hot day, because the heat of the lower Region will not permit it for to pass without dissolving of it before it comes unto the Earth; but frequently in the Spring and Autumn, the heat being then sufficient to elevate the matter, and yet not so violent as to dissolve it in the fall; yet sometimes it happens that great Hail-stones are precipitated at Mid-Sommer, or in very hot seasons, and are then the greater, (if the matter be sufficient) by how much the more it is opposed by the lower Region made hot by reflection of the Sun; for in all times of the year you may find (if observed) more and greater storms of Hail to fall in the day time then in the night.

And some do conceive that there is a fiery nature included in them, besides the heat of that subtile vapour which made it to ascend that middle Region, for by contraries, it is undoubtedly con­gealed; as you may see in Salt (which is hot and dry) to be made of water, whose natural tempe­rature is directly opposite, being cold and moist in open weather, or by the fire-side, or in Sommer­time; take a little Salt, and mix some Snow with it, stir them together till they do incorporate, and they will contract themselves into Ice, which is done by Antiperistasis, or repulsion on every part; as the middle Region of the Air is cold, and these frigide Meteors are ingenerated there. Many other things might be here inserted, which for brevity sake are omitted.

The lower Region of the Air, and the effects it produceth.

THis Region of Air receives all the former qua­lities by course, according to the seasons of the year; and by the former means (out of wa­terish places) there are exhaled from the Earth, moist and crude vapours, the grosser part of them being earthly, and containing but little heat, they are unable to ascend unto the middle Region; yet with the help of that heat included in those vapours, and the attractive vertue of the celestial Orbs, they are raised above the Earth, and there often times congealed before they can be dissolved into water; and these are called Frosts; whereof there be many kinds, according to the matter exhaled, and the temperature of the season, as some times of the year the ground (in the mor­nings) will be hoary, like the head of Time, and the grasse crisped with the Frost; at other times rine-frosts, or congealed mists, hanging like pen­dants on the trees; there be also black or wind­frosts, which are not so wholsome, for they are grosse and earthly vapours exhaled out of more undigested humors, and not so easily discovered by the sight as by the sense of feeling.

There be some vapours exhaled which are called mists, the name derived as from the mixture of Air and Water; of these there be several sorts, as some vapours thin and sterile, and have not moisture sufficient to beget water, nor the heat in them is not prevalent to elevate the grosse humor, and cause them to ascend, but they hang upon [Page 53]the earth, untill the Sun rises, which if he chases away, and dissipates by the vertue of his beams, it argues a fair day. There be besides all these gross mists or fogs, which are more earthly then the former, composed of crude and undigested vapors, drawn from corrupted places, as out of fennes and marish grounds; these are very unwholsome, and very unpleasant to the sense of smelling; but are usually the worse according to the places from whence they were extracted, or after much calm and moist weather.

The nature of Dews in general are these.

DEws are defined for to be liquid vapours, extracted from the water, or earth; these have an affinity unto frost, as Rain unto Snow, and are alike in the material cause; the efficient cause is attributed unto the Stars, and the coldnesse of the Air: These Dews are conceived to be very earthly and ponderous, for they do not ascend high, but are converted into a watry substance, so soon almost as extracted, being observed much more upon low and wet grounds, then upon high and dry hills; and thicker upon the humble shrub, then upon trees, or any exalted plant, as the lofty Cedar.

The usual time of these Dews is in the evening, the heat of the Sun declining, being unable to support the Meteors which he raised, and he deserting the Hemisphere, those that were more elevated must likewise fall; and the hotter the day was, the greater are the exhalations, and the nights are usually then cooler to convert them into water.

All Dews are commonly observed the greater, the Moon increasing, or at the full most of all; the season of the year is to be considered, and the weather, for the hotter the day is, the cooler will be the night, by reason of the shadow which the terrestrial Globe then makes: As for an instance, you may see by the shade of trees, or any other in­terposed body, which are cooler in Sommer-time then in Winter, as in respect of the Air in general; for in shadowed places, in the heat of Sommer, the Air, as in opposition to the Heat, doth contract it self into a grosser body; from whence some conjecture (as by the parts) that the whole Ele­ment of Air is by nature cold.

The Virgins thread.

There is a Dew that flies in the Air like small untwisted Silk or Yarn, and falling upon the ground or plants, it does convert it self into a form like Spiders Webs; the matter they consist of, is held for to be an earthly and slimy matter, or exhalation something dry; these are observed for to be both in the Spring, Sommer, and Autumn; but in these Northern Countrys they are most frequent, the Sun neer Libra, the days being tem­perately warm, the earth not exceeding dry, nor yet over-charged with moisture.


Honey-dews some conjecture for to be earthly exhalations, mixed with waterish vapours, and many suppose them for to be exhalations from [Page 55]plants, and all sorts of flowers and vegetables; and this does evidently appear in Sugar-canes, and divers kinds of Indian Reeds, that have in the morning a Dew hanging upon them, in taste resembling honey; which argues by their sweet­nesse that they are extracted from thence.

These Honey-Dews do afford plenty unto the ware-houses of the industrious Bees with quick returns: their purveyers are going for to seek pro­vant, nor their labourers much trouble to get their loading.

These Honey-Dews, as they are good for Bees, so they are as destructive to divers kind of beasts, as Sheep, Goats, &c. and in general to all fruits and blooming flowers, especially to Hops and Grapes; they are also obnoxious to Corn, and often blasts it in the blooming: For diverting these sad effects, Numa, one of the Roman Kings superstitiously instituted a Feast called Rubigalia and Floralia, in the year from the building of Rome, 516. Pliny, lib. 18. cap. 29. which Feast was observed upon the 28. day of April, 3. Kalend. Moy; He was advised so to do by the Oracles of Sybilla. This Heathenish. Feast the Catholique Church did alter into Ascention Week, calling it Rogation from asking a blessing upon the fruits of the Earth.

The nature of Rain water:

RAin Water is much more insipide at one time then at another, and hath very often a brackish and unpleasant taste, yet comfortable to vigetables, and by reason of the warmth, it does [Page 56]nourish them much better, and more natural for them then spring-water, or out of wells, being cold and too earthly; whereas the other partici­pates of the Air, which is hot and moist; but by reason of this commixture of the Elements, it is apt to form divers bodies, especially in calm times; the Air wanting motion may corrupt, and so consequently generates many things, according to the undigested matter exhaled from the earth, as Frogs, falling upon the tops of houses and Chur­ches, immediately after a storm, and there they will perish in a short time, for want of sustenance; which argues they were not there produced. Corn I have seen, that was after a showre found upon the leads of Churches, and on the ground in divers places; it had the form of Wheat, but small and without taste, the colour of it pure white, both within and without.

The lowest Meteor in the Air, is the burning candle, or as some call it, Ignis Fatuus: This is a hot and moist vapour, which striving to ascend, is repulsed by the cold, and fiered by Antiperistasis, mov [...]s close by the earth, caried along with the vapours that feed it, keeping in low or moist places; the light is of an exceeding pale colour, very unwholsome to meet withal, by reason of the evil vapours it attracts unto it, which nourishes the pallide flame, and will often ascend (as those exhalations do) and as suddainly fall again, from whence the name is derived.

Thunder and Lightning, and the causes from whence they proceed.

THese are conceived to be vapours hot and moist, commixed with exhalations that be hot and dry; involved thus within one another, they do ascend (by vertue of their heat) unto the middle region of the Air, where the exhalation by Antiperistasis grows inflam'd, and strives to get forth of the cloud in which is involved, and the upper part of the cloud (where the heat would passe) by opposition grows the strongest, and the exhalation grown over-hot by being constrained, with violence breaks forth of the weakest place, against the weather that is in the lowest part; and by reason of the cold above it, the heat and subtilenesse of the exhalation, with its own vio­lence in breaking forth, it glances down upon the earth without doing any harm, if unresisted; as consuming a Sword without hurting the Scabbard; and many other things of this kind, unnecessary, and too long for to relate.

The clap of Thunder is first, but the Lightning soonest appears, by reason our sense of seeing is much quicker then our hearing: As you may per­ceive at a distance a Man driving a Stake, or felling of Timber, you may behold him ready to strike again, before you hear the former blow; and in shooting, or discharging of a Gun, you may see the fire before the report. With the conjunction of these compound vapours and exhalations, stones are generated in the Air, as other Minerals are in the Earth, but more fiery by nature, and these are [Page 58]called thunder-bolts, in their formes perfect cones, like the flame of fire which did generate them out of the terrene exhalation; it strikes not above five feet into the earth, as some do affirm.

The remedies against Thunder and Lightning; all hard things will preserve whas is soft and liquid; as Iron laid upon Vessels, will keep the Liquor from sowring, by the former alledged reasons; besides this, it is naturally resisted by a cover made of Seals skins, and preserving that on which 'tis p [...]aced upon any creature; and the like does the Laurell tree, which caused many of the Roman Emperors in time of Thunder and Light­ning, to wear a garment made of Laurel boughs: The pale lightning is most unwholsome, but the red aptest to burn; the best and most assured remedy against these tempests, is the protection of Heaven: A fulgure & tempestate, libera nos Domine.

But note, there may be Thunder without Light­ning, and Lightning without Thunder; for when these hot and dry exhalations are inflam'd, and the cloud weak (in which they are involv'd) the incensed exhalation breaks forth without violence, in not being restrained; but the coldnesse of the middle Region strikes the falshes downwards upon us, but not always upon the earth; but glittering and reflecting on the watry clouds, makes it seem close by; as you may see by the Sun beams, or any other suddain light falling upon the water, will reverberate the lustre, and dazle your eyes, especially if the water be moved with any wind; these coruscations are usual in hot Coun­tries, or in the heat of Sommer.

Thunder without Lightning does happen when these hot and dry exhalations break violently through the clouds (in which they are circum­volved) but not inflamed, yet making a roaring noise in the burst of the cloud which restrained it; as you may see, little bladders filled with wind, will give a crack or report at the suddain and violent breaking of them; sometimes Thunder will happen (and yet no Lightning appear) by reciprocal winds, the clouds violently break­ing themselves in meeting with one another; and this may often happen with insurrections of several mutinous exhalations, disturbing the Air with several commotions; these usually proceed after much calm weather, but are very wholsome to purge the Air, lest with too much quietnesse it should corrupt.

Apparitions in the Air made by reflections of the Sun, Moon, fixed Stars, or Planets, upon condensed Clouds.

Of Circles about the Sun, Moon, or Stars.

SUndry apparitions in the Air are made by the Stars reflecting upon waterish exhalations; for when they happen uniform in all the parts equally rarified and supposited under the Sun, Moon, or Stars, that their beams cannot penetrate the cloud in any part, by which means the rayes are refra­cted, and the cloud being uniform and round, the extreams or outward part is inlightned in manner [Page 60]of a misty circle, which equally will appear about the Sun, Moon, or Stars; but these are rarely under any of the fixed Stars, but common under any of the Planets; yet not so usual under the Sun; for by reason of his fervour and heat, the exhalation cannot so easily get directly under it; and being got together, it cannot long subsist, but the matter will be disperst by vigour of his beams; which the Moon cannot effect for want of heat, and so the oftner she hath those circles about her, they continue longer; the same reason it is with the other Stars; yet the circles made about them, are conceived to be weak and sterile exhalations, nei­ther so apt to beget wind or rain as the former are; for in thick and waterish exhalations, the rays of the Stars are unable to illuminate them, but will be observed by those and such like spissous, and dark clouds.

Impressions in the Clouds representing the Sun or Moon.

THe cause of these apparitions doth proceed from thick clouds, regular and uniform, as were the former, from whence are caused circles about the Sun or Moon; yet these exhalations are more con­densed then be the others, and not situated under the Sun or Moon, as be the last; but placed obliquely on either side, which clouds are apt to be converted into rain, and by refraction of the Sun beams it does expresse the form or image of it; as you may see in a mirrour of glasse or polished steel; these clouds must be condensed, for the beams of the Sun to reflection, and not under the Sun, for then [Page 61]his refracted rays will not be visible unto us; and if it be not regular and uniform in all the parts, the cloud cannot portrait and expresse the whole and perfect image of it; and in this manner there may be represented in clouds the figure of the Moon; but those are much more rare to be seen, because her rays are weaker; and there may be many Suns or Moons appear at once, upon these former alledged reasons.

Of the Rain-Bow, and the causes thereof.

RAin-Bows are generated in waterish clouds, ready to be dissolved into rain; these are ob­served to be always directly opposite to the Sun or Moon; as if the ☉ be in the South, the Rain-bow will be in the North; and when the ☉ is in the East, the Rain-bow will appear in the West: and the con­trary so in any part of the Hemisphere; and the lower or neerer the Horizon that the Sun is, the Rain-bow will appear the greater, but never can exceed a semicircle, but lesse, according to the height of the Sun above in any Sphere, which is the reason at noon day we rarely see any, especially the ☉ being in the Sommer Solstice, or nigh the Tropick of ♋, excepting all places far North­ward, or toward the pole Antartick, where for some weeks there is continual day; but the ☉ in Winter, neer ♑ may cause a Rain-bow at noon day in these our climates; for they are formed by the light rays of the Sun falling upon vapours and waterish exhalations opposite unto him, and but little elevated above the earth; and by reason of the great distance or remotenesse of the Sun, the [Page 62]illuminated beams describe his form, after an obscure and imperfect manner, portraiting only an arch of a circle adorned usually with three colours, viz. Red, Green, and Purple, or inclining unto a Blewish colour; the distinction of these proceeds from the Radius of the Sun reflecting upon these vapours; for those colours are lightest in it which are neerest to the Sun; and those which are remotest, do tend more to obscurity.

As for a demonstration, you may behold in the commixture of such like colours, and the form of the Rain-bow you may experimentally try, by casting water in a circular manner against the Sun when he shines: But some doe think the red colour to be only made by his rays, the second by refle­ction, and the third by the second, all contained within some condensed hollow cloud, commixed with Aiery and waterish exhalations; for if more Rain-bows do appear then one at any time, it is conceived that they are made by reflection of one another; but the colours in the second will be weaker then those in the first; and the third Rain­bow more pallid then the second. If there happens to be three, which is very seldome seen, then the colours in the first will be counterchanged in the second, and the third again like the first: These arches in the clouds or Rain-bows, do continue longer then do the circles about the Sun, because the distance in these is so great, that his beams cannot so soon dissipate the exhalation which caused them. Rain-bows in the night time are exceeding rare, because they are made by the Moon, whose beams are usually too weak to cause such a reflection upon any cloud, at so great a distance; [Page 63]and are so rarely seen, that I will cease to describe them any further.

The causes and diversities of Winds.

WInds by the vertue of the Sun, are genera­ted of hot and dry exhalations, evapo­rated from the Earth, and striving to ascend, are repulsed by the obvious coldnesse of the Air; and forced collaterally about, and upon the superficies of this terrestrial Globe, moving as they are com­pelled by the cold, and do receive names, as from whence they blow, and are divided into 32. di­stinct winds, according to the divisions or points of the Mariners Compass. The four chief are these, East and West opposite, and so the North and South point, which four do divide the Horizon into four equal parts; and are compared by some to the nature and temperature of the four seasons.

But as for these exhalations, they are naturally dry, resolved into Air by vertue of the Sun, as the moist vapours are into rain; sometimes these ex­halations are mixed with moist vapours, which the Sun convers at one time both into rain and wind; the more these windy exhalations are restrained, by so much they will rage; and the more violent they are, by how much they are repulsed, and stricken down with the coldnesse of the Air, which makes them often times rebound upon the Earth, which commonly are called whirl-winds, from revolving and throwing up all light things that are in the way where they move; these are also caused by the meeting of two contraries. Winds are the greatest in open weather; in Frosts exhalations [Page 64]are inclosed within the pores of the Earth, and so likewise by excessive heat.

The generation of Waters.

THere is undoubtedly a continual flux and re­flux of waters, both upon the superficies of the Earth, and in the channels within it, as you may see by the veins in the bodies of men (a Micro­cosmus in it self) for the Earth being by nature ex­tream dry, without water would be sterile, and quite unapt to produce any vegetables, or Mine­rals within her now pregnant womb; and so the waters to supply this defect, do continually move, as from their Springs, to little Brooks, and those united making Rivers, running along in fruitful Valleys, cooling the superficies of the Earth, and supplying what the fervour of the Sun exhales; this office being performed, and living creatures in it nourished by the streams, the rest falls into the Ocean, and from thence returns into the veins of the Earth again; one water still following of another; and this is confirmed by the undeniable authority of the sacred Scriptures, Eccles. cap. 1.

Yet many exhalations and vapours are by the Sun extracted from the waters, and those converted (by the vertue of his rays) into several Meteors, as moist and windy exhalations, which the Air gratefully does repay again unto the waters, as in a continual course of amity, and inseparable league between them; the Air which is included within the pores of the Earth, is by nature sub­tile, and gets into all the corners and hollow places, whereby to avoid a vacuum, which Nature [Page 65]does abhor; the Air here with cold, (that in the Earth does abound) is easily condensed, and turned into drops of water, which falls from their heads into little channels, and so discends into the valleys; for these sometimes are observed at the bottoms or sides of hills to bubble forth; and the bigger mountains do afford the greater Springs, and the more plenty of water, especially such as are pregnant with Minerals.

The higher and greater that the mountains be, the vaster are their caverns and hollow places in them to receive the Air; and as it turns into water, it is supplied with more; And besides, hills being more exposed to the Sun beams, must of necessity be fuller of pores then the lower grounds, and plain places; and yet it does not follow that all high places must have Springs, because the soyl may differ, and the Earth not pory, there will want receptacles for the Air, whereby the water should be generated. For a demonstration of this, you may see in the Winter time, or against wet weather, the stones do become moist, with a Dew hanging upon them, and in close and cold rooms drops of water will hang upon the walls; observe then but the alterations and fluxibility of the Air, the condensed coldnesse of the Earth, and this will easily be credited, which makes Springs gene­rally lowest in Autumn, as from hence, and being exhausted with the Sommers heat.

The wonderful vertues and effects of Waters.

FOuntains there be which naturally have mar­velous qualities, of which I will briefly relate some of their strange operations; As a Fountain in Baeotia, which being drunk of does stupifie the senses, and causeth forgetfulnesse. And one in Cilicia which quickens the wits, as M. Varro writes. Ovid. Metam. lib. 15. writeth the River Lyncestus will inebriate; and the water of the Stygian Lake in Arcadia, will cat through any mettal, and is held deadly poyson: In Dedons the Fountain of Jupiter will extinguish a torch that is lighted, and being immediately put in again, it will illuminate it: So writes S. Augustine of a Well in Aegypt; in some waters nothing will easily sinck, as Mare mortuum in Judaea.

Here be waters in England that will turn wood into stone; but one of the most remarkable stories is recorded by Albertus Magnus, neer Lubeck in Saxony, where birds in a nest being touched with a stick taken out of the Sea, metamorphosed the young ones into stone. There is a River in Hungary, that will give Iron a tincture of Copper. Theophrastus writeth of waters that will change the colour of birds or beasts, if they do drink of it, as from black to white. The waters of Peu­tasium (as Solinus writes) is good and wholesome for men to drink of, but deadly poyson to veno­mous serpents. In Libiu there is a Spring, that at the Sun rising and setting is temperately warm, at noon-day exceeding cold, and at midnight ex­cessive hot, Some Springs do rise and fall every [Page 67]six hours, as the Seas do ebbe and flow: As for the taste, colour, and temperature of waters, they are according to the veins and minerals through which they pass; whereof some are hot and drying; as the Bathes, having a taste of Brimstone, coming through some sulphurious minerals, famous they are for curing of aches in the bones, and all cold diseases: Those that turn wood into stone, or other materials into mettal, do participate much of their natures, and the mines from whence they run; some being hot, others cold; some salt, others fresh; some wholesome to drink, others hurtful and unpleasant, with divers other strange operations, retaining more or lesse of the nature and qualities from whence they are derived.

Yet, as we said before, all waters are not con­ceived for to run through the hollow veins of the Earth, but some are generated there, in the caverns of hills, and all hollow subterranian places, by the condensed Air; and this is not oppugnant to the sacred Scriptures, Eccle. cap. 1. ver. 7. for that is the general course of all rivers, and the other but particular, which is demonstrable in man, the little world; for by learned Physitians it is ob­served, that such bodies as are inclined to a Dropsie, or any phlegmatick disease, their Urine will be more in quantity and weight then all that they do eat and drink; and this observed not only for a few days, but many months together; and the reason which they give, is, that not only their meat and drink converts to water, by reason of the coldnesse of those phlegmatick stomachs, but the very Air in those bodies does turn to water, and those parts supplied with more Air, as it [Page 68]converts to the other element; and such cold causes and waterish effects may be in the Earth: and likewise in discolouring of water, as by making it black, pale, green, high-coloured, or the like; but howsoever these are but peculiar, and from accidental causes; for the general course of waters is from the Springs unto the Sea, and so to those heads again. Thus wonderful are the works of the Omnipotent God, every thing mag­nifying His Greatnesse, Daniel 3. Benedicite fontes Domino.

Conjectures of the Seas saltnesse, with the Ebbs and Flouds.

THe Seas are conceived to be made salt and brackish by the fervour of the Sun's rays, with the permixion of burnt exhalations, and chafed with the violent and perpetual motion of the flux and reflux of the waters; for by experience we find that liquid things, if hot and burnt, their tafte will be bitter, and with commotion will prove brackish; but it is very likely that the Seas were brackish from the creation, and by this means continued so; but some does object that if the rain-water were exhaled from the Seas, and that the Springs did flow from thence, the waters would retain a saltnesse in their taste; but as for that it appears evidently that the Rain is refined by vertue of the Sun, and the Spring-waters by their Meanders, in passing through the Earth; and this you may try by distilling of Salt-water, or putting it into Earth, so as it may drain forth, and in time it will lose its saltnesse, being but accidental.

As for the ebbing and flowing of the Seas, the cause is assigned unto the Moon, her influence having power over all waterish bodies; and besides, the Tides are observed to alter as she does in her course (if not hindered or furthered by accidental causes, as winds, land flouds, or the like;) She coming later every day unto the Meridian, by 48. minutes or very neer; and those Seas which flows when she is above the Horizon of that place, will cause greater Tides then when she is depressed in the opposite Hemisphere; and when she hath latitude and declination towards the pole ele­vated, the force of her influence is the greater, and the waters will flow the higher, and rage the more violently in all indraughts, especially at the new Moon or ful, which are usually called Spring-Tides; but the full Moon, and three Tides after are much the greater, her power then predomi­nating most over all waterish and phlegmatick bodies, and requires time to bring in greater supplies of water into the Land.

Of Earth-quakes, and their causes from whence they do proceed.

THe causes of these are exhalations hot and dry, generated by the vertue of the Sun and Stars, inclosed within the concaves and hollow places of the Earth; yet they cannot break forth by reason of the vapours, grosnesse, and the close compa­ctednesse of the Earth which involves them, and there increasing till it cannot be contained, and not finding a passage out, it strives to force one [Page 70]and so violently shakes the Earth, that it causes a trembling, which often hath swell'd up moun­tains, and overturned others, and ruinated many Cities, making mens houses their sepulchres, and whole Towns involved in a grave, overwhelmed with their ruines; the continuance of Earth-quakes is uncertain, from a minute to a day, and a longer time, according to the greatnesse of the vapour inclosed, and the firmnesse and solidity of the Earth which contained it. Here I have shewed you the weak and supposed reasons of men, in the wonderful and stupendious frame of Heaven and Earth; all which are subjected, and do obey the commands of the Immense Creator, Eternal God, and Author of Nature, to whom be all Honour, Praise and Glory, world without end. Amen.

AN INTRODUCTION TO The Third Part. Predictions of the Weather.

TO Prognosticate, or foretel the alteration of the Weather, there hath been (in all Ages) diligent observers of Nature, who have prescribed rules and prenotations of the Airs mutability, grounded on judicial signs, collected from the Stars and the four Elements, the princi­ples of all sublunary bodies: Of these Predictions there be several kinds, both general and particular, established by humane reason; some derived meerly from old experience, yet many of them true; divers observations are ascribed to some particular Place, Country, Province, or lesse pro­portion of this our habitable world, being often­times confined within the precincts of a parish, as by fogs or mists ascending from some meer or morish grounds; or descending from the tops of hills, high exalted places, and low depressed dales; some men do observe domestick and particular beasts, as the story of the Herds-man, &c.

But as for all such presages (as are not general, [Page 72]or warranted by some seeming reason) I will qui [...]e reject, and leave them at home for to observe the smoak of their own chimneys; for it is my real intention (at least my desire) to direct my serene instructions to the benefit of the tender, vigilant, or distressed travellers, whereby they may avoid the danger or inconvenience of foul and tempe­stious weather, by presaging the Airs alteration, and the inundation of the lower Regions, me­nacing the Earth with their over-charged exhala­tions and vapours, in tumults ready to descend; to avoid these ensuing storms is the scope of my intentions in this Treatise, and the better to enable you to do it, I have prostrated to your view The Worlds Eprtomy, and the several risings, settings, apparitions, and occultations of the Stars, with the natures of those celestrial Orbs, the four Ele­ments, and all Meteors in general the secondary causes (under God) of heat cold, wet and dry weather; from whose excesse proceeds want, dis [...]d, all corporal distempers, and from their [...]cord plenty, crowned (by the blessing of H [...]ven) with health and happinesse.

That the Stars have their influences upon sublu­nary bodies, it is not denied by any learned men, and affirmed undoublably by many of the most famous Philosophers, Astronomers, and Divines, as witnesse Aristotle, Ptolomaeus, and St. Augustine, lib. 13. Cap. 4. de Trin. and multitudes more which I have omitted, fearing to incumber this volume with testimonies and approbations of that which seems demonstrated unto reason, and confirmed by experience; and according to Hippocrates (with the consent of many others) Thunder, [Page 73]Lightning, Hail, Snow, Rain, Storms, and all alterations of the weather may be predicted by the rising and setting of the fixed Stars, with the aspects of Planets, their natures and qualities considered with the climate, region, and season of the year.

The Stars being supposed of several natures, and each constellation mixt, their influencies may cause diversity of effects, as heat, cold, moisture, or drought, which are the four qualities of the Element; and as for the Planets, they do alter according to their aspects, which many learned Phisitians do diligently observe in administring Physick, and in the time of their Patients falling sick, calling the 7. day critical, the 14. &c. Their reasons are, the Moon having dominion over all humors and waterish bodies, and in her motion swift, doth passe in 7. days, and a little more, from one sign into another of a contrary nature and quality, as from ♎ hot and moist, into ♑ cold and dry, and the like of others; from whence the Doctors do judge of the malignity of the disease, with the hopes of life, or danger of death; and of this you may read in Gallen (lib. 3. de diebus Criticis) rather then in me.

And in prognostication of the Weather, these judicial days would be observed in the beginning of drought, Rain, Snow, Frost or the like, and there would be considered the latitude and aspects of the Planets, the nature of the signs they are in, passing under the fixed Stars, especially where they are mixt with the nature of those Planets: Consider the season of the year, as Hale, or Rain in the Spring, or Autumn, Thunder and [Page 74]Lightning in Sommer, Frost and Snow in Winter: Ponder also the rising and setting of the fixed Stars, with the Planets, the Eclipses, Comets and all fiery Meteors, and such as these accom­panied by nature, are justifiable; for God hath given man knowledge and understanding in the course of natural things and signs in the Heavens, whereby to avoid inconveniencies, not with a certain, but a conjectural science, by the Asterisms or celestial configurations and the four Elements, from whence may be presaged distempers of the Air, causing contagious diseases, sterility and the like; as Aristotle writeth of Thaletes, who foretold the scarcity of Oyl that would be in the [...] year; and so writes Pliny, lib. 18. cap. 35. of De­mocritus.

But whether the Stars are of these mixt natures, or their temperatures be known, it remains as yet in dispute, and not for me to argue, but only follow the tracts of other men, and their obser­vations of the weather, delived from experience, but not presume to search into the decrees of Heaven, or predict the actions of men, with the event of future things, which many pretend to do; for although that God hath made figns in the Heavens, and hath enabled us to know the times and seasons of the year, with all things necessary for us to understand, yet not to be inquisitive in those sacred Ordinances, which the omnipotent Creator hath decreed and concealed from us, as unnecessary to be known; and prohibited by the commands of the Doctors and Councels of the holy Catholike and Apostolike Church, to which sacred Authority I do humbly submit my self. [Page 75]And here I will conclude this Introduction, re­membring the saying of our blessed Saviour unto His Apostles, Acts cap. 1. ver. 7. Non est vestrum nesse tempera vel momenta, quae Pater posuit in sua potestate.

The Third Part. Of the Weathers Prediction.

The affinity of the 12. Zodiacall Signs, with the 7. Planets in their naturall qualities, with their ope­rations on sublunary bodies, accor­ding to the collections, and obser­vations of the Wise and Learned.

THe signs of the Zodiack in the eighth Sphere are removed almost 28 degrees from their places, according to the mo­tion of the primuns Mobile; so that the first Star in the horn of Aries, is in the 28. degree of ♈, and is continued to the 18 degree of Taurus, the first mover, and in like manner are the rest of the 12 signs.

♈ The first parts of Aries beginning on the [Page 76]28 of ♈, and ending in the 4. degree of ♉, do cause winds and rain; those Stars being of the nature of ♄ and ♂, commixed and assisted with ☿, the middle part of Aries, from the 4. de­gree unto the 10. of ♉ temperate, inclining to heat and drought, by reason of the Stars in his hinder foot, in his loins and ham, being of the nature with ♂; from the 10. degree of Aries to his hinder parts (being in the 17. degree of ♉ almost) is very hot; his horns and his neck of the nature of ♂ and ☿, but cool by the southern Stars in the Whale being very cold of the nature of ♄.

♉ The former parts of Taurus, from the 17. degree to the 27. of ♉, the Stars are something windy, turbulent, and cloudy, by reason of the Pleiades contained within those degrees, and are of the nature of ♂ and ☽, the middle parts of ♉ from the 27. degree to the first of ♊ are tempe­rately hot, and something moist, by reason of some Stars in Perseus, of the nature of ♄ and ♃, from the beginning of ♊ to the Hyades and the horns of Taurus, of the nature of ♂, and by the approach of Orion, causeth Thunder and Light­ning, the North part made temperate by Perseus, the South variable and uncertain, by reason of some Stars participating of ♂, commixed with others of the nature of ♄, ☿, and ☽.

♊ The former part of Gemini from the 26. of ♊ unto the 6. degree of ♋ are something moist and hurtful; the middle parts, from the 6. degree of ♋ unto the 14. the Stars do incline to the nature of ♄, as in the arms and knees of ♊, yet tempe­rate, and observed drier then formerly they have been; the hinder parts of ♊, from the 14. degree [Page 77]unto the 24. of ♋, are of a mixt and uncertain nature inclining to drought, by reason of some Stars of the nature of ♂ and ☿, the heads of ♊, of ♂, the North part moveth winds, the South part causeth heat and drought.

♋ The former parts of Cancer, from the 24. of ♋ to the first degree of ♌, are Stars of mixt and doubtful natures, of ♂, ☿, and ☽, as those nigh the feet of ♋, Praesepe, &c. causing earth-quakes, or tempests; the middle parts of ♋, from the 1. degree of ♌ unto the 7, in which are the little Asses of nature ♂, and ☉ more hot and dry then formerly, from the 7. degree of ♌ to the 13. the Stars in ♋ are of nature ♄ & ♂, very dry, but not so windy a formerly; both the Northern and Sou­thern Stars of ♋ are generally hot & suffocating.

♌ The former parts of Leo, from the 13. de­gree to the 24. of ♌ where Regulus is, the Stars are of various natures, part of them commixed with ♄ and ♂, others with ♄ and ♀, and part replenished with ♃ and ♂, pestilent and stifling; the middle parts of ♌, from the 24. degree to the 4. of ♍, temperate, and inclining to moisture but a little; the Stars of the nature of ♄ and ♀, and others with ♀ and ☿, the hinder parts of ♌ to the 17. degree of ♍, temperately hot and moist; the Star in the ♌ tail, of the nature of ♄ and ♀, the North part of this asterism is fiery and unsta­ble, by reason of Ʋrsa major, the South part moist because of the Hydra, whose nature is ♄ and ♀.

♍ The first part of Virgo, from the 17. degree unto the end, the Stars being of the nature of ♂ and ☿, are something hot and offensive, but lesse then formerly; from the beginning of ♎ to the [Page 78]18. degree is temperate, containing in her left wing and thigh, Stars of the nature of ♀ and ☿, the end of this constellation is from the 18. degree of ♎, unto the 8. degree of ♏, in which is con­tained Spica, ♍, of the nature of ♂ and ♀; and some other Stars in the train of her gown, of the nature of ♂ and ☿, yet something waterish, and more then formerly participating of the ☽; the Northern Stars are windy, inclining to ♂ and ☿, the Southern Stars to ♄ and ♃.

♎ The former parts of Libra, from the 8. of ♏ unto the 15. degree, containeth Stars of the nature of ♄ participating with the Southern Ballance, and the Serpent of Aesculapius, which Stars are temperately cold, and drier then for­merly; the middle of ♎, from the 15. to the 19. degree of ♏ is also temperate; the extreams of ♎, from the 19. to the 26. degree of ♏ waterish; the Northern part of ♎ windy, of the nature of ♄ and ☿; the Southern part dry and feavourish.

♏ The former parts of Scorpio from the 26. degree to the 6. of ♐, do participate of Stars commixed with the nature of ♄ and ♂; and in the 4. degree, as the Star Antares, producing Snow, and more then formerly the middle of ♏, from the 6. degree of ♐ to the 16. degree, the Stars are temperate, by the vicinity of Serpentarius, of the nature of ♃ and ♀, but moister then they have been in former ages: the tail or extreams of ♏, from the 16. of ♐ to the [...]6 degree are turbulent, their natures being of ♂ and ☿; the Northern parts are hot, the Southern moist.

♐ The former parts of Sagittarius, from the 26. unto the 6. degree of ♑ the Stars are moist, [Page 79]and colder then in former ages; the middle part of ♐, from the 6. degree of ♑ unto the 16, the Stars are of the nature of ♃ and ♂, yet temperate, inclining to cold; the hinder part of ♐, from the 16. of ♑ to the 28. fiery; the Northern part of this constellation is windy, the South part moist and inconstant.

♑ The first part of Capricornus, from the 28. degree to the 7. of ♒, the Stars do participate of ♂ and ♀ which are hot and hurtful; the middle of ♑, from the 7. degree of ♒ unto the 15, more temperate; lastly, from the 15. degree to the 21. of ♒ is observed rainy weather, for the Northern and Southern part of this asterism is generally held moist, and also hurtful.

♒ The beginning of Aquarius, is from the 21. degree unto the end of the same very moist; the middle of it, unto the 8. degree of ♓ temperate, of the nature of ♄ and ♃; the end of this sign in the 15. degree of ♓ windy; the Northern part of this constellation is hot, the Southern part snow or cold weather.

♓ The former parts of Pisces, from the 15. degree unto the 30. more cold then in former ages; the middle parts from the beginning of ♈, unto the 15. degree, moister then formerly; and lastly, from the 15. degree of ♈ unto the 28. causing a thick and dark air, the Northern part windy, and the Southern is held waterish, which concludes the 12. Signs and the properties of them in particular.

Aphorismes, or selected places out of Car­danus.

CArdan. 7: Aph. 73. does propound these ♓, and ♈ do cause winds, and the half of ♉, the other part of ♉ being more aireal, partici­pating of ♊ doth produce suddain and fruitful showres; ♊ Author of winds, ♋ and ♌ produceth great heat and storms of Hail, ♍ remisse heat and giveth showres, ♎ and ♏, inequality of Air, ♐ Snow and Rain, ♑ cold weather does produce, and ♒ waters, especially in the beginning.

Stadius, and the later observers collects these properties of the 12. Signs, of the first mover and 8. Sphere, conformable to this Age.

♈ OF the Primum mobile lesse subject to Thun­der, but apter to hail then in the times of Ptolomy.

♉ Hot, and moderately moist.

♊ Temperate, inclining to heat, and also to drought.

♋ Cloudy, and not the parent of fair weather, in times past.

♌ Hot, with a scorching drought and suffo­cating.

♍ Thunder, with moisture, but more temperate then in former ages.

♎ Various and mutable, inclining something unto drought.

♏ Flery, but more remisse then in the time of Ptolomy.

♐ Windy, but moister then formerly.

♑ Temperately cold, and a little moist.

♒ Cold and watery.

♓ More cold then in former ages.

The natures, properties, and operations of the 7. Planets upon sublunary bodies, in causing Meteors.

SAturn by nature is more cold then dry, espe­cially being East-ward of the ☉, and in earthly signs, producing then both clouds and coldnesse of the Air; in time of heat it lessens it; and in frosty weather it much increases the cold; when he passes from one sign into another, for many days together he causeth red clouds, and fiery apparitions in the Air, inundations, earth-quakes, snow, frosts, and much cold, according to the season of the year, and situation of the Country. Card.

Jupiter is of nature hot and moist, and is accounted the parent of fair weather, being tem­perate both in heat and moisture, mittigating the cold of Winter, and the heat of Sommer, causing gentle winds, and a temperate Air, with much serenity; being East-ward of the ☉ he in­creaseth heat, and West-ward moisture. Card.

Mars is hot and dry in excesse, and in fiery Signs in Sommer he causeth much heat, and in Winter-time remisse, mittigating the coldnesse of the weather; he is accounted as Lord paramount of tempests, violent and suddain storms of Rain, [Page 82]Hail, Thunder, Lightning, excessive heat in fiery Signs, and much Rain in passing by the Pleiades, as is observed by Stadius.

Sol is by nature hot and dry, but more or lesse, according to the Sign he is in, or aspected with the other six Planets; or assisted by the fixed Stars; in his annual revolution, his greatest force is in making Hail, moderate in Rain, little Frosts and Snow; the general motive of vapours and ex­halations, the destributer of light unto the rest of the Stars, Monarch of the skies inabling them with his rays, and the earth with fruitfulnesse.

Venus is temperately cold and moist, yet Argol says moderately warm, predominating over humors, she warmeth little, and moistneth much, especially when she is the morning Star; in Winter she maketh the Air temperate, but moist; and in Sommer she lessens the drought, and causes great Dews and gentle showres, but chiefly when she is in the beginning of ♋. Card.

Mercury is by nature mutable and doubtful, according to the Sign or nature of the Star he is withal, or the Aspect of any other Planet partici­pating of their natures, with whom he is associ­ated; he is held the father of winds, in earthly and watery Signs; and causeth Thunder and Light­ning often in fiery or airy Signs.

Luna, the lowest Planet, is of nature cold and moist, and but little warm; she naturally moveth the waters, having much force over all phlegma­tick bodies and cold humors, and increaseth them, according to her place in the Zodiack, the Aspect with the ☉, and the other Planets, her association with the fixed Stars, and her latitude from the [Page 83] Ecliptick. Astrologers do allow the Moon these temperatures, from the ☌ to the first of □, cold and moist; from the first □ unto ☍ moist, and something warm; from ☍ to the last □ dry, and a little warm; from the last □ to the ☌ cold and something dry; but in general she is held to in­crease the humors in all bodies, from the new unto the full; and decreasing, for to dry them up or lessen them, yet more or lesse according to her place and season of the year: and the full ☽ is conceived cold in Sommer, and temperate in the Winter season; the new ☽ warm in Sommer, and produceth the coldest nights in Winter; and in general the conjunctions of the Luminaries bringeth the fairest weather, and their oppositions the greatest store of Rain. Card. And thus far for the particular observations of the Planets proper­ties and natures.

Proper and peculiar observations of the wea­ther, in every one of the four Seasons, or Quarters of the Year.


IN the conjunction or opposition of the Lumi­naries immediately, or the last before the Vernal Equinox, if ♂ were in ☌ with either the ☉ or ☽, expect much Thunder and Lightning for to follow; if ♀ in March or April be retrograde, expect much wet weather to follow.


If the 5. Planets be direct, this season will be beautiful and pleasant; but if these 5. be retrograde, then will the Sommer be vehemently hot; for the Planets do heat the Air, when retrograde in their courses, and when direct they cool; and this is general, except when ♃ is in ☍ to the Sun. Planets in their swift motion, do increase the heat; but when Stationary, if they be hot, they do inflame the Air; if cold, they cool it; if moist, they do beget Rain; and those by nature dry, do cause at that time much drought; and Planets combust in this Sommer quarter, do cause much Thunder and Lightning, Leupold. Tract. 6. cap. 2.


Fiery Planets in this season, and in our Northern Countries, do cause both cold and moisture; if in this quarter the 5. Planets be retrograde, there will be much drought in every Country and climate, and when the ☉ enters into the 18. de­gree of ♏, if ♀ be in a watery Sign, expect excessive rains, with inundations, Leupold. 3.


Fiery Planets in the beginning of this quarter do produce clouds and Southern winds; if that ♀ in his season be direct, and the morning Star; in the beginning of Winter she will produce some rain, and in the latter end much wet, unlesse it [Page 85]be hindred by some other Planet of neer affinity to the Sun; and the contrary when ♀ is retrograde, and Lucifer, expect then very much rain in the be­ginning of this quarter, and in the end of Winter but little or none at all.

This general conclusion Haly doth propound thus, Cap. 4. part 1. If ♀ be retrograde in this quarter, it doth presage a moist and rainy Winter: one Planet retrograde when in ☌ with ☉ argues drought, especially at the end of this season, going out of ♒ into ♓; if there be two Planets retrograde, it prognosticates temperate but moist weather; but if three, an abundant deal of wet; and if four Planets be in their motions retrograde, it will presage a deluge. And here ends the ob­servations upon the four Seasons or quarters of the year; the Sun entering any of the four Cardinal points, as ♈, ♋, ♎, and ♑. Leupold.

The names of the most tempestuous and re­markable Asterismes and Stars observed in former Ages, as at this present.

THe most tempestuous Constellations are these; Orion. Arcturus, and the Northern Crown; the most windy are the Goat, and Kids, in Erichtonius; the most watery are the Hyades, and the 7. Stars called the Pleiades; the causers of violent heat, are Regulus, or the Lions heart, and both the Dog-stars, as Sirius and Procyon: These are the chief and principal Asterismes observed in presaging the Airs mutability; yet there be many more Con­stellations of note in this kind, although not so [Page 86]general in their effects, being of much more doubt­full and promiscuous qualities; but being part of the Astrologers Calender, they shall be inserted, and according to their Cosmical ascentions for this latitude of 52. degrees, beginning at the feast of Christ-mass, and so in order with the Suns re­volution in his proper course through the 12. Signs, as in this manner following.

The head of Capricornus, Andromeda, Canda, ♑, Pisces, ♓, the Rams head, the Bulls eye, the heads of Gemini; Aselli, the Asses; Praesepe, or the Cribbe both in ♋ the Lions head; the Hydras heart, Vin­demiator, and Spica Virginis, or the ear of Corn, both in ♍, the Vulture with the Harp; the Serpent with Aeschylapius. Lucida Lancis, or the bright Star in ♎ the Eagle; the Scorpion heart, or Antares, the Dolphin, &c. There are many other Stars ob­served (but not so remarkable) which you shall see in the following Predictions of the Weather. There are divers other Constellations towards the antartick pole, not vifible in our Hemisphere, as the Stern of Argonavis, with multitudes more, whose natures and effects are not known, and howsoever not for our observations, in progno­flicating the weather, and so they are purposely omitted.

The Cosmical and Acronycal rising and setting of the Stars, observed in presaging the Airs Vicissitude, as in former Ages by Pliny, and at this present time.

FIrst, you are to note that the nature of the fixed Stars, and their influences are increased or di­minished by the association of the Planets or wandring Stars, either by oppugnant or united qualities; as ♀ approaching any Stars of her own nature, causeth cloudy and fickle weather, rain or much moisture; ☿ uniting his rays with Stars of his unconstant and subtile nature, causeth winds, and a great mutability of the weather; ♂ joyned or commixing his rays with Stars of his fiery nature, increaseth them much more, and inflames the Air, being prone unto all combustions, as ♂ with Sirius, and the rage of the Dog-star is mittigated by the approach of ♃ and ♀; the Planet. ♄ also lesseneth the heat, and causeth dark weather, and cold showres when his rayes are united with fixed Stars of his own cold and melancholy disposition, and thus judge of the rest: The influences of the fixed Stars to be more or lesse effectual, according to the Planets united with them, or ascending the Horizon of any place together; the time of year and sign considered, and the nature of Meteors pondered in your judgement, with what hath been already specified, and so to proceed.

1. The Star Arcturus, when he sets Acronycally, denotes cold winds, and with the rays of ♂ tempests, and conjoyned with ♄, hail, snow, winds or cold rain, according to the season.

2. Aselli and Praesepe, if conjoyned with the rays of ♀ or ☽, it presages rain or moist and misty weather.

3 The Cosmical rising, and Acrouycal setting of the Hyades d notes rain, and if instigated by the approach of ♂, expect winds both by Land and Sea.

4 Virgiliae, or the Pleiades setting Cosmically, produceth rain and storms, if joyned with ♂, and the Sky at the same time be cloudy, it argues a wet Winter, especially if ♀ be with it; and if the Heavens be clear, it foreshews a sharp and cold Winter.

5. Sirius with his Cosmycall rising maketh the Seas rough, and stupifie the Fishes; in this I have partly followed Pliny.

Observations of the weather, by Ptolomy, colle­cted from the ascentions of the fixed Stars with the Sun.

6. ORions Girdle setting Cosmically, causeth a turbulent Air, and if Sourtherly winds, then rain will immediately follow after.

7. The Dolphine setting Acronycally, causeth both Winds and Snow.

8. The Rams head rising Cosmically Presigeth hail or cold rain.

9. The Hyades rising Cosmically prenoteth wet and showry weather; and setting Cosmically, frost, snow or cold rain.

10. The Eagle setting Cosmically, produceth violent hot weather.

11. Arcturus rising Cosmically doth predict some showres to follow quickly after, within a few days; from hence the Swallows take their leaves, and repairs to their Winter-quarters.

The observations of Maginus, selected from the Ascentions of the Sun and fixed Stars.

12. THe Asses and Praesepe rising Cosmically often presageth a suddain alteration of the Air, with thunder, lightning and rain.

13. The Eagle, the tail of ♑, or the head of Medusa rising Cosmically produceth Snow.

14. Libra rising Cosmically, causeth rain, with some wind.

15. The Eye of ♉ or Orion rising Cosmically doth cause rain, disturbeth the Air, and sometimes produceth thunder and lightning; the Acronical setting of these Stars causeth the same effects, with suddain showres.

16. Andromeda, the Whale, the head and tail of ♈, the belly of ♓, and Fomahand in ♒, rising Cosmically, do all presage moist weather, and a turbulent Air.

17. The Sun entering the cloudy Stars of ♌, Orion, or ♐, causeth lowring weather; and like­wise the Hydras heart, and head of ♏.

18. The Cosmical ascention of the shoulder of Pegasus; and the tail of ♑ produceth snow, cold, or cloudy weather.

19. The Acronical setting of the Vulture with the Harp, predict a moist, cold, and cloudy time.

20. Virgiliae, or the Pleiades rising Cosmically fore­sheweth wet and cloudy weather, and suddain storms to ensue.

21. The Star Regulus rising Cosmically is a sign of showres, with thunder and lightning.

22. Sirius rising Cosmically prenoteth hot weather, with thunder and lightning; the Cosmical setting foresheweth warm weather, but inclining to wet.

23. The Sun rising with any Star of Jupiters nature, and not commixed with ♄ or ♂, argues warm, clear and temperate weather; with those of ♄ nature, cold and cloudy weather, and some­times snow; with those of ♀ moist, and inclining to rainy weather; ascending the Horizon with those of ♂, it argues tempests, with thunder and lightning; with Stars of his own nature, or of ☿ winds; with those of the ☽ great flouds and tu­multuous billows at Sea; and if the Sun doth rise with fixed Stars of mixed natures, as ♄ and ♂, it argues in Sommer time a hot and suffocating day; these last signs are general, according to Maginus.

Observations of the weather by the influence of the fixed and wandring Stars, united and collected by Na. Durret.

24. SAturn rising with the head of Medusa, prognosticateth for some days cold and moist weather, according to the season or time of year.

25. ♄, with the Stars of the Whale, the tail of ♈, the horn of ♑, and the belly of ♓, causeth a cold, cloudy and troubled Air, sometimes with rain or snow.

26. ♄, with the Pleiades, a dark and troubled Air, inclining to rain or snow.

27. ♄, with the Stars of Orion produceth showres, and sometimes cold storms.

28. ♄, with the Virgins ear of Corn, causeth sud­dain alterations of the Air, with often showres.

29. ♄, with Arcturus produceth winds and cold showres.

30. ♄, with the Dolphin, the Crown or the tail of ♑, produceth moist and cloudy weather, and often snow and cold showres.

31. ♄, with the Hyades, the Asses, and the Manger, causeth clouds and rain, with thunder and light­ning sometimes.

32. ♄, with Regulus causeth cloudy and uncon­stant weather, in Sommer-time thunder, in Winter temperate.

33. ♄, with the great Dog causeth rainy and windy weather, with tempests of thunder and lightning.

34. ♃ ascending the Horizon with Regulus in Winter, causeth fair weather, and lessens the cold; but in Sommer it produceth heat, and prone to thunder.

35. ♂ rising with the tail of ♑ makes the Air in hot weather temperate, in winter snow, and so with the heart of ♏ causing the same effects.

36. ♂ with Arcturus ascending, doth produce thunder, lightning, rain, and furious tempests.

37. ♂ rising with the Eagle causeth snow in Winter, and cold weather; and in Sommer rain.

38. What hath been said of the ☉ these Planets will effect; but ♃ with much more mildnesse, and ♂ with more violence and fury; and thus [Page 92]♀ with the Pleiades causeth rain; and with the Eagle in Winter, snow, or cold rain; and so like­wise ☿ ascending the Horizon with these fired Stars, causeth very great alteration of the Air; as rising with Orion, the Hyades; Regulus; the great and little Dog; the Herp Spica, ♍, &c. All these in their ascentions with ☿ do produce hail, snow, rain, and causeth the Air to be troubled, and maketh many alterations, and often times pro­duceth thunder and lightning, and violent tem­pests; the ☽ with the fixed Stars doth often cause mutations of the Air; but those are soon over, her motion being so very swift: And here note that in all signs of stormy weather, the predictions given are most prevalent, and do last the longer if they happen at the time of any Eclipse, or the ☌ of the two luminaries.

Prognostications of the winds, collected from the observations of Pliny and Maginus.

THe word Wind is derived from the instability of it, and signifies to turn; as for their natures and temperatures in general, they are hot and dry exhalations got together in multitudes, yet do retain part of the qualities from whence they are extracted, as from earth cold and dry, from water cold and moist vapours; some of these are called Anniversary winds, as blowing at some certain time or season of the year; others are called Provincial winds; so termed as from par­ticular Provincies, no wind being general in all places, by Sea and Land; and some caused by [Page 93]great and high mountains in these Countrys; others derived from Lakes, Rivers, Seas, &c. and denominated often from thence; as the Levant, or Subsolanus, called also the East-wind; how they have been anciently divided and nominated; See Pliny, lib. 2. cap. 47. of his natural History.

There may be as many winds as there be sup­posed divisions in the Horizon, which the Sea-men (to avoid confusion) do divide into 32. points, represented by the Compass, distinguishing those points and parts of the Horizontal circle, by several and peculiar names; and so also the winds answering to those points, whereof in this I will use but eight, being sufficient for prognostication, and the chiefest that are observed: And first, the four principal or cardinal points are these, North, South, East, West, dividing the Horizon into four quadrants or 90. degrees asunder; and those equally divided by four points more; all the eight being 45. degrees from one another, and are these North east, and North-west, South-east, and South-west: As for the temperatures of these particular winds, they are so uncertain in every Country, that I will write nothing of them more, but refer you to the second part of this Book; for in these Countrys the North-wind is cold and dry; the South-winds warm and moist, making our bodies generally dull, and causeth moist weather, and pains in the head; whereas in the Southern parts of America, and the East-Indies, the effects of these winds are quite contrary, participating of that nature from whence those exhalations were extra­cted: But the signs presaged by the Stars, and de­rived from the observations of learned men, are these following.

1. Orions girdle rising Acronycally presageth South-west winds, and ofttimes great tempests both by Sea and Land.

2. Aselli and Praesepe, as Pliny sayes, lib. 18. cap. 35. that if in a fair and clear night the Manger be not visible, expect some storms or winterly weather.

3. If the Northern Ass be observed with any mist, the Southern winds will rage; and if the Southern Ass be hidden from your sight, then look for storms and tempests from the North or East.

4. The Dolphin setting Acronycally, produceth cold winds.

5. Vindemiatrix rising Acronically causeth cold Northerly winds.

6. The Cosmical Rising of the Pleiades is a sign of Westerly winds; the Acronycal setting bringeth Southerly winds.

7. Sirius setting Acronycally, causeth South west winds, and sometimes tempests.

8. The Caniculare days bring the Easterly winds; and the Cosmical setting Southerly, weather and tempests; the Heliacal rising or apparition of Sirius did begin the Graecian year.

9. The Cosmical setting of the Eagle produceth Eastern winds.

10. Regulus setting Acronycally doth cause Westerly winds, lasting oftentimes for 9. days, but seldome very violent.

11. Vindemiatrix rising Cosmically, produceth North-west winds, and white frosts; if the first day of September be fair, it betokens a dry Autumn.

12. The Cosmical rising of the Northern Crown produceth cold winds.

13. Virgiliae setting Cosmically, bringeth Nor­thern-winds; [Page 95]if at this time the Sky be dark or cloudy, it foreshews a wet Winter; and very cold if dry and clear.

14. Arcturus setting Acronycally produceth Southerly winds; and much rain to follow, if it rains at his Heliacal setting or occultation.

Saturn, ♃, ♂, ☉, & ♀, or any one of these rising or setting with the Triangle, with ♒, with the belly of the Southern Fish, with the right shoulder of Auriga, with the foremost head of ♊, with Praesepe and the two Asses, with Orions Girdle or ♍; the Crown Arcturus, with Hereules, or with the Ballance, all these produceth winds, and many times violent tempests, especially the aforesaid Planets being stationary or retrograde.

16. Mercurius doth produce winds, if he riseth or setteth with the thigh of Pegasus, with Auriga, with the Triangle; with the Rams head sharp and cold winds; with the Pleiades wind and rain; with ♊, with Orion tempests, and often thunder and lightning; and so likewise with Praesepe, either Dog or Regulus; the Hydras heart, Arcturus and Spica, ♍, winds and cloudy weather; and likewise rising or setting with the Vulture, the Ballance, the Eagle, or the Dolphin, ascending or descending the Horizon with ☿ causeth often winds and cloudy weather, with the cloudy Stars of ♐ lowring weather; but with Acarner clear days, and warm winds; and usually so with most Stars of the nature of ♃; and so much for this.

Generall Aphorisms in Prognosticating storms and tempests, selected out of Cardanus, Ma­ginus and Durret.

THe twelve Signes of the Zodiack doe contain the nature of the four Elements; and these twelve Signes (by transmutation of their places) are divided into four Trigones, each of them con­taining the temperature and qualities of one Ele­ment, as was declared already in the Worlds Epi­tomy; and being they are conceived to have their severall effects in producing of particular winds, I will once again insert them, v.z. ♈ ♌ & ♐ pro­duceth Northwest winds, ♊ ♎ & ♒ produceth Northeast winds, ♋ ♏ & ♓ causeth Southwest winds, ♉ ♍ & ♑ raiseth Southeast winds: and thus are the twelve Signs appropriated to the four points of the horizon, equally between the four cardinall winds; yet you must consider the nature of the fixed and wandring Stars ascending with them, in every particular Horizon.

The presaging of the winds depends upon many causes, and are as various as they be inconstant; and besides all this, you must know the winds are appropriated unto each proper Planet, as the East to ♄, the North to ♃, the West to ♂, the South to ♀, and ☉ also to the East, and ☽ to the West: as for ☿, he is indifferent to the other six according to the conjunction of his rays with them. For if he applies himself to ♄, he produceth great winds, cloudy or rainy weather; if to ♃, warm gales with [Page 97]some rain; to ♂ or ☉ hot and corrupt winds; and with ☿ or ☽ moist winds. If ☿ changes his latitude, it argues winds; if stationary or retro­grade, or going from one sign and entring the other, betokeneth great winds: ♄ also doth alter the weather for many days together, in his remo­ving from any one sign into another, especially being retrograde, and having latitude towards the pole elevated, and the Apogaeon or Perigaeon of the Planets is to be considered.

There is never any great mutation of the Air without the ☌ or aspect either of ♄, ♃ or ♂, by reason their motions are so slow; great ☌ of Planets that are of contrary naures, do cause con­trary winds, much rain, hail or snow, according to the season of the year; hail is multiplied by the ☌ of hot Planets in fiery Signs; the wandring Stars in their swift motions do beget drought, and likewise if they be direct and Oriental; but if slow, retrograde or occidental, they do produce rain, excepting ♂; and stationary they do gene­rally cause winds; and ☿ instability of the Air, and likewise many ☌ or Aspects of the Planets concurring at one time, do pronounce great mutability of the weather, and do usually very much distemper the Element; in this Cardanus is oppugnant to Leupold.

Here we are arrived, having past many ambi­guous Meanders, and obscure Laborinths of hu­mane Hypothesis, concerning the nature and effects of the fixed and wandring Stars, through which I cannot guide you in a direct line with a thread, but am forced to follow the observations of others, and the rules by them prescribed, and delivered [Page 98]to Astronomers by succession, from one ensuing Age unto another; yet with several opinions, accord­ing to the diversity of men, and the Countrys they lived in, as Aegypt, Italy, Germany, and the like: These several temperatures of Climates, have caused errors in our later observations whereas their rules were true perhaps in those Regions where they did inhabite. I have therefore delivered some things twice, to shew how several mens opinions do concur; others again I have given you almost oppugnant, yet may be in some things reconciled; which to do, I refer to your candid Judgement, to choose, correct, or reject, as you please.

I have shewn you rules and prognostications of the weather, both for days, years, and the several seasons thereof, as by the fixed Stars and Planets, with the effects of their influences commixt, (ac­cording to humane conjectures.) And now I will place before your eyes, predictions of the weather by mutual Aspects of the Planets, only with them­selves; which way is generally held and approved for to be the best and most assured tract to follow, as in things that depends upon so many and un­certain causes; yet it is convenient to ponder in your judgement the former rules prescribed, and those well weighed and considered, I will leave it to your application, and so proceed to the obser­vations of Maginus, with some diligent collecti­ons of my own annexed thereunto.

But first there ought to be considered whether either Planet were retrograde at the time of con­juction, or in any other Aspect; of which these are the chiefest, and held of greatest power in [Page 99]altering the Airs temperature, viz. ☌ hath the most force, and the effects of longest continuance; the next is ☍, and then the □ the △ and ⚹, much weaker, and seldome observed in progno­stication of the weather, except in ♄ and ♃, or when the others are stationary, or else ♀, ☿, ☽, any one of these parting with ♃ to joyn with ♄ or ♂; portends a turbulent air, and stormy weather neer at hand; also in ☍, or ill aspected, will effect the same or worse.

Prognostications of the weather by the mutual Conjunctions and Aspects of the Planets, according to Maginus, Argoll, &c.

Saturn conjoyned or aspected with Jupiter.

SAturn and ♃ in ☌, ⚹, □, △, or ☍, are accord­ing to the nature of the Signs; as in fiery Signs they generally cause drought; in moist Signs rain, hail, with winds, and great mutations of the Air, both before and after, if other causes do not inter­pose.

Particularly causing in the Spring a troubled or moist Air; in Sommer, hail and thunder; in Autumn winds, or rain; in Winter frost, or snow; a turbulent Air, and durable storms.

Saturn conjoyned or aspected with Mars.

SAturn and ♂, in ☌, □, or ☍, do produce these effects for some days, both before and after, especially if ♂ be in his slow motion, and pro­perly hail in his □, or ☍, rain, with lightning and tempests; in moist Signs, cloudy and dark weather corrupteth the Air, and is generally hurtful, but more or lesse as aspected with the fixed Stars.

Particularly in the Spring rain or thunder; in Sommer time hail or thunder; in Autumn wind or rain; and in Winter remisse cold, yet some­times snow.

Saturn conjoyned or aspected with the Sun.

SAturn and ☉, in ☌, □, or ☍, do cause generally rain, hail, and cold weather, both before and after, especially in watry Signs, or in ♐, and ♑, and is called Apertio portarum, or opening the Cataracts of Heaven.

Particularly their effects in the Spring are cold showres; in Sommer producing much thunder and storms of hail; in Autumn rain and cold; in Winter snow, or moist, dark, and cloudy weather, and oftentimes frost.

Saturn conjoyned or aspected with Venus.

SAturn and ♀, in ☌, □, or ☍, begetteth cold showres, especially in watery Signs, with some­times hail, but not much, yet unconstant weather generally.

Particularly producing in the Spring cold rains; in the Sommer season suddain showres; in Autumn cold storms; and in Winter it portends snow, sleet, or rain.

Saturn conjoyned or aspected with Mercury.

SAturn and ☿, in ☌, □, or ☍, do generally pro­duce cold winds; in moist Signs rainy and cloudy weather; in dry Signs drought; in aiery Signs great winds; in earthly Signs cold and drought, hurtful to all vegetables.

Particularly in the Spring season these aspects do cause winds, with some rain; in Sommer lesse wet, but some wind; in Autumn it begetteth clouds; and in Winter snow, and often violent storms.

Saturn conjoyned or aspected with the Moon.

SAturn and ☽, in ☌, □, or ☍, in moist Signs, do cause cold and cloudy weather; in aiery Signs, and in ♐, or in ♑, it increases the cold, and often causeth hail, especially at the full, and at the new Moon drought; in dry times she causeth [Page 102]frosts, or dark and obscure clouds; yet sometimes pleasant, quiet, and gentle showres, but with some cold; and withal she does much at these times increase the Tides.

Particularly in the Spring these conjunctions or aspects, do cause a troubled and moist Air; and likewise in the Sommer with remisse heat, and sometimes hail; in Autumn cloudy weather, with some frosts; in Winter cloudy, and vene­mently cold weather, especially if either of them be aspected with ☿.

Jupiter in conjunction or aspected with Mars.

JƲpiter and ♂, in ☌, □, or ☍, do properly fore­shew thunder, lightning, flashes of fire, and rain; in moist Signs, thunder, corruscations, and rain; in fiery Signs scorching heat, and if rising with any of the tempestuous Stars, it may cause hail in Winter, and if otherwise, storms and snow.

Particularly in the Spring and Autumn whirle­winds; in Sommer thunder, tempests, and combust heat; in Winter remisse, cold, and a temperate Air.

Jupiter in conjunction or aspected with the Sun.

JƲpiter and ☉, in ☌, □, or ☍, do generally pro­duce wholesome winds or gales, fair, clear, warm and temperate weather, especially in aiery Signs; in watery or moist Signs it begetteth fertile [Page 103]showres; in fiery Signs it increaseth heat, and assures us constant fair weather, but in earthly Signs lesse.

Particularly in the Spring and in Autumn winds; in the Sommer season, thunder and light­ning; and in Winter remisse cold, and a tempe­rate Air.

Jupiter in conjunction, or aspected with Venus.

JƲpiter and ♀, in ☌, □, or ☍, do beget a won­derful pleasing, tranquile, calm, and temperate Air, with grateful fair weather; in watery Signs gentle and wholesome showres; and in other Signs generally pleasing gales, and clear weather; much fertility, plenty of fruits; wholesome wea­ther in any quarter of the year according to the season.

Jupiter in conjunction or aspected with Mercury.

JƲpiter and ☿, in ☌, □, or ☍, do generally ge­nerate winds, and often great tempests without rain; in fiery Signs, drought and warm winds; in airy Signs fair weather, and pleasant gales; winds are usually his effects in every quarter or season of the year.

Jupiter in conjunction or aspected with the Moon.

JƲpiter and ☽, in ☌, □, or ☍, doth generally groduce serene weather, propitious and favou­rable winds; in ♄ and ♏, white clouds spreadeth over the Skyes, but in all quarters of the year it affordeth usually fair and temperate weather, and very calm.

Mars in conjunction or aspected with the Sun.

MArs and ☉, in ☌, □, or ☍, do usually cause thunder, lightning, rain, hail, with vehe­mency and hurt, especially in Sommer; in fiery Signs, it begetteth heat and drought; in airy Signs a dark Sky, and spissious clouds, and many di­seases it produces, especially in the Spring.

Particularly in the Spring and Sommer they cause whirlewinds and drought, especially if the Signs did participate of both their natures, the effects will be diseases, and cause cloudy weather; in Sommer time vehement heat, with thunder, and lightning and in the winter it lessens the cold.

Mars in conjunction or aspected with Venus.

MArs and ♀, in ☌, □, or ☍, in watery Signs causeth much rain, opening the floud-gates of Heaven; in other Signs lesse rain generally.

Particularly in the Spring and Autumn they generate rain; in Sommer often showres; and makes the winter season not very cold, but alters the present state of the weather.

Mars in conjunction or aspected with Mer­cury.

MArs and ☿, in ☌, □, or ☍, in fiery Signs do declare heat, and excessive drought; in watery Signs rain, and often showres: in airy Signs warm winds, and those usually violent.

Particularly do generate hail and cloudy winds; in Autumn, in the Spring, and Winter, snow; in the Sommer tempests of thunder, light­ning, and hail, and often violent storms.

Mars in conjunction or aspected with the Moon.

MArs and ☽, in ☌, □, or ☍, in watery Signs prognosticates rain; in fiery Signs drought; and scatters over the heavens with red and yel­lowish clouds, causing often times rain; and as in Signs that are aireal, it makes the weather warm.

Particularly they cause in the Spring and Au­tumn showres; in Sommer thunder, lightning, and hail; in Winter remisse heat, and oftentimes ex­tendeth the celestial bow, a premonitor of follow­ing rain, but usually not much.

The Sun and Venus in conjunction.

SOl and ♀, in ☌, do generally prognosticate moist weather, especially in watery Signs, and [Page 106]particularly in the Spring and Autumn rain; in Sommer thunder and showres; and in the Winter quarter moist and foggy weather.

The Sun and Mercury in conjunction.

SOl and ☿, in ☌, do commonly beget winds in airy Signs; with moisture, in watery Signs rain; in fiery Signs drought, warm winds, with corrup­tion; these two Planets do always accompany the Sun, neither of them exceeding 60. degrees in their greatest distances, and this not 30.

The Sun and Moon in conjunction or aspected.

SOl and ☽, in ☌, □, or ☍, in moist Signs pro­duce rain, reddish clouds, and great drops of water; and in fiery Signs fair weather, and alter­eth the Air according to the season of the year, and the present temperature of the time; at the new and full she causeth the greatest flux of the Sea, and all waterish humors, and much the more if aspected with the Hyades or Pleiades at the same time, with other circumstances to be considered, as the other Planets, and what hath been said before.

Venus and Mercury in conjunction.

VEnus and ☿, in ☌, do commonly beget in moist Signs showres, and generally at all times [Page 107]of the year moist winds, and if this conjunction shall happen when the two luminaries are in ☌, □, or ☍, or within an hour it will cause an inundati­on, or very much rain, if not hindred with other intervening causes.

Venus in conjunction or aspected with the Moon.

VEnus and ☽, in ☌, □, or ☍, presage generally mild and gentle showres, or moist weather, with some cold, according to the season; and much increases the flowing of the Seas, causing violent Tides, especially with Hyades or Stars of their own natures.

Particularly in the Spring moist and cloudy time; in Sommer remisse heat; in Autumn they produce dark clouds; and in the Winter season a cold and troubled Air, if not snow, sleet, or rain.

Mercury in conjunction or aspected with the Moon.

Mercury and ☽, in ☌, □, or ☍, do signifie winds, clouds, rain, with various and un­constant weather, and generally in all seasons of the year, if it happens in watery Signs, rain, or moist weather is presaged; in airy Signs wind; in fiery Signs drought; in earthly Signs cold; they cause also, many times, pale uncontinued clouds, resembling the colour of smoak; but the effects of these are not durarable, [Page 108]or of long continuance, without the assistance of the higher Planets.

The fixed and wandring Stars are observed diligently by some in administring Physick, Phle­botomy, &c. which I will omit in prescribing any Rules, (being out of my element) but leave it to the learned Practitioners. Others do vigilantly regard the Planets in Agriculture, and above all the Moon, predominating most over vegetables; but this is also out of my rode, excepting my Pre­dictions of the Weather, and seasons of the year; as for other things Experience is the best instru­ctor; yet those that will, may satisfie themselves with Virgils Georgicks, with Pliny, lib. 17. & 18. and divers others of that kinde; but being this you have, and those not always at hand; peruse these few collections, if you please, they being held general.

Observations in Agriculture.

TO plant or sow, the Moon in these Signs, is held the best, viz. in ♈, ♉, ♊, ♍, ♎, ♑, & ♓, and if the ☽ be aspected with ♀ it is the better, as causing the more moisture.

Plant or graft trees the ☽ increasing in ♉, ♎ and ♒.

Sow all seeds after the new ☽; but round seeds neer the opposition ☽ is generally held the best, but all moist seeds in wet grounds the ☽ decreasing.

Gather fruits the ☽ decreasing before the last quarter.

The Eclipses of the two Luminaries are generally [Page 109]observed prejudicial to this kind of husbandry, and the bloming of Corn.

Any Planet that is retrograde, and in ☌ with the ☽ is accounted hurtful to planting, graffing, or sowing.

The wind in the North or in the East, is held destructive or hurtful to planting, graffing, or felling of timber.

Cut hair, and shear sheep the ☽ increasing.

Presages of the weather by Experience, colle­cted from the inflamation of Comets, fiery impressions, influences: and apparitions of the Stars reflecting on sublunary Meteors.

HItherto I have discovered (according to my ability) the effects of the fixed and wandring Stars, selected from their aspects, by the registers of Experience, conceived by them the efficient cause (under God) of Wind, Rain, Hail, Snow, &c. But all men not being Astronomers, and my in­tentions generall, to whom I indeavour the de­dication of my discourse; therefore I will de­monstrate the weathers transactions, by signs de­rived more directly from the immediate dictates of Nature, beginning with Comets, being generally supposed to be sublunary, and so descend unto those more inferiour, according to my prescribed order, intending to treat of falling Stars, Rainbows, and all fiery apparitions in the Air, and then our terrestrial fires; for although they are compounded of the 4. Elements, yet I will rank them amongst [Page 110]these, because the flames of all combustible mat­ters, do naturally of their own accords ascend towards the Element of fire, the seat of lenity; whereas all heavy and ponderous things do tend downwards, pressing toward the seat of gravity and centre of the Earth.

The effects of Comets.

1. ALl fiery impressions and Comets do presage violent tempests of long continuance, and also they do denote much heat and inflamation of the Air, Pliny, lib. 2. cap. 25.

2. Frequent and many Comets do foreshew ste­rility of the Earth, famine, plague, burning feavers, and many other pestiferous diseases; by reason they do consume the humidity of vapours, and exhalations, and so from thence they ingender choler, inclining men prone to discentions and civil wars, it threatens Princes and great men with death, and all such as are of tender or fiery constitutions; to this consents Cardanus, lib. 1 cap. 1. but the effects of these are the more violent, and of longer continuance, by how much the greater and permanent they are; and the like judge of all unusual fiery Meteors.

3. The shooting or glancing of seeming Stars through the Air do presage rain, snow, or tem­pestious weather quickly after to ensue; and ob­serve what point of the Heavens these Metoors point at, from that quarter will the wind proceed; if there be many of them falling often, and seva­ral ways, it is a sign the weather will be variable; [Page 111]but if they be numerous, and all tending one way, then expect great winds, much snow or rain, and probably to continue long, for it argues the Air to be very moist and cold, oppugnant to the Meteor.

4. When you shall behold in the sable night, the Hemisphere to seem more gloriously adorned with glittering Stars, then usually it is in fair and serene weather; or those Stars to twinckle, like spangles upon a sable vestment, expect then sud­dainly to follow rain, snow, or misty weather; as you may judge according to the present tem­perature of the Air, and season of the year consi­dered, the cause of either is thin and waterish vapours, transparent and interposed between the Stars and our sight; and these Meteors moving, or carried with the circular motion of the Air, upon which the Stars reflecting do cause the ap­parition of many, formed in the clouds by their rays, as by multiplying glasses may be demon­strated, or in shallow crystal streams of rivers, wherein you may behold the Stars (by reflection of the water) to twincle, and many Moons to ap­pear at once.

5. Circles about the Stars (especially the Planets) that are pail and waterish do presage rain or snow; but if these circles be of a reddish colour, expect some winds.

6. If the Stars in the night do appear dim, like a sullied or unpolished diamond, or greater then they use to be, or seem to hang as if they were ready for to fall, it argues that the lower Region of the Air is full of thick and waterish exhalations, which their rays cannot directly penetrate, but [Page 112]by reflection do appear thus unto us; yet these in Sommer time, or in hot Countrys, do often prove but mists, and those chased away by the Suns ap­approaching the Hemisphere; but in Winter (especially) or in moist weather they do commouly turn to rine-frosts, snow, rain, or very foggy weather.

7. When the Stars do appear bright, and on a suddain the Hemisphere shall be vailed with spissious clouds, expect then some present change of weather, for it shews the Sky to be full of vapours, and those by the powerful influence and concurrence of the Stars, are drawn together and digested into snow or rain, so that the Air cannot support them, but they must suddainly fall.

8. If the Stars do seem very low, it argues that the lower Region of the Air is full of waterish Meteors, or transparent exhalations; for if the Stars do seem pail and bright, it denuntiates rain; and if red, windy weather.

9. Red streaks in the Air, and all fiery impres­sions like flames, do presage winds, and from that quarter whence they did arise; if they extend far, and move down wards, expect a tempest; for the colour shews the nature of the Meteor to be not and dry, forceth to retreat by the frigide moistnesse of the Air.

By Thunder and Lightning.

10. IF there be more thunder then lightning, it argues a stresse of wind from that part it thundered, if not rain.

11. When it does lighten, and no clap of thun­der follow, it is a sign in Sommer time of much heat, and sometimes rain.

12. When it lightens only from the North-west, look for rain the next day.

13. Lightning from the North presages winds, and often times great tempests.

14. If from the South or the West it lightens, expect both wind and rain from those parts.

15. Morning-thunder produceth winds, but midday or in the afternoon generally rain.

16. If the lightning appears very pale, it argues the Air to be full of waterish Meteors; and if red or fiery, inclining to winds and tempests.

17. When the flashes of lightning do continue long before they vanish, the tempest is like to be great, and it argues the Air to be very moist.

18. Thunder and lightning in Winter, in hot Countryes is usual, and hath the same effects; but in these Northern Climates it is held ominous, portending factions, tumults, and bloody wars, and a thing seldome seen, according to the old Adigy, Winters thunder, is the Sommers wonder.

19. Generally if it thunders from several quar­ters of the Heavens at once, expect then moist violent storms immediately to follow.

The effects which these Meteors do produce, is evident; for these exhalations being fiered and opposed by the cold of the middle Region, do violently break forth of the clouds (in which they were involved) and dissipate them, causing tumul­tuous riots amongst the windy exhalations, opening a passage for the cataracts of water to issue down.

By the Sun.

THe two great Luminaries (in prognosticating the weather) Virgil and Pliny does prefer be­fore those observations of the Stars, which are but apparitions in the clouds, and lower Region of the Air, as the others be; whose rays falling upon these elevated vapours and exhalations do declare by their colours what regiments they are of; from these apparitions of their colours, we do judge the nature of the Meteor, and from thence conclude the prognostication of the ensu­ing weather.

20. The Sun rising clear, and not fiery red, prenotes a fair day; but if pale and warm, it argues snow, hail or rain; if purple colour, wind and rain.

21. If the Sun at his rising appeareth hollow, it argues rain.

22. If before the Sun rising the clouds be red, intermingled with some that are black, expect both wind and rain.

23. If the rays of the Sun be red, both at his rising and setting, there will follow much rain or wind.

24. When the evening in the West appears red, and the morning following free from any clouds at his rising, it foreshews fair weather.

25. If the clouds at his rising do disperse them­selves some Southward, and others Northward, expect that day both wind and rain.

26. At his rising or setting, if his beams be short, it is a sign of a shewre.

27. At his setting if it rains, or if his beams look dark or blew, or many clouds about him like bulwarks, heaped one upon another, great florms and tempests will ensue the next day.

28. If his rays seem not bright and clear at his rising, and clouds gather towards him like globes or wool-packs, it argues stormy and winterly weather; but if those clouds do retreat towards the West, it may prove a fair day.

29. Red clouds, or of purple colour, appearing in the North or in the West, at the Sun rising, denotes either wind or rain.

30 If the Sun 1 iseth pale or waterish, and quick­ly after proves obscured with thick clouds, it will rain before his setting.

31. When you shall see at the Sun rising a circle of clouds invironing him, it is a sign of rain; if he be inclosed with a double circle, tempests; and the neerer these circles do circumvent him, the storm will be the greater; and if these circles be red or mixt, expect then violent storms both of wind and rain; if this circle breaks, observe from what part, for out of that quarter of the Heavens, which the fraction represents, the storm will rise.

32. The Sun rising, if he appears spotted, or casteth forth rays of several colours, or part of his body eclipsed with spissious clouds, it argues rain and tempestuous weather.

33. If the body of the Sun (at his setting) be mixed with sky-colour or purple, expect then im­moderate tempests, and storms of wind and rain.

34. If the Sun at his rising seem to be as it were affronted with clouds, in tumults moving towards him, observe from what quarter of the Heavens [Page 116]they come, from thence will the storm arise; and if they come from the South, expect then both wind and rain, especially if the clouds were fiery red or, mixt.

35. If the Sun doth cast his beams a far of amongst the clouds at his rising, and some of them seem refracted, or the middle void, it presages rain.

36. If he spread his beams before he rises above the Horizon, expect both wind and water.

37. If at his setting there appear a white circle about him, there will be some troublesome weather the ensuing night; but withal, if there be a thick mist invirons him, the tempest may be outragious, both wind and rain.

38. If there be red clouds about the Sun at his rising, which do become black or dark soon after he is up, it presages rain.

39. If the Sun all day, or before his setting an hour or two, appeareth with a purple colour, and coming to the Horizon, descending seems greater then at other times, it foreshews both wind and rain.

A Paraphrase.

HEre with the setting Sun I will end his pre­sages, and now behold the Luminary of the night; for what hath been said of his rising, is or may be applied (for the most part) as rules in presaging the weather, at the time of his descend­ing the Horizon of any place; but not so certain and effectual as his first apparition in the morning, because there be more grosse and undigest [...]d va­pours [Page 117]raised in the night, or fall for want of hea [...] to concoct and dispose of them according to their qualities; the reason of all these presages is grounded upon the colour of the vapour or exha­lation; on which the Sun reflecting doth cause these fiery and diversity of apparitions, elevated above the superficies of the Earth, but neer us, interposed between the Sun and our sight, which by the vertue of his rayes, he converts according to their qualities and quantities into several Mereors: for if they seem pale, they are watery; if red, windy; if black and mixt, both: if his rays seem refracted, broken or crooked, it is by reflection of one cloud upon another, which argues their number to be many; and if unpenetrable, it shews them to be great and grosse: And so much for the Sun.

By the Moon.

40. THe Aegyptians (whom Virgil and Pliny follow) did observe the fourth day of the Moon (after the Conjunction) to be the surest sign; for if she does appear after Sun-setting pure and bright, it argues fair weather; and if red, wind; if dim or cloudy, storms and wet weather: also if the tips of her horns be blunt, it foreshews foul weather; and if very sharp pointed, it presages winds, fair, or frosty weather.

41. If her Northern horn be only sharp-pointed, it presages wind from that coast; but if her lower or Southern horn be only so, the wind will be Southward: and if she hath a red circle about her, [Page 118]it is a sign of wind and rain. But Varra, who maketh these observations also of the weather, says, That if the Moon hath a circle or garland about her, and the same clear and bright, it pro­mises fair weather until the Full.

42. If the Moon after the change appear not until her fourth day, and the wind blowing West, ex­pect then cold and winter-like weather; the reason that the fourth day is observed in these, is this, her fourth time ascending the Horizon, reckoned from the New Moon inclusive, is but three days compleat, in which time she does recover light, and hath then entered another sign of a different nature from that at her change. But some would have these rules observed when her age is [...]/8 part of her whole course, that is, three days and sixteen hours very neer; but this cannot be strictly ob­served, the Moon not being then always visible above any one Horizon.

43. The Moon increasing, and rising with her upper or Northern horn blackish, presageth much rainy weather after the Full; but if the tip of her lowermost horn be so aspected, then it will rain before the Full; but if it appears blackish between her horns, that is, in the middle of her body, according to Varre, it will be wet weather about the time of her being Full.

44. When the Moon is at the Full, if her body seem very fair and bright, it is a sign of good weather; but if red, it argues wind; if inclining to black, rain; and if a mist about her, it is a sign of snow, rain or wind; and if two or more of these circles, it is the worse, and presages storms; and where the circle is brightest, or most trans­parent, [Page 119]from that part of the Heavens expect the winds.

45. Lastly, the eight points or angles which the Moon maketh with the Sun are observed by many, and are these days, viz. 3, 7, 11, 15, 19, 23, 27. and the day in which the two great Luminaries do happen in Conjunction.

46. Observe what weather it is when the Moon comes to be South any day, if the weather changes not then, it is like to continue that day, whether it be sair or foul. This would also be observed in the other Planets, at what time they do come unto the Meridian of any place, so well as their rising and setting.

But to find the ☽ coming to the Meridian, mul­tiply her age by 4, and divide the product by 5, the quotient will be the time required.

Example, admit the Moons age were 5, which multiplied by 4, the product will be 20, and that divided by 5, the quotient will be 4, the hour of her being South that day, and so for any time.

By Rain-bows.

46. THere have been Rain-bows in the night­time seen, made by the Moon, and as for their effects (being seldome known) they shall be omitted only as signs conceived prodigious; but those of the Sun made by his rays are usual; and are these, a Rain-bow appearing presently after rain, is held a sign of fair weather, and that the storm is past; but if two or more be seen at once, it is a presage of future rain; for it argues the [Page 120]clouds to be very waterish, when the reflection of the one can form the impression and figure of another in several clouds, as it were in mirrours; a Rain-bow broken presages tempests.

Of the Ignis fatuus.

48. THese pallid fires appear but at some times of the year, and that in certain places; and in those parts where they are most usual, they are not commonly seen, but as fore-runners of fultry heat in Sommer, and wet in the Winter; they are usually observed to appear in open weather; yet I have seen one in a very cold feason, both for frost and snow, moving but a little before me, and within a few days after the frost did break; they are Meteors seldome seen, little observed in prognostication of the weather, and so I shall lead you no further, until a better discovery of their natures be made, and their effects better known, which are gene­rally held unwholesome; and so let them pasle as Ignes fatui.

By terrestial fires.

49. WHen our common fires do burn with a pale flame, they presage foul weather.

50 If the fire do make a huzzing noise, it is a sign of tempests neer at hand.

51. If the flame of a candle, lamp, or any other fire does wave or wind it self, where there is no sensible or visible cause, expect some windy weather.

52. When candles or lamps will not so readily kindle as at other times, it is a sign of wet weather neer at hand.

53. When the fire sparkleth very much, it is a sign of rain.

54. If the ashes on the herth do clodder together of themselves, it is a sign of rain.

55. When candles or lamps do sparkle and rise up with little fumes, or their wicks swell, with things on them like mushrums, are all signs of ensuing wet weather.

56 When pots are newly taken off from the fire, if they sparkle (the soot upon them being in­censed) it presages rain.

57. When the fire scorcheth, and burneth more vehemently then it useth to do, it is a sign of frosty weather; but if the living coals do shine brighter then commonly at other times, expect then rain.

58. If wood or any other fuel do crackle and break forth wind more then ordinary, it is an evident sign of some tempestuous weather neer at hand; the much and suddain falling of soot pre­sages rain.

A Paraphrase.

THe natural cause of these (as I suppose) is this, the Air in the lower Region (being apt for either heat or cold) does alter according to the inclination of the weather, whether it be disposed to heat, cold, rain, or wind; the Air thus altering, when it becomes waterish, makes the flaming fire [Page 122]appear pale; candles nor lamps apt to light; their cotten-wicks to swell with tumors upon them like horse-shooes, or mushrums, the moist air being got into them, which by opposition makes the fire to sparkle, or being cold, inclining to frost, it causes it to scorch; the Air which does infuse it self into the pores of the fewel, being moist, and rarified by the fire, turns into wind, and so wanting room breaks a passage forth, which makes the wood to crackle, the flame to wave, and sparkles to fly; and this in brief is the cause of them, so far as I conceive; our fewel being com­mixed of the four Elements, and so by opposition or participation these effects are caused; and this makes the soot in chimneys for to fall, being by nature dry, and loosned by the moistnesse of the Air.

By Air, Winds, Clouds, and Mists.

THe Air in which we breath being commixt and no pure Element, doth generate several Meteors (as was said already in the second part) and the presages these; if the Air seem dusky, hotter then ordinary, and unapt to breath in, expect then thunder and lightning.

60. When the ringing of Bells, or other sounds are heard more plain then at other times, and if by intervals it shews the Air to be dilated and disturbed, which presages either wind or rain, if not both.

61. A sharp and cold wind after rain foresheweth more to come, the exhalation or vapour not being spent in the former showre.

62. Winds that do continue long in any one point, will cause the weather for to be generally the same, whether it be fair or soul; but if it shifts often in changing the place, it presages rain quickly after to ensue; but in times of frost it is a sign that the weather will break.

63. Whirlwinds do predict approaching storms usually of rain or hail; these you may foresee by raising the dust, or any such light materials; and and oftentimes these whirlwinds are forerunners of great tempests; for it is a windy exhalation driven obliquely upon the horizontal plain, and forced down by the coldnesse or moisture of the present Air in the lower Region; this repercursion of the Air causeth chimneys to smoak more then usually they do at other times, presaging rain or great winds.

64. Sometimes these whirlwinds are caused by the meeting of one another, and so raising light things, as in contention, hurling them to and fro, at the pleasure of the prevailing party; and such as these do usually presage tempests; as you see when the clouds are moved several ways at once, and from the same cause above, as it is below.

65. It is probable that there is also many exha­lations which do suddenly break out of the Earth, and do produce these whirlwinds, which are by nature held hot and dry; the cause how these do predict storms and tempests, is conceived this; against rain, or any wet weather, the pores of the Earth does naturally open, and so gives a passage to them; they being hot and dry, do strive for to ascend, and so much the more then, the exha­lation being opposed by the moistnesse and the [Page 124]coldness of the Air infused into the Earth, which changes as the Element does.

66. These whirlwinds are precursors of tempests, when the Air inclosed in the Earth, is apt for to convert it self into these windy exhalations, and there increasing so as it cannot be contained, yet not so restrained as to cause an Earth-quake, but finds an easie passage through the pores of the Earth, whereby to evaporate and free it self from restraint into the open Air.

67. These exhalations when they happen for to be frozen in with extream cold weather in winter, and venting themselves in waterish places, as in the bottome of great ponds, meers or rivers, where by Antiperistafis, or opposition of the cold waters, it does congeal the bottome, when the outward air cannot freeze the top or superficies of the water, by reason of the motion, but in the deeps, where it is still and quiet; these are called anchor or subterranean frosts; they are not usual, neither will they endure long; but when they do happen, it is most commonly extream cold weather, and little or no snow; these are generally held very hurtful unto plants; and destructive to the fishes; and by freezing up the channels, make the rivers overflow.

68. When the Air is dilated or rarified, it is a sign of much heat, or against rain, which by your smelling you may know when shoars, nasty places, or things corrupted are more offensive then at other times.

69. When the clouds be dark, deep, and very spissious, it is a sign of rain, and sometimes tem­pestuous weather.

70. Many scattering clouds wandering in the Air, and moving swiftly, argues wind or rain, and from the North or South it is the worse; but if the racke rides both wayes, it foreshews a tempest.

71. If the racke in the forenoon rides in the Air, from the East westward, it argues rain at night; but if from the West, it does foreshew a cloudy morning, if not rain; and at any time of day, when the Sun beams and wind meet, it may cause the same effect by vertue of his rays.

72. When the clouds seem piled upon heaps like fleeces of wool, it presages wet weather, and neer at hand.

73. If the clouds fly low in Sommer, it is a sign of rain; and in Winter it prenotes cold weather to ensue quickly after.

74. When the clouds seem white and jagged (as if rent asunder) gathering together in a body, their forces united, do foretel a storm; the nature of the exhalation is apparently turbulent by the form and colour.

75. Hollow and murmuring winds do presage stormy weather; for it shews the Air is moist and dilated, so cannot find an easie passage, but is opposed or hindred in the motion, by hills, trees, and hollow places, which it gets into and makes a noise.

76. The Air being a subtile body, infuses it self into the pores of timber, boards, &c. and against rain being converted into water, or a moisture, which makes boards to swell, and is the cause that Wainscot, and Joyners work doth crack against wet weather; doors will not easily shut or open, &c.

77. Paper against wet weather will grow weak, damp, and swell, the reason is the same with the last; but in writing paper it will sooner be per­ceived, and more certainly predict the weather; because it is done over with a thin substance of a gummy nature, which with the waterishnesse of the Air, dissolves and grows moist, giving way for the Incke to soke into the paper, which the Gum in dry weather will not permit.

78. When the clouds seem overcharged, and white withal like towers, expect then hail or snow, according to the season of the year.

79. After a storm of hail, expect a frost to follow the next day after.

80. When Spiders webs, poplare, and thistle­doune, and such light things do fly in the Air up and down, as it were to make nature sport, or a type of Fortunes favours; these are signs of the weathers changing, and speedy mutability; for these things of lenity are easily moved by the first insurrection of any exhalation, precursor of the weathers change, and oftentimes wind.

81. Mists descending from the tops of hills, and settling in the valleys, is a sign of a fair day, espe­cially in Sommer time, and then an argument of heat; for they were exhalations raised by the ferver of the Sun, and by the Air in the evening, (which in hot weather is coldest) it is converted into mists and dews, as a necessary provision of Nature to cool the Earth, and refresh her fruits, whereby to enable them that they may endure the next days heat. White mists are the same; but more waterish, and inclining to rain; and if they do ascend, it presages rain, and argues the middle [Page 127]Region of the Air not for to be very cold, the lowest water [...]sh, and the vapour warm.

82. If in calm and serene weather you do ob­serve the rack to ride a pace, expect winds from that quarter; for it is evident that the exhalation above in the clouds converts into a wind or rain, and will descend; but if clouds do ascend any day, it presages the storm is past.

But neither this, nor some of the other obser­vations are conceived general; diversity of climates producing several and various effects, and besides, the season of the year ought to be considered, the weather having peculiar properties in several Countries and places; as the nights in Africa are dewy in Winter; clouds in Aegypt so heavy, as if the Air were unable to support them; and in such tumults, as if they threatned the world with a deluge; yet march all away without any drop of rain. Locri and the lake Velinus in Italy have no day but there is a Rain-bow appears; in Syracusa and Rhodes, no day in all the year so cloudy, but that the Sun is seen to those places; most hot Countrys (neer the torrid Zone) have frequent flashes of lightning, and in their Winter often without rain, with many other observations pur­posely here omitted.

By Water and Earth.

83. THe water of the Fens, and standing pools, growing warm without heat of the Sun, more then usually, is a sign of much rain; the Ele­ment of water being rarisied, as appears by the parts.

84. The rain falling in small drops, argues those clouds were high from whence it fell, and a sign of much wet.

85. If the rain be whitish, and falling into water riseth up in bubbles, it shews the rain will continue, and that the water is then full of windy exhalations; and if the showre does cease, the wind will succeed it.

86. The rain falling upon the Earth, or floods, if soon drunk up, are signs of more.

87. Linnen or woollen cloth dipped in the water, and exposed to the Air, if it soon freezes, it is a sign of much or violent frost.

88. Drops of water after rain falling from the eves of houses, slowly one after another, is a sign of frost; for the Air works easily upon small parcels, foreshewing in those parts an inclination of the greater.

89. If the Sea at low water within the harbour be calm, and yet makes a rumbling noise, it pre­sages wind; and if so by fits, expect both cold weather and rain.

90. If the Sea or Sea-bancks, in calm weather make much noise, or the billows seem to heave and rise up, it presages a tempest neer at hand.

91. If the Seas be very rough and boisterous, the wind not great, the waves have been disturbed either with a tempest past, or else at one approach­ing; and if the billows do make a noise as with a refracted Air, like the murmuring sound of woods, the storm is neer at hand.

92. When the tops of high hills are clear and free from clouds or mists, it is a sign of fair weather.

93. If a murmuring sound be heard in valleys, [Page 129]or from hollow caves within the Earth, or rivers make a rumbling noise more then usual, running with troubled streams, any of these do presage a storm.

Presages of Earth quakes.

94 The extraordinary swelling and rising up of the Seas, when there is neither wind nor flood to cause it, foreshews an Earth quake, ob­served by Posidonius.

95. When the waters in wells, fountains, or deep pits, are much troubled, and have an evil savour, and a taste of sulphure, that were pleasant before, it does argue an Earth-quake.

96. A roaring noise under the earth, resembling thunder, is the forerunner of an Earth-quake.

97. When the Air for a long time wants motion, and is still, that birds can scarcely fly for want of wind, it foreshews an Earth-quake.

98. Aristotle, with some others, do say that a black and narrow streak or line, right under the Sun, stretched out to a great length, and remain­ing or continuing long, does presage an Earth­quake; but this doth rather signifie a great tran­quillity of the Air, and so a second cause, but not the immediate.

A Paraphrase.

THe reason of these and the former signs of tempests, by Water and Earth, are both one; for in long continued calms, the material cause of winds, is detain'd within the bowels of the Earth, and there being rarified, searches the veins, caverns, and hollow subterranean places to get a passage; but finding readily none, and not able to contain it self, it forces a way, and according to its quantity disturbs the Waters, and shakes the Land, or breaks forth into a tempest, with horrid noises, according to the resistance made, or which is aptest and most facile to be effected.

By sensitive Creatures; but first by Beasts and Reptiles.

99. BEasts eating greedily, and more then they use to do, prenotes foul weather; and all small cattel, that seem to rejoyce with playing and sporting themselves, foreshews rain.

100. Oxen and all kind of Neat, if you do at any time observe them to hold up their heads, and snuffle in the Air, or lick their hooves, or their bodies against the hair, expect then rainy weather.

101. Asses or Mules rubbing often their ears, or braying much more then usually they are accu­stomed, presages rain.

102. Hogs crying, and running unquietly up and down, with hay or litter in their mouths, foreshews a storm to be neer at hand.

103. Dogs tumbling and wallowing themselves much and often upon the earth, if their guts rumble and stinke very much, are signs of rain or wind for certain.

104. Cats coveting the fire more then ordinary, or licking their feet, and trimming the hair of their heads, and mustachios, presages rainy weather.

105. Moles plying their works, in undermining the Earth, foreshews rain; but if they do forsake their trenches, and creep above ground, in Sommer time it is a sign of hot weather; but when on a fuddain they doe forsake the valleys and low grounds, it foreshews a flood neer at hand; but their coming into meddows presages fair weather, and for certain no floods.

106. Spiders creep out of their holes and narrow receptacles against wind or rain; Minerva having made them sensible of an approaching storm.

107. The Common-wealth of Emmets, when busied with their egs, and in ordering their State affairs at home, it presages a storm at hand, or some foul weather; but when Nature seems to stupifie their little bodies, and disposes them to rest, causing them to withdraw into their caverns, least their industry should engage them by the inconveniency of the season, expect then some foul and winterly weather.

108. The little sable beast (called a Flea) if much thirsting after blood, it argues rain.

109. The lamentable croaking of Frogs more then ordinary, does denote rainy weather.

110. Glow-worms, Snayles, and all such creatures, do appear most against fair weather; but if Worms [Page 132]comes out of the earth much in the day time, it is a presage of wet weather; but in the Sommer evenings it foreshews dewy nights, and hot days to follow; and here ends the prognostications of the weather by Beasts and reptiles.

By winged Creatures.

111. THe vigilant Cock, a bird of Mars, the good house wives clock, and the Switzers alarum, if he crows in the day time very much, or at Sun setting, or when he is at roost at unusual hours, as at 9, or 10, expect some change of weather, and that suddainly, but from fair to foul, or the contrary; but when the Hen crows, good men expect a storm within doors and without; if the Hens or Chickings, in the morning come late from their roosts (as if they were constrained by hun­ger) it presages much rainy weather.

112. The offspring or aliance of the Capitolian guard, when they do make a gaggling in the Air more then usual, or seem to fight, being over­greedy at their meat, expect then cold and winter­ly weather.

113. Birds that do haunt the Fens, if they often wash themselves, it presages rain or wind, and so in most birds or fowls that do prune their feathers with an oyly substance, as a provision of Nature, in preparing themselves against a storm.

114. Cormorants, Gulls, Ducks, Mallards, and all [Page 133]water-fowls, when they bathe themselves much, prune their feathers, and flicker, or clap them­selves with their wings, it is a sign of rain or wind.

115. Cormorants and Gulls, flying from the Sea and standing lakes, presages a storm.

116. Cranes soaring aloft, and quietly in the Air, foreshews fair weather; but if they do make much noise, as consulting which way to go, it foreshews a storm that's neer at hand.

117. Herons in the evening flying up and down, as if doubtful where to rest, presages some evill approaching weather.

118. Ravens and Crows, when they do make a hoarse, hollow and sorrowful noise, as if they sobbed, it presages foul weather approaching.

119. Crows flocking together in great compa­nies, or calling early in the morning with a full and clear voice, or at any time of the day gaping against the Sun, foreshews hot and dry weather; but if at the brinck of ponds they do wet their heads, or stalk into the water, or cry much to­wards the evening, are signs of rain; the Wood­peckers cry denotes wet.

120. Jack-daws, if they come late home from forraging, presages some cold or ill weather neer at hand, and likewise when they are seen much alone.

121. Buzards or Kites, when they do soar very high and much to lessening themselves, making many plains to and again, foreshews hot weather, and that the lower Region of the Air is inflamed, which for coolnesse makes them ascend.

122. Swallows flying low, and touching the water often with their wings, presages rain.

123. Owls whooping after Sun set, and in the night, foreshews a fair day to ensue; but if she names her self in French (Huette) expect then fickle and unconstant weather, but most usually rain.

124. Peacooks crying loud and shrill for their lost Jo, does proclaim an approaching storm.

125. Sparrows in the morning early chirping, and making more noise then ordinary they use to do, foretels rain or wind: The Titmouse, cold, if crying Pincher.

126. Doves coming later home to their houses then they are acustomed to do, presages some evil weather neer approaching.

127. Sea-mews, early in the morning making a gaggling more then ordinary, foretokens stormy and blustering weather.

128. Halcyon, at the time of breeding, which is about 14. days before the Winter Solstice, foreshews a quiet and tranquil time, as it is observed about the coast of Sicily, from whence the Proverb is transported, the Halcyon days, Pliny.

129. Bats, or flying Mice, coming out of their holes quickly after Sun set, and sporting them­selves in the open Air, premonstrates fair and calm weather.

130. Birds in general, that do frequent trees and bushes, if they do fly often out, and make quick returns, expect some bad weather to follow soon after.

131. Bees in fair weather, not wandring far from their hives, presages the approach of some stormy weather.

132. Wasps, Hornets, and Gnats, biting more eagerly then they use to do, is a sign of rainy weather.

133. Flies in the Spring or Sommer season, if they grow busier or blinder then at other times, or that they are observed to shroud themselves in warm places, expect then quickly for to follow, either Hail, told storms of Rain, or very much wet weather; and if those little creatures are noted early in Autumn to repair unto their Winter quarters, it presages frosty mornings, cold storms, with the approach of hoary Winter.

134. Atomes, or little flies, swarming together and sporting themselves in the Sun beams, is a good omen of fair weather: And so here I will end the predictions by sensitive creatures upon the Land, and turn to the Seas to behold the wonders of the deep.

By Fishes.

135. POrpaises, or Sea-Hogs, when observed to sport, and chase one another about ships, expect then some stormy weather.

136. Dolphines in fair and calm weather per­suing one another, as one of their waterish pastimes, foreshews wind, and from that part whence they fetch their frisks; but if they play thus when the Seas are rough and troubled, it is a sign of fair and calm weather to ensue.

137. Cuttles with their many legs swimming on the top of the water, and striving to be above the waves, do presage a storm, offended with the [Page 136] Meteor, and the disturbed waters in the deep.

138. Sea Ʋrchins thrusting themselves into the mud, or striving to cover their bodies with sand, foreshews a storm; for the windy exhalations disturb the lowest waters first, in the bottome of the Sea, which makes the other fishes rise and trust in their swimming; and the Ʋrchin unapt for that, and fearing to be hurried away with the tumultuous waves, gets neer the shoare, and there stays it self by creeping into the earth.

139. Cockles, and most shell fish, are obser­ved against a tempest to have gravil sticking hard unto their shells, as a providence of Nature to stay or poise themselves, and to help weigh them down, if raised from the bottome by the surges.

140. Fishes in general, both in salt and fresh waters, are observed to sport most, and bite more eagerly against rain then at any other time, as agreeing best with their flegmatick constitutions; many other observations there be of these creatures, as concerning winds, tides, floods, and seasons of the year, well known unto Fisher-men, but not to me.

By Vegetables.

141. Trefoile, or Clavergrasse, against stormy and tempestuous weather will seem rough and the leaves of it stare and rise up, as if it were afraid of an assault.

142. Tezils, or Fullers Thistle, being gathered and hanged up in the house, where the Air may [Page 137]come freely to it, upon the alteration of cold and windy weather will grow smoother, and against rain will close up his prickles.

143. Heliotropes and Marigolds, do not only presage stormy weather by closing or contracting together their leaves, but turn towards the Sun's rays all the day, and in the evening shut up shop.

144. Pine apples hanging up in the house where they freely may enjoy the Air, will close themselves against wet and cold weather, and open against hot and dry times.

145. The leaves of trees and plants in general, will shake and tremble against a tempest more then ordinary.

146. All tender buds, blossoms, and delicate flowers, against the incursion of a storm, do con­tract and withdraw themselves within their husks and leaves, whereby each may preserve it self from the injury of the weather.

A Paraphrase.

IN these vegetables there be certain strings or nerves, which by the alteration of the outward Air (distilled into them like a thin fume) do display or open their leaves, or contract them like convulsion fits, according to that thin vapours disposition infused into their veins, being grateful or oppugnant to the natural temperature of the vegetable, &c. these vapours do make them smell more fragrantly, as forerunners of dew or rain, especially all odoriferous flowers to whom such dews are a comfort.

By Minerals.

147. MEttals in general, against much wet or rainy weather, will seem to have a dew hang upon them, and be much apter to sully or foul any thing that is rubbed with the mettal, as you may see in Pewter dishes against rain, as if they did sweat, leaving a smutch upon the table­cloaths; with this Pliny concludes as a sign of tempests approaching.

148. Stones against rain will have a dew hang upon them; but the sweating of stones is from several causes, and sometimes are signs of much drought, and the reason from hence is derived; the inflamation of the Air over-heating the super­ficies of the Earth, attracts vapours from below, whereby to cool it, according to the nature of all things that are dry, and one part still supplies another, which makes our wells and fountains low, and tides high at or about Michaelmas, the Sommer past, the Sun having exhausted so many vapours and exhalations from the treasury of the Earth; the sign of wet in Mettals, as is in stones, proceeds from the moistnesse of the outward Air, turned into water by the coldnesse of the Earth, Mettal or Stone, the Air being waterish, and apt unto it, and this it does most usually presage.

149. Glasses of all foots will have a dew upon them in moist weather: Glasse windows will also shew a frost, by turning the Air that touches them into water, and then congealing of it; for the Air within the house being warmer then that without, is by opposition, and the coldnesse of the [Page 139]glasse between them, quickly converted from Air into water, and so to Ice within-side, the outward being predominant by an Antiperistasis.

150. Salt extracted out of the Earth, Water, or any Mineral, hath these properties to foreshew the weather; for if well kept, in fair weather it will be dry, and apt to dissolve against wet into its proper Element; boards that it hath lain upon, and got into the pores of the wood, it will be dry in fair and serene weather, but when the Air in­clines to wet, it will dissolve; and that you shall see by the board venting his brackish tears; and Salt-sellers will have a dew hang upon them; and those made of mettal look dim against rainy weather.

But some here doe question me for deserting my former intended tract and method; as in placing Salt with Minerals, being imperfectly mixt, and composed of fire and water, oppugnant to their natural qualities; as if I intended for to delude men with words, or blind their fights with casting Salt into their eyes, or dust raised with a whirl wind, against an approaching storm: No, this was not my intention; but being this could not well stand with the first signs of the weather, it made me leane or incline to the Chymick Philo­sophers, which make this a Principle both in Vege­tables and Minerals; and my conclusion whereby to relish all the rest (being general in all) accord­ing to the Adage, Sal sapit omnia.

Natural signs of the four Seasons.

A Stronomers do divide the year into four quarters or seasons, with certain and prefixed times, the Sun entering four cardinal points, as was said already in the Worlds Epitomy; others again do divide it into two parts, calling the one Winter, and the other Sommer; but Nature does seem to make four Seasons, and those neither be­ginning nor terminating at any strict time, but according to the temperature and disposition of the Air, least her fruitful womb should produce abortives, or want time for maturity; so to avoid these inconveniencies, Nature, like a carefull Mother, produces every plant, and all her fruits in due and fit seasons; and least sensitive creatures should miscarry, she delivers them her dictates by instinct, or some inward motion: There are ob­served many signs in every Climate and particular Country, which in England are these, and the diseases inherent and common in the 4. quarters.


THis a comfortable and pleasant quarter, every thing beginning for to spring and raise up their spirits from their roots, buried in the Earth, and fiezed upon by the cold of Winter, as by the hand of Death: The first bird that brings us tidings of the approaching Spring, is the Wagtail, or Water-Swallow, whom some call the Barly-Bird, as observed a convenient time to sow that [Page 141]seed, being a tender grain; next does appear the Swallow, but one will not make a Sommer, for when they come single, and obscure themselves again, expect some cold and stormy weather; the Woodcock takes her leave, and departs the Land; next comes the Nightingal, making the nights pleasant with her melodious harmony; and lastly, the adulterous and ungrateful Cuckow; the plants and vegetables do shew the Spring, by adorning the fields with pleasant and fragrant flowers; as witnesse the oderiferous Violet, per­fuming the Air with a grateful smell, and divers others.

Diseases incident to this quarter, are, Leprosies, Tooth-ach, Feavers, Pushes, Great and Small Pox, Falling-sicknesse, Ring-worms, Kings-evil, Wens, Squincies, and generally pains in the body and bones, proceeding from old fractures, bruises, and inveterate maladies.


THe days being long, and the Sun scorching hot; the Creatures of the Earth having reared and brought up their young progeny to perfe­ction; the fruits grow now to maturity, ready to entertain them, and cherish their bodies, provided for the use of Man; Ceres injoying the fruits of her labours; the days all this season declining, but affording many sweet and pleasant flowers in every Country, as Clove-Gilliflowers, Roses, &c. Store of Acorns presages a hard Winter to ensue.

The diseases most frequent in this quarter, are, pains about the Brest, Ribs, and Spleen, Pushes, and diseases of the face, Leprosies, sore eyes, Plurisies, pains of the stomach and belly; Pesti­lence, Feavers, Apostumes, Jaundise, and divers maladies and infirmities proceeding of Melan­choly.


THe Wood-cock comes in with this season, and the Swallow departs, taking her young retinue. Vindemiatrix now provides us Wine against cold Winter, whereby to drown our cares and labours past, and refresh us to begin anew; the sap in most vegetables returns into their roots under ground, or more rational to humain capacities, the vegetable humor is contracted in their bodies with cold, and heat extenuates or dilates that in­fused spirit, which attracts (by vertue of the roots) a nutriment from the Earth, according to its na­tural faculty, which supply failing in his proper season and time of year, the radical humor and sap in the body contracting, their leaves must fall, and their glories fade, an emblem of mortality, and transitory beauty; the Earth growing white like declining age.

Diseases that reign this quarter are many; as Agues, Aches in the bone, Pains in the back, dimnesse of Sight, retention of Urine, Fluxes of bloud, infirmities in the Face and Eyes, Cankers, Fistulaes, Emrods, Stone, Gravel, pains in the secret parts, and all such diseases as attend the [Page 143]Spring; all evill and inveterate humors in the Spring and Fall do increase and flow, which were detained with the heat of Sommer, and cold of Winter.


THe flocking of small birds together foreshews the approach of this Season, with the coming over of Feltisers, and divers sorts of other little birds; the days being at shortest, some things do flourish, as an herb called Christ-worte, for at the time of Christmas it hath constantly flowers, if much frost and snow hinders it not; the termi­nating of this season is observed in Ducks, and divers other water-fowl.

The infirmities subject to man in this season are most usually these, viz. Red spots, Pushes in the face, Fluxes of blood in the inferiour parts, Scabs, Leprosies, Toothach, pains in the Eyes, Palsies, Gouts, and all cold and phlegmatick diseases; of these 4. Seasons thus writeth Ovid. lib. 1. de Rem. Amo.

Poma dat Autumnus; formosa est messibus Aestas;
Ver praebet flores; igne levatur Hyems.

Signs presaging good or bad Years.

1. AN overmoist Spring causeth weeds to abound, fruits to be scarce and not good; if dry and hot, grain will be good, but no great increase; if temperately hot, and moderately [Page 144]moist it foreshews a plentiful Sommer; but if over­hot and moist, a fickly year will follow.

2. The Broom having plenty of blossoms, or the Walnut-tree, is a sign of a fruitful year of Corn, for that temperature of the weather is grateful and nourishing unto them alike.

3. All Comets and great eclipses, at the blooming of fruits, is held generally hurtful unto those which it then happens to.

4. A dry Spring, with Northern winds, follow­ing a wet Winter, with many Southern winds, causeth often abortives, and weak children, Gallen lib. 3. Aphorism 3.

5. Great store of Nuts and Almonds, presage a plentiful year of Corn, especially Filberds.

6. When Roses and Violets flourish in Autumn, it is an evill sign of an insuing Plague the year following, or some pestiferous disease; for much heat in this Season corrupteth the blood.

Winter over-moist and warm, is unseasonable for this Quarter, prejudicial to the husbandman, and a friend to the Physitian and Sexton, espe­cially if it be infected with many fogs, and great mists, which causeth sterility, and corrupteth the Air; but much frost, with snow, presages a whole­some and plentiful year to follow.

Many other presages I could have inserted, both of the weather and seasons of the year, but such as would incumber the work, trouble the Reader, and perhaps superfluous; as leaves in the wind, or down-floating upon the water, are signs of tempests; others again doubtful, and not to be credited; as in Autumn (some say) in the Gall or Oak-apple, one of these three things will be found, [Page 145](if cut in pieces) a Flie denoting want; a Worm plenty; but if a Spider, mortality.

Others observe the twelve days of Christmas, to foreshew the weather in all the twelve succeeding moneths respectively.

Some again observe the 25: day of January, celebrated for the conversion of St. Paul; if fair and clear, plenty; if cloudy or misty, much cattle will die; if rain or snow fall that day, it presages a dearth; and if windy, wars, as old Wives do dream; and since I can find no better authority for these, nor any days presages, as a thing indif­ferent, I will leave them, and persist here no lon­ger, but subscribe the Verses upon the same account.

If Saint Paul's day be fair and clear,
It does betide a happy year:
But if it chance to snow or rain
Then will be dear all kind of grain:
If clouds or mists do dark the Skie,
Great store of birds and beasts shall die:
And if the winds do fly aloft,
Then wars shall vex that Kingdome oft.

A Conclusion with a Paraphrase upon the presages by sensitive Creatures in general.

SIgns both of the weather, and the seasons I have hewn you, yet have omitted many, but such as are best known to those who are sensible of them; and of these there be some who supprest with the heavy burden of many years, are forced to stoop and strike sail to time, their bodies almost worn out with old decrepit age, scarcely tenent­able to the vital parts, which Nature can hardly inable for to keep possession, being dayly in danger to be ejected by rigid Death, who admits no bail; such as these are sensible of the Airs alteration; like an old ruined tenement, that lies open unto the assaults of every little storm, and may unhappily know the weather and seasons of the year.

Others there be in the glory and prime of their youth that do know all this, and more certainly then can the dictates of old age deliver it, having in every joynt a Calender that shews them the weather, with the Spring and Fall, as a Memo­randum of their fond and licentious youth, wherein they have incurred the displeasure of just Heaven, and rewarded with the fruits of sin: Yet in this I do not censure all, for some knows it through the crimes of others, and many by casualties, fra­ctures of bones, bruises, old sores, aches, cramps, gouts, corns of their feet, agues, and almost in­numerable diseases and imperfections of Nature, incident to frail man, for excepting such like acci­dents, [Page 147]or signs derived from experience, or ground­ed upon some reason to be held weather-wise, is an argument of folly.

The cause why Ideots can so well fore-know the weathers alteration, is partly they being defective in their understandings (as wanting the use of reason) Nature does the more assist them; or they being cold and phlegmatick (as appears by their slavering) they are the more sensible of the Airs change, as it is agreeable or oppugnant to the temperature and constitution of their bodies; whereas Man endowed with the use of reason and discourse, contemplates of the cause and nature of things, which so implies the senses, that the Air infused into the poars of such bodies, cannot have any powerful operation; and besides, their constitutions are composed with a better concord of the 4 Elements, so that the Airs alteration can­not so soon and sensibly work those effects in such bodies, being perfectly in health, and reason of their counsel. For 'tis Natures care to provide best for those things which are in most danger of shortest life, or can least help or shift for themselves; as to some she gives strength in arms, to others swiftnesse of feet or wings, agility of body, and the like; some little creatures are made a prey by others, or their lives but short; to these she gives a fruitful offspring; as for example, what multi­tudes of little Birds, more then Eagles, or fowls of prey? Herrings in number exceeding Whales, with comparison; behold also the providence of the immense Creator, that all these several kinds do subsist, and in such Springs or Sommers whose temperatures of heat shall produce cold Winters; [Page 148]there Nature does commonly provide plenty be­fore hand, as Akorns, Hipps, Hawes, and divers other sorts of Berries, for the subsistance of sundry sorts of little birds & animals, that otherwise would have perished with cold, and for want of meat, which is armour of proof against the weather.

By Natures instinct from these, Man (as in a Calender) may read the weather, and the seasons of the year, every body having small poars, into which the Air does continually infuse it self; and as it is rarified or condensed, it alters the dis­position of the body; but more or lesse, according to the constitution, and as it is agreeable or op­pugnant to the natural temperature thereof; as for an instance, Bees and Emmots being of a fiery nature, (as appears by their choler and industry) the Air infused into their little members, towards rain (being moist, and opposite to their natures) stupifies their senses, and makes them heavy, and not apt to labour or go abroad.

This is the cause that Bees keep in their hives, or will not go far from thence, when the Air grows moist; and the weather inclining to rain; from hence is the motive that the laborious Emmots desire rest, and withdraw themselves into the caverns of the earth, carrying their eggs with them, as by a natural instinct, whereby to preserve their progeny; for by the fervour of the Sun, they must be disclosed, and by a storm of rain they would be chill and perish; the reason is generally the same in other sensitive creatures, whose corps are sensible of the Airs change, that alters them according to the natural temperature and disposition of their bodies, some creatures [Page 149]requiring heat, others moisture; what pleases one, distasts some other, and so of all living things. Sa­lamanders love Fire; Birds Air; Fishes Water; and Beasts Earth: So these Elements (as they are mixt) and predominating, do offend or please the na­tural disposition of the creature. This Monarchy and Common-wealth I choose as for an expla­nation of the rest, they being the most industrious, the most sensible, and most subject for to be pre­judiced by the incursions or suddain assaults of the weather, and so here I will conclude with Virgil; Geor. lib. 1.

Haud equidem credo quia sit divinitus illis
Jngenium, aut rerum fato prudentia major.
Verum, ubi tempestas & coeli mobilis humor
Mutavere vias, & Jupiter humidas austris
Densat, erant quae rara modo; & quae densa relaxant.
Vertuntur species animorum, & pectora motus
Nunc alios, alios dum nubila ventus agebat
Concipiunt: Hinc ille avium concentus in agris,
Et laetae pecudes, & ovantes gutture corvi.
The Weather Glass, or perpetual Kalender.

B [...] this artificial means you may at any time, [...]ither in the day, or night, discover certainly the Airs alteration, as it does condense, or rarifie; and [...]o from thence presage the future weather: which the better, and the more sensible to effect, I will prescribe a proportion for the Glass; the manner how to devide it, and make a water that will not freez, much more beautiful and conspi­cuous then ordinary water.

First provide a Bolts head of a cleer tran­sparent Glasse, in form as you see the figure; the end at A, like a Globe, in content to the whole ¾ or ⅘: let the shanke be in circum­ference ¼ or ⅕ of the head at A; then 1 ½ or 1 ¾ of the Globes circle the length unto B, where must be a Glasse in content about half of the bolts head; as for a cestern to receive the water, which you may thus provide; if you would have a red water take Vermilion: a green colour is more plea­sant and visible, which is thus made: take Verdi­grease, and ½ so much Roman vitrial, beaten small, and put them into the best white Wine vinegar, the quantity as you shall see convenient, the co­lour, and bignesse of the cestern consider'd; these being infus'd and sturr'd together, let them stand 2 or 3 days until the water be coloured to your mind; if it proves too deep a green, pour in a little more Vinegar or strong Water to it.

This being provided, take the circumference of the globe at A, (with ¼ part more or 4 diameters if you can) and place it on the shank with a string equidistant from the head, as at the cestern, there make two marks, and divide that space into [Page 152]what parts you please, 15 degrees or equal parts I conceive the best, 8 being the Arithmetical me­dium (if the shank be not taper'd) write the fi­gures on paper, and past them upon the glasse in a continued Arithmetical Progression, ascending from 1 to 15: make a Frame that the glasse may stand fast, and about the cestern a rock, or what you fancy best. This done, put the water into the Bolts head, and holding that in your hand, put it into the Frame and Cestern; then turn it suddenly the right way, and upon the bottome let it rest awhile.

Observe at what figure the water stands (let it at the first be too high,) then raise up gently the long glasse, so that the water may fall down into the cestern, and try it for two or three days; and when it is at a place that fits the temperature of the Air, and Season of the year, viz. 1, 2, or 3. if it be in the heat of Sommer; but at 13, 14, or 15. in the cold of Winter: if a little frost (such as we have in September) place it at 9, or 10: but if very temperate weather, as between hot and cold, the water must stand at 8 a medium; having tri'd and fitted it well according to the temperature of the outward Air, (for it must be kept from fire and accidental heat) close it or lute it up at the neck of the cestern, leaving onely some cane for a vent (as you see at C:) whereby the Air may passe in or out of the cestern accordingly as the water doth rise or fall; for the long glasse must always stand in the water, and almost touch the bottome of the receiver or lower vessel, as at B; if the Air gets into the long glasse anywhere, (after it is placed according to the weather) the work is frustrated.

A PERPETUAL KALENDER, OR Diurnal for the weather, with ge­neral and particular observations dili­gently selected, and compendiously inserted, demonstrating perspicuously in a Glasse the Airs mutability and the weathers vicissitude; with the present temper and Season of the year, obser­ving the water on serene days at these degrees.


  • 1, 2, 3 Shews the extreme heat of Sommer.
  • 4 & 5 Is excessive hot and sultry weather.
  • 6 & 7 Is more hot than cold; a pleasant season.
  • 8 The medium betwixt Sommer & Winter.
  • 9 & 10 More cold than hot, with gentle frosts.
  • 11 & 12 Is excessive cold and frosty weather.
  • 13, 14, 15 Shews the extreme cold of Winter.

1. THe efficient cause why this water riseth and falls, is from the condensing or dila­ting of the outward Air, made visible by a sympa­thetical imitation of the parts here inclos'd, upon any alteration of the weather, presag'd from [Page 154]hence by experience, observing that Cold and Drought do contract, Heat and Moisture rarifies.

2 The sudden salling of the water foreshews an immediate approaching Storm of Thunder, Lightning, Rain, Hail or Snow.

3 If the water falls a degree in 6 hours, it will Rain within 12 hours after, if not misty, close, or sultry weather for the Season.

4 If the water fals much in the day, and riseth but little in the night (yet the weather continu­ing fair) expect then excessive heat, if not Thun­der and Lightning.

5 If the water falls never so little between Sun­setting, and his rising next day, it will Rain or Snow before 12 the following night, if the Me­teor converts not to what is worse a Calydonian Mist.

6 If the water falls not in the time of artificial day, it prognosticates northerly winds, a cold night to ensue, or storms of Hail at hand.

7 If the water keeps neer any degree a natural day, the weather will continue whether it be fair or foul; but if it rises or falls a degree, and stands, the weather will quickly change to some excess.

8 If the water falls no more in the day then it did rise in the night, it is a sign that the Air is temperate, the heat of the day equally qualifying the coldnesse of the night, or else it argues the weather to be at a doubtful stay.

9 The often rising and falling of the water shews the outward Air very mutable, the temper various, and the weather unconstant.

10 When the water riseth not in the night­time, expect then Mists, dark, foul and foggy [Page 155]weather the next day, if not Thunder and Light­ning in Sommer.

11 The water rising any day in fair weather, presages a frost the following night, or cold win­dy weather for the Season, if no immediate storm of Hail invades the earth.

12 If the water riseth in foul weather, whether it be day or night, it prognosticates the storm is nigh past, and fair weather will consequently ensue.

13 The more that the water riseth or falls at any time, the more violent will be the change of weather, and of longer continuance, whether fair or foul, hot or cold: as if it ascends 2 degrees in the day or 3 in the night, or falls 2 in the night or 3 degrees in the day.

14 Observe at what figure or degree the water did rise or fall when the weather chang'd; for the Airs temper will continue in the same state until the water returns to that place again, excepting the extreams of Winter and Sommer.

15 So long as the water shall continue above 10 ascending 'twill be frost; if it falls below 9 'twill break, unlesse it rises within 12 hours after: if from above 12, it descends a degree or two and stands, expect then Snow, Sleet, cold or slabby weather.

If the Bolts-head be not prepar'd neer the di­mensions given, the water will rise and fall, as the inclosed air contracts, or rarifies; but not in pro­portion to satisfie curious expectation, nor exactly ratifie all the 15 prescribed observations: Besides Countries, particular places, houses and rooms, according to their situations, or accidental causes [Page 154] [...] [Page 155] [...] [Page 156]will change the Airs temper; all which with other circumstances I refer to the ingenious, and my following Paraphrase to their exposition.

A Paraphrase upon the Weather GLASSE.

NAture in all her works abhors a Vacuum, so that no sublunary place can be empty or void, but is supplyed by one of the four Elements; from hence it is, that the Air in Water-cranes and pumps being sucked out, the waters from profound springs are forced to rise, contrary to their course and gravity; and as the Air is sucked up; the Wa­ter ascends, whereby to avoid a Vacuum, so repug­nant to Nature; the reason is the same in this; for the outward Air, being condensed with cold, that contained in the globe of the glasse, must also contract it self, being a member or part of the whole Element; and so consequently the water in the glasse must ascend to avoid a vacuum, which it readily will doe, having a vent below to supply the defect of water in the lower vessel.

This is the sole cause, that glasses break in fro­sty weather, being close stopp'd, and not full of liquor; for the Air contracting, and having no pores or passage, for a supply of more, the vessel of necessity must crack: and by rarifaction the same may be effected, as common experience proves in glasse Alembicks, or other close and con­cave vessels, which are burst by restraint of the rarified inclosed Air; and if these bodies could extend themselves like bladders, the included air [Page 157]might be dilated unto an irruption at last, with a noyse like Meteors swell'd to Tympanies in the wombs of pregnant clouds; from rarifaction of Air proceeds this experiment; Take a globe, or round glasse luted up close, and having rarified the confined air by natural or artificial heat, you may throw the glasse against a stone, 'twill bound and not break by any violence that exceeds not the extension of the dilated imprison'd air: And here in these small things I have briefly prov'd how active this Element is in avoiding either ex­cess or defect, superfluity or a vacuum, and in an instant contracts or rarifies as Nature sees aptest or most facile to be effected, and thus avoids va­cuity in all bodies; for if any place be empty, 'twill be found in some extravagant defendants, or in orbicular heads, enemies to order, emblemes of a Chaos, Natures abortives or false conceptions; but lest this discourse should be so much dilated for to make some break into choller, I will return to the Weather glass (my former subject) not so fragile as they.

The falling of this inclosed Water is according to the natural property and course of all ponde­rous bodies, inclining towards the center and seat of gravity, if not hindred by some greater force, or natural affection to attract them; so this tends downwards accordingly as the inclosed Air can dilate it self; for the Element rarifying (as against rain or hot weather) that contained above the water in the glass, must imitate it, in the same proportion; which appears by this; for to be ⅕ or ⅙ part more in the extreme heat of Sommer then in the greatest cold of Winter; but not to be un­derstood [Page 158]as general; for the extreams of heat and cold, in the Winter and Sommer-Season in every year nor Country is alike, as regions under the Torrid Zone, admits of no frost, and parts neer ei­ther Pole receives but little heat; some places en­joy a mean, and divers in excess, of both ex­treams: The divisions of this glass are intended chiefly for England, or such Countries as are neer this temperature of Air; yet they may be made for any other Climate; but the observations must not be in all points the same, for the former reason delivered.

The temper of your body you may try, by laying your hand upon the head of the glass; for the hotter you are, the more the water will fall; and take your hand off, the water will presently rise, recovering its former place or temper; and for a demonstration let this suffice.

I have presented to your view as in a glass both natural and artificial presages of the weather: for all knowledge (meerly humane) is but as a shadow of Science, or a superficial learning, reflecting up­on mans imagination, as objects represented on a mirrour, and not substantially comprehending, the least thing created: so expect not from me (the meanest of men) infallible predictions, but conjectures, and most of those collected from the observations of others, bound up in this little Vo­lume, and order'd in the best form I could devise: & as for better reasons in these natural causes and effects of Metcors, I will refer them unto your calm and serene censure, for to paraphrase upon, and explain the obscure and hidden mysteries of [Page 159] Natures secrets; and yet She not absolute of her self; but strictly tyed to the precepts of the Im­mense Creator, to whose Sacred name be all Ho­nour, Praise, and Glory; These and all other being under the command of His Omnipotent word; And thus it is recorded in the Regal Psalmist, cap. 148.8. Ignis, grando, nix, glacies; spiritus procella­rum, quae faciunt verbum ejus.

AN INTRODUCTION TO The Fourth PART. Shewing The direful effects of some prodigi­ous Meteors, Epidemical diseases, and Memorable accidents; with brief Historical observations, of their events, and final causes, as just motives to the love and fear of God.

Benevolent Reader,

THe formal and material cause of Meteors, I have compendiously delivered you already, according to my ability, selected from the ablest Astronomers and Philosophers; amongst whom, I will not rashly presume to give a verdict in such stupendious conceptions, but willingly do attend their Dictates, and Hypotheses, which in many things do not concur: a common vice, in humane learning to vary; many men, having many minds, with opinions so oppugnant, as not to be recon­cil'd: [Page 161]Some affirming Comets to be of a Celestial nature, other sublunary, and extracted from the Elements; Some denie their motions to be e­qual about their center, but sometimes high, and at other times low, according to the matter that feeds them, so moving up and down in the Air, like an Ignis fatuus; And thus by refractions de­ceive humane sight, and frustrate these seeming demonstrations: But leaving their ambiguous arguments, and dubious opinions of men (prone unto errour) since the matter and form of them is undoubtedly held natural, their effects porten­tious, and observed as the forerunners of great calamities, to be inflicted upon whole Kingdoms and parts of the habitable World. And thus the Poet Silius. Lib. 8.

Non unus crine corusco
Regnorum eversor, rubuit lethale Cometes.

Pliny in his natural History, makes a series or catalogue of these fiery apparitions, which he di­vides into Ten kinds; but my intention (in this little treatise) is to comprehend them under the title of Comets, Blazing-Stars, or fiery Impressions in general: They are the hidden and secret my­steries of Nature, portentious in their heights, magnitudes, courses and periods, various, and manifold in their colours and form, but are gene­rally observed representative lights and figures of Stars; and their effects (according to the opinion of Philosophers) are to purge the Air, by consu­ming those Meteors whether exhaled, or ingen­dred in the Skies: But these combustions inflame that Element by which we draw our vital breath, [Page 162]and so begetteth Choler, and makes us prone unto dissentions, and civil broiles; if the matter be extracted from the Earth it causeth sterility, by consuming the Humidum radicale; all this it does presage and more, the iminent scourge of God, as the observations of Historiographers and Poets do abundantly testifie, and thus writeth Manil. a heathen,

Nunquam futilibus excanduit ignibus aether
Et nunquam Coelo, spectatum impune Cometem.

And although such prodigies do usually pro­ceed from natural causes, yet God, who is Omni­potent, did know from all eternity, the actions of the Worlds inhabitants, and their rebellious pro­ceedings against His Sacred Majesty; arming themselves in vain with fortifications against just Heaven; and combining together with the asso­ciations of evil Spirits, in League and Covenant with them; when the Immense Creator (if he pleases) can make, not onely the Elements to de­stroy mankind, but the very Atomes, or the most contemptible things, that ever were made for mans use, and those to execute his commands; as witnesse the Egyptian plagues, where Nature pro­duced those stupendious effects; and little despi­cable creatures, almost destroyed a mighty King­dome; Yet these had forerunning signes, with mercy, to admonish Pharaoh and draw his people to repentance. And thus speaks Esdrae 2. cap. 9. Et dedisti signa at (que) portenta in Pharaone, & in universis servis ejus, in omni populo terrae illius.

The State of Rome at the death of Julius Cesar was menaced with a dreadful Blazing Star, pre­saging [Page 163]the effusion of much blood, which quickly after did ensue, for these Meteors do beget choler, and from thence fury, rage and madnesse, the Pa­rents of commotions, ushring in Sword, Plague, or Famine. Of this writes Virg. lib. 1. Geor.

Non alias Coelo ceciderunt plura sereno
Fulgura, nec dir [...], toties arsere Cometae.

The effects of Comets, or fiery impressions in the Air, are not universally seen to all Countries, nor yet oftentimes to all places within those regions; nor are their influencies obnoxious, to all men where they be visible, yet motives unto every par­ticular man to repent. Although there hath been no calamity yet in the World so general, but God out of his Mercy hath preserved many: and in acknowledging of his goodnesse, thus it is re­corded in the Sacred Records Joshuae, Cap. 24. v. 17. Fecit (que) videntibus nobis signa ingentia, & custodivi nos in omni via, per quam ambulavimus.

Comets do declare the greatnesse of the Creator, and are as admonitions from Him, who like a Father and a merciful Judge, infinite in his Love, as in his Justice, giving us these signs as warnings, like an indulgent Parent who shews us the rod before the Sentence be pronounced; the continu­ance of their direful effects are as the rest in dis­pute, but by some observed thus: That for so many natural days, as any Blazing Star or fiery Meteor shall continue, so long will their sad e­ffects endure, in succeeding years, answering the number of those days; this is but a meer conjectu­ral opinion, derived rather from the annotations [Page 164]of doubtful Experience, then grounded upon any humane reason: But whether this be true, or that these dreadful and stupendious Meteors be the cause of these woful ensuing events, I dare not sub­scribe my weak opinion; but this I will confidently affirm that they are evident Demonstrations of an Omnipotent Diety, and motives to make the proudest Creature strike Sail, to amaze the wisest and terrifie the most valiant. Eccles. 3.14, Om­nia opera sua fecerit Deus, ut timeatur.

The un usual tumults, or disorder of the Ele­ments, presages the wrath of God connexed with His Mercy, by his stupendious works, to draw us unto Him; if not for Love, yet for fear of punish­ment: For if the Elements of Fire and Air do rage, whither shall we run to save our selves? upon the Seas we shall suffer wrack by the storm, or perish in the tumultuous waves; if the Earth does prove unstable, where shall we set our feet? houses nor caves cannot defend us, when the bases of Rocks and Mountains shake, and the whole Globe of Earth shall tremble; whither shall we fly? who can secure us? Here I find comfort and hopes of safety with St. Augustine, In te Domine speravi, non confundar in aeternum. And Psal. 121. ver. 2. Auxilium meum â Domino qui fecit coelum & terram.

Blazing Stars, though unusualy forerunners of sorrow, yet oftentimes commixt with joy; of which there be many examples; one is recorded at the death of Nero, the Emperour, a Tyrant, a Parricide a Murderer of Christians, and a professed enemy to Mankind; and at last (contrary to the perpetual establish'd Laws of Nature) kill'd him­self. [Page 165]A little before his death, there appeared a fiery Comet, whose event in his fall was happy; This homicide raised the first persecution, in the Primitive Church, and put to death St. Peter, and St. Paul, Apostles; as you may read in St. Chryso­stom, and in Lactantius, l. 4. c. 21. de vera Sapientia.

God hath given us Signs in the Heavens, both of His wrath and mercy; of which I have shewn you here some precedents, and do intend to ma­nifest it with a few more examples; but conclude the Introduction here with this; The Rain bow which we often see, is from a natural cause, as the Comets fiery impressions and all Meteors are sup­pos'd to be; yet the proclamations of the Creator, and their significations oftentimes beyond the knowledge or reach of humane reason; the Rain­bow given to Noah was a Sign of Peace. Gen. cap. 9. ver. 13. Arcum nieum ponam in nubibus coeli: & erit Signum foederis inter me, & inter terram.

THE FOURTH PART. Shewing The opinions of some Men concerning Blazing Stars, with a compendi­ous Historical observation of their events; with divers other prodi­gies epitomiz'd.

ALl Comets or fiery impressions, are generally observed swiftest at the first, and their influ­ences of greatest force, having then most matter, and peradventure more violent and obnoxious, when newly inflam'd; But all this is oppugned by Scaliger, who conceives no Comet for to consist of a fiery nature, but a crude and undigested va­pour, illuminated by the Planets or fixed Stars, as are those Meteors, commonly called falling Stars, which are like gellies not enflam'd, but transpa­rent, and apt to receive light; and these Meteors being illuminated by the Celestial orbs, do repre­sent (as in a mirrour) their figures or apparent forms of the Stars or Sun, which apparitions, are common in the Northern Climates, although held portentions to us; And such as do continue long, where the material cause is great, and the [Page 167]rays of the Sun, wanting force to dissipate them; As for an instance; in the year of Grace, 1596. the Hollanders sayling by Nova Zembla, to search for a N. E. passage into China and the East Indies, there did appear for 17 continued days the perfect effigies of the Sun after the 17. of October; when as the true Sun was depressed; the Horizon of that place, being in the latitude of 77 degrees; The like you may read in Captain James search­ing for the N. W. passage into the South Sea. This last discovery was attempted without suc­cess, in the Raign of Charls the first of England.

Some would seem to demonstrate this, by a round glass, like a globe; which fill'd with wa­ter, and suspended in a dark room, where pla­cing a candle under it, and then t'will represent the form thereof, upon the sealing: or place the light above, and some water underneath it; Or in a room made very dark, cause an augure hole to be bored through into the open air, and so, as that the Sun may shine in, or upon it: Take a globe glass fill'd with fair water, and hold it at the hole, thus perforated; and within the room (by reflection of this) you shall see many rays, representing the form of a Blazing Star, or fiery impression; and this some thinks to be a sufficient demonstration, that Comets are but illuminated parts of the darkned Air, or condensed parts of the enlightned Spheres.

Rothmannus conceives that Comets are really enflamed Meteors, and that they are moved by Angels, as for a terrour unto mortals; but as for this supposition: God does commonly use, and employ natural means, unto natural causes; but [Page 168]yet an Omnipotent Creator, not confined to one, nor the other. Galilaeus doth suppose these Co­mets for to consist of a Celestial nature, and ge­nerated in the Spheres, but dilated as are the clouds. Lodovicus Molina in his 5. disputation of the Worlds Creation, would seem to gather from thence, and out of Genesis, that the Heavens, both in Species and Matter, do agree with sublunary things; and Thomas Fiennus inclines to this, as by his writings, concerning the Comet which appeared in the year of Christ, 1618: whereby he urges, that there may be matter in the Hea­vens both to generate and corrupt, and that there is daily permutations in the Spheres, although not visible to our weak sights: and this his erro­neous opinion, seems something to be con­firmed by divers apparitions of new Stars, that have been made visible in sundry Ages, since the Creation; as they instance (who incline to him) in the Constellation called the Pleiades, accounted but 6 Stars, before the Trojan Wars; and since, as now commonly known by the name of the seven Stars: This some Historiographers do testifie; and likewise Homer, Pliny; and thus Ovid, lib. 4. Fast. derived from a false conception of the sight; Pleiades incipient humeros revelare pateruos: Quae septem dici, sex tamen esse solent. After many and great conjunctions of the Pla­nets, Comets and fiery impressions are often seen; which moveth some to suppose them to be the cause in raising the exhalation, which produceth the Meteor; and according to the Matter, it riseth [Page 169]the higher; and by the vertue of the fixed Stars, it may be drawn up above the Planets, even to the Firmament; But if this were granted, it must re­quire an extraordinary time to elevate the Matter to that height; when as a stone let fall from the Firmament, and supposed continually to descend 100 miles an hour, this stone could not fall to the ground in 70 years; And as for these Comets, which are sublunary, if they be enlightned by the Sun, they would at some time happen of necessity to be eclipsed, moving within the conical shadow of the Terrestrial globe; if their motions be cau­sed, or attracted by any one Star or constella­tion, they could not have contrary motions to them, as we have said already in the second part of this Book; nor could these Meteors change their places so much, nor be so violently swift, as they are observed: Some moving paral­lel with the Horizon, and others in the Azimuths, rather then describing parallels with the Aequa­tor, which the Stars doe: Some fiery Meteors have seem'd fixt, and many so rapide in their stupendious accelerated motions, that they can­not be attracted by the Stars nor Planets: As the Comet in the year of Grace, 1618. did passe from one Tropick to another; that is, from ♑ to ♋ in the space of 10 natural days, which the ☽ that is the lowest Planet cannot perform in lesse then 13 days, 15½ hours and something more; But lets return to the final cause, and fatal events of stupendious Meteors delivered by reverend Antiquity.

Of fiery Impressions.

SOzomenus writes of a Blazing Star, as it were uspended in the Air, with one end extending almost down unto the Earth; this was visible o­ver the City of Constantinople. Some again have been seen to fall from the Heavens; of these Sca­liger affirms one in his time that did descend: From the falling of the fiery Meteors, is derived (as some conceives) the poetical fiction of Phae­ton; but Tertullian otherwise; Of these fiery pre­cipitated impressions thus writeth Claudian. lib.

Praeceps sanguineo delabitur igne Cometes
Prodigiale rubus

Pliny lib. 2. cap. 35. writeth how Licinius Syllanus did see a sparkle, falling from the Heavens, and in its descent to encrease unto the bignesse of the Moon; and this Meteor again drawn up, appeared like a lamp or burning torch.

About the year of Grace, 1450, being 3 years before the barbarous Turks invaded Ʋrope, and took the famous City of Constantinople, there ap­pear'd a fiery impression, representing the form of a two-hand Sword, which passing under the Moon (then at full) obscur'd her light; about this time divers Countries under the Patriark of Greece were miserably infected with the most diabolical herefie, against the incomprehensible and Sacred Mystery of the ever blessed Trinity; which errour (soon after) put a period to that [Page 171]Empire, and brought all those Countries into a miserable captivity, and their servile necks to the yoke of a heathenish Tyrant.

Many dreadful apparitions in the Air, are re­corded in the Books of Machabees, lib. 2. cap. 5. how for 40 days there was seen over the City Je­vusalem, horse-men running in the Air, having golden robes, with spears (like armed bands) charging one another in order and manner of a fight, as hand to hand; motions of bucklers, mul­titudes of glittering helmets, drawn swords, throwing of darts, splendor of golden armes, and coats of Maile; This shewed the forerunning mi­series of the Jews, persevering in their disobedi­ence to God, and neglecting his just Precepts, until left unto the pleasure of the insulting foe. Antiochus giving Commission to his Souldiers to slay whomsoever they should meet, sparing nei­ther Men, Women, nor Children; where there was killed in three days space the number of 80000: 40000 put in bands, and sold; Besides this, they committed sacriledge, and violently took away the vessels and ornaments of the Tem­ple, with their profane and polluted hands; and left governours there more barbarous then him­self. There were also strange portentious appa­ritions in the Air (before the Destruction of this City of Titus Vespatian) as a fiery sword hanging over Jerusalem, the space of a whole year, with many other prodigious visions; of which you may read in Josephus.

There happened in the Isle of Britain many portentious signs, presaging the effusion of much bloud, and menacing the subversion of the whole [Page 172]Island; all which quickly after came to pass by their own intestine wars, and the invasion made by Julius Cesar, who subdued it to the State of Rome, the people subjugated to the Tyranny of the ensuing Emperours. As for the forerunning signs of calamities this Island groaned under, there were seen in the Air, globes of fire, and dreadfull screaks and noises heard to the astonish­ment of the people.

Anno 1558. began deformed reformation, whose infatuated doctrine, was attended with a prodigious and fatal Comet, hanging over their heads, as a messenger of God's wrath; In these times there fell out of the Air such multitudes of strange and monstruous proportion'd flies, that for many miles in Germany, they destroyed the corn in the fields, and all vegetables, until with want they died; the corruption of whose bodies infected the Air, and so begot an Epidemical disease, in testimony of the protestation made.

In the year of Christ, 1588. it is reported by Snellius, how that at Amsterdam (a little before Sun-setting) there was beheld in the Air the form of a Seafight, which continued the space of an hour, where the conquered were seen to flie: this was little before the Spaniards proud Armado came insulting into our narrow Seas, who presuming of their strength to captive England, were by the blessing of God, frustrated of their design, and put to flight, being severed with a puffe of wind, and many thrown upon our coast, with shipwrackt fortunes, craving mercy of us, whom they pre­sum'd to conquer, under the disguise of Religion, when it was to enlarge their Dominions, by en­thralling [Page 173]us; An Embleme of humane greatness, and how imbecile it is; a story paralleld by Xerues, both in their pride and successe.

Of these portentions, apparitions, and direful forewarnings of God's just wrath against the fin­ful World, there be many fearful examples, over­long to be rehearsed in this Treatise; so that all of this kind I will here forbear, and conclude with those immediately following the death of Julius Cesar Dictator, murdered by the Senators in the Senate house: at which time there appeared a Blazing Star, with divers other prodigious signs of ensuing woe, and effusion of bloud, which pre­sently after followed; For seven nights after his death, there was heard hideous howling of Dogs and Wolves neer their great Towns, fatal Birds screaking in their Cities; Beasts did speak, the Images in their Temples did sweat, Mount Aetna brake forth with dreadful globes of fire, where stones were melted, the Earth gap'd, Rivers stood still, the Alpes trembled, armed bands appear'd in the Air, Trumpets were heard to sound, the Sun pale and wan, and almost obscured for a year fol­lowing; and of Cesar's slaughter thus writeth Ovid. Metam. Lib. 15.

Arma ferunt inter nigras crepitantia nubes
Terribiles (que) tubas, audita (que) cornua coelo
Praemonuisse nefas: Solis quoque trist is imago
Lurida solicitis praebebat lumina terris.

Of this writeth Virgil. Geor. Lib. 1. and also Tibullus, lib. 2. Ele. 5.

Of Parelii, Lunary Rain-bows, and some stu­pendious Eclipses of the Luminaries; also light nights and dark days.

Before the bloudy conflict between Cesar and Pompey in the fields of Pharsaelia, where blind Fortune was arbitrator, which of these two fond ambitious Men should rule the subingated World; at that time there appeared 3 Suns, or 2 Parelii, as if declaring the greatnesse and glory of these two Potentates, who were but as false lights, for they both soon vanish'd.

In the year of Grace, 1525, there appeared 6 Suns or 5 Parelii, all visible at one time, Gem. Phri. Lib. 1. cap. 8. and quickly after this, was Francis King of France, overthrown in Battall, and of a great Prince made a captive by the Spaniards; a­bout this time also, many false Prophets did arise.

Pliny Lib. 2. in his natural History writes of 3 Suns, or 2 Parelii that were seen in Bosphorus, but neither registers the age, nor records the event; He mentions also 3 when Lu. Plancus, and Marc. Lepidus were Consuls, and when Claudius Cesar was Consul, and when C. Domitius, and Ca. Fan­nius were Consuls, there appeared at one time 3 Moons; he affirms also, some nights so light, as that they were not (but in respect of time) ea­sily distinguished from the day; but what fol­lowed, he relates not: But this happned about the Nativity of our Lord and Saviour, who was the light of the World, and did disperse the [Page 175]clouds of errour and idolatry, which had a long time infatuated the Heathens, in their benighted understandings, and now to be illuminated with the Truth; and this recorded to be seen not only in Judaea but in Spain, and other places of Europe.

Aristotle lib. 3. cap. 2. Mete. writeth of two Rain-bows, made by the rays of the Moon in the night season, these were seen in his days. Thimon writes of two Rain-bows seen in the night, and both in the space of 3 years.

Albertus records one in his time, the Moon not at full in the Sgn of ♑ the Sun in ♉, ready for to enter ♊ the time of year being about the middle of April; the ☽ in the South, and the Rain-bow in the North part of the hemisphere. Americus who gave the West Indies its name, writes of one Rain-bow which he did see in the north part of the Horizon, about midnight, but very pale.

Gemma Phri. lib. 2. cap. 2. Cosmo. writes of one that was seen the 12. of March about midnight, the Air clear and temperate; this Rain-bow, was described with perfect colours, as those that we see in the day; And Daniel Sennertus a famous Physitian of Wittenberg reports of one Rain-bow which himself did behold (about Midsommer-time in the year of Christ, 1599, immediately after a direful Tempest of Thunder and Rain; this Rain-bow appeared very beautiful between the North and East part of the Horizon, by which it should seem 'twas after 12 at night.

Snellius lib. de Cometa, 1618 writes, how that in the year of our Lord God, 1617, and in the month of December, the Moon neer the full, there [Page 176]did appear a Rain-bow in the night, and upon the 30. day of December following (going towards the Hague) he did see another continuing from 5 to 6 in the evening; these were a little before the beginning of the Palatinate wars, fatal unto Germany and hurtful to all Christendome.

Divers portentious Eclipses, both of Sun and Moon, have happened according to the course of Nature; although prodigious: and Egyptian darkness too hath benighted us, continuing 3 or 4 days, as John Stow in his Annals testifieth, and that some days in Holland were not distinguished from the nights; and divers men (in the time of artificial day) did miscarry (by reason of dark­ness) having lost their ways, mistook their Inns, and so fell into their graves, shortning their voy­ages to their journeys end. And Sleidanus re­cords the like of this in Germany in the year of Christ, 1547, in the moneth of April, when the Sun was obscured to their Horizon for four conti­nued days; these were as Emblems (in both places) of their rebellion against Heaven and Earth, which are the ways of the Divel; For he that follows Christ, walks not in darknesse. The Romans were also thus benighted when the Prince of obscurity was adored by them: which Virgil does apply to the death of Julius Cesar, and the civil wars, Lib. 1. Geor.

Sol tibi signa dabit; solem quis dicere falsum
Audeat? ille etiam coecos instare tumultus
Saepe mones, fraudem (que) & operta tumescere bella:
Ille etiam extincto miseratus Caesare Romam
Cum caput obscurâ nitidum ferrugine texit,
Impia (que) aeternum timuerunt saecula noctem.

Portentious Stormes of Rain.

BEfore the Nativity of our Lord and Saviour 766, in the Raign of Rivallus (a British King) for three days space it rained bloud, out of which corruption, there ensued multitudes of venemous Flies, which killed many men, and bred a morta­lity, with desolation almost unto the whole I­sland; This is collected from the British anti­quities.

A little before the death of Nero the Tyrant and Emperour of Rome, it rained bloud with many other prodigies, as you may read in Livy.

In the year since the Sacred Virgin was a Mo­ther 1534, about the Feast celebrated for the Re­surrection of the Son of God, it rained bloud in Germany; which falling upon Mens garments, did describe the form of red Crosses, to put us in mind (peradventure) of His cruel Passion, a Sa­crifice for the whole World. In the Low Coun­tries (neer about this time) the skins of men and women were signed in this manner, in a shower of bloud.

In the year of our Redeemer 1571, at a place called Emden in Frisia, there fell in the night time a great shower of bloud, which discoloured the earth, and all it fell upon, for the space of 5 or 6 miles in compasse; and in such plenty, that divers cups were fill'd the next day with it; about these times, began cruel and bloudy wars by the Sacramentarians. In the year 1601 the like of these prodigies began and continued the space of [Page 178]3 years, and then was seconded with a woeful plague.

Marcus Varro affirms, how it rained Frogs in several parts, and in divers Towns of Gallia. Car­danus reports Anno Domini 1510, how that in Lombardy it rained hard Stones of a sulphurious taste, in colour like to rusty Iron; one Stone (that fell in this Storm) was presented to the King of France. Avicenna affirms how that in Persia it rained Iron; In the time of Augustus Cesar it rai­ned Silver, as Dion testifieth. In Armenia there fell from the Clouds red Snow, as if it had recei­ved a tincture of Vermilion; And befides these (as it is recorded) there hath fallen from the Skies, Flesh, Milk, Corn, Wool, and divers other prodigies, over long to be rehearsed, because they are doubtful, and yet affirmed by Pliny, Livy, and divers other well approved Authors; yet they upon report of others have inscribed many Er­rours, so I will passe them over, and proceed.

Of Deluges and portentious irruptions and courses of the Waters.

Besides many wonderful flouds in particular Countries, there be three held stupen­dious above the rest; the General Deluge in the time of Noah, in the year from the Crea­tion of the Stars 1656, this was 15 Cubits above the highest hills; in this Deluge all the World pe­rished, but what was with Noah in his Arke, as you may read in Gen. cap. 6, cap. 7, and cap. 8.

The second great inundation, is accounted that of Achaia, in which floud, that Province was sub­merg'd; This Deluge was 540 years after that of Noah; and by Computists affirmed, to be about the 90 year of Jacob the Patriark.

Deucalion's was the third, in the Country of Thessalia, about 100 years after the building of Rome; this Deucalion was son to Promethe us Prince of Greece, who in a Boat, saved himself, and his Family from the fury of the floud, on mount Parnassus; this is that Deluge which Ovid mentions in his Metam. Lib. 1. which swallow'd up the Atlantike, and divers other parts, and great Territories in Europe; Yet it is a general received opinion, that he had perused the old Testament, by relating, how the World in time to come should be destroyed with Fire, as in these Verses;

Esse quoque in fatis, reminiscitur affore tempus
Quo mare, quo tellus, correpta (que) regia coeli
Ardeat & Mundi moles operosa laboret.

In the last year of Nero Cesar's raign, new Rivers did spring out of the Earth, and others did alter their courses and former channels, as it is record­ed by Pliny, lib. 2. cap. 103: and about that time some Rivers were observed to run backward, as if they would have returned (contrary to course) into the Earths bowels again; or to shew the pre­posterous courses of the Tyrant, that ript open his Mothers womb, to see from whence he came.

Conimbricensis, Tract. 11. cap. 8. Mete. writeth, how that in the raign of Emanuel, King of Lusita­nia, the waters in the River Tagus, did part them­selves, [Page 180]running with two streams on either side, and the middle of the Channel void of water.

Nilus the famous River of Egypt, and wonder of the World, upon the Cosmical rising of the Dog-Star does overflow the fruitful valleys, enriching the soyl, and so producing an annual crop: yet some years these floods have proved extraordina­ry; as you may read in Pliny, lib. 5. cap. 9. the greatest flood that ever was observed there, is re­corded to be 15 cubits high, in the time of Clau­dian the Emperour; the least that ever was known, is reported to be a little before the bloudy and fatal field of Pharsalia, between Pompey the great, and Cesar the Conquerour.

In the year of Mans Redemption 1521, the Ri­vers of Rhine and Maze, with some others of les­ser note, both in Germany, and the Low Countrys by the extraordinary Tides, and swelling of the Seas, forced these Rivers to overflow their banks; which inundation overwhelmed 72 villages, in which perished above 100,000 people, with inu­merable multitudes of Cattel of several kinds: this I find recorded by Mr. John Stow, in his A­nuals of Henry the 8.

Many strange and portentious births have been produced in all ages, not onely to the terrour of Man, but to the astonishment even of Nature; and these with many other stupendious prodigies for brevity sake I let pass, and will conclude with those recorded of the Romans, more furious and bloudy then the worst of civil wars, and thus Virg. lib. 1. Geor.

Vox quoque per lucos, vulgo exaudita silentes
Ingens: & simulacra modis pallentia miris
[Page 181]
Visa sub obscurum noctis, pecudes (que) locutae
(Infandum) sistunt amnes, terrae (que) dehiscunt.

Of Earth-quakes and their wonderfull effects.

THe moving of a Coach or Cart will make houses sensibly to shake and tremble, accor­ding to the motion or Weight of the Carriages; & more especially in towns where there are many vaults or Cellers, and the streets paved in one con­tinuum with the building: For the pressure or vio­lence upon one stone (the pavements being con­next) must continue to some end or dividuum, that the Air may vent it self; The poarinesse of the Earth, and volubility of the Air, is made by this apparent.

In a still Evening, place upon the ground a Drum; to which lay your ear, and you shall plainly hear the Air beating upon the Drum, re­presenting the motion by which t'was made, whe­ther it be Men or Carriages; and this may be per­ceived at two or three Miles distance, especially where the Number is great, or the Motion violent, upon open Plains, or barren heaths most of all; for the ground being poary in such places, where the soyl is dry, and hath ascents, with hollow hills; These sounds will not be so plainly heard at a distance over arrable lands, as it will upon any heath; because the turffe is as the Skin to the Earth, restraining the subtile Air from evapoura­ting forth, and by reason of the concavity, it con­tains the more, and gives the freer passage.

Herodotus writes how Egypt was once Sea: Seneca lib. 6. cap. 21. does record how the Isle Therasia did rise out of the Egaeon sea, the Mari­ners beholding it, & the like of Thia in the days of Pliny, and now a firm Island, one of the Sporades. And in the year of Grace 1538, in the fields of Puteoli, there was a new mountain did rise neer a mile high, from the foot of the hill; Mountains and lower grounds have been removed from their places, where Nature hath fixed them; as you may read in Pliny, lib. 2. cap. 83. how two moun­tains did remove, and run together with a terri­ble noyse, as if assaulting or contending with one another; In the last year of Nero Cesar, the mea­dows, and Olive gardens of Vectius Marcellus were removed over a common high-way, and contrary in their motions, mutually changing their seats and situations: And in the moneth of April An. Domini 1586, the like happned in Ireland, where the ground was removed with the trees, and all the lower plants growing upon it; This shews the Omnipotent Creator, as we read in Job: cap. 9. ver. 6. Qui commovet terram de loco suo, & columnae ejus, concutiuntur.

The Cities of Hellice and Buris were buried with an Earth-quake, and nothing remaining of them, but the bare name onely. And if Plato may be believed, Aeon in the Atlantick, was equal unto Asia, and now all deep under water, the Sea retaining yet the name; and it is very proba­ble that many Countries thus have suffered, whose foundations have been shaken with Earth-quakes, and so subjected to the insulting waves; For if the terrestrial globe had been thus divided in the [Page 183]days of Noah, how could America, and divers re­mote Islands from any continent have been plan­ted, as now they are, whose originals the Natives knows not?

But som do object to this; that America might be planted by the North or South parts of the World: First it is doubtful, whether Green­land be part of that continent, or no; besides it is unlikely they should seek for a plantation through so cold & unhospitable a Countrey, that can afford no relief, nor any thing but hunger and cold. Others do better conjecture the first Colonies might pass by the straights of Magellune, and thither out of Asia by Java, or into new Guinea; but admit it were so; it is not probable they carried savage Beasts, or venemous Serpents with them to a Plantation; but for that beasts might grow wild with running in Desart places at their liberties, and serpents breed out of the slime of the Earth; as Eeles and other living and sensitive Animals, produced from corruption, and yet afterwards engender and beget others of their form; But it is generally conceived there hath been many more Lands then there be at this present, and divers Islands by which at first they passed and now devoured by the Seas; and sup­posed by some, that this British Isle hath been se­vered from France; Spain from Asrica; Sicily from Italy; and Ossa from Olympia.

Some do inferr, how that God promised Noah not to drown the World any more, and that He had put bounds to the waters, which they should not passe; 'Tis true, but yet part of it may be submerged, of which I could instance you many [Page 184]precedents, as Rye, and other places in England under the Seas irrecoverable; their Steeples visi­ble at a low water within this hundred years, and those now quite swallowed up with the yawning waves; For where these bounds are which God hath placed, 'tis known to Him, and and not to us, nor need we care if we serve the Omnipotent Creator. Propterea non timebimus dum turbabitur terra, & transferentur montes, in cor maris, Psal. 45. ver. 2.

Before the Nativity of our Sacred Redeemer Jesus Christ, 374. Brennus a potent Prince, whose territories being over-peopled, raised a puissant Army, to gain renown, and seek new plantations; in which design, he was assisted by the then over­populous Gauls, through whose Country he mar­ched into Greece with 300,000 Men, as some writes: on mount Parnassus stood the City of Del­phos, famous in those days of darkness, for the Tem­ple of Apollo, whom those Idolatrous people wor­shipped, whose dubious responses had drawn from all Nations a great concourse of people, by which means, it was made the richest place of all Greece, and by Nature fortified; the taking of this City was the sole ambition of Brennus; partly by rea­son of the wealth, and partly it being the chief City, which being subdued, all the other Pro­vinces would easily submit unto his power; So this Prince, with his multitudes of men, Storm'd the City with Fire and Sword; at which time, part of the Mountain fell down with an Earth­quake, and overwhelmed multitudes of his most valiant and forward men: this calamity was se­conded by a violent tempest of Thunder, Light­ning [Page 185]and Hail, which destroyed a great part of those that had escaped the former; Brennus sore hurt, and in despair of future good, with his sword slew himself, as it is recorded by Justine. This story I have related to shew the judgement of God upon him for his covetousnesse and pride; not done as against the worshippers of the Divel, but as in contempt of a Deity. Proper. lib. 3.

Torrida sacriligunt testantur limina Brennum
Dumpetit intonsi Pythia regna Dei.

Three years before the Birth of the Worlds Redeemer, when Herod was King of the Jews, there happened an Earth-quake in Judea, by which there prished of Men, Women and Children, to the number of 30000. precursor of the massacre and number of Infants, as some records do te­stifie.

In the 15. year of our Lord and Saviour, and in the beginning of Tiberius his Empire, there were 12. Cities in Asia in one night overwhelmed with the inhabitants; and which is more, all swallowed up in the bowels of the Earth. In the 18. year of this Empire, the Son of God (as a sacrifice for the World) was accused by the perfidious Jews, con­demned by Pontius Pilate (then Presedent of Judea, under Tiberius Caesar) and crucified, at whose passion the World did tremble with an Earth­quake, and the greatest that ever was, or, as it is thought, ever shall be untill His coming again to judge the quick and the dead; but some say this was miraculous, and not universal; these are the words of Didymus; Mei Christi tempore, non priva­tus [Page 186]aliquis terrae motus, sed tota terra conquassut [...], & centro convulsa fuit.

In the year of grace, 1117. there was in Lom­bardy and Earth-quake, which continued 40. days, in which time it overthrew many buildings; but the greatest wonder was, it removed one Town from its seat, and set it in another place, a good distance from the former situation, with many of the houses standing; this story you may read in Floriacensis: these are evident demonstrations of an Omnipotent power. Job, cap. 9. ver. 5. Qui transtulit montes, & nescierunt hi, quos subvertis, in furore suo.

In the year of grace, 1509. the City of Constan­tinople was shaken with an Earth-quake, in whose ruines there was overwhelmed 13000 Men, Women, and Chridren. In the year 1531, the City of Lixborn trembled with an Earth-quake, which ruined 1500. dwelling houses. Fromondus, lib. 4. Meteo. does affirm how that in the year 1570. Ferraria was miserably shaken with an Earth­quake, which had continued in Italy the space of two years, as some Authors do write: and in the year following, being 1571, the Turks presuming of their strength, and the divisions of Europe (by reason of the Sects and Schisms) raised a mighty Army, intending to invade Europe both by Sea and Land, for which design a fleet was rigged: And for the prevention of this general calamiy, it pleased God to unite all the Christian Princes (as against the common enemy) who provided another, and put to Sea; and upon the 6. day of October the Christians gave the Turks battail, which Sea fight continued that day and the next, [Page 187]and then the Antichristians fled, and many of them did run their Gallies a ground, whereby to save their lives: The Christians in this Sea-fight sunck, and took 230 Gallies, and slew 30,000 Mahumetans, and multitudes were taken priso­ners, who with the prizes and spoils, were divided amongst the contibutors, according to their ad­ventures; In this fight 12000 Christians were re­deemed from the Turkish slavery; The Christian Princes lost in this fight 8 gallies, and 8000 Soul­diers; This was called the famous Battail of Le­pauto.

In the year 1601. there was a general Earth­quake through Europe, which made it all to trem­ble, but not the people, nor yet so much as moved them to repentance for their transgressions against Heaven.

In the year of the Worlds Redemption 1638. March the 27. S. N. between 3 and 4 in the after­noon, the Kingdome of Naples was violently shaken with an Earth-quake, which subverted houses and Castles; the City of Necosia standing by the Sea side, was made an Island, and five miles divided from the Continent; the Earth finking, Nature brought in the waters, to fill the lower grounds and cover her entrails: there pe­rished in this Earth-quake of men, women & chil­dren (so neer as could be gathered) the number of 40,000. this was a forerunner of implacable tu­mults and commotions of the people, besides the bloudy Tragedies acted there betwixt the Kings of Spain and France.

Many prodigies I have here omitted, as partly fearing to be prolix: some again I have found [Page 188]but not their sad events, and others I have let passe, as from doubtful Authors; as the Earth­quake and Tempest at the taking of Constantino­ple by Mahumet the great from Constantine the last Christian Emperour of Greece; in storming this City, there happned a direful Tempest of Thun­der and Lightning, and an Earth-quake that kil­led 3000 Men, Women and Children, and ruined 800 houses, but Authors do not well agree in this, nor yet of the time; When it was taken, one saith Anno Domini 1452, May the 27. which was Whitsunday Eve; Knolls writes 1453, May the 29. which was the Tuesday after Trinity Sun­day that year; But all agrees the City was quite depopulated, putting all to the Sword, but what were reserved for Mahumet's pleasure, and those led away into a miserable captivity; the Tyrant intending this for his Antichristian seat, called in the Jews to inhabit it. Here you may see Heavens just revenge against a stubborn people, perversly maintaining that diabolical Heresy a­gainst the Sacred and ever blessed Trinity; at which time & Feast the Empire had a fatal period, and the Grecians delivered into the hands of the most barbarous enemy; These fatal Meteors are great motives to humble Man, to make him repent his iniquities, and soberly remember the most dreadful day of Judgement, of which these prodi­gies are forerunning fignes, according to Isaia cap. 24. ver. 1. Ecce Dominus dissipabit terram, & nudabit eam, & affliget faciem ejus, & disperget habitatores ejus.

Plagues and Epidemical Diseases.

EArth-quakes are often forerunners of Plague and Famine (Heavens direful revenge and just runishments) proceeding from excesse or defect, and presag'd sometimes from subterranean va­pours, restrained in the Earth, and by rarifaction being grown over great to be contained, they do make violent irruptions, and so by infecting the Air (in which we breath) they do breed pe­stiferous diseases: but these exhalations are gene­rally held most infectious to beasts; For their heads being prone towards the Earth and neer it, they do draw in with their breath those crude exhalations into their bodies, much more then Man, who stands erect: but beasts being gene­pally infected with the viciated Air, and their bloud contaminated, the eating of their flesh breeds contagious Deseases in Man; and in such times, the greedy Grasier sends those to the slaughter which he thinks to be infected, fearing they should die in his hands, and keeps the sound­est still for store; Of these general calamities I could instance many; but fearing lest I should weary you with reading (as I am with writing) I will briefly relate these.

Before the Nativity of Jesus Christ (the Worlds Redeemer) 18 [...]. there happned a Plague in Africa, that swept away 30000 Romane Souldiers, and of the Natives 1080,000, which depopulated not onely many Towns and Cities, but some whole Provinces.

In the year of Christ 171. Antoninus Emperour of Rome, it pleased God to visit the World with a Plague, which made whole Countrys like a Char­nel house; This general Pestilence began at Ba­bylon, but spread its infection over a great part of Europe.

In the year of Grace 254. there happned an E­pidemical disease that raged violently, and conti­nued in several Countries the space of 15 years, all which time the Church of God was persecuted by the Pagan and Tyrannical Emperours, posse­sed with infernal spirits; in Rome at these times it rained bloud, where this Plague continued three years, while the living in the City were not able to bury the dead.

From the Sacred Virgin's being a Mother 316. Maxentius in the Eastern Countries, raised a terri­ble Persecution, putting all Christians to death that he could find, and with severall kinds of tor­tures to force them from their allegiance and ser­vice to the Son of God: This persecution constrai­ned many to fly their Countries; and divers for fear of Maxentius and his unhumane competi­tours, obscured themselves in Caves of beasts in the Desarts, where from savage Creatures they found more mercy then from Man; But this Christ reveng'd, persecuting the Tyrants with Plague and Famine, which so consumed many Countrys, that they were destitute almost of Men, Women or Children, until the Emperour had nothing but beasts to rule over, and not many of them neither.

From the Birth of our Lord and Saviour 1346. there happned in that year three great conjuncti­ons of the higher Planets, viz. ♄ ♃ and ♂, and [Page 191]these three all in ☌ in ♒; this year produced one of the most universal and destructive Plagues that ever was inflicted upon wretched mortals; this pestiferous infection took the original in the East Indies, and past over the world, no people safe either by Land or Sea, the Air being generally contaminated as with a deadly poyson; many that year went to Sea, hoping by that means to avoid it, but in vain, for there they were sur­prised with their whole families: this Epidemical disease was so dreadful, that it banished all hu­manity, and perverted man from being a sociable creature: Friends forsaking their Friends and Alies; Parents unnaturally forsook their Chil­dren, and ungrateful Children their Parents: This general disease continued 9. years in several Countreys, and was as mortiferous and raging as ever was Plague in any Countrey.

Some writers affirm how that this Plague began from fiery Exhalations risen out of the Earth, whose malignancy infected the Air, and from those distempers begot raging Feavers in Men, untill the sword made incision of their inflamed veins, a remedy worse then the disease. Others say this Plague took its sad Exordium from fire that fell from Heaven: the most authen­tick Chronologers record it thus; Lamech, a City of Arabia, now known by the name of Mecha, the Metropolitan of the Antichristian Mahumetans superstition; in this City it rained Bloud and Snakes the space of three days and nights toge­ther; the Serpents soon after perished in such multitudes, that the stench of their corrupted bodies contaminated the Air in all the adjacent [Page 192]Regions; this stupendious storm raz'd Mahumets Temple to the ground, and sever'd into many pieces the Sepulchre of that infernal Impostor: The next year the Earth denyed her accustomed fruits, introducing a Famine more mortiferous then the former; these direful calamities not moving man to repentance, (O incredulous and obdurate hearts!) but contemning those dreadful judgements, were pleased with their enemies fall, until they fell themselves; Piety expulsed, fled into exile, while envy and confusion in Arms, put the world in an uproar, the sword licensed in the hands of Furies, making a rude decimation of those who had espaced both Plague and Famine.

These three last deplorable afflictions, were the most universal and destructive that the world ever felt, or the Inhabitants groaned under since the general Deluge, when in 40. days all living souls were destroyed from off the face of the Earth, but what the Ark was fraighted withal, whereby to replant the world again; and those for many months were wafted over the angry waves, that lav'd the Earth polluted with enormous crimes, and transgressions of unbelieving licentious men, only under the Law of Nature, to which brute Beasts subject themselves. This Ark represented the figure of Baptism, 1 Pet. 3.20, 21. And more­over St. Hierome calls it a Type of the Catholike Church; the raging storms and tumultuous billows (in opposition to one another) resemble Herefies and Persecutions; the Ark out-lived the fury of the Deluge, and so shall the other to the worlds consummation; all perished that were [Page 193]not in the first, so I need say no more of the last.

Historiographers conjecture that more Men, Women, and Children perished in one of these Epidemical diseases, then in the universal Flood; the World being conceived more populous then in the days of Noah, and the continuance much longer; many will not believe these (being but humane traditions) and 'tis not strange, since they want faith in divine Records; whereof some object that if the Deluge were 15. cubits above the highest Hills, the superficies of the Waters (on which the Ark floated) was swell'd up to the middle Region of the Air, in which no living creature can subsist; besides, they make queries from whence should these magazins of Waters be extracted? the Fountains of the Earth they conceive not sufficient; the Clouds are but thin dilated vapours; the Waters mentioned above the Firmament could not descend so low in 100. years, without a miracle.

To their objections, I might answer, 'twas the providence of God which preserved them, to whom nothing is impossible, being sole Creator and Moderator of the Universe; but since an Omnipotent and divine power condescended to make Mans preservation by a humane means, humane reasons may be expected, for which I refer the over curious unto the learned Expositors of Genesis; yet not to leave them in a Sea at last, something I will say, not positively affirmed, but conjecturally intimated only.

As for their Suppositions, the whole Element of Air is held naturally hot and moist, and the middle Region cold but by accident, which [Page 194]frigid and restringent cause being chang'd, the quality must cease, and so the Air (in general) might convert to vapours innumerable; and the waters in the Earth (peradventure) were dilated, and so made more fluxible, whose Fountains were opened for 40. continued days, the Catar­racts descending from their overburthned clouds; which time (to humane apprehension) might en­crease the inundation to submerge the terrestrial Globe 15. Cubits above the highest hills, whereof 'tis probable the Armenian mountains were most exalted above the Earths center; and as the clouds were exonerated by the waters that fell, 'tis like this inferiour Air did ascend, and assume the middle Regions Sphere, and so made apt for all living creatures to breath in.

The Deluge ebbing, Mount Ararat appear'd, on whose firm foundation the Ark rested; the Waters by an orderly summons retreated▪ some to replenish the Earths entrails and exhausted veins; others confin'd to channels of spacious Rivers, ample Lakes, and Oceans almost unter­minated; a great part (by the influence of Stars) might be sublim'd, and reconverted to vapours, thence rarifying to Air, ascend their proper Orbs again, the grosser parts sink to their seats of gravity, and so will I, this being above my Sphere; yet pleased in recollecting my pre­servation past, the hope of one in future, trans­ports my mind beyond a Deluge, the landing Eternity.

A Compendium of Meteors, and Signs observed in former Ages, as at this present, most prodigious in Nature, stupendious to Mortals, and portentious in their dismal events.

THe Symptomes of Natures distempers I have rendered in a Chronological breviate, with their direful effects, and sad events in general; and as for others more particularly reflecting on England, I refer the Reader to my History of Mete­ors, when it shall be produc'd to the publique view. In this Epitomy I have recorded some prodigies, and what succeeded them; yet not presuming to presage what is to come (although I have a Solomon for it: Eccles. c. 1. v. 8, and 9) that being reser­ved in the Creator's prescience only, and I no Ex­positor; Yet generally when the Elements seem distracted from their common course, most do conceive they are Admonitions to us of anger, and precursing signs of punishment, if not remitted by repentance; and before the Sword (the worst of mischiefs) is licens'd in the hands of rude and merciless men, these and such like are Alarums to the voluptuous Children of the World lull'd into a Lethargy by sin, charm'd by Oblivion, Au­ditors to Vice, and deaf to Vertue.

Behold! malignant Planets, in the lowest House conjoin, presuming to affront the Sun their Prince, while Night usurps the Throne of Day, illuminated by intervals with Lightning, or by some dreadful Comet; the drops distill'd from Clouds convert to bloud, the Earth denies her ac­customed fruits, grows sterile, or disabled through the discord of the other Elements, to nourish them unto maturity; from hence corruption and Fa­mine introduces Epidemical diseases, the Ar in­fected for want of motion becomes offensive, not cool nor fit to breath in, and on a sudden the gid­dy Winds burst forth in Hericanoes from their ob­struse Caves, hurrying all things down that hin­der their blustering motions, until oppos'd with eddie Winds, they turn all things topsie turvie! the Waters in united streams stand still, or divide themselves; and at other times they seem to scorn the Confines of their Channels, but in imi­tation of the Seas swell above their Banks, as if ambitious to enlarge their Dominions! The Earth grows unstable, and shaking as with an A­gue, or labouring with some prodigious birth, or from a Dropsie relapses into a burning Feaver! Be­hold the backs of angry Clouds, as if bestri'd by Furies hurried along by irrefrenary Tempests! sometimes menacing the World as with a De­luge, at other times belching forth flames of Fire, proclaiming combustions with impetuous Thun­der! and many times, sulphureous Meteors dilated within the obstruse Caverns of the Earth, seem to beleagre Nature, and by springing of Mines, blow her up from the Center! the aspiring heads of Rocks, by concussion of Meteors have been levell'd [Page 197]with their feet, Bulwarks of stone, ramm'd up with Mountains (made against the proud surges of the Seas) have met, and others thrown down, sunk into valleys, permitting the tumultuous billows to enter their breaches, and so invade the Land; at which disorders Nature seems frighted, and in an Agony miscarries, producing monstrous and abortive births.

These and all such prodigies are to humble the Mighty, and make the proud and stiff-neck'd A­theists suppresse their thoughts, abase their exalted minds, bend their irreligious knees, and stoop to adore a Deity, beholding the Elements in an up­rore mutiny, and Nature their Mistresse and Idaea fall'n into an Extasie, as if in a conflict betwixt Life and Death, or disenabled to rule the subjuga­ted Empire of the World: the Princes and Poten­tates of the Earth see themselves impotent men; the sulphurious Ingeniers cannot be defended with their Basaliscoes and Granadoes, but frighted run to their Mines (intended for the Throne of Horror) to shroud their fearful heads from the face of incensed Heaven, acknowledging their fiery inventions but Squibs and Childish pot-guns. These Meteors, though the meanest of the Al­mighties works, be pleased to accept them from the meanest of his Servants, who truly wishes your prescience of Meteors, and preservation from the fury and distemper of the Elements, recom­mending you and all to the Sacred Protection of Heaven, remembring; Protector in te sperantium Deus, sine quo nihil est validum, nibil sanctum.

A CONCLUSION TO This Book of Meteors.

Impartial Judges, and ingenious Jury, unto whose candid Verdict I submit, hoping my faults are not capital, my Accusers not conside­rable, nor my Sentence rigid; As for the escapes of the Pen and Presse, they stand in this Sheet corrected as for a Pennance, yet expect a pardon by course of Law (if my Judges be Civilians) or at least a Reprieve for another Sessions, and in the interim licens'd to go upon their Paroles, until exchang'd for better; Yet asperge not these sheets with the errors as if adulterated by me, but let them escape your censures as they have done the Corrector, since I had no Revise nor Proof but by accident; my aboad remote from the Printer, who is the lesse culpable, the Copy being much interlin'd, and the Corrector not conversant in the Subject, whose faults (I hope) transcend not the Readers humanity, wishing they would be­hold them as the Optick Science demonstrates contraction of objects through concave Glasses; and if your clemency can extend its self to anni­hilate a few interposed faults, I need not doubt your condescention to grant me an Indulgence, [Page 199]storm'd with injuries, rifled by pretended friends, false in their words, perfidious in their trusts; these reflecting sometimes upon my weaker cogitations, represent temporal objects that divert my mind which should direct my pen: Yet I am contented (upon second and more seri­ous considerations) since 'tis the permissive will of God, who can raise me if he pleases above the assaults of Fortune, or reach of malicious mortals, and gratiously hath plac'd me above the degrees of Contempt, though underneath the lowest Sphere of Envy: I wish those that want belief, were bound to make me reparations. If what hath been truly and positively affirm'd, be not a suffici­ent Plea (for mistakes) nor yet the Printers Table of Errors satisfactory, let those reflect, examine and peruse their own, to which (while they live) they never shall subscribe


Manuscripts prepar'd for the Press.

Inprimis, The Scales of Commerce and trade: Geo­metry demonstrated both by Lines and Numbers; from thence Astronomy, Cosmography and Naviga­tion, prov'd and delineated by the doctrine of Plain and Spherical Triangles, mention'd in my printed Books of Arithmetick. The English An­nalls from the invasion made by Julius Caesar, con­tinued to these times. Historical prescriptions, Ecclesiastical and Moral. Speculum annorum, or an Ephemeris for 19 years to come, ready to be pub­lish'd by the Author Thomas Willsford.

The faults escap't are thus corrected.

INtro. Page 2. line 1 [...] dele they, p. 5. l. 6. dele so; p. 9. l. 15. read miles; p. 10. l. 32. the r. these; p. 17. l. 17. r. counterpoysing; p. 18. l. 21. r. nor conducing; p. 26. l. 14 r. with the ☉; p. 30. l. 21. r. 28 days; p. 33. l. 20. r. 1 H. 35 m. p. 40 l. 29. r. 1572. & l. 32. r. a Mother; p. 43. l. 1. r. Alpes; p. 48. l. 26. doth r. do; p. 49. l. 3. r. repel­led to; p. 53. l. 28. dele he; p. 55. l. 9. r. not going far to seek, & l. 29 r. did abrogate or alter; p. 57. l. 9. r. it is; p. 51. l. 31. as r. thus; p. 60. l. 10. r. and they; p. 58. l. 14. garment r. garland, & l. 32. reflection r reflect on; p. 71. l. 22. r. & rising from low; p. 73. l. 11. r. Ele­ments; p. 75. l. 19. 18 r. 28; p. 82. l. 29: r. warm at my time; p 88. l. 15. r. stupifies; p. 99. l. 7. r. from ♃; p. 104. l. 5. ♄r♈, & l. 16. Sommer r. Autumn; p. 110. l. 3. r. levity; p. 112. l. 26. r. forced; p. 113. l 27. is r. are, & l. 31. r. dissipates; p. 114. l. 14. warm, r. wan; p. 126. l. 20. r. le­vity; p. 136. l. 7. in, r. to; p. 139. l. 20. to, r. in; p. 140. l. 22. r. This is; p. 147. l. 31. r. without comparison; p. 149. l. 16. r. humidus; p. 164. l. 28. r. usually; p. 171. l. 28. r. by Titus; p. 172. l. 20. r. protestation; p. 180. l. 30. r. Romans intestine tumults predicted; p. 185. l. 23. this r. his; p. 189. l. 4. r. punishments

Reader, These Books following are Printed for Nath. Brook, and are to be Sold at his Shop at the Angel in Cornhil.

1. TImes Treasure or Academy for the Gentry, for their accomplishment in arguments of discourse, habit, fashion; summed up all in a Character of Honour: By R. Brath, Esq;

2. B. Morton on the Sacrament, in Folio.

3. That excellent Piece of Physiognomy and Chiromancy, Metoposcopy, the Symmetrical Pro­portions and signal Moles of the Body; the sub­ject of Dreams: To which is added the Art of Memory; By R. Sanders, Fol.

4. Theatrum Chemicum Britanicum, containing several Poetical pieces of our famous English Phi­losophers, which have written the Hermetick My­steries in their ancient language: By the truly noble, Elias Ashmole, Esq;

5. Chiromancy: Or, the Art of Divining by the Lines engraven in the hand of Man by Dame Na­ture, in 19. Genitures; with a learned Discourse of the soul of the World: By Geo. Wharton, Esq;

6. Catholick History, collected and gathered out of Scripture, Councils, and ancient Fathers, in answer to Dr. Vanes lost sheep returned home: By Edward Chesenbale, Esq;

7. Tactometrica, or the Geometry of Regulars, after a new manner, in Solids: with useful Expe­riments, never before extant, for Gauging; a work usefull for all that are imployed in the Art Metri­cal: By John Wyberd, Dr. in Physick.

8. An Astrological Discourse, with Mathemati­cal Demonstrations, proving the influence of the Planets and fixed Stars upon Elementary bodies: By Sir Chr. Heyden, Knight.

9. Magick Astrology vindicated by H. Warren.

10. Catastrophe magnatum: by N. Culpepper.

11. Ephemerides for the year 1652. by N. Culpepper.

12. Lux Veritates, Judicial Astrology vindicated. and Demonology confuted; By W. Ramsey Gent.

13. The History of the Golden Asse.

14. The painting of the Ancients, the beginning, progress, and consummating of that noble Art.

15. Israels Redemption, or the Prophetical Hi­story of our Saviours Kingdom on earth: By R. M.

16. An introduction to the Teutonick Philosophy, being a determination of the original of the Soul: by C. Hothans, Fellow of Peter-house in Cambridge.

17. Teratologia: Or, a Discovery of God's Won­ders manifested by bloody Rain & Waters: by J.S.

18. Fons Lachrymarum: or, a Fountain of Tears; with an Elegy on Sir Charls Lucas, by J. Quarles.

19. Oedipus: or a Resolver of Secrets in Nature, & resolution in amorous, natural Problems; by C. M.

20. The Celestial Lamp, enlightning every di­stressed soul from the depth of everlasting dark­nesse; by T. Fetisplace.

21. Nocturnal Lucubrations, with Epigrams, and Epitaphs: by R. Chamberlaine.

22. The unfortunate Mother, a Tragedy by T.M.

23. The Rebellion, a Comedy; by T. R.

24. The Tragedy of Messalina; by N. Richards.

25. A Treatise of Contentation, fit for these sad and troublesome times; By J. Hall, B. of Norwich.

26. The grand Sacriledge of the Church of [Page] Rome, in taking away the sacred Cup from the Laity at the Lords Table; by D. Featley, D. D. 4.

27. The cause and cure of Ignorance, Errour, and Prophaneness; or a more hopefull way to Grace and Salvation: by R. Young, 8.

28. A Bridle for the Times, tending to still the Murmuring, to settle the wavering, to stay the wan­dring, to strengthen the Fainting; By J.B. of Yarm.

29. Comforts against the fear of Death, wherein are several evidences of the work of Grace; by J.C.

30. Jacobs Seed; or the excellency of seeking God by Prayer; By Jer. Burroughs.

31. The zealous Magistrate a Serm. by T. Threscot.

32. Britanma Rediviva, a Sermon before the Judges, Aug. 1648. By J. Shaw, Minister of Hull.

33. The Princess Royal, a Sermon before the Judges, March 24. 1650. By J. Shaw, Min. of Hull.

34. New Jerusalem, in a Sermon for the Society of Astrologers, Aug. 1651.

35. Quakers cause at second hearing, being a full answer to their Tenets.

36. Divinity no enemy to Astrology: a Sermon for the Society of Astrologers, for the year 1653. by Dr. Th. Swadling.

37. Historical Relation of the first planting of the English in New England, in the year 1628. to the year 1653. and all the material passages hap­pening there exactly performed.

38. Select Thoughts: or, Choice Helps for a pi­ous spirit, beholding the excellency of her Lord Jesus: by J. Hall, B. of Norwich. A new piece.

39. The holy Order, or Fraternity of Mourners in Zion. To which is added, Songs in the night: or, Chearfulness under affliction: by J. Hall, Bishop of Norwich. A new piece.

40. History of Balaam & Jonah, and John the Bap­tist in Verse; with other Poems; by J. Harvie, Esq;

41. Re-assertion of grace, Vindiciae Evangelii: or, the Vindication of the Gospel. Or a reply to Mr. Anthony Burghess Vindiciae Legis, and to Mr. Rutherford, by Robert Town.

42. All the Works of Astrology of Mr. W. Lilly, Gent.

43. Anabaptists anatomiz'd and silenc'd, or a dis­pute with M. Tombs, by M. J. Crag, where all may re­ceive satisfaction in that controverfie; the best extant.

44. The sum of practical Divinity; or the grounds of Religion in a catechistical way; by Mr. Christo­pher Love, late Min. of the Gospel: a useful piece.

45. The Yorkeshire Spaw, or the vertue and use of those waters in the curing of desperate diseases, with rules necessary to be known by all that repair thither.

46. That compleat piece called, The exact Sur­veyor of Land, shewing how to plot all manner of Grounds, and to reduce and divide the same: also Irish measure reduc'd into English statute measure, useful for all that either sel or purchase: by J. Eyre.

47. Judgment set, & Books open'd, Religion tri­ed whether it be of God or Men: by M. Webster.

48. Milk for children, or a plain & easie method, teaching to Read, & to Write; with brief Rules for School-masters to instruct their Schollars in, and Masters to instruct their families in: by Dr. Thomas.

49. Culpepper's last Legacies, left to his Wife, for the publick good, being the choicest & most profi­table Secrets, which while he lived was lockt up in his breast, resolved never to be published till after his death; being experiments in Physick and Chy­rurgery, compounding Medicines, &c.

50 Culpepper's Semiotica, or his Astrological judgement of Diseases, much enlarged from the Decumbiture of the sick, the way to find out the cause, change, and end of the disease: also whether the sick be likely to live or die, with the signs of life and death by the body of the sick par­ty, according to the judgement of Hippocrates, with a Treatise of Urines: by N. Culpepper.

51. Cornelius Agrippa, his fourth book of Occult Philosophy, or Geomancy; Magical Elements of Peter de Abbona, the nature of Spirits, made Eng­lish by R. Turner.

52. A Glimpse of Divine Light, being an Explica­tion of some passages exhibited to the Commissio­ners of Whitehall for approbation of publick Prea­chers, against Joh. Harrison of Lund. Chap. Lancash.

53. The Queens Closet opened; Incomparable Se­cret in physick, chyrurgry, preserving, candying, & cooking, as they were presented to the Queen, tran­scribed from the true copies of her Majesties own Receipt books: by W. M. one of her late servants.

54. The Conveyancers of Light, or the compleat Clerk and Scriveners Guide; being an exact draught of all Presidents and Assurances now in use, as they were penned and perfected by divers learned Judges, eminent Lawyers, and great conveyan­cers both ancient and modern; whereunto is ad­ded a Concordance from K. Rich. 3. to this present.

55. A Satyre against Hypocrites; 4.

56. Iron Rod put into the L. Protectors hand, to break in pieces all antichrist. power; by J. Sanders.

57. Wits Interpreter, the English Parnassus, or a guide to those admirable accomplishments that compleat our english Gentry in the most acceptable [Page]qualifications of Discourse or Writings; also the whole mystery of those pleasing Witchcrafts of Eloquence and Love, are made easie in the Art of Reasoning, Theatre of Courtship, Labyrinth of Fancies, Love songs, Drollery; the perfect inditer of Letters a la mode: by J. C.

58. The Floating Island, a Trage-comedy acted before the King, by the Students of Christ Church in Oxford: By Dr. Stroude.

59. Paracelsus Occult Philosophy of the myste­ries of Nature, and his secret Alchimy.

60. Wit and Drollery, with other Jovial Poems, by Sir I.M. [...]am. 1. Sym. 5. W.D. Never before printed.

61. Illustrious Shepherdess, the imperious Bro­ther; translated out of Spanish: a famed Romance.

62. Monarchy no Monarchy, with the Prophe­fies of the White King, and other explained, to which is added several Hieroglyphicks: by W. Lilly, Student in Astrology. With his other Works.

63. Short-hand writing made most plain and easiest that ever was, newly published by J. Rich, Mr. in short-writing.

64. Tectonicon, shewing the exact measuring all manner of land-squares, timber, stone, steeples, pil­lars, globes, also the making and use of the Car­penters rule, &c. fit to be known by all Surveyors, Land-meters, Joyners, Carpenters and Masons; by L. Diggs.

65. Heaven and Earth shaken, a Treatise shewing how Kings & Princes, and their governments, are turned and changed: by J. Davis, Minist. in Dever.

66. The Tears of the Indies, being an Historical Relation of the cruelties of the Spaniards in the Islands of Hispaniola, Cuba, Jamaica, &c. in the [Page]West Indies: by Cosaus. B. in Spain, an eye-witness.

67. Them is Aurea, the Laws of the Fraternity of the Rosie Cross, written by Count Mayerus, and now Englished for to inform that honourable So­ciety: by T. H.

68. Compleat Midwifes practise, in the high and weighty concernments of the Birth of Mankind: or perfect Rules derived from the Experiences and Writings, not only of our English, but the most ac­complished and absolute practise of many French, Spanish, Italians, and other Nations, fitted for the weakest capacities, in a short time to attain the knowledg of the whole Art: by T. C. and others.

69. Sportive Wit, the Muses Merriment, a new spring of Drollery, Jovial Fancies, &c.

70. J. Tradescan's Rarities, published by himself.

71. Most approved Medicines & Remedies for the diseases in the body of Man: by A. Read, Dr. in Ph.

72. Art of simpling, an introduction to the know­ledge and gathering of Plants, wherein the Defini­tions, Divisions, Places, Descriptions, Differences, Names, Vertues, times of flourishing and gathering, Uses, Temperatures, signatures of plants. To which is added, a Discovery of the lesser World: by W. C.

73. Willsfords Arithmetick, made plain to the easi­est capacity, in two books, viz. Natural & Decimal, being most useful for all Gentlemen, Merchants, Shop-keepers, and all others: by T. Willsford, Gent.

74. Adam in Eden, the paradise of Plants, a De­scription of all our English plants, wild or other­wise, with their Signatures applied to the parts of the body of Man, with their Physical use, that a man may be his own Physitian, the ingredients be­ing to be had in every field and garden: made [Page]publick by W. Coles, M. D. for the benefit of all English men.

75. The perfect Cook; a right method of the Art of Cookery, restoring the whole practice to a more finer way then ever before extant.

76. Medicina Magica, tamen Physica, the method of curing diseases by Sympathy and Antipathy; a work fit to be known by all: by S. Bolton.

77. The Treasury of the Soul.

78. The expert Doctors Dispensatory; the whole Art of Physick restored to practice. The Apothecaries Shop, and Chyrurgians Closet, with all safe practises are maintained: a useful piece.

79. The History and Nature of Meteors, with the weathers prediction: by T. Willsford, Gent.

80. The proceeding of the High Court of Justice against the late King Charls, with his Speech upon the Scaffold, and other proceedings, Jan. 30. 1648.

81. Commentary on the 15. Psalm; by Mr. Christopher Cartwright, Min. of the Gospel in York.

82. Sir Kellum Digby's and other Ladies of Ho­nour, their Physick and Chirurgery; with prefer­ving, &c.

83. Cabinet of Jewels; mans misery, God's mercy, Christ's treasury, &c. in eight Sermons; with an Appendix of the nature of Tythes under the Gospel; with an Expediency of Marriage in publick Assembly: by J. Cragg, Min. of the Gospel.

84. The mysteries of Love and Eloquence, or the Arts of Wooing and Complementing; in which are discovered the pleasures, recreations of per­swasive Language, whether by Letters or other usual or more secret Dispatches, &c.


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